PROVECTR™ Technical Information

PROVECTR™ Technical Information
Technical
Information
-1-
Softener Technical Information
The following information is not intended to replace attending technical training programs or reading of installation
instructions. It should be viewed as a general discussion about the product, its application, limitations and key factors to remember before purchase.
PURPOSE and CAPABILITIES: An ion exchange water softener is designed to remove (exchange) water hardness ions (calcium & magnesium) from water supplies using specialized softening resin as the catalyst and salt
(sodium) as the regenerant. Water passes downwardly through the mineral bed where the ion exchange takes
place. Softeners can easily remove upwards of 100 grains per gallon of hardness (depending upon the cubic foot
capacity). They can also remove very high quantities (20 ppm+) of ferrous (clear water) iron and manganous (clear
water) manganese. HOWEVER, making a softener work this hard may run you into problems of bed fouling and iron/
manganese breakthrough. Additionally, the amount of salt required to regenerate resin where iron/manganese is
concerned is four times that of hardness. Therefore, removing iron and manganese with a softener consumes a tremendous amount of salt and puts higher levels of sodium into the water . Standard cation exchange water softeners
can also remove or reduce Aluminum, Copper {20%-90%}, Zinc, Radium, Barium, Beryllium, Cadmium, Chromium
(+3), Lead {20%-90%}, Mercury (+2) {20%-90%}, Nickel and Thallium. WARNING: Although softeners can reduce
the foregoing water constituents, do not make such claims regarding health-related contaminants. Attempting to handle such problems as those other than basic Hardness, Iron and Manganese requires special testing and equipment
application. Always check with WaterSoft before attempting anything other than standard applications!
HARDNESS TABLE
Soft
Moderately Hard
Hard
Very Hard
0 - 3.5 gpg
3.5 - 7.0 gpg
7.0 - 10.5 gpg
10.5+ gpg
NOTE: “gpg” means grains per gallon.
LIMITATIONS: Softeners cannot remove hydrogen sulfide, iron bacteria, tannins, foul tastes, odors & colors nor
should they be used to remove anything other than very, very light sediment. Iron bacteria will eventually cause fouling and plugging of the bed. High levels of hydrogen sulfide and chlorine can damage the exchange capacity of the
mineral beads. Various size units have different hardness, iron/manganese, service and backwash flow rates. Always
consult the specification sheet in order to make a proper selection.
WATER TESTING: Always test the raw water supply for at least the following: 1) Hardness; 2) Iron; 3) Manganese;
4) pH; 5) Tannins; 6) Hydrogen Sulfide {if rotten egg odor is present}; and 7) Chlorine {if on treated water supply}.
Consult specification sheet to check for limitations.
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Softener Technical Information
INSTALLATION: Softeners should be installed on a level surface; on cold water line only; after filtration equipment;
after outside sillcock lines; and, before the piping splits to the water heater. Below is a diagram of a typical installation.
Never elevate the mineral tank more than 1-2 feet above the brine tank so as not to cause problems with brine draw.
Avoid installations in direct sunlight and where freezing may occur. Locate the unit near a 115V, unswitched outlet
(except manual units that require no electricity) and near a drain. Where the drain line must be elevated above the system or runs for more than 20 feet, increase the drain line size to 3/4”. NEVER decrease the size of the drain line! It is
advisable (and code in most areas) that there be at least a 4” air gap between the drain and drain line. Check all local
codes before installing equipment.
PROGRAMMING THE SYSTEM: After all plumbing has been completed according to the installation instructions, find
the section in the instructions regarding programming the control valve. It is quite simple but you must first consult your
water test results. You have determined the amount of hardness, iron, manganese, etc. Remember that iron and manganese must have special consideration. To calculate “Compensated Hardness,” add the total of iron and manganese
together and multiply by four (4). Add this answer to the amount of hardness (in grains per gallon) to arrive at compensated hardness. Use this number when programming either a Timeclock or Demand initiated control valve. It is always
advisable to both disinfect the unit and test the system cycles. Consult the installation instruction manual.
REGULAR MAINTENANCE: All that’s necessary for normal softener maintenance is to keep good quality softener salt
in the brine tank. Where iron/manganese are also being removed, it is a good idea to occasionally use either a resin
cleaner (Res-Care) or a bag of salt that has rust inhibitor in the formulation. Some prefer to use this type of salt instead
of standard salt. That’s fine, but it is more costly. If iron bacteria has entered the system, you will need to put the system through one or more regenerations using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (standard household bleach). Adding a 1/4
cup of bleach to the system brine tank prior to regenerating will usually suffice. Do not use more bleach than this, as it
can permanently damage the softening resin.
-3-
Filter Technical Information
The following information is not intended to replace attending technical training programs or reading of installation
instructions. It should be viewed as a general discussion about the product, its application, limitations and key factors
to remember before purchase.
PURPOSE and CAPABILITIES: Standard whole house (point-of-entry) water filters can be used to solve many
different water problems for the home, business or farm. All work on the same principle of downflow treatment.
Filtration media are granular in design so that the granules nest tightly together to provide for excellent compaction
and filtration. After a period of time, they simply backwash (upwardly through the media to drain). The differences are
the size of tank and media selection. See the Filter Media Selection Guide for the various media and their applications. Residential filter tanks are available in 9, 10, 12, 13, 14 and 16 inch diameters. All must have either a Vortech
plate, “D” gravel or Garnet Sand underbed to insure a proper distribution system for both service and backwash
modes.
Various medias are available for handling problems such as Turbidity (sediment), Iron, Manganese, Hydrogen
Sulfide, low pH, Taste, Odor, Color, Chlorine and Organics reduction. All but the Greensand Plus units operate without the use of chemicals. They simply backwash, rinse then return to service position.
A specialized filter is the Upflow System. It has no control valve, instead, a simple “INLET” / “OUTLET’ manifold. It
works exactly the opposite of the standard “downflow” filters. Water enters the unit first running down the distributor
tube then UP through the media. This means that it is not designed to handle sediment! Since the flow is upward, the
granules do not compact to provide the desired straining effect needed for sediment removal. The only media that
you would ever use in Upflow filters are Neutralizer and Activated Carbon. Again, refer to the Filter Media Selection
Guide for more information on media selection. Always check with WaterSoft before attempting anything other than
standard applications!
LIMITATIONS: An automatic downflow filter must have sufficient water flow rate supplied to it for proper backwashing to take place. It is, therefore, critical to test the output capacity of the pumping or water supply system before
making a selection. It is often the case that filters require more water for backwash than they can offer in treated,
service flow. Another limitation is that of service flow. If you attempt to get too much water through a filter, one of two
things will happen. First, the water may not be completely treated leaving stains, odors, etc. in the finished service
water. Secondly, there may be tremendous pressure drop across the filter bed if too much water is forced through
the filter. Proper sizing is critical! Check the individual specifications sheets for backwash requirements and service
flows.
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Filter Technical Information
HOW TO DETERMINE PUMP CAPACITY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Open any faucet and run until pump turns “on.”
Close faucet and let pump fill pressure tank and turn “off.”
Open any faucet and collect all water discharged until pump turns “on.”
When pump turns “on,” immediately close faucet and start timing pump cycle.
When pump turns “off,” record cycle time to refill pressure tank (in “seconds”).
Measure total number of “gallons” collected in step #3.
Divide the number of “gallons” collected in step #3 by the number of “seconds” in step #5.
Multiply the answer derived in step #7 by “60.”
The answer in step #8 is the average pumping capacity of the system.
(Note: Make certain no other water is being used during this test)
Example
Number of “gallons” collected during draw-down (step #3) = 9
Number of “seconds” in pump cycle to refill tank (step #5) = 72
GPM = (gallons collected / seconds in cycle) X 60
GPM = ( 9 / 72 ) X 60
GPM = .125 X 60
GPM = 7.5
(Simply select a filter requiring 7.5 gpm, or less, backwash)
WATER TESTING: Always test the raw water supply for at least the following: 1) Hardness; 2) Iron; 3) Manganese; 4)
pH; 5) Tannins; 6) Hydrogen Sulfide {if rotten egg odor is present}; and 7) Chlorine {if on treated water supply}. Consult
specification sheet to check for limitations.
INSTALLATION: Filters should be installed on a level surface; on cold water line only; typically after outside sillcock
lines; before softeners; and, before the piping splits to the water heater. Above is a diagram of a typical installation.
Avoid installations in direct sunlight and where freezing may occur. Locate the unit near a 115V , unswitched outlet
(except manual units that require no electricity) and near a drain. Where the drain line must be elevated above the system or runs for more than 20 feet, increase the drain line size to 3/4 “. NEVER decrease the size of the drain line! It is
advisable (and code in most areas) that there be at least a 4” air gap between the drain and drain line. Check all local
codes before installing equipment.
PROGRAMMING THE SYSTEM: After all plumbing has been completed according to the installation instructions, find
the section in the instructions regarding programming the control valve. It is quite simple but you must first consult your
water test results. You have determined the pH, amount of iron, manganese, etc. It’s typical to set filters to backwash
from every 3 to 6 days. It is always advisable to both disinfect the unit and test the system cycles. Consult the
installation instruction manual.
REGULAR MAINTENANCE: All that’s necessary for normal filter maintenance is regular backwashing. If iron bacteria
has entered the system, you will need to remove the control valve and add 1/2 cup 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (standard household bleach), leave it sit for at least 30 minutes then backwash. If this doesn’t sufficiently clean the medium,
a replacement bed will be necessary. You’ll need to replace and/ or replenish media according to the Filter Media
Selection Guide.
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PROVECTR™ Technical Information
I.
General Information
The PROVECTR™ Water Treatment System is a revolutionary product that has the capability of removing Iron,
Manganese, Turbidity, Sulfur and other Gases, improving taste, odor and color while also adjusting upwardly the pH
of acid water. It does all of these things, under proper conditions, without the use of chemicals and/or regenerants like
salt, chlorine and potassium permanganate.
The only maintenance required for most installations is an occasional backwashing which is done automatically. Most
systems will require backwashing only once or twice in a six day period as you will see in the chart shown later in this
technical information guide.
The key to a successful installation is, of course, having the proper water testing, water pumping system, equipment
selection and installation. We hope to provide you with as much of this information as possible throughout the next few
pages. Let’s first see how the PROVECTR™ accomplishes its task of providing naturally treated water.
II. PROVECTR™ : How Does It Work?
Please look over Typical Installation Figure 1 on the next page before we begin studying the various functions of the
system. As we discuss the functions, we will move from the left to right on the diagram. Please refer to the circled letters within the figure of each component part or portion of the system we are discussing as shown alphabetically below.
A. Pump - Since the PROVECTR™ requires both sufficient flow and pressure to operate, you should generally limit
installations to only those jobs where you have a submersible pump that has been properly sized for the well.
There are only a few exceptions to this general rule that we will discuss later, but for most all cases, limit your
installations to submersible pumps. Generally, jet pumps do not provide both flow and pressure in combination
to let the PROVECTR™ Manifold work properly. If you do have a job that is to be treated where a jet pump is
involved, either include a new submersible with the installation or contact your distributor or the WaterSoft factory
for acceptable non-submersible applications.
NOTE : PROVECTR™ cannot be used with constant pressure pump systems!! (Consult factory for details).
B. Check Valve - It is recommended that a check valve be installed above ground as a back-up to the well check. In
the event the primary check valve fails, the above ground check will prevent a back flow of water down the well.
This could cause a negative pressure situation which can collapse the PROVECTR™ tanks. This cannot be covered under the standard warranty if this occurs.
C. Pressure Relief Valve - This is an optional piece of equipment that should be installed between the pump and the
PROVECTR™ tank. The relief valve will protect the system from an over pressure situation. A relief valve with a
minimum 125 psi blow off should be used.
D. Pressure Gauge - It is highly recommended that a gauge be installed at this location for the purpose of reading
actual head pressure being delivered from the pump during the pump cycle. A gauge at this location will be invaluable if later troubleshooting of the system is required.
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PROVECTR™ Technical Information
FIGURE 1
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PROVECTR™ Technical Information
E. PROVECTR™ Tank Manifold - The PROVECTR™ Tank Manifold is a special device designed and manufactured by
WaterSoft that brings air into the water system. This is where actual “treatment” of the water begins. This air starts the
oxidation process of producing physical particles that will be trapped by the filter portion of the system. The relatively
high pressure and flow delivered by the pump, compared with the lower system pressure (i.e. 30/50 psi switch setting),
causes a point of low pressure and suction in the center of the PROVECTR™ Tank Manifold. This suction is what draws
air into the system through the air intake valve check located on the side of the PROVECTR™ manifold.
FIGURE 2
The water flowing into the PROVECTR™ Tank Manifold is somewhat restricted in the nozzle section. When the nozzle
receives sufficient pressure, suction is then created at the point the water leaves the nozzle and enters the opening of
the venturi section. This is where the air is pulled into the water flow. If there is more than the required amount of water
flow entering the nozzle (5 gpm), a certain amount will go around the nozzle through the bypass ports. This prevents
an unnecessary loss of flow and pressure while the pump is operating. This occurs automatically and does not require
adjustments. The bypass water then rejoins the main stream of flow at the end of the venturi, where it mixes with the
water flow that received the air injection. This mixing point assures that all of the water comes into contact with the
air. (See Figure 2.)
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PROVECTR™ Technical Information
The amount of differential pressure generally required to operate the PROVECTR™ manifold is 20 psi. Consider this number
as a constant in all residential systems. You can actually determine the air draw into the system by following this example :
How To Calculate Air Draw
Simply determine the Head Pressure (Gauge) offered by the pump and subtract the constant of 20# differential required to
operate the PROVECTR™ manifold. The answer you get will tell you the point at which the PROVECTR™ manifold will stop
drawing air. This pressure number is the pressure seen on gauge - system pressure. If Head Pressure is 75 psi on a 40/60
system ...
75 psi (Gauge)
- 20 psi (Differential Constant)
55 psi (Will draw air to this system pressure)
In this case, air will be drawn by the PROVECTR™ manifold from 40 psi to 55 psi or 75% of the pump cycle.
As a general rule, we want to have at least a 25% air draw at the PROVECTR™ manifold. The higher level of contamination
in the water, the more air draw we need. You will find that most properly sized submersibles will easily give you from 50% to
100% air draw.
FIGURE 3
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PROVECTR™ Technical Information
EE. PROVECTR™ Tank - This tank is critical to the operation of the PROVECTR™ System. All water and excess air that is
taken into the water system by the PROVECTR™ manifold passes through this tank on its way to the pressure tank and
then the PROVECTR™ Filter. There are certain dynamics that occur in this tank which move contaminants closer to a fully
oxidized state. Let’s discuss just how the PROVECTR™ tank works.
As we continue with the PROVECTR™ tank, please refer to Figure 3. As water flows from the well pump and enters the
PROVECTR™ tank manifold, the nozzle/venturi section {Fig 2} creates a suction and draws air into the water through the
air intake valve check which is totally serviceable. A minimum flow of 5 gpm is required to satisfy the nozzle/venturi section
of the PROVECTR™ manifold. Once the center nozzle/venturi section is satisfied with flow, any flow over 5 gpm will be
automatically bypassed through the three bypass holes located around the outer perimeter of the nozzle/venturi section.
This bypass flow will rejoin the aerated water on the outlet side of the PROVECTR™ tank manifold. The combined air /
water mixture then forcefully contacts the PROVECTR™ diffuser {B} where the high level of free air separates and remains
in the top section of the PROVECTR™ tank. Water and contaminants move downwardly to the bottom of the tank {F}
and exit towards the filter. After a short time, there will be a full head of air in essence Aerating the water as it sprays out
away from the diffuser. This aeration process is very effective because air is forced into the water due to the fact that the
PROVECTR™ tank is under full line pressure. This is superior to atmospheric aeration due to the speed and efficiency that
contaminants (e.g. iron and sulfur) are oxidized.
As more and more excess air is trapped in the top section {A} of the PROVECTR™ tank, the water level moves lower
in the tank. This is what we call the maturity level in the PROVECTR™ tank. When additional air is introduced into the
PROVECTR™ tank thereafter, the water level falls and the weighted float inside the float guide {C} drops momentarily
allowing a proportionate amount of air to escape from the PROVECTR™ tank manifold through the exhaust vent and
out the air vent line {E} to a drain. When sufficient air has vented to allow the water level to rise back to the maturity
point, the water rising allows the float to become buoyant once again. The float then closes off the exhaust vent so that
air is kept in the PROVECTR™ tank.
It is an important safety measure to run the exhaust vent line to a drain. Normally, there will be a very small amount
of water discharged with the air as the system vents. However, in the event that the float malfunctions and stays
“open”, water will continuously run through this line until the float returns to shut-off or a repair is made. Always run
this vent line to a drain to prevent flooding should a problem arise. The exhaust vent line can be run outside as long
as measures are taken to prevent the line from freezing shut during cold weather. It is important to mention that if the
PROVECTR™ is being used to treat hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S), the air will oxidize most of the gas to a particle of
elemental sulfur. Consequently, very little smell, if any, will be experienced out of the air vent line.
To this point, the contaminants in the raw water have been forced through the nozzle/venturi section of the
PROVECTR™ tank manifold where they are exposed to compression/decompression, a massive quantity of air, and
forcefully at full pump flow diffused through the head of air in the top of the PROVECTR™ tank. By this time, significant oxidation has occurred. But there is yet another function to be performed by the PROVECTR™ tank. Notice
the plastic air stripping balls {D} located in the PROVECTR™ tank. These balls do not perform filtration, but serve to
accomplish two other functions. Precipitated contaminants (e.g. ferric and manganic hydroxides) will form a thin coating on the surface of the air stripping balls. As the water / contaminant mixture moves over the balls on it’s way to
the bottom outlet of the PROVECTR™ tank, the coating of oxidized contaminants on the balls chemically assists yet
unoxidized contaminants to move closer to a fully oxidized state by a chemical process called sorbing.
The second function of the air stripping balls is to further mix the dissolved oxygen with the water and to help hasten
the oxidation of certain gases (e.g. hydrogen sulfide). Due to the large openings in these balls, the water is sheared
as it passes through them, and allows for a thorough mixing of oxygen, water and the separation of excess gases. As
we continue our discussion, please refer back to Figure1.
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PROVECTR™ Technical Information
F. Pressure Tank - All PROVECTR™ Systems will require a pressure tank, unless installed ahead of an atmospheric
storage tank. In the case of an atmospheric storage tank, the system will need to be configured for clean water backwash or a change in pump wiring will need to be done to provide pump flow for backwashing purposes. (Contact the
factory or your sales representative for details.) Due to the fact that all the excess free air is being exhausted prior to
the pressure tank, either a precharged diaphragm / bladder type or air-to-water lined galvanized tank may be used.
G. Split System - If a secondary service line (split system) is to be installed ahead of the PROVECTR™ tank to provide untreated water (e.g. irrigation, outside faucets, etc.), it is highly recommended that a bypass line be installed between the PROVECTR™ tank and the pressure tank. This will allow draw down from the pressure tank to bypass the
PROVECTR™ tank until the pressure switch closes and turns the pump on providing true raw water to the secondary service line.
Note : In most irrigation applications, the well pump will be oversized to provide adequate flow for both the irrigation system and the home. In these cases, a PROVECTR™ Manifold with a larger venturi/nozzle size will probably be required. (e.g. 10 gpm or 15 gpm). This will prevent high head pressure from developing when the irrigation system is
not in use.
H. Check Valve - A one way check valve should be installed at the two locations shown. This will prevent free air from escaping the PROVECTR™ tank into the secondary service line and also provide one way passage of flow from the pressure tank when secondary service is operated.
I.
Pressure Switch - This is any good quality pressure switch usually preset to the 40 / 60 psi range. Remember that the point at which the pressure switch senses pressure must always be located after the PROVECTR™ tank so that
it reads SYSTEM and not pump head pressure.
Note : If it is ever desired to change the pressure switch setting (cut on / cut off), always drain the system and change the precharge in the pressure tank to 2 psi below the cut on pressure (e.g. 40 /60 setting - precharge = 38 psi). This is extremely important as maximum draw down, pump run time and contact time will be achieved.
J. Pressure Gauge - This is the gauge that shows current system pressure. It is the difference between this gauge and gauge that will show you differential pressure for any given water system.
K. PROVECTR™ Filter Tank - The filter tank serves several important functions. Its primary purpose is to trap the
physical particles (e.g. ferric hydroxides and elemental sulfur) that have been produced by the oxidation process. We
have simply taken unfilterable dissolved solids and converted them by an oxidation process to precipitated and filterable suspended solids. In most cases, the particles are trapped on the surface and in the top portion of the mineral
bed.
L. The mineral bed of the PROVECTR™ consists of a proportioned mixture of two (2) proven filter medias known as Smart Blend™ . The two media are:
Filter Ag™ PLUS
Manganese Dioxide
This media is coarsely blended by WaterSoft and serves the following functions. The entire bed provides excellent
mechanical filtration due to the angular / granular nature of the individual minerals.
Filter Ag PLUS™ - Specifically, Filter Ag PLUS™ is non-hydrous aluminum silicate. It’s only function is that of
mechanical filtration, down to the 3-5 micron size range.
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PROVECTR™ Technical Information
Manganese Dioxide - This media is an active, insoluble catalyst that utilizes dissolved oxygen in water to convert clear iron, sulfur gas & manganese to a filterable state. It serves as an “insurance policy” in the filter bed during peak demand periods to remove traces of iron / manganese & sulfur in the event that they were not fully oxidized prior to entry into the filter bed. This will also correct low pH without being self-sacrificial.
M. Vortech™ Distributor Plate - Beneath the Smart Blend™ filter media is the Vortech™ Distributor plate. The
purpose of the Vortech is to permit even flow of the water during both service and backwash modes. Also, the
Vortech™ provides a vigorous backwash helping to clean the filter media bed. No gravel underbedding required!
N.
Filter Control Valve - The Filter Control Valve is used for the automatic cleaning (backwashing) of trapped oxidized
contaminants from the filter. The control valve does this by directing the flow of water backwards through the filter,
thus purging the contaminants from the tank and also reorienting the filter bed. This backwash water is then directed out of the control valve drain line. After the backwash cycle is complete, the control valve will then direct the flow
downwards through the filter tank (rapid rinse), recompacting the mineral bed and flushing any “dirty” water from
the bottom section of the filter. During the backwash cycle, water is available to the house but will be untreated.
That is why the PROVECTR™ control valve is factory preset to activate the backwash cycle at 12:00 a.m. on a night
it is scheduled. Backwash frequency can be estimated using the formula below:
Combined iron and manganese removal for
PROVECTR™ Filter = 15,000 ppm per cu. ft. of filter media
Example :
Model - AF10Qty. of Media - 1.5 cu. ft.
Iron / Manganese Content - 5 ppm
Number of People in Family - 4
Estimated Water Usage - 75 gals. per person per day
Total iron / manganese removal before backwashing is required :
1.5 cu. ft. x 15,000 ppm / cu. ft. = 22,500 ppm
Estimated water usage :
4 people x 75 gpd = 300 gals. per day
Iron / manganese removal per day :
300 gpd x 5 ppm = 1,500 ppm / day
Required backwash frequency :
22,500 / 1,500 ppm / day = 15 days
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PROVECTR™ Technical Information
The required backwash frequency in this example is every 15 days. We want to backwash a minimum of every 6 days to assure orientation of the filter bed. Program the Isobar II control valve for every 6 days in this example.
Note : For sulfur gas removal, frequency of backwash should be accomplished twice as often as for iron / manganese. Also, if tannins and / or bacteria versions of these contaminants are involved.
The Isobar II Control is provided as the standard valve for the PROVECTR™ System. The Bluetooth / Legacy View App Capable Control valve provides excellent backwash flow characteristics required for proper cleaning of the filter. It also features adjustable cycle length times (backwash and rapid rinse) for versatility when well capacities may be at a minimum. Also, the Isobar II control will motor to each position to provide full flow for the entire cycle duration. This provides for a better backwash and will help keep oxidized contaminants from collecting inside the valve by keeping water velocities high. For more information about operation and service of the Isobar II control valve, please
consult the Isobar 2 Instruction Manual.
O.
Drain Line - During any backwash cycle, water will automatically be directed through the PROVECTR™ filter and out the drain line. A 1/2” I.D. by 5/8” O.D. clear drain line attached to the drain line hose barb is normally used. DO NOT use flimsy tubing that will kink, reducing drain line flow. Only semi-rigid drain tubing should be used. By removing the drain line hose barb, a 1/2” drain line can also be hard plumbed in PVC or copper. The drain line should be kept as short as possible and the diameter of the line should never be decreased to less than that of the hose barb provided with the filter. Decreasing the diameter will result in a back pressure situation due to friction loss and can result in insufficient backwashing. A 4” air gap should also be maintained to prevent a possible syphoning of water standing in the drain back into the filter.
The cycle times on all PROVECTR™ Isobar II Control Valves will need to be changed to the following:
Backwash
Rest Period
Rapid Rinse
Total
10
20
16
46
minutes
minutes
minutes
minutes
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PROVECTR™ Technical Information
FIGURE 5
Manganese Removal
PROVECTR ™ capability to remove Manganese from water is
critcally dependent on the Iron and pH levels as shown below:
If the Iron to Manganese
ratio is:
Then the pH must be at
least:
10:1
7.0
5:1
7.8
1:1
8.3
0:1
8.5
FIGURE 6
IV.
Contaminants In Water
It is critical that the water to be treated with any water treatment equipment be analyzed so that a proper selection of equipment can be made. Although PROVECTR™ handles a wide variety of contaminants, there are certain things to keep in mind to insure a successful installation. The following is a discussion of various contaminants as they relate to PROVECTR™.
A.
Iron - Concentrations of iron as low as .30 ppm can cause staining of fixtures and laundry. PROVECTR™ can remove various types of iron up to a maximum raw water content of 16 ppm under suitable conditions.
(See Figure 6.) Iron occurs in water in two basic forms;
1. Dissolved Solids - clear or ferrous iron
2. Suspended Solids - red or ferric iron
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PROVECTR™ Technical Information
If you will remember, our goal with the PROVECTR™ is to convert dissolved solids to suspended solids for removal by the filter
media. In the case of clear or ferrous iron, the oxygen introduced by the PROVECTR™ manifold starts the oxidation process, which
will in essence turn the iron to a physical, rusty particle. The red or ferric iron is virtually ready for mechanical filtration since it is
already precipitated.
B.
Iron Bacteria - Bacterial forms of iron are non-pathogenic organisms that thrive off of the energy created by the oxidation of iron and manganese. Since the PROVECTR™ oxidizes ferrous iron (clear) to ferric iron (red), iron
bacteria in the water supply can adversely affect the operation of the system.
NOTE : If a red slime type growth is observed in the water closet of a flush type toilet or growth is noted in a sample of water after a few days, iron bacteria is likely present in the water supply.
C.
Manganese - Concentrations as low as .05 ppm of manganese can cause dark brown or black stains that ruin clothing and fixtures and can adversely affect the color and taste of foods and beverages. Fortunately, its
occurrence in heavy concentrations is limited. There are certain things to remember when attempting to remove manganese with a PROVECTR™. When manganese occurs, there is usually iron also present. When iron is present, it assists with the oxidation of manganese from the manganous (dissolved) to the manganic (precipi
tated) state. If there is a 10:1 ratio of iron to manganese and there is sufficient air being drawn into the system by the PROVECTR™ manifold, the PROVECTR™ will not have trouble removing it. For example, if there is 5.0 ppm
of iron, up to .5 ppm of manganese can be removed without concern unless the pH of the water is extremely low (we will discuss this later). If the pH is at normal (7.0) or above and air is being drawn from 80% - 100% of each pump cycle, a minimum of a 5:1 ratio may be possible. If a water supply contains manganese with no iron
present, a different treatment approach must be taken. In this case, the pH of the water should be raised above 8.3 by use of a chemical feed pump feeding soda ash or caustic soda or if hardness is present, a water softener may be the best choice. Manganese by itself in water is extremely difficult to oxidize unless the pH level is
significantly into the alkaline range. (See Figure 5.) If questions arise regarding a particular manganese situation, contact your distributor or WaterSoft for assistance.
D.
Turbidity - This is nothing more than physical particles suspended in water. Concentrations of a unit measure over 1 NTU is cause for treatment. Particles can be sand, silt, scale, precipitated oxides, etc. Their removal with a PROVECTR™ is assured due to the granular media in the filter tank.
E.
Taste / Odor / Color - The PROVECTR™ is capable of improving the taste, odor and color of water due to the
multiple functions it performs. Many of these problems are corrected due to contact with air and the mechani-
cal filtration of organic particles. The application is wide ranging but efficient removal is determined by the root cause of such problems.
F.
Sulfur - This term is what most people refer to when there is a rotten egg smell in their water supply. It is due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide gas. Concentrations as low as .05 ppm are offensive to many people. Additionally, sulfur corrodes copper, iron and brass and causes black stains on fixtures and clothing. It also affects the taste, odor and color of foods and beverages. PROVECTR™ is capable of handling concentrations of up to 5 ppm. The air introduced into the system at the PROVECTR™ manifold, the aeration in the PROVECTR™ tank and the scrubbing that occurs in the system, all contribute to the oxidation and conversion of hydrogen sulfide gas to elemental sulfur particles. These particles are then removed by the filter media. Although hydrogen sulfide gas can be oxidized at a pH level above neutral (7.0), it occurs much more readily at a pH level below 7.0. (See Figure 6.) The basic thing to remember about sulfur removal with PROVECTR™ is ... the more sulfur you have, the more air you need to be rid of it.
- 15 -
PROVECTR™ Technical Information
G.
Gases - Due to the high levels of air introduced into the system and the aeration and venting nature of the
PROVECTR™ tank, low levels of certain gases like methane, natural gas and radon gas can be driven out of the water system. Proper venting of the system is critical to prevent an explosive situation from developing
Consult WaterSoft before attempting to handle elevated concentrations of these gases.
H.
pH - The pH of water is a measure of its acidity or alkalinity. As you may have guessed by reading about the other contaminants above, pH plays a great role in the successful removal of iron, manganese and sulfur. Water with a pH less than 7.0 is considered acidic ... with a pH above 7.0, alkaline. Water with a pH level
at 7.0 is neutral. The further away from 7.0 on either scale, the more acidic or alkaline it becomes. Acidic waters are corrosive and can literally destroy plumbing and appliances and can cause significant staining of fixtures. The PROVECTR™ automatically corrects the problem of low pH by two methods. Firstly, a high level of carbon dioxide in water can form carbonic acid which obviously lowers the pH to an acid condition. When the carbon dioxide is exposed to air (oxygen) intake at the PROVECTR™ manifold and additional exposure to air in the PROVECTR™ tank, the carbon dioxide level is reduced, making the water less corrosive. Secondly, as the water enters the filter media, it comes into contact with the manganese dioxide material in the bed thus raising the pH level even further.
I.
Hardness - The PROVECTR™ System is not capable of removing hardness (calcium and magnesium ions) from water. Hardness is very objectionable due to its tendency to clog piping, cause white deposits on fixtures,
create soap scum in laundry and bathing as well as increasing the operating and maintenance costs of hot water heaters. Generally, a level of 3.5 grains per gallon (gpg) or above in the water supply should be treated. A water softener will need to be installed after the PROVECTR™ if hardness is a problem.
J.
Tannins - Decayed organic matter in water is what is commonly referred to as tannins or humic acid. Present in some water supplies, they can be clear or impart a light brown color and can cause problems with any
oxidizing filter. Levels above .5 ppm can begin to form a viscous, sticky coating on the filter media
granules. This coating can impair the removal of precipitants and slow, if not halt, the correcting of the pH. The effect of tannins on the PROVECTR™ vary widely due to their diverse nature. On water containing over 2 PPM, it is advisable to contact WaterSoft before proceeding with the installation.
- 16 -
IV.
Equipment Selection Procedure
We have reviewed how the PROVECTR™ works and discussed the various contaminants that can be present in a given water supply. Let’s proceed with the proper method for selecting the correct equipment for the job. Please review the specification charts below and the contaminant matrix chart (Figure 6) for PROVECTR™ capabilities.
PROVECTR™ Technical Information
Step 1 : Perform a water analysis for concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfur (if rotten egg odor is detected), pH, hardness and tannins. Are all levels within the range of performance of the PROVECTR™? If not,
contact your distributor or WaterSoft for assistance.
Step 2: Determine the actual pumping capacity of the water system by following this procedure.
How To Determine Average Pump Capacity
1,
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Open any faucet and run until pump turns on.
Close faucet and let pump fill pressure tank and turn off.
Open any faucet and collect all water discharged until pump turns on.*
When pump turns on, IMMEDIATELY close faucet and start timing pump cycle.
When pump turns off, record cycle time to refill pressure tank (in seconds).
Measure total number of gallons collected in step # 3.
Divide the number of gallons collected in step # 3 by number of seconds in step # 5.
Multiply the answer derived in step # 7 by “60”.
The answer in step # 8 is the average pumping capacity of the system.
Example :
Number of gallons collected during draw down (step # 3) = 9
Number of seconds in pump cycle to refill tank (step # 5) = 72
GPM
GPM
GPM
GPM
=
=
=
=
(Gallons collected / seconds in cycle) x 60
(9 / 72) x 60
.125 x 60
7.5
* Make certain no other water is being used in the system during the test!!
There are two reasons why the actual pumping capacity must be known before selecting equipment.
A.
PROVECTR™ Manifold - The PROVECTR™ Manifold must receive an adequate flow of water in order
for it to work properly. The flow requirement is a minimum of 5 gpm.
B.
Backwashing - The filter bed must receive an adequate flow of water in order to lift the contaminants from the filter bed during backwash. The requirements are shown under the “Backwash Flow Rate”
section of the specifications chart.
Model # Series
Backwash Requirements
AF10
5.0 gpm
AF12
6.0 gpm
AF13
7.0 gpm
AF14
10.0 gpm
AF16
15.0 gpm
- 17 -
PROVECTR™ Technical Information
Now that the flow rate has been determined and you understand its importance, a PROVECTR™ System can be selected. Below is a chart showing flow rate ranges and the PROVECTR™ by model number series that would be proper.
Calculated Pump Flow Rate (gpm)
Model #
Minimum
Maximum
AF10 5.010.0
AF13
7.0
14.0
AF1410.020.0
AF1615.025.0
*(2) AF1010.020.0
*(2) AF1314.028.0
*(2) AF1420.040.0
*(2) AF1630.050.0
*(3) AF1015.030.0
*(3) AF1321.042.0
*(3) AF1430.060.0
*(3) AF16
45.0
75.0
* In Parallel
Note : It is advisable to contact your distributor or WaterSoft when dealing with flow rates above 10 gpm.
VI.
Installation Tips - Please consult the PROVECTR™ Installation Instructions and Isobar II Service Manual for
specific details on installation and service procedures. Call your distributor or WaterSoft with any questions you may have.
A.
Do a full water analysis.
B.
Check the water closet of a flush type toilet for signs of bacterial growth (e.g. iron bacteria).
C.
Refer to the PROVECTR™ Matrix Chart (Figure 5) for contaminant limitations.
D.
Do a pump capacity test.
E.
Size the PROVECTR™ System for the backwash flow requirement.
F.
If more
1. 2. 3. service flow is required consider :
Use multiple residential systems in parallel.
Add a large diaphragm / bladder type pressure tank after the PROVECTR™ (stored treated water).
Consider a small commercial system.
G.The PROVECTR™ Filter will need to be loaded in the field. Always load media at the approximate location of
installation, if possible.
H.
Always plug the end of distributor tube with a cork or similar method to prevent media from entering tube.
I.
Fill the mineral tank 1/3 with water before adding media to filter tank. Add water occasionally while filling media to help soak material.
J.
Do not use petroleum based plumber’s dope or O-ring lubricant on PVC / plastic parts or O-ring connections. Only Teflon based tape / paste and silicone O-ring lubricants are acceptable!
- 18 -
PROVECTR™ Technical Information
K.
If sweat soldering copper pipe, protect control valve bypass and all plastic parts from heat damage.
L.
If installing PROVECTR™ tank using PVC pipe, solvent weld adapter before threading into PROVECTR™ manifold to prevent cement from entering the venturi/nozzle section.
M.
Never connect the drain line directly to a soil line! At least a 4” air gap is required to prevent waste water backflow into the PROVECTR™ filter.
If the drain line needs to be elevated and/or exceeds 20 feet in length, increase drain line diameter to 3/4”.
N.
O.
Always install the PROVECTR™ System before water softening equipment.
VII.
Side Effects of Aeration - The following is an excerpt from the What You Should Know About Your New PROVECTR™ Water Filter System brochure that is included with every unit. We encourage the installing contractor to make certain the customer reviews this information before installation.
The PROVECTR™ uses the air we breath to naturally reduce the effects of iron, manganese and sulfur gas. By introducing oxygen to water, contaminants chemically change to a physical particle that can be mechanically filtered out of the water. This natural process called Oxidation, is usually accomplished in other systems by using chemicals such as chlorine or potassium permanganate. Since the PROVECTR™ does not use chemicals to treat the water, maintenance and chemical byproducts associated with these types of systems are eliminated. The energy required to operate this system is provided by using extra power that is available in your well pump to inject free air into the water. There are several normal side effects that may or may not occur when water is treated in this manner:
1.
Cloudy or milky appearance to the treated water - This side effect is usually more pronounced when the iron,
manganese and sulfur gas levels are low. Since the PROVECTR™ uses oxygen for the treatment of these contaminants, it can be expected to have some amount left over in the treated water. The higher contamination levels
are, the less oxygen there will be. It is the oxygen that gives the cloudy or milky appearance. Once the faucet is
opened and the water is drawn, pressure is released and allows the oxygen to escape. This usually will take from
a few seconds to a minute depending on the amount of oxygen and the pressure. This noticeable side effect tells
you the system is working properly and will actually enhance the palatability of the water. It’s oxygen that gives
water it’s fresh, crisp taste.
2.
Sputtering or slight coughing from the hot water side faucets - This is a normal phenomenon that usually
occurs first thing in the morning. As the high oxygenated PROVECTR™ water is exposed to heat in the hot water
tank a small amount of oxygen will separate. The longer the water is allowed to sit in the hot water tank, the more this will be noticed.
Usually, this will only occur if the hot water is allowed to sit idle for eight (8) hours or more. Consequently, when hot water is drawn after an extended period of no water use, a slight sputtering or coughing may be experienced for a few seconds. If this causes the hot water to splash out of the sink, the problem is reduced by simply turning on the cold water first and blending in the hot for several seconds. If there is a large amount of free air noticed on the cold water side, there is a possible malfunction of the system and your WaterSoft Dealer should be contacted to service the unit.
VIII.
Summary - We have attempted to review the most pertinent technical information as it relates to understanding the
PROVECTR™ Water Treatment System. This system will provide many years of service for the removal of the water
contaminants we have discussed. Proper analysis, equipment selection and installation procedures are the critical keys to successful operation. Please refer to the PROVECTR™ Instructions for complete particulars on the proper steps for
installation and troubleshooting.
- 19 -
Chemical Feeding Technical Information
The following is not intended to replace attending technical training programs or reading of installation instructions.
It should be viewed as a general discussion about the product, its application, limitations and key factors to remember before purchase.
PURPOSE and CAPABILITIES: Chemical feeding can serve a number of purposes including feeding chlorine for
disinfection and oxidation of certain contaminants such as iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide, tannins and organic
complexes. It is also useful for controlling pH levels. Selecting the right chemical feed pump is critical for proper
treatment. The following formula applies whether disinfecting, oxidizing or controlling pH:
Well Pump Output (WPO) X Required Dosage PPM (RD) X 1440
Solution Strength PPM (SS)
= FEED PUMP OUTPUT
(Gallons Per Day)
Well Output Rate - Use the following formula for determining pump capacity:
HOW TO DETERMINE PUMP CAPACITY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Open any faucet and run until pump turns “on.”
Close faucet and let pump fill pressure tank and turn “off.”
Open any faucet and collect all water discharge until pump turns “on.”
When pump turns “on,” immediately close faucet and start timing pump cycle.
When pump turns “off,” record cycle time to refill pressure tank (in “seconds”).
Measure total number of “gallons” collected in step #3.
Divide the number of “gallons” collected in step #3 by the number of “seconds” in step #5.
Multiply the answer derived in step #7 by “60.”
The answer in step #8 is the average pumping capacity of the system.
(NOTE: Make certain no other water is being used during this test)
Example
Number of “gallons” collected during draw-down (step #3) = 9
Number of “seconds” in pump cycle to refill tank (step #5) = 72
GPM = (gallons collected / seconds in cycle) X 60
GPM = (9 / 72 ) X 60
GPM = .125 X 60
GPM = 7.5
Dosage Required - The following are chlorine dosage requirements for common water constituents:
For Every ......
1
1
1
1
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
Hydrogen Sulfide
Iron
Manganese
Tannin
Chlorine Required .....
3 ppm
1 ppm
2-3 ppm
3-4 ppm
Simply multiply the required amounts of chlorine by the ppm presence of each contaminant and add them together.
Also, remember that it is usually necessary to have a chlorine residual of say, 1 ppm after contact time. Whatever
answer you determine, add “1 ppm” for the residual.
- 20 -
Chemical Feeding Technical Information
Solution Strength - The following are strengths of typical chemicals for feeding:
Chemical
Strength
8.0% Chlorine Bleach
80,000 ppm
12.5% Chlorine Bleach
125,000 ppm
Potassium Permanganate
30,000 ppm
Polyphosphate
12,000 ppm
(1/4# per gallon water)
(1# per 10 gallons water)
Soda Ash
(.926# per 1 gallon water)
10% Solution
(100,000 ppm)
SAMPLE CALCULATION:
You’ve determined that the pump capacity was 10.5 gallons per minute. There are 2 ppm Iron; 4 ppm Hydrogen Sulfide;
and, a 1 ppm Residual is desired. Simply multiply the 2 ppm Iron by its dosage requirement factor of 1 (2 X 1 = 2); multiply the 4 ppm Hydrogen Sulfide by its factor of 3 (4 X 3 = 12). Add the totals (2 + 12 = 14) then add the residual amount
to that total (14 + 1 = 15) for the dosage required. If you are feeding 8.0% chlorine bleach full strength, you can now calculate the above formula to determine the number of gallons per day that will be fed in this example.
(10.5 gpm) X (15 ppm) X (1440) / (80,000) = 2.84 gallons per day
In this example, 2.84 gallons of chlorine bleach will need to be fed to insure that all contaminants are oxidized and a
1 ppm residual of chlorine is left over.
It is now necessary to choose a chemical feed pump that will deliver 2.84 gallons of chlorine in a 24 hour period. For
example, choosing a 6 gpd with a maximum output daily would be a correct choice. However, a pump should not be
set below 30% of its setting. To check your selection, simply divide the required output by the capacity of the pump...
in this case, 2.84 / 6.0 = 47.3%. Therefore, the setting would be at 47% and above the 30% mark. If, however, you
were diluting the chlorine (say 3 parts water to 1 part chlorine), you would need to select a 24 gpd since the daily
output would be 11.36 gallons of solution. (8.52 + 2.84 = 11.36­) Remember, proper sizing is critical! Check the individual specification sheets and contact your Distributor or WaterSoft with questions.
- 21 -
Tannin/Hardness Technical Information
The following is not intended to replace attending technical training programs or reading of installation instructions. It should be viewed as a general discussion about the product, its application, limitations and key factors to
remember before purchase.
PURPOSE and CAPABILITIES: The Tannin/Hardness ion exchange equipment is designed to remove (exchange)
water hardness ions (calcium & magnesium) and organic tannins from water supplies using a combination of specialized resins as catalyts using salt (sodium) as the regenerant. Water passes downwardly through the mineral
bed where the ion exchange takes place. These systems can easily remove hardness and tannins when they
occur in water (depending on the cubic foot capacity). They cannot remove iron, manganese, sulphur and other
water constituents. Attempting to do so may cause problems of bed fouling and hardness/tannin breakthrough.
Always check with WaterSoft before attempting anything other than standard applications!
HARDNESS TABLE
Soft
0 - 3.5 gpg
Moderately Hard
3.5 - 7.0 gpg
Hard
7.0 - 10.5 gpg
Very Hard
10.5 + gpg
Note: “gpg” means grains per gallon.
WATER TESTING: Always test the raw water supply for at least the following: 1) Hardness; 2) Iron; 3)
Manganese; 4) pH; 5) Tannins; 6) Hydrogen Sulfide (if rotten egg odor is present); 7) Chlorine (if on treated water
supply). Consult specification sheet to check for limitations.
RAW WATER LIMITATIONS
Free Chlorine
Turbidity
0.1 ppm
5 units
Iron
0.50 ppm
Manganese
0.50 ppm
Hydrogen Sulfide
0.1 ppm
Note: “ppm” means parts per million - “gpg” means grains per gallon.
NOTE: For Limitations, Installation, Programming and Maintenance, refer to the Softener Technical Information
Guide as Tannin/Hardness units have the same requirements.
- 22 -
R/O Technical Information
The following is not intended to replace attending technical training programs or reading of installation instructions. It
should be viewed as a general discussion about the product, its application, limitations and key factors to remember
before purchase.
PURPOSE and CAPABILITIES: Reverse Osmosis systems are highly specialized water treatment devices that deal
with contaminants at the molecular level. Influent water passes through a membrane that allows water to pass to a
storage tank (service) and rejects the contaminants running them to a drain. They work very slowly to produce high
quality water and must have significant water pressure in order to work properly. The TDS (total dissolved solids) are
significantly reduced through R/O systems.
LIMITATIONS: An R/O system must receive water that is pretreated for best results. Iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide, and hardness should be reduced to minimum levels. They are limited to small quantities of output water per day
with TFC (Thin Film Composite) systems upwards of 25-35 gallons per day. Check the individual specification sheets
for requirements and limitations.
WATER TESTING: Always test the raw water supply for at least the following: 1) Hardness; 2) Iron; 3) Manganese;
4) pH; 5) Tannins; 6) Hydrogen Sulfide (if rotten egg odor is present); 7) Chlorine (if on treated water supply); and, 8)
TDS. Consult specification sheet to check limitations.
INSTALLATION: R/O systems are typically installed under the kitchen sink, in closets or basements with a treated line
running to the kitchen sink faucet provided with each unit.
PROGRAMMING THE SYSTEM: There is nothing to program on an R/O system. Simply connect to source plumbing
and drain line.
REGULAR MAINTENANCE: The membrane of an R/O system should be replaced at least every 12 months. The pre
and post-filter elements should be replaced every 6 months. It is also advisable to completely drain the system (simply
using the faucet) periodically to insure that the water in the storage tank is fresh. Complete maintenance details are
included with each set of installation instructions.
- 23 -
Nitrate/Sulfate Technical Information
The following is not intended to replace attending technical training programs or reading of installation instructions. It
should be viewed as a general discussion about the product, its application, limitations and key factors to remember
before purchase.
PURPOSE and CAPABILITIES: Anion exchange Nitrate/Sulfate systems are designed to remove (exchange) nitrate
and sulphate ions from water supplies using a very specialized resin as the catalyst and salt (chloride) as the regenerant. Water passes downwardly through the mineral bed where the ion exchange takes place. These systems can
easily remove these constituents (depending upon the cubic foot capacity). They are not designed to remove hardness, iron or manganese! As a matter of fact, the water should be pretreated (if necessary) so that certain other
contaminants are not present in the water to be treated. If they are not removed, you may run into some problems
of bed fouling and nitrate/sulphate breakthrough. The amount of salt (per cubic foot of resin) required to backwash
these systems is actually less than that required to regenerate a softener of a similar size (usually 10 lbs / cu ft of
resin).
WARNING: Although these systems can reduce the foregoing water constituents, YOU MUST make certain
that you take precautions for proper sizing, installation and water testing since these constituents (especially nitrates) can have serious health-related consequences!! Always check with WaterSoft before attempting
anything other than standard applications!
RAW WATER LIMITATIONS
Free Chlorine
0.5 ppm
Turbidity
5 units
Iron
0.1 ppm
Manganese
0.1 ppm
Hydrogen Sulfide
0.1 ppm
Tannins
0.5 ppm
Hardness
Preferably less than 5 gpg
Note: “ppm” means parts per million - “gpg” means grains per gallon.
LIMITATIONS: Remember, Nitrate/Sulphate systems cannot remove hardness, iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide,
iron / manganese / sulfur bacteria, tannins, tastes, odors & colors nor should they be used to remove anything other
than Nitrates and Sulphates. Presence of any of the above constituents can cause these systems to become less
efficient or fail to remove nitrates and sulphates! Various size units have different service and backwash flow rates.
Always consult the specification sheet in order to make a proper selection.
WATER TESTING: Always test the raw water supply for at least the following: 1) Hardness; 2) Iron; 3) Manganese;
4) pH; 5) Tannins; 6) Hydrogen Sulfide (if rotten egg odor is present); 7) Chlorine (if on treated water supply); 8)
Nitrates as N (nitrogen); 9) Nitrates as NO3 (nitrate); and 10) Sulphates as SO4 (sulphate)
INSTALLATION: Nitrate / Sulphate systems should be installed on a level surface, on cold water line only; after
filtration and softeners; after outside sillcock lines; and, before the piping splits to the water heater. Note typical
installation.
- 24 -
Nitrate/Sulfate Technical Information
Never elevate the mineral tank more than 1-2 feet above the brine tank so as not to cause problems with brine draw.
Avoid installations in direct sunlight and where freezing may occur. Locate the unit near a 115V, unswitched outlet
(except manual units that require no electricity) and near a drain. Where the drain line must be elevated above the
system or runs more than 20 feet, increase the drain line size to 3/4”. NEVER decrease the size of the drain line! It is
advisable (and code in most areas) that there be at least a 4” air gap between the drain and drain line. Check all local
codes before installing equipment.
PROGRAMMING THE SYSTEM: After all plumbing has been completed according to the installation instructions, find
the section in the instructions regarding programming the control valve. It is quite simple but you must first consult your
water test results. Refer to the “Capacity/Regeneration” box in order to determine the regeneration frequency for
either Timeclock or Demand initiated control valves. Always check system cycles and consult the installation instruction
manual.
REGULAR MAINTENANCE: All that’s necessary for normal maintenance is to keep good quality softener salt in the
brine tank. Should the system become fouled, it may be necessary to replace the resin. It is also wise to clean the
brine tank about every other year.
Capacity/Regeneration
In order to properly size Nitrate/Sulphate systems, the amounts of each in the raw water must be known. They must
be expressed as equivalents as calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Use the test results and follow these steps:
Sulphate as SO4 ppm X 1.04 = Sulphate ppm as CaCo3
Nitrate as N ppm X 3.56 = Nitrate as CaCO3
Nitrate as NO3 ppm X 0.81 = Nitrate as CaCO3
Add all CaCO3 ppm quantities together and divide by 17.1 to find equivalent grains per gallon (gpg). Then, divide
the total grain capacity of the unit by the gpg of CaCO3 to determine how many gallons can be treated before
regeneration.
- 25 -
UV Technical Information
The following is not intended to replace attending technical training programs or reading of installation instructions. It
should be viewed as a general discussion about the product, its application, limitations and key factors to remember
before purchase.
PURPOSE and CAPABILITIES: Ultra Violet systems are highly specialized water treatment devices that disinfect
water. Influent water passes through the cylindrical, stainless steel chamber where a certain wavelength of light
destroys or deactivates many bacteria and viruses. It is recommended a service line flow control be installed so that
proper contact time can be maintained to insure high disinfection rates.
LIMITATIONS: An Ultra Violet system must receive water that is pretreated for best results. Iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide, and hardness should be reduced to minimum levels. They are not designed to kill forms of iron/manganese/sulfur bacteria nor cysts like Giardia lamblia. As a matter of fact, tannins and slime producing bacteria (iron
bacteria) coat the quartz tube and reduce light penetration. See specification sheet for requirements and limitations.
WATER TESTING: Always test the raw water supply for at least the following: 1) Hardness; 2) Iron; 3) Manganese;
4) pH; 5) Tannins; 6) Hydrogen Sulfide (if rotten egg odor is present); 7) Chlorine (if on treated water supply); and, 8)
TDS. Consult specification sheet to check limitations.
INSTALLATION: U/V systems are typically installed at the point-of-entry in a home or business where all water can
be treated. It is strongly advisable to install a drain on the lower section of the plumbing for easy draining during
cleaning. Make certain that it is connected to an uninterrupted power supply!
PROGRAMMING THE SYSTEM: There is nothing to program on a U/V system. Simply connect to source plumbing
and power supply.
REGULAR MAINTENANCE: The U/V lamp should be replaced annually and the entire unit cleaned about every six
months to prevent build-up on the quartz tube. It is also advisable to use a strong chlorine solution in the stainless
steel housing each time the system is cleaned. If the unit has a failsafe feature, check the solenoid for proper operation. Complete details on preventative maintenance are included with each set of installation instructions.
- 26 -
Granular Activated Carbon
Reduction Capability
Name of Contaminant No Removal Modest Removal Good Removal Excellent
Removal
1.1.1-Trichloroethane•
1.1.2.2-Tetrachloroethane•
1.1.2.2-Tetrachloroethylene•
1.1.2-Trichloroethane•
1.1-Dichloroethane•
1.1-Dichloroethylene•
1.1.2.4-Trichlorobenzene •
1.2-Dichlorobenzene •
1.2-Dichloroethane•
1.2-Dichlorothylene•
1.2-Dichloropropane•
•
1.2-Diphenyl Hydrazline
1.3-Dibromochloromethane•
1.3-Dichlorobenzene•
1.3-Dichloropropane•
1.4-Dichlorobenzene •
•
2.4.5-TP
2.4.6-Trichlorophenol •
2.4-Dimethylphenol •
2.4-Dichlorophenal •
2.4-Dinitrophenol •
2.4-Dinitrotoluene •
2.6-Dinitrotouene •
•
2-Chloroethyl Vinyl Ether
2-Chloronaphthalene •
•
2-Chlorophenol
2-Methyl-4.6-Dinitrophenol •
•
2-Nitrophenol
•
4.4-DDD
•
4.4-DDE
•
4.4-DDT
•
4-Bromophenyl Phenyl Ether
•
4-Chlorophenyl Phenyl Ether
•
4-Nitrophenol
•
Acenaphthene
•
Acenaphthylene
•
Acrolein
Aldrin •
•
Alhpa-BHC
•
Anthracene
•
Benzene
•
Benzidine
•
Benza (a) Pyrene
•
Benza (b) Fluoranthene
•
Beta-BHC
•
Bis (2-Chloroethoxy) Methane
•
Bis (2-Chloroethyl) Ether
•
Bis (2-Chloroisopropyl) Ether
•
Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate
•
Bix (Chloromethyl) Ether
Bromodichloromethane•
•
Bromofrom
•
Butyl Benzyl Phthalate
•
Carbon Tetrachloride
•
Chloramines
•
Chlordane
•
Chlorobenzene
•
Chloroform
•
Chrysene
Di-n-octylphthalate •
•
Dibutyl Phthalate
•
Dichlorodifluoromethane
•
Dieldrin
•
Diesel Fuel
•
Diethyl Phthalate
•
Dimethyl Phthalate
Dioxin •
EDB •
•
Endosulfan I
•
Endosulfan II
•
Endosulfan Sulfate
•
Endrin
•
Ethylbenzene
•
Fluoranthene
Fluorene
•
Name of Contaminant No Removal Modest Removal Good Removal Excellent
Removal
•
Fuel Oil
•
Gasoline
•
Heptachlor
•
Heptachlor Epoxide
Hexachlorobenzene •
Hexachlorobutadiene •
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene •
Hexachloroethane •
•
Isophorone •
Kerosine •
Lindane
•
Malathion
•
Methane
•
Methoxychlor
•
Methyl Bromide
•
Methylene Chloride
•
n-Nitroso-n-Propylamine
n-Nitrosodimethylamine•
•
n-Nitrodoiphenyl Amine
•
Naphtalene
•
Nitrobenzene
Oil•
•
Parathion
•
PCB’s
•
PCB-1016
•
PCB-1221
•
PCB-1232
•
PCB-1242
•
PCB-1248
•
PCB-1254
•
PCB-1260
•
Pentachlorophenol
•
Phenanthrene
•
Phenol
•
Pyrene
TCA •
TCE •
•
Toluene
•
Total Organic Carbons
•
Toxaphene
•
Toxic Herbicides
•
Toxic Insecticides
•
Toxic Pesticides
Trichloroethylene•
•
Trichlorofluoromethane
•
Trihalomethanes (THM’s)
•
Unpleasant Colors
•
Unpleasant Odors
•
Unpleasant Tastes
•
Aluminum
•
Arsenic
•
Asbestos
•
Barium Sulfate
•
Cadmium Oxide
•
Calcium
•
Chlorides
•
Chlorine
•
Chromium Oxide
•
Copper Oxide
•
Fluoride
•
Hydrogen Sulfide Gas (Sulfur)
Iodine •
•
Iron Oxide
•
Lead Chromate
•
Magnesium
•
Manganese Oxide
•
Mercury
•
Nickel Oxide
•
Nitrates
•
Selenium
•
Silver Chloride
•
Sodium
•
Toxic Heavy Metals
•
Turbidity (Sediment & Scale)
•
Zinc Oxide
- 27 -
Water Use Estimates
Dwellings
Airports
Per Passenger = 3 - 5 gal. / day
Apartments
Based on 3 persons per apartment
Hot and Cold = 150 gal. / unit / day
Hot Only
= 60 gal. / unit /day
Barber Shops
Boarding Houses
= 50 gal. / person / day
Luxury = 100-150 gal. / person / day
Multiple Family Apts.
= 40 gal. / person / day
Rooming Houses
= 60 gal. / person / day
Single Family
= 50-75 gal. / person / day
55 gal. / chair / day
Beauty Salons
15 - 35 gal. / person/ shift
1. Multiply boiler h.p. by 4.25.
2. Then multiply by hours per day of
operation.
3. Then multiply by the % operating rating.
4. Then subtract the % condensate returns.
Note: When ratings are given in
pounds of steam per hour, divide by
500 to obtain GPM requirement. When
ratings are given in BTU’s divide by
12,000. For every 12,000 BTU’s, there
is an equivalent of 1 h.p.
Meter reading preferred
Hot and Cold = 250 gal. / bed / day
Hot Only
= 170 gal. / bed / day
Day (No meals) = 15 gal. / person/day
Resorts
= 50 gal. / person/day
Tourist
= 35 gal. / person/day
With Private Baths (2 persons)
= 60 gal. / day
Without Private Baths
= 50 gal. / person / day
Parks
Overnight with flush toilets
= 25 gal. / camper / day
Trailers with individual bath units
= 50 gal. / camper / day
With bath houses, showers and flush
toilets = 20 gal. / picknicker / day
= 10 gal. / picknicker / day
Schools
Elementary :
Hot Only
Hot and Cold = 20 gal. / student / day
Hot Only
= 10 gal. / student / day
Senior High:
Hot and Cold = 2.5 x lb. capacity is
equivalent to gallons per cycle
Hot Only
= 15 gal. / student / day
Service Stations
10 gal. / vehicle / day
25 gal. / square foot / season
Livestock & Poultry
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
12 gal. / animal / day
20 gal. / animal / day
2 gal. / animal / day
12 gal. / animal / day
12 gal. / animal / day
12 gal. / animal / day
2 gal. / animal / day
10 gal. / each 100 / day
18 gal. / each 100 / day
Shopping Centers
300 gal. / 1,000 square foot / day
Stores
400 gal. / toilet room / day
Swimming Pools
10 gal. / swimmer / day
Theaters
Indoor = 5 gal. / auditorium seat / day
Dentist
4,000 gal. / month / chair
Dormitories
Hot and Cold = 40 gal. / person / day
= 20 gal. / person / day
Motels
With bed and toilet (no kitchen)
40 gal. / bed space / day
Drive-In = 5 gal. / car space / day
Trailer Parks
150 gal. / trailer / day
Nursing Homes
Hot and Cold = 100 gal. / bed / day
Hot Only
= 50 gal. / bed / day
Workers
Construction = 50 gal. / person / shift
Office
- 28 -
= 5 gal. / student / day
Junior High :
Hot and Cold = 35 gal. / student / day
Laundry
Cow, Beef
Cow, Dairy
Cooling Water
Goat
To determine daily makeup in gallons:
Hog
1. Multiply the tonnage by four (this
Horse
Mule
includes 2 gal. / hr / day / ton bleed off).
2. Then multiply by the number of hours per day Sheep
Chickens
of operation.
Turkeys Hot Only
= 3 gal. / person / day
Hot and Cold = 13 gal. / student / day
Hotels
Lawns
Camps
Hot Only
With toilet facilities only
Hospitals
To determine daily makeup in gallons:
Hot and Cold = 20 gal. / person / day
Picnic Areas
Factories
270 gal. / station / day
Boilers
Office Buildings
= 15 gal. / person / shift
Estimating Flow Rate Requirements
The following information describes estimated maximum GPM flows from certain typical fixtures and appliances.
Estimates do not consider “water saving” devices. The “fixture count” columns are factors to be used to determine
estimated flow rate requirement for homes, apartments and commercial facilities. Other types of equipment not listed
below, but present on the premises must be also considered in the analysis.
A
ESTIMATED FLOW
RATE
(gpm)
“RESIDENTIAL”
FIXTURE
UNITS
“PUBLIC”
FIXTURE
UNITS
Lavatory
4
1
2
Bathtub
6
2
4
Shower Head
5
2
4
Toilet (with flush tank)
3
3
5
Toilet (with flush meter)
15
6
10
Urinal (with flush tank)
3
---
3
Urinal (with flush meter)
10
---
5
Kitchen Sink
5
2
4
Dishwasher
2
1
31
Laundry Tray / Service Sink
5
3
3
Automatic Clothes Washer
5
2
41
.75
.25
.50
FIXTURE / APPLIANCE
Drinking Water Faucet / Water Fountain
NOTE 1: Check with manufacturer of appliance or consult specifications manual for exact flow rate.
B
Flow
RATES
(gpm)
TOTAL
USAGE
(gallons)
Shower / Bath Tub
5
Lavatory Sink
NUMBER of BATHROOMS in the HOME
1
11/2
2-21/2
3-4
35
35
35
53
70
4
2
2
4
6
8
Toilet
4
5
5
10
15
20
Kitchen Sink
5
3
3
3
3
3
Automatic Washer
5
35
--
18
18
18
Dishwasher
2
14
--
--
3
3
Seven Minute *Peak Demand
--
--
45
70
98
122
Minimum Sized Pump Required
--
--
7 gpm
10 gpm
14 gpm
17 gpm
Minimum Treatment Equipment Reqd.
--
--
5 gpm
6 gpm
7 gpm
10 gpm
OUTLETS
* Peak demand can occur several times during morning and evening.
NOTE 1: It is always better to have larger flow rate capacity treatment equipment if the pump capacity is available for
backwashing.
NOTE 2: Chart B was adapted from Ground Water Age magazine, December 1991, page 22.
- 29 -
Plotting Service Flow Rates
20
19
17
18
40
REQUIRED FLOW RATE IN GPM
17
16
15
14
13
12
10
11
20
10
9
7
8
12
7
6
4
5
6
4
3
2
1
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
TOTAL FIXTURE UNIT COUNT
In reading the above chart, use the vertical line to the right of the horizontal numbers. Use the line above the vertical numbers.
HOW TO USE THIS TABLE
The estimated flow rate requirement for plumbing fixtures used intermittently on a water supply line may be obtained
by multiplying the number of each kind of fixture times its individual “fixture count” value as determined from Table A
on the previous page entitled ESTIMATING FLOW RATE REQUIREMENTS. Add the sums together to get a grand
total “fixture unit count.”
Looking at the chart above, find the fixture count on the lower edge of the chart that most closely matches the number
you calculated. At that point, go upward on the vertical line until you hit the curve on the chart. Follow the intersecting
horizontal line to the left in order to determine the flow rate requirement for treatment equipment. The gpm flow rate
that is discovered using this chart will be very adequate for the facility. You could actually use about 70% of the
number as a minimum for equipment sizing.
Remember that “estimating” charts and tables are just that.....estimates. The more information you have, the better
your calculations will be. Also refer to Table B on the previous page for more rules-of-thumb on treatment
requirements in gpm based on number of bathrooms in the home.
- 30 -
Water Well Disinfection
Shock Chlorination Procedure
Shock Chlorination is the procedure for cleaning and sanitizing a well or spring with chlorine.
Concentrations of chlorine used in shock chlorination are 100 to 400 times the amount of
chlorine found in “city water.” The highly chlorinated water is held in the pipes for 12 to 24
hours before it is flushed out and the system is ready for use.
Periodic shock chlorination may also be effective to reduce an iron bacteria problem.
For wells, the amount of chlorine needed to shock chlorinate a water system is determined
by the amount of water standing in the well. Table 1 lists the amount of chlorine laundry
bleach or powdered high-test hypochlorite (HTH) needed for wells. If in doubt, it is better to
use more chlorine than less.
Table 1
Amount of chlorine needed for shock chlorination
Laundry bleach (about 8% Hypochlorite)
Depth of
Water in
well
4 inch
6 inch
8 inch
10 inch
12 inch
10 feet
25
50
100
150
1/2 cup
1 cup
1 pint
1 quart
3 pints
1 cup
1 pint
1 quart
2 quarts
3 quarts
1 1/2 cup
2 pints
2 quarts
1 gallon
1 1/2 gallon
1 pint
3 pints
3 quarts
1 1/2 gallon
2 gallons
2 pints
4 1/2 gallons
1 gallon
2 gallons
3 gallons
Casing Diameter
High-Test Hypochlorite (HTH 65-75% Hypochlorite)
Depth of
Water in
well
4 inch
6 inch
8 inch
10 inch
12 inch
10 feet
25
50
100
150
----1/4 lb.
---1/3 lb.
1/2 lb.
--1/3 lb.
3/4 lb.
1 lb.
-1/4 lb.
1/2 lb.
1 lb.
1 1/2 lb.
-1/2 lb.
3/4 lb.
1 1/2 lb.
2 lbs.
Casing Diameter
- 31 -
Water Well Disinfection
To Shock Chlorinate a Well:
1.
Pour the proper amount of chlorine bleach or powdered chlorine dissolved in a small
amount of water directly into the well.
2.
Connect a garden hose to a nearby faucet and wash down the inside of the well.
3.
Re-circulate the chlorinated water into the well for a minimum of one (1) hour (2 to 3
hours is preferable).
4.
Open each faucet one by one and let water run until a strong odor of chlorine is
detected. If a strong odor is not detected, add more chlorine to the well.
Note: Bypass all installed water treatment equipment.
5.
Let the water stand in the water system for at least 12 to 24 hours.
6.
Flush the system of remaining chlorine. Start by turning on outside faucets and letting
them run until the chlorine smell dissipates. Let the water run on the ground to reduce
the load on your septic system. Finally, run the indoor faucets until the system is
completely flushed.
Shocking chlorination of a spring is more difficult. If possible, divert spring water away from
the spring box. Mix about 1/2 cup of household bleach in 5 gallons of water and scrub the walls
of the spring box or holding tank or both. Return the flow of spring water back into the spring
box and let the fresh water carry the chlorine through the pipeline to disinfect the plumbing.
Most water treatment equipment, such as water softeners and iron filters, should be
bypassed. Check the manufacturer’s literature before chlorinating treatment equipment and
pressure tank to prevent damage from strong chlorine solutions. Do not chlorinate carbon or
charcoal filters; doing so will use up their capacity. Rebedding of these type fixtures will be
required.
Be Careful when handling concentrated chlorine solutions. Wear rubber gloves, goggles and
protective apron. If chlorine accidently gets on your skin, flush immediately with clean water.
Never mix chlorine solutions with other cleaning agents or ammonia, because toxic gases are
formed.
Do not use “fresh scent” bleach or other special laundry products to disinfect wells. Use the
plain and usually least expensive laundry bleach.
Retest your water supply for bacteria after waiting 1 to 2 weeks. If shock chlorination does not
eliminate a bacteria problem, continuous disinfection may be necessary.
Ref: OCES Ohio Cooperative Extension Service
- 32 -
Softener Regeneration Guide
The following will help you in determining how to program a Timeclock softener for regeneration.
If you have a Demand system, this chart is not necessary as the control valve decides when to
regenerate.
DETERMINE
Hardness (in gpg)
Iron & Manganese (in ppm - combined)
Number of persons in the family
Capacity of the softener (total grains)
STEP #1: Figure number of gallons used per day
# of people x “75”
STEP #2: Figure Compensated Hardness
gpg of Hardness + (ppm Iron/Manganese x “4”)
STEP #3: Figure total grains used per day
Step #1 answer x Step #2 answer
STEP #4: Figure Days between Regenerations
Softener Capacity / Step #3 answer
EXAMPLE
YOUR
CALCULATION
20
2
4
32,000
300
28
8,400
3.81
NOTE: Always round “down” to the next lowest number of days between regeneration when
programming. In the example above, the answer was 3.81 days between regenerations. For a
32,000 Grain Capacity Softner you would set the softener to regenerate every “3” days.
- 33 -
Problem Cause / Effect / Remedy Guide
PROBABLE
CAUSE
GENERAL
EFFECT
PROBABLE
REMEDY
Scale in pipes and water heaters; causes “soap curd” on Removal by ion exchange softener.
fixtures, tile, dishes and laundry; low
sudsing characteristics.
Low level (2ppm) removal by
Causes discolored water; red, brown, orange or black
ion exchange softener when
IRON/MANGANESE
stains on fixtures, appliances and laundry; dark scale in hardness is also present; best
pipes and water heaters.
removed by
oxidizing iron filter; aeration
and/or chlorination followed by
filtration in some cases.
Low level removal possible
IRON/MANGANESE/SULFUR
Same general effects as above plus slimy deposits that by oxidizing iron filter; best
Bacteria
form in pumps, pipes, softeners and toilet tanks.
removed by chlorination
followed by filtration.
Best removed by aeration,
Foul rotten-egg odor; corrosion to plumbing;
scrubbing and filtration; also
HYDROGEN SULFIDE
tarnishes silver and stains fixtures and laundry; ruins the removed by oxidizing filters or
GAS
taste of foods and beverages.
chlorination followed by filtration.
Removal by backwashing sediSuspended matter in water; examples include mud, clay, ment filters; extra fine treatment
TUBIDITY
silt and sand; can ruin seats, seals and
utilizing sediment cartridge elemoving parts in appliances.
ments.
ACID WATER
Corrosive water attacks piping and other metals, red and/ Best corrected by
neutralizing filters or soda ash
(low pH)
or green staining of fixtures and laundry.
feeding.
Depending on the nature of
TASTE/ODOR/COLOR
Makes water unpalatable; can cause staining.
contaminant, aeration followed
(organic matter)
by filtration; carbon filtration;
chlorination
followed by filtration.
Can impart an “iced-tea” color to water; causes light
Removal by special ion
TANNINS/HUMIC ACID
staining; can affect the taste of foods and
exchange or oxidizing agents
beverages.
and filtration.
HARDNESS
(calcium & magnesium)
COLIFORM BACTERIA
ORGANIC HALIDES
(e.g. Herbicides &
Pesticides)
NITRATES/CHLORIDES
& SULPHATES
- 34 -
Can cause serious disease and intestinal disorders.
Chlorination and filtration is
most widely practiced; iodination, ozonation and ultraviolet
treatment are used to a lesser
degree.
Can cause serious disease and/or poisoning.
Most are readily removed by
absorption with carbon
filters; some can also be
removed by hydrolysis and oxidation.
Can cause health-related problems if quantities are high. Removal by special ion
exchange, deionization process
or reverse osmosis.
Slot Opening Equivalents
The following chart details the opening sizes of slots for distributor systems and screens.
Inches
Microns
U.S. STD. Mesh *
.0002
5
--
.0006
15
1000
.0010
25
--
.0012
30
500
.0015
37
400
.0020
50
270
.0024
61
250
.0030
75
200
.0040
100
150
.0050
125
120
.0060
149
100
.0070
177
80
.0080
200
70
.010
250
60
.012
305
50
.014
355
45
.016
400
40
.020
500
35
.023
590
30
.028
710
25
.033
840
20
.039
1000
18
.047
1190
16
.055
1410
14
.066
1680
12
.094
2380
8
.111
2790
7
.132
3330
6
.157
4000
5
*Note: The higher the Mesh number, the “finer” job of filtration it will do.
- 35 -
Mathematical Conversions
To Convert
From
To
Multiply By
To Convert
From
To
Multiply By
Acre
Square Feet
43,560
Gallon (US liq)
Ounce (US fluid)
128
Acre-Foot
Cubic Yard
1613.333
Gallon (US liq)
Pint (US liq)
8
Angstrom
Nanometer
0.1
Gallon (US liq)
Quart (US liq)
4
Atmosphere
Foot of H20
33.89854
Gallon (Brit)
Gallon (US liq)
1.200950
Bar
Atmosphere
0.9869233
Grain/Gal (Brit)
Milligram/liter
14.25377
Bushel
Cubic Foot
1.244456
Grain/Gal (US)
Milligram/liter
17.11806
Bushel
Gallon (US liq)
9.309177
Inch
Centimeter
2.54
Centimeter
Foot
0.03280840
Inch
Millimeter
25.4
Centimeter
Inch
0.3937008
Kilogram
Grains
15,432.358
Centimeter
Micrometer
10,000
Kilogram
Pounds
2.2046226
Centimeter
Millimeter
10
Liter
Cubic Feet
0.03531467
Chain(Gunter’s)
Feet
66
Liter
Cubic Inches
61.02374
Cubic Foot
Cubic Cm
28,316.847
Liter
Gallons (US)
0.26417205
Cubic Foot
Cubic Inch
1,728
Liter
Milliliters
1,000
Cubic Foot
Gallon (US liq)
7.480519
Liter/Minute
Gallon (US)/Hr
15.85032
Cubic Foot
Liter
28.316847
Meter
Feet
3.2808399
Cubic Meter
Cubic Foot
35.31467
Meter
Inches
39.37007874
Cubic Meter
Cubic Inch
61,023.74
Micrometer
Millimeters
0.001
Cubic Meter
Gallon (US liq)
264.1721
Micrometer
Mils
0.03937008
Celsius (°C)
Fahrenheit (°F)
1.8
Micron
Micrometer
1
Fahrenheit (°F)
Celsius (°C)
0.5555556
Milligram/Liter
Grains/Gal (US)
0.05841783
Foot
Centimeter
30.48
Parts/Million
Milligram/Liter
1
Foot
Meter
0.3048
Pint (US liq)
Ounce (US liq)
16
Foot
Millimeter
304.8
Quart (US liq)
Ounce (US liq)
32
Foot of H20
Atmosphere
0.0294998
Rod
Feet
16.5
Foot of H20
Bar
0.0298907
Square Foot
Square Inches
144
Foot of H20
Inch of Hg
0.882671
Square Mile
Acres
640
Gallon (US liq)
Cubic Feet
0.13368056
Square Yard
Feet
9
Gallon (US liq)
Cubic Inches
231
Tablespoon
Millimeter
14.79
Gallon (US liq)
Gallon (Brit liq)
0.8326742
Teaspoon
Millimeter
4.93
Gallon (US liq)
Liter
3.785412
Watt
BTU/Hour
3.41214
- 36 -
Table of Elements
Name
Actinium
Aluminum
Americium
Antimony
Argon
Arsenic
Astatine
Barium
Berkelium
Berylium
Bismuth
Boron
Bromine
Cadmium
Caesium
Calcium
Californium
Carbon
Cerium
Chlorine
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Curium
Dysprosium
Einsteinium
Erbium
Europium
Fermium
Flourine
Francium
Gadolinium
Gallium
Germanium
Gold
Hafnium
Sym
Ac
Al
Am
Sb
Ar
As
At
Ba
Bk
Be
Bi
B
Br
Cd
Cs
Ca
Cf
C
Ce
Cl
Cr
Co
Cu
Cm
Dy
Es
Er
Eu
Fm
F
Fr
Gd
Ga
Ge
Au
Hf
Num
89
13
95
51
18
33
85
56
97
4
83
5
35
48
55
20
98
6
58
17
24
27
29
96
66
99
68
63
100
9
87
64
31
32
79
72
Name
Helium
Holmium
Hydrogen
Indium
Iodine
Iridium
Iron
Krypton
Lanthanum
Lawrencium
Lead
Lithium
Lutetium
Magnesium
Manganese
Mendelevium
Mercury
Molybdenum
Neodymium
Neon
Neptunium
Nickel
Niobium
Nitrogen
Nobelium
Osmium
Oxygen
Palladium
Phosphorus
Platinum
Plutonium
Polonium
Potassium
Praseodymium
Promethium
Protoactinium
Sym
He
Ho
H
In
I
Ir
Fe
Kr
La
Lr
Pb
Li
Lu
Mg
Mn
Md
Hg
Mo
Nd
Ne
Np
Ni
Nb
N
No
Os
O
Pd
P
Pt
Pu
Po
K
Pr
Pm
Pa
Num
2
67
1
49
53
77
26
36
57
103
82
3
71
12
25
101
80
42
60
10
93
28
41
7
102
76
8
46
15
78
94
84
19
59
61
91
Name
Sym Num
Radium
Ra
88
Radon
Rn
86
Rhenium
Re
75
Rhodium
Rh
45
Rubidium
Rb
37
Ruthenium
Ru
44
Samarium
Sm
62
Scandium
Sc
21
Selenium
Se
34
Silicon
Si
13
Silver
Ag
47
Sodium
Na
11
Strontium
Sr
38
Sulfur
S
16
Tantalum
Ta
73
Technetium
Tc
43
Tellurium
Te
52
Terbium
Tb
65
Thallium
Tl
81
Thorium
Th
90
Thulium
Tm
69
Tin
Sn
50
Titanium
Ti
22
Tungsten
W
74
Unnihexium
Unh 106
Unnilpentium
Unp 105
Unnilquadium Unq 104
Unnilseptium
Uns 107
Uranium
U
92
Vanadium
V
23
Xenon
Xe
54
Ytterbium
Yb
70
Yttrium
Y
39
Zinc
Zn
30
Zirconium
Zr
40
Total Elements
107
- 37 -
Softening & Sodium
Probably the number one question arising during a discussion of water softening is that of the “sodium” issue. It is
greatly misunderstood due to all the bad press about too much salt (sodium) in the average American’s diet today.
Various studies contradict one another on the actual health-impact of sodium in the diet. We must have sodium to
live...but how much is enough...how much is too much? We will not attempt to answer those questions. However, we
can put the topic into perspective by showing where the sodium in one’s life comes from daily.
The standard sodium ion exchange (softening) process uses sodium (salt) to exchange-out the hardness ions (calcium & magnesium). Therefore, when you remove the hardness ions, they are replaced with sodium ions. The amount
of sodium produced in the softening process is quite small and should not present any health problems for a healthy
person. As a matter of fact, the U.S. drinking water regulations have dropped sodium as a regulated component of
water. However, if a person has a question about whether or not they should consume water softened by the sodium
ion exchange process, they should consult with their own health professional.
The basic information below should put soft water sodium into perspective for you relative to sodium in foods. For
example, if you drank 3 quarts of water that was 10 grains hard before softening you would only take-in 223 milligrams of sodium or about 4.3% of the average daily intake of sodium attributable to the water. This would be less
than the amount of sodium contained in two slices of white bread.
TABLE 1 - Sodium Added to Water from
Cation Exchange Softening
Initial Water
Sodium added by Cation Exchange
Hardness
Softening of Water
FOOD APPROXIMATE
SODIUM CONTENT
IN MILLIGRAMS
Grains per Gallon Milligrams Na+/gal. Milligrams Na+/qt.
BREAKFAST
1/2 cup canned tomato juice
1 egg (no salt added)
2 slices bacon
2 biscuits or toast
2 teaspoons margarine
270
60
150
300
100
LUNCH
Luncheon meat, corned beef
or ham (3 oz.)
Processed cheddar cheese (1 oz.)
2 slices white bread
1 cup milk
1 large olive
1 dill pickle
1 teaspoon mustard
Potato chips, about 10
DINNER
Steak, 6 oz., no salt added
Green salad with 1 ounce
French Dressing
Baked potato, salt added
Two pats margarine
Bread, 2 slices or equivalent
- 38 -
900
420
300
120
130
930
60
200
80
450
240
100
300
TOTAL SODIUM........5,110
(Milligrams)
1
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
30
40
30
7.5
149
37
179
44
209
52
23960
26968
298
75
447
112
596150
894225
1,191300
TABLE 2 - Sodium Intake from Softened Water
Compared to Total Sodium Intake
Initial
Water
Hardness/
Grains per
Gallons
1
5
10
15
20
30
40
Milligrams
Na+ Per
3 qts.
Softened
Water
23
112
223
335
447
670
893
Milligrams
Na+ from
Food
Water
5,000
5,000
5,000
5,000
5,000
5,000
5,000
Total Na+ % of Total
Consumed
from
Milligrams Softened
5,023
5,112 5,223
5,335
5,447
5,670
5,893
0.4%
2.2%
4.3%
6.5%
8.2%
12.5%
15.2%
Water Data & Useful Information
To convert pressure (in pounds per square feet) to “Feet of Head” pressure, use the following formula: FT = 2.31 x psi
One U.S. gallon of water contains 231 cu inches and weighs about 8.333 pounds.
A cubic foot of water contains about 7.50 gallons and weighs about 62.5 pounds.
To find the pressure in “psi” of a column of water, multiply the height of the column in feet by .434.
One pound of water occupies 27.70 cubic inches.
One cubic foot of salt water weighs about 64.33 pounds.
One standard “barrel” of water contains 31.50 gallons.
Barrels per day (42 gallons) x .02917 = gallons per minute
Friction of liquids in piping increases as the square of the velocity.
Doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity four times.
A “miner’s inch” of water is approximately equal to a supply of 12 gpm (9 in some states).
The gallons per minute which a pipe will deliver equals .0408 times the square of the diameter in inches, multiplied by the velocity of water in
feet per minute.
To find the capacity of a pipe or cylinder in gallons, multiply the square of the diameter in inches by the length in inches then multiply by .0034.
The weight of water (in pounds) in any length pipe is obtained by multiplying the length in feet by the square of the diameter in inches then
multiply by .340.
One common water pail will hold 2.27 U.S. gallons or about 19 pounds of water.
Sharp angles or sudden bends in pipes cause an increase in friction and, consequently, more power is necessary. Where change of direction is desired, it should be made with long, easy curves or by using 45 degree elbows whenever possible.
About 80% of the earth’s surface is covered by water.
Around 97% of the earth’s water is contained in the oceans, 2% is in glaciers and icecaps; the remaining 1% is found in other surface waters,
groundwater and living tissue.
Rainfall in the U.S. ranges from about 7-130 inches per year depending on geography, averaging out to about 30 inches.
About 52% of our fresh water is used for industrial processes; 40% for irrigation, and 8% for all other uses.
Man can survive for about 30 days without food but only about 7 days without sufficient water.
The average human contains about 10 gallons of water or around 65% of bodyweight.
Bone is about 20% water, the brain about 80%.
An average man needs about 2.50 gallons of water per day for proper health (from foods and beverages).
It is currently estimated that per capita consumption of water in the U.S. is 70-100 gallons per day for all uses.
Water boils at 212°F (100°C) and freezes at 32°F (0°C).
Most things contract when they freeze. Water, however, is one of the very few things that expands (by about 10%).
To find the circumference of a circle, multiply the diameter by 3.1416.
To find the circumference of a circle, multiply the radius by 6.283185.
To find the diameter of a circle, multiply the circumference by .31831.
To find the diameter of a circle, multiply the square root of the area by 1.12838.
To find the radius of a circle, multiply the square root of the area by 0.56419.
To find the area of a circle, multiply the square of the diameter by .7854.
To find the area of a circle, multiply the square of the circumference by 0.07958.
To find the surface of a sphere, multiply the square of the diameter by 3.1416.
To find the cubic inches in a sphere, multiply the cube of the diameter by .5236.
To find the U.S. gallon capacity of any size tank with given dimensions of the cylinder in inches, multiply the square of the diameter by the
length then multiply by .0034.
Steam rising from water at its boiling point has a pressure equal to the atmosphere (14.7 psi).
The expansion of water from its freezing point to boiling is 1 gallon in each 23 or approximately 4.333%.
SOURCE: Water Well Handbook, Keith Anderson, pp. 39 & 254, 1989
- 39 -
Environmental Hotlines
Listed below are a number of agencies that may be of assistance to you in the event you have questions or
need to report an emergency situation. Information was determined correct at the time of printing, however,
for the most up to date information check with the EPA online at www.epa.gov
AGENCY
U.S. E.P.A. (Safe Drinking Water Hotline)
For information on standards and contaminants
E.P.A. Region I (ME,MA, NH, VT, RI & CT)
E.P.A. Region II (NY, NJ, PR & VI)
E.P.A. Region III (VA, WV, PA, DE, MD & DC)
E.P.A. Region IV (FL, GA, NC, SC, KY, TN, MS &
AL)
E.P.A. Region V (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH & WI)
E.P.A. Region VI (TX, NM, OK, AR & LA)
E.P.A. Region VII (NE, KS, IA & MO)
E.P.A. Region VIII (MT, WY, UT, CO, ND & SD)
E.P.A. Region IX (CA, NV, HI, AZ)
E.P.A. Region X (AK, WA, OR & ID)
ADDRESS / TELEPHONE
(800) 426-4791
1 Congress St.
Boston, MA 02114-2023
290 Broadway New York, NY 10007-1866
1650 Arch Street (3PM52)
Philadelphia, PA 19103-2029
61 Forsyth Street, SW Atlanta, GA 30303-3104
77 W. Jackson Blvd.
Chicago, IL 60604
1445 Ross Avenue Suite 1200
Dallas, Texas 75202
901 N. 5th Street
Kansas City, KS 66101
(888) 372-7341
(617) 918-1111
(877) 251-4575
(800) 438-2474
(215) 814-5000
(800) 241-1754
(404) 562-9900
(800) 621-8431
(312) 353-2000
(800) 887-6063
(214) 665-6444
(800) 223-0425
(913) 551-7003
(800) 227-8917
(303) 312-6312
(415) 947-8000
(866)-372-9378
1200 Sixth Avenue
(800) 424-4372
Seattle, WA 98101
(206) 553-1200
(800) 424-9346
RCRA Superfund Hotline
For general information on sites and hazardous waste
laws
National Institute for Occupational Safety Health
(800) 35-NIOSH
For questions about workplace health hazards
National Response Center Hotline
(800)424-8802
To report release of a spill or oil or hazardous waste
Consumer Products Safety Commission
(800) 638-2772
To report products with actual or potential Hazards
National Pesticide Hotline
(800) 858-7378
For information on health risks of pesticides
- 40 -
Drinking Water Regulations
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards) are legally
enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards protect public
health by limiting levels of contaminants in drinking water.
National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations
National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs or secondary standards) are nonenforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as skin
or tooth discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste, odor, or color) in drinking water.
EPA recommends secondary standards to water systems, but does not require systems to
comply. However, states may choose to adopt them as enforceable standards.
Definitions
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) --The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety and are non-enforceable public health goals.
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) -- The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to MCLGs as feasible using the best available treatment technology and taking cost into consideration. MCLs are
enforceable standards.
Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal (MRDLG) -- The level of drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MRDLGs do not reflect the benefits of the use of disinfectants to control microbal contaminants.
Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL) -- The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbal contaminants.
Treatment Technique (TT) -- A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water.
*Note: This document addresses the United States Environmental Protection Agency Drinking
Water Regulations in effect at its time of publication. These regulations are continually being
reviewed and updated at the federal level. If there is any question as to validity of the current
data, simply contact a state EPA office in your area.
- 41 -
Inorganic Chemicals
Contaminant
Antimony
Arsenic
Asbestos (Fibers >
10 micrometers)
Barium
Berylium
Cadmium
Chronium (total)
Copper
Cyanide
Flouride
Lead
Mercury (inorganic)
Nitrate (measured
MCL (mg/L)
Increase in blood cholesterol; decrease in
blood sugar
Coagulation / Filtration, Submicron, Filtration, Reverse Osmosis, Ultrafiltration, and Distillation
0.010
as of 1/23/06
Skin damage or problems with circulatory
systems, and may have increased risk of
getting cancer
Coagulation / Filtration, Submicron, Filtration, Anion
Exchange, Activated Alumina, Reverse Osmosis,
Distallation, Electrodialysis, and Granular Ferric
Oxide Media Filt.
Increased risk of developing benign
intestinal polyps
Coagulation / Filtration, Submicron, Filtration, Reverse Osmosis and Distallation
Increase in blood pressure
Cation Exchange, Reverse Osmosis, Distillation, and
Electrodialysis
0.004
Intestinal lesions
Coagulation / Filtration, Submicron, Filtration / Activated Carbon, Activated Alumina, Cation Exchange,
Reverse Osmosis, Distallation and Electrodialysis
0.005
Kidney Damage
Coagulation / Filtration, Submicron, Filtration, Cation
Exchange, Reverse Osmosis, Distallation and Electrodialysis
Allergic Dermatitis
Coagulation / Filtration, Cation Exchange, Reverse
Osmosis, Distallation, Anion Exchange, and Electrodialysis
Short Term Exposure: Gastrointestinal
Distress
Long Term Exposure: Liver or Kidney
Damage
Cation Exchange (20% - 90%), Reverse Osmosis,
Distillation and Electrodialysis
0.2
Nerve damage or thyroid problems
Chemical Oxidation / Disinfection at pH > 10, Anion
Exchange, Reverse Osmosis, Distillation and Electrodialysis
4.0
Bone disease (pain and tenderness of the
bones); Children may get mottled teeth
Activated Alumina, Activated Carbon, Reverse Osmosis, Distillation and Electrodialysis
Infants and Children: Delays in physical
or mental development; children should
show slight deficits
Cation Exchange (20% - 90%), Coagulation /
Filtration, Submicron Filtration / Activated Carbon,
Reverse Osmosis, Distillation and Electrodialysis
Kidney damage
Submicron Filtration / Activated Carbon, Cation Exchange (20% - 90%), Reverse Osmosis, Distillation,
Anion Exchange and Electrodialysis
Infants below the age of six months who
drink water containing nitrate or nitrite
inexcess of the MCL could become
seriously ill and, if untrated, may die.
Symptoms include shortness of breath
and blue-baby syndrom
Anion Exchange, Reverse Osmosis, Distillation and
Electrodialysis
0.05
Hair or fingernail loss; numbness of fingers or toes; circulatory problems
Coagulation / Filtration, Submicron Filtration / Activated Carbon, Activated Alumina, Anion Exchange,
Reverse Osmosis, Distillation and Electrodialysis
0.002
Hair loss; changes in blood; kidney, intestine or liver problems.
Cation Exchange, Activated Alumina, and Distillation
7 million fibers per
liter (MFL)
2
0.1
Note: 2-1
1.3 action level
Note: 2-1
0.015 action level
0.002
10
1
Nitrogen)
Selenium
Thallium
Note:
Treatment Methods
0.006
as Nitrogen)
Nitrite (measured as
Potential Health Effects from
Exposure Above the MCL
Chemical Oxidation / Disinfection, Anion Exchange,
Reverse Osmosis, Distillation and Electrodialysis
2-1. Lead and Copper are regulated by a treatment technique that requires systems to control the corrosiveness of their water. If more than 10% of
tap water samples exceed action level, water systems must take additional steps.
- 42 -
Drinking Water Regulations
EPA National Primary Drinking Water Standards
MICROORGANISMS
Contaminant
MCL(mg/L)
Cryptosporidium
Note: 1-1
Giardia lamblia
99% Removal/
inactivation
vomiting, cramps)
Potential Health Effects from
Exposure above the MCL
Treatment Methods
Gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, cramps)
Absolute 1 micron filtration, Ultraviolet
disinfection, Ozone, Chlorine disinfection
Gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea,
disinfection, Ozone, Chlorine disinfection
Absolute 1 micron filtration, Ultraviolet
Heterotrophic plate count
No more than 500
No health effects; it is an analytic method used Ultraviolet disinfection, ozone, hydrogen
(HPC) baterial colonies
to measure a variety of bacteria that are peroxide or chlorine disinfection
per mililiter
common in water. The lower the concentration
of bacteria in drinking water, the better
maintained the water system is.
Legionella Note: 1-2
Legionnaire’s Disease, a type of pneumonia
same as above
Total Coliforms (including
Note: 1-3
Not a health threat in itself; it is used to fecal coliform and E. coli)
indicate whether other potentially harmful
bacteria may be present
Ultraviolet disinfection, ozone, hydrogen
peroxide or chlorine disinfection
Turbidity
Note: 1-4
Turbidity is a measure of the cloudiness of water. It is used to indicate water quality and
filtration effectiveness (e.g., whether disease
-causing organisms are present). These organisms can cause symptoms such as
nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and headaches.
Coagulation/Filtration,
Submicron Filtration, Ultrafiltration,
Reverse Osmosis, Cartridge Filtration
matched to Turbidity Particle size, or
Distillation
Viruses (enteric)
Gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, cramps)
Ultraviolet disinfection, ozone, hydrogen
peroxide or chlorine disinfection
99% Removal
inactivation
Notes:
1-1. Cryptosporidium (as of 1/1/02 for systems serving more than 10,000 and 1/14/05 for systems serving less than 10,000) 99% removal.
1-2. Legionella: No limit, but EPA believes that if Giardia and viruses are removed/inactivated, Legionella will also be controlled.
1-3. Fecal coliform and E. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Disease-causing microbes (pathogens) in these wastes can cause diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. These
pathogens may pose a special health risk for infants, young children, and people with severely compromised immune systems. No
more than 5.0% total coliform-positive in a month. Every sample that has total coliform must be anlayzed for either fecal coliforms or
E. coli if two consecutive TC-positive samples, and one is also positive for E. coli fecal coliforms, system has an acute MCL violation.
1-4. Turbidity: At no time can turbidity (cloudiness of water) go above 5 nephelolometric turbidity units (NTU); systems that filter must ensure that the turbidity go no higher than 1 NTU (0.5) for conventional or direct filtration in at least 95% of the daily samples in any
month. As of January 1, 2002, for systems servicing more than 10,000, and January 14, 2005, for systems servicing less than
10,000, turbidity may never exceed 1 NTU, and must not exceed 0.3 NTU in 95% of daily samples in any month.
RADIONUCLIDES
Contaminant
Alpha particles
Beta particles & photon emitters
MCL(mg/L)
Potential Health Effects from
Exposure above the MCL
15 picocuries per Liter Increased Risk of Cancer
(pCi/L)
4 millirems
per year
Increased Risk of Cancer
Radium 226 & Radium 5 pCi/L
Increased Risk of Cancer 228 (combined) Uranium
30 ug/L as of Increased Risk of Cancer, kidney toxicity
12/08/03
Treatment Methods
Ion Exchange, Reverse Osmosis,
Distallation, & Electrodialysis
Ion Exchange, Reverse Osmosis,
Distallation, & Electrodialysis
Cation exchange, Reverse Osmosis,
Distallation, & Electrodialysis
Coagulation/Filtration, Submicron
Filtration, Anion Exchange, Activated
Alumina, Reverse Osmosis,
Distillation, and Electrodialysis
- 43 -
Organic Chemicals
Contaminant
MCL
(mg/L)
Potential Health
Effects from Exposure above
the MCL
Acrylamide
Note: 3-1
Nervous systems or blood problems
Control of water treatment chemicals
and surfaces in contact with water
Alachlor
0.002
Eye, liver, kidney or spleen problems; anemia;
increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Atrazine
0.003
Cardiovascular system or reproductive problems
Activated Carbon
Benzene
0.005
Anemia; decrease in blood platelets; increased risk of
cancer
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Benzo(a)pyrene (PAHs)
0.0002
Reproductive difficulties; increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon
Carbofuran
0.04
Problems with blood, nervous system, or reproductive
system
Activated Carbon
Carbon tetrachloride
0.005
Liver problems; increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Chlordane
0.002
Liver or nervous system problems; increased risk of
cancer
Activated Carbon
Chlorobenzene
0.1
Liver or kidney problems
Activated Carbon
2,4-D
0.07
Kidney, liver, or adrenal gland problems
Activated Carbon
Dalapon
0.2
Minor kidney changes
Activated Carbon
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)
0.0002
Reproductive difficulties; increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon
o-Dichlorobenzene
0.6
Liver, kidney, or circulatory system problems
Activated Carbon, Aeration
p-Dichlorobenzene
0.075
Anemia; liver, kidney or spleen damage; changes in
blood
Activated Carbon, Aeration
1,2-Dichloroethane
0.005
Increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon, Aeration
1,1-Dichloroethylene
0.007
Liver problems
Activated Carbon, Aeration
cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene
0.07
Liver problems
Activated Carbon, Aeration
trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene
0.1
Liver problems
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Dichloromethane
0.005
Liver problems; increased risk of cancer
Aeration
1,2-Dichloropropane
0.005
Increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate
0.4
Weight loss, liver problems, or possible reproductive
difficulties
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
0.006
Reproductive difficulties; liver problems; increased risk
of cancer
Activated Carbon
Dinoseb
0.007
Reproductive difficulties
Activated Carbon
Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD)
0.00000003
Reproductive difficulties; increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon
Diquat
0.02
Cataracts
Activated Carbon
Endothall
0.1
Stomach and intestinal problems
Activated Carbon
Endrin
0.002
Liver problems
Activated Carbon
Epichlorohydrin
Note: 3-1
Increased cancer risk, and over a long period of time,
stomach problems
Control of water treatment chemicals
and surfaces in contact with water
Note:
Treatment Methods
3-1. Each water system must certify, in writing, to the state (using third-party or manufacturers certification) that when it uses acrylamide and/or
epichlorohydrin to treat water, the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the levels specified as follows:
Acrylamide = 0.05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent); Epichlorohydrin = 0.01% dosed at 20 mg/L (or equivalent).
- 44 -
Organic Chemicals Continued
Contaminant
MCL
(mg/L)
Potential Health
Effects from Exposure above
the MCL
Ethylbenzene
0.7
Liver or kidney problems
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Ethylene dibromide
0.00005
Problems with liver, stomach, reproductive system, or
kidneys; increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Glyphosate
0.7
Kidney problems; reproductive difficulties
Activated Carbon
Heptachlor
0.0004
Liver damage; increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon
Heptachlor epoxide
0.0002
Liver damage; increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon
Hexachlorobenzene
0.001
Liver or kidney problems; reproductive difficulties;
increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
0.05
Kidney or stomach problems
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Lindane
0.0002
Liver or kidney problems
Activated Carbon
Methoxychlor
0.04
Reproductive difficulties
Activated Carbon
Oxamyl (Vydate)
0.2
Slight nervous system effects
Activated Carbon
Pentachlorophenol
0.001
Liver or kidney problems; increased cancer risk
Activated Carbon
Picloram
0.5
Liver problems
Activated Carbon
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
0.0005
Skin changes; thymus gland problems; immune deficiencies; reproductive or nervous system difficulties;
increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon
Simazine
0.004
Problems with blood
Activated Carbon
Styrene
0.1
Liver, kidney, or circulatory system problems
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Tetrachloroethylene
0.005
Liver problems, increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Toluene
1
Nervous system, kidney, or liver problems
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Toxaphene
0.003
Kidney, liver, or thyroid problems; increased risk of
cancer
Activated Carbon
2,4,5-TP (Silvex)
0.05
Liver problems
Activated Carbon
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
0.07
Changes in adrenal glands
Activated Carbon, Aeration
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
0.2
Liver, nervous system, or circulatory problems
Activated Carbon, Aeration
1,1,2-Trichloroethane
0.005
Liver, kidney, or immune system problems
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Trichloroethylene
0.005
Liver problems; increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Vinyl Chloride
0.002
Increased risk of cancer
Aeration
Xylenes (total)
10
Nervous system damage
Activated Carbon, Aeration
Treatment Methods
-- 45
45 --
Disinfectants / Byproducts
DISINFECTANT
Contaminant
Chloramines (as Cl2)
Chlorine (as Cl2)
MCL(mg/L)
Potential Health Effects from
Exposure above the MCL
MRDL = 4.0 Eye/nose irritation; stomach discomfort,
anemia
MRDL = 4.0
Eye/nose irritation; stomach discomfort
Chlorine Dioxide (as ClO2)
MRDL = 0.8 Anemia; infants & young children, nervous
system effects
Treatment Methods
Activated Carbon
Activated Carbon
Activated Carbon
DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT
Contaminant
Bromate
MCL(mg/L)
0.010 Chlorite
Haloacetic acids (HAA5)
1
0.060
Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs)
0.080
- 46 -
Potential Health Effects from
Exposure above the MCL
Treatment Methods
Increased risk of cancer
Call EPA for more info.
Anemia; infants & young children, nervous
system effects
Call EPA for more info.
Increased risk of cancer
Call EPA for more info.
Liver, kidney or central nervous system
problems; increased risk of cancer
Activated Carbon
Secondary Contaminants
EPA National Secondary Drinking Water Standards
Contaminant
Secondary
Standard
Treatment Methods
Aluminum
0.05 to 0.2 mg/L
Cation Exchange, Reverse Osmosis, Distillation, Electrodialysis
Chloride
250 mg/L
Reverse Osmosis, Distillation, Anion Exchange, Electrodialysis
Color
15 (color units)
Anion Exchange, Reverse Osmosis, Activated, Carbon, Distillation, Filtration, Ozonation,
Note: 1
Chloronation, Activated Alumina
Copper
1.0 mg/L
Reverse Osmosis, Distillation, Cation Exchange (20%-90%), Electrodialysis
Corrosivity
Non-corrosive
Calcite or Calcite/Magnesium Oxide (Magnesia), (5 to 1) Filter to raise pH, Soda Ash Chemical Feed, Sodium Silicate Feed, Reduce TDS via Reverse Osmosis (partial, split
stream treatment), Coatings, Insulating Unions
Fluoride
2.0
Activated Alumina, Activated Carbon, Reverse Osmosis, Distillation
Foaming Agents
0.5 mg/L
Chlorination, Reverse Osmosis, Activated Carbon, Distillation, Ozonation
Iron
0.3 mg/L
Note: 2
Filtration (oxidizing filters), Cation Exchange, Reverse Osmosis, Pressure Areation/Filtration, Chlorination - Precipitation/Filtration, Distillation, Electrodialysis
Manganese
0.05 mg/L
Note: 3
Odor
3 threshold odor #
Note: 4
Filtration (oxidizing filters), Cation Exchange, Reverse Osmosis, Distillation,
Chlorination - Precipitation/Filtration, Pressure Areation/Filtration, Electrodialysis
Activated Carbon, Aeration, Oxidation
pH
6.5 - 8.5
pH may be increased by alkalies and may be decreased by acids, Ion Exchange,
Neutralizing Filter (Calcite, Magnesia)
Silver
0.10 mg/L
Coagulation/Filtration, Submicron Filtration/Activated Carbon, Ion Exchange (Anion or
Cation depending on complexed Ion Species)
Sulfate
250 mg/L
Reverse Osmosis, Distillation, Anion Exchange, Electrodialysis
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
500 mg/L
Reverse Osmosis, Distillation, Deionzation by Ion Exchange (Cation/Anion in two bed
or mixed bed), Electrodialysis
Zinc
5 mg/L
Reverse Osmosis, Distillation, Cation Exchange, Electrodialysis
Notes:
1. Color - Color units are based on the APHA recommended standard of 1 color unit being equal to 1 mg/L of
platinum or chloroplatinate ion.
2. Iron - Ferrous Iron (clear water iron) is readily converted to ferric iron (red water iron) in the presence of any air or oxidizing material; precipitating ferric iron must be prevented to avoid fouling and
interference with effective reverse osmosis membrane rejection.
3. Manganese - Manganese must be maintained in the soluble manganous (Mn + 2) stated to avoid fouling and
interference with effective reverse osmosis membrane rejection.
4. Odor - Chlorine and hydrogen sulfide are examples of odors that may be reduced by the treatment
methods suggested
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