contents play book
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
GMT Games, LLC
P.O. Box 1308, Hanford, CA 93232-1308
19.0 Optional Rules....................................................... 2
19.1 Out of Supply (OOS) Variant ........................ 5
19.2 Breaking down an LCU.................................. 5
19.3 Air Superiority (recommended)...................... 5
19.4 Severe Weather Variant (recommended) ....... 5
19.5 Invasion Initiative .......................................... 5
19.6 Jerusalem ....................................................... 5
19.7 Eight Card Hands . ......................................... 5
19.8 Pre-Game Bidding Phase . ............................. 5
19.9 Gallipoli Map (recommended) ...................... 5
Set-up: November 1914 Scenario and Campaign Game..5
Set-up: Total War 1916 Scenario ................................... 6
Sample Game.................................................................. 9
Strategy Guide................................................................ 15
Basic National Strategy .......................................... 15
War Status Strategy . ............................................... 16
Individual CP Cards . .............................................. 17
Individual AP Cards . .............................................. 17
Card Histories and Notes: CP ........................................ 17
Card Histories and Notes: AP......................................... 24
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Play Book Introduction
The Pursuit of Glory Play Book:
• expands the game via a set of optional rules,
• demonstrates how to play the game,
• offers advice from the game's playtesters,
• details the scenario setups, and
• provides the historical background for the Events on the cards, as
well as clarifications as to how certain cards work—see the first
line in italics in the card descriptions.
With the separate Quick-Start guide in hand—either the Novice
version or the version for experienced Paths of Glory players—and
with the information in this Play Book, players will be able to jump
in and start playing, referencing the Rule Book only when necessary.
Living Rules changes are denoted by a vertical line in the margin
(and blue text).
►19.0 Optional Rules
19.1 Out of Supply (OOS) Variant
For those who find the OOS rules too strict, the following is suggested, with Ted Raicer’s permission:
OOS units are eliminated as usual during the Attrition Phase. However, prior to elimination, OOS units may move and fight subject to
the following restrictions:
• OOS units have their Movement Factors halved, rounding up.
• During Combat, OOS units roll for Combat one additional column
to the left, have a –1 DRM when attacking, and may not use CCs.
• OOS units cannot attack in combination with units in other
spaces, unless those units are in a space(s) adjacent to all OOS
units involved in the attack.
Important: This rule should not be used in Tournament play.
19.2 Breaking Down an LCU
If Activated for Movement (but not actually moving), any LCU on
the map may be broken down into its component SCUs. Important:
This is the only way that LCUs on the map can ever be returned to
the Corps Assets Box.
19.2.1 If the LCU is full-strength, put it in the Corps Assets Box, and
replace it on the map with one SCU from the Reserve Box, one SCU
from the Eliminated Box and one other SCU that is not currently in
the game (e.g., SCUs that were set aside when the LCU was built
or extra SCUs included in the game for this purpose).
19.2.2 If the LCU is reduced, put it in the Corps Assets Box, and
replace it with one SCU from the Reserve Box and one other SCU
(per above).
19.2.3 An LCU may be replaced by full-strength or reduced SCUs,
regardless of whether the LCU is full-strength or reduced.
19.2.4 If there are not enough SCUs set aside from the game or extra
SCUs or SCUs in the Eliminated Box, the required number of SCUs
may be taken from the Reserve Box or from unused reinforcements
in the box at the player’s option, or he may take fewer SCUs if he
wishes. Note: Using unused reinforcements from the box will mean
that some reinforcements may be unavailable when an Event card
is played. Generally, ample extra units have been supplied to allow
players to break down BR and FR invasion LCUs (for example).
19.2.5 When choosing which SCUs to use for breaking down an
LCU, there is no need to track the exact SCUs used to organize
the LCU originally. Instead, the following simplified logic applies:
• Any regular combat SCU of the same nationality may be used,
Exceptions: (1) Infantry SCUs may be used to break down a cavalry LCU, but cavalry SCUs may not be used to break down an
infantry LCU; (2) Special units and irregulars may not be used.
• The first two SCUs replacing a TU-A LCU must be TU-A Inf
Divs if these are available. If not available, regular (not elite) TU
Inf Divs may be used.
• When breaking down a BR/IN/ANZ LCU, the first SCU must
be of the same nation, but the other SCU(s) can be any of these
three nationalities.
19.2.6 LCUs which are broken down may not be rebuilt in the same
Action Round—they must be placed in and remain in the Corps
Assets Box this Action Round (to avoid a sort of ‘teleportation’ effect). On a subsequent Action Round, those LCUs may be organized
again, as normal.
19.3 Air Superiority (recommended)
The following rules may be used to increase the fog of war and
better approximate the importance that air reconnaissance played
in the actual war.
19.3.1 Only the player with air superiority may examine his opponent’s stacks of units, other than during Combat. Also, once
an Attacker declares a Combat space, he must complete it even if
surprised by the enemy’s strength.
19.3.2 In the Campaign Scenario, neither player begins with air
superiority. The first time the CP Player plays the Fliegerabteilung
Event, place the Air Superiority Marker on the map, CP side up.
The first time the AP Player plays the Royal Flying Corps Event,
he gains air superiority for the remainder of the game (flip the Air
Superiority Marker to its AP side).
19.3.3 At the start of the 1916 Total War Scenario the CP has air
Design Note: Historically, the CP enjoyed air superiority for much
of the war in this theater. However, once the AP gained air superiority, they were easily able to retain it. Air superiority was primarily
useful for reconnaissance and was a fundamental factor in Allenby’s
operational success in Palestine. The CP’s lack of air superiority
allowed Allenby to perpetrate ruses which badly deceived the CP
and contributed to the massive AP breakthrough that drove the
Turks out of Palestine.
19.4 Severe Weather Variant (recommended)
The following optional rule was added late during playtesting.
• When a player Activates units for a Combat that is subject to a
Severe Weather Check, he receives a –1 DRM for the Severe
Weather die roll for each extra OPS he spends when Activating
the attacking units.
• For each additional OPS spent, place an additional Attack Marker
on one of the Activated spaces. This DRM applies to all units
involved in the attack and subject to the Severe Weather Check
(not just those in the marked space).
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Example: TU units in Rize and Oltu are Activated for Combat during
the second Action Round of the Winter 1915 turn and will cooperate
for a highly risky Winter attack against Ardahan. Since it is Winter
and the units are attacking from (and into) Mountain spaces, they
are subject to a Severe Weather Check. The CP Player chooses to
use 4 OPS for the attack: 2 to Activate the two spaces, and 2 as a
–2 DRM. The CP Player rolls a die for Rize and again for Oltu,
receiving a –2 DRM each time. Since it is the second Action Round,
he must roll less than 2, or his full-strength units in the space will
be reduced. For Oltu, he rolls 4 –2 DRM = 2; thus, his full-strength
units there are reduced. For Rize, he rolls 3 –2 DRM = 1; thus, his
full-strength units there are unaffected.
Design Note: The extra OPS represent additional preparations
and supplies devoted to securing the safety of the men, as Yudenich
did when preparing his men for their successful Winter offensive
in 1916.
19.5 Invasion Initiative
This optional rule allows the AP Player to seize the initiative during
an invasion by foregoing the organizational process represented by
the pause on the Beachhead (to organize the divisions and add in
the corps level assets).
When the AP Player initially places a Beachhead Marker on a Beachhead space to initiate an Invasion, he has two options:
1. He may follow the normal procedure for conducting an Invasion.
2. He can choose to use only SCUs for the Invasion. He immediately
moves up to three SCUs from the Island Base onto the Beachhead.
The units then either (a) conduct combat immediately if the adjacent space is occupied by a CP unit, or (b) move exactly one space
inland if the adjacent space is vacant. In this latter case, to simulate
the presence of a CP shore guard, roll one die – if the roll is higher
than the highest Loss Factor (LF) in the invading stack, one unit
with that LF is reduced (but still moves inland).
If the AP Player chooses the second option, he may immediately
break down an LCU on the Island Base (see 19.2), using extra
SCUs supplied with the game and placing the LCU in the Corps
Assets Box. He can then immediately execute the choices outlined
in #2 above.
In the case of the Kitchener ’s Invasion Event, the AP Player can
place the invading SCUs immediately on the Beachhead Marker and
follow the choices outlined in #2 above. He may choose to break
down the invading LCU into SCUs (per 19.2), placing any SCUs
in excess of three on the Island Base. If he chooses not to break
down the LCU which comes with this Event but wishes to invade
immediately with SCUs, the LCU is placed on the Island Base, not
the Beachhead (he may move up to 3 SCUs from the Island Base
onto the Beachhead).
In the case of the Project Alexandria Event, when the SCUs are
placed on the Beachhead, they may immediately be used for the
options outlined in #2 above.
The addition of these options allows the AP Player to accelerate an
invasion’s pace, but renders his invading units less combat effective
during the initial attack and more vulnerable to counterattack. This
allows him to choose between a speedy attack and/or advance inland
vs. a slow prepared attack en masse. After invading with SCUs, he
can of course organize them into LCUs during a later Action Round,
per normal rules.
19.6 Jerusalem
This rule takes account of the historical uniqueness of Jerusalem.
• If an actual Combat has not yet been fought in Jerusalem, when
a full-scale attack is announced against Jerusalem involving at
least three attacking units, the defender (whether CP or AP) must
announce if he will fight or withdraw.
• If the defender withdraws, there is no Combat. All defending units
withdraw one space (more spaces if this is necessary to avoid an
overstack situation). Up to three attacking units (full-strength)
may then Advance into Jerusalem. The normal VP and Jihad
Level adjustments occur.
• If the defender decides to fight, the attacker may immediately
cancel the Combat with no further effect or he may continue.
• If the attacker continues—thereby making Jerusalem a battleground—the defender is penalized 1 VP immediately. Note:
This is the penalty for turning Jerusalem into a combat zone and
is in addition to the 2 VPs the defender will lose if Jerusalem is
captured. Also, if the AP Player is the attacker, the Jihad Level
immediately shifts +1 (which will offset the –1 Jihad Level shift
should the AP capture the space). Note: This allows the Turks to
make the fight for Jerusalem an important jihad event. It is costly
politically, but the extra Jihad point allows placement of a tribe
and could later foster a revolt! This gives the AP an incentive to
capture Jerusalem by cutting it out of supply or threatening to
do so (which is what happened historically).
• Once a Combat has occurred in Jerusalem, this rule has no further
effect. Future Combats in Jerusalem are conducted normally.
However, this rule continues in effect, with players repeatedly
threatening attack and withdrawing, so long as no actual Combat
Design Note: Both the Turks and British refused to fight in Jerusalem. Allenby even went so far as to leave the Turks defending
Jerusalem an escape route, so that they could leave rather than be
forced to fight. And the Turks did leave, partly for reasons of selfpreservation, but partly out of deference for the Holy City.
19.7 Eight Card Hands
If both players agree, they may use an eight card hand. Just add an
extra card to each player’s hand at the beginning of the game and
draw back up to eight cards at the end of each turn. Any references
in the rules to a seven card hand, should be read as applying to an
eight card hand.
Play Note: This will tend to make for a more relaxed game and
somewhat reduce the luck of the draw, allowing players to hold
desired cards more easily. Seven card hands should still be used
for tournaments and for players who wish to experience the full
tension of Pursuit of Glory.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
19.8 Pre-Game Bidding Phase
19.81 If both players agree, they may determine sides by bidding
VPs and Maximum TU RPs. Note: This rule should always be used
in tournament play.
• Each player rolls a die. The player with the high die declares which
side he wishes to play and the number of VPs he will “cede” to the
opposing player—any whole number including a bid of zero.
• If the opposing player accepts the bid, he plays the other side. If
he rejects it, he must either bid a higher number of VPs that he
will cede or bid the same VP number and an adjusted number
of Maximum TU RPs (25 TU RPs is the limit set by the Royal
Navy Blockade Event). Maximum TU RPs are bid higher if the
player desires to play the AP (making life easier for the Turks)
and lower if he wishes to play the CP (making life harder for
himself), within the range of 0 to 40 inclusive.
• Bidding ends when a player accepts his opponent’s bid. The final
bid should be documented.
d. If the CP player attacks the Gallipoli main map space and causes
the AP units to retreat, the AP units must retreat at least 3 spaces
onto the Gallipoli submap, counting the space(s) of entry nearest the
direction of the attack as the first space of retreat. The AP units may
retreat further, if the AP Player desires. All full-strength attacking CP
units may then advance up to 2 spaces onto the Gallipoli submap,
counting the space(s) of entry nearest the direction of the attack as
the first space of Advance.
e. After the CP has reentered the Gallipoli submap by Advance After
Combat or by Movement (if there are no AP units on the Gallipoli
main map space), the AP conquest of Gallipoli is terminated and
normal Gallipoli submap rules apply.
f. The AP Player may announce the conquest of Gallipoli as often
as the conditions above are fulfilled (it is not necessarily a onetime event).
19.82 During play, when Royal Navy Blockade is played, the Max
TU RP Marker is placed on the General Records Track on the space
that was bid or on 25 if there was no such bid.
19.83 At the end of the game, the bid may have one of two effects:
• If the game ends in an Automatic Victory, the VPs bid has no
• If the game ends in an Armistice, adjust the VP Marker up or
down by the number of VPs bid, in favor of the player who lost
the bid.
19.9 Gallipoli Map (recommended)
19.9.1 At the end of any turn, if there are AP units, but no CP units,
on the Gallipoli map, the AP Player may announce his conquest of
• He may then take up to three units (plus one HQ) off the Gallipoli
submap and place them on the Gallipoli space on the main map,
making it much easier to defend Gallipoli.
• Any excess units may remain on the Gallipoli submap, moving
on and exiting that submap per normal rules (but may not attack
from this submap nor be attacked).
19.9.2 Combat from and to the Gallipoli main map space is possible.
a. The Gallipoli main map space has mountain terrain.
b. Attacks against the Gallipoli main map space from Bandirma or
Edremit are considered to be coming across a Water Crossing.
c. Likewise, if Bandirma or Edremit are attacked from the Gallipoli
main map space, that attack is considered to be coming across a
Water Crossing.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Set-Up: November 1914 Scenario and Campaign Game
Special = Special Division
Cav = Cavalry Division
Inf = Infantry Division
[ ] = reduced at start
Note: Large Combat Units (LCUs) are in CAPITALS; Small Combat
Units (SCUs) are in normal text. It is important to use the exact
LCU listed.
(May select Russo-British Assault event for first hand.)
Cairo (3E):
Mersa Matruh (3E):
India (8B):
Pt. Said (4E):
Ismailia (4E):
Suez (4E):
India (8B):
Baluchistan (8C) :
Bahrain (8D):
On any one Beach
in Persian Gulf:
[Special—Royal Navy Armored Car]
3 x [Special—Indian Garrison]
[Inf] + Special—Bikanir Camel
2 x Elite Inf
Inf + Cav
2 x Inf + Cav + Beachhead Marker
Tiflis (6A):
Batum (5A):
Oltu (5A):
Kars (6A):
Sarikamis (6A):
Kagizman (6A):
Erevan (6A):
Julfa (7B):
Tabriz (7B): Central Asia (8A):
Reserve Box:
Corps Asset Box:
2 x Inf + Cav + Yudenich HQ
2 x [Inf]
2 x Inf
Elite Inf
2 x Cav
Elite Inf + Cav + Special—RU-PE
Persian Cossacks
+ 2 x Inf
Lamia (1C):
Doiran (1B):
Inf + Trench 2 (Doiran)
Ft. Rupel (1B): Inf
(1) Units marked with the Balkans Symbol (a B in a circle) may
only be rebuilt or reorganized on the Balkan Front and may never
move, SR, or attack outside the Balkans;
(2) Neither player may enter or attack Serbia or Bulgaria until the
Bulgaria event is played (in 1914, Serbia is already an AP ally);
(3) Neither player may enter or attack Romania before the Romania
event is played (in 1914, Romania is neutral).
(May select any 4 OPS Mobilization card for first hand.)
All units below are TU unless designated TU-A(rab)
Note: Be sure to distinguish between TU units and TU-Arab (TU-A)
units for set-up. Except during set-up and reinforcement events,
TU and TU-A units are usually treated as one nationality, including
stacking, Activation, and Replacement Points (RPs).
Thrace / Anatolia
Adrianople (2B):
Catalca (2B):
Rodosto (2B):
Bandirma (2B):
Smyrna (2C):
Ankara (3B):
Kastamonu (3B):
Yozgat (4B):
Sivas (4B):
Adana (4C):
I CORPS + 2 x Inf + Trench 1
[II CORPS] + Trench 1
Trench 1
[TU-A VI CORPS] + [Cav]
[TU-A Elite Inf]
Gallipoli Map
Bulair (2C):
Gallipoli (2C):
Seddul Bahr (1D):
Elite Inf + Trench 1
Elite Inf
Elite Inf
Rize (5A):
Bayburt (5B):
Erzerum (5B):
Koprukoy (5B): Eleskirt (6B):
Bayazit (6B):
Van (6B):
Cizre (6B):
Special—Stanke Bey (see 3.2.2 on
the Special Units player aid card)
[XI CORPS] + Cav
Elite Inf
TU-A Inf
Syria / Palestine & Arabia
Aleppo (5C):
2 x TU-A Inf
Homs (5C):
TU-A Elite Inf
Damascus (5D):
2 x Elite Inf
Gaza (4D):
2 x TU-A Inf
Beersheba (4E):
TU-A Special—Camel Corps
The Hejaz [Mecca] (5E): TU-A Inf
Mesopotamia / Iraq
Ctesiphon (7D):
Nasiriya (7D):
Basra (8D):
Ruwandiz (6B):
Suleymaniye (7C):
Trench 1
[TU-A Inf]
[TU-A Inf]
[TU-A Cav] + [Inf]
[TU-A Inf]
Reserve Box:
Corps Asset Box: 2 x Elite Inf + 3 x Inf
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Sofia: Rustchuk
Reserve Box:
Targa Jiu:
Reserve Box:
1st ARMY + Inf
2nd ARMY + Inf
[3rd ARMY]*
2 x Inf
*If Romania has entered the war, the Central Powers player may
choose to place BU [3rd Army] in Plevna instead of Rustchuk.
Reserve Box:
Reserve Box:
Reserve Box:
Heavy Artillery + Mackensen HQ
Special Inf—Alpenkorps (if not
already on map)
2 x Inf (if available)
1st ARMY + Inf
2nd ARMY + Inf + Cav
[3rd ARMY]
2 x Inf
Only if Russian Revolution has not begun.
Reserve Box:
Special—RU-SB Yugoslav Div; 2 x Inf
Place +1 space ahead on Turn Track:*
Place +2 spaces ahead on Turn Track:*
6th ARMY
Inf (if available)
Inf (if available)
1st ARMY + 3rd ARMY + Inf
2nd ARMY + Inf + Cav
2 x Inf
3 x Inf
Serbia collapses whenever the AP player chooses and Belgrade is
CP controlled, or when (1) Belgrade and Skopje are CP-controlled
and (2) there are no SB LCUs in Serbia. During the War Staus Phase
of that turn, remove from the game (temporarily) all SB LCUs;
any SB SCUs unable to trace supply to an AP-controlled port; and
all GE and AH units listed above, except: 11th Army, Mackensen
HQ, Heavy Artillery, 2 GE Inf. Note: If the Romania event has been
played and Romania has not yet collapsed, the GE Alpenkorps
remains. The CP player may then (at no cost) SR up to two CP
units in the Balkans to any CP-controlled space(s) in the Balkans.
(1) If there are no BR units in Greece or Serbia, +1 VP immediately
due to loss of AP prestige;
(2) SB units cannot use RPs until The Serbs Return event is
(3) SB units may attack spaces only in Greece and Serbia until
Belgrade is recaptured (once Belgrade is AP-controlled, SB units
may attack anywhere in the Balkans).
Place +1 space ahead on Turn Track:*
Lemnos 2 x Inf
Galicia: Reserve Box:
[9th ARMY] + Falkenhayn HQ (if
Yildirim event not yet played) +
Special—Alpenkorps (if not on map)
2 x elite Inf (if available)
Place +1 space on Turn Track:*
Hermannstadt: Galicia: Reserve Box:
2 x Inf (if available)
Inf (if available)
Any space in BU: Special—BU-AH Combined Div
(If BU is neutral, place in Reserve Box.)
Romania collapses whenever the AP player chooses, or when:
(1) Bucharest, Constanza, and Ploesti are CP-controlled,
(2) all RO LCUs are eliminated, and
(3) no RU LCUs are in Romania.
During that turn’s War Status Phase, remove from the game all RO
units; all AH units listed in "Romanian Entry" above; and GE Cavalry Corps and Alpenkorps. Note: If the Bulgaria event has been
played and Serbia has not collapsed, the GE Alpenkorps remains.
The CP player may then (at no cost) SR up to two CP units in the
Balkans to any CP-controlled space(s) in the Balkans.
(1) If Romania is neutral when Stage 1 of the Russian Revolution
begins, Romania can never be played as an event; +2 VP.
(2) Units placed on Turn Track for delayed entry (+1 or +2 turns)
are placed on the map location listed prior to the first Action Round
of that turn.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Set-Up:Total War 1916 Scenario
Special = Special Division
Inf = Infantry Division
Cav = Cavalry Division
[ ] = reduced at start
Note: Large Combat Units (LCUs) are in CAPITALS; Small Combat
Units (SCUs) are in normal text. It is important to use the exact
LCU listed.
Salonika (1B):
Thermaikos Bay (1B):
Sollum (2E):
Mersa Matruh(3E):
Cairo (3E):
Sudan (4E):
IsmaIlia (4E):
Romani (4E):
Amara (7D):
S Persia (8D):
C Persia (8C):
E Persia (8B):
India (8B):
Reserve Box:
Mersa Matruh(3E):
Ismailia (4E):
Romani (4E):
Beachhead marker
Special (Royal Navy Armoured Car)
Inf; Trench 1
Elite Inf; Maude HQ
Special (PersCordon)
2 x Special (PersCordon)
Special (PersCordon)
3 x Special (Indian Garrison)
Elite Inf
Special (Camel Corps)
Mesopotamia / Persia
Nasiriya (7D):
Amara (7D):
Qurna (8D):
Shatt al Arab
Beachhead (8D):
Ahwaz (8D):
India (8B):
Corps Asset Box: Reserve Box:
Trabzon (5A):
Oltu (5A):
Erzerum (5B):
Mus (5B):
Lemnos (2B):
Reserve Box: ARAB REVOLT
Jiddah (5E):
The Hejaz (5E):
ARMY ORIENT 1; 2 x Inf
[1st Army]; [2nd Army]; [3rd Army];
2 x Inf
1-1-1 unit; Faisal unit
1-1-1 unit
Lamia (1C):
Athens (1C):
2 x Inf
BR:VIII CORPS; IX CORPS; 3 x Elite Inf; Cav; Inf
IN: 3 x Elite Inf; 3 x Inf
RU:Elite Inf; 4 x Inf
ARM: Armenian Uprising
Special (Bikanir Camel)
Inf; Cav
AP Eliminated/Replaceable Units Box
RU: Elite Inf; Cav
Special (15); Cav
Captured VP Spaces
RU VPs: Trabzon, Erzerum, Van, Teheran, Hamadan, Isfahan
Other: Basra
Beachhead Marker
2 x Elite Inf
2 x Inf
Florina (1B):
Reserve Box:
Elite Inf; [Inf]
Elite Inf; Cav
Cav; Inf; Baratov HQ
4 x Inf
Permanently Removed AP Units
Ismailia (4E):
Suez (4E):
Bitlis (6B):
Urmia (6B):
Ruwandiz (6B):
Sehneh (7C):
Kermanshah (7C):
C Asia (8B):
Reserve Box:
Control of Spaces
All VP spaces are controlled by the player who can trace supply
from that space to one of his Supply Sources. To clarify:
V CAUC CORPS; Special (Black Sea Marines); Yudenich HQ
I CAUC CORPS; Inf; Cav; Destroyed
Fort marker
IV CAUC CORPS; Elite Inf; Inf
CP controls: Belgrade, Skopje. Medina
AP controls: Qum
• Forts Destroyed: Fao, Seddul Bahr, Kum Kale, Trabzon,
• Serbia has collapsed.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Thrace / Anatolia
Constantinople (2B):
Bosphorus Forts (3B):
Adrianople (2B):
Catalca (2B):
Rodosto (2B):
Giresun (4A):
Sivas (4B):
Adana (4C):
2 x Inf; Trench 1
TU-A VI CORPS; TU-A Elite Inf;
Cav; Trench 1
Trench 1
Elite Inf; 2 x Inf
Elite Inf; Cav
Gallipoli Map
Gallipoli (2C):
Anafarta (1D):
Sari Bahr (1D):
Seddul Bahr (1D):
Canakkale (1D):
Trench 1
Trench 1
Trench 1
Trench 1
Gumusane (5B):
Erzincan (5B):
Harput (5B):
Diyarbekir (5B):
Cizre (6B):
III CORPS; Inf; Kurdish Tribe
[II CORPS]; 2 x Elite Inf
Syria / Palestine
Aleppo (5C):
Damascus (5D):
Amman (5D):
Gaza (4D):
Beersheba (4E):
Maan (5E):
2 x TU-A Inf
TU-A Inf
TU-A Inf
VIII Corps
TU-A Inf
Mesopotamia / Persia
Mosul (6C):
Suleimanie (7C):
Baghdad (6C):
Ctesiphon (7C):
Sannaiyat (7C):
Diwaniyeh (7D):
The Hai (7D):
Karind (7C):
Menjil (7B):
S Persia (8D):
C Persia (8C):
Elite Inf; Kurdish Tribe
TU-A Inf
Trench 1
Trench 1
TU-A Cav
Elite Inf; TU-A Inf
Jengali Tribe
Tangistani Tribe
Qashqai Tribe
Bahariya Oasis(3E):
Siwa Oasis (2E):
Senussi Tribe (2-1-3)
Senussi Tribe (1-1-3)
Reserve Box:
Corps Assets Box:
5 x Inf ; 2 x TU-A Inf; TU-A Elite Inf;
Galicia (1A):
Monastir (1B):
Doiran (1B):
Vidin (1A):
Sophia (1A):
Varna (2A):
Monastir (1B):
Doiran (1B):
Ft. Rupel (1B):
Reserve Box:
1st ARMY; Trench 1
2nd ARMY
3rd ARMY; Inf
3 x Inf
Permanently Removed CP Units
TU: 2 x Elite Inf; Cav; Special (Stanke Bey), 2 x Cav;
TU-A: Special (Camel Corps)
PE: Persian Uprising
CP Eliminated/Replaceable Units Box
IV Corps, 2 x Inf; 1 x TU-A Inf; Tribes: Laz, Bakhtiari, Marsh, Bawi
Available: Marsh, Sinjabi, NW Frontier, Jangali
General Records Track: VP = 7; Jihad! = 6; TU MAX RPs =
11; CP War Status = 11; AP War Status = 16; Combined War
Status = 25
On Map: LCUs in Restricted Areas: AP = 3, CP = 2; GE Supply
to TU Marker = “Bulgarian Railroad Open;” AP MO Modifier =
1; RU Amphib Assault Not Allowed; CP Air Superiority; U-Boats
in the Med; Egyptian Rebellion Allowed; Indian Mutiny Not Allowed; C. Asia Revolt Allowed; Afghan Alliance Allowed; Persian
Neutrality Violated
Turn Track: Turn = 8; Parvus = 4; Russian Revolution = 8; Long
Live the Czar! = Turn 10; Suez Railroad Marker = Turn 11
AP: Begin with Romania event in hand and six random cards.
Deck is composed of all Total War cards, plus all “1916” cards:
Shore Bombardment, Project Alexandria, Gurkhas, Armenian
Druzhiny, Armoured Cars, Allied Solidarity, Let the French
Bleed. All other events have been played. Jafar Pasha is face up
in front of the AP player.
CP: Begin with Enver-Falkenhayn Summit event in hand and six
random cards. Deck is composed of all Total War cards, plus all
“1916” cards: German High Command, Parliamentary Inquiry,
Indian Mutiny, I Order You to Die!, Bull’s Eye Directive, King
Constantine, Fliegerabteilung. No Prisoners is face up in front
of the CP player.
Railroads: Murray Takes Command has been played, and the
Sinai Railroad will be built on Turn 11. The Berlin-Baghdad
Railroad event has not been played, so the tunnels near Adana
are not complete.
Rule 18.3 is recommended in this scenario.
Mackensen HQ; Heavy Artillery
GE-BU Special (XI ARMY); Inf
Inf; Trench 2
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Sample Game
We encourage first-time players to set-up and play through this
sample game. After two turns, you should be familiar enough with
the basic rules that you can continue the sample game on your own.
It leaves both players in fairly balanced positions – in essence, the
final position of the units is the set-up for a Limited War scenario!
Use the standard 1914 set-up. Place the Indian (IN) invasion forces
and Beachhead Marker on the Shatt al-Arab Beachhead space
adjacent to Fao.
Both players take their deck of Mobilization cards, setting the Limited War and Total War decks aside. As is his right, the AP Player
chooses to include the Russo-British Assault card in his initial
hand of seven cards. The CP Player decides to exercise his option
to include one of his 4 OPS card in his initial hand and chooses
Pan-Turkism. Each player then draws six more cards, bringing their
starting hand up to the requisite seven.
Hands for Turn 1
AP Player
CP Player
Russo-British Assault
Anzac Reinforcements
Churchill Prevails
Secret Treaty
Enver Goes East
Egyptian Coup
Reserves To The Front
Fresh Recruits
Indian Mutiny
Save Tiflis
Liberate Suez
TURN 1—FALL 1914
Mandatory Offensive Phase
Normally, players roll to determine their Mandatory Offensive (MO)
at the beginning of the game. But in the Fall 1914 turn, both players
automatically set their MOs to “RU” (Russian).
Action Phase
AP Action 1
The AP Player plays Russo-British Assault
as an event and permanently removes it
from the game (since the card has an asterisk after its name). The parenthetical numWar
Status ber after the event title indicates that the AP
War Status and Combined War Status both
increase by 2. As stated in the event, the IN
units on the Shatt al-Arab Beachhead (two
IN 1-1-3 Inf Divs and an IN 1-1-5 Cav Div)
advance to Fao and mark the Fort with a
Destroyed Marker. The AP Player then
Activates the Fao space for Attack and chooses two Russian spaces
to Activate for Attacks: Sarikamis, Julfa. The event states that these
attacks do not count as Mandatory Offensives (MOs).
Fao combat: The AP Player announces an attack on Basra. The
IN units have a total of 3 Combat Factors from three units (two
IN 1-1-3 Inf Divs and a IN 1-1-5 Cav Div). Thus, they fire on the
3 Light Fire Table (since they have no LCU in the attack, they
cannot use the Heavy Fire Table). The defenders are in a swamp,
which shifts the AP attack one column left to the 2 column. The
Turkish-Arab (TU-A) unit has a 0 Combat Factor (it is a reduced
TU-A Inf Div, with 0-1-4 values on its reduced side). Thus, the
Turks fire back on the 0 column of the Light Fire Table. Neither
side plays any Combat Cards (CCs). The CP Player announces a
Turkish Withdrawal from combat (meaning that his unit will fade
away prior to the IN units making contact, possibly reducing the
damage the Turkish-Arab troops sustain). The IN units receive a
+1 Die Roll Modifier (DRM) for their attack, because they have a
cavalry unit and the Turks do not. The AP Player rolls a 1 and adds
his +1 DRM, for a total of 2. He references this on the 2 column on
the Light Fire Table, which indicates that he has a 1 Loss Number.
Since the Turks announced a withdrawal from combat, this Loss
Number is reduced by 1. Thus, the net AP Loss Number is 0 – the
Turks take no damage at all! Simultaneously, the Turks roll to see
what damage they inflict on the IN units. The CP Player rolls a 4
and references this on the 0 column of the Light Fire Table. This
indicates a 1 Loss Number. The AP Player must flip a unit with
a 1 Loss Factor; he chooses to flip a 1-1-3 infantry division. The
reduced TU-A 1-1-4 Inf Div (current value 0-1-4) must retreat one
space (since it announced a withdrawal); it retreats to Qurna. The
IN 1-1-3 Inf Div and IN 1-1-5 Cavalry Division (Cav Div) in Fao
advance to Basra, leaving the reduced IN 1-1-3 Inf Div (current
value 0-1-3) at Fao (normally, reduced units cannot Advance After
Combat, but in response to a Turkish Withdrawal, the AP Player
may advance even reduced units, if he so chooses). The IN units
enter Basra, and it is under AP Control. Because it is VP space, the
VP Level shifts –1 (from 10 to 9).
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
CP Action 1
The CP Player plays Save Tiflis for 4 Strategic Redeployment (SR) points, putting the
card in the discard pile (it is not removed
from the game, since the event was not
played). He then marks the play on the Action Round Chart (this is especially important, since he cannot play two SR cards
consecutively). The CP Player decides to
SR four SCUs, rather than SR-ing one LCU
(either choice would cost four SR points).
He SRs a TU 2-1-4 Inf Div from Yozgat to
Malazgirt; a TU 2-1-4 Inf Div from Kastamonu to Malazgirt; a TU
2-1-4 Inf Div from Ankara to Malazgirt; and a TU-A 2-1-4 Inf Div
from Homs to Amara.
SR value
Sarikamis combat: The AP Player announces an attack on Eleskirt.
His Russian (RU) units have a total of 5 Combat Factors (the AP
Player has a RU 3-3-4 I Caucasian Corps and a 2-2-6 Cav Div in
Sarikamis), and since an LCU is present, they will use the Heavy Fire
Table. The defending reduced Turkish (TU) 1-1-5 Cav Div (current
value 0-1-5) has a Combat Factor of 0 and must use the Light Fire
Table (since no LCU is present). Neither player plays a Combat
Card. The CP Player may not to announce a Turkish Withdrawal,
since there is no defensive terrain or trench in the space. There is
no DRM, since both sides have cavalry in the battle. The AP Player
rolls a 6, getting a 5 Loss Number. The CP Player also rolls a 5, getting a 1 Loss Number. The defending cavalry is destroyed. Usually,
destroyed units are placed in the Eliminated/Replaceable Units Box,
but since the cavalry is marked with a black triangle, it can never be
rebuilt and is removed from the game. The RU units all have a Loss
Factor greater than the 1 damage the Turks could inflict, so shrug
off this potential damage with no effect. The AP Player chooses to
not Advance After Combat, although he could have done so.
Julfa combat: The AP Player announces an attack on Bayazit.His
units will roll on the 4 column of the Light Fire Table (the AP
Player has two RU 2-2-6 Cav). The defenders are in mountains,
which shifts the attack one left to the 3 column. The defenders fire
back on the 0 Light Fire Table as they are a reduced TU 1-1-5 Cav
Div (current value 0-1-5). Neither player plays a CC card. The CP
Player announces a Turkish Withdrawal. There is no DRM
since both sides have
cavalry. The AP
Player rolls a 6 for a
2 Loss Number. The
Turkish Withdrawal
reduces this by 1, so
the net Loss Number
is 1. The CP Player
rolls a 1 for a 0 Loss Number. The reduced TU 1-1-5 Cav Div (current value 0-1-5) takes a step loss and is destroyed. Again, because
the unit is marked by a black triangle, it is permanently removed
from the game. Both RU 2-2-6 Cav Divs advance to Bayazit.
AP Action 2
The AP Player also decides to SR units and plays KITCHENER for
4 SR points. The AP Player SRs two IN 2-1-3 Inf Div from India to
Ahwaz; an IN 1-1-5 Cav Div from Baluchistan to Sollum, Egypt;
and a IN 1-1-3 Inf Div from Baluchistan to Pt. Said, Egypt.
CP Action 2
The CP Player plays Pan-Turkism as the event, permanently removing it from play (due to the asterisk). The CP War Status (WS) advances to 2, and the Combined WS advances to 4. The CP Player
places the two 2-2-4 Elite Inf Divs and the
1-1-5 Cav Div in Erzincan. He then records
1 TU RP and increases the Jihad Level +1.
The increase in Jihad Level allows him to
immediately place a tribe on the map -- a
Marsh Arab is removed from the Tribal
Warfare Key and joins the TU-A unit in
Since this card is marked with a yellow box
in its upper left corner, the event also allows
the player to use the 4 OPS. The CP Player
Activates the following spaces for movement: Malazgirt, Sivas,
Erzincan, Koprukay.
Malazgirt: The CP Player decides to build the TU IV Corps at full
strength. A TU 2-1-4 Inf Div is removed from the game. A TU 2-1-4
Inf Div is put in the Eliminated Units Box. A TU 2-1-4 Inf Div is
placed in the reserve box. IV Corps is taken from the Corps Assets
Box and placed in Malazgirt.
Erzincan: The 1-1-5 Cav moves to Malazgirt. Rather than move
the two TU Elite Inf Divs, The CP Player decides to build TU III
Corps. Since there are only two divisions at Erzincan, the corps
will appear at reduced strength (note that building TU III Corps
requires at least two TU Elite Inf Divs, since the corps is elite).
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
t fu
(Removed from Game)
The TU III Corps is taken from the Corps Assets Box and placed
in Erzincan on its reduced side. One of the elite divisions is placed
in the Reserve Box; the other is removed from the game (but is not
permanently eliminated).
Sivas: The reduced TU X Corps moves to Erzerum.
Koprukay: The TU IX Corps moves to Eleskirt.
Player rolls a 3, +1 DRM for a total of 4. The flank attack is successful. The attacker fires first, with +1 DRM for cavalry. He rolls
a 1 plus the 1 DRM, for a total of 2, which results in a Loss Number
(LN) of 4. Due to the successful Flank Attack, the TU IX Corps
LCU must take damage immediately. Before firing back, it absorbs
2 points of damage (is reduced and flips) and then absorbs another
2 points of damage (eliminating the LCU, which is placed in the
Eliminated/Replaceable Units Box). The LCU is replaced on the
map by a TU 2-1-4 Inf SCU from the Reserve Box. The CP Player
then fires back with this Inf SCU on the 2 column of the Light Fire
Table (LFT). He rolls a 6, resulting in a LN of 2. The AP Player
chooses to reduce the RU 2-2-6 Cav SCU in Sarikamis in order to
absorb the damage. Next, since the AP Loss Number was 2 higher
than the CP Loss Number, the AP won the combat, and since the
AP still has a full-strength attacker, the surviving TU Inf SCU must
retreat exactly 2 spaces; it goes to Mus. Remember: the winner of
the combat is decided by comparing the Loss Numbers, not the
actual damage absorbed by units. Sometimes the loser will absorb
less actual damage than the attacker, but still lose (since the attacker’s Loss Number was higher).
The CP Player now chooses to play a Combat Card, playing Reserves
To The Front, discarding it permanently. He is able to immediately
rebuild his destroyed LCU at full-strength (for 2 RPs) in Mus. The
Inf SCU remains in Mus as well.
The AP Player chooses not to Advance After Combat.
AP Action 3
The AP Player plays Egyptian Coup for 2
OPS and Activates both Sarikamis and Kagizman for combat. Both stacks attack
Eleskirt. A flank attack is announced. The
AP Player has the 3-3-4 RU I Caucasian
Corps and a 2-2-6 Cav in Sarikamis and two
2-1-4 Inf Divs in Kagizman. This adds up to 9. The AP will roll on
the 9–11 column on the Heavy Fire Table (HFT). The Turks will
fire back on the 3 column on the HFT. Neither player plays CCs.
Sarikamis pins the flank attack. Kagizman is not adjacent to another hostile unit, thus the flank attack is at +1 DRM. The AP
OPS value
The AP Player has fulfilled his Russian Mandatory Offensive and
moves the MO Marker to “Made.”
CP Action 3
RP value
The CP plays Liberate Suez for RPs, recording 3 TU, 2 GE, and 1 CP-Allied RPs. This
brings the TU RPs to a total of 4 TU RPs
recorded for use at the end of the turn. Again,
The CP Player must carefully record this
action on the Action Record Chart, since he
cannot play a card for RPs two Action
Rounds in a row.
The Flank Attack against Eleskirt
The fate of the TU IX Corps
Applying Damage (1st Step of Loss)
Enemy Loss Number (LN) =4
Unit's Loss Factor (LF) =2
Result—Unit absorbs 2 damage
and is reduced one step.
Applying Damage (2nd Step of Loss)
Remaining enemy LN not yet applied =2
Unit's reduced side LF =2
Result—Unit absorbs 2 more damage
and is eliminated ...
Repl SCU
LCU reduced, then eliminated, then
replaced by SCU which retreats
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
... and replaced by TU Inf SCU from
the Reserve Box
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
AP Action 4
The AP plays Anzac Reinforcements for the event and permanently
removes the card from play. The AP War Status advances to 3 and
the Combined WS advances to 5. He puts a 2-2-6 ANZ Cav Div
in Suez and a 2-2-4 ANZ Inf Div in Basra. The AP can place units
directly at ports, not just at Supply Sources or national capitals.
The AP Player commences to shell the Dardanelles forts. He first
shells Kum Kale and rolls a 2. The fort is destroyed! Next, he shells
Seddul Bahr and rolls a 3. The fort is destroyed! He then moves
to the next pair of forts farther up the coast, electing next to shell
Maidos—he rolls a 6. The fort is destroyed! The AP Player then
shells Canakalle and rolls a 3. The fort is destroyed! Finally, he
shells Gallipoli, rolling a 5. The fort is destroyed!
CP Action 4
The CP Player plays Indian Mutiny for 4 OPS. He Activates three
spaces for movement (Erzincan, Mus, Malazgirt) and one space for
combat (Erzurum). Movement must occur first.
Erzincan: The reduced TU 4-3-4 III Corps (current value 3-3-4)
moves to Koprukay.
Mus: A TU 2-1-4 Inf Div moves to Koprukay. The TU Corps remains
in Mus and attempts to build a trench. The CP Player rolls a 1 and
adds a trench to the space.
Malazgirt: The TU 3-2-4 IV Corps moves to Koprukay. The TU
1-1-5 Cav Div moves to Urmia, capturing that VP space. The VP
Marker moves +1, from 9 to 10. Since Urmia is also a RU VP Space,
the RU VP Marker is now at –1.
Erzurum: The CP will roll on the 5 column of the HFT. The defenders are in mountains, which shifts the CP attack to the 4 column. The
AP will fire back on the 2 column of the LFT. No CCs are played.
The CP has a +1 DRM for cavalry. The CP Player rolls a 1 (+1 DRM
for a total of 2) and gets a Loss Number of 2. The AP Player rolls
a 3 for a LN of 1. The TU 1-1-5 Cav is reduced. The RU 2-1-4 Inf
Div is destroyed and placed in the Eliminated Units Box. No CP
unit can Advance, since none are full-strength.
The CP records its RU Mandatory Offensive as “Made.”
AP Action 5
The AP takes a 1 OPS (so he does not play a card). He
activates Tiflis for movement. The Yudenich HQ and the
RU 2-2-6 Cav Div move to Sarikamis. The two RU 2-24 Inf Divs move to Ardahan.
CP Action 5
The CP plays Fresh Recruits for 2 OPS and Activates Damascus
and Erzerum for movement.
Damascus: One TU 2-2-4 Elite Inf Div moves to Gaza. The other
TU 2-2-4 Elite Inf Div moves to Beersheba.
Erzerum: Two reduced TU 3-2-4 Corps (current values 2-2-4) and
a reduced TU 1-1-5 Cav (current value 0-1-5) move to Oltu.
AP Action 6
Churchill Prevails is played for the event
and permanently removed. The AP WS goes
to 4 and the Combined WS goes to 6. Note:
Normally this 4 WS would mean that the AP
War Commitment Level would shift to Limited War at the end of the turn, but in Fall
1914 War Commitment Levels cannot
change – the AP will remain at Mobilization
during Winter 1915.
The Royal Navy find itself in front of Constantinople (see 18.11.2
in rules). The AP Player thinks briefly, then chooses to shell Constantinople. He immediately gains 1 VP (since he is The AP Player,
this means the VP Marker shifts down, from 10 to 9). Since the
West has outraged the Muslim world, the Jihad Level also shifts
(+1) to 2, and The CP Player immediately places one new tribe
on the map (he chooses to have the Laz appear at Rize.) Due to
Churchill’s success, two BR 3-2-4 elite Inf Divs are immediately
sent to Lemnos. The Royal Navy then shells The Bosphorus Forts,
rolling a 3. Failure! (Perhaps the Royal Navy has been thwarted by
mines.) The Bosphorus Forts are not destroyed—no additional aid
will be reaching the Russians.
CP Action 6
The CP Player plays Goeben for 3 OPS. He Activates Gaza for
movement and Activates Koprukay and Oltu for combat.
Gaza: A TU-A 1-1-4 Inf Div moves to Romani, the TU 2-2-4 Elite
Inf Div moves to Jifjaffa, and the other TU-A 1-1-4 Inf Div moves
to Nekhi.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Koprukay and Oltu: Both stacks launch a combined attack on
Sarikamis. This includes the units in Koprukay (a TU 3-2-3 Corp,
a reduced TU 4-3-4 Corps (current value 3-3-4), and a TU 2-1-4 Inf
Div) and Oltu (two reduced TU 3-2-3 Corps (current values 2-23) and a reduced TU 1-1-5 Cav (current value 0-1-5)) which add
up to 12. CP is on the 12-14 LCU column, but moves to the 9-11
LCU column due to mountains. The AP is on the 6-8 LCU column.
No CC Cards are played. AP has +1 DRM for HQ. The CP Player
rolls a 3 for 4 LF. The AP Player rolls a 1 (+1 DRM for a total of
2) and 3 LF. The CP Player flips a TU 3-2-3 Corps and a TU 2-1-4
Inf Div in Koprukay. The AP Player removes a reduced RU 2-2-6
Cav (current value 1-1-6) and places it in the eliminated box. The
AP Player also flips a RU 3-3-4 Corps. Attacker has 1 LF more
than the defender, so the AP Player usually must retreat or take an
additional loss to prevent a retreat. Yudenich HQ uses its special
ability and prevents a retreat at no loss. Yudenich HQ suffered a
defeat in combat and must flip.
End of Turn
Advance the Turn Marker to Winter 1915.
TURN 2 – WINTER 1915
Note: There are Severe Weather checks in
Mountain spaces during Winter turns.
Mandatory Offensive Phase
The CP Player rolls a 6 (“Enver to the
Front”). This requires The AP Player to select the first CP MO, and he chooses “BR/IN/ANZ.” Since the first
MO was “Enver to the Front,” The CP Player must roll a second
MO. He rolls a 1—a “RU” MO.
The AP Player rolls a 3 for his MO—“No BR.”
Siege Phase
There are no forts under siege.
Revolution Phase
The Jihad is 2, and there are 2 tribal units on the board. No tribal
units are added or removed.
War Status Phase
This phase is skipped on the first turn.
The Replacement Phase
AP: He has no RPs to use.
CP: He has no damaged units that can use the CP-Allied RPs, so
they are wasted. There are 4 TU RPs, and they are used as follows:
The two reduced TU 3-2-4 Corps (current value 2-2-4) are brought
back to full-strength side (for 1 RP each), and the two corps in
Koprukay (a reduced TU 4-3-4 Corps (current value 3-3-4) and
a reduced TU 3-2-4 Corps (current value 2-2-4)) are also brought
back to full-strength side (for 1 RP each).
The CP Player converts one GE RP to a TU RP and rebuilds a TU
2-1-4 Inf Div from the Eliminated Units Box, placing it in Erzerum
(this Turkish unit could not be placed in Damascus or Baghdad,
since it is not a Turkish-Arab unit).
RP Markers are set back to 0.
Draw Strategy Card Phase
The CP Player draws seven cards to bring his hand back up to seven.
The AP Player still has two cards in his hand, so draws five cards
to bring his hand back up to seven.
Hands for Turn 2
AP Player
Secret Treaty (retained)
Enver Goes East (retained)
Royal Naval Blockade
Russian Reinforcements (#10)
Armenian Druzhiny
Sphere Of Influence
Shore Bombardment
Action Phase
CP Player
Enver To Constantinople
German Military Mission
Persian Push
Parliamentary Inquiry
Sandstorms and Mosquitoes
German High Command
AP Action 1
The AP plays Enver Goes East for the event permanently removing
the card from play. The AP Player announces that the Turks at Rize
must attack Ardahan and that the Turks at Koprukay must attack
Sarikamis. The CP Player then conducts those attacks (during The
AP Player’s Action Round).
Rize combat: Since the CP units are attacking into mountains,
The CP Player must roll for Severe Weather. He rolls a 2 -- all fullstrength attacking units must be reduced (units which are already
reduced are never harmed by Severe Weather). The TU Stanke Bey
Div is reduced from its 2-?-4 side to its 1-1-4 side and the 2-2-0
Laz is reduced to its 1-1-0 side. These two units now add up to 2
SCU Combat Factors. The CP will roll on the 2 column on the LFT,
shifted left to the 1 column, since the defenders are in mountains.
The AP Player will roll on the 4 column on the LFT. No CCs are
played. The CP Player rolls a 1, yielding a 0 Loss Number (LN).
The AP Player rolls a 1, yielding a 1 LN. The Laz has a 2 LF and
cannot accept the loss. The Stanke Bey Div has a 1 LF and can accept the loss. The CP Player must eliminate the Stanke Bey unit (it
is removed permanently due to the black dot, which signifies that
this unit can never take RPs).
Koprukay combat: Again, the CP Player must roll for Severe
Weather. He rolls a 4 – again, all full-strength attacking units must
be reduced. The TU 4-3-4 Corps is flipped to its 3-3-4 side. The TU
3-2-4 Corps is flipped to its 2-2-4 side. The reduced TU 2-1-4 Inf
Div (current value 1-1-4) is already flipped and is unaffected. These
units' Combat Factors now total to 6. The CP will roll on the 6-8
column on the HFT, shifted left to the 5 column due to the mountains.
The AP will roll on the 4 column on the HFT. The CP announces no
also gains an additional +1 DRM for having the only Cav Div in the
battle, for a total +2 DRM. The Yudenich HQ is on its ‘0’ side, so
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
adds no DRM to the battle. The CP Player rolls a 1, getting a 2 LN.
The AP Player rolls a 3 (+2 DRM for a total of 5) and gets a 4 LN.
The AP Player reduces the RU 2-2-6 Cav Div. The CP Player takes
the the TU reduced 3-2-4 Corps (current value 2-2-4) and places it
in the Eliminated Units Box. A TU 2-1-4 Inf Div is placed in the
square from the Reserve Box. This is then flipped to its reduced
1-1-4 side. It is then also placed in the eliminated box.
The AP wins the combat. As a reward, the Yudenich HQ is flipped
back to full-strength. The Armenian Druzhiny CC card remains in
play since the AP Player won the combat. It can be used in subsequent Action Rounds this turn if the conditions are met again. It is
placed face-up near the map board
Even though this is The AP Player’s turn, these attacks fulfill the
CP’s “RU” MO, and the CP MO Marker is moved to “Made.”
CP Action 1
The CP Player plays Parliamentary Inquiry for RPs, recording 2
TU RPs and 1 GE RP.
AP Action 2
The AP Player plays Royal Naval Blockade as the event, permanently removing it from play. The TU Max RP Marker is put in the
25 space on the General Records Track. The VP Marker is flipped to
its “Blockade” side. From now, whenever the Turkish player records
TU RPs, the Max TU RP Marker is lowered by that amount (at the
end of the turn, any unused TU RPs are credited back, shifting the
Max TU RP up by that amount).
CP Action 4
The CP Player plays Persian Push for 4 SR points. He redeploys
two TU-A 1-1-4 Inf Divs from Aleppo to Haifa; a TU 2-1-4 Inf
Div from Constantinople to Amara; and a TU 2-1-4 Inf Div from
Constantinople to Ruwandiz.
AP Action 5
The AP Player plays Secret Treaty as the event, permanently removing it from play. This allows both players now to enter Neutral
Persia (the Persian Neutrality Marker flips). One BR 1-1-1 Persian
Cordon unit is placed in Central Persia (in spite of the enemy unit,
since enemies can coexist in Regions -- the CP Player retains control
of this space until the Qashqai tribe is removed). The Jihad Level
rises from 5 to 6, and the CP Player selects the Sinjabi tribe from
the Tribal Warfare Key, putting it in Kermanshah.
The AP Player Activates Tabriz for movement. The 2-2-6 Persian
Coss. Cav Div moves to Hamadan (a VP space). The RU 2-2-6
Cav Div moves to Qum by way of Teheran (a VP space). The RU
units captured two VP spaces this turn (even though the unit only
moved through Teheran). Thus, the VP Marker moves –2 (from 12
to 10). Both spaces are marked with RU Control Markers, and the
RU VP Marker moves +2 (from -1 to 1). Also, Qum is a Jihad City.
Thus, the Jihad Level shifts –1 (from 6 to 5)—the CP Player does
not remove a tribe from the map when this happens (although if the
Jihad Level remains at 5, he will need to take a tribe off the map at
the end of the turn). Mark all spaces moved through in Persia with
AP control markers (remembering to use RU Control Markers on
the VP spaces).
CP Action 5
The CP Player plays German High Command for 2 OPS. The following spaces are Activated for movement: Ruwandiz and Cizre.
CP Action 2
The CP Player plays Enver To Constantinople as the event, permanently removing it from play. The Enver to the Front MO is
cancelled. The CP Player draws three of the AP Player’s cards from
his hand, looks at them, and returns them.
Ruwandiz: The CP Player organizes a TU Corps at reduced strength.
A TU 2-1-4 Inf Div is sent to the Reserve Box, and a reduced TU
2-1-4 Inf Div (current value 1-1-4) is removed from the game. A
reduced TU 3-2-4 Corps (current value 2-2-4) is taken from the
Corps Asset Box and placed in Ruwandiz.
Cizre: The TU-A 1-1-4 Inf Div moves to Suleymaniye.
AP Action 3
The AP Player plays Sphere Of Influence as the event, placing two
RU 2-1-4 Inf Divs and a RU 2-2-4 Elite Inf Div in Suj Bulak.
CP Action 3
The CP Player plays Jihad! as the event, permanently removing
it from play. The CP WS advances to 4, and the Combined WS
advances to 8. The Jihad Level rises from 2 to 5, which allows the
CP Player to put three more tribes on the map (he puts the Bakhtiari
tribe in Isfahan, the Qashqai in Central Persia, and the Tangistani
in Southern Persia). Each of these spaces is a VP space – thus, the
VP Marker moves +3 (from 9 to 12).
AP Action 4
The AP Player plays Russian Reinforcements (#10) as the event,
permanently removing it from play. The reduced RU 3-3-4 IV
Caucasian Corps (current value 2-3-4), a RU 2-2-4 Elite Inf Div,
and a RU 2-1-4 Inf Div are placed in Tiflis. The RU 2-2-6 Cav Div
is placed in Central Asia.
AP Action 6
The AP Player plays Shore Bombardment for 2 OPS. The following
spaces are Activated for movement: Erevan and Tabriz.
Tabriz: The RU 2-2-4 Elite Inf Div moves to Sehneh.
Erevan: The RU 2-2-4 Elite Inf Div moves to Khoy.
CP Action 6
The CP Player plays German Military Mission as the event, permanently removing it from play. The CP WS moves to 5, and Combined
WS moves to 9. The 1 TU Bonus RP shifts the TU RP Marker +1
(to 3). This Bonus RP does not effect the TU Max RP Marker. The
CP Player places trenches in Smyrna, Adana, Chardak, and Ezine.
Note: If you are planning on continuing this game, feel free to change
the placement of these trenches at this time.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Siege Phase
Draw Strategy Card Phase
There are no forts under siege.
Revolution Phase
The Jihad is at 5 and there are 6 tribes on the board. The CP Player
chooses to remove the Tangistani from Southern Persia back to the
Tribal Box. Since tribes can only control a space when physically
present, Southern Persia immediately reverts to AP control, and the
VP Marker shifts –1 (from 10 to 9).
War Status Phase
Both players have at least 4 WS points, so the War Commitment
Level for each player moves to Limited War. Move the Maximum
LCUs in Restricted Areas Markers to the 2 box (Limited War).
The Replacement Phase
AP: He has no RPs to use.
CP: He uses ½ a CP-A RP to repair the Laz tribe at Rize. He also
has 3 TU RPs to use. He repairs the TU III Corps at Koprukay (for
1 RP) and rebuilds a destroyed TU 3-2-3 Corps at full-strength at
Erzerum (for 2 RPs).
The CP also converts 1 GE RP to TU RP and flips the reduced 3-2-4
Corps (current value 2-2-4) to its 3-2-4 side.
All RP Markers are reset to 0.
The CP Player chooses to discard the CC remaining in his hand—
Sandstorm And Mosquitoes. Both players take their Limited War
Deck and shuffle it together with their Draw Pile and Discard Pile.
The CP Player then draws seven cards to bring his hand up to seven,
after which the AP Player does likewise.
Hands for Turn 3
AP Player
No Prisoners
Armenian Uprising
Armoured Cars
Indian Reinforcements
Salonika Invasion
The Serbs Return
CP Player
Liberate Suez
German Intrigues In Persia
Turkish Reinforcement (#26)
Djemal Crushes Secret Societies
“I Order You To Die!”
End of Turn
Because it is a Winter turn and the Blockade is in effect, the AP
Player gains 1 VP (the VP Marker moves from 9 to 8). Advance the
Turn Marker to Spring 1915.
You should now know enough to play this game successfully, consulting the rules and Player Aid Cards as needed. This sample game is
balanced, should you wish to continue it.
This guide contains some basic pointers that the average player
would discover in the first few games through trial and error. Part
of the fun of a new game is creating strategies to surprise your opponents. So, we have tried not to take any of that fun away. The
intent of this guide is to prevent a beginner from making any basic
mistakes. You’re welcome.
Russia (RU)
Resign yourself to the fact that Russia will almost always lose. The
Russian Revolution will almost always occur, and Turkey will take
the Russian VPs if not otherwise distracted. So what is the point
of Russia? To make Turkey spend valuable RPs and other assets,
to keep them occupied on multiple fronts, and to force them to use
their Strategy Cards for Operations Points instead of the (frequently)
more valuable events. Russians should not feel bad about taking
even losses, knowing that the Turks have a limited supply of RPs.
But remember to take RPs to repair your losses.
On the other hand, delaying the Russian Revolution keeps Turkish
corps tied down, so the Russians need to try to gain some VPs to
make sure the Revolution does not occur too early. Capturing Trabzon is hard early on, but is an important VP as well as a forward
supply center for Russia—in fact, a campaign to take Trabzon,
even if it must be sustained over several turns, is often well worth
the Russian's while, forcing the CP Player to respond constantly. If
Persia remains neutral, you deprive yourself of easy VPs in Persia
and thus accelerate the Revolution. Don’t let this happen.
Regarding Romania, it is possible, but difficult, to pick up some VPs
in the Balkans. If you choose the right time, when the Germans are
tied down, it is possible to delay the revolution still further.
Perhaps most importantly, the Russians should be aggressive. Ultimately their losses don't matter, because the Revolution will happen
at some point, so attacking often (as long as it's not a suicide mission)
usually hurts the CP strategic position more than the AP strategic
position. One sure way to make your life extremely difficult as the
AP Player is to sit back with the Russians and wait for the Turkish
army to come to you. If that happens, the CP Player doesn't really
have to do anything at all except prepare to defend against the BR/
IN/ANZ forces in the south and west.
British Empire (BR, IN, ANZ)
Egypt is very weak at the start of the war, and at risk of a carefully
planned Turkish invasion. A good tactic is to SR divisions from India
and Baluchistan to make up for this weakness (as the British did
historically). When sending divisions to Egypt, note where tribes
can appear, and garrison accordingly. If the CP Player invades, strike
back quickly—there are too many VP spaces in too small a space
to allow a sustained Turkish advance.
The Bawi are the bane of Basra. (Yes, you may quote me on that.)
It is important for the British to quickly take control of the ports
and garrison Ahwaz from the Bawi. If attempting to reach Baghdad,
weigh carefully the advantages and disadvantages of the northern
and southern routes. Tactical maneuvering can reduce the amount
of needed battles.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Regarding Persia, be ready to have the BR/IN/ANZ forces support
the Russian violation of Persian neutrality, and be wary of the CP
Player taking control (usually via tribal placement) of the Persian
regions—take them back as quickly as possible when this happens.
Then, get ready to launch into Russia as soon as the Revolution occurs to defend VP squares; if you don't, the CP Player can have a field
day taking advantage of the Revolution and possibly even moving
the VP marker enough for an automatic victory. Finally, under no
condition allow the Turkish player into Afghanistan.
Don’t leave valuable LCUs lying in the Corp Assets Box. The
Turkish player should build a majority of his Corps in Mobilization
or very soon thereafter. Saving a few to respond to invasions may
also be wise. But be aware that replacing two SCUs with a reduced
LCU often leaves a space more vulnerable to attack, so be careful
when and where to exercise this option. Early in a Winter turn is an
excellent time to organize LCUs in the northeast sector of the map,
since the Russians are unlikely to attack with the threat of seasonal
attrition hanging over their heads,
In the Balkans, the British can mount a fair defense of Serbia if they
send an invasion to Salonika early. Send the British late, and you
may find yourself stuck on the beaches. Why send units at all? To
stop the railroad from connecting from Berlin to Constantinople.
Once this railroad is connected, the Turkish can use GE RPs and
effectively double their RP power.
Bulgaria is a very important card for Turkey. Letting the Germans
capture northern Serbia will open a rail line from Berlin, and allow
the Turkish player to begin using unlimited German RPs, rather than
the limited Turkish RPs. However, Bulgaria requires a commitment
of OPS and shouldn’t be played if a maneuver is required elsewhere.
Indeed, once the Balkans are in the game, you'll be amazed at how
quickly it managed to capture all your attention and use up all your
cards—be careful of this, because while you're trying to destroy the
AP forces up there, you're allowing the AP forces to plot and plan
strategy in the south.
Invasions are great threats. Save an invasion card until 1917 and the
Turks will have to keep garrisoning places you may invade. Toss
away all your invasion cards early and the Turks will free up their
garrisons to come find you.
Players may be hoping we’ll tell them the best places for naval
invasions. The answer is that they are all useful under certain circumstances, and indeed you will find yourself constantly assessing
and reassessing the potential of each location. But all successful
invasions require large OPS cards to back them up, and careful
planning of reinforcements. If you are holding small OPS cards in
your hands, save any invasion card for another turn. An invasion at
Gallipoli in particular requires a very large commitment. There are
three VPs on this map to simulate the significance of small advances
on morale. Anyone attempting to take Gallipoli may wish to follow Churchill’s ignored advice and bring more troops than arrive
with two invasion cards to that location in an attempt to completely
conquer this very difficult area (Gallipoli can be a true sink-hole,
eating up OPS while providing significantly less benefit than hoped).
Bringing an invasion card down to Egypt may not be as exciting as
an assault on Gallipoli, but it will make Allenby happy, and it is a
strategy worth considering.
The Arab Revolt is not a card to overlook. Capturing the Hejaz
will lower the Jihad a full point. And capturing Aqaba will give the
revolt a strong division when Allenby comes. Capturing Medina
will remove another Jihad point and give the allies a VP.
Do not give the Turkish player Jihad points. These can quickly spiral
out of control and lead to an Indian Mutiny. If you see the Jihad at
six points, think about capturing a Jihad city soon.
Don’t remove garrisons from beachheads until all invasion cards
have been played (and don’t forget Project Alexandria). Leaving
LCUs in the vicinity of Gallipoli is also wise.
Your Mobilization cards are strong, but saving some for later in the
game can deal the Allied player a huge surprise.
Turkey should plan its strategy towards winning outright by Winter
1917. After this, AP event cards can cause your Arabs units to revolt
and Turkey may receive negative RPs (which means you have to
take off healthy troops). If the Russian Revolution has occurred on
time, you can survive these cards, but it gets more difficult with
each passing turn.
Jihad points are a very subtle and effective way to hurt the allies. A
good use of the Catastrophic Attack cards can yield some Jihad
when the BR units become out of supply. Qum is a Jihad city in
Persia that is worth capturing. Also many Turkish cards increase
Jihad. The goal is to reach a Jihad of seven. At this point, you can
begin to roll for a coup in Central Asia on a roll of ‘6’. Getting
Central Asia gives a Jihad point, and you can begin to roll for
Afghanistan. But the true goal is to clear a path to get units into
these countries for nearly automatic die rolls. When Afghanistan
joins the CP, it gets powerful raiding forces that can destroy almost
anything adjacent to it and threatens Russia and India. Increased
Jihad opens up new cards to play and leads up to a possible mutiny
within the Indian army.
Turkey (TU, TU-A)
Turkish players have limited RPs, which is no problem if the war
doesn’t take long, right? The Turkish player should often consider
using his ability to withdraw from combat to protect valuable RPs.
In addition, try to play for the event any cards that provide bonus
TU RPs: these RPs don't count against the maximum RP number.
Be a patient general regarding Russia. The Russian Revolution will
occur and those VPs can be yours. Your goal should be to force the
AP player to use cards to maneuver the Russian forces but not to let
them attack you with any kind of an advantage—the Russians can
afford the losses, you can't. However, plan to ensure that the Russians
don’t take any VPs, and attack if they threaten to do so.
Slow your attackers down. Put sacrificial weak units one space
away from your opponent. Your opponent will have to spend a turn
moving next to them and then another turn attacking it. While your
opponent is delayed, place your stronger units in defensive locations,
build trenches, or take RPs.
Don’t neglect the Balkans. There are five VPs the Germans can
take there, and you can gain an additional three VPs by keeping an
LCU in Galicia. But once again, don't let the Balkans sap all your
resources, unless you can guarantee that the area will sap your opponent's resources as well.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
The Allied Player should try to reach a Combined War Status of 26
as soon as possible in order to play Lloyd George Takes Command
and allow the play of Allenby. By the same token, the CP should
not play War Status points if the Combined War Status is near 26.
Lloyd George can be played regardless of WS by Fall 1916 every
game however. The CP player should try to get to Total War quickly
in order to stop VP losses from the AP Blockade card. Beware that
a Combined War Status of 40 causes an Armistice and is possible.
Pan-Turkism: This looks like an amazing card on the surface, but
be aware that this card will eventually loose you a VP and waste
valuable time as you deal with an Armenian revolt. Consider carefully whether this policy will be beneficial to your game plan.
Persian Push: The Russians need Persia more than you do. Force
the Russians to play Secret Treaty and you get a Jihad point. But
once again, consider your game plan.
Save Tiflis: This card can save you from an aggressive Russian
front. Save this card for the right moment.
Parvus to Berlin: Let me state this as simply as possible—play
this as the event immediately. If you cycle this through your deck,
you have likely lost the game. Play this event immediately.
Catastrophic Attack: The Turkish player can use this to put AP
troops out of supply. Until this card is played, the AP player should
consider leaving a garrison or two behind lines at vital supply
Royal Navy Blockade: Play this card immediately as an event if
you want it to have any real effect in the game. Even recycling this
card once gives a significant advantage to the CP.
Churchill Prevails: This card allows the play of invasions. Usually this should be played immediately as the event.
Murray Takes Command: Take the time to play this event.
Kitchener’s Invasion: This is your only surprise invasion, giving
the CP player little time to react. Use this card carefully.
Jerusalem by Christmas: This is a risk, but a risk worth taking if
you have the right CC to pull it off.
Liberate Suez: Is it worth losing some troops to gain a Jihad point?
In most cases, yes. If the BR look weak in Egypt consider even a
strong attack with backup from some Egyptian tribes.
As caliph, the Ottoman sultan was revered as the defender of Islam,
even outside Ottoman borders. In November 1914, he used this
religious authority to issue a call for holy war or jihad against the
British and Russian invaders. The sultan’s proclamation was immediately translated into Arabic and Indian languages, in hope that
it would sow dissension within the British Empire, resulting in an
Indian military mutiny or a Muslim uprising in Egypt. The jihad
did promote armed uprisings by some tribes, but no major episodes
occurred within the British Empire other than the Senussi uprisings
in western Egypt.
These RPs do NOT count against the Max TU RP total.
The Ottoman army was not organized in the same manner as a
European army. During war, European militaries planned to mobilize additional units, using new manpower or trained reserves. The
Ottomans maintained a large number of undermanned units during
peacetime. During mobilization, reservists were used to bring these
units up to full strength.
Political intrigues in Constantinople required Enver’s attention
and could distract him from his military goals at the front. Since
Enver’s military plans were not always optimal, this distraction was
often a good thing (for the Ottoman military). A prime example
was the nearly complete obliteration of two Turkish corps that Enver ordered to attack the Russians. The corps marched heroically
through blizzards in the mountains at the end of December 1914
—with no winter gear. The survivors of the march were obliterated
in combat (although even in that desperate strait the Turks nearly
broke the Russian lines, which would have sent the Russians pouring back towards Tiflis). Enver had hoped to achieve a Caucasian
This event ‘negates’ damage—the reserves are rushed into battle
before the unit is destroyed. Thus, any unit can be repaired, even one
which normally would be permanently eliminated by the combat.
This event can only repair damage caused by this combat. It returns
a unit to its pre-combat condition. It cannot be used to repair to fullstrength a unit that was already reduced when the combat began.
If the reduced unit was eliminated, the event could return the unit
to the board in its reduced state.
These Bonus RPs do NOT count against the Max TU RP total.
Note: The parenthetical remark on the card was added to clarify the
procedure for attacking units—attacking units which were damaged
in the combat but have been brought back to full-strength by this
event are NOT eligible to Advance After Combat. This should be
clear from the fact that the card is played after combat. The phrase
is badly worded, for which we apologize. The phrase has no bearing
on retreats—they occur per usual rules if required, with any rebuilt
defender appearing in the space of retreat. So long as the card is
played after all other combat steps, it should have the intended
Despite the lack of infrastructure in many parts of the Ottoman
Empire, there were times when troops could be rushed to the front
quite rapidly to plug gaps. Turkish soldiers were well-known for
their ability to force march quickly and effectively to the front. The
Tigris River also served as a fast route for troops to navigate down
from Mosul to the Iraq front.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
The Germans, under Field Marshall von der Goltz, actively advised
the Ottomans on military operations, both in Istanbul and at the
front. As early as August 1914, German personnel were moving
through neutral Romania and Bulgaria into Turkey to assist in
Turkey’s preparations for war. These German ‘advisors’ obtained
crucial supplies, and they trained and organized Ottoman units.
Goltz began advising the Turks as a major in 1883, becoming aidede-camp to the Sultan in 1914. Goltz was later sent to oppose the
Indian Army’s advances in Mesopotamia, and he masterminded the
Turkish defense at Ctesiphon (south of Baghdad). That battle sent
British General Townshend’s troops reeling back to Kut. The subsequent siege of Kut and the final surrender of Townshend’s forces,
was a major defeat for the British Empire. The Turks’ victory at Kut
proved that non-European troops could inflict a humiliating defeat
on the forces of the British Empire. Days prior to Kut’s surrender,
Goltz died—due either to natural causes or poison (the truth is unknown). The presence of German officers was frequently resented
and recognized as a mark of Germany’s colonial intentions in the
Ottoman Empire.
Violent sandstorms could completely halt Allied attacks. For example, Maude’s 1917 attack on Turkish forces north of Baghdad
(near Samara) was postponed due to a powerful sandstorm. During
the interim, the Turks reinforced their lines, counterattacked, then
withdrew. The British did not pursue, effectively ending their advance toward Mosul (which they successfully entered only after the
Armistice, despite Turkish protests that Mosul belonged to Turkey
at the end of the war—but oil will tell….). Malaria could render
entire units nearly ineffective for lengthy periods—it was perhaps
the main source of casualties in Greece and Mesopotamia.
The RU RP Marker may not be reduced below zero by this event.
The Goeben, one of the most advanced, powerful warships in the
world, was German. Chased across the Mediterranean by the British
fleet after the outbreak of hostilities in France, the Goeben escaped
to neutral Istanbul. There it was added to the Ottoman fleet (under
the pretense of the Turks having bought it from Germany)—the
German crew purportedly became Ottoman military personnel,
complete with fez. The Allies were outraged, since a truly neutral
Turkey should have imprisoned the crew and confiscated the ship
under the obligations of international law. Instead, the Goeben’s
commander was appointed head of the Turkish Black Sea Fleet.
By this, the Young Turk regime openly sided with Germany. This
was made even more clear when the Goeben (under its German
commander’s orders) sailed into the Black Sea and bombarded the
Russian coast in October 1914. In response, the Russian and British
declared war on Turkey and invaded in November 1914.
Under the command of General Liman von Sanders, the German
Military Mission greatly strengthened Ottoman defenses, especially
the antiquated fortifications guarding the Dardanelles and The Narrows (the sea lane from the Eastern Mediterranean leading to the
Black Sea and Istanbul). The Germans continued to enhance Turkey’s military effectiveness throughout the war, and Enver turned
over primary responsibility for defense of the Gallipoli peninsula to
the Germans shortly after the British naval bombardment.
Intriguingly, when Enver first proposed a German-Turkish alliance in
July 1914, the German ambassador turned him down. Two days later,
however, the Kaiser himself approved the alliance, but it was kept
secret. In part this was because the Ottomans would be incapable
of real military action until December 1914 at the earliest.
Periodic British military debacles and disasters, such as the withdrawal from Gallipoli and the surrender at Kut, led to embarrassment
abroad and political pressure from the press and parliament at home.
Initially, investigations by parliamentary committees (such as The
Dardanelles Commission) helped to paralyze British strategy and
greatly slow the flow of men and materiel headed east.
The new unit may be in the space chosen to Activate for movement
using the OPS from this card. This event remains playable even if
the AP Player has already played Secret Treaties.
Early in the war, the Ottomans made a major effort, with minimal
forces, to grab territory in Persia, especially in Azerbaijan, which
was almost a Russian protectorate or colony. The Turks entered
through Suj Balak, capturing Tabriz with a tiny force, which instantly
fled when the Russians returned (after halting their abortive retreat
to ‘save’ Tiflis). The Turks did not initially cross into the main portions of neutral Persia, only the Russian-held area—reputedly to
liberate Persian lands from the Russian invaders.
Units which cannot retreat in accord with this event (e.g., RU units
surrounded in a Black Sea port) need not retreat, and they suffer
no adverse consequences for failure to do so. This was a voluntary
withdrawal, not a forced retreat under fire.
Even though Enver’s 1914 attack through the snowy mountains was
a dismal failure (resulting in the annihilation of two corps), the Russian commander in Tiflis panicked. Fearing a Turkish breakthrough
at the height of the battle, he ordered all his units to fall back towards
Tiflis. Only General Yudenich held his ground, defeating the Turkish
advance, making the Russian retreat appear completely ridiculous.
This resulted in the dismissal of the overall Russian commander
and in Yudenich’s elevation to overall command of the Caucasian
theater. And rightly so!
The CP player must use 2 OPS to attack AP units in Egypt, or he
may not play this card.
One of Enver’s main rivals was Djemal Pasha. Based in Damascus
and in command of all Ottoman forces in Syria-Palestine, Djemal
established a semi-independent kingdom. In January 1915, he
launched an early strike against Egypt, hoping to capture the Suez
Canal and inspire a Muslim uprising in Egypt. He successfully sent
five divisions across the Sinai desert (no mean feat) and attacked
across the canal near Ismailia. The attack was a complete failure
due in large part to the alertness of the few Indian troops stationed
there. A few Turkish troops made it across the canal using pontoon
boats that they had hauled across Sinai for this purpose, but they
were overwhelmed and easily defeated.
To clarify—no Jihad Revolt can be rolled for prior to play of this
card (not even the free roll the CP Player gets the first time a CP
unit moves into each of the Jihad Revolt countries).
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
For centuries, the Ottoman Empire had done much to accommodate
the diverse peoples and religions within its borders. Under Enver,
the Young Turks stressed an ideology that asserted the supremacy
of the ethnic Turks and advocated a vision of Turks reasserting their
supremacy in the Near East and Central Asia, including Persia (under
Ottoman leadership, of course). A policy such as this was increasingly troublesome to ethnic groups within the Ottoman Empire,
especially the Armenians (but also the Greeks and Arabs). Thus,
this policy may have helped to forge Turkish ethnic unity, but it also
contributed to the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire.
Surprisingly, the Ottomans and Germans worked hard to foment
rebellion in India. Their efforts included shipping arms secretly from
the United States to Indian rebels. These arms were intercepted on
the high seas by British intelligence. The Germans nearly succeeded
in instigating a mutiny amongst some Indian units, but this too was
quashed by excellent British intelligence. Nevertheless, the fires of
Indian nationalism were stoked, and to some small extent the Central
Powers can be credited with fanning the flames of nationalism that
eventually did drive the British from India.
Djemal Pasha was one of the three most influential of Turkey’s leaders, one of three men who dominated the Young Turks' revolutionary
movement and seized control of the Sultan’s government in 1908.
During World War One, Djemal was in charge of the Fourth Army
in Syria-Palestine and ruthlessly suppressed the Arab nationalist
movement there. His inability or unwillingness to deal with the
Arabs on an equal footing (or an honorable basis) contributed in
large part to the Arabs’ desire to throw off Ottoman governance,
leading very directly to the Arab Revolt.
This card also represents the fact that the Ottomans had a substantial
spy network in Egypt that was quite active, especially in the first
half of the war.
King Constantine was married to the German Kaiser’s sister and
seems to have mildly favored the German cause, while remaining
neutral (at least the King sought not to anger the Germans, his assumption being that the Germans were likely to win—so at least
one ought not to anger them). When Venizelos, the Greek Prime
Minister, invited the Allies to land at Salonika, throwing Greece
into the Allies’ arms, Constantine forced Venizelos’ resignation.
Venizelos then established a rival government and military under
Allied protection. Greece wavered between the AP and CP until
the Allies forced Constantine into exile and brought Greece firmly
into the Allied camp. These Allied efforts included an abortive
invasion of Athens and a full-scale blockade of Greece, as well as
major diplomatic efforts, including a visit by General Kitchener
himself (Himself!)
In May 1916, the Bulgarians crossed the Greek border, approaching
the Greek fort guarding the Rupel Pass. The Greeks opened fire, and
the surprised Bulgarians scampered away. Shortly, the Bulgarians
reappeared. This time Fort Rupel’s commander received instructions
to hold his fire and surrender the fort to the Bulgarians, weaponry
intact. This outraged the Allies, who saw it as a sure sign of King
Constantine’s treachery and pro-German sentiments. However, this
maneuver may have been the result of contorted Greek efforts to
avoid war with Germany and Bulgaria and to remain neutral (after
all, the Allies were granted access to Salonika; why not the Bulgarians to Fort Rupel?—so the logic may have flowed).
This card also represents the fact that Bulgarians had already occupied strongly fortified mountain positions at Doiran in December
1915, as French and British troops retreated out of Serbia back into
Many Arabs were forced into military service on behalf of the Ottoman Empire. Others joined voluntarily as a means of advancement.
In fact, as can be seen in this game, a significant portion of the Ottoman army consisted of Arab units. As the war went on, though,
Arab ‘devotion’ to the Ottoman cause waned, especially after the
Arab Revolt began in the Hejaz.
Early in the war, British information on Ottoman regions and troop
movements was almost wholly inadequate. Indeed, the British were
sometimes surprised by what the Turks could accomplish, badly
underestimating a worthy foe. For example, at Ctesiphon, the Ottomans rushed multiple units into the front lines right under the
British nose. The subsequent British assault ran into a brick wall
of Ottoman resolve, resulting in a resounding British defeat and
the retreat to Kut.
Once the AP Player receives this card, it does not count toward the
total number of cards he may hold in his hand and may only be used
as a Combat Card.
Jafar Pasha was an Arab officer in the Ottoman forces who attended
officer’s school in Germany, received the Iron Cross, helped fortify
Gallipoli, was decorated by Enver Pasha, and was hand-picked by
Enver to lead the Senussi rebellion (smuggling in arms and gold
past the British blockade). Jafar was then captured by New Zealand
cavalry, escaped from house arrest in Cairo by use of a bedsheet
rope, was recaptured, and then began recruiting Arab POWs to join
the Arab Revolt. Eventually, the British made him Faisal's chief of
staff in charge of the Arab Northern Army, where he served with
distinction. He was later decorated by Gen. Allenby—his honor
guard being the very New Zealand cavalry unit that had almost killed
him when he was captured during the fight with the Senussi! After
the war, the British put him in charge of post-war Iraq (initially as
Minister of Defense, later as Prime Minister). From all accounts,
everybody liked him. I guess so—he became Iraqi ambassador to
London, slept at Buckingham Palace, and became a British barrister.
He was also brilliant—speaking something like eight languages.
Unfortunately, he was apparently murdered attempting to prevent
the Iraqi military coup that toppled the monarchy in the 1930s.
Despite Britain’s eventual dominance of the skies later in the war,
initially British airpower was decidedly inferior in this region. In addition, Germany made a concerted (and successful) effort to bolster
the Ottoman air force in the first years of the war. During that time,
both numbers and expertise gave this composite German-Ottoman
air force superiority in the Near East and played a decided role in
preventing British efforts to collect intelligence on Ottoman troop
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Once the Turkish-German air force lost air superiority, it was never
regained. Thereafter, Britain owned the skies. The lack of information on British troop movements (coupled with Britain’s resultant
knowledge of Ottoman units) would cost the Turks dearly, leading
directly to the massive British breakthrough at the Gaza-Beersheba
even when grossly undermanned. In game terms, these corps allow
a lot of fighting to occur using the Heavy Fire Table, even if the
corps are built in a reduced state.
The introduction of German u-boats altered the balance of naval
power in the Mediterranean and resulted in atrocities at sea, including the sinking of large hospital ships (such as Braemar Castle
and The Britannic). No Allied invasions were attempted or even
seriously contemplated once the German submarine presence in
the Mediterranean became a dominant factor. Indeed, without the
ability to run supplies into Greece from Italy across the narrow
waterway at Trieste (where subs could more easily be avoided), the
Allied effort in the Balkans would have been severely hamstrung or
doomed. The German submarine forces were dramatically increased
in 1917 (see CP Event CP#53).
This card represents the disastrous Indian Army attack south of
Baghdad at Ctesiphon in November 1915. The British general,
Townshend, badly overstretched his units at the end of a very long
supply line. In addition, the Turks had brought up far more reinforcements in stronger positions than Townshend realized—the
Ottoman Arab units had been running north ever since the Indian
Army landed at Basra (and it was expected that they would continue
to do so). After a disastrous attack, Townshend ordered his units to
retreat to Kut. There they were surrounded and besieged. Despite
massive British efforts to rescue the trapped units, the men at Kut
eventually surrendered. This card represents the abysmal state of
British intelligence about Ottoman forces, as well as the gross
overconfidence of many British officers who expected to defeat
the Turks easily.
Under the guidance of the German ambassador in Constantinople
(Baron von Wangenheim) and the on-site leadership of the “German Lawrence” (Wilhelm Wassmuss), Persia was reduced to a
state of tribal rebellion and near chaos for years, contributing to
widespread famine. The German hope of an alliance with a strong
Persia was yet another delusion entertained in Berlin—and included
the remarkable notion (which met with some success) that Muslim
tribes could be convinced that Germany was itself a Muslim nation
besieged by Christians (and that the Kaiser had been on the hajj to
Mecca). In fact, a German-Persian alliance was signed in 1915, but
the only Persian troops available to back it were the 7000 Persian
gendarmerie led by pro-German officers from Sweden. Such an
alliance clearly was toothless.
The speech from which this quote is extracted may be the most
famous speech in Turkish history, the equivalent of a Turkish Gettysburg Address. The man who spoke these words was Mustafa
Kemal—later known as “Ataturk,” the man who in the post-war era
became the father of modern Turkey. He was reportedly a military
genius and had a tenacity and will that was largely unmatched in his
era, except perhaps by men such as Allenby. When the Allies initially
landed at Gallipoli, Kemal ordered his men to rush towards the coast
and hold the poorly defended line at all costs, thereby giving other
Turkish troops time to arrive. He ordered his troops to fight, fully
expecting that they would not survive—but that Turkey would. In
fact, much of his unit did survive, having fought with great distinction, successfully stemming the initial British/ANZAC tide.
Various German efforts were made, but the most famous was a
band of military adventurers led by Niedermayer and Hentig who
evaded British troops in Persia, reaching Kabul. There, they spent
about six months trying to convince the Afghani emir to break his
understanding with Britain and enter the war on the German side.
By January 1916, a written understanding was signed. However,
the emir made his action dependent upon one condition: he would
activate the alliance when German or Turkish troops were put into
the field alongside Afghani warriors (and of course the Kaiser’s
signature would be required). Whether the emir even thought such
conditions were plausible is doubtful—it seems more likely that he
was merely toying with the Germans in an effort to appease German
supporters in his court, including his brother, the Prime Minister.
Nothing came of the supposed alliance. However, the emir was
assassinated in 1919 by anti-British forces, leading directly to the
Third Anglo-Afghan War and formal Afghani independence.
The myth that Turks could not or would not fight well was fully
dispelled at Gallipoli. The British and ANZAC soldiers at Gallipoli
respectfully recognized that the Turkish soldier was a worthy opponent and an excellent fighter, especially when well supplied, well
fed, and well led.
At a meeting with Falkenhayn in 1916, Enver pledged immediately
to send Turkish troops to assist in the invasion of Romania and also
to send an entire Ottoman corps to Galicia. The Turkish troops
acquitted themselves admirably, remaining on the East Front for
a significant period of time, plugging a large gap in the AustroHungarians’ front line. Apparently, Enver hoped that this would
prove Turkey’s worth as an equal partner in the Central Powers,
especially since Turkey was proving itself more reliable and resilient
than the Germans’ Austrian partners.
As the war continued, the Turks began to drain the manpower pool
completely dry, badly damaging the largely agrarian economy.
The TU/TU-A units that Advance After Combat and make the second
attack, must be full-strength and may be a purely TU stack, purely
TU-A stack, or mixed TU/TU-A stack. However, this advancing stack
must not include any units which are not TU/TU-A.
A large number of corps were organized during the war, giving the
Turks an organizational structure well beyond their actual capability
to support troops in the field for a sustained period of time. However,
these corps provided a vital support to the Ottoman military effort,
In the summer of 1915, while Allied forces were busy at Gallipoli,
the Russians pushed towards Mus. Turks began shifting troops to that
sector, unbeknownst to the Russians, including the rebuilt IX Corps.
And the Turks succeeded in amassing a formidable force. They even
stripped the Erzerum area to bolster this force further. Ed Erickson,
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
in his book Ordered to Die, describes this as “a masterful assembly
of forces, conducted in secret under difficult circumstances." The
commander of these forces, Abdulkarim Pasha, launched a series
of attacks that drove Yudenich’s Russians backwards, pushing them
out of Malazgirt. With Enver’s support, Abdulkarim pushed his
already exhausted units still further, attacking towards Eliskirt in an
offensive which Enver named “The Bull’s Eye Directive.” The Turks
actually made it into the Eleskirt valley, but were counterattacked
by the Russians, who almost managed to encircle the over-extended
Turks, forcing them back in a hasty retreat to Malazgirt.
Initially energetic fighters, the Bulgarians were ultimately drained
economically and emotionally, especially due to the ever-increasing
pressure from the British, French, Serbs, and Greeks pressing north
from Salonika. As Austria-Hungary collapsed and the Germans
shifted troops to the Western Front, the Bulgarians became the
sole bulwark in the Balkans holding back the Allied flood. When
Bulgaria’s morale finally collapsed and her troops retreated in massive numbers, the war was over. Within days, Serbia was liberated
and Germany surrendered, knowing that nothing of import stood
between her and the victorious Allied armies from Salonika.
CP#31 GORLICE-TARNOW (Out of Theater Offensive)
This three-month long major offensive against Russian troops in
Galicia (Austro-Hungarian territory) was the initial campaign of the
German XI Army, with combined German and Austro-Hungarian
arms under the command of the German general Mackensen. Weeks
of combat resulted in the collapse of vast portions of the Russian line.
This resulted not only in Russian forces retreating out of Galicia, but
also forced the Russians to pull out of Poland. The Gorlice-Tarnow
campaign forced the Russians to pull troops out of Caucasia and
curtail the supplies sent there.
The sooner this card is played, the worse for the AP. But it is designed
to time out historically. If played at the earliest possible turn (Spring
1915) and if the RU player captures as many VP spaces as was done
historically, the Revolution will occur in Winter 1918—one turn
later than historically. (So, weep not, AP Player, if Parvus makes
an early journey to Berlin—History is still on your side! But wait.
. . theoretically History was on the Bolsheviks’ side. . . .)
CP#32 VERDUN (Out of Theater Offensive)
This German effort to bleed the French Army to death became
the longest and probably the bloodiest battle of World War One.
Falkenhayn funneled massive numbers of German troops into a
meatgrinder, hoping that the French Army would eventually collapse. He wrote: “The string in France has reached breaking point.
A mass breakthrough—which in any case is beyond our means—is
unnecessary. Within our reach there are objectives for the retention
of which the French General Staff would be compelled to throw in
every man they have. If they do so the forces of France will bleed
to death.”
In response, the French pressured the British into launching the
Somme attack further to the north in a successful effort to draw the
Germans away from Verdun. This necessitated the British sending
many troops of the Empire from the Near East into France.
Notably, Kitchener resented having his New Army units used in
this way. He had hoped to keep the British Army fresh until it was
greatly strengthened later in the war when the other combatants were
exhausted. Britain then could dictate the terms of peace. The French
(and Russians) were very alert to this possibility and threatened a
separate peace if Britain did not bleed equitably alongside them!
Turkey and Bulgaria were bitter rivals, having just fought each
other in a bloody Balkans war in 1913 (which included the Bulgarian invasion of European Turkey and Bulgaria’s occupation of the
Turkish fortress at Adrianople). However, the two countries signed
a defensive treaty in August 1914, Turkey having made some territorial concessions to Bulgaria as the price.
Germany then led its new-found friend into war, much to the disappointment of the Allies, who had hoped that Bulgaria would remain
neutral or join the Allied cause. Bulgaria’s surprise entry took the
Serbs in the rear and was timed to coincide with a German-Austria
nassault against Belgrade. Having resisted two previous invasions
successfully, this time Serbia collapsed almost immediately. Bulgarians then pushed into northern Greece, staved off the British and
French, and helped defeat Romania.
Parvus, a Russian exile living in Constantinople, had been a close
associate of Trotsky. After the war had escalated, Parvus traveled
to Berlin to meet with officials, convincing them to help finance a
Russian Revolution. He named Lenin to the Germans as the man
for the job. Although Parvus’ actual role thereafter was small, he
deserves a large share of the credit or blame for setting in motion a
chain of events which culminated in a red revolution.
General Townshend was in command of the initial grand British
march inexorably north towards Baghdad. Actually, he was ordered
to keep his goals microscopically small and do nothing but safeguard the oil in Arabistan. But, remarkably, that required grabbing
additional territory, and then, to safeguard that territory, he was
compelled to acquire more territory, all in the name of building an
ever-expanding cordon around that ever-important oil!
As Ottoman defenses in Mesopotamia collapsed, Townshend was
eventually permitted (encouraged?) to press north, especially since
his journey looked likely to require not much more work than a
hard, hot walk. And in fact, Townshend’s ability to chase the entire
Turkish force north with no more than a few river vessels, a handful of troops, and a couple of small cannon surely gave him scant
cause for concern.
But things are not always as they seem. As others have since found,
success in Iraq can be much harder to attain than it looks. . . .
Just south of Baghdad, Townshend’s troops were overwhelmed by
superior Ottoman forces, and Townshend’s rapid retreat to Kut led
to one the British Empire’s greatest defeats pre-Dunkirk.
After he and his troops surrendered, Townshend was taken to Istanbul, where he was allowed to live in some luxury. In 1918 the
Young Turks released him, sending him to the isle of Lemnos in an
attempt to negotiate a separate peace on their behalf. The meeting
bore no fruit.
If any man can be credited with starting World War One, it is probably Dragutin Dimitrijevic—APIS (“the bee”). A Serbian officer and
founder/leader of the Black Hand society (The Union of Death),
Apis took credit for arming the students who assassinated Archduke
Ferdinand at Sarajevo. He also allegedly directed the murders of
the Serbian monarch and his queen in 1903.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
In 1917 he was accused of again conspiring against the Serbian
government, was arrested, given a political show-trial, and executed.
The Serbian government-in-exile also removed many officers supporting Apis and dispersed an entire Serbian army in an effort to
ensure that there would be no rebellion or mutiny among Apis’
pupils and followers.
Under German command (which the Turks, especially Kemal greatly
resented), Ottoman defenses in Palestine were strengthened.
The acute and chronic shortage of potable water, especially in the
Sinai, greatly slowed the pace of British operations. At times, the
shortage was severe enough (at least in the commander’s mind) to
require a cessation in operations, even on the brink of complete
success in battle. Such was the case at Beersheba, where the British
needed to capture the water wells or withdraw by the end of the day.
Fearing thirst for his men and horses, the commander called off the
attack on the verge of a hard-won victory.
The necessity for water was especially acute when cavalry was
involved, for horses would drop quickly in the great heat without
sufficient water, especially during combat.
Pasha 1 was a “force-multiplier” package that the Germans sent to
aid the Ottoman Fourth Army’s “Desert Force” in the Sinai. The
German advisor in charge of that force (the same officer who planned
the disastrous Turkish attack on the Suez Canal in 1915) was Kress
von Kressenstein. Under his leadership, the Turks again attacked
across the Sinai in 1916 and again failed.
Kress was also put in charge of the defenses at Gaza, successfully repelling the British twice in 1917, the twin defeats leading directly to
the dismissal of Gen. Murray and the appointment of Gen. Allenby.
Allenby’s subsequent success at Gaza led to Kress’ replacement by
Gen. Falkenhayn, and Kress ended the war commanding the tiny
German military mission in Georgia, ensuring that the German flag
flew high over Tiflis. You see that little German unit that the AP
Player gets to put in Georgia? That’s Kress!
Units which were permanently eliminated may not be brought back
into play. If the CP Player is only bringing back 1 or 2 SCUs, it
still costs 1 VP. The CP Player may bring back as many units as
possible, paying the penalty for each. So a GE LCU, 2 AH SCU,
the Alpenkorps, and 2 GE SCU would be a –3 VP penalty (-1 VP
for the LCU and –2 VPs for 5 SCUs).
As the Bulgarian defenses in Serbia and Macedonia began to collapse, the Bulgarian troops melted away or were literally obliterated
by Allied airpower. The Germans began shipping in units from other
fronts and sectors, telling the Bulgarians that they were coming to
“help” and “save” them.
In reality, the German units were undermanned and arrived in bits
and drabs, adding no real ‘teeth’ to the CP defense. Even the Alpenkorps could do nothing to halt the collapse of Bulgaria and the
liberation of Belgrade. In short order, the road to Vienna lay wide
open. Austria-Hungary descended into revolution, and the Germans
Although Enver was in large measure the public face for and most
vocal leader of the Young Turks, it was Talaat, the Minister of the
Interior, that was actually the most important member of the Young
Turks and leader of the largest faction within that movement. This
made him the most influential man in Turkey. His reforms helped
to stabilize the Ottoman government in the midst of military defeats
and massive economic dislocations. (Intriguingly, the Young Turks’
rebellion began under Talaat’s leadership in Salonika in 1908, and it
was also in Salonika that the Allies intervened, crushing the Young
Turks’ lifeline to Germany in 1918.)
As the Russian army collapsed and the Turks pushed forward into
the territory held by the newly formed Transcaucasian Federation
(Armenia and Georgia), the Turks captured weapons and munitions,
especially at the fortress of Kars. The Turks badly needed these,
since their own munitions and armament industry were grossly
inadequate to support their efforts during the long war.
Communications in the region were quite poor, and it was not uncommon for British Imperial units to ‘cross wires’ on orders. This
could lead to the retreat of successful units, lack of support for units
that had successfully advanced under fire, or repeated futile assaults
in the face of fearsome fire with no clear objective in sight.
In 1918, Enver attempted to build a purely Muslim army (i.e., no
Germans!) that would march into Russia, Persia, and Central Asia
in an effort to liberate Muslims and raise up jihadist forces. In fact,
little of a radical nature was accomplished, but the Army of Islam
did clear a path through Armenia and capture Basra, a major oil
center on the Caspian Sea. This ‘army’ was actually about the size
of a division or corps—about 14,000 to 25,000 men.
The placement of the Falkenhayn HQ can cause a bit of confusion.
If the Romania event has not been played, place the Falkenhayn
HQ with the other Yildirim units. If Romania has been played and
if Falkenhayn is still on the map, the CP player may (at his option)
immediately move Falkenhayn to stack with the other Yildirim units
if a line of communication can be traced from Falkenhayn’s current
space to Yildirim’s space. If Falkenhayn has been eliminated prior
to the play of Yildirim his HQ does not reappear. The Yildirim (or Lightning Bolt) force was officially designated
Pasha 2 and was designed as a ‘force multiplier’ that would greatly
increase the fighting effectiveness of the Turkish army. Its initial
destination was Baghdad, with the objective of driving the British
out of Mesopotamia. However, Allenby’s unexpected successes in
Palestine forced Yildirim’s diversion south from Aleppo. Yildirim
was commanded by Gen. Falkenhayn, formerly the supreme commander of all the German forces—O how the mighty are fallen!
The presence of Yildirim actually did little other than embarrass
Falkenhayn and intensify Turkish resentment for Germany’s attempt to dominate Ottoman military affairs. This was nowhere
more evident than in Kemal’s disdain for Falkenhayn’s ‘folly’ in
CP#46 JIHAD SUPREMACY (Hypothetical)
Note that tribes in the Eliminated Units Box do NOT return to the
map—they go back to the Tribal Warfare Key. Units in the Tribal
Warfare Key do NOT go to the map. However, tribes already active
on the map are pumped up to full strength and given a bonus for
combat during this Action Round. Thus, this card is most useful if the
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
CP Player already has a goodly number of tribes active on the map
and wishes to bring many tribes out of the Eliminated Units Box.
This card gives the CP player the option of pouring resources into
a massive tribal uprising against the British and Russian invaders.
Some tribes will leap into action, and others who have given up the
cause will be refreshed and ready for future action. But this card
requires that the fervor for jihad already be strong and requires the
CP player to be willing to give up a 4 OPS card and increase War
Status. Historically, this sort of massive uprising was never attained
during the war.
CP#47 JIHAD OFFENSIVE (Hypothetical)
This card represents the possibility of Turkey gathering itself for
a major strategic effort during Total War. The Turks were actually
building munitions at Aleppo for this sort of major offensive (using
the Yildirim troops) in 1917, but the Aleppo munitions depot exploded. There has been a real question whether British intelligence
had anything to do with this event.
CP#48 ROBERTSON (Hypothetical)
Factually, there was a long-standing debate in Britain between the
Westerners and the Easterners, those who wanted to focus on the war
in France and those who thought the best way to end the war was to
knock out Turkey, relieve Russia, and drive north through Serbia into
the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Robertson, head of the British Army,
fought Lloyd George on this issue. Lloyd George, long a Easterner,
finally began to tip the war effort eastward after becoming Prime
Minister. Eventually Robertson’s efforts to retain a focus on France
became too great an annoyance and Lloyd George had him fired. This
card hypothesizes what might have happened if British efforts in the
east had gone wrong—‘proving’ that the men and materiel being sent
there were worse than wasted—thereby fortifying Robertson and allowing him to win his feud with Lloyd George. If this had happened,
doubtless Robertson would have begun withdrawing from the Near
East ‘sideshow’ and focused fully on France.
In game terms, this logistical lack severely constrains the players’
ability to supply large-scale units in underdeveloped areas of the
Ottoman Empire and makes it impossible to move large bodies of
troops by rail between those areas and Turkey proper.
Before the war began, the Germans were in the process of converting
the Ottoman Empire into an neo-colonial hinterland for Germany,
hoping to improve irrigation and agriculture in the Mesopotamian region, as well as gain access to oil and markets. There was also thought
of German immigration to ‘underpopulated’ Ottoman regions.
The construction of a Berlin to Baghdad railroad was a major element of this strategic plan. When completed, the railroad would have
allowed German troops to reach the Persian Gulf more quickly than
British troops could be shipped from England to the same destination.
In the Adana region (where Turkey meets Syria on the Mediterranean
coast), two massive engineering projects were required to complete
railroad tunnels through the Tarsus Mountains. Work on these tunnels continued throughout the initial years of the war, and they were
finally completed in 1917, connecting Syria-Palestine and Arabia to
Anatolia (Turkey). The railroad was also extended somewhat towards
Mesopotamia, but the resources required to truly complete the railroad
in a timely fashion were never made available.
CP#50 KAISERSCHLACHT (Out of Theater Offensive)
This massive Spring 1918 German offensive on the West Front was
the last major effort to drive the British and French out of the war.
The massive loss of manpower on both sides caused the British to
withdraw troops stationed in the Near East, in particular the 52nd
and 74th Divisions.
My impression is that the Left Wing Group was a combination of
scrap units operating in large part to secure the line around the Damascus to Hejaz railroad. The Turks were quite good at reorganizing
the bits of units they had to create something new.
The Turks were particularly adept at recombining undermanned
units, resulting in stronger formations. This event represents a major
effort to reform the badly mauled units facing Russia, resulting in
stronger, more coherent (albeit fewer) units.
The exception for AP units able to trace supply to Athens represents
those units’ access to the supply route from Italy across the Adriatic
through Albania and into Greece, thereby effectively negating the
German’s advantage in submarines.
In an effort to break Allied will, especially by starving Britain into
submission, the Germans returned to submarine warfare and did so
on a grand scale in Winter 1917. This decision was one factor that
pushed the Americans into the war.
When Germany first created the Yildirim (Lightning Bolt) Force, it
formed up at Aleppo, destined for Mesopotamia and the recapture
of Baghdad. However, Allenby’s sudden breakthrough at GazaBeersheba caused the Yildirim units to be sent south prematurely.
If Yildirim had been able to coalesce into a major fighting force,
it is possible that it could have been used much more strategically
and effectively to unhinge AP efforts in the Near East. This card
represents the German-Ottoman hope for these units and also represents a major expenditure of resources.
There were many who saw the Near East and Balkans as a sideshow
—a complete distraction from the main theater, the West Front,
where the war ‘ought’ to be decided. Others, including Churchill
and Lloyd George, felt that the greatest gain for the least cost would
likely come in Mediterranean littoral areas.
As events went from bad to worse in 1915 (the withdrawal from Gallipoli and the surrender at Kut), there was a significant reallocation
of troops from the Near East to the West Front, including most of
the ANZAC troops and some of the Indian. In truth, a modest commitment was made to the Balkans, but the British troops there were
ordered to remain largely on the defensive—and in large part were
only present in Greece to keep the French from complaining!
Important voices in Britain continued to call for a withdrawal from
the war in the Balkans and in Turkey. Eventually, if the domestic
pressures mounted, it is possible that the British support for involvement in the Near East would have dwindled to the point of a separate
armistice with Turkey—or so this card hypothesizes.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
The Indian Army units on the Persian Gulf Beachhead are the
leading elements of “Force D” on its way to invade Fao. The IN
infantry unit at the Island Base of Bahrain (the rest of “Force D”)
does not move with play of Russo-British Assault. That last brigade
of Force D was en route and arrived later. The leading elements of
Force D may move to Kuwait (could prepare to advance through
Shaiba), Abadan (could attack Basra), and/or Fao (can destroy the
Fort and attack the TU unit at Basra).
In response to the Turks allowing the German battleship Goeben to
take refuge in Constantinople and then bombard the Russian coast
under the shield of supposed Turkish neutrality, the Russian and
British Empires declared war on Turkey in early November 1914. It
was very much the Russian and British intent to take the offensive
immediately upon declaration of war. On November 1, the Indian
Army landed at Fao, quickly overrunning the outdated fort and proceding to Abadan and Basra. On November 3, the British conducted
a desultory bombardment of the Dardanelles. On November 5, the
Russians invaded Caucasia, attacking the Turkish Third Army at
Koprukoy, followed by operations toward Van.
Note: The optional invasions of Kuwait or Abadan directly from the
Persian Gulf represent the potential for Britain to conduct flanking
manuevers in the Gulf. Kuwait was pro-British, as was the sheikh
of Mohammerah (Arabistan). Historically, the British considered
landing at Umm Qasr in Kuwait. There appears to have been no
real thought given to landing to the east—the channel to the east of
Abadan was too shallow to handle much shipping. For game play,
however, we have considered the remote possibility that the British
could have conducted a direct invasion of Arabistan through the area
to the east of Abadan, where the enormous Iranian port of Bandar-e
Mahshahr would arise. That city or town was an ancient port of
longstanding and has proven that its potential could be developed.
Hence, for game play variety, we have included these as options for
the player, albeit they were historically remote possibilities. Note too
that the Brits can enter troops through the port of Bushire in Central
Persia—this would have been another possible route to Arabistan
(or overland from Baluchistan—present-day Pakistan).
This mobilization of the Empire is an important step to Limited War,
giving the AP player an important (perhaps even vital) War Status
Australian and New Zealand troops began arriving early on in Egypt
in support of the Empire. They were to play a key role in this theater
throughout the war. Indeed, the ANZAC’s role at Gallipoli was in
many ways pivotal to shaping Australian and New Zealand nationalisms. The ‘Diggers’ are still well-respected and celebrated today.
Egypt and Cyprus were both technically under Ottoman rule in
1914, although Britain was in fact already occupying and governing both. (The British occupied Egypt in 1882!) The Egyptian ruler
—the Khedive—was technically an Ottoman viceroy and was an
ambitious man. The British government favored outright annexation
of both Egypt and Cyprus, but Kitchener made it plain that such a
move would violate Britain’s promises of eventual independence
for the people of Egypt and would contribute to a potential uprising
against British rule.
The Khedive was in Constantinople when the war began—and
remained there. When Britain declared war on the Ottomans, they
soon thereafter declared Egypt a British protectorate, deposed the
pro-Ottoman Khedive, and installed the ex-Khedive’s uncle in his
place. Cyprus was also officially annexed, enabling the British to
use it as a potential island base for invasions of Syria/Palestine.
The great ships of the British Royal Navy, sometimes supplemented
by French warships, often acted as mobile artillery platforms around
the coasts, even in the Suez Canal. This gave the Allied Powers a
slight, but ongoing, advantage in battles near the shore.
Some Armenians were organized formally as units within the
Russian army at the outset of the war. Smaller, less formal units
(druzhiny) were also organized. The Armenian populations within
the Russian Empire (some of whom had been added to the empire
when Russia seized Ottoman territories during the late 19th century)
were concerned about reports of mistreatment of their brethren still
living within the Ottoman Empire, especially once the ethnicallyoriented doctrines of Pan-Turkism were propogated by the Young
Turks ruling in Istanbul. Thus, these Armenians fought for their
homes and their nation, not for Russia per se.
According to Ed Erickson, in his book Ordered to Die, “The Druzhiny, an Armenian nationalist movement, siezed the lakeside city
of Van in fierce fighting on April 14, 1915. . . . [The] Russian Army
[coming to relieve Van] contained a large number of Armenians
organized into several army divisions of well-trained and highly
motivated infantry regiments” (p. 99). This card simulates the extra
motivation of these units.
The Indian Army units in Mesopotamia were great fighters, holding
tenaciously on the defense and pushing aggressively on the offense.
They were also able (or forced) to ignore the effects of heat in the
first summer of the war, pressing on as if the oven-like conditions
were of no consequence.
To clarify—each TU attack must be directed against one space
only. The defenders in a stack are never forced to split their attack
against multiple spaces.
Enver, the Turkish Minister of War, one of the main leaders of the
Young Turks who had siezed control of the Ottoman government,
was impetuous and prone to action. It was he who, in 1913, led the
rebels against the Ottoman government, resulting in the death of
the Minister of War. In 1914, Enver himself was promoted to that
post, but he showed little aptitude for either front line command
or grand strategy.
The Germans regarded him with deep suspicion, recognizing his
lack of military skill. And indeed, early in the war, as winter began
to settle over the mountains of Caucasia, Enver hatched a scheme
to produce a Turkish version of Tannenberg, the great Prussian
pincer movement that had destroyed a large part of a Russian army
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
and halted the Russian steamroller’s advance into Germany in
1914. Enver’s troops were unprepared for winter in the mountains
(lacking shelter, clothing, food), the terrain was ill-suited to a massive coordinated assault, and his troops would be required to leave
their artillery at home—these facts did nothing to deter Enver. The
consequent frost-bitten, bloody fiasco resulted in the destruction of
nearly two-thirds of the Ottoman Third Army—the virtual annihilation of two complete corps.
In 1907, the British and Russians negotiated a treaty that ended
The Great Game in Asia, as their rivalry there was called. That
earlier treaty ceded Afghanistan to the British sphere of influence,
and divided Persia into a Russian zone of influence, a British zone,
and a large central neutral zone. This agreement was later renegotiated, giving the Russians full access to the neutral zone. After the
Bolsheviks came to power in Russia, they made this secret treaty
public, to the great embarassment of Britian. The increasing Russian
influence in the main body of neutral Persia did much to fuel jihadist
sentiments, helping to fuel various tribal uprisings.
The Russian railroads into northern Persia (Azerbaijan) and Russian political and military influence in that area, gave them greater
flexibility in terms of troop movements behind the front lines. That
flexibility could be used to shift the center of gravity on the front,
catching the Ottoman forces off guard.
Yudenich made good use of the smaller Russian IV Corps, tasking
it to guard his army’s left wing, especially in advances through Van
and beyond. This corps played a pivotal role throughout the war.
At the outset of the war, the British Royal Navy imposed a blockade
on the Ottoman Empire. This not only cut off important trade for
the largely agrarian Ottoman economy, but also halted the coastal
shipping on which the Ottoman Empire depended for its own internal
transportation, due to poor inland infrastructure. Thus, the Ottoman
Empire began to die a slow economic death. This economic crisis
was compounded by the almost complete draining of the available
manpower pool. This emptying of the villages crippled the Empire’s
agricultural potential.
It should not be underestimated how severe the French and British
rivalry in Syria/Palestine was. If anything, the VP and Jihad Level
penalty in the game for a British invasion of Syria underestimates
the political effect a British invasion would have had in Paris and
in the minds of Arabs. This card cannot be used as a British Reinforcement card, as can the other invasions.
Despite recognition that the French and Arabs would greatly protest
any British invasion of Syria/Palestine (especially Syria), the British
repeatedly planned for and occasionally advocated a small-scale
invasion in the region or just north at Alexandretta (where the Turkish supply lines ran near to the shore). It was felt that an invasion in
this area could cut Syria/Palestine off from Turkey proper, thereby
protecting Egypt. It might also cut the railroad to Mesopotamia and
give the British a major chit with which to bargain after the war. The
military difficulties of the project, combined with its high political
costs, meant that the plans were repeatedly shelved.
Forts across a strait from each other (e.g., Seddul Bahr and Kum
Kale) must both be destroyed before a fort further up the waterway
can be bombarded. The AP player chooses which Fort in the pair
to roll against first.
Churchill was the primary advocate for “forcing” the Dardanelles
and sending the British Royal Navy into Constantinople, in hopes of
opening a supply route to Russia and knocking Turkey out of the war.
He also hoped that the Allies would bring Greece into the war and
that a Greek army would march on Constantinople. The Russians,
however, would not stand for the latter—they saw themselves as the
upcoming guardians of orthodoxy and Constantinople.
In part to relieve pressure on Russia in the Caucasus, the British
government endorsed Churchill’s naval proposal, leading directly
to the Gallipoli invasions and a major increase in British resources
committed to the region. The sideshow became ever more dominant,
although sufficient resources were never available to see the job
through thoroughly. Additionally, there were questions about the
British commander’s competency, especially against the likes of
Liman von Sanders and Kemal.
The effect of Allied success could have been devastating—or minimal. A few British and French ships showing up at Constantinople
could have driven the Young Turks to surrender or (more likely)
hardened their resolve to fight. It was at best questionable as to
whether Britain could sustain the Royal Navy at Constantinople—
Turkish mines, torpedos, CP submarines, political pressure (the
Turks actually thought that they might get Russian support to prevent British domination of Constantinople!)—all this would have
combined to drive the Royal Navy back into the open sea.
As a matter of fact, in March 1915 the Czar demanded that Constantinople be granted to Russia should it fall into British hands. And,
unbelievably (and this shows how bad Allied relations were), the
British AGREED out of fear that Russia might otherwise negotiate a
separate peace with Germany! A few days after making this promise
to Russia, British warships opened fire on the Dardanelles forts.
We have chosen to allow the AP Player at best only a modest degree
of temporary success in the game’s context, for it would serve gamers
no purpose to end the war in this theater on the basis of one card
play. We do, however, hypothesize that naval success would have
convinced Kitchener to allocate more land power to the theater in
an effort to control the shoreline leading to Constantinople, as well
as to guard the sea route. Thus, the AP Player’s reward of several
elite British divisions—a purely conjectural possibility, but one that
the AP Player will appreciate in the long run. The importance of
Constantinople to the Russians is acknowledged in game terms by
the fact that the Russian Revolution cannot occur or advance if Russia controls Constantinople, thereby giving the AP Player the right
to cede Constantinople to Russian control—if he can capture it.
Britian’s most influential military commander, Kitchener was
Counsel-General in Egypt and well-versed in Near East affairs. He
had also been in charge in India and had successfully implemented a
major reform of the Indian Army. He was also the man who in large
measure helped to win the Boer War, sometimes through questionable means. While visiting Britian in August 1914, he was appointed
the War Minister two days after Germany declared war on France.
He was looked to again as the potential saviour of his nation.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
To his credit, Kitchener was an astute military thinker who was willing directly to affront the conventional wisdom of his day. In that
spirit, he immediately informed the British government that the war
would require an army of millions and last at least three years. (This
was said at a time when everyone else thought the troops would be
home by Christmas!) He also felt strongly that Britain’s focus must
be in France and in keeping Russia armed and in the war as an aid to
France. He thus took the lead in assisting the Russians in purchasing
armaments and munitions overseas. This was tantamount to Britain
arming a long-time rival second only to Germany. In Kitchener’s
mind, the only real military goal in the Near East was keeping the
Suez Canal open so Indian, Australian, and New Zealand troops
could reach France in as short a time as possible. However, if the
Indian Army wanted to safeguard the Royal Navy’s oil supply in
Arabistan, that should be permitted (on a small scale).
He immediately began to reorganize nearly everything and began to
build his New Army, which he hoped to hold largely in reserve until
France and Russia had beaten the Germans into near submission.
Then Britain would emerge to dominate the post-war order. His
ideas were so revolutionary, his distrust of politicians so profound,
and his inability to speak clearly and persuasively to the politicians,
led many to think him eccentric, incompetent, etc.
He was drowned in 1916 while voyaging to Russia when his ship
hit a German mine. He played a definite role in building Russia’s
military power to its peak in 1916.
The Gurkhas are from Nepal and have a long tradition of being some
of the most fierce, elite fighters in the British and colonial Indian
armies. A British officer who served with them in the First World War
wrote: “Uncomplaining you endure hunger and thirst and wounds;
and at the last your unwavering lines disappear into the smoke and
wrath of battle. Bravest of the brave, most generous of the generous,
never had country more faithful friends than you.”
Almost as soon as war broke out, jihad was declared. The British
set to work to make an Arab the new caliph. For many years, the
Ottoman sultan had been the caliph, the successor to or representative of the founder of Islam. The British argued that since the holiest
sites of Islam were in Arabia (not Turkey) and since Islam originated
in Arabia (not Turkey), it should be an Arab (not a Turk) who was
caliph. And if this change were made with British backing, it was
hoped that this would fortify the British Empire, which at that time
contained the majority of the world’s Muslim population.
First, the British launched a propaganda campaign that promised
the Arabs that if they would rise up against their Ottoman masters,
Britain would guarantee their post-war independence. British efforts
were focused especially on Hussein ibn Ali, the tribal leader who
ruled the Hejaz on the Ottomans’ behalf. Hussein was both Sherif
and Emir of Mecca, a descendant of Mohammed.
For the first few years of the war, Hussein, well-aware that the
Young Turks intended to depose him at first opportunity, played a
delicate game of balancing his loyalties to the Turks and of quietly
exploring his new friendship with the British, who promised that he
could keep and increase his authority, becoming caliph and likely
ruler of all Arabia. During this early period, Hussein managed to
keep the Turks at arms length without fully alienating them, while
at the same time keeping Arabia out of the Turk’s jihad.
In June 1916, the Arab Revolt began, leading to the Ottoman’s
loss of the holiest shrines of Islam and the Arabs’ march towards
Damascus on Allenby’s right flank, under the leadership of Feisal,
Lawrence, and Jafar Pasha. The war for the Hejaz also was deliberately designed to drain Turkish resources, never fully conquering
the region in order to ensure that a constant flow of Turkish replacements was required.
Important: If the BR-GR CND (Corps of National Defense) enters
at neutral Salonika, the space becomes AP-controlled without violating Greek neutrality.
The various Allied nations began sharing reponsibilities on fronts
far away from home, as a display of solidarity. Thus, the Russians
sent two brigades to France and two to Greece. The Italians also
sent an infantry division to Greece in Summer 1916. (Allegedly, the
Russians in France were responsible for the anti-capitalist sentiments
that helped to spark the French Army mutinies.)
The CND was composed of Greeks who were opposed to King
Constantine and loyal to former Prime Minister Venizelos. Founded
in Fall 1916, it owed much to the British and to former Greek Prime
Minister Venizelos. King Constantine had dismissed Venizelos in
retaliation for inviting the Allies to land at Salonika while Greece
was still neutral. Venizelos then established an alternative Greek
government and his own army (the CND) at Salonika under Allied
Lawrence of Arabia is surely legendary, evolving from a somewhat
obscure military intelligence clerk in Cairo to the giant of the Arab
Revolt. He joined with Prince Feisal in 1916 and led the capture of
Aqaba in 1917, gaining a port which allowed the British to equip
an actual Arab army (the Arab Northern Army). Lawrence remained
with the desert tribesman, leading them in raids against the Turkish
railroads and helping to guard Allenby’s right flank in his march
to Damascus.
Murray was given command of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force
in January 1916. He reorganized the troops under his command and
began the advance across the Sinai to the dual gateways to Palestine
—Gaza and Beersheba. He pushed his men twice against the rock
of Gaza, losing both times.
His major feat, however, was building the railroad and pipeline
across Sinai that brought supplies and water to his troops. Without
his efforts, Allenby would not have been able to press forward so
quickly upon taking command.
Armored cars were available at the beginning of the war, operating
in groups as light tanks or very heavy cavalry. Ironically, they were
principally under control of the Royal Navy, with a brigade guarding western Egypt (landships indeed!). They played a large role in
supressing the Senussi and even made an appearance in Romania
(having travelled a long ways to arrive there)! They were initially
equipped with one mounted machine gun, but later in the war sported
two machine guns or even a small cannon.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Once a player uses this card, it is passed to his opponent, who keeps
it face up on the table in front of him, ready for his use as a CC.
While on the table, it has no effect and does not count against the
number of cards he can hold in his hand. When the player wishes to
use the card, he announces its use and immediately passes it to his
opponent, who can then repeat this process in another combat.
Massacres were not unknown in the Great War, even under the
leadership of Lawrence, whose Arab soldiers (on his orders) took
no prisoners when hunting down a retreating Ottoman column. This
was reportedly done in revenge for Ottoman atrocities at the village
of Tafas. Of this event, Lawrence wrote: “In a madness born of the
horror of Tafas, we killed and killed, even blowing in the heads of
the fallen and of the animals; as though their death and running
blood could slake our agony.”
Remember: This card does not need to be used to invade at Gallipoli.
It can be used to place troops on any Island Base on the map and
to invade through any Beachhead space. Or it can be used as a BR
Reinforcement card, units being placed per normal reinforcement
rules, even after the play of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare.
At first reluctant to support the invasions at Gallipoli, Kitchener
eventually went to the Aegean to witness events for himself. He
was persuaded to divert additional troops from the West Front and
attempt one more landing, farther up the Gallipoli peninsula at Suvla
Bay. It was a sizable diversion of force, which the British hoped
would outflank the Turks, break the deadlock, and initiate an advance
on Constantinople (by sea, at least). Under the desultory leadership
of its aged commander, however, the invasion failed to make any
real progress after the initial landing, in spite of light opposition,
almost as if the IX Corps’ commander was waiting for Turkish
reinforcements to arrive. And arrive they did—under the command
of Kemal, who would emerge as the greatest Turkish commander in
the war. This was a perfect example of the Brits investing inadequate
leadership into the Gallipoli campaign—and the Turks doing the
opposite. No real progress from Suvla was ever made.
The extra cavalry unit that can be SR’ed to Enzeli must follow
normal SR rules.
After the czar took command in Russia proper, the former commander of the Russian armies (the Grand Duke Nicholas, the czar’s
uncle) was sent to take overall command in Caucasia, providing
oversight that the successful Gen. Yudenich did not need. The arrival of the Grand Duke did, however, result in a Russian advance in
Persia under the leadership of Gen. Baratov. Gen. Yudenich opposed
the expedition, but the Grand Duke prevailed. (Whether Yudenich’s
objections were based on the diversion of resources from Caucasia
or a desire to honor Persian neutrality, I do not know.)
The Austro-Hungarian Empire’s dispute with Serbia’s existence in
large measure initiated the plunge into world war. For over a year,
the Serbs defended valiantly and successfully. However, in 1915, the
country was wracked by typhus, and the army was much weakened.
In the Fall of 1915, the Germans helped the Austro-Hungarians to
drive the Serbian Army into exile—about 200,000 soldiers were
evacuated through Albania to the isle of Corfu.
There, the Serbs rested and rebuilt their strength rapidly, with Allied
assistance. Eventually, the Serbian armies were brought to Greece
and began a long offensive that gradually pushed the CP forces out
of Serbia completely. Poised for an invasion of Austro-Hungary,
with French and British support, the Serbs’ revenge was thwarted
by the armistice of 1918.
The V Caucasian Corps was built in part as a threat—in theory it
was designated to arrive by sea and capture the Turkish forts at the
Bosphorus, outside Constantinople. Based at Odessa, the corps
was really incapable of fulfilling its mission and was soon sent
to plug the holes blasted in Russian lines by the CP offensive at
The Tigris Corps represented a significant upgrade of offensive capability under the leadership of Gen. Nixon, who nevertheless failed
to rescue the British-Indian units besieged at Kut. The 2nd Indian
Army Corps never coalesced into a coherent unit on the battlefield.
Its component units were scattered for duty in a variety of locations.
The most famous of its divisions (the 6th [Poona] Division) was
besieged in Kut and captured.
Ultimately, nearly 600,000 soldiers in the Indian Army served in
Mesopotamia, with another 100,000 posted to Egypt. They fought
valiantly and well for the Empire.
AP#27 LET THE FRENCH BLEED (Hypothetical)
Well, not entirely hypothetical. The idea was certainly discussed
in London. Let the French do the fighting. Keep the British Army
intact. That was Kitchener’s inclination, with a long-range view of
a three or four years war and a desire to shape the subsequent peace
by having a great, intact British Army to dictate the terms.
As part of this discussion, it was suggested that some additional
British divisions divert to the Near East. To have executed this
policy would certainly have damaged British relations with the
French (thus, the +1 VP penalty).
The French actually became quite suspicious that British policy was
leaning in the direction described. Thus, Paris more or less insisted
on immediate, bloody British action—or else France would consider
a separate peace with Germany. And the British complied, fulfilling
Kitchener’s prophecy of massive, pointless loss.
It is interesting to note comparative combat death rates. According
to Geoffrey Jukes’ short Osprey history of the East Front, France
lost twice the percentage of its population as did Britain: 1 of 28
French citizens died in combat, compared to 1 of 57 British (see
pg. 90). This ratio holds true in absolute numbers: 1,359,000 vs.
658,000. This by no means demonstrates a British policy to achieve
this end, but it does illustrate why the French sometimes felt they
bore the brunt of the fighting.
The IN 15th Inf Div does not magically appear in the AP attacker’s
space. It is brought on according to normal rules of placement.
Thus, if the attackers are in a port, the IN 15th can be placed there
if stacking allows, being used in the current combat. For example,
if the attackers were in Basra (and Fao were controlled), the 15th
could be brought in at Basra and used during this combat (subject
to normal stacking limits).
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Maude, who had been a divisional commander at Suvla Bay, near
Gallipoli, was posted to Mesopotamia with his division (the BR
13th) in March 1916. There, he was assigned command of the Tigris Corps shortly after the fall of Kut (April 1916) and was given
command of the theater a month later. The Chief of the Imperial
General Staff, Robertson, ordered Maude to hold and not advance.
By December, however, having reorganized and strengthened his
forces, Maude launched an attack on Kut and gradually proceded
north to capture Baghdad in March 1917. His incremental methods and attention to logistics (including the construction of light
railroads) redeemed British fortunes in the theater completely and
prevented the Turks from consolidating their efforts in Persia. This
card represents the unexpected punch added by Maude’s logistical
efforts, as well as his ongoing command abilities.
If Romania is played after Yildirim, and if the Falkenhayn HQ is still
in play, the CP player may (at his option) get 1 free SR immediately
to place Falkenhayn in any CP-controlled space or Region adjacent
to Romania (if a line of communication can be traced from Falkenhayn’s current space to the new one). If Falkenhayn has been
eliminated prior to the play of Romania, his HQ does not reappear.
See Yildirim above.
Romania, important to both sides due to its grain and oil (the 2 VPs in
this game), was actually an enormous liability to the Allied Powers.
The Romanian Army was grossly undertrained—a force more for
show than battle. However, the Romanians had great hopes of seizing
Transylvania from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Declaring war in
August 1916 (much to the surprise of a panicked Kaiser Wilhelm),
Romanian forces eagerly crossed the mountains into Transylvania.
However, the Romanians were quickly pushed back, with German
reinforcements arriving rapidly. To the south, the CP forces (largely
Bulgarian and Turkish) were led by Gen. Mackensen, perhaps the
most effective German commander on the eastern front, former
head of the famous XI Army. To the west, the CP forces (mostly
German) were led by Falkenhayn himself, now fallen from grace
and no longer overall commander of the German armies. Romanian
forces fell back quickly before this double onslaught. By October,
Mackensen’s forces were in Constanta and a month later the Romanians evacuated Bucharest without defending it.
The Russians, determined to keep their ally in the war—and eager
to prevent the Germans from reaching a whole new stretch of Russian frontier—diverted a significant number of units to Romania,
units which were sorely needed farther north (and would have been
much more useful to Brusilov in strengthening his 1916 offensive,
which failed to achieve fuller success in part because of this diversion). The Russian forces did not save Romania, but did help the
Romanians to retain the northern portion of their country (off map
in our game) and keep the Germans away from Odessa.
Remember: This card does not need to be used to invade on the
Gallipoli map. It can be used to place troops on any Island Base
on the map and to invade through any Beachhead space. Or it can
be used as a BR Reinforcement card, units being placed per normal
reinforcement rules, even after the play of Unrestricted Submarine
Kitchener at first opposed Churchill’s plan to force the passage of
the Dardanelles through naval power alone and also resisted the
idea of sending the British Army to help. However, he eventually
acquiesced, agreeing in February 1915 to send the 29th Division to
aid the Royal Navy, the only regular British Army unit in the theater.
He also diverted the arriving ANZAC forces (destined for the West
Front) to Gallipoli. Some French divisions were added in for a good
measure of Allied solidarity (and perhaps to ensure that the British
did not single-handedly control Constantinople).
He seems to have made this decision with his eyes wide open, for
shortly thereafter he said, “The effect of a defeat in the Orient would
be very serious. There can be no going back.”
The invasion began in April 1915 with a diversionary French thrust
at the Kum Kale area south of the Dardanelles, while the real attacks occured at Helles and Gaba Tepe (ANZAC Cove). The French
quickly joined the efforts at Helles. The landings did not go well,
despite relatively light Turkish resistance. The Allies nearly did
break through in one spot, but Kemal rushed his unit into the gap
(his famous “I order you to die!” speech)—and the die was cast.
Little or no progress was made in ensuing months, and in December
the Allied forces on the peninsula were evacuated completely. In
part this was due to increased German submarine activity, in part
due to the collapse of Serbia and the imminent arrival of the CP’s
heavy artillery via the Serbian-Bulgarian rail link, in part due to the
realization that these AP units were needed elsewhere—in Greece
or in France.
The evacuation was conducted with great care and great success,
the Turks being largely decieved as to British intentions. The new
British commander charged with overseeing the evacuation met,
however, with enormous criticism from one critic. Of him, Churchill
wrote: “He came, he saw, he capitulated.”
Note: A TU fort that is already besieged is NOT automatically destroyed by this card. Only forts attacked and occupied by Advance
After Combat this turn are automatically destroyed.
This is an important card. Use it wisely.
In February 1916, General Yudenich launched a surprise Russian
offensive amidst the mountains and snows of Caucasia, aimed in
large part at capturing the Turkish fortress of Erzerum. The British
had just evacuated Gallipoli, and the Turks had not yet redeployed
their forces from there to face the Russian threat. Instead, the Turks
were largely preoccupied with the destruction of the small British
force besieged at Kut in Mesopotamia.
Yudenich stockpiled supplies and winter equipment and then planned
to infiltrate and outflank the fortified Turkish positions at Erzerum.
Morgan Price, the British military observer with Yudenich’s army,
reported: “It is interesting to note that this was the same sort of plan
as that which Enver Pasha adopted, when he attacked the Russians
just twelve months before [and was badly defeated]. . . . [Enver’s]
plan ultimately failed, because he could not guarantee supplies to
his advanced forces in the country that they had occupied. But the
Russians were brilliantly successful, because they had given the
necessary attention to roads and transport for their main advance
along the Passan plain.”
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
This card then represents both the logistics and operational strategems required to move a large army safely in winter against fortified
enemy positions, effectively negating those fortifications.
The conclusion of Price’s report is also of interest: “The capture of
the great fortress [Erzerum], hitherto considered impregnable, sent
a thrill through the whole continent. . . . Russian military prestige
in the East had fallen very low since . . . Enver Pasha's advance into
the Caucasus in December, 1914. But the Dardanelles expedition
had given the Turks something else to think of than conquering the
Caucasus, and had thus afforded the Russians the necessary respite
to prepare for their attack on Erzerum which in its turn saved the
British from being driven completely out of Mesopotamia.
“The capture of Erzerum was the first great success that came to
the Allies in Asia. It might be regarded as the turning point of the
war in the East.”
This card represents both the historic armed uprising in Van and the
general unrest of Armenian populations in part due to the policies
of Pan-Turkism.
If the CP player never plays Pan-Turkism, the Armenian Uprising cannot occur. This will save the CP player a VP, but will cost
a Jihad point, War Status points, and new units. It is a difficult
choice to make. No matter how hard the CP player tries to avoid
Pan-Turkism, the ongoing temptation to play it usually becomes
unbearable—he will find himself pandering to the masses, reaping
the political and military short term benefits, and then paying the
longer term costs!
The military effects of the card may be negligible or substantial,
depending on how wisely the AP player uses it.
The events surrounding the Armenian uprising are controversial,
and this is not the place to resolve such controversy. However, a
brief outline of events will lay forth some basic facts.
There were Armenians operating within the Russian army (since
many Armenians resided within Russia’s borders). There were also
reports that the Russians were funneling arms to Armenians inside
the Ottoman Empire. Enver’s Pan-Turkism policies were aimed
in part at suppressing the cultures and influence of non-Turkish
populations within the Empire, and there were reports that the Armenian population had been especially targeted for amalgamation
or suppression. It is also reported that the Turks feared an Armenian
uprising in their rear, for this would threaten already vulnerable
Turkish supply lines.
Whatever the cause, there was an armed revolt by the Armenians
in Van, one which caused the Turks considerable distress. After
conquerning Van, the Turks began relocating massive portions of
the Armenian population to other areas in the Empire. Numerous
executions are reported to have occurred. Many of those relocated
died at their new homes or en route. Many accused the Turks of
deliberate atrocities, but the Turks denied this.
Reports of an Armenian genocide quickly circulated in the West.
This rapidly escalated into an anti-Turkish propaganda campaign
rivaling the anti-German “Rape of Belgium” campaign. Hence, the
VP award for playing Armenian Uprising.
Asquith was Prime Minister of Britain when the war broke out, but
was soon accused of doing too little to prosecute the war and bring
it quickly to an end. The munitions shortage of 1915—the rapid
drawing down of stockpiles, particularly of artillery shells—was
a key factor in this.
In order to preserve his hold on power, Asquith formed a coalition
government with the opposition, with the fiery Lloyd George as
the new Minister of Munitions tasked with solving the munitions
crisis. This was a role fraught with peril (if he failed), but also including great potential of reward (if he succeeded). Lloyd George
did succeed, both in operating almost as a co-Prime Minister and in
resolving the munitions crisis. He went on to oust Asquith as Prime
Minister in December 1916
Remember: This card does not need to be used to land in Greece.
It can be used to place troops on any Island Base on the map and
to invade through any Beachhead space. Or it can be used as a BR
Reinforcement card, units being placed per normal reinforcement
rules, even after the play of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare.
After much ill-planned military action by Austria-Hungary in 1914
and early 1915, which included a short-lived Serbian invasion of
Austria-Hungary, the Germans finally decided to set matters right
and led a CP invasion of Serbia, including the entry of Bulgaria
against the Serbs, in October 1915.
The French wished to respond immediately by sending troops to aid
Serbia. The French and Russians pressured their British friends to
come and do likewise (much against the Brits’ will—but for the sake
Allied solidarity, they came). The initial British-French landings at
Salonika were authorized by Greek Prime Minister Venizelos, who
was pro-AP (and who was immediately dismissed by Greek King
Constantine for giving this permission).
The initial British-French expeditionary force was small and
composed of units being withdrawn from the failed experiment at
Gallipoli. Little was accomplished by these initial efforts—Serbia
fell and the British-French force found itself trapped at Salonika.
Fortifying the Salonikan zone became top priority, and it was nicknamed laughingly “The Birdcage.” The Germans referred to it as
the largest POW camp in the world.
Gradually, however, as more troops arrived, especially after the Brits
shut down the fiasco at Gallipoli, the AP force at Salonika grew in
power and potential. This was especially true after the Serbs rebuilt
their armies. Lloyd George saw this soft Balkan underbelly as a key
front in the war—and once he became Prime Minister, massive efforts were put into the Salonikan front, including a French-led Army
of the Orient. Eventually, this Salonikan force (including Greek,
French, and Russian troops) became so substantial that it cracked
open the CP’s southern flank, knocked Bulgaria out of the war,
liberated Serbia, and stood poised to march on Constantinople and
Vienna. Within days of these events, the Germans sued for peace,
leading some to conclude that Lloyd George had been right—the
Balkans was the way to successfully outflank Germany, something
which could never be done on the West Front.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
Dunsterforce was an elite, motorized unit that the British built at
Baghdad and sent into Persia during the period of Russian collapse.
Dunsterforce (names after its commander, Lionel Dunsterville) was
sent by sea to Baku in an effort to prevent Turkish access to the Baku
oil fields and in part to prevent further atrocities. The British were
also interested in overthrowing the communist soviet then ruling
the city. The excursion to Baku failed, but Dunsterforce did much
to help establish British dominance in post-war Persia.
The South Persia Rifles was a Persian-manned force established by
Britain in Shiraz, partly to replace the discredited Persian gendarmerie, which had been led by pro-CP Swedish officers. The unit
did little, but did defeat the Qashqai tribe.
Indian Army units continued to arrive in the region as the war
During 1916, the Russian war economy began to pick up steam,
allowing new divisions to be equipped even in the backwaters of
AP#38 ROYAL FLYING CORPS British airpower early in the war was almost nonexistent. The Turkish and German airmen had command of the sky. This resulted in
poor British reconassaince—which sometimes resulted in surprise
and led to disaster, such as the defeats at Ctesiphon and Kut.
In time, though, British efforts increased, ultimating in AP air superiority. Once this occurred, it was the Turks and Germans who
had to rely on poor or nonexistent reconnaissance—fighting blind.
Allenby exploited this blindness, even manipulating CP views to
great advantage, leading to breakthrough after breakthrough in
Palestine and Syria.
Tanks played a very marginal role in the Near East, being used to
limited effect in battles on the Gaza-Beersheba frontier. The sand
was not good for the machinery, and the heat literally baked the
crews. These two factors ensured that the tank would never enjoy
the success in the Near East that it gained on the West Front.
AP#40 WARM WATER PORT (Hypothetical)
It was actively conjectured that Russia’s primary goal in the war
on the Ottoman Front, especially in Persia, was access to a warm
water port. Russia reportedly sought a port on the Persian Gulf or
Indian Ocean as a counterweight to Britain. Certainly, for long years
Russia had sought control of Constantinople, in part to assure an
outlet from the Black Sea.
This card rewards the AP player for achieving this important goal,
one which we conjecture was of such great importance that it might
have postponed the Russian Revolution—at least for a time, if not
indefinitely. The czar, as the new lord of ancient Byzantium and the
defender of orthodox Christianity, would have received an enormous
boost in popularity, and he would have received much in the way
of British and American supplies.
This short statement, issued by British Foreign Secretary Arthur
James Balfour in November 1917, affirmed Britain’s intent to support the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. It read as
follows: "His Majesty's Government views with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and
will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this
object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which
may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish
communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed
by Jews in any other country."
Note that the capture of Jerusalem with this card would result in a –3
VP shift and –1 Jihad point. This could be massively important—a
real turning point in the game. However, the card also represents
a policy commitment. Failure results in public humiliation and the
loss of national prestige. Thus, it is not a gamble to take lightly.
Note that the player is free to choose a location other than Jerusalem
for his policy declaration.
In 1917, Lloyd George (who was now Prime Minister) demanded
that Allenby take Jerusalem by Christmas—which he did. Allenby
entered the city peacefully on foot, without firing a shot, on December 9, 1917. A German observer wrote the following in the official
report: “The moral significance of this event was even greater than
its military importance.”
It is interesting to note the following from Allenby’s official record:
“The Mosque of Omar and the area around it have been placed
under Moslem control, and a military cordon of Mohammedan
officers and soldiers [from the Indian Army] has been established
around the mosque.
“Orders have been issued that no non-Moslem is to pass within
the cordon without permission of the Military Governor and the
Moslem in charge.”
Note that both corps go into the Corps Assets Box.
Towards the end of the war, the Russians built some disparate units
in northern Persia, near Ruwandiz, into an actual corps. Likewise,
they converted Baratov’s units into a cavalry corps. They were
constructed too late to make any real contribution before the revolution, but if the troops had not drifted away, the units were poised to
sweep down upon Mosul and Baghdad, effectively ending British
hopes for post-war domination of Iraq—the Great Game still being
played indeed.
Bulgaria had entered the war in part to revenge herself upon her
Balkans War allies of 1912-1913, who she felt had stabbed her in
the back. Thus, she went for Serbia’s throat and would apparently
have been glad to march down to Athens if allowed. She even
enjoyed contributing to the destruction of Romania. However,
as the war went on and on, and no real gains materialized, many
in Bulgaria—including her troops at the front—began to wonder
whether the continuing hardships were worthwhile. Overwhelmingly, the answer was no.
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
The Bulgars fought with extraordinary valor in the Balkans War and
in the initial years of The Great War, but when the Serbs, Brits, and
French finally pushed hard at Monastir and Doiran, the Bulgarians
largely broke and ran. The slaughter during the retreat from Doiran
was massively overwhelming, the Bulgarian troops being obliterated by aerial bombing on the road to Strumica. (The Iraqis’ fate on
the road from Kuwait in the 20th century comes to mind. The two
events are not dissimilar.)
Repeated efforts by German units and commanders to restrain the
Bulgarians’ enthusiasm for home were of no avail.
Reminder: If the King Constantine event is played immediately when
the AP player plays Greece, the Greece event has no effect —War
Status and VPs do not change (but both cards still count as Actions).
The Greece card is not removed from the game, but is placed in the
AP discard pile, from whence it may reenter play.
Although Greece’s alliance with the Entente (Allied Powers) seems,
in retrospect, to be a certainty, at the time there was real concern that
Greece would either remain neutral or join the Central Powers. King
Constantine may have only wished to avoid German wrath in the
supposed day of victory, but his wife was the Kaiser’s sister—and
this weighed heavily in many people’s minds.
The King’s Prime Minister, Venizelos, was ardently pro-Entente.
It was he who supported the British and French use of the port of
Salonika in an effort to prevent Serbian defeat.
Venizelos’ ouster by King Constantine increased British and French
suspicions. When this was coupled with Greek ‘treachery’ in surrendering their frontier forts to Bulgaria without firing many shots,
the Entente had had enough. They imposed a blockade on Greece,
invaded at Athens (and quickly withdrew), sent Kitchener to chastise
Constantine, and built a semi-revolutionary government around
Venizelos at Salonika.
Eventually, Greece joined the Entente cause, after King Constantine
was forced to abdicate in June 1917. Greek soliders fought alongside
French and British on the Salonikan front.
Later in the war, especially after the Arab Revolt, many Arabs fighting for (or alongside of) the Ottoman cause began to desert or hold
back during battle. This was not the result of cowardice in most
cases, but a realization that the Ottomans were finished and that
there was no point in fighting for a dying empire, especially when
Arab nationalists were in control of the holy places of Islam and
marching toward Damascus. The fact that the British had already
‘liberated’ Mesopotamia doubtless played a role.
That said, many Arabs continued to fight for the Ottoman cause.
There was not a mass desertion, but a decided waning.
Later in the war, the Indian Army organized an additional corps with
which to push on towards Baghdad. The introduction of this unit
represented the tipping point in Mesopotamia. It was led by Gen.
Marshall, who assumed command in Mesopotamia after the death
of Maude at Baghdad.
Before the war ended, the Turkish economy collapsed. The manpower pool had literally been drained, and there was nothing more the
Ottoman leadership could do, except economize and reorganize their
remaining assets. Entire divisions might have only 2000 men—20%
of their usual strength. Despite this fact, the Ottomans soldiered on,
innovating and persevering, despite the nation’s fatigue.
The last great cavalry charge in history occurred on October 31,
1917, under Gen. Allenby’s leadership and was conducted primarily by Australians in the Desert Mounted Corps, the Australian’s
own Gen. Chauvel presiding. The actual unit involved was the 4th
Light Horse Brigade.
The cavalry of the Desert Mounted Corps continued to play important roles in breaking or turning the enemy front, at times charging
out far ahead of Allenby’s infantry in what could be seen as the
beginnings of truly mobile warfare or even bliztkrieg tactics.
The Battle of Megiddo saw the Australian cavalry breaking through
and racing far ahead, arriving at Damascus before anyone else. It is
this latter action primarily which this card simulates.
Allenby’s ability to pull the last gasp of effort out of his men was
well-known. He was an inspirational leader, but also one who did not
suffer fools gladly (or at all). He was also a front-line commander,
not one who led from the rear in comfort. In fact, he was out and
about so much, that his men developed a signal for letting each other
know that “The Bull is Loose!” But after the backseat command
style of Gen. Murray, Allenby’s actual interest in his troops was
refreshing. In return, they poured their hearts out for him.
If the retreating CP unit has no choice but to overstack at the end
of its retreat, it is eliminated. If it is a Corps, it is permanently
eliminated as per normal OOS rules.
The “Haversack Ruse” is one of the more brilliant deceptions in
moden warfare. Planned and executed by Allenby’s head of military
intelligence (a man with the unlikely name of Meinertzhagen), the
plan deceived the Turks as to Allenby’s main line of attack, causing
them to rebalance their forces, placing them exactly where Allenby
was not. The “Haversack Ruse” itself consisted of Meinertzhagen
riding towards Turkish lines—he allowed himself to be shot at, rode
away drooping in the saddle as if wounded, and dropped a haversack
stained with fresh horse’s blood. The haversack contained personal
items of a British officer (including letters and money) and a set of
plans for Allenby’s forces. The Turks were convinced of the plans’
authenticity, largely due to the heroics and acting skills of Meinertzhagen, as well as the fresh blood.
This card represents another example of the disinformation practised
by Allenby. He had his troops march in the heat all day to camps near
the Jordan River, then march back west in the darkness, then repeat
the process the next day. Turkish spies reported huge numbers of
British troops shifting east, and the Turkish and German commanders reacted by shifting their units east also. This, of course, weakened
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
Pursuit of Glory—Play Book
the western end of the line, where Allenby’s troops were actually
concentrated, enabling Allenby to easily smash through, especially
since in the west, near the shore, the Brits could call upon the Royal
Navy for bombardments in support. This also demonstrates the effects of the CP losing air superiority—air reconaissance would have
easily shown them the fact of Allenby’s illusion.
The appointment of Gen. Sarrail represented a shift in French
politics and Allied commitment to the Balkans. He reorganized the
Allied armies in Greece and brought supplies in from the heel of
Italy, across the Adriatic, rather than through the open Mediterranean and the Aegean, where German subs threatened. He built up
a potent force which Gen. D’Esperey was then given command to
use—and did so to great effect, overseeing the recapture of Serbia.
This card represents both generals, but is named after D’Esperey,
whose victories made him by far more famous.
This event may be played, even if the ANA cannot enter. If Aqaba is
not owned, the ANA is placed in the Eliminated/Replaceable Units
Box (from whence it can be built using AP-A RPs, entering at any
AP-controlled port in Sinai, or Syria/Palestine). A cavalry officer, Allenby was chosen in June 1917 as Lloyd
George’s commander of choice to invade Palestine—and capture
Jerusalem by Christmas. Since so much of his story is told in the
description of other cards, there seems little need to add more here.
Suffice it to say, that his victories in Syria/Palestine occurred even
while his army was being stripped of veteran units that were sent
to the West Front. Allenby was a master at doing his best with what
he had—a master of psychological warfare, strategic dislocation,
deception, combined arms, and mobile warfare.
From the outset of the war, David Lloyd George had advocated the
strategy of finding a way to victory that led around (not through)
the German trenches in France. When he became Prime Minister,
his commitment to an assault on the Central Powers through Turkey and the Balkans empowered the military in those regions to do
something signficant—outflank Germany and Austria-Hungary and
knock Turkey out of the war. He appointed Gen. Allenby to lead British forces in Egypt and cooperated with the French in a significant
increase in Balkan activity, leading eventually to the liberation of
Serbia and the collapse of Bulgaria. This severed Germany’s connection to Turkey, knocking Turkey out of the war and opening the
Dardanelles so that supplies could again reach Russia (although
this was too late). Days later, Germany surrendered. In part this was
due to Germany’s exhaustion on the West Front and at home, but
in large part it was due to the fact that there were no troops left to
oppose an Allied-Serbian march into Austria-Hungary.
There is a nearly infinite number of books on World War One,
many of them written at or near the time and many of those written
by participants. Some are very hard to find, but others have been
scanned into pdf files and can be googled on the internet.
The following books are indispensable if you are going to study
this front seriously:
Allen and Muratoff, Caucasian Battlefields (Battery Press)—
probably the only book available on the Turkish-Russian wars for
the Caucasus, most of it focusing on World War One (WW1).
Erickson, Ordered to Die—the definitive account of the Ottoman
military in WW1.
The British Official Histories (Battery Press) are quite interesting.
There are four volumes on Mesopotamia, one on Persia, three on
Egypt/Palestine/Syria, two on Macedonia (Balkans). The maps are
usually fantastic and included in little pockets in the front and/or
back of the books.
Other valuable books used to research the game:
Fromkin, A Peace to End All Peace (Holt)—the most readily available history of WW1 and the Near East, this is the perfect place to
start reading.
Hopkirk, Like Hidden Fire (Kodansha Globe)—the only readily
available history of CP efforts in Persia, Afghanistan, and India
during WW1.
Carver, National Army Museum Book of the Turkish Front 191418: The Campaigns at Gallipoli, in Mesopotamia & in Palestine
(Pan)—a good overview of the British campaigns.
Cassar, Kitchener’s War (Potomac Books)—a good overview of the
strategic issues from the British point of view.
Higgins, Winston Churchill and the Dardanelles (MacMillan).
Evans, A Brief Outline of the Campaign in Mesopotamia 19141918 (Sifton).
Other good sources used:
Bruce, The Last Crusade: The Palestine Campaign in the First
World War (John Murray).
Palmer, The Gardeners of Salonika (Simon and Schuster).
Barker, The Bastard War: The Mesopotamian Campaign of 19141918 (Dial Press).
Churchill, The World Crisis (various editions).
Wakefield, Under the Devil's Eye: Britain's Forgotten Army in
Salonika 1915-1918 (Sutton).
Liman von Sanders, Five Years in Turkey (Battery Press).
Recent titles which I have not used include:
Woodward, Hell in the Holy Land: World War I in the Middle East
(University Press of Kentucky).
Wilcox, Battles on the Tigris: The Mesopotamian Campaign of the
First World War (Pen and Sword).
Strachan, The First World War (Penguin).
© 2008 GMT Games, LLC
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