Philips TW0200 User's manual

Philips TW0200 User's manual
Chapter 7
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7-1.5 Meters for M/W System
1. Power Meter Anritsu - ML 4803 A
2. Power Meter HP - 437 B, 4368, Philips 3350
3. Spectrum Analyzer- Anritsu MS 7101 B,10 KHz- 23 GHz, 22 GHz- 140 GHz.
4. M/W System Analyzer (MSA) Transmitter & Receiver ME 538 M
Anritsu 4510 B Transmitter and Receiver.
5. M/W frequency counter Anritsu MF 76 A
6. Sweep Generator programmable Marconi instrument 10Mhz-20 GHz
7. VSWR Meters: -- HP Scalar network analyzer 8757 A
- HP Sweep Generator 8350 B
- Wiltron scalar network analyzer 56100 A
- Wiltron Synthesized sweep generator 68147 B
- Radart 2424 Synthesized signal generator 10 KHz – 10.4 GHz
- Adaptor S/N 9610-63090 MFR 63661
- Anritsu open/short model 22 N 50
8. Power sensors - Low power -70 to -20 dBm,
- High power -20 to + 20 dBm
9. Attenuators :- 10,20 dB HP or Anritsu
10. Jitter modulator oscillator Anritsu MH 370 A
11. Anritsu DTA Set ( Transmitter and Receiver)
12. Directional Bridge HP 85020127
13. PCM Mux Tester.
14. ANT-20
15. M/W Variable Attenuator
16. VF Oscillator
159
7-1.6 Before proceeding any M/W system A/T --------1] Get TT-O, TT-1 duly filled in all respect,
2] Collect Survey report which includes,
- Check list
- Route details
- Site survey report
- Particulars at a glance
- Clearance calculation
- Path data calculation
- Rain attenuation calculation
- Availability calculation
- Interference calculation
- Tower diagram
- Line diagram
- Path profile
- Site map
Here you have to check the deviation in survey and nominal level which should not be
more than ±3 dBm.
N.B. Nominal system level and sample survey report 14 pages attached h/w and just for
reference Optel, HFCL,PCL system’s front views are shown in Fig. nos. 7-2, 7-3, 7-5.
3] Check whether Tower is new or existing, carry out Earth measurement in both the
cases. Limit of Ring Earth is 0.5 ohms.
4] Before starting local A/T carry out a physical inspection of installation, Tower, W/G
Earthing and its entrance in equipment room.
5] Confirm that all required meters, RF cords, available or not? This is important
because so many types of meters and cords are required in M/W A/T.
6] Check whether W/G entry is through hatch plate or not?
7] Obtain equipment room layout of all stations along with repeaters, duly approved
by DET Maintenance.
8] Take the information regarding antenna diameter, gain etc. also confirm whether
orientation of antenna is over or not, receive level is within limit or not.
9] Whether -50V is taken from MCB with proper gauge wire or not.
10] Check QA stamp or QA approval of the system
11] Obtain SACFA clearance, if not available or if applied then note down the
registration number along with the date.
12] Note down earth resistance measured by maintenance within 6 months or
otherwise carry out earth audit.
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161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
7-2 MICROWAVE
SYSTEM
A/T
Microwave A/T comprises of - Local A/T of all stations, and Repeaters.
- Hop Test.
- Through Test.
7-2.1 Local A/T:There are several makes of Narrow / Wide band microwave systems, near
about all test are same except power supply points, access points. Here for example
Satara M/W station to T.E. end link of 11 GHz (1+ 1) digital M/W system MakeHFCL, is described.
1. Check of power supply:Measure voltage at Battery point and Bay input, note down the voltage drop. Limit :- 1.0
V. If not within limit then measure voltages step by step that is from battery- OCB
distribution- Equipment room distribution-Suit distribution and find out in which section
it is more.
Check the gauges of wires and loose connections.
Output voltages:- some systems are not having access points to measure the output
voltages.
a. Modem shelf PSU
+5.2 V,
+3.3 V and
-5.2V
Limit: ±0.25V
±0.15V and
±0.25V
b. RSA shelf PSU
+5.3V
Limit: ±0.25V
+12.0V
±0.5V
-5.5V
±0.25V
2. Test on Transmitter:- TLO: - Write down the assigned frequency of TLO and measure by Microwave
frequency counter at TLO Mon,
- Press impedance 50ohms, resolution, KHz
- Press offset and get deviation which should be within the limit of ±20 PPM
E.g. Assigned TLO frequencies 11295 MHz
Measured ------“-------------11294.935.207MHz
Deviation ----------------- -5.7PPM
Here 647993 Hz frequency is less than the assigned frequency and deviation is -5.73, so
in PPM it is how much?
PPM =
Out Hz
Assigned frequency in MHz
=
64793
11295
= 5.73 PPM
-TLO O/P level (Mon):- Measure output power by spectrum analyzer by tuning TLO
frequency or by Power meter. Limit: - ≥-12 dBm
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174
3. Test on receiver:-
Check of RLO frequency :- Check of RLO frequency with unritsu or HP
frequency counter, measure frequency and offset
Write assigned measured and deviation in PPM limit ±20 PPM
Measure RLO output level at RLO mon limit ≥-12 dBm
Feed Receive RF frequency at a level of -30 dBm at RX, RF and record
1.RF frequency limit ±250Khz
2. If level at AGC out (IF out) limit -5 ±1 dBm
3. IF level at AGC Mon Socket limit -10 ±1dBm
AGC calibration at Rx Rec I/P level
20 dB
Attenuator
RF in
AGC
SW Generator
Multimeter
IF out
MSA Receiver
Fig. 7-7
-Make test set up as per above diagram no 7-7 for 7 GHz system.
- Sweep oscillator output is to be calibrated with spectrum analyzer with -20 dB
attenuator for -20 dBm level.
- Adjust -3 dBm by IF level potentiometer and then vary AGC input level by microwave
Variable attenuator.
- Start by -20 dBm as -17 is overload and note down the BITE reading and DC Mon
voltage.
- Go low by 10 dB step up to -70 dBm and after that lower the level by 1 dBm until a
receive alarm is monitored. The level at which Rx fail LED glows , is a threshold level
for BER of 1x 10 -3 and squelch will be monitored when BER 1x 10 -5 i.e. degradation
starts and change over takes place, say at a level 2 to 3 dBm less than the threshold level.
-
Now go to back to restore the squelch and note down difference. This is hysterics
reading.- Limit . -17 dBm overload, -75 dBm receive threshold Range 50 dB from
threshold.
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7-2.2 VSWR: - Voltage standing wave ratio
Standing wave :- If the impedance of the load (Antenna) and source ( Generator ) is not
equal, that is not matching then part of the energy is reflected back towards the source.,
some power is absorbed and rest is reflected .this interference form one set of waves V &
I traveling towards the load and reflected set travels back to generator. These two sets of
traveling wave moving in opposite direction 180 out of phase. This reflected wave which
varies in Voltage/ Current combines with transmitted wave and summation of both
produces a wave called standing wave. It forms a set of interference in the form of
standing wave. See Fig. 7-8
Fig. 7-8
SWR: - The ratio of maximum voltage to minimum voltage along with a transmission
line is called SWR. When impedance of source (Transmitter), media (Waveguide), and
load (Antenna) is matching perfectly then SWR = 1.
VSWR: - Due to the irregularities in waveguide, voltage tends to add to get maximum
voltage and due to phase difference voltage tends to minimum also.
Cause of worst VSWR: - Inside damage of waveguide, bends, inside water, loose
connections, inside holes etc.
If not within limit then required receive level is not possible at distant end , degradation
of services, poor coverage in case of GSM.
Return Loss: - It is a ratio of amplitude of reflected wave to the amplitude of incident
wave. This loss shows reduction in amplitude of reflected energy compared to
transmitted energy. Is is expressed in dB. It is a measure of irregularities in W/G. Return
loss should be always more to suppress echo distortion, inter modulation noise and to
maintain group delay and response within limit.
Vr
Return Loss = - 20 Log ρ (Reflection coefficient) = ----------------Vi
Vr: - Reflected voltage wave and Vi: - Incident voltage wave.
How to measure Return loss:- Make set up of System Analyzer Transmitter, Receiver, Termination Bridge as
per diagram no. 7-9, 7-10, 7-11.
- adjust sweep oscillator for desired band of frequency, confirmed by frequency
counter.
- Calibrate level with open/ short and load connectors.
- remove Connectors and connect W/G to the test port.
- Read the trace and return loss over the required frequency band.
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177
MSA Transmitter
-10 IF in
201
IF O/P
70
75 Ω
termination
MSA Receiver
Counter
IIF return loss
IF in on Rx card
Fig. 7-10
Conversion chart of VSWR, Return Loss and SWR.
VSWR
1.01
1.02
1.03
1.04
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.18
1.20
1.30
1.50
1.43
1.38
1.33
1.29
1.25
1.222
1.196
1.173
1.152
1.135
1.119
1.106
1.094
Return loss
In dB
46.1
40.1
36.6
34.2
32.3
30.7
29.4
28.3
27.3
26.4
25.7
24.9
24.3
23.7
23.1
21.7
20.8
17.7
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
19.0
20.0
21.0
22.0
23.0
24.0
25.0
26.0
27.0
Reflection
Coefficient
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.4
2.9
3.4
3.8
4.3
4.8
5.2
5.7
6.1
6.5
7.0
8.3
9.1
13.0
19.95
17.78
15.85
14.13
12.59
11.12
10.00
8.93
7.943
7.079
6.310
5.563
5.012
4.467
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SWR
In dB
0.086
0.172
0.257
0.341
0.424
0.506
0.588
0.668
0.749
0.828
0.906
0.984
1.06
1.04
1.14
1.21
1.44
1.58
2.28
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180
Please see the Wiltron diagram,
Anritsu detector converts power into voltages.
- Connect Open , select
- Connect Short , select
- Connect device ,
- Start select,
- Function,
- Max /select -20 dBm,
- Min / select -34 dBm,
- Cursor also move for max to minimum.
Wiltron Generator: - See Fig. 7-12, 7-13.
- Take 10.7 to 11.7 GHz
- Level +10 dBm ( + 7 to + 12 can be taken ) and calibrate Analyzer,
- Start calibration ,
- Select Open / Short ,
- Calibration completed,
- Connect device,
- Move cursor on; get trace for max and minimum.
Open
short
Analyzer with sensor
Generator blue cord
Compiler
Fig. 7-13
-
Select 11 GHz band, take marker on max and min by function switch and select
max -26 & -34 dBm.
7-2.3 Some General test: Image Frequency Rejection test: - Image Frequency = Receive frequency + 2 IF
- Feed Image frequency at a nominal level of the system, at antenna port.
- Measure IF Out level at RRF out.
- Image frequency Suppression should be > -65 dBm.
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4. Check of BER with IF Loop: Loop IF Trans to If Receive and test 140 Mb/ STM-1 on DTA set for 0 PPM and ± 15
PPM. The result should be 0.00 E-11
5. a) Trans Branching Filter loss: The difference between Trans Power at PA out and antenna port will be a Trans
Branching Filter loss.
b) Receive Filter loss: Feed RF Frequency at a nominal level to antenna port and measure at Rx in,
Calculate receive filter loss.
Limit: - Tx + Rx combined filter loss should be 6 dB max.
6. Isolation between Transmitter and Receiver:- TX – Rx
- Keep Transmitter ON, for Tx – Rx isolation.
- Tune the transmitter frequency at RRF in point on spectrum analyzer.
- Limit: Better than 70 dB
- Rx-Tx
- Feed Rx RF at antenna port and measure at co-axial cable connected to PA out ,
- Limit: Better than 70 dB
7. Waveguide pressurization in Kg/ Cm2
- Note down Waveguide pressure in Kg/ Cm2
8. Some test of 7 GHz system: - ALC Test (Automatic level control)
- Make the test set up as below Fig. 7-14
- feed -3 dBm to IF in
- Adjust +30 dBm at PA out
- Vary IF level from -1 to -7 dBm
- Observe level at PA out which should be near about constant , one example,
- IF
PA
-1
+30.000
-3
+30.05
-5
+29.99
-7
+30.05
System
analyzer
IF O/P Level
is varied
IF O/P
70 MHz
RF out at Eqpt. top
Power meter
Fig. 7-14
Low Transpower alarm:- Same set up ALC and go IF level low to see Transpower alarm LED to glow
by 3 dB minimum
- This alarm on display shows at > 33 dBm and < 25 dBm Transpower
- Go low by 1 dB step to get this alarm.
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7-2.4 HOP A/T OF 11 GHz 140 Mbps or STM-1
1] Receive level: - Note down Surveyed level, Nominal level and measure Rx RF level
at Rx IN by power meter with suitable sensor and pad by removing the W/G from RF IN.
- The same Rx RF level can be measured with calibrated spectrum analyzer and by
tuning the required frequency of a channel, deviation between measured and surveyed
should be within ±1 dBm.
- The deviation between surveyed and nominal level should be within ±3 dBm.
As per the test schedule of DOT ML
section..
- Measure Rx level on all Main and Protection channel with ATPC ON ,
(If provided)
- Measure Rx level at RF Rx IN due to X- Polarization (if provided) which should
be Better than -30 dBmo from measured RF level or better.
2] Measure IF level at AGC out. Limit is -5 ± 1 dBm and at Mon skt Limit -10 dBm.
Measure AGC voltage at connector M-69 pin 1-8, reading may be -6.0 V, this is for
reference only.
3] Group delay and IF response:- See Fig. 7-15
It is the transit time delay effect. The transit time for a transmission path is a
time required by a specific voltage or current to travel through the transmission path. This
time is given by the rate of phase shift & angular frequency.
Take test in MGC (Manual Gain control) only, keep all station MOD off.
MLA Transmitter at one end
MLA receiver at other end
193
10
P-P
90
-3
IF I/P
IF IN on
Transmitter
Front
- Blinking ON
- X select IF
- Counter
- P-P chose frequency
- Auto at 83.5 KHz
- IF (BB frequency)
IF O/P
Fig. 7-15
Rear
-BB select NML
-Character ON
-PLL out frequency high
-CRT Trace CM O/P
-Threshold EXT Off
- EXT/Line selector
Line marker selector
Received CF – 70 MHz
Sweep width – Type A ± 10 or Type B ± 6 or ± 9.5 as per system, Adjust IF to -3 F = 200
KHz rms, BF= 250 MHz
Y1= IF Amp1.87dB P-P,
Y2 = Delay 16.1 nanosec. P-P
- Sent 200 KHz deviation, Sweep ±10 or ±6 MHz, 70 MHz and 250 KHz BF,-3.0
dBm from MLA Transmitter at IF in
- Distance station will receive on display.
- When IF is through Sweep shows 0.00MHz. Adjust AGC and MGC conditions
for -3 dBm and then from MSA generator.
183
4] BER measurement:- Ask distant station loop on 140 Mb or STM-1 which is installed.
- Carry out BER Test as usual for 0 and ± 15/20 PPM.
- Take out printout for each channel/PPM ,
- Limit: - 1x 10 E -11
5] Jitter measurement :- ( as mentioned in OFC systems Pl)
Carry out I/P Jitter test for both Main and Protection channels for the following
frequencies: - 200 Hz, 500 Hz, 10 KHz, 3500 KHz, and note down the results in UIPP.
O/P Jitter: - Select Filters as HP-1+LP & HP-2 +LP.
For Limits pl see the table.
6] AIS measurement:Measure AIS frequency by frequency counter when there is no data input at other
end. Limit: - ± 15 or 20 PPM
.
7] BER performance at different Receive RF level:Arrange Microwave variable attenuator; connect it in RF Receive path. Check BER
performance at various levels e.g. -40, -65, -70, -75 dBm at 0 PPM, note down the ber
along with AGC voltage in each case.
8] Check of ORDER WIRE:Feed -3.5 dBm tone at various frequencies in O/W Tx pin point and measure at O/W
Rx in point at other station , check O/W response over 0.3 KHz to 3.5 KHz
Limit :- ± 2 dBm.
- Measure idle channel noise ,
- Check O/W availability of O/W in the absence of data ,
- Check O/W for signaling and speech by dialing all stations order wire nos.
9] Protection Switching: - Protection switching may be carried out as per test schedule
under various conditions.
10] Monitoring with BITE: - If Hand held terminal (BITE) is provided with system
then Tx , Rx power and other 10 to 12 parameters are to be checked as per sheet.
11] Remote Supervision on PC, in service monitoring :- Trans , Receive power ,
Alarms like RF IF , DEMOD, X-PIC Tx power are to be monitored with PC.
12] Way side dropping test: - Arrange 2 Mb loops from distant station and check
BER for 0 and ± 50 PPM. The result should be no Error.
184
7-3 Microwave constituents
7-3.1 1. Antenna: - It is a metallic device which transmits and receives Radio signals
in the form of electromagnetic waves. Antenna used for the transmission of Radio, TV,
M/W, GSM and CDMA network.
There are two types of antennas. 1. Omni directional (radiates equally in all direction)
It is a simple rod.
2. Directional (radiates in one direction only)
- Yagi : - Directional antenna of array of dipoles.
- Parabolic: - It is made up of 2 to 4 meter diameter
and its components are Reflector, Feed, Support (Tie beam)
Antenna gain: - =
4 П A (equivalent area of antenna.)
4n (frequency) A (area)
---------------------------------------------- Or -----------Λ 2 (Wavelength)
2
- If size of antenna is reduced, gain is reduced.
- If frequency is increased, gain increased.
- Size of antenna depends upon operating frequency, Atmospheric losses and Rain losses.
Antenna Gain as per the system and diameter:2.0 – 2.3 GHz
0.6 M dia 19.6 dB
1.2 M dia
25.6 dB
1.8 M dia
28.9 dB
12.75 – 13.25 GHz
1.2 M dia
41.7 dB
1.8 M dia
45.1 dB
Diameter
2G
6G
7G
1.8 M
29
38.3
39.2
2.4 M
31.5
40.2
41.2
3.0 M
33.4
43.0
45.0
3.7 M
35.0
44.8
46.4
11 G
43.8 dB
46.2 dB
48.1 dB
49.6 dB
2. Wave-guide Pressurization and dehydration:It is to be done to avoid moisture, dirt, and corrosive gasses. W/G are
to be filled by gas and it is to be properly sealed. Pressure may go down for any leakage.
The machine to generate this slight pressure is called Dehydrator. Sometime high
pressure is also required for sealing against leaks. One of such dehydrator is from High
Tech Pneumatics Dehydrator. LEDs are provided on front panel such as,
- Compressor ON,
- Low power,
- Overload ,
- Alarm, and
- Pressure and Humidity indicators.
Maximum operating Pressure: - 0.25 Kg / cm2
Minimum -------‘’------------ -:- 0.10 Kg / cm2
Low pressure alarm
: - 0.08 Kg / cm2
Pressure should hold for 12 Hours.
185
7-3.2 3. Link Budget:Link budget is to calculate particular M/W system Receive level taking into
consideration all gains and losses in the network. It accounts attenuation of transmitted
signal due to propagation.
Formula: - Pt + Gt + Gr – L – FL – Br Where
Pt – A Transmitter power.
Gt + Gr - Antenna gain in both directions.
L - Free space loss.
FL – Feeder cable loss in both directions.
Br – Branching filter loss at both end.
This Receive power to be calculated for RF IN or Rx IN and not for at antenna port.
. e.g. Free space loss
= 20 log FD + 92.4 = 144.60 dB
Branching filter loss =
5.60 dB
Feeder loss
=
7.52 dB (4.70 dB / 100 Meter.)
Total loss
=
157.72 dB
Antenna gain
= 45.60 X 2
91.20 dB
Trans power
=
30.0 dBm
Total gain
=
121.20 dB
Calculated Receive level =
- 36.52 dBm
4. Wave guide: - It is a hallow copper corrugated with thick blanket in different shape
For carrying electromagnetic waves. It provides most efficient path for electrical
energy at higher frequencies. It is guided electrical energy to flow just like a water pipe.
Three types of waveguides: 1. Rectangular
2. Circular
3. Elliptical
Rectangular and circular waveguides are rigid and elliptical waveguide is flexible.
Rectangular wave guide: Loss
4 GHz
WR229
0.85/100ft
6 GHz
WR137
2.0/100 ft
WR159
1.4/100 ft
7-8 GHz
WR112
2.7/100 ft
11 GHz
WR90
3.5/100 ft
13 GHz
WR75
4.5/100 ft
Used where Critical application and low VSWR is required.
Circular wave guide: - Lowest loss, Support to orthogonal polarization.
Loss:- 4 GHz
1.5 dBm /100 M
6 GHz
1.9 dBm /100 M
11GHz
1.8 dBm /100 M
3. Elliptical W/G
RF Band
Type
Loss/Meter
6.425-7.125 GHz
CWSP 7L
0.046 dB
7.725-8.275 GHz
CWSP 8M
0.060 dB
10.7-11.7 GHz
CWSP 8M
0.090 dB
186
7-3.3
5. Fresnel zone: No. of concentric ellipsoid revolutions which defines volumes in radiation pattern of
circular aperture and it is due to diffraction by circular aperture
The first zone is circular; sub second zones are annular in cross section and concentric
with first.
This zone concept is used to analyze interference by obstacle near the path of radio beam.
TR – Direct path and TAR –
Secondary transmission path
by reflection of M/W energy from A.
T
A
R
Hilly Terrain
6. Fading: - It is a distortion in micro media and introduces errors in radio system
There are two types of fading: 1. Slow (shadow) fading: - It is on large scale due to movements of mobile or
obstruction within propagation environment.
2. Past fading/ Multipath fading / Slow fading: - It is due to multipath propagation
by superimposition of transmitted signal that have experiences due to diffraction,
in attenuation, delay and phase shift while traveling from the source to receiver.
This is by attenuation of single signal. It refers to the time variation of received
signal caused by changes in transmission media. It occurs with small movement
of mobile obstacle.
Remedy: - Diversity through multiple antenna.
Fade Margin: - There should be sufficient margin or sensitivity to accommodate expected
fading to achieve the requisite system quality. It is margin by which Rx level may be
reduced without causing system performance to fall below a specific value.
e.g. let Rx level -40 dBm and system will continue to work till -80 dBm. It means fade
margin is 40 dB
7. X- PIC: - Cross polarization interference cancellers: Frequency reuse technique is adopted in micro system due to limited frequency spectrum
a microwave signal is transmitted to both vertical and horizontal feeds and are coupled, in
the antenna. These two vertical and horizontal polarized signals can cause the
interference due to cross polarization, due to rain or hydrometers which is called cross
polarization interference the reasons are rain, hydro, multipath propagation, antenna
characteristics the cross pick use to cancel the effect of XPD of both signal in received
direction
E.g. now station A transmit power on M1 channel measure at station B on receive of M1
channel.
Now let M2 channel transmit the power, measure receive power at station B of M1
channel again so
XPD will be difference of these two readings.
XPD: - Both received signals are decoupled by XPD of antenna at the receiving end.
187
7-3.4 8. Rain attenuation: - As the water droplets scatters and absorbs radiation the effect of
rain goes on increasing with the increase of frequencies i.e. it is more in 13 GHz system
compared to 4 and 6 GHz
Formula A (dB) = 0.0308 f – 0.1872R, R - Rain rate at that location = -----------Where f = operating frequency within 10-15 GHz
This rain attenuation can be reduced by interconnecting two stations separated by distance
greater than likely size of rain cell i.e. by space diversity.
9, Diversity: - If channel is affected by loading then second channel will take load here in 1+1
configuration, Parallel system is provided so that two systems can carry the same traffic, called
equipment/ frequency diversity. As it is required two sets of equipment/ frequencies, cost of the
equipment is more. Signal is spread out over a large frequency band width.
Types of diversity: 1. Time diversity: - Multiple version of the same signal are transmitted at different time
instance which is useful for forward error correction.
2. Frequency diversity: - A parallel system is provided 1+1 so that both systems should
carry the same traffic. It requires two sets of frequencies. This method is providing both
equipment as well as frequency diversity so it is expensive. This technique a high order of
reliability as fading is least likely to affect both frequencies.
X
X
X
X
RCC1
CONBINER
O/P
RCC 2
TR
I/P
TR
Fig. 7-16
3. Space diversity: - It is applicable in W/B system for larger hops. Each site is provided with
two Antennas. Main antenna at station A transmits signals of all frequencies, at station B signal
received by both antennas main and space diversity which will detect the signal with lowest path
loss between two sites.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
RX 1
Tx
RX 2
188
O/P
Antenna diversity: - In this diversity scheme microwave signals are transmitted along
with different propagation path with the help of second antenna at receiving end to
improve received performance.
7-3.5
10. Hot stand by: If main equipment fails automatic switch over takes place on a stand by equipment set i.e.
a complete set of parallel equipment is switched in almost instantaneously on failure of
operating equipment. This is also called a equipment diversity. It requires only one set of
frequency for frequency for a particular route. Here there is no frequency diversity so one
band of frequency is saved. In this Configuration system is 1+1 on 6+1 i.e. 1 or 6 main
channel and one is protection channel.
11. Hitless switching [Error less switching]:This is carried out at base band stage only for fading condition and manual switching is
for maintenance purpose. Protection switching is inhibited at receive side and change
over taken place when,
1. BER> 10
2. Frame Synch loss when BER >10 -3
3. CMI O/P to Mux is lost
Here Priority is 3>2>1
Process:- Fault in regular channel detected at receiving end.
- Faulty channel switching control is transmitted from received end to transmitted
end.
- Transmitted end switch control disconnect radio pilot signal from the protection
channel and transmit the I/C regular and Prot. channel is detected.
- Hitless switching for regular to protection channel takes place.
12. Free Space loss: It is the loss between two similar antennas in free Space where there is no ground
interference, obstruction.
Free space loss = 32.45 +20 log D+ 20 log F
Where D= Distance in Km
F= Frequency in MHz or
Free loss = 20 Log FD+92.4
Loss of signal strength due to absorbing, diffracting, obstructing, Refracting, Scattering
and reflecting when two Antennas are is free space without connector, Cable loss.
189
13. Wayside dropping: - If any small station in any hop requires 2 MB stream, an
additional card is provided in system so as to handle the traffic of small station
along with main M/W system.
14. IF DADE: - Differential Absolute Delay Equalizer.
It is to adjust the phase difference between signals received through
main and space diversity antenna. This phase difference causes loss of bits. DADE
cable is used and it is placed between IF out and RX2 IN. It contains a delay cable of
length L to compensate the delay time difference between main and Receiver and space
diversity receiver.
15. ATPC: - Automatic Trans Power Control.
ATPC facility was introduced first time by BOSCH in 6 GHz M/W system. It
is available in order to reduce interference from neighboring system this can be
achieved by strapping in conf. management facility in craft terminal. There are three
types of settings, Auto, Tran’s power high and Low. ATPC threshold also cab be set to 40,-50, or -60. Receive power can be adjusted to -33 to -50 dBm by adjusting Trans
power at distant end. This is achieved by some strapping in MOD unit. e.g. for ATPC
ON strap between 8 to 9 and ATPC OFF strap between 10 to 8 .
16. Signature Test :- ( M curve test ) See Fig. 7-18 for Curve
This test is to see how much notch depth can be tolerated for 10 -3
rate. For this test Fade simulator is required.
20 db
10 db
5 db
2 db
Fig. 7-18
190
7-4
2 GHz / 8 MB D/ UHF System A/T
Make: - ARM-2208-M3
7-4.1 Specification: - Frequency band 2.0 to 2.3 GHz.
- Bit Rate 8.448 MHz 75 Ω.
- Tx- Rx Spacing 161 MHz.
- RF Tx: +30 to +32 dBm at antenna port.
- Receive IF frequency 70 MHz.
- Transmitter PA out +34 dBm max.
- AGC dynamic range 45 dBm for threshold.
- Ref Rec. I/P level -42 dBm ± 1 dBm.
- Overload of LNA -35 dBm or better.
- Receive Threshold for BER of 1 x 10-3 -86 dBm at Rx In.
- O/W response ± 2 dBm.
- Noise level -53 dBm.
7-4.2 Before starting Local A/T,
- Ensure availability of M/W testing meters.
- Ask for purchase order/ allotment letter of the system.
- Get Q/A report /stamp.
- Ask for survey report and check surveyed level and nominal level, the deviation
should not be more than ± 3 dBm.
- Mostly towers are existing but whether Tower is A/Td or not? Insist for Tower
clearance letter.
- Mostly SACFA is not applied or registered for clearance, Please note down
registration no.
- Carry out physical inspection of equipment installation, W/G up to the bay and
vertical runway above the bay for power cable is provided or not? And W/G is
properly earthed or not?
- Also take care regarding Air conditioning, Fire detector/ Extinguisher, Sufficient
illumination Light etc.
- Carry out earth resistance test of Equipment, tower and if it is not checked within
6 months.
Make: - ARM Sub- Rack.New-7-19 & 20
P/S-1
+ 12.8
0
+12.8
0
0
- 48
P/S-2
Trans
receiver
Diplexer
TLO In
Mon
Fig. 7-19
191
MUX
Trans
Receiver 0 T
0 R
TLO In 0
0
0
Mon
0
0
0
O/W
+
SUPY
192
-
Disconnect RF cable from Rx In.
Make a test set up as above for AGC calibration.
Select RF frequency and level say -40 dBm and calibrate it for the correct O/P
level.
Put ON RF O/P and monitor AGC voltage.
Note down AGC voltage up to -75 dBm in steps of -10 dBm and there after in 5
dBm steps when E-3 LED lights.
Reading will be -86 to -89 dBm.
Limit is -86 dBm at Rx IN.
This will be a squelch point,
Though -35 dBm is an overload point but do not take risk to reach at -35 dBm just
to avoid damage of receiver.
Go back to restore the E-3 LED to monitor hysterics point.
Repeat test for protection channel.
4. Check of alarms: Verify the following alarm by simulating the conditions.
a. Rx select
b. Tx select
c. Tx power low
d. E-6
AGC voltage
e. E-3
Ground
f. Data unlock
g. RLO unlock
h. Data fail
i. RF fail
j. Synch. fail
k. BER LED O.K
l. Alarm in BITE O.K
m. AIS
-
5. Bay Meter readings: AGC voltage for both channels.
P/S checks -48 and +12.8 V.
BER E-3 and E-6.
-
6. Check of Mux Equipment :There are four 2 Mb tributaries.
Loop IF Out to IF In.
Connect DTA set TX and Rx to1st Trbs TX and Rx on DDF.
Observe loop OK and monitor for 5 minutes for 0 and ±50 PPM.
Repeat BER test for other 3 Trbs also.
Please note that after Local A/T is over write Punch points to the installer and
proceed for Through A/T only when all points have been attended by the installer.
193
7-4.4 HOP/ through A/T
1. Receive level: - Measure RF Rx level at Rx IN and compare it with surveyed level.
- Deviation between surveyed and measured level should be within ±1 dBm.
(Ref: - DOT ML sector 7 GHz/ 34 Mb)
2. BER test: - Ask distant station to loop all four tributaries and check BER on all
four Trbs for 0 and ± 50 PPM for 5 minutes each.
Limit: - 0.00 E-10, No Error.
3. Check of switching operation: - Take loop on one tributary from distant station.
- Connect DTA to 1st tributary and monitor loop getting O.K.
- Now put OFF main transmitter channel.
- Observe that loop getting still OK, It means that data has been switched to
protection channel.
- Same observe by making receiver off.
- Repeat test vice versa and ask other end to observe protection switching.
4. O/W function: - O/W response: - Feed 0.3 to 3.4 KHz tone at 0 level and measure at Rx pts of
O/W at the other end.
- Limit: -10 dB ± 1 dBm / ± 2 dB for 1 KHz
- Measure noise performance -53 dBmop.
- Check O/W for speech and signally O.K or not O.K.
5. BITE Monitoring: The following observations can be red on supervisory channel by operating mode
parameter keys Local/ Remote etc on supervisory channel on front of sub rack.
- AIS status enables.
- Buzzer O.K
- BER is zero.
- terminal status: - Tx-1 O.K Tx-2 O.K
- PS1 +12.8 and PS2 : - +12.8
- Equipment status O.K
- Transmission status: - O.K
- Tran’s selection TXA- Auto.
- HDB-3 I/P O.K
- Tx frequency 2.0625 GHz
- Tx power
A : - +33 dBm B: - +33 dBm
- Receive status: - O.K, O.K.
- Rx Selection: Rx Auto.
- RF level: - -46 to -55 dBm A
-46 to -55 dBm B
- Rx synch A: - O.K B:- O.K
- Rx Synthesizer lock.
- Rx frequency 2.2235 GHz.
- Rx path O.K, O.K
- User alarm US1, US2 – OFF
194
6.
-
Tele command status TC1, TC2 OFF.
BITE Alarms: Eqpt fail: - Any Eqpt failure.
System fail: - Any System failure.
Microprocessor fail: - When processor in supervisory card out.
OB call tone busy: - When Bus call is sent
EOW: - When O/W call is in progress.
7.
-
Alarms: - Monitor following various alarm on Transmitter.
Data fail T/R unit when I/P HDB3 data failure.
RF fails in BITE. When power <+30 dBm.
TLO unlock when synthesizer goes out
Receiver
RLO unlock in BITE/ front panel synthesizer goes 0/0 lock.
Synch fail in BITE when synch is not recovered.
BER LED in BITE BER worst than E-3.
-
8. Check all Tower A/T points as per test schedule along with Earth measurement.
9. Stability: - Put ON stability for 24 Hours by arranging loop from other station.
Limit: - % ES
0.18
% SES
0.003 revised 0.00045
% DM
0.045
7-4.5 Components of System in brief:- Feeder cable: - Coaxial Feeder.
- Cable LCF, 7/8 coaxial Cu 50 Ω.
- Inner Cu tube 9.1 mm.
- Dielectric foam : - P.E 22.0mm
Outer conductor 24.9mm
- Jacket: - polythene black 28.9 mm
- Attenuation 6.5 dB/ 100 m
- Antenna
- 2.4 meter diameter.
- Grid parabolic.
195
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