# CESC Workbook Inner 2011.qxd - Cork Education Support Centre

**Acknowledgments**

Maths in 50 Sports is a resource book for teachers. It is produced through the collaborative efforts of many teachers, lecturers, students and friends. The initial inspiration came from the work of teachers in the 1990s who identified a need for additional support materials in various subjects. This resulted in an initiative of teachers publishing for teachers. This initiative has been supported and facilitated by the Director, James Mulcahy, and staff of the

Cork Education Support Centre. Our hope is that further publications will follow.

Mary Higgins who was involved in the initial group which produced the book "More Maths" in the 1990s is acknowledged for her encouragement to undertake a new publication. Maths in 50 Sports was eventually identified as a worthwhile topic. Con Burns, lecturer in the

Department of Social and General Studies, Cork Institute of Technology, developed the concept with students on the Sport and Recreation Course in CIT. Additional material was developed by teachers and pupils acknowledged below. Finally a team of editors volunteered to bring the book to publication stage. Thanks to Denis Bohane, Denis Burns, Dave Keane,

Joe McCarthy and Mícheál Ó Laoghaire for this work.

We acknowledge Kevin McCarthy for contributions, many from his publication ‘Gold, Silver and Green’ (Cork University Press 2010)- a book that chronicles the story of Irish Olympians and our love of sport. Maths in 50 Sports is an attempt to link this love of sport with the need for practical and motivational maths resources. We hope it will be used to make the teaching of maths concepts more interesting and relevant. The information on each sport is presented in a format that links it to the strands of the curriculum. The Appendices contain examples for further development. Our hope is that teachers and pupils will be encouraged to undertake further research across the curriculum into this wonderful world of sport.

Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of all facts in this book. However as sports evolve rules will change and new records will be established.

We would like to acknowledge Bord Gáis Energy and Bord Gáis Energy Book Club for supporting this publication.

We acknowledge the contributions made by:

The NGB of Governing bodies of each sport and by the following teachers, lecturers, colleagues and students.

Michael O Donnell, Glenville; Gerry Dineen, Dripsey; Donal Whooley Greenmount; Seamus Ó Tuama, Sinéad

Luttrell, Dr. Susan Crawford, Dr. Julie Walsh and Dan O’Sullivan, UCC; Valerie Mulcahy, An Mhainistir Thuaidh,

Brian Cuthbert, John McCarthy and Liam O’Hanlon, Scoil an Spioraid Naoimh; Dave Collins, Mahon; Dermot

O’Driscoll, Carraig na bhFear; Emer Cleary, Schull; Paddy Hill and Mick Dowling, An Mhainistir Thuaidh, Teddy

Vaughan, Michael Moynihan, Diarmaid O’Donovan, Cork Evening Echo, Derry Desmond, Cork Rings; Pat Scanlan,

Ból-Chumann na hÉireann; Mary O’Keeffe, College of Commerce, Jerry McCarthy, JCSP, Aodhán Bohane, Davis

College; Cillian Bohane, Mitchelstown CBS; Kenneth O’Callaghan, Mardyke Leevale Leisure, Paudie O Riordan,

Crumlin.

**www.cesc.ie**

1

**Foreword**

B aiin an o ‘‘M n M atth atta n 5 aiittiic

0 S e s orrtts ea eiis hú n d uiis ciin gu alltta co e c urr ii b e c om htth átth m atta aiittiic ffh orrb

Tu ga n s é s prre ga aíí s co h d a u sá on as hffo na hlla ch eo urra eiid dh m a hm

éa ciille gu ciille am nn s s a,, c a s nn a.. T oiin oll lla ug diirr c úrrs he etth nn aíí s pa pó n ffo gu gu s tte ea há s c úrrs ng a

The Department of Education and Skills have published ‘Literacy and Numeracy for Learning and Life’

‘The National Strategy to Improve Literacy and Numeracy among Children and Young People’. This outlines numeracy as a priority area. It indicates that a sustained national effort to improve numeracy is needed including enhancing performance in important areas of the curriculum such as problem solving and measures.

In the centre we are aware that many innovative teachers in Cork schools are adapting different methodologies for differentiated learning in Maths. One such initiative instigated and tested by a variety of teachers and Principals aimed to improve teaching and learning in Maths by using sports as exemplers. This ’Maths in Sports’ project ably co-ordinated by Denis Burns (UCC) and a large team of practising Primary and Post-Primary teachers initially developed with mediating the Maths curriculum through one or two popular sports. Since then it has grown to 50 sports and it uses the framework of the National Curriculum at its core. It is designed to support a teacher and provide another innovative way of embedding the maths curriculum in an area that may be of special interest to young people.

Cork Education Support Centre supports teacher professional development and also the creation of practical teacher resources and we have supported this creative teaching resource since its inception.

The ‘Maths in 50 Sports’ is essentially designed to mediate the curriculum through individual sports offering teachers pedagogical possibilities for differentiating mathematical concepts for individual children using different sports templates. As Cork City and County prides itself in its love of all sports and there is tremendous involvement of young people in a wide diversity of sports hopefully a creative teacher will see possibilities with the book and/or CD to integrate some of these ideas into classroom practice thereby stimulating interest, attention and active learning.

I would like to affirm the pioneering work of Denis Burns and all the teachers primary and post primary who have given so much of their time voluntarily to develop this resource. This is a continuation of the work done by Mary Higgins and the group of Cork teachers which produced the book "More Maths" in the nineties. The success and usefulness of this has prompted the present publication. I would like in particular to thank Mr. John Mullins, CEO of Bord Gáis Éireann, who has agreed to sponsor the publication of the book and CD.

I believe that this creative resource will be used by inspiring teachers to make maths learning more enjoyable and more importantly help children to understand and apply mathematical concepts both in school and in life and augment their numerical life skills.

James Mulcahy

Director

Cork Education Support Centre

**www.cesc.ie**

2

**Contents**

**Section**

Arrc he

**Page Section**

...............................................

5 2 6.. M orr S po ettiic s .............................................

8

+ R allllyyiin

**Page**

.....................

5

2 7.. M un aiin ee g ................................

5

3.. B

4.. B ad as ntto ba n ........................................

........................................

1

1

5.. B ow g ((R oa .................................

1

6.. B oxxiin ...............................................

1

7.. C an

Crriic ke ng ...........................................

..............................................

1

2 clliin g ..............................................

2

1 0.. D arrtts ................................................

2

0

2 8.. N ettb allll .............................................

6

2 9.. O piic an allll ............................

6 2

3

3

3 2.. R cq ettb ......................................

6

3 3.. R gs ................................................

7 0

3

3

0.. O

1.. P

4.. R

5.. R ntte h a nd ng erriin d P s g .....................................

...................................

..........................................

..............................................

6

6

7

7

2

1 1.. D

1

1 3.. E ue

1

1

1

2.. D

4.. F

5.. F

6.. G

1 7.. G ...................................................

3

1 8.. G na sttiic s ......................................

4

1 9.. H

2

2

2

2

0.. H

2 1.. H

3.. IIn

4.. J

5.. L sa biilliittyy S orrtts ...............................

2 6

Ra gh ng ..............

2 sttrriia n S orrtts ............................

3 0 ciin ng elliic g ciin

.............................................

..............................................

diie

Drra s F ba ..................

3

3

3 an db ...........................................

4 h J oo do ..................................................

g J um um e V au e J

...................

um ...............

4

5

4 oc ke ..............................................

4 6

2 2.. H urrlliin g + Ca mo giie ...........................

4 ow ....................................

5

5 2

3 6.. R gb ................................................

7 6

3 7.. S aiilliin g + urrffiin ..............................

7

3 8.. S ok err ............................................

8

3 9.. S ce ..............................................

8

4 0.. S as h .............................................

8

4 1.. S wiim miin + A qu attiic s ......................

8

4 2.. T blle en niis ....................................

8 8

4 3.. T niis ...............................................

9

4 4.. T np Bo wlliin ................................

9

4 5.. T hrro wiin g S po

Javelin, Discus, Shot Putt and Hammer

......

9 4

4 6.. T hllo n ..........................................

9

4 7.. T O’’ W arr .......................................

9

4 8.. V eyyb allll .........................................

9

4 9.. W eiig httlliiffttiin ...................................

1 0

5 0.. W sttlliin ........................................

1 2

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A pp nd es ...........................................

1

Appendix A: Measures used in Sport

Appendix B: Archery

Appendix C: Cycling

Appendix D: Darts

Appendix E: Dog Racing

Appendix F: Probability of Victory

Appendix G: Equestrian Sports

Appendix H: Capacity of Stadia

Appendix I: Gaelic + Ladies Football

Appendix J: Hurling + Camogie

Appendix K: Mountaineering

Appendix L: Rugby

Appendix M: Sailing

Appendix N: Soccer

**1. Archery**

**Archery developed from the use of a bow and arrow for hunting and combat. In modern times it is mainly a recreational activity or competitive sport. Competitions consist of rounds. A round is the shooting of a specified number of arrows from set distances. Each round is divided into ends. Each archer shoots 3 or 6 arrows in an end before the score is taken and the arrows retrieved. Arrows can be made of wood, aluminium or carbon fibre. Archery is a sport which is suitable for people of all ages and levels of physical ability.**

**1.**

**Number**

• The Irish Amateur Archery Association represents nearly 600 senior, junior and cadet archers in 27 clubs in 13 counties.

• The International Archery Federation (FITA) currently consists of 140 Member Associations. They are the governing bodies for archery in each country.

• Competition in the sport of archery is classified into 9 disciplines: Outdoor Archery;Indoor Archery;Field

Archery; Para-Archery; Run Archery; Clout Archery; Flight Archery; Ski Archery; 3D Archery.

• FITA recognises 9 classes: Women;Men;Cadet Women;Cadet Men;Junior Women;Junior Men;Master Women;Master

Men; Para-Archers.

• There are 4 popular bows - Longbow, Barebow, Recurve and Compound.

• Targets consist of 10, evenly-spaced rings with score values from 1 to 10. The inner 10 ring is called the X ring.

• Outdoor target archery is shot on an open flat field. The athletes shoot 36 arrows at each of four distances. This means that, in total, 144 arrows are shot.

• There are 3 archers in each team in team competitions.

• The archer or team with the highest score wins the competition.

### 5 points

### 4 points

### 3 points

### 2 points

### 1 point

### X Ring 10 points

### 10 points

### 9 points

### 8 points

### 7 points

### 6 points

5

**Archery cont.**

**2.**

**Shape**

• Recurve and compound bows are two popular bows, each with a distinctive shape.

• Arrows are cylinders with triangular tips.

• Targets consist of 10 concentric circles.

• The trestle on which the target sits is set at an angle of 15 degrees.

### Arrow Head or Point Index Feather (Vane)

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### Shaft Crest / Cresting Nock

### Fletching

**3.**

**Length**

• Target archery competitions may be held indoors or outdoors. Indoor distances are - 18m and 25m. Outdoor distances are -Men: 90, 70, 50 and 30m; Women: 70, 60, 50 and 30m.

• In the Olympics, archers shoot from 70 m.

• The largest target shot at is 1.22m (48 inches) in diameter, but, to the archer, standing those 70m (86.4 yards) away, it appears about the size of a thumbtack held at arm's length. The centre of the target stands 1.3 m above the ground.

The centre ring is 12.2 cm (4.8in.) in diameter. There is also a smaller X10-ring, which is 6.1 cm (2.4in.) in diameter. It does not give an extra point, but it serves as tie-breaker for the archers during qualifications or for a world record.

• Targets used for indoor competitions are identical to the ones used in outdoor competitions, but smaller in size. The archers shoot at 25m on a 60cm target and at 18m on a 40cm target for world championships. In outdoor competition archers shoot at a 80cm target from 30m and 50m and at a 122cm target from 70m and 90m.

• The arrow length for a 1.8m (5'10") man is about 69-74cm (27-29") and therefore needs a bow length of 1.7m

(66-68") for target archery. (See estimating the correct length of a bow and arrow p7)

• Arrows have a maximum diameter of 9.3mm, although, for faster flight and less wind drift, most are as small as

5.5mm.

• The length of arrows and bow used by an archer depends on his/her height.

**4.**

**Weight**

• A bow generally weighs between 2kg and 3.6kgs.

• The bow’s draw weight is around 22kgs (48lbs.) for men, and over 17kg (38lbs.) for women.

• Compound bows use wheels at each end to reduce the force required to pull the string (peak weight). This reduced force is called ‘let off’. For example a bow with a 27.2kg (60lbs) peak weight but with an 80% let off requires 20% of

27.2kg or 5.4kg of force to draw the string.

**5.**

**Time**

• Archers have a set time limit in which to shoot their arrows. For indoor competition, this is 2 minutes.

• Arrows in Olympic Archery (70m) can travel at a speed of 150mph.

**6.**

**Data**

• Research Olympic Archery winners on Internet.

6

**Archery cont.**

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**7.**

**Interesting Facts**

• Henry VIII enacted a law banning ball games stating that they interfered with archery practice.

• Archery was a sport in the Olympic Games from 1900 to 1920 and was reintroduced in 1972.

• In 1984 Neroli Fairhill of New Zealand became the first wheelchair athlete to take part in the Summer Olympics.

• The first Irish woman to compete at the Olympic Games also became the first female medal winner from Ireland.

Beatrice Hill Lowe finished third in the archery competition in the 1908 Games at London.

**8.**

**Development**

Number

• What is the maximum score possible when shooting 3, 6, 12, 24 arrows etc.?

• An archer scores with each of 12 arrows. Give possible scores so that the total score adds up to 89, 97, 104, etc.

• In Olympic competition each archer shoots 6 arrows in each end and there are 6 ends in a round. How many arrows are shot in each round?

Shape

• Research and draw different types of bow.

Length

• Estimate the correct length of a bow and arrow for yourself (Internet).

Weight

• Draw weight is the amount of pressure needed to extend the string of the bow. The average draw weight using a recurve (Olympic) bow is 50lbs (27.67kg) for a man and 34lbs (15.42kg) for a woman. What is the total draw weight for a man and a woman if they each shoot 48, 60,72 arrows, etc.?

Time

• In competition world class archers reduce their heartbeat through relaxation techniques to increase accuracy.

Research the normal rate of heartbeat.

• An archer is allowed 20secs to shoot one arrow. How much time allowed to shoot 12, 24, etc.?

### ciis e:: E sttiim attiin g tth e c orrrre en gtth a b ow nd arrrro w..

A. Correct arrow length. (Done in Imperial measure - convert to Metric)

Stretch your arms out in front of you with your palms together and your finger tips fully extended.

Measure from the centre of your chest to the tips of your fingers.

Add ONE INCH to this measurement and this will give your correct arrow length.

B. Correct bow length

Use the arrow length and the chart to help you pick the correct bow length.

Arrrro w L ng

(inches)

14-18

18-20

20-22

22-24

24-26

26-28

28-30

30+

B ow en

(inches) h

48"

54"

58"

62"

64"

66"

68"

70"

7

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**2. Athletics**

**Track and field athletics is a sport, compromising a group of athletic events or disciplines, each of which involves either running, walking, throwing or jumping.**

**1.**

**Number**

• In Athletics competitors are placed 1st, 2nd and 3rd – Gold, Silver and Bronze.

• Athletes wear numbers across their chests when competing.

• Athletics also has relays which is a team effort. A relay team consists of four athletes and one sub.

• A running track consists of 8 running lanes (outdoor).

• The Pentathlon is a multiple event competition (5) consisting of long jump, javelin, 200m, discus and 1500m

• The Decathlon is another multiple event competition (10) consisting of 200m, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400m,

110m hurdles, discus, pole vault, javelin and 1500m.

• The major competitions for athletes are the Olympic games (held every 4 years, leap years) and the World championships (held every 2 years, odd numbered years).

• Morton Stadium is the home of Irish Athletics, with a capacity of 8,800 (Appendix H).

**2.**

**Shape**

• The shape of the athletics track is usually oval, consisting of 2 semi circles joined by 2 straight segments.

**3.**

**Length**

• The typical athletics outdoor track is 400m in length consisting of 2 straights of 100m opposite each other with a semi circle at either end. Indoor tracks are similar in shape with reduced dimensions. (Usually 200m in length).

• Sprints are events up to and including 400m, 50m (indoor only), 55m (indoor only), 60m (indoor only), 100m, 200m &

400m

• Middle distance events are longer than sprints and up to 3000m.

800m, 1000m (uncommon), 1500m, 3000m, 3000m steeplechase.

• Long distance events are 5000m and 10000m. Hurdle events require the runner to run over evenly spaced barriers during the race. 60m hurdles (indoor only), 100m hurdles, 110m hurdles (women) ,400m hurdles (men).

• Relays are events where 4 athletes participate as a team passing a metal baton at the end of each leg. 4x 100m is the most common relay event.

• Road races are events conducted on open roads, sometimes finishing on a track.

10km, 20km, half marathon (21.0975km), Marathon (42.195km). Race walking events measure 10km, 20km, 50km.

**4.**

**Weight**

• Olympic medals are especially designed for each individual Olympic games. Each medal must be at least 3mm thick and

60mm in diameter. The Gold and Silver medals must be made out of 92.5% Silver with Gold covered in 6g of Gold.

**5.**

**Time**

• In athletics all races are timed. In sprints each individual’s time is recorded using electronic starting blocks.

• If there is a tie between competitors a judge must decide the athletes actual time to 1/1000th of a second.

• The world record holder for 100m men is a Jamaican called Usain Bolt who ran 9.58s in 2009 in Berlin.

• The World record holder for 100m women is Florence Griffith Joyner with a time of 10.49s in 1988.

• Only one white man has run under 10 seconds - Christophe Lemaitre.

**6.**

**Data**

• The athlete who has completed his/her distance in the fastest time ever is said to hold the world record for that distance.

The present world records are:

100m - 9.58 seconds / 200m- 19.19 seconds / 400m- 43.18 seconds / 800m- 1 minute 41 seconds

1500m – 3mins 26 seconds / 3000m- 7mins 20 seconds / 5000m-12mins 37 seconds/10.000m-26mins 17sec

**7.**

**Interesting Facts**

• Athletics was first introduced to the Olympic Games in 1896

• The 5 Rings of the Olympic Flag were created in 1914 but not officially used until 1920. The 5 rings represent the 5 continents and their interlinking symbolizes the friendship generated through the games.

8

**Athletics cont.**

**www.cesc.ie**

**7.**

**Interesting Facts cont.**

• Sonia O’Sullivan’s world record in the women’s 2,000 metres, 5mins:25.36secs. established in Edinburgh in July 1994, still stands at date of publication.

• Ultra runner, Tony Mangan from Dublin set a world record for the greatest distance run in 48 hours on a treadmill in

August 2008. He covered a distance of 405.22 km (251.79 miles) on a treadmill at St. Mel’s College, Longford, from 22nd to 24th August.

**8.**

**Other**

• Ireland has won a total number of 23 medals in Olympic competition (1922-2012), 6 of these for Athletics

(track and field).

• Fermanagh born sprinter, Bobby Kerr won Gold in 200 metres and Bronze in 100 metres for Canada at the London

Games of 1908.

• When Ronnie Delaney won the 1500 metres at the 1956 Olympics, he was the first Irish born winner of a running event since 1912. In 2000, Sydney, Sonia O’Sullivan became the first Irish woman to win an Olympic athletics medal.

**9.**

**Development**

Number

• Was there an Olympic Games held in 1956? (Remember they are held on a leap year)

• Between 1984 and 2010 how many world championships were held?

Shape

• Identify all the shapes on the Athletics track?

• What is the perimeter of an outdoor athletics track?

Length

• How many complete laps in a 5000m/10000m race?

• If I run 3 and a half laps, how far have I run?

• If I have run 3365m of a 5000m race, how far have I left to go?

• If an athlete has a stride of 1.4m, how many strides are required to cover a distance of 70m?

Time

• The world record for 5000m is 12 minutes 37 seconds. How far outside the record is a time of 13 minutes 12 seconds?

• How much quicker than 1 minute, is the current 400m record of 43.18 seconds?

• If I run 4 laps at an average speed of 48 seconds per lap, what is my total time in minutes and seconds?

Data

• Graph the world records of a particular discipline over the past 40 years.

• Draw a bar chart of the top 8 medal winning Nations in a particular Olympics.

Other

• Calculate the cost of equipping an athlete competing at an athletics meet i.e. cost of travel, accommodation and equipment.

9

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**3. Badminton**

**Badminton is a racquet sport. It is played by either two players (singles) or two pairs (doubles). Players score points by striking a shuttlecock (shuttle) with their racquet so that it passes over the net and lands in their opponents' half of the court. Each player may strike the shuttlecock once before it passes over the net and a rally ends once the shuttlecock strikes the ground.**

**1.**

**Number**

• The new sport was launched in 1873 at Badminton House, Gloucestershire, England and the game's official name became Badminton.The Badminton World Federation (BWF) was established in 1934.Currently there are over 13,975 affiliated members to Badminton Ireland from 417 active clubs.

• Each game is played to 21 points. If the score reaches 20-all, then the game continues until one side gains a two point lead (such as 24-22), up to a maximum of 30 points (30-29 is a winning score).

• A match is the best of three games.

• In the BWF World Championships, only the highest ranked 64 players in the world, and a maximum of three from each country, can participate in any category.

• A shuttle contains 14 to 16 feathers.

**2.**

**Shape**

• Badminton is played on a rectangular court.

0.48m

5.18m

Side Line f

Side Line f or D oubles or Singles

Centr e Line

1.55m

Net

1.98m

3.98m

Right

Service

Court s

Left or D ouble

Service

Court

0.76m

Lo ng S erv ice

Line f

Bac and

Lo ng S erv ice Li ne f or Si ngl es

6.14m

**3.**

**Length**

• The full width of the court is 6.1m (20ft), and in singles this is reduced to 5.18m (17ft). The full length of the court is

13.4m (44ft). The service courts are marked by a centre line dividing the width of the court, by a short service line at a distance of 1.98m (6ft 6inch) from the net, and by the outer side and back boundaries.In doubles, the service court is also marked by a long service line, which is 0.76m (2ft 6inch) from the back boundary.

• The net is 1.55m (5ft 1inch) high at the edges and 1.524m (5ft) high in the centre. Bottom of the net is raised up and does not touch the floor.

• The shuttle’s dimensions: The cork has a diameter of 25 to 28mm. The circle produced by the overlapping feathers has a diameter of 54mm. Each feather has a length of 70mm.

**4.**

**Weight**

• A shuttle weighs between 4.74–5.50 grams.

10

**Badminton cont.**

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**5.**

**Time**

• Surprisingly, the shuttle is claimed to be the fastest object in sports. The fastest recorded tennis stroke is Andy

Roddick's 153 mph (246 km/h) serve. The fastest recorded badminton stroke is Tan Boon Heung's 261 mph (420 km/h) smash.

**6.**

**Data**

• Research Olympic Badminton winners on the Internet.

**7.**

**Interesting Facts**

• Individual competition in badminton was a demonstration event in the 1972 and 1988 Summer Olympics.

• Since 1992, badminton has been an Olympic sport with five events: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles and mixed doubles.

**8.**

**Development**

Number

• What is the average number of players per club in Ireland?

• In a 3 game match a total of 149 points are scored. Each match is won by 2 points. Give some possible scores.

• In the World Championships 64 players begin in knockout competition. How many matches must the eventual winner play? How many matches are played in total?

• In a game, a player served 96 times. However, 25% of these were foul serves. How many serves were successful?

Shape

• How many rectangles on a badminton court?

• What is the area of a singles/doubles badminton court?

• Draw a badminton raquet to scale.

Length

• How far from the endline is the halfway line?

• What is the perimeter of a singles/doubles badminton court?

• Calculate the length of tape required to mark all the lines on a badminton court.

• In a three game match, a player was calculated to have run

3858m. What was the average distance covered per match?

Weight

• What is the difference between the minimum and maximum weights of a shuttle?

• What is the minimum/maximum weight of nine shuttles?

Time

• Starting in 2006, the World Badminton Championships was changed to an annual event with the goal to give more chances for the players to be crowned as official "World Champions". However, the tournament is not held once every four years to give way to the Olympic Games. How many times has the event been held since 2006?

Other

• Show the Olympic medal count in graph form – a different graph for Gold, Silver and Bronze.

• What percentage of medals has been won by the top three Nations?

11

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**4. Basketball**

**Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points against one another by placing a spherical ball through a high hoop under organized rules. **

**1.**

**Number**

• Basketball was first entered in the Olympics in 1936.

• Players can score baskets for the value of 1 point, 2 points or 3 points.

• 1 point is scored per free shot.

• 2 points can be scored from inside the 3 point arc.

• 3 points can be scored from outside the 3 point arc.

• 5 fouls eliminates a player from the game.

**2.**

**Shape**

• The basketball court is rectangular in shape.

• There is a circle (centre) in the middle of the court where two players must jump for the ball at the start. The 3 point line is a semi-circle line found at both ends of the court.

• Within the semicircle is a trapezoid (key) at the edge of which free throws are taken.

• Points are scored into a circular hoop, in front of a rectangular backboard.

**3.**

**Length**

• The basketball court is 28m long and 15m wide.

• The basketball is 74.912cm in circumference, 23.857cm in diameter.

• The hoop which is 3m from the ground is 45.7cm in diameter.

• The 3 point line (semi circle) has a radius of 6.25m.

• The free throws are taken 4.5 m from the base of the hoop.

• The key measures 9.8m wide at its widest points and 4.5m from the hoop.

28m

15m

**4.**

**Weight**

• The weight of a basketball is 623g for men (size 7), 567g for women (size 6).

**5.**

**Time**

• A game of basketball has four quarters, each lasting 12 minutes.

• There is a 15 minute break for half time and a 2 minute break between each quarter.

• If over-time is needed it lasts five minutes.

• A coach is allowed 1 time out per quarter except for the final quarter when two are allowed.

• The clock is stopped when a foul is committed, for time-outs and when subs are being brought on and off.

• Whenever a team has the ball their team must attempt a shot within 24 seconds.

12

**Basketball cont.**

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**6.**

**Data**

T OP FIIV E N A P OIIN T S OR RS F A L T E

1. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (38,387 points), 2. Will Cahmberlin (31,419 points) 3. Karl Malone (30,599 points),

4. Michael Jordan (29,277 points), 5. Moses Malone (27,409 points).

**7.**

**Other**

• First game of basketball was played in 1892. Only 1 point was scored in the whole match.

• Basketball has been played in Ireland since the 1920’s when Sergeant Major Doogan introduced it to the army.

• The only thing that hasn’t changed since the day Naismith invented basketball is the height of the hoop

**8.**

**Interesting Facts**

• Will Chamberlin holds the record for the most points scored in a game (100)

• In 1967 the slam dunk was made illegal. It was legalized again in 1976.

• The longest basketball game lasted 58 hours.

• In 1913 the bottom of the basketball net was left open meaning it was no longer necessary to retrieve the ball from the net after a score.

• In professional basketball the average height of a player is 1.95m

• Players have no set numbers in basketball. They may choose any 1 or 2 digit number.

• The smallest player (professional) ever to play was Maggsy Bogues at 1.6m

• At 13 years of age, a famous basketball player, Shaquille O Neal was 1.98m tall.

**9.**

**Development**

Number

• A team scores 100 points in total. This includes 35x2pt scores and 6 free throw scores.

The remainder were 3pt scores. How many 3 pointers were scored?

• What is the least number of scores required to score 91 points if there were no free throw scores?

Shape

• If a ball enters a hoop exactly in the middle how much space is left on each side of the ball?

• Investigate all the vertical, horizontal, parallel and oblique lines visible on a basketball court?

• How many right angles can you see on the ground of a lined court?

Length

• If a player scores from a distance of 825cm, what is the value of the score?

• If a player is 1.78m tall, how far above his head is the hoop?

Weight

• What is the weight of a kit-bag (1kg) containing 8 basketballs?

Time

• If a team scores in the 37th minute of playing time, in which quarter does the score occur?

• If no time-outs are used, what is the duration of a basketball game including breaks?

• What is the maximum duration of a game, including breaks, if both teams use all of their allowed time-outs?

0ther

• A professional basketball team share win bonuses among the whole squad. This bonus is 5000 dollars per victory. If they win 36 games during the season and there are 12 squad members, how much does each player receive?

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**5. Bowling (Road)**

**Road bowling is an ancient Irish game. It is played on public roads using a cast-iron bowl or bullet. The object of the game is to cover a designated distance in the least number of throws. It is most popular in Cork and Armagh but is also played in other counties including Waterford, Limerick, Tyrone, Mayo, Galway, Wexford and Louth. International competitions generally involve Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany and Italy and include 1. Irish road bowling. 2. Dutch**

**Moors bowling and 3. German Lofting**

**1.**

**Number**

• Competition, game or score is usually one against one.

• There are 30 grades of All-Ireland championships.

• The national governing body for the sport is Ból-Chumann na hÉireann, which has over 100 clubs in Munster, 20 in

Ulster and five in each of the other provinces.

• Competitions were originally played from one town or village to another. Courses were then shortened to 20 throws and hence competitions were called ‘scores’, which is an old word for the number 20. This term is still used today although most championship courses are covered in 17 or 18 throws.

**2.**

**Shape**

• The bowl or bullet is spherical. The bowl for adult competition has a circumference of 18cm.

**3.**

**Length**

• The length of a course varies but is usually covered in 17-18 throws.

• When contestants finish the course in an equal number of throws, the player furthest over the line is declared the winner.

• A ‘Bowl of Odds’ occurs when one bowler is equal or farther in distance than his opponent but has thrown one less shot. For example Player A throws a distance of 180m, 170m and 80m with his first three shots. His opponent B throws

220m and 215 m in two shots and is thus ahead of A with a shot in hand.

• The bowl may also be lofted over a corner. German bowlers specialise in lofting bowls using a ramp and the world record loft is 106.2 m set by Stefan Alberus in 1996.

• In the Dutch version (Dutch Moors) each contestant throws 10 times, reaching total distances of over 2km (men) and

1.300m (women).

• Examples of very long throws of 28 oz bowl in road bowling competitions include:

- 500m by John Creedon in European Championships in Germany 1977.

- 466m by Danny McParland in Armagh Tournament (Moy Rd.) in 1964.

- 387m by Jerry Boylan in World Championships, Whitechurch, Co Cork in 1987.

- 365m by Michael Toal in McVeigh Cup, Armagh in 1992.

- 295m by 18 year old Killian Kingston on the Tassagh Road, Co. Armagh in 2010.

**4.**

**Weight**

• A bowl weighs 28 oz. (794g) for adults and 24 oz (680 g) or 16 oz (454 g) for youths.

**5.**

**Time**

• The first All-Ireland competition was held in 1963 (Cork v Armagh)

• The first world championships took place in 1985.

• In 2004 Ból Chumann na hÉireann celebrated its Golden Jubilee year

**6.**

**Data**

• Research winners of various World and Irish titles including ‘King of the Roads’ and ‘Queen of the Roads’.

• Make a graph of ‘very long throws’ as recorded in 3 above.

**7.**

**Interesting Facts**

• The Chetwynd Viaduct in Cork is 90 feet high and 21 feet wide. Lofting it has long been an ambition of bowlers. A famous bowler Mick Barry achieved this feat with a 16 oz bowl in 1955. Hans-Georg Bohlken from Germany was the first to loft a 28 oz bowl cleanly over the Viaduct. He used a ramp to achieve this in 1985. It was estimated that to loft the Viaduct one had to stand 45 feet back, loft the bowl at an angle of 77 degrees and at a velocity of at least 20 feet per second.

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**Bowling (Road) cont.**

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**8.**

**Development**

Number and Length

• A supporter often places a sop or clump of grass on the road as a guide to the bowler. What is the length of the throw if the sop is placed 39m away and the bowl travels an extra 95m?

• Player A has an 87 metre lead after 7 throws and throws the bowl 196 m. on her eight throw. However Player B throws a super shot on her eight throw and takes the lead by 12metres. What was the length of Player B’s super throw?

• I can average 130 metres a throw with a 28oz. (794g) bowl. I can throw a 16 oz (454g) bowl on average a distance of

45% farther. How far do I expect to throw the lighter bowl in ten throws?

• A player completes a course of 2.7 km in 18 throws. What was the average length of each throw?

• A player throws an average distance of 172metres. How many throws to complete a course of 2.824km?

• David Murphy (Ireland) reached a mark of 2,010m in ten throws when winning the 2008 European championships.

After three throws he had reached 450m, what was the average length of his next seven throws?

• The Irish senior women’s team won the Gold, Silver and Bronze medals at the 2008 European Championships. Each contestant played ten shots and reached an average distance of 144.95m per shot. The combined score of the first two players was 2.912.2m. What was the score of the third player and the combined score of the three medal winners?

• Player A’s first throw is 126 metres. Player B throws 9 metres less. How long was B’s first throw? In the second shot,

A throws 117 metres. B throws further and is now 17 metres ahead. How long was B’s second throw?

Shape

• Write a newspaper report on a bowling score and draw a road map to illustrate the score.

Weight

• What is the total weight of 12 adult bowls or bullets?

• What is the difference in weight between 10 of the heaviest and 10 of the lightest bowls?

Time

• A score commences at 2.36 pm and finishes at 5.13 pm. How long did it take to complete?

• A score begins at 2.46 pm. Each throw takes an average of 4 mins: 30 secs to complete. Player A takes 17 throws and player B 18 throws. At what time will the score finish?

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**6. Boxing**

**Boxing is a sport (offensive and defensive) where 2 opponents punch each other with gloved fists. The winner is the boxer scoring the most points by the end of the contest or who KOs (knocks out) their opponent. Boxers may be professional or amateur. Amateur boxers wear headgear and are not paid for competing.**

**1.**

**Number**

• Amateur boxing has been a modern Olympic sport since 1904.

• Amateur contests, or bouts, generally last for 4 rounds. Professional bouts last 10-12 rounds.

• Computer scoring was introduced in the 1992 Olympic Games.

• There are normally 3 judges for professional and 5 for amateur contests.

• Once a contest begins, only three people are allowed in the ring.

• In professional boxing, the winner of each round gets 10 points, the loser gets 9 points. A point is deducted from his/her score when a boxer is knocked down.

• The fighter with the most points at the end of a fight wins, provided the fight goes the full distance.

**2.**

**Shape**

• The fight is conducted in a square, strangely called a ring and cornered off by rope on each side.

• The boxing ring is usually 1.3m above floor level.

**3.**

**Length**

• The size of the ring varies from amateur to professional contests.

• Standard size for amateur is 4.575m x 4.575m/ professional 6.1m x 6.1m.

• The biggest ring used for a professional fight was 7.3m x 7.3m.

• The floor of the ring is usually covered by a canvas 2.54cm thick.

**4.**

**Weight**

• Boxing gloves come in different weights ranging from 240g to 600g.

• Boxers only fight against opponents of a similar weight. There are many weight divisions from Straw-weight to

Heavy-weight. These common divisions are:

1. Straw-weight – up to 47.6kg

3. Bantamweight – 52kg to 53.5kg

5. Lightweight – 59kg to 61.25kg

7. Middleweight – 70kg to 72.5kg

9. Cruiserweight 79.3kg to 90.7kg

2.Flyweight – 49kg to 51kg

4. Featherweight – 55kg to 57kg

6. Welterweight – 63.5kg to 66.67kg

8. Light heavyweight – 76.2kg to 79.3kg

10. Heavyweight over 90.7kg

**5.**

**Time**

• Professional boxing matches usually last 10-12 rounds; 3 minutes per round with a 1 minute interval between rounds.

• Amateur boxing matches last for 4x2min rounds, with a minute interval between rounds.

• A bout may be won on a ko or knockout when a boxer is knocked to the canvas by a punch and is unable to continue within 10 secs.

• In amateur boxing one boxer wears red and the other blue. Each judge has a red and blue button. A point is awarded when 3 or more judges push the red or blue button within half a second of a punch making contact.

**6.**

**Data**

Data and information which may be gathered and presented on boxing include world title holders in each weight class, record capacities at fights and individual boxers’ fight record.

• Ireland has won 12 Olympic boxing medals (I Gold, 4 Silver, 7 Bronze).

• Ireland has won 10 world championships (male), 3 female (Katie Taylor).

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**Boxing cont.**

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**7.**

**Interesting Facts**

• Boxing for women is to be introduced in the 2012 Olympic Games. A current female world champion is Irishwoman,

Katie Taylor, in the 60kg catagory.

• In his whole career, Rocky Marciano was never defeated (49 bouts).

• The fastest ever boxing match lasted 10.5 seconds and that included the referee’s “10” count.

• The longest boxing match recorded took place in 1893 in New Orleans when Andy Bowen and Jack Burke fought an amazing 110 rounds over 7 hours for the world lightweight title. The result was declared a ‘no contest’.

• The 3 tallest men ever to box were all 2.23m tall and one of them was an Irishman, Jimmy Cullen, Another Irishman called Dan Donnelly is reputed to have had the longest reach of any boxer.

• Mike Tyson has the World Record for the most wins in under a minute (9) ranging from 30 seconds to 54 seconds.

• The largest outdoor boxing attendance was set in Mexico City 1993. A reported 136,274 attended a light welterweight fight between César Chavez and Grey Haugen.

**8.**

**Other**

• Records of boxing as a sport date back over 5000 years to Ancient Mesopotamia. Another word for boxing is Pugilism.

• Boxing first appeared as an Olympic event in the 7th century B.C.

• During the Roman Empire boxing became more brutal with boxers often fighting to the death.

• With the spread of Christianity in Europe boxing disappeared for the most part until the late 1600s when it resurfaced in England.

• In 1866 the Marquess of Queensbury established the Queensbury rules of boxing (these rules still pertain today).

• Joseph Lyndon was the first Irishman to win an Olympic boxing medal, a Bronze at welterweight in 1904. Amazingly, he also won a Silver medal for soccer at the same Olympics, both while representing the USA.

• Since Ireland got independence in the 1920’s, the country has won more Olympic medals at boxing than in any other sport.

**9.**

**Development**

Number

• If a professional boxer wins 8 rounds and loses 4 rounds in a fight, how many points does he score?

• A boxer wins 5 rounds and loses 7 rounds. His score is 110 points, how many times was he knocked down?

Shape

• What is the perimeter and area of the boxing ring?

Length

• What is the difference in length of one side of a standard professional ring and a standard amateur ring?

• If I walked 8 times around a professional ring, how far have I walked?

Weight

• How many 240g gloves would weigh the same as 6kg?

• If a boxer weighs ___ how much weight does he need to lose to fight in the ______ division?

• If a flyweight weighs ____ how much weight does he need to gain to become a middleweight?

Time

• If a professional boxing match lasts 10 full rounds, what is the duration of the fight including intervals?

• If a boxer is knocked out one minute into the 7th round, how long was the contest?

Data

• Research the number and type (Gold, Silver, Bronze) of Olympic boxing medals won by Irish boxers.

Other

• A ringside seat at the Muhammad Ali v George Foreman world heavyweight title fight in Oct.1974 in Kinshasa, Zaire cost

2,492 dollars. Convert to euro at today’s conversion rate.

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**7. Canoeing**

**Canoes were developed over the course of thousands of years by the native people of North America. The word canoe originated from the word ‘keenu’ - meaning dugout. In modern canoe sport, canoes and kayaks are classified together.**

**1.**

**Number**

• There are seven branches to the sport: Canoe Polo; Canoe Slalom; Freestyle; Paddle Surf; Marathon Racing; Sprint

Racing; Wild Water Racing

• Kayaks use a double blade paddle while a single blade paddle is used in canoes.

• Kayaks and canoes are manufactured in a variety of sizes that carry one (K1 and C1) up to crews of four (K4 and C4).

• The sprint is the oldest discipline in canoeing, sometimes referred to as "Flatwater Racing". It involves:

Kayak - K-1: single seat kayak; K-2: double seated kayak; K-4: four-seated kayak

Canoe - C-1: single kneeling canoe; C-2: double kneeling canoe; C-4: four-person kneeling canoe

• Canoe Polo is a fast-action competitive goal-scoring ball game on water, between two teams of 5 players.

**2.**

**Shape**

• The canoe starts off quite narrow and gradually gets wider before getting narrow towards the end again. Being narrow at the front allows the canoe to cut through the water with minimal amounts of friction.

**3.**

**Length**

• Canoes range from 3.048m (10ft) to over 7.924m (26ft).

• Most paddle blades are about 20cm. across the face and 45-60cm. long.

• Distances covered in races are 200, 500, 1,000m. In "long distance racing" over mostly flatwater, course lengths typically vary from a few miles to the epic 125-mile (201km) Devizes to Westminster International Canoe Marathon on the

Thames, the 120-mile (190km) overnight Au Sable River Canoe Marathon in Michigan, and the 260-mile (420km)

"World's Toughest Boat Race", the Texas Water Safari.

**4.**

**Weight**

• The weight of a canoe/kayak can range from 18.14kg (40lbs.) to 87kg (192lbs).

**5.**

**Time**

• Races vary in duration from 35 seconds to just under 3 minutes for a four-seater kayak.

• Competitors are timed in completing a descent down the rapids of a whitewater course, in the process steering their canoes or kayaks through "gates" (a pair of suspended poles about 1m apart), including going up against the flow, across the flow, and surfing the standing waves of the rapids.

**6.**

**Data**

• Data on Olympic Canoeing winners is available on Internet.

**7.**

**Interesting Facts**

• Canoeing events became part of the Olympic Games in 1936 (1948 for women). In addition to various singles, pairs, and team still-water events for distance and speed, there are white-water racing competitions and, for kayaks, slalom events involving the use of gates similar to those of slalom skiing. The kayak is raced by both men and women. The canoe is raced only by men.

• Ireland has been represented at all of the Olympic Sprint Events since the Munich Games in 1972.

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**Canoeing cont.**

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**8.**

**Development**

Number

• What do the following mean in Olympic competition?

C1-500m (Men)

C2- 500m (Men)

K2 -500m (Men and Women)

K4- 500m (Women)

• Calculate different ways that 24 people can sail in a combination of single, double and 4-seater kayaks.

Time

• The Canoeing World Championships have taken place every year in non-Summer Olympic years since 1970.

How many have taken place to date?

• In a white water or slalom event penalties of 2 secs. are incurred for hitting a gate and 50 secs. for missing a gate.

A contestant finished the course in 200secs. but hit 3 gates and missed 2. Calculate adjusted finishing time in mins and secs.

Weight

• A K4 weighs 73kg. The 4 crew members have an average weight of 56kg. Find the total weight of the Kayak and crew.

Money

• A kayak costs

€571.15. Find the cost to a club of 9 such kayaks.

• Calculate the cost of equipping yourself for kayaking. Include cost of Kayak, paddles and all safety equipment.

Data

• Show the Olympic medal count in graph form – a different graph for each medal. What percentage of Olympic medals has been won by the top three Nations?

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**8. Cricket**

**Cricket is a field game played by two teams. Two sets of wooden stumps or wickets are set 22 yards (20.12m) apart. The fielding side selects a bowler to bowl the ball from one wicket in an attempt to strike the other wicket. The batsman defends the wicket, attempts to strike the ball with a bat and run to the other wicket. This is called a run. If the bowler strikes the wicket with the ball the batsman is out and is replaced by another batsman. The object of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team.**

**1.**

**Number**

• Two teams of eleven players. During a game the batting team will have two players on the field, one at each wicket.

• The bowling or fielding team will have eleven players in different positions around the field.

• Scores are called runs. When the batsman strikes the ball well, more than one run can be scored.

• Four runs are scored when the ball crosses the outfield boundary after touching the ground, and six runs scored when the ball goes over the boundary rope without touching the ground.

• Five runs are awarded if the ball is stopped illegally by one of the fielding team, i.e. with a cap, or a stray helmet.

However, if one of the bowling team catches the ball before it touches the ground the batsman is out.

• There are 10 different ways a batsman can be dismissed. Bowling the ball to strike the wickets is one way to get a batsman out.

• Scoring 100 (or more) runs is called a century. AC Botha and NJ O Brien have both scored 5 centuries for Ireland.

• A match is divided into either 2 or 4 innings and each innings is divided into a number of overs. This can be 20 (in a T20),

50 (in a One-Day International) and a maximum of 90 overs a day for 5 days in a Test match.

• The bowler throws or bowls six times in each over.

• The innings ends when 10 out of the 11 batsmen have been dismissed.

**2.**

**Shape**

• The playing area for cricket is an ellipse, divided into the pitch (rectangle), the infield and the outfield.

• The cricket ball is spherical. It is made of cork and leather and has circumference of 22.4cm - 22.9cm. sightscreen long stop

### The Pitch

8ft 8in

(264cm)

20in

(51cm)

Batting Crease

Return Crease

Popping Crease

Stumps

Bowling Crease

22 yards (2012cm) third man gully point slip s infield wicket

keeper fine leg square leg close

infield cover mid-off bowler mid-on mid-wicket

48in

(122cm) long off long on straight hit sightscreen

**3.**

**Length**

• The pitch (see diagram) is where the batting and bowling take place. The two wickets are 22 yards (20.12m) or one tenth of a furlong (1 chain) apart.

• The cricket bat is not more than 965mm long and the blade (striking part) is not more than 4.25 inches (108mm wide)

• The three stumps of a wicket are 28 inches (71.1 cm) high and when placed together are 9inches (23cm) wide.

**4.**

**Weight**

• Cricket bats (not standardised) generally weigh between 1.1kg -1.4kg.

• The ball weighs between 155.9 and 163g

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**Cricket cont.**

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**5.**

**Time**

• A game of cricket can be played over different periods of time.

• Short games consist of three hours of play. Twenty overs of batting to each side.

• One day games- 6 hours play- 50 overs of batting to each side.

• Two day games – one innings of unlimited time to each side.

• Three, four and five day games- two innings of unlimited time, with a maximum of 90 overs a day for 5 days in a Test match.

**6.**

**Data**

• Research World Cup Winners, Famous Cricket Grounds and capacities, batting and bowling averages in cricket matches.

**7.**

**Interesting Facts**

• Cricket was one of the most popular games in Ireland during the 19th century.

• Ireland played in the 2007 World Cup (50 overs) in Jamaica.

• Nine countries play at the highest level (test cricket). They are Australia, New Zealand, The West Indies, South Africa

India, Pakistan, England, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

• The Ashes is a famous 5 day international cricket match, England v Australia

**8.**

**Development**

Number

• A batter scores a ‘six’, two ‘fours’ two ‘threes’, seven ‘twos’ and eleven ‘ones’. What is his total score?

• A batter scored a six, some fours, twos and ones. His total score was 63. Give some possible combinations.

• How many players on the field at any time?

• If a bowler bowls 10 overs in a game, how many balls has he bowled?

• A bowler concedes 147 runs during a game but also takes 6 wickets. What is his bowling average?

• How many balls have to be bowled in a game of cricket when each side bats for 50 overs?

• Kevin O’Brien of Ireland scored the fastest century in one day cricket (Ireland v. England,Bangalor 2/3/2011). His record braking innings exceeded 100. It consisted of 6 x 6’s, 13 x 4’s, 5 x 2’s and 15 x 1’s. How many runs in total.

Area

• What is the area of the cricket pitch?

• What is the measurement (length, width and depth) of the smallest box that will enclose 6 cricket balls in a 2 x 3 arrangement?

Length

• How far does a batsman have to run to score three runs?

Time

• A team is allotted one and a quarter hours to bowl 20 overs. What is the average time to bowl each over?

• 90 overs are played each day during a five-day cricket match. One team batted for 42% of the time. How many times did they bat?

Data

• Represent statistics from Cricket Ireland website in graphical form.

• Collect data from a Cricket match and represent it in graphical form.

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**9. Cycling**

**The first bicycle was invented in 1817 by the German Baron Karl von Drais. The first bicycles ever made were called**

**“boneshakers”. The first tyres were made of solid rubber. In 1889, the modern tyre and tube were invented by John**

**Boyd Dunlop, a Scotsman who lived in Belfast and Dublin.**

**1.**

**Number**

• Cycling is usually an individual sport.

• 14% of Irish sports cyclists are women.

• A bicycle that can for two people is called a tandem. A bike for three people is called a tridem/triplet while a quadruplet is a bike for four. The largest multi-bike had 40 riders.

• There are various categories of bicycle racing, including: 1. Road Racing, 2. Time Trials, 3. Cycle-Cross, 4. Mountain Bike

Racing, 5. B.M.X., 6. Bike Trials and 7. Cycle Speedway.

**2.**

**Shape**

• A bike has many shapes: circles (wheels), triangle (frame), etc.

• Cyclists often race on tracks which are circular.

**3.**

**Length**

• The length of bicycles can vary. An average gent’s bike is 210cm long.

• The diameter of wheels (not including tyres) of road racing bicycles is usually 70cm.

• The longest bicycle with 2 wheels was 28.1m long.

• Races can vary from a 200m sprint to a race like the Grand Boucle which covered 454km in 2010 and the Tour de France which generally covers more than 3,500km.

**4.**

**Weight**

• A modern bike usually weighs between 7 and 11.5kg. Older road bikes could weigh as much as 18kg.

Every bike used in bike races must weigh at least 7kg.

**5.**

**Time**

• In a traditional individual time trial, riders set off alone at intervals, typically anything from one to five minutes, and try to complete the course in as short a time as possible.

• Cyclists average about 25mph in races, 30mph in time trials and can reach speeds up to 50mph in sprints.

• The Grand Boucle, meaning “great loop”, formerly known as the Tour Feminin is one of the grand tours of women’s cycle races. It describes the series of individual stages which form a circuit around France. It consisted of five stages over four days in 2010.

• The Tour de France is a three-week bicycle race, first held in 1903. It usually lasts 23 days. Cyclists from all over the world take part. The leader at the end of each day wears the yellow jersey. The course changes every year but it always finishes in Paris.

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**Cycling cont.**

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**6.**

**Data**

• Data of Tour de France winners; of Olympic winners; etc. is available on Internet.

**7.**

**Interesting Facts**

• One of the most famous cycling races in Ireland is the Tour of Ireland. ( Appendix C)

• Stephen Roche became only the second cyclist to win the Triple Crown of victories in the Tour de France, the Giro d'Italia stage and the World Road Race Championship in 1987. His son, Nicolas, was 28th out of a field of 219 in the

2010 Tour de France.

• Athlone athlete Mark Rohan secured Ireland’s first ever Paracycling World Championship Gold Medal when winning the H1 Handcycling Road Race in Baie-Comeau, Canada in 2010.

• In 1899, Charles Murphy, of Irish descent, became the first cyclist to ride a mile in under a minute. He achieved this in New York and became known as “Mile-a-Minute Murphy”.

• Siobhán Horgan from Mayo finished 25th in the World Championships in 2008.

• Fiona Meade, a Cork cyclist was 90th out of a field of 190 in the Grand Boucle in July 2010.

• Ireland sent a cycling team by mistake to the Stockholm Olympics in 1912. We weren’t supposed to compete, as we were not an independent country, but the local organisers let us take part instead of sending us home. Our top rider finished sixty-seventh in a time of over twelve and a half hours.

• Bicycle polo was invented by an Irish man named Ralph McCready and was contested as a demonstration sport at the

London Olympics in 1948. Ireland defeated Germany but got no Olympic medals.

• Women’s Cycling was introduced into the Olympics in 1984.

**8.**

**Development**

Number

• Cycling teams usually consist of 9 riders. How many cyclists on 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, etc. teams?

Shape

• Draw all the different shapes of bicycle parts.

Length

• The 97th Tour de France in 2010 covered 3642km over 23 days. What was the average distance covered each day?

• The 2010 FBD Rás covered 1240km over 8 days. What was the average distance covered each day?

• If a wheel has a diameter of 70cm, how many times does it turn when travelling 100m?

Weight

• A cyclist weighs 58kg and her bike weighs 12kg. What is the combined weight?

Time

• A racing cyclist’s average speed is 40kmph. How long will it take to complete a stage that is 180km long?

Money

• A road bike costs

€732.50. Find the cost to a club of seven such bikes.

Data

• Show the Olympic medal count in graph form – a different graph for each medal.

What percentage of Olympic medals has been won by the top three Nations?

• Show the countries of Tour de France winners in graph form.

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**10. Darts**

**Darts is an indoor target game in which small pointed missiles or darts are thrown at a circular board. The board is usually made of cork, bristle or elmwood and is divided up into 20 numbered sectors. **

**1.**

**Number**

• A dartboard is divided into 20 numbered sections, scoring from 1-20 points, seperated by wires running from the small central circle to the outer circular wire.

• Circular wires divide each section into single double and triple scoring areas.

• The bulls eye is divided into outer ring (25 points) and an inner circle (50 points).

• The highest score possible with 3 darts is 180, obtained when 3 darts land in triple 20.

• 3 darts make up a set which are thrown each time a player makes a visit to the board.

• 301 and 501 are the most frequently played games.

**2.**

**Shape**

• Darts are cylindrical in shape with a point at the end.

**3.**

**Length**

• A dart board, 45.72cm in diameter, should be set with the bulls-eye exactly 1.73m from the floor.

• Players throw from behind a line (oche) 2.37m from the base (wall) on which the board is set.

• The maximum length for a dart is 30.48cm but darts usually measure between 10cm-18cm.

**4.**

**Weight**

• Steel tip darts generally weigh 18g-20g. Maximum weight is 52g.

**5.**

**Time**

• Games usually finish when a player successfully counts back from 501 to 0 finishing on a double or bull

(see appendix D for 3 and 2 dart finishes).

• In games over a number of sets, players are allowed take 5 minute breaks after a defined number of sets.

• Darts must stay on board for at least 5 seconds after they are thrown.

• The average speed of a dart hitting a board is 64km per hour.

24

**Darts cont.**

**www.cesc.ie**

**6.**

**Data**

• Although playing from 501 or 301 are the most common games, other variations exist.

**7.**

**Other**

• Some believe that the history of darts began when bored soldiers challenged each other by throwing their spears into turned over barrel bases or a cut up tree trunk as a target.

• To decide who throws first, players throw a dart at the bull’s eye. The closest is said to win the DIDDLE.

**8.**

**Interesting Facts**

• John Lowe was the first player to win the perfect 9 dart leg (501) on TV in 1984. He received £102,000 as a reward.

• The longest unbeaten run at world championships is held by Phil Taylor (44 matches). In his career to date he has won over 130 professional tournaments including 15 world championships.

• The metal frame attached to the face of the board is called the SPIDER (resembles a web).

**9.**

**Development**

Number

• If a player begins a game of 501 by scoring treble 19, double 12 and single 4 , what is remaining?

• If a player has a remaining score of 41 and 2 throws left, name some ways he can finish? (remembering that he must finish on a double)

• What is the least number of scores required to reduce a score of 156 to 0 (must finish on double or bull 50)

• What is the least number of throws required to reduce a score of 501 to 0 (finish on double or bull)

• Can you find a way to get 161 to 0 in 3 throws? (finish on double or bull)

• Can you find a way to get 169 to 0 in 3 throws? (finish on double or bull)

• What is the highest number you can reduce to 0 in your last 3 throws? (finish on double or bull). See 3 dart and 2 dart finishes. ( Appendix D)

Shape

• Investigate the measurements of sectors of the board, ie. area, angle etc.

• Construct a Darts board using compass, ruler and protractor. Draw concentric circles. Calculate degrees needed for 20 sections. Mark off sections using protractor.

Length

• How far does a player walk if he retrieves his darts from the board ___ times during a game?

• If a player is ___ tall, how much shorter is he than the height of the bullseye?

Weight

• A tournament has 48 players. Each player has 3 darts. If each dart weighs 19g, what is the total weight of all the darts?

Time

• Study the game durations during a particular championship and work out average match times etc.

Data

• Information can be obtained as to the variety of darts games played, ie. “killer”, “double in”,

“round the clock” and “jumpers”.

• Tabulate the statistics of a particular game, eg. No of 180s, 140s, 120s, 100s etc.

25

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**Cork Education Support Centre**

**The Rectory, Western Road, Cork.**

**tel: +353 21 4255600 email: [email protected]**

**www.cesc.ie**

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