Dai Senso Rules - Decision Games

Dai Senso Rules - Decision Games
Axis Empires: Dai Senso!
Rulebook
Game Design by Alan Emrich, Thomas Prowell and Salvatore Vasta
Living Rules as of October 1, 2012
© 2011, 2012 Decision Games
Table of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................ 3
Rulebook Structure .............................................................................. 3
How to Read the Rules ....................................................................... 3
Glossary .............................................................................................. 3
Game Components ................................................................................ 6
Game Scale ......................................................................................... 6
Counters (Units, Markers) ................................................................... 6
Option Cards....................................................................................... 8
Core Game Mechanics ........................................................................... 8
Sequence of Play ................................................................................ 8
Game Turn Sequence of Play ........................................................... 9
©Combined Game Sequence of Play ............................................... 9
0. Seasonal Victory Phase .................................................................. 9
0.1 Victory Point Check .................................................................. 9
0.1.1 Current Strategic Value ............................................................ 9
0.1.2 VP Marker Placement............................................................... 9
0.2 Automatic Victory ..................................................................... 9
0.3 V-J Day (End Game) Victory .................................................. 10
©0.4 Combined Game Victory ...................................................... 10
1. Seasonal Phase ............................................................................10
1.1 Option Card Segment .............................................................. 10
1.1.1 Option Card Procedure ........................................................... 10
1.1.2 Option Card Segment Actions ................................................ 11
1.1.3 Pending Card Selection........................................................... 11
*1.1.4 Soviet Current Card ESV Adjustment ................................... 12
1.2 Logistics / Partisan Segment .................................................... 12
1.2.1 Logistics Markers ................................................................... 13
1.2.2 Partisan Base Markers ............................................................ 13
1.3 Replacements Segment ............................................................ 13
1.3.1 Current Card Seasonal Replacements ..................................... 13
1.3.2 Additional Seasonal Replacements ......................................... 13
1.3.3 Taking Replacements ............................................................. 14
1.3.4 Placing Replacements ............................................................. 14
2. Initial Administrative Phase .........................................................15
2.1 Political Events Segment ......................................................... 15
2.2 Support Segment ...................................................................... 15
2.2.1 Return to Base ........................................................................ 15
2.2.2 Beachhead Maintenance ......................................................... 16
2.2.3 Support Unit and Convoy Marker Placement .......................... 16
2.2.4 Blitz Marker Placement .......................................................... 20
2.2.5 Beachhead Failure .................................................................. 20
2.3 Organization Segment.............................................................. 20
2.3.1 Combination ........................................................................... 21
2.3.2 Fortress and Garrison Conversion ........................................... 21
2.3.3 Voluntary Unit Elimination ..................................................... 22
2.3.4 Breakdown ............................................................................. 22
2.3.5 Detachments ........................................................................... 23
3. Operational Movement Phase .....................................................23
3.1 Movement ................................................................................ 23
3.1.1 Hex-to-Hex Procedure ............................................................ 23
3.1.2 Port-to-Port Procedure ............................................................ 24
3.1.3 Off-Map Box to Off-Map Box Procedure ............................... 25
3.1.4 Movement Restrictions ........................................................... 25
3.2 Overruns .................................................................................. 25
4. Combat Phase...............................................................................26
4.1 Blitz Combat Segment ............................................................. 26
4.1.1 Airdrop ................................................................................... 26
4.1.2 Blitz Combat .......................................................................... 26
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Living Rules (October 2012)
4.1.3 Beachhead Landing ................................................................ 27
4.1.4 Airdrop Landing ..................................................................... 27
4.1.5 CV Strike Returns .................................................................. 27
4.2 Regular Combat Segment ........................................................ 27
4.2.1 Attacks ................................................................................... 27
4.2.2 Attack Sequence ..................................................................... 28
4.2.3 CRT Column Shifts ................................................................ 28
4.2.4 Combat Results ...................................................................... 29
4.2.5 Retreat.................................................................................... 29
4.2.6 Attrition .................................................................................. 31
4.2.7 Advance After Combat ........................................................... 32
4.2.8 Exploitation ............................................................................ 32
4.3 Marker Segment ...................................................................... 33
5. Reserve Movement Phase ........................................................... 33
6. Final Administrative Phase .......................................................... 33
6.1 War & Peace Segment ............................................................. 33
6.1.1 Declare War ........................................................................... 33
6.1.2 Reduce Truce Markers ........................................................... 33
6.2 Conditional Events Segment ................................................... 33
7. End of Game Turn Phase ............................................................. 34
7.1 Delay Segment ........................................................................ 34
7.2 Turn Marker Segment ............................................................. 34
Housekeeping Rules ............................................................................ 34
8. Zone of Control (ZOC) ................................................................. 34
8.1 Enemy ZOC (EZOC) ............................................................... 35
8.2 EZOC Effects .......................................................................... 35
9. Stacking ........................................................................................ 35
9.1 Stacking Restrictions ............................................................... 35
9.2 Stacking Limits ....................................................................... 35
10. Supply ........................................................................................ 36
10.1 Supply Sources ...................................................................... 36
10.2 Supply Line ........................................................................... 36
10.3 Supply Effects ....................................................................... 37
11. Weather ...................................................................................... 37
11.1 Weather Areas ....................................................................... 37
11.2 Weather Effects on Combat ................................................... 37
11.3 Mud ....................................................................................... 37
11.4 Storms ................................................................................... 38
11.5 Snow...................................................................................... 38
12. War State .................................................................................... 38
12.1 Pre-War Effects ..................................................................... 38
12.2 Limited War Effects .............................................................. 38
12.3 Total War Effects .................................................................. 39
13. Factions & Countries .................................................................. 39
13.1 Factions ................................................................................. 39
13.2 Countries ............................................................................... 39
13.2.1 Major Countries ................................................................... 39
13.2.2 Minor Countries ................................................................... 40
13.3 Dependents and Regions ....................................................... 40
13.3.1 Dependents ........................................................................... 40
13.3.2 Regions ................................................................................ 41
13.4 Country Status ....................................................................... 41
13.5 Country Alignment ................................................................ 41
13.6 Country Posture ..................................................................... 42
13.6.1 Policies ................................................................................. 42
13.6.2 Truces .................................................................................. 43
13.7 Country Setup........................................................................ 44
13.7.1 Normal Minor Country Setup ............................................... 44
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13.7.2 Minor Country Setup Exception............................................ 44
13.8 Additional Country Rules ...................................................... 45
13.8.1 Ceding Lands ....................................................................... 45
13.8.2 Creating Minor Countries ..................................................... 45
13.8.3 Multi-National Units & Pan-National Units .......................... 45
13.8.4 France .................................................................................. 45
*13.8.5 Germany ............................................................................. 46
Look-Up Rules ......................................................................................46
14. Markers .......................................................................................46
14.1 Aid to China .......................................................................... 46
14.2 Airdrop .................................................................................. 46
14.3 Allied Collapse ...................................................................... 46
14.4 Bases Damaged ...................................................................... 46
14.5 Beachhead ............................................................................. 47
14.6 Blitz ....................................................................................... 47
14.7 Ceded Land ............................................................................ 47
14.8 Chemical Weapons ................................................................ 47
14.9 Convoy .................................................................................. 47
14.10 Convoy Strategy .................................................................. 47
14.11 Devastation .......................................................................... 47
14.12 Enforced Peace .................................................................... 47
14.13 Entry [British, Chinese, Russian, US] ................................. 48
14.14 European War Markers ........................................................ 48
*14.14.1 Current ESV ..................................................................... 48
*14.14.2 European Limited War ...................................................... 48
14.14.3 German Victory [France Defeated, Russia Defeated] .......... 48
*14.14.4 European Total War .......................................................... 48
*14.14.5 V-E Day ........................................................................... 49
14.15 Failure [Command, Supply] ................................................ 49
14.16 Free Passage......................................................................... 49
14.17 Fujiyama Bomber Production .............................................. 49
14.18 Hakko Ichiu ......................................................................... 49
14.19 I-boat Strategy...................................................................... 49
14.20 Influence [Axis, Soviet, Western] ........................................ 49
14.21 Intensive Bombing ............................................................... 50
14.22 Japanese Government .......................................................... 50
14.23 Japanese Mandate ................................................................ 50
14.24 Jet Fighter Production .......................................................... 50
14.25 Kamikazes ........................................................................... 50
14.26 Lend-Lease........................................................................... 50
14.27 LOC Damaged ..................................................................... 50
14.28 Logistics .............................................................................. 51
14.29 Materiel Shortages ............................................................... 51
14.30 Military Takeover ................................................................ 51
14.31 Minor Country Production [+1, +2]..................................... 51
14.32 Mobilizing ........................................................................... 51
14.33 Neutrality ............................................................................. 51
14.34 No Occupation ..................................................................... 51
14.35 Oil Embargo ........................................................................ 52
14.36 Partisan Base ....................................................................... 52
14.37 Policy ................................................................................... 52
14.38 Quit India ............................................................................. 52
*14.39 Reserves [Limited War, Total War] ................................... 52
14.40 Showa Restoration ............................................................... 52
14.41 Suicidal Raiders ................................................................... 52
14.42 Totsugeki ............................................................................. 52
14.43 Truce .................................................................................... 53
14.44 US Markers .......................................................................... 53
14.44.1 Increase USCL ................................................................... 53
14.44.2 Pacific USCL...................................................................... 53
14.44.3 Reduced US Impact ............................................................ 53
14.44.4 US Entry............................................................................. 53
14.44.5 US Victory Program ........................................................... 53
14.45 V-J Day................................................................................ 53
14.46 War Production .................................................................... 54
14.47 Weather [Mud, Storms, Snow] ............................................ 54
14.48 ±1, ±2 .................................................................................. 54
15. Political Events ...........................................................................54
15.1 Allies Support Resistance ...................................................... 54
15.2 Banzai!................................................................................... 54
15.3 Bases Damaged ...................................................................... 54
15.4 Border Incident ...................................................................... 54
15.5 Border War ............................................................................ 54
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
15.6 Cabinet Shuffle...................................................................... 55
15.7 Ceded Land ........................................................................... 55
15.8 Chinese Incident .................................................................... 55
15.9 Country Joins [Faction] ......................................................... 55
15.10 Country Resists ................................................................... 55
15.11 Coup D’etat ......................................................................... 56
15.12 Declare War......................................................................... 56
15.13 Delay Reduction .................................................................. 56
15.14 European Commitment ....................................................... 56
*15.14.1 European Commitment in DS ............................................ 56
©15.14.2 European Commitment in AE ........................................... 56
15.15 Failure [Command, Supply] ................................................ 56
15.16 Free Passage ........................................................................ 56
15.17 Gekokujo ............................................................................. 57
15.18 Home Defense ..................................................................... 57
15.19 Influence .............................................................................. 57
15.20 International Incident .......................................................... 57
15.21 Japan Supports Nationalists ................................................ 57
15.22 LOC Damaged ..................................................................... 57
15.23 Military Aid ......................................................................... 57
15.24 Military Takeover ................................................................ 57
15.25 Minor Country Created ....................................................... 58
15.26 Minor Country Politics ........................................................ 58
15.27 Neutrality............................................................................. 58
15.28 Neutrals Pressured ............................................................... 58
15.29 Operation Z ......................................................................... 59
15.30 Political Option ................................................................... 59
15.31 Power Shift .......................................................................... 59
15.32 Production Success [Type] .................................................. 59
15.33 Project Success: A-bomb ..................................................... 60
15.34 Raiders Discovered.............................................................. 60
15.35 Successful Challenge [Country] .......................................... 60
15.36 Successful Improvements .................................................... 60
15.37 Widespread Attacks ............................................................. 60
16. Conditional Events ..................................................................... 60
16.1 Axis Permanent Conditional Events ...................................... 60
16.1.1 Allied Minor Country Conquest ............................................ 60
16.1.2 Axis Minor Country Occupation ........................................... 60
16.1.3 Manchukuo Garrison Check ................................................. 61
16.1.4 British Neutrality Pact Check ................................................ 61
16.1.5 Cabinet Dissolution .............................................................. 61
16.1.6 Internment ............................................................................ 61
16.2 Axis Option Card Conditional Events ................................... 61
16.2.1 Army Program ...................................................................... 61
16.2.2 Economic Program ............................................................... 61
16.2.3 Navy Program ...................................................................... 61
16.2.4 Political Program .................................................................. 61
16.2.5 Forced Settlement ................................................................. 61
16.2.6 Japanese Concessions ........................................................... 62
16.3 Western Permanent Conditional Events ................................ 63
16.3.1 Conquered Western Minor Country Reactivation .................. 63
16.3.2 Axis or Soviet Minor Country Liberation .............................. 63
16.3.3 US Far Eastern Forces .......................................................... 63
16.3.4 British Far Eastern Forces ..................................................... 63
16.3.5 French Response .................................................................. 63
*16.3.6 European Reserves ............................................................. 63
16.3.7 Reduced US Impact .............................................................. 63
16.3.8 The West Rises .................................................................... 63
16.3.9 Aid to Nationalist China ....................................................... 64
16.3.10 Lend-Lease to Britain ......................................................... 64
16.3.11 Internment .......................................................................... 64
16.4 Western Option Card Conditional Events ............................. 64
16.4.1 British Surrender .................................................................. 64
16.4.2 Nationalist Chinese Surrender ............................................... 64
16.4.3 US Surrender ........................................................................ 64
16.4.4 Colonial Liberation ............................................................... 65
16.4.5 Operation Avalanche ............................................................ 65
16.5 Soviet Permanent Conditional Events ................................... 65
16.5.1 Conquered Soviet Minor Country Reactivation ..................... 65
16.5.2 Axis or Western Minor Country Liberation ........................... 65
16.5.3 Russian Far Eastern Forces ................................................... 65
*16.5.4 European Reserves ............................................................. 65
16.5.5 The East Rises ...................................................................... 65
16.5.6 Aid to Communist China ...................................................... 66
16.5.7 Lend-Lease to Russia ........................................................... 66
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16.5.8 Internment ............................................................................ 66
16.6 Soviet Option Card Conditional Events ................................. 66
16.6.1 Communist Chinese Surrender .............................................. 66
16.6.2 Russian Surrender................................................................. 66
16.7 Internment & Repatriation ..................................................... 66
Introduction
Dai Senso! (DS) is a wargame covering the Asia/Pacific Theater of
World War II from 1937 to V-J Day. Players command the Axis,
Soviet, and Western factions.
DS is the sister game to Totaler Krieg! (TK), which covers the
European Theater. The two may be played together as a combined
game called Axis Empires (AE).
Rulebook Structure
Design Note: Don’t let the length of the rulebook intimidate you.
First, you won’t need to memorize the whole thing to play, as it’s been
written so you can look up the rules as you go. Also, the book
contains many clarifications, examples, and design notes that appear
in gray text boxes just like this one. These should help explain things
as you read.
If this is your first time playing DS, we’ve come up with some training
scenarios that will help you learn as you play. Stop here for now and
read “Playing DS for the First Time” in the scenario book.
This is the DS “Living Rules” rulebook. Text that appears in red ink
(such as you see here) indicates an item that has been corrected or
changed since the published DS rulebook.
The DS rulebook is divided into several sections:
 Introduction: That’s the section you’re reading now.
 Game Components: A list of what comes with the game and
what the pieces mean.
 Core Game Mechanics – Sections 0 - 7: These rules define the
mechanics you will perform during the course of a Game Turn.
Not all rules are performed every Game Turn. For ease of
reference, rules 0 through 7 are presented in the same numerical
order that they are performed in during the Sequence of Play.
Example: if you are playing Step 5 of the Sequence of Play
(Reserve Movement), you’ll find Rules Section 5 in this book
directly corresponds to that step.
 Housekeeping Rules – Sections 8 – 13: These are rules that
apply throughout the game, but do not fall strictly within the
Sequence of Play.
 “Look-Up” Rules – Sections 14 – 16: These rules explain the
effects of specific markers, Political Events and Conditional
Events that may occur. They’re called “Look-Up” rules because
you should look them up as you play.
Clarification: Look-up events are often italicized and crossreferenced when they appear, to help you find them quicker.
How to Read the Rules
Design Note: Please don’t ignore this section – we know you can
read and mean no insult. We just want to clarify some of the
vernacular before we go any further.
While reading the rules, do not infer or imagine more to a rule
than is stated in it. When in doubt, interpret strictly. Treat any game
event that is impossible to fulfill given current game conditions as a
“No Result.” That is, nothing happens and the players continue play.
Example: An event instructs a player to remove a Policy marker in a
Posture Box, but there is no Policy marker in it at that time. So just
ignore that instruction.
If an option card provides instructions based on a certain die roll
result, and that card doesn’t list what happens if that result does not
occur, then the event is treated as a No Result.
Example: The Conditional Event for Western card 17 Oil Embargo
instructs you to count the Japanese markers in the Ceded Lands Box
and roll one die. The card says: “If the result is less than or equal to
the count, apply Military Aid.” It does not say what happens if you
roll greater than the count – so the default applies, which is to treat it
as No Result.
Most rules state items in the singular form. For example, “a
Japanese ground unit.” Unless a specific number is cited, the rule
applies from one to any number of the stated item.
Clarification: In other words, “a” doesn’t mean “just one.” When we
say “one,” that’s when we mean a single item.
“Can” or “cannot” indicates whether or not an action is allowed.
“If” indicates that as long as the criteria are true, then the specified
effect and/or restriction described applies. If the listed criteria are not
true, then what follows does not apply.
“May” indicates the player has the option to do something; thus, he
has the choice to perform an action, he is not forced to do so and may
treat the result as No Result instead.
“Must” indicates the player has no choice; that action must be
performed unless otherwise prohibited or impossible to do given
current game circumstances. If the player is presented a list of options
that he “must” select from, he must select an option that can be
performed.
Clarification: You cannot avoid a bad event by picking an option that
is impossible to fulfill and then claim a No Result.
A country’s name indicates the stated item that follows must belong
only to that country.
Example: “US ground unit” refers to any ground unit belonging to
the US only and not any country belonging to the Western faction.
A faction’s name indicates the stated item that follows must belong to
that faction.
Example: “Western Air units” refers to any Air unit belonging to any
country aligned with the Western faction.
A note about TK, DS, and AE: As much as possible, these three
games all use the same rules. Where there are exceptions, they will be
noted as follows:
*: Rules and counters that are not used in the AE combined game –
i.e., that apply to DS only – will be preceded by an asterisk.
©: Rules that apply only to the AE combined game will be preceded
by a © symbol.
: Rules that are handled differently in DS than they are in TK are
preceded by a triangle. When you are playing AE, be sure to use the
section that applies to the map in question.
Design Note: If you already know how to play TK, you pretty much
already know how to play DS – but look for the asterisks and
triangles to see the important differences.
Glossary
Design Note: Even if you do not like reading definitions, we
recommend you give this list a glance. Like “How to Read the Rules”
above, it will help you understand the game better.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
3
Particularly important terms are underlined. If you forget what these
terms mean, refer back here for the definition.
Active: A Minor Country that is not Neutral or Conquered. Major
Countries are always considered active.
Air Base: A Land hex containing a City, Port, Road, or Rail, and a
supplied ground unit, Detachment marker, or Logistics marker.
Exception: A hex containing an enemy Air unit does not have an Air
Base.
Clarification: When a Road or Rail hex is used as an Air Base, that
Road/Rail does not have to be the one used to trace a supply line.
Example: A supplied Japanese ground unit is in hex w5422, a Road
hex. This hex may serve as an Air Base even if it traces a supply line
from w5522 back along the road to Hailar (w5625), then along the
rails back to Dairen, and eventually back to Japan.
Allied: This indicates something related to either the Soviet and
Western factions.
Example: “Allied ground unit” refers to any ground unit belonging
to any country aligned with the Soviet or Western faction.
Beachhead Hexside: The hexside faced by the arrow on a Beachhead
marker. Units may move and attack across a Beachhead Hexside.
Blitz-enabled: If a faction has a Blitz or Totsugeki marker on the
map, then all friendly units within two hexes of that marker are said to
be Blitz-enabled.
Clarification: That includes all friendly units in the hex containing
the Blitz marker itself.
If the Axis faction has an SNLF Beachhead-0 marker on the map, any
friendly unit or marker within the hex containing that SNLF
Beachhead-0 marker is Blitz-enabled.
Clarification: SNLF Beachhead-0 markers do not have a Blitz range
like Blitz or Totsugeki markers.
Border: A Country or Dependent “shares a Border” with another
Country or Dependent if there is at least one Border Hexside between
the two (see the Terrain Key). A Border Hexside can be exclusively
across a Strait or All-Sea hexside.
Example: Indochina (a French Dependent) and Kiangsu share a
Border, as do Malaya (a British Dependent) and the Netherlands East
Indies.
China / Chinese: The rules and cards use the word “China” when
referring to all seven Chinese Minor Countries collectively: Hopeh,
Kansu, Kiangsu, Sinkiang, Szechwan, Tibet, and Yunnan.
The word “Chinese” by itself is used to refer to something that
belongs to any of the seven Chinese Minor Countries or the Allied
Chinese pan-national HQ units.
“Communist Chinese” refers to something that belongs to a Soviet
Chinese Minor Country, or a Soviet Chinese pan-national HQ unit.
“Nationalist Chinese” refers to something that belongs to a Western
Chinese Minor Country, or a Western Chinese pan-national HQ unit.
Design Note: China was an extremely divided country in World War
II. We handle this by treating it as seven smaller countries most of the
time.
City: This refers to any hex containing a City, Capital, or Provisional
Capital symbol.
Col or Colonial: Ground units with a white unit-type symbol box.
Design Note: Colonial units represent foreign troops. They are
treated like regular steps for most purposes, but they have special
placement restrictions (1.3.4) and are subject to certain Political
Events.
Conquered: An Allied Minor Country that has had the Axis Minor
Country Conquest Conditional Event (16.1.1) applied to it and is not
currently active.
Control: A hex is under Axis control if any of the following
conditions applies:
 Priority 1: The hex is an Allied Strategic Hex (green or red) in a
Chinese Country or Russia that contains an Axis Devastation
marker.
 Priority 2: The hex contains an Axis ground unit, Detachment, or
Logistics marker.
 Priority 3: The hex is in an active Axis Country or one of its
Dependents, or in a Conquered Allied Minor Country or one of
its Dependents.
A hex is under Allied control if any of the following conditions
applies:
 Priority 1: The hex is an Axis Strategic Hex (orange) in Japan
that contains an Allied Devastation marker.
 Priority 2: The hex contains an Allied ground unit, Detachment,
or Logistics marker.
 Priority 3: The hex is in an active Allied Country or one of its
Dependents.
Clarification: This last item does not include a hex in a Neutral
Country or a Conquered Allied Minor Country.
If more than one faction could potentially claim control of a hex, the
faction able to claim the lowest-numbered priority is the faction in
control.
Example: A Western Devastation marker is in Nagasaki (e4801),
inside Japan, which is an Axis Country. The Western Allies have
Priority 1 status in the hex, which trumps the Axis claim of Priority 3
– so the Western faction controls Nagasaki.
Delay Box: A holding box for counters with Delay Stripes that are
removed from the map. These counters will cycle back to the map
after a delay of one or more Game Turns. A Naval Warfare Delay Box
is printed next to the regular Delay Box on the map.
©A unit that is moved to a Delay Box must be placed on the same
map that it is being removed from, unless the unit is performing the
European Commitment Political Event (15.14).
DRM: Die Roll Modifier – a number you add or subtract to a die roll.
Modifiers are cumulative. Except for Delay Results (7.1), all modified
rolls less than 1 or greater than 6 are treated as 1 or 6, respectively.
Clarification: DRMs associated with counters are printed in a square
on that counter. Black means it applies to the Axis; green to the West;
red to the Soviets; and white to all factions.
Enemy: This indicates something related to one of the other two
factions.
Clarification: When it’s your Faction Turn, everything that doesn’t
belong to your faction is in your way. So for the Western faction,
“enemy ground unit” refers to any ground unit belonging to the Axis
or Soviet faction.
*ESV: European Strategic Value – a measure of Allied success
fighting the war in Europe against Nazi Germany.
Exp or Expeditionary: A Minor Country one-step unit that is not
subject to restrictions regarding cooperation with other friendly Minor
Country units.
EZOC: Enemy Zone of Control – one of the six hexes adjacent to an
enemy unit (8.1).
Faction: One of the three “sides” in the game – the Axis, the West and
the Soviet.
Force Pool: A holding box for a faction’s counters not in play.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
4
©Each faction has a TK Force Pool (for Europe) and a DS Force Pool
(for the Pacific).
Naval Zones are considered adjacent to each other if they share a
Naval Zone border hexside.
© Clarification: Units are placed in the Force Pool that corresponds
to their location. For example, a unit that enters play from a DS card
or that is removed from a DS map is placed in the faction’s DS Force
Pool – not the TK Force Pool – unless specifically directed otherwise.
Example: Find the Bay of Bengal Naval Zone Box on the map. The
All-Sea hexes in this Naval Zone are fairly obvious. Other examples of
hexes in the Naval Zone are Rangoon (w4015) and Madras (w3809).
Less obvious, but still in the Bay of Bengal are Telukbetung (w2818)
and Singapore (w3218). Bandung (w2719) is in both the South China
Sea and Southeast Indian Ocean Naval Zones.
Friendly: This indicates something that belongs to the same faction.
Clarification: In other words, it’s the opposite of “enemy” above.
Axis ground units are friendly to the Axis faction.
Hex: Hexes are identified by hex numbers. An “e” stands for the East
Map (which has Hawaii on it) and “w” stands for the West Map
(which has India on it).
Example: Tokyo is in hex e4904.
There are two types of hexes, All-Sea and Land. When the word “hex”
appears by itself, it refers to any hex on the map.
 All-Sea hex: A hex that contains only water (dark blue in color).
 Land hex: A hex that contains any amount of land in it,
including hexes that have both land and water. Note that an AllSea hex with a Beachhead marker is not considered a Land hex.
Home Country City or Home Country Port: A City or Port in a
Land hex of a unit’s respective Home Country.
A Western Off-Map Box can also serve as a Home Country Port for
any Western unit – no supplied ground unit, Detachment marker, or
Logistics marker is required.
Example: Cities and Ports in Japan are Home Country Cities and
Ports for Japanese units. Cities and Ports in Korea (a Japanese
Dependent) are not.
Island: One Land hex surrounded entirely by All-Sea, Strait, or
Beachhead hexsides.
Example: For game purposes, Guadalcanal (e2611) is an Island.
Rabaul (e2808) is not.
Map: The play area. ©In a combined game, DS and TK are considered
separate “maps.”
Marker: A counter that is not a ground unit or support unit.
Multi-Zone Port: A Port that is considered to be in more than one
Naval Zone at the same time (for example, e3408 Truk).
Clarification: Regardless of where a Port might be on the map, only
those Ports designated as Multi-Zone Ports are considered as such.
Naval Base: A Land hex containing a Port and a supplied ground
unit, Detachment marker, or Logistics marker.
A Western Off-Map Box can also serve as a Naval Base for any
Western Unit – no supplied ground unit, Detachment marker, or
Logistics marker is required.
Naval Base Restrictions:
 A hex containing an enemy Air unit does not have a Naval Base.
 An All-Sea hex containing a Beachhead marker does not have a
Naval Base.
 An Ice hex affected by Snow does not have a Naval Base.
Example: If Midway (e4519) contains a supplied British ground unit
and an unsupplied US ground unit, it is a British Naval Base, but not
a US Naval Base. That’s because the US unit is not supplied.
The Western US Box is a Western Naval Base for any Western unit.
Since it is an Off-Map Box, it does not require a supplied ground unit.
Naval Zone: An area consisting of All-Sea hexes and coastal Land
hexes as defined by a Naval Zone border. A Port, City, unit, or marker
is considered in a Naval Zone if it is in any hex in that Naval Zone’s
defined area. Some coastal Land hexes on the map may be in more
than one Naval Zone at the same time.
The Bay of Bengal Naval Zone is adjacent to the South China Sea
Naval Zones, but not the Arafura Sea Naval Zone.
Naval Zone Box: Every Naval Zone has three Naval Zone Boxes: On
Station, Convoys, and Used. These boxes are used to show the status
of support units and markers within that Naval Zone.
Clarification: Note that Naval Zone Boxes are printed over All-Sea
hexes on the map. Those hexes are still in play! We’ve tried to place
the boxes so that crowding shouldn’t occur very often, but when it
does, take care to place your pieces so that you know what is where.
Neutral: A Minor Country that is not Active or Conquered.
Off-Map Box: The boxes on the map labeled Western US, Panama
Canal, French Polynesia, Europe/Africa, and Eastern Europe.
An Off-Map Box belongs to one of the Allied factions; only units
friendly to that faction can enter a particular Off-Map Box.
An Off-Map Box is considered part of a Naval Zone if a unit is able to
enter or exit that Naval Zone using the Port-to-Port movement
procedure (3.1.2), as stated in that Off-Map Box.
Example: The Western US Box is part of the Gulf of Alaska and
Northeast Pacific Naval Zones, but not the Central Pacific Naval
Zone.
An Off-Map Box is considered adjacent to another Off-Map Box if a
unit can move between them using the Off-Map Box to Off-Map Box
movement procedure (3.1.3), as stated in the Boxes.
Example: The Western US Box is adjacent to the Panama Canal Box,
but not the Europe/Africa Box.
Open Port: A hex has an Open Port for a faction if at least one of the
following applies:
 It is a Port hex containing a friendly ground unit, Airdrop,
Detachment, or Logistics marker.
 It is a Port hex in a friendly, active Country.
 It is an All-Sea hex containing a friendly Beachhead marker.
 It is an Off-Map Box identified as having an Open Port.
Clarification: Unlike with Air Bases or Naval Bases, the unit or
marker does not have to be supplied. Note also that control, by itself,
does not create an Open Port.
Example: If the Netherlands East Indies is a Western Minor Country,
then Batavia (w2819) does not require a friendly unit or marker to be
a Western Open Port. If the Axis turns the Netherlands East Indies
into a Conquered Minor Country, it would control Batavia for Victory
Point Checks but could not use it as an Open Port unless it contained
an Axis ground unit, Airdrop, Detachment, or Logistics marker.
Hong Kong (a British Dependent in w4222) requires a friendly unit or
marker to be a Western Open Port, even for British units. That’s
because Dependents are never considered to be “a friendly Country”
(13.3.1).
Open Port Restrictions: A hex does not have an Open Port if any of
the following applies:
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
 The hex contains an enemy ground or air unit, or enemy Airdrop,
Detachment, or Logistics marker.
 The hex is an Ice hex affected by Snow.
 There is an enemy Fleet unit in the On Station Box of the Naval
Zone containing the hex.
5
 There is an enemy Air unit in the On Station Box of the Naval
Zone containing the hex, and the hex is within three hexes of a
Naval Base of that same enemy faction. (A Naval Base in an OffMap Box is never considered to be within three hexes of any hex,
no matter how close the Off-Map Box is to that hex.) This
restriction applies only for an activity performed within the
specific Naval Zone containing the enemy Air Force unit.
For Multi-Zone Ports, the last two restrictions only apply to a Naval
Zone containing an enemy Fleet or Air Force unit.
Example: The British Sing fortress unit and a Japanese Air Force
unit are both in Singapore (w3218, a Multi-Zone Port). Singapore is
not a Western Open Port, in either of the Bay of Bengal or South
China Sea Naval Zones.
Now let’s say the Japanese Air Force unit is in the South China Sea
On Station Box instead, and there’s a supplied Japanese ground unit
in Kota Bharu (w3417), making it a Japanese Naval Base. In this
case, Singapore is not a Western Open Port in the South China Sea
because it is within three hexes of Kota Bharu, but it is an Open Port
in the Bay of Bengal Naval Zone, because only the South China Sea
Naval Zone Box contains an enemy support unit.
If there is a Western Sub Fleet in the South China Sea On Station Box,
then all Ports in the South China Sea Naval Zone are not Axis Open
Ports.
Design Note: An enemy support unit in an On Station Box represents
the interdiction of the sea lanes and ports within that Naval Zone. Air
Force units must operate within range of their Naval Bases. Fleet
units, with their much greater range, patrol the entire area.
Open Port Mutual Interdiction:
If one faction’s hex cannot be considered an Open Port or Naval Base
directly because of an enemy faction’s Open Port or Naval Base, and
the situation exists directly in reverse (i.e., it involves the same hexes
for each faction), then neither faction has an Open Port in their
respective hex.
Clarification: Don’t worry if this doesn’t make sense to you right
now. This is a very rare event, and you’ll recognize it if you encounter
it in play.
PAC or Policy Affected Country: A Country (and all its Dependents)
affected by a Policy marker in the Posture Display.
Played: An option card is considered “played” if is a faction’s Current
Card, or was a faction’s Current Card in an earlier season in the game.
USCL: United States Commitment Level – a measure of America’s
wartime productivity.
VP: Victory Point – a measure of a faction’s success in the game.
Game Components
A complete copy of DS includes these components:
 This Rulebook
 A Scenario Book
 Two 22 x 34 inch maps
 Two countersheets each with 280 counters (560 total)
 Three decks of option cards (one for each faction – the Axis deck
has 76 cards, the Western deck has 80 cards, and the Soviet deck
has 44 cards)
 Three Force Pool Displays (one for each faction)
 Three Player Aid Cards (one for each faction)
 One Support Unit & Convoy Marker Aid Card
 One European War Display
 One six-sided die
Game Scale
A hex on the map is about 120 to 300 miles across, depending on
latitude. Off-Map Boxes represent areas Axis forces had no true
capability of interdicting or occupying.
A Turn represents from 30 to 60 days.
Each year consists of four seasons:
 Spring begins with the Mar-Apr turn.
 Summer begins with the May-June turn.
 Autumn begins with the Aug-Sept turn.
 Winter begins with the Nov-Dec turn.
Counters (Units, Markers)
There are two types of counters: units and markers. Any counter that
is not a ground unit or support unit is a marker.
Sample Ground Unit
Port: “Port” refers to any hex containing a port symbol.
Posture: A Country’s current status as a belligerent, Policy Affected
Country (PAC), or Truce Affected Country (TAC).
Range: Count ranges by including the destination hex, but not the
origin hex.
Example: There is a British Air Base in Dacca (w4313), and the
Western faction wishes to place an air unit with a range of three hexes
in Lashio (w4216). This is allowable. Chiengmai (w4016) is out of
range.
Restricted Waterway: Each of the following is considered a
Restricted Waterway: Batavia (w2819), Hakodate (e5205), Nagasaki
(e4801), Singapore (w3218), and Toyohara (e5605).
TAC or Truce Affected Country: A Country (and all its Dependents)
affected by a Truce marker in the Posture Display.
Turn (Seasonal Turn / Non-seasonal Turn): A Game Turn
highlighted with a red box on the Turn Track is a Seasonal Turn
(every Mar-Apr, May-June, Aug-Sept, and Nov-Dec Game Turn). All
other Game Turns are Non-seasonal Turns.
Unit: A counter that is a ground or support unit.
Ground units: These units represent combat formations from
battalions to armies. Ground units (and only ground units) always
have these three numbers printed along the bottom of their counter:
Attack Factor, Defense Factor, and Movement Allowance.
Clarification: Other counters may be considered “units,” but only the
ones with three numbers on the bottom are ground units.
Ground units may also have this information:
 Step Value indicates the number of steps in a unit. The number
of steps in a unit is shown as one, two, or three dots or squares
printed in the upper-right corner of the counter.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
6
Clarification: Most ground units use dots to indicate their Step
Value. Garrison and fortress units use squares to indicate they
are limited in their ability to organize or break down during the
Organization Segment (2.3).
 Organization Size “xxxx” indicates an army. “xxxxx” represents
a War Zone (a Chinese army group). All armies and army groups
are multi-step units.
 Historical ID (located to the right of the unit-type symbol box) is
a unit’s historical identity.
 Nationality ID (located to the left of the unit-type symbol box)
indicates which Minor Country or Faction the counter belongs to.
Clarification: Major Country units do not have Nationality IDs
on them, except for Japanese Kwantung units.
 Unit-Type Symbol indicates the unit type. There are four ground
unit types:
 Infantry units have an infantry, garrison, cavalry, airborne,
or marine symbol.

Armor units have armor, mechanized, or cav-mech symbols.
Armor is sometimes referred to as tank, but there is no
difference in game play.

HQ units have an HQ symbol.

Fortress units have an empty box or trench lines symbol.
Those with trench lines are referred to as Port-a-Fort units.
Support units: These units represent concentrations of air and naval
activity. There are two categories of support units: Air and Fleet. They
are further broken down into several different types:
 Air Force units have an aircraft icon. All Air Force units have
Escort Troop Convoy markers on their backs.
 Bomber units have a bomber aircraft icon, down-arrow symbol
(indicating they cannot contest support unit placement), and
DRM symbol. All Bomber units have Devastation markers on
their backs.
 CV Strike units have an aircraft icon. A CV Strike unit has its
CV Fleet unit on the front.
 Interceptor units have an aircraft icon and up-arrow symbol
(indicating they can only contest support unit placement).
 CV Fleet units have a carrier ship icon. A CV Fleet unit has its
CV Strike unit on the back.
 Surface Fleet units have a battleship icon. All Surface Fleet units
have Escort Troop Convoy markers on their backs.
 Sub Fleet units have a submarine icon, down-arrow symbol
(indicating they cannot contest support unit placement), and
DRM symbol.
Markers: These counters are used to mark various game functions.
Here are some of the important ones you’ll encounter:
 Airdrop markers have a parachute symbol. All Airdrop markers
are found on the backs of their parent airborne ground units.
 Beachhead markers represent invasion beachheads and
temporary ports. These markers have arrow, port, aircraft, and
Limited Stacking icons on the front. They have arrow, port, and
battleship icons on the back.
 Convoy markers represent merchant marine activity. These
markers have a transport ship icon. They may read Supply on one
side and Troop on the other. There are four types of Convoy
markers: Standard Convoy markers, Axis and Soviet Scratch
Convoy markers, the US Fleet Train Convoy marker, and Escort
Troop Convoy markers (found on the backs of Air Force and
Surface Fleet support units).
Clarification: Standard Convoy markers do not have a Delay
Stripe. The three other types of Convoy markers do.
When the rules refer to “a Troop Convoy marker,” they mean
any such Convoy marker. When they refer to “a Supply Convoy
marker,” they likewise mean any such marker – including the
inherent Axis or Western Supply Convoy markers found in a
number of Naval Zones.
Clarification: Note that the unit-type symbol is what matters
when determining a unit type, and not the individual unit
components. Thus, a three-step Western HQ unit is not an armortype unit, even though an armor-type unit was used to form it.
 Unit-Type Symbol Color indicates a “special” unit type. Not all
unit-type symbols are colored; those units are normal units.
 White indicates a colonial unit (1.3.3.5).
 Other indicates an elite unit (2.3.4.3).
Sample Support Units
 Detachment markers represent small garrisons to keep supply
lines open and port facilities operational. They have a pennant
flag symbol. All Detachment markers are found on the backs of
certain infantry ground units.
Other Counter Information: Both units and markers may contain
these additional bits of information:
 Delay Stripe indicates the counter must be placed in a Delay Box
when it is removed from the map.
 Range is the maximum distance in hexes that an Air unit or Abomb marker can be placed from an Air Base. For HQ units, it is
the maximum distance the HQ can provide HQ Support. For
Airdrop markers, it is the maximum distance in hexes the marker
may be placed from its parent airborne unit. For Failure, Blitz,
and Totsugeki markers, it is their radius of effect.
 Reinforcement Letter, Number, or Asterisk. If this is a
number, it matches the option card that brings this counter into
play. This will help you find the counters faster while playing.
If this is a letter, it matches a Political or Conditional Event that
brings the counter into play. Here’s what some of those mean:
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
7

ASR: the counter can be brought into play with an Allies
Support Resistance Political Event (15.1).

F: the counter belongs to France on the DS map.
 Card Number matches the Reinforcement Number printed on
counters. Not all cards have a unique number. Some numbers
may be duplicated and have a letter added to them. Card numbers
that appear in red are used in one-map scenarios only.
 Symbols identify those cards with special properties; not all
cards have these marks.
 A lightning bolt () symbol indicates a Blitz card. A Blitz
card’s Blitz Value is determined by counting the number of
lightning bolts on the card.
 A hammer-and-wrench () symbol indicates the card is a
Rearmament card.
 A set of circular arrows () indicates the card is a
recyclable card.
 A medal () symbol indicates the card is a Soviet War
Progress card.
 On Soviet cards only, a number in a black circle indicates
the card’s Production Value (©1.1.3.3, *1.1.4).
 A © symbol indicates the Card has a counterpart in the TK
deck that must be paid attention to in AE.
 Card Name indicates its name. Not all cards have unique names.
 Selection Requirements lists the conditions that must be in
effect to select the card as a Pending Card (1.1.3).
 Segment Actions indicate actions that must be performed during
certain Segments of the Turn, such as the Option Card Segment
or Conditional Events Segment. Events that are surrounded by a
red border are performed in Seasonal Turns only. Events that are
not surrounded by a red border are performed each Turn.
 Quote and Historical Note provided for historical flavor only.
 Owning Faction Indicator identifies which of the three factions
owns the card.
 Historical Play or Removal Date indicates when the card was
played or removed from the deck historically. (Exception: some
cards use this area to indicate they are only used for one-map
scenarios.)
Clarification: Players do not have to play cards in historical
order – but doing that the first time you play DS isn’t a bad idea,
just to see what’s going on.
© Clarification: This is important only in the combined
game, where it’s necessary to distinguish these units from
Vichy units on the TK map.

N: the counter can be brought into play with the Minor
Country Created Political Event (15.25).
Clarification: The “N” stands for a “new” Minor Country.

®: the counter is a variant counter not used in standard DS
or AE play.
Clarification: The ® stands for “Random Campaign
Game.” You can set aside all ® counters for now. The rules
for these counters are included in the Axis Empires
Expansion Kit, which will be available separately. We’ve
included them here to give you a taste of some of the cool
things you’ll find in the Kit, and also to make the most
efficient use of available space.
If this is an asterisk, it means this counter is not used in the AE
combined game.
British, French, Russian, and US counters in DS have an
earmark under their Reinforcement Code to help you keep these
pieces separate from those in TK.
Option Cards
There are three sets of option cards included with the game – one set
each for the Axis, Soviet, and Western factions.
Each card has a color that indicates its War State. Blue cards are PreWar cards. Gray cards are Limited War cards. Magenta cards are
Total War cards. A card’s War State is also indicated by text in the
upper right corner.
Sample Option Card
Core Game Mechanics
Sequence of Play
The game is played in a series of consecutive Game Turns. Each Game
Turn consists of three Faction Turns: Axis, Western, and Soviet. The
faction whose Faction Turn is currently in progress is referred to as
the phasing faction.
Each Faction Turn is divided into Phases, which may be sub-divided
into Segments. Players perform actions in a sequence of Phases and
Segments known as the Sequence of Play. Once a phasing faction
finishes a Phase or Segment and moves to the next, it cannot go back.
Important: The Seasonal Victory Phase and each faction’s Seasonal
Phase are performed only on Seasonal Turns (i.e. the first turn of each
Season). These Phases have a red border around them in the Sequence
of Play to match the red border that appears around Seasonal Turns on
the Turn Track. On all other Non-seasonal Turns, each faction begins
its Faction Turn with the Initial Administrative Phase.
Cards may have the following information:
Design Note: The Sequence of Play is very procedure-oriented. You’ll
need to follow it closely to perform actions in their proper order.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
8
Game Turn Sequence of Play
0. Seasonal Victory Phase
0.1 Victory Point Check
A. Axis Faction Turn
Warfare Box. Exception: Axis Strategic Hexes in an active Policy
Affected Country (13.6.1) are not counted.
Example: The Netherlands East Indies is an active Western Minor
Country, but a Quarantine Policy marker is in the US and Western
Minors Posture Box. Thus, Batavia (w2819), an Axis Strategic hex
under Western control, is not counted.
1. Seasonal Phase
1.1 Option Card Segment
1.2 Logistics / Partisan Segment
1.3 Replacements Segment
*Step 3: If an Axis Strategic Hex inside Japan is under Allied control,
add the number of the Box occupied by the Current ESV marker on
the Current ESV Track. Exception: If the Current ESV is a negative
number – add 0 instead.
2. Initial Administrative Phase
2.1 Political Events Segment
2.2 Support Segment
2.3 Organization Segment
3. Operational Movement Phase
4. Combat Phase
4.1 Blitz Combat Segment
4.2 Regular Combat Segment
4.3 Marker Segment
5. Reserve Movement Phase
6. Final Administrative Phase
6.1 War & Peace Segment
6.2 Conditional Events Segment
*Design Note: In DS, the Axis faction scores a higher Strategic Value
if the Allies send fewer forces to Europe than they did historically.
B. Western Faction Turn
The Western faction player performs Phases 1-6 above.
C. Soviet Faction Turn
The Soviet faction player performs Phases 1-6 above.
7. End of Game Turn Phase
7.1 Delay Segment
7.2 Turn Marker Segment
©Combined Game Sequence of Play
In AE, the Game Turn Sequence of Play remains exactly the same:
after performing the Seasonal Victory Phase (if necessary), the Axis
faction takes its Faction Turn on both maps, followed by the Western
faction and the Soviet faction.
Events during a particular segment or phase are performed in TK first
and then in DS.
Clarification: Your faction only gets one combined Faction Turn on
both maps, and generally, play can happen at the same time on both
maps. But whenever there is confusion about sequencing, remember
“Germany First.”
0. Seasonal Victory Phase
The resulting sum is the Current Strategic Value.
0.1.2 VP Marker Placement
Place the VP marker in the Box on the VP Track that corresponds to
the Current Strategic Value, on the side indicated (either Rising Sun
or Allied Crusade) by that Box.
Do not flip the VP marker when the Current Strategic Value is +1 or
+2. Just place the VP marker in the 0 Box and leave it on whichever
side was already face-up.
Clarification: If the Current Strategic Value is 0, the VP marker goes
in the 1 VP Box on its Allied Crusade side.
Example: It is the Victory Point Check of the Aug-Sept 1940 Seasonal
Turn and the VP marker reads Allied Crusade. The Axis player has
ground units occupying two Allied Strategic Hexes (Peiping and
Nanking). The sum is two in favor of the Axis, or +2. The VP marker
is placed in the 0 VP Box and left, unchanged, on its Allied Crusade
side.
In the next Victory Point Check (Nov-Dec 1940 Seasonal Turn), there
are now Axis ground units in three Allied Strategic Hexes: Peiping,
Nanking, and Saigon. The sum is three in favor of the Axis, or +3. The
VP marker is placed in the 1 VP Box on its Rising Sun side.
The Axis Japanese Mandate marker: If the Axis Japanese
Mandate marker is on the VP Track, the Rising Sun VP marker cannot
be placed in a VP Box to the right of (i.e., higher than) the one
containing the Japanese Mandate marker. If the VP marker would be
placed to the right, move it back to the VP Box containing the
Japanese Mandate marker.
0.2 Automatic Victory
A player may end the game before the final Turn by achieving an
Automatic Victory. An Automatic Victory may occur in these ways:
Important: This Phase is performed on Seasonal Turns only.
0.1 Victory Point Check
A Victory Point Check is performed at the beginning of every
Seasonal Turn. A Final Victory Point Check is also performed at the
end of the game.
0.1.1 Current Strategic Value
Step 1: Count the number of all Soviet and Western Strategic Hexes
under Axis control plus the number of Allied Collapse markers in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
Step 2: Subtract the number of Axis Strategic Hexes under Allied
control plus the number of Military Takeover markers in the Strategic
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
 Asian Domination: If the VP marker is placed in the Automatic
Victory Box on the VP Track during Total War, the side
indicated on the VP marker wins an Automatic Victory.
Clarification: While the Japanese Mandate marker is on the VP
Track, it is impossible for the Axis player to win an Automatic
Victory in this fashion.
©Exception: If the Current Strategic Value on the DS map is -17
or less, place the Allied Crusade VP marker in the 4 VP Box
instead. Play on the DS map ends immediately, but the game may
continue on the TK map.
 Japanese Surrender: If the Allied Crusade VP marker is placed
in the 2 VP Box during Limited War, the Allies wins an
Automatic Victory.
9
Design Note: This would require the Allies to occupy substantial
parts of Japan during Limited War.
 *European Theater Collapse: If the Current ESV is 5, the game
ends in an Axis Victory.
Example: The V-E Day marker is removed from the TK map in the
May-June 1945 turn, but the war is still going in the Pacific. All play
stops on the TK map – the Allies cannot then start sending stuff from
that map to the Pacific.
©If an Axis faction wins an Automatic Victory during Total War on
either map, the AE combined game ends with an Axis Victory. If the
Allied factions win an Automatic Victory during Limited War on
either map, the AE combined game ends with an Allied Victory.
At the end of the game, determine the Final Strategic Value (0.3) on
each map. The Axis factions add their VP scores on the TK and DS
maps to determine their combined VP score. Add any Bonus VPs
earned for placing the V-E or V-J Day marker back on the Turn Track
and extending play on a map (14.45).
0.3 V-J Day (End Game) Victory
Clarification: Do not add any VPs for VP Boxes containing the SS
Europa (TK) or Hakko Ichiu (DS) markers – you don’t score any VPs
for those.
If neither side achieves an Automatic Victory during play, the game
ends when the V-J Day marker is removed from the Turn Track
(14.37). ©Exception: In the AE combined game, the game does not
end until both the V-E and V-J Day markers are removed from the
Turn Track.
When the game ends, a Final Victory Point Check is performed. To do
this, use the Victory Point Check procedure above with the following
additions:
 A Strategic Hex is considered under Axis control if it is in a
Neutral Country containing a Pro-Axis Influence marker and no
Allied ground unit is in Tokyo (e4904).
 A Strategic Hex is considered under Allied control if it is in a
Neutral Country containing a Pro-Soviet or Pro-West Influence
marker and an Allied ground unit is in Tokyo.
Example: It is the Final Victory Point Check of a hard-fought game.
The Netherlands East Indies contains a Pro-West Influence marker in
Batavia, and there is a US ground unit in Tokyo. Thus, the Strategic
Hexes in the NEI are included in the Allied Strategic Hex count.
After determining the Final Strategic Value, compare the number of
Victory Points earned by each of the two sides – the Axis faction and
the combined Allied factions.
Design Note: No provision has been made for determining individual
Allied victory levels. The two Allied players in a three-player game
must equally share the credit for an Allied victory and the blame for
an Allied defeat. The time spent after the game arguing about who did
what is known as “The Cold War.”
The Axis faction earns 1 VP:
 for each VP in the box containing the Rising Sun marker on the
VP Track.
 for each VP in the box containing the Japanese Mandate marker
on the VP Track.
Clarification: Note that the Axis faction does not earn any VPs for the
Hakko Ichiu marker being on the VP Track.
The Allied factions collectively earn 1 VP for each VP in the box
containing the Allied Crusade marker on the VP Track.
The side with the most VPs wins. If the VP scores are tied at the end
of the game, the Axis faction wins.
Clarification: Note that the Axis Tide and Allied Crusade markers
can’t be on the VP Track at the same time. Most games will come
down to whether the Allied factions can score more Allied Crusade
VPs than the Axis has Japanese Mandate VPs. Historically, the final
score was a 2-2 tie – Allied Crusade 2 vs. Japanese Mandate 2.
©0.4 Combined Game Victory
The AE combined game ends with an Axis win if an Axis faction
scores an Automatic Victory on either map. The Allied factions win if
they score an Automatic Victory on both maps.
Otherwise, play both TK and DS to conclusion. Play stops on a map
when the V-E Day or V-J Day marker is no longer on its Turn Track
while Total War is in effect.
Likewise, the Allied factions add their VP scores on the TK and DS
maps to determine their combined VP scores.
The side with the most VPs wins. If the VP scores are tied at the end
of the game, the Axis faction wins.
Clarification: Remember the Allied factions cannot earn more than 4
VPs on a map. That means you can’t beat up exclusively on just one
of the Axis factions and expect to win the game.
Example: It is Nov/Dec 1945 and the V-J Day marker is removed.
Because the V-E Day marker was removed earlier, the game is now
over. On the TK map, the Axis Tide marker was planted in the 2 VP
box, and the Axis faction earned 1 Bonus VP for returning the V-E
Day marker to the Turn Track. When the V-E Day marker was finally
removed, the Allied Crusade VP marker was in the 4 VP box. On the
DS map, both the Japanese Mandate and Allied Crusade VP markers
are in the 2 VP Box on the VP Track. That means the final score is
Allies 6, Axis 5, so the Allied factions win.
1. Seasonal Phase
Important: This Phase is performed on Seasonal Turns only.
1.1 Option Card Segment
Each player should designate a space on the table for his Current Card
(which is face up) and Pending Card (which is face down). It must be
clear to all players at all times which cards are Current Cards and
which are Pending Cards.
Players are not allowed to examine another player’s cards before they
have been played. Players may share or withhold information about
their own cards with other players at their own discretion.
All players are free to examine all discarded cards at any time.
©In AE, each faction will have a Current Card and Pending Card on
each map. TK cards are used on the TK map. DS cards are used on the
DS map.
1.1.1 Option Card Procedure
Step 1: The phasing faction discards its Current Card. If the card has a
symbol that indicates it is a recyclable () card, it is returned to the
faction’s deck for possible future play. If the card does not have such a
symbol, it is set aside and cannot be played again.
Step 2: The phasing faction reveals its Pending Card. The card is
turned face up on the table in view of all players. This option card
becomes the faction’s new Current Card.
As this card is revealed, any interned units (16.7) on its back are
repatriated back to the map as per Placing Replacements (1.3.4).
After the phasing faction places any repatriated units, it must verify
the card played was in compliance with its Option Card Selection
Restrictions (1.1.1) at the time it was selected. If found with an illegal
Current Card, it must immediately return that card to its hand and will
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not have a Current Card this Season. Important: This returned card is
not considered to be played.
Clarification: Sometimes rolls will take you to different tables or
different countries. If that happens, the Influence or Neutrality
DRM that was in force for the first roll doesn’t “carry over.”
In addition, if the Axis faction makes an illegal Current Card play
during Pre-War or Limited War, either Allied faction may declare that
Total War (12.3) immediately goes into effect.
Example: The Axis faction plays card 33a Treaty. It selects
Hopeh, which has an Axis Influence marker with a +1 DRM. The
VP marker reads Rising Sun, but it is in the 0 VP Box. The US
has not entered the war yet, so the USCL is 0. So the total DRM
for this roll is +1. The Axis faction rolls a 1, which is modified to
2. Looking at the card, the result says “Roll on Diplomatic
Incident Table.” This next roll also has a +1 DRM. The Axis
rolls a 5, which becomes a 6. This result is “Roll on Colonialism
Table.” The roll on that table will have a 0 DRM, because
Influence marker DRMs don’t apply to rolls there.
Design Note: This can be really bad for the Axis, so if your opponent
made an honest mistake, the sporting thing to do would be to pass on
starting Total War. The intention behind the penalty is to prevent
crafty players from selecting illegal cards to extend Limited War.
©If the phasing faction legally plays an option card with a © symbol,
it must remove the identically named card found in its other deck.
© Example: If the Soviet faction reveals DS card 11b Siberian
Reserves Released, it must remove TK card 26b Siberian Reserves
Released.
Step 3: The phasing faction performs any actions listed under Option
Card Segment on the Current Card, in the order listed. See 1.1.2.
Step 4: The phasing faction must select a Pending Card to play in his
next Seasonal Phase. See 1.1.3.
*Step 5: If the phasing faction is the Soviet faction, it must check its
Current Card’s Production Value to see if there is an increase or
decrease to the ESV. See 1.1.4.
1.1.2 Option Card Segment Actions
The phasing faction performs any actions listed under the Option
Card Segment on the Current Option Card, in the order listed.
Some actions may call for removing other option cards. An option
card may be played even if a required card has already been discarded.
However, if a card says to remove a certain type of card (for example,
Axis Imperial Directive cards) that exists in both the faction’s hand
and the discard pile, the faction must remove a card from its hand.
Some actions may call for rolling on a table, selecting or activating a
country, etc. These actions are all performed, in the order specified,
before moving on to the next step. Important: If you are rolling on a
table, you must add any Political DRMs (1.1.2.1) that apply unless the
event specifically instructs you otherwise.
Some results on Political Events Tables will direct players to another
Political Events Table. If this happens, roll the die again, apply
Political DRMs and compare the result to the appropriate table. If
directed to yet another Political Event Table, continue rolling (still
applying Political DRMs) until some final result is obtained.
A final result is any result that does not call for rolling on another
Table. If the final result is an italicized Political Event, look it up in
the appropriate rules section for instructions on how to apply it.
1.1.2.2 Reinforcements
After the faction’s Pending Card has been placed, check if the Current
Card enters new units into the faction’s Force Pool, the Delay Box, or
the Strategic Warfare Box:
 Add to Force Pool: All counters listed are placed in the faction’s
Force Pool.
 Place in Delay Box: All counters listed are placed in the Delay
Box. These pieces will be available on a future turn based on
their Delay Result (7.1).
 Place in Strategic Warfare Box: All counters listed are placed
in the Strategic Warfare Box.
Units are placed as reinforcements only if they have not already
entered play or been removed from the game.
A faction’s Current Card may list counters belonging to Major
Countries or Minor Countries. Major Country units are always
received. Minor Country units are received only if that country is an
active Minor Country aligned with the faction.
Example: The Western faction plays card 43a Sextant Conference.
This card places a Kiangsu and Szechwan infantry unit in the Delay
Box. If one of those countries is not an active Western Minor Country,
its infantry unit would not be placed.
©Important: A counter that enters play by a DS card must be placed
in a DS Force Pool, Delay Box, or Strategic Warfare Box.
© Clarification: You can't immediately enter counters from a DS card
into a TK Pool or Box. Counters that enter through TK cards or rules
likewise must start out in Europe.
1.1.3 Pending Card Selection
The card must be from those currently in its hand. This card is placed
face down on the table and becomes the faction’s Pending Card.
1.1.2.1 Political DRMs
Card selection is final. Once a faction has selected a card and placed it
as its Pending Card, it is bound to that card.
Political DRMs must be applied to all die rolls made in the Option
Card Segment and the Political Events Segment unless specifically
stated otherwise. Political DRMs cannot be applied to any die rolls
made in other Segments, again unless specifically stated otherwise.
A faction that finds it cannot select any option card without violating a
restriction must say so. It will not select a Pending Card and thus will
not reveal a new Current Card during its next Seasonal Phase.
Political DRMs are cumulative. The DRMs are as follows:
 +1 for each VP in the Box containing the VP marker if it reads
Rising Sun.
 -1 for each VP in the Box containing the VP marker if it reads
Allied Crusade.
 -? for the Political DRM based on the location of the Pacific
USCL marker on the USCL Track.
 If a Country with an Influence or Neutrality marker is selected for
an event requiring a die roll, apply the indicated +1 or - 1 DRM.
DRMs for Influence and Neutrality markers apply only to rolls
directly involving that country. Specifically, this means rolls on
the Diplomatic Incident Table or any Current Card table.
1.1.3.1 Pending Card Selection Requirements
Before selecting a particular card, carefully check any Selection
Requirements listed under that card’s title. Many cards cannot be
selected unless certain conditions exist.
Each condition that must be met is listed next to a  symbol. When
more than one condition is listed, all conditions must be met to select
the card.
Example: Look at the Selection Requirements on Western card 19a
Aid to China. It cannot be selected unless both card 18a Quarantine
Address has been played, and Nationalist China’s Posture is War.
When an individual condition lists multiple requirements separated by
an “or,” the condition is considered met if any or all of the
requirements are met.
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Example: Western card 5 Cash & Carry Bill has a Selection
Requirement that reads “Pre-War is not in effect, or European
Limited War has occurred.” The card may be selected if either or
both of those statements are true.
The Japanese Government: Many Axis cards have a Selection
Requirement based on whether the Japanese Army or Navy is “leading
the Government.”
The Japanese Government marker has two sides: Army and Navy.
When the Government marker is in its Holding Box (on the Axis
Force Pool Display), the side that is face up is “leading the
government.” When the marker is in the Delay Box or the Turn Track,
no branch is “leading the government.”
Example: The Axis faction can select card 3 Army Program only if
the Navy is not “leading the government.” That is, the Government
marker must be Army-side up or not in the Government Holding Box
at all.
To play card 8 Demand Inner Mongolia, the Army must be leading the
government. If the Government marker is not in the Holding Box with
the Army side face up, the Axis faction cannot select this card.
European War: Many cards have a selection requirement based on
“European Limited War” or “European Total War.”
European Limited War has occurred if *the European Limited War
marker is in a European War Box, or ©the TK War State is Limited
War.
European Total War has occurred if *a European Total War marker is
in a European War Box, or ©the TK War State is Total War.
1.1.3.2 War State Selection Restrictions
While Pre-War is in Effect: A faction can only select a blue Pre-War
card.
While Limited War is in Effect: A faction can only select a blue PreWar card or gray Limited War card.
While Total War is in Effect: A faction can select a blue Pre-War,
gray Limited War or red Total War card.
1.1.3.3 Other Selection Restrictions
Sequential Selection Restrictions: A faction cannot select a
particular type of card listed below as its Pending Card if its Current
Card is the same type:
 Axis: Demand cards
 Axis: Diplomatic Overtures cards
 Western: Limited War Blitz cards
Axis Demand and Diplomatic Overtures cards have the words
“Demand” or “Diplomatic Overtures” in their names, respectively.
Clarification: What this means is that you can’t play these cards
“back-to-back.” For example, if the Axis Current Card is Diplomatic
Overtures (card 11), then another Diplomatic Overtures (card 12)
cannot be selected as the Axis Pending Card.
Because of the strict sequencing of the Option Card Procedure
(1.1.1), you won’t be able to play recyclable () cards like Western
card 22 Chinese War Production “back-to-back” when there is only
one of that card in your deck.
Annual Selection Restrictions: A faction cannot reveal a particular
type of card listed below more than once per calendar year.
 Axis: Rearmament cards
 Western: Rearmament cards
 Soviet: Rearmament cards
 Soviet: Offensive cards
 Soviet: War Progress cards
Rearmament cards have a hammer-and-wrench () symbol. Soviet
Offensive and War Progress cards have the words “Offensive” or
“War Progress” (respectively) in their titles.
For determining the “calendar year” of a Winter season, use the NovDec turn.
Clarification: A faction can play one of these cards in 1937, one in
1938, and so on. If the Axis faction reveals a Rearmament card in
Nov-Dec 1937, it can select another Rearmament card as its Pending
Card because that won’t be revealed until the Mar-Apr 1938 turn.
©Theater Selection Restrictions: A faction cannot select a TK card
for its DS Pending Card, nor can it select a TK card for its DS Pending
Card.
When selecting TK and DS Pending Cards, a faction cannot select
identically named option cards with © symbols in their upper lefthand corners during the same season.
© Example: If the Soviet faction wishes to select TK card 26b
Siberian Reserves Released, it cannot select DS card 11b Siberia
Reserves Released in the same turn.
Provided it is abiding by its Production Limit (see below), the Soviet
faction can select TK card 23 Limited War Production and DS card
24 Limited War Production. Although these cards have identical
names, they do not have © symbols.
©Soviet Production Limit Restrictions: Each Soviet option card has
a Production Value printed in a black circle in the upper left-hand
corner. When selecting TK and DS Pending Cards, their combined
Production Value cannot exceed the Soviet Production Limit.
If Pre-War or Limited War is in effect on both maps, the Soviet
Production Limit is 1.
If Total War is in effect on either or both maps, the Soviet Production
Limit is 3.
© Example: Total War is in effect on the TK map, and Russia’s
Posture is War on both maps. If the Soviet faction selects TK card 38
Total War Production, the card’s Production Value of 3 won’t allow
any card with a Production Value greater than 0 to be selected in DS.
So the Soviet faction selects TK card 39 Total War Production
instead, a 2-point Production Value card. That allows it to play DS
card 24 Limited War Production, which has a Production Value of 1.
*1.1.4 Soviet Current Card ESV Adjustment
Each Soviet option card has a Production Value, printed in a black
circle in the upper left-hand corner.
When revealing its new Current Card each Seasonal Turn, the Soviet
faction must consult the Current Card ESV Adjustment Table (printed
on its Force Pool) to see if there is an adjustment to the ESV.
Look up the appropriate line based on the current DS War State and
the Production Value of the Current Card. If an ESV adjustment is
listed, use the “No War” adjustment if there is no War marker in the
Soviet European War Box. If there is a War marker there, use the
“War” adjustment instead.
* Clarification: In Spring 1939, the Soviet faction reveals card 16
Pre-War Production. Limited War is in effect in DS, and there is no
War marker in the Soviet European War Box. According to the Soviet
Current Card PSV Adjustment table, the ESV is increased by 1.
1.2 Logistics / Partisan Segment
The phasing faction may place or remove one Logistics and any
number of Partisan Base markers it may have.
Design Note: These markers serve as locations where you can
Replacements, so they’re very useful.
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 A Partisan Base cannot be placed in a hex containing another
Partisan Base marker or an enemy unit, Detachment, or Logistics
marker.
 A Partisan Base cannot be placed in a hex containing an EZOC
unless another friendly unit is in that hex.
 A Partisan Base cannot be placed in a Conquered Allied Minor
Country containing an enemy Partisan Base.
1.2.1 Logistics Markers
Each faction has one or more Logistics markers. The phasing faction
may either place or remove one Logistics marker on the map. It cannot
do both in the same Seasonal Marker Placement Segment.
If a Logistics marker is in its Force Pool, the phasing faction may
place it on the map per these placement limitations:
 Axis: Place in any City hex containing a Japanese ground unit
that can trace a supply line to a supply source in Japan.
Additionally, the Kwantung Logistics marker can only be placed
in Manchukuo or Korea; furthermore, the selected area must be a
Japanese Dependent.
 Soviet: Place in any Road or Rail hex that contains or is adjacent
to a Russian HQ unit that can trace an overland supply line (10.2)
to a supply source in Russia.
 Western: Place in a City hex containing a supplied US ground
unit. The City hex cannot be in a British Dependent on the West
Map.
If a Logistics Marker is on the map, the phasing faction may either
leave it there, or pick it up and place it in the Delay Box.
Clarification: This means you won’t be able to place it back on the
map until your next Logistics / Partisan Segment, at the earliest.
Logistics Marker Placement Restrictions:
 A Logistics marker cannot be placed in a hex containing an
enemy unit, Detachment, or Logistics marker.
 A Logistics marker cannot be placed in a hex that already
contains a friendly Logistics marker.
 A Logistics marker can be placed in a hex with a friendly
Detachment marker, but the Detachment marker is immediately
placed in the Delay Box.
Removing Logistics Markers: If an enemy ground unit or Airdrop
marker enters a hex containing only a Logistics marker during any
Movement or Combat Phase, the Logistics marker is placed in the
Delay Box. The enemy ground unit or Airdrop marker can then
proceed normally.
Clarification: Shooing away a Logistics marker does not slow down
the unit in any way.
1.2.2 Partisan Base Markers
The Allied factions may receive Partisan Base markers through
Political Event results. An Allied faction can place and/or remove a
friendly Partisan Base marker as restricted below.
Example: If there is a Soviet Partisan Base in Hopeh, the
Western faction cannot place one in the country.
1.2.2.2 On-map Partisan Bases
If a Partisan Base is in a hex, the Allied faction may leave it there or
remove it and place it in the Delay Box. The Allied faction may do
this even if the hex contains an enemy unit or marker.
Design Note: Placing a Partisan Base plants the seed of military
insurgency that grows to fruition at the end of the Allied Turn. For
example, the Western faction places a Partisan Base at the beginning
of a Seasonal Turn and follows it up by reactivating the Minor
Country (16.3.1) in the Conditional Events Segment of the same turn.
When reactivated, the country’s Reserve unit is placed on the Partisan
Base. The Partisan Base then serves as a Replacement Location
where the Western player can bring in more replacements belonging
to that country.
If the Axis faction occupies the Partisan Base, the marker can remain
in that hex for the Axis player to garrison as long as the Western
faction keeps it there. Furthermore, if all Cities and Partisan Bases in
a country are occupied, that country once again becomes a
Conquered Allied Minor Country, making it eligible to receive more
Partisan Base markers! If you look at China, you see a lot of room to
place Partisan Base markers and tie down Axis ground units on
garrison duty.
1.3 Replacements Segment
In its Replacements Segment, the phasing faction may receive
Seasonal Replacement steps. Unless otherwise stated, all replacement
steps received are cumulative.
Seasonal Replacements steps received in this Segment are received on
Seasonal Turns only. Replacements received in Political Event or
Conditional Segments can be received on any Turns in which they
might occur.
1.3.1 Current Card Seasonal Replacements
More than one Partisan Base can be placed in the same Logistics /
Partisan Segment, although no more than one can be placed in a single
Conquered Allied Minor Country per Logistics / Partisan Segment.
The phasing faction may receive replacements as indicated on its
Current Card, in the red box with the Replacements Segment
heading.
1.2.2.1 Partisan Base Placement
Clarification: Some option cards do not have a Replacements
Segment box.
If a Partisan Base is in its Force Pool, the Allied faction may place it
in any Rough or City hex (see Terrain Key) in any Conquered Allied
Minor Country.
Clarification: You can place a Partisan Base in a Conquered Minor
Country belonging to the other Allied faction.
You cannot, however, place a Partisan Base marker in a Region
within a Conquered Allied Minor Country that has been ceded to
Japan (13.3.2). For example, if the Inner Mongolia Region of Hopeh
has become a Japanese Dependent, you wouldn’t be able to place
Partisan Base marker in Inner Mongolia.
Example: Hopeh is a Conquered Western Minor Country, but the
Soviet faction has an available Partisan Base marker and chooses to
place it in that Country. In the Soviet Conditional Events Phase,
Hopeh may be activated as a Soviet minor (16.5.1).
Partisan Base Placement Restrictions:
Communist Chinese Replacements: If a Soviet Option Card lists
“Communist Chinese” replacements, it may use these for steps
belonging to any Soviet Chinese Country.
Nationalist Chinese Replacements: If a Western Option Card lists
“Nationalist Chinese” replacements, it may use these for steps
belonging to any Western Chinese Country.
1.3.2 Additional Seasonal Replacements
The phasing faction may receive additional seasonal replacements if
the following markers are in the Strategic Warfare Box or on the VP
Track. These replacements are cumulative.
Clarification: The additional replacements provided by these markers
are printed in a circle. As with the square DRM notation, black means
it applies to the Axis; green to the West; red to the Soviets; and white
to all factions.
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1.3.2.1 Hakko Ichiu
Quit India Restriction: If the Axis Quit India marker is in the
If the Hakko Ichiu marker is on the VP Track and the VP marker
reads Rising Sun, the Axis faction receives one Japanese infantry
replacement step for each VP in the VP Track Box containing the VP
marker. Additionally, the Axis faction receives one Japanese infantry
replacement step for each VP in the VP Track Box containing the
Hakko Ichiu marker itself.
Strategic Warfare Box, the Western faction may not take British Ind
colonial steps as replacements.
If the Axis faction is entitled to more than one Hakko Ichiu infantry
step in a Replacements Segment, it may exchange pairs of them for
single Japanese armor steps instead.
Example: The VP reads Rising Sun and is in the 1 VP Box. The
Hakko Ichiu VP marker is in the 3 VP Box. The Axis player could take
these four replacements as either four infantry steps, one armor step
and two infantry steps, or two armor steps – Japanese units only!
1.3.2.2 Japanese Mandate
If the Japanese Mandate marker is on the VP Track and the VP marker
reads Rising Sun, the Axis faction receives one Japanese infantry
replacement step for each VP in the VP Track Box containing the VP
marker.
If the Axis faction is entitled to more than one Japanese Mandate
infantry step in a Replacements Segment, it may exchange pairs of
them for single Japanese armor steps instead.
1.3.2.3 Minor Country Production
If a faction’s Minor Country Production +1 marker is in the Strategic
Warfare Box, that faction receives one Minor Country replacement
step. If a faction’s Minor Country Production +2 marker is in the
Strategic Warfare Box, that faction receives two Minor Country
replacement steps.
1.3.2.4 US Victory Program
If the US Victory Program marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, the
Western faction receives one US infantry replacement step.
1.3.3.1 Minor Country Replacements
Unless specifically stated otherwise, a phasing faction may allocate its
Minor Country replacements received to any Minor Country or
Countries belonging to that faction. Exception: An Allied faction
cannot allocate replacements to a Conquered Allied Minor Country.
Example: The Western faction receives two Western Minor Country
replacements. If there are four Western Minor Countries, the player
must decide which Minor Countries get these limited resources. Both
replacements can go to the same Western Minor Country.
Unless specifically stated otherwise, each Minor Country replacement
step received may be taken as an infantry-type or armor-type unit. If
more than one replacement is received, both unit types may be taken
in the same Segment.
1.3.3.2 Airborne and Marine Units
A player must use two infantry-type replacement steps to take a onestep airborne or marine unit as a replacement.
For single-nationality airborne and marine units, both infantry-type
replacement steps must be of the same nationality. For the multinational Western airborne unit, the Western faction must use one
British and one US infantry replacement step.
Example: You can use two Russian infantry steps to receive one
Russian airborne replacement step.
1.3.3.3 Garrison Units
Garrison units (2.3.2.3) cannot be taken as replacements. They can
only be placed in the Organization Segment.
1.3.3.4 Elite Units
Elite units (2.3.4.3) can be taken as replacements.
1.3.3 Taking Replacements
1.3.3.5 Colonial Units
Important: The following rules apply in any Segment a faction
receives replacements. They are listed here for convenience.
Colonial units can be taken as replacements, but they have placement
restrictions (1.3.4). When an option card specifies replacements to be
colonial steps, non-colonial steps cannot be taken instead.
Players cannot accumulate or save replacements. If a player cannot
take all his replacement steps and place them on the map for any
reason, the extra unplaced replacement steps are lost.
Replacements are taken from a Force Pool as one-step ground units of
the nationality, number, and unit type received. A player cannot place
multi-step units as replacements. Replacements are placed on the map
per Placing Replacements (1.3.4).
Example: Western card 27 Commonwealth Support has a
Conditional Event that specifies “Britain: 1 colonial infantry step.”
The Western faction cannot take a non-colonial infantry step instead.
1.3.4 Placing Replacements
Important: The following rules apply in any Segment a faction
receives replacements. They are listed here for convenience.
Clarification: Many one-step ground units are the reduced-strength
sides of two-step army units. These one-step units are available to be
taken as replacements. You’ll get to build them up to their fullstrength two-step sides in the Organization Segment.
The owning player chooses where units are placed.
Force Pool Limitation: The one-step units in a faction’s Force Pool
limit how many and what type of units can be taken as replacement
steps. One-step units located anywhere else, such as the Delay Box or
the Turn Track, cannot be taken as replacement steps.
Clarification: Remember that stacking limits (9.2) are enforced after
every Phase and Segment, so don’t place too many units in the same
hex because you’ll have to eliminate the excess.
Example: The Soviet faction receives 12 Russian infantry
replacements, but only 10 one-step Russian infantry units are in the
Soviet Force Pool. Two replacements are lost.
Unit Type Limitation: Infantry replacements can be taken only as
infantry-type units (airborne, cavalry, infantry, or marine – but not
garrison). Armor replacements can be taken as either armor-type
(armor or mechanized) or infantry-type units.
Unless otherwise restricted, any number of replacements can be placed
in the same hex.
Replacement Locations: Units can be placed in any or all of the
following locations of the DS map as specified below. Placing one
unit in a location – a City hex, for example – does not prohibit placing
another unit in the same or a different location in the same Segment.
Important: No matter which Replacement Location is stated in this
section, a replacement unit cannot be placed in a hex that contains an
enemy ground unit, support unit, Detachment, or Logistics marker.
Example: Axis card 28b North Wind Cloudy states “Japan: 1 tank &
4 infantry steps” as Seasonal Replacements. The Axis player could
receive 5 infantry steps instead.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
 A non-colonial, non-Kwantung unit can be placed in a Home
Country City hex.
 A non-colonial, non-Kwantung unit can be placed in any
Home Country hex that contains a supplied HQ of the same
nationality.
14
 A British non-colonial can be placed in the Europe/Africa OffMap Box.
 A British colonial must be placed in a City hex in the proper
Dependent or Off-Map Box identified below. The City must be
under Western control.
Afr – Europe/Africa Box
Aus – Australia
Ind – India
NZ – New Zealand
 A French colonial unit must be placed in a City in a French
Dependent. The City must be under friendly control.
 A French non-colonial unit must be placed in the
Europe/Africa Off-Map Box.
Clarification: Remember that only Western units are allowed in
the Europe/Africa Off-Map Box. So if France is an Axis or Soviet
Minor Country, those factions will not be able to take French
non-colonial replacements.
 A Japanese non-colonial, non-Kwantung unit can be placed in
a hex containing the Axis IGHQ Logistics marker if it can trace a
supply line to a supply source in Japan.
 A Japanese Kwantung unit can be placed in a hex containing
the Axis Kwantung Logistics marker if it can trace a supply line
to a supply source in Japan.
Clarification: Note that this Logistics marker is the only location
where Kwantung replacements can be placed in the game.
 A Japanese Col colonial unit must be placed in a City hex in
any Japanese Dependent or Conquered Allied Country that
contains a Japanese ground unit, Detachment, or Logistics
marker.
 A Japanese Bur, Ind, or Rus colonial unit must be placed in a
City hex in the Country or Dependent named as follows. The City
must contain a Japanese ground unit, Detachment, or Logistics
marker.
Bur – Burma
Ind – India
Rus – Russia or any Far East Region Japanese Dependent
 A Minor Country unit can be placed in a Home Country hex that
contains a Partisan Base marker.
 A Russian unit can be placed in the hex containing the Soviet
Logistics marker if it can trace an overland supply line to a
supply source in Russia or a Soviet Off-Map Box.
 A Russian unit can be placed in the Eastern Europe Box.
 A US non-colonial unit can be placed in the Western US OffMap Box.
 A US Phil colonial unit must be placed in a City in the
Philippines. The City must be under Western control.
 A US unit can be placed in the hex containing a Western
Logistics marker if it can trace a supply line to the Western US
Off-Map Box.
 The Western Airborne unit may be placed as either a British or
US unit.
Design Note: Be sure to garrison Cities in an enemy country to
prevent enemy replacements from appearing in them. It’s trouble to
have enemy replacements popping up behind your lines.
2. Initial Administrative Phase
2.1 Political Events Segment
Skip this Segment if the phasing faction’s Current Card does not have
a section that reads Political Events Segment.
If the faction’s Current Card does have a section that reads Political
Events Segment, the phasing faction must perform all actions listed in
that section, in the order listed, even if it already resolved those
actions on a previous turn of the current season.
Many Political Events are resolved by rolling one die, applying
Political DRMs (1.1.2.1), and comparing the result to a Political
Events Table or text on the card. Modified die rolls less than 1 or
greater than 6 are treated as 1 and 6 respectively. Some results on
Political Events Tables will direct players to another Political Events
Table. If this happens, roll the die again, apply Political DRMs and
compare the result to the appropriate table. If directed to yet another
Political Event Table, continue rolling (still applying Political DRMs)
until some final result is obtained.
A final result is any result that does not call for rolling on another
Table. If the final result is an italicized Political Event, look it up in
the appropriate rules section for instructions on how to apply it.
Eliminating Steps: If the elimination of steps is required by a
Political Event, use Eliminating Steps (4.2.6.2).
2.2 Support Segment
Important: If you haven’t done so already, go to the Glossary section
and read about Air Base, Naval Base, Multi-Zone Port, Naval Zone,
Naval Zone Box, Open Port, and Restricted Waterway. Their
definitions are important to the rules in this section.
Design Note: The large-scale employment of ships and aircraft has
been abstracted into the various support units available to each
faction. Support units can do many things: provide combat support,
create Beachheads, interdict enemy movement and supply, prevent
enemy replacements from appearing in a replacement location, and
so on. Efficient use of these assets is one of the keys to victory.
For many DS newbies, this section is one of the hardest parts of the
design to understand. Our advice: be patient and proceed slowly, step
by step through the sequence of play. We’ve also prepared a Support
Unit & Convoy Marker Player Aid Card that summarizes the rules in
this section. Keep that handy.
The phasing faction performs actions in the Support Segment are in
the following order:
Step 1: Return to Base (2.2.1)
Step 2: Beachhead Maintenance (2.2.2)
Step 3: Support Unit and Convoy Marker Placement (2.2.3)
Step 4: Blitz Marker Placement (2.2.4)
Step 5: Beachhead Failure (2.2.5)
2.2.1 Return to Base
All phasing faction support units and Convoy markers located in a
hex, Naval Zone Box, or Strategic Warfare Box are removed from the
map. If the unit or marker has a Delay Stripe, place it in the Delay
Box. Otherwise, place it in the faction’s Force Pool.
Clarification: An obvious exception: the inherent Supply Convoys
printed on the map are not removed.
Flip an Escort Troop Convoy marker printed on the back of an Air
Force or Surface Fleet unit to its support unit side before placing it in
the Delay Box. Flip a CV Strike unit to its CV Fleet side before
placing it in the Delay Box.
In this Phase, the phasing faction resolves any Political Events on its
Current Card, places support units and Convoy markers, and organizes
its ground units.
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2.2.2 Beachhead Maintenance
If the phasing faction has a Beachhead-1 or Beachhead-2 marker in an
All-Sea hex, it may leave that marker on the map provided it meets
these two conditions:
 The marker is stacked with friendly ground units.
 The marker’s Beachhead Hexside (i.e., the arrow) points to a
Land hex occupied by enemy units.
If a Beachhead-2 marker will remain on the map, it must be flipped to
its Beachhead-1 side.
Design Note: This represents the headway the invaders on the beach
are making into the defenses.
If the phasing faction’s Beachhead marker does not meet the two
conditions above, it must be removed to the faction’s Force Pool.
Before removing the marker, the phasing faction may immediately
conduct an Inland Advance (see below) with any or all ground units
stacked on the Beachhead marker.
If the Beachhead marker meets the two conditions above, the phasing
faction may return the marker to its Force Pool anyway. Leave the
ground units in the All-Sea hex for now. If they are not stacked with a
Beachhead marker at the end of the Beachhead Failure step, they will
be eliminated (2.2.5).
Design Note: You might wish to pick up a Beachhead marker in order
to place it in the same hex facing a different direction. Or you might
simply need the Beachhead marker elsewhere, even if it means losing
those steps.
Axis SNLF Beachhead-0 markers: Axis SNLF Beachhead-0 markers
that were placed earlier this turn (during an Option Card Segment or
Political Events Segment) automatically remain on the map.
Inland Advance: To perform an Inland Advance, take a unit on the
Beachhead marker and place it in the Land hex adjacent to the
marker’s Beachhead Hexside. This is not movement, so ignore the
unit’s MA and any MP costs.
Force unit cannot be an Air Base. However, the Western player can
contest placement at this time using Manila as an Air Base because
the Japanese Air unit is not yet “successfully placed.” If he chooses to
not contest this placement, the Japanese Air unit is then successfully
placed and Manila is no longer a US Air Base for that Segment.
If the phasing faction has a Convoy Marker in its Force Pool, it may
place that marker in a Convoys Box on the map using the rules for
Convoy Marker Placement (2.2.3.6).
Clarification: Convoy marker placement cannot be contested – only
support unit placement.
After a support unit or Convoy marker is placed and any contest
resolved, the phasing faction may place another available support unit
or Convoy marker. The non-phasing factions again have the option to
contest this new placement. Play alternates in this fashion until the
phasing faction declares it is finished with this step of the Support
Segment.
Clarification: Support unit placement and convoy marker placement
can occur in any order the phasing faction wishes. Players are not
required to place or contest any support units or Convoy markers.
They may want to save some for use on later turns.
2.2.3.1 Support Unit Placement
To place a support unit, the phasing player takes a support unit from
his DS Force Pool and places it in a hex, Naval Zone Box, or Strategic
Warfare Box as limited below.
Fleet Unit Placement:
 CV Fleet: A CV Fleet can be placed in an All-Sea hex or On
Station Box. The CV Fleet must be able to trace a Fleet Unit Path
as described below. In addition, the placement location’s Naval
Zone must contain a Naval Base of the same nationality.
Important: If successfully placed in a hex, the CV Fleet must
immediately flip over to its CV Strike side and attempt placement
as a CV Strike as described below.
Clarification: An Inland Advance is similar to a Beachhead Landing
(4.1.3), but units do not have to be supplied or Blitz-enabled to
perform it, and they are not restricted by Policies (13.6.1), Truces
(13.6.2) and Failures (14.15).
 Surface Fleet: A Surface Fleet can be placed in an All-Sea hex or
On Station Box. The Surface Fleet must be able to trace a Fleet
Unit Path. In addition, the placement location’s Naval Zone must
contain a Naval Base of the same nationality. Important: If
successfully placed in an All-Sea hex, the unit must place a
Beachhead marker (2.2.3.4). If successfully placed in an On
Station Box, the phasing faction must immediately decide if the
unit will flip over to its Escort Troop Convoy marker side
(2.2.3.6).
2.2.3 Support Unit and Convoy Marker
Placement
 Sub Fleet: A Sub Fleet can be placed in the On Station Box of a
Naval Zone that contains a Naval Base of the same nationality.
The Sub Fleet does not have trace a Fleet Unit Path.
There is no limit to the number of units that can conduct an Inland
Advance.
An Inland Advance can be conducted during Mud, Storms, or Snow
turns.
If the phasing faction has a support unit in its Force Pool, it may place
that counter on the map using the rules for Support Unit Placement
(2.2.3.1).
A Sub Fleet can also be placed in the Strategic Warfare Box if a
Naval Base of the same nationality is somewhere on the map. No
Fleet Unit Path is traced; just place the unit.
If a support unit is placed, each of the non-phasing factions in turn has
the option to contest that placement with a support unit in its Force
Pool using the rules for Contesting Support Unit Placement (2.2.3.2).
If both non-phasing factions can potentially contest a placement, the
order of resolution is Axis, Western, Soviet.
Clarification: Sub Fleets (and Bombers below) are printed with
a DRM on the front, to remind you that those units can impact
the enemy Delay DRMs if they’re in the Strategic Warfare Box.
Once both non-phasing factions decline to contest the placement of a
phasing support unit, that unit is considered successfully placed. Once
successfully placed, a support unit cannot be contested again in that
Segment. Exception: A CV Strike unit may be contested as it is being
flipped from its CV Fleet side.
Until a support unit is successfully placed it has no effect on the map.
Example: The Axis faction attempts placement of a Japanese Air
Force unit on Manila (w3824), which contains a supplied US ground
unit (making it a US Air Base). Normally, a hex with an enemy Air
Fleet Unit Path: The path is traced from a Home Country Naval Base
or Home Country Open Port, along a continuous chain of adjacent
Naval Zones and/or Off-Map Boxes, to the Naval Zone containing the
placement location. If the Zone of placement contains a Home
Country Naval Base, then no path is traced, just place the unit. Each
Naval Zone or Off-Map Box along the path except for the Zone of
placement must contain a friendly Open Port.
Any Western Off-Map Box can be considered a Home Country Open
Port for a Western fleet unit.
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16
Restricted Waterway Restriction: A Fleet Unit Path cannot be traced
between the following adjacent Naval Zones unless one of the ports
listed with that pair of Naval Zones is an Open Port:
 Sea of Japan and Sea of Okhotsk: Toyohara (e5505).
 Sea of Japan and Japanese Coast: Hakodate (e5205), Nagasaki
(e4501) or Toyohara (e5505).
 Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea: Nagasaki (e4501).
 South China Sea and Bay of Bengal: Batavia (w2819) or
Singapore (w3218).
Example: A supplied US ground unit is in Saipan (e3906),
making it a US Air Base. Thus, the Western faction may place a
US Bomber unit in the Strategic Warfare Box. Strategic warfare
just happens.
 CV Strike: A CV Strike can be placed in an All-Sea or Land hex
within one hex of its CV Fleet, immediately after that CV Fleet
was successfully placed. Just flip the Fleet unit over to its Air
unit side and place it within one hex. The CV Strike must be able
to trace an Air Unit Path. The hex does not have to be in the same
Naval Zone as the CV Fleet.
Clarification: Note that you need at least one Open Port in each
Naval Zone along the Fleet Unit Path – however, that port does not
have to be a Multi-Zone Port “connecting” the two Naval Zones
unless it is required to meet the Restricted Waterway restriction.
Clarification: Think of the CV Fleet unit’s hex as the Air Base
hex for the CV Strike unit. Remember that a CV Strike unit may
be contested even after its CV Fleet unit was successfully placed.
This nuance is important, because Surface Fleet units cannot
contest CV Fleet units but they can contest CV Strike units.
A port can be a Naval Base without being an Open Port. The
distinction is important. Basically, enemy support units in an On
Station Box do not block a Fleet Unit Path being traced into that
Naval Zone – only through it.
Example: There is a supplied British ground unit in Genzan (w5127),
making it a British Naval Base and an unsupplied US ground unit in
Nagasaki (e4801), making it a Western Open Port. A British Surface
Fleet can be placed in an All-Sea hex in the Sea of Japan Naval Zone,
because the Western faction can trace a Fleet Unit Path through the
Restricted Waterway of Nagasaki and back to the Western US Box.
How can the Japanese faction stop the British Fleet from being placed
in the Sea of Japan? A Japanese CV Fleet or Surface Fleet unit in the
Yellow Sea Naval Zone would block the Fleet Unit Path. (A Japanese
CV Fleet or Surface Fleet unit in the Sea of Japan Naval Zone would
not do that.) Alternately, a Japanese Air unit in Nagasaki would block
the Fleet Unit Path through that Restricted Waterway.
Air Unit Placement:
 Air Force or Interceptor: An Air Force can be placed in an AllSea or Land hex within three hexes of an Air Base of the same
nationality. The unit must be able to trace an Air Unit Path as
described below. Important: If successfully placed in an All-Sea
hex, the phasing player must immediately decide if the unit will
place a Beachhead marker (2.2.3.4).
Example: A supplied British ground unit is in Singapore
(w3218), making it a British Air Base. The Western faction can
place a British Air Force in any hex from Singapore out to three
hexes. It cannot place a US Air Force though as that requires a
US Air Base.
An Air Force can also be placed in the On Station Box of a Naval
Zone that contains a Naval Base of the same nationality.
Important: If successfully placed in an On Station Box, the
phasing faction must immediately decide if the unit will flip over
to its Escort Troop Convoy marker side (2.2.3.6).
Example: A supplied Japanese ground unit is in Saigon
(w3619), making it a Japanese Naval Base. The Axis faction may
place a Japanese Air Force in the South China Sea On Station
Box.
An Interceptor can be temporarily “placed” only to contest the
placement of another support unit (2.2.3.2), but when doing so it
is treated as if it were an Air Force unit.
Example: The US TF11 CV Fleet is successfully placed in the
Micronesia Naval Zone in hex e3009. The unit flips over to its
CV Strike side and is placed one hex away in Kavieng (e2908),
which is legal even though that hex is in the Bismarck Sea Naval
Zone.
Air Unit Path: The path is traced from the Air Base, along a
continuous chain of adjacent hexes, to the placement hex. The path
cannot go into a Land hex affected by Mud, nor may it go into a hex in
a Neutral Minor Country (13.4) or Policy Affected Country (13.6).
2.2.3.2 Contesting Support Unit Placement
Clarification: Remember – the placement of a marker, such as a
Convoy or Airdrop marker, cannot be contested.
To contest enemy support unit placement, a non-phasing faction takes
an appropriate support unit from its Force Pool and declares that it is
contesting placement. The phasing and non-phasing support units are
then immediately placed as follows:
 An Air unit goes in the Delay Box.
 A Fleet unit goes in the Naval Warfare Delay Box.
It does not matter which unit was being placed or contesting; only its
unit type determines which Box it goes in.
Clarification: This is the only effect of contesting placement. The
battles between these units are fought in the Delay Boxes, with the
winners being the first ones to come back into play.
Remember that a CV Strike is an Air unit and a CV Fleet is a Fleet
unit. So pay attention to which side they’re on when being placed or
contesting. Since a CV Strike unit is an Air unit, it will go in the Delay
Box, while a Fleet unit will go in the Naval Warfare Delay Box
(making it susceptible to an extremely long delay result).
“Placed in the same location” (seen in the rules below) means the nonphasing faction places its contesting unit using the Support Unit
Placement rules (2.2.3.1). If it cannot be put in the placement location,
it cannot contest there.
Contesting Placement in a Hex:
 Air Force or Interceptor: An Air Force or Interceptor unit can
contest any support unit placed in an All-Sea or Land hex if it
can be placed in the same location.
 Bomber: A Bomber can be placed in a Land hex within nine
hexes of an Air Base of the same nationality. The unit must be
able to trace an Air Unit Path. Important: If successfully placed
in a hex, the phasing faction must immediately flip the Bomber
marker to its Devastation marker side (2.2.3.5).
A Bomber can also be placed in the Strategic Warfare Box if an
Air Base of the same nationality is somewhere on the map. No
Air Unit Path is traced; just place the unit.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
Example: A US Air Base in Guadalcanal (e2611) allows a US
Air Force unit to contest placement of an enemy support unit
within three hexes of Guadalcanal.
 CV Fleet: A CV Fleet unit can contest any support unit placed in
an All-Sea hex if it can be placed in the same location.
 CV Strike: A CV Strike unit can contest a Surface Fleet placed in
an All-Sea hex if its CV Fleet can be placed in the same location.
Example: A British CV Strike unit can contest placement of a
Japanese Surface Fleet unit in an All-Sea hex in the Bay of
17
Bengal Naval Zone, provided a British Naval Base is in the Bay
of Bengal Naval Zone and the CV Fleet can trace a Fleet Unit
Path to that Zone.
 Surface Fleet: A Surface Fleet unit can contest Air Force,
Surface Fleet or CV Strike (not CV Fleet) placed in an All-Sea
hex if it can be placed in the same location.
Contesting Placement in an On Station Box:
 Air Force or Interceptor: An Air Force or Interceptor unit can
contest any support unit placed in an On Station Box if it can be
placed in the same location.
 CV Fleet: A CV Fleet unit can contest any support unit placed in
an On Station Box if it can be placed in the same location.
 CV Strike: A CV Strike unit can contest a Surface Fleet or Sub
Fleet placed in an On Station Box if its CV Fleet can be placed in
the same location.
 Surface Fleet: A Surface Fleet unit can contest an Air Force,
Surface Fleet or Sub Fleet placed in an On Station Box if it can
be placed in the same location.
Example: The Western faction is trying to launch an invasion of
Java from Christmas Island (w2518). There are supplied
Japanese infantry units in both Telekbetung (w2818) and Batavia
(w2819), making those ports Air Bases and Naval Bases. The
Axis faction has one Japanese Air Force unit to hold back the
Western faction.
Example: A US Surface Fleet unit can contest placement of a
Japanese Air Force unit in the Coral Sea On Station Box,
provided a US Naval Base is in the Coral Sea Naval Zone and
the US Surface Fleet can trace a Fleet Unit Path to that Naval
Zone.
Contesting Placement in the Strategic Warfare Box:
 Axis or Soviet Air Force or Interceptor: One of these units can
contest Bomber placement in the Strategic Warfare Box if an Air
Base of the same nationality is somewhere on the map. No air
unit path is traced; just contest the placement.
The Western faction places a CV Fleet in w2717. The Axis
faction chooses not to contest, so the Western faction flips the
unit over to its CV Strike side and moves it over to Telekbetung.
The Western faction now chooses to place a Surface Fleet unit in
w2618. The Axis faction can contest this placement from its Air
Base in Batavia, despite the CV Strike unit being adjacent to the
Surface Fleet. If the Axis faction did not have an Air Base in
Batavia, it would not be able to contest this placement from
Telekbetung – the Western CV Strike unit there means that port
cannot be used as an Air Base.
Clarification: Western support units cannot contest the
placement of Axis Bomber units in the Strategic Warfare Box.
 Axis or Western Air Force, Interceptor, CV Fleet, CV Strike, or
Surface Fleet: One of these units can contest Sub Fleet placement
in the Strategic Warfare Box if a Naval Base of the same
nationality is somewhere on the map. No air or fleet unit path is
traced; just contest the placement.
Clarification: Soviet support units cannot contest the placement
of Sub Fleet units in the Strategic Warfare Box.
2.2.3.3 Support Unit Placement and Contest Restrictions
Air Unit Restrictions:
 An Air Force or CV Strike unit cannot be placed in or adjacent to
a hex containing a successfully placed friendly Air unit.
Clarification: A Bomber or Fleet unit can be placed adjacent to
a friendly Air unit.
 A support unit cannot be placed in or adjacent to a hex
containing a successfully placed enemy Air unit, unless it is
contesting the placement of another enemy support unit.
Clarification: Successfully placed Air units do not, by virtue of
this restriction alone, prevent you from contesting the placement
of other support units. However, a successfully placed Air unit
may cause the non-phasing faction may lose its ability to contest
for other reasons.
Weather Restrictions:
 An air unit cannot be placed in any hex of a Weather Area
experiencing Mud (11.3).
 A support unit cannot be placed in any All-Sea hex in the Sea
of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, Northwest Pacific, North Pacific, or
Gulf of Alaska Naval Zones when the North Weather Area (11.1)
is experiencing Snow (11.5).
 A support unit cannot be placed in any All-Sea hex in the Bay
of Bengal, Philippine Sea, or South China Sea Naval Zones when
the North Monsoon Weather Area is experiencing Mud.
 A support unit cannot be placed in any All-Sea hex in the
Arafura Sea or Bismarck Sea Naval Zones when the South
Monsoon Weather Area is experiencing Mud.
Other Restrictions:
 No support unit can be placed in Pre-War (12.1).
 If the Kamikazes marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, the
Axis faction cannot place a Japanese Air Force, Surface Fleet,
CV Fleet, or CV Strike unit in a hex or On Station Box in the
Axis Faction Turn. These units can only be used in an Allied
Faction Turn to contest the placement of Allied support unit.
 Support Unit Placement and Contest can be limited by Policies
(13.6.1), Truces (13.6.2), and Failures (14.15).
2.2.3.4 Beachhead Marker Placement
Air Force: Immediately after an Air Force unit is successfully placed
in an All-Sea hex, the phasing faction may exchange the unit for a
Beachhead marker from its Force Pool. If the exchange is made, place
a Beachhead-2 marker in the same hex as the Air Force unit, then put
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18
the Air Force unit in that Naval Zone’s Used Box. Once made, this
decision is final and cannot be changed later.
Western faction can place a British Convoy marker in the
Marianas Naval Zone.
Surface Fleet: Immediately after a Surface Fleet unit is successfully
placed in an All-Sea hex, the phasing faction must exchange the unit
for a Beachhead marker from its Force Pool. Place a Beachhead-1
marker in the same hex as the Surface Fleet unit, then place the
Surface Fleet unit in that Naval Zone’s Used Box.
Design Note: Using an Escort Troop Convoy marker represents
the player using his support units to “escort” the merchant ships.
An Escort Troop Convoy marker does not have to be of the same
nationality as the Standard Convoy marker to allow placement;
it must only be friendly.
Clarification: A defender attacked from a Beachhead-2 marker
receives two CRT column shifts (4.2.3). A defender attacked from a
Beachhead-1 marker receives only one CRT column shift.
In order to be placed, a Standard Convoy marker must be able to trace
a Fleet Unit Path (as defined in 2.2.3.1) from the Naval Zone to a
Home Country Open Port.
Note that Interceptors, Bombers, CV Fleets, and Sub Fleets cannot
place Beachhead markers. Also note that each faction has its own
Beachhead marker; they do not belong to specific nationalities.
Example: The Western faction has captured Okinawa (w4427) and
placed a US Detachment there. If the Western faction wanted to place
a US Convoy marker in the Yellow Sea Convoys Box it would first
have to place a Western Surface Fleet or Air Force unit in the Yellow
Sea On Station Box, then flip that unit over to become an Escort
Troop Convoy and move it to the Convoys Box. That’s because there
are no US Dependent Ports or Home Country Ports in the Yellow Sea
Naval Zone.
The special Axis SNLF Beachhead-0 markers are placed via the
Operation Z (15.29) and Widespread Attacks (15.37) Political Events.
Successful Placement: When a faction places a Beachhead marker, it
must orient the marker so that its arrow points to a Land hex. The
hexside between the All-Sea hex and the Land hex is the Beachhead
Hexside.
Beachhead Marker Placement Restrictions:
 A Beachhead marker cannot be placed so that it points to a Hex
in a Neutral Minor Country (13.4).
 A Beachhead marker cannot be placed so that it points to an AllSea hex, even one containing another Beachhead marker.
 A Beachhead marker cannot be placed in a hex containing
another Beachhead marker.
2.2.3.5 Devastation Marker Placement
After a Bomber unit is successfully placed in a Land hex, the Bomber
unit must be flipped to its Devastation marker side. The phasing
faction may also select one enemy Detachment or Logistics marker in
the hex and place that marker in the Delay Box.
Clarification: Once placed, Devastation markers are never removed.
This means you’ll permanently lose use of that Bomber unit, but you’ll
always get to count that hex as being under your control during
Victory Point Checks (0.1.1).
2.2.3.6 Convoy Marker Placement
With the technical exception of Escort Convoys (explained below),
Convoy marker placement cannot be contested.
Clarification: While a support unit cannot contest or prevent
placement of an enemy Convoy marker, a support unit in an On
Station Box does prevent the ports in that Naval Zone from being
Open Ports for an enemy faction. And Open Ports are essential for
transport and supply across a Naval Zone.
Standard Convoy Marker Placement: A Standard Convoy marker
can be placed in the Convoys Box of a Naval Zone that contains any
of the following:
 A Home Country Port for that Convoy marker.
 A Port in a Dependent belonging to the Convoy marker’s Home
Country.
 A friendly Escort Troop Convoy marker in its Convoys Box.
Clarification: A Port in the Home Country or Dependent does
not have to be an Open Port to allow Standard Convoy marker
placement. Remember, a Western Off-Map Box can serve as a
Home Country Open Port for any Western Convoy marker.
Nationality indicators are printed at the bottom of each Naval
Zone’s Convoys Box to provide “at a glance” references for
what countries can place Convoy markers there. Note that Ceded
Land markers may allow a faction to place a Convoy in a Naval
Zone it wouldn’t normally be able to reach – for example, if the
Marshall Islands Region becomes a British Dependent, the
Axis and Soviet Scratch Convoy Placement: An Axis or Soviet
Scratch Convoy marker can be placed only in the Convoys Box of a
Naval Zone containing a Key Port (see Terrain Key) that contains a
friendly unit, Detachment, or Logistics marker. An Axis or Soviet
Scratch Convoy marker does not need to trace a Fleet Unit Path to a
Home Country Open Port.
Clarification: A friendly Air Force unit allows you to use a Key Port
even if the Port contains an enemy ground unit.
Example: If the Axis faction puts a Japanese Air Force unit in Port
Moresby (e2606), then the Axis Scratch Convoy can be placed in the
Coral Sea or Arafura Sea Naval Zone Boxes, even if Port Moresby is
occupied by Allied troops.
US Fleet Train Convoy Placement: The US Fleet Train Convoy
marker can be placed only in the Convoys Box of a Naval Zone
containing a Key Port that contains a US unit, Detachment, or Western
Logistics marker. A Western Off-Map Box can also serve as a Key
Port for this placement – no supplied ground unit, Detachment
marker, or Logistics marker is required. The US Fleet Train Convoy
marker must also trace a Fleet Unit Path to a Home Country Open
Port.
Escort Troop Convoy Placement: Immediately after an Air Force or
Surface Fleet unit is successfully placed in an On Station Box, the
phasing faction must decide if the unit will become an Escort Troop
Convoy marker. If it does, flip that support unit over to its Escort
Troop Convoy side and move it to that Naval Zone’s Convoys Box.
Clarification: An Escort Convoy marker cannot be placed directly
into a Convoys Box; it must first be placed as an Air Force or Surface
Fleet support unit in an On Station Box. So, unlike the other Convoy
markers, the non-phasing factions do get one chance to contest this
placement – when the support unit is placed.
Convoy Mode: As a Standard Convoy, Scratch Convoy, or Fleet
Train Convoy marker is placed, the phasing faction also selects its
Convoy Mode by placing the marker Troop or Supply side face up. A
Troop Convoy allows units to move across a Naval Zone. A Supply
Convoy allows a supply line to be traced across a Naval Zone.
Design Note: Convoy Mode is important. For example, if a Japanese
Convoy marker in the Coral Sea is in Troop Convoy mode, the Axis
faction can move units across the Coral Sea, but any Japanese units
in, say, Australia would be unsupplied.
Clarification: Surface Fleet or Air Force units can only function as
Escort Troop Convoys, not as Supply Convoys.
Note that many Naval Zones have an inherent Supply Convoy for the
Western or Axis factions.
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19
There is no limit to the number, type, or mode of Convoy markers that
can be a Naval Zone Box.
2.2.4 Blitz Marker Placement
If the phasing faction has a Blitz marker available, it may place that
marker in any hex on the map.
Exceptions:
 If the phasing faction has a Beachhead marker on the map, it
must place one Blitz marker in the same hex. After all hexes with
friendly Beachhead markers have received Blitz markers, any
additional Blitz markers may go in any other hexes. Exception:
The Axis faction is never required to place a Blitz marker on an
SNLF Beachhead-0 marker.
 If the Axis faction places a Blitz marker in a Land hex and the
Army is not “leading the government,” the Axis faction must roll
on the Cabinet Crisis Table. Political DRMs (1.1.2.1) do apply to
this roll.
 If the Axis faction places a Blitz marker in an All-Sea hex and
the Navy is not “leading the government,” the Axis faction must
roll on the Cabinet Crisis Table. Political DRMs (1.1.2.1) do
apply to this roll.
Design Note: As you place your Blitz markers, keep in mind that
having one in a City hex turns it into an “open city” by canceling the
defender’s Voluntary Retreat Conversion ability (4.2.5.3).
There are two ways in which a faction may have a Blitz marker
available:
 The phasing faction will have a number of Blitz markers
available equal to its Current Card’s Blitz Value.
 The phasing faction will have a Blitz marker available if one was
awarded by a Political Event in the Option Card Segment or
Political Events Segment.
Any available Blitz marker not used at this time is lost and cannot be
saved for another turn.
Clarification: A Blitz card generates a number of Blitz markers equal
to its Blitz Value during each turn that it is a faction’s Current Card.
A Blitz marker created by a Political Event is available for use during
the next Support Segment only.
Delay Stripes: When a unit or marker with a Delay Stripe is removed
from its location due to a Combination, Fortress Conversion, or
Breakdown, place it in the Delay Box. If the unit or marker does not
have a Delay Stripe, place it in its Force Pool.
One-Step and Multi-Step Units: One-step units are the building
blocks for each faction’s ground units. A one-step ground unit may be
taken from the Force Pool and placed on the map when it is taken as a
replacement step or when a multi-step unit performs breakdown.
Multi-step ground units are created when a number of one-step units
combine into one unit. A multi-step ground unit may be taken from a
Force Pool and placed on the map only when one-step units in a hex
are combined during the Organization Segment.
Multi-step units are composed of a certain nationality, number of steps
and unit-types. A faction’s Force Pool Display indicates the specifics
to be used when combining or breaking down certain units.
Important: If a certain kind of a multi-step unit is not shown on a
faction’s Force Pool Display, that multi-step unit is composed of
infantry-type steps only. Exception: A fortress unit may be built with
armor or infantry steps.
Example: A three-step 6-6-3 British mech army is shown on the
Western Force Pool Display. It is composed of two British infantrytype steps and one British armor-type step. The first two steps must be
infantry-type steps. If a third step is added or removed, it must be an
armor-type step. All similar British mech armies are composed of the
same nationality, number of steps, and unit types.
A Japanese HQ unit (which has no picture on the Axis Force Pool
Display) is composed of only infantry-type steps. It cannot be formed
with any armor-type steps!
Nationality Requirement: When combining or breaking down multistep units, all involved units must be of the same nationality.
Example: A three-step Western army is composed of two infantry
steps and one armor step. If you are creating the US 8th Army, all the
steps used must be US.
Exceptions:
2.2.5 Beachhead Failure
At the end of this step, all phasing ground units in an All-Sea hex
without a friendly Beachhead marker are eliminated. Eliminated units
that have a Delay Stripe are placed in the Delay Box; those without a
Delay Stripe are returned to their Force Pool.
2.3 Organization Segment
The phasing faction may combine one-step ground units on the map to
form multi-step units and break down multi-step units into one-step
units. Actions in the Organization Segment are performed in the
following order:
Step 1: Combinations (2.3.1)
Step 2: Fortress and Garrison Conversions (2.3.2)
Step 3: Voluntary Eliminations (2.3.3)
Step 4: Breakdowns (2.3.4)
Step 5: Detachment Placements and Removals (2.3.5)
Clarification: It’s important to get these in the right order! First you
combine, then you break down. For example, the Axis faction cannot
break down a two-step infantry army into two one-step infantry units
and then re-combine those units into a two-step HQ unit in the same
Organization Segment.
Force Pool Limitation: The units available in a faction’s Force Pool
are an absolute limit on Combinations, Breakdowns, and Fortress
Conversion.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
 The Axis AEx multi-step HQ unit is formed using Japanese and
Axis Minor Country one-step infantry units as specified on the
Axis Force Pool Display. The Axis Minor Country unit used is
placed in the Holding Box on the Axis Force Pool Display.
 A Soviet multi-step Communist Chinese HQ unit is formed using
Soviet Chinese Minor Country one-step units only, as specified
on the Soviet Force Pool Display. The Chinese Minor Country
units used are not placed in any Holding Box.
 A Western multi-step Nationalist Chinese HQ unit is formed
using Western Chinese Minor Country one-step units only, as
specified on the Western Force Pool Display. The Chinese Minor
Country units used are not placed in any Holding Box.
 A British one-step infantry-type unit and a US one-step infantrytype unit must combine to form the CBI HQ unit on its two-step
side. Either a British or US one-step armor-type unit can be
added to combine the CBI HQ unit on its three-step side. This
armor-type step is placed in the CBI HQ Holding Box on the
Western Force Pool Display.
 The British FE infantry unit and a Western Minor Country onestep infantry-type unit must combine to form the ABDA Army.
The Western Minor Country unit used is placed in the ABDA
Army Holding Box on the Western Force Pool Display.
 Although Kwantung units are considered Japanese units, only
Kwantung units can be used when combining a multi-step
Kwantung unit. When breaking down non-Kwantung Japanese
units, Kwantung units cannot be taken from the Force Pool and
placed on the map.
20
Clarification: Only two one-step Kwantung infantry units can
combine to place the 2-1-2 two-step Kwa HQ unit on the map.
One-step units in Holding Boxes are not available for use by the
owning faction until they are placed on the map when breaking down
those multi-step units.
remind you of this. These units can be converted into fortress units
(2.3.2.1).
A player cannot switch different multi-step units in the process of
combining.
Clarification: Holding Boxes are used to determine the unit’s
nationality for various rules purposes.
Example: The Axis player cannot combine a 3-3-1 Japanese two-step
infantry unit and a one-step 0-1-1 infantry unit, and replace them with
a 3-2-1 Japanese three-step HQ unit.
2.3.1 Combination
2.3.2 Fortress and Garrison Conversion
The phasing faction may combine smaller step-value units into higher
step-value units. Important: Only supplied units in an Off-Map Box
or stacked in a hex can combine.
2.3.2.1 Fortress Units
Combining units is done one step at a time, but can continue as long
as further combinations are possible.
Example: A British one-step armor unit and two British one-step
infantry units are in the same hex. In one Western Organization
Segment, the Western faction can first combine the two infantry units
(to form a two-step British infantry unit), and then combine the armor
unit with the two-step infantry unit to flip it over to its three-step mech
side.
2.3.1.1 Combining Units
Combining One-step Units: A one-step unit with a two-step unit on
its other side can be built up to the two-step side by removing a onestep unit from the map and flipping the other one-step unit to its twostep side.
Example: A Japanese 0-1-1 infantry unit and 1-1-1 one-step infantry
unit in the same hex combine by removing the 0-1-1 unit (which is
placed in its Force Pool) and flipping over the 1-1-1 to its 2-2-1 twostep side.
A fortress unit can be placed on the map only by converting a one-step
infantry-type or armor-type unit in a Land hex. To do so, remove a
one-step unit from the map and place the desired two-step fortress unit
of the same nationality from the Force Pool in that same location.
Clarification: That’s right, you remove one step and get a two-step
fortress unit in return. A Japanese one-step armor unit can convert
into a Japanese two-step Per fortress unit.
A unit cannot be converted into a fortress if there is already another
fortress unit in the hex.
A ground unit does not have to be supplied to convert to a fortress.
A ground unit can be converted to a fortress in a hex containing an
enemy Air unit.
Clarification: Fortress Conversion is allowed in a hex containing an
enemy Air unit even though ground units cannot combine in that hex
(per Combining Restrictions above, 2.3.1.2).
Unless specifically stated otherwise, there is no limit to the number of
units that may be converted to fortress units within a turn.
Japanese colonial units can convert into Japanese fortress units.
A Russian one-step 1-1-1 infantry unit and Russian one-step 2-1-1
Shock infantry unit can combine to increase either unit to its two-step
side. The other goes to the Force Pool.
2.3.2.2 Port-a-Fort Units
Two one-step units can be combined to form a two-step unit without a
one-step unit on its other side. Remove the one-step units from the
map and place the desired two-step unit in the same location.
Clarification: We call them port-a-fort units because they are
essentially mobile forts.
Japanese 1-1-2 IG infantry units and Chinese 1-1-1 Def infantry units
have one-step fortress units on their other side.
Example: Two US one-step infantry units are removed from the map
and a US two-step HQ unit is taken from the Western Force Pool and
placed where the two one-step units were removed.
A port-a-fort unit with its infantry side face up can convert to its
fortress side; simply flip the unit over. A port-a-fort unit cannot be
converted into a fortress if there is already another fortress unit in the
hex.
Combining One-step and Two-step Units: A one-step unit can be
combined with a two-step unit with a three-step unit on its other side.
Remove the one-step unit from the map and flip the two-step unit to
its three-step side.
No other one-step units can convert to these one-step fortress units. A
one-step port-a-fort infantry unit may also be used to build a regular
two-step fortress unit.
Example: A British 3-4-1 two-step infantry unit and a British 2-1-2
one-step armor unit combine by removing the 2-1-2 unit and flipping
over the 3-4-1 unit to its 6-6-2 three-step side.
A port-a-fort unit with its fortress side face up can convert back to its
infantry side; simply flip the unit over to its infantry side. These units
do not go in the Delay Box when converting back to a non-fortress
unit in this manner.
2.3.1.2 Combining Restrictions
2.3.2.3 Garrison Units
Unsupplied units cannot combine.
A Garrison unit is any unit with a movement allowance of zero that is
restricted to a specific hex listed in 2.3.2.4.
Units in a hex containing an enemy Air unit cannot combine.
All fortress (2.3.2.1) and garrison units (2.3.2.3) cannot combine with
any other unit. A port-a-fort unit (2.3.2.2) can combine with another
unit when it is on its infantry or mech side only.
Japanese colonial units cannot combine with or into Japanese non-
A one-step garrison unit can be placed on the map only by converting
a one-step infantry-type or armor-type unit in the proper Land hex. To
do so, remove the unit from that hex and place the desired garrison
unit of the same nationality from the Force Pool in the same location.
colonial units. Exception: If the Showa Restoration marker is in the
Strategic Warfare Box, the Axis faction may combine one Japanese
colonial unit with a Japanese non-colonial unit by placing the Showa
Restoration marker in the Delay Box.
A one-step ground unit does not have to be supplied to convert to a
one-step garrison unit.
Japanese Kwantung units cannot combine with Japanese non-
2.3.2.4 Fortress Conversion and Garrison Unit
Restrictions
Kwantung units.
Clarification: Japanese colonial and Kwantung units and all
Garrison units have squares instead of dots for their Step Value to
A one-step ground unit can be converted to a one-step garrison unit in
a hex containing an enemy Air unit.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
21
All 0-1-0 garrison infantry units are restricted to the hexes printed on
the backs of their counters. Other fortress and garrison units are
restricted as follows:
Britain:
 The Cey fortress unit can only be placed in Trincomalee (w3509).
 The HK fortress unit can only be placed in Hong Kong (w4222).
 The Sing fortress unit can only be placed in Singapore (w3218).
2.3.4 Breakdown
After all combinations, fortress conversions, and voluntary unit
eliminations are completed, the phasing faction may break down
multi-step units into smaller units.
Breaking down a unit is basically the reverse of combining units. A
unit breakdown is done one step at a time, but can continue as long as
further breakdowns are possible.
Japan:
 The Dai fortress unit can only be placed in Dairen (w5125).
 A Per fortress unit can be placed in any Land hex on the map, but
only if the Axis Japanese Mandate marker is on the VP Track.
Only one Japanese unit per turn can be converted into a Per
fortress.
 The Sai fortress unit can only be placed in Saipan (e3906).
 The Truk fortress unit can only be placed in Truk (e3408).
A multi-step unit that breaks down does not have to be supplied.
Manchukuo:
 The Dai fortress unit can only be placed in Dairen (w5125).
Russia:
 The Vlad fortress unit can only be placed in Vladivostok
(e5301).
 A Line fortress unit can only be placed in a hex within Russia
that shares a border with Manchukuo. Only one Russian unit per
turn can be converted into a Line fortress.
Clarification: Note that certain hexes may change hands during
the game. Once a Line fort is placed, it stays in the hex until it is
eliminated, even after it’s no longer on a Border. For example, if
Heilungkiang has not been ceded to Russia, the Soviet faction
could build a Line fort in Blagoveshchensk (w5727), as that hex
shares a Border with Manchukuo. After Heilungkiang has been
ceded, that unit would be able to stay there, but the Soviet faction
could not build a new Line fort in w5724.
2.3.4.1 Breaking Down Units
US:
 The Gm fortress unit can only be placed in Guam (e3806)
 The Man fortress unit can only be placed in Manila (w3824)
Clarification: Although garrison units may not combine, remember
that they may convert into fortress units. For example, the Western
faction could convert the Hong Kong 0-1-0 garrison infantry unit into
the HK 0-2-0 fortress unit.
2.3.3 Voluntary Unit Elimination
After all combinations and fortress conversions are completed, but
before any breakdowns take place, the phasing player may voluntarily
eliminate any friendly ground unit on the map.
Important: The whole unit must be eliminated, not individual steps.
If a voluntarily eliminated unit does not have a Delay Stripe, it is
placed in its Force Pool.
A multi-step unit can break down in a hex containing an enemy Air
unit.
Emergency Breakdown: A player may be required to perform a
breakdown due to a specific game event in a Phase or Segment other
than the Organization Segment. Such a breakdown follows the normal
breakdown rules listed below. Because Fortress units cannot
breakdown, they would be eliminated instead.
Two-step Units: A two-step unit without a one-step unit on its other
side can break down by taking two one-step units from its Force Pool,
placing them where the two-step unit is, and removing the two-step
unit from its current location.
Example: A two-step Japanese HQ unit breaks down by taking two
Japanese one-step infantry units from the Force Pool and placing
them in the same hex as the HQ. The HQ is then placed in the Delay
Box because it has a Delay Stripe.
A two-step unit with a one-step unit on its other side can break down
by flipping to its one-step side, taking another one-step unit from its
Force Pool, and placing it with the flipped over one-step unit.
Example: A two-step Japanese 3-3-1 infantry unit breaks down by
flipping it over to its 2-1-1 one-step side, taking a one-step Japanese
infantry unit from the Axis Force Pool, and placing it with the 2-1-1
infantry unit.
Three-step Units: A three-step unit with a two-step unit on its other
side can break down by flipping over the three-step unit to its two-step
side, taking a one-step unit from its Force Pool, and placing it with the
two-step unit.
Example: A British three-step 6-6-2 mech army may break down by
flipping over to its 4-4-1 two-step infantry side, taking a one-step 2-12 armor unit from the Western Force Pool, and placing it with the 44-1 unit. If it wanted, the Western faction could then break down the
4-4-1 two-step unit.
Holding Box Units: A multi-step unit that has a Holding Box breaks
down like other units. However, instead of taking a unit from its Force
Pool (when needed) during a breakdown, the unit in the Holding Box
must be taken.
2.3.4.2 Breakdown Restrictions
If it does have a Delay Stripe, it is immediately placed on the Turn
Track as if a Delay die roll of 1 had been rolled for it. Apply any
current Delay DRMs to get the final Delay Result (7.1.1).
A Fortress unit cannot voluntarily break down.
Example: An Axis HQ unit is voluntarily eliminated during the MayJune turn. The current Delay DRM is 0, so it is placed in the JuneJuly box. If the Delay DRM were +1, it would be placed in the JulyAug box.
A faction cannot switch different multi-step units in the process of
combining.
Design Note: You may want to voluntarily eliminate units to return
hopelessly isolated forces to the Force Pool or to get an important
Delay Stripe unit (such as an HQ) back into the Force Pool quickly.
Of course, the cost of losing that unit’s steps has to be taken into
account, but sometimes it is worth it.
Clarification: These units have squares instead of dots for their Step
Value to remind you of this.
Example: The Axis player cannot breakdown a three-step Japanese 32-1 HQ unit by replacing it with a two-step 3-3-1 infantry unit.
Elite Units: An elite unit (2.3.4.3) cannot be taken from a Force Pool
and placed on the map unless the unit was necessary to combine into
the multi-step unit that is breaking down.
Colonial Units: A colonial unit can be taken from the Force Pool
when breaking down a non-colonial multi-step unit. However, when
breaking down a colonial multi-step unit, a non-colonial unit cannot
be taken from the Force Pool.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
22
Example: A two-step1-2-1 Japanese colonial infantry army breaks
down by flipping over to its 0-1-1 one-step colonial infantry side,
taking another one-step Japanese colonial infantry-type unit from the
Axis Force Pool, and placing it in the same location. The infantrytype unit taken from the Force Pool cannot be a non-colonial unit.
Kwantung: The Axis faction cannot take regular Japanese one-step
units from the Force Pool when breaking down Kwantung units; it
must use Kwantung units instead.
© Clarification: This distinction makes Kwantung units slightly
different than SS units in TK. In that game, you can take regular
German units when breaking down an SS unit.
2.3.4.3 Elite Units
The following Elite units are subject to the Breakdown Restriction
described above.
 Airborne
 Cavalry
 Marine
 British FE infantry
 Chinese Exp/Def infantry/port-a-fort
 Japanese IG infantry/port-a-fort
 Japanese Kwantung
 Russian G (Guards) infantry or tank
 Russian S (Shock) infantry
3. Operational Movement
Phase
Only phasing ground units with a Movement Allowance greater than
zero can move in the Operational Movement Phase. In addition, a unit
must be supplied (10.) at the beginning of its move. Once it starts to
move, it can move out of supply and continue moving. It may also end
its move out of supply.
3.1 Movement
Ground units move one at a time. A player must complete the
movement of one unit before beginning to move another unit.
A unit must stop moving when it moves into a hex containing an
Enemy Zone of Control (EZOC, 8.1). Exception: A unit does not have
to stop if another friendly unit or Airdrop marker is in that EZOC hex,
or the moving unit is conducting an Overrun against the unit
projecting the EZOC.
Clarification: Friendly Detachment, Logistics, and Partisan Base
markers do not negate EZOC.
If a unit starts a Movement Phase in an EZOC, it can move out of that
hex. It can move into another EZOC hex at any point in that
Movement Phase (in which case it may have to stop per the above).
Clarification: Elite one-step units have their unit type symbol shaded
to remind you of this rule.
Clarification: Remember, all non-phasing units are considered enemy
units.
Example: A two-step Russian Shock infantry army breaks down by
flipping it over to its 2-1-1 one-step side, taking a one-step Russian
infantry-type unit from the Soviet Force Pool, and placing it in the
same location. The infantry-type unit taken from the Force Pool
cannot be an Airborne, Cavalry, or Shock unit because those are Elite
units, none of which were required to combine into a Shock army.
(The 2-1-1 necessary to combine into a Shock army is already on the
map after the two-step army was flipped over.)
3.1.1 Hex-to-Hex Procedure
A ground unit may move across a hexside from a hex into an adjacent
hex, in any direction or combination of directions the moving player
wishes. Before it enters each hex, it pays a Movement Point (MP) cost
for that hex (and the hexside being crossed) and subtracts that cost
from its remaining Movement Allowance (MA).
2.3.5 Detachments
The exact MP cost to enter a hex depends on the terrain in that hex
and along the hexside crossed to enter the hex. These costs are listed
on the Terrain Effects Chart on the map.
During its Organization Segment, the phasing faction can place and/or
remove friendly Detachment markers from the map.
A unit cannot enter a hex if it does not have sufficient MA remaining
to pay the entire MP cost involved in entering that hex.
Placing Detachments: A Detachment in the Force Pool can be placed
in any hex containing a ground unit of the same nationality.
Clarification: You do not flip a unit over to its Detachment side. In
effect, that ground unit has just broken down a little bit of itself to
form that Detachment, but the parent unit remains.
Detachment Placement Restriction: A Detachment marker cannot be
placed in a hex that already contains a Detachment or Logistics
marker.
Removing Detachments: A Detachment on the map can be removed
and placed in the Delay Box.
If an enemy ground unit or Airdrop marker enters a hex containing
only a Detachment marker during any Movement or Combat Phase,
the Detachment marker is removed. The enemy ground unit or Airdrop
marker can then proceed normally.
Clarification: Shooing away Detachments in this manner does not
hinder operations in any way.
A unit does not need to be supplied to place or remove a Detachment.
A Detachment can also be placed and/or removed in a hex containing
an enemy Air unit.
Example: A Japanese tank unit moves from Nanking (w4724) into the
clear hex of w4624 (which costs 1 MP to enter). It cannot then move
into Wenchow (w4524 – a rough hex), because its remaining MA is 1,
and a rough hex costs 2 MP to enter.
Minimum Move Exception: A ground unit can exceed its MA when
moving into the first hex it enters in a Movement Phase. If it does so,
it must stop moving after entering that hex.
Clarification: Note that a unit may still be prohibited from moving
into a hex due to other movement restrictions.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
23
Example: The Japanese 2-1-1 HQ unit above moves from 24723
across the river hexside (+1 MP) into w4624 (1 MP). This is allowed
even though the total 2 MP cost is above the HQ’s MA of 1.
If a Soviet ground unit starts a Movement Phase in the Eastern Europe
Box, it may exit the Box to any Land hex in Russia along the western
edge of the map (from w5311 to w6011, inclusive).
Enemy Air Unit: Units can move out of a hex containing an enemy
Air unit. This does not cost any additional MP.
To do so, place the unit in any hex indicated above that does not
contain an enemy Air unit (and in the Reserve Movement Phase, is not
in an Enemy Zone of Control). This placement costs 1 MP. The unit is
supplied, has its entire remaining MA, and can move immediately
after placement using the Hex-to-Hex movement rules.
Road or Rail: A unit that moves across a hexside along a Road or
Rail (see Terrain Key) ignores any MP costs for the hex being entered
and for any terrain along a hexside crossed by that Road or Rail.
Instead, the unit pays a Road/Rail hexside MP cost based on whether
it is a one-step or multi-step unit (see Terrain Key), and whether it is
the Operational Movement Phase or Reserve Movement Phase.
Crossing a Connected Strait uses Road/Rail MP costs.
Beachhead: If a ground unit starts a Movement Phase in any Land
hex adjacent to an All-Sea hex containing a friendly Beachhead
marker and it has not already moved in that Movement Phase, it can
move into that hex. This move expends the unit’s entire MA.
Clarification: Units can cross All-Sea hexsides to enter a Beachhead
hex. Friendly Beachheads act like “bridges” across All-Sea hexes.
If a ground unit starts a Movement Phase in a hex containing a
friendly Beachhead marker and it has not already moved in that
Movement Phase, it can move across the marker’s Beachhead Hexside
only into an adjacent Land hex. This move expends the unit’s entire
MA. A ground unit cannot move off a Beachhead marker through
non-Beachhead Hexsides.
Clarification: Units cannot cross All-Sea hexsides to exit a
Beachhead hex – they must exit through the Beachhead Hexside.
While there are many ways into the Beachhead hex, there is only one
way out.
3.1.2 Port-to-Port Procedure
If a ground unit starts a Movement Phase in a hex with a Port or
Beachhead marker, or in an Off-Map Box, and there is a friendly
Troop Convoy marker with sufficient Transport Capacity (see below)
in that Naval Zone’s Convoys Box, the unit can move across the
Naval Zone to any other friendly Open Port in the Naval Zone.
To do so, pick the unit up and place it directly in the friendly Open
Port.
Clarification: Although the port of embarkation does not have to be
an Open Port, the port of debarkation does.
Example: British one-step infantry units are in Majuro (e3515) and
Guadalcanal (e2611). A British Troop Convoy marker is in the
Micronesia Naval Zone Box, which also contains a Japanese Air
Force unit. There are Japanese Detachments in Kwajalein (e3513)
and Truk (e3408), which makes them both Japanese Naval Bases. The
British unit can move from Majuro and be placed in Guadalcanal as
it is a Western Open Port in the Micronesia Naval Zone and is not
within three hexes of a Japanese Naval Base. However, the reverse is
not true – the British unit in Guadalcanal could not move to Majuro,
because it is within three hexes of Kwajalein.
If the unit was moved to a Port in an Off-Map Box, the unit must stop
moving.
If the unit was moved to a Multi-Zone Open Port in a hex, the unit can
move again (in the same Movement Phase) across another Naval Zone
to a friendly Open Port in an adjacent Naval Zone. A unit can
continue such movement provided it adheres to all other movement
restrictions (such as requiring a friendly Troop Convoy marker in the
Naval Zone, or stopping after moving into an Off-Map Box).
Example: Continuing the example above, if there were a British
Troop Convoy marker in the Coral Sea Convoys Box, the unit moving
from Majuro could continue through the Multi-Zone Open Port of
Guadalcanal all the way to Townsville (e2106).
Example: An Axis Beachhead is in hex w4119 in the South China Sea
Naval Zone, facing Hanoi (w4219). The Japanese 3-3-1 15th Army
starts the Operational Movement Phase in Haikou (w4120). The unit
can move onto the Beachhead marker, but must stop moving. In a
subsequent Movement Phase (such as the upcoming Reserve
Movement Phase) it can move off that Beachhead to Hanoi. That ends
its movement for the Phase. It could not move off the Beachhead
marker back to Haikou.
Units may also exit Beachheads using Port-to-Port movement (3.1.2).
Marine Units: If a Marine unit starts a Movement Phase in a hex
adjacent to an All-Sea hexside and it has not already moved in that
Movement Phase, it can move across that All-Sea hexside into an
adjacent Land hex. This move expends the unit’s entire MA.
Eastern Europe Box: If a Soviet ground unit starts a Movement
Phase in any Land hex in Russia along the western edge of the map
(from w5311 to w6011, inclusive) and it has not already moved in that
Movement Phase, it may enter the Eastern Europe Box.
To do so, pick the unit up and place it in the Eastern Europe Box. This
placement expends the unit’s entire MA.
A unit that moves Port to Port across a Naval Zone expends its full
MA, no matter how many Naval Zones it actually crosses in a single
Movement Phase.
Transport Capacity: Each Escort, Scratch, or Standard Troop
Convoy marker in a Convoys Box can transport one one-step unit
across its Naval Zone in a Movement Phase. After the Troop Convoy
marker is used for transport, move it to that Naval Zone’s Used Box.
A US Fleet Train Troop Convoy marker in a Convoys Box can
transport one unit of any size across its Naval Zone in a Movement
Phase. After the Fleet Train marker is used for transport, move it to
that Naval Zone’s Used Box.
Convoy markers cannot combine their capacity. Each marker is used
separately.
Clarification: So you can’t use two Troop Convoys to transport a
two-step unit. Only the Fleet Train can transport a multi-step unit!
That’s what makes it so special.
Convoy Nationality: As specified below, the nationality of a Troop
Convoy marker limits who can use it to move Port-to-Port across a
Naval Zone. Exception: Any Troop Convoy can transport any friendly
Exp unit.
 Axis Scratch Convoy: any Axis unit
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




Clarification: Note that Exp units are always one-step units. Exp
units lose their Exp ability when combined into a multi-step unit.
British or US Convoy: any Western unit
Japanese Convoy: a Japanese unit only
Russian Convoy: a Russian unit only
Soviet Scratch Convoy: any Soviet unit
US Fleet Train Convoy: a US unit only
Axis multi-national units (13.8.3) are considered to be both
Japanese and the nationality represented by the step in the unit’s
Holding Box. That means, for example, if the Axis AEx HQ were
composed of a Hopeh and Japanese step, it could enter Hopeh,
but not Japan or an Axis Mongolia.
3.1.3 Off-Map Box to Off-Map Box
Procedure
 An Axis Kwantung ground unit cannot move into a hex
outside a Japanese Dependent unless Russia, Communist China,
and Nationalist China are all not Policy Affected Countries
(13.6.1). An Axis Kwantung ground unit can never move using
the Port-to-Port Procedure.
An Allied ground unit can enter or exit an Off-Map Box directly from
or to an adjacent Off-Map Box, as specified on the map. Unlike Portto-Port movement, the unit must stop moving.
To do so, pick the unit up and place it in the other Off-Map Box. This
move expends the unit’s entire MA.
Clarification: Unless Japan is fighting both Russia and China,
this rule effectively limits Kwantung units to Manchukuo and
Korea, along with Inner Mongolia or Soviet Far East Regions
should those areas become Japanese Dependents.
There is no limit to the number of units that can move from Off-Map
Box to Off-Map Box.
Units can enter an Off-Map Box in the same Movement Phase that
other units exit, and vice versa.
Clarification: Moving Port-to-Port and Off-Map Box to Off-Map Box
are separate from each other, so both can occur involving the same
Off-Map Box in the same Movement Phase.
3.1.4 Movement Restrictions
Procedural Restrictions:
 A ground unit cannot use different movement procedures in the
same Movement Phase.
Other Restrictions:
 A ground unit belonging to a Minor Country with a Free Passage
(14.16), Mobilizing (14.32), or No Occupation (14.34) marker in
its Capital cannot move into a hex outside that Minor Country or
one of its Dependents.
 An Axis or Western ground unit cannot move into a hex in
Russia along the western edge of the map, from w5311 to w6011
inclusive.
Design Note: This is to prevent the Axis faction from sealing off
the map in order to prevent the Soviet faction from entering units
from his Off-Map Box.
Clarification: So it is only one of Hex-to-Hex, Port-to-Port, or
Off-Map Box to Off-Map Box.
 A Soviet ground unit cannot move into a hex in an Axis Country
or Dependent that was activated in the just completed Western
War & Peace Segment (6.1).
Unit and Hex Restrictions:
 A ground unit cannot move into a hex containing an enemy unit.
Exception: A multi-step armor-type unit conducting an Overrun
(3.2) can move into a Land hex containing the one-step enemy
ground unit it is overrunning.
 A ground unit cannot move into a hex containing an enemy
Beachhead marker.
Weather Restrictions:
 A ground unit cannot move out of a hex affected by Mud (11.3)
that contains an EZOC.
Design Note: This is to prevent the Allied factions from taking
advantage of the order of the Turn Sequence.
 ©An Allied ground unit cannot move into an Off-Map Box on
the TK map.
© Design Note: The TK and DS maps are “closed” in the sense
that it’s not possible to move units directly from one map to the
other. The Allies do have the ability to transfer support units
between the Force Pools of the two maps using European
Commitment Political Events (15.14.2), and through card play
they can influence the number of replacement steps received on
each map. But once a ground unit is on a map, it’s committed to
that theater.
Clarification: There are no exceptions here – friendly units do
not negate EZOC in mud.
 A ground unit must stop moving after it moves into or out of a
hex affected by Storms (11.4) or Snow (11.5) that contains an
EZOC.
Clarification: Again, friendly units do not negate EZOC here.
However, a multi-step armor unit can ignore the EZOC of a unit
is overrunning (3.2) in Storms or Snow.
Political Restrictions:
 Movement can be limited by Policies (13.6.1), Truces (13.6.2),
and Failures rules (14.15).
 A ground unit cannot move into a hex outside its Home Country
or Dependent during Pre-War (12.1).
 A ground unit cannot move into a hex in a Neutral Minor
Country (13.4).
 If the Axis Quit India marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box,
Western ground units in India or Ceylon cannot move into hexes
outside of India or Ceylon.
 A non-Japanese Axis ground unit cannot move into a hex in an
Axis Country or Dependent unless it is that unit’s Home Country
or Dependent. Exception: Axis Exp units, regardless of
nationality, can move into any Axis Country.
3.2 Overruns
If using the Hex-to-Hex procedure and not otherwise prohibited, a
multi-step armor-type unit can move into a Land hex containing a
single, one-step enemy ground unit.
Clarification: So if the hex has more than one enemy one-step ground
unit or a multi-step unit in it, forget it. Markers have no effect on
overruns.
The moving unit only pays the normal MP costs to move into the hex.
An overrun does not cost any additional MP.
The moving unit can ignore the EZOC of the unit it will overrun,
provided the moving unit immediately moves into the hex with the
enemy unit after entering that EZOC hex.
The moving unit cannot ignore the EZOC of other units, unless
another friendly unit is in that hex.
Immediately after moving into the hex, the enemy unit is eliminated.
Place it in the Delay Box if it has a Delay Stripe. Otherwise, place it in
its Force Pool.
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The same multi-step unit can make more than one overrun in the same
Movement Phase.
An overrun is allowed in hexes affected by Storms and Snow.
Overrun Restrictions: Overruns cannot be conducted:
 in the Reserve Movement Phase (5).
 when conducting Exploitation.
 if the enemy one-step unit could receive a defender’s CRT
Column Shift (as if a combat were fought there) due to Terrain,
Mud, Fortress, Air, or HQ. The same HQ can prevent more than
one overrun for the same or different defenders in the same
Movement Phase.
4.1 Blitz Combat Segment
The phasing faction performs actions in the Blitz Combat Segment are
in the following order:
Step 1: Airdrop (4.1.1)
Step 2: Blitz Combat (4.1.2)
Step 3: Beachhead Landing (4.1.3)
Step 4: Airdrop Landing (4.1.4)
Step 5: CV Strike Returns (4.1.5)
Clarification: You perform all activities in a step before moving on to
the next. For example, you can’t perform an Airdrop Landing and
then conduct Blitz Combat with the unit. If the phasing faction does
not have a Blitz or Totsugeki marker on the map, the only step it
would need to perform is the CV Strike Returns step.
4.1.1 Airdrop
A faction may use a supplied, Blitz-enabled airborne ground unit in a
Land hex to conduct an Airdrop. To do so, flip the unit over to its
Airdrop marker side and place it within two hexes of its current
location. The placement hex does not have to be in a Blitz-enabled
location.
Design Note: Airdrop markers provide a combat shift, negate EZOC,
block Retreat paths and supply lines.
Airdrops are conducted one at a time, and may continue as long as
there are phasing supplied, Blitz-enabled airborne units.
Example: The Russian Plv cav-mech army in w5525 cannot overrun
the 2-1-1 Kwantung infantry unit in Hailar (w5625) because it is a
rough terrain hex, which would provide the defender a CRT column
combat shift.
The Plv cav-mech army also cannot overrun the 4th Kwantung Army
in w5525 because it is a multi-step unit.
The Japanese 1-1-1 infantry unit w5426 is a viable target because it is
a one-step unit without a CRT column combat shift, but the Plv cavmech army can’t move into w5425 and then overrun because there is
more than one EZOC in the w5425 hex. (It can ignore the EZOC from
the 1-1-1 infantry unit, but not the EZOC from the 4th Kwantung
Army.)
So the Soviet player does the following: First, he moves a 3-3-1
infantry unit from w5525 to w5425. It must now stop because of the
EZOC from the Japanese units. This infantry unit now negates all
EZOC in the w5425 hex.
Then the Plv cav-mech army moves from w5525 into w5425 and
w5426, overrunning the Japanese infantry unit. The Japanese line has
been outflanked!
How could the Japanese have prevented this disaster? If there had
been a Japanese HQ unit in Harbin (w5427), then no overrun against
any of the Japanese units could have occurred because the supplied
Japanese HQ could have provided any of the defenders a CRT column
combat shift.
4. Combat Phase
Combat between phasing units and adjacent enemy units are resolved
in this Phase.
An Airdrop marker can be placed in a hex containing enemy ground
units or markers.
An Airdrop marker can be placed in a hex containing friendly units
and markers, including other Airdrop markers.
An Airdrop marker can be placed in hexes affected by Mud, Storms,
or Snow.
Airdrop Path: The range is traced from the origin hex to the
placement hex. Do not count the origin hex, but do count the
placement hex. Airdrop markers can be placed in their origin hexes
(although it makes little sense to do so).
Airdrop Restrictions:
 An Airdrop marker cannot be placed in an All-Sea hex (even one
with a Beachhead marker).
 An Airdrop marker cannot be placed in or adjacent to a hex
containing an enemy Air unit.
 An Airdrop marker cannot be placed during Pre-War (12.1).
 An Airdrop marker cannot be placed in a hex in a Neutral Minor
Country (13.4) or Policy Affected Country (13.6), nor can an
Airdrop Path be traced across a hex in such country.
 Airdrop marker placement can be limited by Policies (13.6.1),
Truces (13.6.2), and Failures rules (14.15).
Clarification: Airdrop marker placement cannot be “contested” by
enemy Support units.
4.1.2 Blitz Combat
Blitz Combat proceeds as a Regular Combat Segment (4.2) with the
following modifications:
 Units or markers belonging to the attacker must be Blitz-enabled
to attack or provide CRT column shifts (4.2.3). Units or markers
belonging to the defender to not have to be Blitz-enabled.
Clarification: Remember that the Western and Soviet factions are
considered enemy factions to each other. So unless otherwise
restricted, combat can occur between them.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
Clarification: An HQ unit belonging to the defender can lend
HQ Ranged Support even if it is not Blitz-enabled.
 The attacker can receive an Airdrop (4.2.3.2) and/or Armor
(4.2.3.3) CRT Shift.
26
 Units in hexes affected by Mud, Storms, or Snow cannot be
attacked in the Blitz Combat Segment. Exception: Russian units
that are Blitz-enabled can attack units in hexes affected by Snow.
4.1.3 Beachhead Landing
If a supplied, Blitz-enabled ground unit is in a hex containing a
Beachhead marker, and it did not attack in the current Blitz Combat
Segment, it may conduct a Beachhead Landing.
To do so, take the unit and place it in the Land hex adjacent to the
marker’s Beachhead Hexside. This is not movement, so ignore the
unit’s MA and any MP costs.
Clarification: It is also not Advance After Combat, so HQ units may
conduct Beachhead Landings.
Units conducting a Beachhead Landing are placed one unit at a time.
There is no limit to the number of units that can conduct a Beachhead
Landing.
A Beachhead Landing can be conducted during Mud, Storms, or
Snow turns.
Beachhead Landing Restrictions:
 An unsupplied unit cannot conduct a Beachhead Landing.
 A unit cannot conduct a Beachhead Landing into a hex
containing an enemy unit.
 A unit cannot conduct a Beachhead Landing into a hex in a
Neutral Minor Country (13.4).
 Beachhead Landings can be limited by Policies (13.6.1), Truces
(13.6.2), and Failures (14.15).
4.1.3.1 Special SNLF Landing
If the Axis faction has a supplied SNLF Beachhead-0 marker on the
map, it may conduct a Special SNLF Landing with that marker by
taking a Japanese Detachment marker from the Axis Force Pool and
placing it in the Land hex adjacent to the SNLF Beachhead-0 marker’s
Beachhead Hexside.
Special SNLF Landing Restrictions:
 An unsupplied SNLF Beachhead-0 cannot conduct a Special
SNLF Landing.
 An SNLF Beachhead-0 cannot conduct a Special SNLF Landing
into a hex containing an enemy unit. A Special SNLF Landing
can be conducted into a hex containing an enemy Detachment or
Logistics marker; place the enemy marker in the Delay Box.
Clarification: Note that no ground unit is required to conduct a
Special SNLF Landing – that’s because many of the initial Japanese
landings in December 1941 were regiment-sized or smaller. Also keep
in mind that SNLF Beachhead-0 markers are inherently Blitz-enabled.
4.1.4 Airdrop Landing
4.1.5 CV Strike Returns
All CV Strike units in hexes are placed in that Naval Zone’s Used
Box.
4.2 Regular Combat Segment
For these rules, the phasing faction is the attacker, and the nonphasing faction the defender.
A faction need not have a Blitz or Totsugeki marker on the map to
attack in its Regular Combat Segment.
4.2.1 Attacks
The phasing faction may declare an attack with his ground units
against one adjacent hex containing enemy ground units, Detachment
markers, or Logistics markers. A complete Attack Sequence (4.2.2) for
that attack must be resolved before another attack can be declared. In a
Combat Segment, a faction may declare as many attacks as it wishes
and is eligible to perform, but the attacks are resolved one at a time.
A hex can be attacked only once per Combat Segment, and all units in
that hex must be involved in the combat. The defender cannot
withhold units from that combat, nor can the attacker separately attack
individual units within the hex.
If defending units Retreat from one attack and end up in a hex that is
the target of another attack in the same Combat Segment, they are
included in the defense of that hex.
A phasing ground unit can attack only once per Combat Segment.
Phasing ground units do not have to be supplied to attack in a Combat
Segment.
Phasing units in the same hex can attack different hexes. In addition,
some units in the same hex can attack while others in that hex are
withheld from attacking.
Ground units in hexes with enemy or friendly Air units or Airdrop
markers can attack and can be attacked.
4.2.1.1 Attack Restrictions
Attack Factor Restrictions:
 A phasing unit with an Attack Factor of 0 cannot attack.
 If the attacker cannot muster at least a raw 1-3 odds ratio (see
Step 3 of 4.2.2 but exclude any defending HQ providing Ranged
Support and all Combat Shifts for this calculation), the attack
cannot be made.
Minor Country Restrictions:
 Units from different Minor Countries cannot attack the same hex.
Exception: Exp units can attack with any other units of the same
faction.
Clarification: Not all of the Minor Country units have to be Exp
units. For example, the Axis faction could have a Japanese unit,
a regular Siamese unit, and a Hopeh Exp unit participate in an
attack. The Axis faction could not then add a regular Hopeh unit
to that attack however.
If an Airdrop marker is unsupplied or stacked with an enemy unit,
place the Airdrop marker in the Delay Box.
If an Airdrop marker is supplied and not stacked with an enemy unit,
it may conduct an Airdrop Landing.
Clarification: If you can’t or don’t want to conduct an Airdrop
Landing, simply place the Airdrop marker in the Delay Box.
Put another way, an attack may include any of that faction’s
Major Country units, any of one Minor Country’s units, and
finally any Exp units from other Minor Countries.
To conduct an Airdrop Landing, take a one-step infantry unit of the
same nationality from its Force Pool, place it in the hex containing the
Airdrop marker, and place the Airdrop marker in the Delay Box.
 A unit belonging to a Minor Country with a Free Passage
(14.16), Mobilizing (14.32), or No Occupation (14.34) marker in
its Capital cannot attack a hex outside that Minor Country or one
of its Dependents.
The Western Airdrop marker can be replaced with either a British or
US one-step infantry unit.
Elite (2.3.4.3) infantry units cannot be placed in a hex in an Airdrop
Landing.
Terrain Restriction:
 Units cannot attack across All-Sea hexsides. Exceptions:
Supplied marine units can attack across All-Sea hexsides
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(4.2.1.3). Any unit can attack across an All-Sea hexside that is
also a Beachhead Hexside.
Other Restrictions:
 A unit cannot attack if Pre-War (12.1) is in effect.
 Combat can be limited by Policies (13.6.1), Truces (13.6.2), and
Failures (14.15).
Clarification: Axis Kwantung units can attack a hex outside a
Japanese Dependent.
4.2.1.2 HQ Ranged Support
A supplied HQ unit has the ability to participate in combat even if it is
not adjacent to the defending hex (when attacking) or in the defending
hex (when defending). It does this by providing Ranged Support.
Design Note: Ranged Support represents the commitment of reserves,
heavy equipment and local air assets to a battle.
An HQ unit can provide Ranged Support to any combat that
includes a ground unit of the same nationality as the HQ unit.
Exceptions: A Soviet Communist Chinese HQ can provide Ranged
Support to any Communist Chinese ground unit. A Western
Nationalist Chinese HQ can provide Ranged Support to any
Nationalist Chinese ground unit.
Clarification: An HQ unit cannot provide Ranged Support to a
friendly Detachment or Logistics marker alone in a hex. An HQ unit
also cannot, by itself, use Ranged Support to attack a non-adjacent
hex.
An HQ unit providing Ranged Support includes its Attack Factor
(when attacking) or Defense Factor (when defending) to a combat
within two hexes of its current location. Ranged Support also applies a
CRT column shift to that attack or defense.
HQ Ranged Support Path: When providing Ranged Support a path
is traced from the HQ unit’s hex to the defending hex. Do not count
the HQ unit’s hex, but do count the defending hex.
The path cannot be traced into a hex inside a Neutral Country or
Policy Affected Country, or any Dependent belonging to a Neutral
Country or Policy Affected Country.
to enter the hex (4.2.7). No Exploitation is possible (4.2.8). Place the
Detachment or Logistics marker in the Delay Box.
If the attack is declared against a hex that contains an enemy ground
unit, complete these steps in order:
Step 1: The attacker chooses a hex containing an enemy ground unit
and declares which adjacent phasing ground units will attack it. If the
attacking units do not already include an HQ unit, the attacker may
declare one supplied HQ unit to provide Ranged Support.
Step 2: If the defending hex does not have an HQ unit in it, the
defender may now declare one supplied HQ unit to provide Ranged
Support.
Step 3: Add up the Attack Factors of all attacking units (including an
HQ unit providing Ranged Support). This is the Attacker Total. Add
up the Defense Factors of all defending units (including an HQ unit
providing Ranged Support). This is the Defender Total. Divide the
Defender Total into the Attacker Total and express the result as one of
the ratios found along the top of the Combat Results Table (CRT).
Round any fractional results in favor of the defender. Odds greater
than 9-1 or less than 1-3 are treated as 9-1 or 1-3 respectively.
Example: If the Defender Total was 4 and the Attacker Total was 11,
the odds ratio is 2-1 after rounding off in the defender’s favor. If the
attacker had one more Attack Factor, he would have 3-1 odds.
Step 4: Determine the CRT column shifts (4.2.3) applicable to the
attacker and defender. All shifts are cumulative – add all attacker
shifts and then subtract all defender shifts. Apply the net column shift
to the column determined in Step 3. The result is the CRT column the
combat will be resolved on in Step 5. Shifts above 9-1 or below 1-3
are resolved on the 9-1 or 1-3 columns, respectively.
Design Note: Never underestimate the importance of CRT column
shifts. A 3-1 attack that receives three column shifts to the right would
be resolved on the 9-1 column. Woo-hoo!
Step 5: The attacker rolls one die and cross-indexes the result with the
CRT column determined in Step 4. Note the Combat Result (4.2.4),
modifying it for Mud, Storms, or Snow when applicable.
Step 6: Resolve any Retreats (4.2.5).
Clarification: It can be traced through a hex containing an enemy
unit or across an All-Sea hex.
Step 7: Apply any Attrition (4.2.6) results, first to the attacking force,
then to the defending force.
HQ Ranged Support Restrictions:
 An HQ unit that has participated in combat cannot provide
Ranged Support to another combat later in the same Combat
Segment.
Step 8: If the defending hex has been vacated, surviving attacking
units may now Advance After Combat (4.2.7) or conduct Exploitation
(4.2.8).
Clarification: This means you can “soak off” a defending HQ by
attacking its hex, thereby preventing it from providing Ranged
Support to another hex.
 One HQ unit per faction can participate in an individual combat.
Clarification: So a defending HQ unit cannot provide Ranged
Support to a defending hex that already includes an HQ unit.
 An HQ unit stacked on a Beachhead marker cannot provide
Ranged Support except across that marker’s Beachhead Hexside.
Design Note: An HQ unit on a Beachhead is considered to be
deeply engaged in defending and expanding its perimeter, so it
can’t throw Ranged Support elsewhere.
4.2.1.3 Marine Assault
A supplied marine unit may attack across any All-Sea hexside, even
without being stacked on a Beachhead marker.
4.2.2 Attack Sequence
If the attack is declared against a hex that contains an enemy
Detachment or Logistics marker and no enemy ground units, the attack
automatically succeeds. The attacker may use Advance After Combat
Clarification: Defending units cannot advance into a hex vacated by
the attacker.
4.2.3 CRT Column Shifts
4.2.3.1 Air Unit (Air Force or CV Strike)
The attacker receives a one-column shift to the right for each phasing
Air unit (of the same nationality as at least one of the attacking units)
in or adjacent to the defending hex.
The defender receives a one-column shift to the left for each nonphasing Air unit (of the same nationality as at least one of the
defending units) in or adjacent to the defending hex.
An Air unit can provide a shift to any number of combats in the same
Combat Segment.
Exceptions:
 An Air unit cannot provide a shift if the defending hex is affected
by Mud.
 An Air unit cannot provide a shift if the defending hex is affected
by Storms or Snow, and the Air unit is adjacent to that hex. An
Air unit does provide a shift if it is in the defending hex itself.
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Clarification: An appropriate multi-national HQ (such as the Western
CBI) providing ranged support may be sufficient to claim that a unit
“of the same nationality” is one of the attacking or defending units,
and thus eligible for an Air unit shift.
Design Note: When placing Air units, remember they cannot be
placed in the same hex or in hexes adjacent to one another. This often
presents the attacker with a dilemma. To receive multiple Air Unit
shifts against a single hex, multiple Air units need to be placed
adjacent to the defender’s hex (up to three can be placed around it).
However, if an Air unit is placed in the defending hex itself, the enemy
will not be able to place replacements, combine units, or move new
ground units into that hex. In effect, an Air unit has interdicted that
hex. The downside is that placing an Air unit directly on the defending
hex means the attacker can only receive one Air unit CRT shift.
4.2.3.2 Airdrop
During the Blitz Combat Segment only, the attacker receives a onecolumn shift to the right for each Airdrop marker in the defending hex,
regardless of nationality.
4.2.3.3 Armor
During the Blitz Combat Segment only, the attacker receives a onecolumn shift to the right if at least one of the attacking units is a
supplied, Blitz-enabled armor-type unit.
Clarification: That’s one shift total, not one per armor unit. And only
during Blitz Combat, not Regular Combat.
4.2.3.4 Fortress
The defender receives a one-column shift to the left if the defending
hex contains a fortress unit. It does not have to be supplied.
4.2.3.5 HQ
The attacker receives a one-column shift to the right if one of the
attacking units is a supplied HQ unit (including one providing Ranged
Support).
The defender receives a one-column shift to the left if one of the
defending units is a supplied HQ unit (including one providing
Ranged Support).
Clarification: Note that a defending HQ unit does contribute its
defense factor (and HQ Shift) to any attack against its hex, even if it
provided Ranged Support to another attack earlier in the same
Combat Segment.
This shift is in addition to the combat factors contributed to the
combat.
4.2.3.6 Marines
If a supplied, Blitz-enabled marine unit attacks across a Beachhead,
Strait or All-Sea hexside, the attacker receives a one-column shift to
the right.
lowest hexside shift out of all the different hexside terrain types being
attacked across.
Example: A defender in a clear hex being attacked from across a
river hexside in one direction, and a mountain hexside in another,
receives only one shift to the left.
If the defender was in a City instead of a clear hex, it would receive
two shifts to the left – one for the City and one for the river.
4.2.4 Combat Results
There are two types of results on the Combat Results Table, a Retreat
result and an Attrition result.
Retreat results are always applied before Attrition results.
Clarification: Retreat results are italicized on the CRT, to remind you
to perform them first.
Important: Only units involved in a specific combat are affected by
its results.
Clarification: So if a unit in a hex was left out of an attack, it just sits
there. It does not suffer an attacker step loss, Retreat, Advance After
Combat, or anything else.
4.2.4.1 Retreat Results
Apply these before Attrition Results. See 4.2.5 on how to satisfy a
Retreat result.
Ad – Attacker Defeated. All attacking ground units must Retreat one
hex, or one of the attacking units must take a step loss (4.2.6.1). If
Retreat is possible, the attacker chooses which to do.
Clarification: Yes, only one of the attacking units takes the loss.
Ex – Exchange. All attacking ground units must Retreat one hex, or
one of the attacking ground units must take a step loss (4.2.6.1). If
Retreat is possible, the attacker chooses which to do.
If the attacker Retreats, the defender does nothing.
If the attacker takes the step loss, then all ground units in the
defending hex must Retreat one hex, or one of the defending ground
units must take a step loss. If Retreat is possible, the defender chooses
which to do.
Dr1, Dr2, Dr3 – Defender Retreat. All ground units in the defending
hex must Retreat the indicated number of hexes. If Retreat is not (or is
no longer) possible, the remaining unsatisfied Retreat result is
converted into step losses on a one-for-one basis until either the full
Retreat result is satisfied or Retreat becomes possible again (4.2.5.3).
Weather Effects on Combat: Reduce the Dr result against a
defending hex affected by Mud, Storms, or Snow as follows:
 Dr3 becomes Dr2
 Dr2 becomes Dr1
 Dr1 becomes Ex
Clarification: The defender still receives his column shift for the
terrain. So, if a marine unit attacked across an All-Sea hexside, the
net shift would be one to the left.
Ex, Ad, and Attrition results are not affected by Mud, Storms, or
Snow.
4.2.3.7 Mud
Apply these after Retreat Results. See 4.2.6 on how to satisfy an
Attrition result.
The defender receives a one-column shift to the left if the defending
hex is affected by Mud (11.3).
Clarification: Storms and Snow do not provide a column shift.
4.2.3.8 Terrain
The defender may receive one or more column shifts to the left based
on the terrain in the defending hex and along the hexside(s) separating
the adjacent attacking units from that hex. See the Terrain Effects
Chart on the map to determine the shifts.
Important: A hexside shift is in addition to those for hex terrain.
However, only one hexside shift is applicable, and it must be the
4.2.4.2 Attrition Result
# / # – The number to the left of the slash is the number of step losses
taken by the attacker and is applied first. The number to the right of
the slash is the number of step losses taken by the defender.
4.2.5 Retreat
The owning faction takes the Retreating unit or stack and places it in
any adjacent Land hex or All-Sea hex containing a friendly Beachhead
marker, as limited by Retreat Requirements below.
If necessary, the owning faction then does this again (from the current
hex) until the Retreat result is fully satisfied.
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Retreat is not considered movement, so ignore a unit’s MA, MP costs,
or movement restrictions. Retreat has its own restrictions below
(4.2.5.2).
A force Retreats one hex at a time. Retreat Priorities and Retreat
Restrictions are checked each time before the force Retreats from its
current hex.
Clarification: So you don’t look at every possible Retreat path all at
once. Just do it one hex at a time.
Defending stacked units must Retreat together into the same hex.
Attacking stacked units that participated in the combat must also
Retreat together into the same hex. Attacking units located in different
hexes do not have to Retreat into the same hex, but the individual
stacks must remain together.
Clarification: Non-attacking units in a stack that suffers an Ad result
do not Retreat.
Important: If a force Retreats into a hex containing other ground
units, all ground units in that hex are now part of the Retreating stack
and must be included in any remaining Retreats and Attrition results
that have yet to be fulfilled.
Example: The Japanese 15th Army in w4520 attacks the Nationalist
Chinese HQ unit in Chungking (w4620) and gets an Ad result. It
cannot retreat into the hexes labeled “No.” Although there is no
EZOC in those hexes (because of the mountain hexsides), those hexes
are not further away from Chungking than w4520 is.
Clarification: In other words, it’s a rout! Note that just ground units
are caught up in the rout, not friendly support units or markers like
Detachments.
In addition, units joining a Retreat stack in this fashion are considered
to have been involved in that original combat.
Example: A unit Retreats into a hex containing an HQ unit. That HQ
is now part of the Retreating force and is considered to have
participated in the combat. That means the HQ cannot provide
Ranged Support to another combat later in the same Combat
Segment. Doh!
Units can Retreat out of a hex containing an enemy Air unit or
Airdrop marker.
Mud, Storms, or Snow do not affect the Retreat procedure.
Clarification: Bad weather may have affected the Retreat Result, but
it won’t affect how to apply it.
4.2.5.1 Retreat Priorities
The owning faction must Retreat its units into a hex that meets the
following priorities, which are checked in order:
Priority 1: The hex to be Retreated into must be farther away from the
defending hex than any previous hex Retreated into, and it cannot
contain an EZOC.
Priority 2: If no hex exists that meets Priority 1, then the Retreat must
enter a hex that is farther away from the defending hex than any
previous hex Retreated into, and it must contain a friendly ground,
Airdrop, or Air unit.
Example: The British unit in Akyab (w4114) must fulfill a Dr3 result.
If it Retreated first to w4214 and then to Dacca (w4313), it cannot
then Retreat to Calcutta (w4213) or w4314. Despite the All-Sea
hexside, Calcutta is only two hexes away from Akyab, the same
distance as Dacca. The unit would instead have to retreat to w4312,
w4413, or w4414.
If no hex exists that meets Priority 1 or 2, the force cannot Retreat.
4.2.5.2 Retreat Restrictions
If within a specific Priority there is more than one hex available to
Retreat into, the owning faction chooses the hex.
A force cannot Retreat if it includes a unit with a Movement
Allowance of 0, and that unit participated in the combat.
Clarification: You may not “double back” or retreat into a hex that is
not further away from the defending hex, even if an EZOC does not
extend into the hex. Terrain features, such as All-Sea or Mountain
hexsides, and enemy units do not affect the requirement that each hex
of the Retreat be “farther away.”
A force cannot Retreat if it includes an HQ unit (including one
providing Ranged Support) that participated in the combat.
A unit cannot Retreat into an Off-Map Box.
A unit cannot Retreat into a hex containing an enemy unit, Airdrop
marker, or Beachhead marker.
Clarification: It can Retreat into a hex with an enemy Detachment or
Logistics marker, or a friendly Airdrop or Beachhead marker.
A unit cannot Retreat across an All-Sea hexside unless it is a Strait or
Beachhead Hexside (i.e., the hexside that the Beachhead marker’s
arrow points to).
Example: A unit in Taihoku (w4324) can Retreat into Foochow
(w4424) but not into Amoy (w4323).
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A unit cannot Retreat into a hex belonging to a Neutral Minor Country
(13.4) or Policy Affected Country (13.6).
4.2.5.3 Retreat Conversion
Mandatory Retreat Conversion: If a Retreating force cannot (or can
no longer) Retreat without violating both Retreat Priorities or any of
the Retreat Restrictions listed above, that force stops Retreating. The
owning faction must now convert the remaining unsatisfied Retreat
result into step losses on a one-for-one basis until either the full
Retreat result is satisfied or Retreat becomes possible again.
Example: A force suffers a Dr3 result. It Retreats two hexes into a hex
with an HQ unit, which now becomes part of the Retreating force.
Since a force with an HQ cannot Retreat, it must convert the last
unsatisfied Retreat result into a step loss.
be just as likely to declare it an “open city” and abandon it to protect
the historic landmarks and civilians within. A historical example of
this is Manila in 1942.
4.2.6 Attrition
A faction satisfies Attrition results by eliminating steps from any of its
ground units involved in that combat (including an HQ unit providing
Ranged Support).
To do so, the faction declares which unit will suffer a step loss and
reduces its step value by one. The faction continues to eliminate steps
in this fashion until the Attrition result is fully satisfied or all of its
units that took part in that combat are eliminated.
Unless stated otherwise, the owning faction chooses which unit or
units will lose the steps.
Design Note: You can do a lot of damage by forcing enemy units to
Retreat back onto their HQ units, or by herding enemy units into an
overstacked situation. Retreating units may violate Stacking Limits
during and at the end of their Retreat, but such stacks will have to
conform to them when that Combat Segment is over.
Clarification: So the step losses from an Attrition result can be spread
among different units. But be sure to pay particular attention to the
“Attacker Losses” rule below.
A force must continue Retreating again if whatever condition
temporarily prevented its Retreat no longer applies, until the Retreat
result is fully satisfied.
If an attacking force suffers losses in a combat (either through
Attrition or an Ad or Ex result), it may be required to eliminate certain
steps as its first loss in a combat:
 If an attacking force includes a marine unit attacking across an
All-Sea, Beachhead, or Strait Hexside, the first step loss that
force suffers must be a marine step.
4.2.6.1 Attacker Losses
 If an attacking force includes an armor-type unit, the first step
loss that force suffers must be an armor-type step from an armortype unit.
If both conditions apply, the attacker must choose between a marine or
armor-type step to fulfill its “first step loss.” After fulfilling any
required first step loss, the owning faction may assign its remaining
combat step losses as it wishes.
Clarification: If you have marine and armor units in an attack, the
first loss must come from either unit, but after that you can assign the
losses as you wish. You do not have to eliminate the other unit as your
next loss.
Example: The Western defending force includes the Kiangsu 9th War
Zone and KMT HQ unit providing Ranged Support. It suffers a Dr3
result. The Western faction must take a step loss. It chooses the HQ,
breaking it down and replacing it with a one-step infantry unit. Since
the Retreating force no longer has an HQ unit, the 9th War Zone must
Retreat and fulfill the other two results. It could retreat into w4723 or
into w4623.
Example: An attacking US force on a Beachhead consisting of a 7-62 three-step mech unit and a 4-4-1 two-step infantry army suffers an
Ad 1/0 result. Because the force is on a Beachhead it cannot Retreat.
So the Ad result must be converted to a step loss, which must be an
armor step, which reduces the 7-6-2 mech to a 4-4-1 infantry unit.
The required Attrition loss may be taken from either remaining unit.
4.2.6.2 Eliminating Steps
Note that the one-step Kiangsu Res infantry unit located in w4623
(where the HQ was) would not initially be considered part of the
Retreating stack, so it would not have to Retreat unless the 9th War
Zone chose to retreat into that hex. At that point, it would join the
stack as the Retreat continues into w4722 or w4522. (The lake hexside
prevents a retreat into w4622.)
When a unit is removed from its location due to the elimination of one
or more steps, it is placed in the Delay Box if it has a Delay Stripe.
Otherwise, place it in its Force Pool. Exception: The Japanese IG HQ
is removed from the game when eliminated.
Voluntary Retreat Conversion: A defending force may convert
Retreat results into step losses on a one-for-one basis if either or both
of the following situations applies:
 All adjacent attacking ground units are attacking across Strait,
Beachhead, or Mountain hexsides.
 The defending hex contains a City and does not contain a Blitz or
Totsugeki marker.
Eliminating Steps from Two-Step Units: To eliminate a step from a
two-step unit with a one-step unit on its other side, simply flip the unit
over to its one-step side.
Important: Defending units Retreating through Cities or across Strait,
Beachhead, or Mountain hexsides do not receive this Voluntary
Retreat Conversion option.
Design Note: While defenders could turn an urban center like
Stalingrad into a fortress, if it was on the verge of capture they would
Eliminating One-Step Units: To eliminate a one-step unit, remove it
from its location.
To eliminate a step from a two-step unit without a one-step unit on its
other side, the owning faction takes a one-step unit from the Force
Pool that could have been used to combine the two-step unit. He
places it where the two-step unit is and removes the two-step unit from
its location.
Clarification: This applies to a two-step unit that has a three-step unit
on its other side, or nothing at all – either way it does not have a onestep unit on its other side.
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Clarification: This restriction prohibits the remnants of an HQ
providing Ranged Support to the attack from Advancing After
Combat.
Eliminating Steps from Three-Step Units: To eliminate a step from
a three-step unit, simply flip the unit over to its two-step side.
Example: A US 7-6-2 three-step mech unit loses a step. The unit is
flipped over to its 4-4-1 two-step side. Whether attacking or
defending, that just cost an armor step.
Holding Box units: A multi-step unit that has a Holding Box in its
Force Pool is reduced in steps using the above procedure and the
corresponding units in its Holding Box.
Example: The Western two-step ABDA multi-national infantry army
suffers one step loss while defending in combat. The Western ABDA
Holding Box contains a Netherlands East Indies infantry unit. The
Western faction can choose to eliminate the NEI unit in the Holding
Box and leave the British FE infantry unit in the hex. Or it can
eliminate the British FE infantry unit and take the NEI unit from the
Holding Box and place it in the hex.
Eliminating Steps Restrictions:
 Elite units (2.3.4.3) cannot be taken from a Force Pool and
placed in a hex or Off-Map Box unless that unit was necessary to
combine into that multi-step unit.
 A player cannot switch different multi-step units in the process of
eliminating steps.
4.2.7 Advance After Combat
After all results of a combat have been satisfied by both sides, if the
defending hex does not contain an enemy unit or Beachhead marker,
then a supplied ground unit of the attacking force can Advance After
Combat.
To do so, the attacker takes the unit and places it in the defending hex.
Advance After Combat is not considered movement, so ignore a unit’s
MA, MP costs, or movement restrictions. Advance After Combat has
its own restrictions below.
Any number of the attacking supplied ground units can Advance After
Combat.
Advance After Combat is conducted one unit at a time, and can
continue as long as there are units eligible to perform one.
Clarification: Watch out for stacking limits! You can exceed them, but
someone will die if you’re still overstacked at the end of the Combat
Segment.
A unit can Advance After Combat out of a hex containing an Enemy
Zone of Control or an enemy Air unit.
A unit can Advanced After Combat into a hex containing any enemy
marker except a Beachhead.
Advance After Combat is not affected by Mud, Storms, or Snow.
Advance After Combat Restrictions:
 A unit with a Movement Allowance of 0 cannot Advance After
Combat.
 A unit cannot Advance After Combat into a hex it would be
prohibited from entering during a Movement Phase (3.1.4).
Clarification: An Axis Kwantung unit typically cannot Advance
After Combat or Exploit into a hex outside a Japanese
Dependent, because it cannot move into such hexes unless
Russia, Communist China and Nationalist China are all not
Policy Affected Countries.
 An HQ unit cannot Advance After Combat. The presence of an
HQ unit in an attacking force does not prevent the non-HQ units
from advancing.
 A unit that is not adjacent to the defending hex cannot Advance
After Combat.
4.2.8 Exploitation
If a supplied ground unit is eligible to conduct an Advance After
Combat (but before it conducts one), and the attacking force included
an armor-type unit (even if it did not survive the combat), it may
conduct Exploitation instead of Advance After Combat.
To do so, the attacker takes the unit and places it in the defending hex.
Then, he takes the unit (from the current hex) and places it in any
adjacent Land hex.
The attacker may continue to do this again until the unit has gone its
full Exploitation Distance. A unit is not required to go its full
Exploitation Distance.
Exploitation is not considered movement, so ignore a unit’s MP costs
or movement restrictions. Exploitation has its own restrictions below.
Any number of the attacking supplied ground units can conduct
Exploitation.
Exploitation is conducted one unit at a time and can continue as long
as there are units eligible to perform it. All attacking units in a stack
do not have to conduct Exploitation into the same hex beyond the
initial defending hex.
An Exploiting unit must stop if it is placed in a hex containing an
EZOC unless another friendly unit is in that hex, in which case it can
continue.
An Exploiting unit must stop if it is placed in a hex across an All-Sea,
Beachhead, Mountain, or Strait Hexside.
Design Note: Difficult terrain and combat fatigue limit pursuit.
A unit can conduct Exploitation out of a hex containing an enemy Air
unit.
Exploitation is not affected by Storms or Snow.
Exploitation Distance: The total number of hexes an Exploiting unit
can enter is equal to:
 The number of hexes the defending force actually Retreated (i.e.,
the number of different hexes it was placed in), plus
 The number of Retreat and/or Attrition results the defender did
not satisfy in some fashion.
The defending hex does count as one of the Exploitation hexes.
Example: A Russian one-step ground unit suffers a Dr3 0/1 result. It
Retreats three hexes and then is eliminated. The Exploitation Distance
is 3. The attacking force can be placed in up to three hexes – that is,
the defending hex and two other hexes.
A Russian infantry unit in Chita (w5824) suffers a Dr1 0/1 result. The
Soviet faction performs an Optional Retreat Conversion (4.2.5.3) and
converts the Dr1 result to a step loss, satisfying that result and
eliminating the unit. The Exploitation Distance is 1 because one
Attrition result is unsatisfied. In this case, Exploitation is no different
than Advance After Combat.
Exploitation Restrictions:
 A unit with a Movement Allowance of 0 cannot conduct
Exploitation.
 A unit cannot conduct Exploitation into a hex affected by Mud.
 The Exploitation Distance for a unit cannot exceed its Movement
Allowance. If it does exceed, reduce the Exploitation Distance
(for that unit only) to match the unit’s MA.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
Design Note: This restriction is very important. Because of the
reduced MAs in DS (compared to TK), most units will not be
able to Exploit, and even those that can Exploit will only get to
go two hexes before stopping.
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 A unit cannot conduct Exploitation into a hex it would be
prohibited from entering during a Movement Phase (3.1.4).
 A unit cannot conduct Exploitation into a hex containing an
enemy unit.
 A unit belonging to a Minor Country with a Free Passage
(14.15), Mobilizing (14.32), or No Occupation (14.34) marker in
its Capital cannot conduct Exploitation into a hex outside that
Minor Country or one of its Dependents.
 A unit cannot conduct Exploitation into an Off-Map Box.
 Exploitation can be limited by Policies (13.6.1), Truces (13.6.2),
and Failures (14.15).
4.3 Marker Segment
In this Segment, the phasing faction adjusts some markers on the map
before conducting its Reserve Movement Phase. Perform these steps
in order:
Step 1: If the phasing faction has a Troop Convoy marker in a Naval
Zone’s Used Box, it may move that marker back to the Naval Zone’s
Convoys Box.
Clarification: This will allow you to use the marker for transport
during the upcoming Reserve Movement Phase.
Step 2: If the phasing faction has a Blitz, Totsugeki, Failure, or
Mobilizing marker on the map, it must remove the marker and set it
aside for future use.
Step 3: If the Axis faction has an SNLF Beachhead-0 marker on the
6.1.1 Declare War
The phasing faction may select a Neutral Minor Country and activate
it. If an Allied faction made the selection, it is activated as an Axis
Country. If the Axis faction made the selection, it is activated as an
Allied Country – see 13.5 to determine the Minor Country’s
alignment.
Clarification: Note this activation may end a Policy (13.6.1.2).
If a country is activated as an Axis Country during the War & Peace
Segment, the Axis faction may place a No Occupation marker (14.34)
in its capital.
After the Minor Country is set up (13.7), the phasing faction may
declare war on another Neutral Minor Country. He may continue in
this fashion until he no longer wishes to do so.
Clarification: The Axis faction does not declare war against Britain,
Russia, the US, or any active Allied Minor Country. Similarly, Allied
factions do not declare war on Japan or any active Axis Minor
Country.
Declare War Restrictions:
 If Pre-War is in effect, a faction cannot declare war in its War &
Peace Segment.
 If Limited War is in effect, an Allied faction cannot declare war
during its War & Peace Segments.
Clarification: Remember, during Total War the Western faction can’t
declare war on a country at the end of its Faction Turn and have
Soviet units move into it in their upcoming Faction Turn (3.1.4).
map, it must remove the marker and set it aside for future use. After all
such markers have been removed, Axis ground units in an All-Sea hex
without a friendly Beachhead marker are eliminated. Eliminated units
that have a Delay Stripe are placed in the Delay Box; all others are
returned to their Force Pool.
6.1.2 Reduce Truce Markers
5. Reserve Movement Phase
In the War & Peace Segment of a Non-seasonal Turn, the faction
player may reduce all Negotiation markers (only) affecting an Allied
faction.
Movement in this Phase follows the same as in the Operational
Movement Phase, with the following modifications:
 An unsupplied unit can move.
 A unit cannot move into or out of a hex containing an EZOC.
 An armor unit cannot conduct an overrun.
 Important: Any unit that moves along a Road or Rail hex in an
active enemy Major or Minor Country must pay 1 MP per hex
entered.
Clarification: Reserves must move cautiously through unsecured
enemy territory. One-step units can continue to move at the ½ MP per
hex rate through friendly Countries, Conquered Countries, and
Dependents.
Design Note: The Reserve Movement Phase is the right time to think
ahead to your next Organization Segment and move ground units you
want to combine into the same location.
6. Final Administrative Phase
In this Phase, the phasing faction performs some final tasks before
ending its Faction Turn.
6.1 War & Peace Segment
The phasing faction performs the following in the order listed:
Step 1: It may declare war on Neutral Minor Countries.
Step 2: It may reduce the level of Truce markers.
The Posture Display may contain Truce markers that affect the Allied
factions. These Truce markers may be adjusted during play.
In the War & Peace Segment of a Seasonal Turn, the phasing faction
may reduce all Truce markers affecting an Allied faction by one level.
Example: It is a Non-seasonal Turn and there is an Armistice marker
in Russia’s Posture Box, and a Negotiation marker in the British and
US Posture Boxes.
Because it is a Non-seasonal Turn, the Axis faction cannot reduce the
Armistice marker affecting Russia. If the Axis player chooses to
reduce the Negotiation markers, he must reduce them both – he is not
allowed to reduce Britain’s but leave the US alone.
The Soviet or Western faction can reduce Truce markers affecting
their respective faction only. The Axis player may reduce markers
affecting either or both Allied factions.
Clarification: Note that the non-phasing faction has no control over
these reductions.
A Truce marker level is reduced as follows:
 Remove a Reassess Policy marker and place an Armistice marker
in the same Posture Box.
 Flip an Armistice marker to its Negotiation side.
 Remove a Negotiation marker.
Clarification: Reassess Policy and Armistice Truce markers have red
borders to remind you they can only be reduced on Seasonal Turns.
Also, all three Truce markers have a red, yellow, or green stoplight
icon to show how close you are to fighting again.
6.2 Conditional Events Segment
The phasing faction performs the following in the order listed:
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33
Step 1: It must check each of its Permanent Conditional Events (16.1,
16.3, 16.5) in the order they are listed. Only the phasing faction’s
Permanent Conditional Events are checked.
Clarification: You do not check Axis Permanent Conditional Events
during the Western or Soviet Turns.
Step 2: It must check any events listed under Conditional Events
Segment on its Current Card.
Important: Unless otherwise restricted or not possible, if a
Conditional Event’s conditions are fulfilled, that event must be
implemented. The results of one event must be implemented before
the next event is checked.
If an event calls for a roll on a Political Event Table, do not apply any
Political DRMs unless specifically stated otherwise.
Conditional Replacements: These are received in each Conditional
Event Segment, provided their conditions on the Current Card are
fulfilled. They are placed per Placing Replacements (1.3.4)
Clarification: So, unlike Seasonal Replacements, you can receive
Conditional Replacements each Turn of a Season.
Eliminating Steps: If the elimination of steps is required, see 4.2.6.2.
©AE Conditional Events: Each faction must perform all Conditional
Event checks on the TK map before performing them on the DS map.
The effects of a Conditional Event apply only on its map unless
specifically stated otherwise.
© Example: When the Soviet faction performs Emergency
Mobilization in TK, the Axis faction cannot apply the free Influence
event it receives to a Minor Country on the DS map.
7. End of Game Turn Phase
The following occurs once per Game Turn after all factions have taken
their respective Faction Turns.
7.1 Delay Segment
A Delay Result is determined for each counter in the Delay Box and
Naval Warfare Delay Box. The Delay Result is how many turns it will
take for that counter to return to play. A Delay Result less than 1 is
treated as 1. There is no upper limit on a Delay Result.
To determine a Delay Result, select one counter from a Delay Box,
roll one die, and apply the appropriate Delay DRMs based on the
counter’s faction. Delay DRMs are listed on the map. Modifiers are
cumulative. The modified result is that counter’s Delay Result.
Example: A Delay die roll is being made for a Russian unit. Only the
Soviet Delay DRMs are applied to the roll, not ones listed under Axis
or Western. You can use the DRM markers provided as a reminder of
each faction’s current Delay DRM.
Once a Delay Result has been determined, the counter is placed on the
Turn Track that many number of Turn Boxes ahead of the current
Turn Box. Do not count the current Turn Box.
Axis War Production marker in the Strategic Warfare Box, so that’s
another -1. The modified result is 3 (4+1-1-1), so the Japanese Air
unit’s Delay Result is 3. The Air Force unit is placed three Turns
ahead on the Turn Track, in the Mar-Apr 1944 Box.
©Units leaving a Delay Box must be placed in a Turn Box on the
same map.
© Clarification: In other words, units in a TK Delay Box stay on the
TK map – they can’t be placed on the DS map.
Naval Warfare Delay Box: When determining the Delay Result for a
counter in the Naval Warfare Delay Box, if the unmodified die roll is
6, roll again and add the two die rolls together. Then apply the
appropriate the Delay DRMs. The modified result is that counter’s
Delay Result.
Example: It is the Delay Segment of the Mar-Apr 1944 game turn. A
British Surf Fleet unit in the Naval Warfare Delay Box is selected and
a die roll is made. The result is a 6. So the Western faction rolls
again, this time getting a 5. Both results are added to get 11 (6 + 5).
The cumulative Western Delay DRM is –3, so the Fleet unit’s Delay
Result is 8. Ouch!
Design Note: This “deep six” result represents the sinking of a large
number of ships, which take longer to replace. A historical example
would be the loss of four Japanese carriers at Midway in 1942.
Axis Convoy Strategy Marker: If the Axis Convoy Strategy
marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, the Axis faction may perform
one Delay Reduction (15.13) after determining its Delay Results.
7.2 Turn Marker Segment
The Turn Marker is moved to the next box on the Turn Track.
Clarification: The Turn Marker is double-sided, with an Axis side and
an Allied side. You can flip the marker over after the end of the Axis
and Soviet Faction Turns to remind you of whose Faction Turn it is.
If the Turn Marker is in the bottom-right corner box (i.e., Nov-Dec
1942 or 1948), move the marker to the upper-left corner box (i.e., JanFeb 1937 or 1943) and continue the game.
Clarification: To save space, the Turn Track “repeats itself.” That is,
the 1937 row of boxes is also used for 1943, 1940 stands in for 1944,
and so on. If your game continues past 1948, go ahead and keep
playing – just remember the year is really 1949!
All counters in the box entered by the Turn Marker are removed and
placed as follows:
Step 1: Ground units, support units, Convoy markers, Detachment
markers, Logistics markers, and Partisan Base markers are placed in
their faction’s DS Force Pool.
Step 2: Other markers are placed per their own rules. See Markers
(14.).
When you are placing a counter on the Turn Track that could be
considered either a unit or a marker (such as a paratroop unit/Airdrop
marker), place the piece so that its unit side is face-up.
Clarification: A counter can be placed in a Turn Box that is past the
Turn Box containing the V-J Day marker.
Example: It is the Delay Segment of the Sept-Oct 1943 Game Turn. A
Japanese Air unit in the Delay Box is selected and a die roll is made.
The result is 4.
Per the Axis Delay DRMs List, the die roll is modified as follows: The
current USCL is 1, which provides a +1 DRM. Total War is in effect
and the Rising Sun VP marker is in the 1 VP Box, so that’s -1. The
Housekeeping Rules
8. Zone of Control (ZOC)
A ground unit projects a Zone of Control (ZOC) into every hex
adjacent to the hex it currently occupies.
Exceptions:
 A ZOC is not projected into a hex across a Mountain Hexside.
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 A ZOC is not projected into a hex across an All-Sea or Strait
hexside, except across a Beachhead Hexside.
Clarification: If the All-Sea hex contains a Beachhead marker,
but the hexside is not the marker’s Beachhead Hexside, then
there is no ZOC.
 A ZOC is not projected into a hex within a Policy Affected
Country (13.6.1).
 A ground unit belonging to a Policy Affected Country does not
project a ZOC.
8.1 Enemy ZOC (EZOC)
A ZOC projected by an enemy unit is referred to as an Enemy Zone of
Control (EZOC).
Clarification: Remember all non-phasing units are enemy units.
In some cases (as specified below and elsewhere), the presence of a
friendly unit or Airdrop marker in a hex negates the effects of all
EZOC projected in that hex.
Clarification: Logistics, Partisan Base, and Detachment markers do
not negate EZOC.
If a friendly unit negates EZOC, it does so immediately and for as
long as it is in the hex.
Example: In the Operational Movement Phase, a ground unit move
into a hex with an EZOC and stops moving. This negates the EZOC
for any other friendly unit moving into that hex.
8.2 EZOC Effects
Operational Movement Phase: If a unit does not start a Movement
Phase in an EZOC, it must stop moving when it moves into a hex
containing an EZOC. Exception: A unit does not have to stop if
another friendly unit is in that EZOC hex, or the moving unit is
conducting an Overrun against the unit projecting the EZOC.
If a unit starts a Movement Phase in an EZOC, it can move out of that
hex. It is allowed to move directly into another EZOC hex, in which
case it may have to stop per the above.
Mud: A unit cannot move out of an EZOC hex affected by Mud. No
exceptions.
Storms, Snow: A unit must stop moving after it moves into or out of
an EZOC hex affected by Storms or Snow. No exceptions.
Reserve Movement Phase: Units cannot move into or out of an
EZOC hex. No exceptions.
Supply: A supply line cannot be traced into an EZOC hex, unless
another friendly unit is in the hex.
Retreat: A unit cannot Retreat into a hex containing an EZOC, unless
another friendly unit is in that hex.
Clarification: But remember to follow Retreat Requirements (4.2.5.1).
You must retreat into a hex without an EZOC if possible.
Exploitation: A unit that is conducting Exploitation must stop if it
enters an EZOC hex, unless another friendly unit is in that hex.
Example: The British Ind colonial infantry unit in Imphal (w4415)
exerts a ZOC into all hexes labeled Z. It does not exert a ZOC into the
hex labeled X because of the mountain hexside between w4415 and
w4416. It exerts a ZOC into the hex labeled Y, but the Japanese
infantry unit there negates that EZOC for Operational Movement.
That means the Japanese tank unit in Mandalay (w4215) could move
to Ledo (w4515) without having to stop in w4315 or w4416.
9. Stacking
Two or more counters in the same hex are called a stack. Placing more
than one friendly unit in the same hex is called stacking.
Stacking restrictions and limits apply only to hexes. Any number or
combination of friendly ground units can exist together in an Off-Map
Box.
9.1 Stacking Restrictions
An HQ unit cannot stack with another HQ.
A Fortress unit cannot stack with another Fortress.
Units of different Minor Countries cannot stack together. Exceptions:
 One-step Exp units can stack with any other units of the same
faction.
 A Nationalist Chinese HQ unit can stack with any Western
Chinese unit.
 A Communist Chinese HQ can stack with any Soviet Chinese
unit.
Clarification: Similar to the rule regarding attacks made with Minor
Country units, a stack may include any of that faction’s Major
Country units, any of one Minor Country’s units, and finally any Exp
units from other Minor Countries.
9.2 Stacking Limits
Only friendly ground units in a hex count toward stacking limits. All
other counters in that hex do not count.
If a hex or Beachhead marker contains a Limited Stacking symbol (see
Terrain Key) in it, up to three ground units with a total of three steps
between them can be stacked in that hex.
In all other hexes, up to three ground units with a total of six steps
between them can be stacked in the same hex.
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Important: Stacking limits are enforced for all factions and all hexes
at the end of every Phase and Segment.
Clarification: If the unit occupies a hex or Off-Map Box containing a
supply source, it is supplied – no need to trace a supply line.
Any stack in excess of three ground units or that hex’s allowed
number of total steps is overstacked. If a hex is overstacked or
contains units that violate Stacking Restrictions, the owning faction
must eliminate sufficient steps (4.2.6.2) to bring that hex into
compliance with stacking limits.
A supply line is traced for each unit or marker at the moment supply is
needed.
Clarification: You are free to violate stacking limits during any Phase
or Segment, but you will pay the penalty at the end. In some cases,
especially during Retreats, you may have no option but to violate
stacking limits.
Stacking limits occasionally force you to plan ahead too. For
example, say the Western player is trying to liberate a Conquered
Country (16.3.1) with some Minor Country non-Exp units. He may be
better off not using Advance After Combat into the liberated City or
Capital, because if he does so, he won’t be able to receive the Minor
Country’s 0-1-1 Res infantry unit in the hex when the Minor Country
reactivates during the Conditional Events Segment.
Design Note: About stacking limits and Beachhead markers. You may
notice that a Beachhead can have a stacking limit of six steps, even
when it’s being used to attack an island like Tarawa with a stacking
limit of three steps. That might seem odd, but in World War II, the
determined amphibious attacker generally had the advantage – the
majority of these assaults eventually succeeded. Thus, the
Beachhead’s extra stacking limit represents the attacker’s additional
logistical support committed to make the invasion succeed.
Also keep in mind that, after the defender is overwhelmed, the
attacker will be limited in the number of steps he can actually move
ashore. Those extra steps that remain on the Beachhead marker will
have to be convoyed out of there, or the player will have to use
another Support unit to keep the Beachhead afloat. Either way, he has
to devote extra resources “above and beyond” the initial invasion
force to keep those guys in the game.
10. Supply
A unit or markers must be able to trace a supply line in order to
conduct various game mechanics, as listed in their respective rules. A
unit or marker that can trace a supply line to a supply source is
considered supplied. If it cannot, it is considered unsupplied.
10.1 Supply Sources
The following are supply sources:
 A Home Country City is a supply source for any counter
belonging to that Country.
 A Partisan Base marker is a supply source for any counter
belonging to the Minor Country in which it is located.
Example: A Partisan Base marker in Hopeh would be a supply
source for only Hopeh units.
 A Western Off-Map Box is a supply source for any Western
counter.
 A Soviet Off-Map Box is a supply source for any Soviet counter.
Supply Sources Restriction: A City or Partisan Base cannot be used
as a supply source if its hex contains an enemy unit, Airdrop,
Detachment, or Logistics marker.
10.2 Supply Line
A supply line is traced from the hex containing the counter to a supply
source. Do not count the hex containing the counter. A supply line can
be traced out of a hex containing an enemy unit or marker.
Clarification: When a ground unit is selected to move in the
Operational Movement Phase, a check is made to see if a supply line
can be traced for it. If one cannot be traced, that unit cannot move at
that particular moment. If at a later time in that same Movement
Phase a supply line can be traced, the unit could move then.
Two Hex Free Trace: Up to the first two hexes of a supply line can
be traced through any hex that is not otherwise prohibited by Supply
Line Restrictions below.
Clarification: Only the very first two hexes of a supply line can be
traced across any kind of terrain. Once you start to trace supply via a
Rail/Road network (see below), you can’t leave that network for a hex
or two and still trace supply.
Road/Rail Trace: If a supply line reaches a hex (of the owning
faction’s choice) containing a Road or Rail symbol, it can then be
traced any distance along a series of connected Road/Rail symbols to a
supply source. If Road or Rail symbols adjoin a Connected Strait, they
are considered connected. However, the Supply Line can only be
traced across one Connected Strait or stretch of contiguous Road
hexes. Once a Supply Line crosses a Connected Strait or Road hex, it
cannot later be traced across a second Connected Strait, or a Road hex
separated by Rail hexes from the original Road hex.
Example: A Japanese unit in Calcutta (w4213) could not use the
combination of Road and Rail hexes to trace overland supply back to
Saigon, as any path it could trace would involve two separate
stretches of Road hexes, the first being the stretch between
Imphal/Mandalay or Ledo/Myitkyina, the second being the stretch
between Moulmein and Bangkok.
Naval Zone Trace: A supply line can be traced across a Naval Zone
from an Open Port to Open Port within that Naval Zone. It can
continue through any number of Naval Zones in this fashion. Each
Naval Zone along the supply line must contain a friendly Supply
Convoy marker in its Convoys Box. Note that several Naval Zones
have inherent Axis or Western Supply Convoy markers.
Supply Line Combinations: A supply line can be traced any distance
along any combination of connected Rail hexes, one stretch of
contiguous Road hexes or Connected Strait, across Naval Zones
and/or between Off-Map Boxes.
Example: A British ground unit is in hex w3916. Because a Japanese
Detachment marker is in Rangoon, the Western faction traces its first
hex of unit’s supply line into Chiengmai (w4016). The second hex is
traced into w4115, which contains a Rail symbol. From there, the line
is traced along connected Road and Rail hexes to Dacca, a British
Open Port. From there, the Western faction traces supply across the
Bay of Bengal and West Indian Ocean Naval Zones to the
Europe/Africa Box, a Western Supply Source.
The Japanese Detachment in Rangoon traces supply across the Bay of
Bengal, South China Sea and Yellow Sea Naval Zones (all of which
contain Axis Supply Convoy markers) to Nagasaki, a Japanese Home
Country Open Port and supply source.
A US Sub Fleet is in the South China Sea Naval Zone Box. Since all
Ports in a Naval Zone containing an enemy Fleet unit cannot be Open
Ports, the Axis faction cannot trace a supply line across the South
China Sea Naval Zone.
Overland Supply: If a rule specifically states a unit or marker must
trace an overland supply line, then no part of that supply line can be
traced across a Naval Zone.
Eastern Europe Box: For purposes of tracing a supply line, hexes
w5311 to w6011 along the western map edge are considered part of
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the Eastern Europe Box. A supply line traced into one of those hexes
is considered to have been traced to the Eastern Europe Box.
Japanese Convoy Marker Placement requires a port in Japan or a
Japanese Dependent, not an Open Port.)
Supply Line Restrictions:
 A supply line cannot be traced into an EZOC hex unless another
friendly unit is in that hex.
 A supply line cannot be traced into a hex containing any enemy
unit, Airdrop, Detachment, or Logistics marker.
 A supply line cannot be traced into a hex that contains an enemy
Partisan Base marker and does not contain a friendly ground unit.
 A supply line cannot be traced into a hex containing a City and/or
Port in an enemy Country (excluding Conquered Allied
Countries) unless it is under friendly control.
 A supply line cannot be traced into a hex in a Neutral Minor
Country (13.4).
 An Allied unit or marker with a Posture of War cannot trace a
supply line into a PAC hex (13.6.1.1) or use a PAC Supply
Convoy.
 A supply line cannot be traced across an All-Sea hexside unless
the hexside is a Strait hexside or is part of a hex containing a
Beachhead marker.
“Why bother?” you ask, since the Ports are not Open Ports. Ah, but
in the Western player’s upcoming turn, he will have to remove his Sub
Fleet from the map. Unless he places a new support unit in that Naval
Zone, the Axis Ports will then be Open Ports and the supply lines to
Axis units in Tarawa and Guadalcanal will be open again for the
upcoming Western Combat Segment.
Clarification: Note that you can trace supply through any
hexside of a hex containing a Beachhead marker, not just the
Beachhead Hexside.
10.3 Supply Effects
An HQ unit must be supplied and in its Home Country to be a
Replacement Location (1.3.4).
An Axis or Western Logistics marker must be able to trace a supply
11. Weather
Adverse weather turns are marked on the Turn Track. There are three
types of adverse weather: Mud, Storms, and Snow.
11.1 Weather Areas
Weather affects the hexes of six different Weather Areas on the map:
Desert, East Asia, North, North Monsoon, South, and South
Monsoon.
Central: all Land hexes inside Formosa, Hong Kong, Kiangsu,
Shanghai, Szechwan, Tibet, and Yunnan.
Desert: all Land hexes inside Australia, Kansu, Mongolia, and
Sinkiang.
North: all Land hexes inside the Aleutian Islands, Hopeh, Japan
(including Karafuto and the Kurile Islands), Korea, Manchukuo, and
Russia (including Kamchatka, Komandorski, and Sakhalin).
North Monsoon: all Land hexes inside Burma, Ceylon, India,
Indochina, Malaya, Nepal, the Philippines, and Siam.
line to be a Replacement Location.
South: all Land hexes inside New Zealand.
A Soviet Logistics marker must be able to trace an overland supply
line to be a Replacement Location.
South Monsoon: all Land hexes inside the Netherlands East Indies
(including its Dependents), Papua, and Sarawak.
A ground unit, Detachment marker, or Logistics marker must be
supplied to serve as an Air Base or Naval Base in the Support
Segment.
For Weather purposes, Dependents and Regions (13.3) are always
Units must be supplied to combine during the Organization Segment
(2.3.1).
Clarification: The Mongol Frontier region is always considered to be
part of Mongolia (and the Desert Weather Area) for Weather
purposes, even if it is ceded to Japan as a separate Dependent.
Clarification: Unsupplied units can convert into a fortress or break
down.
Only phasing supplied ground units can move in the Operational
Movement Phase (3.1).
Clarification: Unsupplied units can move during the Reserve
Movement Phase (5).
An Airborne unit must be supplied to conduct an Airdrop (4.1.1) in
the Blitz Combat Segment.
An attacking armor unit must be supplied to provide an Armor Shift in
the Blitz Combat Segment (4.1.2).
An Airdrop marker must be able to trace a supply line to be replaced
by a one-step infantry unit in the Airdrop Landing part of the Blitz
Combat Segment (4.1.4).
An HQ unit must be supplied to provide Ranged Support (4.2.1.2)
and/or an HQ Shift (4.2.3.5).
A marine unit must be supplied to reduce the number of shifts a
defender receives for a Beachhead or Straits Hexside (4.2.3.6).
A unit must be supplied to Advance After Combat (4.2.7) or conduct
Exploitation (4.2.8).
Example: A US Sub Fleet is in the Micronesia Naval Zone On Station
Box, so all Axis Ports therein are not Open Ports. In his Support
Segment, the Axis player places a Japanese Supply Convoy marker in
the Micronesia Naval Zone Box. (He can do this because standard
considered based on their printed disposition on the map; the Weather
of these areas does not change if their political situation changes.
Beachheads: Although All-Sea hexes are not normally part of a
Weather Area, an All-Sea hex containing a Beachhead marker is
considered to be part of the Weather Area that the Beachhead Hexside
points to.
Clarification: This is mostly to prevent attackers from claiming the
ability to conduct Blitz combat against a Beachhead in bad weather.
Note that many islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans are not part
of any Weather area. These places never suffer weather effects.
11.2 Weather Effects on Combat
Reduce the Dr result against a defending hex affected by Mud,
Storms, or Snow as follows:
 Dr3 becomes Dr2
 Dr2 becomes Dr1
 Dr1 becomes Ex.
Ex, Ad, and Attrition results are not affected.
11.3 Mud
A ground unit in a hex with Mud cannot move out of a hex containing
an EZOC. No exceptions.
Clarification: Friendly units do not negate EZOC for this purpose.
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Design Note: Here’s a tactical tip. To disengage in Mud, attack and
try to get Ad and Ex results.
A ground unit cannot attack a hex with Mud in the Blitz Combat
Segment.
When attacked in a hex with Mud, the defender receives a one-column
shift to the left.
A ground unit cannot conduct Exploitation into a hex with Mud.
Mud does not affect Retreat, Advance After Combat, or a Failure
(14.15).
Clarification: Mud (and Storms and Snow) do affect the Retreat
Result you receive during combat (11.2), but it doesn’t affect how you
conduct Retreats.
An Air unit cannot be placed in a hex with Mud.
An Air unit does not provide an Air Unit shift in combat if the
defending hex is a hex with Mud.
During Turns in which the North Monsoon Area is experiencing
Mud, a support unit cannot be placed in an All-Sea hex in the Bay of
Bengal, Philippine Sea, or South China Sea Naval Zones.
During Turns in which the South Monsoon Area is experiencing
Mud, a support unit cannot be placed in an All-Sea hex in the Arafura
Sea or Bismarck Sea Naval Zones.
11.4 Storms
A ground unit in a hex with Storms must stop moving after moving
into or out of a hex containing an EZOC in the Operational Movement
Phase. No exceptions.
Clarification: Friendly units do not negate EZOC for this purpose. A
multi-step armor unit can ignore the EZOC of a unit it is overrunning
in Storms.
A ground unit cannot attack a hex with Storms in the Blitz Combat
Segment.
Storms do not affect Retreat, Advance after Combat, Exploitation, or a
Failure (14.15).
An Air unit does not provide an Air Unit shift in combat if the
defending hex is a hex with Storms, and the Air unit is adjacent to
that hex.
Clarification: An Air unit can provide an Air Unit shift in its hex
during Storms (or Snow, for that matter).
11.5 Snow
A ground unit in a hex with Snow must stop moving after moving into
or out of a hex containing an EZOC in the Operational Movement
Phase. No exceptions.
Clarification: Friendly units do not negate EZOC for this purpose. A
multi-step armor unit can ignore the EZOC of a unit it is overrunning
in Snow.
Blitz-enabled Russian units (only) can attack defending units in Land
hexes with Snow in the Blitz Combat Segment:
An Air unit does not provide an Air Unit shift in combat if the
defending hex is a hex with Snow, and the Air unit is adjacent to that
hex.
Snow does not affect Retreat, Advance after Combat, Exploitation, or
a Failure (14.15).
During Turns in which the North Weather Area is experiencing Snow:
 An Ice hex cannot be considered a Naval Base or an Open Port.
 A support unit cannot be placed in any All-Sea hex of the Sea
of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, Northwest Pacific, North Pacific, or
Gulf of Alaska Naval Zones.
Clarification: Support units can be placed in the Naval Zone
Boxes of those Naval Zones during Snow.
12. War State
Each scenario’s setup will indicate a War State that is in effect at the
start. It will be Pre-War, Limited War, or Total War. Only one War
State is ever in effect at a time, though it may change during the game.
War State is tracked on the War State Display, using the Pacific War
State marker.
Changing War States: If a new War State goes into effect, all
previous War State rules immediately cease to apply. The new War
State rules apply until a different War State goes into effect. There is
no going back to an earlier War State.
Pre-War ends and Limited War goes into effect when any of these
events occurs:
 The Axis faction plays card 2a Army Plan Adopted or 2b Navy
Plan Adopted.
 Any Allied Country has a Posture of War.
Pre-War or Limited War ends and Total War goes into effect when
either of these events occurs:
 The Axis faction plays card 28a East Wind Rain or 28b North
Wind Cloudy.
 The Western faction plays card 35a Arsenal of Democracy or
35b US Victory Program.
 The Axis faction makes an illegal Current Card play (1.1.1).
©Separate War States: In AE, each map has its own War State. The
War State on one map may trigger certain events on the other, but they
are otherwise totally separate.
© Example: At the start of the 1938 scenarios, Limited War is in
effect in DS but Pre-War is in effect on the TK map.
12.1 Pre-War Effects
Asia at Peace: The Axis faction cannot end a Policy by performing
certain “voluntary” actions (as defined in 13.6.1.2).
Clarification: An “involuntary” action (as defined in 13.6.1.2) that
ends a Policy is okay.
No faction can Declare War in its War & Peace Segment (6.1).
No unit can move or attack outside of its Country or Dependent. No
support unit or Airdrop marker can be placed in a hex, Naval Zone
Box, or Strategic Warfare Box.
Clarification: A Convoy marker can be placed in a Convoys Box.
Option Card Selection Restrictions: A faction can only select a blue
Pre-War Option Card.
12.2 Limited War Effects
When Limited War goes into effect: Each faction immediately
places in the Delay Box any Outbreak of War units it has in the
Conditional Event Box.
No Allied Declarations of War: The Allied factions cannot Declare
War in their respective War & Peace Segments (6.1).
Clarification: Anything else that allows an Allied faction to declare
war is okay.
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 Navy Program (16.2.2)
 Economic Program (16.2.3)
 Political Program (16.2.4)
Option Card Selection Restrictions: A faction can only select a blue
Pre-War Option Card or gray Limited War Option Card.
Policy Movement Restrictions: Policy Affected Countries may be
restricted in their ability to enter other Countries. See 13.6.1.1.
12.3 Total War Effects
13. Factions & Countries
When Total War goes into effect: Immediately perform each of the
following steps in order:
Step 1: If Total War goes into effect directly from Pre-War, each
faction immediately places in the Delay Box any Outbreak of War
units it has in the Conditional Event Box.
Step 2: The Axis faction must remove all Disputes, Peace, Quarantine,
Resistance, and Treaty Policy markers from the Posture Display.
Step 3: The Axis faction may remove any Acceptance Policy markers
from the Posture Display.
13.1 Factions
There are three factions in the game: Axis, Western, and Soviet.
Anything related to one faction is considered an enemy to both other
factions at all times.
The Western and Soviet factions are sometimes referred to collectively
as Allied. This term indicates a rule that relates to one or both of those
factions and not the Axis faction.
Step 4: The Axis faction may remove any Neutrality or Surrender
Policy markers from the Posture Display, provided he places the
appropriate Government marker in the Delay Box (14.22). The Axis
faction cannot remove a Surrender Policy marker if its corresponding
Enforced Peace marker is on the Turn Track.
13.2 Countries
Step 5: The Axis faction may remove any Truce markers from the
Posture Display.
Clarification: Dependents (13.3.1) and Regions (13.3.2) do not have
units, which is what makes them different from Countries.
Step 6: Place the Increase USCL marker three Seasonal Turns ahead
on the Turn Track.
Status, Alignment, and Posture: A Country may be said to have a
Status, Alignment, and/or Posture. Status, Alignment and Posture are
checked for a Country at the moment such a determination is needed.
 Status refers to the Country’s standing as a belligerent: Active,
Neutral, or Conquered (13.4).
 Alignment refers to which faction is responsible for the Country:
Axis, Soviet, or Western (13.5)
 Posture refers to the country’s war footing: War, Policy Affected
Country, or Truce Affected Country (13.6).
Example: If Total War goes into effect in the Nov-Dec 1941 turn, the
Increase USCL marker is placed in the Aug-Sept 1942 Box.
Step 7: If any of Britain, Communist China, Nationalist China or
Russia are PACs, place the respective British, Communist Chinese,
Nationalist Chinese and/or Russian Entry marker(s) 15 Seasonal Turns
ahead on the Turn Track.
Example: Total War goes into effect in the Nov-Dec 1941 turn and
there is a Neutrality Policy marker in Russia’s Posture Box, which the
Axis faction declines to remove in Step 4. The Russian Entry marker is
placed in the Aug-Sept 1945 Turn Track Box.
*Step 8: If European Total War is not already in effect, decrease the
ESV by 2 and place European Total War markers in the European
War Box of both Allied factions.
© Step 9: Place the US Entry marker one Seasonal Turn ahead on the
TK map. Do this even if the US Entry marker is already on the TK turn
track for some later Seasonal Turn.
© Clarification: In other words, move the US Entry marker forward
to the next Seasonal Turn if necessary.
© Example: In the historical instance, the US Entry marker is in the
Mar-Apr 1942 box on the TK Turn Track when Total War breaks out
on the DS map in Nov-Dec 1941. The US Entry marker is not moved,
because it is already one Seasonal Turn ahead.
However, let’s say Total War broke out on the DS map in Aug-Sept
1941. In this case, the US Entry marker would be moved to the NovDec 1941 Box on the TK Turn Track.
Step 10: Place the V-J Day marker 16 Seasonal Turns (i.e., four
Years) ahead on the Turn Track.
Example: If Total War begins in the Nov-Dec 1941 turn, the V-J Day
marker is placed in the Nov-Dec 1945 Turn Track Box.
Policy Movement Restrictions: Policy Affected Countries may be
restricted in their ability to enter other Countries. See 13.6.1.1.
Conditional Events Triggered: If they have not yet occurred, the
following Axis Option Card Conditional Events will be triggered in
the next Axis Conditional Events Segment:
 Army Program (16.2.1)
A Country is an area of Land hexes that has ground units associated
with it. There are two types of Countries: Major Countries (13.2.1)
and Minor Countries (13.2.2).
Clarification: Note that Status, Alignment, and Posture are totally
independent of each other. It is possible, for example, for a Neutral
Country to have a Western Alignment and a Posture of War. That
means the Country does not have any units set up on the board, but if
it did, they would be controlled by the Western faction and able to
move without being bound by Policy or Truce restrictions.
Selecting Countries: When you are instructed to select a Country,
you cannot select a Dependent or Region.
When you are instructed to “select a Country,” you may be limited to
countries of certain size, Status, Alignment, or Posture.
Clarification: For example, if you are instructed to select a Neutral
Minor Country, you cannot select an Active Minor Country,
Conquered Minor Country or Major Country.
Any Country that does not exist at the moment of play cannot be
selected for any game purpose.
Example: The Axis faction plays card 33a Treaty. Mongolia has been
ceded to Russia (13.8.1), so it no longer exists. That means it can’t be
selected as the Country for that card’s Political Event Segment.
13.2.1 Major Countries
The Major Countries in the game are:
 Britain (consists of the Europe/Africa Box)
 Japan (consists of the Home Islands of Hokkaido, Honshu,
Kyushu, and Shikoku, plus Karafuto and the Kurile Islands)
 Russia (consists of Russia, including Kamchatka and Sakhalin,
any Region ceded to Russia, and the Eastern Europe Box)
 United States (also referred to as US; consists of the Western US
Box)
Major Country units do not have a Nationality ID on them.
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13.2.2 Minor Countries
The Minor Countries that may appear in the game, and their
abbreviated Nationality ID, are:
 Amur (Am)
 Australia (Aus)
 Bangladesh (Bang)
 Burma (Bur)
 France (Fra)
 Hopeh (Ho)
 India (Ind)
 Indochina (Indo)
 Kamchatka (Kam)
 Kansu (Kan)
 Kiangsu (Ki)
 Korea (Kor)
 Malaya (Mal)
 Manchukuo (Man)
 Mongolia (Mong)
 Netherlands East Indies (NEI, consists of the islands of Sumatra,
Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, and Timor)
 New Zealand (NZ)
 Pakistan (Pak)
 The Philippines (Phil)
 Primorye (Prim)
 Siam (Siam)
 Siberia (Sib)
 Sinkiang (Sin)
 Szechwan (Sze)
 Tannu Tuva (TT)
 Tibet (Tib)
 Trans-Baikal (TB)
 Yunnan (Yun)
13.3 Dependents and Regions
Dependents and Regions are areas of Land hexes that do not have
units associated with them. A Dependent or Region can never
independently be considered to be the “Home Country” of any unit.
Clarification: A Dependent or Region may become a Minor Country,
see 13.8.2.
Dependents and Regions are not Countries for game purposes. A
Dependent or Region cannot be selected for any instruction that calls
for a player to select a Country. You may select a Dependent or
Region only when specifically allowed.
Example: The Axis player plays card 33b Puppet Government. He
may apply the card’s event to Korea, because it is a Dependent and
all of its Cities are under Axis control at the moment. If he had played
33a Treaty instead, he could not name Korea, because it is not a
Minor Country.
A Dependent or Region cannot be independently conquered or
liberated.
Design Note: The distinction between Countries, Dependents, and
Regions is important for rules purposes, as it helps us avoid rules
anomalies, exceptions, and odd gaming situations.
13.3.1 Dependents
A Dependent’s alignment (13.5) is the same as its associated Major or
Minor Country. A Dependent is often referred to in terms of the Major
or Minor Country that it belongs to.
Example: Hong Kong is a Dependent of Britain, so it’s referred to as
a “British Dependent.”
If France is Neutral, so are all French Dependents (Indochina and
New Caledonia), and thus no unit is allowed to move into any of those
places. If France is a Western Country, then its Dependents are all
Western Dependents, even if they are completely occupied by enemy
units.
The Dependents that may appear in the game and their possible
associated Countries are:
 Addu Atoll (British)
 Aleutian Islands (US or Japanese)
 Amur (Japanese)
 Australia (British)
 Borneo (NEI)
 Burma (British or Japanese)
 Celebes (NEI, includes Ternate and Amboina)
 Ceylon (British)
 Christmas Island (British)
 Diego Garcia (British)
 Dutch New Guinea (NEI)
 East Turkestan (Russian)
 Eastern Caroline Islands (Japanese, British, or US)
 Fiji (British)
 French Frigate Shoals (US)
 Formosa (British or Japanese)
 Funafati (British)
 Gilbert Islands (British)
 Guam (US or Japanese)
 Johnston Island (US)
 Hawaiian Islands (US)
 Hong Kong (British or Japanese)
 India (British)
 Indochina (French or Japanese)
 Inner Mongolia (Japanese)
 Kamchatka (Japanese)
 Kansu (Japanese)
 Kiangsu (Japanese)
 Komandorski (Russian)
 Korea (Japanese or Russian)
 Liaoning (Russian)
 Line Islands (British)
 Malaya (British or Japanese)
 Male (British)
 Manchukuo (Japanese)
 Marcus Island (Japanese)
 Marshall Islands (Japanese, British, or US)
 Midway (US or Japanese)
 Mongol Frontier (Japanese)
 Mongolia (Russian)
 Nepal (British)
 New Caledonia (French)
 New Hebrides (British)
 New Zealand (British)
 Papua (British or Japanese)
 Philippines (US or Japanese)
 Phoenix Islands (British)
 Port Blair (British)
 Primorye (Japanese)
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
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Sakhalin (Japanese)
Sarawak (British or Japanese)
Shanghai (Japanese)
Siberia (Japanese)
Solomon Islands (British – includes Admiralty Islands)
Tonga (British)
Trans-Baikal (Japanese)
Uvea (French)
Wake (US or Japanese)
Western Caroline Islands (Japanese, British, or US)
Western Samoa (US)
Mandate Dependents: Aleutian Islands, Burma, Guam, Hong Kong,
Malaya, Midway, Papua, the Philippines, Sarawak, and Wake are
sometimes identified as Mandate Dependents in the rules.
13.3.2 Regions
A Region is an area of Land hexes that are part of a larger Country or
Dependent. A Region may become part of a different Country, or
become a separate Dependent.
Clarification: If there is no Ceded Land marker for a particular
Region in the Ceded Lands Box, that Region is part of its original
Country or Dependent.
A Region is outlined with its own Border hexside symbol (see Terrain
Key).
The Regions that may appear in the game and their starting
dispositions are:
 Amur (part of Russia)
 Bangladesh (part of India)
 East Turkestan (part of Sinkiang)
 Hainan (part of Kiangsu)
 Heilungkiang (part of Manchukuo)
 Inner Mongolia (part of Hopeh)
 Jehol (part of Manchukuo)
 Kamchatka (part of Russia, includes Komandorski)
 Karafuto (part of Japan)
 Kirin (part of Manchukuo)
 Liaoning (part of Manchuko)
 Mongol Frontier (part of Mongolia)
 Pakistan (part of India)
 Primorye (part of Russia)
 Sakhalin (part of Russia)
 Siberia (part of Russia)
 Trans-Baikal (part of Russia)
Far East Regions: Amur, Kamchatka, Primorye, Siberia, and TransBaikal are sometimes identified as Far East Regions in the rules.
13.4 Country Status
A Major Country always has a status of Active. A Minor Country may
have a status of Active, Neutral, or Conquered.
Neutral Minor Countries: If a Minor Country is Neutral, its units
and markers are set aside and cannot be placed on the map.
A Neutral Country is activated under either of the following
conditions:
 It is selected in the Declare War part of a faction’s War & Peace
Segment (6.1.1).
 An option card, Political Event, or Conditional Event calls for a
Neutral Country to be activated as an Axis or Allied Country.
Activation of a Neutral Country immediately changes its status to
Active. The alignment of the Minor Country is determined (13.5) and
its units and markers are set up (13.7).
Conquered Minor Countries: If a Minor Country is Conquered, its
units are placed in its faction’s Conquered Minor Countries Box and
cannot be placed on the map.
A Conquered Country may be re-activated under either of the
following conditions:
 The Axis faction performs the Minor Country Created Political
Event (15.25).
 An Allied faction performs its Conquered Country Reactivation
Conditional Event (16.3.1, 16.5.1).
Re-activation of a Conquered Country immediately changes its status
to Active. The Minor Country’s units are moved from the Conquered
Minor Countries Box to the Force Pool and may be set up on the map
per the event.
13.5 Country Alignment
Countries are aligned as follows:
 Axis: Japan and all Axis Minor Countries.
 Western: Britain, the United States, and all Western Minor
Countries.
 Soviet: Russia and all Soviet Minor Countries.
A Major Country is always aligned with its proper faction. It cannot
switch its alignment.
A Minor Country can be aligned with any faction, and may switch its
alignment to a different faction.
Determining Alignment of Neutral Minor Countries: The
alignment of a Neutral Minor Country is determined at the moment it
is needed, using this priority list:
Priority 1: If an option card, rule or event specifies a faction, the
Neutral Minor Country aligns with that faction.
Priority 2: If a Soviet or Western Influence marker is in the Country,
it aligns with the Allied faction shown on the marker.
Priority 3: If the country does not share a Border with any Soviet
Country, it aligns with the Western faction.
Priority 4: If Pre-War is in effect, the Axis player must choose an
Allied faction for the Country to align with.
Priority 5: If the Country does not contain an Axis or Western
Strategic Hex, it aligns with the Soviet faction.
Priority 6: Roll an unmodified die. If the result is 3 or less, it aligns
with the Western faction. If it is 4 or more, it aligns with the Soviet
faction.
Example: It is the May-June 1937 turn, Pre-War is in effect, and the
Axis faction reveals Card 8 Demand Inner Mongolia. The Political
Event Die Roll is Country Resists (15.10), so Hopeh’s alignment must
be determined.
The card and event that triggered Hopeh’s entry do not specify an
alignment for the country (Priority 1), nor does it contain an Allied
Influence marker (Priority 2). Hopeh does share a Border with Kansu,
a Soviet country, so Priority 3 doesn’t apply.
That brings us to Priority 4. Pre-War is in effect, so the Axis faction
gets to pick Hopeh’s alignment. The Western faction is chosen.
Determining Alignment of Active and Conquered Minor
Countries: The alignment of an Active or Conquered Minor Country
can generally be determined by the placement of its units in a faction’s
Force Pool or Conquered Minor Countries Box, respectively.
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 An Allied support unit or Airdrop marker with a Posture of War
cannot be placed in a PAC hex.
 A PAC support unit or Airdrop marker cannot be placed in a hex,
On Station Box, or the Strategic Warfare Box.
 A PAC support unit cannot contest attempted placement of an
enemy support unit unless that placement ends the policy
affecting the PAC unit (in which case it is no longer a PAC unit).
Clarification: Occasionally, an Active Country may have built all its
units on the board and have nothing remaining in its faction’s Force
Pool – but that Country remains aligned with its faction.
13.6 Country Posture
An Axis Country always has a Posture of War.
An Allied Country’s Posture will be one of War, a Policy, or a Truce.
The Posture of an Allied Country is tracked on the map’s Posture
Display. If a Country’s Posture Box contains a Policy or Truce
marker, that Policy or Truce marker is its Posture. If there is no
marker, its Posture is War.
Example: If the United States Posture Box has a Quarantine marker
in it, the US Posture is Quarantine.
If Russia’s Posture Box has no marker in it, Russia’s Posture is War.
A Posture Box may not have both a Truce marker and a Policy marker
in it – just one of either, or none at all.
The Nationalist China, Britain, and US/Western Minor Posture
Boxes are considered to be friendly to the Western faction. The
Nationalist China Box tracks the Posture for all Western Chinese
Countries. The US/Western Minors Posture Box tracks the Posture for
the US and all other Western Minors.
Example: Russia’s Posture is Neutrality. The Axis faction
attempts to place a Japanese Air Force unit in a hex in Russia.
This attempted placement immediately ends the Neutrality
Policy, which allows the Soviet faction to contest it.
Movement: These restrictions apply during both Movement Phases.
 An Allied ground unit with a Posture of War cannot move into a
PAC hex. Also, such an Allied unit cannot use a PAC Troop
Convoy marker.
 If Pre-War is in effect, a PAC ground unit cannot move into a
hex unless it is within its Home Country or any of its
Dependents. Also, a PAC unit cannot use a Troop Convoy
marker unless it is of the same nationality.
Example: Russia and Soviet Minors both have a Posture of
Neutrality. A Russian ground unit cannot move into a Russian
Minor Country.
The Communist China, Soviet Minors, and Russia Posture Boxes
 If Limited or Total War is in effect, a PAC ground unit cannot
move into a hex unless it is affected by the same Policy. Also, a
PAC unit cannot use a Troop Convoy marker unless it is affected
by the same Policy.
are considered friendly to the Soviet faction. The Communist China
Box tracks the Posture for all Soviet Chinese Countries. The Soviet
Minors Box tracks the Posture for all other Soviet Minor Countries.
©The Posture of a Country on one map has nothing to do with its
Posture on the other map. That is, a Country may be at War on the TK
map but under a Policy or Truce on the DS map and vice versa.
Example: Siam is a Western Country and its Posture is
Quarantine. A Siamese ground unit can move only into a country
with a Posture of Quarantine.
13.6.1 Policies
Russia’s Posture is Neutrality. A Russian ground unit cannot
move into a Conquered Allied Hopeh because Hopeh does not
have a Posture of Neutrality.
There are eight Policies, each with corresponding markers:
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Acceptance
Border Disputes (“Disputes” for short)
Lapsed Treaty (“Treaty” for short)
Neutrality Pact (“Neutrality” for short)
Quarantine
Resistance
Surrender
Uneasy Peace (“Peace” for short)
Clarification: The shortened terms are used on the option cards and
in the rules to save space.
If a Posture Box contains a Policy marker, that Policy is in effect and
its rules apply. If placed during the game, its rules are immediately in
effect. If removed during the game, its rules immediately end.
Combat:
 A PAC ground unit cannot participate in an attack.
 An Allied ground unit with a Posture of War cannot attack a PAC
ground unit.
 An Allied ground unit with a Posture of War cannot Retreat or
Advance After Combat, or Exploit into a PAC hex.
Delay DRMs:
 Certain Delay DRMs are not applied (7.1).
Zone of Control:
 A PAC ground unit does not project a ZOC.
Example: Britain’s Posture is Treaty. A British ground unit does
not project a ZOC.
 ZOC is not projected into a PAC hex.
If an Allied Country’s Posture Box contains a Policy marker, that
Allied Country is said to be a Policy Affected Country (PAC). A
Policy affects all of a PAC’s units and markers, and applies in all Land
hexes belonging to that Country or its Dependents.
Example: If Russia’s Posture is Disputes, then Russia is a PAC. This
means all Russian units and markers, and all Land hexes inside
Russia and all Russian Dependents, are affected by the Disputes
policy.
13.6.1.1 Policy Effects
These rules apply while any Policy is in effect.
Current Strategic Value:
 Axis Strategic Hexes under Allied control in an active PAC are
not counted when determining the Current Strategic Value
(0.1.1).
Example: Britain’s Posture is Treaty. An Axis ground unit does
not project a ZOC into a hex within any British Country or
Dependent.
Supply:
 An Allied unit or marker with a Posture of War cannot trace a
supply line through a PAC hex (10.2). Also, such an Allied unit
cannot use a PAC Supply Convoy marker.
 If Pre-War is in effect, a PAC unit or marker cannot trace supply
through a Land hex unless that hex is within its Home Country or
any of its Dependents. Also, a PAC unit cannot use a Supply
Convoy marker unless it is of the same nationality.
 If Limited or Total War is in effect, a PAC unit or marker cannot
trace supply through a Land hex unless that hex is in a Country
or Dependent affected by the same Policy. Also, a PAC unit
Support Unit or Airdrop Marker Placement:
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cannot use a Supply Convoy marker unless it is affected by the
same Policy.
 The Axis faction chooses to end an Acceptance, Neutrality, or
Surrender Policy when Total War goes into effect (12.3).
Policy Violation Internment: At the end of any Conditional Events
Segment, a unit in a Country that it could not move into or be placed
in due to one of the above rules may be interned (16.7).
Voluntarily Ending a Policy Restrictions: Any action listed
immediately above that would violate these restrictions is prohibited.
 No faction can voluntarily end any Policy if Pre-War is in effect.
 The Axis faction cannot voluntarily end a Neutrality or
Surrender Policy unless he can simultaneously place the
appropriate Government marker in the Delay Box (14.22).
 In addition, the Axis faction cannot voluntarily end the
Surrender Policy at all if the PAC’s Enforced Peace marker is on
the Turn Track.
13.6.1.2 Ending a Policy
Important: When a Policy ends, all of that Policy’s markers are
immediately removed from that map’s Posture Display.
Example: The Axis plays card 28b North Wind Cloudy, which
triggers Total War and ends Russia’s Disputes Policy. If that same
Policy appears in another Posture Box (such as the Soviet Minors
Box), you’d remove that Policy marker as well.
Example: The Axis faction cannot end a Neutrality Policy with
Russia unless the Army marker is in the Government Holding
Box. If Russia’s Policy was Surrender and the Enforced Peace
marker was on the Turn Track, the Axis faction could not end
that Policy.
If you are instructed to replace any Policy marker with a Truce marker,
replace all of that Policy’s markers with Truce markers.
Involuntarily Ending a Policy: A Policy is considered to have been
“involuntarily” ended when:
 A Border Incident (15.4), Country Resists (15.10), Declare
War (15.12), Gekokujo (15.17), or International Incident (15.20)
Political Event results in the ending of a Policy.
Example: Resistance markers are in the Communist China and
Nationalist China Posture Boxes and the Axis player plays card
8 Demand Inner Mongolia.
The Axis Political Event result is Country Resists (15.10), and
Hopeh is activated as a Western Country. Since Hopeh is a PAC,
the Resistance markers are immediately removed from the
Posture Display, thus ending the Resistance Policy. The “China
Incident” has triggered a land war in Asia!
 An Axis unit or Detachment is in an Active or Neutral PAC hex
and the Axis player chooses to not intern that counter (16.7) in
any faction’s Conditional Events Segment.
Clarification: An Axis unit can be in a Conquered PAC hex
without ending that Policy.
 An option card is revealed that ends a Policy.
 Total War goes into effect and the Policy is Disputes, Peace,
Quarantine, Resistance or Treaty (12.3).
Voluntarily Ending a Policy: A Policy is considered to have been
“voluntarily” ended when:
 An Axis support unit attempts placement in an Active PAC hex.
 An Axis support unit attempts placement adjacent to an Active
PAC hex, unless that hex is also in or adjacent to another Allied
Country with a Posture of War. (See the Clarification below.)
 An Axis support unit attempts placement in the On Station Box
of a Naval Zone that contains an Active PAC Port, unless another
Allied Country with a Posture of War also has a Port in that
Naval Zone. (See the Clarification below.)
Example: Britain’s Posture is Treaty and Kiangsu’s Posture is
War. If the Axis player places a Japanese support unit in the
South China Sea Naval Zone Box, it does not end Britain’s
Treaty.
 An Axis ground unit enters an Active PAC hex.
Example: Britain’s Posture is Treaty. If the Axis faction moves a
Japanese ground unit into any British Dependent, it ends
Britain’s Treaty.
 An Axis ground unit attacks a PAC unit.
 The Axis faction declares war on a Neutral PAC in the War &
Peace Segment (6.1).
 A Neutrals Pressured (15.28) or Political Option (15.30)
Political Event is applied to a Policy.
Voluntarily Ending a Policy Clarification: If an Axis unit is placed
in a hex or On Station box in such a way that more than one Policy
could possibly be ended, the Axis faction chooses the order in which
Policies are checked. The first Policy checked must be ended; after
that, the Axis faction may keep the other Policies in place since there
is now an active Allied County with a Posture of War.
Example: Limited War is in effect, Britain and the US are both PACs,
and the Axis faction attempts to place a Surface Fleet in the On
Station Box of the Southeast Pacific Naval Zone. Since Britain and
the US both have Ports within that Naval Zone, the Axis faction must
end one of the US or British Policies; it gets to choose which one.
Design Note: The restrictions on ending Policies exist to make
players think like government leaders instead of wargamers. You’re
not allowed to declare war on somebody without first using threats
and diplomacy to get away with as much as you can.
13.6.2 Truces
There are three Truces, each with corresponding markers. They are
Reassess Policy, Armistice, and Negotiation.
If a Posture Box contains one of these Truce markers, that Truce is in
effect and its rules apply. If placed during the game, its rules
immediately apply. If removed during a game, its rules immediately
end.
If an Allied Country’s Posture Box contains a Truce marker, that
Allied Country is said to be a Truce Affected Country (TAC). A Truce
affects all of a TAC’s units and markers, and applies in all Land hexes
belonging to that Country or its Dependents.
Because Axis Countries always have a Posture of War, they can never
be considered a TAC. However (and Very Important): Axis units
are reciprocally bound by all TAC restrictions unless otherwise
specified.
Clarification: When you read a restriction in 13.6.2.1 or 13.6.2.2
below, you can switch the words “TAC” and “Axis” to find out the
restriction applies to the Axis. For example, the first bullet under
Combat in 13.6.2.1 would be applied as: “An Axis ground unit
cannot attack a hex containing a TAC ground unit.”
13.6.2.1 Reassess Policy & Armistice
These rules apply while a Reassess Policy or Armistice is in effect.
Support or Airdrop Marker Placement:
 A TAC support unit or Airdrop marker cannot be placed in or
adjacent to a hex in an Axis Country or Dependent, or in a hex
containing an Axis ground unit, Detachment or Logistics marker.
 A TAC support unit cannot be placed in the On Station Box of a
Naval Zone containing a Port in an Axis Country or Dependent
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unless an active Allied Country with a Posture of War also
contains a Port in that Naval Zone.
 A TAC unit cannot contest attempted placement of an Axis
support unit.
 A TAC support unit or Airdrop marker cannot be placed in a
PAC hex.
Movement:
 In the Operational Movement Phase, a TAC ground unit cannot
move into an Axis ZOC unless another friendly unit is present in
that hex.
 In either Movement Phase, a TAC ground unit cannot move into
a hex containing an Axis Detachment or Logistics marker.
 In either Movement Phase, a TAC ground unit cannot move into
a PAC hex.
Combat:
 A TAC ground unit cannot attack a hex containing an Axis
ground unit.
 A TAC ground unit cannot Retreat into a hex containing an Axis
Detachment or Logistics marker.
 An Allied TAC ground unit cannot attack a PAC unit.
Clarification: Note that Axis units are not “reciprocally bound”
in this case.
Example: If Britain is under a Reassess Policy Truce and Russia
is under the Disputes Policy, British units are prevented from
attacking Russian units under this rule, but Axis units are not.
 A TAC ground unit cannot Retreat, Advance After Combat, or
Exploit into a PAC hex.
Delay DRMs:
 Certain Delay DRMs are not applied (7.1).
13.6.2.2 Negotiation
These rules apply while a Negotiation is in effect.
Support or Airdrop Marker Placement:
 A TAC support unit or Airdrop marker cannot be placed in or
adjacent to a hex in an Axis Country or Dependent, or containing
an Axis ground unit, Detachment marker, or Logistics marker.
 A TAC support unit or Airdrop marker cannot be placed in a
PAC hex.
Movement:
 In the Operational Movement Phase, a TAC ground unit cannot
move into an Axis ZOC unless another friendly unit is present in
that hex.
 In either Movement Phase, a TAC ground unit cannot move into
a PAC hex.
Combat:
 A TAC ground unit cannot attack a PAC unit.
 A TAC ground unit cannot Retreat, Advance After Combat, or
Exploit into a PAC hex.
Delay DRMs:
 Certain Delay DRMs are not applied (7.1).
 Remove a Reassess Policy marker and place an Armistice marker
in the same Posture Box.
 Flip an Armistice marker to its Negotiation side.
 Remove a Negotiation marker.
A Truce marker is increased as follows:
 Flip a Negotiation marker over to its Armistice side.
 Remove an Armistice marker and place a Reassess Policy marker
in the same Posture Box.
Clarification: Unlike reducing Truce markers during the War &
Peace Segment (6.1.2), there are no Seasonal Turn restrictions to
reducing or increasing a Truce marker through a Political Event.
13.7 Country Setup
Major Countries are always set up at the beginning of the game
according to the instructions of the scenario being played.
13.7.1 Normal Minor Country Setup
When a Neutral Minor Country is activated during play, follow this
procedure. Exception: If you are setting up France, see 13.7.2.
Clarification: These setup instructions apply only to Neutral Minor
Countries, not to Conquered Minor Countries being reactivated
(16.3.1, 16.5.1) or liberated (16.3.2, 16.3.6, 16.4.1, and 16.5.2).
Step 1: Place its 0-1-2 Res infantry unit in the faction’s Force Pool.
Step 2: Place in the Delay Box any of its units with Delay Stripes
except for fortress units.
Clarification: Chinese port-a-fort units go in the Delay Box.
Step 3: Place any garrison and fortress units it may have in the
appropriate hexes (2.3.2.4).
Step 4: Place all of its remaining ground units in or adjacent to City
and/or Port hexes within the activated Country. All units must be
placed with their one-step side face up. All placement in Steps 3 and 4
is limited to one unit per hex.
Step 5: If the Minor Country was activated by Free Passage (15.16),
place a Free Passage marker in the country’s Capital. In all other
cases, place a Mobilizing marker in the country’s Capital. Place these
markers with the appropriate faction side face up.
Step 6: Perform a Mobilization Roll for the country unless:
 it was activated by the Coup D’etat (15.11) Political Event.
 it was activated by the Free Passage (15.16) Political Event.
 the country is France.
Step 7: Remove any Influence or Neutrality markers in the Minor
Country.
Mobilization Roll: The faction controlling the activated Minor
Country may roll one die. Do not apply any DRMs to this roll. The
result is the total number of Mobilizations the Minor Country
receives.
Each Mobilization may be used by the controlling faction to flip one
one-step unit to its two-step side. The controlling faction does not
have to flip any unit, and may flip less than the total allowed.
Design Note: Unlike the other Truces, Negotiation is a lot less
restrictive. If you want to avoid combat with a Negotiation in effect,
you need an empty hex between your units and the enemy.
Clarification: Some countries have only a Res unit and nothing else.
So they don’t set anything up on the map.
13.6.2.3 Reducing and Increasing Truce Markers
France: If France is activated as a Minor Country, place one French
A faction may be able to reduce the level of a Truce marker in a
Posture Box by one level during its War & Peace Segment (6.1.2).
0-1-0 garrison infantry in Saigon (w3619) and one French Detachment
in Noumea (e1913). Place one French 0-1-1 infantry [Res] and one
French 0-1-1 colonial infantry unit [Col] in the faction’s Force Pool.
France does not receive a Mobilization Roll.
Some Political Events results allow a player to reduce or increase the
current level of a Truce marker in a Posture Box by one level.
13.7.2 Minor Country Setup Exception
A Truce marker is reduced as follows:
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Exception: If Indochina is a Japanese Dependent or Minor Country,
do not place the garrison infantry in Saigon – place it in the Force
Pool instead.
Clarification: Note that Kansu and Kiangsu cannot be created as Axis
Minor Countries should those Countries become Japanese
Dependents.
13.8 Additional Country Rules
13.8.3 Multi-National Units & Pan-National
Units
13.8.1 Ceding Lands
A Country, Dependent, or Region may have a Ceded Land marker. If
this marker is in the Ceded Lands Box, that indicates a change in
ownership of that area.
Clarification: A Ceded Lands marker in a faction’s Force Pool does
not indicate a change in that area’s ownership.
If a Ceded Lands marker says a particular area has been “ceded to” a
Country, that area is part of the Country named on that marker.
Example: If the Russian Heilungkiang Ceded Land marker is in the
Ceded Lands Box, then Heilungkiang is part of Russia because the
marker says the area has been ceded to Russia.
If a Ceded Lands marker says a particular area is a “Dependent” of a
Country, that area is a Dependent of that Country.
Example: If the Japanese Inner Mongolia Ceded Land marker is in
the Ceded Lands Box, then Inner Mongolia is a Japanese Dependent
because the marker says it is a Japanese Dependent.
Multi-National Units: Some ground units in the game are multinational units. When in play, a multi-national unit is considered to
belong to both nationalities represented by the unit. So any rule that
applies to either one of its nationalities applies to that multi-national
unit.
Clarification: You get the all the benefits and penalties of each
nationality. For example, say the Western ABDA unit consists of a
British and NEI unit. In order to be supplied, it must trace a supply
line to both a British supply source and an NEI supply source (though
it does not have to be the same exact supply line).The unit could not
stack with an Allied Kiangsu unit (unless it was a Exp unit).
When a step belonging to one of the nationalities of a multi-national
unit is removed from the game due to a Conditional Event, the owning
faction must perform an Emergency Breakdown (2.3.4). The
remaining component unit remains on the map.
The following are multi-national units:
 Axis AEx HQ unit: Japanese and Axis Minor Country.
 Western ABDA unit: British and Western Minor Country.
Certain game events may place these markers in the Ceded Lands Box,
or remove them from that Box. The control of a Ceded Land
immediately changes when its marker is placed or removed.
Clarification: You cannot use British colonial units to build the
ABDA army.
13.8.1.2 Mongolia and Tannu Tuva
If one of these Countries is ceded to Russia, its units are immediately
removed from play and it ceases to exist as a Country. Once removed
from play, these Countries can be re-created with the Minor Country
Created Political Event (15.25).
13.8.2 Creating Minor Countries
Certain Dependents and Regions, and all Conquered Countries, are
eligible to be created as Axis Minor Countries by play of Axis cards
33b and 34b Puppet Government.
The Philippines and India may also be created as Neutral Minor
Countries by Western cards 8a Philippine Independence and 9a Indian
Independence, respectively.
The following Dependents and Regions are eligible to become Minor
Countries:
 Amur
 Australia
 Bangladesh
 Burma
 Ceylon
 India
 Indochina
 Kamchatka
 Korea
 Malaya
 Manchukuo
 Mongolia
 New Zealand
 Pakistan
 The Philippines
 Primorye
 Siberia
 Sinkiang
 Trans-Baikal
 Western Chin airborne unit: British and US.
 Western CBI HQ unit: British and US.
Pan-National Units: The Allied Chinese HQ units are pan-national
units. During play, the owning faction may consider a pan-national
unit to belong to any friendly Chinese nationality as required. So any
rule that applies to one of the faction’s Chinese nationalities may or
may not apply to the pan-national unit as the faction wishes and the
situation dictates.
Example: In simple terms, this means that a friendly pan-national
Chinese HQ can support or stack with any friendly Chinese unit. A
pan-national HQ within a friendly Chinese country can also be used
as a replacement location for units of that country.
Furthermore, let’s say a Total War Minor Country Politics Political
Event (15.26) has forced the Western faction to eliminate two Kiangsu
steps, and that Kiangsu and Szechwan are friendly Chinese countries.
The Western faction may choose whether or not to lose steps from one
of his pan-national HQs; he does not have to do so, even if one of
these HQs is in Kiangsu or there aren’t enough Kiangsu steps
elsewhere to eliminate. That’s because he can claim the pan-national
HQs to be from Szechwan here. If Kiangsu is the only friendly
Chinese minor country, then he would not have this choice.
The following are pan-national units:
 Soviet CCP and Cen HQ units: Soviet Chinese Country.
 Western Cen and KMT units: Western Chinese Country.
13.8.4 France
Design Note: France is an unusual Minor Country in that its Home
Country is entirely off-map, but it has Dependents on the DS map.
France can never be conquered, but it is otherwise treated as a normal
Minor Country. Any marker that would normally be placed in its
Capital (such as a Neutrality marker) is placed in Noumea instead.
©In AE, France/Vichy is activated on each map separately. France is
always considered “France” on the DS map; it can never be collapsed
or conquered. If France has become “Vichy” on the TK map, it is
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considered to be a different country than France on the DS map in all
respects.
©If the Case Yellow Conditional Event is applied to France on the TK
map, remove all non-F French units from DS.
© Example: It is the Nov-Dec 1941 turn. The Western Faction
chooses to invoke the French Response Western Conditional Event,
which activates France as a Western Country on the DS map. On the
TK map, Vichy is a Neutral Country, and it remains that way.
*13.8.5 Germany
Design Note: In DS, the course of the European War is handled
abstractly through European War Markers, Allied faction card play,
and Political Events. Depending on how these events unfold, the
Allied players may need to send support units to that theater.
The Allied factions use the European War Display to track the current
status of the European War and units serving in that theater. The
European War Display contains the European Holding Box and two
European War Boxes.
European Holding Box: Support units that have been sent “to
Europe” through European Commitment Political Events (15.14.1) are
placed here until they are able to return to play. A unit in this box is
considered to be “out of play” until is returned to the Delay Box by a
future European Commitment Event.
European War Boxes: The European War Status of an Allied faction
is tracked in its European War Box. An Allied faction’s European War
Status will be one of No War, Limited War or Total War.
If a faction’s European War Box contains a European War marker,
that marker is its European War Status. If there is no marker, its
European War Status is No War.
Current ESV Track: The Current ESV Track charts the progress of
the European War. Each box on the track has a number; that number is
the “Current ESV” when it contains the Current ESV or Germany
Surrenders marker. The Current ESV may be added to the Current
Strategic Value in Victory Point Checks (0.1.1).
Clarification: If the Current ESV is a positive number, Germany is
winning its war. If the Current ESV is negative, the Allies are
winning.
Players may be instructed to “increase ESV” or “decrease ESV” by
Events or through option card play. To increase the ESV, move the
Current ESV marker one box to the right for each level of increase. To
decrease the ESV, move the Current ESV marker one box to the left
for each level of decrease. ESV increases or decreases may also be
indicated by + or – symbols, respectively.
Germany Surrenders: After the V-E Day marker has been removed
from the track and the Current ESV marker has been flipped to its
Germany Surrenders side, ignore all further instructions to increase or
decrease ESV.
14.1 Aid to China
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, the Allied faction
receiving it may place it in either the Soviet Conditional Events Box
or the Western Conditional Events Box.
The Western faction may remove its Aid to China marker from a
Conditional Events Box when applying the Aid to Nationalist China
Conditional Event (16.3.9). The faction can remove it from the game
completely or put it in the Delay Box.
The Soviet faction may remove its Aid to China marker from a
Conditional Events Box when applying the Aid to Communist China
Conditional Event (16.5.6). The faction can remove it from the game
completely or put it in the Delay Box.
This marker can also be removed from the game by play of Axis card
31a British Neutrality Pact or 31b Russian Neutrality Pact, Western
card 26b British Neutrality Pact, or Soviet card 19b Russian
Neutrality Pact.
Effect: If an Aid to China marker is in an Allied Conditional Events
Box, that faction may roll on the Aid to China Table in its Conditional
Events Segment, once for each marker.
14.2 Airdrop
When a Blitz-enabled airborne unit performs an Airdrop (4.1.1), flip
the counter over and place the Airdrop marker on the map.
Effects: While this marker is on the map:
 During the Blitz Combat Segment only, the attacker receives a
one-column shift to the right for each Airdrop marker in the
defending hex.
 Enemy units cannot retreat into a hex containing an Airdrop
marker.
 Enemy units cannot trace a supply line into a hex containing an
Airdrop marker.
Removal: This marker is removed per 4.1.4 in the Airdrop Landing
Segment.
14.3 Allied Collapse
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
Effect: This marker counts against the Allied factions when
determining the Current Strategic Value (0.1.1).
Look-Up Rules
14. Markers
14.4 Bases Damaged
Place this marker in the Strategic Warfare Box when it is received.
Effect: If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, there is a +1
Delay DRM for all support units belonging to the faction indicated on
the marker.
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14.5 Beachhead
14.8 Chemical Weapons
Place this marker per 2.2.3.4. For Axis SNLF Beachhead-0 markers,
also see 4.1.3.1, 15.29 and 15.37.
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the Axis
Force Pool.
Effects: While this marker is on the map:
 A faction may be required to place a Blitz marker in the same hex
(2.2.4). Exception: Axis SNLF Beachhead-0 markers.
 A ground unit may cross an All-Sea hexsides to enter a hex
containing a Beachhead marker.
 A ground unit can only cross the marker’s Beachhead Hexside to
exit a hex containing a Beachhead marker.
 A hex with a Beachhead marker may be an Open Port.
Effect: If this marker is in the Axis Force Pool, the Axis faction may
use it for any one combat that Turn. The Axis faction declares whether
the Chemical Weapons marker will be used before the die is rolled.
Clarification: Note that a hex with a Beachhead marker cannot
be an Air Base or Naval Base.
 An airborne ground unit stacked on a Beachhead marker cannot
conduct an Airdrop, as it must be in a Land hex to do so (4.1.1).
 An HQ unit stacked on a Beachhead marker cannot provide
Ranged Support (4.2.1.2).
 There is a column shift to the left for attacks across a Beachhead
Hexside as specified on the Beachhead counter.
 A supply line may be traced across an All-Sea hexside into a hex
containing a Beachhead marker.
Clarification: You can trace across any All-Sea hexside, not just
the Beachhead Hexside.
Clarification: The Axis may use this marker during an Allied combat
segment.
When the Chemical Weapons marker is used, the Attrition losses
suffered by both the attacker and the defender are increased by one.
After the Axis faction uses the Chemical Weapons marker, place it on
the Turn Track to arrive next Turn.
Example: If the combat result was Dr1 1/2, using this marker would
make it a Dr1 2/3 result.
14.9 Convoy
Place this marker per 2.2.3.6.
Effects:
 If this marker is on its Troop Convoy side, it can transport one
unit up to its Transport Capacity using the Port-to-Port
Movement Procedure (3.1.2).
 If this marker is on its Supply Convoy side, it allows the owning
faction to trace a supply line across that Naval Zone (10.2).
14.6 Blitz
The phasing faction places this marker per 2.2.4. If the Axis faction is
the phasing faction, it may be required to roll on the Cabinet Crisis
Table as it places the marker. The marker is removed in the affected
faction’s Marker Segment (4.3).
Effects:
 All friendly units within two hexes of the Blitz marker are Blitzenabled, including those in the placement hex.
 A defending force cannot use Voluntary Retreat Conversion
(4.2.5.3) in a City hex containing a Blitz marker.
14.7 Ceded Land
14.10 Convoy Strategy
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
Effect: If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, the Axis faction
may perform one Delay Reduction (15.13) at the end of its Delay
Segment each turn.
14.11 Devastation
Place this marker in the Ceded Lands Box or a faction’s Force Pool as
directed by the scenario setup, event, or option card.
This marker is placed via successful Devastation Marker Placement
(2.2.3.5) or the Project Success: A-bomb Political Event (15.33). Once
placed, Devastation markers are never removed.
Effects:
 If a Ceded Land marker is in the Ceded Land Box, that Country,
Dependent, or Region is either part of the Country stated on the
marker (if the marker reads “Ceded to”) or is a Dependent of the
Country stated on the marker (if the marker reads “Dependent”).
Effect: An Axis Strategic Hex inside Japan with an Allied Devastation
marker is controlled by the Allied faction that placed the marker. An
Allied Strategic Hex inside a Chinese Country or Russia with an Axis
Devastation marker is controlled by the Axis faction.
Clarification: Note that some Countries, such as Mongolia, may
disappear when ceded to another Country.
Clarification: You don’t get any credit for bombing your own cities,
even if they’re in enemy hands.
 If a Ceded Land marker is in a faction’s Force Pool, that faction
may be eligible to be place the marker in the Ceded Lands Box
during a Conditional Events Segment.
14.12 Enforced Peace
When a Forced Settlement, Japanese Concessions or Allied Surrender
Conditional Event is performed, place this marker one year ahead on
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the Turn Track. When it comes off the Turn Track, remove it from the
game.
Effect: If this marker is on the Turn Track, the Axis faction cannot
“voluntarily” end that Country’s Surrender Policy (13.6.1.2).
14.13 Entry [British, Chinese,
Peace Continues: Place the European Limited War marker ahead two
Seasonal Turns on the Turn Track. Exception: European Limited War
must happen no later than Autumn 1940. If it is the Autumn 1940
Seasonal Turn, treat this result as Limited War Begins.
Example: You are rolling for the European Limited War marker in
the Mar-Apr 1939 Game Turn. You roll a 3, which is modified to a 2
per the Table, so European Limited War does not occur. You place
the European Limited War marker back on the Turn Track, in the
Aug-Sept 1939 Turn Box.
Russian, US]
When any Entry marker is removed from the Turn Track, end any
Policy or Truce that applies to that Country. If that country has Far
Eastern Forces units in its Conditional Event Box, place those units in
the Delay Box.
14.14 European War Markers
*14.14.1 Current ESV
Place this marker on the Current ESV Track as instructed.
Effect: If an Axis Strategic Hex inside Japan is under Allied control
during Victory Point Checks (0.1.1), add the number of the Box
occupied by the Current ESV marker on the Current ESV Track to the
Current Strategic Value. Exception: The number added cannot be a
negative number – add 0 instead.
The Current ESV marker may not be moved below the -5 box. If it is
placed in the 5 box, the Axis faction wins an Automatic Victory.
*14.14.2 European Limited War
When the European Limited War marker is removed from the Turn
Track, the Axis faction rolls one die on the table below. The only
DRM that applies to this roll is -1 in 1939 and -2 in 1940:
1. Limited War Begins
2. Peace Continues
3. Peace Continues
4. Peace Continues
5. Peace Continues
6. Peace Continues
Design Note: This table is printed on the European War Display as a
handy reference.
Limited War Begins: The Axis faction must do all of the following:
 Roll one unmodified die. If the result is 1-3, place a European
Limited War marker in the Western European War Box on the
European War Display. If the result is 4-6, place a European
Limited War marker in the Soviet European War Box on the
European War Display.
 Place the German Victory marker four Seasonal Turns (i.e., one
Year) ahead on the Turn Track.
 Place a European Total War marker in the Summer Seasonal
Turn Box two years ahead on the Turn Track.
Example: If European Limited War occurs in Sept-Oct 1939, you’d
place the German Victory marker in the Sept-Oct 1940 Turn Track
Box, and a European Total War marker in the May-June 1941 Turn
Track Box.
14.14.3 German Victory [France Defeated,
Russia Defeated]
*In DS, the German Victory marker is placed in the Strategic Warfare
Box when it is removed from the Turn Track. If Germany is at war
with the Western faction, place it with its France Defeated side
showing. If Germany is at war with the Soviet faction, place it with its
Russia Defeated side showing.
©In AE, the France Defeated marker is placed in the Strategic Warfare
Box when the Case Yellow Conditional Event is applied to France in
TK. The Russia Defeated marker is placed in the Strategic Warfare
Box when the Ostland Accord Conditional Event is applied to Russia
in TK.
If the France Defeated Marker is placed in the Strategic Warfare
Box: Remove all non-F French units from the game (i.e., the French
Surface Fleet, 0-1-2 Res infantry and 1-2-2 Col infantry).
Clarification: If France is an active Minor Country in DS, it remains
that way; placement of the France Defeated marker has no effect on
France’s status or alignment.
*14.14.4 European Total War
When the European Total War marker is removed from the Turn
Track, the Axis faction must roll one unmodified die on this table:
1. Total War Begins
2. Total War Begins
3. Total War Begins
4. Limited War Continues
5. Limited War Continues
6. Limited War Continues
Design Note: Again, this table is printed on the European War
Display as a handy reference.
Limited War Continues: Place the European Total War marker ahead
four Seasonal Turns on the Turn Track. Exception: European Total
War must happen no later than Summer 1943. If it is the Summer
1943 Seasonal Turn, treat this result as Total War Begins.
Total War Begins: The Axis faction must do all of the following:
 Remove the European Limited War marker from play.
 Place European Total War markers in both European War Boxes
on the European War Display.
 Place the US Entry marker three Seasonal Turns ahead on the
Turn Track.
 Place the V-E Day marker in the 16 Seasonal Turns (i.e., four
Years) ahead on the Turn Track.
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Example: European Total War starts in May-June 1941. You
would place the US Entry marker in the Mar-Apr 1942 Turn Box
and the V-E Day marker in the May-June 1945 Turn Box.
14.17 Fujiyama Bomber Production
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
*14.14.5 V-E Day
When the V-E Day marker is removed from the Turn Track, do all of
the following.
 Remove all European Total War markers from play.
 Ignore all future instructions to increase or decrease the ESV.
Flip the ESV marker over to its “Germany Surrenders” side as a
reminder of this.
Effect: If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, it provides a +1
Delay DRM to all Soviet units and markers and to all Nationalist
Chinese units and markers. Exception: This DRM does not apply to
units or markers belonging to a Policy Affected Country or Truce
Affected Country.
14.18 Hakko Ichiu
14.15 Failure [Command, Supply]
There are two Failure markers: Failure (Command) and Failure
(Supply). Each Failure has a set of rules that limit the faction affected
by them. Such a faction is referred to as a Failure Affected Faction
(FAF).
Failure Range: Failure rules apply in the hex containing a Failure
marker and all hexes within a five-hex range. These hexes are referred
to as “Failure Hexes.”
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it on the VP
Track in the VP Box containing the Rising Sun VP marker. If the VP
marker reads Allied Crusade, place it in the 0 VP Box.
Effects:
 When this marker is placed on the VP Track, remove the Axis
Minor Country Production +1 marker from the game.
 The Axis faction receives additional Japanese replacements
(1.3.2.6).
Failure Effects: These rules apply while a Failure is in effect.
Support Unit or Airdrop Marker Placement:
 An FAF support unit or Airdrop marker cannot be placed in a
Failure Hex.
 An FAF unit cannot contest attempted placement of an enemy
support unit in a Failure Hex.
Movement:
 If Failure (Supply) is in effect, an FAF ground unit cannot move
into a Failure Hex containing an EZOC. No exceptions.
 If Failure (Command) is in effect, a FAF ground unit cannot
move out of a Failure Hex containing an EZOC. No exceptions.
Combat:
 An FAF ground unit cannot conduct an Airdrop, Beachhead
Landing, Advance After Combat, or Exploitation into a Failure
Hex.
Removing a Failure Marker: This marker is removed in the affected
faction’s Marker Segment (4.3) and set aside for possible later use.
14.16 Free Passage
This marker is placed in the capital of a Neutral Minor Country during
setup when it is activated by the Free Passage Political Event (15.16).
Effect: While this marker is in a Minor Country’s capital, its ground
units cannot use Operational Movement, Reserve Movement, Retreat,
or Exploitation to enter a hex outside that Minor Country or one of its
Dependents, nor can it attack such a hex.
14.19 I-boat Strategy
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
Effect: If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, it provides a +1
Delay DRM to all non-Chinese units and markers belonging to the
Western faction, except those belonging to a Policy Affected Country
or Truce Affected Country.
14.20 Influence [Axis, Soviet,
Western]
Place or remove the respective marker as instructed in a Neutral
Country’s Capital. There can be no more than one Influence or
Neutrality marker in a Neutral Country at any time.
Effects: If a country with an Influence marker is selected in the
Political Events Segment for an event requiring a die roll, apply the
indicated +1 or -1 DRM to all related rolls (in addition to any other
Political DRMs).
An Influence marker in a Minor Country might cause or prevent its
activation with the Country Joins [Faction] (15.9), Free Passage
(15.16), or Influence (15.19) Political Events.
Clarification: Free Passage markers can be removed by Influence or
Neutrals Pressured events.
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14.21 Intensive Bombing
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
Effect: If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, it provides a
+1 Delay DRM to the Axis faction unless one of the following
conditions is true:
 There is a Policy or Truce marker in the US Posture Boxes.
 There is no US Air Base within nine hexes of a Japanese Home
Country City.
 The Reduced US Impact marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box.
14.22 Japanese Government
Design Note: The political leadership that took Japan to war was
quite fractured. The main rivalry was between the Army and Navy, but
within each branch of service there were numerous cliques and plots.
In DS, this internal turmoil is handled through the manipulation of
the Japanese Government marker.
The Government marker has two sides: Army and Navy. When the
Government marker is in its Holding Box (on the Axis Force Pool
Display), the side that is face up is said to be “leading the
Government.”
When the marker is in the Delay Box or the Turn Track, no branch is
“leading the Government.” When the Japanese Government marker
returns from the Turn Track, the Axis faction must determine which
branch will be leading the government.
If there is a Military Takeover marker in the Strategic Warfare
Box: The Axis faction may select which branch will lead the
government.
Otherwise: Players can flip the marker like a coin or roll one
unmodified die.
 On a 1-3, place the Government marker in its Holding Box on its
Army side.
 On a 4-6, place the Government marker in its Holding Box on its
Navy side.
Effects: Many Axis Option Cards have Selection Requirements that
depend on whether or not a particular branch is leading the
government.
The Axis faction must roll on the Cabinet Crisis Table if it wishes to
place a Blitz marker in a hex during the Support Segment and the
appropriate branch is not leading the government (2.2.4).
14.23 Japanese Mandate
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it on the VP
Track in the VP Box containing the Rising Sun VP marker. If the VP
marker reads Allied Crusade, place it in the 0 VP Box.
Effect:
 The Rising Sun VP marker cannot move to the right of the
Japanese Mandate marker (0.1.2).
 The Allies must place the Allied Crusade marker in a highernumbered VP Box to win the game (0.3).
 The Axis faction receives additional Japanese replacements
(1.3.2.4).
 The Axis faction may perform Japanese Perimeter fortress
conversion (2.3.2.1).
14.24 Jet Fighter Production
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
Effect: If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, it provides a +1
Delay DRM to all Allied air units, except those belonging to a Policy
Affected Country or Truce Affected Country.
14.25 Kamikazes
Place this marker in the Strategic Warfare Box when it is received.
Effect: If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, it provides a -1
Delay DRM for support units belonging to the Axis faction. In
addition, the Axis faction cannot use a Japanese Air Force, Surface
Fleet, CV Fleet, or CV Strike unit for any purpose other than to
contest the placement of another support unit (2.2.3.2).
14.26 Lend-Lease
The Axis faction may place the Government marker in the Delay Box
to “voluntarily” end a Policy (13.6.12), as specified below. The PAC
that may be affected depends on which branch is leading the
government.
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, the Western
faction may place it in either the Soviet Conditional Events Box or the
Western Conditional Events Box.
Army:
 At any time: “voluntarily” end the Neutrality Policy with Russia.
 At any time, provided the Enforced Peace marker is not on the
Turn Track: “voluntarily” end the Surrender Policy with
Communist China, Nationalist China, or Russia.
Events Box when applying the Lend-Lease to Britain Conditional
Event (16.3.10). He can remove it from the game completely or put it
in the Delay Box.
Navy:
 At any time: “voluntarily” end the Neutrality Policy with Britain.
 At any time, provided the Enforced Peace marker is not on the
Turn Track: “voluntarily” end the Surrender Policy with Britain
or the US.
The Japanese Government marker may also be placed in the Delay
Box to avoid certain negative Political Events.
The Western player may remove this marker from a Conditional
Effect: If this marker is in an Allied Conditional Events Box, that
faction may be able to roll on the Lend-Lease Table in its Conditional
Events Segment.
14.27 LOC Damaged
Place the named marker in the Strategic Warfare Box.
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Effect: While this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, European
Commitment (15.14) cannot be applied to support units belonging to
that Major Country. For this purpose only, French support units are
treated as British.
Clarification: That means you can’t bring the French fleet to the
Pacific if the Suez Canal is damaged.
Removal: Western LOC Damaged markers are removed by play of
cards 39a Symbol Conference or 39b Trident Conference. The Russian
LOC Damaged marker is removed by play of card 8 War Progress 3.
14.28 Logistics
Axis (IGHQ, Kwantung): When an Axis Logistics marker is
removed from the Turn Track, place it in the Axis Force Pool. See
1.2.1 for its map placement and removal.
Effect: If in a hex and able to trace a supply line to a supply source in
Japan, it is a Replacement Location for Japanese units.
Soviet (Far East): When the Soviet Logistics marker is removed from
the Turn Track, place it in the Soviet Force Pool. See 1.2.1 for its map
placement and removal.
14.31 Minor Country Production [+1,
+2]
Each faction has one of these markers. Place this marker in the
Strategic Warfare Box when it is removed from the Turn Track.
Effect: A faction with a Minor Country Production +1 marker in the
Strategic Warfare Box receives one Minor Country seasonal
replacement step. A faction with a Minor Country Production +2
marker in the Strategic Warfare Box receives two Minor Country
seasonal replacement steps (1.3.2.2).
14.32 Mobilizing
This marker is placed in the capital of a Neutral Minor Country when
it is set up (13.7). This marker is removed in the affected faction’s
Marker Segment (4.3) and set aside for possible later use.
Effect: While this marker is in a Minor Country’s capital, its ground
units may not use Operational Movement to enter a hex outside that
Minor Country or one of its Dependents, nor may it attack such a hex.
Effect: If in a hex and able to trace an overland supply line to a supply
source in Russia, it is as a Replacement Location for Russian units.
Western (POA, SWPA): When a Western Logistics marker is
removed from the Turn Track, place it in the Western Force Pool. See
1.2.1 for its map placement and removal.
Effect: If in a hex and able to trace a supply line to the Western US
Box, it is a Replacement Location for US units.
14.29 Materiel Shortages
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
Effect: If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, it provides a +1
Delay DRM to the Axis faction.
14.33 Neutrality
Place or remove the marker as instructed in a Neutral Country’s
capital. There can be no more than one Influence or Neutrality marker
in a Neutral Country at any time.
Effects: If a country with a Neutrality marker is selected in the
Political Events Segment for an event requiring a die roll, apply the
indicated -1 DRM (if the Axis faction is rolling) or +1 DRM (if an
Allied faction is rolling) to all related rolls, in addition to any other
Political DRMs.
A Neutrality marker in a Minor Country might cause or prevent its
activation with the Country Joins [Faction] (15.9), Free Passage
(15.16), or Influence (15.19) events.
14.34 No Occupation
14.30 Military Takeover
Place this marker in the Strategic Warfare Box per 15.24.
Effects:
 This marker counts against the Axis faction when determining the
Current Strategic Value (0.1.1).
 This marker allows the Axis faction to select which branch will
lead the Japanese government when the Government marker
returns from the Turn Track (14.2.2).
Place this marker in the capital of an Axis Minor Country when it is:
 activated by an Allied declaration of war (6.1.1) and the Axis
faction chooses to place this marker.
 subjected to the Operation Avalanche Conditional Event
(16.4.2).
Effects: While this marker is in a Minor Country’s capital:
 Its ground units cannot use Operational Movement, Reserve
Movement, Retreat, or Exploitation to enter a hex outside that
Minor Country or one of its Dependents, nor can it attack such a
hex.
 The Minor Country is no longer subject to Axis Minor Country
Occupation (16.1.2).
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14.35 Oil Embargo
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
Effect: If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, it provides a
+1 Delay DRM to Axis support units, unless a supplied Axis ground
unit, Detachment marker, or Logistics marker occupies an Oil hex on
the map (see Terrain Key).
14.36 Partisan Base
*14.39 Reserves [Limited War, Total
War]
A Reserves marker is placed in the Delay Box when the European
Reserves Event is applied (16.3.6, 16.5.4). When the marker is
removed from the Turn Track, the support units associated with that
marker are placed in the European Holding Box.
Each Allied faction’s Total War Reserves marker is on the back of its
Limited War Reserves marker. If a faction’s Limited War Reserves
marker is on the Turn Track when placement of its Total War
Reserves marker is called for, place the marker in the Delay Box and
immediately move its associated Limited War support units to the
European Holding Box.
Place this marker in the Force Pool of the Allied faction receiving it.
See 1.2.2 for its placement and removal.
Effect: If this marker is in a hex that does not contain an enemy
ground or support unit, the hex is as a Replacement Location and
supply source for the units belonging to the Minor Country it is
located in.
14.37 Policy
Policy markers include Acceptance, Border Disputes (“Disputes”
for short), Lapsed Treaty (“Treaty” for short), Neutrality Pact
(“Neutrality” for short), Quarantine, Resistance, Surrender, and
Uneasy Peace (“Peace” for short).
Place or remove from the respective Posture Box as instructed.
Effect: See Policies 13.6.1
14.40 Showa Restoration
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
Effects:
 If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, the Axis faction
may place it in the Delay Box during the Organization Segment
and combine one Japanese colonial unit with a Japanese noncolonial unit (2.3.1.2).
 If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, the Axis faction
may place it in the Delay Box at any time and flip over the
Government marker in its Holding Box to immediately change
who is leading the government.
 While this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, an Axis Minor
Country is not occupied (16.1.2) unless there are two or more
Japanese multi-step units or any ground unit belonging to a
different Axis Country.
14.38 Quit India
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
Effect: While this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, the Western
faction cannot take British Ind colonial steps as replacements (1.3.3).
Also, Western ground units in Ceylon or India cannot enter hexes
outside Ceylon or India during the Western Operational or Reserve
Movement Phases.
Removal: This marker is immediately removed from the game if a
Japanese ground unit occupies or enters a hex in Ceylon or India. It is
also removed from the game by play of Western cards 9a Indian
Independence and 9b Gandhi Arrested.
Design Note: When war broke out in Europe, the Indian National
Congress was divided between those who wanted to support the Allies
in exchange for major political concessions, and the Gandhi-inspired
majority who moved toward civil disobedience and refused to cut a
deal with Britain. This came to a head when Japan declared war and
India was directly threatened, leading the Congress toward outright
rebellion by voting in favor of the “Quit India” resolution to keep
India from supporting the war effort.
14.41 Suicidal Raiders
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the Axis
Force Pool.
Effect: In an Axis Support Segment, the Axis faction may take this
marker from the Axis Force Pool and place it in the Naval Warfare
Delay Box.
If the Axis faction does this, the Western faction must immediately
take two friendly support units from the Western Force Pool to
“match” the placement. Air units (including CV Strike units) that are
selected to match are placed in the Delay Box. Fleet units that are
selected to match are placed in the Naval Warfare Delay Box.
Clarification: If the Western faction has only one support unit in its
Force Pool, just place that unit in its Delay Box. There is no
additional penalty.
14.42 Totsugeki
The phasing faction places this marker per 15.29 or 15.37. The marker
is removed in the affected faction’s Marker Segment (4.3).
Effects:
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 All friendly units within two hexes of the Totsugeki marker are
Blitz-enabled, including those in the placement hex.
 A defending force cannot use Voluntary Retreat Conversion
(4.2.5.3) in a City hex containing a Totsugeki marker.
14.44.4 US Entry
When European Total War goes into effect, place this marker three
Seasonal Turns ahead on the Turn Track.
Effect: When removed from the Turn Track:
 End any Policy or Truce that applies to the US.
 If there are US Far Eastern Forces units in the Western
Conditional Events Box, place those units in the Delay Box.
14.43 Truce
Truce markers include Armistice, Negotiation, and Reassess Policy.
Place or remove from the respective Posture Box as instructed.
Effect: See Truces (13.6.2)
14.44.5 US Victory Program
Clarification: Reassess Policy and Armistice Truce markers have red
borders to remind you they can only be reduced on Seasonal Turns.
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
14.44 US Markers
Effects: While this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box:
 The Western faction receives additional US replacements
(1.3.2.4).
 There is a +1 Delay DRM for all Western units.
 There is a +1 DRM on the Lend-Lease and Aid Tables.
14.44.1 Increase USCL
When Total War begins, place this marker three Seasonal Turns ahead
on the Turn Track.
Effect: Each time this marker is removed from the Turn Track,
advance the USCL marker one box on the USCL Track, then place the
Increase USCL marker four Seasonal Turns (i.e., one Year) ahead on
the Turn Track. The USCL marker stops advancing once it reaches the
USCL 4 Box.
Example: It is Aug-Sept 1942 and the Increase USCL marker comes
off the Turn Track. The Pacific USCL marker, which is in the USCL 1
Box on the USCL Track, is placed in the USCL 2 Box, and the
Increase USCL marker is placed in the Aug-Sept 1943 Turn Box.
14.44.2 Pacific USCL
Place this marker on the USCL Track per the scenario setup.
14.45 V-J Day
Place the V-J Day marker four Years ahead on the Turn Track from
the Turn that Total War goes into effect.
Effect: When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, the game
ends. Conduct a Final Victory Point Check (0.3). ©Exception: In AE,
the game does not end until both the V-E and V-J Day markers are
removed (0.4). Also see “Unconditional Surrender” below.
©Unconditional Surrender: At the moment the V-J Day marker is
removed from the Turn Track, the Axis faction may return the marker
to the Turn Track if all of the following conditions are true:
 The Axis Japanese Mandate or Hakko Ichiu marker is on the VP
Track.
 The Axis faction controls at least one Axis Strategic Hex inside
Japan.
 The V-E Day marker is still on the TK Turn Track.
Clarification: If you’ve removed both the V-E Day and V-J Day
markers from their respective Turn Tracks during the same turn,
you cannot place either one back on the Turn Track. Your AE
game is now officially over.
Effect: The USCL applies a Political DRM and DRMs to Axis and
Western Delay rolls, as indicated by the USCL Track.
14.44.3 Reduced US Impact
If the Western Reduced US Impact Conditional Event (16.3.7) is in
effect, place this marker in the Strategic Warfare Box.
Effects:
 If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, the Axis faction
does not suffer a +1 Delay DRM if the Intensive Bombing marker
(14.21) is in the Strategic Warfare Box.
 If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box and the USCL is 1
or more, the Axis faction receives a -1 Delay DRM.
Until the V-E Day marker gets picked up though, you can keep
replacing the V-J Day marker each turn as long as you meet the
conditions above.
If the Axis faction chooses to place the V-J Day marker back on the
Turn Track, the marker is placed in the very next Turn Box (i.e., so it
will get picked up at the beginning of the next turn). The Axis faction
also scores 1 Bonus VP for extending the DS game (0.4).
Clarification: You can record Bonus VPs earned by placing a +1 (or
+2, +3 or +4, as appropriate) marker on the VP Track, next to the
Japanese Mandate or Hakko Ichiu marker.
Design Note: The Bonus VPs are there to make the Allies stick to their
“unconditional surrender” war aims. Bear in mind that the Allies
cannot earn more than 4 VPs on a map, so if you can keep Japan in
the war long enough, the Allies won’t be able to claim victory.
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15.2 Banzai!
14.46 War Production
When this marker is removed from the Turn Track, place it in the
Strategic Warfare Box.
Effect: If this marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, it provides a -1
Delay DRM to the owning faction.
14.47 Weather [Mud, Storms, Snow]
These markers are simply reminders. Players may use them as needed
to indicate the current weather in Weather Areas on the map.
14.48 ±1, ±2
These markers are simply reminders. Players may use them to record
additional VPs earned by the Axis faction after V-E or V-J Day in the
AE combined game. They can also be placed in the Delay Box to
record a faction’s combined modified DRM.
15. Political Events
15.1 Allies Support Resistance
If the Axis faction received this event: Roll one die. If the
unmodified result is 3 or less, the Western faction may apply one of
the following listed below. If 4 or more, the Soviet faction may apply
one of the following.
If an Allied faction received this event: It may do one of the
following:
 If Pre-War is not in effect, select a Partisan Base marker and
place it in the Allied faction’s Force Pool.
 Select one hex on the map containing the following unit or
marker:
 An Axis Detachment or Logistics marker, but not one in an
Island hex.
 An Axis colonial unit.
 An Axis Minor Country unit.
 An Axis multi-national unit that has an Axis Minor Country
unit in its Holding Box.
The Axis player must do one of the following:
 Immediately conduct one attack that includes a Japanese unit.
Although this attack takes place in the Political Events Segment,
follow the Regular Combat Segment rules to resolve it.
 Take one Axis support unit from the Axis Force Pool and place it
in the Delay Box (if it is an Air unit) or in the Naval Warfare
Delay Box (if it is a Fleet unit). The Axis player may then select
one support unit of the same type from an Allied Force Pool and
place it in the same Delay Box. The Allied support unit cannot
belong to a Truce Affected Country or Policy Affected Country.
If the Axis faction selects a CV Fleet unit, he may flip it to its CV
Strike side (and place it in the Delay Box) only if he does not pair
it with an Allied CV Fleet; if he chooses to place an Allied CV
Fleet unit in Delay then both units must go to the Naval Warfare
Delay Box.
Example: The Axis player receives this result and chooses one of his
CV Fleets. He may pick an Allied CV Fleet and place both units in the
Naval Warfare Delay Box. He cannot select a different Allied support
unit, such as a Surface Fleet unit. If he chooses to not pick an Allied
CV Fleet, he may flip the CV Fleet unit to its CV Strike side and place
the unit in the Delay Box.
15.3 Bases Damaged
If card 28a East Wind Rain is the Axis Current Card, place the
Western Bases Damaged marker (14.4) in the Strategic Warfare Box.
If card 28b North Wind Cloudy is the Axis Current Card, place the
Soviet Bases Damaged marker in the Strategic Warfare Box.
15.4 Border Incident
If Russia has a Posture of Neutrality, or Communist China,
Nationalist China, and Russia all have a Posture of War: Treat this
event as No Result.
Otherwise: The Axis faction must do one of the following:
 End one Policy in the Russian, Communist Chinese, or
Nationalist Chinese Posture Boxes.
 Eliminate one Japanese Kwantung step anywhere on the map.
 Remove the Army Government marker from its Holding Box and
place it in the Delay Box.
Clarification: You can select this last option only if the Army is
leading the government. It represents the Army “losing face”
over a border dispute after the Japanese government successfully
prevents the matter from escalating to war.
15.5 Border War
The Axis faction must remove a Detachment or Logistics marker, or
eliminate one colonial or Minor Country step from the selected hex.
Where a choice exists, a step must be eliminated before removing a
marker. A removed Detachment or Logistics marker is placed in the
Delay Box. For eliminating steps, see 4.2.6.2.
If the Axis faction received this event: Activate the Country as an
Axis Country. Then the Axis player must select a Neutral Country that
shares a Border with the Axis Country or one of its Dependents, and
activate that Country as an Allied Country per 13.5. (If there are no
such Neutral Countries available, no Country is activated as an Allied
Country.)
Example: The Western faction selects a hex containing the two-step
Axis AEx HQ and no other units. The Axis faction must eliminate the
Minor Country infantry unit located in the Axis AEx HQ Holding
Box. This requires the unit to break down, so a one-step Japanese
infantry-type unit is placed in the hex. The HQ itself is placed in the
Delay Box.
If an Allied faction received this event: Activate the Country as an
Allied Country. Then the Allied player must select a Neutral Country
that shares a Border with the Allied Country or one of its Dependents,
and activate that Country as an Axis Country. (If there are no such
Neutral Countries available, no Country is activated as an Axis
Country.)
Design Note: This event represents Axis command disputes, logistical
failures, and partisan uprisings.
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 Influence: Select a Chinese Country and apply Influence (15.19)
to it.
 Negotiate: Increase or reduce an existing Truce marker in the
Allied faction’s Chinese Posture Box by one level (13.6.2.3).
 Truce: Place a Truce marker of the Allied Faction’s choice in its
Chinese Posture Box, but only if the Allied faction’s Chinese
Posture is War. If this selection is chosen, the Axis faction may
immediately cancel the Truce by removing the Japanese
Government marker from its Holding Box and placing it in the
Delay Box.
15.6 Cabinet Shuffle
If the Government marker is in its Holding Box, the Axis faction must
flip the marker over.
Example: If the marker is on its Navy side, flip it to the Army side.
15.7 Ceded Land
The faction that received this event must take its Ceded Land marker
corresponding to the land being demanded and place it in the Ceded
Lands Box. That faction may also take one Detachment marker from
its Force Pool and place it in a Port and/or City hex in the Ceded
Land.
If the Axis faction placed the Ceded Land marker and the Country
ceding the land…
 contains a Neutrality or Axis Influence marker, remove that
marker.
 does not contain a Neutrality or Influence marker and does not
share a Border with a Soviet country, place a Western Influence
marker in the Country.
 does not contain a Neutrality or Influence marker but does share
a Border with a Soviet country, roll an unmodified die. If the
result is 3 or less, place a Western Influence marker in the
Country. If 4 or more, place a Soviet Influence marker in it.
If an Allied faction placed the Ceded Land marker and the Country
ceding the land:
 contains a Neutrality or Allied Influence marker, remove that
marker.
 does not contain a Neutrality or Influence marker, place an Axis
Influence marker in the Country.
Clarification: Obviously, you don’t place any Influence marker
anywhere if the Country no longer exists after being ceded.
Example: The Axis Current Card is card 8 Demand Inner Mongolia,
and Hopeh is neutral. The Axis faction gets a Ceded Land result. It
places the Japanese Inner Mongolia Dependent marker in the Ceded
Lands Box, then it must place an Allied marker in Hopeh. Because
Hopeh shares a Border with Kansu (a Soviet Minor Country), the Axis
faction must roll the die to determine which Influence marker to place.
The roll is a 5, so the Axis puts a Soviet marker in Peiping. If Hopeh
was not a Neutral Country, or if it already had a Soviet or Western
marker, the Axis faction would not place an Influence marker.
15.8 Chinese Incident
If an Allied faction received this event: It may do one of the
following:
 Chinese Politics: Change this event to Minor Country Politics
(15.26); the Area Table selected must be the Area Table: China.
 Encourage Resistance: Change the Allied faction’s Chinese
Posture to Resistance, but only if it is Acceptance or Surrender.
 Guerrilla Warfare: Select one hex in a Chinese Country or
Japanese Dependent that contains the following unit or marker:
 An Axis Detachment or Logistics marker, but not one in an
Island hex.
 An Axis colonial unit.
 An Axis Minor Country unit.
 An Axis multi-national unit that has an Axis Minor Country
unit in its Holding Box.
The Axis faction must remove a Detachment or Logistics marker
or eliminate one colonial or Minor Country step from the selected
hex. Where a choice exists, a step must be eliminated before
removing a marker. A removed Detachment or Logistics marker
is placed in the Delay Box. For eliminating steps, see 4.2.6.2.
If the Axis faction received this event: It may do one of the
following:
 Chinese Politics: Change this event to Minor Country Politics
(15.26); the Area Table selected must be the Area Table: China.
 Chinese Strife: The Axis faction may roll one die:
 On an unmodified 1-3, the Western faction must eliminate
one Nationalist Chinese Minor Country step anywhere on
the map or in a holding box.
 On an unmodified 4-6, the Soviet faction must eliminate one
Communist Chinese Minor Country step anywhere on the
map or in a holding box.
The selected step may belong to a multi-step unit. If it does, see
4.2.6.2. If the step is in a Holding Box, the associated multinational unit must perform an Emergency Breakdown (2.3.4).
 Encourage Acceptance: Change one Chinese Posture to
Acceptance, but only if it is Resistance.
 Negotiate: Increase or reduce an existing Truce marker in one
Chinese Posture Box by one level (13.6.2.3).
 Truce: Place a Truce marker of the Axis faction’s choice in one
Chinese Posture Box with a Posture of War.
15.9 Country Joins [Faction]
If the Minor Country does not contain a Neutrality marker or
enemy Influence marker: Activate it as a Country friendly to the
faction named in the event.
If the Minor Country does contain a Neutrality or enemy Influence
marker: Remove the marker from the Minor Country.
Example: The Axis faction plays card 33a Treaty and selects Hopeh,
which contains a Western Influence marker. The result is Country
Joins Axis. Because the faction named on the Influence marker
(Western) and the event (Axis) are not the same, the Influence marker
is removed.
In other words, it takes two “hits” to bring a country with a
Neutrality or enemy Influence marker in on your side.
15.10 Country Resists
If the Axis faction received this event, and:
 Pre-War is in effect: Determine the Minor Country’s alignment
(13.5), then determine its Posture (13.6).
 If the Minor Country’s Posture is Acceptance, the Axis
faction must roll on the Cabinet Crisis Table.
 If the Minor Country’s Posture is not Acceptance, activate
the Minor Country as an Allied Country and end its Policy.
Limited War is now in effect (12.2). Also see “Country
Activated” below.
 Limited War or Total War is in effect: Activate the Minor
Country as an Allied Country after determining its alignment
(13.5). If the Minor Country is found to be a PAC, end that
Policy. Also see “Country Activated” below.
If the Western faction received this event, and:
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 Britain is a PAC: The Western faction must eliminate one British
armor step or two British infantry steps from any hex(es) on the
map.
Clarification: The eliminated steps do not have to come from the
same unit, nor the same hex, though they can.
 Britain is not a PAC: The Axis faction must activate the selected
country as an Axis Country. Also see “Country Activated” below.
If the Soviet faction received this event, and:
 Russia is a PAC: The Soviet faction must eliminate one Russian
armor step or two Russian infantry steps from any hex(es) on the
map.
 Russia is not a PAC: The Axis faction must activate the selected
country as an Axis Country. Also see “Country Activated” below.
Example: Russia’s Posture is Disputes, the Soviet Current Card
is card 21 Demand Mongolia and a Country Resists result
occurs. The Soviet faction eliminates two infantry steps.
Country Activated: If a Minor Country is activated by this event, see
13.7.1. The faction that received this event takes its Ceded Land
marker corresponding to the land being demanded and places it in its
Force Pool. Important: The faction that received this event may also
place one Blitz marker in its Support Segment of the current turn.
15.11 Coup D’etat
If an Allied faction received this event: Activate the country as an
Axis Country, but do not perform a Mobilization Roll for it (13.7.1).
Step 2: Roll another unmodified die. If the final result is 3 or less, the
Allied faction performing this event must do one of the following:
 Select a Major Country support unit in its Force Pool and place it
in the European Holding Box (but see LOC Damaged below).
 Increase the ESV by one.
 Treat this event as No Result. An Allied faction can select this
option only if:
 a European Limited War marker is in its European War Box
and there is at least one friendly support unit in the
European Holding Box, or
 a European Total War marker is in its European War Box
and there are at least five Allied support units in the
European Holding Box.
Clarification: In other words, you can count support units
belonging to the other Allied faction during Total War, but not
during Limited War.
If the final result is 4 or greater, the Allied faction performing this
event may do one of the following:
 Select one friendly unit from the European Holding Box and
place it in the Delay Box (but see LOC Damaged below).
 Decrease the ESV by one.
Design Note: Events overseas may require that you send units to the
Pacific, or allow you to return units from that theater back to Europe.
LOC Damaged: Support units belonging to a Country with an LOC
Damaged marker in the Strategic Warfare Box cannot be selected to
fulfill European Commitment events.
If the Axis faction received this event: Activate the country as an
Allied Country (per 13.5), but do not perform a Mobilization Roll for
it.
©15.14.2 European Commitment in AE
15.12 Declare War
Exception: Support units belonging to a Country with an LOC
Damaged marker in the Strategic Warfare Box cannot be selected.
If an Allied faction received this event: Activate the country as an
Axis Country.
If the Axis faction received this event: Activate the Minor Country
as an Allied Country after determining its alignment (13.5). If the
Minor Country is found to be a PAC, end that Policy.
15.13 Delay Reduction
The faction may select one friendly unit on the Turn Track and move
it one box to the left, so that it arrives sooner. The selected unit cannot
be moved to the current Game Turn.
15.14 European Commitment
The way this event is performed differs depending on whether you are
playing DS or AE.
The Allied faction performing this event may select one support unit
in its Force Pool and place it in the Delay Box on the TK map.
Example: To Transfer the British Force H CV Fleet from the Pacific
to Europe, take it from the DS Force Pool and place it in the Delay
Box on the TK map.
15.15 Failure [Command, Supply]
There are two types of Failure Political Events: Failure (Command)
and Failure (Supply). Each Failure has a marker and set of rules that
limit the faction affected by them (14.15).
If an Allied faction suffers a Failure: The Axis faction places the
appropriate Allied Failure marker in any hex on the map. After placing
the marker, the Axis faction may take one support unit belonging to
the Allied faction suffering the Failure and put it in the Delay Box.
This unit can come from the Allied faction’s Force Pool, a hex on the
map, or the Turn Track.
If the European War Status of the Allied faction performing this
event is No War: That faction may select one friendly unit from the
European Holding Box and place it in the Delay Box.
If the Axis faction suffers a Failure: The Axis faction must select
one of the Allied factions. That faction places the appropriate Axis
Failure marker in any hex on the map. After placing the marker, that
Allied faction may take one Axis support unit and put it in the Delay
Box.
If the European War Status of the Allied faction performing this
event is Limited War or Total War: Perform each of these steps in
order:
15.16 Free Passage
*15.14.1 European Commitment in DS
Step 1: Roll one unmodified die. If the result is less than or equal to
the current ESV, increase the ESV by one.
Clarification: If the ESV is 0 or less, it cannot increase as a result of
this roll. Think of an increase in the ESV as the “interest” you have to
pay for borrowing forces from Europe.
If the Minor Country does not contain a Neutrality or enemy
Influence marker: Activate it as a friendly Minor Country (13.7), but
place a Free Passage marker (14.16) instead of a Mobilizing marker in
the country and do not perform a Mobilization Roll.
If the Minor Country does contain a Neutrality or enemy Influence
marker: Remove the Neutrality or enemy Influence marker.
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15.17 Gekokujo
If Pre-War is in effect: The Axis faction must do both of the
following:
 If the Japanese Government marker is in its Holding Box, remove
it and place it in the Delay Box.
 End one Policy by removing the Policy marker(s) from any
Posture Box(es). Limited War is now in effect.
If Limited War or Total War is in effect: The Axis faction must turn
this event into a Failure Political Event (15.15). If the Army leads the
Japanese Government, the event is a Command Failure. If the Navy
leads the Government, the event is a Supply Failure. If no faction leads
the Government, the Western faction selects which Failure to apply.
Resolve the new event immediately.
Design Note: “Gekokujo” is the Japanese term for a traditional form
of legitimized insubordination intended to redress perceived social
injustices. Before World War II, this insubordination included coups
and assassination attempts. In particular, the Japanese Army would
start wars on the whims of local commanders. The politicians at home
would be left to catch up with events.
Clarification: You can select this last option only if the Navy is
leading the government. It represents government efforts to
prevent events like the Rape of Nanking or the Panay and
Ladybird Incidents from escalating to war.
15.21 Japan Supports Nationalists
Regardless of which faction received this event, the Axis faction may
do one of the following:
 Receive and place one Japanese colonial or Axis Minor Country
replacement step.
 Select a hex containing a Port in an active Chinese Country that
is not a PAC. If the hex does not contain a non-Chinese Allied
ground unit, then place a Japanese Detachment marker in the hex
and intern any Chinese units there (16.7).
 Select one hex on the map containing the following unit or
marker:
 An Allied Detachment or Logistics marker, but not one in an
Island hex.
 An Allied colonial unit.
 An Allied Minor Country unit.
 An Allied multi-national unit that has an Allied Minor
Country unit in its Holding Box.
15.18 Home Defense
The Axis faction may immediately receive one Japanese 0-2-1 HD
infantry unit and place it as a replacement.
15.19 Influence
The faction that received this event may do one of the following:
 Remove a Free Passage or No Occupation marker from the
selected Friendly Minor Country.
 Remove a Neutrality or enemy Influence marker from the
selected Neutral Minor Country.
 Place a friendly Influence marker in the selected Neutral Minor
Country. This option cannot be chosen if there is a Neutrality or
enemy Influence marker in the country.
 Activate the selected Neutral Minor Country as a friendly
Minor Country. To choose this option, there must be a friendly
Influence marker in the Country. Exceptions: If Pre-War is in
effect, a Minor Country with a Posture of Acceptance, Peace, or
Quarantine cannot be activated as an Allied Minor Country.
The Allied faction must remove a Detachment or Logistics marker or
eliminate one colonial or Minor Country step from the selected hex.
Where a choice exists, a step must be eliminated before removing a
marker. A removed Detachment or Logistics marker is placed in the
Delay Box. For eliminating steps, see 4.2.6.2.
15.22 LOC Damaged
If card 28a East Wind Rain is the Axis Current Card, the Axis
faction may select either one of the US or British LOC Damaged
markers (14.27) and place it in the Strategic Warfare Box.
If card 28b North Wind Cloudy is the Axis Current Card, the Axis
faction may select one of the following:
 Place the Russian LOC Damaged marker in the Strategic Warfare
Box.
 Select one Aid to China marker in an Allied Conditional Events
Box or on the Turn Track and place it in the Delay Box.
Clarification: The Acceptance, Peace, or Quarantine Postures would
not prevent a minor country from activating as an Axis minor country.
Design Note: Japanese raiders damage an important line of
communication during their surprise attack.
Example: Limited War is in effect, Mongolia has a Soviet Influence
marker in it and the Soviet faction received an Influence result. It can
activate Mongolia as a Soviet Country. If the Axis or Western faction
received the Influence event, it could either remove the Soviet marker
or treat it as a No Result and do nothing.
15.23 Military Aid
15.20 International Incident
If Britain has a Posture of Neutrality, or Britain, Nationalist
China, and the US all have a Posture of War: Treat this event as No
Result.
Otherwise: The Axis faction must do one of the following:
 End one Policy in the British, US, or Nationalist Chinese Posture
Boxes.
Clarification: Remember that ending a Policy means removing
all markers of that Policy.
 Allow the Western faction to perform the Military Aid Political
Event (15.23).
 Remove the Navy Government marker from its Holding Box and
place it in the Delay Box.
The phasing faction may do one of the following:
 Receive one Minor Country step unit and place it as a
replacement (1.3.4).
 Receive one colonial step unit and place it as a replacement.
 Turn this event into a Delay Reduction (15.13) Political Event
and resolve it immediately.
15.24 Military Takeover
The Axis faction must do all of the following:
 Place a Military Takeover marker in the Strategic Warfare Box.
 If the Japanese Government marker is in its Holding Box, the
Axis faction must place it in the Delay Box.
 If the Showa Restoration marker is in the Strategic Warfare
Box or on the Turn Track, remove it from the game.
 If the Hakko Ichiu marker is on the VP track, replace it with
the Japanese Mandate marker.
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57
 The Axis faction may place a Blitz marker in its Support
Segment of the current turn.
15.25 Minor Country Created
If this result is from an Axis Political Expansion or Puppet
Government card: The Axis faction may select one conquered
Country or one eligible Dependent or Region (13.8.2) with all of its
Cities and hexes containing Allied Partisan Bases under Axis control.
The area selected becomes an active Axis Minor Country. For a
Dependent or Region, the City identified as a Provisional Capital
within its borders becomes its Capital.
Add the Minor Country’s units to the Axis Force Pool, removing them
from the Allied Conquered Minor Country Holding Box or adding its
N units to play as necessary.
Intern any Allied Partisan Base markers in the new Country (16.7).
If there is a Japanese Ceded Land marker with the same name as the
new Minor Country in the Ceded Lands Box, remove that marker from
the game.
If the result is an active Soviet Country: The Soviet faction must select
one Neutral Country that shares a Border with the Soviet Country or
one of its Dependents, and activate the selected Country as an Axis
Country.
If the result is an active Western Country: Treat this as No Result.
If the result is a Conquered Country or Dependent, the Axis faction
must eliminate one step from any Axis ground unit within that
Country or Dependent.
Design Note: Partisan uprisings occur within the occupied nation.
If Total War is in effect: The faction that received this event must
select an Area Table and roll one die. If the result yields a Minor
Country or Dependent, check the following.
If the result is an Active Country, the faction responsible for that
Minor must eliminate two of the Minor’s steps from any unit(s) in any
hex(es). The eliminated steps do not have to come from the same unit,
nor the same hex.
Design Note: The war-weary Minor Country withdraws troops from
the field.
Example: The Indochina Japanese Dependent marker is in the Ceded
Lands Box to note Indochina has been ceded to Japan. If Indochina is
created as a Minor Country, its Japanese Dependent marker would be
removed.
If the result is a Conquered Country or a Dependent, the Axis faction
must eliminate one step from any Axis ground unit within that
Country or Dependent.
If a Japanese colonial unit specifically associated with the new
SE Asia, then Borneo, Celebes and Dutch New Guinea are considered
to be part of the Netherlands East Indies when resolving the ensuing
event.
Minor Country (Bur or Ind) is on the map, Turn Track or in the Axis
Force Pool, remove that unit from the game.
Example: If the Axis creates Burma has a Minor Country, it has to
remove the Bur colonial unit.
If this result is from a Western Independence card: The selected
Dependent becomes a Neutral Minor Country. Intern all units in the
newly created Country. The City identified as a Provisional Capital
within that Dependent becomes its Capital. Place the new Country’s
flag marker (on the back of its 0-1-2 Res infantry unit) in that hex as a
reminder of the Country’s existence.
Set aside the rest of its N units for future play.
If an Axis or Western colonial unit specifically associated with the
newly independent Country (Ind or Phil) is on the map, Turn Track or
in the Western Force Pool, remove that unit from the game. ©This
includes all Ind units in TK if India is created as a Neutral Minor
Country in DS.
Example: The Western faction plays card 9a Indian Independence.
India becomes a Neutral Minor Country. India’s N units are readied
in case the Minor Country is activated later in the game. All British
and Japanese Ind colonial units are removed from play.
15.26 Minor Country Politics
If Pre-War or Limited War is in effect: The faction that received
this event must select an Area Table and roll one die. If the result
yields a Minor Country or Dependent, check the following.
If the result is a Neutral Country: The Axis faction may treat this as a
No Result or select the Neutral Country and roll on the Diplomatic
Incident Table.
Design Note: Be careful as this option can burst into flames!
If the result is an Axis Country: The Axis faction must select one
Neutral Country that shares a Border with the Axis Country or one of
its Dependents, and activate the selected Country as an Allied
Country.
NEI (incl. Dependents): If this event is rolled on the Area Table:
Example: During Total War, the NEI is affected by a Minor Country
Politics result. The Axis faction could choose to eliminate a step in
Dutch New Guinea, as that Dependent is considered part of the NEI
for this event.
Clarification: Remember, if you roll a country that doesn’t exist
anymore, such as Mongolia after it has been ceded to Russia, treat
this event as No Result.
Design Note: As you can see, the Minor Country Politics event can
cause some nasty surprises, so be sure to leave a few units in your
rear areas to guard against such uprisings.
15.27 Neutrality
The faction that received this event must do one of the following:
 If the selected Minor Country contains an Influence marker,
remove it.
 If the selected Minor Country does not contain an Influence or
Neutrality marker, place a Neutrality marker in that Country.
15.28 Neutrals Pressured
The faction that received this event must do one of the following:
 Minor Country Politics: Turn this event into a Minor Country
Politics Political Event (15.26). Resolve this new event now.
 Neutrality Discussions: Place a friendly Influence marker in one
Neutral Country, or remove a Neutrality or enemy Influence
marker from one Neutral Country.
 Pressure Britain: If Britain is a PAC and the Western Aid to
China marker is in an Allied Conditional Events Box, place that
marker in the Delay Box.
 Pressure Russia: If Russia is a PAC and the Soviet Aid to
China marker is in an Allied Conditional Events Box, place that
marker in the Delay Box.
Design Note: The Axis Minor Country starts a war in order to fulfill
its own aggressive designs.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
Design Note: These events represent diplomatic closure of the
Burma Road and other routes to China.
58
 Pressure the US: If the US is a PAC and the Lend-Lease marker
is in an Allied Conditional Events Box, place that marker in the
Delay Box.
 Reassess Policies: If the VP marker reads Rising Sun, select a
friendly Posture Box and end that Policy (13.6.1.2). Replace the
Policy marker(s) with Reassess Policy Truce marker(s).
Exceptions: The Acceptance, Neutrality, and Quarantine
Policies cannot be ended.
Clarification: Remember that Soviet Posture Boxes are not
friendly to the Western faction, and Western Posture Boxes are
not friendly to the Soviet faction.
 Wider Involvement: Select one friendly Minor Country with a
Free Passage marker in its Capital and remove that marker.
15.29 Operation Z
The Axis faction may select one Neutral Country and do one of the
following:
 Declare War (15.12)
 Roll on the Diplomatic Incident Table
In addition, the Axis faction may perform a certain number of Z
Actions. The number of Z Actions allowed depends on the current
Season:
 During any Autumn, Winter, or Spring turn, the Axis faction may
perform up to six Z Actions.
 During any Summer turn, the Axis faction may perform up to
four Z Actions.
To perform a Z Action, the Axis faction selects one of the following:
 Harbor Attack: Select one enemy Surface Fleet support unit from
an Allied Force Pool or the Turn Track and place that unit in the
Naval Warfare Delay Box. The Surface Fleet cannot belong to a
Truce Affected Country or Policy Affected Country.
 Heroic Effort by the Army: Take one Air support unit or HQ unit
from the map, Delay Box, or Turn Track and immediately return
it to your Force Pool. This option can only be selected if the Axis
has played card 28b North Wind Cloudy.
 Heroic Effort by the Navy: Take one Fleet support unit or
Scratch Convoy marker from the map, Delay Box, or Turn Track
and immediately return it to your Force Pool. This option can
only be selected if the Axis has played card 28a East Wind Rain.
Example: A Surface Fleet in the On Station Box of a Naval Zone
could be returned to the Axis Force Pool without going through
the Delay Box.
 SNLF Landing: Place one SNLF Beachhead-0 marker in any AllSea hex on the map. This placement cannot be contested.
Clarification: This placement cannot be contested, nor is it
restricted by weather. You may place an SNLF Beachhead-0
marker in the South China Sea or Bay of Bengal during a North
Monsoon Mud turn.
Design Note: Be sure to remember the Special SNLF Landing
rules (4.1.3.1). They can be a powerful tool!
 Surprise Troop Movement: The Axis faction may move one
single-step ground unit from any hex in Japan or a Japanese
Dependent to any other hex in Japan or a Japanese Dependent.
The hex being moved to cannot contain an enemy unit or marker.
Clarification: Just pick up and the unit and put it where you
want it. Don’t worry about movement allowances, supply status,
EZOCs, or the lack of Troop Convoy markers and Open Ports.
 Totsugeki!: Place one Totsugeki marker in a hex anywhere on the
map (14.42).
Clarification: Unlike Blitz markers, you never roll on the
Cabinet Crisis Table for placing one of these markers in a
location contrary to the current Japanese Government.
The Axis faction may select any combination of Z Actions that it
wishes, with the restriction that a particular Z Action may not be
selected more than three times per Operation Z Political Event.
Clarification: Widespread Attacks (15.37) do not count against this
limit. In addition, the Axis faction may place a Blitz marker from its
option card or use its support units to place regular Beachhead
markers.
15.30 Political Option
The faction that received this event may do one of the following:
 Chinese Incident: Change this result to Chinese Incident
(15.8). Perform the new event immediately.
 Declare War: Select one Neutral Country and activate it. If an
Allied player picks this option, the Neutral Country activates as
an Axis Country. If the Axis faction picks this option, the Neutral
Country activates as an Allied Country. See 13.5 to determine
which Allied faction is responsible for the Country.
Clarification: This choice may end a Policy (13.6.1.2).
 Eastern Peace Talks: Increase or reduce a Truce marker in any
one Soviet Posture Box by one level (13.6.2.3). Then, place
Negotiation markers in all Soviet Posture Boxes that do not
already have a Truce or Policy marker. Important: The Western
faction cannot select this event.
 Military Failure: Cause another faction to suffer a Failure
(15.15). The faction picking this option decides the faction and
type of Failure.
 Neutrals Consider Options: Select one Neutral Country and
apply the Influence Political Event (15.19) to it.
 War in Asia: Select a Policy marker in one of the Russian,
Communist Chinese, or Nationalist Chinese Posture Boxes and
end that Policy (13.6.1.2). Important: The Western faction
cannot select this option.
 War in the Pacific: Select a Policy marker in one of the British
or US Posture Boxes and end that Policy (13.6.1.2). Important:
The Soviet faction cannot select this option.
 Western Peace Talks: Increase or reduce a Truce marker in any
one Western Posture Box by one level (13.6.2.3). Then, place
Negotiation markers in all Western Posture Boxes that do not
already have a Truce or Policy marker. Important: The Soviet
faction cannot select this event.
 Wider Involvement: Select one friendly Minor Country with a
Free Passage marker in its Capital and remove that marker.
15.31 Power Shift
If the Japanese Government marker is in its Holding Box, the Axis
faction may flip the marker over.
Example: If the marker is on its Navy side, the Axis faction may flip it
to the Army side.
15.32 Production Success [Type]
The first time this event occurs: Place the Imperial Directive
card’s associated unit in the Delay Box.
 Card 52 – HQ [1G]
 Card 53 – Scratch Convoy
 Card 54 – Bomber [8]
 Card 55 – Sub Fleet [6]
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59
 Card 56 – Interceptor [7]
 Card 57 – CV Fleet [8]
The second time this event occurs: Place the Imperial Directive
card’s associated marker in the Delay Box.
 Card 52 – Chemical Weapons (14.8)
 Card 53 – Convoy Strategy (14.10)
 Card 54 – Fujiyama Bomber Production (14.17)
 Card 55 – I-boat Strategy (14.19)
 Card 56 – Jet Fighter Production (14.24)
 Card 57 – Suicidal Raiders (14.41)
Design Note: First you get the prototypes, then comes mass
production.
15.33 Project Success: A-bomb
If the US is not a TAC, the Western faction places one Atomic
Devastation marker in a Land hex that is within nine hexes of a US
Air Base. The hex cannot be in a Neutral Minor Country. This
placement cannot be contested.
When placing an Atomic Devastation marker, the Western faction may
select one enemy ground unit (regardless of size), Detachment, or
Logistics marker in the placement hex and eliminate it. A unit or
marker with a Delay Stripe is placed in the Delay Box; a unit without
a Delay Stripe is returned to its Force Pool.
15.34 Raiders Discovered
The faction that received this event must take one CV Fleet from its
Force Pool and place it in the Delay Box. If there is no CV Fleet
available in its Force Pool, it must select one support unit of any other
type from its Force Pool and place that unit in the Delay Box instead.
Clarification: Do not place any support units in the Naval Warfare
Delay Box for this event, even if they are naval support units.
15.35 Successful Challenge [Country]
The Allied faction that received this event may do one of the
following:
 Attack!: Place one Blitz marker in its next Support Segment.
 Declare War: Select one Neutral Country and activate it as an
Axis Country.
 End a Policy: End a Policy (13.6.1.2) in the Posture Box of the
Country named on the card. Exception: The Neutrality Policy
cannot be ended.
Clarification: Remember when you end a Policy, you remove all
of that Policy’s markers that are in Posture boxes. So if you get a
Successful Challenge: Nationalist China result, and Nationalist
China and Communist China have the same Policy, this event
applies to both Posture Boxes.
15.36 Successful Improvements
The faction that rolled this event may do one of the following:
 Add that faction’s Chinese Interceptor unit to the game by
placing it in the Delay Box.
 Flip that faction’s Minor Country Prod marker to its +2 side and
leave it in the Strategic Warfare Box.
Clarification: These Z Actions are “bonus actions” on top of those
the Axis faction will receive when it performs the Operation Z
Political Event in the Political Events Segment. They do not count
against the three action limit described in 15.29.
16. Conditional Events
16.1 Axis Permanent Conditional
Events
Check the following in the order listed, before performing any
Conditional Event on the Axis Current Card.
16.1.1 Allied Minor Country Conquest
If Axis ground units occupy all City and Partisan Base hexes in an
active Allied Minor Country, that Country is conquered. It remains an
Allied Country aligned with its owning faction, but its status is now a
Conquered Country. Exceptions: Kansu and Kiangsu are special
cases; see below.
A Country can be conquered any number of times.
For the Country that is conquered, immediately do the following:
Step 1: Remove all of the conquered Minor Country’s support units
and fortress units (including port-a-fort units) from the game.
Step 2: Remove all of its remaining counters and place them in the
Conquered Minor Countries Box of the Allied faction’s Force Pool.
Step 3: If there is a Ceded Land marker in the Axis Force Pool
corresponding to an area within that Country, place the marker in the
Ceded Lands Box.
Example: Japan conquers Hopeh, a Western Minor Country. The
players remove the Hopeh 0-1-0 port-a-fort unit from the game and
place its other units in the Western Conquered Minors Box. The
Japanese Inner Mongolia Ceded Land marker is in the Axis Force
Pool, so it is placed in the Ceded Lands Box. Inner Mongolia is now a
Japanese Dependent.
Kansu and Kiangsu: These two Minor Countries are exempt from
this event; they cannot be conquered.
Design Note: Although these two countries can’t be conquered, they
can be subdued through the Axis Forced Settlement Conditional Event
(16.2.5) or an Allied Surrender Conditional Event (16.4.2 and
16.6.1). Also, if the Axis faction can occupy all of cities belonging to
one of these minors, that will deny their remaining units access to
supply sources and reinforcement locations.
16.1.2 Axis Minor Country Occupation
If an Axis Minor Country or any of its Dependents contains a
Japanese multi-step ground unit or any ground unit belonging to a
different Axis Country, it is considered under Occupation. A country
can be under Occupation any number of times throughout the game.
Exceptions:
 One-step Exp units, regardless of nationality, do not cause
Occupation.
 An Axis multi-national unit does not cause Occupation if the
Minor Country unit in that multi-national unit’s Holding Box
would be considered in its own Country or Dependent.
15.37 Widespread Attacks
The Axis faction may immediately perform two Operation Z Actions
(15.29).
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
Example: The Axis AEx HQ unit Holding Box contains a Hopeh
infantry unit, so the AEx HQ does not cause the occupation of
Hopeh. It would do so for other Axis Minor Countries.
 An Axis Minor Country that contains a No Occupation marker
is not subject to Occupation.
60
 If the Showa Restoration marker is in the Strategic Warfare
Box, an Axis Minor Country is not under Occupation unless
there are two or more Japanese multi-step units or any ground
unit belonging to a different Axis Country.
Clarification: So an Axis Minor Country can now have one
Japanese multi-step unit in it without causing Occupation. An
HQ is usually a good choice.
Effects: If an Axis Minor Country is under Occupation, the Axis
faction must do one of the following:
 Perform an Emergency Breakdown of all units in that Country
causing Occupation (2.3.4). This option can only be selected if
the Minor Country would no longer be considered to be under
Occupation after performing all breakdowns.
 Intern all units in that Country causing Occupation (16.7). This
option can only be selected if the units can trace an overland
supply line at the moment of internment (10.2).
 Remove all units belonging to the Minor Country under
Occupation. Place those units with a Delay Stripe in the Delay
Box; place all others in the Axis Force Pool.
Design Note: This simulates the political costs of imposing foreign
forces on Japan’s allies. Note that Occupied Minor Countries remain
Axis allies – albeit unhappy ones.
16.1.3 Manchukuo Garrison Check
If Russia’s Posture is not Neutrality: Ignore this event.
If Russia’s Posture is Neutrality: The Axis faction must check each
Japanese Dependent that shares a border with a Soviet Country and
make sure its Dependent has a sufficient Border Defense, as defined
below.
Border Defense Requirements: Within the Japanese Dependent
being checked, each Road or Rail hex that shares a border with a
Soviet Country must contain at least two Japanese ground unit steps.
Exception: If there are Allied ground units anywhere in a Japanese
Dependent being checked, Manchukuo Garrison requirements are
lifted for all Japanese Dependents.
Clarification: It doesn’t matter whether the two ground unit steps are
a pair of one-step units or a single two-step unit.
Example: Inner Mongolia is a Japanese Dependent and Mongolia is
a Soviet Minor Country. The Axis faction must keep two steps in
Kalgan (w5322) unless there is an Allied ground unit in Inner
Mongolia, Manchukuo or Korea.
Unmet Border Defense Requirements: If these conditions are not
met, the Soviet faction must immediately redeploy sufficient Japanese
non-fortress ground unit steps from any hex(es) on the map to satisfy
the rule. The Soviet faction selects the unit or units and places them in
the necessary border hexes. The Soviet faction may force the Axis
faction to break down any units it wishes to fulfill this event. The
Soviet faction cannot use this event to redeploy more steps than are
necessary, nor can it redeploy Japanese ground units that are necessary
to fulfill a Garrison Check elsewhere.
Example: The Axis faction checks its garrison in Korea and discovers
it has overlooked hex e5201, a rail hex that border the Soviet Union.
The Soviet faction can select any Japanese non-fortress steps on the
map other than those that are absolutely necessary for Border
Defense elsewhere. It looks to Indochina where the Axis faction has a
3-step HQ. The Soviet faction can force the HQ unit to break down
(going to the Delay Box) and relocate two of its three steps to the
border hex in Korea.
16.1.4 British Neutrality Pact Check
If Britain’s Posture is Neutrality: Ignore this event.
If Britain’s Posture is not Neutrality: Take the British Neutrality
Pact support unit from the Axis Conditional Events Box and place it
in the Delay Box.
16.1.5 Cabinet Dissolution
If the Japanese Government marker is in its Holding Box, the Axis
Faction may place it in the Delay Box.
Design Note: You might do this if you’re unhappy with the status of
your current Government. However, there’s no guarantee it will come
back the way you want it to, and you might end up needing it in the
meantime.
16.1.6 Internment
Check to see if any units belonging to any faction are currently in
territory that forces their internment. See 16.7.
16.2 Axis Option Card Conditional
Events
These events are performed after all Axis Permanent Conditional
Events are checked.
16.2.1 Army Program
This event can occur only once per game.
Take the Army Program Air Force unit from the Axis Conditional
Events Box and place it in the Delay Box.
16.2.2 Economic Program
This event can only occur once per game.
Take the Economic Program Logistics marker from the Axis
Conditional Events Box and place it in the Delay Box.
16.2.3 Navy Program
This event can occur only once per game.
Take the Navy Program Surface Fleet unit from the Axis Conditional
Events Box and place them in the Delay Box.
16.2.4 Political Program
This event can occur only once per game.
Take the Political Program colonial infantry units and the Quit India
marker from the Axis Conditional Events Box and place them in the
Delay Box. Exception: If a Japanese ground unit occupies a hex in
Ceylon or India at the time this event is triggered, remove the Quit
India marker from the game.
16.2.5 Forced Settlement
This event can occur only once per game.
This event affects only the Country or Countries named on the Axis
Settlement card played. That Country is said to be a Settlement
Affected Country (SAC). In addition,
 If the US is the SAC, all active and conquered non-Chinese
Western Minor Countries are also considered to be SACs.
 If Russia is the SAC, all active and conquered non-Chinese
Soviet Minor Countries are considered to be SACs.
 If Nationalist China is the SAC, all active and conquered
Western Chinese Countries are SACs.
 If Communist China is the SAC, all active and conquered Soviet
Chinese Countries are SACs.
The Settlement to be imposed depends on how many Allied Strategic
Hexes in a SAC or its Dependents are under Axis Control:
If one or two Allied Strategic Hexes in a SAC or its Dependents
are under Axis Control:
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61
Step 1: Place a Truce marker of the Axis faction’s choice in the SAC’s
Posture Box(es).
Step 2: If the Japanese Government marker is in its Holding Box,
place it in the Delay Box.
If three or more Allied Strategic Hexes in an SAC or its
Dependents are under Axis Control:
Step 1: Place a Surrender Policy marker in the SAC’s Posture Box(es),
then place the SAC’s Enforced Peace marker one year ahead on the
Turn Track.
Example: If a Settlement is imposed on Russia during the July-Aug
1940 Turn, you would place the Russian Enforced Peace marker in
the July-Aug 1941 Turn Box.
Step 2: If the Japanese Government marker is in its Holding Box,
place it in the Delay Box.
Clarification: Do not intern those units inside a Japanese Dependent
created in Step 2 above, or units inside a conquered Allied Minor
Country.
Step 7: Intern all SAC units and markers outside its Home Country or
Dependents.
Step 8: Intern all non-SAC Allied units and markers inside the SAC or
its Dependents.
Step 9: The Axis faction may select one Neutral or Friendly Minor
Country and apply the Influence Political Event (15.19) to it.
16.2.6 Japanese Concessions
This event can occur only once per game. It affects only the Country
(or Countries) named on the Axis Settlement card played. That
Country is said to be a Settlement Affected Country (SAC).
Step 3: Remove all SAC Ceded Land markers from the Ceded Lands
Box; those areas are returned to their original Countries. If Mongolia
is re-created as a result of this, it becomes an Axis Minor Country;
place its units in the Axis Force Pool.
If the US is the SAC, all active Western Minor Countries are also
considered to be SACs. If Russia is the SAC, all active Soviet Minor
Countries are considered to be SACs. If Nationalist China is the SAC,
all active Western Chinese Countries are SACs. If Communist China
is the SAC, all active Soviet Chinese Countries are SACs.
Step 4: If there is a supplied Japanese ground unit in the hex listed
below, the associated Region or Dependent becomes a Japanese
Dependent. Place the appropriate Japanese Dependent markers in the
Ceded Lands Box. Check only those hexes listed under the SAC.
Step 1: Place a Surrender Policy marker in the SAC’s Posture Box,
then place the SAC’s Enforced Peace marker one year ahead on the
Turn Track.
Britain:
 Brunei (w3321) – Sarawak
 Hong Kong (w4222) – Hong Kong
 Port Moresby (e2606) – Papua
 Rabaul (e2808) – Solomon Islands
 Rangoon (w4015) – Burma
 Singapore (w3218) – Malaya
Communist China or Nationalist China:
 Kalgan (w5322) – Inner Mongolia (ceded from Hopeh)
 Haikou (w4120) – Hainan (ceded from Kiangsu)
Clarification: Do not perform this if the Chinese Country is not
an SAC. For example, if Nationalist China is the SAC and Hopeh
is an active Communist China minor country, Inner Mongolia
would not become a Japanese Dependent.
Russia:
 Okha (e5806) – Sakhalin
 Blagoveshchensk (w5727) – Amur
 Chita (w5824) – Trans-Baikal
 Irkutsk (w5817) – Siberia
 Petropavlovsk (e5810) – Kamchatka
 Vladivostok (e5301) – Primorye
US and Western Minors:
 Dutch Harbor (e5720) – Aleutian Islands
 Guam (e3806) – Guam
 Manila (w3824) – The Philippines
 Midway (e4519) – Midway
 Saigon (w3619) – Indochina
 Wake (e4113) – Wake
Step 5: If the Axis faction controls all Cities in Kansu and Communist
China is the SAC, then Kansu becomes a Japanese Dependent. Place
the Kansu Japanese Dependent marker in the Ceded Lands Box.
If the Axis faction controls all Cities in Kiangsu and Nationalist China
is the SAC, then Kiangsu becomes a Japanese Dependent. Place the
Kiangsu Japanese Dependent marker in the Ceded Lands Box.
Step 6: Intern all Axis units and markers in an active SAC or its
Dependents.
Step 2: Place the Japanese Government marker one year ahead on the
Turn Track.
Clarification: Do this even if the Government marker is not in its
Holding Box.
Step 3: Remove all Japanese Ceded Land markers from the Ceded
Lands Box; those areas are returned to their original Countries.
Clarification: Do this even if the Ceded Land is not a Region that
belongs to the SAC.
Step 4: If there is a supplied SAC ground unit in the hex listed below,
the associated Region or Dependent becomes a SAC Dependent or
Ceded Region. Place the appropriate Allied Ceded Land marker in the
Ceded Lands Box. Check only those hexes listed under the SAC.
Britain:
 Eniwetok (e3612) – Marshall Islands
 Okinawa (w4427) – Okinawa
 Palau (e3402) – Western Caroline Islands
 Taihoku (w4324) – Formosa
 Truk (e3408) – Eastern Caroline Islands
Communist China and/or Nationalist China:
 Chengteh (w5224) – Jehol (ceded to Hopeh)
 Shanghai (w4725) – Shanghai (ceded to Kiangsu)
Clarification: Do not perform this if the Chinese Country is not
an SAC.
Russia:
 Harbin (w5427) – Kirin
 Keijo (w5027) – Korea
 Mukden (w5226) – Liaoning
 Toyohara (e5605) – Karafuto
 Tsitsihar (w5226) – Heilungkiang
US and Western Minors:
 Iwo Jima (e4304) – Iwo Jima
 Eniwetok (e3612) – Marshall Islands
 Palau (e3402) – Western Caroline Islands
 Truk (e3408) – Eastern Caroline Islands
 Saipan (e3906) – Saipan
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Step 5: If no Ceded Land marker was placed in Step 4, the Axis
faction must select one Region or Dependent from the proper list in
Step 4 and cede it to the Allied faction. Place the appropriate Allied
marker in the Ceded Lands Box.
Step 6: Intern all Axis units and markers in the SAC.
Step 7: Intern all SAC units and markers outside its Home Country or
Dependents.
Clarification: Do not intern those units inside a SAC Dependent or
Ceded Land created in Step 2.
Step 8: Intern all non-SAC Allied units and markers inside the SAC or
its Dependents.
16.3 Western Permanent Conditional
Events
Check the following in the order listed, before performing any
Conditional Event on the Western Current Card.
16.3.1 Conquered Western Minor Country
Reactivation
The Western faction may reactivate a Conquered Western Country if
that Country’s Capital hex does not contain an enemy unit,
Detachment, or Logistics marker.
The Western faction may also reactivate a Conquered Allied Country
if that Country contains a Western Partisan Base marker and there is
not an enemy unit, Detachment, or Logistics marker in the same hex.
If the Conquered Allied Minor Country belongs to the Soviet faction,
the Western faction immediately takes control of the Minor Country
and temporarily places its units in the Western Conquered Minor
Countries Box (until it performs the two steps below).
A country can be re-activated any number of times in a game. Also,
any number of countries can be re-activated in a single turn.
This event occurs if the US Posture is War. When that occurs, take the
US Far Eastern Forces units from the Western Conditional Events
Box and place them in the Delay Box.
16.3.4 British Far Eastern Forces
This event can occur only once per game.
This event occurs if Britain’s Posture is War. When that occurs, take
the British Far Eastern Forces units from the Western Conditional
Events Box and place them in the Delay Box.
16.3.5 French Response
This event can occur only once per game.
If the US Posture is War and France is a Neutral Country, the Western
faction may activate France as a Western Minor Country.
*16.3.6 European Reserves
Each of these events can occur only once per game.
If Britain’s Posture is War or European Limited War is in effect:
Place the Western Limited War Reserves marker in the Delay Box.
If European Total War is in effect: Place the Western Total War
Reserves marker in the Delay Box.
16.3.7 Reduced US Impact
 If Axis ground units occupy at least three of the following hexes,
place the Reduced US Impact marker in the Strategic Warfare Box:
Dutch Harbor (e5720), Honolulu (e4226), Port Moresby (e2606),
Manila (w3824), Noumea (e1913), and Tutuila (e2221).
If Axis ground units occupy less than three of these hexes and the
Reduced US Impact marker is in the Strategic Warfare Box, remove it
and set it aside for possible future use.
Clarification: These hexes are marked on the map with small white
stars to remind you of their importance.
For the country that is re-activated, immediately do the following.
Design Note: Without a line of communication to Australia or the
Philippines, American influence in the Pacific would have been
seriously diminished.
Step 1: Place its 0-1-2 Res infantry unit on the Country’s unoccupied
Capital or Partisan Base marker.
16.3.8 The West Rises
Step 2: Remove all of its remaining units from the Western
Conquered Minor Countries Box. Place those units without a Delay
Stripe in the Western Force Pool. Place units with a Delay Stripe in
the Delay Box.
Reactivation Restriction: A Minor Country cannot be reactivated as
a Western Minor if there is a Policy marker in its corresponding
Posture Box.
16.3.2 Axis or Soviet Minor Country
Liberation
If Western ground units occupy all City and Partisan Base hexes of an
Axis or Soviet Minor Country, that country is liberated. A country can
be liberated any number of times.
For the country that is liberated, immediately do the following.
Step 1: Remove all of its support units and fortress units (including
port-a-fort units) from the game.
Step 2: Remove all of its remaining counters. Place those counters
with a Delay Stripe in the Delay Box. Place counters without a Delay
Stripe in the Western Force Pool. The Country becomes a Western
Minor Country.
16.3.3 US Far Eastern Forces
This event can occur only once per game.
The Western faction must perform these steps in order:
Step 1: Ignore this step if the Western Current Card is card 22
Nationalist Chinese Surrender or the Axis Current Card is card 37c
Nationalist Chinese Settlement. Otherwise, check each condition
below separately, in order:
 If Kiangsu has become a Japanese Dependent and a City in
Kiangsu does not contain a Japanese unit, Detachment, or
Logistics marker: The Western faction may remove the
Surrender marker from Nationalist China’s Posture Box and
change Nationalist China’s Posture to War.
 If Nationalist China’s Posture is War: Remove the Kiangsu
Japanese Dependent marker from the Ceded Lands Box.
Step 2: Ignore this step if the Western Current Card is card 29
Commonwealth Surrender or the Axis Current Card is card 37a
British Settlement. Otherwise, check each condition below separately,
in order:
 If any City in a formerly British Mandate Dependent does not
contain a Japanese unit, Detachment, or Logistics marker:
The Western faction may remove the Surrender marker from
Britain’s Posture Box and change Britain’s Posture to War.
 If Britain’s Posture is War: Remove all British Mandate
Japanese Dependent markers from the Ceded Lands Box.
Clarification: As a reminder, the possible British Mandate
Dependents are Burma, Hong Kong, Malaya, Papua, Sarawak, and
Solomon Islands.
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63
Step 3: Ignore this step if the Western Current Card is card 37 US
Surrender or the Axis Current Card is card 37e US Settlement.
Otherwise, check each condition below separately, in order:
 If any City in a formerly US Minor Mandate Dependent does
not contain a Japanese unit, Detachment, or Logistics
marker: The Western faction may remove the Surrender
marker from the US/Western Minors Posture Box and change
the US/Western Minor Posture to War.
 If the US/Western Minor Posture is War: Remove all US
Mandate Japanese Dependent markers from the Ceded Lands
Box.
Clarification: As a reminder, the possible US Mandate Dependents
are Aleutian Islands, Guam, Midway, the Philippines and Wake.
Design Note: Following a Western surrender or settlement, the Axis
will have to garrison any Dependents it gains in the peace treaty. If
that garrison falls below the amount required, then the surrendered
Country may go back to war and any Mandate Dependents gained in
the treaty will be returned to their original owner.
16.3.9 Aid to Nationalist China
The Western faction must perform these steps in order:
Step 1: If the Western Aid to China marker is in an Allied Conditional
Events box, the Western faction may place it in the Delay Box or
remove it from the game.
Step 2: If any Aid to China marker is in the Western Conditional
Events Box and Nationalist China has a Posture of War, the Western
faction may roll on the Aid Table once for each Aid to China marker.
Any steps received from the Table must be taken as Nationalist
Chinese steps and placed per Placing Replacements (1.3.4).
16.3.10 Lend-Lease to Britain
The Western faction must perform these steps in order:
Step 1: If the Western Lend-Lease marker is in an Allied Conditional
Events box, the Western faction may place it in the Delay Box or
remove it from the game.
Step 2: If the Western Lend-Lease marker is in the Western
Conditional Events Box and Britain has a Posture of War, the Western
faction may roll on the Lend-Lease Table. Any steps received from the
Table must be taken as British steps and placed per Placing
Replacements (1.3.4).
16.3.11 Internment
Check to see if any units belonging to any faction are currently in
territory that forces their internment. See 16.7.
16.4 Western Option Card Conditional
Events
These events are performed after all Western Permanent Conditional
Events are checked.
16.4.1 British Surrender
This event can occur only once per game.
Step 1: Place a Surrender Policy marker in the British Posture Box,
then place the British Enforced Peace marker one year ahead on the
Turn Track.
Step 2: Remove all British Ceded Land markers from the Ceded
Lands Box; those areas are returned to being Japanese Dependents.
Step 3: If there is a supplied Japanese ground unit in the hex listed
below, the associated British Dependent becomes a Japanese
Dependent. Place the appropriate Japanese Dependent markers in the
Ceded Lands Box:






Brunei (w3321) – Sarawak
Hong Kong (w4222) – Hong Kong
Port Moresby (e2606) – Papua
Rabaul (e2808) – Solomon Islands
Rangoon (w4015) – Burma
Singapore (w3218) – Malaya
Step 4: If no Dependent marker was placed in Step 3, the Axis faction
may select one Region from the list in Step 3 and force the Western
faction to cede it to the Axis faction. Place the appropriate Japanese
Dependent marker in the Ceded Lands Box.
Step 5: Intern all Axis units and markers in any British Dependents.
Clarification: Do not intern those units inside a Japanese Dependent
created in Step 2 above.
Step 6: Intern all British units and markers outside British
Dependents.
Step 7: Intern all other Allied units and markers inside British
Dependents.
Step 8: The Axis faction may select one Neutral or Friendly Minor
Country and apply the Influence Political Event (15.19) to it.
16.4.2 Nationalist Chinese Surrender
This event can occur only once per game.
Step 1: Place a Surrender Policy marker in the Nationalist China
Posture Box, then place the Nationalist Chinese Enforced Peace
marker one year ahead on the Turn Track.
Step 2: Remove all Chinese Ceded Land markers from the Ceded
Lands Box; those Regions are returned to being Japanese Dependents.
Step 3: Place the Inner Mongolia and Hainan Japanese Dependent
markers in the Ceded Lands Box. These Regions are now Japanese
Dependents.
Clarification: Perform Steps 2 and 3 even if Hopeh and Kiangsu are
not Nationalist Chinese countries.
Step 4: Any active Western Chinese Minor Country except Kiangsu
that contains a Japanese unit or marker immediately collapses and
becomes a Conquered Country. Remove all its units with Delay
Stripes from the game. Then remove all of its remaining counters and
place them in the Western Conquered Minor Country Box.
Step 5: If Kiangsu contains a Japanese unit or marker, it becomes a
Japanese Dependent. Remove all Kiangsu units with Delay Stripes
from the game. Then remove all remaining Kiangsu units and place
them in the Western Force Pool. Place the Kiangsu Japanese
Dependent marker in the Ceded Lands Box.
Step 6: Intern all Nationalist Chinese units and markers outside their
Home Countries.
Step 7: Intern all other Allied units and markers inside active
Nationalist Chinese Countries.
Step 8: The Axis faction may select one Neutral or Friendly Minor
Country and apply the Influence Political Event (15.19) to it.
16.4.3 US Surrender
This event can occur only once per game.
Step 1: Place a Surrender Policy marker in the US and Western
Minors Posture Box, then place the US Enforced Peace marker one
year ahead on the Turn Track.
Step 2: Remove all US Ceded Land markers from the Ceded Lands
Box; those areas are returned to being Japanese Dependents.
Step 3: If there is a supplied Japanese ground unit in the hex listed
below, the associated US or French Dependent becomes a Japanese
Dependent. Place the appropriate Japanese Dependent markers in the
Ceded Lands Box:
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





Dutch Harbor (e5720) – Aleutian Islands
Guam (e3806) – Guam
Manila (w3824) – The Philippines
Midway (e4519) – Midway
Saigon (w3619) – Indochina
Wake (e4113) – Wake
Step 4: If no Dependent marker was placed in Step 3, the Axis faction
may select one Region from the list in Step 3 and force the Western
faction to cede it to the Axis faction. Place the appropriate Japanese
Dependent marker in the Ceded Lands Box.
Step 5: Intern all Axis units and markers in any US Dependents, active
Western Minor Countries, or Dependents of active Western Minor
Countries.
the Conquered Allied Minor Country belongs to the Western faction,
the Soviet faction immediately takes control of the Minor Country and
temporarily places its units in the Soviet Conquered Minor Countries
Box (until it performs the two steps below).
A country can be re-activated any number of times in a game. Also,
any number of countries can be re-activated in a single turn.
For the country that is re-activated, immediately do the following.
Step 1: Place its 0-1-2 Res infantry unit on the Country’s unoccupied
Capital or Partisan Base marker.
Step 2: Remove all of its remaining units from the Soviet Conquered
Minor Countries Box. Place those units without a Delay Stripe in the
Soviet Force Pool. Place units with a Delay Stripe in the Delay Box.
Clarification: Do not intern those units inside a Japanese Dependent
created in Step 2 above, or units inside a conquered Allied country.
Reactivation Restriction: A Minor Country cannot be reactivated as
a Soviet Minor if there is a Policy marker in its corresponding Posture
Box.
Step 6: Intern all US and active, non-Chinese Western Minor Country
units and markers outside remaining US Dependents or their Home
Countries, respectively.
16.5.2 Axis or Western Minor Country
Liberation
Step 7: Intern all other Allied units and markers inside remaining US
Dependents or active, non-Chinese Western Minor Countries.
If Soviet ground units occupy all City and Partisan Base hexes in an
Axis or Western Minor Country, that country is liberated. A country
can be liberated any number of times.
Step 8: The Axis faction may select one Neutral or Friendly Country
and apply the Influence Political Event (15.19) to it.
For the country that is liberated, immediately do the following.
16.4.4 Colonial Liberation
Step 1: Remove all of its support units and fortress units (including
port-a-fort units) from the game.
This event can occur only once per game.
Step 2: Remove all of its remaining counters. Place those counters
with a Delay Stripe in the Delay Box. Place counters without a Delay
Stripe in the Soviet Force Pool. The Country becomes a Soviet Minor
Country.
If Australia, France, India, Indochina, NEI, New Zealand, or the
Philippines is an Axis or Soviet Country, and a supplied US ground
unit occupies a City within the selected Country or one of its
Dependents, remove all of the selected Country’s remaining counters.
Place those with a Delay Stripe in the Delay Box. Place those without
a Delay Stripe in the Western Force Pool. The Minor Country is now a
Western Minor Country.
16.4.5 Operation Avalanche
This event can occur only once per game.
The Western faction selects one Axis or Soviet Minor Country. If a
supplied US ground unit occupies a City within the selected Country,
the following steps are performed:
Step 1: Remove all its support units and fortress units (including porta-fort units) from the game.
Step 3: If there is a Ceded Land marker in the Soviet Force Pool
corresponding to an area within that Country, place the marker in the
Ceded Lands Box.
16.5.3 Russian Far Eastern Forces
This event can occur only once per game.
This event occurs if Russia’s Posture is War. Take the Far Eastern
Forces units from the Soviet Conditional Events Box and place them
in the Delay Box.
*16.5.4 European Reserves
Each of these events can occur only once per game.
Step 2: Remove all of the selected Country’s remaining counters.
Place those with a Delay Stripe in the Delay Box. Place those without
a Delay Stripe in its faction’s Force Pool. The Minor Country remains
aligned to its current faction.
If Russia’s Posture is War or European Limited War is in effect:
Place the Russian Limited War Reserves marker in the Delay Box.
Step 3: If the Country is an Axis Country, place a No Occupation
marker in its capital (14.34).
16.5.5 The East Rises
16.5 Soviet Permanent Conditional
Events
Step 1: Ignore this step if the Soviet Current Card is card 29
Communist Chinese Surrender or the Axis Current Card is card 37b
Communist Chinese Settlement. Otherwise, check each condition
below separately, in order:
 If Kansu has become a Japanese Dependent and a City in
Kansu does not contain a Japanese unit, Detachment, or
Logistics marker: The Soviet faction may remove the
Surrender marker from Communist China’s Posture Box and
change Communist China’s Posture to War.
 If Communist China’s Posture is War: Remove the Kansu
Japanese Dependent marker from the Ceded Lands Box.
Check the following in the order listed, before performing any
Conditional Event on the Soviet Current Card.
16.5.1 Conquered Soviet Minor Country
Reactivation
The Soviet faction may reactivate a Conquered Soviet Country if that
Country’s Capital hex does not contain an enemy unit, Detachment, or
Logistics marker.
The Soviet faction may also reactivate a Conquered Allied Country if
that Country contains a Soviet Partisan Base marker and there is not
an enemy unit, Detachment, or Logistics marker in the same hex. If
If European Total War is in effect: Place the Russian Total War
Reserves marker in the Delay Box.
The Soviet faction must perform these steps in order:
Step 2: Ignore this step if the Soviet Current Card is card 25 Russian
Surrender or the Axis Current Card is card 37d Russian Settlement.
Otherwise, check each condition below separately, in order:
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65


If any City in a formerly Russian Far East Region does not
contain a Japanese unit, Detachment, or Logistics marker:
The Soviet faction may remove the Surrender marker from
Russia’s Posture Box and change Russia’s Posture to War.
If Russia’s Posture is War: Remove all Russian Far East
Region Japanese Dependent markers from the Ceded Lands
Box.
Step 7: Intern all other Allied units and markers inside active
Communist Chinese Countries.
Step 8: The Axis faction may select one Neutral or Friendly Minor
Country and apply the Influence Political Event (15.19) to it.
16.6.2 Russian Surrender
This event can occur only once per game.
Clarification: As a reminder, the Russian Far East Regions are Amur,
Kamchatka, Mongolia, Primorye, Sakhalin, Siberia, and TransBaikal.
Step 1: Place a Surrender Policy marker in Russia’s Posture Box, then
place the Russian Enforced Peace marker one year ahead on the Turn
Track.
16.5.6 Aid to Communist China
Clarification: Do not place any Policy marker in the Soviet Minors
Posture Box.
The Soviet faction must perform these steps in order:
Step 1: If the Soviet Aid to China marker is in an Allied Conditional
Events box, the Soviet faction may place it in the Delay Box or
remove it from the game.
Step 2: If any Aid to China marker is in the Soviet Conditional Events
Box and Communist China has a Posture of War, the Soviet faction
may roll on the Aid Table once for each Aid to China marker. Any
steps received from the Table must be taken as Communist Chinese
steps and placed per Placing Replacements (1.3.4).
16.5.7 Lend-Lease to Russia
If the Western Lend-Lease marker is in the Soviet Conditional Events
Box and Russia has a Posture of War, the Soviet faction may roll on
the Lend-Lease Table. Any steps received from the Table must be
taken as Soviet steps and placed per Placing Replacements (1.3.4).
16.5.8 Internment
Check to see if any units belonging to any faction are currently in
territory that forces their internment. See 16.7.
16.6 Soviet Option Card Conditional
Events
Step 2: Remove all Russian Ceded Land markers from the Ceded
Lands Box; those areas are returned to their original Countries. If
Mongolia or Tannu Tuva is re-created as a result of this, that country
becomes an Axis Minor Country; place its units in the Axis Force
Pool.
Step 3: If there is a supplied Japanese ground unit in the hex listed
below, the associated Far East Region becomes a Japanese Dependent.
Place the appropriate Japanese Dependent markers in the Ceded Lands
Box:
 Okha (e5806) – Sakhalin
 Blagoveshchensk (w5727) – Amur
 Chita (w5824) – Trans-Baikal
 Irkutsk (w5821) – Siberia
 Petropavlovsk (e5810) – Kamchatka (including Komandorski)
 Vladivostok (e5301) – Primorye
Step 4: If no Dependent marker was placed in Step 3, the Axis faction
may select one Region from the list in Step 3 and force the Soviet
faction to cede it to the Axis faction. Place the appropriate Japanese
Dependent marker in the Ceded Lands Box.
Step 5: Intern all Axis units and markers in Russia or Russian
Dependents.
These events are performed after all Soviet Permanent Conditional
Events are checked.
Clarification: Do not intern those units inside a Japanese Dependent
created in Step 2 above, or units inside a Soviet Minor Country.
16.6.1 Communist Chinese Surrender
Step 6: Intern all Russian units and markers outside Russia or Russian
Dependents.
This event can occur only once per game.
Step 1: Place a Surrender Policy marker in the Communist China
Posture Box, then place the Communist Chinese Enforced Peace
marker one year ahead on the Turn Track.
Step 2: Remove all Chinese Ceded Land markers from the Ceded
Lands Box; those Regions are returned to being Japanese Dependents.
Step 3: Place the Inner Mongolia and Hainan Japanese Dependent
markers in the Ceded Lands Box. These Regions are now Japanese
Dependents.
Clarification: Perform Steps 2 and 3 even if Hopeh and Kiangsu are
not Communist Chinese countries.
Step 4: Any active Soviet Chinese Minor Country except Kansu that
contains a Japanese unit or marker immediately collapses and becomes
a Conquered Country. Remove all its units with Delay Stripes from
the game. Then remove all of its remaining counters and place them in
the Soviet Conquered Minor Country Box.
Step 7: Intern all other Allied units and markers inside Russia or
Russian Dependents.
Step 8: The Axis faction may select one Neutral or Friendly Country
and apply the Influence Political Event (15.19) to it.
16.7 Internment & Repatriation
Axis counters: An Axis counter is interned under any of the following
conditions:
 It is in a hex in a Neutral Country.
 It is in a hex belonging to a Policy Affected Country that is not a
Conquered Country. The Axis player may choose to not intern
the unit, and instead end the Policy it is violating. A Policy
ending this way during Pre-War immediately starts Limited War
(12.2).
Step 5: If Kansu contains a Japanese unit or marker, it becomes a
Japanese Dependent. Remove all Kansu units with Delay Stripes from
the game. Then remove all remaining Kansu units and place them in
the Soviet Force Pool. Place the Kansu Japanese Dependent marker in
the Ceded Lands Box.
Step 6: Intern all Communist Chinese units and markers outside their
Home Countries.
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
Clarification: This is not considered to be “voluntarily” ending
a Policy (13.6.1.2).
 It is a Minor Country unit or multi-national unit (13.8.3) in a
hex in Japan or a Japanese Dependent. Exception: One-step Exp
units are not interned.
 It is in a hex in an Axis Minor Country subject to Occupation
(16.1.2.1) and the Axis faction chooses to intern the unit.
66
 It is an Axis Kwantung unit outside a Japanese Dependent, and
any of Russia, Communist China, or Nationalist China are not a
Policy Affected Country.
Allied counters: An Allied counter is interned under any of the
following conditions:
 It is in a hex in a Neutral Country.
 It is a Policy Affected Country counter located in a hex in a
Country it could not enter due to that policy.
 It is in a hex in a Japanese Dependent created when the Forced
Settlement (16.2.5) or any Surrender (16.4.1, 16.4.2, 16.4.3,
16.6.1, 16.6.2) Conditional Event is applied.
 It is a Partisan Base marker in an enemy country.
Internment: Interned support units, Detachment, Logistics, and
Partisan Base markers are placed in the Delay Box.
Interned ground units are placed on the back of their faction’s Pending
Card to await Repatriation.
Internment Restrictions:
 An interned ground unit must be a one-step unit. A multi-step
unit that is to be interned must first break down (2.3.4) into onestep units. If a multi-step unit cannot finish its breakdown
because there are not enough one-steps units available in a Force
Pool, the unavailable steps are lost.
Example: A three-step unit breaks down into a one-step unit and
a two-step unit. However, the owning player cannot break down
the two-step unit because he has no one-step units left in his
Force Pool. The two-step unit is eliminated and placed in the
Delay Box (because it has a Delay Stripe).
 Fortress units (excluding Port-a-Fort units) cannot be interned;
they are eliminated instead. Port-a-Fort units are flipped to their
infantry sides and placed on the back of their faction’s Pending
Card.
Repatriation: When a Pending Card is revealed, any ground units on
its back are placed per Placing Replacements (1.3.4).
Axis Empires: Dai Senso! Second Edition Playtest Rules (June 2012)
67
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