Transforming Arts Teaching: The Role of Higher

Transforming Arts Teaching: The Role of Higher
Arts Teaching
The Role of
Higher Education
When well taught, the arts transform
students and their schools. And when
teachers of the arts are well taught,
we make such transformative
experiences possible for more students.
The Dana Foundation
About Dana
The Dana Foundation is a private philanthropic
organization with particular interests in brain science,
immunology, and education. In 2000 the Foundation
extended its longtime support of education to fund
innovative professional development programs leading
to improved teaching of the performing arts.
Dana’s focus is on training for in-school art specialists
and professional artists who teach in public schools. The
arts education direct grants are supported by providing
information such as “best practices,” to arts educators,
artists in residence, and schools through symposia,
periodicals, and books.
In the science and health fields, Dana grants support
research in neuroscience and immunology. As part of its
outreach to the public, Dana produces books and periodicals from the Dana Press, coordinates the international Brain Awareness Week campaign; and supports
the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives, a nonprofit
organization of more than 250 neuroscientists, including
ten Nobel laureates, committed to advancing public
awareness of the progress of brain research. The Dana
Web site is at
The Dana Foundation Board of Directors
William Safire, chairman
Edward F. Rover, president
Edward Bleier
Wallace L. Cook
Charles A. Dana III
Steven E. Hyman, MD
Ann McLaughlin Korologos
Lasalle D. Leffall, MD
Hildegarde E. Mahoney
L. Guy Palmer, II
Herbert J. Siegel
Transforming Arts Teaching:
The Role of Higher Education
© 2007 The Dana Foundation
ISBN-13: 978-1-932594-35-5
Associate Editor: Johanna Goldberg
Copy Editor: Stephen J. Marcus
Production Manager: Blayne Jeffries
Please note:
Transforming Arts Teaching: The Role of Higher Education
is available in its entirety in PDF format on the Dana
Web site:
Jane Nevins
Editor in Chief
The Dana Foundation
745 Fifth Avenue, Suite 900
New York, NY 10151
(212) 223-4040
Arts Teaching:
The Role of
Higher Education
Jane L. Polin and Barbara Rich, EdD
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49 Lesley University, Creative Arts in Learning Division,
Cambridge, MA
2 Prolegomenon
William Safire, chairman, Dana Foundation
51 Longy School of Music, Cambridge, MA
4 Executive Summary
Jane L. Polin, philanthropic advisor
53 New England Conservatory, Boston, MA
14 Keynote Address,
Transforming Arts Teaching Symposium
David J. Skorton, MD, president, Cornell University
55 Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles, CA
Edited Excerpts,
Transforming Arts Teaching Symposium
58 School of Visual Arts, New York, NY
57 Peck School of the Arts,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI
60 Southeast Center for Education in the Arts,
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga,
Chattanooga, TN
17 What is the Role of the Arts College
or Conservatory?
61 Towson University,
College of Fine Arts and Communication,
Towson, MD
19 What is the Role of the Teacher Education College?
22 View From the Field: What Teachers of the Arts See
24 What Do We Know About the Best of Arts Teaching?
63 University of California, Irvine,
Center for Learning through the Arts, Irvine, CA
28 What’s the Bigger Picture? What’s Next?
65 University of New Hampshire,
Paul Creative Arts Center, Durham, NH
Profiles of Higher Education Institutions
32 Antioch University Seattle, Seattle, WA
33 Bank Street Graduate School of Education,
New York, NY
66 National String Project Consortium (NSPC)
and the University of South Carolina String Project,
Columbia, SC
36 California Polytechnic State University,
San Luis Obispo, CA
68 The University of Texas at Austin,
College of Fine Arts, Austin, TX
38 The City University of New York, New York, NY
39 College for Creative Studies, Detroit, MI
70 University of Wisconsin-Madison,
College of Letters & Sciences, Madison, WI
41 College of Visual and Performing Arts,
University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO
72` Virginia Commonwealth University,
School of the Arts, Richmond, VA
42 Columbia College Chicago,
Center for Community Arts Partnerships, Chicago, IL
73 Biographies of Speakers, Panelists, and Moderators
81 Recommended Resources
44 Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT
82 Acknowledgements
46 Graduate School of Education,
State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY
82 About the Editors
48 Indiana University School of Education,
Bloomington, IN
83 Index
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Teaching artists how to teach the arts is an art in
itself. Here is a book that reports an interchange of
insights as people active in higher education
explored the work being done in the professional
development of artists and educators in helping
young students discover and participate in the
excitement of the arts. They gathered to examine
the best practices as well as the greatest needs of
organizations devoted to opening the minds of
students to the world of music, dance, drama,
painting, and sculpture—pursuits that can enhance
their schooling and enrich their lives.
By William Safire,
Chairman, Dana Foundation
It’s never too late to get a lesson in the arts. The
Dana Foundation in Washington, DC, is across the
street from the McPherson Square subway station,
three blocks from the White House, where I once
worked. Because my office is on the second floor
and I like to leave the window open, it gets a little
noisy at midday, especially when a guy stands on
the corner tootling his trumpet to pick up a few
bucks from the crowd exiting the trains.
There is a moment in education, as in art and
politics and all culture, called “the shock of recognition.” As a card-carrying phrasemonger, I learned
long ago that those words came from Herman
Melville, writing in 1850 about his friend and fellow novelist, Nathaniel Hawthorne: “Genius all over
the world stands hand in hand, and one shock of
recognition runs the whole world round.” Nobody
at this conference laid claim to genius, but there
were plenty of creative and close to ingenious “so
that's how it’s done” moments, from “so that’s why
people want to go to your conservatory” to “so
that’s how to persuade people to support more arts
training in the classroom.”
My visitor one day in the fall of ‘07 was David
Skorton, president of Cornell University, who had
delivered a thought-provoking keynote speech at a
symposium Dana organized that spring on the need
for higher education to become more active in
transforming arts teaching at all levels in the U.S.
David is not your run-of-the-academy college president; he brings to his post a combination of training
in the world of education and the world of medicine—he is a board-certified cardiologist—and also
worked his way through school as a jazz musician.
We talked about the themes he had brought up in
his “intrinsically optimistic” speech. In discussing
the Dana Press’ plan to include the text of that
keynoter in the book you have in your hands,
I apologized for the damn noise outside and moved
to close the window. But he raised a hand to stop
me: “Listen to that improvisation,” President
Skorton said, “he’s playing a mean trumpet.”
Ever since, weather permitting, I leave the window
open and catch the serenade with a new appreciation, proudly call attention of visitors to the
artistic atmosphere in which we work and from
time to time make a small contribution to the
street performer.
In the executive summary that follows this prolegomenon, Jane Polin, the arts consultant who
helped us organize this event, summarizes what
different arts colleges, conservatories, government
agencies, foundations, and arts groups are doing
to—in Jane’s well-turned phrase—“transform
teachers of the arts into artists of teaching.” (The
reason I like to call an intro like this a “prolegomenon,” a highfalutin word for “introduction,”
is that most readers skip introductions to get right
to the meat of a book.)
Because the Dana Foundation has been one of the
pioneer philanthropies in brain science, I had the
chance to preview one of our studies under way
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enrolling and attending and remaining in school,
which is a practical plus to the beginnings of education; if brain science ultimately demonstrates that
arts training can be an asset in cognition, we will
have an additional incentive to fund arts education
in our schools—and to recruit and train teachers of
the arts.
that enlisted a consortium of neuroscientists in
seven universities across the country that will be of
interest to all who ask: Does early arts training have
an impact on students’ abilities to learn across the
range of the academic curriculum? For example,
does music, dance, or dramatic training enable the
young mind to better focus on geometric, scientific,
and literary subjects or spatial relationships?
To report on and edit the presentations at the 2007
national convening of “Transforming Arts Teaching:
the Role of Higher Education,” we turned to
Barbara Rich, EdD, head of Dana’s Internet and
news operation and editor of Acts of Achievement
and Partnering Arts Education. The profiles herein
are of a representative two-dozen higher-education
institutions from across the nation—large and
small, public and private—that participated in our
survey and were selected by an advisory committee.
Members were Gary Anderson, Plowshares Theatre
Company; Darrell Ayers, The Kennedy Center;
Gail Burnaford, Florida Atlantic University;
Moy Eng, The Hewlett Foundation; Derek Gordon,
Arts Council of Greater Baton Rouge; also Sarah
Cunningham, liaison to the National Endowment
for the Arts and Doug Herbert, liaison to the U.S.
Department of Education, as well as Janet Eilber,
artistic director of the Martha Graham Center of
Contemporary Dance, who is director of arts
education for The Dana Foundation.
Cognitive neuroscience is the relatively new field
devoted to the brain’s process of learning. Directed
by Professor Michael Gazzaniga at the University of
California at Santa Barbara, the cognitive scientists
will soon come up with reports on their three-year
investigations. Some may show tight correlation
Herman Melville, writing
in 1850 about his friend and
fellow novelist, Nathaniel
Hawthorne: “Genius all over the
world stands hand in hand, and
one shock of recognition runs
the whole world round.”
between arts study and other domains; others may
suggest that such training helps young minds’
ability to focus and concentrate, a precursor to
learning. We hope that their preliminary research
will encourage our scientific grant committees, as
well as other foundations and agencies, to follow
the trail into deeper research about the circuits of
cognition—the neural pathways that enable the
brain to perceive, to remember, and to retrieve
If you would like additional printed copies of this
report, write Johanna Goldberg, Dana Foundation,
745 Fifth Avenue, NY, NY 10151. It can also be
downloaded in parts or in its entirety from our
Web site,, where you can get a
rundown on all our teacher-education grantees—
including those in our expanding Rural Initiative—
and subscribe to our free bimonthly publication,
“Arts Education in the News.”
Participating in, and appreciating one or more of
the variety of arts is a worthy end in itself: “art for
art’s sake” is rooted in our traditions. But a lively
arts program has been shown to interest pupils in
We’re proud to be with you in such a vital
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Executive Summary
artists of teaching. These ideas guide the content of this
By Jane L. Polin
The National Forum
Teacher of the Year
On May 11, 2007, leaders from the arts, pre-K-12 education, higher education, philanthropy, and related professional communities participated in “Transforming Arts
Teaching,” a national invitational forum held at the
Metropolitan Club in New York City. This Dana
Foundation forum examined the role of conservatories,
fine-arts colleges, teacher-education colleges, and other
higher-education institutions in preparing and advancing those who teach the arts to young people.
We can all remember a favorite teacher, someone who
helped us become who we are—a teacher who raised the
practice of teaching to artistry, making magic of even
mundane matters, or a teacher who taught us how to
learn through his or her own passion for learning.
Such capable and committed individuals make a tremendous difference in our lives, individually and collectively.
By believing in us, by expanding our knowledge, and by
giving us essential skills, they help us attain not only the
possibility of success but also the pathway.
The summaries that follow encapsulate each of the
forum’s sessions, though they cannot fully convey the
pointed, provocative, and sometimes-poignant remarks
made by our distinguished panelists. Fortunately, modern technology allows us to bring all of these sessions to
you as Webcasts on the Dana Foundation Web site, In addition, the edited excerpts section of
this publication provides a sense of the rich dialogue
that occurred at the Transforming Arts Teaching forum.
“When well taught, the arts
transform students and their
Your favorite teacher may have been someone like Andrea
Peterson, the 2007 National Teacher of the Year. Faced
with few resources for teaching music in Granite Falls,
WA, she reached out to colleagues to revitalize the
subject in local elementary and secondary schools and to
develop cross-curricular programs. Praised for her creativity and versatility as a teacher, Peterson is an enthusiast for
the arts as a force in motivating all students toward
excellence. “If you can tap into that motivation,” she says,
“then you can get them to achieve higher at all levels.”
Keynote Remarks
The forum opened with welcoming remarks by Dana
Foundation Chairman William Safire, who then introduced the keynote speaker, Dr. David J. Skorton, president of Cornell University. Dr. Skorton spoke of the arts
as well as the sciences within the modern research university, and he focused on music as a fundamental experience that imbues us with an understanding of
universality. He infused his text with the sounds of music,
beginning with the prelude of J.S. Bach’s Unaccompanied
Cello Suite No. 1 in G Major and then journeying through
a wide range of musical genres, across time and place, to
a commissioned piece performed this spring by a graduating Cornell University senior.
While the nature of high-quality teaching has received
significant attention in recent years, little has been paid
specifically to the role of those who teach the arts. When
well taught, the arts transform students and their
schools. And when teachers of the arts are well taught,
we gain the capacity to make such transformative experiences possible for more students. But how are potential
teachers of the arts encouraged to teach, or discouraged
from choosing that career? What training, if any, is provided to them? And once they enter the field, how do
they advance professionally?
Dr. Skorton, a physician-scientist-musician, gave evocative examples of his thoughts on what music does to
enhance our sense of humanity. “Pedagogically complex,
music transforms us,” he said. It “touches us alone or in
shared experience, shared as it comes to pass, planned
and improvised.” He also spoke to the nature of teaching
and learning: “Education is innately a forward-looking
and optimistic enterprise. The investments in the preparation for teaching-in the moment, in the follow-up—
all are intrinsically optimistic.”
These and similar research questions framed a day of
inquiry, allowing us to explore how higher-education
institutions nationwide are transforming arts teaching—
how they are transforming teachers of the arts into
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As subsequent panelists commented, Dr. Skorton modeled the essence of the artist-teacher-researcher in his
presentation, displaying the power of the arts and using
technology as a tool of his trade. We have included his
spoken remarks, in their entirety, in this publication.
These presidents then spoke about their professional
journeys; the changes at their institutions to try to
balance time-honored traditions of teaching and learning the arts with emerging innovative practices; and the
evolution of their numerous constituencies’ expectations, especially those resulting from the powerful
impacts of technology.
What is the Role of the Arts College
or Conservatory?
Roger Brown addressed how the uncertainty of career
paths in all professions, including the arts, can be better
managed by applying the principles of liberal-arts learning to professional training. Flexible skills allow artists to
work in various environments; and such versatility is
critical because of the multiple roles of the arts professional as creator, performer, and especially teacher. They
may also need to act, say, as producer, engineer, or manager, and they may hold complementary “day jobs” in
new arenas-for example, within the health professions.
New partnership models, such as Berklee’s City Music
program, enable students, faculty, and alumni to engage
in an approach to teaching and learning instrumental
music that probably differs considerably from their previous experiences; this approach is especially well suited
Roger Brown, Berklee College of Music
Polly Kahn, American Symphony Orchestra League,
Michael O’Keefe, Minneapolis School of Art and Design
Robert Sirota, Manhattan School of Music
The questions posed by moderator Polly Kahn addressed
the educational backgrounds and professional experiences of the panelists; the critical skill sets necessary for
professional success today; the status of their institutions, and similar ones, in developing those skill sets; the
expectations of key constituencies—students, alumni,
and faculty—regarding their institution’s role in improving its teaching of the arts; and the role of arts colleges
and conservatories in creating life-long learners.
continued on next page
Music director Jeffrey
Rink with the Longy
School of Music
Chamber Orchestra
and guest violinist
Tobias Steymans, '01.
Photo by Steve Gilbert
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to serving disadvantaged students in cities across the
Michael O’Keefe, initially trained as a physicist,
described his own unconventional preparation for leadership of an institution where “he wouldn’t be allowed to
teach.” That experience contributed to his goal of breaking internal and external boundaries at the Minneapolis
College of Art and Design (MCAD), both for students
and others associated with the college. Its course of study
has grown from traditional training to one that now
includes conceptual understanding and practical applications; the latest reforms emphasize the making of meaningful connections with a larger world, both in the career
marketplace and in society at large. In considering the
college’s involvement with K-12 arts education, his key
concerns are MCAD’s intersections with other educational and community-based institutions and how to
add such training to an already-crowded curriculum. In
defining MCAD’s role, several basic issues need to be
considered, including the different requirements for
teaching within elementary and secondary schools, the
nature of disciplined-based and integrated learning, and
faculty commitment. Also, art and design students need
an understanding of the classroom opportunities available to them and of how they can serve and lead others
in their communities.
University of Texas
at Austin Professor
Holly Williams works
with US Performing
Arts Theater Camp
Photo by Ben Aqua
Robert Sirota described how the conventional practices
of conservatories and fine-arts colleges need to change in
order to meet both the needs of the working artist as
well those who can be leaders, in all respects, for the arts.
The business model for music in particular has been
revolutionized in recent years through technology, but
conservative institutions still cling to old ways. While
traditional practices tend to narrow the training of
artists, they also affect the preparation of those who
teach the arts. He spoke about the need to redefine student success, inside and outside conservatories, and he
noted that “outreach is an outmoded term.” Achieving
integration between teaching and learning activities is
also a critical issue. And conservatories need more interconnectivity with other educational and communitybased institutions; recent graduates may be showing the
rest of us how this might be done.
Joseph Dominic, Heinz Endowment, moderator
Daniel Fallon, Carnegie Corporation of New York
Augusta Souza Kappner, Bank Street College of Education
Questions for this session posed by moderator Joseph
Dominic addressed core knowledge in the arts that all
teachers, not just arts specialists, should acquire; the distinctive approaches of Bank Street and the University of
Wisconsin-Milwaukee; the role of artistic experience or
knowledge in effective teaching; the impact of educational policy, including No Child Left Behind, on teacher
preparation and certification; and the findings of the
Teachers for a New Era (TNE) initiative, sponsored by
the Carnegie Corporation of New York.
This session featured two institutions that are profiled
later in this publication: the Bank Street College of
Education (page 33) and the University of WisconsinMilwaukee (UWM) (page 57). While both are TNE
institutions, they represent contrasting models of artsteacher education. The former is a small, private, gradu-
What is the Role of the Teacher
Education College?
W. Robert Bucker and Alfonzo Thurman,
University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee
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Here too, the faculty and their leaders are learning about
each other’s content and pedagogy and are adapting
their processes to better meet the needs of today’s arts
teachers and students.
ate institution focused exclusively on teacher education,
while the latter is a large, public university with three
separate colleges involved in teacher education. As the
panel excerpts and the profiles describe, Bank Street
approaches its work in partnership with external organizations. For its part, UWM has established internal relationships to meet the needs both of undergraduate and
graduate students.
TNE’s designer, Daniel Fallon, provided additional
context by describing the initiative’s three major design
principles—what “every teacher-education program
ought to do.” First, create a culture of evidence that evaluates the quality of teacher education through student
learning. Second, establish an effective engagement with
the disciplines. Third, understand that teaching, though
academically taught, is a skilled clinical practice that is
best learned in real classrooms, and provide professional
support to new graduates through induction programs.
He then gave two examples of how TNE nurtures new
teaching practices in the arts and celebrates high-quality
arts teaching and learning. His first example told of new
work in exploring the relationship between acting and
teaching; the second described in detail a classroom
experience that demonstrated the value of high-quality
teaching and learning through the arts. His comments
revealed how the arts, when well taught, explicitly and
implicitly enable TNE to realize its design principles in
Bank Street President Augusta Kappner, a champion of
child-centered, experience-based education, noted the
many benefits of having a range of partnerships with
those possessing deep expertise in arts education. She
also acknowledged the challenges of a “difficult dance”
involved in making partnerships work, whether externally or internally structured. In particular, she cited the
value of the Bank Street partnerships in offering teachereducation faculty the opportunity to “refresh and
renew.” She also addressed parents’ growing concerns
about how current policies and practices are narrowing
“ and design students
need an understanding of the
classroom opportunities
available to them and of how
they can serve and lead others
in their communities.”
View from the Field:
What Teachers of the Arts See
Ramon Cortines, deputy mayor of Los Angeles, moderator
Melissa Friedman, education director, Epic Theatre Center
Tom Hall, music teacher, P.S. 2, Bronx
the curriculum; they point out, she said, that education
is “not just literacy and numeracy.” This narrowing is
also placing limitations on teachers as professionals and
on their ability to be creative in the classroom.
Maria Mitchell, dance teaching artist
Marie Sanzone, music teacher, P.S. 247, Brooklyn
Carol Sun, visual arts teacher, Bronx High School for the
Visual Arts
UWM Peck School of the Arts Dean Robert Bucker and
School of Education Dean Alfonzo Thurman described
the deep content knowledge in the arts and in education
at their respective Schools—as well as at UWM’s College
of Letters and Sciences—and how they have worked
together through TNE to develop a more coherent set of
learning experiences for future and current teachers of
the arts. One indicator of success is a growing faculty
view that their roles are part of a larger loop of K-12,
undergraduate, and graduate education. UWM faculty
members and administrators have been able to examine
more rigorously the impacts of their work: Are the
teachers teaching well? Are their students learning more?
Michael Wiggins, artistic producer, MUD/BONE
Moderator and renowned education leader Ramon
Cortines introduced a panel of arts teachers that he
dubbed “New York’s finest.” Questions for the panelists
concerned their initial preparation, including highereducation studies; who or what helped them to become
better teachers or teaching artists; and what advice they
would offer to those in higher education who want to
help prepare or advance teachers of the arts?
These current arts teachers bring a wide range of
experiences to the classroom. They include traditional,
continued on next page
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enthusiastic teacher working within an energized school
environment can be.
disciplined-based teachers of the arts as well as teaching
artists associated with New York City arts organizations.
Some have done this work for decades, others for just a
few years. Whether veterans or novices, they all exhibited
strong commitments to their students and to furthering
the role of the arts in their lives.
The panelists were also mindful of the policy contexts—
at the local, state, and federal levels—for furthering this
work. As former teachers themselves, they brought a set
of perspectives to a conversation that is still grounded in
actual classroom practice. They also value the student
both as an artist and a teacher who can contribute to
adult learning.
Several other characteristics of these arts teachers
• They, for the most part, did not follow a “straight-line”
path to the classroom
Researcher Dennie Palmer Wolf profiled a high-school
ceramics teacher engaged in the lives of her students.
For Dr. Wolf, this individual exemplifies what teachers
need to know and be able to do: she has a deep understanding of her field, strong pedagogical knowledge, and
exceptional skill in connecting the arts to a larger social
activism agenda. When asked what she might do if she
were US Secretary of Education, Dr. Wolf outlined a
• They see themselves primarily as artists; being an active
artist is a central part of their lives, and it informs their
work as teachers
• They were influenced by another teacher to pursue this
work, and other teachers have been key mentors in
their professional development
• Their prior higher-education experiences often had
little connection to their current work
“Panelists value the student
both as an artist and a teacher
who can contribute to adult
• They link their work in the classroom with a wider
world, whether through the content they teach or
outside experiences they create for their students
• They epitomize “lifelong learners,” who are always
seeking new knowledge and looking for better ways to
go about their work
series of steps that would link the arts with the sciences
to create “education for innovation,” or “education for
imagination.” Schools would be just one component of a
larger set of community-based institutions—a network
of learning systems—leading to higher-education and
career opportunities for young people.
• They seek out opportunities to collaborate with both
artists and teachers
• They are realistic about what high-quality arts teaching
requires but remain idealistic in their motivations.
What Do We Know About the
Best of Arts Teaching?
Former teacher and dean Sarah Cunningham described
some experiences from her years at the Oxbow School
(Napa, CA), with the hallmarks of interdisciplinary and
integrated teaching and learning. But finding and developing the teachers who could do high-quality work
within a discipline, relate well to students, and reach out
to other teachers was not a simple task. Fundamentally,
such teachers need to have the accelerated learning as
adults that they had as children, and the ability to change
and adapt. From her current vantage point at the
National Endowment for the Arts, Dr. Cunningham has
seen, for example, how summer-school experiences for
young children who had no previous arts experiences
can ignite their interest in arts learning, and how more
arts learning can be made available by opening “different
doors” for artists and teachers.
Milton Chen, George Lucas Educational Foundation,
Sarah Cunningham, National Endowment for the Arts
Richard Deasy, Arts Education Partnership
Dennie Palmer Wolf, Annenberg Institute
for School Reform
Moderator Milton Chen led the panelists in a review of
leading themes in arts-education research: the requisite
knowledge and skills of high-quality arts teachers and
how they are gained, and what changes, large and small,
could be made to improve arts teaching. By eliciting specific examples and experiences, actual and imagined, this
panel gave us additional insights into what high-quality
arts teaching looks like and what the impact of an
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Richard Deasy articulated some of the challenges of
reaching out to a public that does not understand arts
learning, based largely on its school experiences, and that
sees science, not the arts, as an engine for innovation.
Research on learning in the arts reveals its positive cognitive, personal, and social effects; the economy is now
demanding the very traits, such as imagination, that are
nurtured through learning in the arts. Yet an ignorance
gap remains. Invited by the moderator to serve as a
school leader with a mandate to reduce this gap, Mr.
Deasy volunteered to be a middle-school principal in an
urban environment. He then outlined how he would
reinvent his school through partnerships with a highereducation institution and various arts, cultural, and science organizations. The middle-school students would
become teachers to their teachers and other adults, and
they would be validated for their knowledge. Students’
achievement levels would increase as they learned more
through this set of strategies.
After providing an overview of the preceding panels,
moderator Derek Gordon invited his panelists to place
the dialogue of the day into a larger framework of
student achievement, school improvement, educational
reform, and workforce needs. They responded with ideas
along two avenues: how to make effective linkages with
parents, voters, school leaders, employers, and other
concerned decision makers, and how to educate them
on how the availability or dearth of high-quality arts
teaching affects children and has long-term consequences for our schools and communities.
Education-polling expert Jean Johnson noted that
reform of many critical matters in public education has
not emerged from public outrage. She lamented the
paucity of public-opinion research on the arts, as well as
the fact that what is available does not readily help
advance the arguments for more and better arts education. She urged the engagement of parents, especially
those “aspirational” parents who believe that a wellrounded education is a critical factor in ensuring better
lives for their children. An understanding of the arts is
central to being an educated person, but with heightened
attention to math and science education, arts education
is in danger of further erosion. Engaging local school
principals and superintendents about the value of the
arts in learning can help build the demand for and
improve the preparation of arts teachers.
What’s the Bigger Picture? What’s Next?
Michael Cohen, Achieve
Derek Gordon, Arts Council of Greater Baton Rouge,
Pedro Noguera, Steinhardt School of Education,
New York University
Jean Johnson, Public Agenda
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Columbia College
Chicago teaching
artist Avery R. Young,
a spoken-word poet
affiliated with Young
Chicago Authors,
works with seventh
graders at Herzl
Elementary School.
Photo by Joel Wanek
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preparation can be made more relevant both to teachers
and schools. To secure the arts and their teachers within
schools will require policymakers to recognize arts education as important and to reflect that importance in
budgets and performance reviews.
As the leader of a national organization focused on
increasing student achievement, Michael Cohen noted
that employers are seeking employees who are disciplined, can work in teams, understand standards of
excellence, and are innovative. Moreover, they want to
know how high schools can teach these skills—“What’s
the class for creativity?” Corporate leaders are thus predisposed to make a case for arts education, and they do
so through their commitments to the arts and education
in the communities where their employees work and
live. Still, mobilization of leadership, support, and politi-
Examples of Excellence
As part of the Transforming Arts Teaching initiative, the
Dana Foundation invited higher-education institutions
nationwide to submit profiles of their programs for
preparing and advancing those who teach the arts. These
submissions were reviewed by
our distinguished advisory committee together with liaisons to
the National Endowment for the
Arts and US Department of
Education. Based on this review
and further research, the profiles
of 24 higher-education institutions were selected for inclusion
in this publication. In each case,
the institution evidenced a distinctive or promising approach
to teacher education in the arts.
Christina Marin, PhD,
assistant professor at
New York University’s
Steinhardt School,
asks a question at the
Transforming Arts
Teaching symposium.
Photo by Michael Ian
General findings from this review
and related recommendations are
as follows:
cal will for arts education has not been adequate to date;
as part of the remedy, support for arts education will
need to be made visible. Meanwhile, Mr. Cohen encouraged the development of more meaningful assessment
tools and accountability methods in arts education,
though he cautioned against an arts “test.”
The Role of Public Institutions
Public higher-education institutions are the dominant
suppliers of teachers to their local schools. In some
places, a single public institution may graduate or certify
80 percent or more of the local teaching workforce. For
those teaching the arts, public colleges and universities
are also the key higher-education institutions for their
preparation and professional development. The majority
of the institutions included in this publication are public. As such, they generally have far fewer resources available to them than what many private institutions enjoy,
and they are stretched to meet local demands.
Consequently, they often cannot do more than the minimum—whatever the state explicitly requires.
Nevertheless, the institutions included here have gone
beyond the minimum, regardless of resource limitations.
Education scholar Pedro Noguera affirmed the importance of the arts for all children: an enriched curriculum
benefits them in many ways, particularly in providing
the motivation to learn. The current “What’s on the
test?” curriculum climate is hostile to the arts, and they
are being routinely eliminated in schools, especially
those that serve disadvantaged children. The performance of principals and superintendents, after all, is usually judged on test results. In redesigning NYU’s
teacher-education programs, the challenge is to give
future teachers broader preparation without sacrificing
depth of knowledge. With a better understanding of
what new teachers need, gained through a site-based
approach to teacher education, typical barriers to teaching across disciplines may be easier to overcome, and
The Role of New Centers
A healthy indicator that a field of practice is maturing is
the extent to which new entities are being created,
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
individuals and institutions to collaborate—often, across
departmental or professional lines—around a common
goal. Through the review we identified several institutions that exemplify how partnerships can leverage institutional strengths for those who want to teach the arts.
especially those that focus on the development and dissemination of knowledge. One of the encouraging findings of the review has been the identification of a
growing number of research centers within higher education that are concerned with arts education in general
and arts teaching in particular. By building a knowledge
base for the field, these new centers are leaders in
improving practice and influencing policy.
The Recognition of Excellence
The field of arts education has few opportunities to
formally recognize excellence among its practitioners. In
reviewing the profiles of those institutions selected for
this publication, we found many unsung heroes and
heroines who nurture those who teach the arts. While
inclusion in the Transforming Arts Teaching initiative is
one way to honor some of these inspired individuals,
finding new ways to celebrate examples of excellence
could help to increase the momentum of their efforts
and those of their colleagues.
The Role of Federal Grants
Another significant finding of the review was the
very positive effect that select U.S. Department of
Education grant programs, especially the Fund for the
Improvement of Postsecondary Education (commonly
known as FIPSE), have had on institutions advancing the
teaching of the arts. Similarly, the National Endowment
for the Arts has helped to support this work through its
Arts Learning grant program.
Issues for Further Consideration
“ of the positive attributes
of the arts-education field is the
willingness of individuals and
institutions to collaborate...”
Who teaches the arts in grades K-12? Here is a basic
Discipline-based Arts Teachers
This is the traditional specialist arts teacher who pursued
a higher-education degree, most often in art or music
education, and received certification.
The Role of National Organizations
General Classroom Teachers
Public higher-education institutions largely serve local
constituencies, and they usually have limited abilities to
learn what institutions elsewhere are doing to address
similar challenges and concerns. As a result, national
organizations that can help transfer knowledge across
these institutions play vital roles in improving the effectiveness of local efforts. The Arts Education Partnership,
particularly through its task force on higher education,
has helped to support a national dialogue; national
higher-education service organizations such as the
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education,
are also conveners of leaders and conveyors of knowledge. The further engagement of such existing national
networks is critical to improving both the quality and
quantity of programs to develop teachers of the arts.
Especially at the elementary-school level, general classroom teachers are the primary teachers for all subjects.
In schools where the availability of arts specialists is limited, general classroom teachers may become the key
resource for teaching the arts.
Teachers of Other Disciplines
At the high-school level, teaching is usually segmented
by discipline. But teachers of non-arts disciplines may
become involved in teaching arts subject matters. An
English teacher may teach a theater course, for example,
or a physical-education teacher a dance course, based on
personal interest or out of staffing necessity.
Teaching Artists
In recent years, teaching artists, who are usually associated with outside arts or cultural organizations but may be
working independently, have taught the arts during residencies of varying durations within schools. These
teaching artists may or may not do their work in collaboration with school-based teachers.
The Breaking of Barriers
Higher education is notorious for the presence of
barriers, real and perceived, that prevent people and programs from working together within an institution, let
alone with outside partners. Yet one of the positive
attributes of the arts-education field is the willingness of
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thereby expecting increased levels of competency from
those who teach the arts?
The training of these four types of arts teachers varies
considerably. Discipline-based arts teachers may receive
the most focused preparation for the teaching of their
art form, but teaching artists usually have had the most
intense preparation in the art-making itself. While
general classroom teachers, especially at the elementaryschool level, were expected in the past to have a good
working knowledge of the arts, this is no longer the case.
For all too many general classroom teachers, as well as
teachers of other disciplines, their knowledge of one or
more art forms may be extremely limited.
Depending on their personal ambitions and the
resources available, teachers of the arts may pursue further training through degree programs or professionaldevelopment courses. Through formal in-service
programs, for example, they can increase their knowledge of the arts and/or pedagogy. Informal networks,
inside or outside their school settings, can also prove
invaluable in deepening their understanding and sharpening their skills.
We know too little about the current state
of the arts-teaching workforce in the
United States. The key national reference
in recent years has been the U.S.
Department of Education report Arts
Education in Public Elementary and
Secondary Schools. Unfortunately, the last
issue of this report was published in 1999,
and we are now left with data that are
nearly 10 years old and do not reflect the
impact of significant national policy
reforms, such as No Child Left Behind,
on the arts-teaching workforce. Extrapolations can be made from other studies,
such as those tracking the pending
retirement of baby-boomer teachers
nationwide, but they do not close the
knowledge gap on what is happening
within this field.
Lesley University
student Jon Nutting
reviews prints made
at the Art Institute of
Boston as part of the
Creative Arts in
Learning’s Art
Education Program.
Beyond the need for basic knowledge of
who teaches the arts and associated
trends, a larger question looms regarding
the definition of high quality. How do we
define high-quality teaching of the arts?
And given a definition, what can we do to change our
current teacher-preparation practices so as to achieve
high-quality instruction? The most recent research on
the impact of the arts on learning suggests that the
development of certain skills, such as those that can
guide authentic arts-making experiences, will lead to
better student performance.
Photo by Maria Arabbo
As a result, the arts are taught by individuals with a wide
range of expertise, experience, capability, and commitment.
A critical factor is mentoring. Without it, new entrants
to teaching, whether in the arts or not, are often underprepared for classroom challenges and may abandon
their careers before they have really begun. Moreover, in
arts-teaching itself, the fragmented workforce is regularly
subject to uncertainty: Will arts-teaching jobs be
assigned to those without arts knowledge, or even be
eliminated altogether? Conversely, will a new school
administration place a higher value on arts education,
All this has implications both for the admission and
graduation requirements of higher-education institutions. If general classroom teachers are expected to teach
the arts, can they receive their degrees without coursework in the arts? Will students at conservatories and arts
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
• A current report on the state of arts education in U.S.
elementary and secondary schools
colleges be expected to engage in teaching or community
service as part of their degree programs? Does deep
engagement in an arts discipline preclude a well-rounded approach to education of teachers? Can real-world
teaching experience translate into credits earned toward
a degree?
• An in-depth review of the state of the arts-teaching
workforce, including employment trends
• A set of updated definitions and examples of highquality arts teaching, consistent with the latest research
on high quality in teaching generally and in other disciplines
Practices regarding certification and alternative certification can also expand or restrict opportunities for those
who want to teach the arts. Because many teachers of the
arts initially pursued careers as artists, certification
requirements can impose considerable burdens on those
who choose to pursue this work at a later date. Some
uncertified arts educators already have years of class-
• A review of the admission and graduation requirements of higher-education institutions, focusing on
how those requirements affect candidates who may, or
already do, teach the arts
• An analysis of certification and alternative-certification
practices for teachers of the arts
“...we also need to better codify
what is really required for arts
professionals to become highquality teachers...”
• An inventory of the arts-industry-related unions, and a
study on the involvement of their members in teaching
the arts.
While even snapshot analyses of these issues and emerging ones would be useful, regular reporting on them
would allow for better informed actions by educational
leaders and policymakers who influence education.
room experience as teaching artists. As other fields have
developed nontraditional routes for those who may want
to become teachers, we also need to better codify what is
really required for arts professionals to become highquality teachers, and not keep in place artificial demands
based on past models of practice.
Closing Comments
Under the leadership of then-Kennedy Center for the
Performing Arts Chairman James D. Wolfensohn and J.
Paul Getty Trust President Harold M. Williams, the Arts
Education Partnership Working Group (precursor to the
Arts Education Partnership), issued the 1993 report The
Power of the Arts to Transform Education. It stated:
Another area that deserves further examination is the
role of professional unions, both in the arts and education, in providing career opportunities for those who
may want to become arts teachers. Rarely are the artsindustry unions represented in discussions of teaching
and learning of the arts, yet many of their members are
indeed arts teachers. Educators also suffer from a lack of
up-to-date understanding about all the possible career
opportunities in the arts-related industries. By inviting
arts unions to become more involved in teacher preparation and professional development, arts-education leaders could gain additional advocates as well as relevant
professional resources.
“As ways of knowing and as wells of human
understanding, the arts can make unique contributions to the transformation of learning and teaching. They can transform the school itself, and they
can create more productive partnerships between
the school and community. They are a rich source
of insight about the world and humanity now and
in the past, as well as necessary vehicles for imagining and creating new possibilities tomorrow.”
Keeping in mind that landmark report and other outstanding accomplishments during the intervening years,
Transforming Arts Teaching reaffirms these words and
provides a new and deeper look at higher education’s
role regarding those who teach the arts. We thank the
people who have joined us in this endeavor to further a
noble profession, and we look forward to continuing to
imagine and create new possibilities with you.
The questions posed by these issues alone comprise a
substantial research agenda; knowing the answers would
help guide higher-education institutions and others in
the preparation and advancement of those who teach the
arts. Priority research tasks include:
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Dana Foundation Symposium,
Keynote Address, May 2007
Today we meet to consider arts education in the context
of higher education. I am greatly honored to be a part of
this proceeding, am humbled by the assembled experts,
and am grateful to the Dana Foundation for its support,
advocacy, and leadership in arts education.
David J. Skorton, MD,
President of Cornell University
Our great research universities are often thought of in
reference to our role in the sciences. Biomedical inquiry
and discovery are well established in universities as is
research in the physical and mathematical sciences. The
biological and physical sciences are in general well supported by the public, though recent years have witnessed
some retrenchment. The social sciences, key to the solution of so many societal challenges, are much less supported by the public, but are well represented among the
faculties of universities throughout our country.
During the course of his presentation, Dr. Skorton played short pieces of
music from several sources and showed a brief video. The musical items
and video are listed here in color.
Music: “The art of arranging sounds in time so as to
produce a continuous, unified, and evocative composition, as through melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre.”
What of the arts and humanities? These disciplines are at
our core as individuals and comprise the soul of the
research university. I consider the scientific method a
specific case of philosophical constructs and processes
that involve observation, formation of hypotheses, testing of the hypotheses and which includes ample helpings
of deductive and inductive reasoning. I have long given
medical students in my clinics a copy of the complete
works of Sherlock Holmes, a series informed by Sir
Arthur Conan Doyle’s medical training, the character of
Sherlock himself reportedly being modeled on a diagnostician from whom Doyle took instruction in medical
school in Edinburgh.
Music. Among the most universal of art forms, among
the most primal of experiences, among the most important means of communication, increasingly recognized
to be an important subject of inquiry in modern cognitive neuroscience. According to Michael Thaut in his
book, Rhythm, Music, and the Brain, “Throughout
human history, music has been considered a form of
communication. However, the nature of what and how
music communicates has been the subject of long-standing and fascinating inquiries in philosophy, religion, the
arts, and the sciences.”
Once the scientific
empiricism of inquiry
has occurred, the conclusions of discovery frequently lead to practical
decisions that are or
should be based in turn
on ethical or moral considerations.
So, even in the “hard sciences,” philosophy, history, and literature play
their role. How much
greater a role do the arts
and humanities play in
their own right, and
certainly they do not
need to be justified by
their utility as servants of
David Skorton, MD,
president of Cornell
University, delivers the
keynote address at the
Dana Foundation’s
Transforming Arts
Teaching symposium.
Photo by Michael Ian
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Surely, later, in the fullness of our discussions as the day
unfolds…but now, let’s travel through its territory, let’s
surrender, let’s postpone the academic, the analytic…
science. How unfortunate, then, that arts and humanities
scholarship receives so little recognition and funding and
so infrequently finds its way into the national rhetoric.
And, therefore, how heartening that we are here today.
Let’s listen:
Before going further let me reinforce the absolutely
essential role of the arts and the humanities in the modern research university, a place of education, discovery,
service and, very importantly, a supporter, creator, and
disseminator of public culture.
[“Unaccompanied Cello Suite No. 1 in G Major, BWV
1007: I. Prélude,” Yo-Yo Ma. Bach: The Cello Suites,
©1997 Sony Music Entertainment Inc.]
The precision, the metronome-like regularity, the
predictability of the Bach prelude: calming, uplifting,
familiar, reassuring. As Steven Strogatz reminds us in
the preface to his book, Sync, “At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat: the sounds of cycles in
sync. It pervades nature at every scale from the nucleus
to the cosmos.”
“Education is innately a
forward-looking and optimistic
enterprise. The investments in
the preparation for teaching...
all are intrinsically optimistic.”
What is it that moves us in this way? Is it the rhythm?
Thaut opines, “…every work of art possesses
rhythm…In the narrower sense, rhythm carries two core
aspects of temporal organization: periodicity and subdivision into similarly structured groupings.”
So let’s move on to a consideration of a particular art
form that is at once complex, evolving, up to the minute
in its currency and yet primal, basic, inherent, and eminently human. Music.
This expectation of periodicity, of structured groupings, of something we can tap our foot to, this, surely,
is music.
What better place to start our deliberations today than
with music? Music as a communicator, as a transducer of
emotion, as a stimulator of understanding—explicit or
Surely that is what music is and does: regular rhythms
that keep us connected to the universality of which
Strogatz speaks. Is that right? Maybe, sometimes, but not
at other times:
Should we dissect the phenomenon, reduce it into components, basic attributes, describe the foundation, the
superstructure, the décor?
[“Birches,” Composer Kevin Ernst, assistant professor
and director, Electroacoustic Music Center, Cornell
Should we examine the results of its use in teaching, the
data available regarding its role in the developing nervous system?
Demonstrably at other times music upsets, destabilizes,
connects with uncertainties, with disequilibria, and
somehow with the lack of predictability that also characterizes our existence. This, too, teaches, informs, is part
of what makes us wholly human. Human? The human
rhythm? Isn’t it downbeat, downbeat, down, down,
down, beat, beat, beat? Is it the heart, the human heart, is
that the rhythm from which all music flows? Is it the
drum, the heart or the drum…is there a difference?
Should we seek a stronger rationale for public support,
for an enhanced role in our curricula, in our children’s
Should we discuss the critical role of higher education
institutions in arts education: in the preparation of
teachers, in the research into more effective means of
teaching at elementary and secondary levels?
[“Beating heart/pulse,” Big Fat Audio. Audiosparx™
Should we discuss the appropriate and respective roles of
the widely varying venues for arts education: the arts college, conservatory, teacher education college, university?
[“Gaabiti Zamanduniya” Abdulai, Alhaji Ibrahim.
Master Drummers Of Dagbon, Vol. 1 ©1992 Rounder.]
Should we seek the perspectives of the gamut of arts
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Of course, we are here today in the setting of education.
Education is innately a forward-looking and optimistic
enterprise. The investment in the preparation for teaching, in the moment, in the follow up, all are intrinsically
optimistic. The optimism that these efforts will bear
fruit and, in the context of our discussion today, that
the fruit will be borne even by trees not yet planted,
seeds not yet sown.
Music teaches in a way that we cannot replicate with
words. Pedagogically complex, music transforms us,
touches us alone or in a shared experience, shared as it
comes to pass: planned and improvised. What of the
place of plans and improvisation in art, in life? Can anything make that point more clearly than music? The
seamless juxtaposition of the planned and the extemporaneous, musician to musician, musician to audience,
audience to musician, the live act of creating and receiving jazz:
Surely there is growing evidence that arts education
improves student learning and thereby produces citizens
of a different sort. I believe that arts education is of great
value in and of itself, not only instrumentally; and that
arts education is all of our business, from the home and
the family to the neighborhood or village to the pre-K12 school system, to higher education to continuing
education to public culture in the largest sense. How
wonderful that the Dana Foundation and all of you are
involved in this critical but under-recognized enterprise.
[“Oye Como Va (Live),” Tito Puente. The Best of the
Concord Years ©2000 Concord Records, Inc.]
It swings, it makes our foot tap, as if it were connected
directly to the drum, the bass, the pianist’s left hand.
It can make us sit up straighter, feel proud, reminisce,
connect with a patriotism, a yesterday, a longed for
[“Washington Post March,” John Philip Sousa.
The March King: John Philip Sousa Conducts His Own
Marches and Other Favorites (An Historical Recording)
©2006 Legacy International.]
Let’s together enjoy two examples of this fruit: examples
of new music created by students and which, by its very
existence, pays homage to their teachers:
First, a piece commissioned for an inauguration at
Cornell University and composed by graduate student
Spencer Topel under the mentorship of Professor Kevin
Ernste, whose work we heard earlier: “Automata.”
That longing, that foot tapping clarity and uplift, we
learn that from music. We can always tap our foot to
music…at least in 4/4: four beats to the measure, each
one a quarter note, a crochet. That is music. But what of
9/8? Improbably, 9 beats to the measure, maybe in
groupings of 2 and 2 and 2 and then 3? And of the back
and forth possible between the untappable 9/8 and a
reassuring resolution into the familiar 4/4?
[ “Automata,” Composer Spencer Topel, PhD student in
music, Cornell University. Commissioned for the
Inauguration of David J. Skorton, president, Cornell
University, September 7, 2006.]
And now, another of Professor Ernste’s students, Suneth
Attygale, who will soon graduate from Cornell with a
degree in biological engineering—how improbable—
and who will be doing PhD research on the brain, arts
and media next year at Arizona State.
[“Blue Rondo à la Turk,” Dave Brubeck Quartet.
Time Out.® Originally released 1959, all rights reserved
Too much complexity. Must everything be complex?
What of the familiar, can we return to the familiar, to the
reassuring? To an earlier time? To the recognizable, to
the evocative?
[ “Drum solo,” Suneth Attygale, Cornell University
Class of 2007 (biological engineering).]
Of course, none of you needs any convincing, but permit
me to observe that this tiny movie clip demonstrates
creativity, teamwork, planning, improvisation…and joy.
[“Adagio for Strings (arranged from the String Quartet,
Op. 11),” Leonard Bernstein & New York Philharmonic.
Great Performances: Barber’s Adagio and Other
Romantic Favorites for Strings.® Originally released
1971 SONY Music Entertainment Inc.]
Creativity, planning, improvisation, and joy. These are
the results of your good work. I salute and congratulate
all of you on all that you do and I stand with you.
The familiar, the soothing, the haunted and haunting
harmonies that we may associate with American and
European “art music.”
Thank you.
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Edited Excerpts, Transforming
Arts Teaching Symposium
us will end up? Who knows what the art of 20 years
from now will look like? Who knows what the economics will be? That’s why the same principles that apply to
liberal-arts education can apply to professional education as well.
What is the Role of the Arts College
or Conservatory?
Michael O’Keefe: When I came to the College
[Minneapolis School of Art and Design], I thought I’d be
the token scientist in the building. Then I discovered that
three of our faculty members are physicists as well, two
are photographers, and one is a painter. So there is
crosstalk among these and other disciplines. It all connects in our brains and our experiences; it is what molds
us and affects our consciousness as human beings. There
aren’t boundaries. This is one of the
challenges to us as educators: to figure
out how, in the practical and day-today world of the classroom curriculum, how can we stop boundaries from
limiting the nature of our students’
Roger Brown, Berklee College of Music
Polly Kahn, American Symphony Orchestra League,
Michael O’Keefe, Minneapolis School of Art and Design
Robert Sirota, Manhattan School of Music
Polly Kahn: Professional training
in our country’s arts colleges and
conservatories is arguably the envy
of the world—these institutions
are the destinations for those who
aspire to careers as artists. We
celebrate great jazz ensembles,
orchestras, theater groups, galleries,
Robert Sirota: I’m a good example of a
and museums of enviable quality
practicing musician who has diversified.
all over America. But the world is
There was no model whatsoever for
changing around us. Every day we
becoming a performer-composercall on our artists to assume more
teacher-administrator. The conversation
and more varied roles as teachers,
now really has to lean toward how we
community advocates, and partners
change the model for arts education in
in the leadership of our institutions.
such a way that we’re raising leaders
All photos in this section by Michael Ian
What we say, and how we say it, is
and community builders who can do diverse jobs. It’s
becoming as important as what we play and how we play
crucial, and it’s actually not timely—it’s way late.
it. The skills needed of those we prepare for these profesO’Keefe: If you went back to the year 1900 or so, you’d
sions today demand that we go beyond mastery of the
see that the mode of education or training in the visual
art form alone.
arts had basically come out of the Renaissance. It was a
Roger Brown: Charles Ives had a successful business
huge skill set that had been laid down centuries before. It
career before he became one of the greatest composers of
was an enormous matter of faith within the fraternity
the 20th century. Herbie Hancock was trained as an electhat you had to follow those rituals, and you were not
trical engineer at Grinnell College before he revolutionserving your students if they did not have to slog their
ized jazz. A Berklee alumnus leads a team of software
way through a traditional training in drawing and paintengineers writing the software that is used in your
ing and color, and so forth. That is no longer the case,
Blackberry, Palm Pilot, or Treo, and by night he’s a jazz
and I think it’s positive. About 15 years ago, we created a
guitarist. He has not had training in computer science,
curriculum in which people could conceptualize, underyet he leads MIT-trained computer scientists who keep
stand, and intellectualize but they also could do design,
asking, “How come you’re our boss?” He responds that
graphic arts, the fine arts, among other things. We are
he’s a good composer and knows music theory, which
now undergoing the next transition in our thinking
serves him well as a software engineer. That’s part of the
about that curriculum. These young people are going
paradigm I’m trying to bring to Berklee: the boundaries
out into the world and need to earn livings as visual
that we construct for ourselves about how the world
artists and designers. Therefore we are incorporating
works are really fairly artificial. Who knows where any of
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dilemma that causes a lot of internal dissent: How do
we find the time to do it? It is extraordinary what we
ask of undergraduates, what we attempt to give them,
and what we need to give them in the course of a fouryear curriculum.
much more integrally into our curriculum some experience with making a living—marketing yourself, for
example, and portfolio development.
Sirota: We have to redefine formal musical training.
Conservatories are indeed conservative institutions. And
part of that is very important. Great traditions need to be
passed along, and that’s true in music all over the world.
Then there’s the question of all the other skills that practicing musicians—not just music teachers or music
Brown: Throughout the prior centuries the artist always
gigged at night and taught music during the day. There’s
nothing new about that. Most people need a day job to
complement their composition or performance habit.
What’s new is what the day jobs are. The old paradigm
was that you taught. We need to make sure that those
who do the teaching have some kind of preparation
other than simply passing along what they’ve experienced. But the new paradigm is the artist, at least in
music, as a producer and an engineer. Most artists are
now engineering and producing their own music. They
don’t wait and hire an expensive studio. They have an
Apple laptop with Pro Tools and other software, get a
couple of microphones, find a room, and make a CDquality demo that 10 years ago would have cost $80,000
to $100,000. The barriers to producing good music are
way down; everybody can do it. The deconstruction of
the music industry has created enormous opportunities
for young people who have bright ideas and know how
to use technology. So while those who perform by night
still need a day job, they are now creating them by starting their own businesses. Also, as we learn more about
health, music therapy and art therapy are going to be
prominent day jobs; artists will learn how to work with
adults with Alzheimer’s, for example, or children with
autism. We need to pay attention to all the day jobs that
artists might have, and provide the skills, impetus, and
role models.
“...we need to give them a little
bit of experience in what it’s
like to engage as an artist in
that classroom with students in
the most deep, involved, and
effective way.”
administrators—need in order to have successful careers.
What do we want the skill sets of our students to be? And
how do we allow them to become not just great performers but also small businesses? How do they market themselves? How do they gather community around them?
How do they find their affinity groups? What are the new
venues for music performance, both recorded and live?
These are questions we ignore at our peril because the
world around us has already shifted. We’ve got to get out
of the 19th century and into the 21st century.
O’Keefe: Our institution has a liberal-arts curriculum as
well as a fine-arts curriculum. We’re educating artists and
designers; we’re not just training them. In other words,
it’s not just skills, it’s preparation for life. It’s what everyone in this room would like to think education does
when it’s successful. We’ve had to take a look at what we
are doing to help give our graduates a sense of service
and leadership so that, for instance, they may better
engage with their communities. What role do we have to
play in the arts education in our elementary and secondary schools? What is the goal of our mission to provide
students with an engagement with their community,
with a sense of service and leadership? What can we do
to assist them? How can we relate with other educational
institutions? And although we are now at a point where
we’re much more attentive regarding intersection with
other institutions in our community, there is one huge
O’Keefe: First, the role of arts instruction in the schools
differs between the elementary and secondary schools;
therefore, the preparation for each of those institutions
is going to have to differ. Second, we have undergraduate
and graduate students. What we do regarding these two
groups will also differ. And then we have integration of
the arts across the curriculum as a method of reaching
the diverse range of students in those classrooms, and
the current ideal for the role of the arts in K-12 education, and all kinds of issues having to do with actual
In reflecting on our role and mission as an art and
design college, one thing we need to do is to give our
undergraduates a sense of the opportunities out there as
artists in the classroom. We need to give them an under18
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
then let’s not stop there. Let’s help them understand
what’s going on in jazz, for example, and in the classical
music tradition. City Music helps these students develop
a whole new skill set, and it exposes them to college-level
work even though almost none of them have parents or
relatives who’ve gone on to college. There is a huge
economic divide in this country: those who can go to
college, and those who can’t. Unless we find new ways
to help students leap that chasm, the divide will get
bigger still. This program is good for the young people
in it, and it’s a great way for our alumni to stay engaged,
provide community service, and be excited about what
they’re doing.
standing that this is a part of what they owe their
community and their society. And we need to give them
a little bit of experience in what it’s like to engage as an
artist in that classroom with students in the most deep,
involved, and effective way. The issues we confront are
the time required and the lack of faculty understanding
about how to train for this work—and even their acceptance of this as an appropriate component of our curriculum. It’s a challenge in the schools, too, because
integration of the arts across the curriculum is an energy-intensive effort, and it’s a different way of doing business from what many teachers were trained to do.
Kahn: Perhaps one of the strategies in reinventing the
arts colleges and the conservatories is to align the power
of the teaching experience with the preparation of the
artist. Instead of having teaching be something our artists
reflect on once they’ve had that experience, we can begin
to see it as informing the development of the artist.
Milton Chen, PhD,
of the George
Lucas Educational
moderates a
What is the Role of the Teacher
Education College?
W. Robert Bucker and Alfonzo Thurman,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Sirota: Two hundred of our students this year were
involved in outreach, mostly in the New York City public
schools. They recognize that this is an important part of
their lives as professionals, and also their way of serving
and building community. We also have, in partnership
with Columbia University’s Teachers College, a dual
masters program that combines music and education.
But the question of how this all integrates really is a concern for me. One of the things we need to do is broaden
the definition of student success. We need more training
and pedagogy, more interconnectivity with others.
Outreach may become an outmoded term. We need to
connect with our educational partners, in the public
schools, in other universities, and in the rest of the nonprofit sector.
Joseph Dominic, Heinz Endowment, moderator
Daniel Fallon, Carnegie Corporation of New York
Augusta Souza Kappner, Bank Street College of Education
Joseph Dominic: In 2001 the Carnegie Corporation of
New York introduced a vigorous agenda to try to change
the way universities prepare teachers. All of the panelists
here are key partners in that initiative, Teachers for a
New Era (TNE), beginning with its architect, Dan
Fallon, chair of the Carnegie Corporation’s education
division. At the Heinz Endowments, I’ve been involved
with and have observed the guerrilla warfare to figure
out ways of talking about and doing something about
how the arts influence and affect learning in K-12
schools. How do the approaches you’re taking differ
from those of other universities in focusing on the arts
in preparing teachers?
Brown: Our City Music program reaches out to middleand high-school kids from impoverished backgrounds in
the Boston area as well as in Philadelphia, Washington,
DC, Los Angeles, and Seattle. The goal is give them
instrumental music, not just choral music. We start with
the music that young people are listening to: gospel,
Latin, hip-hop, pop. Let’s teach students key lessons of
harmony, theory, ear training, and instrumental performance, based on the music they’re listening to, but
Augusta Souza Kappner: Bank Street College differs
from other colleges of education in many ways. One of
them is that we are a freestanding, graduate-only school
of education with an education faculty and no dedicated
arts faculty. We also have our own school for children, an
independent school where about 50 percent of the teachcontinued on next page
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Derek Gordon,
Michael Cohen,
Jean Johnson, and
Pedro Noguera, PhD,
participate in a panel
discussion about the
future of education.
ers are trained by our graduate faculty. Although we have
some programs that train those going into arts-related
fields, such as museum education, because we don’t have
our own arts faculty, we’ve generally partnered with arts
organizations or other organizations that are strong in
the arts. We’ve built up a set of colleagues and collaborators, which includes people at the Parsons School of
Design, Sarah Lawrence College (in creative writing), the
Lincoln Center Institute, the National Dance Institute,
and a variety of museums. We bring in their faculty or
teaching artists and collaborate in ways that augment
what we do. One of the results has been our ability to
address the question of how you refresh and renew a
teaching faculty in teacher education through the use of
the arts, and not just prepare teachers.
Alfonzo Thurman: Before I got to UWM, there was
already a partnership between the Peck School and the
School of Education, and also with the School of Letters
and Sciences. The Carnegie TNE initiative allowed us to
do this work much more in concert with each other, and
to take a look at assessment issues, something that’s very
critical to the work of educating our teachers because it
explores whether or not they are teaching well. We need
to know that our program is preparing teachers well—
regardless of whether they’re in the school of the arts or
education or the other certifying areas that we have—
and that pupils are learning well from our graduates.
Kappner: No matter what the partnership is—even with
the very different partnerships that UWM and Bank
Street represent—it is a difficult dance to create. Many
people have mentioned the silos that exist and the difficulty of bringing people together across disciplines and
departments. In addition, the low status that an education school generally has within universities has made
some bridges very hard to cross. At Bank Street, we are
going outside the institution. Perhaps that might be
easier than crossing the campus. It’s very challenging for
both of us, and it’s also going to be difficult for other
W. Robert Bucker: At the University of WisconsinMilwaukee (UWM), we certify in four disciplines—
dance, music, theater, and the visual arts. These
teacher-certification programs are deeply embedded in
the corresponding departments of the Peck School of
the Arts. We literally own the curriculum of the arts
educators that we’re preparing. We also have a wonderful partner in UWM’s College of Education, the official
certifier in the State of Wisconsin. These departments
are very committed to our arts educators receiving
the same kind of curricular experience as the young
people we’re training as artists. Their supervision in the
schools, their practicum, and their student teaching are
all overseen by full-time, tenure-track faculty who are
invested in the success of the future arts educators we’re
preparing. We’ve had some real success as well in developing a commitment from the faculty that is grounded
in their seeing themselves as part of a continual loop of
K-12, higher education, and graduate education in arts
Thurman: The Dean of Letters and Sciences can now
talk about education as well as any of us who have been
engaged in the educational enterprise for many more
years. One of the key results is that the Letters and
Sciences faculty are also beginning to talk about how to
engage aspiring teachers, along with learning the content. Those are conversations that have really not taken
place very often on our campuses before. We talk in
different languages across the campus, so learning each
other’s language is an important first step. I know very
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
the really good ones taught me where to go look for the
information I needed to do my craft, to make my art.
And in our educational process, who teaches empathy?
Certainly, the old art- and music-methods classes that
everyone had to take were not places where difference
was celebrated. Empathy moves the child forward to selfdiscovery, to self-expression, to doing outstanding creative work. It’s a huge responsibility for us, and it’s a
noble charge, and one we should be invested in.
little about the arts other than what I learned in art
appreciation and what I’ve experienced as an adult. So
this was a different language for me to learn too, but it’s
an important one. We can really come together to talk
about content and pedagogy and what that means for
our kids in the schools.
Kappner: There’s a growing concern in different parts of
society that we’re narrowing what children are learning,
and anyone who works with teachers knows that they
feel we’re narrowing their ability to teach as professionals
and creative individuals. I’m reasonably optimistic that
we’ll be able to launch a conversation in many circles
that ultimately will influence policy on what it really
takes to educate children in accordance with their
parents’ broad vision. Most parents are very concerned
that education is not just literacy and numeracy. We are
dealing with whole beings whom we are educating to live
and succeed in a future society.
Daniel Fallon: We organized Teachers for a New Era
around three major design principles, encompassing
what every teacher-education program ought
to do. First, create a culture of respect for evidence: find
a way to evaluate the quality of a teacher-education
“Only about 12 percent of US
school systems can afford arts
specialists on a substantial scale
and achieve participation on an
advanced level.”
Dominic: Only about 12 percent of US school systems
can afford arts specialists on a substantial scale and
achieve participation on an advanced level. The rest of
the schools struggle to employ one, two, or three arts specialists. So what percentage of the country’s children and
youth benefit from the creative experiences that the arts
bring, both in school and outside of school? Futurists
claim that America’s primary advantage in global economic competition is our creativity. How do we prepare
teachers in different ways to fuel this creative pipeline?
program by the demonstrable pupil learning that occurs
in the classrooms of teachers who are graduates of the
program. Second, establish an effective engagement with
the disciplines of the arts and sciences and the disciplines of the fine and performing arts. Third, understand
that teaching, though academically taught, is a skilled
clinical practice. This means that a teacher-education
program must have a good working relationship with a
real school district and real classrooms, and that apprentice teachers ought to be in classrooms fairly early. We
also embedded in this design principle another radical
feature: the teacher-education program must offer its
graduates a two-year period of professional support,
which we call academy-based induction, that can exist
alongside district-based induction.
Kappner: Part of it will be by giving teachers these
experiences directly. We now have generations, or at least
large numbers of people—whether they are faculty
members or classroom teachers—who have just not
experienced the arts in school. I’m searching for ways to
bring direct experiences into the lives of faculty members and teachers in order to create effective teachers in
the arts. Through TNE and other initiatives, we’re beginning to develop some models.
Bucker: We have a close partnership with the Milwaukee
public schools, a needy district of approximately 100,000
children. We’re preparing teachers for that environment,
and they can’t go there with the same music- and visual
arts-method courses that I took in 1969. We’re looking at
alternatives with a tremendous amount of content. And
we’re teaching teachers what to look for—not a curriculum of art or musical works—because with the Web they
have access to everything. A professor could never teach
me everything I needed to know about choral music. But
Recently, a large nonprofit theater group told me it was
interested in the relationship between acting and teaching, so I connected the group with the NYU Steinhardt
School of Education. The result has been quite remarkable. If you know a bit about acting and the Russian
masters’ methods of acting and teaching acting, you can
get right to the heart of pedagogical content knowledge.
When you use the word pedagogy, you’re talking about
bringing the student into the equation. So a good
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happen in this case at all. The teacher immediately legitimized the student. There was enormous mutual respect
there. The teacher didn’t question the question at all, but
went right to the painting and said, “This one over here
is Napoleon. What does that tell you?” And she said,
“Well, you know, I thought that’s who it must be from
the way these other people were talking. But if that one
is Napoleon, why is this other person over here in all the
rich person’s clothes? And why is Napoleon not quite in
the center of the picture? And what are these religious
people doing over here in the middle of the picture?”
teacher has to understand the cognitive worlds of the
pupil. Those things associated with the making of art
and artistic sensibility are closely related to, even
entwined with, the whole notion of teaching. In this
particular instance, we’re talking about the relationship
of acting to teaching. What the novice teachers are learning is how they can take their sense of self and learn
from actors how they might better understand the world
of the children they’ll be teaching.
“Those things associated with
the making of art and artistic
sensibility are closely related to,
even entwined with, the whole
notion of teaching.”
The teacher then used this girl’s questions to lead the
class in discussion about the fact that the church had
been at the center and that the revolution was being
fought out toward the periphery. They also addressed
whether the greed of the church was an essential element
in this process—the question of what material goods
meant to the spirit of the revolution. And although most
people think that the painting is about Napoleon crowning himself, the classroom discussion revealed that it’s
really about Napoleon waiting to put the crown on
Josephine’s head. So there was a feminist lesson in this
revolution as well. What you got was an extremely rich
discussion of important social science issues that was
being driven by a painting.
Another example is from the visual arts—how a painting,
even an abstract painting, can tell a story. What is teaching if it’s not about helping students understand stories
that are of some importance? I recently visited one of our
partner schools, Summit Prep, which mirrors the demographic characteristics of Redwood City—largely blue
collar, with a very high number of free- and reducedlunch children—and there I found extraordinary teaching. The teachers teach thematically over a period of
three to four weeks. In this particular case, the theme was
revolution, and they were talking about revolution in
science, in art, in writing—revolution across the board.
I’m using this example to show how art becomes part of
what we talk about with respect to teaching. The making
of art is not untamed expression; it requires discipline.
You master many small steps in order to ultimately
understand the nature of human abstraction and how it
may then connect you to human universality. The same
is true of teaching. Teaching is difficult and disciplined
work, and when it’s successful, one can recognize skilled
clinical practice. It’s in this way that art infuses the enterprise of teaching.
I went into a ninth-grade social science class, and the
teacher had projected on a screen the famous painting by
Jacques-Louis David of Napoleon taking the crown from
the pope. The teacher was asking the class, “What does
this tell you? What do you see?” There were some eager
beavers in the class who immediately said, “Well, it’s
about the role of the church and the state and the fact
that the state is now saying it’s equal to the church.”
Right in front of me was a girl who, given her attire,
probably came from a family that was distressed. She was
working very hard to try to get the attention of the
teacher, and was on the edge of her chair. She finally
asked her question: “Which one is Napoleon?”
View from the Field:
What Teachers of the Arts See
Ramon Cortines, deputy mayor of Los Angeles, moderator
Melissa Friedman, education director, Epic Theatre Center
Tom Hall, music teacher, P.S. 2, Bronx
Maria Mitchell, dance teaching artist
Marie Sanzone, music teacher, P.S. 247, Brooklyn
In about 90 percent of classrooms, the teacher here
would try to extricate the student from an embarrassing
moment. Here is a question that seems to be inappropriate and off-center, you don’t want the child to be embarrassed, and you want to move forward. That didn’t
Carol Sun, visual arts teacher, Bronx High School
for the Visual Arts
Michael Wiggins, artistic producer, MUD/BONE
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racism and the acceptance of mediocrity that pervades
urban systems I’ve seen. Where does that leave the next
generation? Someone told me they look at the percentage of black males who are born in a given area to project the number of jail cells they will need 20 years hence.
I want to do something about that. And it’s not all about
the music. It’s not all about the modes and the scales and
learning repertoire and technique. I try to use music to
save children’s lives, and I try to do it in many ways. I’ve
done it with chess, I’ve tried it with football, I’ve tried it
with the core academic curriculum. Music has worked
best so far, and that’s what really drives me.
Ramon Cortines: Who or what helped you do what you
do better?
Michael Wiggins: I was forged as an artist at NYU. I
went there after I had an actual career because I felt that
I was deficient as an artist and needed to train. There I
started to become a better teacher, because they offered
me an opportunity to create a program that linked the
community of NYU to the young people in the outside
community. I think I’m becoming a better and better
teacher every year. My teaching is informed and draws
strength from my connections with the groups I freelance with, especially the New Victory Theater, the only
family theater on Broadway. That community of 27
teaching artists provides each of us with an opportunity
to create, or collaborate in creation, picking the questions that are attached to the shows we’re working with.
Marie Sanzone: Even after 39 years, every time I step
into a classroom it’s a new experience, and that’s because
teaching is a lifelong learning experience. I created a
music-technology program only seven years ago—I was
an experienced teacher when I
started that. But it was a new thing,
and for it to fail would have been
okay. New teachers should be
aware too that failure is okay, and
that what works with one class may
not work in another one, and what
works with one class in the morning may not work with that same
class in the afternoon. All of this
comes with experience. And the
hope is that you have an administration that’s supportive of you and
allows you time to explore. These
things are what can help you to
become a good teacher.
Dennie Palmer
Wolf, EdD, Sarah
Cunningham, PhD,
and Richard Deasy
participate in a
panel about artsteaching practices.
We’re offered pedagogy, the chance to practice in a safe
environment, and immediate feedback from other artists
and people who work on different levels. You have teaching artists who are working professionals in New York
City with all that that means: all that go, go, go, go, go,
gotta get the next gig, etc. You have people who work
there with the artistry, and those with educational backgrounds, and the two come together.
Cortines: What we heard in response to that question
was the importance of lifelong learning. These are learners who continue to learn, and they continue to believe
that learning is important for children and young
people. Further, we heard that it’s not just about music
and art; it’s about creating involved citizens out of
children and young people. Sometimes we wonder if
there’s any connection with the outside world and what
we do in the classroom. Peter Drucker talked about
“loosely coupling,” not controlling. How should we
practitioners loosely couple?
Tom Hall: The impetus for what I do really comes from
two places. First, I came into teaching piano having had
no training in teaching piano. I had my own piano lessons, and to graduate from Juilliard, you have to demonstrate proficiency on the piano. But I’ve never had any
training at teaching piano. In order to keep ahead of my
students, I read books and take courses. Second, there’s a
whole emotional part. That comes from the rage at the
Maria Mitchell: Loosely coupling for me means that
I can go into a classroom of kindergartners and teach
them to read dance notation. It means that when I’m
teaching a second-grade group I teach from a choreocontinued on next page
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pursue. They know that there are basketball players and
they know that they could be a music producer, but
maybe they don’t really understand what a graphic
designer or a photographer or a brand consultant does.
Open your doors and get to know each other. Maybe if
you like each other, go a step further and have a little
workshop where you work together. But start small.
Every school has something to offer a public institution.
graphic perspective because the child is going to research
the dance for a science or social studies project. It also
means that I can teach the five-times table using John
Coltrane’s “Favorite Things” in the odd meter of five.
The other teachers may be completely amazed because
they’ve worked on the five-times table with the secondgrade kids for three months, and yet in one lesson they
“There are no shortcuts; you
can’t just have more tickets
to see things and expect an
audience to be built. You have
to actually allow that arts
experience to happen.”
Cortines: What are the roles of higher education and
teachers in audience development?
Melissa Friedman: I think it’s vital that students, as well
as teachers, actually make art. That is going to build the
audience for the future. It’s not enough to take students
to see things; they have to engage in the making of art
themselves. The high-school students I’m working with
are making art, and they’re going to see theater as a
result. It’s not enough just to bring them to performances. Similarly, I think teachers in higher education have to
engage in arts activities themselves in order to teach
them in the classroom. There are no shortcuts; you can’t
just have more tickets to see things and expect an audience to be built. You have to actually allow that arts
experience to happen.
pick it up because of the rhythm. Loosely coupling
means that I can’t separate a social studies program from
creating a dance around a theme, even if it’s abstract,
since you have something you’re working from.
Coupling in a partnership with a classroom teacher is
probably the sweetest thing I’ve ever experienced in my
life. When I come into a classroom with a teacher who’s
willing to collaborate, we can go anywhere. We can touch
on any part of the curriculum without saying, “Oh, this
is choreography, this is math, this is reading, this is
something else.” We’re just talking about the child, the
group, how they’re learning, what the avenue is, what the
entry points are, what dance will work here. Loosely
coupling means opening up this whole palette that is art
and education and enjoying it, putting that feast on the
table, and saying, “Let’s eat!”
What Do We Know About the
Best of Arts Teaching?
Milton Chen, George Lucas Educational Foundation,
Sarah Cunningham, National Endowment for the Arts
Richard Deasy, Arts Education Partnership
Dennie Palmer Wolf, Annenberg Institute for
School Reform
Milton Chen: What do teachers need to know and be
able to do?
Carol Sun: I would like to share with you some practical
advice. If you’re an academic institution and you’re trying to revitalize your curriculum or programming, or
trying to get your students interested in community
activism, you can start with something very small. First
go on a date—find a school in your community. You
don’t have to do the whole school system, just find one
school. Find one school that matches your own school’s
mission, and go on a date. Get to know each other. You
can do something as small as having an open house,
especially for high-school students; invite them to your
institution to visit. Many students in this city have never
visited a college. They’ve never met a college professor.
They don’t know what careers are out there that they can
Dennie Palmer Wolf: I want to answer with the profile of
a ceramics teacher at John Dewey High School who
makes an enormous contribution not only to arts knowledge but also to the intellectual and civic character of her
kids. When you walk into the room, she’s jurying a set of
ceramics; she is holding all of her kids to extremely high
standards that are based on her long history as a ceramics
artist. At the same time, she is expecting what’s often
called “accountable talk” from her kids. They can’t just
look down and say “yes” or “no.” They have to answer her
questions about the piece, give evidence about what’s in
it, and say what they’re going to do next. She’s also an
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
amazing diagnostician. Student by student, she is setting
out next steps for their work. She has both incredible
depth of field and pedagogical knowledge.
terms of students documenting their work and the work
the artists were doing—could do accelerated learning as
adults. We wanted people who knew the students they
were working with and could speak their language.
This teacher also operates in a much larger learning system, which means that she is simultaneously on her cell
phone telling an upstate crafts fair that her kids can’t
pay $20 an entry. She’ll give $20 for the lot, and the fair
can take it or leave it. She’s very much invested in her
students, having them not just do classroom arts but
arts that enter the world. She’s demonstrating to them
that as artists they need to be socially active and they
cannot take no for an answer. Moreover, she is talking
to a number of her kids about where they will be on
Saturday. One is going to a forensic pathology seminar,
another to an art class. So she, as an art teacher, is also
connecting her students to the city in which they live.
We need a much broader description of what teachers
need to know and be able to do: depth of field, pedagogical knowledge, this kind of social activism around
the importance of the arts in the world, and also a commitment to their kids as citizens and partakers of life in
the city.
One of our greatest challenges was to find teachers who
were able to live in the knowledge that we gained when
we were all in school and then understand what kids
now bring to the table. Great teachers help students
become artists themselves, without becoming imitators.
These teachers understand the pleasure of learning, and
they delight in seeing students move on to the next step.
We would also look for teachers who see students as
producers and creators of culture, engagers in culture,
and voices for culture.
Chen: In order to improve arts teaching in our schools,
we have to make the case for the value of the arts in
student learning, student achievement, and the quality
of our schools. How would you summarize what the
research tells us about the value of the arts in student
Richard Deasy: The public doesn’t really understand the
nature of learning in the arts. There’s an idea that it’s for
gifted-and-talented kids, or that it’s a leisure-time activity. What the researchers have done is try to figure out
what happens when kids are learning in the arts. The
language we’ve developed, drawn from the research,
shows the cognitive, personal, and social effects. What we
have to do is begin to talk with the larger public about
the cognitive processes, personal qualities, and social
dimensions that are engaged and demanded by the arts.
Sarah Cunningham: It’s difficult to find artists who have
depth and understanding of their own work, who can
reach out to the kids, and who can reach out to another
discipline. If you don’t have the information that helps
you do all that, then you need to have the accelerated
learning as an adult teacher that you had as a child—the
ability to change and adapt. When I was at the Oxbow
School in Napa, CA, we wanted people who, given all the
changes in technology for the visual arts—both in
continued on next page
Left to right: Ramon
Cortines, Marie
Sanzone, Tom Hall,
Michael Wiggins,
Carol Sun, Melissa
Friedman, and
Maria Mitchell.
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
imagination. I would also hardwire arts funding into
other departments. I’d go to HUD and ask that it tell
grantees that when they build new mixed-income housing, they won’t get federal funds unless they build something that is both a community facility and a living
facility. So you have to build a library that is both a public and a high-school library. You have to build an arts
gallery that is both a community and high-school
gallery. Moreover, you get 10 percent for the fountain
and the landscaping, which are community arts projects
that have to have fees and stipends embedded into them
not for only local artists but also for apprenticeships for
high-school and college-age kids.
The whole world of economics is talking about what will
solve America’s problems: imagination, creativity, and
innovation. The one set of subjects in school explicitly
devoted to nurturing the imagination is the arts. But
when we do public-opinion polling, we find that the
public does not associate either imagination or creativity
with the arts. This comes as a huge surprise. We have to
close that ignorance gap by demonstrating that, indeed,
the arts nurture the imagination, build the imagination,
and discipline the imagination. But then we have to show
them the other array of skills. Research is building a
powerful case about the transformative effect of learning
in the arts. We can now explain that effect in ways that
Joseph Dominic,
W. Robert Bucker,
DMA, Augusta
Kappner, PhD,
Dan Fallon, PhD, and
Alfonzo Thurman,
PhD, explain the
role of the teachereducation college.
I would also expand No Child Life Behind to include, in
its measures of school success, locally vetted assessments
that would capture history and the arts. Those would
become part of the metrics for whether or not schools
were performing and moving along. Then I would give
enormous grants that last 10 years, at least, both to small
and large communities across that country that would be
willing to operate as learning systems with public
schools, libraries, galleries, and other local entities. You
would not only have in-school education but also
apprenticeships for young people as workers. So regardless of your zip code, you could enter at pre-K and have
an arts-imagination pathway through the learning systems into higher education.
are far more convincing and illuminative to people—
a large percentage of the adults who have gone through
our public schools—who have never had good arts
Chen: I’m stunned that the public does not associate
imagination and creativity with the arts. What do they
associate with imagination and creativity?
Deasy: Science. When they examine the great innovations, they tend to think of science, which they see as the
source of the breakthroughs in human knowledge and
Chen: Dennie, you’ve been a very distinguished
researcher, but I’d like you to imagine that you are now
the Secretary of Education. What would you do to
improve arts teaching in schools?
Cunningham: We also need to figure out what doors
we can walk through to help our artists get into classrooms in order to help our teachers understand what
the arts are. The National Endowment for the Arts has
been supporting summer schools for four years now,
and we’ve seen that 50 percent of the K-5 kids who go
to summer schools have had zero arts experience. I’d
Wolf: One thing I would do right away is be very shrewd
about making common cause with science under the
rubric of innovation and imagination. Instead of the cultural divide between the arts and science, we would
think about education for innovation, or education for
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
about lots of things, not necessarily just what we’re trying to get them to learn in school. They’re very skillful,
and they have skills that we don’t even know about. This
capacity is something we need to figure out how to marshal. I’d work with the teachers and the kids to see if we
could deliver after-school and other programs to teach
adults in the community. Several things would happen.
The kids would feel valued for knowing something, and
they’d feel that they’re making a contribution. I’d engage
them in discussion about what we should teach adults.
For example, kids are using virtual reality to make and
find a way to get them immersed. Our summer schools
have shown us that if you’ve had one arts experience
you’re likely to want more, including encounters with
different art forms.
At the Oxbow School, high-school students come from
all over the country—from public, private, charter, and
home schools—for a 16-week program. It’s a group of
40 or 50 kids who live on campus for a semester and
study visual-arts and academic subjects. The teachers
fully integrate what they do. I taught English with the
digital-photography teacher. We studied Virginia Woolf ’s
Moments of Being, an autobiography. For a young dyslexic boy who likes to rebuild his car engine, a work by
Virginia Woolf is probably the most unlikely thing he
could think of reading. Yet we had students create Web
sites that followed the same sort of narrative as Virginia
Woolf; they too created their own moments of being.
This experience showed me that teachers really can be
architects of education, if given the opportunity.
“The best people to tell higher
education institutions how to
run their undergraduate
programs are the teachers
who are teaching...”
We had a thematic curriculum across the disciplines. We
hoped students would gain a toolbox that wasn’t just history, science, math, and language arts but was also four
arts areas. Their representational thinking expanded 100
percent because they now had new ways to think about
the world. We then found it easier to teach traditional
subjects, because when students were having difficulty
representing something in words they could go to another medium and then come back to words. They would
understand that dealing with the limitations of a medium is what makes doing work as an artist so exciting. We
all hit those limitations. We struggle with them, and try
to get beyond them.
belong in their own worlds. If they’re escaping from what
we call the real world, maybe there are good reasons for
that. We ought to engage them so that their capacities are
showing us what we need to know about them and what
we need to know about the world as they see it.
I’d also want to take on a school with a high population
of children who don’t speak English and a large specialeducation population—in other words, an urban school.
We know that those populations often don’t succeed,
and I’m persuaded that what will give them the possibility of succeeding is the arts in their multiple varieties. I
would then engage with arts, cultural, and science organizations to bring their collective expertise into the
school, not as a gift to the kids but to make the school a
learning experience for those external organizations. And
I’d want to create a school where partnerships with
external organizations and higher education operated
together, where we exercised a demand on higher education so that the supply it issued actually met our needs.
The best people to tell higher-education institutions how
to run their undergraduate programs are the teachers
who are teaching, despite often being seen just as cash
cows for professional development.
Chen: Dick Deasy, if you could imagine yourself as
principal of a school, what would you do in that role
to improve arts teaching?
Deasy: As a middle-school principal, I’d first negotiate a
relationship with a major university interested in bringing together its college of education and fine-arts
department to work with me to create a professionaldevelopment school. Though our partnership, we would
help the university design its undergraduate programs so
that students would be constantly interning and working
in our middle school.
I’d have a 10-year contract to do all of this because many
of these ideas could get me fired pretty quickly, as my
test scores would not automatically rise. But they would
The second thing I’d do is act on the view that among
the best teachers we have are the kids themselves. This
comes from our research about what the arts do for kids:
they validate that kids are extremely knowledgeable
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Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
rise. They would rise higher than those of schools using
other approaches to raising middle-school test scores.
We absolutely know that we can’t raise test scores in the
middle years by any of the current strategies. The only
way to raise test scores in the middle years is to improve
the way we’re teaching so that the deep learning of the
kids allows them to deal with the pretty trivial instruments of assessment.
There’s not a lot of public-opinion research on the arts,
and it’s not as deep and full as it ought to be. Public
Agenda’s founder, Dan Yankelovich, a wonderful social
scientist and author, has said, “Sometimes public opinion
is mushy.” Mushy is when people have not actually
thought very much about something. They’re polite in
responding to a survey but are essentially giving a top-ofthe-head reaction. What you have here is a public that’s
open to the arts but not thinking too much about it.
What’s the Bigger Picture? What’s Next?
The most important constituent of the schools is the
parents, but there are different kinds of parents. The
“helicopter” parents hover over their children. They are
very well educated, they are professionals, and they
started investing in college-education funds when the
baby was still in the womb. They are watching their
schools, and they are interested in a broad and sound
education for their children. These people have often
outsourced the arts education of their children. Their
kids are being exposed to the arts, but not necessarily
in the public schools.
Michael Cohen, Achieve
Derek Gordon, Arts Council of Greater Baton Rouge,
Pedro Noguera, Steinhardt School of Education,
New York University
Jean Johnson, Public Agenda
Derek Gordon: What does the public think about the
place of the arts in schools? Is it even on their radar?
Do parents, teachers, principals, or employers care
about that?
The other large group of parents is what I call the
“aspirational” parents. They have not had lots of education and are often one paycheck away from real economic problems. We tend to think of them as being
foreign-born or minority parents, but I would include
any low-income parents who really want better for their
children. They are open, searching, and looking for leadership about what their children need. But these parents
may erroneously think that math and science are very
dull but very important, while the arts are fun but not
very important. That is a total disservice not only to
Jean Johnson: Taxpayers pay for the schools, people send
their kids to the schools, and society has to live with the
results of the educational system. Clearly, public opinion
matters. Yet if you think of education over time, some of
the most important developments—desegregation, equal
opportunity for minorities and women—did not emerge
from public opinion. These developments occurred
because passionate people got out and said that this is
important, we can’t stay this way, our country is not like
that, and we’re going to initiate change.
Ramon Cortines,
Los Angeles deputy
mayor, speaks with
Ellen Rudolph of The
Surdna Foundation
after moderating a
panel discussion.
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
going to eliminate art programs.” However, if you tell
principals to make sure the kids get better test scores,
those principals know very well that art is not on the
test, and they will eliminate the art programs themselves.
Unfortunately, most principals, particularly those in
poor communities, are unwilling to take the risks
incurred by not narrowly focusing the curriculum to
what’s on the test. What we are seeing in the name of
raising standards and closing the achievement gap is a
disparity in access to the arts. Years back, it was common
for kindergarten teachers to know how to play the piano
and in fact to have a piano in their classrooms. When we
were influenced by Dewey, we saw teaching well-rounded
children as a good thing. But today we have what David
Berliner has called “an impoverished view of education.”
math and science, which can be creative and wonderful,
but also to the arts.
Michael Cohen: Employers are not jumping up and
down saying, “If only I had more students with more
preparation in the arts, my problems would be solved.”
But they are saying they need people who are disciplined, who can work in teams, who understand standards of excellence, and who are innovative. If you want
to make an instrumental argument for the arts, then you
must make the right one. The CEOs on the Achieve
board have been from companies like Prudential, Intel,
Boeing, and IBM. All these executives care about education, and all these companies invest heavily in the arts.
Clearly, there’s a way to bring together that kind of leadership, support, and political will to the task, but it hasn’t
yet happened so far.
“There’s a long history showing
that the arts do matter. When
you provide students with an
enriched curriculum, it
benefits them in a number
of ways, especially in terms of
motivating them to learn.”
Organizations like Achieve have gone to great lengths to
convince parents that their kids need to know math in
order to succeed after high school, but also that it’s not
the only thing they need to know. Being disciplined,
being able to work in teams, and being adaptable, flexible, and creative are also important. We just don’t have a
story to tell them about what class the kids can take to
get those skills while in high school. You hear about how
other countries are looking to U.S. schools to see how to
teach creativity. If we start drawing connections between
the arts and those skills, we’ll have a much more powerful argument to make.
Cohen: Tests tend to narrow the curriculum, particularly
in schools with the most disadvantaged students, under
the most pressure, and often with the least prepared
teachers. But I want to caution that the remedy is not to
add arts to the test; you wouldn’t like what the arts test
looks like, and you wouldn’t like the way it would drive
instruction. If we began to provide opportunities in
some systematic way, but not on a pencil-and-paper test,
for students to demonstrate problem-solving skills and
creativity, then we’d be helping to create an environment
in which the arguments for the arts might be more
compelling. We need some measure of assessment and
accountability that tilts things a little bit more in favor of
the arts. And we need to be smart about how to do that.
Gordon: What about children living in poverty, or children with various social or economic challenges? Why
not just give them more math and science to be sure they
can get better jobs? Do the arts matter to these children?
Pedro Noguera: There’s a long history showing that the
arts do matter. When you provide students with an
enriched curriculum, it benefits them in a number of
ways, especially in terms of motivating them to learn.
The problem right now, particularly since the adoption
of No Child Left Behind, is that an alternative view is
widespread. According to that view, what will be on the
test is what matters. Art is not on the test. What we’re
seeing across the country is the elimination of art and
music programs for poor children, not for middle-class
children, in the name of raising test scores.
Johnson: Art is a part of every human culture across the
globe and throughout history. The notion that, as a society, we would allow people to obtain a high-school
degree without understanding the role of the arts in
their history and in the world today is shocking to me. It
What you have to do is not believe the lies. You’ll hear
elected officials who will say, “I’m a great fan of the arts.
And none of the reforms that we’re implementing are
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used to be that an educated person knew about the arts,
and we’ve lost that.
Noguera: A new partnership between NYU’s Steinhardt
School and the New York City public schools will bring a
new site-based approach to training teachers. Rather
than preparing teachers at the university, we’ll prepare
them at the site. We will have faculty doing something
really nontraditional—going out to schools to work with
teachers on an ongoing basis, long beyond the first year.
I’m hoping that this kind of partnership will start to
change the universities. They are typically very fragmented by discipline, which works against our providing the
kind of well-rounded education that students and teachers need. It prevents us from being able to take arts education and combine it with math or science to enrich the
learning experiences of teachers. But I’m hoping that
through such partnerships we’ll be able to train teachers
with skills directly relevant to the needs of schools. One
of the general challenges we have is that the education
provided to teachers is often inadequate for what they
face when they get into real classrooms. We have to close
that gap if we’re going to see teachers become more successful and stay in the profession longer.
Noguera: In revamping our NYU teacher-education program, a challenge is figuring out how to give our students all that they need in order to be well prepared. We
need to expose them to content areas, to teaching kids
with special needs, to teaching kids who don’t speak
English, to the social and psychological needs of children. But if we keep piling it on, we’ll either be keeping
them in the program for a very long time or giving them
a very superficial understanding. The alternative is to
have a narrowly specialized program, as we do now. We
have an arts and education program, but it’s not available to teachers who are teaching other subjects.
“We need to make a clearer and
more compelling case for the
need for arts education in all
schools. There’s a great distance
to cover between the current
state of affairs and where we
need to be.”
Gordon: What one thing would you single out as
having the most positive effect on the preparation of
arts teachers?
Cohen: We need to make a clearer and more compelling
case for the need for arts education in all schools.
There’s a great distance to cover between the current
state of affairs and where we need to be. I don’t know
how you can improve arts teaching without first
strengthening support for arts education in the schools.
How do we fit arts into the curriculum in ways that
don’t just keep it as an elective but also integrate it into
our core curriculum? The challenge for universities is to
have a better sense of what’s going on in the schools so
that we can prepare teachers to work in those schools.
While they may not be allowed to do so officially, teachers can introduce the arts in a subversive manner,
including it in their curricula so that they don’t deny
their students the opportunity to explore the arts.
Johnson: We need to start having a conversation with
school principals and superintendents about the importance of the arts, using whatever strategy or blend of
strategies we want to take. We need to do this community-by-community, mano-a-mano.
Noguera: We also have to see governors and state legislatures as a target audience, because in this political climate, principals and superintendents increasingly feel
that their hands are tied. Unless we can get policymakers to recognize arts education as important, as reflected
in budgets and procedures adopted for judging schools,
administrators are unlikely to act on their own. We have
to see that the arts have a larger political agenda with
respect to education.
Cohen: What’s the role of universities in the continued
development of arts educators? Most of the New York
City arts-teacher panelists got to the classroom through
nontraditional routes. They often had strong ties to
arts-oriented institutions that were not within higher
education but turned out to be places where artists
could further develop their artistic skills and become
better teachers as a result. If we frame the question as
“What do we need to do to better support the continued
development of arts educators?”then we can look at a broader
range of institutions than colleges and universities.
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
A look at “best practices” in
24 higher-education institutions
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
Antioch University Seattle
The Role of Higher Education
Since summer 2001, the coursework has been offered in
the BA Teacher Completion (BATC) program, the
Graduate Teacher Program, and the Master of Arts in
Education (MAED) program. The BATC program offers
two three-credit courses, “The Arts and Imagination”
and “Teaching the Arts,” which seek to address the
growth of competency-based arts learning as defined in
the Washington State certification standards in the arts
for K-8 teachers. Together, these two courses have been
an essential part of 10 different cohorts, reaching over
175 future teachers.
Seattle, WA
Distinctive Feature:
Arts integration
Parent University:
Antioch University, Seattle
Founded: 1852
Full-Time Faculty: 29
Part-Time Faculty: 87
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 57
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 126
Full-Time Graduate Students: 271
Part-Time Graduate Students: 302
“The Arts and Imagination” looks at the diverse forms
of creativity and aesthetic intentions that the arts bring
to the ever-changing cultural landscape. Through arts
experiences, texts, lectures, online research, and dialogue, future teachers engage the creative impulse at
personal, social, and knowledge-generating levels.
A variety of texts and pedagogical models are explored,
with the intention of assessing the current literature and
trends in arts education. Learners are introduced to the
practices of group facilitation, collaboration, and framing community norms that allow a safe and compassionate environment for arts learning to emerge.
Drawing on the rich cultural resources of the Seattle
area, field trips are an integral part of the syllabus.
Sharing of Web resources is emphasized, along with
online, asynchronous conversations.
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Arts Integration/Arts Learning
Creative Writing
Program Description:
At Antioch University Seattle, adult learners find innovative individualized programs with a commitment not only
to academic excellence, but also to community service and
social justice. Antioch Seattle is one of six campuses of
Antioch University, founded in 1852 in Yellow Springs,
Ohio. Horace Mann, noted abolitionist and first president
of Antioch College, gave a charge to the class of 1859 that
is repeated to each Antioch graduating class: “Be ashamed
to die until you have won some victory for humanity.”
The course concludes with a project in which small
teams present findings from an exploration of a specific
art form. Within this exploration, they examine cultural
periods, working artists, theories, and roles that the art
form plays in diverse cultures and why it is an integral
part of the human experience. Related current trends in
the arts and social justice are investigated. The project
must involve documentation of the process and its
frameworks, as well as performance, audience participation, technology, and humor.
Antioch University Seattle has been part of this long
tradition of educational innovation and social responsibility. Since its emergence from the field-based learning
efforts of Antioch College of the 1950s and ’60s, the
Center for Programs in Education has been offering
educators coursework in arts integration both at the
preparation and master’s level.
“Teaching the Arts” takes the personal and contextual
aspects of “The Arts and Imagination” and applies
them to the classroom, where teachers set the conditions
for creative arts learning to grow not only in their
classrooms but also in schools and communities.
Microteaching, portfolio creating, and journaling are
part of the learning requirements. Several pedagogical
models are introduced.
These courses provide theoretical understanding, experiential learning, and resources for future teachers to
cultivate their capacity for creating learning environments in which the learner becomes visible by engaging
in projects that generate understanding and application
through aesthetic design.
The course is taken during students’ field-experience
quarter, so observations of arts learning in real situa-
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
tions are shared and deconstructed. Prototyping and
scenario creation (unit and lesson plans) of arts learning done during the internship are strongly supported
throughout the course. Learners are introduced to arts
assessment and the wide range of assessment models,
from testing through observation and interview to performance and writing.
Bank Street Graduate School
of Education
Arts integration was introduced into the Graduate
Teacher Preparation program in summer 2003.
“Integrating the Arts” is a two-credit course that offers
an intensive introduction to arts learning, framed by the
same curriculum that drives the BATC coursework.
Plans to expand the course to three credits are under
Distinctive Feature:
New York, NY
Partnerships with arts-education organizations
Parent University:
Bank Street College of Education
Founded: 1931
Full-Time Faculty: 70
Part-Time Faculty: 40
Full-Time Graduate Students: 1,000
“Antioch wants to be one of
the leaders in generating a
voice for the arts that addresses
educational frameworks...”
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Creative Writing
Visual Arts
Courses in arts integration have also been offered at the
MAED level. As part of its redesign, the program will
have an area of concentration in arts integration, with
an 18-credit emphasis, that offers courses in Social
Justice and the Artistic Imagination, Assessment, Arts
and Community, and Exploratory Investigations in
the pairings of music/drama and dance/visual arts.
This program will begin in winter 2008.
Program Description:
The Bank Street Graduate School of Education, internationally recognized as an institution of progressive
education, offers a wide range of programs leading to
master’s degrees and professional certification in general
education, special education, and leadership. Guided by
the philosophy of its founder, Lucy Sprague Mitchell,
Bank Street provides its masters-degree candidates with
a strong background in child development and with
skills in utilizing a developmental-interaction approach
that stresses direct experience in learning.
Antioch is in partnership with Adams Elementary
School, an arts-rich school in the Seattle school district.
This partnership will lead to professional-development
opportunities for classroom teachers, teaching artists,
and future teachers. Many of these courses will be taught
at Adams. And because many of the collaborative efforts
are beginning to embed arts learning into the internships
at Adams, a stronger link is being forged between realworld settings and campus-based teacher preparation.
In keeping with the developmental-interaction approach,
the arts are an integral part of the direct experiences
offered to graduate students. Many programs in teacher
education, school leadership, and museum education
are specifically designed for arts educators. In other
programs, the arts are integrated into a variety of
courses that are available to all candidates. Some of
Bank Street’s programs and course offerings involve
collaborations with notable New York arts-education
programs, including Parsons School of Design, the Sarah
Antioch is one of the few teacher-education programs in
Washington that offers integrated arts courses for future
teachers. As the new competency-based endorsements
take root in teacher education, Antioch wants to be one
of the leaders in generating a voice for the arts that
addresses the global, democratic, open, and inclusive
educational frameworks needed by 21st-century learning
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Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
“Bank Street’s programs and
course offerings involve
collaborations with notable
New York arts-education
programs, including Parsons
School of Design, the Sarah
Lawrence Creative Writing
Program, the Lincoln Center
Institute, and the National
Dance Institute.”
The Role of Higher Education
through studio courses. Candidates are prepared for
positions as public- and independent-school principals,
regional arts supervisors and administrators, and college
Leadership in the Arts: Creative Writing
(in collaboration with Sarah Lawrence College)
Launched in summer 2007, this program combines
preparation for school leadership positions with the
opportunity to study creative writing in-depth.
Courses Focused on an Art Form
A number of courses, offered by arts educators and teaching artists, focus on a particular art form—literature,
visual arts, music, or dance. These courses are available to
candidates who are preparing to teach or become literacy
specialists in general, special, or bilingual classrooms in
early-childhood, childhood, and middle-school settings.
They include:
Lawrence Creative Writing Program, the Lincoln Center
Institute, and the National Dance Institute.
• A course designed to help candidates develop their
skills and resources in the art of storytelling for and
with children. In this course, candidates have the
opportunity to study as well as practice world-folklore
repertoire and techniques for a variety of age groups
and professional settings.
The graduate programs specifically designed for arts
educators include:
Museum Education Programs
Bank Street offers four museum education programs that
prepare individuals to become museum educators and/or
classroom teachers. One is a non-certification program in
which students aspiring to be museum educators spend an
academic year in supervised fieldwork in museum settings.
The other three are certification programs in which students prepare to work at the early-childhood, childhood,
or middle-school level in classrooms and/or museums.
Students spend one semester of supervised fieldwork in
classrooms and another in a museum setting.
• A course on the study and materials of folklore as a
discipline for deeply enriching life in the classroom and
school community. Family stories, folktales, songs, folk
games, and visual materials from a range of cultural
traditions, and for different age groups, are presented.
• An arts workshop focused on grades N-6. This is a
studio course that stresses the connections between
expression in arts and crafts and aspects of teaching
and learning in other areas. The course is designed to
help teachers develop a basic art program in their classrooms. Candidates have direct experience with painting, collage, clay work, print making, and crafts such as
puppet making, dyeing, and weaving.
Leadership in Museum Education
This program is designed for professionals who work for
museums and are committed to furthering their institutions’ educational and civic agendas. It prepares candidates for positions of leadership through courses that
focus on staff development, marketing, financial planning, and visitor-centered programming.
• A course on music and movement in grades N-6.
Candidates have the opportunity to focus on key
elements of music and movement, such as rhythm,
melody, and spatial awareness. They learn to make and
use musical instruments, explore the use of materials
such as hoops and climbing equipment, and integrate
skills and repertoire with ongoing classroom curricula.
Leadership in the Arts (in collaboration with Parsons
School of Design)
In this program, arts educators and others prepare for
innovative and responsive educational leadership. They
take educational leadership courses at Bank Street, and at
Parsons they refine their arts skills and knowledge
• A course focused on singing in the early-childhood
classroom. Candidates learn about the range of choices
in designing how songs and singing games complement
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
the social studies curriculum and can enhance children’s
understanding of literacy, mathematics, and science
The Role of Higher Education
and founder of the American Montessori movement, to
characterize the methodology employed by NDI.
Process Pedagogy is offered as a one-week summer
institute in which dance is used as an experiential text
for reflecting on pedagogy. The course has two integrated
components: a dance program in which adult participants prepare for an ensemble performance with children
ages 9-14; and a pedagogical component in which the
adult participants study the methodology of NDI with
two goals in mind—to consider its implications for
teaching in their own contexts and to reflect on the value
of arts education in children’s lives. The course offers a
unique opportunity for general and special education
Collaboration with Lincoln Center Institute
The Bank Street College/Lincoln Center Institute
Collaborative is designed to enhance the learning of all
children by exploring ways to use the arts in the preparation of new teachers. The partnership connects the
Lincoln Center Institute with the graduate faculty of
Bank Street College through a series of workshops and
performances of music, dance, opera, and the visual arts.
These experiences are extended to graduate students
Adults and children
dancing together as
part of “Process
Pedagogy,” a course
offered in collaboration with the National
Dance Institute.
Photo by Joe Josephs
teachers, teacher leaders, arts educators, and teaching
artists to explore the connections between arts education
and pedagogical practice across grade levels and curriculum areas.
through a wide range of courses at the College. The goal
is to help future teachers understand how experiential
investigations of the arts can engage children in learning
about the arts and support their development of a wide
range of critical, analytic, and expressive skills.
Collaboration with National Dance Institute
Integration of the Arts into Course Offerings
Across Programs
“Process Pedagogy” is a graduate course offered in
collaboration with the National Dance Institute (NDI),
an exemplary arts-education program founded by
Jacques d’Amboise, former principal dancer with New
York City Ballet. The term process pedagogy was conceived
by Dr. Nancy Rambusch, noted early-childhood educator
The arts are also integrated into regular course offerings
across a wide range of graduate programs. In addition,
the Division of Continuing Education offers New
Perspectives courses, many of which focus on an art
form, both to graduate students and non-matriculated
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
California Polytechnic
State University
• Introduction to the Visual and Performing Arts
Standards, a survey course that covers the California
state K-8 standards in all art disciplines.
San Luis Obispo, CA
• Storytelling: the Oral Tradition, which supports mastery
of traditional techniques of storytelling and examines
mythology and folktales from world cultures.
• Visual Arts in the Elementary Classroom, a course
designed to provide background, skills, and understanding of lesson-plan development and arts integration in
K-8 classrooms.
Distinctive Feature:
Polytechnic institution
Parent University:
• Advanced Visual Arts in the Elementary Classroom, a
more “hands-on” application of the arts and its integration into other content areas.
California Polytechnic State University
Founded: 1901
Full-Time Faculty: 1,182
Part-Time Faculty: 500
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 15,827
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 1,000
Full-Time Graduate Students: 800
Part-Time Graduate Students: 200
“Cal Poly maintains that the
future of the arts in our
schools rests on the training
of the next generation
of teachers.”
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
LS faculty members have also designed a series of online
classes to help teaching professionals gain more experience
and coursework in the arts. While initially intended for
teachers already in the field, this series is now attracting
students from various arts majors and other programs
because of its convenience, rigor, and allowance for independent work. When first offered in spring 2006, teachers
throughout California, as well as teachers from Virginia to
Kuwait, participated. The courses in the online series to
date are: Fundamentals and Principles of Art; Visual
Perception in the Elementary Classroom; Creative
Expression in the Elementary Classroom; Aesthetic Valuing
in the Elementary Classroom; and Historical and Cultural
Connections to Other Content Areas. Offerings continue
to expand. The series will soon include classes in shadow
puppetry and storytelling, for example.
Art Education (in Liberal Studies Department)
Creative Writing
Film/Media Arts
Visual Arts
Program Description:
Liberal Studies (LS) is the Cal Poly department that
prepares undergraduate students for the teachingcredential program in California. At this polytechnic
university, they have traditionally been required to take
numerous science and math courses—more than in the
teacher-preparation programs of the other 22 campuses
of the California State University system. But over the
past eight years, LS faculty, many of whom have training
in the arts, have made a concerted effort to provide parity for the arts in the training of future teachers. Faculty
members stress the importance of the arts in the education of children, not only to their students but also to
campus and educational groups in their county.
The Central Coast Center for Arts Education was established at Cal Poly in 2004 as an independent entity to
provide a structure for community outreach in arts education. Workshops are held for teachers seeking training
in using the arts in their classrooms as well as for artists
who want to teach in K-8 schools. The artists often need
to acquire lesson-plan development and classroom-management skills, as well as an understanding of how to
meet the state content standards in the arts. In addition,
each quarter a free lecture is given on campus for
LS faculty have designed a new series of courses required
for all students planning elementary or secondary teaching careers. These include:
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
teachers, community members,
and anyone interested in the
importance of the arts to the education of children. With each lecture, free lesson plans on the
evening’s topic are made available.
To date, Diane Asay and Sharon
Gray have talked about the success
of their Evening for Educators
series in Utah; Denise Campbell
has spoken on “Remnants of
Culture: The Importance of
Quilting in African American
Culture”; and James Christensen
provided the most recent lecture
on “Creativity.”
At Cal Poly, the Art and Design,
Dance, Music, and Theatre
Departments focus on the education of individuals who plan on
being professional artists, while
the Central Coast Center for Arts
Education emphasizes arts education. Thus faculty across departments are encouraged to recommend students who might be
interested in teaching to become
engaged in Center projects. In the
past year, for example, students
served as assistants to professional
artists who were offering afterschool art classes to the children
of agricultural workers. LS has
also worked with faculty in the Math Department to
develop a new course on Math and Art Integration. And
at LS’s professional-development workshops, free admission is granted to any Cal Poly student who might be
interested in teaching the arts.
The Central Coast Center
for Arts Education’s
“Illuminating Shadows:
Introducing the Arts of
Shadow Puppetry to a
New Generation” at an
after-school arts program
in Guadalupe, CA.
Photo by Thomas Hacker
“At Cal Poly, the Art and
Design, Dance, Music, and
Theatre Departments focus on
the education of individuals
who plan on being professional
artists, while the Central Coast
Center for Arts Education
emphasizes arts education.”
Cal Poly maintains that the future of the arts in our
schools rests on the training of the next generation of
teachers. Through activities such as grant-supported
projects, coursework developed as part of degree programs, and the presence of faculty in the school district,
county Office of Education committees, and community
arts associations, the Central Coast Center for Arts
Education aims to make arts education both a priority
and a reality in San Luis Obispo County.
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The City University of New York
The Role of Higher Education
and humanities faculty, program integration for these
students supports a mutually reinforcing set of experiences. In addition, the Creative Arts Team (CAT), which
utilizes theater and other arts in teaching children,
is now located at CUNY and works actively in arts
education across the campuses.
New York, NY
Distinctive Feature:
Founded in 1974, CAT’s mission is to provide at-risk
young people with participatory drama workshops and
residencies that foster important learning skills and
Multiple urban campuses with varied programs
Parent University:
The City University of New York
Founded: 1847
Full-Time Faculty: 6,100
Part-Time Faculty: 7,500
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 120,040
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 70,888
Full-Time Graduate Students: 7,703
Part-Time Graduate Students: 22,096
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Digital Media
Creative Writing
Film/Media Arts
Visual Arts
CUNY students
practicing their
guitar craft.
Photo courtesy
Program Description:
positive social development. In 2004, CAT became a
university-wide initiative of the Office of Academic
Affairs at CUNY and has since partnered with a number
of CUNY’s projects, including the Paul A. Kaplan Center
for Educational Drama. The resulting program offers
services in professional-development training for teachers
and other youth-serving professionals. It also offers preservice courses for graduate students in the effective use
of educational drama. Through the Kaplan Center, CAT
makes professional-development programs available for
New York City Department of Education teachers, parent
coordinators, guidance counselors, and other school staff.
These programs include multi-session mentoring/modeling experiences; on-site professional-development workshops for teachers and other school staff; and graduatelevel courses and certificates at the Kaplan Center in educational theater methodologies.
The City University of New York (CUNY) encompasses
23 institutions, including nine separate senior colleges,
that offer programs in the arts and arts education. Six of
the masters-level colleges have an active collaboration
with the Lincoln Center Institute (LCI) that introduces
students in education to teaching artists and the use of
the arts to facilitate the teaching of a variety of subjects.
The LCI program is built on aesthetics education, which
has become an important component of CUNY’s earlychildhood and childhood education programs.
Several CUNY colleges, including Hunter College,
Queens College, Brooklyn College, and Lehman College,
have well-known arts programs in visual arts, digital
media, integrated media arts, theater, poetry, dance, and
music. Many of their students combine preparation in
education with their artistic studies. Because of the close
collaboration of the arts-education faculty with the arts
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
College for Creative Studies
The Role of Higher Education
methodologies of art instruction taught within the studio
and classroom, along with firsthand teaching experiences,
provide students with the most current knowledge and
theory to become dynamic practitioners of art as well as
effective teachers of art for pre-K-12 students.
Detroit, MI
Art Education students also develop their practical skills
through a required community-based service-learning
project. During this hands-on activity, CCS students
interact with, teach, and learn from area youth. If they
choose, students can participate in CAP programs to
fulfill their service-learning project requirement.
Distinctive Feature:
Industry relationships
Parent University:
College for Creative Studies
Founded: 1906
Full-Time Faculty: 47
Part-Time Faculty: 207
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 1,094
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 208
“CCS is known for providing a
dynamic learning environment
where students explore issues
of art, design, and the culture
in which they exist.”
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Film/Media Arts
Visual Arts
CAP works closely with schools and other Detroit organizations to provide distinctive and effective art and design
education to young people. CAP serves about 3,000
students per year through approximately 90 long-term
programs involving low-income minority youth. At the
same time, it provides outreach and community service
experiences for CCS students, alumni, and community
artists. For their service-learning projects, students do
creative work with children in diverse settings, from
Detroit-area churches to arts-based summer camps
across Michigan.
Program Description:
Located in the cultural center of midtown Detroit, the
College for Creative Studies (CCS)—a private, fully
accredited, four-year college—is one of the leading art
and design institutions in the country. CCS is known
for providing a dynamic learning environment where
students explore issues of art, design, and the culture in
which they exist. CCS has always strived to find ways to
serve not only its own campus but also the larger community. The college accomplishes this goal through the Art
Education degree and the Community Arts Partnerships
(CAP) programs. Both sets of activities foster an innovative educational environment that provides opportunities
to teach the arts to children in a variety of settings.
To help assure that the continuous challenge of training
first-class artist-teachers in urban areas is met, CAP pays
artists and students for their participation. Monetary
assistance helps to offset tuition costs for current Art
Education students and encourages their involvement in
these programs, while also supporting the participation
of minority artists within the community. Traditionally,
minority artists have limited access to financial resources,
despite often having greater financial need.
The Art Education degree program at CCS combines
an internationally recognized BFA degree with inventive
teacher-preparation courses. The program is offered as a
dual major, taken in tandem with any of the eight studio
majors at CCS. The curriculum consists of a series of five
professional Art Education courses taken in sequence
prior to student teaching. During these courses, students
are encouraged to pursue their artistic abilities through
studio requirements and submissions to the annual
student exhibition, as CCS seeks to graduate exceptional
artist-teachers who have highly developed knowledge
and skills in a studio discipline. Thus the professional
Participation in training programs by minority artists,
along with Art Education students, alumni, professional
artists, and members of the community, is essential to
the success of the CAP programs. CAP administrators
assemble diverse groups of people each year to learn and
work together in the training programs. By promoting
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Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
CCS artist/teacher
Karen Khalifah with
students in a Detroit
public school’s afterschool art class.
Photo by Mikel Bresee
multicultural group learning, CAP artist-teachers learn
from each other how to teach and encourage crosscultural education within urban schools.
and the other in a suburban school, to experience the
richness of diversity and learn how to teach in a multitude of settings. Students are thus taught to combine
their theoretical and practical knowledge in real-world
conditions, where the educational reality for some
children is not always picture-perfect. Nevertheless,
many suburban-oriented student-teachers are surprised
to find that teaching in city schools can be a highly
positive experience. Throughout their internships,
students are mentored by a cooperating teacher, and
they are visited at least three times during these placements by their College Supervising Teacher, who grades
their performances. These experiences, partnered
with the cutting-edge studio art and design courses,
provide Art Education students with a premium
teacher-preparation pathway.
CAP training programs consist of intensive workshop
sessions, team-teaching experiences, and regular followup sessions. Through training workshops centered on
lesson preparation, classroom management, cultural
awareness, and special-needs sensitivity, CAP students
are taught to adapt their artistic talents to meet the
needs of the children they will teach. After completing
the workshops, students go on to become support teachers. They work with lead teachers in two-person teams at
after-school programs in Detroit-area elementary and
middle schools, and at other community organizations
as well. Frequently, during CAP training, students who
are not already part of the Art Education program at
CCS discover their “calling” as a teacher and decide to
enroll in Art Education classes. Once training has been
completed, students receive CAP certificates and are
encouraged to become future lead teachers within the
CAP programs. While CAP and Art Education maintain
separate roles within the college, they regularly collaborate to create cultured and well-rounded artist-teachers.
The Art Education and Community Arts Partnerships
programs work together and separately, as appropriate,
to teach students how to develop personally and professionally as artist-teachers and how to teach both in urban
and non-urban environments. A student with an Art
Education and CAP background can graduate from CCS
with certification and four years of rigorous teaching
experience. CCS fosters in these students the resolve
to pursue excellence, act ethically, embrace their responsibilities as citizens of diverse local and global communities,
and keep learning throughout their lives.
Art Education students are also required to participate
in rigorous and innovative student-teaching internships.
During an internship, students have two eight-week
teaching placements, one in the Detroit Public Schools
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
College of Performing
and Visual Arts,
University of Northern Colorado
The Role of Higher Education
arts, and leadership in the arts throughout a student’s
curricular opportunities. CPVA provides a strong liberalarts education, matched by an emphasis on professional
career paths in the arts. These paths include a wide array
of highly regarded undergraduate and graduate teacherpreparation programs in visual arts, music, and theater.
Greeley, CO
In alignment with preservice teacher licensure programs
in the arts, the College has established the Center for
Integrated Arts Education, which provides professionaland curriculum-development services for school districts
and schools in Colorado. In addition, it provides opportunities for CPVA students to connect on a deeper level
with the issues facing arts educators in K-12 public
schools. The Center is also home to an education program that helps match teaching artists with schools and
school districts, as well as provide professional development for those teaching artists.
Distinctive Feature:
Parent University:
University of Northern Colorado
Founded: 1889
Full-Time Faculty: 414
Part-Time Faculty: 200
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 10,000
Full-Time Graduate Students: 1,766
In addition, the Center hosts the College’s longitudinalresearch project that examines the impact of arts-infused
curricula on school ecology and student achievement
in Colorado’s K-12 schools. Data are being collected on
a number of variables, including but not limited to
behavior, student achievement, attendance, and parent,
teacher, and administrator perspectives. The baseline
phase of the study includes art- and general-education
observations both in and outside the classrooms;
art-teacher and administrator interviews; teacher focus
groups; parent, student, teacher, and administrator
surveys; and information from existing statewide testing
and demographic databanks. Effects of the curricular
transitions will be measured by comparing collected and
baseline data.
Degrees Offered:
BA, BS, MA, MS, EdD, PhD
Arts Disciplines:
Creative Writing
Film/Media Studies
Visual Arts
Program Description:
The College of Performing and Visual Arts (CPVA) is
Colorado’s distinctive public-university program in the
arts. The CPVA experience, centered
on student development, is inspired
by a commitment to the arts traditions—embodied in the study of
music, theater, dance, and visual
arts—and to cultivating leadership in
the arts. The focus on student learning, in academic, artistic, and personal
terms, epitomizes a fundamental
CPVA community belief. CVPA
upholds that lifelong learning
results from engagement in an artseducational experience that blends
and infuses the most pertinent aspects
of the history and philosophy of the
arts, professional preparation in the
Creative Spaces summer
arts campers prepare for a
scene they created about
peer pressure.
Photo Courtesy of the
University of Northern Colorado
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
Columbia College Chicago,
Center for Community Arts
The Role of Higher Education
based organizations to develop an array of sustainable
high-quality arts programming. In particular, the Arts in
Youth and Community Development (AYCD) graduate
program was developed by CCAP and the Department
of Arts, Entertainment and Media Management to
address the professional-development needs of future
leaders in the field of community-based youth arts.
This is the first masters degree of its kind in the United
States. A critical feature of this program is an intensive
practicum, in which students work up to 20 hours weekly in community-based youth arts organizations, where
they receive mentorship and training in the practical
skills needed to run such organizations.
Chicago, IL
Distinctive Feature:
Parent College:
Columbia College Chicago
Founded: 1890
Full-Time Faculty: 324
Part-Time Faculty: 1,207
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 8,554
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 1,402
Full-Time Graduate Students: 371
Part-Time Graduate Students: 278
“...using the arts to build
community and develop the
voices of all citizens.”
CCAP serves children and youth of all ages, including
early childhood, and its projects use a team-teaching
approach. In all of its programs, public-school teachers,
professional artists, and community-based leaders join
together to develop curriculum that helps students:
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
• Engage actively in learning across content areas via
the arts
Advertising Art Direction
Art and Design
Art History
Creative Writing
Film/Media Arts
Interdisciplinary Arts
Visual Arts
• Develop a firsthand and deep understanding of various
art forms and how they are professionally practiced
• Acquire higher-level thinking skills and habits of mind
and learn how they apply to artistic expression
• Set challenging artistic goals and develop thoughtful
plans to meet them
• Develop the skills to become lifelong learners
• Appreciate different cultures and their perspectives
on life
Program Description:
Since 1998, the Center for Community Arts Partnerships
(CCAP) at Columbia College Chicago has been transforming the lives of thousands of Chicago’s young people through college-community partnership building.
Founded as a key part of a mission to link the academic
departments of Columbia College Chicago with diverse
communities throughout the city, CCAP enables artists,
educators, students, schools, corporations, and community-based organizations to form meaningful and sustainable partnerships in the arts. This approach stands as
an international model for demonstrating how an urban
college can collaborate with schools and community-
• Understand a range of artistic expressions.
CCAP works with a wide range of academic departments and offices at Columbia College, including the
Center for Arts Policy (CAP), which advances practices
that “democratize” the arts, using the arts to build community and develop the voices of all citizens. Most of
CAP’s work revolves around three themes: the arts in
community-building; the arts in education, learning,
and development; and the sustainability of the arts. The
College’s Office of Academic Research is also cultivating
a major initiative to provide academic, intellectual,
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
Teaching artist Leah
Mayers works with a
student at Thurgood
Marshall Middle School
on an arts-integrated
literacy project.
Photo by Joel Wanek
research, and developmental support for the hybrid links
between the professions of artist and educator. Through
the development of this project, which includes the work
of CAP and CCAP, the college will support a one-of-akind teaching-artist platform. This model will speak to
the policy and practice of the field, deeply affecting the
practice of arts integration and teaching-artist development in the city of Chicago and throughout the nation.
into schools, ranging from one-day workshops to intensive
in-school and after-school artist residencies. CCAP provides a replicable model by which artists and faculty
partner directly with Chicago Public Schools’ teachers and
administrators, training them to integrate the arts into
their classrooms on an ongoing basis and to jointly create
arts and literacy curricula. Integral to the effectiveness of
this training is the monthly meeting of artists in the Arts
Integration Mentorship Project (Project AIM). These
meetings, which provide continuous professional development, address a wide array of topics. They include teacher
and artist planning, arts-integrated curriculum design,
hands-on arts strategies shared across disciplines, protocols
for looking at student work, assessment, and documentation. CCAP will soon publish AIM Print, a book about its
model of arts integration, which will include curriculum
and best practices for arts integration.
CCAP’s multiple programs allow comprehensive programming and leadership development, which provides
students with a thorough understanding of the many
paths possible within arts education. For instance, CCAP
explores ways to infuse courses with service-learning
components that address specific course objectives. In
addition to the training that is provided through CCAP’s
AYCD graduate program, a new class for undergraduates,
Teaching Artist in the Schools, was introduced as part of
a new education minor offered through the Educational
Studies and the Early Childhood Education departments.
This class provides opportunities for art students and
preservice teachers to learn about the field of artsintegration through theory and practicum experience.
The Educational Studies Department at Columbia
College Chicago offers the Master of Arts in Teaching
degree within two graduate programs: Elementary
Education K-9 and Art Education K-12. The primary
goal of both of these programs is to create teachers who
foster collaboration, critical thinking, and reflection,
consciousness of self, and awareness of cultural diversity.
Columbia College Chicago also provides advancedplacement summer training for arts specialists through
the Office of the Provost.
In addition, CCAP provides professional development and
curriculum instruction in arts integration for Chicago
Public Schools’ teachers and teaching artists. CCAP offers
opportunities in professional development, which is key to
integrating high-quality, sustainable, arts-based programs
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Fairfield University
The Role of Higher Education
youth; a business professor uses film to teach ethics and
immigration issues; and a history/Asian studies professor uses art and music to teach Chinese language and
Fairfield, CT
Currently, Fairfield offers certification in music, and it
has developed its program specifically around the needs
of future teachers and their students. Rather than pattern
its program on past models, the faculty looked to future
student needs and developed a standards-based curriculum in which the four music-methods courses rely on
the create-perform-respond model. These courses, all
of which include fieldwork both in urban and suburban
schools—one of the areas that research indicates is
critical for developing excellent teachers—are taught
by active, exemplary pre-K-12 teachers. All teacher
candidates also attend the professional-development
workshops held at the university for area arts teachers.
Distinctive Feature:
Preparation of arts teachers within a liberal-arts
Parent University:
Fairfield University
Founded: 1945
Full-Time Faculty: 240
Part-Time Faculty: 210
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 3,384
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 624
Full-Time Graduate Students: 270
Part-Time Graduate Students: 813
“...nursing students use the
music and stories of Broadway
shows to reach out to inner-city
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Art History
Creative Writing
Film/Media Studies
Visual Arts
Fairfield seeks out musicians who wish to make the arts
a foundation of people’s lives through education, rather
than those who view teaching as a default for performing.
Teaching is an art form in itself, which Fairfield is committed to nurturing and developing. As such, recruiting
future teachers is done through current pre-K-12 music
teachers and through direct interaction with potential
teacher candidates among current Fairfield students.
Many students involved in music while in high school
have a passion for music but do not want to perform.
At that educational stage, they often do not have a clear
career goal involving the arts because they do not see a
place for themselves there. Both through mission and
program, Fairfield shows them that they are needed and
valued as teachers of the arts.
Program Description:
All students at Fairfield University must complete a
20-course liberal-arts core curriculum that includes
a minimum of two arts and two literature courses.
As part of its strategic plan, Fairfield promotes interdisciplinary connections throughout all 20 core courses.
Disciplines outside of the arts regularly engage the arts
to make connections with other content areas. As a
result, future teachers of all disciplines—whether in
the sciences, social sciences, or humanities—understand the centrality of the arts to their lives. Current
examples of these interdisciplinary connections are: a
chemistry professor uses orchestral scores to illustrate
the mysteries of organic chemistry; an economics professor’s students attend and participate in capoeira (a
dance-like martial art) workshops to better understand
Brazilian culture; nursing students use the music and
stories of Broadway shows to reach out to inner-city
University College is the division of Fairfield University
devoted to the advancement and professional growth of
adult students. Programs include completing or starting
a bachelor’s degree, pursuing professional development
or certification, and acquiring intellectual and cultural
enrichment. The program includes courses, such as
the History of Jazz; lectures by artists such as Stephen
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
Frances Russell leads a
drum circle during a
workshop event at
Wilbur L. Cross School.
Photo by Laura Nash
Sondheim and Gore Vidal; and guided tours to museums
in New York City. The teachers, lecturers, and tour leaders
are primarily teaching artists. In addition, many performing-arts events and art exhibits held on campus advance
the work of teaching artists, not only by promoting their
art but also by having them work as guest artist-teachers
with campus performing groups in music, new media,
and theater.
their own stories. Theory and Practice of Integrated
Curriculum teaches curriculum that is critical, culturally
responsive, and differentiated for student learning needs.
Candidates design, implement, and assess interdisciplinary
curricular units that develop student content knowledge,
inquiry tools, social responsibility, and critical thinking.
All graduate courses may be taken for enrichment or
toward an advanced degree.
Connecticut is fortunate to have art and music teachers
in virtually all of its public schools. To advance their
work, the newly established Center for Music Education
(CME) provides yearlong, thematic professional development for arts educators. In 2007, Fairfield’s Summer
Institute offered courses on designing standards-based
classroom and district assessment both in art and music,
in collaboration with CME, the State Department of
Education, the Connecticut Music Educators Association,
and the Connecticut Art Educators Association. Convening
each summer, this Institute also provides an opportunity
for collegial discourse among pre-K-12 arts educators so
that each can become a better teacher and advocate for
his or her students.
Because Fairfield is a Jesuit institution, faculty are
strongly encouraged to engage in social justice through
their areas of expertise. Faculty members also form
partnerships with local teachers, particularly in urban
districts, through initiatives funded by federal sources
and private foundation grants. These collaborations
result in creative, innovative, and sustainable programs
that advance the work of teachers in the arts and
improve student learning.
At both the undergraduate and graduate levels, Fairfield’s
courses provide teacher candidates with cutting-edge
technology, fieldwork at pre-K-12 urban and suburban
schools, diverse extracurricular arts-enrichment offerings,
ongoing mentoring for beginning teachers to help ensure
their future success, and a liberal-arts curriculum and
core requirements that produce teachers well prepared
for interdisciplinary teaching.
Many graduate-level courses advance the work of pre-K-12
classroom teachers. Storytelling in the Classroom develops
student understanding of folklore, myth, and legend and
offers strategies for helping students learn to write and tell
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
Graduate School of Education,
State University of New York
at Buffalo
The Role of Higher Education
The Education In and Through the Arts initiative is a joint
effort of the GSE, UB College of Arts and Sciences, and
Arts Partners Program, a UB grant-funded community
arts initiative. This collaboration has two main goals: to
enhance Buffalo Public School students’ academic success
and learning by improving their access to the arts; and to
study the process as well as the results of such access.
A critical university role is to provide opportunities for
artist-consultants who work in classroom partnerships
with teachers of social studies, English/language arts,
mathematics, science, and foreign language in order to
further develop their arts collaboration and teaching skills.
Buffalo, NY
Distinctive Feature:
Comprehensive approach within a research university
Parent University:
Faculty members of GSE recently piloted a model summer institute (City Voices, City Vision) in which artistconsultants, Buffalo Public School arts educators, and
classroom teachers worked collaboratively to develop
arts-integrated curricula through the medium of digital
Graduate School of Education, State University of New
York at Buffalo
Founded: 1931
Full-Time Faculty: 55
Part-Time Faculty: 78
Full-Time Graduate Students: 612
Part-Time Graduate Students: 767
“A critical university role is
to provide opportunities for
artist-consultants who work
in classroom partnerships...”
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Creative Writing
Film/Media Arts
Visual Arts
videography. In addition, the university has worked to
integrate students enrolled in museum studies into
arts-infused education opportunities in Buffalo Public
Schools, thereby increasing the connections with the
Buffalo community’s rich cultural resources.
Program Description:
GSE’s professional programs prepare future arts teachers
through coursework that extends their learning both in
the arts and in teaching (pre-K-12) in and through the
arts. A program premise is that in order to teach the arts
effectively, individuals must be outstanding artists themselves. As a result, graduate students matriculate into the
program with extensive background and training in specific arts fields. They have the opportunity to study their
art form further as they work toward completion of a
professional teaching degree. Though GSE does not offer
baccalaureate degrees in the teaching of the arts, it does
have an education minor, so that arts undergraduates
interested in teaching can begin coursework applicable
to their state certification.
The Graduate School of Education (GSE) prepares
professionals for teaching in and through the arts in
the pre-K-12 education system. Because it is located in a
major research university in an urban setting, GSE’s real
impact comes through the research and scholarship that
informs its professional programs and contributes to
creative, thoughtful, and research-based practice.
The Education In and Through the Arts Initiative began
at the State University of New York at Buffalo (UB)
in 2001. In just six years, the Initiative proposed a
degree program, formed an Arts Partners Program,
and launched several research projects funded by the
National Endowment for the Arts, US Department of
Education, New York State Council for the Arts, John R.
Oishei Foundation, and others. The program has flourished; as of spring 2007, 67 EdM students and six PhD
students were enrolled.
The artists follow a curriculum that includes the general
elements of teaching, such as foundations of education
and educational psychology. In addition, they take several courses in which pedagogical content knowledge is the
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
focus. In these courses, students learn how to take their
arts content areas and blend them with the best instructional-delivery systems, thus capitalizing on current
knowledge about how children learn the arts.
The Role of Higher Education
The program also provides professional development
and graduate work in arts integration for classroom
teachers of other core-subject content areas, including
elementary/early childhood education, social studies,
English/language arts, mathematics, science, and foreign
language. Courses focus on the provision of authentic
arts experiences that develop children’s abilities in the
arts, and on how these experiences can extend their
understanding of concepts in other curricular subjects.
A variety of field experiences prepare students for teaching in pre-K-12 settings. These experiences begin early in
the fall semester, when they make weekly supervised visits
to urban, suburban, and rural elementary, middle, and
high schools to better understand schools
from the teachers’ viewpoints. Each student works with an experienced classroom
teacher, who often becomes the first-placement cooperating teacher during the
spring semester. Practicum experiences are
also provided for students at the Fisher
Price Endowed Early Childhood Research
Center affiliated with the University.
Discussions at the schools and University
frame and extend these experiences.
During the spring semester, preservice
teachers student-teach in two placements
at two different grade levels, as required
by the New York State Board of Regents.
All students have at least one urban placement. The second placement option can
be in either another urban or in a suburban or rural school.
International music
educators improve
musicianship through
creative movement at
Summer Institute.
Photo by K. Bugos
Students also learn about pre-K-12
teaching through an individual research
project. They begin working on their Reflective Inquiry
Project (RIP) early in their certification sequence. With
the assistance of faculty members, students construct a
question about school practice that they are interested
in exploring. After conducting literature reviews and
making subsequent modifications to their questions,
students engage in fieldwork conducted during their
field observations.
Many aspects of this arts-education program are innovative. The emphases on curriculum, assessment, and
research allow students to become reflective practitioners
able to continually refine and improve their teaching in
the arts. Because the instructional strategies presented
are heavily based on learning theories, student artists
have the opportunity to develop trajectories of learning
with reasonable and attainable benchmarks for the
children in their classrooms.
At the conclusion of their fieldwork, students incorporate
their evidence into a paper, which also includes analysis
and reflective interpretation of their findings in relation
to their literature reviews. Toward the conclusion of their
student-teaching experiences, students look back on their
RIP and teaching and write a brief additional paper that
reflects and reflects on what they have learned during the
academic year.
Additionally, by helping faculty, students, and classroom
teachers gain multiple literacies, GSE has created a
climate that values the powerful role that the arts play in
expressing constructed knowledge. And as student artists
take a large portion of their coursework with faculty in
other arts disciplines, as well as faculty in other curricular
areas, they are prepared for the hard work and collaboration necessary to advocate for the best arts-education
practice in pre-K-12 settings.
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
Indiana University
School of Education
The Role of Higher Education
music performance and education around the globe.
The school’s Music Education Department is among
the elite programs of its kind in the nation, and its
strength lies in the ability of faculty members to complement each other’s teaching and creative interests.
Accordingly, research, scholarship, and teaching in
music education are very much intertwined at the
Jacobs School. For example, faculty conducted a survey
of the music curricula offered at the state’s public
schools. Study findings suggested robust activity and
student participation in certain areas of public school
music, such as band, and modest levels in others, such
as strings. The study also documented the wide variability in the state’s public school music programs in
terms of school and ensemble enrollment, curricular
offerings, allocation of instructional time, and degree of
performance activity. The department has also hosted
an annual Big Ten conference on music education that
highlighted the ways in which education, performance,
and research intersect for music’s greater good.
Bloomington, IN
Distinctive Feature:
Statewide impact and relationships
School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington
Full-Time Faculty: 120
Part-Time and Adjunct faculty: 141
Full-Time Students: 1,830
Part-Time Students: 1,090
School of Music, Indiana University, Bloomington
Full-Time Faculty: 170
Part-Time and Adjunct Faculty: 23
Students, Undergraduate and Graduate: 1,626
Housed in the Department of Curriculum & Instruction
(C&I) at IU’s School of Education, the Art Education
program offers certification for undergraduate and graduate students training to be art-specialist teachers, an MS
in Art Education, and EdD and PhD programs in Art
Education. In addition to art-methods courses for certification students and seminars for graduate students,
the program offers multiple sections of an art-methods
Note: Faculty numbers do not include Associate
Degrees Offered:
BS, MA, MS, EdD, PhD
Arts Disciplines:
Program Description:
As the largest provider of teachers
in its state, Indiana University (IU)
offers outstanding preparation and
continuing education for teachers.
In addition, IU offers resources to
support teachers in the classroom
and forms partnerships with public
schools and communities to
improve K-12 education in Indiana
and beyond. The university’s work
in music education and art education deserve special mention.
As one of the most comprehensive
and acclaimed institutions for the
study of music, IU’s Jacobs School
of Music plays a key role in educating performers, scholars, and music
educators who go on to influence
Art displayed at
Indiana University’s
Saturday Art School
open house.
Photo by Lara Lackey
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
Lesley University, Creative Arts
in Learning Division
course for those training to become elementaryclassroom generalists.
Art Education specialists take three required methods
courses, each with a related field experience in community or school contexts. In addition to general-education
requirements, they complete breadth and depth courses
in studio and art history within the School of Fine Arts.
Generalists are required to complete both a foundations
course in visual art and an art-methods course for elementary teachers. Along with these courses, students
take individualized electives based on their own interests
and past experiences. Both programs emphasize comprehensive approaches to art education that incorporate
multicultural, interdisciplinary, community-based, and
visual-culture philosophies.
Cambridge, MA
Distinctive Feature:
Developing leadership for the field
Parent University:
Lesley University
Founded: 1909
Full-Time Faculty: 166
Part-Time Faculty: 558
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 1,188
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 572
Full-Time Graduate Students: 952
Part-Time Graduate Students: 5,297
The programs are continually evolving and contain a
“The school’s...strength lies in
the ability of faculty members
to complement each other’s
teaching and creative interests.”
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Creative Writing
Film/Media Arts
Integrated Arts
Visual Arts
number of unique characteristics, such as active use of
the large and comprehensive collection at the Indiana
University Art Museum. Many students participate in
internships at the museum and use the site for research.
All certification students participate as teachers in the
Indiana University Saturday Art School, which welcomes
approximately 100 local children per term to low-cost
classes. Beyond its role as a field experience for artspecialist teachers, the Saturday School is also a vehicle
for exploring both art lessons related to the museum
collection and interdisciplinary curricular themes
through art. The museum’s exhibitions become teaching
tools for the entire School of Education community.
Program Description:
Lesley’s Creative Arts in Learning Division is a leader in
bringing preservice, professional learning and community-based approaches together to further the agenda of
arts and education. Its students and alumni are beginning to populate classrooms and community centers
across the country, imbuing them with a philosophy that
seeks to transform education through the arts.
A new project, the Indiana University Interdisciplinary
and Arts Immersion Student Teaching Program, pairs
elementary generalist student teachers with practicing
classroom teachers who are experienced in teaching in
and through the arts. Under the supervision of faculty
in the Art Education and Music Education programs,
the pairing gives both students and practicing teachers
greater clarity and confidence in integrating the arts into
the elementary classroom.
Educators and other professionals seeking to integrate
the arts into learning, from classrooms to museums to
community programs, value the Division’s creative and
spirited atmosphere. Its students discover the power of
the arts to teach children and adults, explore their creativity, and uncover their innate talents and potentials.
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The Division’s strength lies in an underlying belief that
the arts are central to human learning and can serve as a
foundation for education in many different contexts.
Students explore creative movement, drama, music, the
visual arts, storytelling, and poetry, and incorporate
these art forms into a variety of learning settings.
Throughout the Division’s programs, interdisciplinary
The Role of Higher Education
The Creative Arts in Learning Division, together with
Lesley’s School of Education, offer joint programs leading to an initial teacher license and a Master of
Education degree. In these programs, students work
toward becoming a general classroom teacher who
chooses an integrated arts approach.
• MEd Leading to Professional Teacher
License in Early Childhood, Elementary,
or Visual Art
The professional license track in visual art
is offered at both the pre-K-8 and 5-12
levels and is geared toward giving practitioners time in art studios to concentrate
on their artwork. Non-license students
choose from a series of electives to strengthen their identified needs for growth and
undertake a major research project as a
culmination of their work.
Creative Arts in
Learning alumna
Deanna Camputaro’s
Human Creativity group
performs. Human
Creativity is a multiarts extended school
day program at Central
Falls High School in
Rhode Island.
• MEd in Curriculum and Instruction:
Integrated Teaching Through the Arts
Each year this off-campus program enrolls
approximately 2,000 experienced and certified K12 classroom teachers, administrators, community and cultural workers, and others. Students are
eager for a professionally and personally challenging course of study that offers educational theory,
hands-on art-making in multiple modalities, and
practical application in the classroom or community. At present
more than 38 national and international sites are involved, with
new sites added each year. The off-campus program is offered in
an intensive weekend format, allowing professionals to continue
working in a related setting while using their workplaces as
learning laboratories to test, evaluate, and implement theories.
This program promotes the development of skills in critical
literacy, social justice, and the creation of democratic classrooms.
Photo by Constance Brown
and multicultural approaches are emphasized.
The Division has built a suite of academic-program
offerings, professional-development programs, and partnerships to provide a balanced approach to arts education. They include preservice programs for future teachers; professional licensure and non-licensure
programs for practitioners; and teaching-artist and community initiatives:
In recent years, Lesley has formed partnerships and
hosted a series of events supporting arts education and
professional development programming for the artsteaching workforce. These initiatives have included:
• MEd Leading to Initial Teacher License in Visual Art
This art-education program, jointly offered by the
Creative Arts in Learning Division and the Art Institute
of Boston, leads to pre-K-8 and 5-12 initial licensure.
The program is designed for students who hold a BFA in
studio art or its equivalent and who wish to teach visual
art. The curriculum provides learning in all the key areas
of curriculum and pedagogy, and it emphasizes research,
studio work as inquiry, and a pedagogical approach that
places every learner at the center of the curriculum.
• The National Arts and Learning Collaborative
(NALC) and the Boston Public School District
(BPS) Partnership
This partnership between Lesley, NALC, and BPS is
developing a replicable Arts & Learning Collaborative
model in the Boston Public Schools. This model brings
community and arts-education organizations together
with public elementary schools, arts-rich high schools,
• MEd Leading to Initial Teacher License in Early
Childhood or Elementary Education
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
and institutions of higher education to support an
instructional focus on learning in and through the arts.
Longy School of Music
• Teaching Artists Institute, August 2006
Cambridge, MA
Lesley, the Massachusetts Cultural Council (MCC),
NALC, and the New England Consortium of Arts
Professionals (NECAP) offered the first annual institute
for teaching artists in the New England region. NECAP, a
collaboration of the six New England state arts agencies
with other organizations and individuals, works to
advance the field of the artist-educator. The Institute
brought together stakeholders who promote arts education in schools and who support professional artists such
Distinctive Feature:
Excellence in teaching
Parent Institution:
Longy School of Music
Founded: 1915
Part-Time Faculty: 164
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 47
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 5
Full-Time Graduate Students: 118
Part-Time Graduate Students: 40
“Throughout the Division’s
programs, interdisciplinary
and multicultural approaches
are emphasized.”
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
as as state arts-council representatives, artist-educators
and teachers in higher education, school administrators,
funders of school arts programs.
Dalcroze Eurhythmics (a music education method)
• Massachusetts Arts Education Partnerships Institute,
May 2007
Founded in 1915, the Longy School of Music is a degreegranting conservatory located near Harvard Square in
Cambridge, Massachusetts. Longy gives its degree-candidate students—who are aspiring professional musicians—
hands-on experience in teaching, and provides courses in
music pedagogy. Longy’s Experiential Education Program,
the Dalcroze program, and the Continuing Studies and
Preparatory divisions illustrate these offerings.
Program Description:
Lesley, in collaboration with the NALC and MCC, held a
one-day institute in May 2007 to promote the participation of cultural-arts organizations, funders, professional
teaching artists, arts specialists, classroom teachers, and
academics in arts-education partnerships.
The Creative Arts in Learning Division has also contributed on a national level through its involvement in the
Arts Education Partnership (AEP) Task Force on Higher
Education, 2005-2006. Lesley University Provost Martha
McKenna and Division faculty member Gene Diaz served
on this special task force that brought together arts-education leaders from across the nation who have participated
in arts-education partnerships featuring a significant role
for higher education. The task force produced a set of
guidelines for participation as well as profiles that illustrate
promising practices for future partnerships to follow. Its
February 2007 report, “Working Partnerships: Professional
Development of the Arts Teaching Workforce,” including
an addendum profiling 11 professional-development
partnerships, is available on the AEP Web site.
Longy’s commitment to preparing musicians to make a
difference in the world is at the heart of its programs. In
its new Experiential Education Program (EEP) course
sequence, the conservatory requires students to complete
a year-long project in which they engage diverse audiences in nontraditional settings. Longy wishes to develop
musicians who are equally comfortable teaching innercity youth as they are performing on the concert stage.
Students acquire the skills needed, beyond musical technique and artistry, to pursue meaningful collaborations.
The EEP course is required of all students, making
Longy the only conservatory to specify outreach as a
degree requirement. The EEP was successfully piloted in
the spring of 2006 and fully implemented during the
2006–07 school year. During their first semester, students
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Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
Another Longy innovation is the MM in Modern
American Music program (MAM), the first performance
degree of its kind in the United States, offering graduate
students a major concentration that includes both African
American (jazz) and European American (classical)
music. While most conservatories separate the two
disciplines, MAM seeks to embrace both traditions in
their richness and variety. Students also gain ensemble
experience in both genres.
learn about the key components of a successful partnership by exploring issues pertaining to communication
with audiences, program design, and the role of the
musician in the community. They analyze different
learning styles, using the theory of multiple intelligences
as a guide; explore the connections between music and
other art forms; discuss the ideal interactive performance; study classroom-management techniques; and
learn how to design a high-quality project through a
collaborative process.
Longy is also the only music school in North America
to offer an MM in Dalcroze Eurhythmics, a system of
teaching music using improvisation, movement, and
rhythm. The certificate qualifies its holder to teach
children and adult beginners, while a Dalcroze license
permits the teaching of adults at all levels. It is awarded
to certificate-holders with Dalcroze teaching experience
upon completion of a two-semester course, proof of
professional attainment, and successful completion of
the license portfolio and examinations.
Longy’s Continuing Studies and Preparatory Divisions
offer classes to students of all ages and backgrounds.
The Continuing Studies division offers opportunities
for K-12 teachers (or future teachers) and education
administrators to learn more about the arts and teaching
the arts. In addition to performance, composition and
theory, conducting, music history, and mind/body studies
classes, the Continuing Studies Division offers classes in
teaching piano, string-teacher training, vocal pedagogy,
and methods for teaching woodwinds and brass.
A Preparatory Studies
student plays the cello
in Pickman Hall.
Photo by Steve Gilbert
The Preparatory curriculum, which serves students ranging from 18 months to 18 years old, is carefully designed
to provide enjoyable musical experiences and thorough
musical training at all levels. A curriculum combining
private lessons with classes in music and movement,
creative music theory, chamber music, orchestra, chorus,
or piano can be tailored to each student. All Preparatory
students are eligible to perform in the division’s numerous ensembles.
Students go into the community during their second
semester to launch group-designed programs, which
can be set, for example, at public schools, after-school
programs, hospitals, community centers, or elder-care
facilities. Current community partners include Cambridge
Public Schools, Cambridge Community Center,
Cambridge Hospital, and the East End Community
Center. Projects from the spring 2007 semester included:
The Preparatory Division offers a Young Performers
Instrumental and Vocal Certificate Program, which gives
musicians ages 8-18 comprehensive musical training
and performance experience through a three-level
sequential program to help them become accomplished
and well-rounded musicians. The curriculum includes
classes such as composition, early music, jazz ensembles,
performance hour, performance workshop for pianists,
creative music theory, and Dalcroze.
• A children’s percussion program on rhythmic reading
and rhythms of other cultures
• A middle-school program, focusing on Bach’s suites for
cello, in which students interpreted the music through
writing, visual arts, and movement activities
• A program for senior citizens that used literature and
visual imagery to explore three genres of music.
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
New England Conservatory
The Role of Higher Education
centers, public schools, or arts organizations. These
internships typically last 10–15 weeks, require 15–30
hours of teaching time, and take place in conjunction
with courses at the Conservatory that provide structure
for the internship work. Interns are mentored by classroom teachers, music specialists, professional teaching
artists, and Music-in-Education researchers. MIE courses
are available to all students at the Conservatory, regardless of program or major. Concentration students’ classwork and internships are assessed using an innovative
digital portfolio system designed specifically for the
program by the MIE National Consortium and Research
Center; students earning the MIE concentration can
use these portfolios when applying for teaching jobs or
artist residencies.
Boston, MA
Distinctive feature:
Role of musician as teacher-researcher
Parent University:
New England Conservatory
Founded: 1867
Full-Time Faculty: 88
Part-Time Faculty: 124
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 379
Full-Time Graduate Students: 413
“NEC offers a Music-inEducation (MIE) concentration
to prepare students for entry
into the field of education...”
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Program Description:
The two-part mission of New England Conservatory
(NEC), a performance-based institution, is to train
enrolled students both as fine artists and fine teachers
and to serve as a resource to the Boston education community in advancing the field of music education. In fulfilling this mission, NEC provides current undergraduate
and graduate students, professional teachers, teaching
artists, arts leaders, and members of the community with
a wide spectrum of ways for exploring the art of teaching music. They include the Music-in-Education program, the Community Performances and Partnerships
Program, college pedagogy courses, the School of
Continuing Education, and the Music-In-Education
National Consortium/Research Center. These programs
enable future teachers and teaching artists, as well as
professional pre-K-12 classroom teachers and other
members of the education community, to further their
growth as they explore how to teach music to young
Community Performances and Partnerships
Program (CPP)
CPP offers all NEC students, as individuals or members
of ensembles, the opportunity to work as teaching artists
at partnering schools and other community locations.
Students may be involved as little or as much as they like
as either volunteers or fellows in one of the Conservatory’s
performance-outreach fellowship programs. The program
provides participants with individualized, hands-on
training through mentoring, outreach workshops, master
classes with guest educators, and ongoing evaluation.
All school partnerships are designed in collaboration with
school administrators and classroom teachers, and they
are structured around multi-year performances, classes,
workshops, and residencies. Under the auspices of the
CPP Program, NEC students carry out approximately
300 interactive community events each year. The program
works with 40 partnering schools in the Boston area,
including public, parochial, and private schools as well
as other educational programs, and it reaches over 8,000
school children annually. About 200 college students,
or one quarter of the NEC student body, are involved
in these programs each academic year, and the program
is fully integrated into the fabric of student life at the
NEC offers a Music-in-Education (MIE) concentration
to prepare students for entry into the field of education
as they pursue degree requirements in their major. The
program has two components: classroom study and
guided, individualized internships at community arts
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The Role of Higher Education
School of Continuing Education (offered in conjunction
with the Music-in-Education Program) in classroom
music pedagogy, educational philosophy, and learning
College Pedagogy Courses
NEC pedagogy courses are offered in all instrumental
areas as well as in composition, music theory, and music
history. Pedagogy coursework is a degree requirement
for many majors, particularly at the graduate and doctoral levels. Students are prepared in these courses,
through background readings, observations, supervised
projects, and assessment, to teach a particular instrument or basic music skills. Such teaching may take place
in a community music school, public school, or continuing education program.
Music-In-Education National Consortium/
Research Center
In the Music-in-Education National Consortium
(MIENC), professionally trained musicians, music
educators, and classroom teachers collaborate as “artistteacher-researchers” who together can help meet the
growing demand for music-in-education programs.
Their work expands on the traditional roles of musiceducation specialists, who aim to foster rich and sequentially developed musical skills and understanding, and
on the scope and diversity of music programs, so that
they may serve the academic and social arts-learning
School of Continuing Education
To provide pre-K-12 classroom and music teachers with
the opportunity to build skills in the area of teaching
music to young people, NEC’s School of Continuing
Education offers professional development and peda-
A New England
Conservatory jazz
ensemble teaches
the history of jazz to
students at Curley
Elementary School in
Jamaica Plain, MA.
Photo by Andrew Hurlbut
goals of public school communities. The Music-inEducation Research Center, also housed at NEC, carries
out the work of the Consortium through its consultancy
services (as program evaluators) and through professional-development networks (such as the Learning
Laboratory School Network), annual conferences, and
the publication of the Journal for Learning Through
Music and the Journal for Music-in-Education. The
MIENC’s Web site ( also
serves as a resource for educators at the national level.
gogy courses anchored in the Kodaly approach to music
education. Levels I-III are offered through an intensive
summer institute and during the academic year, and
credits may be applied toward teacher certification,
salary step increases for certified teachers, or masters in
music education programs at selected schools. Educators
may also participate in summer inter-cultural institutes,
which explore the music and culture of particular countries or regions of the world. In addition, members of
the local community may take courses through the
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
Otis College of Art and Design
The Role of Higher Education
school systems. ACT provides students with a wellrounded education in their studio art major; a foundation in arts and education practice and theory; an
overview of career opportunities in teaching the arts;
and an abbreviated pathway to the art credential offered
by the State of California.
Los Angeles, CA
Distinctive Feature:
Students with an ACT concentration are required to
complete three rigorous courses specifically geared
toward teaching. “Teaching for Learning I” provides an
overview of cognitive, art-development, and social-liberation theories; models of art education; and topics such
as diversity, special education, and English for speakers
of other languages.The second course, “Teaching
Internship,” bridges students’ understanding of education theory and studio art practice. Students are placed
in structured internships in the Los Angeles publicschool system to observe and assist classroom teachers
and interact with and mentor children. Alternatively,
ACT students can intern at education departments of
museums, cultural centers, or private schools. The third
Emerging practices
Parent University:
Otis College of Art and Design
Founded: 1918
Full-Time Faculty: 60
Part-Time Faculty: 200
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 1,044
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 22
Full-Time Graduate Students: 34
Part-Time Graduate Students: 9
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
“Otis’ Continuing Education
(CE) program also enables
future teachers to pursue
artistic and professional
Communication Arts (Advertising Design,
Graphic Design, Illustration)
Digital Media
Fashion Design
Fine Arts (Painting, Photography, Sculpture/
New Genres)
Interactive Product Design
Public Practice
Toy Design
requirement, “Teaching for Learning II,” further develops
students’ knowledge of human development and effective teaching methods in art education, with particular
emphasis on social identity.
Program Description:
The Otis Artists, Community, and Teaching (ACT) program is a comprehensive curriculum that trains students
in art-education theories and teaching methods. Only
full-time Otis BFA students are eligible to participate in
ACT; others are encouraged to consult the ACT program
director, who can provide helpful information about a
career in teaching the arts. Observation sessions of an
ACT class, youth-outreach workshop, or BFA studio
course can also be scheduled to help aspiring teachers
become aware of the key elements of teaching that
contribute to an effective classroom.
In July 2006, the ACT program director began forming a
team to work toward developing a sequential and aligned
arts curriculum over the next five years for K-12 students.
To date, the team includes teachers, staff, and parents
from local schools, the Los Angeles County Art Commission, and an education advocacy group. The program
director also oversees collaborations between students
and K-12 teachers as they develop new art lessons.
Through these partnerships, classroom teachers strengthen their understanding of the visual and performing arts
(VAPA) standards, develop new and effective lessons
connecting arts to core subjects, and receive in-class
assistance from Otis interns.
The ACT program offers students a cutting-edge model
that meets the contemporary challenges of training K-12
arts educators, many of whom enter challenging public-
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Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
tions in a variety of media by professional
artists, and it serves Los Angeles’ vibrant art
community and public at large.
Otis also provides leadership, professional
development, and employment opportunities
for teaching artists through the Otis Teens,
Educators, Artists, and Mentors (O TEAM)
initiative. O TEAM is a three-year, academystyle, sequential, year-round program providing low-income high-school students (grades
10-12) with skill-based art and design education, mentoring, and college-preparation
workshops led by professional teaching artists.
The artists receive training that emphasizes the
California Content and VAPA standards, and
they increase their competence in five key
areas: child and human development, pedagogy strategies, multidisciplinary lesson building, outcomes, and community development.
Teaching artists also help students advance
their artistic skills and curate a student art
exhibit. In the process, Otis offers the use of
its many resources and facilities.
ACT worked with students to
integrate art lessons into a
core subject: writing. Each
student created a book with
drawings and text about
morning, noon, and night.
Photo by Krysta Kahl
In 2002, Otis President Samuel C. Hoi was
appointed a member of the advisory group
for the “Arts for All: Los Angeles County Regional
Blueprint for Arts Education.” The Blueprint envisioned
that “every public school student in Los Angeles County
will receive a high-quality education in which the arts
are an intrinsic part of the core curriculum.” This vision
served as the launching pad for the creation of the ACT
program, O TEAM initiative, and new CE courses.
Otis’ Continuing Education (CE) program also enables
future teachers to pursue artistic and professional
development as well as personal and intellectual growth.
The program offers a range of beginning, intermediate,
and advanced fine-art and design courses, plus art
history, writing, and public speaking. All courses are
taught by practicing professionals. CE students can also
work toward a certificate in computer graphics, fashion
design, graphic design, illustration, interior design,
textile-surface design, fine arts, or photography.
Additionally, the CE program facilitates K-12 educator
workshops and offers free tuition to eligible, full-time,
pre-K-12 teachers for certain courses.
Two new special programs expand on the Blueprint
model and examine the role of art educators beyond the
classrooms, specifically their involvement in transforming the public-school system, improving communities,
and contributing to the city’s economic vitality. First,
the Integrated Learning initiative combines efforts of
students, teachers, businesses, and nonprofit organizations to solve community challenges with art and design
solutions. Second, in partnership with the Los Angeles
Economic Development Corporation, Otis presented its
first annual “Economic Summit and Report on the Los
Angeles Regional Creative Economy” in March 2007.
The outcomes of these two new initiatives will help
shape future Otis programs for those who teach the arts.
The “Otis Speaks” public lecture series and the college’s
two art galleries are additional resources for future teachers. The series invites artists of all disciplines to engage
students and community members in stimulating conversations about their work. The Helen and Abraham Bolsky
Gallery features student work in exhibitions organized
solely by students, thus providing examples of how a
diverse group of individuals take different approaches as
they interpret, process, and solve a given problem.
The Ben Maltz Gallery presents group and solo exhibi-
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
Peck School of the Arts,
University of WisconsinMilwaukee
The Role of Higher Education
Undergraduate students may also receive a Cultures and
Communities Certificate as part of their pre-professional
training. The Cultures and Communities program is
designed to sensitize future teachers to the diversity they
will find in urban classrooms and communities. Specific
courses in each of the arts disciplines introduce undergraduates to content that is particularly important in
diverse settings. Video training is also provided for
future teachers, and Peck faculty work in the schools
to help practicing teachers develop video skills.
Milwaukee, WI
Distinctive Feature:
Collaboration by schools of the arts and education
The Teachers for a New Era (TNE) project, funded by
the Carnegie Corporation of New York, is designed to
increase the quality of teaching in K-12 classrooms by
improving teacher-education programs and enhancing
the position of teacher education at each TNE institution. UWM was selected as one of 11 universities nationwide to participate in the TNE program. Its TNE Arts
Design Team includes UWM arts-education methods
faculty, Milwaukee Public School (MPS) curriculum
directors, UWM Letters and Science faculty, School of
Education faculty, and MPS teachers. Team members
have held monthly meetings to assess alignment among
the Wisconsin Academic Content Standards, the MPS
Learning Targets, and the UWM methods class content.
The Arts Design Team currently focuses on curricular
change for UWM arts-education students and programs
for MPS teachers. It determined that, overall, the three
standards are in alignment with one another. They
found, however, that MPS learning targets do not exist
specifically for theater and dance programs.
Parent University:
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
Peck School of the Arts
Founded: 1956
Full-Time Faculty: 80
Part-Time Faculty: 100
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 1,923
Full-Time Graduate Students: 115
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Film/Media Studies
Multidisciplinary Arts
Visual Arts
Program Description:
Although general-content agreement exists, the team has
identified problems that have an impact on teacher success. Because arts-education programs are located, and
even deeply embedded, in the content-area departments,
teachers graduating from the UWM arts-education programs are well prepared in their specific content areas.
But by placing greater emphasis on developing teaching
skills specific to arts educators, these departments could
enhance their graduates’ teaching success. The TNE Arts
Design team has made many recommendations for
improving the preparation of teachers. It has also
launched new programs for induction-period teachers
that involve technology in arts education, movement in
learning, and interdisciplinary arts education; initiated
a review of portfolio-assessment practice; and developed
a research project that compares test scores of MPS
students involved and not involved in the arts.
Together with the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
(UWM) School of Education, the Peck School of the
Arts prepares future teachers in five disciplines (dance,
film/video, music, theater, and visual arts) and provides
pre-K-12 certification in four arts disciplines (dance,
music, theater, and visual arts). The school offers methods and developmental-pedagogy courses, and students
spend time in the community and in the public schools
prior to their student-teaching sequence. All students
are supervised in their student-teaching assignments
by full-time faculty members in their respective
disciplines. Students studying to become classroom
teachers have methods experience both in the visual
and performing arts. Teaching artists work with faculty
and students, and they also coordinate programs
delivered by professional performing-arts institutions
in the community.
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
School of Visual Arts
The Role of Higher Education
education expand candidates’ resources for teaching art as
well as their career possibilities.
New York, NY
MAT faculty members are artists and teachers who are
experts in their fields. The faculty members’ experiences
enable them to help candidates manage the often-demanding issues raised when working with diverse student populations, as methods for effective classroom management
and teaching of multicultural populations are stressed
throughout the curriculum. A required project, including
an action-based study in schools or education programs
and scholarly research, is developed into a written thesis.
The thesis director and advisors carefully supervise each
candidate’s topic to ensure thesis completion by the end
of the summer semester. The program’s culmination,
concurrent with the thesis presentations, is an exhibition
of artwork in a School of Visual Arts (SVA) gallery.
Distinctive Feature:
Mentoring new teachers
Parent University:
School of Visual Arts
Founded: 1947
Full-Time Faculty: 148
Part-Time Faculty: 700
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 2,983
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 110
Full-Time Graduate Students: 380
Part-Time Graduate Students: 27
“SVA’s Art for Kids Saturday
program has provided quality
art instruction to children K-9
for over 15 years.”
Degrees Offered:
BFA, MFA, MAT, MPS (Art therapy)
Art Disciplines:
Creative Writing
Film/Media Studies
Visual Arts
SVA’s New York City location offers unparalleled access
to a rich spectrum of cultural resources. The required
Museum Studies Theory and Practice course, in which
candidates visit museums and tour their collections, is
an example of using the city as a learning laboratory.
MAT candidates may use SVA’s state-of-the-art computer
labs for the Technology in Art Education class, and they
are also actively engaged with a range of art materials
and processes in their Materials and Methods and other
courses. During the summer session, candidates have the
option of using SVA’s printmaking and photography
facilities, as well as the computer lab, for their artwork.
They may also elect to audit a total of two undergraduate or continuing-education courses during the threesemester program.
Program Description:
The Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program at the
School of Visual Arts prepares students to enter the professional world of art education while continuing their
work as artists. It entails an innovative approach that
relies on a faculty of teacher/artists, broad exposure to
teaching situations and applications, community outreach, and the integration of pedagogical theory with
practice. The 36-credit, three-semester (fall, spring, summer) program provides an intensive immersion in art
education through seminar courses, field work, student
teaching, and practica, with consistent interplay between
the student-teaching experience and educational theory.
The program, aligned with New York State requirements
for the Initial/Professional Certification in Visual Art (preK-12), prepares artists to use their creative knowledge and
talent to teach standards-based visual art as a studio discipline at the elementary and secondary levels. A summer
studio art component focuses on synthesizing the candidate’s art-making process with the practice of teaching art.
The program provides additional preparation in using art
to integrate standards-based curricula with other subjects,
and courses in museum education and technology in art
For over 20 years, SVA has established strong formal
relationships with public schools in New York City
through its undergraduate art-education program.
These relationships, which SVA has strengthened
since 2003 through the MAT program, include studentteacher placements and collaborative projects for
integrating art throughout the curriculum. The primary
high-school site is the High School of Art and Design,
where a faculty member has donated her time to assist
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
tributions that the art class makes to the welfare of these
displaced children. MAT student teachers provide art
classes to the elementary-age children at the shelter,
while a faculty member directs lesson planning and
gives supervision.
with curriculum enhancement and the setting up of
rubrics. Through such partnerships, cooperating teachers at each school are exposed to fresh ideas on lesson
plans and lesson plan design, rubrics, and assessment.
Many cooperating teachers have said that they were
inspired by the student teachers’ artistic skill, energy,
excitement, and passion for teaching art. In appreciation
for their mentoring of MAT student teachers, SVA offers
all cooperating teachers tuition waivers for its continuing-education courses.
SVA’s Art for Kids Saturday program has provided quality art instruction to children K-9 for over 15 years.
The program accommodates 100 children each semester.
In 1996, the Saturday program expanded to include a
summer session for K-4 children. In addition, the Art
Liberty Partnership
Saturday Program.
Photo by Joy Nagy
for Kids summer program enrolls 50 children each year.
Work-study positions in the Art for Kids program are
available to MAT students.
The MAT program also supports other programs for
diverse populations in public schools and community
settings through work-study positions, volunteering, or
teaching combined with thesis research. Faculty members
may also participate in collaborative projects connected
with the MAT program, giving them further specialized
experience and networking opportunities. For example,
in the spring of 2005 a faculty member and MAT candidates teamed up with the non-profit CityArts Inc.
Together, they supervised two collaborative art projects
done with secondary students at bar and bat mitzvah
Since 1989, the School of Visual Arts’ Liberty Partnerships
Program (LPP) has offered art and computer classes;
community-service experience; tutoring; workforce
preparation; and personal, academic, and career counseling to at-risk junior-high and high-school students in
New York City. The program provides site-based services
to students and professional development to art teachers
at the High School of Art and Design. MAT students may
volunteer for and/or do thesis research on this program.
LPP has also led to other collaborative projects, including
an after-school art program funded through the 21st
Century Community Learning Center Program.
SVA’s art program at the Icahn House, a shelter for
homeless mothers and children, has been in existence
since 1989. The program’s designer, a former faculty
member, was recognized by the Red Cross for the con-
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
Southeast Center for
Education in the Arts,
The University of Tennessee
at Chattanooga
The Role of Higher Education
2003 Governor’s Arts Leadership Award for nurturing
creative inquiry into teaching and learning.
The University’s Art, Music, and Theatre Departments
offer degrees in Art Education, Instrumental Music
Education, Vocal Music Education, and Theatre
Education. Education majors also have access to artseducation coursework. Classifying arts specialists as
teaching artists, SCEA also works with school faculties
to expand the role of arts specialists beyond teaching
students to include providing resources, mentoring
colleagues, and collaborating on planning and teaching
integrated curriculum.
Chattanooga, TN
Distinctive Feature:
Depth of knowledge and impact on field
For example, SCEA’s Arts Integration course, which
introduces the processes and pedagogy of arts integration, is team taught by SCEA’s directors of dance, music,
theater, and visual art. It addresses reasons for integration, offers integration principles applicable across the
curriculum, and provides opportunities to observe and
participate in arts-integrated instruction in elementary
Parent University:
The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Founded: 1886
Full-Time Faculty: 376
Part-Time Faculty: 262
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 7,544
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 1,064
Full-Time Graduate Students: 1,379
Part-Time Graduate Students: 838
“SCEA’s Arts Integration
course... is team taught by
SCEA’s directors of dance,
music, theater, and visual art.”
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Visual Arts
SCEA conducts three types of workshops at Chattanooga
schools. Arts-exploration workshops deepen teacher
understanding of arts elements, structure, and strategies
through engagement in the artistic processes of creating,
performing, and responding. Arts-integration workshops
focus on the philosophy and practice of concept-based
arts integration, examining authentic connections
between the arts and other subjects. Curriculum-development workshops analyze the instructional design of
arts-integrated lessons and assist teachers in developing
their own lessons that connect with existing curriculum.
Program Description:
The Southeast Center for Education in the Arts (SCEA),
located at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga,
develops and implements professional programs enabling
kindergarteners through college educators to pursue the
rigorous study of the arts as an integral component of
basic education. Since its inception in 1988, SCEA has
made significant contributions to arts education and
school reform. Current work focuses on exploring ways
in which ongoing professional development, multi-arts
education, and arts integration can enhance learning and
transform schools.
SCEA provides three types of consulting services.
Leadership training provides guidance in establishing
arts-leadership teams that work to clarify philosophy,
establish goals, develop implementation strategies, plan
curriculum, arrange professional development, and
assess progress. Long-range planning engages educators
in assessing the status of arts education and formulating
goals and strategies for developing and sustaining programs. Mentoring provides on-site individualized assis-
SCEA has fostered unique collaborations among people
and institutions, and it has significantly influenced
local, state, and national education policy and practice.
The Tennessee Arts Commission awarded SCEA its
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
Towson University,
College of Fine Arts
and Communication
Towson, MD
Distinctive Feature:
Multi-institutional approach to arts integration
Parent University:
Towson University
Founded: 1866
Full-Time Faculty: 694
Part-Time Faculty: 595
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 12,799
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 1,831
Full-Time Graduate Students: 950
Part-Time Graduate Students: 2,588
Children offer ideas in
a drama lesson led by
Scott Rosenow, SCEA’s
director of theater
Degrees Offered:
Photo Courtesy of SCEA-UTC
Arts Disciplines:
Arts Integration
Creative Writing
Visual Art
Film/Media Arts
tance to teachers for collaborative curriculum planning,
team teaching, analysis of instruction, reflective practice,
dialoguing with peers, and analysis of student work.
SCEA pioneered the development of discipline-based
dance, music, theater, and visual-art education (DBAE),
which encourages and enables teachers to actively engage
students in aesthetic, historical, and critical inquiry, as
well as arts production. More recently, SCEA designed
courses of study and created instructional materials
for video- and Web-based professional-development
programs for the Annenberg/Corporation for Public
Broadcasting Channel. Three series are currently airing
nationally: The Arts in Every Classroom; Connecting with
the Arts; and The Art of Teaching the Arts.
Program Description:
When Towson University (TU) was founded, as the
Maryland State Normal School, it was the only
Maryland institution dedicated exclusively to preparing
public-school teachers. Throughout its 141 years, TU
has added programs and expanded into a comprehensive university, but it has maintained its mission and
reputation for producing some of the finest educators
in the nation.
SCEA believes engagement in sustained professional
study, practice, and reflection can lead to improved
instruction and increased student learning in, about,
and through the arts. Reform strategies include changing
the school culture to support the arts, strengthening arts
instruction, integrating curriculum in a meaningful
manner, and nurturing collaboration.
The mission of TU’s Arts Integration Institute, created in
1999, is to assist Maryland educators in facilitating student growth and development through the arts. As such,
it teaches ways of infusing the arts into the curriculum at
all levels and across all studies. Working in close cooperation with the Maryland State Department of Education,
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Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
the Institute provides timely
and progressive courses and
workshops in response to
the needs of practicing educators. These interdisciplinary courses, which combine teaching methodology
and arts experiences, may be
taken as a part of continuing-education, certification,
graduate-degree, or in-service programs.
The Role of Higher Education
Teachers in an Arts
Across the Curriculum
class creating a
movement piece,
illustrating weather
patterns through dance.
Program emphases include:
Photo by Kanji Takeno
• Interdisciplinary graduate
courses that combine
teaching methodology,
research, and arts experiences, all of which are immediately applicable to the
cation that incorporates visual art, theater, dance, and
music into Maryland’s K-12 schools. TU is the primary
institution offering the PBC-AI, but it is a collaborative
effort involving the University of Maryland’s Artist/
Teacher Institute and Crossing Borders/Breaking
Boundaries programs; the University of Maryland,
Baltimore County’s efforts to incorporate the arts with
non-arts disciplines and evaluate progress by means
of electronic portfolios; and The Johns Hopkins
University’s work on intersecting neurological and
cognitive sciences with research-based instruction and
meaningful integration of the arts. In addition, this
new initiative functions cooperatively with the Arts
Education in Maryland Schools Alliance to provide
opportunities for teaching and learning in and through
the arts at all Maryland schools.
• Treatment of the arts as distinct disciplines, each with
its own aesthetics and standards
• Maintenance of and respect for the integrity of each
art form
• A stress on organic—as opposed to forced—infusion of
the arts into other areas of the curriculum
• An engagement with research methods that are often
unfamiliar to participants, whether they are classroom
teachers or teaching artists
• Faculty members who model interactive lessons and
stress the importance of team approaches and collaborative efforts
• Participants—including classroom teachers, arts
specialists, and teaching artists—working side by side
to encourage peer mentoring and lesson/unit planning
strategies that draw on all available resources
The PBC-AI program is designed for flexible delivery to
teachers, with courses often taught on-site in local school
districts. In some instances, school systems create programs in arts integration serving one or more schools.
As team approaches are used with arts integration, participants may include administrators and arts specialists,
as well as guest or resident artists in the schools.
• Coursework, based on the needs expressed by teachers
and principals, that links to the appropriate local standards and county curricula while maintaining alignment
with state and national standards
Through the Arts Integration Institute and other
TU/College of Fine Arts and Communication programs,
classroom teachers, arts specialists, and teaching artists
studying together contribute to each other’s learning.
These opportunities enhance their awareness of new or
different processes, break down inhibitions about teaching in and through the arts, and help educators discover
their own artistry.
• Flexible, diverse, and convenient courses, taking place
on weekends and during week-long intensives or 15week models, based on location and need of the school
district involved.
A recent Arts Integration Institute innovation is the
Post-Baccalaureate Certificate in Arts Integration (PBCAI) program, an interdisciplinary approach to arts edu-
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
University of California, Irvine,
Center for Learning through
the Arts
The Role of Higher Education
ing a school play, helping students design and paint
murals, teaching instrumental music, and demonstrating
the folk dances of Mexico, Israel, and Vietnam to students
studying the history and culture of those nations.
Advanced arts students submit applications to work as
ArtsBridge scholars, and the applicants are matched with
the project descriptions submitted by the teachers. The
ArtsBridge network, which includes 22 universities, is now
headquartered at Lawrence University in Wisconsin.
Irvine, CA
Distinctive Feature:
UCI’s Center for Learning through the Arts (CLTA) grew
out of the Sciences for the Arts convention held at UCI
in 2000. This conference brought together outstanding
scientists, artists, and arts educators to explore what their
varied disciplines had to say to each another. The spirit
of this dialogue was well-articulated by Stanford
University Professor Elliot Eisner, who talked about the
two meanings of culture: intellectual cultivation and a
medium for growing things in the laboratory. Eisner
argued that educational institutions satisfy both meanings. They are places where intellectual cultivation takes
Center within a research university
Parent University:
University of California, Irvine
Founded: 1965
Full-Time Faculty: 1,409
Part-Time Faculty: 0
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 20,411
Full-Time Graduate Students: 4,899
Degrees Offered:
“CLTA builds on the expertise
and combined knowledge
of faculty members in many
Arts Disciplines:
Creative Writing
Film/Media Arts
Visual Arts
place, and they are also a medium for growing things—
in this case, healthy and inquiring minds. Since then,
CLTA has tried to balance both pursuits. For example,
the 2006 issue of its Journal for Learning through the Arts
focused on medical humanities.
Program Description:
The University of California, Irvine (UCI), is home to
the Claire Trevor School of the Arts, which encompasses
highly regarded programs in visual art, theater, music,
dance, and digital arts. Arts programs have long constituted a vibrant aspect of campus life, with performances
held throughout the year. The UCI Department of
Education graduates approximately 145 new teachers
each year, with 60 taking part in an MAT program in
which students take graduate courses during the summer, enter an intensive nine-month teacher-certification
program, and then finish the following summer.
CLTA builds on the expertise and combined knowledge
of faculty members in many disciplines to study the relationships among arts education, cognitive and social
development, technology, and public-policy formation.
On a practical level, the workshops and curricula developed by CLTA focus on cognitive tools that students use
to make sense of the world. These tools range from the
broadly useful, such as oral and written language, to the
more specialized, like metaphor and visualization
techniques. For example, when integrating arts and
language-arts content, a CLTA workshop may focus on
a cognitive tool, such as metaphor, and show how it is
used in literature as well as in visual art and dance.
The ArtsBridge network of school-university partnerships
was formed at UCI in 1996. ArtsBridge provides scholarships to advanced arts students who, in return, work with
children in K-12 schools. Teachers write short proposals
describing the arts project they would like to pursue.
Projects have included organizing a school chorus, direct-
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Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
ater, singing, playing drums and
flutes—that will inspire them to
enroll in arts courses during
their middle- and high-school
The resulting curriculum facilitates the visits of ArtsBridge
scholars. Lesson units address
the evolution of African
American music, Native
American music, the roots of
country music, and how quilts
and gospel songs were used to
transmit messages along the
pre-Civil War Underground
Railroad. The Mapping the Beat
initiative also advances the work of teaching artists,
within the ArtsBridge America network and beyond,
because the lessons are made available, free of charge,
through the CLTA e-Scholarship Repository, which is
part of the UC Library System. So far, the works posted
at this site have been downloaded by more than 8,000
ArtsBridge Scholar
Jasmine Yep teaches
the Chinese lion dance
to elementary school
students in Santa Ana,
Photo by Wendy Lee
A restless group of first graders might learn about contrast
through a simple dance exercise, by reaching high and then
bending low, by wiggling and then freezing. Following the
words and movements of the teacher, the children experiment with ascending movements (like those of smoke, a
flower, a bird) and descending movements (melting, sinking, spiraling). Integration of the arts and language arts is
especially helpful to English-language learners, because
their performance in activities such as visual art and dance
is not limited by their command of English.
CLTA is also home to the ArtsCore teacher professionaldevelopment program, which offers summer institutes
and workshops both to arts-specialist teachers (visual art,
theater, music, and dance) and K-8 classroom teachers
with an interest in integrating the arts into their curriculum. Initially funded in 2001 through the California
Eisenhower Grant Program, the ArtsCore project was
originally designed to assist teachers in two ways—in
implementing California’s then-new visual and performing arts standards, and in creating the college-preparatory
arts courses required by a new University admissions
requirement in the visual and performing arts. Since
2001, more than 100 K-12 teachers have participated in
ArtsCore summer institutes.
CLTA has also entered into a partnership with the
National Geographic Education Foundation to create
curriculum for upper-elementary social studies classes
that combines the arts and geography with standardsbased units on United States and World History. In addition to UCI, five other universities are involved in this
project: UC San Diego, Michigan State, Oklahoma State,
Lawrence University, and Cal State Long Beach. The
rationale for this project is that current accountability
pressures have caused schools to cut back on the amount
of time allowed both for arts education and geography.
By combining meaningful arts education with geography, the two content areas can each be enriched.
ArtsCore is one of the few arts-based teacher professional-development programs that has been shown to have an
impact on other content areas. In both the fall and spring
of the 2005–06 school year, students of secondary teachers participating in the ArtsCore program were asked to
write an essay to a prompt taken from the California
High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE). A matched control
group did the same. A sample of 712 student essays was
blindly scored. The treatment group showed a general
upward trend from fall scores to spring scores, while the
control group showed little change.
The goal of this Mapping the Beat program is threefold:
first, to integrate meaningful arts instruction with other
parts of the core curriculum so that accountability pressures do not drive the arts out of the elementary classroom; second, to integrate arts and cultural geography
in such a way that children become familiar with the
historical and cultural context that gave birth to a particular art form; and third, to provide children with arts
experiences—drawing, painting, dancing, readers the64
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
University of New Hampshire,
Paul Creative Arts Center
The Role of Higher Education
UNH faculty believe that experiential learning is the
most effective way of reaching students. Instead of just
studying concepts of theater education, students are
required to put themselves in teaching situations so that
they can practice the techniques they are being taught.
Students are given the opportunity to test out teaching
hypotheses and evaluate their validity, modifying techniques as they identify those that work successfully and
those that need improvement. The UNH Theatre
Education program, both with respect to theory and
practice, opens relationships between the University and
area schools. Theatre Education students bring new ideas
and energy to the classrooms, and they receive mentorship from teachers who are open to integrating the arts
into their curricula.
Durham, NH
Distinctive Feature:
Rural institution
Parent University:
University of New Hampshire
Founded: 1923
Full-Time Faculty: 574
Part-Time Faculty: 77
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 10,808
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 255
Full-Time Graduate Students: 1,254
Part-Time Graduate Students: 1,180
“UNH faculty believe that
experiential learning is the
most effective way of reaching
students. Instead of just
studying concepts of theater
education, students are
required to put themselves in
teaching situations so that they
can practice the techniques
they are being taught.”
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Creative Writing
Film/Media Arts
Musical Theater
Theater Education
Theater Technical Design
Visual Arts
Through Imagination Quest, a program created by
American University professors and administered by
Bethesda’s Imagination Stage children’s theater, UNH
students are given a concrete pedagogy for integrating
the arts and utilizing multiple intelligences theory while
teaching arts and non-arts subjects. Planned program
expansion will support the hiring of teaching artists to
help implement residencies within K-12 classrooms.
Because New Hampshire has very few full-time drama
programs in elementary, middle, or high school, bringing drama programs and professional-development
workshops into the community greatly enriches the
cultural experience of K-12 students. In turn, teachers
Program Description:
In New Hampshire, theater-education and arts-integration certification are offered only at the University of
New Hampshire (UNH). Theatre Education is a
78-credit program with seven specific courses for
theater teachers. One course, Education Through
Dramatization, gives students the opportunity to examine how to integrate the arts into non-arts disciplines.
This course is open to all undergraduates, so any interested student has a chance to increase his or her knowledge
of theater arts, learn how to apply the techniques to nonarts teaching, and use lab experiences in the community
to gain practical experience teaching at the K-12 level.
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The Role of Higher Education
National String Project
Consortium (NSPC)
University of South Carolina,
School of Music,
USC String Project
who accept classroom residencies learn basic strategies
for arts integration. By experiencing residencies firsthand, teachers shatter misconceptions they may have
had about the nature of arts education.
Meanwhile, by training teachers and sending them into
community schools, student teachers bring innovative
techniques that help to compensate for the state’s limited
arts-education resources. Theatre Education students
gain valuable preservice training in teaching drama
curriculum, as well as experience in integrating arts into
language arts, social studies, science, and math. In the
past four years, formal collaborative relationships have
been established with numerous local schools and
Columbia, SC
Distinctive Feature:
Multi-institutional collaboration
“Theatre Education students
gain valuable preservice
training in teaching drama
curriculum, as well as
experience in integrating arts
into language arts, social
studies, science,and math...
formal collaborative relationships have been established
with numerous local schools
and organizations.”
Parent University:
University of South Carolina
Founded: 1801
Full-Time Faculty: 44
Part-Time Faculty: 14
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 321
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 12
Full-Time Graduate Students: 73
Part-Time Graduate Students: 46
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Program Description:
The National String Project Consortium (NSPC) is a group
of 30 universities working together to address the shortage
of string teachers in public schools. In this program, undergraduates gain hands-on teaching experience during their
college years, under the supervision of a master teacher.
The Consortium’s teacher-training program has reached
over 400 string music-education students and assisted in
the education of over 200 new public-school teachers in the
past five years. Its success is shown by the fact that 81% of
the String Projects—there is one at each of the participating
universities—in the NSPC have succeeded in increasing the
number of music-education majors at their school.
In addition, individual Theatre Education students create opportunities to teach drama in classrooms as part of
a laboratory or independent-study credit. Most students
entering the Master of Arts in Teaching program who are
pursuing certification have had one or two undergraduate courses that involved working in K-12 environments.
Theatre Education students, by comparison, do internships in every Theatre Education course they take.
This means that while they are pursuing their Bachelor
of Arts degrees, students may work within the community education environment nearly every semester.
Education professors, who often work with the students
on their lesson plans and related issues, complement
such initiatives.
A national survey revealed that in the year 2000, 24% of
public-school string jobs were vacant. In 2001, this figure
rose to 43%, and in 2002 to 47%. The reason was a shortage of teachers trained to teach strings and conduct
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
orchestras in the public schools. As a result,
the number of children able to learn to play
stringed instruments has been greatly limited. Moreover, while some parts of the country do maintain thriving school-orchestra
programs, school orchestras in other regions
are either nonexistent or very fragile.
Nationally, on average, only 16% of school
districts have string-orchestra programs.
The model for the NSPC participants has
been the University of South Carolina String
Project. In Columbia, SC, a city with little
history of string playing, the University’s
program began nurturing young students,
educating string teachers, and creating
public-school programs 32 years ago. When
the USC String Project was started, only one
small string program was available in
the Columbia-area public schools. Now, all
five of the school districts have large and
active string and orchestra programs, a direct
result both of teachers being available and
ready to teach, and parents demanding such
programs in their children’s schools. When
one school district started a string program,
others felt pressure to create their own. In
2006, a total of 3,816 public-school students
throughout Columbia were studying stringed
USC String Project
teacher Jenny James
with the Silver Strings
Orchestra in their
summer camp
Photo by Larry James
Arizona State University
Ball State University
Baylor University
California State University, Sacramento
Central Washington University
Cleveland State University
Crane School of Music, SUNY Potsdam
Illinois State University
Indiana University of Pennsylvania
James Madison University
Lawrence University Conservatory of Music
Marywood University
Point Loma Nazarene University
Texas Tech University
University of Georgia
University of Hartford, The Hartt School
University of Kansas
University of Kentucky
University of New Hampshire
University of Massachusetts, Lowell
Children in the String Project come to a participating
university’s music school for classes and lessons in the
late afternoons or, in some of the programs, on weekends. Low fees are charged, so any child can afford to
participate. In the model program at the University
of South Carolina, a recent survey showed that 25% of
students are below the poverty line, 23% come from
homes with female heads of households, and 49% are
non-Caucasian (36% are African-American).
The teachers in the programs are all undergraduate
string education or performance majors. By the time
they graduate, these students will have had four or five
years of practical training and experience, and are ready
to begin teaching on their own.
The NSPC supports the creation and growth of String
Projects at universities across the country. At present,
these projects can be found at:
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The Role of Higher Education
University of North Texas
University of Oklahoma
University of South Carolina
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
University of Texas
University of Texas, San Antonio
University of Wyoming
Virginia Tech
Valdosta State University
Weber State University
The University of Texas at Austin,
College of Fine Arts
The String Project concept has been positively reviewed
by several outside evaluators; the USC String Project
itself has earned national and international recognition,
with articles in the New York Times and Strad magazine,
for example. It was closely examined in 1998 by an external program audit, which showed that an overwhelming
78% of alumni (former student teachers) of the USC
String Project were still teaching. This high retention rate
of teachers is a testament to the preparation that these
individuals received as students for succeeding in a public-school setting.
Parent University:
“ external
program audit showed that
an overwhelming 78% of
alumni (former student
teachers) of the USC
String Project were still
Creative Writing
Drama and Theater for Youth
Film/Media Arts
Music Industry
Visual Art
Austin, TX
Distinctive Feature:
Large-scale, standards-based approach
The University of Texas at Austin
Founded: 1883
Full-Time Faculty: 1,911
Part-Time Faculty: 904
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 37,037
Full-Time Graduate Students: 11,353
Degrees Offered:
Arts Disciplines:
Program Description:
The College of Fine Arts at the University of Texas at
Austin (UT-Austin) offers teacher training and certification in the visual arts, music, and drama at every educational level from pre-K to collegiate teaching. In any given
year, more than 150 undergraduates at the University are
working toward a major in art, music, or theater education, making UT-Austin among the largest arts-teacher
training programs in the country.
According to an article by Dr. James Byo, professor of
music education at Louisiana State University, in the
Journal of Research on Music Education, “The String
Project appears to have filled a void where school strings
programs do not exist, or functioned to supplement
strings instruction available in the schools.…Perhaps
this model…could be used in other settings, under different financial arrangements, and be a useful protocol
for teacher training in band, choral, and general music
settings. The fact that success as defined by data collected
in this study transcended individual project directors,
master teachers, and areas of the country portends well
for the applicability of this model to other areas of music
teacher training.”
More than 50 masters and doctoral students pursue
advanced degrees in arts education annually. A range
of other students, not majoring in arts education,
engage with a variety of teaching curricula in music
pedagogy, visual arts studies, performance as public
practice, or drama for theater and youth, all of which
have an educational mission at their core.
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The Role of Higher Education
The teacher-certification curricula, taught entirely by
full-time College of Fine Arts faculty members, are fully
integrated with the applied, performance, and academic
curricula in art, music, and theater. This system helps to
assure high standards among future teachers as practicing artists and performers, interpreters of the arts, and
advocates for the arts.
Just under half of all the credit hours in the College of
Fine Arts are taught to non-arts majors from a variety
of fields, including future classroom teachers from the
College of Education, reflecting the College of Fine Arts’
strong commitment to educating the entire undergraduate population; one or more fine-arts courses is a universal degree requirement.
University of Texas
at Austin Professor
Don Herron instructs
undergraduate student
Karli Provost in the
ceramics studio.
Photo by Leslie Nowlin
Over the past several years, in response to a worsening
teacher shortage and strong employment prospects, the
College has aggressively encouraged arts majors in concentrations such as music performance, studio art and
design, and dance performance, along with students
seeking liberal arts degrees, to consider a change of
major to arts education. The College sponsors an Arts
Education Day, at which arts students considering a
teaching career can meet exemplary alumni arts teachers,
hear panel discussions with education faculty, and enjoy
a banquet with administrative and faculty leadership.
their culminating student-teaching experience, when
they will apprentice-teach for an entire semester in local
public schools.
Understanding that arts education occurs in diverse contexts outside the formalized classroom, the College also
offers arts-education instruction delivered in nonprofit
or community-based contexts or in private-studio
instruction. The Department of Theatre and Dance
offers the nationally renowned Drama and Theatre for
Youth, a traditional performance program focused on
young audiences; Drama for Schools, which prepares
artist-teachers; and Performance as Public Practice, a
community-centered approach to education through the
art of theater and performance. The School of Music
offers instruction in studio-teaching practices through
its String Project, as well as a variety of pedagogy courses
that provide students with teaching experience.
In addition, the College and its various education programs provide ongoing support to arts teachers in
Texas. Each summer the College sponsors an Advanced
Placement workshop in the arts to qualify participating
teachers to deliver College Board-sponsored AP courses
in music theory, studio art, and art history to highschool students. Each winter, the College hosts a
statewide K-16 Arts Education Summit, which brings
together public-school arts educators, university-based
and nonprofit arts educators, local school administrators, and state officials. These summits convene to assess
and strategize about the future of arts education in
Texas, with the goal of expanding access to quality arts
education throughout the state.
Many education majors have the chance to apply their
learning through the education programs and internships offered by the Blanton Museum of Art and the
Performing Arts Center, which serve as arts-education
laboratories for the College of Fine Arts. The College is
also on the cutting edge of arts-education research in
many areas. Some of this research deliberately addresses
the diminished importance of the arts in the context of
high-stakes testing.
The education and teacher-training programs in the
College of Fine Arts reflect the belief that aspiring teachers should get early and frequent exposure to real-world
teaching experiences. As early as their freshman year,
most education majors are, at the very least, observing
professional arts teachers in a variety of teaching contexts. These students are given hands-on teaching experiences throughout their coursework, well in advance of
Altogether, these College of Fine Arts education programs are exceptional in preparing students to teach a
formalized, standards-driven, comprehensive and
sequential school-based arts curriculum as well as in the
increasing number of nonprofit and commercial artseducation settings.
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University of Wisconsin-Madison,
College of Letters & Sciences
The Role of Higher Education
Through WTLC, the Center has accomplished three
objectives: developing deep relationships with teachers
who infuse the arts into place-based, inquiry-driven education; supporting arts-education students’ exploration
of local-culture pedagogy; and connecting local artists
with these certified and precertified educators in powerful learning situations. Through their participation in
WTLC, teachers and education students learn to identify
community-based arts and include them into their curricula, develop good working connections with artists in
their schools’ neighborhoods, and become advocates for
integrating local cultural arts into education.
Madison, WI
Distinctive Feature:
Folklore education
Parent University:
University of Wisconsin-Madison
College of Letters & Sciences
Founded: 1848
Full-Time Faculty: 2,053
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 28,462
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 1,593
Full-Time Graduate Students: 11,411
“The cornerstone of WTLC’s
offerings is the very popular
‘Here at Home: A Wisconsin
Cultural Tour for K-12
Teachers.’ ”
Degrees Offered:
Various Professional Degrees
The program’s outreach offerings are conducted by
University of Wisconsin faculty members and academic
staff, as well as by staff from partner agencies. Upon
request, WTLC conducts approximately 12 professionaldevelopment events each year. These range from oneon-one consultations with individual teachers, to presentations at professional conferences, to school-wide
in-service programs, to regional multi-day training
sessions. WTLC staff maintains a Web site
( on which unique resources
developed by WTLC partners are posted. They include,
for example, the award-winning “Kids’ Guide to Local
Culture” and the Wisconsin Arts Board’s roster of culturally based artists who are prepared to lead presentations
and residencies in schools. Also posted on the Web site
are projects that teachers have completed with their students as a result of support from WTLC. These postings
serve as models for others to infuse folk and community
arts into education.
Arts Disciplines:
Art History
Arts Administration
Creative Writing
Film/Media Studies
Folk Arts
Landscape Architecture
Material Culture
Visual Arts
Visual Culture
Program Description:
Wisconsin Teachers of Local Culture (WTLC) is an
innovative program of the Center for the Study of Upper
Midwestern Cultures, a humanities institute within the
University of Wisconsin-Madison. WTLC was established
in 2003, when the Center partnered with the Wisconsin
Arts Board (the state’s arts agency), Folklore Village
(a nationally recognized traditional arts presenter), and
several visionary K-12 teachers and teaching artists from
across the state. In-kind support from the partners, along
with funding from the National Endowment for the Arts,
have allowed WTLC to grow over the last four years.
The cornerstone of WTLC’s offerings is the very popular “Here at Home: A Wisconsin Cultural Tour for K12 Teachers,” an intensive, interdisciplinary, nine-day
professional-development bus tour of the state. “Here
at Home” allows some 25 teachers, six UW students,
and four University instructors to visit culturally centered people—most of whom are artists—and places
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g
The Role of Higher Education
of a Belgian and Czech settlement area during
the day and dancing to a popular old-time
orchestra at night under the tutelage of the
Happy Hoppers dance club (Door and
Kewaunee Counties); listening to Brooks Big
John, a traditional fish-decoy carver, tell stories
about his tribe’s struggles to regain lost spearfishing treaty rights (Lac du Flambeau
Reservation); listening to three generations in
the Queens of Harmony perform a cappella
gospel (northwest Milwaukee); and speaking
with Mexican immigrant artist Juan Flores
while touring his murals in neighborhood
restaurants and bakeries (southside
Mural artist Juan
Flores, shown here in
his Milwaukee studio,
was a featured artist
on the “Here at Home”
cultural tour.
An April 2007 weekend retreat organized by
WTLC brought together “Here at Home” participants with teachers who have taken part in
other WTLC offerings. One day of the retreat
was devoted to teachers giving presentations on
the ways in which they have engaged local arts,
culture, and humanities in their teaching over
the past academic year. By sharing the trials
and successes of each other’s projects, teachers gain
insights into different ways of using the arts in their curricula. WTLC has found that teacher-to-teacher discussion methodologies, in conjunction with experiential
learning, is a very powerful pedagogical model.
Photo by Twyla Clark
across Wisconsin. The “Here at Home” Tour is based
on the idea that resources and content for teaching
exist all around us—in the local environment and
landscapes, in family stories, in local music and artistic
expressions, in community history, and in contemporary social issues. The tour’s goal is for teachers, with
new understanding of the richness and diversity of
Wisconsin’s communities, to see their communities as
places ready to be explored and experienced with their
This model works just as well with future teachers. By
incorporating UW students into the “Here at Home”
Tour, they learn about the arts in Wisconsin communities by directly experiencing them. Then they have long
conversations, both with each other and with the certified teachers on the tour, about how to adapt these experiences for the classroom. Preservice teachers thus learn
together with classroom teachers. Age and experience
barriers dissolve during the tour experiences, enabling
productive interactions.
“Here at Home” allows participants to directly experience the diverse cultures of Wisconsin through on-site
guided tours, interaction with local residents, and community-based presentations. The tour itinerary is especially designed for the needs of teachers, and includes
“inside the community” experiences not usually available
to tourists or independent travelers. Participants gain a
deeper awareness of the environmental and aesthetic
forces that shape local culture. Some sample highlights
of the tour include: visiting the studio/home of Ellis
Nelson, a nationally recognized visionary sculptor
(Muscoda); experiencing the gender organization of
artistic practices at a senior center for Hmong refugees,
where women sew storycloths and traditional garments
and men forge hand tools in the only Hmong blacksmith
shop in the nation (LaCrosse); exploring the architecture
To date, WTLC has served more than 1,600 individuals
directly through professional-development opportunities, presentations, conferences, and cultural events.
Many others have been served through one-on-one consultations. WTLC also maintains a growing listserv that
conveys conversations about cultural topics, announcements of events, and other culturally relevant news. In
addition, WTLC offers a distance-education course that
links teachers from five cities across the state through
video and courseware.
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Virginia Commonwealth
University, School of the Arts
The Role of Higher Education
The art teaching degree offered at VCU is a Bachelor of
Fine Arts, which prepares students to function both as
artists and teachers. Studying with leading studio artists,
art historians, and art education scholars and practitioners, students undertake extensive studio- and art-history
learning experiences. In addition, VCU has made community engagement, including the preparation of new teachers, a central focus in its mission; students learn that such
engagement is a part of what it means to be an artist and
art educator. They create art that is not only aesthetically
provocative and noteworthy but also collaborative and
responsive to social issues.
Richmond, VA
Distinctive Feature:
Service learning
Parent University:
Virginia Commonwealth University
Founded: 1838
Full-Time Faculty Members: 1,744
Part-Time Faculty Members: 1,069
Full-Time Undergraduate Students: 16,976
Part-Time Undergraduate Students: 4,284
Full-Time Graduate Students: 2,978
Part-Time Graduate Students: 4,572
VCUarts faculty members also serve as leaders in the
field, holding state and national offices and board
appointments, editing influential journals, receiving
prestigious awards, and presenting at national and
international conferences.
Notable VCUarts education initiatives include:
• Summer Institute for In-Service Art Teachers
Degrees Offered:
In collaboration with the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts
and the Contemporary Art Center of Virginia, the
Department of Art Education offers week-long teacher
institutes each summer on themes related to the museums’ collections or special exhibitions. Teachers enrolled
in these institutes may earn license-renewal points or
credit toward a graduate degree.
Arts Disciplines:
Creative Writing
Film/Media Studies
Visual Arts
• Off-Campus Graduate Courses and Distance Learning
The department also collaborates with VCU’s Office of
Community Programs to offer graduate-level courses for
in-service art teachers at various locations throughout the
state. Courses related to the use of computer technology
in art curricula, the development and evaluation of such
curricula, and other special topics are offered on a
regular basis.
Program Description:
Virginia Commonwealth University’s School of the Arts is
recognized as a leader in the arts world. From cuttingedge exhibitions and performances by students and faculty to lectures, exhibitions, and workshops by acclaimed
visiting artists, VCUarts is a premier place for learning in
and through the arts.
• Community Service and Programming for
Inner-City Youth
The Department of Art Education offers classes to future
arts teachers and holds teacher workshops and institutes.
IVCU faculty and students are deeply involved in research
activities that promote pre-K-12 teaching and learning.
As part of VCU’s mission as an urban university, the
Department of Art Education is committed to offering
students opportunities to perform service in the community. During at least one semester, all undergraduates are
required to tutor local-school students, volunteer to work
with children at the Richmond Children’s Museum of the
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, or assist with
special programs for urban youth in the community.
The Department’s youth activities in Richmond’s Carver
and Blackwell communities have become models for
other universities.
The Art Education faculty publish influential textbooks
and scholarly and practical articles in arts and education
journals. They write extensively on a wide range of
topics, including interdisciplinarity, technology, service
learning, critical thinking, exhibition, criticism, and aesthetics. Through such outreach, VCUarts students and
faculty advance the work of school arts teachers.
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
Speakers, Panelists and
refugees for CARE and UNICEF. In addition, Mr.
Brownserved as a management consultant for Bain and
Company, a global management consulting firm.
He was also one of the founders of the Bright Horizons
Foundation for Children, which aids nonprofit agencies
that work with at-risk children in communities where
Bright Horizons employees live and work. He co-founded Horizons for Homeless Children, which serves the
needs of homeless children throughout the Boston area.
Wm. Robert Bucker, DMA, assumed the position of
dean of the Mike Curb College of Arts, Media, and
Communication at California State University,
Northridge in August 2007. From 2001-2007 he was
dean of the Peck School of the Arts at the University of
Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Previously, he served as dean of
the School of Fine Arts at the University of MinnesotaDuluth from 1997-2001 and was director of the education department for the Metropolitan Opera/Opera
Guild in New York City from 1995-1997. From 19921995 he was assistant dean and director of development
for the College of Fine and Applied Arts at the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Mr. Brown is an active board member of Horizons for
Homeless Children, Bright Horizons Family Solutions,
Boston After School and Beyond, Stonyfield Farm, and
Wheaton College.
Milton Chen, PhD, is executive director of The George
Lucas Educational Foundation (GLEF), which utilizes
media to show how interactive technologies are transforming America’s schools. Prior to joining GLEF in
1998, Dr. Chen was the founding director of the KQED
Center for Education (PBS) in San Francisco. He has
been a director of research at the Sesame Workshop and
an assistant professor at the Harvard Graduate School of
Founder, director, and conductor of the Choral Arts
Ensemble of Kansas City from 1982-92, Dr. Bucker frequently lectures on opera, has served on the boards
of a wide range of local arts organizations, and been
involved in numerous arts-education conferences. From
1997-2003 he was voice chairman and choral conductor
for the Presidential Scholars in the Arts program, sponsored by the National Foundation for Advancement in
the Arts.
Dr. Chen is a frequent speaker on issues of education
and the media and the author of more than 30 books,
chapters, and articles on educational media, including a
biweekly column for the Web site and The
Smart Parent’s Guide to Kids’ TV. He chairs the advisory
council for the Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning
and Children's Media at St. Vincent College, and has
chaired NHK's Japan Prize jury for educational television, co-chaired the US Department of Education’s
Technology Expert Panel, and served as an advisor to
educational agencies in South Africa, Australia, and
Dr. Bucker began his career as a junior high and high
school vocal music teacher and choral director in
several Missouri school districts. While pursuing his
doctorate in conducting at the University of MissouriKansas City (he earned his DMA in 1991), Dr. Bucker
was executive director of the Kansas City Chapter of
Young Audiences, Inc.
Roger H. Brown assumed the presidency of Berklee
College of Music on June 1, 2004. He is a graduate of
Davidson College with a degree in physics and a graduate of the Yale University School of Management.
Although best known as an entrepreneur and philanthropist, Brown is a music enthusiast and a drummer
by avocation.
His work has been honored by the Congressional Black
Caucus, with the Elmo Award from the Sesame
Workshop, and with the Fred Rogers Award from the
Corporation for Public Broadcasting. On his 50th birthday, he was named a Jedi Master by George Lucas. In
2007-2008, he joins a group of 35 Fulbright New
Century Scholars working on access and diversity issues
in education.
Mr. Brown co-founded Bright Horizons Family
Solutions in 1986 with his wife, Linda Mason, and
served as chief executive officer until January 2002.
Prior to 1986, he was co-director of the Save the
Children relief and development effort in Sudan, and
worked on the border of Thailand with Cambodian
Dr. Chen received an AB in social studies from Harvard
College and a PhD in communication research from
Stanford University.
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Golden Gate University, and has served as an adjunct
professor at Harvard University and Brown University.
Mr. Cortines began his teaching career in 1956; he has
taught public-school students at the elementary, middle,
and high school levels and has held numerous administrative positions.
Michael Cohen has been president of Achieve since
2003. Through the American Diploma Project Network,
Achieve is helping more than half the states restore the
value of the high school diploma by aligning high
school standards, curriculum, graduation requirements
and assessments with the knowledge and skills required
for success in college and work.
Sarah B. Cunningham, PhD, has served as director of
arts learning at the National Endowment for the Arts
since September 2005. She works on several NEA education projects, including NEA Jazz in the Schools, Big
Read Teacher’s Guides, Poetry Out Loud, Summer
Schools in the Arts, Teacher Institutes, Arts Education
Partnership, Education Leaders Institutes, and professional development for state arts agency arts in education managers. In addition, she oversees the NEA
Learning in the Arts grants program. In 2006, the
NEA provided 182 grants worth $5.2 million to artseducation projects across the country. Before her work
at the NEA, Dr. Cunningham served as the director
of education assessment and charter-school accreditation at the American Academy for Liberal Education
(AALE). As dean of the school and an English teacher,
Dr. Cunningham assisted in founding and designing the
integrated curriculum at The Oxbow School in Napa,
CA. Dr. Cunningham has held teaching positions at
variety of institutions, including Vanderbilt University
and the University of Maine. Dr. Cunningham received
her BA from Kenyon College and her PhD in philosophy from Vanderbilt University. Her academic work
examines the relationship between imagination,
aesthetics, and judgment.
Prior to joining Achieve, Mr. Cohen was a senior fellow
at the Aspen Institute, where his work focused on identifying state and local strategies for high school reform.
From 1993 to 2001, Mr. Cohen served in several senior
education-policy positions in the Clinton administration. As senior adviser to US Secretary of Education
Richard Riley, Mr. Cohen was the point person for
developing, enacting and implementing the administration’s initiatives on standards, testing, and accountability. Mr. Cohen worked in the White House from 19961999 as special assistant to the president for education
policy. From 1999 through January 2001, he served as
assistant secretary of education for elementary and secondary education.
Mr. Cohen was director of education policy at the
National Governors Association from 1986-1990, director of policy and planning at the National Association
of State Boards of Education prior to that. He started
his career at the National Institute of Education.
Ramon Cortines has served as Los Angeles’ deputy
mayor for education, youth and families since July 2006,
advising the mayor on key issues related to the development and implementation of education reform. In
addition, Mr. Cortines is an education consultant for
the Hewlett Foundation, the Irvine Foundation, the
University of Pittsburgh, and the Eli Broad Foundation.
He previously served as superintendent of the San
Francisco, San Jose, and Los Angeles Unified school
districts and as chancellor of the New York City schools.
From 1995-1997, Mr. Cortines was the special advisor
to US Secretary of Education Richard Riley. He chaired
President Clinton’s Education Department transition
team in 1992, as well as serving as assistant secretarydesignate for intergovernmental and interagency affairs.
Richard J. Deasy is the director of the Arts Education
Partnership (AEP), a coalition of over 100 education,
arts, business, philanthropic, and government organizations that demonstrates and promotes the essential role
of arts education in enabling all students to succeed in
school, life, and work. Under his leadership AEP has
published seminal research studies and reports that are
credited with major advances in arts education in the
United States. He commissioned and edited AEP’s widely acclaimed compendium of research, Critical Links:
Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social
Development, and most recently commissioned the
research and co-authored the resulting book Third
Space: When Learning Matters, a study of the transformative effects of the arts in high poverty schools. Mr.
Deasy has been a senior state education official in
Mr. Cortines holds masters degrees in both school
administration and adult learning from Pasadena
College, where he also earned a bachelors degree in
speech and education. He was presented with honorary
doctorates from San Francisco State University and
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
Maryland and Pennsylvania, president and CEO of the
National Council for International Visitors, and a prizewinning reporter on politics and government in
Philadelphia and the surrounding metropolitan area. He
was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize for reporting on
slum housing conditions in suburban Philadelphia.
Melissa Friedman is a founding producer of Epic
Theatre Center, an artist-run, Off-Broadway theater
company dedicating to placing theater at the center of
civic dialogue. Epic Theatre Center has most recently
commissioned and premiered Nilaja Sun’s No Child…,
Beauty on the Vine, and a new adaptation of Shaw’s
Widowers’ Houses. As an actor, Ms. Friedman has
appeared on Epic’s Off-Broadway stages as Clara in
Einstein’s Gift, Hannah in Hannah and Martin (opposite
David Strathairn), Asta in Little Eyolf, Janet in Habitat,
and Hazel in Time & the Conways. As Epic’s education
director, she has presented numerous professional
development workshops at the NYC Arts-in-Education
Roundtable’s Face-to-Face Conference, NYSCA’s Empire
State Partnership Summer Seminar, and “Common
Ground,” a statewide conference sponsored by Partners
for Arts Education. Ms. Friedman is a lead teaching
artist at Epic’s partner schools and directs the
Shakespeare Bridge productions at Chelsea Vocational
High School, including Hamlet: Out of Joint, Romeo
and Juliet: 2 Households and the upcoming Othello:
I Am Not What I Am. She is a graduate of Oberlin
College and holds an MFA from the Old Globe/
University of San Diego.
Joseph F. Dominic directs education grantmaking for
The Heinz Endowments. He serves as an advisor to professional and civic groups engaged in school and community improvement initiatives. Mr. Dominic formally
chaired the governing board of the federally sponsored
Mid-Atlantic Laboratory for Student Success, based at
Temple University. As a former board member of
Grantmakers for Education, he played a key role in
developing the national membership organization. In
2004, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette named Mr. Dominic
one of the top five contributors to education progress in
the region, and the University of Pittsburgh’s chapter of
Phi Delta Kappa named him Lay Education Leader of
the Year. In fall 2005 he was an invited participant in the
national forum on foundations and education, sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement
of Teaching. Earlier in his career, he was a senior associate with the National Institute of Education and was
part of the management team that coordinated financial
and technical support for the agency’s research and
development centers nationwide.
Derek E. Gordon is considered among the top arts
administrators in the country and returned to his
hometown of Baton Rouge, Louisiana to become CEO
of the Arts Council of Greater Baton Rouge.
Daniel Fallon, PhD, is chair of the education division
of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, supervising
the awarding and administration of grants in support of
teacher-education reform, urban school reform, intermediate and adolescent literacy, and other areas of education important to the national interest. He is professor
emeritus of psychology and of public policy at the
University of Maryland, College Park, where he also
served as vice president for academic affairs and
provost. Dr. Fallon held earlier appointments as dean of
the College of Liberal Arts at Texas A&M University,
dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at the
University of Colorado at Denver, and associate dean of
arts and sciences and of Harpur College at Binghamton
University. Dr. Fallon has published widely on learning
and motivation through his work in experimental psychology, on academic public policy, and on comparative
higher education. He is the author of a prizewinning
book, The German University.
Mr. Gordon has worked for two of the most prestigious
arts organizations in the nation over the past decade.
His most recent post before returning to Baton Rouge
was as CEO and president of Jazz at Lincoln Center in
New York, where he was charged with overseeing all
operations of the jazz program. He also managed the
opening and operation of Frederick P. Rose Hall, a
three-venue, 100,000-square-foot space considered the
premier jazz venue in the nation. Before that, Gordon
was a senior vice president for the John F. Kennedy
Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, DC,
where he planned and managed jazz and education
Mr. Gordon brings this experience of operating worldclass facilities to the Baton Rouge community, helping
to expand the arts at a time when there is new energy
surrounding the arts in the city. As head of the Arts
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Council, Mr. Gordon connects with leaders of local arts
and community organizations and works with them to
assemble the next steps for strengthening the arts community. The Council’s programming includes arts education, FestForAll, the Baton Rouge Arts Market, the
Community School for the Arts, grants, and the
Community Fund for the Arts, a united arts fund drive.
among parents, students, teachers, and administrators
on key topics. She has appeared on CNN, the Today
Show, Lou Dobbs Tonight, and The O’Reilly Factor on
behalf of Public Agenda. Prior to joining Public Agenda
in 1980, Ms. Johnson was with Action for Children’s
Television in Boston, where she wrote extensively on
the effects of television on children. She is a director of
Sugal Records, a small, New York-based classical music
recording company. Ms. Johnson graduated from
Mount Holyoke College and holds masters degrees
from Brown University and Simmons College.
Mr. Gordon’s passion for the arts began as a child
singing in the church choir. He has bachelor and
masters degrees from Louisiana State University in
music, focusing on vocal performance.
Polly Kahn has played a local and national leadership
role in the arts community for more than three
decades. Ms. Kahn joined the American Symphony
Orchestra League in February 2000. As vice president
for learning and leadership development, she oversees
such programs and services as the Orchestra Leadership
Academy, Orchestra Management Fellowship Program,
American Conducting Fellows Program, National
Conference, Ford Made in America, Music Alive, constituent services, as well as the League’s youth, education, and community engagement initiatives.
Tom Hall holds a bachelor of music degree from
Juilliard, a masters degree in elementary education
from Teachers College, Columbia University, and is currently pursuing a PhD. Mr. Hall has been teaching for
23 years at PS 2 in the Bronx; as a cluster teacher, he
sees five classes each day in addition to providing afterschool instruction to students from inside and outside
PS 2. He organized ten of the most proficient players
into an ensemble called The Keys 2 Success, which provides music for all school events, including graduation.
The group also tours the country, performing at various venues, usually with professionals and church
choirs. Under Mr. Hall’s direction, this group has
enjoyed wide acclaim and has performed at Gracie
Mansion, on stage at Lehman College, and at churches
in the tri-state area. In 2005, Mr. Hall was selected by
Mattel as Music Teacher of the Year. In 2006, his program received a generous grant from Bloomberg, LP.
Prior to joining the League, Ms. Kahn was the director
of education for the New York Philharmonic, where she
revised and expanded the education programs.
Previously, she served as director of education for the
Tisch Center for the Arts at the 92nd Street Y and as
assistant director of the Lincoln Center Institute for the
Arts in Education. Ms. Kahn has also served as a consultant to cultural and philanthropic organizations
nationally; on the boards of the Ethical CultureFieldston Schools, the Center for Arts Education
(Annenberg III Initiative), and the New York City ArtsIn-Education Roundtable, of which she was a founding
member; and as a panelist for numerous arts organizations, including the National Endowment for the Arts.
Currently, she sits on the board of the Center for
Educational Partnerships and on the board of advisors
for the Sphinx Organization. In May 2000, Ms. Kahn
was honored as the recipient of the InterSchool
Orchestra’s Award for Outstanding Contributions to
Arts Education in New York City.
Jean Johnson is executive vice president of Public
Agenda and head of its Education Insights division,
which focuses on public-education issues. At Public
Agenda, she has authored or co-authored opinion studies on education, families, religion, race relations, civility, foreign policy, and health care. She is now writing a
book with colleague Scott Bittle aimed at helping
Americans understand the debate over the federal
budget. Where Does the Money Go? Your Guided Tour to
the Federal Budget Debate is slated for publication by
HarperCollins in February 2008.
Ms. Johnson is the principal author of Life after High
School: Young People Talk About Their Hopes and
Prospects and Reality Check, which tracks attitudes
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Augusta Souza Kappner, PhD, has served as president of
Bank Street College of Education since 1995. Prior to
coming to Bank Street, Dr. Kappner had a distinguished
career with the City University of New York, including
positions as president of the Borough of Manhattan
Community College and acting president of The City
College. From 1993-1995 she served as an assistant secretary of education in the United States Department of
Education. Dr. Kappner has spoken widely on education
issues, and has served on numerous education commissions, boards, and task forces. In 1999 she was a recipient
of the Foundation for Child Development’s Centennial
Award. She has been a Carnegie Fellow and currently
serves on the boards of the National Writing Project and
the Wallace Foundation. Dr. Kappner received her bachelors degree from Barnard College, her masters degree in
social work from Hunter College, and her doctorate in
social welfare policy from Columbia University.
SUNY Cobleskill, Morning Star School in Ghana, and
the Erich Fried School in Wuppertal, Germany. She is
currently completing her BA in arts education at SUNY
Empire State College.
Pedro Noguera, PhD, is a professor in the Steinhardt
School of Education at New York University, the executive director of the Metropolitan Center for Urban
Education, and the co-director of the Institute for the
Study of Globalization and Education in Metropolitan
Settings (IGEMS).
Dr. Noguera’s research focuses on the ways social and
economic conditions in the urban environment influence schools. He has advised and engaged in collaborative research with several large urban school districts
throughout the United States, and has studied education
and economic and social development in the Caribbean,
Latin America, and several other locations.
From 2000-2003 Dr. Noguera was the Judith K. Dimon
Professor of Communities and Schools at the Harvard
Graduate School of Education. From 1990-2000 he was
a professor in social and cultural studies at the Graduate
School of Education and the director of the Institute
for the Study of Social Change at the University of
California, Berkeley. Dr. Noguera has been a member
of the US Public Health Service Centers for Disease
Control Taskforce on Youth Violence and the chair of
the Committee on Ethics in Research and Human
Rights for the American Educational Research
Maria Mitchell is a dancer/choreographer and arts
educator whose dance training includes the study of
dance notation at the Dance Notation Bureau; Dunham;
Horton; Graham; and traditional African dance. Her
ensemble, Black Pearl Dance Company, has received
awards from Meet the Composers, the National
Endowment for the Arts, The Center for Constitutional
Rights, the Bronx Council on the Arts, and the New
York Department of Cultural Affairs, and is included in
the Black Dance in America publication.
Ms. Mitchell’s work as a soloist has generated significant
acclaim in the international new music community.
Among her collaborators in music are Lawrence “Butch”
Morris, Billy Bang, Peter Kowald, Steve Coleman, Toby
Williams, and many others. Ms. Mitchell is a founding
member and director of Arts and Education for the
International Storytellers Conference. The group has
taken 40 performers, educators, librarians, and administrators to Ghana and South Africa. As an arts educator,
Ms. Mitchell uses dance as an alternative educational
tool in a child-centered approach that offers alternative
entry points into the curriculum without compromising
the integrity of the art form. She has worked with a variety of educational organizations, including the Graham
Windham Social Work Agency, the New York City
Department of Education, the Henry Street Settlement,
Dr. Noguera received a Wellness Foundation award for
his research on youth violence, the University of
California’s Distinguished Teaching Award, an honorary
doctorate from the University of San Francisco, and the
Centennial Medal from Philadelphia University. In 2005
he received the Eugene Carothers Award and the
Whitney Young Award from the National Urban League.
Michael O’Keefe is the president of Minneapolis College
of Art and Design (MCAD), one of the country’s highly
regarded private art and design college; he was named
to the post in mid-2002. Mr. O’Keefe previously served
as commissioner of the Minnesota Department of
Human Services, the state’s largest department, which
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supports a broad range of services, including health
care, economic assistance, child welfare services, and
services for the elderly and people with disabilities.
From 1955 to 1968, Mr. Safire was a public relations
executive in New York City. He was responsible for
bringing Mr. Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev together in
the 1959 Moscow “kitchen” debate to publicize his
client’s kitchen. In 1968, he left to join the campaign of
Richard Nixon.
Prior to his tenure as human services commissioner, Mr.
O’Keefe spent ten years as executive vice president and
chief executive officer for the McKnight Foundation in
Minneapolis. He is also the former president of the
Consortium for the Advancement of Private Higher
Education in Washington, DC, vice president of the
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching,
and has held posts in higher education and government.
He is the author of four novels, including Freedom,
a novel of Lincoln and the Civil War, and Scandalmongers, explaining the roots of liberty of the press. His
dictionary, The New Language of Politics, has helped
generations of politicians and voters understand one
another; its updated 5th edition will be published
February, 2008. His anthology of great speeches,
Lend Me Your Ears, is the best seller in that field.
In addition to his role at MCAD, Mr. O’Keefe has cochaired the Education and Society Program at the
Aspen Institute since 1987. He serves on the board of
directors for Minnesota Public Radio; Growth and
Justice; and the Alliance for Excellent Education. He has
served on numerous other boards, including two terms
on the board of regents of the University of Minnesota.
Mr. Safire was born on December 17, 1929, and attended Syracuse University; a dropout after two years, he
returned a generation later to deliver the commencement address and is now a trustee. He is now chairman
and chief executive of the Dana Foundation, a philanthropy supporting brain science, immunology, and
arts education. He is married to Helene Safire, a glass
artist; they have a son and daughter. The Safires live in
a suburb of Washington, DC.
Mr. O’Keefe received his BS in physics, mathematics,
and philosophy from Marquette University in
Milwaukee and his MS in nuclear physics and mathematics from the University of Pittsburgh. He has an
honorary doctor of letters from Hamline University.
Marie Sanzone has been an elementary-school educator
in the New York City public school system for over 39
years. She has taught general music classes, coached
vocal and instrumental ensembles, and is currently
initiating an artist-in-residence role for her pioneering,
state-of-the-art electronic music program at PS 247 in
District 20/Region 7 (Brooklyn). She has presented several staff-development sessions for Region 7 teachers in
music technology. Ms. Sanzone has developed partnerships with Carnegie Hall and The New York
Philharmonic, arranging for artists to perform in her
classroom and for her classes to see performances at
both venues. She has received several prestigious grants
to sustain her much-heralded music program. Ms.
Sanzone is a 2006 recipient of the Alfred P. Sloan Award
for exemplary public service. She is a licensed music
teacher and a graduate of New York University, from
which she received both a BS and an MA in music
William Safire from 1972 to early 2005 wrote a
political column on the Op-ed pages of The New York
Times, and continues to write a Sunday column, “On
Language,” which has appeared in The New York Times
Magazine since 1979. This column on grammar, usage,
and etymology has led to the publication of 14 books
and makes him the most widely read writer on the
English language. Mr. Safire was awarded the 1978
Pulitzer Prize for distinguished commentary. He
received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s
highest civilian award, in a White House ceremony held
December 16, 2006.
Before joining The Times, Mr. Safire was a senior White
House speechwriter for President Nixon. He had previously been a radio and television producer, a US Army
correspondent, and began his career as a reporter for a
profiles column in The New York Herald Tribune.
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Before coming to Cornell, Dr. Skorton was president
of the University of Iowa (UI) for three years, beginning
in March 2003, and a faculty member at UI for 26 years.
Co-founder and co-director of the UI Adolescent and
Adult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic at the University
of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Dr. Skorton has focused
his research on congenital heart disease in adolescents
and adults, cardiac imaging, and computer image
Robert Sirota, PhD, president of the Manhattan School
of Music since 2005, pursued early training in composition at Juilliard, and received a bachelor of music degree
in piano and composition from Oberlin Conservatory.
After a year of study in Europe, he earned a PhD in
composition at Harvard. His principal teachers include
Richard Hoffmann, Joseph Wood, Earl Kim, Leon
Kirchner, and Nadia Boulanger.
Widely known as a composer and conductor of new
music, Dr. Sirota’s catalogue includes various solo and
chamber works, four stage works, solo works for organ,
songs, large and small choral works, and concertos for
viola, cello, organ, and saxophone. His works have been
performed throughout the United States, Europe, and
the Far East. Among notable commissions are orchestral
works for the Seattle, Vermont, Lincoln (NE), and East
Texas Symphonies, the American Guild of Organists, the
Chiara String Quartet, the Fischer Duo, the Webster
Trio, and the Peabody Trio.
Dr. Skorton began to play saxophone and flute as a
teenager. The first in his family to complete higher
education, he made his way through college, partly with
loans, partly with scholarship aid, and partly as a jazz
and R&B musician in the Chicago area. He continued
to study and play saxophone and flute in Iowa City and
hosted a weekly jazz program, “As Night Falls,” on KSUI,
UI’s public FM radio station. Dr. Skorton earned his
bachelors degree in psychology in 1970 and an MD in
1974, both from Northwestern University. He completed
his medical residency and held a fellowship in cardiology at The University of California, Los Angeles.
Dr. Sirota is recipient of fellowships from the
Guggenheim Foundation and the Watson Foundation,
as well as grants from the National Endowment for the
Arts, Meet the Composer, ASCAP, and the American
Music Center. His works are published by BoelkeBomart, Music Associates of New York, Theodore
Presser, and MorningStar, and are recorded on the
Capstone and Gasparo labels. From 1995 to 2005 he was
a member of the composition faculty at the Peabody
Conservatory, also serving as that institution’s director.
As vice president for research at UI, he led the University of Iowa Arts & Humanities Initiative, which
provides competitive grants to faculty for humanities
scholarship and work in the creative, visual and performing arts, and as UI president he proclaimed 200405 the Year of the Arts and Humanities. He also served
on the board of directors for the Cedar Rapids (IA)
Symphony Orchestra from 2000-2006. At Cornell, he
writes a monthly column for the Cornell Daily Sun and
a bimonthly column for the Cornell Alumni Magazine,
and hosts a periodic radio program, Higher Education in
the Round, on WEOS-FM, a local public radio station.
David J. Skorton, MD, became Cornell University’s 12th
president on July 1, 2006. He holds faculty appointments as professor in internal medicine and pediatrics
at Weill Cornell Medical College (WCMC) in New York
City and in biomedical engineering at the College of
Engineering on Cornell’s Ithaca campus. He is also vice
chair and chair-elect of the Business-Higher Education
Forum, an independent, nonprofit organization of
Fortune 500 CEOs, leaders of colleges and universities,
and foundation executives.
Carol Sun is an artist, designer, and educator. Raised in
the Bronx, she attended public schools, later receiving a
BFA from Cooper Union and an MFA from Vermont
College. Her artwork focuses on “lost narratives” and
utilizes a rich vocabulary of mediums: painting, drawing, textiles, and digital media. Solo exhibitions include
the Bronx Museum of Art and the Neuberger Museum.
Recently, she completed “A Bronx Reflection,” 12 faceted
glass windows for the Metropolitan Transportation
Authority for the 167 Street Station-4 train. In 2007
she was awarded a Digital Matrix Grant by Longwood
Arts Gallery.
A seasoned administrator, board-certified cardiologist,
biomedical researcher, musician, and advocate for the
arts and humanities, Dr. Skorton aims to enhance
Cornell’s model combination of academic distinction
and public service.
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In 1996, Sun began her teaching career while also working part time as a graphic designer at Donovan and
Green. She has since taught at the Whitney Museum,
Cooper Union, and Parsons School of Design. After
9/11, she decided to teach full time. Since 2003, she has
been a member of the faculty at the Bronx High School
for the Visual Arts. Besides her duties as an art teacher,
Carol writes grants and organizes and manages her
school’s student docent program at the Bronx Museum
(funded by the Center for Arts Education). She has
been instrumental in developing her school’s partnerships with the Bronx Museum, Center for Architecture,
Center for Urban Pedagogy, and Pepatian.
Michael Wiggins is the artistic producer of MUD/BONE,
a multi-arts organization in the South Bronx that
supports professional artists and offers community workshops in theater and printmaking. A noted teaching
artist, he is on the faculty of the Public Theater’s
Shakespeare Lab, where he trains actors to work with
young people. He has developed and facilitated numerous
theater-arts education workshops for young people and
adults in each of the five boroughs and has served on the
writing committee for the New York City Department of
Education’s Theater Curriculum Blueprint for grades K12. Mr. Wiggins has served as a proposal review panelist
for the Bronx Council on the Arts, the Lower Manhattan
Cultural Council, and the New York State Council on the
Arts. He is a 1998 alumnus of the New York University/
Tisch School of the Arts Graduate Acting Program.
Alfonzo Thurman, PhD, was appointed dean of the
School of Education at the University of WisconsinMilwaukee and chancellor’s deputy for Education
Partnerships in September 2001. He is also a full professor in the department of administrative leadership. Prior
to his appointment, Dr. Thurman spent 22 years at
Northern Illinois University in various positions, including director of special projects, assistant to the provost,
associate dean of the College of Education, professor of
educational administration, and dean of the College of
Education. Dr. Thurman received his PhD and MA in
educational policy studies from the University of
Wisconsin-Madison and his BS in English from the
University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse.
Dennie Palmer Wolf, EdD, directs one of the major
initiatives at the Annenberg Institute for School Reform
at Brown University. This initiative, “Opportunity and
Accountability,” is a bold effort to make assessment and
accountability systems a major support for school
reform. This initiative is grounded in her extensive work
in portfolio assessment that originated in her education
as a painter, as well as her studies of the development of
young artists. At Annenberg, Dr. Wolf ’s work also
includes studies of the influence of the opportunity to
learn on student achievement. In this work, she has
examined how artistic and cultural activities (such as
playing an instrument or participating in communitybased theater classes) affect the quality and course of
students’ lives.
Dr. Thurman is a member of the board of directors for
two national education organizations: the Council of
Academic Deans from Research Education Institutions
(CADREI), a professional-education organization for the
improvement of leadership in education; and the Holmes
Partnership, a national network of schools, teachers’ associations, and other community organizations to improve
teaching and learning, on which he serves as president. In
Milwaukee, Thurman convenes the Metropolitan
Milwaukee Area Deans of Education (MMADE), an
outgrowth of his work with the Milwaukee Partnership
Academy (MPA). He is one of seven national faculty
members for the American Association of Colleges for
Teacher Education’s New Deans Institute, which trains
new deans to become effective leaders. He serves as the
chair of the Milwaukee Educare Council and is a member
of the Educare Governing Board. Educare is a growing
national childcare development initiative now located in
four major cities across the United States.
Dr. Wolf collaborates regularly with cities, school
districts, and cultural organizations to design stronger
and more innovative public programs. She is the
research principal on the Dallas ArtsPartners’ longitudinal study recently featured by the Ford Foundation. In
addition, her work is concerned with drawing public
attention to the key role of the arts and humanities in
civic life, and the necessity of including youth needs and
perspectives in cultural planning. In recent years, she
has brought this work to cities like Charlotte, NC; San
Jose, CA; and Fort Worth, TX.
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Recommended Resources
Academic Atrophy: The Condition of the Liberal Arts in
America's Public Schools, by Claus von Zatrow with Helen
Janc, published by the Council for Basic Education
(2004); see
Creating Capacity: A Framework for Providing Professional
Development Opportunities for Teaching Artists, published
by The Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (2001);
Acts of Achievement: The Role of Performing Arts Center in
Education edited by Barbara Rich, EdD, Jane L. Polin and
Stephen J. Marcus, published by The Dana Press (2003);
Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic
and Social Development, edited by Richard J. Deasy,
published by the Arts Education Partnership (2002);
All Work and No Play? Listening to What Kids and Parents
Really Want from Out-of-School Time, published by Public
Agenda (2004); see
The Curb Center for Art, Enterprise, and Public Policy.
The Dana Foundation—Arts Education.
The Arts and School Reform: Lessons and Possibilities from
The Annenberg Challenge Arts Projects, published by the
Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown
University (2003); see
Gaining the Arts Advantage: Lessons From School Districts
That Value Arts Education, published by the Arts
Education Partnership and The President's Committee on
the Arts and the Humanities (1999); see
The Arts, Artists & Teaching: Liberating Learning by Jane L.
Polin, paper commissioned by Bennington College and
The J. Paul Getty Trust (2003); see
Imagine! Introducing Your Child to the Arts, second
edition, published by the National Endowment for the
Arts (2004); see
Arts Education in the News, a free publication of the Dana
Foundation; see
Planning an Arts-Centered School: A Handbook, edited by
Carol Fineberg, published by The Dana Press (2002); see
Arts Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools:
1999-2000, published by the National Center for
Education Statistics (2002); see
The Power of the Arts to Transform Education: An Agenda
for Action, recommendations from The Arts Education
Partnership Working Group sponsored by The John F.
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and The J. Paul
Getty Trust (1993).
Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning,
edited by Edward B. Fiske, published by the Arts
Education Partnership and The President's Committee on
the Arts and the Humanities (1999); see
Teaching Artist Journal, published by Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates, Inc. (2003-present); see
A Community Audit for Arts Education: Better Schools,
Better Skills, Better Communities, published by the
Kennedy Center Alliance for Arts Education Network
(2007); see
The Complete Curriculum: Ensuring a place for the arts and
foreign languages in America's Schools, published by the
National Association of State Boards of Education (2003);
Tr a n s f o r m i n g A r t s Te a c h i n g : T h e R o l e o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n
About the Editors
The Dana Foundation and the editors wish to thank the
following colleagues for their contributions to this book
and to the national Dana symposium in May, 2007.
Jane L. Polin holds more than 25 years of innovative
leadership experience within the nonprofit and private
sectors in developing and investing philanthropic
resources. Now serving as a philanthropic advisor,
principally in the areas of the arts, education, and public
policy, she has completed a diverse set of assignments
for national clients, including Acts of Achievement:
The Role of Performing Arts Centers in Education for
The Dana Foundation and The Fate of the American
Dream: Strengthening America’s Education and Skills
Pipeline for Jobs for the Future.
Gary Anderson
Mario Arce
Darrell Ayers
Roger H. Brown
Wm. Robert Bucker, DMA
Gail Burnaford, PhD
Milton Chen, PhD
Michael Cohen
Ramon Cortines
Sarah B. Cunningham, PhD
Richard J. Deasy
Joseph F. Dominic
Janet Eilber
Moy Eng
Daniel Fallon, PhD
Melissa Friedman
Johanna Goldberg
Derek E. Gordon
Tom Hall
Doug Herbert
Blayne Jeffries
Jean Johnson
Polly Kahn
Augusta Souza Kappner, PhD
Larry Larson
Rebecca Luib
Stephen J. Marcus
Maria Mitchell
Pedro Noguera, PhD
Michael O’Keefe
Quadrant Communications Co., Inc.
Marie Sanzone
Robert Sirota, PhD
David J. Skorton, MD
Carol Sun
Alfonzo Thurman, PhD
Michael Wiggins
Ann Whitman
Dennie Palmer Wolf, EdD
During her years at the GE Fund, Ms. Polin led several
grant programs and financial administration for GE’s
then $60+ million annual philanthropic support.
She directed education grantmaking addressing environmental, international trade, workforce development, and
other public policy concerns, and created “Tools for
Change,” a program that brought GE’s proven change
processes to community-based nonprofit leaders.
She also designed and grew the GE Fund’s awardwinning arts-learning and research initiatives, including
Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning
and Gaining the Arts Advantage: Lessons from School
Districts That Value Arts Education.
Ms. Polin earned her BA in music from Wesleyan
University and her MBA in marketing from
Columbia University.
Barbara Rich, EdD, a vice president at the Dana
Foundation, is responsible for the News and Internet
Office and helps oversee arts education at the Foundation.
Rich was a co-editor of Acts of Achievement: The Role
of Performing Arts Centers in Education and editor of
Partnering Arts Education: A Working Model from Arts
Dr. Rich’s background in communications and education
includes posts at Rutgers University and Marymount
Manhattan College, where she was Dean and then a
Vice President. She was senior Vice President at the
Scientists’ Institute for Public Information (SIPI) prior
to joining the Dana Foundation.
She has published articles on science and education
and has served often as a discussant on both media and
arts education. She earned a BA from City College
of New York and an EdD from Teachers College,
Columbia University.
Arts Teaching
The Role of
Higher Education
When well taught, the arts transform
students and their schools. And when
teachers of the arts are well taught,
we make such transformative
experiences possible for more students.
The Dana Foundation
Transforming Arts Teaching: The Role of Higher Education
is posted in its entirety in PDF format on the Dana Web
site: Information about ordering additional copies is available on the Web site.
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