Rules and Appendices.vp

Rules and Appendices.vp
INTENSIVE ASSAULT
Intensive Assaults represent the utilization of
concentrations of artillery, engineers and other
resources to enhance an attack.
Units make Intensive Assaults during friendly
Combat phases.
Units making an Intensive Assault must be adjacent
to a friendly, combat effective Headquarters unit which
can in turn trace a normal line of supply. At least one
friendly unit must be adjacent to the Headquarters unit to
make the Intensive Assault. The combat is shifted two
columns to the right. The headquarters is then
Disrupted. Disruption of the headquarters unit
represents burning up various support units in the
assault.
A single headquarters may support no more than one
Intensive Assault per combat phase.
NAVAL OPERATIONS
In certain scenarios a player has a Fleet unit
representing a Naval Task Force from the US Navy.
The Naval unit is placed on the map on any Sea hex. It
may move to any other Sea hex each friendly impulse.
The player may use the Fleet unit to support one
friendly land combat per impulse, offensively or
defensively. The Fleet unit must be within three hexes of
a friendly land unit involved in the Combat. This shifts
combat odds one column in the favor of the player for
that combat. The Naval Unit is not affected by combat
and can never be eliminated.
The enemy player may not make any Amphibious
Landings within six hexes of a Fleet unit.
Fleet units do not have Zones of Control and are never
affected by enemy Zones of Control. Naval units may
never be attacked by land units.
If only one player chose to extend the game, then the
game is extended, but shift the Political Index 20 points
in the other player’s favor.
A game may be extended only once, and only by four
turns.
CREDITS
Design:
Joseph Miranda
Development:
Michael Anderson, Jon Compton, Joseph Miranda
Playtesting:
Brian Alvarado, Michael Anderson, Jon Compton, Todd
Evans, Jospeh Miranda
Editing
Michael Anderson, Steven Hill
Graphics:
Michael Anderson, Steven Hill
Research:
Brian Alvarado, Michael Anderson, Joseph Miranda
Photographs:
Courtesy of Corel Corporation
GAME EXTENSION
At the end of the last turn of the game, players may
choose to extend the game by another four turns.
At the end of the final game turn, both players
secretly write down whether or not they want to extend
the game, then reveal their decisions.
If both players agreed to extend the game, then the
game is extended.
If neither player chose to extend the game, then the
game ends.
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Version 1.1
by Joseph Miranda
MILLENNIUM WARS is a series of strategic-level,
two-player simulations of possible current and
near-future conflicts.
Each player controls the forces of a belligerent and its
allies.
Each player moves his units and executes attacks in
turn. While there are two sides in each game, certain
scenarios will include NATO intervention on one side or
the other.
Standard Game rules gives a basic simulation of
modern warfare. Expansion sets include additional rules
which give a more complete simulation at the expense of
additional complexity.
Each Millennium Wars set uses the same Standard
Game rules and tables. Each has its own unique map,
counters, and victory conditions.
The front side of the unit is its Combat Effective side.
A unit may become Disrupted owing to various game
actions. Disrupted status is indicated by inverting it or
placing a Disrupted marker on it. A Disrupted unit is
restored to combat effectiveness via the Recovery
process.
Unit Types
GAME EQUIPMENT
MAPS
Each game has a map that portrays the area in which
the war will be fought. A hexagonical grid has been
superimposed on the map to regulate the position and
movement of the playing pieces. When setting up and
playing the game, the cardboard playing pieces are
placed within the individual hexagons.
PLAYING PIECES
Examine the sheet of colored die cut cardboard
playing pieces. These are also called counters or units.
These represent the opposing military forces which are
deployed in various crisis zones. The counters use
standard NATO military symbolism to indicate the types
of units they represent. Each unit has numbers which
indicate their various military capabilities.
POLITICAL IMPACT ON MILITARY OPERATIONS
A player may shift combat odds by expending
Political Points.
The Attacker may shift land combat odds one column
to the right by expending one Political Point per land unit
involved in the attack.
The Defender may shift land combat odds one
column to the left by expending one Political Point per
land unit involved in the defense.
A player may never shift combat odds by more than
one column for Political Points expended.
MILLENNIUM WARS
This fine game is published by:
One Small Step
26444 Via Roble
Mission Viejo, California 92691
www.ossgames.com
Rules Questions:
[email protected]
Unit Size
+
Cadre
II
Battalion
III
Regiment or regiment sized group
X
Brigade or brigade sized group
XX
Division or Division sized group
XXX
Corps or Chinese “Army”
XXXX Army or Chinese “Army Group”
Units with no size symbol are considered to be
division sized.
Unit Designation
Generally, units are represented by a numerical
designation, such as the US 2nd Infantry Division. Some
units have titles, represented by an abbreviation. Each
scenario has the abbreviations for unit designations.
Copyright © 2012 — One Small Step
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Combat Strength
The left-hand number on each ground unit is the
Combat Strength. The right-hand number is the
Movement Allowance.
A unit’s Combat Strength is its basic effectiveness in
combat. It is a measure of the unit’s firepower, training
and leadership. Certain units have their combat
strengths in red. This indicates that the unit may only
defend, never attack.
Deep ZOC
Some units can exert a Deep Zone of Control. See the
Deep ZOC section in the advanced rules for more
information.
MARKERS
Air Move
Used to give temporary Airmobile movement
capability to a unit, and to provide Air Supply.
Movement Allowance
A unit’s Movement Allowance is its ability to move
cross country. The Movement Allowance is a measure
of the unit’s mobility and, to a degree, of its logistical
capabilities.
C4I Level
Indicates the effectiveness of a side’s current
command, control, communications, computers, and
intelligence systems.
Airmobile
Certain units have an infinity symbol in or under their
Unit Type box. This indicates the unit may use Airmobile
Movement. See Movement Rules for explanation.
Disrupted
Disrupted markers are used to denote units whose
combat effectriveness is degraded by severe combat
losses.
Headquarters Support Radius
The number on the upper left corner of Headquarters
units is its Support Radius, which represents its ability to
provide supply and combat support, such as
non-divisional artillery, to friendly units.
Game Turn
Indicates current game turn.
Information Warfare
Certain units have a lightning bolt between their
Combat Strength and Movement Allowance. This
indicates that the unit may engage in Information
Warfare. Information Warfare is the ability of a unit to
use psychological operations, electronic warfare, and
various forms of cybernetic combat.
Self-Supply
Some units do not follow the normal Supply rules and
can supply themselves. See Logistics section for more
information.
Ignore ZOCs
Most units exert a Zone of Control or Deep Zone of
Control, influencing the movement of hostile nearby
units. Units that display the Ignore ZOCs arrow disregard
most of these effects. See Special Ops and Recon
section for more information.
Air-Land
Some units are able to conduct coordinated Air-Land
operations, and therefore use the devastating Air-Land
Combat Results Table. See the Combat Results Tables
section for more information.
Recon/Force Raid
Some units have the ability to perform
Reconnaissance, allowing them to examine a stack of
adjacent hostile units. These same unit types can also
force an enemy to use the Raid Table. See the Special
Ops and Recon section for more information.
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Ops Complete (Operations Complete)
Used as needed to indicate units which have
completed movement and combat.
Political Level
Indicates the relative amount of world political
support for each side versus the other. There are two
Political markers, one indicating the tens digit, the other
the units. A Political Level of 51 would be indicated by
pacing the tens marker in the “5” space and the units
marker in the “1” space.
TABLES BOOK
The Tables Book is a collection of all tables required
to play Millennium Wars. Some of the Tables included
are the Air Superiority Table, the Combat Results Tables
(CRTs), the Information Warfare Table, the Political
Points Table, and the Terrain Table.
MISSION BOOK
Each Millennium Wars game comes with one
Mission Book, which details the initial deployments and
possible reinforcements for each of one to three
provided scenarios.
DICE
Players will need one six-sided die to play the game.
The die is used for various randomized game functions.
These represent US Special Forces Groups which have
a capability to perform various PSYOP and politically
sensitive missions.
AIR MOVE MARKER
The Air Move markers may be used to provide
temporary Airmobile Movement capability to qualified
units, and to provide Air Supply.
AIRMOBILE MOVEMENT
In addition to units with Airmobile Movement
capability, a player may move units via Airmobile
Movement, representing cargo helicopter and airlift
assets.
Each Air Move marker may conduct one Airmobile
Move per turn. The player indicates one friendly unit on
the map which is In Supply and then moves it as if it
were a normal Airmobile unit. He may indicate a different
unit each turn.
Mechanized units may make Airmobile Moves, but
they may must start and end the movement in friendly
controlled City or Town hexes.
A player may not make Airmobile moves if the enemy
player has Air Dominance.
AIR SUPPLY
Air Supply is performed by placing the Air Move unit
on top of a stack of units at any point in the Game Turn,
friendly or enemy. This places all those units in Supply
for the remainder of that Impulse or Segment. Each Air
Supply marker may be used only once per turn.
Air Supply is effective only for units in that hex for the
rest of the Impulse or Segment. Units in other hexes
may not trace a Line of Supply to an Air Supply marker.
A player may not place Air Supply markers if the
enemy player has Air Dominance.
Air Move markers are never destroyed. They do not
count for stacking.
Once an Air Move marker is used, it is returned to the
Reinforcement pile. To use it again, it must be
purchased again. If purchased, but unused, it is
retained.
SPECIAL OPS & RECON
Special Operations and Paramilitary units may
ignore enemy Zones of Control for purposes of
Movement, Retreat and Advance after Combat.
Special Operations and Paramilitary units may not
ignore the Zones of Control of enemy Paramilitary and
Special Operations units.
Special Operations units have normal Zones of
Control.
Special Operations, Paramilitary, Air Assault and
Armored Cavalry units have the following additional
special abilities:
If all Defending units in a hex are these types (any
combination), then the Defender may choose the Raid
CRT for the Resolution of Land Combat.
Reconaissance
if a player has a Special Operations, Paramilitary, Air
Assault or Armored Cavalry unit adjacent to an enemy
occupied hex at the end of any Movement Impulse, the
player may examine all enemy units in that hex.
Note that Facilities do not count as units, and may be
revealed only by the rules outlined in the specific
Missions in which they appear.
DEEP ZONES OF CONTROL
Certain land units have a Deep Zone of Control. Deep
ZOCs represent the additional area that certain units can
influence owing to long range weapons, sensors, and
deep battle doctrine.
Deep ZOCs extend into the 12 hexes that are two
hexes away from each qualified Combat Effective unit.
Deep ZOCs have the following effects:
All enemy units which enter a Deep Zone of Control
must pay one extra Movement point.
A Strategic Line of Supply may not be traced through
a Deep ZOC.
Deep Zones of Control are not cumulative. If more
than one unit exerts a Deep Zone of Control on a
hexagon, there is no additional Movement cost.
Additionally, a Deep Zone of Control is superseded if
a unit exerts a regular zone of control into the hexagon
(There is no additional movement cost.)
The following NATO units have Deep ZOCs:
Armor, Mechanized Infantry, Armored Cavalry,
Combined Arms, Mechanized Airborne, High-Tech
Strike Force, Airmobile.
DEEP
DEEP ZOC DEEP
ZOC DEEP
DEEP ZOC
ZOC
ZOC
ZOC
ZOC
ZOC
DEEP
DEEP
UNIT
ZOC
ZOC
ZOC
ZOC
DEEP
DEEP
ZOC
ZOC DEEP
DEEP ZOC
ZOC DEEP ZOC
ZOC
The following non-NATO units have Deep ZOCs:
Combined arms. Other units as designated by scenario.
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A unit may not use airmobile movement for Advance
or Retreat after Combat.
A unit must start in Supply in order to make the
Airmobile move. The player may place an Air Move
marker on the unit’s starting hexagon in order to provide
the Supplied condition. This precludes use of the Air
Move marker for the remainder of the turn.
A player may not make Airmobile moves if the enemy
player has Air Dominance.
Airmobile units with a Movement Allowances of nine
or ten have organic helicopters. Airmobile units with a
Movement Allowances of four are otherwise foot
mobile.
MISSION BOOKS
AMPHIBIOUS UNITS
Units with the Marine (anchor) or Special Operations
symbols may make Amphibious moves. The unit must
start its Movement Phase in a Port or other coastal hex.
It is then placed on any coastal or Port hex which does
not contain an enemy unit. It may contain an enemy
Zone of Control.
This consumes the unit’s entire movement for that
segment. The unit may conduct Combat and Advance
normally in the immediately following friendly Combat
Phase.
Information Warfare Attacks
VICTORY CONDITIONS
Victory Conditions describe how the game is won. At
the end of the game, players check to see if they have
attained certain objectives.
A player wins the game if he attains a Level of Victory
and his opponent does not.
Should both players gain a Level of Victory, then both
may declare a Victory. It is entirely possible for both
players to win or lose certain scenarios, representing
attainment of asymmetrical military-political objectives
or mutual collapse.
Victory Conditions are given by the scenarios. These
may include any/all of the following:
Occupation of Hexes: The player must have at least
one unit in the designated hex at the end of the game.
Political Points: Check the Political Index at the end of
the game.
Capture/Destruction of Facilities: The player must
occupy (or if playing with Air War Expansion, destroy)
some of the enemy’s Facilities.
LEVEL OF VICTORY
Winner has the following number of points more than
the loser:
0-10: Draw (Crisis Continues)
11-30: Local Victory (Winner looks good on CNN)
31-50: Regional Victory (Winner dominates Region)
51+: Global Victory (Winner is Global Power)
Victory
Conditions
frequently
represent
asymmetrical objectives. One player will have to gain
territorial objectives while the other must gain Political
Points. The latter represents the need to influence world
opinion, the UN, the international media, etc.
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Each game has its own scenarios in a Mission Book.
These will include deployment, political point costs, a
Random Events Table, and Victory Conditions. While
each Game has only a few scenarios, there are sufficient
options to provide different force mixes. Furthermore,
players are free to experiment with additional scenarios
based on their own speculations and current crises.
APPENDIX A — ADVANCED RULES
The Advanced Rules may be used by players who
desire a deeper simulation of modern warfare.
SEQUENCE OF PLAY
Millennium Wars is played in Game Turns. Players
follow a rigid Sequence of Play in which they conduct
their various game actions. The Sequence of Play is
subdivided into a First Player Turn and a Second Player
Turn. The scenario instructions will indicate which sides
are the First and Second players.
Random Events Segment
The players roll on the Random Events Table to
determine which event will occur this Game Turn.
Air Warfare Segment
Certain units may make Information Warfare Attacks.
Information Warfare represents a wide range of
psychological operations, terrorism, cybernetic warfare,
electronic warfare, deception, terrorism, and other
actions which are designed to affect the political
situation and the ability of the enemy to communicate.
Information Warfare is conducted during the friendly
Information Warfare segment.
Only units with an Information Warfare symbol may
make Information Warfare Attacks.
Only Combat Effective units may make Information
Warfare attacks.
The friendly player totals the number of units making
Information Warfare attacks.
The enemy player totals the number of units he is
committing to defense against Information Warfare.
Subtract the Defenders total from the Attacker’s. This
gives the Information Warfare Differential.
Roll one die on the Information Warfare Table. Apply
the result immediately.
An Information Warfare unit committed to defense
against an Information Warfare attack may not conduct
an offensive Information Warfare operation in the same
Game Turn. Place an Operations Complete marker on it
to indicate this.
Only Combat Effective units may defend against
Information Warfare attacks.
Information Warfare may take place only in the
player’s Information Warfare segment.
There is only one Information Warfare segment per
Player Turn, not one per impulse.
A player may make more than one Information
Warfare attack per friendly Information Warfare
segment, as long as no Information Warfare unit
participates in more than one Attack or Defense per turn.
Information Warfare attacks are not ground combat
and do not cost Political Points for attacking enemy
units in Cities, etc.
Units conducting Information Warfare do not have to
be adjacent to enemy units to affect them. If Information
Warfare results in units being Disrupted or revealed, the
affected units may chosen from any in play.
Players should note that certain US Special
Operations units have an Information Warfare capability.
Players roll on the Air Superiority Table to determine
which player will have Air Superiority this Player Turn.
If playing with the Air War Expansion System: Players
conduct various Air Missions as indicated in the
expansion rules.
First Player Turn
REINFORCEMENT & REPLACEMENT SEGMENT
The First Player places any Reinforcements and
Replacements he is due this turn.
INFORMATION WARFARE SEGMENT
The First player conducts Information Warfare.
FIRST IMPULSE
The First Player may always take a first impulse.
First Player Movement Phase
The First Player may move his units in accordance
with the movement rules.
Reaction Phase
The Second player may move any reserve units.
First Player Combat Phase
The player may use his units to conduct attacks
against enemy units.
SECOND IMPULSE
If qualified, the First Player takes a second impulse.
First Player Movement Phase
Reaction Phase
First Player Combat Phase
C4I Recovery
If the First Player’s C4I Level is reduced below its
starting level, then increase it by one.
Second Player Turn
REINFORCEMENT & REPLACEMENT SEGMENT
The Second player places any Reinforcements or
Replacements he is due this turn.
INFORMATION WARFARE SEGMENT
The Second player conducts Information Warfare.
FIRST IMPULSE
The Second Player may always take a first impulse.
Second Player Movement Phase
The Second Player may move his units in
accordance with the movement rules.
Reaction Phase
The First player may move any reserve units.
Second Player Combat Phase
The Second player may use his units to conduct
attacks against enemy units.
SECOND IMPULSE
If qualified, the Second Player takes a second
impulse.
Second Player Movement Phase
Reaction Phase
Second Player Combat Phase
THIRD IMPULSE
If qualified, the Second Player takes a third impulse.
Second Player Movement Phase
Reaction Phase
Second Player Combat Phase
SECOND PLAYER RECOVERY SEGMENT
The Second Player player now attempts to restore his
Disrupted units to their Combat Effective status.
C4I Recovery
If the Second Player’s C4I Level is reduced below its
starting level, then increase it by one.
THIRD IMPULSE
If qualified, the First Player takes a third impulse.
First Player Movement Phase
Reaction Phase
First Player Combat Phase
ADMINISTRATIVE SEGMENT
Remove all Ops Complete markers.
Check for any changes to the Political Index for End
of Turn events.
The players advance the Game Turn marker one
space on the Status Track.
FIRST PLAYER RECOVERY SEGMENT
The First Player player now attempts to restore his
Disrupted units to their Combat Effective status.
GAME LENGTH
The length of the game is indicated in the Mission
Book for the scenario selected.
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STANDARD GAME RULES
The term “friendly” indicates a Unit, City, or Town
which is Controlled by the player.
UNIT CONTROL
Friendly units include all units assigned to the player
by the scenario and subsequent reinforcements. An
“enemy” unit is a unit which is controlled by the other
player.
CITY AND TOWN CONTROL
A player generally controls all cities that started on
his side of the front line unless they have been occupied
by enemy units.
City control changes if an enemy unit occupies the
city/town. Should an enemy unit occupy a city/town and
then move out of it, the enemy retains control of the
city/town until a friendly unit reoccupies it. The player
who was last to occupy a city/town controls it. (Even if
the player does not have units in a city or town, there are
rear area troops and security forces which are below the
scale of the game which would be performing
occupation duty.
Zones of Control do not dispute the control status of a
city or town.
NATO AND OTHERS
“NATO” is a general term for Western military forces
which may intervene on one side or the other. NATO
forces have their own counters.
Also, some scenarios will have third, fourth, and fifth
sets of units.
If a player controls more than one set of units on his
side, then all such forces are considered allied.
Units of different nationalities on the same side may
stack together.
Units of different Nationalities may not be involved in
the same attack, land or air.
NATO Headquarters units may provide supply and
recovery to non-NATO allied units. Non-NATO allied
Headquarters units may not provide supply and
recovery to NATO units.
NEUTRALS
Certain scenarios may indicate that a country is a
Neutral. Units may never enter or attack into neutral
territory.
STATUS TRACK
Each Map contains a series of ten boxes, numbered
zero through nine. This is the Status Track. Players
move the Game Turn, Political Index, and C4I markers
on the Status Track to record their current state.
POLITICAL INDEX
Central to play of the game is the Political Index. The
Political Index is a measure of the relative political
support for each side, including home country political
opinion, world media, the United Nations, etc. The
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Political Index will affect reinforcements and other game
functions.
The Political Index starts the game at the mark
designated by the scenario. Certain game actions will
raise or lower the Political Index. This is done by moving
the Political marker along the Index the indicated number
of spaces. See the Political Points Table.
The Political Index may never go lower than “1” or
higher than “100.” Should some action require it to go
lower or higher than these limits, then the index remains
at 1 or 100 respectively.
In each scenario, when the Political Index is 51-100 it
is considered to be “pro” the First Player. When the
Political Index is 1-50 it is considered to be “pro” the
Second Player. Players should examine the Political
Index Table for the actions which change the Political
index. Players gain points for certain types of attacks on
Cities and Towns as this represents the effects of
collateral damage against civilians.
Certain game actions require the player to expend
Political Points. The player must have the Political Points
available before he can take these actions.
C4I
Each side in the game has a C4I Level. Depending
upon the side’s C4I level, its units will be able to initiate
from one to three impulses per friendly player turn. The
C4I level is based on the national levels of leadership,
training, and doctrine. C4I levels are given by the
scenario selected.
All countries (or coalitions of countries) have a stated
C4I level. This will be either 0, 1, 2, or 3.
C4I Level 0
The country’s units may only initiate their first
Impulse and each unit may either Move or conduct
Combat, but not both in the same turn. They may not
perform Reaction movement.
C4I Level 0 indicates a complete breakdown in a
country’s command-control capabilities, as happened
to the Iraqis in 1991 following the Coalition bombing
campaign.
C4I Level 1
The side’s units may only initiate their first Impulse.
They may not initiate the second or third. They may
perform Reaction movement only in the enemy First
Impulse.
C4I Level 2
The side’s units may only initiate their first and
second Impulses They may not initiate the third. They
may perform Reaction movement only in the enemy
First and Second Impulses.
C4I Level 3
The side’s units may initiate their first, second and
third Impulses. They may perform Reaction movement
in all three enemy Impulses.
Disrupted units may not Attack. They Defend
normally.
Certain Combat results Eliminate Disrupted units.
Disrupted units otherwise function normally.
Disrupted Headquarters units have their Support
Radius reduced to one.
RECOVERY PROCEDURE
During the Recovery segment, check each friendly
Disrupted unit. If it is in Supply, including automatically
supplied units, then roll one die on the Recovery Table
and apply the result.
A Disrupted Headquarters unit may attempt to make a
Recovery attempt if it can trace a Strategic Line of
Supply.
FOG OF WAR
A player may examine enemy stacks of units only
under certain conditions.
• If the player has Air Superiority or Air Dominance.
See the Air Superiority Table.
• At the instant of combat, both sides must reveal all
Attacking and Defending units. (Once a combat
has been declared, it may not be called off.)
• As designated by the scenario.
Facilities are not units and may only be examined by
rules in the specific Mission.
REINFORCEMENTS AND REPLACEMENTS
Both players start the game with certain units
deployed on the map. All other units which are
introduced into the game are Reinforcements. Units
which are eliminated and returned to play are called
Replacements.
Each scenario will designate which units are
available as Reinforcements. A player may bring
additional units into play by paying the designated
number of Political Points for each unit. Simply move the
Political Index the designated number of Points. That is,
if the Reinforcement cost of a unit is two political points,
shift the Political Index two points in the enemy’s favor.
Only units designated by the scenario as
Reinforcements may be taken. Sometimes there will be
extra units for use in alternative scenarios.
There may be further limits to the number of units
which can be brought onto the map each turn, as
designated by scenario.
Reinforcements are placed during the friendly
Reinforcement segment. They are placed as designated
by the scenario. It costs no extra movement to place a
reinforcement unit.
Units may not be placed on hexes containing enemy
units, but they may be placed in enemy ZOCs.
Airmobile qualified units may enter the map using
Airmobile movement, and Amphibious units may move
onto the map using Amphibious movement.
The movement is executed during the normal
Movement Phase.
Once a unit has entered the map, it may not exit.
Reinforcements are generally based on the amount
of political capital that a player wants to expend. This
represents a tradeoff between popular support for the
military effort and popular disdain for casualties and
other costs of war.
Reinforcements may also enter the game as a result
of Random Events. These Reinforcements require no
Political Point expenditure.
Reinforcements must be taken the turn they are
called for. They may not be delayed. If enemy units
occupy all designated reinforcement arrival hexes, then
those reinforcements may not be received that turn.
Reinforcements function normally in the turn they
enter play.
Replacements are units which have been eliminated
in the course of the game, and are later brought back
into play.
They may be returned to play by paying appropriate
replacement costs, in the same manner as
Reinforcements.
Replacements should be kept in a separate pool from
Reinforcements. Replacements costs more Political
Points than Reinforcements. This is because most
reinforcements represent either units available for
deployment to the combat zone, or mobilization of
reserves.
Replacements represent rebuilding entire units from
a cadre of survivors, purchasing new equipment on the
international arms markets, etc.
NATO air units are cheaper than non-NATO owing to
massive NATO air inventory as well as the general
preference of American and Western European
countries to expend small numbers of aircraft rather
than large number of ground manpower.
The number of units in the game is a limit. A player
may not take more Reinforcements and Replacements
than available in the counter mix.
A player will have available as Reinforcements units
of the same type but different strengths. Players are free
to choose which units they will take as Reinforcements.
AIRMOBILE AND AMPHIBIOUS UNITS
Certain units have special rules, representing unique
capabilities.
AIRMOBILE UNITS
These are units with the infinity symbol under their
unit type box. Airmobile units have parachute training or
organic helicopters which allow them to move via air.
Airmobile units may move either via normal land
movement, using their printed movement allowance, or
conduct an Airmobile Move.
To conduct an Airmobile move, simply pick the unit
up and place it on any land hexagon not containing an
enemy unit. The hexagon landed in may contain an
enemy Zone of Control.
The Airmobile move may be through enemy units and
Zones of Control.
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LOCs and Supply
Players trace lines of supply along Lines of
Communication back to a supply source. See the
Logistics rule.
LOGISTICS
Logistics affect movement, supply and recovery.
Supply affects only land units.
Each land unit checks its supply status by tracing a
path of hexes from itself back to a friendly Supply
Source. This path of hexes is known as the Line of
Supply.
Units which can trace such a path are Supplied, Units
which are unable to trace a valid line of supply are
Unsupplied.
DETERMINING SUPPLY
In order to be Supplied, the unit must trace a Line of
Supply, as follows:
The Tactical Path
This is a line of hexes from the unit back to a friendly
Headquarters unit. This Tactical Path may be no longer
than the Headquarters unit’s Support Radius. This
Tactical Path may be traced through enemy units, Zones
of Control, and otherwise forbidden terrain. (The
Headquarters units represent merely a center for
logistics and other combat support activities, such as
non-divisional artillery and engineers, and are not units
per se.)
The Strategic Path
This is a line of hexagons traced from the
Headquarters unit back to a friendly supply source.
Supply sources are defined by the scenarios, usually
being friendly Cities, map edges, etc.
The Strategic Path may be traced as follows:
A number of hexes from the headquarters unit no
greater than the unit’s Support Radius back to a Supply
Source hex.
A number of hexes from the Headquarters unit no
greater than the unit’s Support Radius back to a Line of
Communications hex which is connected by contiguous
Lines of Communications hexes back to a Supply
Source hex.
The strategic path may at no point enter an enemy
Zone of Control, enemy unit, or otherwise prohibited
terrain.
HEADQUARTERS UNITS
Disrupted headquarters units have their Support
Radius reduced to one.
Headquarters units themselves are not Supply
Sources. They must trace a Line of Supply themselves
back to a friendly supply source to use their capabilities
fully.
AUTOMATIC SUPPLY
Certain units are always in supply. These include
units occupying a friendly Supply Source hex, Special
Operations units, Paramilitary units in their home
countries, Political Power Nexuses, and other units as
indicated by scenarios.
OPERATIONAL CITIES AND TOWNS
Supply is traced to Operational City, Town or Port
hexes. A Port hex is any hex marked with an anchor, or
any City or Town hex adjacent to a Sea hex.
To be Operational, the hex must be occupied by a
friendly land unit. If using the Air War Expansion, the hex
must also not have a Target Destroyed marker on it.
Cities and Towns are considered to also have
airfields into which supplies, troops and equipment can
be airlifted, hence their availability as Supply Sources.
POLITICAL POWER NEXUSES
Certain scenarios have Political Power Nexuses.
These function in the same manner as Headquarters.
Political Power Nexus have no movement and are
Eliminated if forced to Retreat.
Supply Effects on Movement
Supply for Movement is determined at the instant of
movement.
An Out of Supply unit has its Movement Allowance
halved. Retain any fractions.
Supply Effects on Combat
Supply for Combat is determined at the instant of
combat.
If a force conducting a combat has all Unsupplied
units in it, then the odds column is shifted two in the
enemy’s favor.
If a force conducting a Combat has both Supplied and
Unsupplied units in it, then the odds column is shifted
one in the enemy’s favor.
If a force conducting a combat has all Supplied units
in it, then there are no shifts to the Combat odds for
Supply.
Supply Effects on Recovery
A unit must be In Supply to attempt Recovery. See
Recovery rules.
DISRUPTION AND RECOVERY
Units generally start the game in their Combat
Effective state. Exceptions will be noted by the scenario.
Units become Disrupted through certain Combat
Results.
In the Recovery segment, the player may attempt to
restore Disrupted friendly units to Combat Effective
status.
EFFECTS OF DISRUPTION
Disrupted units have no Zones of Control.
8
C4I Status
The C4I marker is placed on the Status Track to
indicate a side’s current level of C4I. The C4I level may
change in the course of the game owing to various
combat actions or other game events. When a start level
of a particular C4I level is given, place the index marker
in the appropriate space.
Should a player control units from more than one
country, and each country has a different C4I capability,
then each country’s units retains its own C4I Status
marker and position on the Track. For eaxmple, if one
player controls both NATO and Ukrainian units, NATO
has a C4I rating of 3 and Ukraine has a C4I rating of 1.
The Ukrainian units may only conduct operations during
the first Impulse, but the NATO units may conduct
operations in all three Impulses.
Restoration of C4I
If a player’s C4I level has been reduced in the course
of a turn, then it is automatically raised by one during the
C4I Recovery Segment.
A C4I level may never be raised higher than it was at
the beginning of the game, unless a Mission’s Special
Rules state otherwise.
A C4I level may be raised by a maximum of one level
per turn, regardless of how far it has been reduced.
RANDOM EVENTS
During the Random Events segment, the players roll
two dice on the Random Events Table to determine a
random event for the turn.
Each player rolls one die. The First player’s die is
considered the tens digit, the Second player’s die the
units digit. Cross index this and apply the result.
Players should examine the Random Events Table
prior to start of play as the events will sometimes have a
significant impact on play.
If a Random Event occurs that provides one side with
additional forces, these forces are not drawn from the
players’ Reinforcement or Replacement piles.
AIR SUPERIORITY
During the Air Warfare Segment, players roll one die
on the Air Superiority Table to determine which player (if
either) has Air Superiority this turn.
Each scenario will give a die roll modifier for Air
Superiority. This is an number that is added to or
subtracted from the Air Superiority die roll.
Outcomes for Air Superiority are given adjacent to the
Air Superiority Table. Note that these will possibility give
one player advantages in combat or change the C4I
level.
Players should alternate rolling on the Air Superiority
Table.
MOVEMENT
During a player’s Movement Phase, he may move
some, none, or all of his units as he desires within the
restrictions of each unit’s Movement Allowance and the
various Terrain and Zone of Control rules. Each unit is
moved individually, tracing the path of its movement
through the hexagonal grid.
Movement is calculated in terms of hexagons.
Basically, each unit expends one Movement Point of its
total Movement Allowance for each hexagon entered.
To enter some types of terrain a unit must expend
more than one Movement Point. The Terrain Effects
Table details the exact amount of Movement Points a
unit must expend to enter each terrain type.
There are two columns on the Table for Movement.
One column gives the costs for Mechanized units and
the other gives the costs for non-Mechanized units.
Movement is completely voluntary. A unit may move
some or all of its Movement Allowance if it decides to
move.
Unused Movement points are not accumulated from
turn to turn, nor may they be transferred from one unit to
another.
A player may move units only during his own
Movement Phases, during the opponent’s Reaction
Phases, and sometimes as a result of Combat.
Units may enter hexes containing other friendly units.
They may not enter hexes containing enemy units
unless using Airmobile movement. Using Airmobile
movement, a unit may move through a hex containing
an enemy unit, but may not stop movement in such a
hex. See the Stacking rule for more details.
Units must stop when they enter an enemy Zone of
Control. This is detailed under the Zone of Control rules.
Certain terrain runs along the sides of hexagons.
These terrian types include Rivers and Borders. Players
pay the cost for moving across these types of terrain
when crossing from one hexagon to another. This is in
addition to any other terrain costs. For example,
crossing a river to enter a rough terrain hexagon would
cost three Movement points, one for the River and two
for the Rough terrain.
Units are prohibited from entering certain types of
terrain, as stated on the Terrain Table.
Mechanized units may enter and exit Mountain and
Rough Terrain only if they are moving along a Line of
Communication or using Airmobile movement.
Land units may not enter Sea hexagons or cross Sea
hexsides unless conducting either Amphibious or
Airmobile movement. Naval units may only be placed on
Sea hexes. Sea hexes are not to be confused with Lake
hexes. Both are marked with the Water graphic, but all
hexes of a Lake are surrounded by land hexes of some
kind. Sea hexes sprawl off the map.
A unit may always move at least one hexagon per
turn as long as it is not entering Prohibited Terrain or
moving directly from one enemy Zone of Control to
another.
REACTION MOVEMENT
Reaction Movement is a special type of movement
used by enemy land units during the friendly player turn.
5
A unit must be qualified to use Reaction movement.
The unit must have a sufficient C4I level to conduct
operations in that Impulse.
The unit must be Combat Effective (not Disrupted).
The unit may not start in an enemy Zone of Control.
Headquarters units may not conduct Reaction
Movement.
The unit may then move up to fifty percent of its
Movement Allowance. Units that are Airmobile may
Reaction Move any distance.
It follows the normal rules of movement.
It may enter an enemy Zone of Control, but must then
cease movement, even if Airmobile.
A unit may conduct Reaction Movement more than
once in an enemy player turn if it has an appropriate C4I
level and is otherwise qualified.
A unit which conducts Reaction Movement may not
conduct Movement or Combat operations in its
following player turn.
Players should note that Reaction movement is a way
to radically alter the combat situation by adding
additional forces to the defense of a hex, or to block
possible enemy exploitation of a route.
LAND COMBAT
Combat occurs between adjacent opposing units at
the discretion of the player whose turn is currently in
progress. This player is the Attacker. The other player is
the Defender. The terms Attacker and Defender are
relative to whose turn in progress, and do not represent
who is the overall strategic aggressor.
COMBAT PROCEDURE
For each combat, the attacker chooses one of the
three Combat Results Tables. The attacking force must
be capable of using the CRT chosen.
Total the Combat Strength of all attacking units. Total
the Combat Strength of all defending units. State the
comparison as a probability ratio, dividing the Attacker’s
strength by the Defender’s strength. Drop any fractions
involved.
Apply any applicable shifts for terrain, supply, air
support, and other game factors. This will give the final
odds column.
Roll one die and cross index the number which is
rolled with the appropriate odds column. This will give a
Combat Result. This is applied immediately.
Conduct the next combat, if any.
Attacking units may attack only in their own Combat
Phase.
Attacking units must be adjacent to the units they are
attacking.
Attacking is completely voluntary. The attacking
player may attack with some, none or all of his
applicable units.
No unit may attack more than once per friendly
Combat Phase.
6
More than one attacking unit may be combined in an
attack against a single defending force as long as all
attacking units are adjacent to the defender’s hexagon.
An attacking force may attack only a single adjacent
enemy hexagon. It may not attack more than one enemy
occupied hexagon at the same time.
Units may attack into hexagons they could not
normally enter. This is owing to the range and lethality of
modern weapons.
A defending force may not refuse combat. All
defending units in a hexagon must be attacked as one
combined defense strength.
A given hexagon may be attacked more than once per
Combat Phase, as long as no attacking unit attacks
more than once per segment.
COMBAT ODDS
Combat odds are determined by dividing the
attacker’s total combat strength by the defender’s total
Combat Strength. Any fractions are dropped and this is
the ratio used to determine which odds column will be
used. For example, if the attacker has 14 Combat
Strength points, and the defender has 5, the Combat
Odds would be 14 divided by 5, which equals 2.8/1.
Drop the 0.8 and you get a final odds of 2/1.
Odds less than 1/4 are treated as 1/4. Odds greater
than 6/1 are treated as 6/1.
If the starting combat odds, prior to shifts, are greater
than 6/1 or less than 1/4, then use the 6/1 or 1/4 column
as the base line.
The 1.5/1 odds column is used when the attacker has
at least 50% more Combat Strength than the defender,
but not twice as much.
DEFENDER’S TERRAIN
The Terrain in the hex the Defender occupies will
sometimes cause a shift in the column used for combat.
A shift to the left is in favor of the Defender. That is, a 3/1
Attack with a one column shift to the left would become
a 2/1 Attack. Certain terrain will cause a shift to the right.
Also, Air Superiority will give the gaining player an
additional shift.
COMBAT RESULTS TABLES
Millenium Wars includes three separate Combat
Results Tables — Raid, Assault, and Air-Land Battle.
The attacking player chooses which combat results
table the combat will be resolved on.
There are certain restrictions on who may use the
Air-Land battle CRT. Players may use the Raid and
Assault Tables in any attack.
Air-Land CRT
A player may use the Air-Land Battle CRT only if at
least 50% of the attacker’s Combat Strength points are
“Hi-Tech.” The following units are Hi-Tech:
• All U.S. Land units
• All NATO Mechanized and High-Tech Strike units
• All Russian Combined Arms units
Raid CRT
If at least 50% of the Attacking factors are
non-Mechanized types, then the Defender receives no
shift, left or right, for Terrain in a hex if the Attacker is
using the Raid Table. These Unit Types are more
suitable for combat in Rough Terrain and Urban
environments.
The Defender does receive shifts if Defending in
Fortifications.
All unit types may use the Raid CRT, but only
non-Mechanized units receive this bonus.
COMBAT RESULTS
Combat results are applied immediately as they
occur. The players conduct any advances/retreats after
combat for each combat before going to the next attack.
Combat Results are explained adjacent to the CRTs
themselves.
Regardless of how high combat odds are, the
Attacker never has a 100% chance of gaining a victory.
This represents the extreme variables in modern warfare
introduced by technology, C4I breakdown, and
asymmetrical situations.
STACKING
Stacking is having more than one unit per hex.
A player may stack no more than two units in a hex. A
player may stack any number of Facilities and markers
in a hex.
Stacking limitations apply only at the end of the
Movement, Reaction and Combat Phases.
Players may move units through friendly stacks even
if the stacking limit is exceeded as long as at the end of
the movement the stacking limit is met.
OVERSTACKING
If for some reason a player doesn’t avoid
overstacking units, then at the end of the friendly
Movement, Reaction, or Combat Phase, all Combat
Effective units in the stack are Disrupted. Already
Disrupted units remain Disrupted — they are not
eliminated.
A player may conduct Combat only with one unit in
an overstacked hex, offensively or defensively. Other
units in the stack are still affected by the outcome of the
combat.
Additionally, units in an overstacked hex may not be
Undisrupted.
Friendly land units may never enter hexes containing
enemy land units, unless Airmobile Movement.
ZONES OF CONTROL
The six hexagons immediately surrounding a Combat
Effective unit constitutes that unit’s Zone of Control
(ZOC). Zones of Control are a very important concept in
wargaming. They represent the area that a unit can
influence by its firepower and general ability to react to a
situation. Zones of control have inhibiting effects on
enemy movement, retreat, and supply.
All Combat Effective Land units have a Zone of
Control. Disrupted Land units have no Zones of Control.
A unit’s Zone of Control extends into all six hexagons
adjacent to it. Zones of control extend into hexagons
containing terrain the unit would normally be prohibited
from entering. Zones of Control also extend into
hexagons containing enemy units.
ZOCS AND MOVEMENT
A land unit must stop its Movement upon entering an
enemy Zone of Control. It may move no further in that
Movement Phase. A unit may freely exit an enemy Zone
of Control as long as the unit moves into a
non-controlled hexagon. It may enter another enemy
Zone of Control later in the same move.
A unit may never move directly from one enemy zone
of control into another.
ZOCs and Combat
A unit is not required to conduct combat simply
because it is in an enemy Zone of Control.
ZOCs and Retreating
A Combat Effective unit which retreats through an
enemy Zone of Control is Disrupted. A Disrupted unit
which retreats through an enemy Zone of Control is
eliminated.
ZOCs and Advancing after Combat
Units which are conducting Advance after Combat
may move through enemy Zones of Control without
stopping or being disrupted.
ZOCs and Logistics
A player may not trace a Line of Supply into an enemy
Zone of Control. A player may trace a line of supply out
of an enemy Zone of Control. That is, a friendly unit
adjacent to an enemy unit could still trace a line of
supply from its own hexagon.
LINES OF COMMUNICATION
The black lines on the map that connect the Cities and
Towns represent Lines of Communication, major roads,
and railroads through which movement and logistics are
expedited. Lines of Communication is abbreviated as
“LOC.”
LOCs and Movement
Units moving along lines of communications hexes
always pay one half movement point per hexagon
entered, regardless of other Terrain in the hexagon.
Units may also cross Rivers at no extra movement cost.
LOCs and Combat
Lines of communications have no affect on combat.
They do not negate the Terrain in a hexagon for
purposes of defensive bonuses. See Combat rules.
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