Chapter 13 Disk Mode

Chapter 13 Disk Mode
Disk Mode
Chapter 13
Disk Mode
Disk mode lets you load, save, back up, and copy Þles of objects between the K2600 and the
outside world, through the K2600Õs ßoppy drive or SCSI ports. The ßoppy drive accepts
MS-DOS¨ format double-sided double-density (DSDDÑ720K) and high-density (HDÑ1.4 M)
ßoppy disks. To save data from the K2600 to a ßoppy disk, the disk must be formatted
(initialized) by the K2600 or by a computer running MS-DOS-compatible formatting software.
Most SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) devices will operate with the K2600 via its 25-pin
SCSI ports. The most common use for these ports is to connect one or more hard disks (or
removable drives like Zip or Syquest) for storing samples and other objects. You can also
connect a CD-ROM drive for reading Þles to the K2600. The K2600 will treat a CD-ROM drive
like any other SCSI device (except that you canÕt save Þles to it). The K2600 can read writable
CDs (CD-Rs), although it canÕt write to them.
The K2600 can address up to 2 gigabytes of Þle space on any one hard disk, so you can connect a
maximum of 14 G of storageÑup to seven hard disks. The K2600 can use all of the space on
disks of 2 G and smaller. On larger disks, formatting with the K2600 creates a 2 G partition on
the disk; the K2600 can read only that partition. If you format a hard disk on a computer, make
the Þrst partition just under 2 G. You can create other partitions, of any size, but the K2600 can
read only the Þrst partition.
Disk mode in the K2600 allows ßexibility to organize disk Þles and their contents. Many
powerful operations are included that can save a lot of time by allowing you to easily specify
exactly what you want to load or save. Examples of this range from organizing related Þles into
directories, to loading macros (lists of Þles or selected objects) from multiple SCSI disks, to
setting up programs to automatically link with samples off of a CD-ROM.
HereÕs a summary of Disk-mode functionality:
One ßoppy drive, two SCSI ports
MS-DOS Þle system compatibility
Sample transfer using standard audio Þle formats AIFF and WAV (including support for
looped and tuned WAV Þles)
Support for Roland,ª Akai,ª and Ensoniqª sample Þles
SMDI sample transfers
Support for song Þles (sequences) in MIDI Type 0 and Type 1 format
Support for ISO 9660-format CDs: reading, copying, and backing up
Support for writable CDs (CD-Rs):
Disk Mode
Disk Mode Page
Disk Mode Page
To enter Disk mode, press the Disk button, and the Disk-mode page will appear:
As usual, the current mode is displayed on the top line. At the middle of this line, the amount of
available sample RAM is shown (if you have added optional sample RAM; if you havenÕt, this
part of the top line will be blank). To the right of the top line you see the amount of memory
available for storing all other RAM objects. Straight from the box, this number should be around
500 K. If you have added the optional P/RAM extension kit, the number will be about 1.5 M.
The P/RAM kit enables you to store hundreds of additional programs, songs, and any other
objects. If you do a lot of programming or sequencing, the P/RAM option is a good idea.
In the center of the page is a line indicating the currently selected disk. Select different disks
using any data-entry method. You can select a ßoppy disk, or SCSI IDs 0Ð7. (If you connect an
Apple Macintosh¨ personal computer, donÕt select SCSI ID 7, since thatÕs the SCSI ID of the Mac,
which canÕt be changed. All SCSI devices connected in a network must have different SCSI IDs
in order for the network to function.) When you want to communicate with any of the SCSI
storage devices in your network, set the Current disk parameter to the value that matches the
SCSI ID of the device you want to address. That is, the K2600 will interact with the SCSI storage
device whose SCSI ID matches the value of the Current Disk parameter. If you choose a value of
Floppy, the K2600 will communicate with its ßoppy disk drive.
The manual for your SCSI disk should tell you its SCSI ID. Most newer SCSI disks show their
SCSI IDs on their rear panels, and many have adjustable SCSI IDs.
The currently selected device will be read from or written to when you load, save, rename, or
delete Þles. Use the soft buttons to start any of these operations. Refer toDisk Mode Soft
Buttons on page 13-6 for complete information.
Formatting a Floppy Disk
Floppy disks must be formatted (initialized) to the Kurzweil format before they can be used
with the K2600. The K2600 uses the MS-DOS format, so ßoppies formatted on DOS computers
(or any computer that can format disks in DOS format) should work with the K2600. To format a
disk on the K2600, insert a ßoppy disk in the K2600Õs ßoppy drive, or in the ßoppy drive of any
computer with MS-DOS formatting capability. Make sure the disk is unlocked (the sliding
switch on the back of the disk is set so you canÕt see through the hole on that side of the disk).
Press the Disk button to enter Disk mode. Make sure the Current disk parameter says Floppy, so
you donÕt accidentally format any SCSI devices you might have connected! Press the soft button
labeled Format. The K2600 will ask you if you want to format, and a pair of Yes/No soft buttons
will appear. Press the Yes soft button, and three soft buttons will appear, letting you choose
between formatting the ßoppy as a 720K (double-density) or 1.4M (high-density) disk. Press the
appropriate soft button, or press the Cancel soft button.
Disk Mode
SCSI Termination
If the ßoppy you inserted is double-density and you press the 1.4M soft button, the format
procedure will fail. This is also true if the disk is high-density and you press the 720K soft
button. If the ßoppy is single-sided (SSDD), you can press the 720K soft button, and the ßoppy
will be formatted as a double-sided disk. (The only difference between single- and double-sided
ßoppies is that both sides of a double-sided ßoppy have been tested by the manufacturer.)
Once you select between the 720K or 1.4M format, the K2600 will remind you that formatting
will erase the ßoppy, and will give you two more chances to cancel the formatting procedureÑ
we want to make sure you donÕt accidentally erase any disks. Press the Yes soft button to
continue formatting. When formatting begins, the display will tell you that the disk is being
formatted. YouÕll hear the disk drive turning, and the disk drive LED will light.
Formatting a 1.4M ßoppy disk takes just under three minutes, including the automatic
veriÞcation. When formatting is Þnished, the K2600 asks you if you want to format another disk.
Connecting a SCSI Device
ItÕs easy to connect SCSI devices to the K2600Õs SCSI ports. Using a SCSI device will give you offline storage, and can speed up your loading and saving operations considerably.
YouÕll need a SCSI cable with a 25-pin SCSI connector on the end to be connected to the K2600. If
your SCSI device does not have a 25-pin connector at one end, you can Þnd SCSI cables like
these at any personal computer store. Connect the 25-pin end of the cable to either of the K2600Õs
SCSI ports, and the other end to your SCSI device. Two SCSI ports are provided to enable you to
chain SCSI devices together. Before you start connecting cables, however, please read the next
section carefully. WeÕve also included important information about SCSI in Chapter 6 of the
MusicianÕs Reference.
SCSI Termination
Simply put, SCSI termination prevents the electrical signals used by SCSI devices from being
reßected from unconnected SCSI ports, and possibly disrupting the data stream. The rule for
SCSI termination is that the two SCSI devices on the ends of a chain of SCSI devices must be
terminated, and all devices in between, however many, must be unterminated. Newer SCSI
devices usually make it easy to enable or disable their termination settings. Older SCSI devices
may require an external terminator to be installed. These are available at all personal computer
stores. Make sure you get the right size for your device (25-pin or 50-pin).
ItÕs impossible to describe all the possible conÞgurations of SCSI devices, so weÕll provide you
with a few general guidelines that will cover the requirements for most SCSI systems. If youÕre
chaining large numbers of SCSI devices together, you may have to do a little juggling, but
chances are youÕll already have some experience with SCSI termination.
First of all, itÕs very important that you terminate your SCSI system properly. Improper
termination can result in lost data, can interfere with the operation of your SCSI devices, and
over the long term, can damage them.
If your SCSI system includes a personal computer, youÕll need to be sure that it is internally
terminated. If youÕre not sure whether itÕs internally terminated, you should call your local
computer dealer for conÞrmation.
If your SCSI system includes only the K2600 and an internally terminated computer, youÕre
probably all set. First, check the SCSI Termination switch on the K2600Õs back panel (next to the
SCSI ports), and make sure that itÕs set to Auto. Then connect the computerÕs SCSI port to either
of the K2600Õs SCSI ports, and youÕre ready to roll. With the K2600Õs termination enabled,
youÕve satisÞed the requirement of terminating both ends of the chain.
Disk Mode
SCSI Termination
If you have an internally terminated computer, a K2600 and an external hard disk with two SCSI
ports, setting up is also painless. Connect the computerÕs SCSI port to one of the hard diskÕs
SCSI ports, and the K2600Õs SCSI port to the hard diskÕs other SCSI port. Make sure the hard
disk is not terminated, since itÕs in the middle of the chain. In this conÞguration (with a
terminated computer at one end and the K2600 at the other), you can chain up to six hard disks
between them. Make sure theyÕre all unterminated, and donÕt forget to set each diskÕs SCSI ID to
a different value.
Disabling the K2600’s SCSI Termination
If you have a computer, a K2600 and an external hard disk with only one SCSI port, thereÕs only
one way to set them up: put the K2600 in the middle (with one SCSI port connected to the
computer, and the other to the hard disk). In this case, you can either change the setting of the
SCSI Termination switch to Disable (which means that termination is always off), or you can
leave it set to Auto, which means that if you put the K2600 in a conÞguration that requires it to
be terminated, it will enable its internal termination automatically (and disable it when
appropriate, as well).
If you install an internal hard disk in your K2600, we recommend that you leave the K2600Õs
SCSI Termination switch set to Auto. If your K2600 is going to be at the end of a SCSI chain
(which is what we recommend), then the internal hard disk must be terminated. If the K2600 is
going to be in the middle of a chain, the internal hard disk must be unterminated (we donÕt
recommend this).
If youÕre planning to buy an external SCSI hard disk to use with your K2600, itÕs a good idea to
buy one with two SCSI ports. Most new hard disks have two ports, and can be terminated or
unterminated relatively easily. This gives you added ßexibility, since you can install it at the end
of a chain, leaving its termination in place, or in the middle of a chain, using both its SCSI ports,
and removing its termination.
When your SCSI device is connected, you can select it with the Current disk parameter on the
Disk-mode page. Use any data-entry method to select the SCSI ID that matches the SCSI ID of
your SCSI device. If youÕre using the alphanumeric buttonpad to select the device, enter 9 to
select the ßoppy. Newer SCSI devices usually have an external switch for setting their IDs. Older
units may not have these; check your deviceÕs ownerÕs manual for its SCSI ID.
Using your K2600 in a SCSI System
All devices in a chain of SCSI devices must have different SCSI IDs, including the K2600. The
K2600Õs SCSI ID is set at 6 by default, and can be changed on the RECEIVE page in MIDI mode.
If your SCSI system includes an Apple¨ Macintosh,¨ be sure not to use SCSI ID 7 for any of your
other devices, since the MacÕs SCSI ID is 7, and canÕt be changed.
Once youÕve made sure that all connected devices are set to different SCSI IDs, you should be
able to select the devices, format them, and start loading and saving Þles.
Formatting a SCSI Device
The procedure for formatting hard disks is essentially the same as with ßoppy disks, once the
SCSI device is selected with the CurrentDisk parameter. The K2600 will recognize the disk as a
SCSI disk, and will warn you that formatting will erase the contents of the disk. Compared with
personal computers, the K2600Õs formatting time for SCSI disks is surprisingly short.
Disk Mode
A directory is a Þle on the disk that lets you group other Þles together as you might separate
documents using folders in a Þle cabinet. You can create directories on K2600 Format SCSI and
ßoppy disks. You can even create directories within directories; these are called subdirectories.
Directories are very useful for organizing your sample, song, and program Þles. The K2600
provides many operations for setting up and managing the directories on your disks and the
Þles within them.
The Path Þeld shows the current directory on the current disk if it is a K2600 format disk. This
Þeld is displayed upon returning to the Disk-mode page after you have pressed one of the disk
function soft buttons and viewed the Þle contents of a speciÞc disk. It stays visible on the
Disk-mode page until you power down or do a soft reset.
The K2600 always starts at the root (top-level) directory when you power it up, or when you
change the value of the CurrentDisk parameter. When you use the disk functions to view other
directories, the Path Þeld updates the current directory value to track your movements.
The root directory is displayed as a backslash:
If you press the Load button and load a Þle from a subdirectory called SOUNDS, the Path Þeld
will appear as
The backslash character is a directory separator, as in the following Path:
This represents the directory DOGS, which is a subdirectory of the SAMPLES directory, which is
a subdirectory of the NEWTUNE directory in the root directory. If the path is too long to Þt on
the top line of the display, it gets abbreviated. The maximum length of a path in the K2600 is
64 characters (including the backslash characters).
The Startup parameter determines what disk will be used for loading the power-up macro Þle
BOOT.MAC (see Creating a Startup File on page 13-69). If this is set to None, then the K2600 will
power-up in a normal fashion. If this is set to a SCSI device or Floppy, when the K2600 is next
powered on it will look for the BOOT.MAC Þle in the root directory of the speciÞed disk, and
load each of the entries in the macro speciÞed within.
This feature provides a very ßexible way to automatically conÞgure your K2600Õs memory
contents whenever you turn the power on.
Disk Mode
This feature works in conjunction with the macro feature to provide a way to distribute macro
Þles that load data from removable media without having to know in advance the SCSI ID of the
removable-media drive. A macro Þle stores its references to disks by DISK ID (SCSI ID or
Floppy), or by either a ÒLibraryÓ or ÒUnspeciÞedÓ designation (see Macros on page 13-43).
Typically, you would set the Library parameter to be the same as the SCSI ID of your CD-ROM
drive, if you were loading macro Þles from a Floppy disk or another SCSI disk that referenced
CD-ROM Þles containing samples or keymaps.
Set Verify to On when you want the K2600 to verify saves, copies, and backups (the K2600 canÕt
verify loads). The operations take longer, but it provides insurance against corrupted Þles.
Disk Drive Information
Below the device type and disk capacity youÕll see speciÞc information about the current diskÕs
manufacturer, model number and internal mechanism (this is true for SCSI disks only; no
information appears about ßoppy disks). The K2600 requests this information from a SCSI disk
when you select that disk with the Current Disk parameter. This information may be needed
when determining if a given disk is compatible for SCSI operation with the K2600.
Macro On Indicator
When (Macro on) is visible, the K2600 records all Þle-loading operations in its macro table. See
Macros on page 13-43.
Disk Mode Soft Buttons
Here is a brief description of each of Disk modeÕs soft button:
Load selected Þle(s) or object(s) from the current disk into K2600 memory.
Save banks of objects, selected objects, or a macro as a K2600 Þle on the current disk.
Display the macro function page, where you can create and edit macros.
Delete Þles from the current disk if it is a K2600 disk. See Deleting Files and
Directories on page 13-66.
Change the Þlename of a Þle on a K2600 disk. See Renaming Files on page 13-65.
Change the location of a Þle from one directory to another (on the same disk).
Check the free space, Þnd Þles, and view directory organization and sizes on the
current disk.
Create a new directory on K2600 disks.
Hierarchical Þle backup between disks.
Single or multiple Þle copy between disks.
Send SCSI sleep command to the current disk. See the discussion below.
Format the current disk as a K2600 disk.
Disk Mode
File List Dialog
The Sleep Soft Button
Many SCSI devices will ÒsleepÓ when theyÕve been idle for a few minutes. In other words, the
disk will stop spinning, in order to save power and reduce wear. The K2600 lets you tell your
SCSI devices to sleep. Just press the Sleep soft button, and if your devices have this feature, they
will sleep. This is particularly useful in a quiet studio situation.
Any Disk-mode operation will ÒwakeÓ the device again. The K2600 will ask you to wait while
the deviceÕs disk starts spinning. As soon as the disk is spinning at full speed, the K2600 will
execute the operation you selected. Some SCSI devices automatically sleep when they power up.
(A device of this type usually provides a way to override this feature; check its manual.) Any
Disk-mode operation will wake a disk in this case, as well.
File List Dialog
The Þle list dialog appears when you select a disk function (such as Load or Rename) to operate
on one or more Þles on a disk. Here is a typical Þle list dialog, for the Load function:
When you enter this dialog, the K2600 displays the contents of the current directory, in an
alphabetized scrolling list. If the current directory cannot be located (for example, if youÕve
changed ßoppies or removable hard disks), the K2600 displays the current diskÕs root directory.
The root directory will also be selected if the disk was just chosen by the CurrentDisk parameter
on the Disk-mode page (remember that the current directory is always set to the top level when
the CurrentDisk parameter is changed, or if the K2600 has just been powered on).
The display for all disks (including ßoppy) shows the 3-character extension of all Þles in the
directory (except directories themselves). Extensions are created when the Þle is saved by the
K2600. You cannot modify the extensions on the K2600. This is because the K2600 uses the
extensions to tell it what kind of data the Þles contain.
Directories created by the K2600 have up to 8-character names, with no extension. A directory
can have an extension if it is created on an external computer (more on this later).
Disk Mode
File List Dialog
Here is a list of extensions used by or accepted by the K2600:
Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF)
Kurzweil K2500 or K2600 operating system Þle
Kurzweil K2000 format Þle
Kurzweil K2500 format Þle containing objects and/or sample data
Kurzweil K2600 format Þle containing objects and/or sample data
Kurzweil K2500 or K2600 disk macro Þle
MIDI Type 0 or Type 1 sequence Þle
Microsoft RIFF WAVE format
Note: In most cases, when we refer to .K26 Þles, weÕre including the older-format .K25 and .KRZ Þles
as well, since the K2600 can read these Þle formats.
When loading Þles, the K2600 will try to Þnd out the type of Þle if the extension is not the same
as is suggested above (with one exception: .MAC Þles). The K2600 can create Þles with almost
all of the above extensions; the exceptions are the older-format .KRZ, .K25, and .KOS Þles.
The top line of the Þle list contains several items of information pertaining to the currently
displayed directory contents. A typical information line looks like this:
In the center of this line is an indicator of the number of Þles in the currently displayed directory.
This number is grouped together with the number of selected Þles, for example:
This example indicates that you have selected none of the 54 Þles in the current directory,. File
selection is possible in several of the disk functions (more on this below). The total number of
Þles also includes any subdirectories of the current directory, but not the Þles within the
On the left end of the top line of the Þle list page is the current directory, sometimes in an
abbreviated form. If you are in the root directory, the display will read:
If you are in the directory \MONDAY, the display will read:
Disk Mode
File List Dialog
If you are in a directory that is more than one level down from the root directory, such as
\FX2\GLASS\BREAKING, the display will read:
The Ò..\Ó indicator tells you that you are more than one level down from the root directory.
The File Index
On the right side of the top line is the Index Þeld. This tells the position of the highlighted Þle
relative from the beginning of the Þle list. The Þrst entry in a Þle list is index 1.
Typing a number on the alphanumeric buttonpad will automatically scroll the display to the
corresponding entry in the Þle list. Typing an out-of-range value such as 999 is a quick shortcut
to get to the end of the Þle list.
In addition to remembering the current directory on the most recently used disk, the K2600 also
remembers the index within the Þle list for the current directory. For example, if you were to hit
Cancel on the above page, go to Setup mode to check the current setup, then return to Disk
mode to load a Þle, the Þle index would still show 3 DOORS.K26 after you pressed Load. This
index is remembered until a new disk is selected by changing the value of the Current Disk
parameter on the Disk-mode page.
There are exceptions to this however. For example, when a Þle is written to the disk using the
Save function, the index will subsequently be set to the Þle that was just saved. The index can
also be explicitly set using the List and Find utilities (see Disk Utilities on page 13-60).
If there are no Þles in the current directory, then the index is 0, and no value appears for the File
to load parameter:
The maximum number of Þles that can be accessed within a single directory is 360. If you have
more Þles than this amount in a single directory, then you will not be able to view the entries
past index 360.
Disk Mode
File List Dialog
While in this dialog, pressing the Chan/Bank buttons will scroll the Þle list either forward or
backward by ÒpagesÓ of 5 entries. It is often easier to scroll the list this way when looking to see
if a particular Þle is present in a directory.
Soft Buttons in the File List Dialog
Use the Select soft button for multiple Þle selection in the Load, Delete, and Move functions. In
the display below, there are two Þles selected (DOORS.K26 and FLUTE.K26), as indicated by
the asterisk (*) following their Þlenames. If you pressed OK in the following display:
the Þles DOORS.K26 and FLUTE.K26 would be loaded.
The Select button will toggle the selection, meaning that if you press Select on a given Þle, the
asterisk will go on if it is currently off, and vice-versa. Selecting can be done for Þles only, not for
directories. You can select as many Þles as you wish using the Select button. There is also a way
to select all Þles at once, or clear all Þle selections at once, using a double-press of the cursor
Left/Right cursor double-press: Select All Files
Up/Down cursor double-press: Clear All Selections
Pressing either the Left or Right cursor individually performs a separate function for Þnding
directories, described below.
You can select multiple Þles only within a single directory. Changing directories clears any
Once you have selected one or more Þles, press OK to perform the disk function (in this
example, Load) on all Þles marked with an asterisk, regardless of whether theyÕre visible in the
display. If there are no Þles marked with an asterisk, the function operates only on the
highlighted Þle.
The Root soft button returns you to the top-level directory. If the display is already at the root
directory (as indicated by the Dir Þeld on the top line of the display) the only effect of pressing
Root will be to reset the Þle index to1 if there are Þles in the directory.
The Parent soft button moves you up one level in the directory hierarchy. If the display is
already at the root directory, this button has no effect.
The Open soft button performs a different operation depending on the disk function and the
type of the currently highlighted Þle or directory (or selected Þles). In all disk functions,
pressing Open on a directoryÑindicated by (dir) after the ÞlenameÑwill open that directory
and display its Þle list.
When you Þrst open a directory for viewing, the index is 1 (the Þrst Þle in the list). The K2600
remembers the index of the previous directory you were in before you pressed Open, so if you
Disk Mode
File List Dialog
return to that directory by pressing Parent, the index changes accordingly. This index is
remembered for one level down, and therefore is useful when stepping through a list of
subdirectories from a single directory level.
In the Load function, pressing Open for a standard .K26 Þle will start the Load Object feature.
This allows selected individual objects from the Þle to be loaded into the K2600. If Open is
pressed on a macro Þle (.MAC extension), then individual Þle entries within a macro Þle can be
selected for loading.
For all other functions, if Open is pressed when a .K26 or a .MAC Þle is highlighted, the object
Þle or the macro Þle will be opened for viewing. For example, pressing Open on a .K26 Þle while
in the Delete function will display the objects within the Þle in a scrollable list, however no
delete action will be possible on the individual objects.
Pressing the OK soft button will cause the K2600 to proceed with the selected function. After
pressing OK, there may be further dialogs such as bank speciÞcation (for the Load function),
conÞrmation (for Delete), or name entry (for Rename). One exception to this is in the Load
function; when a directory is highlighted, pressing OK is the same as pressing Open (it displays
the contents of the highlighted directory).
The Cancel soft button exits the Þle list dialog, completing the disk function with or without any
operation taking place. The K2600 returns to the Disk-mode page. Pressing the Exit button will
do the same thing as Cancel.
The total size of all the Þles in the directory is indicated at the bottom left of the Þle display
above the soft buttons. This total represents only the disk space used by the Þles in the
directory being viewed. The K2600 includes a free space utility that indicates how much space is
being used on the current disk. Also, there is a List utility that can be used to calculate the size of
all Þles within a selected directory subtree. These functions are described in the section called
Disk Utilities on page 13-60.
Quick Scrolling to Subdirectories
It is sometimes difÞcult to locate a subdirectory entry in the Þle list for the current directory, if
there are many Þles in the current directory. To make this easier, individually pressing either the
Left or Right cursor buttons will set the Þle index to the previous or next directory (respectively)
in the current directory list. The index will wrap around the beginning or end of the list, so that
repeated presses of either cursor button will cycle through all of the subdirectories. If you have
many subdirectories, you can scroll through them all very quickly using this method.
For example, given the following Þle list display:
Disk Mode
Creating Directories
Pressing the Right cursor takes you two entries further to the next directory:
or, pressing the Left cursor takes you two entries back to the previous directory.
Creating Directories
As stated above, you can create directories for organizing your K2600 Þles, whether you are
using SCSI or ßoppy disks. You can create directories on any disk formatted by a K2600, K2500,
or K2000.
Directories appear in the normal Þle list with the indicator (dir) to the right of the directory
There are two ways to create new directories.
Press the NewDir button while on the Disk-mode page
Press the NewDir button during the Save dialog.
Creating a Directory From the Disk Mode Page
When you press NewDir, the K2600 prompts you for the directory name:
Pressing >>End will take the cursor to the last character in the name. The Choose button allows
you to grab a Þlename from the current disk (see the discussion of Þle-name grabbing, in More
Features of the Save Dialog on page 13-28). Otherwise, the name will default to either NEWFILE
after a powerup, or the name will be that of the most recent Þle saved or loaded. Once you
choose a name to start with (or the default), you can edit the name using the Left and Right
Disk Mode
The Directory Selection Dialog
cursor buttons, the Delete and Insert soft buttons, and the >>End soft button. You can also use
keyboard naming, as described on page 5-5.
After you have chosen the directory name and pressed OK, you have the choice of where (in
what directory) to put the new directory you are creating.
Pressing OK will select the default path, which is the current directory. Pressing Change will
allow you to view the disk, traversing its directories, until you Þnd the one in which you want to
create the new directory. In this case, pressing OK creates a directory called THINGS in the root
The display shows that the K2600 has created the directory, then the Disk-mode page reappears.
Creating a Directory in the Save Dialog
As a convenience when saving Þles to a directory, you can press Save from the Disk-mode page
and then press NewDir in the Save dialog. YouÕll get the same prompts as when you create a
directory from the Disk-mode page. When you press OK, the display shows that the K2600 has
created the directory, then the Save dialog reappears.
When you create a directory from within the Save dialog, the K2600 resets the current directory
to the directory you just created.
The Directory Selection Dialog
When making a new directory, as well as in many of the disk functions, you will be presented
with the opportunity to change the current directory, or the default directory for a disk
operation. A good example is the ÒUse current directory? Óprompt that you see when you create
a directory. If you press Change, you will see a slightly modiÞed Þle list dialog, through which
you can select any directory on the disk. The display looks like this:
Disk Mode
Disk Mode Functions
When you enter this dialog, you will be in whatever directory was displayed as the default.
From here you can go into other directories by using the soft buttons Root, Parent, and Open.
Notice that there is no Select button. This is because the purpose of this dialog is to choose a
single directory as opposed to selecting multiple Þles. However, the Root, Parent, and Open
buttons function exactly as described above (for the Þle list dialog). The Sel Þeld (on the top line)
shows you how many Þles/directories you have selected out of the total number of Þles/
directories in the current directory.
If youÕve highlighted a directory, there is one additional soft button displayed, SetDir. Notice
the Current button moves over one button to the left:
You can use either of two soft buttons to select a directory in this dialog.
This selects the directory you are currently in (whose Þle list you are
viewing), as speciÞed in the Dir parameter on the top line of the display.
For example, if you wished to select the directory STRINGS using the
Current button, you would Þrst press Open to display the contents of
that directory, and then press Current. If you instead wanted to choose
the root directory, you would simply press Current, since that is the
directory you are viewing (notice the Dir: \ at the top).
This selects the directory you are scrolled to, such as STRINGS in the
display above. This method is often quicker and more convenient than
pressing Open followed by Current, which does the same thing. The
SetDir soft button is present in the display only when the scrollbar
highlights a directory entry.
Disk Mode Functions
Now that you are familiar with the basics of creating directories and moving around in the
K2600 Þle system, it is time to discuss some of the features provided in the disk functions
Loading Files
The Load button instructs the K2600 to copy a Þle from the current disk to the K2600Õs RAM.
Press the Load button, and a list of Þles stored in the currently selected device will appear. Scroll
through the list of Þles with the Alpha Wheel or Plus/Minus buttons, then press OKÑor press
Cancel to return to the Disk-mode page.
When you press OK, the Bank dialog will appear (as described in Load Function
Dialog on page 13-19) and youÕll be asked to select the memory bank to load the Þle into. Scroll
through the list of banks with the Alpha Wheel or Plus/Minus buttons until the desired memory
bank is highlighted, then press OK. Or press Cancel to back up a page and select another Þle to
load. Once you have selected a bank to which to load, you will be asked to choose a method for
Disk Mode
Disk Mode Functions
loading. The method you choose determines how the objects in the Þle will be ordered when
loaded into the bank.
Loading Individual Objects
Since Þles can contain over 3000 objects, it is often useful to load only a subset of the information
contained in a K2600 Þle. Sometimes, this capability is necessary even to be able to load certain
Þles, if the size of the ÞleÕs samples or data is greater than the K2600Õs internal RAM size.
You can select individual objects or groups of objects (samples, programs, keymaps, effects,
songs) for loading from within a single K2600 Þle.
The Load Object feature is accessible from within the Load File dialog. To activate it, scroll the
Þle list until you have highlighted the Þle that you wish to load objects from:
Press Open to begin the Load Object dialog. (Note: The Þle must be in .KRZ, .K25, or .K26
format in order to load individual objects from it.) The K2600 then scans the Þle contents in
order to present a list of all of the objects in the Þle. Sometimes this procedure can take a few
moments, depending on how many objects are in the Þle. During this time, you will see the
following display:
The soft buttons in the above display do not become active until the process of scanning is
Þnished. When this happens, the K2600 will display a list of the ÞleÕs objects, in the exact order
that they are stored in the Þle:
Disk Mode
Disk Mode Functions
The objects in the list are usually grouped by type (sample, program, keymap, etc.). The list can
be scrolled using the Alpha wheel or the Up or Down cursors. The Chan/Bank buttons on the
front panel can be used for fast scrolling. The list will jump by Þve entries at a time, moving the
entry on the bottom line to the top line.
Note: When scrolling through large numbers of objects (more than 100), the K2600 may sometimes
pause for a few seconds if it needs to get more information from the disk Þle. When this happens, some
gyrating dots will brießy appear in place of the Index value on the top line of the display.
Each line in the scrollable list represents one object, and displays the objectÕs type, ID, name, and
size. Samples have additional information: the sampleÕs root key and a stereo sample indicator:
Object Type
Sample Info
The ID numbers are the same numbers that were used to reference the objects when the Þle was
last saved by the K2600. These numbers will usually be different after the objects are loaded,
depending upon the bank (for example, 200...299) and mode that is speciÞed for loading. There
is more information on these modes in the section called Load Function Dialog on page 13-19.
The Size Þeld is interpreted differently for samples and nonsamples. For nonsamples (songs,
programs, etc.), it shows the number of bytes used by the object in the Þle, and hence the
amount of program memory that the object will occupy in the K2600. For samples, the size Þeld
shows the size of the all sample data associated with the object, and is displayed in kilobytes (K).
For samples, the letter S after the root key indicates a stereo sample.
Due to display space constraints, if the sampleÕs root key happens to be in the lowest MIDI
octave range (that is, C -1 through B -1), it will be displayed in a truncated form. For example, if
a sampleÕs root key was set to G#-1, the display would read:
The status line at the top of the display speciÞes the function being performed, the number of
selected objects in the list followed by the total number of objects in the Þle, and the current list
As with the Þle list, entering in a number from the alphanumeric buttonpad will jump to the
indexed entry, and typing in a large number like 9999 will go to the end of the list.
The soft buttons on this page are used for multiple selection of the objects in the list as well as for
moving around the list when there are many items selected or listed. This same dialog is also
used for many other functions in the K2600, namely for saving selected objects to disk and for
several object utility functions that are described later.
Disk Mode
Disk Mode Functions
Here is a brief description of each buttonÕs function, followed by a detailed explanation of its
Select or deselect an object.
Jump to the next selected object.
Jump to the next object of a different type.
Go to the Multiple Object Selector page.
Tell K2600 to proceed to load the selected objects.
Exit back to the File List Dialog.
Press the Select button to choose the highlighted object for loading. An asterisk (*) is placed in
between the object name and the object ID for any items that are selected. Deselect a selected
object by pressing Select again. The asterisk will disappear. The easiest way to choose objects for
loading is to scroll the list and individually press Select on each object you want to load.
If you only want to select one object for loading, you need not select it with the Select button.
Instead, pressing OK implicitly selects the highlighted object if there are no other objects
selected. If there are objects selected, however, then the highlighted object will not be loaded
unless it is selected.
This page shows three samples selected for loading (IDs 201, 203, and 304):
The Next button will cause the index into the list to jump to the next selected object, forward in
the list. When the end of the list is reached, the search will wrap around from the beginning. If
you have more than one object selected, then if you repeatedly press Next you can easily cycle
through all selected items. If there are no items selected, then this button doesnÕt do anything.
The Type button jumps to the next object of a different type from the one that is currently
highlighted. This is a convenient way to Þnd a particular type of object in the list. If you want to
skip over the samples and the keymaps in an object list and jump right to the programs, press
Type about two or three times, stopping when you notice that a program is highlighted.
Press the Multi button to enter the Multiple Object Selector (described on page 13-36). This
powerful utility can be used to control the selection or deselection of many objects, crossreferenced by object types and ranges of ID numbers.
When you are all done selecting objects to load, press OK. As stated above, if only one object is
to be loaded, it is implicitly selected if it is the currently highlighted object and there are no other
selected objects in the list.
Cancel returns to the Þle list dialog, highlighting the Þle you just opened. You can load the
entire Þle after pressing Cancel by pressing OK when you return to the Þle list.
Disk Mode
Disk Mode Functions
Shortcuts when Loading Objects
Select All/Deselect All
Selecting or deselecting all of the objects at once can be done with the same double-presses as
described for the Þle list dialog, namely:
Left/Right cursor double-press: Select All Objects
Up/Down cursor double-press: Clear All Selections
If you want to load most but not all of the items from a Þle (for example, if there happens to be a
Master table in the Þle that you donÕt want to load), it may be fastest to Þrst select all objects
using the Left/Right double-press, and then manually deselect any unwanted items.
Viewing the Name Table
The name table is an object that appears in Þles that were created using the Names button in the
ÒSave dependent objects?Ó dialog (see The Name Table on page 13-31). This object contains a list
of dependent objects needed by the other objects in the Þle at the time the Þle was saved. There
is more information about this later on, however it is worth mentioning here that a highlighted
name table objectÕs contents can be viewed by pressing either one of the Left or Right cursor
Loading Dependent Objects
When you press OK after selecting one or more objects, the K2600 will ask the following
This dialog appears because one or more of the selected objects might have dependents
associated with them in the Þle. (Remember, dependents are those objects needed by other
objects; samples are dependents of keymaps, effects and keymaps are dependents of programs,
and so on.) When this dialog appears, it does not necessarily mean that there really are
dependents of the selected objects. The K2600 will not know whether there are dependent
objects in the Þle until it begins to read in the selected objects, and determines what their
dependents are.
Answering Yes to the question tells the K2600 to also load the dependents. You may wish to
answer No if, for example, you are simply loading a program or a keymap as a template for use
with other objects. You can also manually select only some of an objectÕs dependents, and then
answer No to ÒLoad dependent objects?Ó to prevent other unwanted dependents from being
To summarize, it is not necessary to select any of the dependents of an object if you plan on
loading all of the dependents. As an example, for a Þle containing dozens of programs,
keymaps, and samples, you may choose to highlight a certain program and press OK, and
Disk Mode
Load Function Dialog
answer Yes to the ÒLoad dependent objects?Ó question. The K2600 will do the rest, by only
loading the samples and keymaps that are needed by the selected program.
Similarly, if you selected certain keymaps from a Þle, and then answered Yes to ÒLoad dependent
objects,Ó the K2600 would Þgure out exactly what samples need to be loaded as dependents of
the selected keymaps.
Auditioning Samples from a Disk File
Often when working with Þles that contain samples it is helpful to be able to hear what the
samples sound like before loading all or part of the Þle. It is possible to audition samples in the
Þle, from within the Load Object dialog.
To audition a sample, Þrst scroll to the sample that you wish to hear. Then, press either the Left
or Right cursor. The K2600 will load the sample (or 1 second of it if itÕs longer than a second).
The audition starts from the very beginning of the sample data (note that if the Þrst second of
data is silence then you wonÕt hear very much when the sample is auditioned). If the loop points
fall within the Þrst second of the stored sample data, they will be loaded as well. The K2600
display will blink after the completion of loading the sample audition data. When the sample
segment has been loaded, it can then be played back at its root key as well as transposed up and
down the keyboard.
Once a sample has been auditioned, it remains active across the keyboard until another sample
is auditioned. The audition function ends when either OK or Cancel are pressed.
There must be sufÞcient sample RAM in the K2600 to load one second of the sound for
auditioning. This amount varies according to the sample rate of the sample, but for most
samples this will be less than 100K bytes. If the auditioned sample does not play, check that
there is enough free sample memory in the K2600. It is also possible to see the following error if
the K2600 object RAM is full or very near full:
Loading Objects from Floppy Disk Files
Individual objects can be loaded from K2600 ßoppy disk Þles, with the caveat that some samples
in a multiple-ßoppy disk Þle cannot be auditioned because they reside on more than one disk.
These samples will still appear in the object list, but their size will be in parentheses meaning
they cannot be loaded (either explicitly or as dependent objects) and cannot be auditioned.
Load Function Dialog
Bank Status Indicator
After you have chosen what you wish to load, you are presented with a dialog allowing you to
determine what bank will be used to load the ÞleÕs data. The bank-status indicator (an asterisk)
indicates whether a bank contains objects.
If an asterisk is present after the bank number (for example, 400...499*), it means that there are
objects in the bank, whether they are RAM or ROM objects. ROM objects are in the Zeros, 100s,
and 700s bank, unless you have an optional ROM block installed. In that case ROM objects are
also stored in the 800s, and/or 900s bank. If there is no asterisk on the line for a bank, it means
the bank is empty.
Disk Mode
Load Function Dialog
In the following dialog, there are user objects in the 200s and 400s bank, and possibly also in
other banks that become visible when the selection is scrolled.
This indicator makes it easier to Þnd an empty bank to use for loading, if needed.
Loading Methods
Once you have pressed OK to decide on what bank to use, you will see this dialog if the bank is
You will see the following dialog if the bank contains any objects (in RAM or ROM):
Disk Mode
Load Function Dialog
The soft buttons control the mode for loading and renumbering of objects from the Þle. HereÕs
how they work:
First deletes all RAM objects in the selected bank, and then loads objects using
consecutive numbering.
First deletes all RAM objects in the selected bank, and then loads objects using the
object ID numbers stored in the Þle.
Preserve the object ID numbers stored in the Þle for the objects to be loaded,
overwrite objects already in memory if necessary.
Try to use the object ID numbers stored in the Þle for the objects to be loaded. If an
ID number is already in use, increment the ID number until a free slot is found.
Ignore the object ID numbers stored in the Þle. Try to use consecutive numbering
from the beginning of the selected bank. If an ID number is already in use,
increment the ID number until a free slot is found.
Cancel the mode selection, and go back to choosing a bank. Scrolling to a different
bank value will have the same effect as Cancel.
Typically, you will just want to use the Fill method. Append, Merge, and Overwrt try to
preserve the numbers stored with the objects in the Þle, but this should only really be necessary
if you depend on program numbers or effect numbers to be at a certain MIDI program change
number. OvFill is like Fill except the selected bank (or Everything) is cleared out before
Overwrt and OvFill operate in different ways after a selected bank has been Þlled up for a given
object type (for example, after you have loaded more than 100 programs into a bank). Overwrt
will continue to preserve the objectIDs stored in the Þle, and will individually overwrite objects
in the bank following the just Þlled bank. OvFill does not overwrite past the end of the selected
bank; it instead skips over object IDs that are in use, loading only into unused IDs. Because of
this difference, it can sometimes be faster to load a Þle using OvFill rather than Overwrt.
However, this applies only if the objects to be loaded would extend past the end of a selected
Note that when loading into a speciÞc bank (as opposed to loading as ÒEverythingÓ), the object
IDs in the Þle are used as follows: The ÒbankÓ digit is ignored, and the remainder of the number
is used when the K2600 rebanks the object ID into the bank that you specify. For example, if you
save Program 453 into a Þle, and load it back into the 300s bank, the K2600 will use the number
53 when deciding upon a new object ID. If the 300s bank was previously empty, and the load
mode is Append, then the program will end up with ID 353.
For loading as ÒEverything,Ó the ID number for an object stored in a Þle is taken literally, and
not rebanked (except if Fill or OvFill mode is chosen, in which case the K2600 will use ID
numbers starting from 200).
The following example shows how each different loading methods affect how four programs
load into a bank that already contains programs.
Disk Mode
Load Function Dialog
Example: Starting with the following objects already stored in the K2600 internal RAM:
Program ID
Program Name
Acoustic Piano 2
Bright Piano
Tin Ear Piano
Chorused Piano
Electric Piano 2
Suppose you were to load a Þle containing the following objects into the 200s bank:
Program ID
Program Name
Blues Organ
Gospel Organ
Cheezoid Organ
Internal Organ
The following table shows the IDs that each program end up with when you load the organs
(with IDs in the 400s) into the 200s bank, which contains the pianos. Note that in Merge mode,
Organs 405 and 410 replace Pianos 205 and 210.
Program Name
Program IDs After Loading
Tin Ear Piano
Chorused Piano
Electric Piano 2
Blues Organ
Gospel Organ
Cheezoid Organ
Internal Organ
Acoustic Piano 2
Bright Piano
Selecting Multiple Files to Load
As stated previously, you can select multiple Þles for loading into the K2600 from within a single
directory, in one operation. This is done from the Þle list dialog with the Select button.
Disk Mode
Load Function Dialog
After you have selected one or more Þles in this way, you will still choose a bank and mode to be
used for the load process, just as with loading a single Þle. However, the dialog prompt will say
Load selected as:
If you selected any macro Þles (.MAC extension) from the directory, then once you have select
the mode for loading, you will see the question:
The answer to this question instructs the K2600 that any macro Þles will have their macro entries
loaded according to the bank and mode:
speciÞed in the macro entry.
currently speciÞed for this multiple Þle load. In other words, whatever you select for
Bank and Mode will override the instructions for each entry in the macro.
At this point the Þles will begin to load. When all the Þles have been successfully loaded or the
load process has been aborted, the K2600 returns to the Disk-mode page.
If there are any errors encountered during a multiple Þle load, such as running out of object
RAM, you will be asked once if you wish to abort the load. In some cases, you may wish to
continue loading. If you continue (and donÕt abort), the only way to abort will be to use a special
procedure described in the next paragraph.
Aborting a Multiple File Load
There is a way to abort the process of loading multiple Þles. Aborting can only be done
Òin betweenÓ Þles that are being loaded, and not during the load of any one Þle (short of
powering off or soft-resetting the machine by pressing +/-, 0, and Clear simultaneously, but this
is not recommended!).
Aborting a multiple Þle load is done by pressing and holding down either of the Plus (+) or the
Minus (-) buttons that are located just below the Alpha wheel. This should be done at least onehalf second before you anticipate the current Þle to Þnish loading, or else the K2600 will not
sense that you wish to abort the load.
Disk Mode
Saving Files
You will see the following question after the current Þle being loaded is completed:
It may be a good idea to practice using this method of aborting a multiple Þle load, so that when
the time comes that you accidentally select 100 Þles, you will remember how to abort the
process. This same method (of holding the Plus or Minus buttons down) is also used to abort
the Backup feature and the macro Þle load feature.
If you run out of object or sample RAM, you will have one opportunity to abort the load as
explained above. However, if you continue from that point you may end up seeing the same
error message ÒMemory is fullÓ for each Þle that you had selected. This can be a rather tedious
process, however it is still possible to abort out of this by holding down the Plus or Minus
button simultaneously while pressing Yes when you see the following question:
More Load Function Enhancements
There are more features having to do with the Load function that are described later on in this
guide, such as loading macro Þles and loading AIFF Þles.
Saving Files
The Save button starts the process of saving from the K2600 to the currently selected device.
When you press the Save soft button on the Disk-mode page you will see the bank dialog:
Disk Mode
Saving Files
The Macro soft button will be present only if macro recording is turned on. (See page 13-43 for
more information on macros.)
You can save an entire bank of objects, or by pressing the Object soft button, select individual
objects to be saved. If you choose to save using the bank method, all RAM objects within that
bank will be saved. (You cannot save ROM objects. If you wish to save a ROM object, such as a
program, you must Þrst save it internally as a RAM program.) If any objects within the selected
bank have dependent RAM objects that exist in a different bank, you will be asked if you want
to save dependent objects. See page 13-29 for more on saving dependent objects.
Use one of the data-entry methods to select a bank to be saved. If you press the Cancel soft
button, youÕll return to the Disk-mode page. After youÕve selected the bank, press OK. The
following page will appear:
You can now name the Þle according to the naming procedures outlined in Chapter 5. You can
enter up to eight characters. When youÕve entered a name, press OK to save the Þle as shown in
the display, or press Cancel to return to the Þle dialog. When the Þle is saved, the K2600 adds an
extension (.K26) to the Þlename. This enables the K2600 to recognize it as a Kurzweil Þle when it
examines the diskÕs directory.
Saving Master and Everything Files
Among your choices in the Bank dialog are Master Þles and Everything Þles. Master Þles consist
primarily of the items on the Master-mode page and the three MIDI-mode pages. They also
include information like marked pages, view settings, and MIDI channel and program
assignment. In fact, saving Master Þles (or dumping them via SysEx) is a good way to conÞgure
your K2600 (or another K2600) to your performance or sequencing needs. For example, you
might save different Master Þles with every sequence you create using an external sequencer.
Then, when you load the Master Þle, you would have all the correct programs assigned to the
appropriate MIDI channels.
Everything Þles consist of the Master Þle parameters and every other RAM object. Saving an
Everything Þle will literally save everything in RAM, including samples, into a single Þle. These
can be quite large, so if you donÕt have a hard disk, be sure to have a few preformatted ßoppy
disks handy.
Split Files
When youÕre saving memory banks, itÕs not uncommon to create Þles larger than 720K or even
1.4MÑespecially when youÕre saving RAM samples. If youÕre saving to ßoppy disks, the K2600
will create split Þles stored on multiple disks. A little advance preparation is necessary for this.
If the K2600 Þlls a ßoppy disk before it Þnishes saving a Þle, it will prompt you to insert a
second disk in the ßoppy drive. This disk must be preformatted; the K2600 will not format disks
in the middle of a save operation. When the second disk is inserted, the K2600 will continue to
save. This process will be repeated until the entire Þle is saved. The K2600 marks these disks
internally with a number that indicates the sequence in which they were saved.
Disk Mode
Saving Files
When youÕre loading these split Þles, they must be inserted in the same sequence as they were
saved. When the K2600 has loaded the contents of the Þrst disk, it will prompt you to insert the
second disk, and so on. Make sure to label your disks as soon as you save to them, so youÕll keep
them in the correct order.
Soft Buttons in the Save Selection Dialog
The meaning of the soft buttons in the ÒSave selectionÓ dialog is as follows:
Save a sample or a song in an exported Þle format (that is, AIFF, WAVE,
MIDI Type 0 or Type 1). This feature is described in Importing and Exporting Data
Using Standard File Formats on page 13-71
Save entries from the current macro table as a macro Þle (.MAC). This soft button is
displayed only if macro Þle recording is on.
Save selected objects from the K2600Õs RAM.
Create a new directory on the current disk, and return to this dialog afterwards.
This is described previously in Creating Directories on page 13-12.
Save all the objects from the highlighted bank (for example, 200...299), and
optionally also save dependent objects.
Exit from the Save function.
Export (page 13-71), Macro (page 13-43), and NewDir (page 13-12) are all explained elsewhere
in this guide. This section will describe the process of saving K2600 objects into K2600 format
disk Þles.
Saving Individual Objects
You can select any group of objects in the K2600Õs RAM for saving into a single Þle.To save
individual objects, from the above dialog, press Object. The K2600 will display a scrollable list
of all the objects in RAM, very similar to the display for the Load Object feature (described
The procedures for saving objects are essentially the same as the procedures described on
page 13-15 for loading objects.
Disk Mode
Saving Files
Shortcuts when Saving Objects
Select All/Deselect All
Selecting or deselecting all of the objects at once can be done with the following double-presses
(two front-panel buttons simultaneously pressed):
Left/Right cursor double-press: Select All Objects
Up/Down cursor double-press: Clear All Selections
If you want to save most but not all of the items from a Þle (for example, if there are some songs
in RAM that you donÕt want to be saved in the Þle), it may be fastest to Þrst select all objects
using the Left/Right double-press, and then manually deselect any unwanted items.
Viewing Selected Objects
When there are lots of objects selected, but they are scattered in the objects list, it can be helpful
to be able to view a list of only the currently selected objects. Do this by double-pressing the
Chan/Bank buttons.
Double-press of Chan/Bank buttons: View Selected Objects
For example, if there were 10 objects selected, and you pressed both Chan/Bank buttons
simultaneously, the K2600 would show a list similar to this:
The top line shows 10 objects selected out of the 134 that are currently in RAM. If the number of
selected objects is larger than the 6 objects that Þt on one page (as in this example), the list can be
scrolled to view all of the information.
Note that this feature is not available in the Load Object dialog.
Disk Mode
Saving Files
More Features of the Save Dialog
The Choose File Name Function
When entering in a Þlename for saving, there is a Choose soft button. When Choose is pressed
from the Þle naming dialog, the K2600 will access the current disk directory and display the
The function of this dialog is to grab the text of any Þlename on the current disk, and either use
it as a starting point in the Þle naming dialog, or else use the chosen Þlename exactly. This helps
when replacing Þles on the disk (where the name must exactly match the Þle being replaced), or
adding Þles to the disk that have similar names or appended revision numbers. You can save
time by not having to enter the entire Þlename on the K2600Õs alphanumeric buttonpad.
The Open soft button is visible in the ÒChoose Þle nameÓ dialog only when a subdirectory is
Traversing directories from the Choose function does not change the current default directory.
Selecting the Directory to use for Saving a File
After you specify the Þlename when saving any Þle, select where to put it: by default it goes in
the current directory, but you can specify any other directory on the current disk:
Pressing OK will accept the default path (the current directory), which in this example is the root
directory (represented by the backslash character). Pressing Change will allow you to view the
disk, traversing its directories, until you Þnd the one in which you want to save the Þle. If you
choose a different directory from the default, it will become the new default directory. For more
information on selecting a directory, see The Directory Selection Dialog on page 13-13.
Saving Any File sets the File Index
After saving a Þle, you can go to any disk function (such as Load), and the just saved Þle will be
automatically highlighted. This makes it easy to Þnd a Þle that you have just saved, in case you
Disk Mode
Saving Files
want to delete it, add it to a macro, move it to a different directory, open it (if it is a .K26 or a
.MAC Þle), etc.
Auditioning Objects in RAM
When deciding which individual objects to save, it can be difÞcult to know if you are selecting
the correct ones. This is especially true if many objects have similar or identical names, or if the
names of the objects are not descriptive enough to know what they are. The K2600 has a feature
that allows auditioning of samples, keymaps, programs, and songs right from the Save Object
dialog (as well as all of the other object utility dialogs that are discussed later). To activate this
feature, scroll to an object of an appropriate type to be auditioned, and press either the Left or
Right cursor button. The display will blink, and the objects can now be heard as follows:
play at their root key, as well as transposed across the keyboard. Stereo
samples will play in stereo. Auditioning samples in this way is similar to
listening to samples from the SampleMode page in Master mode. The samples are
auditioned using a ÒhiddenÓ program set up according to the parameters
in Program 199 Default Program. This default program can be customized
if needed by editing and saving a new program 199.
If you audition any sample objects, the last one that you audition will become the
ÒpreviewÓ sample the next time you go to the SampleMode page in Master mode.
This can be a quick way to edit the sample without having to edit a program and a
are reproduced accurately, and are played according to the parameters in Program
199 Default Program. This default program in ROM is set up to have a 0% effects
level (dry). Therefore, auditioning keymaps can be a very convenient way to hear
them isolated from the effects.
play exactly as they would if they were selected from the Program-mode page.
start playing when either the Left or Right cursor button is pressed, and stop
playing when either cursor is pressed while the song is playing. The most recent
song that is auditioned from this page become the current song (as seen on the
Song-mode page).
play exactly as they would if they were selected from the Setup-mode page.
Once auditioned, the above object types remain active on the keyboard until another object is
auditioned, or until Cancel is pressed. If a song is being auditioned, no other objects are
auditioned until the song audition is stopped (by pressing one of the Left or Right cursor
Saving Dependent Objects
When you save a Þle, you may see a prompt as part of the Save dialog that asks you whether
you want to save dependent objects. A dependent object is simply an object thatÕs associated
with another object. The dependent object can be stored in a different memory bankÑfor
example, a RAM sample with ID 301 thatÕs used in a program with ID 402, or in the same bank
as the Þle being saved. Rather than forcing you to save dependent objects separately and to keep
track of them yourself, the K2600 gives you the option of automatically saving the dependent
objects as part of the Þle you save. When you load the Þle again, the dependent objects will be
loaded along with the objects to which theyÕre attached.
There are a few things to keep in mind regarding dependent objects. First, itÕs not uncommon for
RAM samples to be dependent objects, and they can take up quite a bit of memory. If you save a
RAM sample as a dependent object when you save a bank of programs to disk, you may create
Disk Mode
Saving Files
Þles that wonÕt Þt onto a 720K or 1.4M ßoppy disk. Since the K2600 canÕt format ßoppy disks in
the middle of a save operation, you should have spare formatted disks ready to go before you
start saving. See the section called Split Files on page 13-25.
While the K2600 makes it easy for you to keep track of your dependent objects, you need to keep
aware of what happens with dependent objects when saving to disk and reloading. Consider
this example. Suppose you create 30 new programs, each of which uses a keymap containing
four different RAM samples. If you save these programs to a disk Þle, and save dependent
objects with them, youÕve created a Þle containing 30 programs and 120 dependent RAM
samples. So far, so good. Suppose you then load that Þle into the 300s bank. The K2600 will load
the 30 programs into the 300s bank just Þne, but it will be able to load (at most) only the Þrst 100
dependent objects to the 300s bank (each memory bank can hold a maximum of 100 objects of a
given type). The remaining 20 dependent objects will be loaded into the 400s bank. If there are
no objects of the same type in the 400s bank, thereÕs no problem. But if there are objects of the
same type in the 400s bank, some or all of them will be replaced by the newly loaded dependent
The easiest way to prevent this is to make sure that you donÕt create more than 100 dependent
objects attached to the other objects in a given memory bank. The easiest way to do this is to
avoid creating dependent objects when possible, by saving objects with IDs in the same memory
bank as the objects to which theyÕre related. For example, if you create a program that uses RAM
samples, and you save the program with ID 201, resaving the RAM samples used by that
program with IDs in the 200s will prevent dependent objects from being created for that
program. If you do this, youÕll minimize the number of dependent objects you create, and youÕll
be unlikely to force dependent objects to be loaded into a higher-numbered memory bank when
you load Þles.
Once you have selected objects for saving (either individually as just described or by bank
selection), the K2600 will determine if any of the items chosen to save have any dependent
objects in RAM that were not chosen. For example, if you select a program to be saved and
nothing else (using the Save Object feature), the program may have dependent effects, keymaps,
and samples that are in RAM. Dependent objects that are in ROM (for example, ROM samples
or keymaps) do not get saved to disk.
You will see the following dialog displayed if there are any dependent objects in RAM of any
objects that were selected for saving:
Choosing Yes will cause any dependent objects to be saved in the Þle together with the selected
objects. Choosing No means that unselected dependents will not be saved. The Names button
creates a new kind of object to be stored in the Þle, called the name table.
Disk Mode
Saving Files
The Name Table
A ÞleÕs name table is a list of any dependent objects that were not explicitly selected for saving
in the Þle. Each entry in the name table contains the object type, object ID, and the name of a
dependent object.
A ÞleÕs name table is used by the K2600 at only one time: when the Þle is loaded. At that time,
the K2600 will search for dependent objects that were not saved in the Þle originally. The search
matches dependent objects by name with objects that are already in RAM, and links them to the
ÒparentÓ object. The name-table data are then discarded when the Þle load is Þnished. This
search feature is referred to as Relink-by-Name.
Relink-by-name can help you work efÞciently with K2600 objects and disk Þles. Careful use of
this feature can save you many megabytes of disk storage. It can also free up time for working
on music and production instead of waiting for sample data to be resaved.
Relink-by-Name allows you to save objects and their dependent objects separately (in multiple
Þles) and be able to link them up later on by loading the Þles in the correct order. This can be a
very efÞcient way of working with the K2600Õs many levels of dependent objects. The most
common way in which Relink-by-Name speeds up development of sounds is when making
small adjustments to a program that has as its dependents a large amount of sample data. You
can separate the program and sample data, so that after changing a program parameter, only a
Þle containing the program and a name table need be resaved.
When loading a Þle that contains a name table, the following rules should be observed in order
for correct relinking to occur.
1. Use unique names for dependent objects at every level. For example, if you were going to be
relinking several samples from one Þle with a program and a keymap from another Þle,
each sample should have a different name. Otherwise, the dependent objects (the
samples) will not get relinked properly. This will create problems such as keymap ranges
that donÕt play as they are supposed to.
2. The dependents to be relinked must already be loaded. Otherwise they will not be found and
relinked when the Þle containing the parent objects is loaded. This constraint on the order
of Þle loading can be made easier to work with by using the macro Þle feature (described
later). You can construct a macro Þle to automatically load the dependents Þles and the
parent Þles in the correct order, making sure that any Þles containing dependents are
loaded Þrst. An alternative to loading the Þles with a macro would be to save the
dependent and parent Þles in the same disk directory with similar Þlenames such that
they will appear consecutively in the alphabetized Þle list. Once you have done this, it is
easy to select both Þles for loading in the correct order.
These rules may appear complicated at Þrst, but they will seem natural once you have worked
out a few examples with your own Þles.
The search algorithm used for relinking dependent objects to their parent objects during loading
is as follows:
The search for a dependent object (whose name matches that of an entry in the name table) begins at the
beginning of the bank that is speciÞed for loading the parent Þle. All possible IDs are then
consecutively searched. When the last ID of the 900s bank has been searched (typically 999), the
search will wrap around to ID 1 up until the end of the bank just before the speciÞed bank. The
search stops once a dependent with a matching name has been found and relinked.
For example, if a Þle containing a one-layer program is loaded into the 400s bank, and the Þle
includes a name table that lists the layerÕs keymap by name, then the K2600 will begin to look
through all possible keymap IDs starting at 400, until ID 999. The search then continues from
Disk Mode
Saving Files
ID 1, stopping at ID 399. If the search does not successfully Þnd a match, the dependent will be
unresolved, and in this example the program would show a value of ÒObject id not foundÓ for
its Keymap parameter, where the object id is the value that was stored in the Þle.
The search is done in this ÒcircularÓ manner so as to allow you to direct which dependent
objects get relinked. This may be necessary if you end up with multiple copies of dependent
objects with the same name; you can differentiate between them by loading the parent Þle into a
speciÞc bank that is the same bank or ÒbeforeÓ the bank containing the objects you wish to relink
to. Note that this can only be taken so far, since it would be impossible for the K2600 to
differentiate between objects with the same name within the same bank.
The relinking process happens in the background, without any notiÞcation or error messages if
items cannot be relinked.
Working with Relink-by-Name
Here are a couple of more in-depth examples that can show how Relink-by-Name works in a
practical situation.
Consider that your K2600Õs RAM contains the following one-layer program and also its
dependent keymap and samples (the technique used in this example could well apply to any
programs with any number of layers):
Program 317 Steinwave Piano
Keymap 300 Steinwave Piano
Sample 300 StwaveG1 .......... Sample 310 StwaveC7
In this case you might wish to save the samples and the keymap in one Þle, and the program in
another Þle. So, from the Save Object dialog you could Þrst select all the samples from 300-310,
and Keymap 300, for saving into a Þle, letÕs say STWAVE1.K26.
You would then return to the Save Object dialog and save just Program 317 in a separate Þle in
the same directory, letÕs say STWAVE2.K26Éonly this time, you will be asked the ÒSave
dependent objectsÓ question pictured above. Answer this by pressing Names.
After saving, the Þle STWAVE2.K26 will contain two objects in it, Program 317 and a name
table. You can easily verify this by going to the Load function (or any other disk function) and
pressing Open on the Þle just saved (which should come up already highlighted). The display of
objects for the Þle will look like this:
The name table will always be the Þrst object in the list. You can verify the exact contents of the
name table by using the ÒView Name TableÓ shortcut (as described on page 13-18); make sure
Disk Mode
Saving Files
the name table is highlighted, and press either the Left or Right cursor button (as if you were
ÒauditioningÓ the name table). You would then see the following:
The Name Table Contents list shows what would have been saved in the Þle had you answered
Yes to ÒSave dependent objects?Ó instead of answering by pressing Names. More importantly, it
allows you to see what objects need to be in the K2600Õs RAM before loading this Þle.
The object IDs shown in the table are the same numbers that those dependent objects used at the
time this Þle was saved. (The ID numbers are necessary in order for Relink-by-Name to
function, since they are the ÒlinkÓ between the higher level objects and the names of the
An important thing to notice about this particular name table is that the sample names are not
needed by the K2600 for relinking purposes. In fact, the only information necessary for relinking
the dependent objects of this Þle is the keymap object. The reason for this is that when this Þle
containing the program is loaded, all of these dependent objects should already have been
loaded, and the keymap should already be correctly linked to the samples. Although the
samplesÕ names are redundant from the K2600Õs point of view, they are included for free, so to
speak, and you may Þnd them very helpful if you ever need to know exactly what the
dependents of this Þle were intended to be.
The Name Table Contents list is scrollable if there are more than seven objects in the name table.
Now that the two Þles STWAVE1.K26 and STWAVE2.K26 have been created using the name
table, they can be reloaded and correctly relinked. The Þles can be loaded into any bankÑ they
do not need to go back into the bank they were originally inÑsince the STWAVE2.K26 Þle will
search through all the banks to Þnd the objects by name in order to relink them. In fact, if you
were to immediately reload just the Þle containing the program (STWAVE2.K26), into any bank,
you would Þnd that it was automatically relinked to the correct keymap, since the keymaps and
samples are currently in memory.
Furthermore, you could edit the program and create more variations of it that reference the
Steinwave Piano keymap, add ROM layers, and/or effects if desired, and resave all of the
programs (and any effects) to the same or a new Þle (remember to press Names when you are
asked ÒSave dependent objects?Ó) You never have to resave the Þle STWAVE1.K26 that contains
the keymap and samples, if all you have done is edited the programs or added more of them.
This can be a tremendous time-saver.
If the keymap and sample Þles are found on a CD-ROM disk, then using Relink-by-Name is not
only a time-saver, but a disk-space saver as well. If you like the samples and keymaps from a
CD-ROM Þle, there is no need to duplicate the sample data on your own writable hard disk.
Instead, all you have to do is save a program Þle in the above manner, and then make sure the
CD-ROM Þle is loaded Þrst before you load the program Þle.
If you needed to add some sample data to the Þle (for example, you want to add a root to the
keymap or process and reloop a sample from the CD-ROM), you can do this by explicitly
Disk Mode
Saving Files
selecting the new sample data and the keymap for saving along with the program and the name
table. Then, the new sample would not be listed in the name table (it would be in the same Þle as
the name table), and the keymap would be relinked to all of the samples by name instead of the
program being relinked to the keymap (as before). What you put in the different Þles is up to
you, and there is no limit to where you can break up the objects in one Þle or another. The main
thing to be aware of are the two rules for Relink-by-name mentioned above:
1. Files containing dependent objects must be loaded Þrst.
Always use unique names for like objects types. (NOTE: In cases where duplicate names exist
in different banks, load the Þle(s) containing dependent objects, then load the Þle that
contains the name table into the same bank or to the one just before it. This will prevent
relinking conßicts.
As you will see later, you can create a macro Þle that will automatically load both of the Þles in
the correct order, no matter what disks they are on or what disk directories they are in. By using
macro Þles in this way, you can avoid having to explicitly load multiple Þles and remember the
correct order each time.
You can also use the Multiple Object Selector (see page 13-36) to help in the process of
identifying dependent objects and parent objects that you want to place into separate Þles. For
example, you could easily select all dependent keymaps and samples of any group of programs,
to create a ÒdependentsÓ Þle. Then, you could quickly select the programs and any other objects
that you wanted to be relinked later on, and save them in another Þle.
Here is another practical example using songs (sequences). Suppose you have loaded several
Þles into your K2600, such that you now have all your favorite instruments in RAM. Then, you
make a bunch of songs using a combination of ROM programs and the RAM programs you
The dependent object structure of the songs would look something like this:
400 Wild Jam
401 Memphis Groove
600 Drawbarz
231 Funky GTR
50 Studio Kit 1 (from ROM)
245 FendJazzBass
400 ObieWarble Pad
ROM Effects
Keymaps, Samples
Lots of ‘em…
In this case you might want to save all of the songs in one Þle, and be able to automatically
relink the dependent programs used by the song tracks. All of the programs are presumably
already saved in separate Þles. The only Þle that needs to be created is one that contains all of
the song objects, plus a name table. Once again, this is done by selecting the songs from the Save
Object dialog, and answering Names to ÒSave dependent objects?Ó The contents of this Þle can
then be displayed by pressing Open (as was done for the previous example).
Disk Mode
Saving Files
Also as shown in the previous example, you can display the contents of the name table:
Notice that the ROM program 50 Studio Kit 1 will not be listed in the name table. Any
dependent objects that are in ROM do not need to be relinked by name. ROM objects are always
directly referenced by their object ID number, since they donÕt get saved in any Þles.
Once the song Þle has been saved, it can be loaded at any time and correctly relinked, as long as
the other Þles containing the necessary programs have already been loaded.
For this type of situation, where you may be working on songs always using a consistent set of
programs, it is beneÞcial to make a macro Þle that can be loaded in one step to direct all of the
various program Þles to be loaded. After that, any time you load a song Þle containing a name
table referencing these programs, the songs should get relinked to the correct programs.
If you happen to have multiple copies of the necessary programs already loaded into different
banks, you can control which bank of programs will be linked to the songs by choosing a certain
bank to load the song Þle into. The relinked programs will be the Þrst set encountered according
to the Relink-by-Name search algorithm deÞned above.
Not Loading the Name Table
There may be a time that you wish to load objects from a Þle containing a name table, but you
donÕt want the K2600 to relink any dependent objects according to the name table. This can be
accomplished by ÒOpeningÓ the Þle from the Load function, and selecting any desired objects
from within the Þle, except the name table. The selected objects will be loaded into the bank you
specify, however the Relink-by-Name mechanism will not function.
Relink-by-Name Processing Time
Normally, the time taken to relink several dependent objects using the name search will be
insigniÞcant, relative to the time it takes to load the data from the Þle. However, if you are
attempting to relink a very large amount of dependents by loading one Þle (say, 200 samples or
so), there may be a noticeable wait while the K2600 searches its object database for the
dependents. If this happens, itÕs best to be patient.
Disk Mode
Storing Objects in the Memory Banks
Storing Objects in the Memory Banks
There is a separate bank of Object IDs for each object type. That is, you can store 999 programs,
999 samples, 255 songs, and so on. There are two groups of object types, based upon the number
of available Object IDs. Table 13-1 shows the number of IDs and ID rangesÑin ROM and in
RAMÑfor both groups of object types.
Object Type
Quick Access Banks
Velocity Maps
Pressure Maps
Intonation Tables
Table 13-1
Total Available Object IDs
Memory Banks: Object IDs Available for Different Object Types
The Multiple Object Selector Page
The Multiple Object Selector gives you several ways to select multiple objects for various
operationsÑfor example, to load all setups with IDs between 250 and 299, to save all programs
in the 400s bank, including their dependent RAM keymaps (but not their dependent RAM
samples), or to delete all samples whose name includes ÒGazonk.Ó
The Multiple Object Selector is available in two places:
In Disk mode, in the Load and Save dialogs
In Master mode, on the Object Utility pagesÑMove, Copy, Name, Delete, and Dump (see
page 11-13)
Each of these dialogs and utility pages has a Multi soft button. Pressing it takes you to the
Multiple Object Selector.
Using the Multiple Object Selector: An Overview
1. In Disk mode, press Load or Save, or in Master mode, press Object, then press Move,
Copy, Name, Delete, or Dump. YouÕll see a list of objects that you can scroll through with
the Alpha Wheel. (If youÕre in Disk mode and loading objects, youÕll need to navigate
through the directories and open a Þle before youÕll see the list and the Multi button.) This
list of objectsÑconveniently called the object listÑis what the Multiple Object Selector
searches through.
Disk Mode
The Multiple Object Selector Page
2. Instead of scrolling through the object list manually and pressing Select for each object
you want to select, simply press Multi. The Multiple Object Selector appears.
3. Set the value of the Select parameter, which determines the operating mode for the
Multiple Object Selector.
4. Set the values of any other parameters that are visible. Different parameters are visible
depending on the value of the Select parameter. This step is called setting the selection
range. The selection range determines which objects get selected when you execute the
next step.
5. Press Set. In most modes, this selects every object in the selection range, and returns you
to the page you were on before you pressed Multi. Notice the asterisks between the IDs
and names of the selected objects.
6. Complete the operation you started in Step 1.
Operating Modes: The Select Parameter
The Multiple Object Selector has four operating modes, which determine how the Multiple
Object Selector deÞnes the selection range within the object list. Use the Select parameter to set
the operating mode. There are four values:
Restricts the selection range to a particular object type (like programs or
samples), and lets you specify a range of IDs (like 1Ð100).
Restricts the selection range to objects that are dependents of whatever
object(s) you specify.
No restrictions; the entire object list becomes the selection range.
Search String
(SearchStrg) Restricts the selection range to objects whose names contain
a string of characters that you specify (for example, all objects whose
names include ÒclavÓ).
The Þrst two operating modes in the Multiple Object Selector have other parameters associated
with them. The following diagram shows what Type/Range mode looks like.
Use this mode for operations on a particular type of object (like loading all setups, or just Setups
250Ð299). The Type, Bank, StartId and EndId parameters let you specify which objects to work
with. See Type/Range Mode on page 13-41 for more information.
Disk Mode
The Multiple Object Selector Page
Change the value of the Select parameter to Dependents if you want to select objects based on
their dependencies (for example, when you want to save 20 programs and their dependent
keymaps). A different set of parameters appears.
You canÕt use this mode with the Load function, since the K2600 canÕt calculate dependencies on
objects that arenÕt already in RAM. You can use this mode with all the other functions
mentioned at the beginning of the Multiple Objects Selector section.
Use the Of parameter to specify whether you want to select dependents of the current object, or
dependents of previously-selected objects. In the former case (with Of set to Current Item),
pressing Set selects the dependents of the object showing in the Current Þeld
(Program 205 Viola Section in the display aboveÑitÕs always the object that was highlighted on
the previous page). In the latter case (with Of set to Selected Objects), pressing Set selects all the
objects that you marked for selection on the previous page (all objects with asterisks between
their IDs and names).
The Specify parameter determines what types of dependent objects get selected when you press
Set. This is handy when you want to save one type of dependent object, but not another. See
Dependents Mode on page 13-42 for more information.
If you set the Select parameter to a value of Everything or SearchStrg, all other parameters
disappear. In Everything mode, the K2600 selects every item in the list on the previous page.
When you press Set, youÕll return to that page, and see every object selected.
In SearchStrg mode, the K2600 selects every object whose name contains a user-deÞned string of
characters. In this case, when you press Set, the K2600 prompts you to enter a string of
characters using the alphanumeric buttonpad. Enter the characters, and press OK. The K2600
returns you to the page you were on before you pressed Multi, selecting the objects whose
names contain your string.
Multiple Object Selector Soft Buttons
The Multiple Object Selector has six soft buttons:
Cancel probably doesnÕt need explanation; it takes you back to the previous page without
changing the current selection of objects. The other buttons fall into two groups.
All and Type
The Þrst two are short-cut buttonsÑone for selecting all objects (just like Everything mode), and
one for selecting or deselecting all objects of a particular type.
Disk Mode
The Multiple Object Selector Page
Returns the Select parameter to Type/Range, if it was not already set that way. Sets
Type to All Types and Bank to All Banks, and also sets StartId to 0 and EndId to 999.
This is equivalent to using Everything mode. The advantage to using the All button is
that you can select all objects, but still be in Type/Range mode, where you can reÞne
the selection range (for example, all objects in the 400s bank, or all programs).
Returns the Select parameter to Type/Range, if it was not already set that way. Sets the
Bank parameter to All Banks, and also the StartId to 0 and the EndId to 999. The Type
parameterÕs value matches the type of the object currently indexed from the object
list. For example, if you scrolled to a setup object then pressed Multi, pressing the
Type soft button would set up the Type parameter to Setup. This is usually used to
quickly select or deselect all objects of a particular type by scrolling to the Þrst object
of that type, and then pressing Multi-> Type-> Set or Multi-> Type-> Clear. If you
donÕt want to include all banks in the selection range, it is easy to adjust the Bank or
ID parameters to narrow the range.
Toggle, Clear, and Set
In most cases, these soft buttons select or deselect the objects in the selection range, then return
you to the previous page (the page you were on when you pressed Multi). The exception is
SearchStrg mode, in which case pressing any of these three buttons prompts you to specify the
string that determines the selection range.
For each of the objects in the speciÞed range, toggle the selection status of the object. If
an object is not already selected, this selects it (an asterisk will appear between its ID
and name when you return to the previous page). If an object is already selected, this
deselects it (asterisk disappears).
Deselects all objects in the selection range.
Selects all objects in the selection range.
Example: Toggle
Toggle is useful when you want to select all objects in the list except those that meet certain
conditions. For example, you may want to free up some RAM by deleting all objects that are not
being used by a song that youÕre working on.
1. Go to Master mode, and press the Object soft button, then the Delete soft button. YouÕll
see a list of RAM objects.
2. Highlight the song whose dependent objects you want to keep, then press Multi. The
Multiple Object Selector appears.
3. Set the value of the Select parameter to Dependents, the value of the Of parameter to
Current Item, and the value of the Specify parameter to All. This speciÞes that you want
to select all dependents of the highlighted song.
4. Press Set. This selects all of the songÕs dependent objects, and returns you to the DELETE
page, showing the list of RAM objects. Note the asterisks between the IDs and names of
the selected objects.
5. Press Multi again, and set the value of Select to Everything (or press All).
6. Press Toggle. This selects everything that wasnÕt selected, and deselects everything that
was. The result is that everything not used by your song is selected.
7. Press OK. If the K2600 asks whether youÕre sure, press Yes.
Disk Mode
The Multiple Object Selector Page
Example: Clear
Suppose youÕre in Disk mode, and you want to save everything in RAM except programs.
1. Press the Save soft button to call up the Save dialog, then press the Object soft button.
2. Select the entire object list by pressing the Left/Right cursor buttons together.
3. Press Multi. Set the Select parameter to a value of Type/Range.
4. Set the value of Type to Program, and the value of Bank to All Banks.
5. Press Clear. The K2600 returns to the Save dialog. As you scroll through the object list,
youÕll notice that no programs are selected, and all objects that arenÕt programs are
Example: Set
Suppose you wanted to save all keymaps and samples in the 300s bank to a single Þle.
1. In Disk mode, press Save, then press Object.
2. Set the Select parameter to Type/Range, the Type parameter to Keymap, and the Bank
parameter to 300Õs.
3. Press Set. This selects all the keymaps in the 300s bank.
4. Press Multi again, change the Type parameter to Sample, and press Set again. Now all
keymaps and samples in the 300s bank are selected.
5. Press OK and continue with the Save operation.
Disk Mode
The Multiple Object Selector Page
Entering Selection Criteria in the Multiple Object Selector
This section describes the operation of the selection modes provided on the Multiple Object
Selector page. These are accessed by scrolling the Select: parameter to different values, as
pictured above.
Type/Range Mode
This mode lets you select objects based on their type, and on a particular range of object IDs.
Possible Values
Sample, Keymap,
Effect, Program,
Setup, QABank,
VelMap, PrsMap,
IntTbl, Song, Table, All
Sets the desired object type. The value All Types will select all of
the other possible types.
000s, 100s, 200s,
300s, 400s, 500s,
600s, 700s, 800s,
900s, All Banks
Sets the desired bank. Changing this parameter causes the
StartId and the EndId to be set to the limits of the chosen bank (for
example, a value of 300s sets the StartId to 300 and the EndId to
399). A value of All Banks sets the StartId to 0 and the EndId to
The actual range used for selections when Toggle, Set, or Clear is
pressed is taken from the setting of the StartId and EndId
parameters. For example, if you set the Bank to 200s and then
change the StartID to 300 and the EndID to 399, the 300s bank
will be selected, not the 200s.
The Bank parameter is used as a quick way to set up the ID range
for an entire bank, or all banks.
Sets the specific starting ID of the selection range.
Sets the specific ending ID of the selection range.
Table 13-2
Object Selection by Type / Range
It is possible to set the EndId before the StartId. If this is the case, the selection range is empty.
Disk Mode
The Multiple Object Selector Page
Dependents Mode
This mode is used to select a group of objects that are dependents of other objects. This is not
available when loading objects in Disk mode.
Possible Values
Current Item,
Selected Items
If set to Current Item, selection range is confined to those objects
in the object list that are dependents of the currently indexed item
(Current =), including the currently indexed item itself.
If set to Selected Items, then the selection range includes any
objects in the object list that are dependents of any currently
selected objects (those with asterisks between their IDs and
names). The currently indexed item is ignored unless it is already
explicitly selected.
Samples Only
This parameter is used to limit which dependent objects are
included in the selection range for the appropriate objects included
via the Of parameter. The normal setting is All, which means all
dependents are included. The other settings are useful primarily
when separating objects into different files for reloading later using
macros and Relink-by-Name.
If set to All->Keymap, then the selection range includes all
dependent objects down to the level of keymaps. That is, samples
will be excluded from the selection range.
If set to All->Program, then the selection range includes any
dependent objects down to the level of programs and effects
(keymaps and samples are excluded from the selection range).
Keymap->Sample includes all keymaps and samples that are
dependent objects, and nothing else.
Samples Only includes all samples that are dependent objects,
and nothing else.
Type, ID, and name of
the currently indexed
Displays the object that will be used if Current Items is the value
of the Of parameter.
Table 13-3
Object Selection by Dependents
Everything Mode
Everything includes all objects in the list. You may prefer to use the All button for this purpose.
Search String (SearchStrg) Mode
This selection mode will ask for a search string to be entered, as soon as you press either the
Toggle, Clear, or Set button. The range for the selection/deselection will be any objects whose
names contain the search string, ignoring upper/lower case. As soon as you press the OK button
after entering a search string, the K2600 executes the toggle, clear, or set command that you
speciÞed at the beginning of the search operation. SearchStrg mode is not available when
loading objects.
Working with the Multiple Object Selector
The Multiple Object Selector minimizes button presses and quickly allows you to select
whatever group of items you want from the K2600Õs RAM. ItÕs available for all of the related
object management functions.
You may notice that the cursor positions and parameter settings are remembered whenever you
exit the Multi Selector dialog, even if you exit the dialog and choose a different function. For
Disk Mode
example, if you end up doing a lot of selecting of samples, or of dependents at various levels, the
parameters will stay set up the way you left them as you move from function to function (for
example, from Copy to Delete to Save, etc.).
ÒSelect DependentsÓ mode is very useful not just for saving dependents, but also for splitting up
groups of objects for placing in different Þles. By using the optional settings for the Specify
parameter (All-> Keymap, All-> Program, Samples Only etc.), you can separate the group of
objects that you want to save at any level of the object tree that is necessary.
Examples of possible operations using Multiple Object Selector:
¥ Select all the keymaps that are dependents of a block of programs.
Select all the samples starting from ID 398.
Select all the objects that have ÒpianoÓ in their object name.
Select the programs, setups, and effects that are dependents of song 200.
Select all of the keymaps and samples that are dependents of songs 400-410.
The K2600 lets you create lists of disk Þles called macros. The Þles can be located on any disk,
whether SCSI-based or in the internal Floppy drive. Files from SCSI disks in Roland and Akai
format can also appear in macros. Ensoniq Þles are not currently supported by K2600 macros.
Macros are stored in a data object called a Macro table, and these can exist in two forms:
A Macro table object in the K2600Õs nonvolatile RAM. We call this the RAM Macro table.
A disk Þle, containing one Macro table object. This disk Þle is called a macro Þle, and it has a
.MAC extension (visible in the directory listing).
Macros are used primarily to load a K2600 with sound and sequence data from several Þles, or
with selected objects within Þles. When a macro Þle is loaded, every selected object in every
selected Þle in that macro ÞleÕs Macro table will be loaded, according to the order of the entries
in the Macro table.
The Macro Page
There can be only one Macro table in the K2600Õs memory at any time. This object is created for
the Þrst time by turning on Macro Record mode, from the MACRO page, which you reach by
pressing the Macro soft button on the Disk-mode page, as shown below.
Disk Mode
The following page is what you will see if macro recording is Off:
The top line displays the disk function, the current macro mode, and an index value into the
Macro table.
Macro Modes
The K2600 has three macro modes: Record, Pause, and Off.
There is no Macro table in the K2600.
A Macro table exists, and the K2600 adds all Þle-loading operations to the Macro
A Macro table exists, but the K2600 does not add Þle-loading operations to it.
Note that whenever macro mode is Off, there are two soft buttons labeled Record and On.
Pressing On will enable Macro Record mode, and then will return to the Disk-mode page. As an
alternative, pressing Record will also enable Macro Record mode, but the display will remain on
the MACRO page. Once you press Record, the soft buttons and the top line of the display will
change. The display will look like this:
The new macro mode is displayed ([Record]), and the soft button that used to say Record now
says Pause. The soft button that used to say On now says Off. Pressing Pause will cause the
macro mode to read [Pause] and the Record soft button will reappear. You can switch between
Record and Pause by pressing this button repeatedly.
Disk Mode
Whenever Macro Record mode is enabled, you will see the indicator (Macro on) near the top left
of the display on the Disk-mode page:
The Macro Table
When Macro Record mode is enabled after being in the Macro Off state, a new object called a
Macro table gets created in the K2600Õs memory. In the object list for the Save dialog, the Macro
table would appear as:
A Macro table can be deleted from memory only by pressing the Off soft button, or by
performing a hard reset of the K2600. Pressing the Off button will display the following
Pressing Yes will delete the Macro table from memory, and then will return to the Disk-mode
page. The Macro mode is set to Off, and the (Macro on) indicator is no longer displayed on the
Disk-mode page.
Pressing No will return to the MACRO page with no action taken. The ÒReset macro?Ó question
is displayed to allow you to change your mind about deleting the Macro table, in case you have
accidentally pressed the Off button.
When the Macro table is Þrst created it takes up a minimal size (14 bytes) in your nonvolatile
RAM. With each new entry that is added, the Macro table will increase in size by approximately
40 to 100 bytes (or possibly more if the entry speciÞes an individual object list). In Macro Pause
mode, the Macro table remains in memory but does not change size since Þle operations are not
recorded. This is useful if you need to load Þles into the K2600 but you donÕt want them to be
entered into the Macro table.
In Macro Record mode, the Macro table gets progressively larger with every Þle-loading
operation. Consequently we recommend that you leave the Macro mode set to Off unless you
are recording and saving macros. This will prevent the Macro table from taking up RAM.
On the other hand, if you have lots of RAM (hereÕs another plug for the P/RAM option) you
may wish to leave Macro Record mode enabled all the time. This can be useful for viewing a
Disk Mode
history of Þles you have recently loaded. Both the Macro mode and the Macro table are
remembered between power-cycles of the K2600 via the battery-backed memory.
A macro can hold as many entries as there is space for in your K2600Õs nonvolatile RAM.
How to Make a Macro File
This section will take you through creating, saving, and loading a macro Þle. A simple example
will be used. Afterward, you will be able to apply the example and create your own macro Þles.
The Þrst step in making a macro Þle is to turn on Macro Record mode (from the MACRO Page,
press On, if you have not already done so).
Creating the Macro
Suppose you have the following four Þles on your disk (on SCSI ID 5, in the directory
\ANALOG\) that contain analog-style synthesizer programs, and you would like to have one
macro Þle that will load them all:
Using multiple selection, you can select all four Þles, as shown (you can also open each Þle and
select one or more objects in that Þle; when you load the macro, only those objects get loaded).
When you press OK you will see the usual Load dialog, but with the extra soft buttons Macro
and Insert:
The extra soft buttons are available only in Macro Record mode. First, select the bank that you
want, as usual. Press OK means to load all of the selected Þles into the K2600, and add all of the
Þles to the Macro table. If youÕre just creating a macro Þle, and donÕt need to load any Þles at the
moment, press Macro, which adds the Þles to the Macro table, but doesnÕt load them into the
When you add Þles to a Macro table, they get added at the end of the Macro table by default.
Insert is for inserting Þle entries at any point in a Macro table. See Macro Insert on page 13-57 for
more information.
Disk Mode
Once you have pressed either Macro or OK, the loading-mode buttons appear (OvFill,
Overwrt, Merge, Append, and Fill). Choose a mode based on what you want to happen when
you load the macro, because the mode gets saved as part of the Macro table. You should do this
because the bank you select for the Macro table may be empty now, but it might not be when
you load the macro. You need to set the mode accordingly. If preserving the IDs of the loaded
objects is important, you should use Merge or Overwrt. If IDs arenÕt as important as preserving
the objects already in RAM, use Fill or Append.
For the sake of this example, letÕs choose the 200s bank and Fill mode. When you press Fill, the
K2600 executes the OK or Macro command you entered earlier. If you had pressed Macro, the
K2600 would add the selected objects to the Macro table. If you had pressed OK, the K2600
would add the selected objects to the Macro table, and load them into the selected bank as well.
You have now created a macro. If you go to the MACRO page (from the Disk-mode page, press
Macro), youÕll see the Þles listed in the K2600Õs current Macro table.
Saving the Macro File
At this point you have a Macro table with several entries in it, but you donÕt have a macro Þle
until you save the current Macro table. From the Disk-mode page, press Save, then press Macro.
YouÕll see the following dialog:
This is called the Save Macro page. The soft buttons on this page control which Macro table
entries (macro entries) will get saved to the Macro table in the macro Þle. You can select multiple
entries using the cursor buttons and the Select soft button. Selected entries have an asterisk on
the Þrst character of the display line, such as this:
You can use the following double-presses to select and deselect all entries in the list:
Left/Right cursor double-press: Select all macro entries
Up/Down cursor double-press: Clear (deselect) all currently-selected macro entries
The top line indicates how many total macro entries are in the current Macro table, and how
many are selected.
Pressing OK saves the selected macro entries to be saved in the Þle. If there are no entries
selected when you press OK, the K2600 saves only the highlighted entry.
You might think that there isnÕt much use for a macro Þle with only one entry in it, however it
can be a convenient link to an often-used Þle. For example, you could create a macro Þle called
\PERC.MAC in the root directory on the disk where you store your programs. This macro Þle
could load a single object, namely the Þle \MYSOUNDS\PERC\TECHNO\PERC.K26. When
you wanted to load PERC.K26, you could simply load the macro PERC.MAC, instead of having
Disk Mode
to open three directories to select the Þle for loading. This gives you quick access to the Þle while
preserving the organization of your program Þles.
If you know that you want to save all of the entries into the macro Þle (as we do for this
example,) just press All. The K2600 will go through the standard Þle saving dialog in which you
choose a Þlename and select a directory to save the Þle in.
LetÕs save the Þle as \ANALOG\SYNTH.MAC. Macro Þles are automatically saved with the
.MAC extension. While the Þle is being saved, youÕll see something like this:
Loading the Macro File
So far, so good. We have created a macro in memory and saved it to the disk, in the same
directory as the Þles that are listed in the macro.
This example loads Þles from within a single directory on a single disk, to keep things simple.
But you can create macros that load Þles from any number of directories on any number of
Now, letÕs go to the Load page and try to load the macro Þle, which will load all the Þles in the
macro fileÕs Macro table. When you return to the Load page, the Þle list highlights the macro Þle
that was just saved (as it would after any type of Þle that you save):
Press OK to load SYNTH.MAC. Now the display reads:
Disk Mode
There are a couple of things to notice here. The Þrst is a new choice in the bank list: speciÞed.
ÒLoad this macro as speciÞedÓ means load all the Þles in the macro following the exact
instructions for the bank and load mode for each Þle. In our example, all the Þles were speciÞed
to be loaded into the 200s bank using Fill mode. If this is acceptable at the time you want to load
the macro, you can just press OK. Otherwise, you can override the bank and mode settings for
the entire macro by choosing a different bank and mode before pressing OK (this is called
rebanking the macro).
The other thing noticeable about the above display is that the Macro and Insert buttons are still
available, because the Macro mode is still Record. This means that when you load the macro, it
gets added to the RAM Macro table. But itÕs not the Þlename (SYNTH.MAC) that gets added, as
is the case with .K26 Þles. Instead, every macro entry in the ÞleÕs Macro table gets loaded into the
RAM Macro table. This is a convenient way to edit a macro Þle or combine elements of several
macro Þles into one macro. See Editing Macros on page 13-54.
In our example, since weÕre in Macro Record mode, pressing Macro would add the macro ÞleÕs
entries into the RAM Macro table. Pressing OK would add the macro ÞleÕs entries into the RAM
Macro table, and would load the corresponding Þles into RAM. Since we added the Þles listed in
the macro to the RAM Macro table when we recorded the macro, the RAM Macro table now
includes a duplicate set of entries.
Whatever method of loading you choose (that is, speciÞed in the macro or overriding the
macro), the K2600 locates each Þle in the macro in the exact order in which the entries are listed.
If the Þles are on different disks in your disk system, you can observe your various disks as
theyÕre selected in turn and Þles are loaded from them.
If the K2600 cannot locate one of the Þles, youÕll see a ÒNot FoundÓ error message. If a disk
cannot be accessed (for example, if the SCSI ID stored with the macro entries in this example is
no longer the current SCSI ID of the disk), you will see the message ÒProblem mounting disk,Ó
to which you must press OK. If ConÞrm is set to On on the Master-mode page, loading will stop
on the Þrst error message, giving you a chance to cancel the operation or keep going. If you
answer Yes at this point, the operation will continue, even if the K2600 encounters subsequent
errors. If you run into a lot of errors due to loading an out-of-date macro Þle, the macro process
can be discontinued using a special procedure described later in the section called Aborting a
Macro Load. (page 13-59).
When the macro is done loading, youÕll see this display:
The K2600 returns to the Disk-mode page. You should now be able to go to the Save dialog, or
Program mode, and verify that all of the objects from the Þles of the macro are now in the
K2600Õs memory.
Disk Mode
Macro Entries
Each Þle-loading operation that is recorded into the Macro table is called a macro entry.Each
macro entry stores information about how a disk Þle should be loaded. Each entry is displayed
as a single item in a scrollable list on the MACRO page, with various Þelds indicating the
parameters of the entry. The following diagram shows how the MACRO page might look once
four Þles have been recorded into the RAM Macro table:
Table 13-4 describes the information stored in a macro entry. The highlighted entry in the
diagram above indicates a Þle on a disk with a SCSI ID of 3. This Þle is stored in a directory
called DRUMS. The Þlename is REALKITS.K26. The K2600 will load it into the 200s bank,
using Fill mode. ÒObjÓ means that individual objects within the Þle are selected for loading, and
only those objects will be loaded from this Þle.
Disk ID
Specifies the disk from which to load. There are ten possible values:
The numbers 0–7 represent SCSI 0 through SCSI 7.
The letter F represents the Floppy drive.
The letter U means Unspecified disk ID (see page 13-51).
The letter L means the Library disk (see page 13-52).
Directory path/
This is the directory path and the filename of the file on the disk to be loaded by
this macro entry. The display can show up to 28 characters of this name, although
the RAM Macro table stores the entire path and filename.
The bank where you want to load the file. This will have a value from 0 through
900 (by 100s), or the letter E for Everything (all banks).
The mode specified for loading the file. The following one-letter codes are shown
in the display:
O means Overwrite mode (Overwrt)
V means OverFill mode (OvFill)
M means Merge mode
A means Append mode
F means Fill mode
This field is to the right of the bank field, after a colon.
Object indicator
When this field is empty, the entire file gets loaded. If “Obj” appears in this field,
the K2600 loads only those objects that were selected for loading during the
recording of the macro.
If the entry represents a file on a third-party SCSI-format disk such as Akai or
Roland, this field indicates the manufacturer:
Aka means Akai format
Rol means Roland format
Ensoniq format disks are not currently supported in macros.
Table 13-4
Information Stored in Macro Entries
Disk Mode
Using the Bank and Mode Fields
The bank and mode Þelds in a macro entry are relevant only if a macro Þle is loaded as speciÞed.
This means that each Þle listed in the macro will be loaded exactly as the bank and mode Þelds
of the macro entry dictate. You can override the macro entryÕs settings during the Load
operation, and specify a different bank and mode for the entire macro (you canÕt specify
overrides for individual entries).
Depending on you working style, you may not have much use for the settings of the bank and
mode Þelds. If youÕre always loading things into different banks depending on the situation,
youÕll probably change the bank and mode each time you load anyway, so the bank and mode
Þelds in the macro entries wonÕt matter much to you.
The bank and mode Þelds are more important when you want to use macros to Þll the K2600Õs
memory banks a particular way, and you want to be able to do it automatically and consistently.
Viewing the Object List for a Macro Entry
If a macro entry contains an object list, it can be examined by scrolling the Macro table display
until the item with the Obj indicator is highlighted, and then by pressing either the Left or Right
cursor button on the front panel. You will see a display that looks like this:
The Macro Object list, a scrollable list, shows what objects are to be loaded from the Þle speciÞed
in the currently indexed macro entry. You will not see the names of the objects in this display,
because they are not stored in the Macro table. The objects are referenced only by object type and
object ID. The (load dependents) indicator in the top line means that the macro process should
also load all dependents of the objects in this list.
If you need to know the names of objects in a macro entry object list, it is possible to begin a disk
function (such as Load), Þnd the Þle speciÞed in the macro entry, press Open to display the ÞleÕs
objects, and look up what the objects are, using the information in this display.
Unspecified Disk ID
When you record a macro entry to the RAM Macro table during a load operation, that entryÕs
disk ID matches the ID of the disk from which you loaded the Þle. So, for example, if your hard
disk has a SCSI ID of 5, all the Þles you load from that disk will show 5 in the Disk ID Þeld. This
information gets saved when you save the RAM Macro table to a macro Þle. The next time you
load that macro Þle, the K2600 looks for a disk with SCSI ID 5 and expects to load Þles from that
ThatÕs good, because you probably donÕt change the SCSI ID on your hard disk very often. But
what if you have a removable-media drive (like a Zip drive or Jaz drive) with SCSI ID 5, and you
pack a disk full of programs and samples to give to another band member who has a removablemedia drive with a different SCSI ID? Does one of you have to keep changing SCSI IDs to
exchange Þles?
Disk Mode
Fortunately, no, because the K2600 lets you create macro Þles with entries that donÕt specify a
Disk ID. When the K2600 is loading a macro Þle, and encounters an entry with an unspeciÞed
Disk ID, it expects to Þnd the Þles on the same disk as the macro Þle. So you can create a macro
Þle by loading a bunch of Þles from your Zip drive, editing every entry so that it has an
unspeciÞed Disk ID, and saving the RAM Macro table. Then you can put the macro Þle and all
the Þles in its Macro table on a Zip disk, and hand the disk to a friend. Your friend can then load
the macro into her K2600, and it will load the Þles no matter where she has her Zip driveÕs SCSI
ID set.
This feature is likely to be most useful for people who distribute K2600 sound Þles and macro
Þles on removable media. By leaving the Disk ID unspeciÞed, they can be sure that anyone can
load the Þles without regard for SCSI ID.
Of course, there are other uses. If you use a single hard disk with your K2600, or if you regularly
work with macro Þles that load Þles from the same disk, then if you set all the macro ÞleÕs Disk
IDs to unspeciÞed you wonÕt have to edit your macro Þles if you happen to change your diskÕs
The Modify Macro page is where you can set unspeciÞed Disk IDs (in Disk mode, press the
Macro soft button, then the Modify soft button). See Editing Macros on page 13-54 for more
The Library Disk
If a macro entry is set to the library Disk ID, it means that the Þle to be loaded should be found
on the disk at the SCSI ID set by the Library parameter on the Disk-mode page. This designation
is similar in purpose to the unspeciÞed Disk ID, because it is a way to avoid needing to hardwire the SCSI ID in advance. The library disk ID is intended to be used in macro Þles that reside
on removable media such as a ßoppy disk, whose macro entries are supposed to load particular
Þles on a speciÞc sample CD.
The main purpose of this feature is so that macro Þles can be distributed on ßoppy disks
containing programs that link up with sample Þles from CD-ROMs. You donÕt want to have to
copy a CD-ROM Þle to one of your hard disks in order to make new programs that use that
CD-ROM ÞleÕs sample and keymap data. If you set up your CD-ROM drive as the library disk,
then create a macro Þle with entries that specify Library (L) for the Disk ID, the K2600 will be
able to load Þles directly from the CD-ROM, then load the programs from the ßoppy disk, link
the programs with the sample and keymaps using the Relink-by-Name feature.
HereÕs an example. In the following diagram, the Library parameter has been set to SCSI 3.
WeÕll assume that SCSI 3 is your CD-ROM drive, and that you have a ßoppy disk that contains a
macro Þle with the following entries:
Disk Mode
When you load this macro Þle, the K2600 Þrst looks for the Þle \PIANO4MB.K26 on your
CD-ROM drive, because your CD-ROMÕs SCSI ID is 3 and youÕve set the Library parameter on
the Disk-mode page to 3. As long as you have the right disk in the CD-ROM drive, the K2600
loads the Þle, and then loads \PNOPROGS.K26 from the ßoppy disk.
If the K2600 executes the above macro, but the Library parameter has not been set (is set to Off)
an error message
will be displayed when the macro process attempts to load \PIANO4MB.K26.
The K2600 remembers the setting of the Library parameter across power-cycles, via the battery
backed memory. Set up the Library disk once, and it stays that way until you change it.
The Modify Macro page is where you can edit macro entries to use the Library disk (in Disk
mode, press the Macro soft button, then the Modify soft button). See Editing
Macros on page 13-54 for more information.
Although the UnspeciÞed and Library Disk IDs are meant to be used with distributable media
such as CD-ROMs and ßoppy disks, these features will work with any supported disks.
Loading Selected Entries from a Macro File
It is possible to examine the contents of a macro Þle from any disk function pageÑthe same way
you would open a .K26 Þle to check out what objects are stored in itÑby highlighting the .MAC
Þle and pressing Open:
The K2600 will need to read the macro Þle into a temporary area of internal memory, which
means there needs to be enough free RAM to accommodate it. Press Open during the Load
function to enter a dialog similar to the MACRO page and the Save Macro page. This is called
Disk Mode
From the LOAD MACRO page, you can select one or more individual macro entries for loading,
instead of having to load the entire macro. This is done using the Select soft button, identical to
the method of saving macro entries. In fact, this dialog operates identically to the Save Macro
dialog, with one exception, the Check soft button.
The Check button will cross-check all of the macro entries in this opened macro Þle against the
current RAM Macro table, if there is one. Any entries in the opened macro Þle that are not in the
RAM Macro table will be selected when you press the Check button. The selected macro entries
can then be loaded by pressing OK. This can be helpful to avoid loading in duplicate Þles if
1. Use Macro Record to keep a running history of Þles that you have already loaded into the
2. Have a lot of macro Þles that load similar lists of Þles.
If the Open button is pressed from a disk function other than Load, you will see the VIEW
MACRO page:
The only function of this dialog is to view the Macro table entries stored in a macro Þle. This
feature is useful when, for example, you are about to delete a macro Þle and want to know what
information is contained in the Þle before you remove it from the disk.
Editing Macros
The RAM Macro table can be edited from the MACRO page. You can select one or more macro
entries and execute any of the following operations on them:
1. Change the Disk ID.
2. Change the bank and mode settings.
3. Delete the selected macro entries.
To edit a macro Þle already saved on your disk, it is necessary to Þrst load the macro Þle into the
RAM Macro table:
Making sure that Macro Record mode is enabled, go to the Load function, highlight the macro
Þle you wish to edit, and then either select certain entries from the macro Þle (by pressing Open
to get to the LOAD MACRO page), or just press OK to load the entire macro Þle. When you see
Disk Mode
the following display, press the Macro soft button, so that the K2600 will not load the Þles listed
in the macro.
If you want, you can rebank the macro by scrolling the bank list to something other than
speciÞed. Similarly, if you override the load mode, it also will be reßected in the RAM Macro
To edit entries from the Macro table, return to the MACRO page. For this example we will edit
all the entries at once (like other similar dialogs, if you are concerned with only one list entry, it
does not need to be explicitly selected with the Select soft button). You can use the following
double-presses to select and deselect all entries in the list:
Left/Right cursor double-press: Select all macro entries
Up/Down cursor double-press: Clear all selections
With all the entries selected, our display looks like this:
The two remaining soft buttons are Modify and Load.
Press the Modify soft button to change any items mentioned at the top of this section. You will
see the following display:
Disk Mode
Use the Drive parameter to change the Disk ID for the selected macro entries. This is where you
would set the entriesÕ Disk IDs to be UnspeciÞed or Library. If you increment the Modify
parameter, the display switches to let you modify bank and mode information:
The initial settings of the parameters on these pages are always taken from the lowest-indexed
macro entry that is selected on the MACRO page. In addition, every time you return to the
ÒModify Macro EntriesÓ page, both the Modify parameter and the highlighted value will be the
Pressing OK will set all of the selected macro entries to have Disk ID or bank and mode settings
according to the parameters set up on this page. The display will return to the MACRO page
with the same entries still selected. Any modiÞcations to the parameters will be visibly
apparent. Selecting multiple entries for editing allows you to change those entries in a uniform
way. In our example above, you could change the macro so that all the Þles were loaded into a
single bank, instead of the separate banks they had previously been loaded to.
Press Delete to remove the macro entries from the Macro table. You will see the display:
If you answer Yes, the display returns to the MACRO page and all of the previously selected
entries will be gone from the list. If you answer No, the display will return to the Modify Macro
Entries dialog.
Pressing Cancel in the Modify Macro Entries dialog will return to the MACRO page with
everything that was selected still selected, but with no parameter changes made to any macro
Here are the parameter values for Modify Macro Entries:
Drive, Bank/Mode
Floppy, SCSI 0–SCSI 7, Unspecified, Library
000s–900s, Everything
Append, Merge, Fill, Overwrite, OvFill
Disk Mode
Once you have made the necessary changes to the RAM Macro table, you can go to the Save
Macro page to write selected (or all) entries to a new disk Þle (or replace an original macro Þle
that you loaded from a disk).
Macro Insert
You can insert new macro entries into the middle of the RAM Macro table if necessary. This is
done by pressing the Insert soft button at the ÒLoad this Þle as:Ó prompt, when loading a Þle (if
Macro Record is enabled):
When you press Insert, you will see a dialog displaying the current RAM Macro table:
Scroll the Macro table until the entry before which you want to insert is highlighted. In the
above display, any new macro entries added by this load operation will be inserted in the Macro
table just before the entry for METALIC.K26. That is, the new entry would have index 2, the
index for METALIC.K26 would shift from 2 to 3, and the indices for all the entries after
METALIC.K26 would increase by 1.
Press OK to enable the insert point. Press Cancel to disable the insert point.
The display will return to the Load dialog. If a macro insert point has been set, an indicator will
appear at the top left of the display:
Disk Mode
The insert point can be disabled before loading, by pressing Insert again and pressing Cancel
from within the Set Macro Insert Point dialog. The (Macro insert) indicator will disappear.
Similarly, the insert point can be changed before loading by pressing Insert again (the display
will highlight the current insert point,) scrolling to a different insert point, and pressing OK.
Executing the RAM Macro Table
You can load any group of Þles listed in the RAM Macro table. This is done using the Load soft
button on the MACRO page:
Pressing the Load button gives you the choice of loading either all of the Þles in the Macro table
or loading only the Þles that are selected:
If you donÕt have any items explicitly selected (with an asterisk), the message you see when you
press Load is slightly different:
The current item is the Þle that was highlighted on the MACRO page.
The Þles that have been selected for loading will be loaded in their respective order in the Macro
table, using the bank and mode parameters that are speciÞed in the list. In the example diagram
above, if you were to load selected items, Þrst \PIANO.K26 would be loaded into the 300s bank,
and then \NOISE.AIF would be loaded into the 500s bank.
Saving and Loading a Macro Table in a .K26 file
Macro table objects can be explicitly saved or loaded (without being ÒexecutedÓ) using Save
Individual Object and Load Individual Object. If for some reason you wanted to save a Macro
table that youÕve been working on, and then be able to load it again later on to be worked on
some more, you would use this method. The Macro table can be selected for saving and loading
just like any other object. When you load a Macro table using Load Individual Object, it will
overwrite any Macro table already in memory. Once it is loaded, you may have to go to the
Disk Mode
MACRO page and enable Macro Record mode to continue to record further load operations into
the macro.
The ÒSave EverythingÓ feature of the Save dialog does not include the Macro table. This is done
to prevent inadvertent distribution of what would most likely be a meaningless Macro table to
other users.
Aborting a Macro Load
You can abort the process of loading a macro Þle. Aborting can only be done Òin betweenÓ Þles
that are being loaded, and not during the load of any one Þle (short of powering off or doing a
soft resetÑbut we donÕt recommend this).
Aborting a macro load is done by pressing and holding down either of the Plus or Minus
buttons. This should be done at least one-half second before you anticipate the current Þle to
Þnish loading, or else the K2600 will not sense that you wish to abort the load.
You will see the following question after the current Þle Þnishes loading:
It may be a good idea to practice using this method of aborting a macro Þle load, so that when
you accidentally load an out-of-date macro Þle with 25 entries all at the wrong SCSI ID, youÕll
remember how to abort the process. This same method (of holding the Plus or Minus buttons
down) is also used to abort the Backup feature and the multiple Þle load feature.
If you run out of object or sample RAM, you will have one opportunity to abort the macro as
explained above. However, if you continue from that point you may end up seeing the same
error message ÒMemory is fullÓ for each Þle to be loaded. This can be a rather tedious process,
however it is still possible to abort out of this by holding down the Plus or Minus button
simultaneously while pressing Yes when you see the following question:
If the macro that you abort was loaded by multiple selection together with other Þles, you will
have to abort twice, once to get out of the current macro Þle load, and a second time to get out of
the multiple Þle load process.
Disk Mode
Disk Utilities
If you are aborting a macro because the Disk ID is incorrectly speciÞed (as evidenced by lots of
ÒProblem mounting diskÓ errors) you will need to hold down either the Plus or Minus button
while pressing OK to satisfy the error prompt. The display may blink while holding down the
Plus or Minus button, but as soon as you have pressed OK you will see the ÒAbort the macro?Ó
Remote Macro Load
You can remotely load a macro into the K2600 from a sequencer. This can be useful, for example,
if the K2600 is inaccessible or inconveniently situated.
Once youÕve created the macro that you will be remotely loading from the sequencer, set the
sequencer to record, then dump the macro object to the sequencer using the Dump soft button
on the Master-mode Object page. Then, add the SysEx LOADMACRO (10h) command to the
sequence, following the macro object. Although some sequencers allow you to record a SysEx
command directly into a sequence, the K2600 provides a convenient shortcut, described in the
next paragraph.
To add the LOADMACRO command to a sequence (after dumping the macro object to the
sequencer), leave the macro object highlighted on the Master-mode Object page, then press the
Left or Right cursor button. The K2600 will display: ÒSend SysEx Load Macro command?Ó Press
the Yes soft button and the K2600 will add the LOADMACRO SysEx command to the sequence.
Note: You cannot remotely load a macro to the K2600 while the K2600 is on the Disk-mode page or in an
edit mode.
Disk Utilities
The Disk Utility functions provide certain necessary information about disks and their Þles and
directories. These functions are useful when you want to know how your disks are organized
and how much disk space you have available. They also help you to locate Þles and directories.
To access the Disk Utilities page, press the Util button from the Disk-mode page. The Disk
Utilities page looks like this:
The functions on the Disk Utilities page are used for Þnding out information about the Current
Disk. The Current Disk is always indicated on the top line of this page. If you want to use the
utility functions for a different disk, you must Þrst set it to be the Current Disk on the
Disk-mode page.
Disk Mode
Disk Utilities
Here is a brief description of each soft button:
Provides general information about the current disk, such as the Disk ID and
formatting speciÞcations.
Enables you to search for Þles that match a certain character string in their Þlenames.
Lists an expanded directory tree from any level of the hierarchy, showing the current
directoryÕs contents, and the contents of all of the current directoryÕs subdirectories.
This function can be used to determine the total size of Þles within any tree of
subdirectory. It is also helpful for Þnding Þles on the disk.
Calculates the available space on the disk.
Exits to the Disk-mode page.
Find Files
The Find Þles utility Þrst prompts you to enter a character string to be searched for:
You can use the Choose button to grab the text of a Þlename from the current disk, as described
If you press OK, the K2600 will begin to search the disk for any Þles or directories that contain
the search string in their names. The search starts in the root directory and searches the entire
disk. When a matching Þle or directory is found, youÕll see one of the following:
Disk Mode
Disk Utilities
If the search string is found anywhere within a Þlename it will be matched. The search
algorithm independently checks both the Þlename and the extension. For example, if you
wanted to Þnd any macro Þle on the disk, you could enter in MAC for the search string. This
would Þnd any macro Þles as well as any Þles or directories that have MAC in their Þlename.
When a match is found, there are three choices displayed:
Continue searching the disk for another Þle or directory that matches the search
Go To
Exit to the Disk-mode page, setting the current directory and Þle index of the K2600
to the location of the found Þle or directory.
The next disk function you choose will display the current directory with the found
Þle already highlighted. If a directory was found, then the Þrst Þle in the directory
list will be highlighted.
Exit to the Disk-mode page.
When the search has checked all of the items on the disk, youÕll see this dialog:
If no matching Þles were found, you will also see
The K2600 will remember the last search string that you entered. This makes it easy to repeat the
same search. If you press Util-> Find again, the ÒSearch string:Ó dialog will contain the
previously used string.
The List utility allows you to view directories on a disk with the expanded contents of all
subdirectories. Each line is indented according to its directory level, so that you can get sense of
how your directory tree is organized.
Disk Mode
Disk Utilities
The Dir Þeld shows the directory that is being listed. The size value displayed on the top line of
the display represents the total size of the directory subtree that is currently being viewed. The
Root, Up, and Down soft buttons navigate through the directory hierarchy:
Display the disk from the top level, meaning that all of the Þles on the disk will
appear in the scrollable list.
Set the display to the level of the highlighted Þle or directory.
For example, scrolling to TRUMPETS in the above list, and pressing Down, would
focus the list on the contents of the TRUMPETS directory, starting with JSBACH.K26.
Set the display up one directory level.
Go To
Exit to the Disk-mode page, setting the current directory and Þle index to the location
of the highlighted Þle or directory.
The next disk function you choose will display the current directory with the found
Þle already highlighted. If a directory was found, then the Þrst Þle in the directory list
will be highlighted.
Exit to the Disk-mode page. The current directory is unchanged.
The Þles are listed in the order that they appear on the disk, unalphabetized. The traversal order
of the directories is the same one that is also used for the Backup function.
The Free utility calculates the amount of free space on the current disk and displays the result on
the Disk Utilities page. This may take a small amount of time to calculate, depending on the
The parameters tell you the following:
The percentage of the disk that is taken up by the existing information stored on it.
The amount of disk space available for new Þles.
The size of the disk. This will be the size of the usable partition if MS-DOS format.
Disk Mode
Disk Utilities
For SCSI disks, if the current disk was formatted on a PC or a Mac in MS-DOS format and
contains at least one primary partition, you will see the (DOS) indicator on the top line. Using
this format is described in MS-DOS File System Compatibility on page 13-71.
For ßoppy disks, the density (HD or DD) will be displayed. All K2600 ßoppy disks are MS-DOS
format compatible.
Moving Files Between Directories
Files and directories can be moved from one directory to another on a given disk. You can either
choose multiple Þles to move using the Select soft button, or just move the single highlighted
Þle or directory (if no other Þles are selected). As you would probably expect, moving a
directory also moves all the Þles within the directory. To use this function, press the Move soft
button from the Disk-mode page. Then choose the Þle or Þles that you want to move:
Press OK when you have made your selection. Press Cancel to return to the Disk-mode page.
The K2600 remembers the most recent destination directory that a Þle was moved to. If the
current directory is different from the most recent destination directory, you will see the
Press OK to use the default.
Press Change if you want to select a different destination from the default shown. The K2600
will then display a directory selection dialog (see page 13-13), and you can select the move
destination directory from there:
Disk Mode
Disk Utilities
The move operation begins when you press either Current or SetDir.
If the default destination directory is the same as the source directory, the K2600 will skip the
Use default directory? question and instead go right to the Select dest dir dialog.
A good way to organize Þles into subdirectories is by using the Move command. First, create the
subdirectories you need, using the NewDir function. Then, use multiple Þle selection to select
the Þles to be grouped into a particular subdirectory. The Þles can be moved to their new
location in one operation.
For each Þle that is moved, you will see a conÞrmation message:
Note the following:
You can select multiple Þles for moving within a directory. However, you cannot move Þles
from more than one directory at a time. If you select any Þles and then switch to another
directory, the Þles you had chosen will be deselected.
If you are moving a directory, you cannot move it in to a subdirectory of itself.
If the source and destination directories are the same, the Þle will not be moved, and an
error message such as the one below is displayed. This would happen if you pressed
Current above.
The same message will be displayed if there is a Þle in the destination directory with the
same name as the Þle to be moved.
Renaming Files
Press the Rename soft button (from Disk mode) to rename Þles or directories without loading
them. When you press Rename, the K2600 will prompt you to select the Þle to be changed, by
showing you a list of the Þles found on the current disk.
When youÕve selected the Þle to be renamed, press OK, and the K2600 will ask you to enter the
new Þlename. When youÕve done this, press OK, and the Þlename will be changed.
This function can be used to change only the 8-character Þlename, not the extension. When you
press Rename, the File List dialog is displayed and you can navigate through the directories to
choose the Þle or directory you wish to rename. Unlike the other disk functions that use the File
List dialog, you will not see the Select soft button. This is because you can rename only one Þle
Disk Mode
Disk Utilities
at a time. Therefore you simply choose the Þle you want and press OK. The K2600 will then ask
you to enter a new name, which you can do a number of ways: Alpha Wheel, Up/Down cursor
buttons, alphanumeric buttonpad, or keyboard naming (see page 5-5 for a description of
keyboard naming). Once youÕve done this, press OK again, and the Þlename will be changed.
Deleting Files and Directories
Press the Delete soft button (from Disk mode) to delete Þles and directories. The Delete function
supports multiple selection of Þles for deletion. Select one or more Þles and/or directories to be
deleted, and press OK (or Cancel to abort). Be careful! You donÕt get a second chance to change
your mind once youÕve pressed OK. Once a Þle is deleted, itÕs gone. Remember the fundamental
directive of computer users: Save early, save often; make backups.
When you press Delete, the File List dialog appears, and you can navigate through the
directories to choose the Þle or directory you want to delete.
Within the current directory, you can select multiple Þles for deletion. You canÕt, however, delete
Þles from more than one directory at a time. If you move to a different directory in the middle of
a deletion, any Þles you had selected up to that point get deselected.
You cannot delete directory if it has any Þles in it. To delete a directory, you must Þrst delete its
contents. Also, you canÕt use the Select soft button to select a directory for deletion. To delete a
directory (once itÕs empty, of course), highlight the directory and press OK. If the ConÞrm
parameter on the Master-mode page is set to On, the K2600 will ask you if youÕre sure. Press Yes
and the K2600 begins deleting the selected objects. If one of the selected objects is a directory
that contains Þles, the K2600 will tell you that it canÕt delete the directory.
When selecting Þles and directories for deletion, you can use the Open soft button to open
directories and Þles. Opening a directory at this point is useful for selecting Þles within the
directory. Opening a Þle is less useful, since you canÕt delete individual objects from Þles. You
can view the ÞleÕs contents, but you canÕt select any of them for deletion.
Disk Mode
Backup and Copy Functions
Backup and Copy Functions
File Backup
To access the Backup function from the Disk-mode page, Þrst make sure that the current disk is
set to be the disk that you want to back up. Next, press the Backup soft button:
Select a directory to be backed up (see The Directory Selection Dialog on page 13-13). Backup
allows you to copy all of the Þles within a directory from one disk to another. All of the Þles
within the directory that you choose (plus all of its subdirectories and the Þles within them) will
be copied to the new disk. If you want to backup the entire disk, then make sure the current
directory is the root directory (as in the picture), and press Current.
Next, you will see a dialog for choosing the destination disk:
Select the disk you wish to transfer Þles to. It must be different from the current disk.
Next, you can select a directory on the destination disk that will receive the transferred Þles.
The default is always the root directory on the destination disk. Press OK to select the default.
To select a different directory, press Change.
Disk Mode
Backup and Copy Functions
Next, select the Backup mode when you see the following question:
Replace Any Þles to be transferred that already exist in the destination directory will be
replaced (overwritten).
Any Þles to be transferred that already exist in the destination directory will be
skipped (not transferred).
Displays a reminder about the meaning of Replace and Increment modes.
After you select the Backup mode, you will see a conÞrmation dialog with all of your selections
so far:
Begin the Backup function according to the parameters on this page.
Exit to Disk mode.
Set Backup starting Þle. This is mainly used when you are backing up Þles from a
larger SCSI disk to several smaller removable media disks. Once one of the removable
destination disks is full, note the last Þle that was successfully copied. Enter the
Backup function again, setting up the source and destination path parameters exactly
as before. But this time use the SetFile button to start from the Þle after the last Þle
You will notice that the Þle list displayed when SetFile is pressed is not in
alphabetical order, but in the actual order the Þles occur in the directory on the disk:
Disk Mode
Creating a Startup File
Find the last Þle copied from the previous partial backup. Set the list index to one entry past the
location of this Þle. If this Þle is already the last entry in the Þle list, the ÒnextÓ Þle to continue
the multi-part backup would be the Þle or directory that comes after the Þle list entry for the
currently viewed directory. To Þnd this Þle or directory, you will need to look in the Parent
A large SCSI hard disk backed up in this way can be restored by individually backing up the
removable media onto the SCSI hard disk.
Backup and Copy will transfer Þles much faster if you have cleared your object RAM Þrst using
the Delete Everything command (save any objects in RAM to disk Þrst).
When using the Backup function to transfer Þles from SCSI to ßoppy, directories are ignored
(that is, not created on the ßoppy). This ÒßattensÓ out any directory structure so that multi-disk
Þles can be created on the ßoppy disks.
File Copy
The Copy function lets you copy one or more Þles from one disk to a speciÞed directory on the
destination disk.
Copy is similar to Backup, with a few differences:
You canÕt copy directories.
The Replace or increment mode dialog does not appear. Instead, if youÕre copying a Þle that
already exists in the destination directory, the K2600 asks ÒReplace existing Þlename on
destination disk?
Creating a Startup File
You can create a macro Þle that will be automatically loaded when you power up your K2600.
This Þle, called the startup Þle, or boot macro, can be on a ßoppy disk or on a disk at any
SCSI ID. See the section on macros for background information.
The steps needed to create a Startup Þle are:
First, create a macro Þle called BOOT.MAC in the root directory of the disk that you will use as
the Startup disk. Specify in the macro the exact ordering of Þles that you would like to have
loaded into the K2600 when powered on. When you save the macro Þle, just name the Þle
BOOT, and the K2600 will add the .MAC extension.
Second, set the Startup parameter on the Disk-mode page to be the Disk ID of the Startup disk.
So, if your BOOT.MAC Þle was on a ßoppy disk, set the Startup parameter to Floppy and make
sure that you have the correct ßoppy in the drive when you next turn the K2600 on.
Disk Mode
Creating a Startup File
When the K2600 is powered on, it will display the following message (after the introductory
VAST logo):
The K2600 looks for a Þle BOOT.MAC in the root directory on the disk speciÞed by the Startup
parameter. If the Þle is not found, or the disk cannot be accessed, you will get an error message.
The Startup load can be bypassed in the Þrst few seconds after the K2600 is turned on, by
pressing the Cancel button.
If BOOT.MAC is found by the K2600, it will begin to load the macro Þle as if you had loaded it
explicitly from the Load function in Disk mode. When the macro has completed, you will see the
The K2600 will go directly to Program mode afterwards.
Deleting Banks in a Startup File
You may want the Startup Þle to clear out one or all banks in the K2600 before loading Þles. This
could help overcome the problem of having ÒsilentÓ copies of programs in your RAM that
depend on samples that are no longer there (because they disappeared the last time the K2600Õs
power was turned off). The following trick will allow a macro entry to essentially function as a
Delete Bank or Delete Everything command:
Create a Þle somewhere on (preferably) your Startup disk, by saving an empty bank from the
K2600. Call the Þle NULL.K26. Now, insert this Þle at the beginning of a boot macro you are
creating: load the Þle, specify the bank you want to delete in the Startup Þle (or specify
Everything if you want to clear RAM completely), and specify Overwrite for the load mode.
Make sure you press Macro and not OK, so that the overwrite doesnÕt take place until you use
the Startup Þle.
Here is what that macro entry for this Þle might look like on the MACRO page, if you were
doing a ÒDelete EverythingÓ
The E:O: stands for ÒLoad to all banks, using Overwrite mode.Ó
Disk Mode
MS-DOS File System Compatibility
MS-DOS File System Compatibility
The K2600 is compatible with Þxed and removable disk drives that use the MS-DOS hard disk
and ßoppy disk formats. If you want to use this feature, you must Þrst format the disk media on a
computer such as a PC compatible or a Mac running appropriate MS-DOS conversion software.
The MS-DOS hard disk format is structured so that the disk can be split up into multiple
partitions. The K2600 uses only the Þrst partition that it Þnds on the disk. Therefore, it is usually best
to format the media with only one partition taking up all usable space on the disk. Working
from the K2600 front panel with an MS-DOS formatted disk will appear the same as working
with a disk that has been formatted with the K2600Õs own Format function (on the Disk-mode
page). The Free utility (Disk mode->Util->Free) can be used to identify whether a disk is in DOS
format or in standard K2600 format. If the (DOS) indicator is displayed, it means the K2600 has
determined that the disk is a DOS-format hard disk with at least one primary DOS partition.
Floppy disks do not display the DOS message.
Some advantages of working with an MS-DOS compatible disk format over the standard K2600
format are:
Easier sharing of K2600 Þles with other users over computer communications lines
Ability to use graphical Þle management interfaces for organizing Þles and directories
Ability to back up K2600 data using a PC compatible or Mac with commercially available
Easier transfer of data using standard Þle formats such as AIFF, WAVE, and MIDI Type 0, for
importing and exporting samples and sequences
Filename Compatibility
DOS format does not support space characters in Þlenames. The K2600, though, allows spaces to be
used within Þlenames. If you plan to transfer Þles between the K2600 and a DOS compatible
computer, it is recommended that you use only Þlenames without space characters in them.
Otherwise, a computer may have trouble identifying the Þles.
Importing and Exporting Data Using Standard File Formats
The K2600 supports three common data interchange Þle formats, Apple Interchange File Format
(AIFF), Microsoft RIFF WAVE, and MIDI Type 0 and Type 1. The Þrst two are used to transfer
sample data, and the latter is used for sequences.
The K2600 can recognize these Þle types automatically on loading, regardless of the Þle
extension. You can load these Þles as you would any standard K2600 Þle, and also as part of a
macro Þle load. The most recent sample Þle loaded will become the ÒpreviewÓ sample, which
means you can quickly access it for playing or editing on the SampleMode page (press the
Master mode button, then the Sample soft button). Similarly, the most recently-loaded MIDI
Type 0 Þle will become the current song on the Song-mode page.
Disk Mode
Importing and Exporting Data Using Standard File Formats
You can save Þles in these formats on the Export page. This page is accessible from the
Disk-mode page by pressing Save-> Export.
The Export page allows you to save one sample or song object per Þle. Choose the format you
wish to save in, and press the corresponding soft button. For AIFF and WAVE, only sample
objects are listed. For MIDI Type 0 and Type 1, only song objects are listed. Scroll to the object
that you wish to save, and press OK. The dialog will proceed the same as if you were saving a
K2600 Þle. You will be prompted for a Þlename, and will have the option to select a different
default directory to save the Þle in.
The K2600 will automatically place a standard extension on the Þle when it is created on the
disk. These extensions are sometimes necessary when transferring Þles to external programs
that can recognize the Þle format based on the extension. They also help you to recognize the
format of each Þle when looking at a directory listing. You can use the Find Files utility (Disk
mode-> Util-> Find) to search for Þles that match a certain extension. The standard extensions
used on the Þles are:
MIDI Type 0, Type 1
The Þrst time you enter the Export page after powering on (or after a soft-reset), the format
defaults to AIFF. After that, the K2600 remembers the most recent format that you used. For
example if you save a MIDI Type 0 Þle, and then go back to the Song-mode page to record more
sequences, the next time you return to the Export page, the Þle format will still be set to MIDI,
and all of the song objects will be listed. You can audition the samples and songs the same way
as you would on the Save Object or Object Utility pages (by pressing the Left or Right cursor
AIFF and AIFF-C Files
The K2600 can read 8 or 16 bit AIFF Þles, mono or stereo. The sample rate, sustain loop, loop
mode, base note, sample name, and sample detuning are supported. AIFF-C Þles that do not use
compression can also be read by the K2600. The K2600 will save 16-bit AIFF Þles, either mono or
WAVE Files
The K2600 can read 8 or 16 bit WAVE Þles, mono or stereo. It can also save 16-bit WAVE Þles,
either mono or stereo.
Disk Mode
Importing Samples from Other Manufacturers
Standard MIDI Files (MIDI Type 0 and Type 1 Files)
The K2600 reads and writes MIDI Type 0 (single-track) and Type 1 (multi-track) Þles. The K2600
supports all musical timestamp resolutions, and automatically scales imported information to
the K2600Õs internal sequencer resolution of 768 ticks per beat, if necessary.
Tempo information is supported, defaulting to 120 beats per minute if no tempo is speciÞed.
SysEx data are supported.
If there is a time-signature event in a Þle, the Þrst one becomes the songÕs time signature.
Otherwise, the time signature defaults to 4/4. Time signature changes are not supported.
Apart from SysEx, tempo and time-signature events, all other meta events are skipped to
minimize RAM usage.
Importing Samples from Other Manufacturers
The K2600 will load samples from Akai, Roland, and Ensoniq EPS and EPS-16 Plus SCSI disks
and ßoppies (including ASR-10 ÒEnsoniqÓ format), using the Load operation. (Roland samples
can be loaded only via SCSI, while all other samples can be loaded from ßoppy or via SCSI.) The
displays you see will vary depending on the samples youÕre loading, but several features are the
same. WeÕll describe the similarities Þrst, then elaborate on the differences.
If youÕre working with sample Þles in one of these formats, you may notice that once you select
the disk that contains the samples (this is done with the Current Disk parameter on the
Disk-mode page), the soft buttons change to accommodate the structure and content of the disk.
The K2600 automatically recognizes the type of disk when you select it.
Press the Load soft button, and youÕll see a page prompting you to select something to load
(weÕll call them objects, since different manufacturers give them different names). The top line of
the display will tell you the number of objects available of the currently selected type, as well as
the index number of the currently selected object. You can select any object in the list by typing
its index number on the alphanumeric buttonpad and pressing Enter. The next step is to use the
soft buttons to select the type of object to be loaded.
Once youÕve selected the type of object to load, press the OK soft button, and the bank dialog
will appear, enabling you to select the bank into which the object(s) will be loaded. When youÕve
selected a bank, press the OK soft button, and the loading process will begin. At the center of the
display youÕll see the object currently being loaded. The top line of the display will Þll with
asterisks to indicate the status of the current object. The bottom line will tell you the total
number of kilobytes to be loaded.
The K2600 will create layers as necessary when you load objects. These layers have the same
settings as Layer 1 of Program 199.
When the load is complete, the Disk-mode page will reappear. You can now proceed with
another load, or go to any other mode. If you exit Disk mode, the K2600 will remember the Þle
that you selected most recently. When you return to Disk mode, this Þle will be highlighted.
Once youÕve loaded a sample or program Þle, you can save it as a Kurzweil object. YouÕll Þnd it
can be loaded and backed up much faster as a Kurzweil object than in its original format.
Disk Mode
Importing Samples from Other Manufacturers
The Þrst page to appear is the page for loading Þles. The soft buttons name the operations:
HDrive, Volume, and File on the left, and OK and Cancel on the right.
The hierarchy of objects is shown by the three soft buttons on the left. The display prompts you:
ÒFile to load:Ó The HDrive button selects the partition on the currently selected disk. The
Volume button selects volumes within the currently selected partition. The File button selects
an individual sample Þle from within a volume. The OK button, toward the right, executes the
displayed function: partition selection, or loading a volume or Þle. The Cancel button returns
you to the Disk-mode page.
When you press the HDrive button, the center of the displayÕs top line shows the currently
selected volume in the currently selected partition. The prompt at the center of the display will
read: ÒHD Partition.Ó The list of available partitions will appear following the prompt. TheyÕre
usually named A through F. Use the cursor buttons or numeric entry to highlight a different
partition. Pressing the OK soft button will select the highlighted partition.
Pressing the Volume button will change the prompt to ÒVolume to load:Ó The list of available
volumes in the current partition will appear. The center of the top line will show the current
partition. The Layer buttons will scroll through the list of available partitions. Use the cursor
buttons or numeric entry to select a different volume. Pressing the OK button will load the
entire highlighted volume, unless the volume is larger than your available sample RAM, in
which case, the K2600 will load as many Þles as will Þt.
The Bank dialog will appear, enabling you to select the bank that will receive the volume. Press
OK again, and youÕll be prompted to press either the Progs soft button, which will load program
information in addition to the samples, or the Samps soft button, which will load only the
sample information. Programs are identiÞed by the extension .p, and are stored in program
RAM. Samples have the extension .s, and are stored in sample RAM. You can press Cancel to
return to the Disk-mode page without loading the volume.
If you load sample objects, youÕll see the following prompt: Create preview program/keymap?
If you answer Yes, the K2600 will load the samples into a program that it creates based on Layer
1 of Program 199. Loading program objects will load multi-layer samples and keymaps, and
sometimes velocity switches. The K2600 will create layers as necessary when you load program
objects. These layers have the same settings as Layer 1 of Program 199. In some cases, the K2600
will also create stereo keymaps to preserve the separation of stereo samples.
If you press the File button, the prompt will change to the Load dialog. You can view the list of
Þles with the cursor buttons, or use numeric entry. The top line of the display will show the
currently selected volume. Select different volumes with the Layer buttons. The size of the
currently selected Þle, in kilobytes, is shown just above the soft buttons on the left. Press the OK
button to load the highlighted Þle.
Press OK, and the Bank dialog will appear. Press OK again, and the Þle will be loaded into the
highlighted bank.
Sometimes you may Þnd an Akai ßoppy disk that your K2600 canÕt read. In this case, check the
format of the disk. Akai allows you to format a double sided-double density (DD) disk for high
density (HD). This is not standard in the computer industry, since DD disks are not veriÞed for
use as HD disks. If this is the case, you will need to load the disk into an Akai, then save it out to
a properly formatted disk.
Disk Mode
Importing Samples from Other Manufacturers
For Roland disks, the hierarchy is a bit different; the objects that can be loaded are called
volumes, performances, patches, and samples. The page that was selected last time a SCSI load
was executed will appear when you initiate the load operation. Following the prompt is the list
of available objects, with the size of the object in kilobytes displayed as well. The top line of the
display will show the number of available objects of the selected type.
Use the soft buttons to highlight the object to be loaded. The layer buttons will take you through
the current object list in increments of 100. Press OK to execute the load. The Bank dialog will
appear. Press OK again, and the object will be loaded. The display will update you on the
progress of the load.
For EPS disks, the hierarchy consists of Þles and directories. Directories can be nested several
layers deep. When you press the Load soft button, youÕll be prompted to select a Þle or directory
to load from the list of available Þles and directories. The currently highlighted object will be
either a Þle or a directory. If itÕs a Þle, its name and size will be shown following the prompt. If
itÕs a directory, its name appears, followed by (dir) to indicate its type. The Layer buttons will
take you to the Þrst and last Þles of the currently selected directory. Note that if youÕre loading
from ßoppy disks, you wonÕt see any of the displays or soft buttons relating to directories, since
the directory architecture is not supported for ßoppies.
When a Þle is highlighted and you press OK, the Bank dialog appears; press OK again to load
the Þle. When a directory is highlighted and you press OK, you enter that directory, and the list
of Þles and subdirectories in that directory appears, each Þle followed by its size, and each
subdirectory, if any, followed by (dir). The top item in every list you select is always the parent
directory of the Þles below it. Select the top item in a list to go up one directory level.
Pressing the Exit soft button will take you one level back up the hierarchy. Pressing it repeatedly
will take you to the root directoryÑthe directory at the top of the hierarchy. The quickest way to
the root directory is to press the Root soft button. The top line of the display shows you the
name of the currently selected directory (or subdirectory). Pressing the All soft button will load
all Þles in the current directory (but not any subdirectories). The Bank dialog will appear, and
when you press OK, youÕll be prompted to press the Progs button to load program information
in addition to the samples, or the Samps button to load only the samples.
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