electronics technology

electronics technology

SEHEME OF STUDIES

ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY

FIRST YEAR

Gen 111 Islamiat & Pakistan Studies

Eng 112 English

Math 123 Applied Mathematics-I

Phy. 112 Applied Physics

Ch. 112 Applied Chemistry

Comp 112 Computer Fundamentals

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El.TR 114 Electrical Circuits

El.TR 123 Electronics Devices

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El.TR 132 Engineering Drawing & Computer Aided Design 0

El.TR 141 Electrical Wiring 0

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SECOND YEAR

Gen 211

Math 213

Islamiat & Pak Studies

Applied Mathematics-II

Coms 211 Communication Skills

El.TR 212 Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves

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El.TR 225

El.TR 233

El.TR 243

El.TR 253

El.TR 264

Analog Electronics

Electrical Instruments & Measurements

Electrical Machines

Communication Systems

Digital Electronics

El.TR 271 PCB Fabrication

T o t a l

THIRD YEAR

Gen 311 Islamiat & Pak Studies

Mgm 311 Industrial Management & Human Relations

OSHE 311 Occupational Safety, Health and Environment

El.TR 314 Computer Architecture

El.TR 322 Equipment Maintenance & Servicing

El.TR 332 Project

El.TR 343 Industrial Electronics

El.TR 353 Power Electronics

El.TR 363 Microcontroller Programming and Applications

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DAE Electronics Technology

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Eng-112

ENGLISH

Total contact hours

Theory

Practical

64

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AIMS At the end of the course, the students will be equipped with cognitive skill to enable them to present facts in a systematic and logical manner to meet the language demands of dynamic field of commerce and industry for functional day-to-day use and will inculcate skills of reading, writing and comprehension.

COURSE CONTENTS

ENGLISH PAPER "A"

1

PROSE/TEXT

1.1 First eight essays of Intermediate English Book-II

16 hours

4.

2 CLOZE TEST

2.1 A passage comprising 50-100 words will be selected from the text. Every

4 hours

11th word or any word for that matter will be omitted. The number of missing word will range between 5-10. The chosen word may or may not be the one used in the text, but it should be an appropriate word.

ENGLISH PAPER "B"

3

GRAMMAR 26 hours

3.1

3.2

3.3

Sentence Structure.

Tenses.

Parts of speech.

3.4 Punctuation.

3.5 Change of Narration.

3.6 One word for several

3.7 Words often confused

COMPOSITION

4.1 Letters/Messages

4.2 Job application letter

4.3 For character certificate/for grant of scholarship

4.4 Telegrams, Cablegrams and Radiograms, Telexes, Facsimiles

4.5

4.6

Essay writing

Technical Education, Science and Our life, Computers,

Environmental Pollution, Duties of a Student.

8 hours

5.

TRANSLATION

5.1 Translation from Urdu into English.

For Foreign Students: A paragraph or a dialogue.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Intermediate English Book-II.

2.

3.

An English Grammar and Composition of Intermediate Level.

A Hand Book of English Students by Gatherer.

12

10 hours

13

5.

Eng-112

ENGLISH

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

PAPER-A

4.

1. DEMONSTRATE BETTER READING, COMPREHENSION AND

VOCABULARY

1.1 Manipulate, skimming and scanning of the text.

1.2 Identify new ideas.

1.3 Reproduce facts, characters in own words

1.4 Write summary of stories

2.

UNDERSTAND FACTS OF THE TEXT

2.1 Rewrite words to fill in the blanks recalling the text.

2.2 Use own words to fill in the blanks.

PAPER-B

3.

APPLY THE RULES OF GRAMMAR IN WRITING AND SPEAKING

3.1 Use rules of grammar to construct meaningful sentences containing a subject and a predicate.

3.2 State classification of time, i.e. present, past and future and use verb tense correctly in different forms to denote relevant time.

3.3 Identify function words and content words.

3.4

3.5

Use marks of punctuation to make sense clear.

Relate what a person says in direct and indirect forms.

3.6 Compose his writings.

3.7 Distinguish between confusing words.

APPLY THE CONCEPTS OF COMPOSITION WRITING TO PRACTICAL

SITUATIONS

4.1 Use concept to construct applications for employment, for character certificate, for grant of scholarship.

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

Define and write telegrams, cablegrams and radiograms, telexes, facsimiles

Describe steps of a good composition writing.

Describe features of a good composition.

Describe methods of composition writing

Use these concepts to organize facts and describe them systematically in practical situation.

APPLY RULES OF TRANSLATION

5.1 Describe confusion.

5.2 Describe rules of translation.

5.3 Use rules of translation from Urdu to English in simple paragraph and sentences.

14

Math-113

APPLIED MATHEMATICS-I

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Total Contact Hours

Theory 96 Hours.

Pre-requisite: Must have completed a course of Elective Mathematics at Secondary School or certificate level.

AIMS: After completing the course the students will be able to

1.

2.

Solve problems of Algebra, Trigonometry, Boolean algebra, and

Analytic Geometry.

Develop skill, mathematical attitudes and logical perception in the

3. use of mathematical instruments as required in the technological fields.

Acquire mathematical clarity and insight in the solution of technical problems.

COURSE CONTENTS

1. Algebraic methods

1.1

Indices and logarithms:

(10 Hours)

1.1.1 Laws of indices.

1.1.2 Laws of logarithms.

1.2

Linear equations and straight line graphs:

1.2.1 Linear equations,

1.2.2 Straight line graph (coordinates on a pair of labeled Cartesian axes, positive or negative gradient, intercept, plot of a straight line);

1.2.3 Experimental data such as Ohm’s law, pair of simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns

1.3

Factorization and quadratics:

1.3.1 Multiply expressions in brackets by a number, symbol or by another expression in a bracket; by extraction of a common factor.

2.

Trigonometric methods and Standard formula to determine areas and

volumes

2.1

Circular measure:

(20 Hours)

2.1.1 Radian;

2.1.2 Degree measure to radians and vice versa;

2.1.3 Angular rotations (multiples of π radians);

2.1.4 Problems involving areas and angles measured in radians;

2.1.5 Length of arc of a circle, area of a sector.

2.2

Triangular measurement:

2.2.1 Functions (sine, cosine and tangent);

2.2.2 Sine/cosine wave over one complete cycle;

15

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4.

2.2.3 Graph of tan A as A varies from 0° and 360;

2.2.4 Values of the trigonometric ratios for angles between 0° and 360°;

2.2.5 Periodic properties of the trigonometric functions;

2.2.6 The sine and cosine rule;

2.2.7 Practical problems

Statistical methods to display data

3.1

Data handling:

(14 Hours)

3.1.1 Data represented by statistical diagrams

3.1.1.2 Bar charts

3.1.1.3 Pie charts

3.1.2 Frequency distributions

3.1.2.1 Class boundaries and class width

3.1.2.2 Frequency table

3.1.3 Variables

3.1.3.1 Discrete and continuous

3.1.4 Histogram (continuous and discrete variants)

3.1.5 Cumulative frequency curves

3.2

Statistical measurement:

3.2.1 Arithmetic mean;

3.2.2 Median;

3.2.3 Mode;

3.2.4 Discrete and grouped data.

Elementary Calculus Techniques

4.1 Differentiation:

4.1.1 Differential coefficient;

4.1.2 Gradient of a curve;

(36 Hours)

4.1.3 Rate of change;

4.1.4 Leibniz notation;

4.1.5 Differentiation of simple polynomial functions,

4.1.6 Differentiation of Exponential functions

4.1.7 Differentiation of Sinusoidal functions;

4.1.8 Problems involving evaluation

4.2 Integration:

4.2.1 Integration as reverse of differentiating basic rules for;

4.2.1.1 Simple Polynomial functions,

4.2.1.2 Exponential functions and

4.2.1.3 Sinusoidal functions;

4.2.2 Indefinite integrals;

4.2.3 Constant of integration;

4.2.4 Definite integrals;

4.2.5 Limits;

4.2.6 Evaluation of simple polynomial functions;

4.2.7 Area under a curve.

16

5. Boolean Algebra and Gate Networks

5.1 Concepts and basic laws

5.2 Sum of Product and Product of Sums

(16 Hours)

5.3 Binary, decimal and octal, presentation of decimal numbers in BCD

5.4 Intercoversion of numbers

5.5 OR Gates and AND Gats

5.6 Logical Expressions and their simplifications.

5.7

Demorgan’s theorems

5.8 NAND Gate and NOR Gates

5.9 Problems

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

Bird J — Engineering Mathematics, Fourth Edition (Newnes, 2003) ISBN 0750657766

Tooley M and Dingle L — BTEC National Engineering (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002)

ISBN 0750651660

17

AMath-113 APPLIED MATHEMATICS-I

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

1. Understand and apply the concepts of Algebraic methods

1.1

Apply Indices and logarithms:

1.1.1 Apply laws of indices.

1.1.2 Apply laws of logarithms.

1.2

Use Linear equations and straight line graphs:

1.2.1 Use Linear equations,

1.2.2 Develop Straight line graph (coordinates on a pair of labeled

Cartesian axes, positive or negative gradient, intercept, plot of a straight line);

1.2.3 Use Experimental data such as Ohm’s law, pair of simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns

1.3

Apply Factorization and Quadratics:

1.3.1 Multiply expressions in brackets by a number, symbol or by another expression in a bracket; by extraction of a common factor.

2.

Use Trigonometric methods and Standard formula to determine areas and

volumes

2.1

Calculate Circular measure:

2.1.1 Calculate Radian;

2.1.2 Calculate Degree measure to radians and vice versa;

2.1.3 Calculate Angular rotations (multiples of π radians);

2.1.4 Solve problems involving areas and angles measured in radians;

2.1.5 Calculate Length of arc of a circle, area of a sector.

2.2

Calculate Triangular measurement:

2.2.1 Understand Functions (sine, cosine and tangent);

2.2.2 Describe Sine/cosine wave over one complete cycle;

2.2.3 Develop graph of tan A as A varies from 0° and 360;

2.2.4 Describe the values of the trigonometric ratios for angles between

0° and 360°;

2.2.5 Apply Periodic properties of the trigonometric functions;

2.2.6 Discuss the sine and cosine rule;

2.2.7 Solve practical problems

3. Apply Statistical methods to display data

3.1

Understand Data handling:

3.1.1 Use data representation by statistical diagrams

3.1.1.2 Develop Bar charts

3.1.1.3 Develop Pie charts

3.1.2 Use Frequency distributions technique

3.1.2.1 Describe class boundaries and class width

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5.

3.1.2.2 Develop Frequency table

3.1.3 Understand Variables

3.1.3.1 Differentiate between discrete and continuous variables.

3.1.4 Develop Histogram (continuous and discrete variants)

3.1.5 Develop Cumulative frequency curves

3.2

Apply Statistical measurement:

3.2.1 Understand and apply concepts of Arithmetic mean;

3.2.2 Understand and apply concepts of Median;

3.2.3 Understand and apply concepts of Mode;

3.2.4 Differentiate and use discrete and grouped data.

Understand and apply Elementary Calculus Techniques

4.1 Apply concepts of Differentiation:

4.1.1 Use Differential coefficient;

4.1.2 Use Gradient of a curve;

4.1.3 Apply Rate of change;

4.1.4 Apply Leibniz notation;

4.1.5 Use differentiation of simple polynomial functions,

4.1.6 Use differentiation of Exponential functions

4.1.7 Use differentiation of Sinusoidal functions;

4.1.8 Solve problems involving evaluation

4.2 Apply concepts of Integration:

4.2.1 Apply Integration as reverse of differentiating basic rules for;

4.2.1.1 Simple Polynomial functions,

4.2.1.2 Exponential functions and

4.2.1.3 Sinusoidal functions;

4.2.2 Use Indefinite integrals;

4.2.3 Understand Constant of integration;

4.2.4 Use Definite integrals;

4.2.5 Use Limits;

4.2.6 Apply evaluation of simple polynomial functions;

4.2.7 Calculate area under a curve.

Solve Technical Problem Using Principles of Boolean algebra

5.1 Explain fundamental Concepts of Boolean algebra

5.2 Explain binary, octal, decimal numbers and their interconversion.

5.3 Explain digital addition and multiplication and its application to OR gates and AND gates

5.4 Illustrate complementation and inversion.

5.5 Evaluate logical expression.

5.6 List basic Laws of Boolean Algebra.

5.7

Explain Demorgan’s theorems

5.8 Explain basic duality of Boolean algebra.

5.9 Derive Boolean expression.

5.10 Explain combinations of Gates.

5.11 Illustrate Sum of Products and Product of sums.

5.12 Drive Product of sum expression

5.13 Explain NAND gates and NOR gates.

5.14 Use the map methods for simplifying expressions.

5.15 Explain sub-cubes and covering.

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Phy.-112

APPLIED PHYSICS

Total Contact Hours

Theory

Practicals

32

96

T P C

1 3 2

AIMS: The students will be able to understand the fundamental principles and concept of physics use these to solve problems in practical situations/technological courses and understand concepts to learn advance physics/technical courses.

2

COURSE CONTENTS

1 MEASUREMENTS.

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Fundamental units and derived units

Systems of measurement and S.I. units

Concept of dimensions, dimensional formula

Conversion from one system to another

Significant figures

SCALARS AND VECTORS.

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

Revision of head to tail rule

Laws of parallelogram, triangle and polygon of forces

Resolution of a vector

Addition of vectors by rectangular components

Multiplication of two vectors, dot product and cross product

2 Hours.

4 Hours.

MOTION

3.1 Review of laws and equations of motion

3.2 Law of conservation of momentum

3.3 Angular motion

3.4 Relation between linear and angular motion

3.5 Centripetal acceleration and force

3.6 Equations of angular motion

4 Hours.

TORQUE, EQUILIBRIUM AND ROTATIONAL INERTIA.

4.1 Torque

4.2 Centre of gravity and centre of mass

4.3

4.4

4.5

Equilibrium and its conditions

Torque and angular acceleration

Rotational inertia

WAVE MOTION.

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

Review Hook’s law of elasticity

Motion under an elastic restoring force

Characteristics of simple harmonic motion

S.H.M. and circular motion

4 Hours.

5 Hours

21

6

5.5 Simple pendulum

5.6 Wave form of S.H.M.

5.7 Resonance

5.8 Transverse vibration of a stretched string

SOUND.

6.1 Longitudinal waves

6.2 Intensity, loudness, pitch and quality of sound

6.3 Units of Intensity of level and frequency response of ear

6.4 Interference of sound waves silence zones, beats

6.5 Acoustics

6.6 Doppler effect.

4 Hours

7

8

LIGHT.

7.1 Review laws of reflection and refraction

7.2 Image formation by mirrors and lenses

7.3 Optical instruments

7.4 Wave theory of light

4 Hours

7.5 Interference, diffraction, polarization of light waves

7.6 Application of polarization in sunglasses, optical activity and stress analysis.

2 Hours

OPTICAL FIBER.

8.1 Optical communication and problems

8.2 Review total internal reflection and critical angle

8.3 Structure of optical fiber

8.4 Fiber material and manufacture

8.5 Optical fiber - uses.

1

2

3

9 LASERS.

9.1 Corpuscular theory of light

9.2 Emission and absorption of light

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

Stimulated absorption and emission of light

Laser principle

Structure and working of lasers

Types of lasers with brief description.

9.7

9.8

Applications (basic concepts)

Application of Laser

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

Farid Khawaja, Fundamentals of Physics Vol-I and II for Intermediate classes

Wells and Slusher, Schaum's Series Physics .

Nelkon and Oyborn, Advanced Level Practical Physics

3 Hours

22

2

Phy.-112

APPLIED PHYSICS

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

1 USE CONCEPTS OF MEASUREMENT TO PRACTICAL SITUATIONS

AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROBLEMS.

1.1 Write dimensional formulae for physical quantities

1.2 Derive units using dimensional equations

1.3 Convert a measurement from one system to another

1.4 Use concepts of measurement and Significant figures in problem solving.

USE CONCEPTS OF SCALARS AND VECTORS IN SOLVING

PROBLEMS INVOLVING THESE CONCEPTS.

2.1 Explain laws of parallelogram, triangle and polygon of forces

2.2 Describe method of resolution of a vector into components

2.3 Describe method of addition of vectors by head & tail rule

2.4 Differentiate between dot product and cross product of vectors

2.5 Use the concepts in solving problems involving addition resolution and multiplication of vectors.

3 USE THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM AND CONCEPTS

OF ANGULAR MOTION TO PRACTICAL SITUATIONS.

3.1 Use law of conservation of momentum to practical/technological problems.

3.2 Explain relation between linear and angular motion

3.3 Use concepts and equations of angular motion to solve relevant technological problems.

4 USE CONCEPTS OF TORQUE, EQUILIBRIUM AND ROTATIONAL

INERTIA TO PRACTICAL SITUATION/PROBLEMS.

4.1 Explain Torque

4.2 Distinguish between Centre of gravity and centre of mass

4.3 Explain rotational Equilibrium and its conditions

4.4 Explain Rotational Inertia giving examples

4.5 Use the above concepts in solving technological problems.

5 USE CONCEPTS OF WAVE MOTION IN SOLVING RELEVANT

PROBLEMS.

5.1

Explain Hook’s Law of Elasticity

5.2 Derive formula for Motion under an elastic restoring force

5.3 Derive formulae for simple harmonic motion and simple pendulum

5.4 Explain wave form with reference to S.H.M. and circular motion

5.5 Explain Resonance

5.6 Explain Transverse & longitudinal waves.

5.7 Use the above concepts and formulae of S.H.M. to solve relevant problems.

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9

6

7

UNDERSTAND CONCEPTS OF SOUND.

6.1 Explain the concepts: Intensity, loudness, pitch and quality of sound

6.2 Explain units of Intensity level and frequency response of ear

6.3 Explain phenomena of silence zones, beats

6.4

6.5

Explain Acoustics of buildings

Explain Doppler effect giving mathematical expressions and its application

USE THE CONCEPTS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS TO LENSES.

7.1 Explain laws of reflection and refraction and draw the images by ray diagrams

7.2 Use the concepts of image formation by mirrors and lenses to describe working of optical instruments, e.g. microscopes, telescopes, cameras.

7.3 Understand wave theory of light

7.4 Explain wave theory of light

7.5 Explain phenomena of interference, diffraction, and polarization of light waves

7.6 Describe uses of polarization

8 UNDERSTAND THE STRUCTURE, WORKING AND USES OF OPTICAL

FIBER.

8.1 Explain the structure of the Optical Fiber

8.2 Explain its principle of working

8.3 Describe use of optical fiber in industry and medicine.

UNDERSTAND THE STRUCTURE, WORKING AND USES OF LASERS.

9.1

9.2

9.3

Explain the stimulated emission of radiation

Explain the laser principle

Describe the structure and working of lasers

9.4 Distinguish between types of lasers

9.5 Describe the applications of lasers in the fields mentioned in the course contents.

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Phy.-112

APPLIED PHYSICS

LIST OF PRACTICALS.

1 Draw graphs representing the functions: a) y = mx for m = 0, 0.5, 1, 2 b) y = x c) y = 1/x

Find the volume of a given solid cylinder using vernier callipers.

Find the area of cross-section of the given wire using micrometer screw gauge.

Prove that force is directly proportional to (a) mass, (b) acceleration, using fletchers' trolley.

Verify law of parallelogram of forces using Grave-sands apparatus.

Verify law of triangle of forces and Lami's theorem

Determine the weight of a given body using a) Law of parallelogram of forces b) Law of triangle of forces

Lami's theorem

8

9

Verify law of polygon of forces using Grave-sand apparatus.

Locate the position and magnitude of the resultant of like parallel forces.

10 Determine the resultant of two unlike parallel forces.

11. Find the weight of a given body using the principle of forces.

12 Locate the center of gravity of regular and irregular shaped bodies.

13 Find Young's Modules of Elasticity of a metallic wire.

14

Verify Hook’s Law using helical spring.

15 Study of frequency of stretched string with length.

16 Study of variation of frequency of stretched string with tension.

17 Study resonance of air column in resonance tube and find velocity of sound.

18 Find the frequency of the given tuning fork using resonance tube.

19 Find velocity of sound in rod by Kundt's tube.

20 Verify rectilinear propagation of light and study shadow formation.

21 Study effect of rotation of plane mirror on reflection.

22 Compare the refractive indices of given glass slabs.

23 Find the focal length of concave mirror by locating center of curvature.

24 Find the focal length of concave mirror by object and image method.

25 Find the focal length of concave mirror with converging lens.

26 Find the refractive index of glass by apparent depth.

27 Find the refractive index of glass by spectrometer.

28 Find focal length of converging lens by plane mirror.

29 Find focal length of converging lens by displacement method.

30 Find focal length of diverging lens using converging lens.

31 Find focal length of diverging lens using converging mirror.

32 Find angular magnification of an astronomical telescope.

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4.

2.

1.

Ch.-112

APPLIED CHEMISTRY.

Total Contact Hours

Theory 32 Hours

Practical 96 Hours

T P C

1 3 2

AIMS After studying this course a student will be able to:

1. Understand significance and role of chemistry in the development of modern

2. technology.

Become acquainted with the basic principles of chemistry as applied in the study of relevant technology.

3.

4.

Know scientific methods for production, properties and use of materials of industrial & technological significance.

Gain skill for the efficient conduct of practical in a chemistry lab.

INTRODUCTION.

1.1

1.2

Scope and significance of the subject.

Orientation with reference to this technology.

1.3 Terms used & units of measurements in the study of chemistry.

4 Hours

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY.

2.1 Symbols, Valency, Radicals, formulas.

2.2 Chemical Reactions & their types.

2.3 Balancing of equations by ionic method.

4 Hours

ATOMIC STRUCTURE.

3.1 Sub-atomic particles.

3.2 Architecture of atoms of elements, Atomic No. and Atomic weight.

3.3 Periodic classification of elements, periodic law.

4 Hours

CHEMICAL BOND.

4.1 Nature of Chemical Bond.

4.2 Electrovalent bond with examples.

4.3

4.4

Covalent Bond (Polar and Non-polar) sigma & Pi Bonds with examples.

Co-ordinate Bond with examples.

GASES AND LIQUIDS.

5.1 The liquid and gaseous state.

5.4 Gas laws (Boyle's law, Charles’s law & Graham's law of diffusion).

5.5 Problems involving gas laws.

5.6 Boiler feed water, scales and treatment.

4 Hours

5.2 The Liquids and their general properties (Density, viscosity, surface tension capillary action etc).

5.3 Gases and their general properties.

4 Hours

7.

6. ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS.

6.1 Definitions with examples.

6.2 Properties, their strength, Basicity & Acidity.

6.3

6.4

Salts and their classification with examples. pH-value and scale.

NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY.

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

Introduction.

Radioactivity (alpha, beta & gamma rays).

Half life process.

Nuclear reaction & transformation of elements.

Isotopes and their uses.

8. ALLOYS.

8.1 Introduction with need.

8.2 Preparation and properties.

8.3 Some important alloys and their composition.

8.4 Uses.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED

1. Text Book of Intermediate Chemistry (I&II)

2.

3.

Applied chemistry for engineers by Eric S. Gyngell.

Engineering Chemistry by M.A. Usmani.

26

4 Hours

4 Hours

4 Hours

27

7.

6.

5.

4.

2.

3.

Ch.-112

APPLIED CHEMISTRY.

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

1. Introduction

1.1 Discuss scope and significance of the subject.

1.2 Describe terms used & units of measurements in the study of chemistry.

Fundamental Concepts of Chemistry

2.1 Discuss Chemical Symbols, Valency, Radicals, and formulas.

2.2 Describe Chemical Reactions & their types.

2.3 Balance the chemical equations by ionic method.

Atomic structure.

3.1 Describe the Sub-atomic particles.

3.2 Discuss Architecture of atoms of elements, Atomic No. and Atomic weight.

3.3 Discuss Periodic classification of elements, periodic law.

Chemical Bond.

4.1

4.2

Describe Nature of Chemical Bond.

Elaborate Electrovalent bond with examples.

4.3 Discuss Covalent Bond (Polar and Non-polar) sigma & Pi Bonds with examples.

4.4 Discuss Co-ordinate Bond with examples.

Gases and Liquids.

5.1

5.2

Describe the liquid and gaseous state.

Discuss the Liquids and their general properties (Density, viscosity, surface tension capillary action etc).

5.3 Discuss Gases and their general properties.

5.4 Explain Gas laws (Boyle's law, Charles’s law & Graham's law of diffusion).

5.5 Solve problems involving gas laws.

Acids, Bases and Salts.

6.1 Define Acid, Base and Salts with examples.

6.2 Describe properties, their strength, Basicity & Acidity.

6.3 Discuss salts and their classification with examples.

6.4 Describe pH-value and scale.

Nuclear Chemistry.

7.1

7.2

7.3

Define Nuclear Chemistry

Describe Radioactivity

Differentiate between alpha, beta & gamma rays

7.3 Discuss Half life process.

7.4 Describe Nuclear reaction & transformation of elements.

7.5 Describe Isotopes and their uses.

8. Alloys.

8.1 Discuss alloys with their needs.

8.2 Describe Preparation process and properties of alloys.

8.3 Discuss some important alloys and their composition.

8.4 Discuss uses of alloys.

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29

Ch.-112

APPLIED CHEMISTRY

LIST OF PRACTICALS

1. To introduce the common apparatus, glassware and chemical reagents used in the chemistry lab.

2.

3.

To purify a chemical substance by crystallization.

To separate a mixture of sand and salt.

4.

5.

To find the melting point of substance.

To find the pH of a solution with pH paper.

To separate a mixture of inks by chromatography.. 6.

7. To determine the co-efficient of viscosity of benzene with the help of Ostwald vasomotor.

To find the surface tension of a liquid with a stalagmometer. 8.

9. To perform electrolysis of water to produce Hydrogen and Oxygen.

10. To determine the chemical equivalent of copper by electrolysis of Cu SO.

11. To get introduction with the scheme of analysis of salts for basic radicals.

12. To analyse 1st group radicals (Ag

+

- Pb

++

- Hg

+

).

13. To make practice for detection 1st group radicals.

14. To get introduction with the scheme of II group radicals.

15. To detect and confirm II-A radicals (hg

++

, Pb

++++

16. To detect and confirm II-B radicals Sn

+++

, Sb

+++

, Cu

, As

+

, Cd

+++

).

++

, Bi

+++

).

17. To get introduction with the scheme of III group radicals (Fe

+++

- Al

+++

, Cr

18. To detect and confirm Fe

+++

, Al

+++

and Cr

+++

.

+++

)

19. To get introduction with the scheme of IV group radicals.

20. To detect and confirm An

++

and Mn

++

radicals of IV group.

21. To detect and conform Co

++

and Ni

++

radicals of IV group.

22. To get introduction with the Acid Radical Scheme.

23. To detect dilute acid group.

24. To detect and confirm CO"

3

and HCO'

3

radicals.

25. To get introduction with the methods/apparatus of conducting volumetric estimations.

26. To prepare standard solution of a substance.

27. To find the strength of a given alkali solution.

28. To estimate HCO'

3

contents in water.

29. To find out the %age composition of a mixture solution of KNO

3

and KOH volumetrically.

30. To find the amount of chloride ions (Cl') in water volumetrically.

30

A.Comp-112 COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS

Total contact hours:

Theory: 32 Hours.

Practical: 96 Hours.

T

1

P

3

C

2

AIMS After completion of this course the students will be able to

1. Describe micro-,mini-, mainframe- and super-computer.

2. Explain the function of CPU, input and output devices of a computer system

3.

4.

5.

Enlist, appropriate specification of a computer for a certain specific purpose.

Apply Windows and Disk operating system for a specific operation.

Design small program in C language.

6. Use MS Word Application Package as a word processor.

Use MS Excel Application Package as an electronic spread sheet.

COURSE CONTENTS

1. ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING (EDP).

1.1.

1.2

1.3

1.4

Data Concept

Specification of CPU, input output devices.

Block diagram of a microcomputer (PC) system.

Input and output devices and CPU

1.5 Processor types.

1.6 Computer concept.

1.7 Secondary storage devices.

1.8 Printers and plotters.

(05 Hours)

2.

3.

1.9 Using computer for application soft ware.

DISK OPERATING SYSTEM (DOS).

2.1

2.2.

2.3

Internal Commands.

External Commands.

Batch files.

(02 Hours)

WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM AND APPLICATIONS (05 Hours)

3.4.1 Introduction of Windows Operating System

3.2 Setting, point & help commands

3.3 Windows explorer

3.4 Microsoft Word

3.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2 File and Edit Command

3.4.3 Other word Processing Commands

3.4.4 Tool Bars & their functions

3.4.5 Getting MS Word help

3.4.6 Creating tables

31

4. Microsoft Excel

4.1 Inserting & Deleting Cells, Rows and Columns

4.2 Managing Worksheets

(07 Hours)

4.3 Formatting and customizing data

4.4 Use of Formulas and Functions (formatting numbers, decimal places, etc )

4.5 Drawing different types of charts

4.6 Use of page setup and printing configurations

5.

4.7 Use of shortcuts

4.8 Macros

C LANGUAGE.

5.1 Introduction to C.

5.2 Variables and Constants.

5.3. Operators.

5.4 INPUT / OUTPUT statement

5.5 Assignment statement.

5.6 Decisions.

5.7 Loops.

5.8 Functions.

(11 Hours)

6. Internet

6.1 Brief history of Internet

6.2 How Internet works

(02 Hours)

6.3 Internet Addressing schemes

6.4 WWW and Web browsing and use of URL

6.5 Search Engine / Proper use of search engine

6.6 What is E-mail ? create E-mail account and attachment of files with e-mail.

TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKS.

1. George Culp Instructional computing Fundamentals for IBM Microprocessors.

2. The Turbo C Programming by Robert Lafore ISBN 067222738X (0-672-22738-X)

3.

Microsoft Office 2003 – The Complete Reference by Jennifer Ackerman Kettell,

Guy Hart-Davis, Curt Simmons ISBN: 0072229950 904 pp.

5.

4.

2.

3.

1.

A.Comp-112 COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Understand Electronic Data Processing (EDP).

1.1.

1.2

Discuss Data Concept

Draw the Block diagram of a microcomputer (PC) system.

1.3 Define Input and output devices and CPU

1.4 Describe Specification of CPU, input output devices.

1.5 Discuss processor types.

1.6 Discuss Computer concept.

1.7 Define Secondary storage devices.

1.8 Describe Printers and plotters.

1.9 Use computer for application soft ware.

Understand Disk Operating System (DOS).

2.1 Describe Internal Commands.

2.2. Describe External Commands.

2.3 Discus Batch files.

Understand Windows Operating System and Applications

3.1 Introduce the Windows Operating System

3.2 Discuss Setting, point & help commands

3.3 Understand the role of Windows explorer

3.4 Understand the Microsoft Word

3.4.1 Introduce MS Word

3.4.2 Describe File and Edit Command

3.4.3 Describe other word Processing Commands

3.4.4 Understand the Tool Bars & their functions

3.4.5 Able to Get MS Word help

3.4.6 Able to creating tables

Understand Microsoft Excel

4.1 Describe Inserting & Deleting Cells, Rows and Columns

4.2 Manage Worksheets

4.3 Use formatting and customizing data

4.4 Use Formulas and Functions ( formatting numbers, decimal places, etc )

4.5 Draw different types of charts

4.6 Describe the use of page setup and printing configurations

4.7 Describe the use of shortcuts

4.8

Describe Macros

Understand C Language.

5.1

5.2

Introduce C Language

Differentiate between Variables and Constants.

32

33

6.

5.3.

5.7

5.8

Discuss Operators.

5.4 Understand INPUT / OUTPUT statement

5.5 Understand Assignment statement.

5.6 Discuss Decisions.

Discuss Loops.

Describe Functions.

Understand Internet

6.1 Discuss the brief history of Internet

6.2 Describe how Internet works

6.3 Describe Internet addressing schemes

6.4 Discuss WWW and Web browsing and use of URL

6.5 Discuss Search Engine

6.6 Describe the proper use of search engine

6.7 Define E-mail.

6.8 Discuss the process of creating E-mail account and attachment of files with e-mail.

A.Comp-112 COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS

LIST OF PRACTICALS

1. DOS

1. Identify key board, mouse, CPU, disk drive, Disks, Monitor & Printer.

2. Practice for booting up of a computer system with DOS system disk and power off system at DOS prompt.

3. Practice for CLS, VER, VOL, DATE & TIME commands.

4. Practice for COPY, REN commands.

5. Practice for DEL, TYPE, PATH, PROMPT, COPY CON, MD, CD, RD

Commands.

6. Practice for FORMAT command with /s, /u, /v switches.

7. Practice for DISKCOPY, DISKCOMP Commands.

8. Practice for SCANDISK, XCOPY, DELETE, TREE, LABEL Commands.

9. Practice for PRINT, UNDELETE commands.

34

2. C-Language

1. Practice for Loading & Unloading Turbo C software interface and identify its menu bar.

2. Creating, Editing and saving a source program.

3. Compiling, linking and Execution a program.

4. Prepare a C-Language program to perform the arithmetic operations by using all arithmetic operators. Also print the result on the screen.

5. Prepare a C-Language program to exchange the values of two variables and to print their actual and exchanged values.

6. Prepare a C-Language program to input a number calculate the cube of the number and print the result on the screen.

7. Prepare a C-Language program to calculate area of rectangle, when length & width are given.

8. Prepare a C-Language program to input a number if the number is divisible by

3 then print the message on the screen that ― the number is divisible by 3‖ use

― block if statement‖.

9. Prepare a C-Language program to calculate the area of a circle, when radius and diameter is given.

10. Prepare a C-Language program to perform simple arithmetic operation by using switch statement.

11. Prepare C-Language programs using IF-THEN-ELSE and For Loop statement.

12. Prepare a C-Language program by using an Array.

13. Prepare a C-Language program by calling functions.

14. Prepare a C-Language program by calling functions with reference.

3. MICROSOFT WORD

1. Practice for loading and unloading MS Word.

2. Practice for creating document and saving it.

3. Practice for various Word-Processing Manu Options.

Launching Word

Highlighting Text

Adding an Address to a Letter

Switch off Red Green Underline in Word

4. Practice for printing a document.

5. Practice for some advance features.

6. Practicing Document Formatting

Bold Text

Italics

Underline

How to set Tabs

Bulleted Text

Setting a Font

Page Margin

More Page Margins

7. Practicing Clip Art.

Inserting Clip Art

Resizing Clip Art

Moving Clip Art

Text Wrapping

4. MICROSOFT EXCEL

1. Practice for loading and unloading MS Excel.

2. Practice for creating sheets, workbooks and save it.

3. Practice for creating Table and Graph in MS Excel.

4. Practice for preparing formulas and arithmetic calculations.

5. INTERNET

1. How to connect Internet.

2. The use of Web browsers.

3. The use of Search Engine.

4. The use of E-mail.

35

36

El.TR-114 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

Total Contact Hours:

Theory: 96 Hours

Practical: 96 Hours

T

3

P

3

C

4

Prerequisite: Applied Mathematics & Physics

AIMS This course is designed so that the student will be able to learn basic knowledge of electricity and electronics.

Understand the operation and application of electrical and electronic principles, devices and circuits.

1. Identify the different electrical/electronics component, devices and types of circuits.

2. Explain the principles of operations and applications of electrical and electronic components, devices and circuits.

3. Use different electrical/electronic components and devices in different circuits’ configuration.

4. Describe the ratings, tolerances, coding and troubles in different electrical and electronics components and circuits.

5. Calculate current, voltage, power and power factor using circuit laws and network theorems.

6. Use filters and coupling in electronics circuits.

COURSE CONTENTS.

1.

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF ELECTRICITY (5 Hours)

1.1 Electron Theory

1.1.1 Structure of atom, K, L and M shell, energy levels and valence electrons.

1.1.2 Energy bands with reference to conductors, insulators and semiconductor.

1.2 Electrical Quantities

1.2.1 Potential, current and resistance.

1.2.2 Units of potential, current and resistance.

1.2.3 Conventional and electron current

2. DC FUNDAMENTALS. (16

Hours)

2.1 Ohm's Law

2.1.1 Definition of Ohm's law.

2.1.2 Problems on Ohm's Law.

2.2. Laws of Resistance

2.2.1 Specific Resistance, conductance and conductivity.

37

2.2.2 Effect of temperature on resistance and temp. Coefficient of resistance.

2.2.3 Problems on R=

ρ

x L/A and R t

= R o

(1+ αt)

2.2.4 Resistance in series, parallel and series-parallel

2.2.5 Calculations on combination of resistance and cells in series, parallel and series-parallel combinations.

2.3 Kirchhoff's Laws

2.4

2.2.6 Power and Energy their units and calculations.

2.2.7 Power dissipation in resistors.

2.3.1 Introduction of Kirchhoff's Laws.

2.3.2 Calculation using KVL and KCL by loop and node methods.

Resistors

2.4.1 Resistor construction and types.

2.4.2 Application of resistors.

2.4.3 Resistors, Power rating.

2.4.4 Resistor, troubles.

2.5 Batteries

2.5.1 Types of DC sources.

2.5.2 Types of cells, Primary and secondary cells (Mercury, silver oxide,

Nickel- cadmium, etc.)

2.5.3 Lead acid batteries.

2.5.4. Solar cell.

2.5.5 Internal resistance of a cell.

2.5.6 Application of cell as constant voltage and constant current source.

3.

NETWORK THEOREMS. (10 Hours)

3.1 Superposition theorem for complex circuits.

3.2 Calculation based on the superposition theorem.

3.3 Thevenin's Theorem circuits simplification.

3.4 Calculation base on the Thevenin's theorem.

3.5 Norton theorem and current source concept.

3.6 Calculation based on the Norton's Theorem.

4. ELECTROSTATICS. (12

Hours)

3.7 Star and Delta transformation.

3.8 Calculation based on Star and Delta transformation .

4.1 Principle of electrostatic, positive and negative charges.

4.2 Laws of electrostatic.

4.3 Electrostatic induction and field strength.

4.4 Properties of electric lines of force and comparison with magnetic lines.

4.5. Dielectric, dielectric strength and its importance permittivity and break down voltage.

4.6 Capacitance and capacitors. Capacitance of parallel plate capacitor.

4.7 Types and uses of capacitors.

38

4.8 Equivalent capacitance for series, parallel and series parallel combination of capacitors.

4.9 Energy stored in capacitors.

4.10 Colour code, tolerance and rating of capacitors.

4.11 Troubles in capacitors.

5.

MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM. (12 Hours)

5.1 Magnetism.

5.1.1 Introduction to magnetism, magnetic line of force, flux, fluxdensity, permeability, Reluctance and their units.

5.1.2 Properties of magnetic lines of force.

5.1.3 Types of magnets.

5.1.4 Magnetic properties of materials (ferro-, para- and dia-magnetic) magnetic induction.

5.2 Electromagnetism.

5.2.1 Electromagnetism, M.M.F. (AT) field intensity (H =AT/L) ampere turns/meter.

5.2.2 B-H curve and magnetic Hystersis.

5.2.3 Electromagnetic induction.

5.2.4 Magnetic field around a current carrying conductor and solenoids cork screw and left hand rules.

5.2.5 Force between two magnetic fields and motor action.

5.2.6 Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic induction (R=NdΦ/dt.)

5.2.7 Lenz's Law.

6. AC FUNDAMENTALS. (16

Hours)

6.1 The simple AC generator.

6.1.1 Sine wave, cycle, wavelength, period, frequency and units.

6.1.2 AC sine wave form and its characteristics. (Instantaneous, peak, average, rms or effective values and their inter relation).

6.1.3 Audio and Radio frequencies, wavelengths and periods frequency spectrum.

6.1.4 Types of alternating wave forms(sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal waves). Fundamental wave and harmonics.

6.2 AC Circuits

6.2.1 AC through pure resistance, Phaser quantities.

6.2.2 Phase angle, in-phase, out of phase waves and phase lag & lead and power factor.

6.2.3 Calculation of V,I and W for resistive circuits through inductance.

6.2.4 Self inductance, and self induced voltage.

6.2.5 Inductive reactance (X

L

=2πfL) Phase relation between V & I.

6.2.6 Phaser diagram and power for pure inductor.

39

6.2.7 AC through R-L series circuit.

6.2.8 Phaser diagram and power in a R-L series circuit.

6.2.9 Time constant ,

τ

=L/R, and its effect.

6.2.10 Impedance, Impedance triangle.

6.2.11 AC through R-L parallel circuit.

6.2.12 Inductive reactance in series, parallel and series-parallel combination.

6.2.13 Q of coil and its effects on selectivity.

6.2.14 Skin effect, AF and RF chokes.

6.2.15 Troubles in chokes.

6.2.16 AC through pure capacitor. Phase relation between V&I and power.

6.2.17 Capacitive reactance

6.2.18 AC through R-C series circuit.

6.2.19 Time constant RC and its effect.

6.2.20 Impedance, Impedance triangle.

6.2.21 AC through R-C parallel circuit.

6.2.22 Capacitive reactance in series, parallel, and series parallel combination.

6.2.23 AC through RLC series circuit, phase relation and power calculation.

6.2.24 AC through RLC parallel circuit phase relation and power calculation.

6.2.25 Simple calculations for RLC circuits.

6.2.26 Concepts of real Power (VI CosΦ) and apparent power (VA), power factor. simple calculations.

7.

TRANSFORMER (8 Hours)

7.1 Principle of transformer, mutual inductance, coefficient of mutual inductance.

7.2 Turn ratio and e.m.f. equation

7.3 Construction, types of transformers, core materials.

7.4 Application of transformers in electronics.

7.5 Auto-transformers, principle, advantages, disadvantages and applications.

7.6 Poly phase transformers, star and delta connection.

7.7 Phase and line voltage and current their, inter-relation.

7.8 Transformer losses.

7.8.1 Core loss.

7.8.2 Hysteressis loss.

8.

RESONANCE. (8 Hours)

8.1 Condition of resonance and resonant circuit.

8.2 Relation between f, L and C at resonance.

8.3 Series resonant circuit. Impedance of series resonant circuit.

40

8.4 Current, voltage and impedance characteristic of series resonant circuit.

8.5 Parallel resonant circuit and its impedance

8.6 Characteristics of impedance, current and voltage of a parallel resonant circuit

8.7

8.8

8.9

Series and parallel resonance curve comparison and Bandwidth.

Q of circuit, Effect of Q on the slope and width of the resonance curves.

Relation between the slope of the resonance curve on selectivity.

8.10 Effect of the L.C. ratio on selectivity.

8.11 Use of resonance circuit in radio and TV receivers.

9.

FILTER & COUPLING CIRCUITS (9 Hours)

9.1 Purpose and action of a filter circuit.

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

Principle of filter action.

Types of filter circuit LPF, HPF, K filter and m drive filter.

Band Pass filter (BPF) Band Stop filter (BSF)

Power supply filter.

Purpose and action of coupling circuit.

9.7 Coefficient of coupling and coupled impedance.

9.8 Type of coupling, RC, Impedance transformer coupling.

9.9 Delay action circuits, R-L and R-C circuits.

9.10 Time constant of R-L & R-C circuits and its importance in rise and fall of circuit current and voltage.

TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKS.

1. Bird J O — Electrical and Electronic Principles and Technology, Second Edition

(Newnes, 2004) ISBN 0750665505

2. Bird J O — Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology (Newnes, 2004) ISBN

0750657847

3. Grob, Bernard, Basic Electronics, Eight Edition.

41

El.TR 114

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

1. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF ELECTRICITY.

1.1 Understand electron theory.

1.1.1 Describe the structure of atom.

1.1.2 Describe the K, L, and M shells.

1.1.3 Describe energy level.

1.1.4 Describe valence electron.

1.1.5 Explain energy bands with reference to conductors, insulators & semiconductors.

1.2 Understand Electrical Quantities

1.2.1 Describe potential, current & resistance

1.2.2 Describe units of potential, current & resistance

1.2.3 Differentiate between conventional current and electron current.

2.

DC FUNDAMENTALS.

2.1 Understand Ohm's Law.

2.1.1 Define ohm's law

2.2.2 Solve problems on Ohm's law

2.2 Understand Laws of Resistance

2.2.1 Define specific resistance

2.2.2 Define conductor

2.2.3 Define conductivity

2.2.4 Explain the effect of temperature on resistance

2.2.5 Explain coefficient of resistance

2.2.6 Solve problems on R=

ρ

x L/A and R t

= R o

(1+xt).

2.2.7 Describe the resistance in series

2.2.8 Describe the resistance in parallel

2.2.9 Describe the resistance in series-parallel

2.2.10 Calculate the combination of resistances and cells, R t

, I & V.

2.2.11 Define power and energy

2.2.12 Describe units of power and energy

2.2.13 Explain the power dissipation in resistors

2.3 Understand Kirchhoffs' Laws

2.3.1 Define Kirchhoff's laws

2.3.2 Solve problems using Kirchhoff voltage law

2.3.3 Solve problems using kirchhoff current law

2.4 Understand Resistors

42

2.4.1 Define resistance and resistor

2.4.2 List types of resistors

2.4.3 Enlist use of resistors

2.4.4 Describe resistor colour codes

2.4.5 Describe power rating of resistor

2.5 Understand Batteries

2.5.1 Name types of D.C source

2.5.2 Describe types of cells (Mercury, Silver oxide, Nickel cadmium)

2.5.3 Describe lead acid battery

2.5.4 Describe solar cells

2.5.5 Explain the internal resistance of cell

2.5.6 Use cells in series and parallel of voltage and constant source of current

3.

NETWORK THEOREMS.

3.1 Understand Superposition, Thevenin & Norton theorems

3.1.1 Explain Superposition theorem

3.1.2 Solve problems based on superposition theorem

3.1.3 Explain Thevenin's theorem

3.1.4 Solve problems based on Thevenin's theorem

3.1.5 Explain Norton's theorem

3.1.6 Solve problems based on Norton's theorem

3.1.7 Explain transformation of star to delta and delta to star networks

3.1.8 Solve problems based on star, delta transformation

4.

ELECTROSTATICS.

4.1 Understanding Electrostatics

4.1.1 Describe principle of electrostatic charges

4.1.2 Explain the effect of negative & positive charges

4.1.3 Describe the laws of electrostatics

4.1.4 Describe electrostatic induction & field strength

4.1.5 Explain properties of electric lines of force

4.1.6 Compare between electric lines of force and magnetic lines of force

4.1.7 Describe dielectric & dielectric strength/dielectric constant

4.1.8 Describe the importance of dielectric & dielectric strength

4.1.9 Describe capacitor and capacitance

4.1.10 Describe breakdown voltage

4.1.11 Describe the capacitance of parallel plate capacitor

4.1.12 Describe types of capacitors

4.1.13 Describe the use of capacitors

4.1.14 Calculate the total capacitance in series in parallel and seriesparallel combination

43

4.1.15 Explain the energy stored in capacitor

4.1.16 Describe the colour coding, tolerance and voltage rating of capacitors

4.1.17 Describe the troubles in capacitors

5.

MAGNETISM & ELECTROMAGNETISM

5.1 Understand magnetism

5.1.1 Describe lines of force, flux, flux density, permeability, reactance

& their units

5.1.2 Explain properties of magnetic lines of force

5.1.3 Describe types of magnets

5.1.4 Explain magnetic properties of materials

5.1.5 Define and list ferromagnetic, paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials.

5.1.6 Describe magnetic induction.

5.2 To understand electromagnetism

5.2.1 Describe electromagnetism

5.2.2 Describe magneto-motive force

5.2.3 Describe field intensity (H=AT/L)

5.2.4 Draw B-H Curve

5.2.5 Explain B-H curve

5.2.6 Describe magnetic hystersis

5.2.7 Explain electromagnetic induction

5.2.8 Explain magnetic field around a current carrying conductor

5.2.9 Define inductor

5.2.10 Write formula for inductance base on physical parameters of an inductor [L= Ur x (N)*2 x A / L]

5.2.11 Solve problem using the above formula for inductor

5.2.12 Describe solenoids

5.2.13 Describe cork screw rule and left hand rule

5.2.14 Explain force between two magnetic fields and motor action

5.2.15 Define Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction (e = NdΦ/dt)

5.2.16 Define Lenz's Law

6.

AC FUNDAMENTALS.

6.1 Understand A.C Waveform

6.1.1 Describe sine wave (cycle, wave length, period, frequency and their units)

6.1.2 Draw AC sine waveform (sinusoidal, square, saw tooth)

6.1.3 Describe Instantaneous value, peak value, average value, r.m.s. value, effective value and their inter-relation

6.1.4 Describe Audio & Radio frequencies and their wavelengths

44

6.1.5 Draw the electromagnetic wave spectrum

6.1.6 Define harmonic and fundamental wave.

6.2 Understand AC circuits

6.2.1 Describe AC through resistors

6.2.2 Describe phase angle, in phase & out of phase waves

6.2.3 Describe phase lag, lead & power factor

6.2.4 Calculate voltage, current & power(v,i,w) for resistive circuit

6.2.5 Describe AC through inductance using waveforms and phasor diagram

6.2.6 Define self inductance & self induced voltage

6.2.7 Explain inductive reactance (X

L

=2πfL), phase relation between voltage & current

6.2.8 Draw its phaser diagram

6.2.9 Calculate power for pure inductor

6.2.10 Explain AC through R-L series circuit

6.2.11 Draw phaser diagram for R-L series circuit

6.2.12 Calculate power factor for R-L series circuit

6.2.13 Calculate time constant for L/R

6.2.14 Define impedance

6.2.15 Draw impedance triangle

6.2.16 Explain AC through R-L parallel circuit

6.2.17 Calculate inductive reactance for series, parallel and series-parallel

inductor

6.2.18 Describe skin effect

6.2.19 Describe audio frequency chokes

6.2.20 Describe radio frequency chokes

6.2.21 Explain ac through pure capacitor

6.2.22 Explain phase relation between voltage, current & power for AC through capacitors

6.2.23 Calculate capacitive reactance (½ π f C)

6.2.24 Explain AC through R-C series circuit

6.2.25 Explain time constant for R-C series circuit

6.2.26 Explain AC through R-C parallel circuit

6.2.27 Calculate capacitive reactance for capacitor in series, in parallel and series parallel combination

6.2.28 Explain AC through RLC series circuit

6.2.29 Explain phase relation

6.2.30 Calculate power for RLC series circuit

6.2.31 Explain real power (VI Cos Φ), apparent power (VI)

6.2.32 Calculate power factor

7.

TRANSFORMER.

7.1 Understand the transformers

45

7.1.1 Explain the principle of transformer

7.1.2 Define mutual induction

7.1.3 Define coefficient of mutual induction

7.1.4 Describe turn ratio of transformer

7.1.5 Describe construction of transformer

7.1.6 Enlist the types of transformer

7.1.7 Enlist core material of transformer

7.1.8 Describe auto transformer

7.1.9 Explain star, delta connections of three phase transformer

7.1.10 Explain phase & line voltage for star and delta connection

7.1.11 Explain phase & line current for star and delta connection of three phase system

7.1.12 List the applications of transformer in electronics: i) ii) iii) step down transformer, impedance matching coupling

8.

UNDERSTAND RESONANCE

8.1 Explain resonance

8.2

7.1.13 Explain transformer losses.

7.1.14 Explain hysteresis loss and core loss.

Explain the relation between frequency, inductance & capacitance at resonant

8.3 Draw the series resonant circuit

8.4

8.5

8.6

Explain series resonant circuit

Draw the characteristics of series resonant circuit

Calculate current, voltage and impedance of series resonant circuit

8.7 Draw the diagram of parallel resonant circuit

8.8 Explain the parallel resonant circuit

8.9 Draw the characteristics of parallel resonant circuit

8.10 Compare series and parallel resonant circuit

8.11 Describe the band width of a resonant circuit

8.12 Describe Q of a circuit

8.13 Explain the effect of the L.C ratio on selectivity

8.14 Enlist the use of resonant circuit in radio and TV receivers

9.

UNDERSTAND FILTERS & COUPLING CIRCUITS

9.1

9.2

9.3

Explain purpose & action of a filter circuit

Enlist the types of filter circuits

Explain low pass filter high pass filter, K-filter & m-derived filters

9.4

9.5

9.6

9.7

Explain band pass filter & band stop filter

Explain action & purpose of a coupling circuit

Define coefficient of coupling

Enlist types of coupling

46

9.8 Explain RC, impedance, and transformer coupling

9.9 Define time constant of R-L & R-C Circuits

9.10 Explain importance of rise and fall of circuit current and voltage in reactive circuit.

47

El.TR -114 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

LIST OF PRACTICAL.

1. Study of Ammeter, Voltmeter and Multimeter.

2. a) Measurement of current, voltage and resistance. b) Verification of Ohm's Law by:

Keeping the voltage constant.

Keeping the resistance constant.

3. a) Verify the laws of series and parallel combination of resistances by i) Ohmmeter method. ii) Voltmeter-Ammeter method.

4. Determine temperature coefficient of resistance.

5. Verify Kirchhoffs' laws.

6. a) Measurement of power by: i) Voltmeter/Ammeter method. b) ii)

Measurement of Energy by: i) ii)

Wattmeter.

Wattmeter and clock method.

Energy meter.

7. a) Practice of resistor colour coding.

8. b) Use of potentiometer and Rheostat as voltage divider and current limiter.

Combine cells in series and parallel and verify the net voltage.

9. a) Study of lead acid battery, practice and use of hydrometer and electrolyte preparation. b) Practice charging of a lead acid battery.

10. a) Determine the internal resistance of a cell. b) Study of E.M.F. of cell and measurement of their voltages.

11. Plot magnetic line of forces of bar magnets in different positions.

12. Study of the magnetic effect of a current carrying: i) Conductor. ii) coil.

13. Study the change in the Magnetic power of an Electromagnet by the introduction of various cores in the coil.

14. Study of the effect on a current carrying conductor when placed in a) magnetic field.

15. Verify Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic induction.

16. Study of various types of capacitors and their colour coding.

17. Verify laws of combination of capacitors.

18. Observe capacitor charging and discharging.

19. Practice plotting sine wave for a given equation e=Em sine Q.

20. Study of sine wave on an oscilloscope and determine its peak, peak to peak, r.m.s. and average values of current and voltage.

48

21. Determine of wave length, time period and frequency of a given AC signal by oscilloscope.

22. Determine the power factor of a given AC circuit using a power factor meter.

23. Study the principles of self and mutual induction in coils.

24. a) b)

Determine the inductance of a choke coil.

Determine the capacitance of a capacitor by using digital LCR meter.

25. Determine phase relationship between voltage and current in inductive circuit by showing phase difference between VR and VL using an oscilloscope.

26. Study the behavior of inductance and capacitance with AC and DC supplies.

27. a) Determine active and reactive power in an AC circuit. b) Calculate power factor for the above circuit.

28. a) b)

Study of the frequency response of R.L.C. series circuit and resonance effect.

Study of the frequency response of R.L.C. parallel circuit and resonance effect.

29. a) b)

Study of various type of transformers used in electronics field.

Study of single-phase transformer and determine its transformation ratio.

30. Practice of core assembly and winding of the core type transformers.

31. a) Study of various type of incandescent and vapour lamps. b) Connect a fluorescent tube light.

32. Verify the line and phase values of current and voltage in star and delta connections.

49

El.TR 123: ELECTRONICS DEVICES

T

2

Total contact hours:

Theory:

Practical:

64 Hours

96 Hours

Pre-requisite: Physics course at the level of Secondary school Certificate.

P

3

C

3

AIM. Apply the principles of operation and function of various basic electronic components and devices to practical circuits.

SPECIFIC:

1. Identify various basic electronics components/devices used in the field of electronics.

2. Explain the principle of operation of various types of electronic components/devices.

Identify the function of each electronic components/devices. 3.

4.

5.

6.

Identify the pin configurations of various electronics components/devices.

Identify specification of electronic components/devices.

Identify the use of electronic components.

COURSE CONTENTS.

1. VACUMM TUBE. (04 Hours)

1.1 Introduction of various types of Electron emission

1.2 Diode, Construction, operation and applications.

1.3 Triode, Construction, operation and applications.

1.4 Function of multigrid in electron tubes. (tetrode and pentode)

2. DIODES AND APPLICATIONS.

2.1 Semiconductors

(10 Hours)

2.1.1 Semiconductor Doping

2.1.2 Intrinsic & Extrinsic Semiconductors

2.2 Biasing the PN junction.

2.2.1 Depletion region, Junction barrier potential

2.2.2 Forward and reverse bias.

2.3 Rectifier Diode.

2.4

2.3.1 Half wave and full wave (Bridge) rectifier.

2.3.2 Ripple factor, surge current.

2.3.3 Rectifier filter: L, PI and T filters.

Diode Multiplier.

2.4.1 Voltage multiplier circuits (Doubler, Tripler, Quadrupler)

5.

3.

2.5 Diode Data Sheet

2.6 Diode as a switch.

2.6

2.7

Diode Clipper

Diode Clamper

BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS (12 Hours)

3.1 Transistor types and BJT construction

3.2 Basic Transistor operation, Forward, Reverse Bias. Transistor current.

3.3 Transistor Parameters and Ratings

3.4 Transistor as a voltage amplifier.

3.5 Transistor amplifier configuration, comparison and uses.

3.6 Transistor, modes of operation.

3.7 Transistor as a switch.

3.8 Transistor Clipper

4. FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR

4.1 Field Effect Transistor and its Biasing:

(09 Hours)

4.1.1 Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET).

4.1.2 JFET Characteristics and parameter.

4.1.3 JFET Biasing.

4.1.4 Metal oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET) types.

4 1.5 MOSFET Biasing.

4.2 Introduction of Chopper Amplifier

4.2.1 Transistor Chopper

4.2.2 FET Chopper.

SPECIAL DIODES.

5.1 Zener Diodes.

5.1.1 Zener Diode as voltage Regulator, percentage of regulation.

5.1.2 Zanier limiting.

5.2 Optical Diodes

5.2.1 Light Emitting Diode(LED)

5.2.2 Liquid crystal Diode(LCD)

5.2.3 Photo diode.

5.3 Varactor Diodes.

(15 Hours)

5.3.1 Varactor in Tuning Circuits.

5.4 Other Diodes.

5.4.1 Schottky diode, construction, characteristics, uses

5.4.2 Tunnel Diode, Negative resistance region.

5.4.3 Tunnel Diode Oscillator.

5.4.4 PIN Diode.

5.4.5 Step Recovery Diode.

5.4.6 LASER Diode

5.4.7 IMPATT Diode.

5.4.8 Gunn Diode.

50

6.

THYRISTOR & SPECIAL DEVICES. (14 Hours)

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.9

The shockley diode.

Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)

Simple SCR Applications.

Silicon Controlled Switch (SCS)

Diac and Triac

Unijunction Transistor (UJT)

Photo diode & Photo transistor

Light Activated SCR (LASCR)

Opto-coupler.

TEXT /REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. TL Floyd ―Electronics Devices‖ 8 th

ed. Prentice Hall, ISBN 0131140809

51

52

El.TR 123: ELECTRONICS DEVICES

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES.

1. VACUMM TUBE.

1.1 Describe various types of electron emission with application.

1.2 Understand construction, operation and applications of basic electron tubes.

1.2.1 Discuss construction of diode tube.

1.2.2 Explain operation of diode tube.

1.2.3 Describe application of diode tube.

1.2.4 Discuss construction of triode tube.

1.2.5 Explain operation of triode tube.

1.2.6 Describe application of triode tube.

1.2.7 Discuss Function of multigrid in electron tubes. (tetrode and pentode)

2.

SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES.

2.1 Understand principles, characteristics and application of various types of semiconductor diodes.

2.1.2 Explain semiconductor doping

2.1.3 List donor and acceptor materials for silicon & germanium

2.1.4 Define majority carries and minority charge carriers.

2.1.5 Explain the effect of temperature & light on the resistance of

(a) intrinsic semiconductor and

(b) Extrinsic semiconductor

2.2 PN Junction Theory:

2.2.1 Draw a PN Junction

2.2.2 Define the terms depletion layer capacitance & diffusion capacitance.

2.2.3 Sketch the voltage-current characteristics curve for a PN junction.

2.2.4 Describe R

F

, R

R

and I s

from the diode characteristics curve.

2.2.5 List the typical values of barrier potentials for silicon and germanium diode.

2. 3 Understand PN Diode Applications

2.3.1 List the uses of PN diode.

2.3.2 Explain half and full wave rectifier using circuit diagram.

2.3.3 Define Ripple factor, surge current.

2.3.4 Explain function of rectifier (L, PI, T) filters

2.3.5 Explain its uses as voltage multiplier (doubler).

2.3.6 Explain the working of a voltage doubler circuit.

2.3.7 List the applications of voltage multiplier circuit.

2.3.8 Explain the operation of a diode as a switch.

2.3.9 Describe the operation of Diode Clipper

53

3.

2.3.10 Describe the operation of Diode Clamper.

BIPOLAR JUNCTION (BJTs).

3.1 Understand bipolar junction, its biasing and basic BJT circuits.

3.1.1 Draw and label physical structure and symbols for NPN and PNP transistors.

3.1.2 Show the four operation mode of BJT and application of each mode (cut off active, active and inverse).

3.1.3 Compute the values of I

E

, and Beta (dc) for given value of I

B

and

I

C

.

3.1.4 Explain the working of basic BJT voltage amplifier w.r.t. bias of junctions, flow of charge carriers and transistor currents.

3.1.5 Define cut off and breakdown voltages of transistor.

3.1.6 List four maximum ratings specified by manufacturers’ parameters of transistors.

3.1.7 Drive the expression for I

C

versus I

B

for CE. configuration in the active region

3.1.8 Sketch the input and output static characteristics curves for common base (CB) amplifier.

3.1.9 Repeat 3.1.8 for CE amplifier.

3.1.10 Repeat 3.1.8 for CC amplifier.

3.1.11 List the types of transistor structures.

3.1.12 Draw and label the structure of epitaxial transistor.

3.1.14 Enlist the advantages of I.C. over conventional circuit

3.1.15 List the three broad categories of BJTs with package types used for each

3.1.16 Identify the high frequency limitations of BJT.

3.2 Discuss the operation of Transistor as a switch.

3.3 Discuss the operation of Transistor Clipper.

4.

FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR

4.1 Understand Field Effect Transistors.

4.1.1 Explain the principle of the n-channel JFET using illustrations.

4.4.2 Sketch the construction of n-channel JFET & its symbol.

4.4.3 Sketch & label a family of drain characteristics of a n-channel

JFET.

4.4.4 Define the terms I Dss and Vp.

4.4.5 Explain the effect of change in VGS the JFET characteristics.

4.4.6 Explain above from 4.4.1 thu. 4.4.3 for p-channel JFET.

4.4.7 Define the major data-sheet parameter of a JFET.

4.4.8 Explain the principle of n-channel enhancement MOSFET.

4.4.9 Sketch & label the family of drain characteristics of n-channel enhancement MOSFET

4.4.10 Repeat 4.4.9 for n-channel depletion-enhancement MOSFET.

54

4.4.11 Sketch symbols for p & n-channel JFET, n-channel enhancement

MOSFET, p- and n- channel depletion- enhancement MOSFET.

4.4.12 List three advantages of n-channel over p-channel MOSFET.

4.4.13 Sketch the cross- section of V-MOSFET.

4.4.14 Explain the working of V-MOSFET.

4.4.15 Compare the V-MOSFET with other FETs.

4.4.16 List the applications of MOSFET.

4.4.17 Sketch the cross section of complementary MOSFET (CMOS).

4.4.18 List the applications of CMOS.

4.5 Understand FET Biasing

4.5.1 Explain to FET biasing.

4.5.2 Draw DC load line and locate bias point on the family of drain characteristic curves of JFET.

4.5.3 Draw a self-bias arrangement p-channel & n-channel JFET.

4.5.4 Set the Q-point for a self-biased JFET.

4.5.5 Explain the Q-point stability of a JFET.

4.6

4.5.6 Show zero bias of D-MOSFET.

Understand Basic FET Circuits

4.6.1 List the three of configuration of FET amplifier.

4.6.2 Sketch & label the circuit for CS-JFET amplifier.

4.6.3 Write down expressions for Av and Zi and Zo for CS,CD,CG,JFET amplifier

4.6.4 Draw MOSFET amplifier configuration .

4.6.5 Define (i) transconductance, gm (ii) drain resistance, rd and (iii) amplification factor of an FET.

4.7 Understand chopper amplifier

4.7.1 Explain the principle of chopper amplifier

4.7.2 Draw the block diagram of a chopper amplifier

4.7.3 Explain the function of each block of chopper amplifier.

4.7.4 Explain the operation of FET chopper amplifier.

5.

SPECIAL DIODES.

5.1 Understand the characteristics and applications of diode used for a special purposes Zener Diode.

5.1.1 Explain the construction of Zener and draw its symbol

5.1.2 Draw the V-I characteristic of a Zener diode.

5.1.3 Identify the characteristic features of Zener diode.

5.1.4 Explain the working of Zener diode as voltage regulator.

5.1.5 Define the terms line regulation, and load regulation for Zener diode.

5.1.6 Compare formulae to find the range of series resistor (R s

) and load resistor (R

L

) for a Zener regulator for given variations in line voltage and current.

5.1.7 List the applications of Zener diode.

55

5.2 Understand the characteristics of Optical Diodes (LED, LCD and

Photodiode)

5.2.1 Define the term optical devices.

5.2.2 List the name of opto electronic devices.

5.2.3 Explain the electroluminescence process in LED.

5.2.4 List the materials with colour of emission used for LED

5.2.5 Explain the effect of bias on the operation of normal and colour emissive LED.

5.2.6 List the applications of LEDs.

5.2.7 Describe the term Liquid crystal.

5.2.8 Explain the working principle of both types of LCD.

5.2.9 Compare LCD with LED.

5.2.10 List the applications of LCDs.

5.2.11 Explain the operation of a photo diode.

5.2.12 List the materials used for photodiode with their colour sensitivity and characteristics

5.2.13 List the applications of photodiodes.

5.2.14 Draw a circuit of photoelectric relay using a photodiode.

5.3 Understanding Varactor Diode application

5.3.1 Define the term of Varactor Diode

5.3.2 Sketch the construction of Varactor Diode

5.3.3 Explain the working of Varactor Diode in Tuning circuit

5.4 Understand construction and applications of other diodes

5.4.1 Define the term of Schottky diode.

5.4.1.1 Discusses construction of Schottky diode.

5.4.1.2 Describe construction of Schottky diode.

5.4.1.3 List uses of Schottky diode.

5.4.2 Define the term of Tunnel diode.

5.4.2.1 Discusses negative resistance in Tunnel diode.

5.4.2.2 Explain working of Tunnel diode Osillator.

5.4.3. Describe construction of PIN Diode.

5.4.3.1 Discuss working principle of PIN Diode.

5.4.3.2 List uses of PIN Diode.

5.4.3. Describe construction of Step Recovery Diode.

5.4.3.1 Discuss working principle of Step Recovery Diode.

5.4.3.2 List uses of Step Recovery Diode.

5.4.3. Describe construction of LASER Diode.

5.4.3.1 Discuss working principle of LASER Diode.

5.4.3.2 List uses of LASER Diode.

5.4.3. Describe construction of Gunn Diode.

5.4.3.1 Discuss working principle of Gunn Diode.

5.4.3.2 List uses of Gunn Diode.

6.

THYRISTORS & SPECIAL DEVICES.

6.1 Understand thyristors UJT with their applications.

6.1.1 Explain the term thyristor

56

6.1.2 Name the important thyristor family devices

6.1.3 Sketch the construction of shockley diode

6.1.4 Draw and label the forward v-i characteristics for a shockley diode

6.1.5 List the methods to turn off and turn on shockley diode

6.1.6 Explain the working of a shockley diode relaxation oscillator.

6.1.7 Compare an SCR with a shockley diode.

6.1.8 Draw and label the schematic symbol for an SCR

6.1.9 Explain the turn-on process of SCR using transistor equivalent circuit.

6.1.10 Sketch and label the V-I characteristics for an SCR.

6.1.11 Interpret the SCR data sheet parameters.

6.1.12 Explain the phase-control of an SCR .

6.1.13 Draw basic circuits for SCR used in the areas of a) power control b) switching and c) protection

6.1.14 Explain briefly the circuits drawn under 6.1.13.

6.1.15 Compare a Diac with a shockley diode in terms of a) b) c) a) b) basic structure symbol operation

6.1.16 Compare a triac with an SCR in terms of basic structure symbol operation

6.1.17 Sketch and label the transistor equivalent circuit for a triac

6.1.18 Explain the phase-shift control of triac with a diac as a switching device as used in light for UJT.

6.2 Understand Unijunction Transistor characteristics.

6.2.1 Sketch the structure of a unijunction transistor (UJT).

6.2.2 Sketch the equivalent circuit and symbol for UJT.

6.2.3 Explain the working of UJT circuit of 6.2.2.

6.2.4 Draw the V-I characteristic curve for UJT.

6.2.5 Draw a circuit for UJT relaxation oscillator.

6.2.6 List the three factors controlling the period of oscillation frequency of a relaxation oscillator

6.2.7 Sketch a UJT time delay circuit.

6.3 Understand properties of Photo-sensitive BJT&LASCR.

6.3.1 compare a photo-transistor with a conventional BJT.

6.3.2 List the factors controlling collector current of a photo transistor.

6.3.3 Draw the circuit for forward and reverse acting light operated relay using a phototransistor.

6.3.4 Sketch the circuit of a photo darlington pair

6.3.5 List the requirements to turn-on and turn-off of light activated SCR

(LASCR).

6.3.6 List the types of input devices normally used in a opt coupler

57

6.3.7 List five types of output devices used in opto-coupler.

6.3.8 List the applications of opto-coupler.

El.TR.123: ELECTRONICS DEVICES

Total Contact Hours:

Practical: 96 Hours.

LIST OF PRACTICAL

1. Identify the various diodes, transistors & IC package, number system and terminals.

2.

3.

Draw the forward & reverse characteristics of a P.N. junction diode.

Assemble a half wave diode rectifier circuit and observe its input and output waveforms.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Assemble a full wave diode rectifier circuit with center tab transformer and observe its input and output waveforms.

Assemble a full wave bridge rectifier circuit and observe its input and output waveforms.

Demonstrate the working of diode as a switch with LED as a load.

Assemble L type filter circuit and calculate its ripple factor.

Assemble π and T type filter circuits and calculate their ripple factors.

9. Troubleshoot a faulty diode rectifier circuit.

10. Assemble a voltage doubler circuit observe its input and output.

11. Assemble a voltage tripler circuit observe its input and output.

12. Assemble a voltage quadrupler circuit observe its input and output.

13. Consult data sheet for a transistor to study its parameters and ratings.

14. Plot the input & output characteristics of a transistor in common base configuration.

15. Plot the input & output characteristics of a transistor in common emitter configuration.

16. Plot the input and output characteristics of transistor in common collector configuration.

17.

Assemble a BJT Switch circuit and check it’s in put and output.

18. Plot the transfer characteristics curve of transistor in CE configuration.

19. Assemble a transistor voltage amplifier and find its voltage gain.

20. Demonstrate the characteristics of CB, CE & CC amplifier using curve tracer.

21. Consult data sheet for a FET to study its parameters and ratings.

22. Plot a characteristics curve for a common source FET amplifier.

23. Demonstrate MOSFET as a switch and study its performance.

24. Draw the forward and reveres characteristics of a Zener diode.

25. Use a Zener diode as voltage regulator with diode rectifier.

26.

Assemble a Zener diode Limiter circuit and observe it’s in put and output waveforms.

27. Assemble a double Zener diode limiter circuit and observe it’s in put and output waveforms.

28. Assemble a seven segment display with the help of LEDs.

29. Assemble a circuit of photoelectric relay using a photodiode.

58

30. Plot the characteristics curves for SCR and UJT.

31. Assemble a UJT relaxation oscillator and observe its waveform.

32. Assemble a light dimmer with the help of Diac and Triac.

El.TR. 132 ENGINEERING DRAWING & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

T P C

0 6 2

Total contact Hours

Practical: 192 Hours.

Description: Lettering, Numbering, Conventional lines and dimensioning. Drawing symbols, simple circuits (Electrical and Electronics).

Objectives: To help the students in understanding the basic methods of drawing. a) Pencil b) Computer

COURSE CONTENTS.

LIST OF PRACTICAL

(a) CONVENTIAL DRAWING

1.

2.

Use and care of drawing instruments.

Use of various grades of pencils.

3.

4.

Single stroke and inclined & gothic letters.

Practice in lettering, vertical and inclined.

5.

6.

7.

Practice in numbering, vertical and inclined.

Alphabets of line.

Line values.

8.

9.

Tangency exercises.

One view drawing.

10. Dimensioning techniques.

128 Hrs.

11. System of dimensioning.

12. Kinds of dimensioning.

13. Preparation of multi-view drawing for the given models showing conventional placement of dimensions there upon.

14. Drawing tracing.

15. Simple pictorial drawings: a) Isometric b) Oblique. c) One point perspective.

16. Comparison of orthographic first angle and third angle methods of projection.

17. Production and use of simple standard working drawing.

18. Practice in the use of Electronics symbols.

19. Schematic drawing of simple circuits (resonant/filter circuits)

20. Practice in single line diagram schematic drawing.

21. Practice in line and curve tracing.

22. Drawing light, fan and plug circuit.

23. Drawing circuits, Hotel, Hospital call bell system.

24. Draw the circuit diagram of a fluorescent tube.

25. Circuit diagram of half wave rectifier.

26. Circuit diagram of full wave rectifier.

27. Circuit diagram of common emitter amplifier.

28. Circuit diagram of common collector amplifier

29. Circuit diagram of common base amplifier.

30. Circuit diagram Audio frequency amplifier.

31. Circuit diagram of Radio frequency amplifier.

32. Circuit diagram of push pull power amplifier.

33. Circuit diagram of intercom

34. Circuit diagram of thyristor, working as rectifier.

35. Block diagram of Oscilloscope.

36. Block diagram of TV receiver.

37. Block diagram of a radio transmitter.

38. Flow chart symbol.

39. Flow chart for a program in Basic language.

(b) USE OF COMPUTER FOR DRAWING

40. Introduction of computer aided drawing

41. Introduction of AutoCAD

42. Introduction of Work bench

Drawing of circuits given at Sr. No.25 to 34 above

TEXT /REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Auto CAD 2005,2007 A Problem Solving Approach, Indian Edition

2. Auto CAD 2000 Fundamentals, Indian Edition

3. Understanding 2002 with Applications.

64 Hrs.

59

El.TR. 141 ELECTRIC WIRING

Total contact Hours.

Practical: 96 Hours

ELECTRIC WIRING

LIST OF PRACTICAL:

T

0

P

3

1.

2.

3.

4.

Study of wiring tools, accessories and cables (types and sizes)

Handling of Wire

Handing of Cable

Introduction to International Standards

5-6 Making straight, Tee and Duplex joints

7-12 Single Phase Wiring. a) Single lamp circuit controlled by SPST switch. b) Single lamp controlled by two ways (SPDT) switches c) Single lamp with 5A socket each controlled by individual SPST switches. d) Wiring bell circuit controlled by single and three push buttons. e) Fluorescent Lamps Circuit f) Installation of Test Board

C

1

13-32 Three Phase Industrial Wiring.

Making of Single Phase Motor Connection Reversing by Drum Switch

Making of 3 Phase Motor Connection by Drum Switch ON / OFF with Indicator

Making of 3-Phase Motor Connection Reversing by Drum Switch with indicator

Making of 3 Phase Motor Connection ON / OFF by Contactor

Making of 3 – Phase Connection Reversing by Contactor

Making of 3 Phase Motor Connection Star Delta by Drum Switch

Making of 3 Phase Motor Connection Star Delta by Contactor

Making of 3 Phase Motor Connection Star Delta Auto by Contactor

Making of 3 Phase Motor Connection Star Delta Reversing by Contactor

Making of 3 phase motor connection 2 speed by contactor

60

61

DAE Electronics Technology

62

DAE Electronics

Technology

63

64

65

66

67

Math-213 Applied Mathematics-II

Total Contact Hrs:

Theory: 96 Hrs.

T

3

Aims & Objectives:

After completing the course the students will be able to:

1 use advanced graphical techniques

P

0

C

3

2 apply algebraic techniques

3 understand how to manipulate trigonometric expressions and apply

trigonometric techniques

4 apply calculus for technical problems.

COURSE CONTENTS:

1. Advanced Graphical Techniques

1.1 Graphical solution for

(09 Hours)

1.1.1 a pair of simultaneous equations with two unknowns,

1.1.2 finding the real roots of a quadratic equation,

1.1.3 the intersection of a linear and a quadratic equation,

1.1.4 non-linear laws.

2. Algebraic Techniques

(42 Hours)

2.1 Arithmetic progression (AP):

2.1.1 First term, common difference, nth term;

2.1.2 Arithmetic series

2.1.3 Solution of Problems

2.2 Geometric progression (GP):

2.2.1 First term, common ratio, nth term,

2.2.2 Geometric Series,

2.2.3 Solution of practical problems such as range of a speeds on a drilling machine.

2.3 Vector Analysis:

2.3.1 Scalars & Vectors,

2.3.2 The unit Vectors i, j, k,

2.3.3 Direction Cosines,

2.3.4 Scaler or Dot Product,

68

69

2.3.5 Vector or cross Product,

2.3.6 Analytic Expression for Dot and Cross Product,

2.3.7 Phasors

2.3.8 Significance of j operator,

2.3.9 Different forms.

2.3.10 Algebraic operation.

2.3.11 Problems

2.4 Complex numbers:

2.4.1 Addition,

2.4.2 subtraction,

2.4.3 multiplication of a complex number in Cartesian form,

2.4.4 vector representation of complex numbers,

2.4.5 modulus and argument,

2.4.6 polar representation of complex numbers,

2.4.7 multiplication and division of complex numbers in polar form,

2.4.8 polar to Cartesian form and vice versa.

2.5 Statistical techniques:

2.5.1 Simple measure of central tendency,

2.5.1.1 Mode,

2.5.1.2 Mean,

2.5.1.3 Median

2.5.2 Standard deviation for ungrouped and grouped data (equal intervals only),

2.5.3 Variance

3. Trigonometric Expressions and Trigonometric Techniques

(12 Hours)

3.1 Trigonometrical graphs:

3.1.1 Amplitude, period and frequency,

3.1.2 Graph sketching for values of x between 0 and 360°;

3.1.3 Phase angle and phase difference;

3.1.4 Combination of two waves of the same frequency

3.2 Trigonometrical formulae and equations:

3.2.1 The compound angle formulae for the addition of sine and cosine function

4.

(33Hours)

Calculus

4.1 Differentiation:

4.1.1 Review of standard derivatives,

4.1.2 Differentiation of a sum,

4.1.3 Differentiation of function of a function,

4.1.4 Product and quotient rules,

4.1.5 Numerical values of differential coefficients,

4.1.6 Second derivatives,

70

4.1.7 Turning points (maximum and minimum)

4.2 Integration:

4.2.1 Review of standard integrals,

4.2.2 Indefinite integrals,

4.2.3 Definite integrals

4.3 Integration by using Partial Fractions.

4.3.1 Introduction to partial fractions.

4.3.2 Linear distinct factors case-I.

4.3.3 Linear repeated factors case-II

4.3.4 Quadratic distinct factors case-III.

4.3.5 Quadratic repeated factors case-IV.

4.3.6 Integration of rational fractions.

4.4 Differential Equations.

4.4.1 Differential equation of order-1

4.4.2 Differential equation of order-2

TEXT/ RECOMMENDED BOOKS

Bird J — Engineering Mathematics (Newnes, 2003) ISBN 0750657766

Tooley M and Dingle L — BTEC National Engineering (Newnes, 2002) ISBN

0750651660

Math-213 Applied Mathematics-II

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:

1. Understand and apply Advanced Graphical Techniques

1.1 Apply graphical solution for

1.1.1 a pair of simultaneous equations with two unknowns,

1.1.2 finding the real roots of a quadratic equation,

1.1.3 the intersection of a linear and a quadratic equation,

1.1.4 non-linear laws.

2. Understand and apply Algebraic Techniques

2.1 Use Arithmetic progression (AP):

2.1.1 Understand First term, common difference and nth term;

2.1.2 Apply Arithmetic series

2.1.3 Solve Problems related to Arithmetic series.

2.2 Use Geometric progression (GP):

2.2.1 Understand First term, common ratio and nth term,

2.2.2 Apply Geometric Series,

2.2.3 Solve practical problems such as range of a speeds on a drilling machine.

2.3 Understand and apply Vector Analysis:

2.3.1 Differentiate between Scalars & Vectors,

2.3.2 Describe the unit Vectors i, j, k,

2.3.3 Describe Direction Cosines,

2.3.4 Describe and apply Scaler or Dot Product,

2.3.5 Describe and apply Vector or cross Product,

2.3.6 Discuss Analytic Expression for Dot and Cross Product,

2.3.7 Discuss Phasors

2.3.8 Describe the significance of j operator,

2.3.9 Discuss Different forms.

2.3.10 Apply Algebraic operation.

2.3.11 Solve Problems

2.4 Use Complex numbers:

2.4.1 Add complex numbers,

2.4.2 Subtract complex numbers,

2.4.3 Use multiplication of a complex number in Cartesian form,

2.4.4 Represent vector in complex numbers,

2.4.5 Use modulus and argument,

2.4.6 Apply polar representation of complex numbers,

2.4.7 Multiply and divide complex numbers in polar form,

2.4.8 Transform polar to Cartesian form and vice versa.

71

72

2.5 Apply Statistical techniques:

2.5.1 Understand Simple measure of central tendency,

2.5.1.1 Calculate Mode,

2.5.1.2 Calculate Mean,

2.5.1.3 Calculate Median

2.5.2 Calculate Standard deviation for ungrouped and grouped data

(equal intervals only),

2.5.3 Calculate Variance

3. Understand and apply Trigonometric Expressions and Trigonometric

Techniques

3.1 Develop Trigonometrical graphs:

3.1.1 Describe amplitude, period and frequency,

3.1.2 Sketch graph for values of x between 0 and 360°;

3.1.3 Describe phase angle and phase difference;

3.1.4 Sketch graph for combination of two waves of the same frequency

3.2 Use Trigonometrical formulae and equations:

3.2.1 understand and apply compound angle formulae for the addition of sine and cosine function

4. Apply Calculus rules

4.1 Apply Differentiation:

4.1.1 Describe standard derivatives,

4.1.2 Differentiate of a sum,

4.1.3 Differentiate function of a function,

4.1.4 Apply product and quotient rules,

4.1.5 Discuss numerical values of differential coefficients,

4.1.6 Use second derivatives,

4.1.7 Apply turning points (maximum and minimum)

4.2 Apply Integration:

4.2.1 Describe standard integrals,

4.2.2 Use indefinite integrals,

4.2.3 Use definite integrals.

4.3 Understand and use Integration by using Partial Fractions.

4.3.1 Understand partial fractions.

4.3.2 Apply Linear distinct factors case-I.

4.3.3 Apply Linear repeated factors case-II

4.3.4 Apply Quadratic distinct factors case-III.

4.3.5 Apply Quadratic repeated factors case-IV.

4.3.6 Apply Integration of rational fractions.

4.4 Understand and use Differential Equations.

4.4.1 Solve Differential equation of order-1

4.4.2 Solve Differential equation of order-2

73

ComS -211

COMMUNICATION SKILLS

T

1

P

0

Total contact hours

Theory: 32 Hours.

Prerequisites: The students shall already be familiar with the language concerned.

C

1

AIMS The course has been designed to enable the students to.

1.

2.

Develop communication skills.

Understand basic principles of good and effective business writing in commercial and industrial fields.

3. Develop knowledge and skill to write technical report with confidence and accuracy.

1.

Use of simple engineering drawings/circuit/network diagrams and sketches to

communicate technical information.

1.1 Obtain information and describe features

(06 Hours)

1.2 Identify manufacturing/assembly/ process instructions

1.3 Graphical information used to aid understanding of written or verbal communication

1.4 Working documents

1.4.1 First and third angle projections,

1.4.2 Detail and assembly drawings,

1.4.3 plant/process layout diagrams,

1.4.4 electrical/electronic/communications/circuit diagrams,

1.4.5 system/network diagrams;

1.5 Use of common drawing/circuit/network diagram conventions and standards

1.6 Sketches

1.6.1 Free-hand illustration of engineering arrangements using 2D and

3D techniques.

2. Use of verbal and written communication skills in engineering settings.

(16 Hours)

2.1 Written work

2.1.1 Note taking

2.1.1.1 Lists,

2.1.1.2 Mind mapping/flow diagrams

2.1.2 Writing style

2.1.2.1 Business letter,

2.1.2.2 Memo writing,

2.1.2.3 Report styles and format,

2.1.2.4 email, fax

74

2.1.3 Proofreading and amending text;

2.1.4 Use of diary/logbook for planning and prioritizing work schedules

2.1.5 Graphical presentation techniques

2.2 Verbal methods

2.2.1 Speaking with peers, supervisors and public

2.2.2 Use of appropriate technical language,

2.2.3 Tone and manner

2.2.4 Listening

2.2.4.1 Use of paraphrasing and note taking to clarify meaning

2.2.5 Impact and use of body language in verbal communication

3. Use engineering information

3.1 Information sources

3.1.1 Non-computer-based sources

(03 Hours)

3.1.2 Computer-based sources

3.2 Use of information

3.2.1 for the solution of engineering problems,

3.2.2 for product/service/topic research,

3.2.3 Gathering data or material to support own work,

3.2.4 Checking validity of own work/findings

4.

Use of information and communication technology (ICT) to present

information in engineering settings

4.1 Software packages

(07 Hours)

4.1.1 Word processing;

4.1.2 Computer Aided Drawing

4.1.3 Graphics package

4.1.4 Data handling and processing

4.2 Hardware devices

4.3 Present information

4.3.1 Report

4.3.2 Visual presentation

4.3.2.1 Overhead transparencies,

4.3.2.2 Charts,

4.3.2.3 Computer-based presentations (PowerPoint)

Textbooks

Tooley M and Dingle L — BTEC National Engineering, First Edition (Newnes, 2002)

ISBN 0750651660

75

ComS -211

COMMUNICATION SKILLS

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES.

1.

Able to use of simple engineering drawings/circuit/network diagrams and

sketches to communicate technical information.

1.1 Describe the ways to obtain information and describe features such as component features, dimensions and tolerances, surface finish.

1.2 Able to identify manufacturing/assembly/ process instructions such as cutting lists, assembly arrangements, plant/process layout or operating procedures, electrical/electronic/communication circuit requirements.

1.3 Able to use Graphical information used to aid understanding of written or verbal communication such as illustrations, technical diagrams and sketches.

1.4 Describe working documents

1.4.1 Express the role of First and third angle projections,

1.4.2 Express the role of Detail and assembly drawings,

1.4.3 Express the role of plant/process layout diagrams,

1.4.4 Express the role of electrical/electronic/communications/circuit diagrams,

1.4.5 Express the role of system/network diagrams;

1.5 Able to use common drawing/circuit/network diagram conventions and standards such as layout and presentation, line types, hatching, dimensions and tolerances, surface finish, symbols, parts lists, circuit/component symbols.

1.6 Describe Sketches

1.6.1 Express the role of Free-hand illustration of engineering arrangements using 2D and 3D techniques.

2. Use of verbal and written communication skills in engineering settings.

2.1 Understand written work

2.1.1 Describe note taking activity.

2.1.1.1 Express Lists,

2.1.1.2 Express Mind mapping/flow diagrams

2.1.2 Describe Writing style

2.1.2.1 Understand Business letter,

2.1.2.2 Understand Memo writing,

2.1.2.3 Understand Report styles and format,

2.1.2.4 Understand use of email and fax

2.1.3 Understand the process of proofreading and amending text;

2.1.4 Use of diary/logbook for planning and prioritizing work schedules

2.1.5 Describe graphical presentation techniques

2.2 Understand Verbal methods of communication.

2.2.1 Discuss how to speak with peers, supervisors and public.

2.2.2 Describe the use of appropriate technical language.

76

3.

4.

2.2.3 Describe the tone and manner

2.2.4 Describe the Listening process.

2.2.4.1 Discuss the process of paraphrasing and note taking to clarify meaning

2.2.5 Describe the impact and use of body language in verbal communication

Understand the use of engineering information

3.1 Understand Information sources

3.1.1 Describe the Non-computer-based sources such as books, technical reports, institute and trade journals, data sheets and test/experimental results data and manufacturers’ catalogues

3.1.2 Describe the Computer-based sources such as intranet, CD ROM- based information (manuals, data, analytical software, and manufacturers’ catalogues), spreadsheets, and databases

3.2 Express the use of information

3.2.1 for the solution of engineering problems,

3.2.2 for product/service/topic research,

3.2.3 Gathering data or material to support own work,

3.2.4 Checking validity of own work/findings

Express the use of information and communication technology (ICT) to

present information in engineering settings

4.1 Discuss Software packages

4.1.1 Understand the role of Word processing;

4.1.2 Understand the role of Computer Aided Drawing

4.1.3 Understand the role of Graphics package

4.1.4 Understand the role of data handling and processing

4.2 Discuss the Hardware devices such as personal computer, network, plant/process control system; input/output devices e.g. keyboard, scanner, optical/speech recognition device, printer, plotter

4.3 Able to Present information

4.3.1 Develop a Report includes written and technical data e.g. letters, memos, technical product/service specification, fax/email, tabulated test data, graphical data

4.3.2 Develop a Visual presentation with the help of

4.3.2.1 Overhead transparencies,

4.3.2.2 Charts,

4.3.2.3 Computer-based presentations (PowerPoint)

77

El.TR-212 PROPAGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Total Contact Hours:

Theory: 64 Hours.

Practical: 00 Hours.

T

2

P

0

C

2

Pre-requisites: Electrical Circuits

AIMS After studying the subject the student will be able to:

1. Understand a vector-calculus based description of static electric fields in cases of fixed charges, conductors, and dielectrics.

2. Describe the moving charges (for the case of steady electric currents) and resulting static magnetic fields are also presented.

3. Understand the Maxwell equations and the classical description of electromagnetic fields. Problem solving makes frequent use of symmetry and invariance.

COURSE CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS (04 Hours)

1.1 Scalars and Vectors

1.2 Unit Vector

1.3 Vector addition and Subtraction

1.4 Position and Distance Vectors

1.5 Vector Multiplication

1.6 Components of a Vector

2. Coordinate Systems and Transformation

2.1 Cartesian Coordinates (x, y, z)

2.2

Circular Cylindrical Coordinates (ρ, Ф, z)

2.3

Spherical Coordinates (r, θ, z )

(06 Hours)

3. Vector Calculus (08 Hours)

3.1 Differential Length, Area and Volume (for all three coordinates)

3.2 Line, Surface and Volume integrals

3.3 Del Operator

3.4 Gradient of a scalar

3.5 Divergence of vector and divergence theorem

3.6 Curl of a vector and Stocks theorem.

3.7 Laplacian of a scalar.

4. Electrostatic Fields

4.1 Coulomb’s Law and field intensity.

4.2 Electric Field due to continuous charge distribution formuli.

4.3 Electric Flux density

4.4 Gauss’s Law and its application to a point charge

4.5 Electric potential

4.6 Relationship between E & V

4.7 Electric Dipole

4.8 Electric Flux lines and Equipotential Surfaces

(08 Hours)

5. Electric Fields in Material Space (08Hours)

5.1 Properties of Materials

5.2 Convection and conduction currents

5.3 Polarization in Dielectrics

5.4 Boundary Conditions

5.5 Maxwell Equations

6. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation (06 Hours)

6.1 Introduction of EM Waves.

6.2 Electromagnetic Spectrum

6.3 Wave Propagation in Lossy Dielectrics

6.4 Plane Waves in Free Space

6.5 Plane Waves in Good Conductors

7. Transmission Lines (08 Hours)

7.1 Introduction to Transmission Lines

7.2 Transmission Line Parameters

7.3 Transmission Line Equations

7.4 Input Impedance, SWR and Power

8. Waveguides

8.1 Introduction to Waveguides

8.2 Rectangular Wave Guide

8.3 Rectangular Wave Guide Modes

8.4 Circular Waveguides

9. Antennas

9.1 Hertzian Dipole

9.2 Half Wave Dipole Antenna

9.2 Quarter Wave mono pole Antenna

9.3 Antenna Characteristics

(08 Hours)

(08 Hours)

78

79

Textbook:

1) Elements of Electromagnetics, by Sadiku, 2 nd

edition , Oxford University Press, 1995.

2) Electromagnetics Explained, A Handbook for Wireless/ RF, EMC & High Speed

Electronics by Ron Schmitt, Elsevier, 2002.

80

El.TR-212 ELECTROMAGNETICS

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

1. Understand vector algebra

1.1 Describe Scalars and Vectors

1.2 Discuss Unit Vector

1.3 Apply the concept of Vector addition and Subtraction

1.4 Describe Position and Distance Vectors

1.5 Apply the concept of Vector Multiplication

1.6 Describe Components of a Vector

2. Understand Coordinate Systems and Transformation

2.1 Discuss Cartesian Coordinates (x, y, z)

2.2

Discuss Circular Cylindrical Coordinates (ρ, Ф, z)

2.3

Describe Spherical Coordinates (r, θ, z )

3. Apply Vector Calculus

3.1 Discuss Differential Length, Area and Volume (for all three coordinates)

3.2 Describe Line, Surface and Volume integrals

3.3 Describe Del Operator

3.4 Understand Gradient of a scalar

3.5 Discuss Divergence of vector and divergence theorem

3.6 Understand Curl of a vector and Stocks theorem.

3.7 Describe Laplacian of a scalar.

4. Understand Electrostatic Fields

4.1 State Coulomb’s Law and field intensity.

4.2 Describe Electric Field due to continuous charge distribution formuli.

4.3 Discuss Electric Flux density

4.4 Describe Gauss’s Law and its application to a point charge

4.5 State Electric potential

4.6 Describe Relationship between E & V

4.7 Discuss Electric Dipole

4.8 Discuss Electric Flux lines and Equipotential Surfaces

5. Understand Electric Fields in Material Space

5.1 Discuss Properties of Materials

5.2 Differentiate between Convection and conduction currents

5.3 Discuss Polarization in Dielectrics

5.4 Describe Boundary Conditions

5.5 Discuss Maxwell Equations.

6. Understand Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

6.1 Understand the term of EM Waves.

6.2 Discuss Electromagnetic Spectrum

6.3 Describe Wave Propagation in Lossy Dielectrics

6.4 Understand Plane Waves in Free Space

6.5 Understand Plane Waves in Good Conductors

7. Understand Transmission Lines

7.1 Understand the term Transmission Lines

7.2 Discuss Transmission Line Parameters

7.3 Describe Transmission Line Equations

7.4 Describe Input Impedance, SWR and Power

8. Waveguides

8.1 Understand the term of Waveguides

8.2 Discuss Rectangular Wave Guide

8.3 Discuss Rectangular Wave Guide Modes

8.4 Define Circular Waveguides

9. Understand Antennas

9.1 Understand the term of Antenna

9.2 Discuss Hertzian Dipole

9.2 Describe Half Wave Dipole Antenna

9.2 Describe Quarter Wave mono pole Antenna

9.3 Discuss Antenna Characteristics

81

82

El.TR. 225 ANALOG ELECTRONICS.

T

3

P

6

C

5

Total contact hours:

Theory: 96 Hours.

Practical: 192 Hours.

Pre-requisites: Electrical Circuits

Electronics Devices

AIMS: This course has been designed to enable the students to understand the working of:

1. Transistor and FET Amplifiers.

2. Coupling of Amplifiers

3. Audio, Feedback, RF and IF Amplifiers.

4. Electronic Oscillators Circuits.

5. Operational amplifier circuits.

6. Monostable and Astable Multivibrators

7. Ramp, pulse and Function Generators Circuits

8. Comparator and Schmitt Trigger circuits.

COURSE CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION TO AMPLIFIER. (20 Hours)

1.1 Audio voltage amplifier: classification of amplifiers w.r.t. ground, frequency and operation.

1.2 Basic amplifier concept using transistors (BJT & FET).

1.3 Common emitter, common base and common collector circuit configurations and CD, CS, and CG configurations.

1.4 Comparison of CE, CB, CC circuits and CD, CS, CG circuit configurations.

1.5 Equivalent circuit for CE amplifier and calculations for its voltage, current and power gain by using graphical and parameter method.

1.6 Common Base amplifier equivalent circuit and gain calculation by graphical and parameter method.

1.7 Common collector amplifier equivalent act and gain calculation by graphical analysis and using parameter.

1.8 Biasing methods, thermal run away & instability of Q-point.

1.9 Calculation of stability factor and for CE, CB and CC circuits.

1.10 Method of stabilization of Q-point.

83

2. COUPLING OF AMPLIFIER. (08 Hours)

2.1 Methods of coupling of amplifier: RC, direct , transformer and impedance coupling.

2.2

2.3

R.C. coupled amplifier, its characteristics and frequency response.

Transformers coupled amplifier, its gain, efficiency and frequency response. Comparison of RC and transformer coupling.

2.4 Direct coupled amplifier: Drift and offset voltage. Its merits and demerits.

3. AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIERS.

(06 Hours)

3.1 Distinction between voltage and power amplifier.

3.2

3.3

Classification of power amplifier, class A, Single ended, Push-Pull.

Complementary pair push-pull power amplifier circuit. Requirements of heat sinks for power amplifier.

3.4. IC power amplifier. Heat sinks for power amplifier.

4. FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS. (08 Hours)

4.1 Principle of feed back in amplifiers, types of feedback amplifier. Series

4.2 and shunt feedback, feedback factor, effect of feedback on gain, band width, distortion, stability and frequency response.

Emitter follower and differential amplifiers.

5. R.F. AMPLIFIER. (08 Hours)

5.1

5.2

5.3

Requirements of RF amplifier.

Principle and characteristics of R.F. Amplifier.

R.C. coupled R.F. amplifier.

5.4 Impedance coupled R.F. amplifier.

5.5 Transformer coupled R.F. amplifier.

5.6. Multistage R.F. amplifier.

5.7

5.8

5.9

6.2

6.3

Class-C R.F. power amplifier using tuned circuit as load.

Grounded base R.F amplifier.

Feed back in R.F. amplifier.

5.10 Regeneration and de-generation in feedback amplifier.

5.11 Calculation of band width.

5.12 Troubles in R.F. amplifier.

6. I.F. AMPLIFIER.

6.1 Need and requirement of I.F amplifier.

Single stage I.F. amplifier.

Multistage I.F amplifier.

6.4 Methods of neutralization.

6.5 Integrated Circuit IFA

(04 Hours)

84

7.

6.6 Troubles in I.F. amplifier.

OSCILLATORS.

7.1 Conditions for an amplifier to work as an oscillator.

7.2 Requisites of an oscillator.

(08 Hours)

7.3 Classification of oscillator circuits.

7.4 RC phase shift and Wien bridge oscillator circuits.

7.5 Condition of sustained oscillation.

7.6 Voltage controlled oscillator using 555 timer

7.7 Pulse tone oscillator using 555 timer.

7.8 Voltage controlled oscillator using 555 timer.

7.9 Reasons of instability in oscillator circuit.

7.10

7.11

Remedies of instability in oscillator.

Applications of oscillator.

8. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER.

8.1 Introduction to operational Amplifier.

8.2 The differential Amplifier.

8.3 OP-AMP Data Sheet Parameters.

8.4 OP-AMP with negative Feedback.

(16 Hours)

8.5 Inverting and non-inverting amplifiers.

8.6 Voltage follower.

8.7 Summing and difference amplifiers.

8.8 Introduction to 741 OP AMP.

9. MONOSTABLE AND STABLE MULTIVIBRATOR. (08 Hours)

9.1

Monostable Multivibrator.

9.1.1 Introduction

9.1.2 Emitter coupled monostable multivibrator

9.1.3 OP-AMP monostable multivibrator.

9.1.4 IC monostable multivibrator.

9.1.5 Applications of monostable multivibrator.

9.2 Stable Multivibrator.

9.2.1 Emitter coupled stable multivibrator.

9.2.2 Generation of square, rectangular, sawtooth and pulse by using stable multivibrator.

9.2.3 Synchronization of the stable MV

9.2.4 Control of period and frequency of stable MV

9.2.5 Effect of amplitude of sync pulse on period and frequency of stable

MV

9.2.6 Applications of stable MV.

9.2.7 The 555 IC timer.

9.2.8 Use of 555 timer as a monostable MV.

9.2.9 Use of 555 timer as an stable MV.

10. RAMP, PULSE AND FUNCTION GENERATORS. (06 Hours)

10.1 RC ramp generator.

10.2 Constant current ramp generator.

10.3 UJT relaxation oscillator.

10.4 Bootstrap ramp generator.

10.5 Miller integrator ramp generator.

10.6 Pulse generator circuit.

10.7 OP-AMP Function generator.

10.8 IC Function generator.

11. COMPARATOR AND SCHMITT TRIGGER.

(04 Hours)

11.1 Introduction to comparator.

11.2 Diode comparator.

11.3 Transistor Schmitt trigger circuit.

11.4 Output/Input characteristics.

11.5 OP-AMP Schmitt trigger circuits.

11.6 IC Schmitt

11.7 IC voltage comparators.

TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS.

1. TL Floyd ― Electronics Devices‖ 8 th

ed. Prentice Hall, ISBN 0131140809

2. Analog Circuit Design by William, Jim. ISBN 075069401

85

86

El.TR. -225 ANALOG ELECTRONICS.

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

1.

INTRODUCTION TO AMPLIFIERS.

1.1

Understand the principle & need of amplification of signals.

1.1.1 Explain the need and principle of amplification .

1.1.2 Define the terms current gain, voltage and power gain.

1.2

Classification of Amplifiers

1.2.1 Identify the function of current, voltage and power amplifiers

1.2.2 Classify the amplifiers with respect to: i) Device used ii) v)

Circuit configuration iii) Band of frequency handled iv) Class of biasing employed

Type of application

1.2.3 Describe the characteristics of BJT & FET amplifiers.

1.2.4 Explain the class of biasing i.e. class A, class B and class C and class AB amplifiers.

1.3

Amplifier Circuit Configurations.

1.3.1Identify CB, CE and CC configurations of BJT amplifiers in terms of i) ii) iii) common terminal

Input & output ports

Input and output currents

1.3.2 Identify CG, CS and CD configuration of FET amplifiers in terms of i) ii)

Common terminal

Input and output ports

1.3.3 Compare the characteristics of CB, CE, CC configurations of amplifiers in terms of i) Input impedance, ii) Output impedance iii) Terminal to which input is applied

87 iv) Terminal from which output is taken v) Current gain vi) Voltage gain vii) Power gain viii) Applications

1.3.4 Compare the characteristics of CG, CS and CD configuration of amplifiers in terms of i) Input impedance ii) iii) iv) v) vi)

Output impedance

Input terminal

Output terminal

Voltage Gain

Applications

1.4

Equivalent Circuit & Graphical Analysis for CE Circuit

1.4.1 Write the formulae for Ai, Av, Ap, Zi, and Zo for CE circuit.

1.4.2 Calculate the gains and impedances for given values of hparameters and load resistance(using formula).

1.4.3 Use the input, output characteristics for CE circuit for computing transfer characteristics.

1.4.4 Calculate the gains and impedances for CE circuit by using the three characteristics curves.

1.5

Equivalent Circuit & Graphical Analysis for CB Circuit

1.5.1 Calculate Zi, Zo, Ai, Av, and Ap for CB circuit by using hparameter equations (using formula).

1.5.2 Compute Zi, Zo, Ai, Av, Ap for CB circuit by using input, output and transfer characteristic curves.

1.6

Equivalent Circuit & Graphical Analysis for CC Circuit

1.6.1 Calculate Zi, Zo, Ai, Av and Ap for CC circuit by using hparameter equations(using formula).

1.6.2 Compute Zi, Zo, Ai, Av and Ap for CC circuit by using input, output and transfer characteristic curves.

1.7

Biasing Techniques for CE Amplifiers.

1.7.1 Identify the fixed biasing method for CE amplifier.

1.7.2 Explain the instability of Q-point and hazard of thermal runaway for fixed bias.

1.7.3 Identify the collector biasing technique for CE amplifier.

1.7.4 Enlist the merits and demerits of collector bias method.

1.7.5 Identify the voltage divider bias technique.

1.7.6 Identify the emitter bias technique.

88

1.7.7 Describe the working of voltage divider & emitter bias for stability of Q-point and protection against thermal runaway.

1.7.8 Calculate the stability factor for each of the above biasing techniques.

1.7.9 List the methods of bias stabilization.

1.7.10 Identify the function of thermistor in CE amplifier circuit for protection against thermal runaway.

2. UNDERSTAND THE WORKING & ADVANTAGES OF CASCADED

AMPLIFIERS.

2.1 Identify the need of cascaded amplifier.

2.2 List the types of coupling for cascaded amplifiers.

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6 formula).

Explain the construction and working of RC-coupled amplifier.

Discuss the characteristics of RC-cooped amplifier.

Draw the equivalent circuit for RC-cooped amplifier.

Calculate Zi, Zo, Ai, Av and Ap for RC-coupled amplifier(using

2.7

2.8

2.9

Draw the frequency response curve for an RC-coupled amplifier.

Explain the frequency response of an RC-coupled amplifier.

List the applications of RC coupled amplifier.

2.10 Explain the working of impedance-coupled amplifier.

2.11 List the merits and demerits of the amplifier.

2.12 Draw the circuit of transformer-coupled amplifier.

2.13 Explain the construction and working transformer coupled amplifier.

2.14 Discuss the characteristics of transformer-coupled amplifier.

2.15 Draw the frequency response of transformer-coupled amplifier.

2.16 Explain the frequency of transformer-coupled amplifier.

2.17 List the applications of transformer coupled amplifier.

2.18 Explain need & principle of DC amplifiers.

2.19 Explain drift and off set voltage for DC amplifier.

2.20 Enlist merits and demerits of DC amplifiers.

2.21 List the uses of DC amplifier.

3.

UNDERSTAND THE WORKING OF VARIOUS AF POWER AMPLIFIER.

3.1 Compare the voltage, current and power amplifiers.

3.2 Classify AF amplifiers.

3.3 Classify AF power amplifiers: i) ii) iii)

Class-A single ended

Push-pull transformer-coupled

Push pull complementary pair iv) IC power amplifier

3.4 Explain the operation of single ended class-A power amplifier.

3.5 Write down the formula for efficiency of the above circuit with resistance and transformer collector loads.

89

3.6 List the application of class-A AF power amplifier

3.7 Describe the class B and class AB push-pull amplifiers.

3.8 Explain the working of transformer-coupled push-pull amplifier.

3.9 Explain the working of complementary pair push-pull amplifier

3.10 Compare the transformer-coupled - and complementary pair power amplifiers.

3.11 State the characteristic IC power amplifier like CA 810.

3.12 Discuss the block diagram of IC power amplifier with function of each block.

3.13 State the necessity of heat sink for power amplifiers.

3.14 List the types of heat sink.

3.15 Determine the size and type of heat sink for power transistors & power IC devices.

4. UNDERSTAND WORKING OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS

4.1 Understand the function of feedback and operational amplifier.

4.1.1 List the problems faced in amplifier without feedback with reference to distortion, instability and bandwidth.

4.1.2 Explain the principle of negative feedback in amplifiers.

4.1.3 Discuss the effect of negative feedback on amplifier: i) Gain ii) Bandwidth iii) Distortion iv) Stability

4.1.4 Classify different type of negative feedback amplifiers .

4.1.5 Compare the characteristics of different negative feedback amplifiers.

4.2 Understand the working and application of differential amplifier.

4.2.1 Draw the circuit diagram of a differential amplifier.

4.2.2 Explain the working of Differential amplifier

4.2.3 Discuss the characteristic of differential amplifier

4.2.4 List the application of differential amplifier

5.

UNDERSTAND THE WORKING OF R.F AMPLIFIERS.

5.1 Describe requirement of R.F amplifier

5.2

5.3

5.4

Names different methods of coupling in R.F amplifier.

List the applications muti-stage RF amplifiers.

Draw the circuit diagram of class C power amplifier with tunned load.

5.5 Explain the working of class C power amplifier using tunned load.

5.6 Draw the circuit diagram of grounded base R.F amplifier.

5.7 Explain the working of grounded base R.F amplifier.

5.8 Explain feedback in R.F amplifiers.

5.9 Explain regeneration and de-generation in feedback amplifier.

90

8.

5.10 List the common faults that occur in R.F. amplifier.

6.

UNDERSTAND OPERATION OF I.F AMPLIFIER.

6.1

Understand the working of single stage and multistage IF amplifier.

6.1.1. Describe need and requirement of I.F. amplifier.

6.1.2 Draw the circuit, diagram of single stage I.F. amplifier.

6.1.3 Explain the working principle of single stage I.F. amplifier.

6.1.4 Draw the circuit diagram of multistage I.F. amplifier.

6.1.5 Explain the working of multistage I.F. amplifier.

6.1.6 Compare the characteristics of single stage with multi stage I.F.

7.

6.2

amplifier.

Understand neutralization in IF amplifier.

6.2.1 Define the term neutralization.

6.2.2 Discuss the method to implement neutralization in IF amplifier.

6.2.3 List common faults that occur in I.F. amplifier.

OSCILLATORS.

7.1 To understand the types and working of oscillators.

7.1.1 Define an oscillator.

7.1.2 Enlist the basic requirements of an oscillator.

7.1.3 Explain conditions for an amplifier to work as an oscillator.

7.1.4 Classify the oscillator circuits.

7.1.5 Explain the working of R C phase shift & Wien bridge oscillators.

7.1.6 Explain the working of Hartley and colpitis oscillators.

7.1.7 Explain the working of crystal and tuned collector oscillators.

7.1.8 Explain the working of pulse-tone oscillator using 555 timer.

7.1.9 Explain the working of voltage controlled oscillator.

7.1.10 Enlist the sources of instability of an oscillator.

7.1.11 Explain the method of oscillator stability.

7.1.12 Enlist the applications of oscillators.

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT).

Understand the working and applications of operational amplifier.

8.1.1List of available Opamp IC

8.1.2 Draw the block diagram and symbol for an operational amplifier

(OP AMP).

8.1.3 Identify the function of each block of an OP AMP.

8.1.4 List ten important OP AMP parameters.

8.1.5 Define the terms (a) bias current (b) offset voltage for an OP AMP.

8.1.6 Explain the method of bias current compensation for an OP AMP.

8.1.7 Draw inverting and non-inverting amplifier using op amp.

8.1.8 Explain the inverting and non-inverting amplifier.

8.1.9 Identify the virtual ground point of an OP AMP for calculating gain.

91

8.1.10 Derive expression for voltage gain of both types of amplifiers discussed under 8.1.7.

8.1.11 Sketch a voltage follower circuit using an OP AMP.

8.1.12 Explain the working of an OP AMP comparator.

8.1.13 List the applications of OP AMP (741 OP AMP).

9. UNDERSTAND TYPES AND WORKING OF MULTIVIBRATOR

CIRCUITS.

9.1

Define the term ―multivibrator (MV).‖

9.2 Enlist the types of multivibrators.

9.3 Draw the circuit of a collector-coupled monostable MV.

9.4 Explain the working of collector-coupled monostable MV.

9.5 List methods of triggering a transistor monostable MV.

9.6 Sketch the circuit of collector triggering using an additional transistor.

9.7 Explain the collector triggering action of a monostable MV.

9.8 Draw the circuit of an emitter-coupled monostable MV.

9.9 Explain the operation of an emitter-coupled monostable MV.

9.10 Compare emitter-coupled and collector -coupled MV circuits.

9.11 Sketch three circuit of an op-amp monostable MV.

9.12 Explain the operation of an op-amp monostable MV.

9.13 Draw the circuits of collector-coupled and emitter-coupled stable multivibrator.

9.14

9.15

9.16

9.17

Explain the operation of the above stable multivibator circuits.

Draw the circuit of an op-amp stable MV .

Explain the operation of an op-amp stable MV.

Draw the circuits of monostable and stable Mvs using an IC voltage comparator.

9.18 Explain briefly the above circuits of monostable & stable MVs.

9.19 Use the 555 timer as monostable & stable MVs.

10.

RAMP, PULSE & FUNCTION GENERATOR.

10.1 Understand the methods of ramp generation.

10.1.1 Enlist the methods of ramp generation.

10.1.2 Explain the working of RC ramp generator with its merits and demerits.

10.1.3 Explain the working of constant current ramp generator.

10.1.4 Explain the working of a UJT relaxation oscillator followed by an integrator.

10.1.5 Explain the working of bootstrap ramp generator.

10.1.6 Explain the operation of Miller ramp generator.

10.2

Understand the function of pulse and function generators.

10.2.1 Explain pulse generation by using square wave generator and a monostable multivibrator.

10.2.2 Explain the working of op-amp function generator .

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10.2.3 Explain the working of IC function generator.

11. UNDERSTAND THE COMPARATOR AND SCHMITT TRIGGER

CIRCUITS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS.

11.1

11.2

Define comparator & Schmitt trigger.

Explain the operation of diode and transistor comparator.

11.3 Explain transistor Schmitt trigger.

11.4 Explain the working of op/amp and IC Schmitt trigger circuit.

11.5 Explain the working of IC voltage comparator.

El.TR. 225 ANALOG ELECTRONICS

Practical: 192 Hours.

LIST OF PRACTICAL:

1. Study the parameters of BJTs with the help of data sheet.

2. Study the parameters of FETs with the help of data sheet.

3. Plot the characteristics curves for a common source FET amplifier.

4. Demonstrate MOSFET as a switch and study the performance .

5. Assemble a single stage transistor amplifier and measure voltage gain of class A amplifier.

6. Plot the frequency response of class A transistor amplifier

7. Assemble a class A power amplifier and measure its power gain.

8. Assemble a CE Amplifier circuit and study its characteristics.

9. Assemble a CC Amplifier circuit and study its characteristics.

10. Assemble a CB Amplifier circuit and study its characteristics.

11. Assemble a CD Amplifier circuit and study its characteristics.

12. Assemble a CS Amplifier circuit and study its characteristics.

13. Assemble a CG Amplifier circuit and study its characteristics.

14. Assemble a 25-W and 50-W power amplifier using IC amplifiers.

15. Measurement the power, distortion, gain and efficiency the previously assembled

IC power amplifier.

16. Assemble a transistorized regulated low voltage (12- V) 1-A power supply and study its voltage regulation.

17. Study the frequency response of directed coupled audio amplifier and calculate its bandwidth.

93

18. Study the frequency response of R.C coupled audio amplifier and calculate its bandwidth.

19. Study the frequency response of transformer coupled amplifier and calculate its bandwidth

20. Assemble a R.F amplifier and measure its voltage gain..

21. Assemble and study the class C operation of RF amplifier and measure its power output.

22. Measurement of the frequency response of R.C-coupled R.F amplifier.

23. Measurement of the frequency response of impedance-coupled RF amplifier.

24. Measurement of the frequency response of transformer-coupled RF amplifier.

25. Measurement of frequency response of R.F amplifier using tuned load.

26. Assemble a RC Phase Shift oscillator and study its working.

27. Assemble a Hartley oscillator and study its working.

28. Assemble a Colpite oscillator and study its working.

29. Assemble a Crystal oscillator and study its working.

30. Assemble a Pulse-tone oscillator by using 555 IC and study its working.

31. Consult data sheet for opamps.

32. Demonstrate the working of an operational amplifier.

33. Study the characteristics of OP Amp.

34. Draw the frequency response of an opamp.

35. Construct Non-Inverting amplifier with the help of Op-Amp. and study its operation.

36. Construct Inverting amplifier with the help of Op-Amp. and study its operation.

37. Construct an Op-Amp Summer and study its operation.

38. Construct an Op-Amp Unity follower and study its operation.

39. Construct an Op-Amp Multiplier and study its operation.

40. Construct an Op-Amp Integrator and study its operation.

41. Construct an Op-Amp Differentiator and study its operation.

42. Construct an Op-Amp Comparator and study its operation.

43. Study the working of an emitter-coupled stable multivibrator.

44. Assemble an emitter-coupled monostable multivibrator.

45. Study the method of pulse width control of monostable MV.

46. Assemble a bistable multivibrator with collector triggering.

47. Construct a stable multivibrator with the help of 555 IC and study its output wave form.

48. Construct a monostable multivibrator with the help of 555 IC and study its output wave form.

49. Study the behavior of RC differentiator and integrator circuits for step, square, and pulse input.

50. Study the performance of RC Ramp generator.

51. Study the performance of a constant current sweep generator.

52. Assemble a UJT Relaxation oscillator and observe its output wave forms.

53. Assemble a bootstrap ramp generator.

54. Assemble a Miller integrator ramp generator.

55. Study the function of Op-amp function generator.

56. Study the function of IC function generator.

94

57. Assemble a diode comparator and study its working.

58. Assemble a transistor comparator and study its working.

59. Construct a Schmitt trigger using OP AMP.

El.TR. 233 ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS & MEASUREMENTS

T

2

TOTAL CONTACT HOURS:

P

3

Theory: 64 Hours

Practical: 96 Hours

C

3

5.

6.

7.

8.

Prerequisite: Electrical Circuits, Electronics Devices and Mathematics

AIMS 1. To understand the working principle, types, and construction of different analog and digital instruments and their accessories.

2. To Manipulate skills of proper selection, use, handling, maintaining and repairing of various electrical and electronic instruments.

COURSE CONTENTS

1. Identify the different electrical meters.

2.

3.

4.

Identify the various electronic instruments.

Describe the functions of each measuring instrument.

Use the most proper measuring instrument for a given job.

Perform measurements using test instruments.

Observe proper safety and care in using measuring instruments.

Calibrate measuring instruments.

Mend/ repair defective measuring instruments.

1. MEASUREMENTS AND ERRORS.

(02 Hours)

95

2.

6.

5.

4.

3.

1.1 Precision of measurements.

1.2 Types of errors.

1.3 Accuracy rating of instruments.

1.4 Application of the concepts .

INDICATING INSTRUMENTS.

2.1 Introduction to meters.

2.2 D`Ansonval Meter movements

2.3 Ammeters, millimeters, micrometer and shunts.

2.4 Shunt calculations.

2.5 Voltmeter, multiplier and sensitivity.

(07 Hours)

2.6 Basic Ohmmeter (Conversion of ammeter into ohmmeter)

2.7 Ac meters (rectifier, moving iron-vane, electrodynamometer, thermocouple and clamp-on type)

(03 Hours)

VOLT-OHM MILLIAMMETER (VOM).

3.1 Basic requirements.

3.2 Ranges and Subfunctions.

3.3 Basic types of Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter.

3.4 Application.

TRANSISTOR VOLTMETER.

4.1 Basic BJT TVM .

4.2 Basic FET TVM.

4.4 Application.

(03 Hours)

BRIDGES AND BRIDGE-TYPE EQUIPMENT.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Whetstone bridge and Guarded Whetstone Bridge.

5.3 AC bridges (magnitude and phase balancing).

5.4 Maxwell bridge.

5.5 Hay bridge

5.6 Schering bridge

5.7 Wien bridges.

5.8 Universal bridge.

5.9 Q meter

5.10 LC meter.

(07 Hours)

SIGNAL GENERATORS.

6.1 Review of oscillator circuit operation.

6.2 AF generator.

6.3 RF generator.

6.4 AM generator.

6.5 FM generator.

6.6 Sweep / Marker Generator.

6.7 Square and Pulse generator.

(08 Hours)

6.8

6.9

Function generator.

TV pattern generator.

7. OSCILLOSCOPES.

(07 Hours)

7.1 Theory and operation.

7.2 Single/dual trace (general purposes).

7.3

7.4

Triggered Sweep.

Introduction of Storage and Sampling

7.6 Vector Scope

7.7 Curve tracer

7.8 Storage Oscilloscope

96

8.

9.

DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS.

8.1 Digital Voltmeter

8.2 Digital Multimeter

8.3 Frequency Counter

8.4 Digital LCR meter.

8.5 Digital I.C. tester.

8.6 Signal Tracer

8.7 X- Y Recorder

(07 Hours)

ANALYZERS.

9.1 Logic Analyzer

9.2

9.3

9.4

Spectrum Analyzer

Signature Analyzer

Application

(04 Hours)

10.

MISCELLANEOUS TEST INSTRUMENTS. (04 Hours)

10.1 Wattmeter, electro-dynamometer type

10.2 Energy meter, induction type

10.3

10.4

10.5

Watt meter, RF

V U meter

Sound level meter

10.6

10.7

Field strength meter

Dip meter

11. PROBES.

11.1 High Voltage probes

11.2

11.3

11.4

11.5

RF probes

Logic probes

Logic pulser

Logic clip

11.6 Application

12. CALIBRATION OF INSTRUMENTS

12.1 Standards of Calibration.

12.2 Techniques of Calibration.

12.3 Report of Calibration.

13. VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION.

13.1 Introduction of Virtual Instrumentation.

13.2 Virtual Instrumentation Architecture.

(04 Hours)

(04 Hours)

(04 Hours)

13.3 Applications of Virtual Instrumentation.

TEXT & REFERENCE BOOKS.

1. Cycle N. Herrick Instruments & Measurement for Electronics.

2.

3.

Bernard Grob & Milton Kiver, Application of Electronics

Malvino, Electronic Instrumentation Fundamentals

97

98

2.

El.TR. 233 ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS & MEASUREMENTS

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES.

1.

UNDERSTAND PURPOSE AND TERMINOLOGY OF MEASUREMENT.

1.1 Define the terms: Instrument, Accuracy, Precision, Sensitivity, Resolution and Error.

1.2 Differentiate accuracy from precision.

1.3 List four sources of errors in instruments.

1.4 Describe the three general classes of errors in measurements.

TO UNDERSTAND THE CONSTRUCTION, WORKING AND USES OF

DC AND AC METERS.

2.1 List the types of indicating instruments.

2.2 Draw and label the constructional elements of different types (types of magnets and suspensions) of permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC)

2.3 mechanism.

Explain the working of PMMC (D’Arsonval ) movement.

2.4 Compare the external magnet construction with core magnet for PMMC

mechanism.

2.5 Compare a taut band suspension with the suspension with the jewel bearing

mounting of moving coil.

2.6 Identify the function of swamping resistor.

2.7 List the merits and demerits of PMMC mechanism.

2.8 Enlist the uses of (PMMC) mechanism.

2.9 Identify the constructional features and importance of zero-centered galvanometer movement.

2.10 Identify the function of PMMC galvanometer as dc micro-ammeter.

2.11 Explain the function of shunt resistor to extend the range of micro-ammeter to milli-ammeter and ammeter.

2.12 Derive the formula to find the value of shunt resistor, Rs= Rm.Im / ( I- Im).

2.13

2.14

Compute the value of shunt resistance for a desired extension in range.

Draw the circuit of a multi-range ammeter using universal or Ayrton shunt.

2.15

2.16

List three precautions to be observed in using a DC ammeter.

Enlist the uses of DC ammeter.

2.17 Identify the function of multiplier resistor.

2.18 Derive the formula to find the value of multiplier resistance, Rm = (V- Im

Rm)/ Im.

2.19 Compute the value of multiplier resistor for a desired f.s.d. of DC volts using above formula.

2.20 Draw a circuit arrangement of a multi-range voltmeter using multiplier resistors.

2.21 Explain the sensitivity and load effect of a voltmeter.

2.22 List the precautions in using DC Voltmeter.

2.23 List the uses of DC voltmeter.

2.24 List the method of measuring a resistance.

99

2.25 Explain the voltmeter-ammeter method of measuring resistance.

2.26 Draw the circuit of a basic Ohmmeter.

2.27 Explain the working of a basic Ohmmeter.

2.28 List the uses of Ohmmeter.

2.29 List the classes of AC meters.

2.30 Name the type of instrument mechanism used for each class of AC meter.

2.31 Draw the schematic diagram a rectifier type AC meter.

2.32 Explain the working of rectifier type AC meter.

2.33 Describe the working principle of a clamp-on AC meter.

2.34 Explain the working principal of moving iron-vane mechanism.

2.35 Draw the schematic diagram of an electrodynamometer movement.

2.36 Compare the rectifier, moving iron-vane and electrodynamometer type AC meter.

2.37 Draw the schematic diagram of a basic thermocouple instrument.

2.38 Explain the working of thermocouple instrument.

2.39 List the uses of above four types of AC meters.

3. UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANCE, TYPES AND CONSTRUCTION OF

VOLT-OHM-MILLIAMMETER.

3.1 Identify the importance of volt-ohm milliammeter (Multimeter)

3.2 Draw and label the block diagram showing three functions of multimeter

(VOM).

3.3 List the types of volt-ohm-milliammeter.

3.4 Describe the faction of operating controls and scales of a typical VOM.

3.5 Identify the meter protections in an analog VOM

3.6 Describe the use of VOM in making: a. b. c.

Voltage measurement (AC + / - and DC)

Current measurement.

Decibel measurement

4. UNDERSTAND THE TYPES, CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF

TVM, UNDERSTAND THE WORKING OF ELECTRONIC VOM.

4.1 Draw the schematic diagram of basic BJT input TVM.

4.2 Explain the working of BJT input TVM.

4.3 Draw the schematic diagram of basic FET input TVM.

4.4

4.5

4.6

Explain the working of FET input TVM.

Compare the FET input TVM with BJT input TVM.

Draw the schematic diagram of BJT bridge TVM.

4.7 Explain the working of BJT bridge TVM.

4.8 Draw the schematic diagram of FET bridge TVM.

4.9 Explain the working of FET bridge TVM.

4.10 Compare the BJT bridge TVM with FET bridge TVM.

4.11 List the applications of TVM.

4.12 List important considerations in choosing a voltmeter.

4.13 List the major elements of an electronic VOM.

100

5. UNDERSTAND THE CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF BRIDGE -

TYPE TEST INSTRUMENTS.

DC Bridges

5.1 Draw the circuit diagram of Wheatstone bridge.

5.2 Explain the working of Wheatstone bridge.

5.3 Identify the function of Guard terminal in a Guarded Wheatstone bridge.

5.4 List the applications of Wheatstone bridge

AC Bridges

5.5 List the electrical quantities measured by an AC bridge.

5.6 Draw the general diagram of an AC bridge.

5.7

5.8

5.9

State the balance (Magnitude and Phase) equation for a general AC bridge.

Draw the schematic diagram of Maxwell Bridge.

Describe the procedure of balancing Maxwell bridge

5.10 Derive the balance equation of Maxwell bridge to find the unknown inductance.

5.11 Draw the schematic diagram of Hay bridge

5.12 Drive the equation to find the unknown inductance.

5.13

5.14

Draw the schematic diagram of Schering bridge.

Write the balance equation for Schering bridge to find Cx, p.f, D and Q of series RC circuit.

5.15

5.16

Draw the schematic diagram of Wien bridge.

Describe the procedure of balancing Wien bridge to find the value of unknown frequency of a signal.

5.17 List the application of Wien bridge.

6.

Q & LC meters and Universal Bridge

5.18 Draw the schematic diagram of basic Q-meter.

5.19

5.20

5.21

Explain the working of Q-meter.

Draw a block diagram of LC meter.

Identify the function of each block of LC meter.

5.22 Describe the universal bridge.

5.23 Enlist the control and scales of universal bridge.

SIGNAL GENERATORS.

6.1

Understand the basics and need of a signal generators.

6.1.1 Describe the need and the basic requirements of a signal generator.

6.1.2 List the major types of signal generators used for electronics testing and troubleshooting.

6.1.3 List the desired characteristics common to all the signal generators.

6.2

Understand the construction and working of AF generator.

6.2.1 Identify the similarities and differences between an audio oscillator and audio generator.

6.2.2 List the types of Oscillators.

101

6.3

6.2.3 Draw the schematic diagram of RC Wien bridge oscillator.

6.2.4 Explain the working of Wien Bridge Oscillator.

6.2.5 Identify the functions of controls and indicators of AF Generator.

6.2.6 List the applications of AF generator.

Understanding the construction and working of RF Generator.

6.3.1 Draw the basic circuit of a shop type RF generator.

6.3.2 Explain the working of the RF generator.

6.3.3 Identify the functions of each control and indicator of RF Generator.

6.3.4 List the applications of RF generator.

6.4

Understand the construction and working of AM & FM generators.

6.4.1 Draw the block diagram of an AM generator.

6.4.2 Identify the function of each block of an AM generator.

6.4.3 List the applications of AM generator.

6.4.4 Draw the basic diagram of FM generator.

6.4.5 Describe the function of FM generator.

6.4.6 List the applications of FM generator.

6.5 Understand the construction and working of sweep, marker and pulse

generators.

6.5.1 Draw the block diagram of sweep generator.

6.5.2 Describe the function of each block of sweep generator.

6.5.3 List the types of voltage sweep generations.

6.5.4 Enlist the applications of sweep generator.

6.5.5 Draw the block diagram of marker generator.

6.5.6 Describe the function of each block of the marker generator.

6.7.7 Identify the purpose of marker generator controls and indicators.

6.5.8 List the two basic methods for injection of marker signal into sweep generator.

6.5.9 Enlist the applications of marker generator.

6.5.10 List the methods of square wave generation.

6.5.11 Draw the block diagram of a square wave generator.

6.5.12 Explain the function of each block of the square wave generator.

6.5.13 Draw the block diagram of pulse generator using square wave generator and monostable multivibrator.

6.5.14 Explain the working of a pulse generator.

6.5.15 List the applications of square wave and pulse generator.

6.5.16 Draw the schematic diagram of an OP-AMP Function generator.

6.5.17 Explain the working of the Function generator.

6.5.18 Draw the functional diagram of IC function generator.

6.5.19 Identify the function of each block of IC function generator.

102

7.

6.6 Understand the construction of TV pattern and special effects

generators.

6.6.1 Explain the need of TV pattern generator.

6.6.2 Describe the working of TV pattern generator using a block diagram.

6.6.3 Enlist special effect generator.

6.6.4 State uses of special effect generator.

OSCILLOSCOPE (CRO).

7.1 Understand the working principle, types and applications of oscilloscope.

7.1.1 List the four fundamental parameters that may be represented by an oscilloscope.

7.1.2 Sketch a cathode ray tube (CRT) and label the most important parts.

7.1.3 Describe the function of each part of a CRT.

7.1.4 Sketch the control circuit of a CRT.

7.1.5 Explain the purpose of each control of CRT.

7.2

General Purpose Oscilloscope.

7.2.1 Draw the block diagram of general purpose oscilloscope.

7.2.2 Explain the function of each block of the oscilloscope.

7.2.3 Draw the block diagram of vertical section of an oscilloscope.

7.2.4 Explain the function of each block of vertical section of CRO.

7.2.5 Describe the purpose of delay line in the vertical section of a CRO.

7.2.6 Draw the block diagram of the horizontal section of a CRO.

7.2.7 Explain the function of each block of horizontal section of a CRO.

7.2.8 Define the terms: fluorescence, phosphorescence, persistence, luminance, graticules and deflection sensitivity.

7.2.9 Identify the function of a sweep generator in an oscilloscope.

7.2.10 List the types of sweep generator used in oscilloscopes.

7.2.11 Identify the differentiator circuit following a clipper in the sync section of a CRO.

7.2.12 Identify the action of Schmitt trigger circuit in a triggered oscilloscope.

7.2.13 List the application for which triggered sweep is superior to a recurrent type of sweep.

7.3

Dual Trace Oscilloscope

7.3.1 Describe the importance of dual trace oscilloscope.

7.3.2 Differentiate a dual beam CRT from a dual trace CRT.

7.3.3 Conversion single trace into a dual trace display.

7.3.4 Explain the working of electronic switch circuit for a dual trace display.

7.3.5 List the controls and connectors of a shop oscilloscope.

7.3.6 Describe the function of each control and connector of a shop CRO.

103

7.3.7 List the applications of CRO.

7.4

Storage Oscilloscope

7.4.1 Identify the purpose of storage oscilloscope.

7.4.2 List the types of storage CRT.

7.4.3 Draw and label the simplified diagram of storage CRT.

7.4.4 Explain the function of each part of a storage CRT.

7.4.5 Identify the function of writing and flood guns in a storage oscilloscope.

7.4.6 Describe the method of erasing a target of a storage oscilloscope.

7.4.7 Describe the function of controls and connectors of a storage oscilloscope

7.4.8 Enlist the advantages of storage oscilloscope.

7.5

Sampling Oscilloscope

7.5.1 Identify the importance of sampling oscilloscope.

7.5.2 Sketch and label the block diagram of a random sampling oscilloscope.

7.5.3 Describe the function of each block of the above diagram.

7.6 Vector Scope

7.6.1 Identify the function of Vector scope to check a color TV receiver’s

response.

7.6.2 Describe the use of conventional oscilloscope as a vector scope.

7.7

Curve Tracer

7.7.1 Identify the function of a modern curve tracer.

7.7.2 Draw the block diagram of a transistor curve tracer.

8.

DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS.

8.1

Understand the operation and applications of digital meters.

8.1.1 List the major types of digital test instruments.

8.1.2 Enlist the types of digital voltmeter (DVM).

8.1.3 Illustrate the voltage-to-time conversion principle of ramp-type

DVM.

8.1.4 Draw the block diagram of ramp-type DVM.

8.1.4 Identify the function of each block of the ramp-type DVM.

8.1.5 Draw the block diagram of staircase ramp type DVM.

8.1.6 Identify the function of its each block.

8.1.7 Draw the block diagram of dual-slope type DVM.

8.1.8 Explain the function of its each block.

8.1.9 Compare the above three types of DVMs.

8.1.10 Draw the block diagram of dual-slope type digital multimeter.

8.1.11 Identify the function of its each block.

8.1.12 Draw the block diagram of digital LCR meter.

8.1.13 Identify the function of its each block.

104

9.

8.1.14 Identify the function of each control of DVM and digital multimeter

8.2

Understand the working and uses of electronic counters.

8.2.1 Define the term ―Electronic Counter‖

8.2.2 Draw the block diagram of basic counter.

8.2.3 Identify the blocks of basic counter involved in frequency measurement operation.

8.2.4 Draw the basic counter block diagram for period measurement operation.

8.2.5 Explain the working of basic counter for frequency and period measurements.

8.2.6 Identify the function of panel controls and indicators of electronic counter.

8.3

Understand the function of digital IC tester.

8.3.1 Draw the block diagram of digital IC tester.

8.3.2 Explain the operation of each block of digital IC tester.

8.3.3 Explain the application of digital IC tester.

8.4

Understand the function of Signal Tracer.

8.4.1 Draw the block diagram of Signal Tracer.

8.4.2 Explain the operation of each block of Signal Tracer..

8.4.3 Explain the application of Signal Tracer..

8.5

X-Y Recorders

8.5.1 List the two basic types of recorders used as electronic test equipment.

8.5.2 Draw the block diagram of a basic strip or roll chart recorder system.

8.5.3 Describe the working of strip chart recorder.

8.5.4 Draw the block diagram of a basic X-Y recorder or plotter system.

8.5.5 Describe the function of each block of X-Y recorder.

ANALYZERS.

9.1 Understand the function of Spectrum Analyzer.

9.1.1 Draw the block diagram of spectrum analyzer.

9.1.2 Explain the function of each block of spectrum analyzer.

9.1.3 Enlist the application of spectrum analyzer.

9.2

Understand the working of logic and signature analyzers.

9.2.1 Draw the block diagram of logic analyzer

9.2.2 Explain the operation of each block of logic analyzer.

9.2.3 Identify the function of the controls & indicators of the analyzer.

9.2.4 List the application of logic analyzer

105

9.2.5 Draw the block diagram of signature analyzer.

9.2.6 Explain the function of each block of signature analyzer.

9.2.7 Identify the function of the controls & indicators of the analyzer.

9.2.8 List the application of signature analyzer

10.

MISCELLANEOUS INSTRUMENTS.

10.1

Understand electrical power & energy meters.

10.1.1 Draw the schematic diagram of electrodynamometer type watt meter.

10.1.2 Explain the working of the watt meter.

10.1.3 Draw the circuit diagram of induction type energy meter.

10.1.4 Explain the working of energy meter.

10.2

Understand the working of RF power meter.

10.2.1 Draw the diagram of RF watt meter

10.2.2 Explain the operation of RF watt meter

10.2.3 List the uses of RF watt meter

10.3

Understand the function of level and field strength meters.

10.3.1 Draw the block diagram of VU meter.

10.3.2 Explain the operation of each block of VU Meter.

10.3.3 List the applications of VU Meter.

10.3.4 Draw the block diagram of sound level meter

10.3.5 Explain the operation of each block of sound level meter

10.3.6 Explain the application of sound level meter

10.3.7 Draw the block diagram of field strength meter.

10.3.8 Explain the operation of each block of field strength meter.

10.3.9 List the applications of field strength meter.

10.4

Understand the function of Dip meter.

10.4.1 Draw the schematic diagram of a dip meter.

10.4.2 Describe the working of a dip meter circuit.

10.4.3 List the applications of dip meter.

11.

PROBES .

11.1

Understand the working of meter and scope probes.

11.1.1 List the major types of meter and scope probes.

11.1.2 Draw the circuit diagram of low capacitance probe.

11.1.3 Explain the function of low capacitance probe.

11.1.4 Draw the circuit diagram of high voltage probe (resistance & capacitance types).

11.1.5 Explain the working of high voltage probe.

11.1.6 Draw the circuit diagram of RF probe .

11.1.7 Explain the function of RF probe.

106

11.1.8 Draw the block diagram of a basic logic probe. .

11.1.9 Explain the working of basic logic probe.

11.1.10 Draw the block diagram of a simple logic pulser.

11.1.11 Explain the working of logic pulser.

11.1.12 List the applications of logic probe and pulser.

11.1.13 Explain the working of logic clip.

12. Understand the need and Methods of Calibration of Measuring Instruments.

12.1 Explain Standards of Calibration of Measuring Instruments.

12.2 Explain the techniques of calibration of Measuring Instruments.

12.3 Describe the report of calibration of Measuring Instruments.

12.4 Explain the common faults in Digital Instruments with their symptoms, causes and remedies.

13. Understand the need, architecture and applications of Virtual

Instrumentations.

13.1 Describe the need of Virtual Instrumentation.

13.2 Discuss architecture of Virtual Instrument.

13.3 Discuss sensor, computing and processing modules.

13.4 Describe applications of Virtual Instrumentations.

107

3.

4.

5.

El.TR. 233 ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS & MEASUREMENTS

LIST OF PRACTICAL:

1.

2.

Study the construction of permanent magnet moving coil meter.

Conversion of micrometer to milliammeter and ammeter using shunts.

Conversion of ammeter into voltmeter using multiplier resistance.

Conversion of ammeter into ohmmeter.

Study and use of transistor voltmeter.

96 Hours.

6.

7.

8.

Study and use of transistor tester for the testing for different semiconductor devices.

Study of whetstone bridge and its use to measure unknown resistor.

Study of universal bridge and its use to measure unknown inductances and capacitances.

9. Use digital LCR meter to measure the unknown values of L, C and R.

10. Study of oscilloscope controls and connectors.

11. Use of oscilloscope in measuring voltage, frequency, phase shift

12. Study of different stages of CRO and their identification. Study and use of storage and sampling oscilloscopes.

13. Use of A.F. generator and measurement of its output wave with CRO.

14. Use wattmeter to measure single phase a-c power.

15. Use of frequency counter to measure unknown frequency.

16. Use of sound level meter.

17. Use of Q meter to measure Q factor of a circuit

18. Use of X-Y recorder.

19. Use of clamp-on meter to measure AC current.

20. Measure high tension voltage of a CRT using high voltage probe.

21. Test logic signals using logic probe/logic clip and logic pulser.

22. Study the working of digital circuits using a logic analyzer.

23. Demonstrate voltmeter test and calibration: i) ii) against a standard voltmeter. using the balance method.

24. Demonstrate the analog ammeter calibration by:

i) using precision resistance & precision voltmeter.

25. Check an AF generator for: i) ii) frequency stability. output uniformity iii) iv) v) vi) attenuator action output hum output distortion load sensitivity

26. Check oscilloscope for voltage calibration with: i) external DC and AC ii) internal AC iii) internal square wave

27. Locate & rectify common faults in meters (available in Lab)

28. Locate & rectify common faults in Oscilloscope.

29. Locate & rectify common faults in digital instruments (available in Lab)

30. Locate & troubleshoot common faults in bridges and analyzers.

31. Use virtual instruments for the measurement of voltage and current.

32. Use virtual instruments for the measurement of frequency and time period.

108

109

El.TR. 243: ELECTRICAL MACHINES

Total Contact Hours:

Theory: 64 Hours.

Practical: 96 Hours.

T

2

P

3

C

3

Pre-requisites: Electrical Circuits

AIMS: After studying the subject the students will be able to understand the construction, working and application of DC and AC machines.

Define laws of electromagnetic induction

Explain the function of dc generator

Describe the principle of dc motor

Identify the types of dc generators and dc motors

List of applications of dc motors in the electronics field

Describe the working of alternator

Explain the function of three phase as motor

List of types of single phase as motor

Identify the working principle of various types of single phase as motor

Explain the function of special ac motors

1. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION (04 Hours)

1.1 Review of Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law

1.2 Principle of simple loop generator

2. DC GENERATOR

2.1

2.2

Construction

Field and armature winding and commutator

2.3 EMF Equation,

2.4 Simple calculations

2.5

2.6

(10 Hours)

Types and brief description of dc generator,

Methods of excitation and their characteristics

3. DC MOTOR

3.1 Principle and construction of dc motor

3.2 Back emf, cause and effect

(10 Hours)

3.3 Torque Equation of dc motor and simple problems

3.4 Types of dc motors, fractional h.p & miniature dc motor

3.5 Methods and need of motor starters

110

2.

4. ALTERNATOR

4.1 Construction of alternator,

4.2 Importance of stationary armature,

(10 Hours)

4.3 Comparison with DC generator

4.4 Methods of field excitation

4.5 Brief introduction to 3-Phase as generation

5. SINGLE PHASE AC MOTORS (08 Hours)

5.1 Classification of single phase ac motors

5.2 Single phase induction motor

5.3 Double field revolving concept

5.4 Split phase and capacitor start-run induction motor

5.5 Shaded pole motor

6. THREE PHASE AC MOTORS (16 Hours)

6.1 Introduction to three phase rotating magnetic field

6.2 Types of three phase ac motors

6.3 Working principle of induction motor

6.4 Types of three phase induction motors

6.5 Methods of starting and speed control of three phase induction motors

6.6 Line diagram of induction motor starters and connections

6.7 Applications/uses of three induction motors

7. SINGLE PHASE AC MOTORS (08 Hours)

6.1 Classification of single phase ac motors

6.2 Single phase induction motor

6.3 Double field revolving concept

6.4 Split phase and capacitor start-run induction motor

6.5 Shaded pole motor

8. SPECIAL MOTORS

8.1 Stepper Motor

(06Hours)

8.2 Servo Motor

8.3 Linear Motor

TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKS.

1. Hughes A — Electric Motors and Drives: Fundamentals, Types and Applications

(Newnes, 2005) ISBN 0750647183

Schultz, G — Transformers and Motors (Newnes, 1997) ISBN 0750699485

111

El.TR. 243: ELECTRICAL MACHINES

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES.

1. UNDERSTAND FARADAY'S LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC

INDUCTION AND LENZ’S LAW.

1.1

1.2

Describe Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction and Lenz's law.

Explain the principle of simple loop generator.

2. DC GENERATORS.

2.1 Understand the construction and working of DC generator.

2.1 Draw the construction of DC generators

2.2 Explain the working of field and armature winding

2.3 Draw the construction of commutator

2.4 Explain the operation of commutator

2.5 Derive the E.M.F. Equation for DC generator

2.6 Solve problems based on EMF equitation

2.7 Enlist the types of DC generator

2.8 Explain the method of field excitation, and characteristics of each.

3.

UNDERSTAND THE WORKING OF D.C. MOTORS.

3.1

3.2

3.3

Draw the construction of DC motor

Explain the working principle of d.c. motor

Explain back E.M.F (cause and effect of back EMF)

3.4 Write and explain the torque equation of d.c. motor.

3.5 Solve simple problems based on the torque equation of d.c. motor

3.6 Enlist the types of d.c. motors

3.7 Enlist the applications of each type of d.c motor

3.8 Describe the starting methods for d.c. motors

4.

UNDERSTAND THE WORKING PRINCIPLE OF AN ALTERNATOR

(AC GENERATOR).

4.1 Introduction to an alternator.

4.2 Sketch the constructional view of an alternator.

4.3 Compare an alternator with dc generator

4.4 Explain three phase AC generation.

4.5 State the conditions for parallel operation of Alternators.

5. UNDERSTAND THE WORKING PRINCIPLES, CONSTRUCTION,

TYPES AND USES OF SINGLE AC PHASE MOTORS.

112

5.1 Classify single phase AC motor.

5.2 Draw the constructional view of single phase induction motor.

5.3 Explain the working of single phase induction motor.

5.4 Enlist the uses of single phase induction motor

5.5 Describe the uses of single phase induction motor.

5.6 Explain double field revolving concept (split phase rotating field).

5.7 Draw the construction of capacitor -start -run motor.

5.8

5.9

Explain the working of capacitor –start- run motor

Enlist the uses of capacitor start-run- motor.

5.10 Draw the construction of shaded pole motor.

5.11 Explain the working of shaded pole motor.

5.12 Enlist the uses of shaded pole motor.

5.20 Lists its uses.

6. UNDERSTAND THE WORKING PRINCIPLE , TYPES AND USES OF

THREE PHASE AC MOTORS.

6.1 Describe 3-phase rotating magnetic field

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

Enlist the types of 3-Phase AC motors.

Enlist the types of 3-Phase induction motors

Explain the principle of induction motor

Explain the methods of starting 3- Phase induction motors.

Explain the speed control of induction motors.

6.7

6.8

6.9

Draw the line diagram of induction motor connected to a motor starter.

Explain the line diagram of induction motor connected to a starter.

Explain the remote Start and Stop of Motors.

6.10 List the uses of three phase induction motors.

7. UNDERSTAND THE TYPES, CONSTRUCTION, WORKING AND USES

OF STEPPER AND SERVO MOTOR.

8.1 Draw the construction of stepper motor.

8.2 Explain the working operation of stepper motor.

8.3 List the uses of stepper motor.

8.5 Draw the construction of servo motor.

8.6 Explain the working of servo motor.

8.7 List the uses of servo motor.

8.8 Sketch the construction of Linear Motor

8.9 Explain the working of Liner Motor

8.10 List the uses of Liner Motors.

113

El.TR. 243 ELECTRICAL MACHINES

LIST OF PRACTICAL:

1. Verify the Faraday’s Laws of electromagnetic induction by using a simple loop generator.

2. Study of main part of a d.c. generator.

3. Study of dc shunt generator

4. Study of dc series generator

5. Study of dc Compound generator

6. Measurement of Resistance of Different windings

7. Plot the O.C.C. of a d.c. shunt generator.

8. Plot the load characteristics of d.c. shunt generators.

9. Study the effect of back e.m.f. of a d.c. motor.

10. Plotting of load characteristics of d.c. series motor.

11. Starting a d.c. series and shunt motors through starters.

12. Practice speed control of d.c. series and shunt motors.

13. Study the operation of an alternator (effect of variation field excitation and rotor speed.

14. Study of rotating magnetic field.

15. Study the operation of 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor.

16. Study the operation of 3-phases synchronous motor.

17. Practice reversal of direction of rotation of 3-phase induction motor.

18. Study the line diagram of direct-on 3-phase motor starter.

19. Connect a 3-phase induction motor to supply line through a direct-on starter.

20. Study the line and connection diagram of a starter-delta starter.

21 Connect a 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor to supply line through a stardelta starter.

22. Study operation of split-phase single phase a-c motor.

23. Study the operation of capacitor-start -and-run single phase a-c motor.

24. Study the operation of shaded pole single phase motor.

25. Study the operation of a-c series motor.

26. Study the speed control of a-c series motor.

27. Study the working of miniature (reluctance and hystersis) single phase a-c motors.

28. Study the construction of stepper motor.

29. Study the operation of stepper motor.

30. Study the construction of servo motor.

31. Study the operation of servo motor.

32. Develop a control circuit with the help of servo motor.

114

EL.TR. 253 Communication Systems

Total contact hours:

Theory: 64 Hours.

Practical: 96 Hours.

T

2

P

3

C

2

Pre-requisites: Electrical Circuits

AIMS this subject has been designed so that the student will be able to understand the working of telephone and wireless communication.

Describe Modulation and Demodulation

Discuss Modulators and Demodulators.

Describe the principle and working of standard telephone set.

Explain Telephone exchanges.

Describe the working of fiber optics and microwave communication.

Describe satellite communication.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:

1. Modulation and Demodulation

1.1

1.2

Definition of Modulation and De-Modulation

Needs of Modulation and De-Modulation

(22 Hours)

1.3 Types of Modulation

1.4 AM Receiver

1.4.1 Essential function of a receiver. .

1.4.2 Principle of A.M. reception.

1.4.3 Block diagram of super-heterodyne receiver.

1.4.4 Principle of super-heterodyning.

1.4.5 Operation of each stage of super-heterodyne receiver

1.5 AM Transmitter

1.5.1 AM Transmission system ( Block Diagram).

1.5.2 Amplitude modulation.

1.5.3 Analysis of AM modulated wave.

1.5.4 Modulation Index and Bandwidth.

1.5.5 Transmission Techniques, SSB, DSB with the help of block diagram.

115

1.5.6 Noise, Types of noise and its calculation.

1.5.7 AM modulators and types of AM modulators.

1.5.8 Modulated Class-C power amplifier.

1.6 FM Receiver

1.6.1 Principle of F.M Microphone.

1.6.2 Principle of F.M reception.

1.6.3 Block diagram explanation of F.M receiver.

1.6.4 Circuit explanation of amplitude limiter.

1.6.5 Circuit explanation of phase discriminator.

1.6.6 Circuit explanation of ratio detector.

1.7 FM Transmitter

1.7.1 Principles of frequency modulation.

1.7.2 Concept of Index of modulation, frequency deviation, frequency swing effect on side band and band width, bassel functions graph and application.

1.7.3 System of FM modulation block diagram.

Reactance Modulator

Phase Shift

Phasitron

1.7.4 Merits and demerits of FM.

1.7.5 Block diagram of FM transmission with automatic arrangement of controlled modulation.

1.7.6 Stereo broadcasting transmission.

1.7.7 Significance of Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis and their explanation.

2 (10 Hours) Telephony.

2.1 Introduction to telephony.

2.2 Introduction to Automatic telephone system.

2.3 Telephone Instruments, receiver, transmitter, bell.

2.4 Side tone and Anti side tone circuits.

2.5 Telephone dial and its type.

2.6 Tone dialing, TDMF (dual tone multifrequency).

2.7 Standard telephone set.

2.8 Automatic telephone exchange.

2.9 Telephone traffic & trunking principle.

2.10 NWD system block diagram.

2.11 Block diagram of NWD exchange and its function.

2.12 Introduction to gateway exchange.

3. INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL TELEPHONE EXCHANGE. (16 Hours)

3.1 Block diagram of digital Telephone Exchange and explain each block.

3.2 Multiplexing and De multiplexing, ADC, DAC

3.3 Stored program control concept.

3.4 Advantages of computer application in telephony.

(03 Hours)

116

3.5 matrix switches, PABXs.

3.6 pulse code modulation (PCM)

3.7 PCM transmission system

3.8 Multiplexing, Time Division Multiplexing ( TDM)

3.9 Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) or Pulse Duration Multiplexing

(PDM)

3.10 Frequency Division Multiplexing and Demultiplexing

3.11 PCM based PABXs

3.12 Digital Switching Time Switching and Space switching.

3.13 Data Communication.

3.14 Modem, Fax Machine

3.15 Internet Communication.

3.16 Voice over IP

4.

Fiber Optics. (08 Hours)

4.1 Optical Fiber for light wave communication.

4.2 Propagation Modes

4.3 Fiber Optics transmission system.

4.4 Optical Transmitting and Receiving Devices

4.5 Wave Division Multiplexing

4.6 Video Telephone & Video conferencing.

5.

Satellites Communication. (08 Hours)

5.1 Block diagram of satellite communication system.

5.2 Earth Station.

5.3 Geo stationary satellites.

5.4 Telephone link via satellite.

5.5 Television Link via satellite.

5.6 Merits and Demerits of satellite communication.

TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Telecommunication by Warren Hioki ( ISBN # 0-13-632043-0)

2. Advance Electronics Communication System by Wayne Tomasi (ISBN # 81-297-

0107-3)

117

ELTR. 253 Communication Systems

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

1. Understand Modulation and Demodulation

1.1 Define of Modulation and De-Modulation

1.2 Discuss needs of Modulation and De-Modulation

1.3 Describe types of Modulation

1.4 Understand the construction and working of A.M. radio receiver.

1.4.1 Identify the essential function of a radio receiver.

1.4.2 Know the basic concept of superheterodyne receiver.

1.4.3 Draw the block diagram of super heterodyne receiver.

1.4.4 Explain the function of each stage in a superhetrodyne radio receiver.

1.5 Understand the construction and working of F.M. radio receiver.

1.5.1 Describe the principle of F.M. microphone.

1.5.2 Describe principle of F.M. reception.

1.5.3 Draw block diagram of F.M. receiver.

1.5.4 Explain function of each stage in F.M. receiver.

1.5.5 Explain the working of amplitude limiter.

1.5.6 Draw circuit diagram of phase discriminator.

1.5.7 Explain the working of phase discriminator.

1.5.8 Explain the working of ratio detector.

1.6

Understand the construction and working of AM Transmitter

1.6.1 Draw the block diagram of AM Transmission system

1.6.2 Describe Amplitude modulation.

1.6.3 Analyze AM modulated wave.

1.6.4 Express Modulation Index and Bandwidth.

1.6.5 Describe Transmission Techniques, SSB, DSB with the help of block diagram.

1.6.6 Discuss Noise, Types of noise and solve its calculation.

1.6.7 Discuss AM modulators and types of AM modulators.

1.6.8 Discuss Modulated Class-C power amplifier.

Understand the construction and working of FM Transmitter

1.7.1 Discuss principles of frequency modulation.

1.7.2 Describe the concept of Index of modulation, frequency deviation, frequency swing effect on side band and band width, bassel functions graph and application.

118

1.7.3 Explain system of FM modulation block diagram for:

Reactance Modulator

Phase Shift

Phasitron

1.7.4 Discuss merits and demerits of FM.

1.7.5 Draw block diagram of FM transmission with automatic arrangement of controlled modulation.

1.7.6 Discuss stereo broadcasting transmission.

1.7.7 Describe the significance of Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis and their explanation.

2 Understand Telephony system.

2.1 Define telephony.

2.2 Understand Automatic telephone system.

2.3 Discuss Telephone Instruments, receiver, transmitter, and bell.

2.4 Describe Side tone and Anti side tone circuits.

2.5 Describe the construction and function of Telephone dial and its type.

2.6 Discuss the tone dialing, TDMF (dual tone multifrequency).

2.7 Discuss Standard telephone set.

2.8 Discuss Automatic telephone exchange.

2.9 Describe Telephone traffic & trunking principle.

2.10 Draw NWD system block diagram.

2.11 Draw Block diagram of NWD exchange and discuss its function.

2.12 Discuss the function of gateway exchange.

3.

4.

Understand the function of Digital Telephone Exchange.

3.1 Draw the block diagram of digital Telephone Exchange and explain each block.

3.2 Discuss Multiplexing and De multiplexing, ADC, DAC

3.3 Describe stored program control concept.

3.4 Discuss advantages of computer application in telephony.

3.5 Describe matrix switches and PABXs.

3.6 Explain pulse code modulation (PCM)

3.7 Explain PCM transmission system

3.8 Describe Multiplexing and Time Division Multiplexing ( TDM)

3.9 Describe Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) or Pulse Duration

Multiplexing (PDM)

3.10 Describe Frequency Division Multiplexing and Demultiplexing

3.11 Discuss PCM based PABXs

3.12 Describe Digital Switching Time Switching and Space switching.

3.13 Discuss Data Communication.

3.14 Discuss construction and working of Modem and Fax Machine

3.15 Discuss Internet Communication.

3.16

Describe Voice over IP

Understand the role of Fiber Optics in communication system.

(03 Hours)

4.1 Discuss the role of Optical Fiber for light wave communication.

4.2 Describe Propagation Mode

4.2 Describe the Fiber Optics transmission system.

4.3 Express Video Telephone & Video conferencing.

4.5 Discuss Optical Transmitting and Receiving Devices

4.7 Describe Wave Division Multiplexing

5. Understand Satellites Communication.

5.1 Draw the block diagram of satellite communication system.

5.2 Discuss Earth Station.

5.3 Discuss Geo stationary satellites.

5.4 Discuss Telephone link via satellite.

5.5 Describe Television Link via satellite.

5.6 Discuss merits and demerits of satellite communication.

119

120

ELTR. 253 Communication Systems

LIST OF PRACTICALS

1. Assembly a simple A.M. radio receiver.

2. Align the assembled A.M radio receiver.

3. Assemble a F.M radio receiver.

4. Align the assembled F.M radio receiver.

5. Generation of AM double side band waveforms

6. Calculate the bandwidth and modulation index of the A.M. wave

7. Construct a transistorized class c amplitude modulator

8. Measure signal to noise ratio in A.M. signal.

9. Generation of single sideband A.M. signal.

10. Assemble a simple A.M. transmitter and observe on C.R.O.

11. Construct a reactance modulator using transistor.

12. Construct FM Modulator using varactor diode

13. Measure the frequency swing and deviation of a FM signal

14. Demonstrate a frequency modulated wave on C.R.O.

15. Demonstrate the performance of FM Transmitter using C.R.O.

16. Study the automatic frequency control circuit.

17. Study the function of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis

18. Study the working of phase shift modulator

19. Assemble a simple FM Transmitter

20. Demonstrate the parts of automatic telephone set.

21. Familiarize with the operation of Telephone Transmitter and Receiver

22. Demonstrate the parts of Digital Telephone Set.

23. Study the function of rotary and digital dials.

24. Demonstrate the operation of Telephone Buzzer.

25. Visit of a digital telephone exchange and write a report.

26. Study the operation of the PCM Transmitter.

27. Study the construction of the optical fiber cable.

28. Study the transmission & Reception with optical fiber.

29. Study digital signal transmission with optical fiber.

30. Study the different parts of a FAX machine and observe their operations

31. Visit a internet service provider station and write report.

32. Study the cordless Telephone system.

121

El.TR 264: DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

Total contact hours:

Theory:

Practical:

96 Hours

96 Hours

Pre-requisite: Electrical Circuits & Electronics Devices

T

3

P

3

C

4

AIM. Apply the principles of operation and function of various electronic components and devices to practical circuits.

SPECIFIC:

1. Identify various logic gates with their operation and applications.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Apply principles of Boolean Algebra.

Explain the principle of operation of Combinational and Sequential logic circuits

Identify the function of digital registers and counters.

Identify different logic families.

Identify different memories.

7.

8.

Understand the interfacing of Digital world with Analog world.

Understand Digital Troubleshooting.

COURSE CONTENTS.

(03 Hours)

NUMBER SYSTEM. (Review)

1.1 Conversion

1.1.1 Binary to Decimal.

1.1.2 Decimal to Binary.

1.1.3 Hexadecimal to Binary.

1.1.4 Binary to Hexadecimal.

1.1.5 Hexadecimal to Decimal.

1.1.6 Decimal to Hexadecimal.

2. LOGIC GATES.

(10 Hours)

2.1 Logic Gates.

2.1.1 Symbols, Circuits and functions of OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR

Gates.

2.1.2 Truth Table and Boolean expression of each above mentioned

Gates.

2.1.3 Creating Multiple Input Gates.

2.2 Duality of Logic Functions.

2.2.1 Using NOR Gates to emulate all Logic Functions.

2.2.2 Using NAND Gates to Emulate all Logic Functions.

2.3 The Exclusive OR and Exclusive NOR Functions.

2.3.1 Symbols, Circuits and functions of XOR, XNOR Gates.

122

6.

5.

4.

2.3.2 Truth Table and Boolean expression of both above mentioned

Gates.

(08 Hours)

3. BOOLEAN ALGEBRA.

3.1 Boolean Expressions.

3.1.1 Boolean Expressions and Truth Tables.

3.1.2 Minterm Expressions, Sum of Products

3.1.3 Maxterm Expressions, Product of Sums.

3.1.4 Un-simplified Boolean Expression and Schematic Circuits

3.2 Logic Simplifications.

3.2.1 Boolean Simplification.

3.2.2 DeMorgan’s Theorems.

3.2.3 Karnaugh Mapping

BINARY ARITHMATIC CIRCIUTS.

4.1 Binary Addition

4.1.1 Half Adder Design

4.1.2 Full Adder Design

(08 Hours)

4.1.3 N bit Binary Adder Circuit

4.2 Binary Arithmetic functions with complements

4.2.1 2’s and 1’s Complement Notation, Addition and Subtraction.

4.2.2 Binary Subtractor Circuit

4.2.3 Binary Adder/ Subtractor Circuit.

COMBINATIONAL CIRCUIT DESIGN.

5.1 Paradigm for Combinational Logic Problems.

5.1.1 Word Problem.

5.1.2 Construct Truth Table

5.1.3 Create a Logic Equation from a Truth Table

5.1.4 Simplify the logic Equation

5.1.5 Development of Combinational Logic Circuit

5.2 Specific Application MSI Gates

5.2.1 Level of Integration (SSI, MSI, LSI)

5.2.2 Display Drivers

5.2.3 Code Converters

5.2.3.1 BCD to Decimal

5.2.3.2 Decimal to BCD

5.2.3.3 Binary to Hexadecimal

5.2.3.4 BCD to seven segment decoder.

5.2.4 Decoding Circuits

5.2.5 Multiplexing Circuits

5.2.6 Demultiplexing Circuits

(10 Hours)

SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS.

6.1 Introduction to Sequential Logic.

6.1.1 Latches

(15 Hours)

(12 Hours)

123

7.

6.1.2 RS Flip Flop

6.1.3 Clocked RS Flip Flop

6.2 JK Flip Flop

6.2.1 Operation of JK Flip Flop

6.2.2 Asynchronous Inputs

6.2.3 Synchronous Inputs

6.3 Triggers

6.3.1 Positive-Edge Trigger

6.3.2 Negative-Edge Trigger

6.3.3 Positive-Level Trigger (Latch)

6.3.4 Negative-Level Trigger (Latch)

6.4 Other Flip Flops

6.4.1 Master Slave Flip Flop

6.4.2 D type Flip Flop

6.4.3 T type Flip Flop

6.5 Flip Flop timing considerations.

6.5.1 Setup and Hold Times

6.5.2 Propagation Delays

6.5.3 Timing Limitations (Minimum Pulse Width)

6.6 Elementary applications of Flip Flops

6.6.1 Data Storage

6.6.2 Logic Synchronizing

6.6.3 Frequency Division

6.6.4 Switch Debouncing

6.7 Multivibrators.

6.7.1 555 Timer

6.7.2 555 Timer as Monostable Multivibrator (One Shot)

6.7.3 555 Timer as Astable Multivibrator (Free Running)

6.7.4 Produce Square waves with different duty cycles with a Timer.

SHIFT REGISTERS AND COUNTERS.

(12 Hours)

7.1 Shift Register

7.1.1 Function of Shift register

7.1.2 Types of Shift registers

7.1.3 Integrated Shift register

7.2 Asynchronous Counters.

7.2.1 Discrete Ripple Counter

7.2.2 Discrete Modulus- N Ripple Counter

7.2.3 Integrated Ripple Counter (7493)

7.3 Synchronous Counter.

7.3.1 Discrete Up Counter.

7.3.2 Discrete Down Counter.

7.3.3 Discrete Modulus-Synchronous Counter.

7.3.4 Integrated 4-bit Binary Counter (74163)

7.3.5 Integrated 4-bit Up/ Down Counter (74193)

124

8.

FAMILIES AND SPECIFICATIONS (08 Hours)

8.1 Introduction of different Logic Families

8.1.1 RTL

8.1.2 DTL

8.1.3 ECL

8.1.4 TTL

8.1.5 IIL

8.1.6 MOS

8.1.7 CMOS

8.1.8 Interfacing Different Logic Families.

8.2 Specification Sheets

8.2.1 Electronic Sites

8.2.2 Voltage Levels

8.2.3 Current Levels

8.2.4 Fan-out, Fan-in

8.2.5 Switching Characteristics- Propagation Delay, Noise Margin, Power dissipation.

(08 Hours) 9. Interfacing with Analog World

9.1 Digital to Analog Conversion.

9.1.1 Introduction and needs

9.1.2 Binary weighted DAC

9.1.3 Ladder type DAC

9.2 Analog to Digital Conversion.

9.2.1 Introduction and needs ADC

9.2.2 Simultaneous ADC

9.2.3 Counter Type ADC

9.2.4 Dual Slope ADC

9.2.5 Successive Approximation ADC

10. Memory

10.1 Memory Technology

(08 Hours)

10.2 General Memory Operation.

10.3 Memory Considerations

10.4 Types of Memories

10.4.1 ROM

10.4.2 RAM

10.4.3 SRAM

10.4.4 DRAM

10.4.5 PLDs.

10.4.6 Magnetic and Optical Memories

10.5 Applications in Digital systems.

11. Introduction to Digital Troubleshooting

11.1 Classification of Faults

11.1.1 Intermittent versus Permanent

11.1.2 External versus Internal

11.1.3 Parametric versus Logic

11.1.4 Static versus Dynamic

11.2 Test Equipment

11.3 Static and Dynamic Measurements

11.4 Fault Localization, Fault Isolation

11.5 Testing for Dynamic Faults

TEXT /REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Floyd "Electronic Fundamentals"

2. Floyd "Digital Fundamentals"

(06 Hours)

125

126

2.

El.TR. 264:

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES.

1. NUMBER SYSTEM.

1.1 Convert one number system to another system

1.1.1 Convert Binary numbers into Decimal numbers.

1.1.2 Convert Decimal numbers into Binary numbers.

1.1.3 Convert Hexadecimal numbers into Binary numbers.

1.1.4 Convert Binary numbers into Hexadecimal numbers.

1.1.5 Convert Hexadecimal numbers into Decimal numbers.

1.1.6 Convert Decimal numbers into Hexadecimal numbers.

LOGIC GATES.

2.1 Explain Logic Gates.

2.1.1 Draw Symbols of OR gate.

2.1.2 Draw Circuit of two input OR gate.

2.1.3 Discuss function of OR gate.

2.1.4 Describe Truth Table of OR gate.

2.1.5 Describe Boolean expression for OR gate.

2.1.6 Repeat instructional objectives no. 2.1.1 to 2.1.5 for AND gate.

2.1.7 Repeat instructional objectives no. 2.1.1 to 2.1.5 for NOT circuit.

2.1.8 Repeat instructional objectives no. 2.1.1 to 2.1.5 for NOR gate.

2.1.9 Repeat instructional objectives no. 2.1.1 to 2.1.5 for NAND gate.

2.1.10 Create Multiple Input Gates.

2.2 Describe duality of Logic Functions.

2.2.1 Use NOR Gates to emulate all Logic Functions.

2.2.2 Use NAND Gates to emulate all Logic Functions.

2.3 Understand Exclusive OR and Exclusive NOR Functions.

2.3.1 Draw Symbols of XOR gate.

2.3.2 Draw Circuit of two input XOR gate.

2.3.3 Discuss function of XOR gate.

2.3.4 Describe Truth Table of XOR gate.

2.3.5 Describe Boolean expression for XOR gate.

2.3.6 Repeat instructional objectives no. 2.3.1 to 2.3.5 for XNOR gate.

3. BOOLEAN ALGEBRA.

3.1 Use Boolean Expressions.

3.1.1 Use Boolean Expressions and Truth Tables.

3.1.2 Use Minterm Expressions, Sum of Products

3.1.3 Use Maxterm Expressions, Product of Sums.

3.1.4 Describe Un-simplified Boolean Expression & develop Schematic

Circuits

3.2 Apply Logic Simplifications.

3.2.1 Use Boolean Simplification.

3.2.2 Use DeMorgan’s Theorems.

127

6.

4.

3.2.3 Use Karnaugh Mapping

BINARY ARITHMATIC CIRCIUTS.

4.1 Apply Binary Addition Concepts.

4.1.1 Discuss Half Adder Circuit.

4.1.2 Discuss Full Adder Circuit.

4.1.3 Discuss N bit Binary Adder Circuit

4.2 Understand Binary Arithmetic functions with complements

4.2.1 Apply 2’s and 1’s Complement Notation in Addition and

Subtraction.

4.2.2 Discuss Binary Subtractor Circuit

4.2.3 Discuss Binary Adder/ Subtractor Circuit.

5. COMBINATIONAL CIRCUIT DESIGN.

5.1 Discuss Paradigm for Combinational Logic Problems.

5.1.1 Describe Word Problem.

5.1.2 Construct Truth Table

5.1.3 Create a Logic Equation from a Truth Table

5.1.4 Simplify the logic Equation

5.1.5 Develop Combinational Logic Circuits

5.2 Understand specific Application MSI Gates

5.2.1 Differentiate Level of Integration (SSI, MSI, LSI)

5.2.2 Discuss Display Drivers

5.2.3 Discuss Code Converters

5.2.3.1 Describe BCD to Decimal Converter.

5.2.3.2 Describe Decimal to BCD Converter.

5.2.3.3 Describe Binary to Hexadecimal Converter.

5.2.3.4 Describe BCD to seven segment Decoder.

5.2.4 Describe Decoding Circuits

5.2.5 Describe Multiplexing Circuits

5.2.6 Describe Demultiplexing Circuits

SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS.

6.1 Understand Sequential Logic.

6.1.1 Describe Latches

6.1.2 Describe RS Flip Flop

6.1.3 Describe Clocked RS Flip Flop

6.2 Understand JK Flip Flop

6.2.1 Describe Operation of JK Flip Flop

6.2.2 Describe Asynchronous Inputs

6.2.3 Describe Synchronous Inputs

6.3 Understand Triggers

6.3.1 Describe Positive-Edge Trigger

6.3.2 Describe Negative-Edge Trigger

6.3.3 Describe Positive-Level Trigger (Latch)

(12 Hours)

7.

8.

6.3.4 Describe Negative-Level Trigger (Latch)

6.4 Discuss Flip Flops

6.4.1 Describe Master Slave Flip Flop

6.4.2 Describe D type Flip Flop

6.4.3 Describe T type Flip Flop

6.5 Flip Flop timing considerations.

6.5.1 Setup and Hold Times

6.5.2 Propagation Delays

6.5.3 Timing Limitations (Minimum Pulse Width)

6.6 Elementary applications of Flip Flops

6.6.1 Data Storage

6.6.2 Logic Synchronizing

6.6.3 Frequency Division

6.6.4 Switch Debouncing

6.7 Multivibrators.

6.7.1 555 Timer

6.7.2 555 Timer as Monostable Multivibrator (One Shot)

6.7.3 555 Timer as Astable Multivibrator (Free Running)

6.7.4 Produce Square waves with different duty cycles with a Timer.

SHIFT REGISTERS AND COUNTERS.

7.1 Shift Register

7.1.1 Function of Shift register

7.1.2 Types of Shift registers

7.1.3 Integrated Shift register

7.2 Asynchronous Counters.

7.2.1 Discrete Ripple Counter

7.2.2 Discrete Modulus- N Ripple Counter

7.2.3 Integrated Ripple Counter (7493)

7.3 Synchronous Counter.

7.3.1 Discrete Up Counter.

7.3.2 Discrete Down Counter.

7.3.3 Discrete Modulus-Synchronous Counter.

7.3.4 Discuss Integrated 4-bit Binary Counter (74163)

7.3.5 Discuss Integrated 4-bit Up/ Down Counter (74193)

FAMILIES AND SPECIFICATIONS

8.1 Understand Logic Families

8.1.1 Discuss RTL

8.1.2 Discuss DTL

8.1.3 Discuss ECL

8.1.4 Discuss TTL

8.1.5 Discuss IIL

8.1.6 Discuss MOS

8.1.7 Discuss CMOS

8.1.8 Describe Interfacing Different Logic Families.

128

129

8.2 Understand Specification Sheets

8.2.1 List Electronic Sites

8.2.2 Discuss Voltage Levels

8.2.3 Discuss Current Levels

8.2.4 Discuss Fan-out, Fan-in

8.2.5 Understand Switching Characteristics- Propagation Delay, Noise

Margin, Power dissipation.

9. INTERFACING WITH ANALOG WORLD

9.1 Understand Digital to Analog Conversion.

9.1.1 Discuss needs and applications of DACs

9.1.2 Describe Binary weighted DAC

9.1.3 Describe Ladder type DAC

9.2 Analog to Digital Conversion.

9.2.1 Discuss needs and applications of ADCs

9.2.2 Describe the construction and working of Simultaneous ADC

9.2.3 Describe the construction and working of Counter type ADC

9.2.4 Describe the construction and working of Dual slop ADC

9.2.5 Describe the construction and working of Successive

Approximation ADC

10. MEMORY

10.1 Discuss Memory Technologies.

10.2 Discuss General Memory Operation.

10.3 Describe Memory Considerations

10.4 List Types of Memories

10.4.1 Describe ROM

10.4.2 Describe RAM

10.4.3 Describe SRAM

10.4.4 Describe DRAM

10.4.5 Describe PLDs.

10.4.6 Describe Magnetic and Optical Memories

10.5 Discuss applications in Digital systems.

11.

INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL TROUBLESHOOTING

11.1 Classify Digital Faults

11.1.1 Differentiate between Intermittent versus Permanent faults.

11.1.2 Differentiate between External versus Internal faults.

11.1.3 Differentiate between Parametric versus Logic faults.

11.1.4 Differentiate between Static versus Dynamic faults.

11.2 Discuss Test Equipment

11.3 Describe Static and Dynamic Measurements

11.4 Discuss Fault Localization, Fault Isolation

11.5 Discuss Testing for Dynamic Faults

130

5.

6.

7.

El.TR 264: DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

Total Contact Hours:

Practical: 96 Hours.

LIST OF PRACTICAL

1. Use the data book for digital ICs and Reading of Pin-out Diagram.

2. Assemble two inputs OR gate with the help of discrete components and verify its logic operation.

3. Assemble two inputs AND gate with the help of discrete components and verify its logic operation.

4. Assemble Binary Subtractor Circuit and verify its operation. NOT, OR and AND

IC Gates.

Verify the operation of NAND gate.

Verify the operation of NOR gate.

Use NOR and NAND gates to emulate all logic functions.

8.

9.

Assemble XOR gate and verify its operation.

Assemble XNOR gate and verify its operation.

10. Assemble Half Adder and verify its operation.

11. Assemble Full Adder and verify its operation.

12. Assemble Binary Subtractor Circuit and verify its operation.

13. Assemble Binary Adder/ Subtractor Circuit and verify its operation.

14. Verify the operation of BCD to Decimal Converter.

15. Verify the operation of Decimal to BCD Converter.

16. Construct an RS Flip Flop using NAND gates.

17. Demonstrate the logical properties of clocked JK master/slave flip-flop.

18. Demonstrate the logical properties of D Type Flip Flop.

19. Demonstrate the logical properties of T Type Flip Flop.

20. Use of flip-flop as data storage element and frequency divider.

21. Assemble a Monostable Multivibrator with the help of 555 Timer.

22. Assemble a Astable Multivibrator with the help of 555 Timer.

23. Construct a 4 bit shift register and study its operation.

24. Construct an 8 bit binary counter and study its operation.

25. Study the operation of Integrated Ripple Counter (7493)

26. Construct an Up counter and study its operation.

27. Construct a Down counter and study its operation.

28. Interfacing TTL with CMOS and CMOS with TTL ICs.

29. Construct a Binary weighted DAC and study its operation.

30. Construct a Ladder ADC and study its operation.

31-32. Apply Digital Troubleshooting for various circuits

131

132

El.TR 271

PCB FABRICATION

Total Contact hours:

Practical 96 Hours

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD FEBRICATION

Practice Printed Circuit Board Making

1-2. Draw circuit lay out on copper coated laminated sheet.

3-4. Practice of etching

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0

32 Hrs.

P

3

C

1

5-6. Silk screen-printing

7-8. Use of P-CAD in drawing PCB layout with PC.

9-10. Practice soldering and de-soldering on PCB.

ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, APPLICATION & ASSEMBLY 64 Hrs.

(PCB Application)

Testing of the radio components and their assembly.

11. Construct AF and RF chokes

12. Check a junction diode and construct a bridge rectifier circuit PCB.

13. Study number system of diodes, transistors, and ICs using data books.

14-15 Construct a voltage doubler & tripler with the help of PCB.

16. Check radio components

17. Construct a AC/DC power supply PCB

18-25. Construct the superhetrodyne receiver sections, with the help of PCB: a) Construct a simple voltage and power amplifiers b) Use diodes and transistor as detector c) Construct a local oscillator d) Construct converter stage and check its performance e) Construct the I.F and R.F amplifier

26-27. Align I.F and R.F stages

28-30. Practice troubleshooting a superheterodyne radio receiver.

31-32. Develop a simple PCB project.

DAE Electronics Technology

133

134

135

136

137

138

139

140

Mgm-311

INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN RELATIONS.

Total Contact Hours

Theory 32

T P C

1 0 1

AIMS The study of this subject will enable the student to develop the management skill, acquaint him with the principles of management and human relations and develop psychological approach to solve the labour problems.

COURSE CONTENTS

1. INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY.

2 Hours

1.1 History and definition.

1.2 Nature and scope.

2. LEADERSHIP

2.1 Definition and types.

1 Hour

2.3 Qualities of a good leader.

3. MOTIVATION

3.1 Definition.

2 Hours

3.2

3.3

Types (Financial and non financial motives).

Conflict of motives.

4. MORALE

4.1 Importance.

4.2

4.3

Development.

Measurement.

5. HUMAN ENGINEERING.

5.1

5.2

5.3

Importance of human factor in industry.

Man-machine system.

Strategy for making allocation decisions.

6. INDUSTRIAL FATIGUE AND BOREDOM.

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

Definition and distinction.

Psychological causes.

Objective causes.

Prevention

7. INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS

7.1 Psychological causes.

7.2 Objective causes.

7.3 Prevention

1 Hour

1 Hour

2 Hours

2 Hours

8. INDUSTRIAL PREJUDICE

8.1 Causes

8.2 Remedies

9. PUBLIC RELATIONS.

9.1 Importance

9.2 Functions

10. GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING

10.1 Importance

10.2 Choice of job.

10.3 During service.

11. JOB EVALUATION

11.1 Importance

11.2 Methods

11.3 Job satisfaction

11.4 Work simplification.

12. INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Functions of management.

12.3 Subdivisions of management

12.4 Objectives of industrial management.

13. PERSONNEL SELECTION.

13.1 Recruitment of employees.

13.2 Training.

13.3 Effects of training on production and product cost.

14. WORKING CONDITIONS.

14.1 Importance and consideration.

14.2 Effects on efficiency and per unit cost.

15. TIME AND MOTION STUDY.

15.1 Concept and importance.

15.2 Sequence of motion study.

15.3 Principles of motion study.

15.4 Steps to time study.

15.5 Determination of operations time.

16. QUALITY CONTROL.

16.1 Concept and advantages

141

2 Hours

2 Hours

2 Hours

2 Hours

2 Hours

2 Hours

2 Hours

3 Hours

2 Hours

142

16.2 Methods.

17. ROLE OF FOREMAN IN MANAGEMENT.

17.1 Foreman's abilities.

17.2 Duties and functions.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED:

1 C.S. Meyers, Industrial Psychology, Oxford University Press, London.

2. Smith Wakley, Psychology of Industrial Behaviors, Mc-Graw Hill, New York.

3. Ghulam Hussain, Nizamat-e-Sanaat Aur Insani Rawabat, Ilmi Kitab

Khana, Urdu Bazar, Lahore.

4. Andrew R. Megill, The Process of Management William M New Man.

5. Richard N Omen, Management of Industrial Enterprises.

2 Hours

Mgm-311

INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN RELATIONS.

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

At the completion of this course, the students will be able to:

1.

KNOW INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY.

1.1

1.2

1.3

Describe brief history if industrial psychology.

Describe in detail definition of industrial psychology.

State nature and scope of industrial psychology.

2.

KNOW LEADERSHIP.

2.1

2.2

2.3

Define leadership.

Describe types of leadership.

State qualities of a good leader.

3.

UNDERSTAND MOTIVATION.

3.1

3.2

3.3

Define motivation.

Describe financial and non financial motives.

Explain conflict of motives.

4.

KNOW MORALE.

4.1

4.2

4.3

State importance of morale.

Describe development of morale.

State the method of measurement of morale.

5.

UNDERSTAND HUMAN ENGINEERING.

5.1 Explain importance of human engineering in the industry.

5.2 Explain man-machine system.

5.3 Explain strategy for making allocation decisions.

6.

UNDERSTAND INDUSTRIAL FATIGUE AND BOREDOM.

6.1

6.2

6.3

Define fatigue and boredom.

Describe psychological causes of fatigue and boredom.

Describe objective causes of fatigue and boredom.

6.4 Explain measures to prevent fatigue and boredom.

7.

UNDERSTAND INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS.

7.1 Explain psychological causes of industrial accidents.

7.2 Explain objective causes of industrial accidents.

7.3 Explain measures to prevent industrial accidents.

143

8.

UNDERSTAND INDUSTRIAL PREJUDICE.

8.1 Define prejudice

8.2 Explain causes of industrial prejudice.

8.3 Explain remedies of industrial prejudice.

9.

UNDERSTAND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS.

9.1 Explain importance of public relations.

9.2 Explain functions of public relations.

10.

UNDERSTAND THE NEED FOR GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING.

10.1 State importance of guidance and counselling.

10.2 Explain the role of guidance and counselling in choosing the job.

10.3 Describe help of guidance and counselling during service.

11.

UNDERSTAND JOB EVALUATION.

11.1 Explain importance of job evaluation.

11.2 Explain methods of job evaluation.

11.3 Explain job satisfaction.

11.4 Explain work simplification.

12.

UNDERSTAND INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT.

12.1 Define management.

12.2 State functions of management.

12.3 Enlist subdivision of management.

12.4 Explain objectives of industrial management.

13.

UNDERSTAND TRAINING AND ITS EFFECTS.

13.1 Describe the recruitment procedure of employees in an industrial concern.

13.2 Explain training.

13.3 Identify the kinds of training.

13.4 Explain the effects of training on production and product cost.

14. UNDERSTAND THE EFFECT OF WORKING CONDITION ON

EFFICIENCY.

15.1 Explain importance of working condition.

15.2 Describe air-conditioning, ventilation, lighting and noise.

15.3 State the effects of good working conditions on efficiency and per unit cost.

15.

UNDERSTAND TIME AND MOTION STUDY.

15.1 Explain the concept.

144

15.2 Describe the importance of work study.

15.3 Explain the sequence of motion study.

15.4 State the principles of motion study.

15.5 Describe the steps for carrying out time study.

15.6 Explain the method of determination of operations time.

16.

UNDERSTAND THE METHODS OF QUALITY CONTROL.

16.1 Define quality control

16.2 State the advantages of quality control.

16.2 Explain methods of quality control.

17. UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF FOREMAN IN AN INDUSTRIAL

UNDERTAKING.

17.1 Explain ability of the foreman.

17.2 Enlist duties of foreman.

17.3 Describe functions of foreman as middle management.

145

OHSE -311 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

Total Contact Hours: 32

Theory: 32

AIMS

After completion of the course, the student will be able to

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1

P

0

C

1

1. Know how to identify and control hazards in the workplace.

2. Carry out a risk assessment and identify control measures.

3. Understand the methods used when reporting and recording accidents and incidents.

4. Understand the key features of health and safety legislation and regulations.

COURSE CONTENTS

1.

Identification and control of Hazards

1.1 Methods of identify hazards within the work place.

(15 Hours)

1.1.1 Statements

1.1.2 Analysis of significant risks

1.1.3 Prediction of results or outcomes of those risks

1.1.4 Use of accident data

1.1.5 Careful consideration of work methods

1.2 Consideration of the workplace and its potential for harm.

1.2.1 Confined spaces

1.2.2 Working at heights

1.2.3 Electrical hazards

1.2.4 Chemicals

1.2.5 Noise

1.3 Hazards which become risks:

1.3.1 Identification of minor or major risk

1.3.2 Potential to cause harm

1.3.3 Choosing appropriate control measures

1.3.4 Electrical safety

1.3.4.1 Cause of injury in electrical work

1.3.4.2 Effects of electricity on the body

1.3.4.3 Circuit overloading

1.3.5 Mechanical safety

1.3.5.1 Cause of injury in mechanical work

1.3.5.2 Rotating equipment

1.3.5.3 Sharp edges

1.4 Safety Devices

1.4.1 Residual current device (RCD)

1.4.2 Fuses

1.4.3 Guards

1.4.4 Sensors

146

147

2.

Risk assessment and identify control measures

2.1 Risk assessments: five steps

2.1.1 Principal hazards

2.1.2 Who is likely to be injured/ harmed?

(07 Hours)

2.1.3 Evaluate the risks and decide on adequacy of precautions

2.1.4 Recording findings

2.1.5 Review assessment

2.2 Use of control measures:

2.2.1 Use of recognized procedures

2.2.2 Substances control

2.2.3 Guarding

2.2.4 Lifting assessments and manual handling assessments

2.2.5 Regular inspection

2.2.6 Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

2.2.7 Training of personnel

2.2.8 Other personal procedures for health, safety and welfare

3.

Methods used when reporting and recording accidents and incidents.

(06 Hours)

3.1 Why employers keep records of serious accidents, incidents and emergencies

3.2 Responsibilities of competent persons

3.3 Cost of accidents

3.4 Recording of trends such as major causes, fatal and serious injury

3.5 Methods of classification

3.6 Statistics

3.7 Recording and reporting procedures

3.7.1 Accident book, company procedures

3.7.2 Procedures to deal with near miss or dangerous occurrences

4. Key features of health and safety legislation and regulations. (04 Hours)

4.1 General Safety, health & Condition of work

4.1.1 Labour Code of Pakistan 1986

4.2 Industries and Occupations

4.2.1 Hazardous Occupation Rules 1963

4.2.2 The Factories Act 1934

4.2.3 Punjab Factories Rules 1978

Reference Books.

Safety Practices and Procedures by NISTE

Health and Safety Executive — A Guide to Risk Assessment Requirements: Common

Provisions in Health and Safety Law (HSE Books, 1996) ISBN 0717612112

Health and Safety Executive — Management of Health and Safety at Work (HSE

Books, 2000) ISBN 0717624889

148

OHSE -311 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

1. Understand how to Identify and control of Hazards

1.1 Understand methods of identify hazards within the work place.

1.1.1 Discuss the role of statements

1.1.2 Describe the analysis of significant risks

1.1.3 Discuss the prediction of results or outcomes of the risks

1.1.4 Discuss the use of accident data

1.1.5 Describe the careful consideration of work methods

1.2 Understand the consideration of the workplace and its potential for harm.

1.2.1 Describe confined spaces

2.

1.2.2 Discuss working at heights

1.2.3 Discuss Electrical hazards

1.2.4 Discuss Chemicals related to hazards

1.2.5 Discus role of noise.

1.3 Understand Hazards which become risks:

1.3.1 Able to identification of minor or major risk

1.3.2 Describe potential to cause harm

1.3.3 Able to choosing appropriate control measures

1.3.4 Understand Electrical safety

1.3.4.1 Describe cause of injury in electrical work

1.3.4.2 Describe effects of electricity on the body

1.3.4.3 Describe circuit overloading

1.3.5 Understand Mechanical safety

1.3.5.1 Describe cause of injury in mechanical work

1.3.5.2 Discuss the role of rotating equipment in hazards.

1.3.5.3 Discuss the role of sharp edges in hazards.

1.4 Understand role of Safety Devices

1.4.1 Understand the role of residual current device (RCD)

1.4.2 Understand the role of fuses

1.4.3 Understand the role of guards

1.4.4 Understand the role of sensors

Risk assessment and identify control measures

2.1 Understand five steps Risk assessments

2.1.1 principal hazards

2.1.2 who is likely to be injured/harmed

2.1.3 evaluate the risks and decide on adequacy of precautions

2.1.4 recording findings

2.1.5 review assessment

2.2 Understand the use of control measures

2.2.1 Discuss use of recognized procedures

2.2.2 Discuss substances control

149

2.2.3 Discuss guarding

2.2.4 Discuss lifting assessments and manual handling assessments

2.2.5 Discuss regular inspection

2.2.6 Discuss use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

2.2.7 Discuss training of personnel

2.2.8 Discuss other personal procedures for health, safety and welfare

3.

4.

Understand the Methods used when reporting and recording accidents and incidents.

3.1 Discuss why employers keep records of serious accidents, incidents and emergencies

3.2 Describe the responsibilities of competent persons

3.3 Discuss cost of accidents

3.4 Discuss recording of trends such as major causes, fatal and serious injury

3.5 Discuss methods of classification

3.6 Discuss statistics used in recording

3.7 Understand Recording and reporting procedures

3.7.1 Describe accident book, company procedures

3.7.2 Discuss the procedures to deal with near miss or dangerous occurrences

Key features of health and safety legislation and regulations.

4.1 Understand General Safety, health & Condition of work mentioned in rules in Pakistan

4.1.1 Understand related clauses of Labour Code of Pakistan 1986

4.2 Understand the related clauses in Industries and Occupations rules in

Pakistan.

4.2.1 Understand related clauses of Hazardous Occupation Rules 1963

4.2.2 Understand related clauses of The Factories Act 1934

4.2.3 Understand related clauses of Punjab Factories Rules 1978

El.TR. 314 COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

Total contact hours:

Theory: 96 Hours

Practical: 96 Hours

Pre-requisite: Electrical Circuits

Digital Electronics

T

3

P

3

C

4

AIMS This subject has been designed so as to enable the student:

1. Understand digital computation.

2. Understand microprocessor architecture, programming and interfacing.

3. Understand the microcomputer hardware.

COURSE CONTENTS

1. Solve the digital problems related to computer.

2. Program a Intel 8086 microprocessor using assembly and Machine language.

3. Debug and program.

4. Differentiate a 16 bit and 32 microprocessor.

5. Identify the function of standard interfaces.

6. Explain the memory organization.

7. Describe the stored program concept.

8. Identify the units of digital computer.

9. Describe computer peripheral devices.

10. Describe microcontroller’s role.

.

1. BASIC MICROPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE.

1.1 Introduction of Microprocessor

(16 Hours)

1.2 Basic Architecture of a 16 bit Microprocessor (8086/88)

1.2.1 Block Diagram

1.2.2 Function of each Block

1.2.3 Buses

1.2.3.1 Data Bus

1.2.3.2 Address Bus

1.2.3.3 Control Bus

1.2.4 Bus Timing

1.2.5 Pin Configuration of 8086/88

1.2.6 Clocking and Power requirements.

1.2.5 Bus Buffering and Latching

1.3 Processor features

150

(02 Hours)

1.3.1 Pipelining

1.3.2 Multiprocessing.

1.3.3 Parallel Processing.

1.4 Programming Models

1.4.1 General Purpose Registers

1.4.2 Segment register

1.4.3 Pointer register

1.4.4 Flag Register

1.5 Memory

1.5.1 ROM

1.5.2 Cache Memory

1.5.3 RAM and its Types

1.5.3.1 Static

1.5.3.2 Dynamic

1.5.3.3 Flash

1.6 Components of Processor

1.6.1 Control Unit

1.6.2 ALU

2. ASSEMBLY LANGUAUE.

2.1 Instruction set

(20 Hours)

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

Programming language

Difference between Assembler, Interpreter and Compiler

Comparison between assembly language and machine language.

Data Addressing Modes.

Data Movement Instructions.

Arithmetic and Logic Instructions.

Program Control Instructions.

3. MEMORY AND BASIC I/O INTERFACE. (16 Hours)

3.1 Memory Devices.

3.2

3.3

3.4

Address Decoding.

8088 and 80188 (8 bit) Memory Interface.

8086, 80186 (16 bit) Memory Interface.

3.5 32 bit and 64 bit Memory Interface.

3.6 Dynamic RAM

3.7 Introduction to I/O Interface.

3.8 I/O Port Address Decoding.

3.9 8254 Programmable Interval Timer.

3.10 Programmable Communications Interface

3.11 ADC and DAC Converters

3.12 Basic USB Interface

3.13 COMPUTER PERIPHERALS.

151

152

3.13.1 Introduction to computer peripherals.

3.13.2 key Board, VDU

3.13.3 Hard disk.

3.13.4 Pointer.

3.13.5 Mouse.

3.13.6 Plotter.

3.13.7 Digitizer and Scanner.

4. INTERRUPTS.

4.1

4.2

4.3

Basic Interrupt Processing

Types of Interrupts.

Hardware Interrupts.

4.4

4.5

Software Interrupts.

Programmable Interrupt Controller (8259A).

5. DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS.

(04 Hours)

(04 Hours)

5.1 Basic DMA Operation.

5.2 DMA Controller (8237).

6. BUS INTERFACE.

6.1 The ISA Bus.

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

The Universal Serial Bus (USB)

Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP).

7. THE PENTIUM MICROPROCESORS.

7.1

Summary of growth from 808186 to 80486

.

(05 Hours)

The Extended ISA (EIAS) and VESA Local Buses.

The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Bus.

(05 Hours)

7.2 Introduction to the Pentium Microprocessors.

7.3 Special Pentium Registers.

7.4 Pentium Memory Management.

7.5 New Pentium Instructions

8. THE MICROCONTROLLER

(06 Hours)

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

Single-chip Microprocessor.

Introduction to microcontrollers.

8051 internal RAM and registers.

8051 interrupts systems.

8.5 8051 instruction set.

8.6 Microcontrollers on the 8051 family.

TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Barry B. Brey “The Intel Microprocessors (8086/8088, 80186, 80286, 80386,

80486)”.

(02 Hours)

153

2. The Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture by NULL, Linda,

Lobur, Julia (2006) (ISBN # 0763737696)

El.TR. 314 COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

.

1. UNDERSTANDING BASIC MICROPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE.

1.1 Understand the term of Microprocessor

1.2 Understand Basic Architecture of a 16 bit Microprocessor (8086/88)

1.2.1 Draw Block Diagram

1.2.2 Discuss Function of each Block

1.2.3 Discuss Buses

1.2.3.1 Describe Data Bus

1.2.3.2 Describe Address Bus

1.2.3.3 Describe Control Bus

1.2.4 Discuss Bus Timing

1.2.5 Discuss Pin Configuration of 8086/88

1.2.6 Discuss Clocking and Power requirements.

1.2.5 Describe Bus Buffering and Latching

1.3 Understand Processor features

1.3.1 Describe Pipelining

1.3.2 Describe Multiprocessing.

1.3.3 Describe Parallel Processing.

1.4 Understand Programming Models

1.4.1 Describe General Purpose Registers

1.4.2 Describe Segment register

1.4.3 Describe Pointer register

1.4.4 Describe Flag Register

1.5 Understand Memory

1.5.1 Discuss ROM

1.5.2 Describe Cache Memory

1.5.3 Describe RAM and its Types

1.6

1.5.3.1 Describe Static

1.5.3.2 Describe Dynamic

1.5.3.3 Describe Flash

Understand Components of Processor

1.6.1 Discuss Control Unit

1.6.2 Discuss ALU

2. UNDERSTAND THE APPLICATIONS OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAUE.

2.1 Discuss the Instruction set.

(02 Hours)

(04 Hours)

154

2.2 Discuss Programming languages.

2.3 List three programming languages for a microcomputer.

2.4 Differentiate between Assembler, Interpreter and Compiler

2.5 Discuss Fields of Assemble language statement.

2.6 Compare assembly language with machine language.

2.7 Describe Data Addressing Modes.

2.8 Apply Data Movement Instructions.

2.9 Apply Arithmetic and Logic Instructions.

2.10 Apply Program Control Instructions.

3. UNDERSTAND THE USE OF MEMORY AND BASIC I/O INTERFACE. (02 Hours)

3.1 Discuss Memory Devices.

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

Describe Address Decoding.

Discuss 8088 and 80188 (8 bit) Memory Interface.

Discuss 8086, 80186 (16 bit) Memory Interface.

Discuss 32 bit and 64 bit Memory Interface.

Discuss Dynamic construction and working of RAM

3.7 Describe Introduction to I/O Interface.

3.8 Describe I/O Port Address Decoding.

3.9 Discuss the construction and operation of 8254 Programmable Interval

Timer.

3.10 Discuss the construction and operation of Programmable

Communications Interface

3.11 Describe the operation of ADC and DAC Converters

3.12 Describe the operation of USB Interface

3.13 Describe the role of peripherals in computer system.

3.14 Discuss construction and working of key Board, VDU

3.15 Discuss construction and working of Hard disk.

3.16 Discuss construction and working of Pointer.

3.17 Discuss construction and working of Mouse.

3.18 Discuss construction and working of Plotter.

3.19 Discuss construction and working of Digitizer and Scanner.

4. UNDERSTAND INTERRUPTS.

4.1 Discuss basic Interrupt Processing

4.2 Discuss Types of Interrupts.

4.3 Describe Hardware Interrupts.

4.4 Describe Software Interrupts.

4.5 Discuss operation of Programmable Interrupt Controller (8295A).

5. UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS.

5.1

5.2

Discuss basic DMA Operation.

Discuss the construction and operation of DMA Controller (8237).

(02 Hours)

5.3 Describe Shared Bus Operation.

6. UNDERSTAND THE BUS INTERFACE.

6.1 Describe the operation of ISA Bus.

6.2 Discuss the Extended ISA (EIAS) and VESA Local Buses.

6.3 Describe the role of Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Bus.

6.4 Describe the role of The Universal Serial Bus (USB)

7.

6.5 Describe the role of Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP).

THE PENTIUM MICROPROCESORS.

7.1

Discuss summary of growth from 808186 to 80486

.

7.2 Describe introduction to the Pentium Microprocessors.

7.3 Describe Special Pentium Registers.

7.4 Discuss Pentium Memory Management.

7.5 Describe New Pentium Instructions

8. THE MICROCONTROLLER

8.1 Define Single-chip Microprocessor.

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

Express microcontrollers.

Describe the role of 8051 internal RAM and registers.

Describe the role of 8051 interrupts systems.

Discuss 8051 instruction set.

Discuss Microcontrollers on the 8051 family.

155

(02 Hours)

156

El.TR.- 314 Computer Architecture

LIST OF PRACTICAL: 96 Hours

1. Introduction to 8086 Microprocessor Trainer . 03 hrs.

2. Run different short program using Arithmetic Instructions e.g. ADD, SUB,

MUL, DIV, etc 06 hrs.

3. Run different short program using Arithmetic Instructions e.g. OR, AND NOT, etc. 06hrs.

4. Interface 8/4 Matrix with Processor.

5. 7 Segment display with Processor.

6. Control AC Power by processor

12hrs.

12hrs.

12hrs.

7. Using Trainer and Instructions of Assembly language Control Traffic Light.

12hrs.

8. Interfacing Keyboard, Mouse, Printer and scanner.

9. Sensor

15hrs.

Using Microprocessor Trainer and Assembly Language Instructions develop following sensors

Temperature

Smoke 18+18 Hrs.

157

El.TR. 322 EQUIPMENT MAINENANCE & SERVICING

T

Total contact hours:

Theory:

2

P

6

C

2

Practical: 192 Hours.

Prerequisites:- Analog Electronics

Digital Electronics

Electrical Instruments & Measurements

Objectives: After completion of this subject, the student will be able to

Acquire skill to maintain, service and troubleshoot electronics equipment

.

COURSE CONTENTS

1. Colour TV Receiver.

1.1Basic Concepts of Colour TV Receiver

1.2 Block Diagram of Colour TV Receiver

1.3 VHF-UHF Tuner, S-Band, Hyper band

1.4 IF Subsystem

1.5 Luminance Channel

1.5 Chroma Decoder

1.6 Colour Picture Tubes

1.6.2 Trintron Colour Picture Tube

1.7 Satellite TV Receivers

2. Camera Tubes

2.1 Principles of Optical-electrical Conversion

(16 Hours)

1.6.1 Precision in Line Colour Picture tube

(04 Hours)

2.2 Vidicon Camera Tube

2.3 Plumbicon Camera Tube

2.4 Solid State Camera Tube

3.

Video Disk System

3.1 Video Display Unit

3.1.1 Video Monitor

3.1.2 LCD Displays

3.1.3 Plasma Displays

3.1.4 Large Screen

3.2 Close Circuit TV

3.3 Features/ Specifications of VTR/ VCR

(08 Hours)

3.4 Basic Concepts of High Definition Television

4. Microwave Oven

4.1 Operating Principal Microwave Oven

(06 Hours)

5.

4.2

4.3

Block Diagram of Microwave Oven

Features of Microwave Oven

Remote Control

5.1 Operating Principal of Remote Control

5.2 Block Diagram of Remote Control

6. Video Games

6.1 Operating Principal of Video games

(03 Hours)

(04 Hours)

7.

6.2 Block Diagram of Video games

6.3 Features of Video games

Washing Machine

7.1 Fuzzy Logic

7.2 Washing Machine with Fuzzy logic

4.1 Operating Principal of Washing machine

4.3 Features of Washing Machine

8. Facsimile of Fax

8.1 Analog verse Digital Communication

9.

8.1 Operating Principal Fax Machine

8.3 Features of Fax Machine

Cellular Phone

9.1 The Cell Approach

9.2 Operating Principal of Cellular phones

9.3 Functions perform by Cellular Phones

10.

9.4 Features of Cellular Phones

Wireless Phone or Cordless Phone

10.1 Operating Principal of Wireless Phones.

10.2 Block Diagram of base unit

10.3 Block Diagram of Hand set unit

(03 Hours)

(06 Hours)

(06 Hours)

(03 Hours)

11.

10.3 Features of Wireless Phone

Digital Calculators & Diaries (05 Hours)

4.1 Operating Principal of Digital Calculators and Diaries.

4.2 Block Diagram of Digital Calculators and Diaries.

4.3 Features of Digital Calculators and Diaries.

Reference / Text Books

Consumer Electronics, by J.S. Chitode, 2007, Technical Publications Pune, India

158

159

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

1. Understand principles of Colour TV Receiver.

1.1Discuss basic Concepts of Colour TV Receiver

1.2 Draw Block Diagram of Colour TV Receiver

1.3 Describe construction and working of VHF-UHF Tuner, S-Band, Hyper band

1.4 Discuss IF Subsystem

1.5 Describe Luminance Channel

1.5 Discuss Chroma Decoder

1.6 Discuss Colour Picture Tubes

1.6.1 Discuss construction and working principles of Precision in Line

Colour Picture tube

1.6.2 Discuss construction and working principles of Trintron Colour

Picture Tube

2.

1.7 Discuss construction and working principles of Satellite TV Receivers

Understand construction and working of Camera Tubes

2.1 Discuss Photosensitive materials with respect to types and uses.

2.2 Discuss principles of Optical-electrical Conversion

2.2 Discuss construction and working principles of Vidicon Camera Tube

2.3 Discuss construction and working principles of Plumbicon Camera Tube

2.4 Discuss construction and working principles of Solid State Camera Tube

3.

Understand Video Disk System

3.1 Discuss Video Display Unit

3.1.1 Discuss construction of Video Monitor

3.1.2 Discuss construction of LCD Displays

3.1.3 Discuss construction of Plasma Displays

3.1.4 Discuss construction of Large Screen

3.2 Discuss construction of Close Circuit TV

4.

3.3 Describe features/ specifications of VTR/ VCR

3.4 Describe basic concepts of High Definition Television

Understand Working of Microwave Oven

4.1 Discuss operating principles Microwave Oven

5.

4.2 Draw block Diagram of Microwave Oven

4.3 Describe features of Microwave Oven

Understand Working of Remote Control

5.1 Discuss operating principles of Remote Control

5.2 Draw block Diagram of Remote Control

6. Understand Working of Video Games

6.1 Discuss operating principles of Video games

6.2 Draw block Diagram of Video games

6.3 Describe features of Video games

7. Understand Working of Washing Machine

7.1 Describe Fuzzy Logic

7.2 Describe Washing Machine with Fuzzy logic

4.1 Discuss operating principles of Washing machine

8.

4.3 Describe features of Washing Machine

Understand Working of Facsimile of Fax

8.1 Distinguish between Analog and Digital Communication

8.1 Describe operating principles Fax Machine

8.3 Discuss features of Fax Machine

9.

Understand Working of Cellular Phone

9.1 Describe the Cell Approach

9.2 Discuss operating principles of Cellular phones

9.3 Discuss functions perform by Cellular Phones

9.4 Describe features of Cellular Phones

10. Understand Working of Wireless Phone or Cordless Phone

10.1 Describe operating principles of Wireless Phones.

10.2 Draw block Diagram of base unit

10.3 Draw block Diagram of Hand set unit

10.3 Describe features of Wireless Phone

11. Understand Working of Digital Calculators & Diaries

4.1 Describe operating principles of Digital Calculators and Diaries.

4.2 Draw block Diagram of Digital Calculators and Diaries.

4.3 Discuss features of Digital Calculators and Diaries.

160

161

LIST OF PRACTICAL

1. Introduction to servicing, Methods of servicing, Workshop precautions

2-3 Introduction of tools, equipment and instruments used in servicing process.

4-5 General specifications of tools, equipment and instruments used in servicing process.

6-7 Servicing faulty Multimeter analog or digital and write report.

8-9 Identify and locate the different sections of AF & RF signal generator.

10-11 Identify and locate the different sections of CRO.

12-13 Servicing faulty CRO and write a report.

14-15 Servicing faulty Function Generator and write a report.

16-17 Familiarization and servicing of IC tester (both analog and digital) and write report.

18. Familiarization and servicing of Techometer (Stabroscope) and write report.

19. Familiarization and servicing of Digital Temperature measuring meter and write report.

20. Familiarization and servicing of Frequency Counter and write report.

21 Familiarization and servicing of X-Y recorder and write report.

22-24 Familiarization and practice on Hot air Soldering and desoldering station.

25 Familiarization and servicing of Logic Analyzer and write report.

27-28 Familiarization and servicing of Pattern generator and write report.

29-31. Fault and Symptoms of Different stages of radio receiver and measurement of voltages with the help of DVM

32-33 Identify and locate the different sections of TV Receiver

34-35 Write a report after servicing a TV set, which Blow-off Fuse.

36-37 Servicing faulty Lab Supply and write a report.

38. Servicing faulty EHT prob and write a report.

39-41 Write a report after servicing a TV Set which has no raster.

42-43 Servicing faulty over Head Projector/ Opaque Projector/ Slid Projector/ Film

Projector/ Multimedia Projector and write report.

44-45 Introduction and location of different stages of colour monitor.

46-50 Servicing a faulty colour monitor set and write report.

51-52 Familiarization and servicing of VCD /DVD and write report.

53-55 Familiarization and servicing of Mobile phone and write report.

56-57 Familiarization and servicing of Microwave Oven

58-59 Familiarization and servicing of Fax Machine

60-61 Familiarization and servicing of Remote Controls

62-63 Familiarization and servicing of Video Camera

64 Familiarization and servicing of CCTV

162

El.TR. 332 PROJECT

Total contact hours:

Practical: 192 Hours.

T

0

Objectives: After completion of this subject, the student will be able to:

Specify a project, agree procedures and choose a solution.

P

6

Plan and monitor a project.

Implement a project within agreed procedures and to specification.

Present the Project outcomes.

Evaluation Criteria of Project:-

C

2

Presentation of Project after each and every 8 weeks

(Fifty percent of sessional marks)

(Fifty percent of sessional marks)

Final Presentation of Project

163

3.

2.

El.T 373 Digital Communication Systems & Networks

Total contact hours:

Theory: 64 Hours.

Practical: 96 Hours.

Pre-requisites: Communication System

1.

T

2

P

3

C

3

Introduction to Digital Modulation. (12 Hours)

1.1 Introduction, Simplified block diagram of a digital Communication

System.

1.2 Digital Coding

1.3 Amplitude Shift keying.

1.4 Frequency Shift Keying

1.5 Phase Shift Keying.

1.6 Noise and its types

1.7 Fading, Signals to Noise Ratio, Bandwidth & Channel Capacity

Principles of a Cellular Mobile Communication (20 Hours)

2.1 Introduction to Cellular mobile networks

2.2 Multiple access techniques

2.3 Cellular Communication Fundamentals

2.4 Development of wireless networks

2.5 SMS,EMS,GPRS

2.6 Role of subscriber information module (SIM)

2.7 Alternative mobile services

2.7 1 Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications

2.7.2 Wi-Fi

2.7 3 WiMAX

2.7 4 Bluetooth

2.7.5 Near Field Communications

2.7.6 WLL

WAN Technologies & Routing

3.1 Principles of WAN technologies

3.2 Advantages of Packet-switched data services

3.3 Concept of virtual circuits

3.4

3.5

(10 Hours)

Capabilities and applications of WAN Services

Characteristics of modern data services

3.5.1 ATM

3.5.2 SMDS

3.5.3 DSL

(04 Hours)

164

4. Network Layers Protocols

4.1 Administration of the internet

4.1.1 Role of ISP and NSP

4.1.2 The Domain Name System (DNS)

4.1.3 Role of DNS registers

4.2 Types of Signaling

4.3 Types of signaling Network Structures

4.4 Explain each layer of OSI and SS7 Protocols

4.5 Relationship between OSI and SS7 protocols

4.6 Signaling messages

4.7 Role of routing protocols

4.8 Role of functional Components

4.9 Capabilities of methods of internet access

5. Network Security

5.1Secure Network and Policies

5.2 Aspects of Security

5.3 Responsibility and Control

5.3Access Controls & Passwords

5.4 Encryption and decryption

5.5 Mechanisms

5.5.1 Private Key

5.5.2 Public Key

TEXT/ REFERENCE BOOKS

(18 Hours)

(04 Hours)

1. Computer Networks and Internet: with internet Applications 3 rd

Ed. By

Douglas E. Comer, 2007, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

2. Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications, 7 th

Ed. By Bernard

Sklar, 2001, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

3. Principles & Applications of GSM, 3 rd

Ed. By Vijay K. Gary & Joseph E.

Wilkes, 2007, Pearson Education

4. Data Communications and Networking, 3 rd

. Ed. By Behrouz A. Frorouzan Mc

Graw Hill

165

3.

El.T 373 Digital Communication Systems & Networks

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

1. Understand Digital Modulation.

1.1 Define Digital Modulation.

1.2 Draw the Simplified block diagram of Digital Radio System.

1.3 Describe Bits, Bit rate, Baud, Line coding, Pulse shaping, scrambling, Q-

array and M-array Encoding.

1.4 Explain Amplitude Shift keying.

1.5 Explain Frequency Shift Keying

1.6 Explain Phase Shift Keying.

1.7 Explain FSK receiver and Transmitter.

1.8 Describe Noise

1.9 Describe Types of Noise

1.10 Discuss Fading, Signals to Noise Ratio, Bandwidth & Channel Capacity

2. Express Principles of a Cellular Mobile Communication

2.1 Define Cellular System.

2.2 Describe Hexagonal Cell

2.3 Describe Interface Ration

2.3.1 Define Frequency reuse

2.3.2 Define Hand off, Interference capacity

2.3.3 Define Improving Coverage and capacity in Cellular system.

2.4 Discuss FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA.

2.5 Explain Mobile telephone Services.

2.6 Discuss ASM

2.7 Discus GSM

2.8 Differentiate between SMS, EMS, GPRS

2.9 Discuss role of subscriber information module (SIM)

2.10

Discuss 1 st

., 2 nd

. 2.5 & 3 Generations

2.11 Explain Alternative mobile services

2.11.1 Describe Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications

2.11.2 Describe Wi-fi

2.11.3 Describe WiMAX

2.11.4 Describe role of Bluetooth

2.11.5 Describe Near Field Communications

2.11.6 Describe WLL

Explain operation, characteristics and applications of WAN service.

3.1

3.2

3.2

Discuss principles of WAN technologies

Discuss routing, switching, circuit switching and packet switching

Discuss advantages of Circuit switching, Packet-switched and data

(04 Hours)

166 services

3.3

3.4

3.5

Explain Concept of virtual circuits

Explain capabilities and applications of WAN Services

Explain characteristics of modern data services

3.5.1 Discuss ATM

3.5.2 Discuss SMDS

3.5.3 Discuss DSL

4. Explain operation, characteristics and capabilities of Network Layers

Protocols.

4.1 Discuss Administration of the internet

4.1.1 Differentiate the role of ISP and NSP

4.1.2 Discuss the Domain Name System (DNS)

4.1.3 Explain the role of DNS registrars

4.2 Explain Signaling and its types

4.3 Explain Types of signaling Network Structures

4.4 Explain each layer of OSI Protocol

4.5 Explain each layer of SS7 Protocol

4.6 Compare OSI and SS7 protocols

4.6.1Explain the role of and relationship between internet protocols with reference to OSIRM

4.6.1.1 Express IP

4.6.1.2 Express UDP

4.6.1.3 Express TCP

4.6.1.4 Express HTML

4.6.1.5 Express FTP

4.6.1.6 Express SMTP

4.6.1.7 Express POP

4.7 Explain Signaling messages

4.8 Explain the role of routing protocols

4.8.1 Discuss RIP

4.8.2 Discuss OSPF

4.9 Explain the role of functional Components

4.10 Describe capabilities of methods of internet access

4.10.1 Express ADSL

4.10.2 Express SHDSL

4.10.3 Express BRA ISDN

4.10.4 Discuss Dial-up over the PSTN,

4.10.5 Describe Wireless access

5.

Understand Network Security

5.1 Discuss Secure Network and Policies

5.2 Describe Aspects of Security

5.3 Discuss Responsibility and Control

5.3 Explain Access Controls & Passwords

5.4 Describe Encryption and decryption

5.5 Explain Mechanisms

5.5.1 Describe Private Key

5.5.2 Describe Public Key

Digital Communication Systems & Networks

El.T 373

LIST OF PRACTICAL

1. Study the working of Line Code Encoder a. Unipolar and Bipolar NRZ Signal Encoder b. Unipolar and Bipolar RZ Signal Encoder c. AMI Signal Encoder d. Manchester Signal Encoder

2. Study the working of Line Code Decoder a. Unipolar and Bipolar NRZ Signal Decoder b. Unipolar and Bipolar RZ Signal Decoder c. AMI Signal Decoder d. Manchester Signal Decoder

3. Study the operation of PWM Modulator a. uA741 Pulse Width Modulator b. LM555 Pulse Width Modulator

4. Study the operation of PWM Demodulator

5. Study the operation of PCM Modulator

6. Study the operation of PCM Demodulator

7. Study the operation of Delta Modulator.

8. Study the operation of Delta Demodulator.

9. Study the operation of Adaptive Delta Modulator

10. Study the operation of Adaptive Delta Demodulator.

11. Study the operation of ASK Modulator.

12. Study the operation of ASK Demodulator. a. Asynchronous ASK Demodulator b. Synchronous ASK Demodulator

13. Study the operation of FSK Modulator.

14. Study the operation of FSK Demodulator.

15. Study the operation of PSK Modulator.

16. Study the operation of PSK Demodulator.

167

168

E.l.T-383 COMMUNICATION LINKS.

Total Contact Hours:

Theory: 64 Hours.

Practical: 96 Hours.

T

2

P

3

Pre-requisites: Communication Systems

AIMS Having gone through this subject, the student will be able to understand:

1. Characteristics of transmission lines.

2. Reflection in transmission lines.

3. Impedance matching of transmission lines.

4. Use of Smith chart.

5. Characteristics of antennas.

6. Type of antennas.

C

3

7. Broadcasting antennas.

8. Receiving antennas.

9. System of microwave communication.

10. Principle of RADAR.

11. Principle of Navigational Aids.

COURSE CONTENTS

PART- I TRANSMISSION LINES.

1. TRANSMISSION LINES.

1.1 Introduction to various types

1.2

1.3

Characteristics of transmission lines.

Transmission lines parameter and characteristic impedance (Zo) of parallel wire & coaxial cable.

1.4 Current and voltage wave through a transmission lines.

1.5 Stand wave ratio.

1.6 Current and voltage Power reflection coefficient.

1.7 Propagation of a wave through a line attenuation and propagation coefficient and phase shift.

1.8 Quarter wave and half wave transmission Line characteristics.

1.9 Transmission line matched in different loads.

1.10 Use of smith chart for the calculation of: i) Zin

(20 Hours)

169 ii) ZL iii) YL iv) Line length v) Distance to the first voltage minimum vi) Maximum and minimum impedance on the line vii) Magnitude and phase angle of reflection coefficient. viii) VSWR xi) Quarter wave transformer (Location and Zo) x) Single stub matching (Position and length of stub).

PART – II ANTENNAS

2. ANTENNAS.

2.1 Characteristics and Propagation of E.M Waves

(15 Hours)

2.2 VHF and UHF Radio system

2.3 Layers of Ionosphere

2.4 Principle of radiation from antenna.

2.5. Sketching of current and voltage wave form.

2.6 Antenna conduction induction and radiation field.

2.7 Intensity of radiation field and unit of measurement.

2.8 Antenna gain resistance, beam width effective aperture, effective length and polarization.

2.9 Effect of ground on radiation of energy of an antenna.

2.10 Characteristics of λ / 2 wave dipole antenna

2.11 Radiation Pattern of Array.

2.12 Gain of an Array.

2.13 Construction function and characteristics of Yagi antenna.

2.14 Construction and working of Rhombic antenna.

2.15 Different types of broadcast, horn and parabolic antenna.

PART –III MICROWAVE

3. MASER AND LASER.

3.1 Principle of working of LASER AND MASER.

3.2 Cavity MASER.

3.3 Traveling wave MASER.

3.4 Ruby LASER.

3.5 Gallium Arsenic LASER.

4. WAVE GUIDES.

4.1

Rectangular Wave Guide

4.1.1 Construction and uses.

4.1.2 Modes in Wave Guide.

4.1.3 Velocity and wave length

(03 Hours)

(05 Hours)

170

4.1.4 Phase and group velocities.

4.1.5 Higher Modes.

4.2

Circular Wave Guide

4.2.1 Modes in circular wave Guide.

4.2.2 Use of circular guides.

5. MICROWAVE RESONATOR.

5.1 Introduction to resonator.

5.2 Types of resonator

5.3 Q Factor.

5.4 Shunt Resistance.

5.5 Excitation of cavity resonator.

6. MICROWAVE DEVICES.

6.1

6.2

6.3

Various Microwave devices.

Gunn Diode.

IMPATT Diode.

6.4 Multi-cavity klystron.

6.5 Multi-cavity magnetron.

6.6 Traveling wave tube.

6.7 Backward wave oscillator.

6.8 Directional Coupler and Circulators.

PART – IV RADAR

7. RADIO DIRECTION FINDER.

7.1 Principle.

7.2 Types of RDF.

7.3 Diversity

8. RADAR

8.1 Introduction to RADAR.

8.2

8.3

8.4

Principle of RADAR.

Types of RADAR.

Block diagram of pulse RADAR.

8.5

8.6

RADAR frequencies.

RADAR equation.

8.7. Application of RADAR.

9. RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION.

9.1 Introduction to LORAN.

9.2 Introduction to SHORAN.

9.3 Satellite Communication.

(05 Hours)

(06 Hours)

(03 Hours)

(04 Hours)

(03 Hours)

TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Electronics Engineering by Terman.

2. Fields Waves and Transmission Line by F.A. Benson and T.M. Bension.

3. Antenna and Radio Waves, Propagation by Collin.

4. Electronics Communication System by George Kennedy.

171

172

El.T-383 COMMUNICATION LINKS .

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

PART- I TRANSMISSION LINES.

1.

UNDERSTAND VARIOUS TYPES OF TRANSMISSION LINES

1.1 Define the transmission line.

1.2 List the types of transmission lines: two wire line, coaxial cable and microstrip.

1.3 Explain the construction of each type transmission line.

1.4 List modes of signal propagation through a transmission line.

1.5 List types of dielectric used in transmission line.

1.6 Derive the factors that determine the power handling ability of a transmission line.

2.

UNDERSTAND SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION (EQUIVALENT

CIRCUIT) OF A TRANSMISSION LINE.

2.1 Describe “primary or distributed” line constants (R, L, C & G)

2.2 Define the characteristic impedance (surge impedance) of a transmission line.

2.3 Explain formulae for calculating characteristic impedance in terms of: i) Primary line constants. ii) iii)

At High frequencies.

With physical parameter of two wire line & coaxial cable.

2.4 Solve problems on above.

3.

UNDERSTAND THE FACTORS INVOLVED IN PROPAGATION OF A

SIGNAL THROUGH A TRANSMISSION LINE

3.1 Define secondary line constants i.e. propagation coefficient, attenuation coefficient & phase shift coefficient.

3.2

3.3

Explain phase velocity, velocity factor & line wavelength.

Solve the problems on above (3.1, 3.2).

4.

UNDERSTAND THE NEED FOR MATCHING “LOAD IMPEDANCE”

WITH THE CHARACTERSTIC IMPEDANCE OF A TRANSMISSION

LINE.

4.1 Explain the need for making “ZI” equal to Zo” of a transmission line.

4.2 Define the terms: i) ii) iii) iv) v)

Incident wave.

Reflected wave.

Standing wave

Voltages Standing wave ratio (VSWR)

Voltage reflection coefficient (magnitude & phase angle)

173 vi) Current reflection coefficient.

4.3 Solve the problems on (4.2)

5.

UNDERSTAND THE CHARATERSTICS OF SHORT CIRCUITED,

OPEN CIRCUITED AND FLAT LINES

5.1 Explain the behavior i.e. voltage & current distribution for a short circuited line.

5.2 Write down formula for input impedance of short circuit line.

5.3 Explain the behavior i.e. voltage & current distribution of an open circuited line.

5.4 Write down the formula for input impedance of an open circuited line.

5.5 Explain the behavior and characteristic of half wave length line.

5.6 Explain the behavior of quarter wave transmission line.

5.7 Solve the problems on above (5.1. & 5.3)

6. UNDERSTAND THE APPLICATIONS OF SMITH CHART

6.1 Explain the behavior of a quarter wave transmission as matching device.

6.2 Write formula for calculation of characteristics impedance of a the quarter wave transformer.

6.3 Use “Smith Chart” to determine: i) ii)

Normalized impedance

Input impedance iii) iv) v) vi) vii)

Load impedance.

Load Admittance.

Voltage Standing Wave ratio (VSWR)

Magnitude and phase angle of reflection coefficient.

Maximum and minimum impedance on line. viii) Distance to first voltage minima. ix) Quarter wave transformer (location and characteristic impedance) x) Single Stub matching (location and length of the stub)

7.

UNDERSTAND THE CONSTRUCTION AND THE CHARACTERISTICS

OF SLOTTED LINE AND DIRECTIONAL COUPLER.

7.1 Explain the working & characteristics of slotted line.

7.2 Explain the working & characteristics of directional coupler.

8. UNDERSTAND THE CAUSES OF LOSSES IN A TRANSMISSION LINE.

8.1

8.2

Explain the radiation loss.

Explain loss due to conductor heating.

8.3 Explain loss due to dielectric heating.

174

PART-II ANTENNAS

1

UNDERSTAND THE PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY

RADIATION

1.1 1.1 Define E.M. Wave

1.2 Enlist characteristics of E.M. Wave.

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.7

Explain field pattern of E.M.Wave.

Explain microwave propagation and system utilized for this purpose.

Identify the polarization, attenuation and absorption of EM waves.

1.6 Describe the phenomena of ducting for space wave propagation.

Draw the block diagram of VHF / UHF radio communication.

1.8 Describe V.H.F/U.H.F propagation based the block diagram.

1.9 List the uses of VHF / UHF Communication.

1.10 Draw the ionospheric layer with their regular variations.

1.11 Define various propagation layers.

1.12 Describe the effect of ionization of radio wave transmission.

1.13 Explain electric field, magnetic field & direction of propagation.

1.14 Explain waves in free space, velocity of propagation, inverse square law, waves. power density & characteristic impedance of free space.

1.15 Describe reflection, refraction and interference of electromagnetic

1.16 Explain the terms: maximum useable frequency, critical frequency.

2.

UNDERSTAND THREE CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION

OF HIGH FREQUENCY ANTENNAS.

2.1 Describe the electromagnetic radiation mechanism.

2.2 Explain the construction and behavior of a half wave dipole by using its radiation pattern.

2.3 Sketch the current and voltage distribution pattern for a half wave dipole.

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

Draw the radiation pattern for resonant & non resonant antennas.

Write the formula to fine the length of an antenna for a given frequency.

Calculate the length for the resonant antenna for given frequency

Describe briefly the isotropic radiator.

3. UNDERSTAND VARIOUS TERMS RELATED TO ANTENNAS

3.1 Define the following terms i) Radiation resistance. ii) Polarization a) Linear polarization. b) Vertical polarization. c) Horizontal polarization

175 d) Elliptical polarization. e) Circular polarization.

3.2 Define directivity, power gain, beam width, front to back ratio, physical and electrical length, major and minor lobes.

4.

UNDERSTAND THE LOOP AND FERRITE ROD ANTENNA, NON

RESONANT ANTENNA, PARASITIC ARRAYS.

4.1 LOOP AND FERRITE ROD ANTENNA.

4.1.1 Understand construction and behavior of receiving antennas.

4.1.2 Describe square loop antenna along with its radiation pattern.

4.1.3 Describe ferrite rod antenna & give an expression for calculation of its effective length.

4.2 NON RESONANT ANTENNA

4.2.1 Understand the various types of non resonant antennas.

4.2.2 Describe the construction, radiation pattern and characteristic of long wire antenna

4.2.3 List the uses of long wire antenna.

4.2.4 Describe the construction, radiation pattern and characteristic of a Rhombic antenna.

4.2.5 List the applications of Rhombic antenna.

4.3 PARASITIC ARRAYS.

4.3.1 Understand arrangement of antenna elements.

4.3.2 Define the terms parasitic elements.

4.3.3 Describe the functions of parasitic directors.

4.3.4 Identify the function of parasitic reflectors.

4.3.5 Describe the construction & characteristics of dipole and folded dipole.

4.3.6 Explain the construction and characteristics yagi antenna.

4.3.7 List the applications of Yagi antenna.

5.

UNDERSTAND THE BEHAVIOR OF VARIOUS WIDE BAND

ATNENNAS.

5.1 Describe the construction and characteristics of dipole omni directional antenna.

5.2 Describe the construction and characteristics of helical antenna.

6.

UNDERSTAND THE FUNDAMENTAL FEATURES OF ANTENNAS USE

AT MICROWAVE FREQUENCIES.

6.1 Describe the construction and characteristics of parabolic reflector antenna.

6.2 Write down formula for calculation of its beam width between half power points, beam between nulls, gain, directivity, effective area and

Illumination Efficiency.

6.3 Solve problems on above. (6.1, 6.2)

176

6.4 Describe the construction & characteristics of slot antenna.

PART- III MICROWAVE

1. UNDERSTAND THE WORKING PRINCIPLE AND USES OF MASER

AND LASER.

1.1 Define the term maser.

1.2 Explain the principle of maser.

1.3 Enlist the major applications of maser and Lasers.

1.4 Describe the concept of population inversion.

1.5 Explain cavity maser with the help of diagram.

1.6 Enlist its advantages & disadvantages.

1.7 Enlist different types of LASER

1.8 Explain the working of basic ruby pulsed Laser.

1.9 Sketch the construction of a gallium arsenide Laser.

1.10 Explain working of GaAs Laser.

2. UNDERSTAND THE PRINCIPLE, TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF

WAVEGUIDE.

2.1 Explain the basic principle of waveguide.

2.2 Compare waveguide and transmission line from the point of view of frequency limitations, attenuation, spurious radiation, and power handling capacity.

2.3 Describe construction of a circular and rectangular waveguide.

2.4 Describe the propagation of EM wave through a waveguide.

2.5 Explain TE & TM modes.

2.6 Sketch the three types of TE and two types of TM modes in a rectangular guide.

2.7 Explain the TE 10 mode in a rectangular waveguide.

2.8 Explain the terms: cutoff wavelength, guide wavelength, phase constant, group and phase velocity, characteristic wave impedance of a waveguide.

2.9 Solve problems .

2.10 Compare the circular waveguide with a rectangular waveguide.

3.11 Describe the ridged and flexible wave guides with their applications.

3.12 List the applications of wave guides.

3. UNDERSTAND THE FUNCTION OF RESONATOR, COUPLER AND

CIRCULATOR

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

Describe the function of cavity resonator.

Enlist the names of commonly used resonators

Explain the operation of a regular cavity resonator.

Define Q factor of cavity resonator.

Compare the Q of a loaded and unloaded cavity resonator.

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

Describe the tuning methods of cavity resonators.

Derive the construction of reentrant cavity resonator.

List the four coupling methods of EM wave energy to a cavity.

Explain the electron beam coupling to cavity.

4. UNDERSTAND THE FUNCTION OF VARIOUS MICROWAVE

DEVICES AND COMPONENTS.

4.1

4.2

Describe the basic stripling and microstrip circuits.

Compare the stripling and microstip with waveguide and coaxial transmission line.

4.3 List the application of stripling and microstrip circuits.

4.4 Describe the working of a SAW filter.

4.5 describe the working of ferrite isolator and circulator.

4.5 Describe the high frequency limitation of ordinary transistor.

4.6 Enlist various devices used for oscillation and amplification at

4.7

4.8

4.9 microwave frequency.

Explain the working of a tunnel diode amplifier.

Explain the working of Gunn oscillator circuit.

Explain the working of IMPATT diode oscillator circuit.

4.10 Explain the working of step-recovery diode tripler.

4.11 Draw and label the diagram of two-cavity klystron tube.

4.12 Describe the working of two-cavity klystron amplifier.

4.13 Draw the schematic of reflex klystron tube.

4.14 Explain mechanism of operation of reflex klystron.

4.15 List the applications of multicavity klystron tube.

4.16 Explain the working

4.17 Explain construction of multicavity magnetron.

4.18 Explain working of magnetron oscillator.

4.19 List its applications .

4.20 Draw the schematic of reflex type T.W.T.

4.21 Explain working of the T.W.T.

4.22 List the applications of T.W.T.

4.23 Describe the construction of backward-wave oscillator.

4.24 Explain its mechanism of operation.

4.25 Describe power and efficiency of (B.W.O).

PART –IV RADAR.

177

178

1. UNDERSTAND THE WORKING PRINCIPLE OF RADIO DIRECTION

FINDER.

1.1

1.2

1.3

Describe the function of a R.D.F.

Draw the block diagram of a R.D.F.

Identify the function of each block of R.D.F.

1.4 List the types of R.D.F.

1.5 Describe concept of Diversity

2.

UNDERSTAND THE PRINCIPLE, TYPES AND WORKING OF RADAR.

2.1 Defines a radar.

2.2 Writ down the general equation of a radar.

2.2.1 Draw the block diagram of a pulsed radar.

2.2.2 Identify the function of each block of pulsed radar.

2.2.3 Draw the block diagram of generator using crystal oscillator and a counter.

2.2.4 Explain the working of sync generator using waveforms.

2.2.5 Draw the block diagram of blocking oscillator PRF generator.

2.2.6 Describe the working of blocking oscillator PRF generator.

2.2.7 Draw the circuit diagram of a radar modulator using an SCR, a charging inductor and a pulse forming network (PFN).

2.2.8 Explain the operation of the radar modulator.

2.2.9 Explain the operation of two-cavity klystron modulator to produce bunching of electron beam.

2.2.10 Draw the schematic diagram of the radar transmitter using magnetron by showing its input and output circuits.

2.2.11 Explain the operation of the radar transmitter.

2.2.12 Describe the purpose of duplexes mixer.

2.2.13 Draw and label the block diagram of duplexes mixer.

2.2.14 Identify the function of its each block.

2.2.15 Describe the construction of search radar antenna.

2.2.16 Explain the beam width of a search radar antenna in horizontal and vertical plane.

2.2.17 Compare the beam width of a tracking radar with search radar.

2.2.18 Draw and label the block diagram of a radar receiver.

2.2.19 Explain the function of each block of radar receiver.

2.2.20 Describe the moving target (MTI) technique.

2.2.21 Name the types of radar indicator.

2.2.22 Explain the construction and operation of plane position indicator

(PPI).

2.3 Describe the essential requirement of a radar system.

2.4 List the types of radar.

2.5 Understand the operation of pulsed primary radar.

179

3. UNDERSTAND RADIO AND RADAR NAVIGATIONAL AIDS.

3.1 Draw the diagram of loop antenna and explain its reception pattern.

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.6

Draw the block diagram of balanced loop R.D.F. system.

Identify the function of each block of the RDF system.

Draw the block diagram of adcock (fixed loop) R.D.F. system.

3.5 Explain the operation of the adcock RDF system.

Explain the instrument landing system (ILS ) and show the location of runway localizer, three marker beacon and glide path equipment along the runway.

3.7 Explain the operation of ground control approach (GCA) radar.

3.8 List the other radar systems with the applications of each.

180

E.l.T-383 COMMUNICATION LINKS.

LIST OF PRACTICAL.

TRANSMISSION LINES.

1. To study the characteristics of E.M. wave. Measurements on transmission lines:

2. Measure VSWR.

3. measure frequency.

4. Measure characteristic impedance.

5. Measure reflection coefficient.

6. To study the characteristics of two-wire parallel and coaxial lines.

7. Determinate impedance mismatching.

8. Match impedance by single stub matching using Smith chart technique.

9. Match impedance by double stub matching using Smith chart technique.

10. Use of smith chart for the calculation of: i) Zin, ii) ZL, iii) YL, iv) Line Length, v) Distance to the first voltage minima. vi) Maximum and minimum impedance on the line. vii) Magnitude and Phase angle of reflection efficient viii) VSWR for different loads. ix) Quarter wave transformer (Location + Zo)

11. Characteristics of isotropic antenna.

12. Plot the radiation pattern of a basic isotropic antenna.

13. Plot the directional pattern of half wave dipole.

14. Plot the polar directivity pattern for folded dipole antenna.

15. Plot the polar directivity pattern of Yagi antenna.

16-20. Measure gain efficiency , radiation resistance for the following antennas: a) Dipole, b) Folded dipole, c) Rhombic d) Fire end e) Vertical f) Yagi antenna h) Adcock

I) Parabolic

21-24 Design the antennas given under experiment 15 above.

25. To study the characteristics of dish antenna.

26. Plot the polar directivity pattern of dish antenna.

27. Select an antenna for given conditions.

28. Install various type of antennas.

29-32 Study the working of Radar on Radar Trainer.

181

182

EL.T. 393

MULTIMEDIA SYSTEM

Total contact hours:

Theory: 64 Hours.

Practical: 96 Hours.

Pre-requisites: Communication systems

Electronic Devices

AIMS Having gone through this subject the student will be able to understand the principle, operation, and application of TV Receivers/ Monitors, TV Studio,

Multimedia and other Audio & Video Systems.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Identify the stages of TV receiver.

T

2

Explain the operation of stages in TV receivers/ Monitor.

Explain the operation of equipment used in TV studio.

P

3

C

3

Use the equipment and apparatus for servicing the TV Receivers/

5.

Monitors, TV Studio, Multimedia and other Audio & Video Systems.

Troubleshooting of TV Receivers/ Monitors, TV Studio, Multimedia and other Audio & Video Systems. .

6. Replace the faulty components used in TV Receivers/ Monitors, TV Studio,

Multimedia and other Audio & Video Systems.

COURSE CONTENTS:

1. Picture scanning, video signal & TV standards.

2. Photo sensitive materials & camera tubes.

3. TV receiver circuit.

4. Tuner / channel selectors types picture if section

5. Video section and its controls.

6. Horizontal & vertical deflection section, EHT & synchronization.

7. Sound section amplifier & FM detector.

8. Comprehensive / jungle IC

9. Power supplies.

10. Colour, nature & terminology.

11. Colour television transmission systems & PAL coder/ encoder.

12. Reception of PAL colour TV system/ decoder.

13. Colour picture display, raster distortion and adjustment.

14. Display Tele Text, HD TV system and remote control.

15. Microprocessor base system.

16. Media player

17. Camera mounting & camera lenses

18. Studio lighting & control room system

19. Outdoor TV Broadcasting.

183

2.

3.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:

1. PICTURE SCANNING, VIDEO SIGNAL & TV STANDARDS.

(03 Hours)

1.1 Picture information, Transfer of Picture, Scanning, Field and Frame frequency.

1.2 Blanking & Sync pulses, composite video signal

1.3 Resolution & High Resolution System.

1.4 Introduction of CCIR and FCC standards.

TV RECEIVER CIRCUIT. (01 Hour)

2.1 Block diagram of B&W TV Receiver.

TUNER / CHANNEL SELECTORS TYPES PICTURE IF SECTION

(04 Hours)

3.1 Band width of channel according to CCIR and FCC, VHF and UHF systems

3.2 Different types of tuners. Mechanical and Solid state.

3.3 Introduction of PLL system.

3.4 Introduction of Hyper band and CATV system.

3.5 Picture IF amplifier. Saw Filter & Function of AGC.

4. VIDEO SECTION AND ITS CONTROLS.

(02 Hours)

4.1 Video detector, composite video signal, Video amplifier circuits and control.

4.2 Introduction of IC used as Pix amplifier, video det & AGC.

5. HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL DEFLECTION SECTION, EHT &

SYNCHRONIZATION.

5.1 Horizontal Osc, drive and amplifier.

(05 Hours)

5.2 Damper FBT and EHT generation.

5.3 Vertical oscillator driver and output stage

5.4 Sync clipping and sync separator circuit.

5.5 Introduction of IC working as H.Osc, V.Osc, amplifier and sync separator with the help of data sheets.

6. SOUND SECTION AMPLIFIER & FM DETECTOR. (02 Hours)

6.1 Sound take off point Sound I.F. amplifier and F.M. detector.

6.2 Audio amplifier and output stage.

6.3 Introduction of IC used as sound IF, FM detector audio amplifier and output.

7. COMPREHENSIVE / JUNGLE IC (03 Hours)

(04 Hours)

184

8.

Explain Jungle IC capable of working as 1 st

, 2 nd

, 3 rd

picture IF, video detector, video amplifier, sound IF, sound detector, audio amplifier, AGC, sync separator, vertical and horizontal oscillator.

POWER SUPPLIES.

(04 Hours)

8.1 Regulated power supplies, circuits and operation, with transistor and IC.

8.2 Primary and secondary power supplies.

8.2 AC / DC stabilized power supplies.

9.

8.3 Switch mode power supplies with over voltage and over current protection.

COLOUR, Nature & Terminology.

9.1

9.2

(03 Hours)

Visible light spectrum, colours, Primary and secondary colours.

Mixing of colours, Colour addition and subtraction with phase angle.

9.3 Studio white, Hue, Saturation, Luminance, Chrominance & Compatibility.

9.4 Introduction of colour TV camera

10. COLOUR TELEVISION TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS & PAL CODER/

ENCODER.

(06 Hours)

10.1 Introduction of NTSC,PAL & SECAM system with merits and demerits.

10.2 Block diagram of PAL colour TV Receiver and Transmitter.

10.3 Formation of PAL colour signal, Frequency Interlacing, sub-carrier frequency.

10.4 Block diagram of PAL coder, formation of U & V signal color brust.

10.5 Band width of colour difference signals and colour signal sync pulses.

11. RECEPTION OF PAL COLOUR TV SYSTEM/ DECODER. (08 Hours)

11.1 Extraction of colour plexed composite video signal.

11.2

11.3

Block diagram of PAL decoder. Function of each block.

RGB Matrix

11.4 Introduction of Jungle IC capable of working as complete colour decoder with the help of data sheet.

12. RASTER DISTORTION AND ADJUSTMENT. (03 Hours)

12.1 East West distortion Pin cushion distortion barrel distortion convergence and colour purity.

12.2 Colour Purity, Gray Scale traking, spark gap and Degaussing system.

13. ADVANCE TV SYSTEMS.

(03 Hours)

13.1 Block diagram of tele-text receiver, decoding of tele-text signal. .

13.2 HD TV and advance TV system.

13.3 microprocessor/ microcontroller based color TV receivers.

185

14. VIDEO CONFERENCING

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Conferencing layers

14.3 Multipoint Videoconferencing

14.3.1 Control Unit

14.3.2 Logic Components

14.3.3 Bandwidth

14.4 Videoconferencing Modes & Types

(04 Hours)

.

15. MEDIA PLAYER

15.1

(02 Hour)

Describe different media players e.g. VCR /VTR, VCD / DVD and

Multimedia Projector.

16. CAMERA MOUNTING & CAMERA LENSES

16.1

(03 Hours)

Various type of camera mounting equipment and Camera movements.

16.2 Different type of lenses.

16.3 Aperture control and special effect filters.

17.

STUDIO LIGHTING & CONTROL ROOM SYSTEM (03 Hours)

17.1

17.2

17.3

Different types of light, its effect, mounting and control system.

Audio video control console (Block Diagram)

Define the terms, dissolve, fade in, fade out, superimposition, switching, mixing and intercommunication system.

1.

2.

3.

18. OUTDOOR TV BROADCASTING.

18.1

(02 Hours)

Necessity of remote pick up arrangement in TV broadcasting

18.2 Field equipment used for remote pick up, Outdoor Broadcast Van.

TEXT AND REFERENCE BOOKS:

Television and Video Engineering by A.M Dhake (ISBN # 0-07-460105-9)

Modern Television Practice ( Principles, Technology & Servicing by R.R. Gulati

(ISBN # 81-224-0337-9)

Television Principle and Practice by J.S. Zarach and Noel M. Morris

(ISBN # 0-333-19220-6 , ISBN # 0-333-19221-4 Pbk)

186

4.

EL.T. 393

MULTIMEDIA SYSTEM

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:

1. UNDERSTAND PICTURE SCANNING, VIDEO SIGNAL & TV

STANDARDS.

1.1 Describe Picture Elements

1.2 Describe transfer of picture via still picture and motion picture

1.3 Describe scanning, saw tooth wave form for linear scanning, interlace and non interlace scanning.

1.4 Describe field, line, frame, blanking, sync and equalizing pluses frequencies according to CCIR and FCC standard. Also discuss their function.

1.5 Describe raster and aspect ratio ( Normal , Wide )

1.6 Describe video signal and composite video signal.

1.7 Describe resolution and high resolution system.

2.

UNDERSTAND TV RECEIVER CIRCUIT.

2.1 Draw the block diagram of B&W TV Receiver, Label each block.

2.2.1 Path of signal flow and wave form of each stage.

2.2.1 State the function of each block.

3.

2.3.1 Study of operational control and adjustments of B&W TV receiver.

UNDERSTAND TUNER / CHANNEL SELECTORS TYPES PICTURE IF

SECTION

3.1 Band width of channel according to CCIR and FCC systems

3.2 Channel frequency in VHF and UHF ranges according to CCIR.

3.3 Different types of tuners. Rotary, Preset variable resister and varactor diode tuning.

3.4 Describe RF amplifier, mixer and local oscillator circuits.

3.5 Study the block diagram of PLL system.

3.6 Describe about Hyper band tuner and CATV system.

3.7 Study the circuit of I, II, III Pix IF amplifier and response curve.

3.8 Study of SAW filter used in IF section.

3.9 Describe automatic gain control circuits. List their types.

3.10 Describe the circuit diagram of simple, Keyed and delayed AGC.

UNDERSTAND VIDEO SECTION AND ITS CONTROLS.

4.1 Study of Video detector (AM ) circuits, study of composite signal.

4.2 Draw and explain the circuit diagram of video amplifier and video output amplifier also describe the function of brightness and contrast control with the help of circuit diagram.

4.3 Explain the function of IC used as Pix IF amplifier, Video detector, video amplifier, AGC with the help of data sheet.

187

5. UNDERSTAND HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL DEFLECTION SECTION,

EHT & SYNCHRONIZATION.

5.1

5.2

Study of different types of sweep circuit as horizontal oscillator.

Study the circuit of automatic frequency control and its requirement.

5.2 Study the circuit diagram of Horizontal driver and horizontal output stage with horizontal output transformer.

5.4

5.5

Describe the function of Damper diode and EHT rectifier.

State the type of Deflection.

5.6 Explain the circuit diagram of different types of vertical oscillator driver and output stage.

5.7 Explain the function of V.HOLD, Linearity control and vertical height control.

5.8 Describe the method of sync take off point and separation a vertical and horizontal sync pluses. horizontal sync pulses.

5.9 Study the circuit of sync clipper.

5.10 Study the circuit diagram of IC used as vertical oscillator, amplifier and output stage with the help of data sheet.

06.

UNDERSTAND SOUND SECTION AMPLIFIER & FM DETECTOR.

6.1 Describe subcarrier frequency, Study the circuit diagram of sound take off point.

6.2 Study the circuit diagram of sound I.F. amplifier and F.M. detector ( different types).

6.3 Study the circuit diagram of Audio amplifier and output stage.

6.4 Study the circuit diagram of IC used as sound IF, FM detector audio amplifier and output with the help of data sheet.

07. UNDERSTAND COMPREHENSIVE / JUNGLE IC

Explain Jungle IC capable of working as 1 st

, 2 nd

, 3 rd

picture IF, video detector, video amplifier, sound IF, sound detector, audio amplifier, AGC, sync separator,

8.

vertical and horizontal oscillator in Black & White receiver with the help of data sheet.

UNDERSTAND POWER SUPPLIES SIMPLE AND S.M.P.S.

8.1 Describe the need of power supply in TV receiver.

8.2 Describe the block diagram of transformer & transformer less power supply.

8.3 Draw and explain the function of transformer less power supply.

8.4 Draw and explain linear voltage regulator employing transistor both series and shunt regulator.

8.5 Draw and explain IC voltage regulator ( IC series 78--,79--)

8.6 Draw and explain the circuit diagram of AC / DC stabilized power supplies.

8.7 State the merits and demerits of AC / DC stabilized power supplies.

8.8 List the function of Switch mode power supplies with the help of block diagram.

188

8.9 Draw and explain the transistorized circuit diagram of SMPS.

8.10 Draw and explain the circuit diagram of SMPS employing IC.

8.11 Explain the term duty cycle over voltage protection (OVP) and over current (OCP) protection.

8.12 Describe the merits and demerits of switch mode power supply.

9.

UNDERSTAND COLOUR, NATURE & TERMINOLOGY.

9.1 Review of nature of light.

9.2 Describe visible light spectrum.

9.3 Describe perception of colours.

9.4 List primary colours.

9.5 Describe additive mixing of colours.

9.6 Describe subtractive mixing of colours.

9.7 Describe hue, saturation, luminance, chrominance & compatibility.

9.8

9.9

9.10

9.11

Describe primary & secondary and complementary colours.

Draw colour circle diagram w.r.t phase angle.

Explain colour theory with luminance values of colours.

Explain colour circle diagram w.r.t. phase angle.

9.12 Draw the block diagram of colour TV camera.

9.13 Identify the function of each block of colour T.V camera.

9.12 Describe the working principle of colour T.V camera.

10. UNDERSTAND COLOUR COLOUR TELEVISION TRANSMISSION

SYSTEMS & PAL CODER/ ENCODER.

10.1 Describe the NTSC colour TV system.

10.2 List the merits & demerits of NTSC colour TV system.

10.3 Describe the SECAM colour TV system.

10.4 List the merits & demerits of SECAM colour TV system..

10.5

10.6

10.7

Describe PAL colour TV system.

Name the types of PAL colour TV systems.

List the merits & demerits of PAL colour TV system.

10.8 Draw the block diagram of PAL colour TV transmitter.

10.9 Describe each stage of PAL colour TV transmitter.

10.10 Describe frequency interlacing.

10.11 Describe choice of colour sub-carrier frequency.

10.12 Describe exact value of colour sub carrier frequency.

10.13 Draw the block diagram of basic encoder.

10.14 Draw the block diagram of PAL CODER.

10.15 Describe U & V signals.

10.16 Describe U & V weighing factor.

10.17 Describe band width of colour difference signals.

10.18 Describe modulation products.

10.19 Describe chrominance signal.

10.20 Describe colour burst and swinging burst.

10.21 Describe colour burst getting.

10.22 Draw the diagram of colour plexed video signal with sync pulses.

189

11. UNDERSTAND THE RECEPTION OF PAL COLOUR TV SYSTEM/

DECODER.

11.1 Describe the colour plexed composite video signal at the output of video detector.

11.2 Draw the block diagram of PAL-D decoder.

11.3 Explain the working of PAL decoder stage by stage.

11.4 Elaborate the difference between PAL-B, PAL-D, NTSC, & SECAM.

11.5 Identify the function of Comb filter.

11.6 Describe the function of chrome amplifier stages.

11.7 Describe the function burst gate (gaited burst) and burst blanking.

11.8 Identify the function of ACC and colour killer.

11.9 Explain the need and function of sub-carrier generator

(4.43 MHz Oscillator).

11.10 Describe phase discriminator circuit.

11.11 Identify the burst phase identification (indent) signal.

11.12 Identify the function of indent amplifier.

11.13 Explain the function of 180 degree PAL switch.

11.14 Explain the working of U and V demodulator circuit.

11.15 Explain the working of matrix circuit to generate G - Y signal.

11.16 Identify the function of colour difference amplifiers.

11.17 Explain the function of RGB matrix circuit.

11.18 Compute the values of RGB drive circuit resistors.

11.19 Explain the working of RGB amplifiers.

11.20 Study the circuit of jungle IC in colour TV receiver as decoder with the the help of data sheet.

11.21 study the circuit diagram of RGB amplifier employing IC with the help of data sheet.

12. UNDERSTAN COLOUR PICTURE DISPLAY, RASTER DISTORTION

AND ADJUSTMENT.

12.1 State delta gun and Inline gun (PIL) picture tube. Describe the construction and need of shadow mask. Describe the shape of screen

(Spherical, cylindrical and flat ).

12.2 Describe the construction of PIL picture tube.

12.3 Describe the construction of Trinitron picture tube.

12.4 Describe the construction of Flat screen its merits and demerits.

12.5 Describe the construction of LCD its merits and demerits.

12.6 Describe the construction of PLASMA screen its merits and demerits.

12.7 Describe the formation of Large screen TV System.

12.8 Describe the need of convergence and colour purity with the help of convergence and purity rings.

12.9 Describe PIN cushion distortion, east west distortion with the help of their correcting circuits.

12.10 Explain gray scale tracking.

190

12.11 Explain spark gap protection.

12.12 Draw and explain the circuit diagram of automatic and manual degaussing.

13. UNDERSTAN ADVANCE TV SYSTEMS.

13.1 Draw and explain the block diagram of teletext receiver.

13.2

13.3

13.4

13.5

Describe the teletext coded signal.

Describe the term Data Line, Access Time, Tele text character etc.

Explain HD TV system &Advance TV System.

Draw and explain the block diagram of micro processor / micro controller base control system in colour TV receiver.

13.6 Describe different instruction code and their function.

14. VIDEO CONFERENCING

14.1Introduction of Videoconferencing

14.2Describe Conferencing layers

14.3Discuss Multipoint Videoconferencing

14.3.1 Discuss Control Unit

14.3.2 Discuss Logic Components

14.3.3 Discuss Bandwidth

14.4 Describe Videoconferencing Modes & Types

15. UNDERSAND MEDIA PLAYER

15.1 Explain the block diagram of VCR / VTR ( VHS).

15.2 Explain the block diagram of VCD / DVD.

15.3 Explain multimedia projector with the help of block diagram.

16. UNDERSTAND THE FUNCTION TYPE AND HANDLING

OF STUDIO CAMERA MOUNTING EQUIPMENT & LENSES

16.1Describe camera mounting equipment (Pedestal, tripod and dolly ) used in

TV studio.

16.2Describe camera head movement panning, rolling, tilting and dolly movement, dolly In, dolly out, arcing, trucking and pedestalling.

16.3 Describe the optical system of a TV studio camera.

16.4 Describe different types of lenses and their mounting system.

16.5 Describe focal length. Explain the function of zoom lens.

16.6 Describe the aperture control in a TV camera.

16.7 Explain production technique for taking different views also explain the term depth of field.

17. UNDERSTAND THE NEED, TYPES AND APPLICATION

OF STUDIO LIGHTING & STUDIO CONTROL ROOM.

17.1 Describe the objective of TV studio lighting.

17.2 Identify the steps for lighting a new show.

17.3 Enlist the types of lights with their application in a TV studio.

17.4 List the types light sources with their uses.

191

17.5 Enlist the limitations of light beam.

17.6 Describe the term: flood light, spot light, stripe & special effect lights.

17.7 Describe light board, patch board & light dimmers.

17.8 Draw and explain the block diagram of Audio and Video control console.

17.9 Explain the term dissolve, Fade In, Fade out, Super imposition and mixing.

17.10 Explain three bus bar and five bus bar switching system.

17.11 Describe the picture monitor and inter communication system.

17.12 Describe the necessity of projection equipment in TV studio.

18. UNDERSTAND THE WORKING OF FIELD EQUIPMENT

AND VIDEO FOR OUTDOOR TV BROADCAST.

18.1 Describe the necessity of remote pick up arrangement in TV broadcasting.

18.2 Enlist the field equipment used for remote pick up.

18.3 Draw and label the plan of outdoor broadcast van.

192

EL.T. 393

MULTIMEDIA SYSTEM

LIST OF PRACTICAL: (96 Hours)

1. Study of troubles, Symptoms in picture tubes and its accessories operation of television receiver and adjustment of its control.

2. Install antenna. Remove of ghosts and other troubles in antenna system and

Troubleshoot a R.F tuner, R.F stage, mixer stage, local oscillator, and snow in picture.

3. Circuit tracing of A.G.C circuit supply and measure its voltage.

4. Trace Circuit of 1st I.F amplifier stage and Measure voltage of 1st I.F amplifier stage.

5. Trace circuit of 2nd I.F amplifier and measure of voltage & Trace circuit of

3rd I.F amplifier and measure voltage.

6. Trace circuit of video amplifier and measure voltage.

7. Identify and locate the E.H.T section for the purpose of shielding and safety precautions & Identify and locate the horizontal section.

8. Identify and locate the vertical section & Test of deflection yoke and focus assembly of picture tube.

9. Trace circuit of sound take off circuit and sound I.F amplifier and measure its voltage.

10. Trace circuit of audio detector, audio voltage amplifier, and measure its voltage & Trace circuit of audio power amplifier and measure its voltage.

11. Write a report after servicing a television set which has no picture and raster is normal & Localize and rectify a fault in I.F amplifiers.

12. Trace circuit of vertical hold, horizontal hold, brightness control and study the effect of their variation & Trace circuit and measure voltages of synchronization circuit.

13. Write a report after servicing a TV set for poor synchronization &

Troubleshoot the sync, vertical and horizontal hold system faults.

14. Troubleshoot differentiator / integrator and interlace problems & Trace circuit and measure voltage of vertical oscillator and vertical output amplifier.

15. Measure resistance of components in the vertical section, Rectify faults in the vertical oscillator and Rectify faults in the vertical output amplifier.

16. Measure voltages in vertical section & Adjust position of horizontal deflection coils and study its effect on picture.

17. Rectify faults in horizontal oscillator & Trace circuit of horizontal width and horizontal linearity controls to check the vertical and horizontal linearity of a television receiver.

18. Trace circuit of an A.F.C stage, Locate faults in EHT circuit and Trace circuit of high voltage rectifier and damper circuit.

19. Service a set for no sound no picture and no raster and write a report &

Service a set for over-loaded picture and negative picture and write a report.

20. Troubleshoot a ratio detector, an audio voltage and power amplifiers &

Service a set in which the audio information interferes with the picture

193 information and write a report.

21. Service a TV set in which the picture rolls vertical, bright Horizontal line and write a report & Service a TV set for bright vertical lines and fold over and write a report.

22. Localize faults in the R.F. and luminance circuits, Tuner stage, detector stage,

A.F.C. CRT drive circuit Luminance (preamplifier, delay line).

23. Troubleshoot faults in R.F. and luminance circuits, Herring bone pattern,

Hanover blind, Low saturation, Loss of luminance signal, Excessive subcarrier dot pattern, Delay line faults, Colour faults.

24. Trace circuit of chrominance, PAL decoder, colour killer, burst, suppression, demodulation, sub-carrier trap, colour difference circuit, colour difference amplifier and clamps, RGB drive, burst gate, phase discriminator, indent signal, automatic chrominance control.

25. Troubleshoot faults in chrominance circuits. No colour, weak colour, incorrect colour, hanover blinds.

26. Adjust colour picture tubes purity, static and dynamic convergence and degaussing.

27. Localize and rectify faults in picture tubes. Overall red or blue, cyan, magenta or yellow, poor focus and sub-standard brightness, poor focus of one gun, excessive CRT flashover, no raster, raster red, blue or green, poor static convergence.

28. Demonstrate the TV broadcasting equipment and accessories.

29. To study the demonstration of Video Conferencing with features.

30. To study camera control and its movements & To line-up a TV camera in a group of students approximately 10 in numbers.

31. To study of camera connection with camera control unit.

32. Adjust camera lens assembly & Calibrate focus and lens diaphragm

(aperture) scale on the lens turret.

33.

To study the lighting procedure in a TV studio with a visit to a TV station to study the switching audio-video control console.

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