InnoDB 1.1 for MySQL 5.5 User`s Guide

InnoDB 1.1 for MySQL 5.5 User`s Guide
InnoDB 1.1 for MySQL 5.5 User's Guide
InnoDB 1.1 for MySQL 5.5 User's Guide
Abstract
This is the User's Guide for the InnoDB storage engine 1.1 for MySQL 5.5.
Beginning with MySQL version 5.1, it is possible to swap out one version of the InnoDB storage engine and use
another (the “plugin”). This manual documents the latest InnoDB plugin, version 1.1, which works with MySQL 5.5 and
features cutting-edge improvements in performance and scalability.
This User's Guide documents the procedures and features that are specific to the InnoDB storage engine 1.1 for
MySQL 5.5. It supplements the general InnoDB information in the MySQL Reference Manual.
Because InnoDB 1.1 is integrated with MySQL 5.5, it is generally available (GA) and production-ready.
WARNING: Because the InnoDB storage engine 1.0 and above introduces a new file format, restrictions
apply to the use of a database created with the InnoDB storage engine 1.0 and above, with earlier versions of
InnoDB, when using mysqldump or MySQL replication and if you use the older InnoDB Hot Backup product
rather than the newer MySQL Enterprise Backup product. See Section 1.4, “Compatibility Considerations for
Downgrade and Backup”.
For legal information, see the Legal Notices.
Document generated on: 2014-01-30 (revision: 37565)
Table of Contents
Preface and Legal Notices .................................................................................................................. v
1 Introduction to InnoDB 1.1 ............................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Features of the InnoDB Storage Engine ................................................................................ 1
1.2 Obtaining and Installing the InnoDB Storage Engine ............................................................... 3
1.3 Viewing the InnoDB Storage Engine Version Number ............................................................. 3
1.4 Compatibility Considerations for Downgrade and Backup ........................................................ 3
2 Fast Index Creation in the InnoDB Storage Engine ........................................................................... 5
2.1 Overview of Fast Index Creation ........................................................................................... 5
2.2 Examples of Fast Index Creation .......................................................................................... 5
2.3 Implementation Details of Fast Index Creation ....................................................................... 6
2.4 Concurrency Considerations for Fast Index Creation .............................................................. 7
2.5 How Crash Recovery Works with Fast Index Creation ............................................................ 7
2.6 Limitations of Fast Index Creation ......................................................................................... 7
3 Working with InnoDB Compressed Tables ....................................................................................... 9
3.1 Overview of Table Compression ............................................................................................ 9
3.2 Enabling Compression for a Table ........................................................................................ 9
3.2.1 Configuration Parameters for Compression ............................................................... 10
3.3 Tuning Compression for InnoDB Tables ............................................................................... 11
3.4 How Compression Works for InnoDB Tables ........................................................................ 14
3.5 SQL Compression Syntax Warnings and Errors ................................................................... 17
4 InnoDB File-Format Management .................................................................................................. 21
4.1 Enabling File Formats ......................................................................................................... 21
4.2 Verifying File Format Compatibility ....................................................................................... 21
4.2.1 Compatibility Check When InnoDB Is Started ........................................................... 23
4.2.2 Compatibility Check When a Table Is Opened ........................................................... 24
4.3 Identifying the File Format in Use ........................................................................................ 25
4.4 Downgrading the File Format .............................................................................................. 26
4.5 Future InnoDB File Formats ............................................................................................... 26
5 InnoDB Row Storage and Row Formats ........................................................................................ 27
5.1 Overview of InnoDB Row Storage ...................................................................................... 27
5.2 Specifying the Row Format for a Table ................................................................................ 27
5.3 DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED Row Formats ........................................................................... 27
5.4 COMPACT and REDUNDANT Row Formats ............................................................................. 28
6 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables .......................................................................................... 29
6.1 Information Schema Tables about Compression ................................................................... 29
6.1.1 INNODB_CMP and INNODB_CMP_RESET .................................................................... 29
6.1.2 INNODB_CMPMEM and INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET ........................................................ 29
6.1.3 Using the Compression Information Schema Tables .................................................. 30
6.2 Information Schema Tables about Transactions ................................................................... 31
6.2.1 Using the Transaction Information Schema Tables .................................................... 31
6.3 Special Locking Considerations for InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables ........................... 36
6.3.1 Understanding InnoDB Locking ................................................................................ 36
6.3.2 Granularity of INFORMATION_SCHEMA Data .............................................................. 36
6.3.3 Possible Inconsistency with PROCESSLIST ............................................................... 37
7 InnoDB Performance and Scalability Enhancements ....................................................................... 39
7.1 Overview of InnoDB Performance ........................................................................................ 39
7.2 Faster Locking for Improved Scalability ................................................................................ 39
7.3 Using Operating System Memory Allocators ......................................................................... 40
7.4 Controlling InnoDB Change Buffering .................................................................................. 41
7.5 Controlling Adaptive Hash Indexing ..................................................................................... 42
7.6 Changes Regarding Thread Concurrency ............................................................................ 42
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InnoDB 1.1 for MySQL 5.5 User's Guide
7.7 Changes in the Read-Ahead Algorithm ................................................................................ 43
7.8 Multiple Background InnoDB I/O Threads ............................................................................ 44
7.9 Asynchronous I/O on Linux ................................................................................................. 45
7.10 Group Commit .................................................................................................................. 45
7.11 Controlling the InnoDB Master Thread I/O Rate .................................................................. 45
7.12 Controlling the Flushing Rate of Dirty Pages from the InnoDB Buffer Pool ............................ 46
7.13 Using the PAUSE Instruction in InnoDB Spin Loops ........................................................... 47
7.14 Control of Spin Lock Polling .............................................................................................. 47
7.15 Making the Buffer Pool Scan Resistant .............................................................................. 47
7.16 Improvements to Crash Recovery Performance .................................................................. 49
7.17 Integration with the MySQL Performance Schema .............................................................. 49
7.18 Improvements to Performance from Multiple Buffer Pools ................................................... 50
7.19 Better Scalability with Multiple Rollback Segments .............................................................. 51
7.20 Better Scalability with Improved Purge Scheduling .............................................................. 51
7.21 Improved Log Sys Mutex .................................................................................................. 51
7.22 Separate Flush List Mutex ................................................................................................. 52
8 InnoDB Features for Flexibility, Ease of Use and Reliability ............................................................ 53
8.1 The Barracuda File Format ................................................................................................. 53
8.2 Dynamic Control of System Configuration Parameters .......................................................... 53
8.2.1 Dynamically Changing innodb_file_per_table ................................................... 54
8.2.2 Dynamically Changing innodb_stats_on_metadata ............................................. 54
8.2.3 Dynamically Changing innodb_lock_wait_timeout ............................................. 54
8.2.4 Dynamically Changing innodb_adaptive_hash_index ......................................... 55
8.3 TRUNCATE TABLE Reclaims Space .................................................................................... 55
8.4 InnoDB Strict Mode ............................................................................................................ 55
8.5 Controlling Optimizer Statistics Estimation ............................................................................ 56
8.6 Better Error Handling when Dropping Indexes ...................................................................... 57
8.7 More Compact Output of SHOW ENGINE INNODB MUTEX ................................................... 57
8.8 More Read-Ahead Statistics ................................................................................................ 58
9 Installing the InnoDB Storage Engine ............................................................................................. 59
10 Upgrading the InnoDB Storage Engine ......................................................................................... 61
11 Downgrading the InnoDB Storage Engine ..................................................................................... 63
11.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 63
12 InnoDB Storage Engine Change History ....................................................................................... 65
12.1 Changes in InnoDB Storage Engine 1.x ............................................................................. 65
12.2 Changes in InnoDB Storage Engine 1.1 (April 13, 2010) ..................................................... 65
12.3 Changes in InnoDB Plugin 1.0.x ........................................................................................ 66
A Third-Party Software ...................................................................................................................... 67
A.1 Performance Patches from Google ...................................................................................... 67
A.2 Multiple Background I/O Threads Patch from Percona .......................................................... 68
A.3 Performance Patches from Sun Microsystems ..................................................................... 68
B InnoDB Parameter Changes ......................................................................................................... 71
B.1 New Parameters ................................................................................................................ 71
B.2 Deprecated Parameters ...................................................................................................... 72
B.3 Parameters with New Defaults ............................................................................................ 72
InnoDB Glossary .............................................................................................................................. 73
Index .............................................................................................................................................. 129
iv
Preface and Legal Notices
This is the User's Guide for the InnoDB storage engine 1.1 for MySQL 5.5.
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v
Legal Notices
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vi
Chapter 1 Introduction to InnoDB 1.1
Table of Contents
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Features of the InnoDB Storage Engine ........................................................................................
Obtaining and Installing the InnoDB Storage Engine ......................................................................
Viewing the InnoDB Storage Engine Version Number .....................................................................
Compatibility Considerations for Downgrade and Backup ................................................................
InnoDB 1.1 combines the familiar reliability and performance of the InnoDB storage engine, with new
performance and usability enhancements. InnoDB 1.1 includes all the features that were part of the
InnoDB Plugin for MySQL 5.1, plus new features specific to MySQL 5.5 and higher.
Beginning with MySQL version 5.5, InnoDB is the default storage engine, rather than MyISAM, to promote
greater data reliability and reducing the chance of corruption.
1.1 Features of the InnoDB Storage Engine
InnoDB in MySQL 5.5 contains several important new features:
• Fast index creation: add or drop indexes without copying the data
• Data compression: shrink tables, to significantly reduce storage and I/O
• New row format: fully off-page storage of long BLOB, TEXT, and VARCHAR columns
• File format management: protects upward and downward compatibility
• INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables: information about compression and locking
• Performance and scalability enhancements:
• Section 7.2, “Faster Locking for Improved Scalability”
• Section 7.3, “Using Operating System Memory Allocators”
• Section 7.4, “Controlling InnoDB Change Buffering”
• Section 7.5, “Controlling Adaptive Hash Indexing”
• Section 7.6, “Changes Regarding Thread Concurrency”
• Section 7.7, “Changes in the Read-Ahead Algorithm”
• Section 7.8, “Multiple Background InnoDB I/O Threads”
• Section 7.9, “Asynchronous I/O on Linux”
• Section 7.10, “Group Commit”
• Section 7.11, “Controlling the InnoDB Master Thread I/O Rate”
• Section 7.12, “Controlling the Flushing Rate of Dirty Pages from the InnoDB Buffer Pool”
• Section 7.13, “Using the PAUSE Instruction in InnoDB Spin Loops”
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3
3
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Upward and Downward Compatibility
• Section 7.14, “Control of Spin Lock Polling”
• Section 7.15, “Making the Buffer Pool Scan Resistant”
• Section 7.16, “Improvements to Crash Recovery Performance”
• Section 7.17, “Integration with the MySQL Performance Schema”
• Section 7.18, “Improvements to Performance from Multiple Buffer Pools”
• Section 7.19, “Better Scalability with Multiple Rollback Segments”
• Section 7.20, “Better Scalability with Improved Purge Scheduling”
• Section 7.21, “Improved Log Sys Mutex”
• Section 7.22, “Separate Flush List Mutex”
• Section B.3, “Parameters with New Defaults”
• Other changes for flexibility, ease of use and reliability:
• Section 8.1, “The Barracuda File Format”
• Section 8.2, “Dynamic Control of System Configuration Parameters”
• Section 8.3, “TRUNCATE TABLE Reclaims Space”
• Section 8.4, “InnoDB Strict Mode”
• Section 8.5, “Controlling Optimizer Statistics Estimation”
• Section 8.6, “Better Error Handling when Dropping Indexes”
• Section 8.7, “More Compact Output of SHOW ENGINE INNODB MUTEX”
• Section 8.8, “More Read-Ahead Statistics”
Upward and Downward Compatibility
Note that the ability to use data compression and the new row format require the use of a new InnoDB file
format called Barracuda. The previous file format, used by the built-in InnoDB in MySQL 5.1 and earlier, is
now called Antelope and does not support these features, but does support the other features introduced
with the InnoDB storage engine.
The InnoDB storage engine is upward compatible from standard InnoDB as built in to, and distributed with,
MySQL. Existing databases can be used with the InnoDB Storage Engine for MySQL. The new parameter
innodb_file_format can help protect upward and downward compatibility between InnoDB versions
and database files, allowing users to enable or disable use of new features that can only be used with
certain versions of InnoDB.
InnoDB since version 5.0.21 has a safety feature that prevents it from opening tables that are in an
unknown format. However, the system tablespace may contain references to new-format tables that
confuse the built-in InnoDB in MySQL 5.1 and earlier. These references are cleared in a slow shutdown.
With previous versions of InnoDB, no error would be returned until you try to access a table that is in a
format “too new” for the software. To provide early feedback, InnoDB 1.1 checks the system tablespace
2
Obtaining and Installing the InnoDB Storage Engine
before startup to ensure that the file format used in the database is supported by the storage engine. See
Section 4.2.1, “Compatibility Check When InnoDB Is Started” for the details.
1.2 Obtaining and Installing the InnoDB Storage Engine
Starting with MySQL 5.4.2, you do not need to do anything special to get or install the most up-to-date
InnoDB storage engine. From that version forward, the InnoDB storage engine in the server is what
was formerly known as the InnoDB Plugin. Earlier versions of MySQL required some extra build and
configuration steps to get the Plugin-specific features such as fast index creation and table compression.
Report any bugs in the InnoDB storage engine using the My Oracle Support site. For general discussions
about InnoDB Storage Engine for MySQL, see http://forums.mysql.com/list.php?22.
1.3 Viewing the InnoDB Storage Engine Version Number
InnoDB storage engine releases are numbered with version numbers independent of MySQL release
numbers. The initial release of the InnoDB storage engine is version 1.0, and it is designed to work with
MySQL 5.1. Version 1.1 of the InnoDB storage engine is for MySQL 5.5 and up.
• The first component of the InnoDB storage engine version number designates a major release level.
• The second component corresponds to the MySQL release. The digit 0 corresponds to MySQL 5.1. The
digit 1 corresponds to MySQL 5.5.
• The third component indicates the specific release of the InnoDB storage engine (at a given major
release level and for a specific MySQL release); only bug fixes and minor functional changes are
introduced at this level.
Once you have installed the InnoDB storage engine, you can check its version number in three ways:
• In the error log, it is printed during startup.
• SELECT * FROM information_schema.plugins;
• SELECT @@innodb_version;
The InnoDB storage engine writes its version number to the error log, which can be helpful in diagnosis of
errors:
091105 12:28:06 InnoDB Plugin 1.0.5 started; log sequence number 46509
Note that the PLUGIN_VERSION column in the table INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PLUGINS does not display
the third component of the version number, only the first and second components, as in 1.0.
1.4 Compatibility Considerations for Downgrade and Backup
Because InnoDB 1.1 supports the “Barracuda” file format, with new on-disk data structures within
both the database and log files, pay special attention to file format compatibility with respect to the
following scenarios:
• Downgrading from MySQL 5.5 to the MySQL 5.1 or earlier (without the InnoDB Plugin enabled), or
otherwise using earlier versions of MySQL with database files created by MySQL 5.5 and higher.
• Using mysqldump.
• Using MySQL replication.
3
Compatibility Considerations for Downgrade and Backup
• Using MySQL Enterprise Backup or InnoDB Hot Backup.
WARNING: Once you create any tables with the Barracuda file format, take care to avoid crashes and
corruptions when using those files with an earlier version of MySQL. It is strongly recommended that you
use a “slow shutdown” (SET GLOBAL innodb_fast_shutdown=0) when stopping the MySQL server
before downgrading to MySQL 5.1 or earlier. This ensures that the log files and other system information
do not cause consistency issues or startup problems when using a prior version of MySQL.
WARNING: If you dump a database containing compressed tables with mysqldump, the dump file
may contain CREATE TABLE statements that attempt to create compressed tables, or those using
ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC in the new database. Therefore, be sure the new database is running the InnoDB
storage engine, with the proper settings for innodb_file_format and innodb_file_per_table,
if you want to have the tables re-created as they exist in the original database. Typically, when the
mysqldump file is loaded, MySQL and InnoDB ignore CREATE TABLE options they do not recognize, and
the table(s) are created in a format used by the running server.
WARNING: If you use MySQL replication, ensure all slaves are configured with the InnoDB storage
engine, with the same settings for innodb_file_format and innodb_file_per_table. If you do
not do so, and you create tables that require the new Barracuda file format, replication errors may occur.
If a slave MySQL server is running an older version of MySQL, it ignores the CREATE TABLE options to
create a compressed table or one with ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC, and creates the table uncompressed, with
ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT.
WARNING: Version 3.0 of InnoDB Hot Backup does not support the new Barracuda file format. Using
InnoDB Hot Backup Version 3 to backup databases in this format causes unpredictable behavior. MySQL
Enterprise Backup, the successor product to InnoDB Hot Backup, does support tables with the Barracuda
file format. You can also back up such databases with mysqldump.
4
Chapter 2 Fast Index Creation in the InnoDB Storage Engine
Table of Contents
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
Overview of Fast Index Creation ...................................................................................................
Examples of Fast Index Creation ..................................................................................................
Implementation Details of Fast Index Creation ...............................................................................
Concurrency Considerations for Fast Index Creation ......................................................................
How Crash Recovery Works with Fast Index Creation ....................................................................
Limitations of Fast Index Creation .................................................................................................
5
5
6
7
7
7
In MySQL 5.5 and higher, or in MySQL 5.1 with the InnoDB Plugin, creating and dropping secondary
indexes does not copy the contents of the entire table, making this operation much more efficient than with
prior releases.
2.1 Overview of Fast Index Creation
With MySQL 5.5 and higher, or MySQL 5.1 with the InnoDB Plugin, creating and dropping secondary
indexes for InnoDB tables is much faster than before. Historically, adding or dropping an index on a table
with existing data could be very slow. The CREATE INDEX and DROP INDEX statements worked by
creating a new, empty table defined with the requested set of indexes, then copying the existing rows to
the new table one-by-one, updating the indexes as the rows are inserted. After all rows from the original
table were copied, the old table was dropped and the copy was renamed with the name of the original
table.
The performance speedup for fast index creation applies to secondary indexes, not to the primary key
index. The rows of an InnoDB table are stored in a clustered index organized based on the primary key,
forming what some database systems call an “index-organized table”. Because the table structure is so
closely tied to the primary key, redefining the primary key still requires copying the data.
This new mechanism also means that you can generally speed the overall process of creating and loading
an indexed table by creating the table with only the clustered index, and adding the secondary indexes
after the data is loaded.
Although no syntax changes are required in the CREATE INDEX or DROP INDEX commands, some factors
affect the performance, space usage, and semantics of this operation (see Section 2.6, “Limitations of Fast
Index Creation”).
2.2 Examples of Fast Index Creation
It is possible to create multiple indexes on a table with one ALTER TABLE statement. This is relatively
efficient, because the clustered index of the table needs to be scanned only once (although the data is
sorted separately for each new index). For example:
CREATE TABLE T1(A INT PRIMARY KEY, B INT, C CHAR(1)) ENGINE=InnoDB;
INSERT INTO T1 VALUES (1,2,'a'), (2,3,'b'), (3,2,'c'), (4,3,'d'), (5,2,'e');
COMMIT;
ALTER TABLE T1 ADD INDEX (B), ADD UNIQUE INDEX (C);
The above statements create table T1 with the clustered index (primary key) on column A, insert several
rows, and then build two new indexes on columns B and C. If there were many rows inserted into T1 before
5
Implementation Details of Fast Index Creation
the ALTER TABLE statement, this approach is much more efficient than creating all the secondary indexes
before loading the data.
You can also create the indexes one at a time, but then the clustered index of the table is scanned (as well
as sorted) once for each CREATE INDEX statement. Thus, the following statements are not as efficient as
the ALTER TABLE statement above, even though neither requires recreating the clustered index for table
T1.
CREATE INDEX B ON T1 (B);
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX C ON T1 (C);
Dropping InnoDB secondary indexes also does not require any copying of table data. You can equally
quickly drop multiple indexes with a single ALTER TABLE statement or multiple DROP INDEX statements:
ALTER TABLE T1 DROP INDEX B, DROP INDEX C;
or:
DROP INDEX B ON T1;
DROP INDEX C ON T1;
Restructuring the clustered index in InnoDB always requires copying the data in the table. For example,
if you create a table without a primary key, InnoDB chooses one for you, which may be the first UNIQUE
key defined on NOT NULL columns, or a system-generated key. Defining a PRIMARY KEY later causes the
data to be copied, as in the following example:
CREATE TABLE T2 (A INT, B INT) ENGINE=InnoDB;
INSERT INTO T2 VALUES (NULL, 1);
ALTER TABLE T2 ADD PRIMARY KEY (B);
When you create a UNIQUE or PRIMARY KEY index, InnoDB must do some extra work. For UNIQUE
indexes, InnoDB checks that the table contains no duplicate values for the key. For a PRIMARY KEY index,
InnoDB also checks that none of the PRIMARY KEY columns contains a NULL. It is best to define the
primary key when you create a table, so you need not rebuild the table later.
2.3 Implementation Details of Fast Index Creation
InnoDB has two types of indexes: the clustered index and secondary indexes. Since the clustered index
contains the data values in its B-tree nodes, adding or dropping a clustered index does involve copying the
data, and creating a new copy of the table. A secondary index, however, contains only the index key and
the value of the primary key. This type of index can be created or dropped without copying the data in the
clustered index. Because each secondary index contains copies of the primary key values (used to access
the clustered index when needed), when you change the definition of the primary key, all secondary
indexes are recreated as well.
Dropping a secondary index is simple. Only the internal InnoDB system tables and the MySQL data
dictionary tables are updated to reflect the fact that the index no longer exists. InnoDB returns the storage
used for the index to the tablespace that contained it, so that new indexes or additional table rows can use
the space.
To add a secondary index to an existing table, InnoDB scans the table, and sorts the rows using memory
buffers and temporary files in order by the values of the secondary index key columns. The B-tree is then
built in key-value order, which is more efficient than inserting rows into an index in random order. Because
the B-tree nodes are split when they fill, building the index in this way results in a higher fill-factor for the
index, making it more efficient for subsequent access.
6
Concurrency Considerations for Fast Index Creation
2.4 Concurrency Considerations for Fast Index Creation
While an InnoDB secondary index is being created or dropped, the table is locked in shared mode. Any
writes to the table are blocked, but the data in the table can be read. When you alter the clustered index of
a table, the table is locked in exclusive mode, because the data must be copied. Thus, during the creation
of a new clustered index, all operations on the table are blocked.
A CREATE INDEX or ALTER TABLE statement for an InnoDB table always waits for currently executing
transactions that are accessing the table to commit or roll back. ALTER TABLE statements that redefine an
InnoDB primary key wait for all SELECT statements that access the table to complete, or their containing
transactions to commit. No transactions whose execution spans the creation of the index can be accessing
the table, because the original table is dropped when the clustered index is restructured.
Once a CREATE INDEX or ALTER TABLE statement that creates an InnoDB secondary index begins
executing, queries can access the table for read access, but cannot update the table. If an ALTER
TABLE statement is changing the clustered index for an InnoDB table, all queries wait until the operation
completes.
A newly-created InnoDB secondary index contains only the committed data in the table at the time the
CREATE INDEX or ALTER TABLE statement begins to execute. It does not contain any uncommitted
values, old versions of values, or values marked for deletion but not yet removed from the old index.
Because a newly-created index contains only information about data current at the time the index was
created, queries that need to see data that was deleted or changed before the index was created cannot
use the index. The only queries that could be affected by this limitation are those executing in transactions
that began before the creation of the index was begun. For such queries, unpredictable results could occur.
Newer queries can use the index.
2.5 How Crash Recovery Works with Fast Index Creation
Although no data is lost if the server crashes while an ALTER TABLE statement is executing, the crash
recovery process is different for clustered indexes and secondary indexes.
If the server crashes while creating an InnoDB secondary index, upon recovery, MySQL drops any partially
created indexes. You must re-run the ALTER TABLE or CREATE INDEX statement.
When a crash occurs during the creation of an InnoDB clustered index, recovery is more complicated,
because the data in the table must be copied to an entirely new clustered index. Remember that all InnoDB
tables are stored as clustered indexes. In the following discussion, we use the word table and clustered
index interchangeably.
MySQL creates the new clustered index by copying the existing data from the original InnoDB table to a
temporary table that has the desired index structure. Once the data is completely copied to this temporary
table, the original table is renamed with a different temporary table name. The temporary table comprising
the new clustered index is renamed with the name of the original table, and the original table is dropped
from the database.
If a system crash occurs while creating a new clustered index, no data is lost, but you must complete the
recovery process using the temporary tables that exist during the process. Since it is rare to re-create
a clustered index or re-define primary keys on large tables, or to encounter a system crash during this
operation, this manual does not provide information on recovering from this scenario. Contact MySQL
support.
2.6 Limitations of Fast Index Creation
7
Limitations of Fast Index Creation
Take the following considerations into account when creating or dropping InnoDB indexes:
• During index creation, files are written to the temporary directory ($TMPDIR on Unix, %TEMP% on
Windows, or the value of the --tmpdir configuration variable). Each temporary file is large enough to
hold one column that makes up the new index, and each one is removed as soon as it is merged into the
final index.
• An ALTER TABLE statement that contains DROP INDEX and ADD INDEX clauses that both name the
same index uses a table copy, not Fast Index Creation.
• The table is copied, rather than using Fast Index Creation when you create an index on a TEMPORARY
TABLE. This has been reported as MySQL Bug #39833.
• To avoid consistency issues between the InnoDB data dictionary and the MySQL data dictionary, the
table is copied, rather than using Fast Index Creation when you use the ALTER TABLE ... RENAME
COLUMN syntax.
• The statement ALTER IGNORE TABLE t ADD UNIQUE INDEX does not delete duplicate rows. This
has been reported as MySQL Bug #40344. The IGNORE keyword is ignored. If any duplicate rows exist,
the operation fails with the following error message:
ERROR 23000: Duplicate entry '347' for key 'pl'
• As noted above, a newly-created index contains only information about data current at the time the
index was created. Therefore, you should not run queries in a transaction that might use a secondary
index that did not exist at the beginning of the transaction. There is no way for InnoDB to access “old”
data that is consistent with the rest of the data read by the transaction. See the discussion of locking in
Section 2.4, “Concurrency Considerations for Fast Index Creation”.
Prior to InnoDB storage engine 1.0.4, unexpected results could occur if a query attempts to use an index
created after the start of the transaction containing the query. If an old transaction attempts to access a
“too new” index, InnoDB storage engine 1.0.4 and later reports an error:
ERROR HY000: Table definition has changed, please retry transaction
As the error message suggests, committing (or rolling back) the transaction, and restarting it, cures the
problem.
• InnoDB storage engine 1.0.2 introduces some improvements in error handling when users attempt to
drop indexes. See section Section 8.6, “Better Error Handling when Dropping Indexes” for details.
• MySQL 5.5 does not support efficient creation or dropping of FOREIGN KEY constraints. Therefore, if
you use ALTER TABLE to add or remove a REFERENCES constraint, the child table is copied, rather than
using Fast Index Creation.
• OPTIMIZE TABLE for an InnoDB table is mapped to an ALTER TABLE operation to rebuild the table
and update index statistics and free unused space in the clustered index. This operation does not use
fast index creation. Secondary indexes are not created as efficiently because keys are inserted in the
order they appeared in the primary key.
8
Chapter 3 Working with InnoDB Compressed Tables
Table of Contents
3.1 Overview of Table Compression .................................................................................................... 9
3.2 Enabling Compression for a Table ................................................................................................ 9
3.2.1 Configuration Parameters for Compression ....................................................................... 10
3.3 Tuning Compression for InnoDB Tables ....................................................................................... 11
3.4 How Compression Works for InnoDB Tables ................................................................................ 14
3.5 SQL Compression Syntax Warnings and Errors ........................................................................... 17
By using the SQL syntax and InnoDB configuration options for compression, you can create tables where
the data is stored in compressed form. Compression can help to improve both raw performance and
scalability. The compression means less data is transferred between disk and memory, and takes up less
space on disk and in memory. The benefits are amplified for tables with secondary indexes, because index
data is compressed also. Compression can be especially important for SSD storage devices, because they
tend to have lower capacity than HDD devices.
3.1 Overview of Table Compression
Because processors and cache memories have increased in speed more than disk storage devices, many
workloads are disk-bound. Data compression enables smaller database size, reduced I/O, and improved
throughput, at the small cost of increased CPU utilization. Compression is especially valuable for readintensive applications, on systems with enough RAM to keep frequently used data in memory.
An InnoDB table created with ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED can use a smaller page size on disk than the
usual 16KB default. Smaller pages require less I/O to read from and write to disk, which is especially
valuable for SSD devices.
The page size is specified through the KEY_BLOCK_SIZE parameter. The different page size means
the table must be in its own .ibd file rather than in the system tablespace, which requires enabling
the innodb_file_per_table option. The level of compression is the same regardless of the
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value. As you specify smaller values for KEY_BLOCK_SIZE, you get the I/O benefits
of increasingly smaller pages. But if you specify a value that is too small, there is additional overhead to
reorganize the pages when data values cannot be compressed enough to fit multiple rows in each page.
There is a hard limit on how small KEY_BLOCK_SIZE can be for a table, based on the lengths of the
key columns for each of its indexes. Specify a value that is too small, and the CREATE TABLE or ALTER
TABLE statement fails.
In the buffer pool, the compressed data is held in small pages, with a page size based on the
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value. For extracting or updating the column values, MySQL also creates a 16KB page
in the buffer pool with the uncompressed data. Within the buffer pool, any updates to the uncompressed
page are also re-written back to the equivalent compressed page. You might need to size your buffer
pool to accommodate the additional data of both compressed and uncompressed pages, although the
uncompressed pages are evicted from the buffer pool when space is needed, and then uncompressed
again on the next access.
3.2 Enabling Compression for a Table
The default uncompressed size of InnoDB data pages is 16KB. You can use the attributes
ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE, or both in the CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE
9
Configuration Parameters for Compression
statements to enable table compression. Depending on the combination of option values, InnoDB uses
a page size of 1KB, 2KB, 4KB, 8KB, or 16KB for the .ibd file of the table. (The actual compression
algorithm is not affected by the KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value.)
Note
Compression is applicable to tables, not to individual rows, despite the option name
ROW_FORMAT.
To create a compressed table, you might use a statement like this:
CREATE TABLE name
(column1 INT PRIMARY KEY)
ENGINE=InnoDB
ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=4;
If you specify ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED but not KEY_BLOCK_SIZE, the default compressed page size of
8KB is used. If KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is specified, you can omit the attribute ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED.
Setting KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=16 typically does not result in much compression, since the normal InnoDB
page size is 16KB. This setting may still be useful for tables with many long BLOB, VARCHAR or TEXT
columns, because such values often do compress well, and might therefore require fewer overflow pages
as described in Section 3.4, “How Compression Works for InnoDB Tables”.
All indexes of a table (including the clustered index) are compressed using the same page size, as
specified in the CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement. Table attributes such as ROW_FORMAT
and KEY_BLOCK_SIZE are not part of the CREATE INDEX syntax, and are ignored if they are specified
(although you see them in the output of the SHOW CREATE TABLE statement).
3.2.1 Configuration Parameters for Compression
Compressed tables are stored in a format that previous versions of InnoDB cannot process. To preserve
downward compatibility of database files, compression can be specified only when the Barracuda data file
format is enabled using the configuration parameter innodb_file_format.
Table compression is also not available for the InnoDB system tablespace. The system tablespace (space
0, the ibdata* files) may contain user data, but it also contains internal InnoDB system information, and
therefore is never compressed. Thus, compression applies only to tables (and indexes) stored in their own
tablespaces.
To use compression, enable the file-per-table mode using the configuration parameter
innodb_file_per_table and enable the Barracuda disk file format using the parameter
innodb_file_format. If necessary, you can set these parameters in the MySQL option file my.cnf or
my.ini, or with the SET statement without shutting down the MySQL server.
Specifying ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED or KEY_BLOCK_SIZE in CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE
statements produces these warnings if the Barracuda file format is not enabled. You can view them with
the SHOW WARNINGS statement.
Level
Code Message
Warning
1478
InnoDB: KEY_BLOCK_SIZE requires innodb_file_per_table.
Warning
1478
InnoDB: KEY_BLOCK_SIZE requires innodb_file_format=1
Warning
1478
InnoDB: ignoring KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=4.
Warning
1478
InnoDB: ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED requires innodb_file_per_table.
10
Tuning Compression for InnoDB Tables
Level
Code Message
Warning
1478
InnoDB: assuming ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT.
Note
These messages are only warnings, not errors, and the table is created as if the
options were not specified. When InnoDB “strict mode” (see Section 8.4, “InnoDB
Strict Mode”) is enabled, InnoDB generates an error, not a warning, for these cases.
In strict mode, the table is not created if the current configuration does not permit
using compressed tables.
The “non-strict” behavior is intended to permit you to import a mysqldump file into a database that does
not support compressed tables, even if the source database contained compressed tables. In that case,
MySQL creates the table in ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT instead of preventing the operation.
When you import the dump file into a new database, if you want to have the tables re-created as they exist
in the original database, ensure the server is running the InnoDB storage engine with the proper settings
for the configuration parameters innodb_file_format and innodb_file_per_table,
3.3 Tuning Compression for InnoDB Tables
Most often, the internal optimizations described in InnoDB Data Storage and Compression ensure that the
system runs well with compressed data. However, because the efficiency of compression depends on the
nature of your data, you can make decisions that affect the performance of compressed tables:
• Which tables to compress.
• What compressed page size to use.
• Whether to adjust the size of the buffer pool based on run-time performance characteristics, such as the
amount of time the system spends compressing and uncompressing data. Whether the workload is more
like a data warehouse (primarily queries) or an OLTP system (mix of queries and DML).
• If the system performs DML operations on compressed tables, and the way the data is distributed
leads to expensive compression failures at runtime, you might adjust additional advanced configuration
options.
Use the guidelines in this section to help make those architectural and configuration choices. When
you are ready to conduct long-term testing and put compressed tables into production, see Monitoring
Compression at Runtime for ways to verify the effectiveness of those choices under real-world conditions.
When to Use Compression
In general, compression works best on tables that include a reasonable number of character string
columns and where the data is read far more often than it is written. Because there are no guaranteed
ways to predict whether or not compression benefits a particular situation, always test with a specific
workload and data set running on a representative configuration. Consider the following factors when
deciding which tables to compress.
Data Characteristics and Compression
A key determinant of the efficiency of compression in reducing the size of data files is the nature of
the data itself. Recall that compression works by identifying repeated strings of bytes in a block of
data. Completely randomized data is the worst case. Typical data often has repeated values, and so
compresses effectively. Character strings often compress well, whether defined in CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT
11
Compression and Application and Schema Design
or BLOB columns. On the other hand, tables containing mostly binary data (integers or floating point
numbers) or data that is previously compressed (for example JPEG or PNG images) may not generally
compress well, significantly or at all.
You choose whether to turn on compression for each InnoDB table. A table and all of its indexes use the
same (compressed) page size. It might be that the primary key (clustered) index, which contains the data
for all columns of a table, compresses more effectively than the secondary indexes. For those cases where
there are long rows, the use of compression might result in long column values being stored “off-page”,
as discussed in Section 5.3, “DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED Row Formats”. Those overflow pages may
compress well. Given these considerations, for many applications, some tables compress more effectively
than others, and you might find that your workload performs best only with a subset of tables compressed.
Experimenting is the only way to determine whether or not to compress a particular table. InnoDB
compresses data in 16K chunks corresponding to the uncompressed page size, and in addition to
user data, the page format includes some internal system data that is not compressed. Compression
utilities compress an entire stream of data, and so may find more repeated strings across the entire input
stream than InnoDB would find in a table compressed in 16K chunks. But you can get a sense of how
compression efficiency by using a utility that implements LZ77 compression (such as gzip or WinZip) on
your data file.
Another way to test compression on a specific table is to copy some data from your uncompressed table
to a similar, compressed table (having all the same indexes) and look at the size of the resulting file.
When you do so (if nothing else using compression is running), you can examine the ratio of successful
compression operations to overall compression operations. (In the INNODB_CMP table, compare
COMPRESS_OPS to COMPRESS_OPS_OK. See INNODB_CMP for more information.) If a high percentage of
compression operations complete successfully, the table might be a good candidate for compression.
Compression and Application and Schema Design
Decide whether to compress data in your application or in the table; do not use both types of compression
for the same data. When you compress the data in the application and store the results in a compressed
table, extra space savings are extremely unlikely, and the double compression just wastes CPU cycles.
Compressing in the Database
The InnoDB table compression is automatic and applies to all columns and index values. The columns can
still be tested with operators such as LIKE, and sort operations can still use indexes even when the index
values are compressed. Because indexes are often a significant fraction of the total size of a database,
compression could result in significant savings in storage, I/O or processor time. The compression and
decompression operations happen on the database server, which likely is a powerful system that is sized
to handle the expected load.
Compressing in the Application
If you compress data such as text in your application, before it is inserted into the database, You might
save overhead for data that does not compress well by compressing some columns and not others. This
approach uses CPU cycles for compression and uncompression on the client machine rather than the
database server, which might be appropriate for a distributed application with many clients, or where the
client machine has spare CPU cycles.
Hybrid Approach
Of course, it is possible to combine these approaches. For some applications, it may be appropriate to use
some compressed tables and some uncompressed tables. It may be best to externally compress some
12
Workload Characteristics and Compression
data (and store it in uncompressed InnoDB tables) and allow InnoDB to compress (some of) the other
tables in the application. As always, up-front design and real-life testing are valuable in reaching the right
decision.
Workload Characteristics and Compression
In addition to choosing which tables to compress (and the page size), the workload is another key
determinant of performance. If the application is dominated by reads, rather than updates, fewer pages
need to be reorganized and recompressed after the index page runs out of room for the per-page
“modification log” that InnoDB maintains for compressed data. If the updates predominantly change
non-indexed columns or those containing BLOBs or large strings that happen to be stored “off-page”,
the overhead of compression may be acceptable. If the only changes to a table are INSERTs that use
a monotonically increasing primary key, and there are few secondary indexes, there is little need to
reorganize and recompress index pages. Since InnoDB can “delete-mark” and delete rows on compressed
pages “in place” by modifying uncompressed data, DELETE operations on a table are relatively efficient.
For some environments, the time it takes to load data can be as important as run-time retrieval. Especially
in data warehouse environments, many tables may be read-only or read-mostly. In those cases, it might
or might not be acceptable to pay the price of compression in terms of increased load time, unless the
resulting savings in fewer disk reads or in storage cost is significant.
Fundamentally, compression works best when the CPU time is available for compressing and
uncompressing data. Thus, if your workload is I/O bound, rather than CPU-bound, you might find that
compression can improve overall performance. When you test your application performance with different
compression configurations, test on a platform similar to the planned configuration of the production
system.
Configuration Characteristics and Compression
Reading and writing database pages from and to disk is the slowest aspect of system performance.
Compression attempts to reduce I/O by using CPU time to compress and uncompress data, and is most
effective when I/O is a relatively scarce resource compared to processor cycles.
This is often especially the case when running in a multi-user environment with fast, multi-core CPUs.
When a page of a compressed table is in memory, InnoDB often uses an additional 16K in the buffer
pool for an uncompressed copy of the page. The adaptive LRU algorithm in the InnoDB storage engine
attempts to balance the use of memory between compressed and uncompressed pages to take into
account whether the workload is running in an I/O-bound or CPU-bound manner. Still, a configuration with
more memory dedicated to the InnoDB buffer pool tends to run better when using compressed tables than
a configuration where memory is highly constrained.
Choosing the Compressed Page Size
The optimal setting of the compressed page size depends on the type and distribution of data that the table
and its indexes contain. The compressed page size should always be bigger than the maximum record
size, or operations may fail as noted in Compression of B-Tree Pages.
Setting the compressed page size too large wastes some space, but the pages do not have to be
compressed as often. If the compressed page size is set too small, inserts or updates may require timeconsuming recompression, and the B-tree nodes may have to be split more frequently, leading to bigger
data files and less efficient indexing.
Typically, you set the compressed page size to 8K or 4K bytes. Given that the maximum row size for an
InnoDB table is around 8K, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=8 is usually a safe choice.
13
Monitoring Compression at Runtime
Monitoring Compression at Runtime
Overall application performance, CPU and I/O utilization and the size of disk files are good indicators of
how effective compression is for your application.
To dig deeper into performance considerations for compressed tables, you can monitor compression
performance at runtime. using the Information Schema tables described in Example 6.1, “Using the
Compression Information Schema Tables”. These tables reflect the internal use of memory and the rates of
compression used overall.
The INNODB_CMP tables report information about compression activity for each compressed page size
(KEY_BLOCK_SIZE) in use. The information in these tables is system-wide, and includes summary data
across all compressed tables in your database. You can use this data to help decide whether or not to
compress a table by examining these tables when no other compressed tables are being accessed.
The key statistics to consider are the number of, and amount of time spent performing, compression and
uncompression operations. Since InnoDB must split B-tree nodes when they are too full to contain the
compressed data following a modification, compare the number of “successful” compression operations
with the number of such operations overall. Based on the information in the INNODB_CMP tables and
overall application performance and hardware resource utilization, you might make changes in your
hardware configuration, adjust the size of the InnoDB buffer pool, choose a different page size, or select a
different set of tables to compress.
If the amount of CPU time required for compressing and uncompressing is high, changing to faster CPUs,
or those with more cores, can help improve performance with the same data, application workload and
set of compressed tables. Increasing the size of the InnoDB buffer pool might also help performance, so
that more uncompressed pages can stay in memory, reducing the need to uncompress pages that exist in
memory only in compressed form.
A large number of compression operations overall (compared to the number of INSERT, UPDATE and
DELETE operations in your application and the size of the database) could indicate that some of your
compressed tables are being updated too heavily for effective compression. If so, choose a larger page
size, or be more selective about which tables you compress.
If the number of “successful” compression operations (COMPRESS_OPS_OK) is a high percentage of the
total number of compression operations (COMPRESS_OPS), then the system is likely performing well. If
the ratio is low, then InnoDB is reorganizing, recompressing, and splitting B-tree nodes more often than
is desirable. In this case, avoid compressing some tables, or increase KEY_BLOCK_SIZE for some of the
compressed tables. You might turn off compression for tables that cause the number of “compression
failures” in your application to be more than 1% or 2% of the total. (Such a failure ratio might be acceptable
during a temporary operation such as a data load).
3.4 How Compression Works for InnoDB Tables
This section describes some internal implementation details about compression for InnoDB tables. The
information presented here may be helpful in tuning for performance, but is not necessary to know for basic
use of compression.
Compression Algorithms
Some operating systems implement compression at the file system level. Files are typically divided into
fixed-size blocks that are compressed into variable-size blocks, which easily leads into fragmentation.
Every time something inside a block is modified, the whole block is recompressed before it is written
to disk. These properties make this compression technique unsuitable for use in an update-intensive
database system.
14
InnoDB Data Storage and Compression
InnoDB implements compression with the help of the well-known zlib library, which implements the LZ77
compression algorithm. This compression algorithm is mature, robust, and efficient in both CPU utilization
and in reduction of data size. The algorithm is “lossless”, so that the original uncompressed data can
always be reconstructed from the compressed form. LZ77 compression works by finding sequences of
data that are repeated within the data to be compressed. The patterns of values in your data determine
how well it compresses, but typical user data often compresses by 50% or more.
Unlike compression performed by an application, or compression features of some other database
management systems, InnoDB compression applies both to user data and to indexes. In many cases,
indexes can constitute 40-50% or more of the total database size, so this difference is significant. When
compression is working well for a data set, the size of the InnoDB data files (the .idb files) is 25% to 50%
of the uncompressed size or possibly smaller. Depending on the workload, this smaller database can in
turn lead to a reduction in I/O, and an increase in throughput, at a modest cost in terms of increased CPU
utilization. You can adjust the balance between compression level and CPU overhead by modifying the
innodb_compression_level configuration option.
InnoDB Data Storage and Compression
All user data in InnoDB tables is stored in pages comprising a B-tree index (the clustered index). In some
other database systems, this type of index is called an “index-organized table”. Each row in the index node
contains the values of the (user-specified or system-generated) primary key and all the other columns of
the table.
Secondary indexes in InnoDB tables are also B-trees, containing pairs of values: the index key and a
pointer to a row in the clustered index. The pointer is in fact the value of the primary key of the table, which
is used to access the clustered index if columns other than the index key and primary key are required.
Secondary index records must always fit on a single B-tree page.
The compression of B-tree nodes (of both clustered and secondary indexes) is handled differently from
compression of overflow pages used to store long VARCHAR, BLOB, or TEXT columns, as explained in the
following sections.
Compression of B-Tree Pages
Because they are frequently updated, B-tree pages require special treatment. It is important to minimize
the number of times B-tree nodes are split, as well as to minimize the need to uncompress and recompress
their content.
One technique InnoDB uses is to maintain some system information in the B-tree node in uncompressed
form, thus facilitating certain in-place updates. For example, this allows rows to be delete-marked and
deleted without any compression operation.
In addition, InnoDB attempts to avoid unnecessary uncompression and recompression of index pages
when they are changed. Within each B-tree page, the system keeps an uncompressed “modification log” to
record changes made to the page. Updates and inserts of small records may be written to this modification
log without requiring the entire page to be completely reconstructed.
When the space for the modification log runs out, InnoDB uncompresses the page, applies the changes
and recompresses the page. If recompression fails (a situation known as a compression failure), the B-tree
nodes are split and the process is repeated until the update or insert succeeds.
Generally, InnoDB requires that each B-tree page can accommodate at least two records. For compressed
tables, this requirement has been relaxed. Leaf pages of B-tree nodes (whether of the primary key or
secondary indexes) only need to accommodate one record, but that record must fit in uncompressed
form, in the per-page modification log. Starting with InnoDB storage engine version 1.0.2, and if
15
Compressing BLOB, VARCHAR, and TEXT Columns
innodb_strict_mode is ON, the InnoDB storage engine checks the maximum row size during CREATE
TABLE or CREATE INDEX. If the row does not fit, the following error message is issued: ERROR HY000:
Too big row.
If you create a table when innodb_strict_mode is OFF, and a subsequent INSERT or UPDATE
statement attempts to create an index entry that does not fit in the size of the compressed page, the
operation fails with ERROR 42000: Row size too large. (This error message does not name the
index for which the record is too large, or mention the length of the index record or the maximum record
size on that particular index page.) To solve this problem, rebuild the table with ALTER TABLE and select
a larger compressed page size (KEY_BLOCK_SIZE), shorten any column prefix indexes, or disable
compression entirely with ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC or ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT.
Compressing BLOB, VARCHAR, and TEXT Columns
In an InnoDB table, BLOB, VARCHAR, and TEXT columns that are not part of the primary key may be stored
on separately allocated overflow pages. We refer to these columns as off-page columns. Their values are
stored on singly-linked lists of overflow pages.
For tables created in ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC or ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED, the values of BLOB, TEXT,
or VARCHAR columns may be stored fully off-page, depending on their length and the length of the entire
row. For columns that are stored off-page, the clustered index record only contains 20-byte pointers to
the overflow pages, one per column. Whether any columns are stored off-page depends on the page size
and the total size of the row. When the row is too long to fit entirely within the page of the clustered index,
MySQL chooses the longest columns for off-page storage until the row fits on the clustered index page. As
noted above, if a row does not fit by itself on a compressed page, an error occurs.
Tables created in older versions of InnoDB use the Antelope file format, which supports only
ROW_FORMAT=REDUNDANT and ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT. In these formats, MySQL stores the first 768
bytes of BLOB, VARCHAR, and TEXT columns in the clustered index record along with the primary key. The
768-byte prefix is followed by a 20-byte pointer to the overflow pages that contain the rest of the column
value.
When a table is in COMPRESSED format, all data written to overflow pages is compressed “as is”; that is,
InnoDB applies the zlib compression algorithm to the entire data item. Other than the data, compressed
overflow pages contain an uncompressed header and trailer comprising a page checksum and a link to the
next overflow page, among other things. Therefore, very significant storage savings can be obtained for
longer BLOB, TEXT, or VARCHAR columns if the data is highly compressible, as is often the case with text
data. Image data, such as JPEG, is typically already compressed and so does not benefit much from being
stored in a compressed table; the double compression can waste CPU cycles for little or no space savings.
The overflow pages are of the same size as other pages. A row containing ten columns stored off-page
occupies ten overflow pages, even if the total length of the columns is only 8K bytes. In an uncompressed
table, ten uncompressed overflow pages occupy 160K bytes. In a compressed table with an 8K page size,
they occupy only 80K bytes. Thus, it is often more efficient to use compressed table format for tables with
long column values.
Using a 16K compressed page size can reduce storage and I/O costs for BLOB, VARCHAR, or TEXT
columns, because such data often compress well, and might therefore require fewer overflow pages, even
though the B-tree nodes themselves take as many pages as in the uncompressed form.
Compression and the InnoDB Buffer Pool
In a compressed InnoDB table, every compressed page (whether 1K, 2K, 4K or 8K) corresponds to
an uncompressed page of 16K bytes (or a smaller size if innodb_page_size is set). To access the
16
Compression and the InnoDB Redo Log Files
data in a page, InnoDB reads the compressed page from disk if it is not already in the buffer pool, then
uncompresses the page to its original form. This section describes how InnoDB manages the buffer pool
with respect to pages of compressed tables.
To minimize I/O and to reduce the need to uncompress a page, at times the buffer pool contains both
the compressed and uncompressed form of a database page. To make room for other required database
pages, InnoDB may evict from the buffer pool an uncompressed page, while leaving the compressed page
in memory. Or, if a page has not been accessed in a while, the compressed form of the page might be
written to disk, to free space for other data. Thus, at any given time, the buffer pool might contain both the
compressed and uncompressed forms of the page, or only the compressed form of the page, or neither.
InnoDB keeps track of which pages to keep in memory and which to evict using a least-recently-used
(LRU) list, so that hot (frequently accessed) data tends to stay in memory. When compressed tables are
accessed, MySQL uses an adaptive LRU algorithm to achieve an appropriate balance of compressed
and uncompressed pages in memory. This adaptive algorithm is sensitive to whether the system is
running in an I/O-bound or CPU-bound manner. The goal is to avoid spending too much processing time
uncompressing pages when the CPU is busy, and to avoid doing excess I/O when the CPU has spare
cycles that can be used for uncompressing compressed pages (that may already be in memory). When
the system is I/O-bound, the algorithm prefers to evict the uncompressed copy of a page rather than both
copies, to make more room for other disk pages to become memory resident. When the system is CPUbound, MySQL prefers to evict both the compressed and uncompressed page, so that more memory can
be used for “hot” pages and reducing the need to uncompress data in memory only in compressed form.
Compression and the InnoDB Redo Log Files
Before a compressed page is written to a data file, MySQL writes a copy of the page to the redo log (if
it has been recompressed since the last time it was written to the database). This is done to ensure that
redo logs are usable for crash recovery, even in the unlikely case that the zlib library is upgraded and
that change introduces a compatibility problem with the compressed data. Therefore, some increase in
the size of log files, or a need for more frequent checkpoints, can be expected when using compression.
The amount of increase in the log file size or checkpoint frequency depends on the number of times
compressed pages are modified in a way that requires reorganization and recompression.
Note that compressed tables use a different file format for the redo log and the per-table tablespaces than
in MySQL 5.1 and earlier. The MySQL Enterprise Backup product supports this latest Barracuda file format
for compressed InnoDB tables. The older InnoDB Hot Backup product can only back up tables using the
file format Antelope, and thus does not support compressed InnoDB tables.
3.5 SQL Compression Syntax Warnings and Errors
The attribute KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is permitted only when ROW_FORMAT is specified as COMPRESSED or is
omitted. Specifying a KEY_BLOCK_SIZE with any other ROW_FORMAT generates a warning that you can
view with SHOW WARNINGS. However, the table is non-compressed; the specified KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is
ignored).
Level
Code Message
Warning
1478
InnoDB: ignoring KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=n unless ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED.
If you are running with innodb_strict_mode enabled, the combination of a KEY_BLOCK_SIZE with any
ROW_FORMAT other than COMPRESSED generates an error, not a warning, and the table is not created.
Table 3.1, “Meaning of CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE options” summarizes how the various options
on CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE are handled.
17
SQL Compression Syntax Warnings and Errors
Table 3.1 Meaning of CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE options
Option
Usage
Description
ROW_FORMAT= Storage format used prior to
REDUNDANT MySQL 5.0.3
Less efficient than ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT; for
backward compatibility
ROW_FORMAT= Default storage format since
COMPACT
MySQL 5.0.3
Stores a prefix of 768 bytes of long column values in the
clustered index page, with the remaining bytes stored in
an overflow page
ROW_FORMAT= Available only with
DYNAMIC
innodb_file
_format=Barracuda
Store values within the clustered index page if they fit;
if not, stores only a 20-byte pointer to an overflow page
(no prefix)
ROW_FORMAT= Available only with
COMPRESSED innodb_file
_format=Barracuda
Compresses the table and indexes using zlib to
default compressed page size of 8K bytes; implies
ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC
KEY_BLOCK_ Available only with
SIZE=n
innodb_file
_format=Barracuda
Specifies compressed page size of 1, 2, 4, 8 or
16 kilobytes; implies ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC and
ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED
Table 3.2, “CREATE/ALTER TABLE Warnings and Errors when InnoDB Strict Mode is OFF” summarizes
error conditions that occur with certain combinations of configuration parameters and options on the
CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statements, and how the options appear in the output of SHOW TABLE
STATUS.
When innodb_strict_mode is OFF, InnoDB creates or alters the table, but ignores certain settings as
shown below. You can see the warning messages in the MySQL error log. When innodb_strict_mode
is ON, these specified combinations of options generate errors, and the table is not created or altered. To
see the full description of the error condition, issue the SHOW ERRORS statement: example:
mysql> CREATE TABLE x (id INT PRIMARY KEY, c INT)
-> ENGINE=INNODB KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=33333;
ERROR 1005 (HY000): Can't create table 'test.x' (errno: 1478)
mysql> SHOW ERRORS;
+-------+------+-------------------------------------------+
| Level | Code | Message
|
+-------+------+-------------------------------------------+
| Error | 1478 | InnoDB: invalid KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=33333.
|
| Error | 1005 | Can't create table 'test.x' (errno: 1478) |
+-------+------+-------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
Table 3.2 CREATE/ALTER TABLE Warnings and Errors when InnoDB Strict Mode is OFF
Syntax
Warning or Error Condition
ROW_FORMAT=REDUNDANT None
ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT
Resulting ROW_FORMAT,
as shown in SHOW TABLE
STATUS
REDUNDANT
None
COMPACT
ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED Ignored unless both
or ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC innodb_file_format=Barracuda and
innodb_file_per_table are enabled
18
COMPACT
SQL Compression Syntax Warnings and Errors
Syntax
Warning or Error Condition
Resulting ROW_FORMAT,
as shown in SHOW TABLE
STATUS
or KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is
specified
Invalid KEY_BLOCK_SIZE KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is ignored
is specified (not 1, 2, 4, 8 or
16)
the requested one, or
COMPACT by default
ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED None; KEY_BLOCK_SIZE specified is used,
and valid
not the 8K default
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE are
specified
COMPRESSED
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is ignored
specified with REDUNDANT,
COMPACT or DYNAMIC row
format
REDUNDANT, COMPACT or
DYNAMIC
ROW_FORMAT is not one
of REDUNDANT, COMPACT,
DYNAMIC or COMPRESSED
COMPACT or N/A
Ignored if recognized by the MySQL parser.
Otherwise, an error is issued.
When innodb_strict_mode is ON, the InnoDB storage engine rejects invalid ROW_FORMAT or
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE parameters. For compatibility with earlier versions of MySQL, strict mode is not enabled
by default; instead, MySQL issues warnings (not errors) for ignored invalid parameters.
Note that it is not possible to see the chosen KEY_BLOCK_SIZE using SHOW TABLE STATUS. The
statement SHOW CREATE TABLE displays the KEY_BLOCK_SIZE (even if it was ignored when creating the
table). The real compressed page size of the table cannot be displayed by MySQL.
19
20
Chapter 4 InnoDB File-Format Management
Table of Contents
4.1 Enabling File Formats .................................................................................................................
4.2 Verifying File Format Compatibility ..............................................................................................
4.2.1 Compatibility Check When InnoDB Is Started ...................................................................
4.2.2 Compatibility Check When a Table Is Opened ...................................................................
4.3 Identifying the File Format in Use ................................................................................................
4.4 Downgrading the File Format ......................................................................................................
4.5 Future InnoDB File Formats .......................................................................................................
21
21
23
24
25
26
26
As InnoDB evolves, new on-disk data structures are sometimes required to support new features. Features
such as compressed tables (see Chapter 3, Working with InnoDB Compressed Tables), and long variablelength columns stored off-page (see Chapter 5, InnoDB Row Storage and Row Formats) require data file
formats that are not compatible with prior versions of InnoDB. These features both require use of the new
Barracuda file format.
Note
All other new features are compatible with the original Antelope file format and do
not require the Barracuda file format.
This section discusses enabling file formats for new InnoDB tables, verifying compatibility of different file
formats between MySQL releases, identifying the file format in use, downgrading the file format, and file
format names that may be used in the future.
Named File Formats.
InnoDB 1.1 has the idea of a named file format and a configuration parameter to
enable the use of features that require use of that format. The new file format is the Barracuda format, and
the original InnoDB file format is called Antelope. Compressed tables and the new row format that stores
long columns “off-page” require the use of the Barracuda file format or newer. Future versions of InnoDB
may introduce a series of file formats, identified with the names of animals, in ascending alphabetic order.
4.1 Enabling File Formats
The configuration parameter innodb_file_format controls whether such statements as CREATE
TABLE and ALTER TABLE can be used to create tables that depend on support for the Barracuda file
format.
Although Oracle recommends using the Barracuda format for new tables where practical, in MySQL 5.5
the default file format is still Antelope, for maximum compatibility with replication configurations containing
different MySQL releases.
The file format is a dynamic, global parameter that can be specified in the MySQL option file (my.cnf or
my.ini) or changed with the SET GLOBAL command.
4.2 Verifying File Format Compatibility
InnoDB 1.1 incorporates several checks to guard against the possible crashes and data corruptions that
might occur if you run an older release of the MySQL server on InnoDB data files using a newer file format.
These checks take place when the server is started, and when you first access a table. This section
describes these checks, how you can control them, and error and warning conditions that might arise.
21
Backward Compatibility
Backward Compatibility
Considerations of backward compatibility only apply when using a recent version of InnoDB (the InnoDB
Plugin, or MySQL 5.5 and higher with InnoDB 1.1) alongside an older one (MySQL 5.1 or earlier, with the
built-in InnoDB rather than the InnoDB Plugin). To minimize the chance of compatibility issues, you can
standardize on the InnoDB Plugin for all your MySQL 5.1 and earlier database servers.
In general, a newer version of InnoDB may create a table or index that cannot safely be read or written
with a prior version of InnoDB without risk of crashes, hangs, wrong results or corruptions. InnoDB 1.1
includes a mechanism to guard against these conditions, and to help preserve compatibility among
database files and versions of InnoDB. This mechanism lets you take advantage of some new features
of an InnoDB release (such as performance improvements and bug fixes), and still preserve the option
of using your database with a prior version of InnoDB, by preventing accidental use of new features that
create downward-incompatible disk files.
If a version of InnoDB supports a particular file format (whether or not that format is the default), you can
query and update any table that requires that format or an earlier format. Only the creation of new tables
using new features is limited based on the particular file format enabled. Conversely, if a tablespace
contains a table or index that uses a file format that is not supported by the currently running software, it
cannot be accessed at all, even for read access.
The only way to “downgrade” an InnoDB tablespace to an earlier file format is to copy the data to a new
table, in a tablespace that uses the earlier format. This can be done with the ALTER TABLE statement, as
described in Section 4.4, “Downgrading the File Format”.
The easiest way to determine the file format of an existing InnoDB tablespace is to examine the
properties of the table it contains, using the SHOW TABLE STATUS command or querying the table
INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES. If the Row_format of the table is reported as 'Compressed' or
'Dynamic', the tablespace containing the table uses the Barracuda format. Otherwise, it uses the prior
InnoDB file format, Antelope.
Internal Details
Every InnoDB per-table tablespace (represented by a *.ibd file) file is labeled with a file format identifier.
The system tablespace (represented by the ibdata files) is tagged with the “highest” file format in use in a
group of InnoDB database files, and this tag is checked when the files are opened.
Creating a compressed table, or a table with ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC, updates the file header for
the corresponding .ibd file and the table type in the InnoDB data dictionary with the identifier for the
Barracuda file format. From that point forward, the table cannot be used with a version of InnoDB that does
not support this new file format. To protect against anomalous behavior, InnoDB version 5.0.21 and later
performs a compatibility check when the table is opened. (In many cases, the ALTER TABLE statement
recreates a table and thus changes its properties. The special case of adding or dropping indexes without
rebuilding the table is described in Chapter 2, Fast Index Creation in the InnoDB Storage Engine.)
Definition of ib-file set
To avoid confusion, for the purposes of this discussion we define the term “ib-file set” to mean the set of
operating system files that InnoDB manages as a unit. The ib-file set includes the following files:
• The system tablespace (one or more ibdata files) that contain internal system information (including
internal catalogs and undo information) and may include user data and indexes.
• Zero or more single-table tablespaces (also called “file per table” files, named *.ibd files).
22
Compatibility Check When InnoDB Is Started
• InnoDB log files; usually two, ib_logfile0 and ib_logfile1. Used for crash recovery and in
backups.
An “ib-file set” does not include the corresponding .frm files that contain metadata about InnoDB tables.
The .frm files are created and managed by MySQL, and can sometimes get out of sync with the internal
metadata in InnoDB.
Multiple tables, even from more than one database, can be stored in a single “ib-file set”. (In MySQL, a
“database” is a logical collection of tables, what other systems refer to as a “schema” or “catalog”.)
4.2.1 Compatibility Check When InnoDB Is Started
To prevent possible crashes or data corruptions when InnoDB opens an ib-file set, it checks that it can fully
support the file formats in use within the ib-file set. If the system is restarted following a crash, or a “fast
shutdown” (i.e., innodb_fast_shutdown is greater than zero), there may be on-disk data structures
(such as redo or undo entries, or doublewrite pages) that are in a “too-new” format for the current software.
During the recovery process, serious damage can be done to your data files if these data structures
are accessed. The startup check of the file format occurs before any recovery process begins, thereby
preventing consistency issues with the new tables or startup problems for the MySQL server.
Beginning with version InnoDB 1.0.1, the system tablespace records an identifier or tag for the “highest”
file format used by any table in any of the tablespaces that is part of the ib-file set. Checks against this file
format tag are controlled by the configuration parameter innodb_file_format_check, which is ON by
default.
If the file format tag in the system tablespace is newer or higher than the highest version supported by the
particular currently executing software and if innodb_file_format_check is ON, the following error is
issued when the server is started:
InnoDB: Error: the system tablespace is in a
file format that this version doesn't support
You can also set innodb_file_format to a file format name. Doing so prevents InnoDB from starting
if the current software does not support the file format specified. It also sets the “high water mark” to the
value you specify. The ability to set innodb_file_format_check will be useful (with future releases
of InnoDB) if you manually “downgrade” all of the tables in an ib-file set (as described in Chapter 11,
Downgrading the InnoDB Storage Engine). You can then rely on the file format check at startup if you
subsequently use an older version of InnoDB to access the ib-file set.
In some limited circumstances, you might want to start the server and use an ib-file set that is in a
“too new” format (one that is not supported by the software you are using). If you set the configuration
parameter innodb_file_format_check to OFF, InnoDB opens the database, but issues this warning
message in the error log:
InnoDB: Warning: the system tablespace is in a
file format that this version doesn't support
Note
This is a very dangerous setting, as it permits the recovery process to run, possibly
corrupting your database if the previous shutdown was a crash or “fast shutdown”.
You should only set innodb_file_format_check to OFF if you are sure that the
previous shutdown was done with innodb_fast_shutdown=0, so that essentially
no recovery process occurs. In a future release, this parameter setting may be
renamed from OFF to UNSAFE. (However, until there are newer releases of InnoDB
23
Compatibility Check When a Table Is Opened
that support additional file formats, even disabling the startup checking is in fact
“safe”.)
The parameter innodb_file_format_check affects only what happens when a database is opened,
not subsequently. Conversely, the parameter innodb_file_format (which enables a specific format)
only determines whether or not a new table can be created in the enabled format and has no effect on
whether or not a database can be opened.
The file format tag is a “high water mark”, and as such it is increased after the server is started, if a table
in a “higher” format is created or an existing table is accessed for read or write (assuming its format
is supported). If you access an existing table in a format higher than the format the running software
supports, the system tablespace tag is not updated, but table-level compatibility checking applies (and
an error is issued), as described in Section 4.2.2, “Compatibility Check When a Table Is Opened”. Any
time the high water mark is updated, the value of innodb_file_format_check is updated as well, so
the command SELECT @@innodb_file_format_check; displays the name of the newest file format
known to be used by tables in the currently open ib-file set and supported by the currently executing
software.
To best illustrate this behavior, consider the scenario described in Table 4.1, “InnoDB Data File
Compatibility and Related InnoDB Parameters”. Imagine that some future version of InnoDB supports the
Cheetah format and that an ib-file set has been used with that version.
Table 4.1 InnoDB Data File Compatibility and Related InnoDB Parameters
innodb innodb file
file
format
format
check
Highest
file format
used in ibfile set
Highest
file format
supported
by InnoDB
Result
OFF
Antelope or Barracuda Barracuda Database can be opened; tables can be created which
Barracuda
require Antelope or Barracuda file format
OFF
Antelope or Cheetah
Barracuda
OFF
Cheetah
ON
Antelope or Barracuda Barracuda Database can be opened; tables can be created in
Barracuda
Antelope or Barracuda file format
ON
Antelope or Cheetah
Barracuda
ON
Cheetah
Barracuda Database can be opened with a warning, since the
database contains files in a “too new” format; tables
can be created in Antelope or Barracuda file format;
tables in Cheetah format cannot be accessed
Barracuda Barracuda Database cannot be opened; innodb_file_format
cannot be set to Cheetah
Barracuda Database cannot be opened, since the database
contains files in a “too new” format (Cheetah)
Barracuda Barracuda Database cannot be opened; innodb_file_format
cannot be set to Cheetah
4.2.2 Compatibility Check When a Table Is Opened
When a table is first accessed, InnoDB (including some releases prior to InnoDB 1.0) checks that the file
format of the tablespace in which the table is stored is fully supported. This check prevents crashes or
corruptions that would otherwise occur when tables using a “too new” data structure are encountered.
All tables using any file format supported by a release can be read or written (assuming the user has
sufficient privileges). The setting of the system configuration parameter innodb_file_format can
prevent creating a new table that uses specific file formats, even if they are supported by a given release.
24
Identifying the File Format in Use
Such a setting might be used to preserve backward compatibility, but it does not prevent accessing any
table that uses any supported format.
As noted in Named File Formats, versions of MySQL older than 5.0.21 cannot reliably use database files
created by newer versions if a new file format was used when a table was created. To prevent various
error conditions or corruptions, InnoDB checks file format compatibility when it opens a file (for example,
upon first access to a table). If the currently running version of InnoDB does not support the file format
identified by the table type in the InnoDB data dictionary, MySQL reports the following error:
ERROR 1146 (42S02): Table 'test.t1' doesn't exist
InnoDB also writes a message to the error log:
InnoDB: table test/t1: unknown table type 33
The table type should be equal to the tablespace flags, which contains the file format version as discussed
in Section 4.3, “Identifying the File Format in Use”.
Versions of InnoDB prior to MySQL 4.1 did not include table format identifiers in the database files, and
versions prior to MySQL 5.0.21 did not include a table format compatibility check. Therefore, there is no
way to ensure proper operations if a table in a “too new” format is used with versions of InnoDB prior to
5.0.21.
The file format management capability in InnoDB 1.0 and higher (tablespace tagging and run-time checks)
allows InnoDB to verify as soon as possible that the running version of software can properly process the
tables existing in the database.
If you permit InnoDB to open a database containing files in a format it does not support (by setting the
parameter innodb_file_format_check to OFF), the table-level checking described in this section still
applies.
Users are strongly urged not to use database files that contain Barracuda file format tables with releases of
InnoDB older than the MySQL 5.1 with the InnoDB Plugin. It is possible to “downgrade” such tables to the
Antelope format with the procedure described in Section 4.4, “Downgrading the File Format”.
4.3 Identifying the File Format in Use
After you enable a given innodb_file_format, this change applies only to newly created tables
rather than existing ones. If you do create a new table, the tablespace containing the table is tagged
with the “earliest” or “simplest” file format that is required for the table's features. For example, if
you enable file format Barracuda, and create a new table that is not compressed and does not use
ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC, the new tablespace that contains the table is tagged as using file format
Antelope.
It is easy to identify the file format used by a given tablespace or table. The table uses the Barracuda
format if the Row_format reported by SHOW CREATE TABLE or INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES is one
of 'Compressed' or 'Dynamic'. (The Row_format is a separate column; ignore the contents of the
Create_options column, which may contain the string ROW_FORMAT.) If the table in a tablespace uses
neither of those features, the file uses the format supported by prior releases of InnoDB, now called file
format Antelope. Then, the Row_format is one of 'Redundant' or 'Compact'.
Internal Details
InnoDB has two different file formats (Antelope and Barracuda) and four different row formats (Redundant,
Compact, Dynamic, and Compressed). The Antelope file format contains Redundant and Compact row
25
Downgrading the File Format
formats. A tablespace that uses the Barracuda file format uses either the Dynamic or Compressed row
format.
File and row format information is written in the tablespace flags (a 32-bit number) in the *.ibd file in the
4 bytes starting at position 54 of the file, most significant byte first (the first byte of the file is byte zero). On
some systems, you can display these bytes in hexadecimal with the command od -t x1 -j 54 -N 4
tablename.ibd. If all bytes are zero, the tablespace uses the Antelope file format, which is the format
used by the standard InnoDB storage engine up to MySQL 5.1.
The first 6 bits of the tablespace flags can be described this way:
• Bit 0: Zero for Antelope and no other bits will be set. One for Barracuda, and other bits may be set.
• Bits 1 to 4: A 4 bit number representing the compressed page size. zero = not compressed, 1 = 1k, 2 =
2k, 3 = 4k, 4 = 8k.
• Bit 5: Same value as Bit 0, zero for Antelope, and one for Barracuda. If Bit 0 and Bit 5 are set and Bits 1
to 4 are not, the row format is “Dynamic”.
Until MySQL 5.6, no other bits are set in the tablespace flags. If bits 6 to 31 are not zero, the tablespace is
corrupt or is not an InnoDB tablespace file.
4.4 Downgrading the File Format
Each InnoDB tablespace file (with a name matching *.ibd) is tagged with the file format used to create
its table and indexes. The way to downgrade the tablespace is to re-create the table and its indexes. The
easiest way to recreate a table and its indexes is to use the command:
ALTER TABLE t ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT;
on each table that you want to downgrade. The COMPACT row format uses the file format Antelope. It was
introduced in MySQL 5.0.3.
4.5 Future InnoDB File Formats
The file format used by the standard built-in InnoDB in MySQL 5.1 is the Antelope format. The file
format introduced with InnoDB Plugin 1.0 is the Barracuda format. Although no new features have been
announced that would require additional new file formats, the InnoDB file format mechanism allows for
future enhancements.
For the sake of completeness, these are the file format names that might be used for future file formats:
Antelope, Barracuda, Cheetah, Dragon, Elk, Fox, Gazelle, Hornet, Impala, Jaguar, Kangaroo, Leopard,
Moose, Nautilus, Ocelot, Porpoise, Quail, Rabbit, Shark, Tiger, Urchin, Viper, Whale, Xenops, Yak and
Zebra. These file formats correspond to the internal identifiers 0..25.
26
Chapter 5 InnoDB Row Storage and Row Formats
Table of Contents
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
Overview of InnoDB Row Storage ..............................................................................................
Specifying the Row Format for a Table ........................................................................................
DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED Row Formats ...................................................................................
COMPACT and REDUNDANT Row Formats .....................................................................................
27
27
27
28
This section discusses how certain InnoDB features, such as table compression and off-page storage of
long columns, are controlled by the ROW_FORMAT clause of the CREATE TABLE statement. It discusses
considerations for choosing the right row format and compatibility of row formats between MySQL
releases.
5.1 Overview of InnoDB Row Storage
The storage for rows and associated columns affects performance for queries and DML operations. As
more rows fit into a single disk page, queries and index lookups can work faster, less cache memory is
required in the InnoDB buffer pool, and less I/O is required to write out updated values for the numeric and
short string columns.
The data in each InnoDB table is divided into pages. The pages that make up each table are arranged in a
tree data structure called a B-tree index. Table data and secondary indexes both use this type of structure.
The B-tree index that represents an entire table is known as the clustered index, which is organized
according to the primary key columns. The nodes of the index data structure contain the values of all
the columns in that row (for the clustered index) or the index columns and the primary key columns (for
secondary indexes).
Variable-length columns are an exception to this rule. Columns such as BLOB and VARCHAR that are too
long to fit on a B-tree page are stored on separately allocated disk pages called overflow pages. We call
such columns off-page columns. The values of these columns are stored in singly-linked lists of overflow
pages, and each such column has its own list of one or more overflow pages. In some cases, all or a prefix
of the long column value is stored in the B-tree, to avoid wasting storage and eliminating the need to read a
separate page.
The Barracuda file format provides a new option (KEY_BLOCK_SIZE) to control how much column data is
stored in the clustered index, and how much is placed on overflow pages.
The next section describes the clauses you can use with the CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE
statements to control how these variable-length columns are represented: ROW_FORMAT and
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE. To use these clauses, you might also need to change the settings for the
innodb_file_per_table and innodb_file_format configuration options.
5.2 Specifying the Row Format for a Table
You specify the row format for a table with the ROW_FORMAT clause of the CREATE TABLE and ALTER
TABLE statements.
5.3 DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED Row Formats
This section discusses the DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED row formats for InnoDB tables. You can only create
these kinds of tables when the innodb_file_format configuration option is set to Barracuda. (The
Barracuda file format also allows the COMPACT and REDUNDANT row formats.)
27
COMPACT and REDUNDANT Row Formats
When a table is created with ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC or ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED, long column values
are stored fully off-page, and the clustered index record contains only a 20-byte pointer to the overflow
page.
Whether any columns are stored off-page depends on the page size and the total size of the row. When
the row is too long, InnoDB chooses the longest columns for off-page storage until the clustered index
record fits on the B-tree page.
The DYNAMIC row format maintains the efficiency of storing the entire row in the index node if it fits (as
do the COMPACT and REDUNDANT formats), but this new format avoids the problem of filling B-tree nodes
with a large number of data bytes of long columns. The DYNAMIC format is based on the idea that if a
portion of a long data value is stored off-page, it is usually most efficient to store all of the value off-page.
With DYNAMIC format, shorter columns are likely to remain in the B-tree node, minimizing the number of
overflow pages needed for any given row.
The COMPRESSED row format uses similar internal details for off-page storage as the DYNAMIC row format,
with additional storage and performance considerations from the table and index data being compressed
and using smaller page sizes. With the COMPRESSED row format, the option KEY_BLOCK_SIZE controls
how much column data is stored in the clustered index, and how much is placed on overflow pages. For full
details about the COMPRESSED row format, see Chapter 3, Working with InnoDB Compressed Tables.
5.4 COMPACT and REDUNDANT Row Formats
Early versions of InnoDB used an unnamed file format (now called Antelope) for database files. With that
file format, tables are defined with ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT or ROW_FORMAT=REDUNDANT. InnoDB stores
up to the first 768 bytes of variable-length columns (such as BLOB and VARCHAR) in the index record within
the B-tree node, with the remainder stored on the overflow pages.
To preserve compatibility with those prior versions, tables created with the newest InnoDB default to the
COMPACT row format. See Section 5.3, “DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED Row Formats” for information about
the newer DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED row formats.
With the Antelope file format, if the value of a column is 768 bytes or less, no overflow page is needed, and
some savings in I/O may result, since the value is in the B-tree node. This works well for relatively short
BLOBs, but may cause B-tree nodes to fill with data rather than key values, reducing their efficiency. Tables
with many BLOB columns could cause B-tree nodes to become too full of data, and contain too few rows,
making the entire index less efficient than if the rows were shorter or if the column values were stored offpage.
28
Chapter 6 InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables
Table of Contents
6.1 Information Schema Tables about Compression ...........................................................................
6.1.1 INNODB_CMP and INNODB_CMP_RESET ...........................................................................
6.1.2 INNODB_CMPMEM and INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET ................................................................
6.1.3 Using the Compression Information Schema Tables ..........................................................
6.2 Information Schema Tables about Transactions ...........................................................................
6.2.1 Using the Transaction Information Schema Tables ............................................................
6.3 Special Locking Considerations for InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables ..................................
6.3.1 Understanding InnoDB Locking ........................................................................................
6.3.2 Granularity of INFORMATION_SCHEMA Data ......................................................................
6.3.3 Possible Inconsistency with PROCESSLIST .......................................................................
29
29
29
30
31
31
36
36
36
37
The INFORMATION_SCHEMA is a MySQL feature that helps you monitor server activity to diagnose
capacity and performance issues. Several InnoDB-related INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables (INNODB_CMP,
INNODB_CMP_RESET, INNODB_CMPMEM, INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET, INNODB_TRX, INNODB_LOCKS and
INNODB_LOCK_WAITS) contain live information about compressed InnoDB tables, the compressed InnoDB
buffer pool, all transactions currently executing inside InnoDB, the locks that transactions hold and those
that are blocking transactions waiting for access to a resource (a table or row).
The Information Schema tables are themselves plugins to the MySQL server, and must be activated by
INSTALL statements. If they are installed, but the InnoDB storage engine plugin is not installed, these
tables appear to be empty.
This section describes the InnoDB-related Information Schema tables and shows some examples of their
use.
6.1 Information Schema Tables about Compression
Two new pairs of Information Schema tables can give you some insight into how well compression is
working overall. One pair of tables contains information about the number of compression operations and
the amount of time spent performing compression. Another pair of tables contains information on the way
memory is allocated for compression.
6.1.1 INNODB_CMP and INNODB_CMP_RESET
The INNODB_CMP and INNODB_CMP_RESET tables contain status information on the operations related
to compressed tables, which are covered in Chapter 3, Working with InnoDB Compressed Tables. The
compressed page size is in the column PAGE_SIZE.
These two tables have identical contents, but reading from INNODB_CMP_RESET resets the
statistics on compression and uncompression operations. For example, if you archive the output of
INNODB_CMP_RESET every 60 minutes, you see the statistics for each hourly period. If you monitor the
output of INNODB_CMP (making sure never to read INNODB_CMP_RESET), you see the cumulated statistics
since InnoDB was started.
For the table definition, see Columns of INNODB_CMP and INNODB_CMP_RESET.
6.1.2 INNODB_CMPMEM and INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET
29
Using the Compression Information Schema Tables
The INNODB_CMPMEM and INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET tables contain status information on the compressed
pages that reside in the buffer pool. Please consult Chapter 3, Working with InnoDB Compressed Tables
for further information on compressed tables and the use of the buffer pool. The INNODB_CMP and
INNODB_CMP_RESET tables should provide more useful statistics on compression.
Internal Details
InnoDB uses a buddy allocator system to manage memory allocated to pages of various sizes, from 1KB to
16KB. Each row of the two tables described here corresponds to a single page size.
These two tables have identical contents, but reading from INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET resets the
statistics on relocation operations. For example, if every 60 minutes you archived the output of
INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET, it would show the hourly statistics. If you never read INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET
and monitored the output of INNODB_CMPMEM instead, it would show the cumulated statistics since InnoDB
was started.
For the table definition, see Columns of INNODB_CMPMEM and INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET.
6.1.3 Using the Compression Information Schema Tables
Example 6.1 Using the Compression Information Schema Tables
The following is sample output from a database that contains compressed tables (see Chapter 3, Working
with InnoDB Compressed Tables, INNODB_CMP, and INNODB_CMPMEM).
The following table shows the contents of INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_CMP under a light workload.
The only compressed page size that the buffer pool contains is 8K. Compressing or uncompressing
pages has consumed less than a second since the time the statistics were reset, because the columns
COMPRESS_TIME and UNCOMPRESS_TIME are zero.
page size compress ops compress ops ok compress time uncompress ops uncompress time
1024
0
0
0
0
0
2048
0
0
0
0
0
4096
0
0
0
0
0
8192
1048
921
0
61
0
16384
0
0
0
0
0
According to INNODB_CMPMEM, there are 6169 compressed 8KB pages in the buffer pool.
The following table shows the contents of INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_CMPMEM under a
light workload. Some memory is unusable due to fragmentation of the InnoDB memory allocator
for compressed pages: SUM(PAGE_SIZE*PAGES_FREE)=6784. This is because small memory
allocation requests are fulfilled by splitting bigger blocks, starting from the 16K blocks that are
allocated from the main buffer pool, using the buddy allocation system. The fragmentation is this low
because some allocated blocks have been relocated (copied) to form bigger adjacent free blocks.
This copying of SUM(PAGE_SIZE*RELOCATION_OPS) bytes has consumed less than a second
(SUM(RELOCATION_TIME)=0).
page size
pages used
pages free
relocation ops
relocation time
1024
0
0
0
0
2048
0
1
0
0
4096
0
1
0
0
30
Information Schema Tables about Transactions
page size
pages used
pages free
relocation ops
relocation time
8192
6169
0
5
0
16384
0
0
0
0
6.2 Information Schema Tables about Transactions
Three InnoDB-related Information Schema tables make it easy to monitor transactions and
diagnose possible locking problems. The three tables are INNODB_TRX, INNODB_LOCKS, and
INNODB_LOCK_WAITS.
• INNODB_TRX
Contains information about every transaction currently executing inside InnoDB, including whether the
transaction is waiting for a lock, when the transaction started, and the particular SQL statement the
transaction is executing.
For the table definition, see INNODB_TRX Columns.
• INNODB_LOCKS
Each transaction in InnoDB that is waiting for another transaction to release a lock
(INNODB_TRX.TRX_STATE='LOCK WAIT') is blocked by exactly one “blocking lock request”. That
blocking lock request is for a row or table lock held by another transaction in an incompatible mode.
The waiting or blocked transaction cannot proceed until the other transaction commits or rolls back,
thereby releasing the requested lock. For every blocked transaction, INNODB_LOCKS contains one row
that describes each lock the transaction has requested, and for which it is waiting. INNODB_LOCKS also
contains one row for each lock that is blocking another transaction, whatever the state of the transaction
that holds the lock ('RUNNING', 'LOCK WAIT', 'ROLLING BACK' or 'COMMITTING'). The lock that
is blocking a transaction is always held in a mode (read vs. write, shared vs. exclusive) incompatible with
the mode of requested lock.
For the table definition, see INNODB_LOCKS Columns.
• INNODB_LOCK_WAITS
Using this table, you can tell which transactions are waiting for a given lock, or for which lock a given
transaction is waiting. This table contains one or more rows for each blocked transaction, indicating the
lock it has requested and any locks that are blocking that request. The REQUESTED_LOCK_ID refers to
the lock that a transaction is requesting, and the BLOCKING_LOCK_ID refers to the lock (held by another
transaction) that is preventing the first transaction from proceeding. For any given blocked transaction,
all rows in INNODB_LOCK_WAITS have the same value for REQUESTED_LOCK_ID and different values
for BLOCKING_LOCK_ID.
For the table definition, see INNODB_LOCK_WAITS Columns.
6.2.1 Using the Transaction Information Schema Tables
Example 6.2 Identifying Blocking Transactions
It is sometimes helpful to be able to identify which transaction is blocking another. You can use the
Information Schema tables to find out which transaction is waiting for another, and which resource is being
requested.
Suppose you have the following scenario, with three users running concurrently. Each user (or session)
corresponds to a MySQL thread, and executes one transaction after another. Consider the state of
31
Using the Transaction Information Schema Tables
the system when these users have issued the following commands, but none has yet committed its
transaction:
• User A:
BEGIN;
SELECT a FROM t FOR UPDATE;
SELECT SLEEP(100);
• User B:
SELECT b FROM t FOR UPDATE;
• User C:
SELECT c FROM t FOR UPDATE;
In this scenario, you can use this query to see who is waiting for whom:
SELECT r.trx_id waiting_trx_id,
r.trx_mysql_thread_id waiting_thread,
r.trx_query waiting_query,
b.trx_id blocking_trx_id,
b.trx_mysql_thread_id blocking_thread,
b.trx_query blocking_query
FROM
information_schema.innodb_lock_waits w
INNER JOIN information_schema.innodb_trx b ON
b.trx_id = w.blocking_trx_id
INNER JOIN information_schema.innodb_trx r ON
r.trx_id = w.requesting_trx_id;
waiting waiting waiting query
trx id thread
blockingblockingblocking query
trx id
thread
A4
6
SELECT b FROM t FOR
UPDATE
A3
5
SELECT SLEEP(100)
A5
7
SELECT c FROM t FOR
UPDATE
A3
5
SELECT SLEEP(100)
A5
7
SELECT c FROM t FOR
UPDATE
A4
6
SELECT b FROM t FOR
UPDATE
In the above result, you can identify users by the “waiting query” or “blocking query”. As you can see:
• User B (trx id 'A4', thread 6) and User C (trx id 'A5', thread 7) are both waiting for User A (trx id 'A3',
thread 5).
• User C is waiting for User B as well as User A.
You can see the underlying data in the tables INNODB_TRX, INNODB_LOCKS, and INNODB_LOCK_WAITS.
The following table shows some sample contents of INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_TRX.
trx trx
trx started
id state
trx
requested
lock id
trx wait started trx
weight
trx mysql trx query
thread id
A3
NULL
NULL
5
RUN- 2008-01-15
NING 16:44:54
32
2
SELECT
SLEEP(100)
Using the Transaction Information Schema Tables
trx trx
trx started
id state
trx
requested
lock id
trx wait started trx
weight
trx mysql trx query
thread id
A4
LOCK 2008-01-15
WAIT 16:45:09
A4:1:3:2
2008-01-15
16:45:09
2
6
SELECT b FROM t
FOR UPDATE
A5
LOCK 2008-01-15
WAIT 16:45:14
A5:1:3:2
2008-01-15
16:45:14
2
7
SELECT c FROM t
FOR UPDATE
The following table shows some sample contents of INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_LOCKS.
lock id
lock lock lock type lock table
trx id mode
lock index
lock lock lock lock data
space page rec
A3:1:3:2
A3
X
RECORD
`test`.`t`
`PRIMARY`
1
3
2
0x0200
A4:1:3:2
A4
X
RECORD
`test`.`t`
`PRIMARY`
1
3
2
0x0200
A5:1:3:2
A5
X
RECORD
`test`.`t`
`PRIMARY`
1
3
2
0x0200
The following table shows some sample contents of INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_LOCK_WAITS.
requesting trx id
requested lock id
blocking trx id
blocking lock id
A4
A4:1:3:2
A3
A3:1:3:2
A5
A5:1:3:2
A3
A3:1:3:2
A5
A5:1:3:2
A4
A4:1:3:2
Example 6.3 More Complex Example of Transaction Data in Information Schema Tables
Sometimes you would like to correlate the internal InnoDB locking information with session-level
information maintained by MySQL. For example, you might like to know, for a given InnoDB transaction ID,
the corresponding MySQL session ID and name of the user that may be holding a lock, and thus blocking
another transaction.
The following output from the INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables is taken from a somewhat loaded system.
As can be seen in the following tables, there are several transactions running.
The following INNODB_LOCKS and INNODB_LOCK_WAITS tables shows that:
• Transaction 77F (executing an INSERT) is waiting for transactions 77E, 77D and 77B to commit.
• Transaction 77E (executing an INSERT) is waiting for transactions 77D and 77B to commit.
• Transaction 77D (executing an INSERT) is waiting for transaction 77B to commit.
• Transaction 77B (executing an INSERT) is waiting for transaction 77A to commit.
• Transaction 77A is running, currently executing SELECT.
• Transaction E56 (executing an INSERT) is waiting for transaction E55 to commit.
• Transaction E55 (executing an INSERT) is waiting for transaction 19C to commit.
• Transaction 19C is running, currently executing an INSERT.
33
Using the Transaction Information Schema Tables
Note that there may be an inconsistency between queries shown in the two tables
INNODB_TRX.TRX_QUERY and PROCESSLIST.INFO. The current transaction ID for a thread, and the
query being executed in that transaction, may be different in these two tables for any given thread. See
Section 6.3.3, “Possible Inconsistency with PROCESSLIST” for an explanation.
The following table shows the contents of INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PROCESSLIST in a system running a
heavy workload.
ID
USER
HOST
DB
COMMAND
TIME
STATE
INFO
384
root
localhost
test
Query
10
update
insert into t2
values …
257
root
localhost
test
Query
3
update
insert into t2
values …
130
root
localhost
test
Query
0
update
insert into t2
values …
61
root
localhost
test
Query
1
update
insert into t2
values …
8
root
localhost
test
Query
1
update
insert into t2
values …
4
root
localhost
test
Query
0
preparing
SELECT * FROM
processlist
2
root
localhost
test
Sleep
566
NULL
The following table shows the contents of INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_TRX in a system running a
heavy workload.
trx id trx
state
trx started
trx
requested
lock id
trx wait
started
trx
trx
weight mysql
thread
id
trx query
77F
LOCK
WAIT
2008-01-15
13:10:16
77F:806
2008-01-15
13:10:16
1
876
insert into t09
(D, B, C) values
…
77E
LOCK
WAIT
2008-01-15
13:10:16
77E:806
2008-01-15
13:10:16
1
875
insert into t09
(D, B, C) values
…
77D
LOCK
WAIT
2008-01-15
13:10:16
77D:806
2008-01-15
13:10:16
1
874
insert into t09
(D, B, C) values
…
77B
LOCK
WAIT
2008-01-15
13:10:16
77B:733:12:1 2008-01-15
13:10:16
4
873
insert into t09
(D, B, C) values
…
77A
RUNNING
2008-01-15
13:10:16
NULL
NULL
4
872
select b, c from
t09 where …
E56
LOCK
WAIT
2008-01-15
13:10:06
E56:743:6:2
2008-01-15
13:10:06
5
384
insert into t2
values …
E55
LOCK
WAIT
2008-01-15
13:10:06
E55:743:38:2 2008-01-15
13:10:13
965
257
insert into t2
values …
34
Using the Transaction Information Schema Tables
trx id trx
state
trx started
trx
requested
lock id
trx wait
started
trx
trx
weight mysql
thread
id
trx query
19C
RUNNING
2008-01-15
13:09:10
NULL
NULL
2900
130
insert into t2
values …
E15
RUNNING
2008-01-15
13:08:59
NULL
NULL
5395
61
insert into t2
values …
51D
RUNNING
2008-01-15
13:08:47
NULL
NULL
9807
8
insert into t2
values …
The following table shows the contents of INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_LOCK_WAITS in a system
running a heavy workload.
requesting trx
id
requested lock id
blocking trx id
blocking lock id
77F
77F:806
77E
77E:806
77F
77F:806
77D
77D:806
77F
77F:806
77B
77B:806
77E
77E:806
77D
77D:806
77E
77E:806
77B
77B:806
77D
77D:806
77B
77B:806
77B
77B:733:12:1
77A
77A:733:12:1
E56
E56:743:6:2
E55
E55:743:6:2
E55
E55:743:38:2
19C
19C:743:38:2
The following table shows the contents of INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_LOCKS in a system running a
heavy workload.
lock id
lock lock
trx id mode
lock type lock table lock index
lock lock
space page
77F:806
77F
AUTO
_INC
TABLE
`test`
.`t09`
NULL
NULL NULL NULL NULL
77E:806
77E
AUTO
_INC
TABLE
`test`
.`t09`
NULL
NULL NULL NULL NULL
77D:806
77D
AUTO
_INC
TABLE
`test`
.`t09`
NULL
NULL NULL NULL NULL
77B:806
77B
AUTO
_INC
TABLE
`test`
.`t09`
NULL
NULL NULL NULL NULL
77B:733
:12:1
77B
X
RECORD
`test`
.`t09`
`PRIMARY`
733
12
1
supremum
pseudorecord
77A:733
:12:1
77A
X
RECORD
`test`
.`t09`
`PRIMARY`
733
12
1
supremum
pseudorecord
E56:743:6:2 E56
S
RECORD
`test`
.`t2`
`PRIMARY`
743
6
2
0, 0
35
lock
rec
lock data
Special Locking Considerations for InnoDB INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
lock id
lock lock
trx id mode
lock type lock table lock index
lock lock
space page
lock
rec
lock data
E55:743:6:2 E55
X
RECORD
`test`
.`t2`
`PRIMARY`
743
6
2
0, 0
E55:743
:38:2
E55
S
RECORD
`test`
.`t2`
`PRIMARY`
743
38
2
1922,
1922
19C:743
:38:2
19C
X
RECORD
`test`
.`t2`
`PRIMARY`
743
38
2
1922,
1922
6.3 Special Locking Considerations for InnoDB
INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
6.3.1 Understanding InnoDB Locking
When a transaction updates a row in a table, or locks it with SELECT FOR UPDATE, InnoDB establishes a
list or queue of locks on that row. Similarly, InnoDB maintains a list of locks on a table for table-level locks
transactions hold. If a second transaction wants to update a row or lock a table already locked by a prior
transaction in an incompatible mode, InnoDB adds a lock request for the row to the corresponding queue.
For a lock to be acquired by a transaction, all incompatible lock requests previously entered into the lock
queue for that row or table must be removed (the transactions holding or requesting those locks either
commit or roll back).
A transaction may have any number of lock requests for different rows or tables. At any given time, a
transaction may be requesting a lock that is held by another transaction, in which case it is blocked by that
other transaction. The requesting transaction must wait for the transaction that holds the blocking lock to
commit or rollback. If a transaction is not waiting for a a lock, it is in the 'RUNNING' state. If a transaction
is waiting for a lock, it is in the 'LOCK WAIT' state.
The INNODB_LOCKS table holds one or more row for each 'LOCK WAIT' transaction, indicating any lock
requests that are preventing its progress. This table also contains one row describing each lock in a queue
of locks pending for a given row or table. The INNODB_LOCK_WAITS table shows which locks already held
by a transaction are blocking locks requested by other transactions.
6.3.2 Granularity of INFORMATION_SCHEMA Data
The data exposed by the transaction and locking tables represent a glimpse into fast-changing data. This
is not like other (user) tables, where the data changes only when application-initiated updates occur. The
underlying data is internal system-managed data, and can change very quickly.
For performance reasons, and to minimize the chance of misleading JOINs between the
INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables, InnoDB collects the required transaction and locking information into an
intermediate buffer whenever a SELECT on any of the tables is issued. This buffer is refreshed only if more
than 0.1 seconds has elapsed since the last time the buffer was read. The data needed to fill the three
tables is fetched atomically and consistently and is saved in this global internal buffer, forming a pointin-time “snapshot”. If multiple table accesses occur within 0.1 seconds (as they almost certainly do when
MySQL processes a join among these tables), then the same snapshot is used to satisfy the query.
A correct result is returned when you JOIN any of these tables together in a single query, because the data
for the three tables comes from the same snapshot. Because the buffer is not refreshed with every query
of any of these tables, if you issue separate queries against these tables within a tenth of a second, the
results are the same from query to query. On the other hand, two separate queries of the same or different
36
Possible Inconsistency with PROCESSLIST
tables issued more than a tenth of a second apart may see different results, since the data come from
different snapshots.
Because InnoDB must temporarily stall while the transaction and locking data is collected, too frequent
queries of these tables can negatively impact performance as seen by other users.
As these tables contain sensitive information (at least INNODB_LOCKS.LOCK_DATA and
INNODB_TRX.TRX_QUERY), for security reasons, only the users with the PROCESS privilege are allowed to
SELECT from them.
6.3.3 Possible Inconsistency with PROCESSLIST
As just described, while the transaction and locking data is correct and consistent when these
INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables are populated. For example, the query in INNODB_TRX is always
consistent with the rest of INNODB_TRX, INNODB_LOCKS and INNODB_LOCK_WAITS when the data
comes from the same snapshot. However, the underlying data changes so fast that similar glimpses at
other, similarly fast-changing data, may not be in synchrony. Thus, you should be careful in comparing the
data in the InnoDB transaction and locking tables with that in the PROCESSLIST table. The data from the
PROCESSLIST table does not come from the same snapshot as the data about locking and transactions.
Even if you issue a single SELECT (joining INNODB_TRX and PROCESSLIST, for example), the content
of those tables is generally not consistent. INNODB_TRX may reference rows that are not present in
PROCESSLIST or the currently executing SQL query of a transaction, shown in INNODB_TRX.TRX_QUERY
may differ from the one in PROCESSLIST.INFO.
37
38
Chapter 7 InnoDB Performance and Scalability Enhancements
Table of Contents
7.1 Overview of InnoDB Performance ................................................................................................ 39
7.2 Faster Locking for Improved Scalability ........................................................................................ 39
7.3 Using Operating System Memory Allocators ................................................................................. 40
7.4 Controlling InnoDB Change Buffering .......................................................................................... 41
7.5 Controlling Adaptive Hash Indexing ............................................................................................. 42
7.6 Changes Regarding Thread Concurrency .................................................................................... 42
7.7 Changes in the Read-Ahead Algorithm ........................................................................................ 43
7.8 Multiple Background InnoDB I/O Threads .................................................................................... 44
7.9 Asynchronous I/O on Linux ......................................................................................................... 45
7.10 Group Commit .......................................................................................................................... 45
7.11 Controlling the InnoDB Master Thread I/O Rate ......................................................................... 45
7.12 Controlling the Flushing Rate of Dirty Pages from the InnoDB Buffer Pool .................................... 46
7.13 Using the PAUSE Instruction in InnoDB Spin Loops ................................................................... 47
7.14 Control of Spin Lock Polling ...................................................................................................... 47
7.15 Making the Buffer Pool Scan Resistant ...................................................................................... 47
7.16 Improvements to Crash Recovery Performance .......................................................................... 49
7.17 Integration with the MySQL Performance Schema ...................................................................... 49
7.18 Improvements to Performance from Multiple Buffer Pools ........................................................... 50
7.19 Better Scalability with Multiple Rollback Segments ...................................................................... 51
7.20 Better Scalability with Improved Purge Scheduling ...................................................................... 51
7.21 Improved Log Sys Mutex .......................................................................................................... 51
7.22 Separate Flush List Mutex ......................................................................................................... 52
This section discusses recent InnoDB enhancements to performance and scalability, covering the
performance features in InnoDB 1.1 with MySQL 5.5, and the features in the InnoDB Plugin for MySQL
5.1. This information is useful to any DBA or developer who is concerned with performance and scalability.
Although some of the enhancements do not require any action on your part, knowing this information can
still help you diagnose performance issues more quickly and modernize systems and applications that rely
on older, inefficient behavior.
7.1 Overview of InnoDB Performance
InnoDB has always been highly efficient, and includes several unique architectural elements to assure high
performance and scalability. The latest InnoDB storage engine includes new features that take advantage
of advances in operating systems and hardware platforms, such as multi-core processors and improved
memory allocation systems. In addition, new configuration options let you better control some InnoDB
internal subsystems to achieve the best performance with your workload.
Starting with MySQL 5.5 and InnoDB 1.1, the built-in InnoDB storage engine within MySQL is upgraded to
the full feature set and performance of the former InnoDB Plugin. This change makes these performance
and scalability enhancements available to a much wider audience than before, and eliminates the separate
installation step of the InnoDB Plugin. After learning about the InnoDB performance features in this section,
continue with Optimization to learn the best practices for overall MySQL performance, and Optimizing for
InnoDB Tables in particular for InnoDB tips and guidelines.
7.2 Faster Locking for Improved Scalability
In MySQL and InnoDB, multiple threads of execution access shared data structures. InnoDB synchronizes
these accesses with its own implementation of mutexes and read/write locks. InnoDB has historically
39
Using Operating System Memory Allocators
protected the internal state of a read/write lock with an InnoDB mutex. On Unix and Linux platforms, the
internal state of an InnoDB mutex is protected by a Pthreads mutex, as in IEEE Std 1003.1c (POSIX.1c).
On many platforms, there is a more efficient way to implement mutexes and read/write locks. Atomic
operations can often be used to synchronize the actions of multiple threads more efficiently than Pthreads.
Each operation to acquire or release a lock can be done in fewer CPU instructions, and thus result in less
wasted time when threads are contending for access to shared data structures. This in turn means greater
scalability on multi-core platforms.
InnoDB implements mutexes and read/write locks with the built-in functions provided by the GNU Compiler
Collection (GCC) for atomic memory access instead of using the Pthreads approach previously used. More
specifically, an InnoDB that is compiled with GCC version 4.1.2 or later uses the atomic builtins instead of
a pthread_mutex_t to implement InnoDB mutexes and read/write locks.
On 32-bit Microsoft Windows, InnoDB has implemented mutexes (but not read/write locks) with handwritten assembler instructions. Beginning with Microsoft Windows 2000, functions for Interlocked Variable
Access are available that are similar to the built-in functions provided by GCC. On Windows 2000 and
higher, InnoDB makes use of the Interlocked functions. Unlike the old hand-written assembler code, the
new implementation supports read/write locks and 64-bit platforms.
Solaris 10 introduced library functions for atomic operations, and InnoDB uses these functions by default.
When MySQL is compiled on Solaris 10 with a compiler that does not support the built-in functions
provided by the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) for atomic memory access, InnoDB uses the library
functions.
This change improves the scalability of InnoDB on multi-core systems. This feature is enabled out-ofthe-box on the platforms where it is supported. You do not have to set any parameter or option to take
advantage of the improved performance. On platforms where the GCC, Windows, or Solaris functions for
atomic memory access are not available, InnoDB uses the traditional Pthreads method of implementing
mutexes and read/write locks.
When MySQL starts, InnoDB writes a message to the log file indicating whether atomic memory access is
used for mutexes, for mutexes and read/write locks, or neither. If suitable tools are used to build InnoDB
and the target CPU supports the atomic operations required, InnoDB uses the built-in functions for
mutexing. If, in addition, the compare-and-swap operation can be used on thread identifiers (pthread_t),
then InnoDB uses the instructions for read-write locks as well.
Note: If you are building from source, ensure that the build process properly takes advantage of your
platform capabilities.
For more information about the performance implications of locking, see Optimizing Locking Operations.
7.3 Using Operating System Memory Allocators
When InnoDB was developed, the memory allocators supplied with operating systems and run-time
libraries were often lacking in performance and scalability. At that time, there were no memory allocator
libraries tuned for multi-core CPUs. Therefore, InnoDB implemented its own memory allocator in the mem
subsystem. This allocator is guarded by a single mutex, which may become a bottleneck. InnoDB also
implements a wrapper interface around the system allocator (malloc and free) that is likewise guarded
by a single mutex.
Today, as multi-core systems have become more widely available, and as operating systems have
matured, significant improvements have been made in the memory allocators provided with operating
systems. New memory allocators perform better and are more scalable than they were in the past.
The leading high-performance memory allocators include Hoard, libumem, mtmalloc, ptmalloc,
tbbmalloc, and TCMalloc. Most workloads, especially those where memory is frequently allocated and
40
Controlling InnoDB Change Buffering
released (such as multi-table joins), benefit from using a more highly tuned memory allocator as opposed
to the internal, InnoDB-specific memory allocator.
You can control whether InnoDB uses its own memory allocator or an allocator of the operating system,
by setting the value of the system configuration parameter innodb_use_sys_malloc in the MySQL
option file (my.cnf or my.ini). If set to ON or 1 (the default), InnoDB uses the malloc and free
functions of the underlying system rather than manage memory pools itself. This parameter is not dynamic,
and takes effect only when the system is started. To continue to use the InnoDB memory allocator, set
innodb_use_sys_malloc to 0.
Note
When the InnoDB memory allocator is disabled, InnoDB ignores the value of
the parameter innodb_additional_mem_pool_size. The InnoDB memory
allocator uses an additional memory pool for satisfying allocation requests without
having to fall back to the system memory allocator. When the InnoDB memory
allocator is disabled, all such allocation requests are fulfilled by the system memory
allocator.
On Unix-like systems that use dynamic linking, replacing the memory allocator
may be as easy as making the environment variable LD_PRELOAD or
LD_LIBRARY_PATH point to the dynamic library that implements the allocator.
On other systems, some relinking may be necessary. Please refer to the
documentation of the memory allocator library of your choice.
Since InnoDB cannot track all memory use when the system memory allocator
is used (innodb_use_sys_malloc is ON), the section “BUFFER POOL AND
MEMORY” in the output of the SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS command only
includes the buffer pool statistics in the “Total memory allocated”. Any memory
allocated using the mem subsystem or using ut_malloc is excluded.
For more information about the performance implications of InnoDB memory usage, see Buffering and
Caching.
7.4 Controlling InnoDB Change Buffering
When INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE operations are done to a table, often the values of indexed columns
(particularly the values of secondary keys) are not in sorted order, requiring substantial I/O to bring
secondary indexes up to date. InnoDB has an insert buffer that caches changes to secondary index
entries when the relevant page is not in the buffer pool, thus avoiding I/O operations by not reading in the
page from the disk. The buffered changes are merged when the page is loaded to the buffer pool, and
the updated page is later flushed to disk using the normal mechanism. The InnoDB main thread merges
buffered changes when the server is nearly idle, and during a slow shutdown.
Because it can result in fewer disk reads and writes, this feature is most valuable for workloads that are I/
O-bound, for example applications with a high volume of DML operations such as bulk inserts.
However, the insert buffer occupies a part of the buffer pool, reducing the memory available to cache
data pages. If the working set almost fits in the buffer pool, or if your tables have relatively few secondary
indexes, it may be useful to disable insert buffering. If the working set entirely fits in the buffer pool, insert
buffering does not impose any extra overhead, because it only applies to pages that are not in the buffer
pool.
You can control the extent to which InnoDB performs insert buffering with the system configuration
parameter innodb_change_buffering. You can turn on and off buffering for inserts, delete operations
41
Controlling Adaptive Hash Indexing
(when index records are initially marked for deletion) and purge operations (when index records are
physically deleted). An update operation is represented as a combination of an insert and a delete. In
MySQL 5.5 and higher, the default value is changed from inserts to all.
The allowed values of innodb_change_buffering are:
• all
The default value: buffer inserts, delete-marking operations, and purges.
• none
Do not buffer any operations.
• inserts
Buffer insert operations.
• deletes
Buffer delete-marking operations.
• changes
Buffer both inserts and delete-marking.
• purges
Buffer the physical deletion operations that happen in the background.
You can set the value of this parameter in the MySQL option file (my.cnf or my.ini) or change it
dynamically with the SET GLOBAL command, which requires the SUPER privilege. Changing the setting
affects the buffering of new operations; the merging of already buffered entries is not affected.
For more information about speeding up INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements, see Optimizing DML
Statements.
7.5 Controlling Adaptive Hash Indexing
If a table fits almost entirely in main memory, the fastest way to perform queries on it is to use hash
indexes rather than B-tree lookups. MySQL monitors searches on each index defined for an InnoDB table.
If it notices that certain index values are being accessed frequently, it automatically builds an in-memory
hash table for that index. See Adaptive Hash Indexes for background information and usage guidelines for
the adaptive hash index feature and the innodb_adaptive_hash_index configuration option.
7.6 Changes Regarding Thread Concurrency
InnoDB uses operating system threads to process requests from user transactions. (Transactions may
issue many requests to InnoDB before they commit or roll back.) On modern operating systems and
servers with multi-core processors, where context switching is efficient, most workloads run well without
any limit on the number of concurrent threads. Scalability improvements in MySQL 5.5 and up reduce the
need to limit the number of concurrently executing threads inside InnoDB.
In situations where it is helpful to minimize context switching between threads, InnoDB can use a number
of techniques to limit the number of concurrently executing operating system threads (and thus the number
of requests that are processed at any one time). When InnoDB receives a new request from a user
42
Changes in the Read-Ahead Algorithm
session, if the number of threads concurrently executing is at a pre-defined limit, the new request sleeps
for a short time before it tries again. A request that cannot be rescheduled after the sleep is put in a firstin/first-out queue and eventually is processed. Threads waiting for locks are not counted in the number of
concurrently executing threads.
You can limit the number of concurrent threads by setting the configuration parameter
innodb_thread_concurrency. Once the number of executing threads reaches this limit,
additional threads sleep for a number of microseconds, set by the configuration parameter
innodb_thread_sleep_delay, before being placed into the queue.
The default value for innodb_thread_concurrency and the implied default limit on the number of
concurrent threads has been changed in various releases of MySQL and InnoDB. Currently, the default
value of innodb_thread_concurrency is 0, so that by default there is no limit on the number of
concurrently executing threads, as shown in Table 7.1, “Changes to innodb_thread_concurrency”.
Table 7.1 Changes to innodb_thread_concurrency
InnoDB Version
MySQL Version
Default
value
Default limit
of concurrent
threads
Value to allow
unlimited threads
Built-in
Earlier than 5.1.11
20
No limit
20 or higher
Built-in
5.1.11 and newer
8
8
0
InnoDB before 1.0.3
(corresponding to
Plugin)
8
8
0
InnoDB 1.0.3 and newer
(corresponding to
Plugin)
0
No limit
0
Note that InnoDB causes threads to sleep only when the number of concurrent threads is limited.
When there is no limit on the number of threads, all contend equally to be scheduled. That is, if
innodb_thread_concurrency is 0, the value of innodb_thread_sleep_delay is ignored.
When there is a limit on the number of threads, InnoDB reduces context switching overhead by permitting
multiple requests made during the execution of a single SQL statement to enter InnoDB without observing
the limit set by innodb_thread_concurrency. Since an SQL statement (such as a join) may comprise
multiple row operations within InnoDB, InnoDB assigns “tickets” that allow a thread to be scheduled
repeatedly with minimal overhead.
When a new SQL statement starts, a thread has no tickets, and it must observe
innodb_thread_concurrency. Once the thread is entitled to enter InnoDB, it is assigned
a number of tickets that it can use for subsequently entering InnoDB. If the tickets run out,
innodb_thread_concurrency is observed again and further tickets are assigned. The number of
tickets to assign is specified by the global option innodb_concurrency_tickets, which is 500 by
default. A thread that is waiting for a lock is given one ticket once the lock becomes available.
The correct values of these variables depend on your environment and workload. Try a range of different
values to determine what value works for your applications. Before limiting the number of concurrently
executing threads, review configuration options that may improve the performance of InnoDB on multi-core
and multi-processor computers, such as innodb_use_sys_malloc and innodb_adaptive_hash_index.
For general performance information about MySQL thread handling, see How MySQL Uses Threads for
Client Connections.
7.7 Changes in the Read-Ahead Algorithm
43
Multiple Background InnoDB I/O Threads
A read-ahead request is an I/O request to prefetch multiple pages in the buffer pool asynchronously, in
anticipation that these pages will be needed soon. InnoDB uses or has used two read-ahead algorithms to
improve I/O performance:
Linear read-ahead is a technique that predicts what pages might be needed soon based on pages in
the buffer pool being accessed sequentially. You control when InnoDB performs a read-ahead operation
by adjusting the number of sequential page accesses required to trigger an asynchronous read request,
using the configuration parameter innodb_read_ahead_threshold. Before this parameter was added,
InnoDB would only calculate whether to issue an asynchronous prefetch request for the entire next extent
when it read in the last page of the current extent.
Random read-ahead is a technique that predicts when pages might be needed soon based on pages
already in the buffer pool, regardless of the order in which those pages were read. If 13 consecutive pages
from the same extent are found in the buffer pool, InnoDB asynchronously issues a request to prefetch
the remaining pages of the extent. This feature was initially turned off in MySQL 5.5. It is available once
again starting in MySQL 5.1.59 and 5.5.16 and higher, turned off by default. To enable this feature, set the
configuration variable innodb_random_read_ahead.
If the number of pages read from an extent of 64 pages is greater or equal to
innodb_read_ahead_threshold, InnoDB initiates an asynchronous read-ahead operation of the entire
following extent. Thus, this parameter controls how sensitive InnoDB is to the pattern of page accesses
within an extent in deciding whether to read the following extent asynchronously. The higher the value, the
more strict the access pattern check. For example, if you set the value to 48, InnoDB triggers a linear readahead request only when 48 pages in the current extent have been accessed sequentially. If the value is 8,
InnoDB would trigger an asynchronous read-ahead even if as few as 8 pages in the extent were accessed
sequentially.
The new configuration parameter innodb_read_ahead_threshold can be set to any value from 0-64.
The default value is 56, meaning that an asynchronous read-ahead is performed only when 56 of the 64
pages in the extent are accessed sequentially. You can set the value of this parameter in the MySQL
option file (my.cnf or my.ini), or change it dynamically with the SET GLOBAL command, which requires the
SUPER privilege.
The SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS command displays statistics to help you evaluate the effectiveness
of the read-ahead algorithm. See Section 8.8, “More Read-Ahead Statistics” for more information.
For more information about I/O performance, see Optimizing InnoDB Disk I/O and Optimizing Disk I/O.
7.8 Multiple Background InnoDB I/O Threads
InnoDB uses background threads to service various types of I/O requests. You can configure the number
of background threads that service read and write I/O on data pages, using the configuration parameters
innodb_read_io_threads and innodb_write_io_threads. These parameters signify the number
of background threads used for read and write requests respectively. They are effective on all supported
platforms. You can set the value of these parameters in the MySQL option file (my.cnf or my.ini); you
cannot change them dynamically. The default value for these parameters is 4 and the permissible values
range from 1-64.
These parameters replace innodb_file_io_threads from earlier versions of MySQL. If you try to
set a value for this obsolete parameter, a warning is written to the log file and the value is ignored. This
parameter only applied to Windows platforms. (On non-Windows platforms, there was only one thread
each for read and write.)
The purpose of this change is to make InnoDB more scalable on high end systems. Each background
thread can handle up to 256 pending I/O requests. A major source of background I/O is the read-ahead
44
Asynchronous I/O on Linux
requests. InnoDB tries to balance the load of incoming requests in such way that most of the background
threads share work equally. InnoDB also attempts to allocate read requests from the same extent to the
same thread to increase the chances of coalescing the requests together. If you have a high end I/O
subsystem and you see more than 64 × innodb_read_io_threads pending read requests in SHOW
ENGINE INNODB STATUS, you might gain by increasing the value of innodb_read_io_threads.
For more information about InnoDB I/O performance, see Optimizing InnoDB Disk I/O.
7.9 Asynchronous I/O on Linux
Starting in InnoDB 1.1 with MySQL 5.5, the asynchronous I/O capability that InnoDB has had on Windows
systems is now available on Linux systems. (Other Unix-like systems continue to use synchronous I/
O calls.) This feature improves the scalability of heavily I/O-bound systems, which typically show many
pending reads/writes in the output of the command SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS\G.
Running with a large number of InnoDB I/O threads, and especially running multiple such instances on the
same server machine, can exceed capacity limits on Linux systems. In this case, you can fix the error:
EAGAIN: The specified maxevents exceeds the user's limit of available events.
by writing a higher limit to /proc/sys/fs/aio-max-nr.
In general, if a problem with the asynchronous I/O subsystem in the OS prevents InnoDB from starting, set
the option innodb_use_native_aio=0 in the configuration file. This new configuration option applies to
Linux systems only, and cannot be changed once the server is running.
For more information about InnoDB I/O performance, see Optimizing InnoDB Disk I/O.
7.10 Group Commit
InnoDB, like any other ACID-compliant database engine, flushes the redo log of a transaction before it
is committed. Historically, InnoDB used group commit functionality to group multiple such flush requests
together to avoid one flush for each commit. With group commit, InnoDB issues a single write to the log file
to perform the commit action for multiple user transactions that commit at about the same time, significantly
improving throughput.
Group commit in InnoDB worked until MySQL 4.x, and works once again with MySQL 5.1 with the InnoDB
Plugin, and MySQL 5.5 and higher. The introduction of support for the distributed transactions and Two
Phase Commit (2PC) in MySQL 5.0 interfered with the InnoDB group commit functionality. This issue is
now resolved.
The group commit functionality inside InnoDB works with the Two Phase Commit protocol in MySQL.
Re-enabling of the group commit functionality fully ensures that the ordering of commit in the MySQL
binlog and the InnoDB logfile is the same as it was before. It means it is totally safe to use the MySQL
Enterprise Backup product with InnoDB 1.0.4 (that is, the InnoDB Plugin with MySQL 5.1) and above.
When the binlog is enabled, you typically also set the configuration option sync_binlog=0, because
group commit for the binary log is only supported if it is set to 0.
Group commit is transparent; you do not need to do anything to take advantage of this significant
performance improvement.
For more information about performance of COMMIT and other transactional operations, see Optimizing
InnoDB Transaction Management.
7.11 Controlling the InnoDB Master Thread I/O Rate
45
Controlling the Flushing Rate of Dirty Pages from the InnoDB Buffer Pool
The master thread in InnoDB is a thread that performs various tasks in the background. Most of these
tasks are I/O related, such as flushing dirty pages from the buffer pool or writing changes from the insert
buffer to the appropriate secondary indexes. The master thread attempts to perform these tasks in a way
that does not adversely affect the normal working of the server. It tries to estimate the free I/O bandwidth
available and tune its activities to take advantage of this free capacity. Historically, InnoDB has used a hard
coded value of 100 IOPs (input/output operations per second) as the total I/O capacity of the server.
The parameter innodb_io_capacity indicates the overall I/O capacity available to InnoDB. This
parameter should be set to approximately the number of I/O operations that the system can perform per
second. The value depends on your system configuration. When innodb_io_capacity is set, the
master threads estimates the I/O bandwidth available for background tasks based on the set value. Setting
the value to 100 reverts to the old behavior.
You can set the value of innodb_io_capacity to any number 100 or greater. The default value is 200,
reflecting that the performance of typical modern I/O devices is higher than in the early days of MySQL.
Typically, values around the previous default of 100 are appropriate for consumer-level storage devices,
such as hard drives up to 7200 RPMs. Faster hard drives, RAID configurations, and SSDs benefit from
higher values.
The innodb_io_capacity setting is a total limit for all buffer pool instances. When dirty pages are
flushed, the innodb_io_capacity limit is divided equally among buffer pool instances. For more
information, see the innodb_io_capacity system variable description.
You can set the value of this parameter in the MySQL option file (my.cnf or my.ini) or change it
dynamically with the SET GLOBAL command, which requires the SUPER privilege.
For more information about InnoDB I/O performance, see Optimizing InnoDB Disk I/O.
7.12 Controlling the Flushing Rate of Dirty Pages from the InnoDB
Buffer Pool
InnoDB performs certain tasks in the background, including flushing of dirty pages (those pages that have
been changed but are not yet written to the database files) from the buffer pool, a task performed by the
master thread. Currently, InnoDB aggressively flushes buffer pool pages if the percentage of dirty pages in
the buffer pool exceeds innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct.
InnoDB uses a new algorithm to estimate the required rate of flushing, based on the speed of redo log
generation and the current rate of flushing. The intent is to smooth overall performance by ensuring that
buffer flush activity keeps up with the need to keep the buffer pool “clean”. Automatically adjusting the rate
of flushing can help to avoid sudden dips in throughput, when excessive buffer pool flushing limits the I/O
capacity available for ordinary read and write activity.
InnoDB uses its log files in a circular fashion. Before reusing a portion of a log file, InnoDB flushes to disk
all dirty buffer pool pages whose redo entries are contained in that portion of the log file, a process known
as a sharp checkpoint. If a workload is write-intensive, it generates a lot of redo information, all written to
the log file. If all available space in the log files is used up, a sharp checkpoint occurs, causing a temporary
reduction in throughput. This situation can happen even though innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct is not
reached.
InnoDB uses a heuristic-based algorithm to avoid such a scenario, by measuring the number of dirty pages
in the buffer pool and the rate at which redo is being generated. Based on these numbers, InnoDB decides
how many dirty pages to flush from the buffer pool each second. This self-adapting algorithm is able to
deal with sudden changes in the workload.
46
Using the PAUSE Instruction in InnoDB Spin Loops
Internal benchmarking has also shown that this algorithm not only maintains throughput over time, but can
also improve overall throughput significantly.
Because adaptive flushing is a new feature that can significantly affect the I/O pattern of a workload, a
new configuration parameter lets you turn off this feature. The default value of the boolean parameter
innodb_adaptive_flushing is TRUE, enabling the new algorithm. You can set the value of this
parameter in the MySQL option file (my.cnf or my.ini) or change it dynamically with the SET GLOBAL
command, which requires the SUPER privilege.
For more information about InnoDB I/O performance, see Optimizing InnoDB Disk I/O.
7.13 Using the PAUSE Instruction in InnoDB Spin Loops
Synchronization inside InnoDB frequently involves the use of spin loops: while waiting, InnoDB executes
a tight loop of instructions repeatedly to avoid having the InnoDB process and threads be rescheduled by
the operating system. If the spin loops are executed too quickly, system resources are wasted, imposing a
performance penalty on transaction throughput. Most modern processors implement the PAUSE instruction
for use in spin loops, so the processor can be more efficient.
InnoDB uses a PAUSE instruction in its spin loops on all platforms where such an instruction is available.
This technique increases overall performance with CPU-bound workloads, and has the added benefit of
minimizing power consumption during the execution of the spin loops.
You do not have to do anything to take advantage of this performance improvement.
For performance considerations for InnoDB locking operations, see Optimizing Locking Operations.
7.14 Control of Spin Lock Polling
Many InnoDB mutexes and rw-locks are reserved for a short time. On a multi-core system, it can be more
efficient for a thread to continuously check if it can acquire a mutex or rw-lock for a while before sleeping. If
the mutex or rw-lock becomes available during this polling period, the thread can continue immediately, in
the same time slice. However, too-frequent polling by multiple threads of a shared object can cause “cache
ping pong”, different processors invalidating portions of each others' cache. InnoDB minimizes this issue by
waiting a random time between subsequent polls. The delay is implemented as a busy loop.
You can control the maximum delay between testing a mutex or rw-lock using the parameter
innodb_spin_wait_delay. The duration of the delay loop depends on the C compiler and the target
processor. (In the 100MHz Pentium era, the unit of delay was one microsecond.) On a system where all
processor cores share a fast cache memory, you might reduce the maximum delay or disable the busy
loop altogether by setting innodb_spin_wait_delay=0. On a system with multiple processor chips, the
effect of cache invalidation can be more significant and you might increase the maximum delay.
The default value of innodb_spin_wait_delay is 6. The spin wait delay is a dynamic global parameter
that you can specify in the MySQL option file (my.cnf or my.ini) or change at runtime with the command
SET GLOBAL innodb_spin_wait_delay=delay, where delay is the desired maximum delay.
Changing the setting requires the SUPER privilege.
For performance considerations for InnoDB locking operations, see Optimizing Locking Operations.
7.15 Making the Buffer Pool Scan Resistant
Rather than using a strictly LRU algorithm, InnoDB uses a technique to minimize the amount of data that is
brought into the buffer pool and never accessed again. The goal is to make sure that frequently accessed
47
Making the Buffer Pool Scan Resistant
(“hot”) pages remain in the buffer pool, even as read-ahead and full table scans bring in new blocks that
might or might not be accessed afterward.
Newly read blocks are inserted into the middle of the list representing the buffer pool. of the LRU list. All
newly read pages are inserted at a location that by default is 3/8 from the tail of the LRU list. The pages
are moved to the front of the list (the most-recently used end) when they are accessed in the buffer pool
for the first time. Thus pages that are never accessed never make it to the front portion of the LRU list,
and “age out” sooner than with a strict LRU approach. This arrangement divides the LRU list into two
segments, where the pages downstream of the insertion point are considered “old” and are desirable
victims for LRU eviction.
For an explanation of the inner workings of the InnoDB buffer pool and the specifics of its LRU replacement
algorithm, see The InnoDB Buffer Pool.
You can control the insertion point in the LRU list, and choose whether InnoDB applies the same
optimization to blocks brought into the buffer pool by table or index scans. The configuration parameter
innodb_old_blocks_pct controls the percentage of “old” blocks in the LRU list. The default value of
innodb_old_blocks_pct is 37, corresponding to the original fixed ratio of 3/8. The value range is 5
(new pages in the buffer pool age out very quickly) to 95 (only 5% of the buffer pool is reserved for hot
pages, making the algorithm close to the familiar LRU strategy).
The optimization that keeps the buffer pool from being churned by read-ahead can avoid similar problems
due to table or index scans. In these scans, a data page is typically accessed a few times in quick
succession and is never touched again. The configuration parameter innodb_old_blocks_time
specifies the time window (in milliseconds) after the first access to a page during which it can be
accessed without being moved to the front (most-recently used end) of the LRU list. The default value of
innodb_old_blocks_time is 0, corresponding to the original behavior of moving a page to the mostrecently used end of the buffer pool list when it is first accessed in the buffer pool. Increasing this value
makes more and more blocks likely to age out faster from the buffer pool.
Both innodb_old_blocks_pct and innodb_old_blocks_time are dynamic, global and can be
specified in the MySQL option file (my.cnf or my.ini) or changed at runtime with the SET GLOBAL
command. Changing the setting requires the SUPER privilege.
To help you gauge the effect of setting these parameters, the SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS command
reports additional statistics. The BUFFER POOL AND MEMORY section looks like:
Total memory allocated 1107296256; in additional pool allocated 0
Dictionary memory allocated 80360
Buffer pool size
65535
Free buffers
0
Database pages
63920
Old database pages 23600
Modified db pages 34969
Pending reads 32
Pending writes: LRU 0, flush list 0, single page 0
Pages made young 414946, not young 2930673
1274.75 youngs/s, 16521.90 non-youngs/s
Pages read 486005, created 3178, written 160585
2132.37 reads/s, 3.40 creates/s, 323.74 writes/s
Buffer pool hit rate 950 / 1000, young-making rate 30 / 1000 not 392 / 1000
Pages read ahead 1510.10/s, evicted without access 0.00/s
LRU len: 63920, unzip_LRU len: 0
I/O sum[43690]:cur[221], unzip sum[0]:cur[0]
• Old database pages is the number of pages in the “old” segment of the LRU list.
• Pages made young and not young is the total number of “old” pages that have been made young or
not respectively.
48
Improvements to Crash Recovery Performance
• youngs/s and non-young/s is the rate at which page accesses to the “old” pages have resulted in
making such pages young or otherwise respectively since the last invocation of the command.
• young-making rate and not provides the same rate but in terms of overall buffer pool accesses
instead of accesses just to the “old” pages.
Note
Per second averages provided in InnoDB Monitor output are based on the elapsed
time between the current time and the last time InnoDB Monitor output was printed.
Because the effects of these parameters can vary widely based on your hardware configuration, your data,
and the details of your workload, always benchmark to verify the effectiveness before changing these
settings in any performance-critical or production environment.
In mixed workloads where most of the activity is OLTP type with periodic batch reporting queries which
result in large scans, setting the value of innodb_old_blocks_time during the batch runs can help
keep the working set of the normal workload in the buffer pool.
When scanning large tables that cannot fit entirely in the buffer pool, setting innodb_old_blocks_pct to
a small value keeps the data that is only read once from consuming a significant portion of the buffer pool.
For example, setting innodb_old_blocks_pct=5 restricts this data that is only read once to 5% of the
buffer pool.
When scanning small tables that do fit into memory, there is less overhead for moving pages around within
the buffer pool, so you can leave innodb_old_blocks_pct at its default value, or even higher, such as
innodb_old_blocks_pct=50.
The effect of the innodb_old_blocks_time parameter is harder to predict than the
innodb_old_blocks_pct parameter, is relatively small, and varies more with the workload. To arrive
at an optimal value, conduct your own benchmarks if the performance improvement from adjusting
innodb_old_blocks_pct is not sufficient.
For more information about the InnoDB buffer pool, see The InnoDB Buffer Pool.
7.16 Improvements to Crash Recovery Performance
A number of optimizations speed up certain steps of the recovery that happens on the next startup after
a crash. In particular, scanning the redo log and applying the redo log are faster than in MySQL 5.1 and
earlier, due to improved algorithms for memory management. You do not need to take any actions to
take advantage of this performance enhancement. If you kept the size of your redo log files artificially low
because recovery took a long time, you can consider increasing the file size.
For more information about InnoDB recovery, see The InnoDB Recovery Process.
7.17 Integration with the MySQL Performance Schema
Starting with InnoDB 1.1 with MySQL 5.5, you can profile certain internal InnoDB operations using the
MySQL Performance Schema feature. This type of tuning is primarily for expert users, those who push
the limits of MySQL performance, read the MySQL source code, and evaluate optimization strategies to
overcome performance bottlenecks. DBAs can also use this feature for capacity planning, to see whether
their typical workload encounters any performance bottlenecks with a particular combination of CPU, RAM,
and disk storage; and if so, to judge whether performance can be improved by increasing the capacity of
some part of the system.
To use this feature to examine InnoDB performance:
49
Improvements to Performance from Multiple Buffer Pools
• You must be running MySQL 5.5 or higher. You must build the database server from source, enabling
the Performance Schema feature by building with the --with-perfschema option. Since the
Performance Schema feature introduces some performance overhead, you should use it on a test or
development system rather than on a production system.
• You must be running InnoDB 1.1 or higher.
• You must be generally familiar with how to use the Performance Schema feature, for example to query
tables in the performance_schema database.
• Examine the following kinds of InnoDB objects by querying the appropriate performance_schema
tables. The items associated with InnoDB all contain the substring innodb in the EVENT_NAME column.
For the definitions of the *_instances tables, see Performance Schema Instance Tables. For
the definitions of the *_summary_* tables, see Performance Schema Summary Tables. For the
definition of the thread table, see Performance Schema Miscellaneous Tables. For the definition of the
*_current_* and *_history_* tables, see Performance Schema Wait Event Tables.
• Mutexes in the mutex_instances table. (Mutexes and RW-locks related to the InnoDB buffer
pool are not included in this coverage; the same applies to the output of the SHOW ENGINE INNODB
MUTEX command.)
• RW-locks in the rwlock_instances table.
• RW-locks in the rwlock_instances table.
• File I/O operations in the file_instances, file_summary_by_event_name, and
file_summary_by_instance tables.
• Threads in the PROCESSLIST table.
• During performance testing, examine the performance data in the events_waits_current and
events_waits_history_long tables. If you are interested especially in InnoDB-related objects, use
the clause WHERE EVENT_NAME LIKE '%innodb%' to see just those entries; otherwise, examine the
performance statistics for the overall MySQL server.
• You must be running MySQL 5.5, with the Performance Schema enabled by building with the --withperfschema build option.
For more information about the MySQL Performance Schema, see MySQL Performance Schema.
7.18 Improvements to Performance from Multiple Buffer Pools
This performance enhancement is primarily useful for people with a large buffer pool size,
typically in the multi-gigabyte range. To take advantage of this speedup, you must set the
new innodb_buffer_pool_instances configuration option, and you might also adjust the
innodb_buffer_pool_size value.
When the InnoDB buffer pool is large, many data requests can be satisfied by retrieving from memory.
You might encounter bottlenecks from multiple threads trying to access the buffer pool at once. Starting
in InnoDB 1.1 and MySQL 5.5, you can enable multiple buffer pools to minimize this contention. Each
page that is stored in or read from the buffer pool is assigned to one of the buffer pools randomly, using
a hashing function. Each buffer pool manages its own free lists, flush lists, LRUs, and all other data
structures connected to a buffer pool, and is protected by its own buffer pool mutex.
To enable this feature, set the innodb_buffer_pool_instances configuration option to a value
greater than 1 (the default) up to 64 (the maximum). This option takes effect only when you set the
50
Better Scalability with Multiple Rollback Segments
innodb_buffer_pool_size to a size of 1 gigabyte or more. The total size you specify is divided among
all the buffer pools. For best efficiency, specify a combination of innodb_buffer_pool_instances and
innodb_buffer_pool_size so that each buffer pool instance is at least 1 gigabyte.
For more information about the InnoDB buffer pool, see The InnoDB Buffer Pool.
7.19 Better Scalability with Multiple Rollback Segments
Starting in InnoDB 1.1 with MySQL 5.5, the limit on concurrent transactions is greatly expanded, removing
a bottleneck with the InnoDB rollback segment that affected high-capacity systems. The limit applies to
concurrent transactions that change any data; read-only transactions do not count against that maximum.
The single rollback segment is now divided into 128 segments, each of which can support up to 1023
transactions that perform writes, for a total of approximately 128K concurrent transactions. The original
transaction limit was 1023.
Each transaction is assigned to one of the rollback segments, and remains tied to that rollback segment for
the duration. This enhancement improves both scalability (higher number of concurrent transactions) and
performance (less contention when different transactions access the rollback segments).
To take advantage of this feature, you do not need to create any new database or tables, or reconfigure
anything. You must do a slow shutdown before upgrading from MySQL 5.1 or earlier, or some time
afterward. InnoDB makes the required changes inside the system tablespace automatically, the first time
you restart after performing a slow shutdown.
For more information about performance of InnoDB under high transactional load, see Optimizing InnoDB
Transaction Management.
7.20 Better Scalability with Improved Purge Scheduling
Starting in InnoDB 1.1 with MySQL 5.5, the purge operations (a type of garbage collection) that InnoDB
performs automatically can be done in a separate thread, rather than as part of the master thread. This
change improves scalability, because the main database operations run independently from maintenance
work happening in the background.
To enable this feature, set the configuration option innodb_purge_threads=1, as opposed to the
default of 0, which combines the purge operation into the master thread.
You might not notice a significant speedup, because the purge thread might encounter new types of
contention; the single purge thread really lays the groundwork for further tuning and possibly multiple purge
threads in the future. There is another new configuration option, innodb_purge_batch_size with a
default of 20 and maximum of 5000. This option is mainly intended for experimentation and tuning of purge
operations, and should not be interesting to typical users.
For more information about InnoDB I/O performance, see Optimizing InnoDB Disk I/O.
7.21 Improved Log Sys Mutex
This is another performance improvement that comes for free, with no user action or configuration needed.
The details here are intended for performance experts who delve into the InnoDB source code, or interpret
reports with keywords such as “mutex” and “log_sys”.
The mutex known as the log sys mutex has historically done double duty, controlling access to internal
data structures related to log records and the LSN, as well as pages in the buffer pool that are changed
when a mini-transaction is committed. Starting in InnoDB 1.1 with MySQL 5.5, these two kinds of
51
Separate Flush List Mutex
operations are protected by separate mutexes, with a new log_buf mutex controlling writes to buffer pool
pages due to mini-transactions.
For performance considerations for InnoDB locking operations, see Optimizing Locking Operations.
7.22 Separate Flush List Mutex
Starting with InnoDB 1.1 with MySQL 5.5, concurrent access to the buffer pool is faster. Operations
involving the flush list, a data structure related to the buffer pool, are now controlled by a separate mutex
and do not block access to the buffer pool. You do not need to configure anything to take advantage of this
speedup; it is fully automatic.
For more information about the InnoDB buffer pool, see The InnoDB Buffer Pool.
52
Chapter 8 InnoDB Features for Flexibility, Ease of Use and
Reliability
Table of Contents
8.1 The Barracuda File Format ......................................................................................................... 53
8.2 Dynamic Control of System Configuration Parameters .................................................................. 53
8.2.1 Dynamically Changing innodb_file_per_table ........................................................... 54
8.2.2 Dynamically Changing innodb_stats_on_metadata ..................................................... 54
8.2.3 Dynamically Changing innodb_lock_wait_timeout ..................................................... 54
8.2.4 Dynamically Changing innodb_adaptive_hash_index ................................................. 55
8.3 TRUNCATE TABLE Reclaims Space ............................................................................................ 55
8.4 InnoDB Strict Mode .................................................................................................................... 55
8.5 Controlling Optimizer Statistics Estimation ................................................................................... 56
8.6 Better Error Handling when Dropping Indexes .............................................................................. 57
8.7 More Compact Output of SHOW ENGINE INNODB MUTEX ........................................................... 57
8.8 More Read-Ahead Statistics ........................................................................................................ 58
This section describes several recently added InnoDB features that offer new flexibility and improve ease
of use, reliability and performance. The Barracuda file format improves efficiency for storing large variablelength columns, and enables table compression. Configuration options that once were unchangeable after
startup, are now flexible and can be changed dynamically. Some improvements are automatic, such as
faster and more efficient TRUNCATE TABLE. Others allow you the flexibility to control InnoDB behavior;
for example, you can control whether certain problems cause errors or just warnings. And informational
messages and error reporting continue to be made more user-friendly.
8.1 The Barracuda File Format
InnoDB has started using named file formats to improve compatibility in upgrade and downgrade
situations, or heterogeneous systems running different levels of MySQL. Many important InnoDB features,
such as table compression and the DYNAMIC row format for more efficient BLOB storage, require creating
tables in the Barracuda file format. The original file format, which previously didn't have a name, is known
now as Antelope.
To create new tables that take advantage of the Barracuda features, enable that file format using the
configuration parameter innodb_file_format. The value of this parameter determines whether a newly
created table or index can use compression or the new DYNAMIC row format.
To preclude the use of new features that would make your database inaccessible to the built-in InnoDB in
MySQL 5.1 and prior releases, omit innodb_file_format or set it to Antelope.
You can set the value of innodb_file_format on the command line when you start mysqld, or in the
option file my.cnf (Unix operating systems) or my.ini (Windows). You can also change it dynamically
with the SET GLOBAL statement.
For more information about managing file formats, see Chapter 4, InnoDB File-Format Management.
8.2 Dynamic Control of System Configuration Parameters
In MySQL 5.5 and higher, you can change certain system configuration parameters without shutting
down and restarting the server, as was necessary in MySQL 5.1 and lower. This increases uptime, and
53
Dynamically Changing innodb_file_per_table
makes it easier to test and prototype new SQL and application code. The following sections explain these
parameters.
8.2.1 Dynamically Changing innodb_file_per_table
Since MySQL version 4.1, InnoDB has provided two alternatives for how tables are stored on disk. You can
create a new table and its indexes in the shared system tablespace, physically stored in the ibdata files.
Or, you can store a new table and its indexes in a separate tablespace (a .ibd file). The storage layout for
each InnoDB table is determined by the the configuration parameter innodb_file_per_table at the
time the table is created.
In MySQL 5.5 and higher, the configuration parameter innodb_file_per_table is dynamic, and can
be set ON or OFF using the SET GLOBAL. Previously, the only way to set this parameter was in the MySQL
configuration file (my.cnf or my.ini), and changing it required shutting down and restarting the server.
The default setting is OFF, so new tables and indexes are created in the system tablespace. Dynamically
changing the value of this parameter requires the SUPER privilege and immediately affects the operation of
all connections.
Tables created when innodb_file_per_table is enabled can use the Barracuda file format, and
TRUNCATE returns the disk space for those tables to the operating system. The Barracuda file format
in turn enables features such as table compression and the DYNAMIC row format. Tables created when
innodb_file_per_table is off cannot use these features. To take advantage of those features for an
existing table, you can turn on the file-per-table setting and run ALTER TABLE t ENGINE=INNODB for
that table.
When you redefine the primary key for an InnoDB table, the table is re-created using the current settings
for innodb_file_per_table and innodb_file_format. This behavior does not apply when adding
or dropping InnoDB secondary indexes, as explained in Chapter 2, Fast Index Creation in the InnoDB
Storage Engine. When a secondary index is created without rebuilding the table, the index is stored in the
same file as the table data, regardless of the current innodb_file_per_table setting.
8.2.2 Dynamically Changing innodb_stats_on_metadata
In MySQL 5.5 and higher, you can change the setting of innodb_stats_on_metadata
dynamically at runtime, to control whether or not InnoDB performs statistics gathering when
metadata statements are executed. To change the setting, issue the statement SET GLOBAL
innodb_stats_on_metadata=mode, where mode is either ON or OFF (or 1 or 0). Changing this setting
requires the SUPER privilege and immediately affects the operation of all connections.
This setting is related to the feature described in Section 8.5, “Controlling Optimizer Statistics Estimation”.
8.2.3 Dynamically Changing innodb_lock_wait_timeout
The length of time a transaction waits for a resource, before giving up and rolling back the statement, is
determined by the value of the configuration parameter innodb_lock_wait_timeout. (In MySQL 5.0.12
and earlier, the entire transaction was rolled back, not just the statement.) Your application can try the
statement again (usually after waiting for a while), or roll back the entire transaction and restart.
The error returned when the timeout period is exceeded is:
ERROR HY000: Lock wait timeout exceeded; try restarting transaction
In MySQL 5.5 and higher, the configuration parameter innodb_lock_wait_timeout can be set at
runtime with the SET GLOBAL or SET SESSION statement. Changing the GLOBAL setting requires the
54
Dynamically Changing innodb_adaptive_hash_index
SUPER privilege and affects the operation of all clients that subsequently connect. Any client can change
the SESSION setting for innodb_lock_wait_timeout, which affects only that client.
In MySQL 5.1 and earlier, the only way to set this parameter was in the MySQL configuration file (my.cnf
or my.ini), and changing it required shutting down and restarting the server.
8.2.4 Dynamically Changing innodb_adaptive_hash_index
As described in Section 7.5, “Controlling Adaptive Hash Indexing”, it may be desirable, depending on your
workload, to dynamically enable or disable the adaptive hash indexing scheme InnoDB uses to improve
query performance.
The configuration option innodb_adaptive_hash_index lets you disable the adaptive hash index. It is
enabled by default. You can modify this parameter through the SET GLOBAL statement, without restarting
the server. Changing the setting requires the SUPER privilege.
Disabling the adaptive hash index empties the hash table immediately. Normal operations can continue
while the hash table is emptied, and executing queries that were using the hash table access the index
B-trees directly instead. When the adaptive hash index is re-enabled, the hash table is populated again
during normal operation.
8.3 TRUNCATE TABLE Reclaims Space
When you truncate a table that is stored in a .ibd file of its own (because innodb_file_per_table
was enabled when the table was created), and if the table is not referenced in a FOREIGN KEY constraint,
the table is dropped and re-created in a new .ibd file. This operation is much faster than deleting the rows
one by one. The operating system can reuse the disk space, in contrast to tables within the InnoDB system
tablespace, where only InnoDB can use the space after they are truncated. Physical backups can also be
smaller, without big blocks of unused space in the middle of the system tablespace.
Previous versions of InnoDB would re-use the existing .ibd file, thus releasing the space only to InnoDB
for storage management, but not to the operating system. Note that when the table is truncated, the count
of rows affected by the TRUNCATE TABLE statement is an arbitrary number.
Note
If there is a foreign key constraint between two columns in the same table, that
table can still be truncated using this fast technique.
If there are foreign key constraints between the table being truncated and other
tables, the truncate operation fails. This is a change to the previous behavior, which
would transform the TRUNCATE operation to a DELETE operation that removed all
the rows and triggered ON DELETE operations on child tables.
8.4 InnoDB Strict Mode
To guard against ignored typos and syntax errors in SQL, or other unintended consequences of various
combinations of operational modes and SQL statements, InnoDB provides a strict mode of operations. In
this mode, InnoDB raises error conditions in certain cases, rather than issuing a warning and processing
the specified statement (perhaps with unintended behavior). This is analogous to sql_mode in MySQL,
which controls what SQL syntax MySQL accepts, and determines whether it silently ignores errors, or
validates input syntax and data values. Since InnoDB strict mode is relatively new, some statements that
execute without errors with earlier versions of MySQL might generate errors unless you disable strict
mode.
55
Controlling Optimizer Statistics Estimation
The setting of InnoDB strict mode affects the handling of syntax errors on the CREATE TABLE, ALTER
TABLE and CREATE INDEX statements. The strict mode also enables a record size check, so that an
INSERT or UPDATE never fails due to the record being too large for the selected page size.
Oracle recommends enabling innodb_strict_mode when using the ROW_FORMAT and
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE clauses on CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE, and CREATE INDEX statements. Without
strict mode, InnoDB ignores conflicting clauses and creates the table or index, with only a warning in the
message log. The resulting table might have different behavior than you intended, such as having no
compression when you tried to create a compressed table. When InnoDB strict mode is on, such problems
generate an immediate error and the table or index is not created, avoiding a troubleshooting session later.
InnoDB strict mode is set with the configuration parameter innodb_strict_mode, which can be specified
as ON or OFF. You can set the value on the command line when you start mysqld, or in the configuration
file my.cnf or my.ini. You can also enable or disable InnoDB strict mode at runtime with the statement
SET [GLOBAL|SESSION] innodb_strict_mode=mode, where mode is either ON or OFF. Changing
the GLOBAL setting requires the SUPER privilege and affects the operation of all clients that subsequently
connect. Any client can change the SESSION setting for innodb_strict_mode, and the setting affects
only that client.
8.5 Controlling Optimizer Statistics Estimation
The MySQL query optimizer uses estimated statistics about key distributions to choose the indexes for an
execution plan, based on the relative selectivity of the index. Certain operations cause InnoDB to sample
random pages from each index on a table to estimate the cardinality of the index. (This technique is known
as random dives.) These operations include the ANALYZE TABLE statement, the SHOW TABLE STATUS
statement, and accessing the table for the first time after a restart.
To give you control over the quality of the statistics estimate (and thus better information for
the query optimizer), you can now change the number of sampled pages using the parameter
innodb_stats_sample_pages. Previously, the number of sampled pages was always 8, which could
be insufficient to produce an accurate estimate, leading to poor index choices by the query optimizer. This
technique is especially important for large tables and tables used in joins. Unnecessary full table scans for
such tables can be a substantial performance issue.
You can set the global parameter innodb_stats_sample_pages, at runtime. The default value for this
parameter is 8, preserving the same behavior as in past releases.
Note
The value of innodb_stats_sample_pages affects the index sampling for all
tables and indexes. There are the following potentially significant impacts when you
change the index sample size:
• Small values like 1 or 2 can result in very inaccurate estimates of cardinality.
• Increasing the innodb_stats_sample_pages value might require more disk
reads. Values much larger than 8 (say, 100), can cause a big slowdown in the
time it takes to open a table or execute SHOW TABLE STATUS.
• The optimizer might choose very different query plans based on different
estimates of index selectivity.
To disable the cardinality estimation for metadata statements such as SHOW TABLE STATUS, execute
the statement SET GLOBAL innodb_stats_on_metadata=OFF (or 0). The ability to set this option
dynamically is also relatively new.
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Better Error Handling when Dropping Indexes
All InnoDB tables are opened, and the statistics are re-estimated for all associated indexes, when the
mysql client starts if the auto-rehash setting is set on (the default). To improve the start up time of the
mysql client, you can turn auto-rehash off. The auto-rehash feature enables automatic name completion of
database, table, and column names for interactive users.
Whatever value of innodb_stats_sample_pages works best for a system, set the option and leave it
at that value. Choose a value that results in reasonably accurate estimates for all tables in your database
without requiring excessive I/O. Because the statistics are automatically recalculated at various times other
than on execution of ANALYZE TABLE, it does not make sense to increase the index sample size, run
ANALYZE TABLE, then decrease sample size again. The more accurate statistics calculated by ANALYZE
running with a high value of innodb_stats_sample_pages can be wiped away later.
Although it is not possible to specify the sample size on a per-table basis, smaller tables generally require
fewer index samples than larger tables do. If your database has many large tables, consider using a higher
value for innodb_stats_sample_pages than if you have mostly smaller tables.
8.6 Better Error Handling when Dropping Indexes
For optimal performance with DML statements, InnoDB requires an index to exist on foreign key columns,
so that UPDATE and DELETE operations on a parent table can easily check whether corresponding rows
exist in the child table. MySQL creates or drops such indexes automatically when needed, as a side-effect
of CREATE TABLE, CREATE INDEX, and ALTER TABLE statements.
When you drop an index, InnoDB checks whether the index is not used for checking a foreign key
constraint. It is still OK to drop the index if there is another index that can be used to enforce the same
constraint. InnoDB prevents you from dropping the last index that can enforce a particular referential
constraint.
The message that reports this error condition is:
ERROR 1553 (HY000): Cannot drop index 'fooIdx':
needed in a foreign key constraint
This message is friendlier than the earlier message it replaces:
ERROR 1025 (HY000): Error on rename of './db2/#sql-18eb_3'
to './db2/foo'(errno: 150)
A similar change in error reporting applies to an attempt to drop the primary key index. For tables without
an explicit PRIMARY KEY, InnoDB creates an implicit clustered index using the first columns of the table
that are declared UNIQUE and NOT NULL. When you drop such an index, InnoDB automatically copies the
table and rebuilds the index using a different UNIQUE NOT NULL group of columns or a system-generated
key. Since this operation changes the primary key, it uses the slow method of copying the table and recreating the index, rather than the Fast Index Creation technique from Section 2.3, “Implementation Details
of Fast Index Creation”.
Previously, an attempt to drop an implicit clustered index (the first UNIQUE NOT NULL index) failed if the
table did not contain a PRIMARY KEY:
ERROR 42000: This table type requires a primary key
8.7 More Compact Output of SHOW ENGINE INNODB MUTEX
The statement SHOW ENGINE INNODB MUTEX displays information about InnoDB mutexes and rwlocks. Although this information is useful for tuning on multi-core systems, the amount of output can be
57
More Read-Ahead Statistics
overwhelming on systems with a big buffer pool. There is one mutex and one rw-lock in each 16K buffer
pool block, and there are 65,536 blocks per gigabyte. It is unlikely that a single block mutex or rw-lock from
the buffer pool could become a performance bottleneck.
SHOW ENGINE INNODB MUTEX now skips the mutexes and rw-locks of buffer pool blocks. It also does
not list any mutexes or rw-locks that have never been waited on (os_waits=0). Thus, SHOW ENGINE
INNODB MUTEX only displays information about mutexes and rw-locks outside of the buffer pool that have
caused at least one OS-level wait.
8.8 More Read-Ahead Statistics
As described in Section 7.7, “Changes in the Read-Ahead Algorithm”, a read-ahead request is an
asynchronous I/O request issued in anticipation that a page will be used in the near future. Knowing
how many pages are read through this read-ahead mechanism, and how many of them are evicted
from the buffer pool without ever being accessed, can be useful to help fine-tune the parameter
innodb_read_ahead_threshold.
SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS output displays the global status variables
Innodb_buffer_pool_read_ahead and Innodb_buffer_pool_read_ahead_evicted. These
variables indicate the number of pages brought into the buffer pool by read-ahead requests, and the
number of such pages evicted from the buffer pool without ever being accessed respectively. These
counters provide global values since the last server restart.
SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS also shows the rate at which the read-ahead pages are read in and the
rate at which such pages are evicted without being accessed. The per-second averages are based on the
statistics collected since the last invocation of SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS and are displayed in the
BUFFER POOL AND MEMORY section of the output.
Since the InnoDB read-ahead mechanism has been simplified to remove random read-ahead, the status
variables Innodb_buffer_pool_read_ahead_rnd and Innodb_buffer_pool_read_ahead_seq
are no longer part of the SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS output.
58
Chapter 9 Installing the InnoDB Storage Engine
When you use the InnoDB storage engine 1.1 and above, with MySQL 5.5 and above, you do not need
to do anything special to install: everything comes configured as part of the MySQL source and binary
distributions. This is a change from earlier releases of the InnoDB Plugin, where you were required to
match up MySQL and InnoDB version numbers and update your build and configuration processes.
The InnoDB storage engine is included in the MySQL distribution, starting from MySQL 5.1.38. From
MySQL 5.1.46 and up, this is the only download location for the InnoDB storage engine; it is not available
from the InnoDB web site.
If you used any scripts or configuration files with the earlier InnoDB storage engine from the InnoDB web
site, be aware that the filename of the shared library as supplied by MySQL is ha_innodb_plugin.so
or ha_innodb_plugin.dll, as opposed to ha_innodb.so or ha_innodb.dll in the older Plugin
downloaded from the InnoDB web site. You might need to change the applicable file names in your startup
or configuration scripts.
Because the InnoDB storage engine has now replaced the built-in InnoDB, you no longer need to specify
options like --ignore-builtin-innodb and --plugin-load during startup.
To take best advantage of current InnoDB features, we recommend specifying the following options in your
configuration file:
innodb_file_per_table=1
innodb_file_format=barracuda
innodb_strict_mode=1
For information about these new features, see Section 8.2.1, “Dynamically Changing
innodb_file_per_table”, Chapter 4, InnoDB File-Format Management, and Section 8.4, “InnoDB
Strict Mode”. You might need to continue to use the previous values for these parameters in some
replication and similar configurations involving both new and older versions of MySQL.
59
60
Chapter 10 Upgrading the InnoDB Storage Engine
Prior to MySQL 5.5, some upgrade scenarios involved upgrading the separate instance of InnoDB known
as the InnoDB Plugin. In MySQL 5.5 and higher, the features of the InnoDB Plugin have been folded back
into built-in InnoDB, so the upgrade procedure for InnoDB is the same as the one for the MySQL server.
For details, see Upgrading MySQL.
61
62
Chapter 11 Downgrading the InnoDB Storage Engine
Table of Contents
11.1 Overview .................................................................................................................................. 63
11.1 Overview
Prior to MySQL 5.5, some downgrade scenarios involved switching the separate instance of InnoDB known
as the InnoDB Plugin back to the built-in InnoDB storage engine. In MySQL 5.5 and higher, the features of
the InnoDB Plugin have been folded back into built-in InnoDB, so the downgrade procedure for InnoDB is
the same as the one for the MySQL server. For details, see Downgrading MySQL.
63
64
Chapter 12 InnoDB Storage Engine Change History
Table of Contents
12.1 Changes in InnoDB Storage Engine 1.x ..................................................................................... 65
12.2 Changes in InnoDB Storage Engine 1.1 (April 13, 2010) ............................................................. 65
12.3 Changes in InnoDB Plugin 1.0.x ................................................................................................ 66
12.1 Changes in InnoDB Storage Engine 1.x
Since InnoDB 1.1 is tightly integrated with MySQL 5.5, for changes after the initial InnoDB 1.1 release, see
the MySQL 5.5 Release Notes.
12.2 Changes in InnoDB Storage Engine 1.1 (April 13, 2010)
For an overview of the changes, see this introduction article for MySQL 5.5 with InnoDB 1.1. The following
is a condensed version of the change log.
Fix for Bug #52580: Crash in ha_innobase::open on executing INSERT with concurrent ALTER TABLE.
Change in MySQL Bug #51557 releases the mutex LOCK_open before ha_innobase::open(), causing
racing condition for index translation table creation. Fix it by adding dict_sys mutex for the operation.
Add support for multiple buffer pools.
Fix Bug #26590: MySQL does not allow more than 1023 open transactions. Create additional rollback
segments on startup. Reduce the upper limit of total rollback segments from 256 to 128. This is because
we can't use the sign bit. It has not caused problems in the past because we only created one segment.
InnoDB has always had the capability to use the additional rollback segments, therefore this patch is
backward compatible. The only requirement to maintain backward compatibility has been to ensure that the
additional segments are created after the double write buffer. This is to avoid breaking assumptions in the
existing code.
Implement Performance Schema in InnoDB. Objects in four different modules in InnoDB have been
performance instrumented, these modules are: mutexes, rwlocks, file I/O, and threads. We mostly
preserved the existing APIs, but APIs would point to instrumented function wrappers if performance
schema is defined. There are 4 different defines that control the instrumentation of each module. The
feature is off by default, and will be compiled in with a special build option, and require a configure option to
turn it on when the server boots.
Implement the buf_pool_watch for DeleteBuffering in the page hash table. This serves two purposes.
It allows multiple watches to be set at the same time (by multiple purge threads) and it removes a race
condition when the read of a block completes about the time the buffer pool watch is being set.
Introduce a new mutex to protect flush_list. Redesign mtr_commit() in a way that log_sys mutex is not
held while all mtr_memos are popped and is released just after the modified blocks are inserted into the
flush_list. This should reduce contention on log_sys mutex.
Implement the global variable innodb_change_buffering, with the following values:
• none: buffer nothing
• inserts: buffer inserts (like InnoDB so far)
65
Changes in InnoDB Plugin 1.0.x
• deletes: buffer delete-marks
• changes: buffer inserts and delete-marks
• purges: buffer delete-marks and deletes
• all: buffer all operations (insert, delete-mark, delete)
The default is all. All values except none and inserts will make InnoDB write new-format records to the
insert buffer, even for inserts.
Provide support for native AIO on Linux.
12.3 Changes in InnoDB Plugin 1.0.x
The InnoDB 1.0.x releases that accompany MySQL 5.1 have their own change history. Changes up to
InnoDB 1.0.8 are listed at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/innodb-plugin/1.0/en/innodb-changes.html. Changes
from InnoDB 1.0.9 and up are incorporated in the MySQL 5.1 Release Notes.
66
Appendix A Third-Party Software
Table of Contents
A.1 Performance Patches from Google .............................................................................................. 67
A.2 Multiple Background I/O Threads Patch from Percona .................................................................. 68
A.3 Performance Patches from Sun Microsystems ............................................................................. 68
Oracle acknowledges that certain Third Party and Open Source software has been used to develop or is
incorporated in the InnoDB storage engine. This appendix includes required third-party license information.
A.1 Performance Patches from Google
Oracle gratefully acknowledges the following contributions from Google, Inc. to improve InnoDB
performance:
• Replacing InnoDB's use of Pthreads mutexes with calls to GCC atomic builtins, as discussed in
Section 7.2, “Faster Locking for Improved Scalability”. This change means that InnoDB mutex and rwlock operations take less CPU time, and improves throughput on those platforms where the atomic
operations are available.
• Controlling master thread I/O rate, as discussed in Section 7.11, “Controlling the InnoDB Master Thread
I/O Rate”. The master thread in InnoDB is a thread that performs various tasks in the background.
Historically, InnoDB has used a hard coded value as the total I/O capacity of the server. With this
change, user can control the number of I/O operations that can be performed per second based on their
own workload.
Changes from the Google contributions were incorporated in the following source code files: btr0cur.c,
btr0sea.c, buf0buf.c, buf0buf.ic, ha_innodb.cc, log0log.c, log0log.h, os0sync.h,
row0sel.c, srv0srv.c, srv0srv.h, srv0start.c, sync0arr.c, sync0rw.c, sync0rw.h,
sync0rw.ic, sync0sync.c, sync0sync.h, sync0sync.ic, and univ.i.
These contributions are incorporated subject to the conditions contained in the file COPYING.Google,
which are reproduced here.
Copyright (c) 2008, 2009, Google Inc.
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
provided with the distribution.
* Neither the name of the Google Inc. nor the names of its
contributors may be used to endorse or promote products
derived from this software without specific prior written
permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
"AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
67
Multiple Background I/O Threads Patch from Percona
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING,
BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
A.2 Multiple Background I/O Threads Patch from Percona
Oracle gratefully acknowledges the contribution of Percona, Inc. to improve InnoDB performance by
implementing configurable background threads, as discussed in Section 7.8, “Multiple Background InnoDB
I/O Threads”. InnoDB uses background threads to service various types of I/O requests. The change
provides another way to make InnoDB more scalable on high end systems.
Changes from the Percona, Inc. contribution were incorporated in the following source code files:
ha_innodb.cc, os0file.c, os0file.h, srv0srv.c, srv0srv.h, and srv0start.c.
This contribution is incorporated subject to the conditions contained in the file COPYING.Percona, which
are reproduced here.
Copyright (c) 2008, 2009, Percona Inc.
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
provided with the distribution.
* Neither the name of the Percona Inc. nor the names of its
contributors may be used to endorse or promote products
derived from this software without specific prior written
permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
"AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING,
BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
A.3 Performance Patches from Sun Microsystems
Oracle gratefully acknowledges the following contributions from Sun Microsystems, Inc. to improve InnoDB
performance:
• Introducing the PAUSE instruction inside spin loops, as discussed in Section 7.13, “Using the PAUSE
Instruction in InnoDB Spin Loops”. This change increases performance in high concurrency, CPU-bound
workloads.
• Enabling inlining of functions and prefetch with Sun Studio.
68
Performance Patches from Sun Microsystems
Changes from the Sun Microsystems, Inc. contribution were incorporated in the following source code files:
univ.i, ut0ut.c, and ut0ut.h.
This contribution is incorporated subject to the conditions contained in the file
COPYING.Sun_Microsystems, which are reproduced here.
Copyright (c) 2009, Sun Microsystems, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
provided with the distribution.
* Neither the name of Sun Microsystems, Inc. nor the names of its
contributors may be used to endorse or promote products
derived from this software without specific prior written
permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
"AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING,
BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
69
70
Appendix B InnoDB Parameter Changes
Table of Contents
B.1 New Parameters ........................................................................................................................ 71
B.2 Deprecated Parameters .............................................................................................................. 72
B.3 Parameters with New Defaults .................................................................................................... 72
B.1 New Parameters
New InnoDB Plugin and InnoDB 1.1 Parameters
Throughout the course of development of InnoDB 1.1 and its predecessor, the InnoDB Plugin, the following
configuration parameters were introduced. The InnoDB storage engine version in which each parameter
was introduced is provided (where applicable). Starting in MySQL 5.5.30, separate version numbering
for the InnoDB storage engine was discontinued in favor of MySQL server version numbering. See
InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables for parameter descriptions and the MySQL release in which
parameters were added.
• innodb_adaptive_flushing: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.4
• innodb_buffer_pool_instances
• innodb_change_buffering: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.3
• innodb_file_format: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.1
• innodb_file_format_check: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.1
• innodb_file_format_max
• innodb_io_capacity: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.4
• innodb_old_blocks_pct: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.5
• innodb_old_blocks_time: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.5
• innodb_purge_batch_size
• innodb_purge_threads
• innodb_read_ahead_threshold: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.4
• innodb_read_io_threads: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.4
• innodb_spin_wait_delay: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.4
• innodb_stats_sample_pages: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.2
• innodb_strict_mode: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.2
• innodb_use_native_aio
• innodb_use_sys_malloc: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.3
71
New InnoDB Parameters in MySQL 5.5
• innodb_write_io_threads: introduced in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.4
New InnoDB Parameters in MySQL 5.5
The following InnoDB configuration parameters were added in MySQL 5.5. Some of the parameters listed
below may have also been added to other MySQL versions. See InnoDB Startup Options and System
Variables for parameter descriptions and the specific release in which parameters were added.
• innodb_buffer_pool_instances
• innodb_file_format_max
• innodb_force_load_corrupted
• innodb_large_prefix
• innodb_print_all_deadlocks
• innodb_purge_batch_size
• innodb_purge_threads
• innodb_random_read_ahead
• innodb_rollback_segments
• innodb_stats_method
• innodb_stats_on_metadata
• innodb_use_native_aio
B.2 Deprecated Parameters
• innodb_file_io_threads
This parameter was deprecated in InnoDB storage engine 1.0.4 and replaced by
innodb_read_io_threads and innodb_write_io_threads. See Section 7.8, “Multiple
Background InnoDB I/O Threads” for additional information.
• ignore_builtin_innodb: removed in MySQL 5.5.22.
B.3 Parameters with New Defaults
For better out-of-the-box performance, default values for the following InnoDB configuration parameters
were changed in MySQL 5.5. See InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables for information about
new parameter defaults and the specific release that changes took effect.
• innodb_change_buffering
• innodb_file_format
• innodb_file_format_check
• innodb_file_per_table
72
InnoDB Glossary
These terms are commonly used in information about the InnoDB storage engine.
A
.ARM file
Metadata for ARCHIVE tables. Contrast with .ARZ file. Files with this extension are always included in backups
produced by the mysqlbackup command of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product.
See Also .ARZ file, MySQL Enterprise Backup, mysqlbackup command.
.ARZ file
Data for ARCHIVE tables. Contrast with .ARM file. Files with this extension are always included in backups
produced by the mysqlbackup command of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product.
See Also .ARM file, MySQL Enterprise Backup, mysqlbackup command.
ACID
An acronym standing for atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability. These properties are all desirable in
a database system, and are all closely tied to the notion of a transaction. The transactional features of InnoDB
adhere to the ACID principles.
Transactions are atomic units of work that can be committed or rolled back. When a transaction makes multiple
changes to the database, either all the changes succeed when the transaction is committed, or all the changes
are undone when the transaction is rolled back.
The database remains in a consistent state at all times -- after each commit or rollback, and while transactions
are in progress. If related data is being updated across multiple tables, queries see either all old values or all new
values, not a mix of old and new values.
Transactions are protected (isolated) from each other while they are in progress; they cannot interfere with
each other or see each other's uncommitted data. This isolation is achieved through the locking mechanism.
Experienced users can adjust the isolation level, trading off less protection in favor of increased performance
and concurrency, when they can be sure that the transactions really do not interfere with each other.
The results of transactions are durable: once a commit operation succeeds, the changes made by that transaction
are safe from power failures, system crashes, race conditions, or other potential dangers that many nondatabase applications are vulnerable to. Durability typically involves writing to disk storage, with a certain amount
of redundancy to protect against power failures or software crashes during write operations. (In InnoDB, the
doublewrite buffer assists with durability.)
See Also atomic, commit, concurrency, doublewrite buffer, isolation level, locking, rollback, transaction.
adaptive flushing
An algorithm for InnoDB tables that smooths out the I/O overhead introduced by checkpoints. Instead of
flushing all modified pages from the buffer pool to the data files at once, MySQL periodically flushes small sets
of modified pages. The adaptive flushing algorithm extends this process by estimating the optimal rate to perform
these periodic flushes, based on the rate of flushing and how fast redo information is generated. First introduced
in MySQL 5.1, in the InnoDB Plugin.
See Also buffer pool, checkpoint, data files, flush, InnoDB, page, redo log.
adaptive hash index
An optimization for InnoDB tables that can speed up lookups using = and IN operators, by constructing a hash
index in memory. MySQL monitors index searches for InnoDB tables, and if queries could benefit from a hash
index, it builds one automatically for index pages that are frequently accessed. In a sense, the adaptive hash
index configures MySQL at runtime to take advantage of ample main memory, coming closer to the architecture
73
of main-memory databases. This feature is controlled by the innodb_adaptive_hash_index configuration
option. Because this feature benefits some workloads and not others, and the memory used for the hash index is
reserved in the buffer pool, typically you should benchmark with this feature both enabled and disabled.
The hash index is always built based on an existing InnoDB secondary index, which is organized as a B-tree
structure. MySQL can build a hash index on a prefix of any length of the key defined for the B-tree, depending on
the pattern of searches against the index. A hash index can be partial; the whole B-tree index does not need to be
cached in the buffer pool.
In MySQL 5.6 and higher, another way to take advantage of fast single-value lookups with InnoDB tables is to use
the memcached interface to InnoDB. See InnoDB Integration with memcached for details.
See Also B-tree, buffer pool, hash index, memcached, page, secondary index.
AHI
Acronym for adaptive hash index.
See Also adaptive hash index.
AIO
Acronym for asynchronous I/O. You might see this acronym in InnoDB messages or keywords.
See Also asynchronous I/O.
Antelope
The code name for the original InnoDB file format. It supports the redundant and compact row formats, but not
the newer dynamic and compressed row formats available in the Barracuda file format.
If your application could benefit from InnoDB table compression, or uses BLOBs or large text columns that could
benefit from the dynamic row format, you might switch some tables to Barracuda format. You select the file format
to use by setting the innodb_file_format option before creating the table.
See Also Barracuda, compact row format, compressed row format, dynamic row format, file format,
innodb_file_format, redundant row format.
application programming interface (API)
A set of functions or procedures. An API provides a stable set of names and types for functions, procedures,
parameters, and return values.
apply
When a backup produced by the MySQL Enterprise Backup product does not include the most recent changes
that occurred while the backup was underway, the process of updating the backup files to include those changes
is known as the apply step. It is specified by the apply-log option of the mysqlbackup command.
Before the changes are applied, we refer to the files as a raw backup. After the changes are applied, we refer to
the files as a prepared backup. The changes are recorded in the ibbackup_logfile file; once the apply step is
finished, this file is no longer necessary.
See Also hot backup, ibbackup_logfile, MySQL Enterprise Backup, prepared backup, raw backup.
asynchronous I/O
A type of I/O operation that allows other processing to proceed before the I/O is completed. Also known as nonblocking I/O and abbreviated as AIO. InnoDB uses this type of I/O for certain operations that can run in parallel
without affecting the reliability of the database, such as reading pages into the buffer pool that have not actually
been requested, but might be needed soon.
Historically, InnoDB has used asynchronous I/O on Windows systems only. Starting with the InnoDB Plugin 1.1,
InnoDB uses asynchronous I/O on Linux systems. This change introduces a dependency on libaio. On other
Unix-like systems, InnoDB uses synchronous I/O only.
See Also buffer pool, non-blocking I/O.
74
atomic
In the SQL context, transactions are units of work that either succeed entirely (when committed) or have no
effect at all (when rolled back). The indivisible ("atomic") property of transactions is the "A" in the acronym ACID.
See Also ACID, commit, rollback, transaction.
atomic instruction
Special instructions provided by the CPU, to ensure that critical low-level operations cannot be interrupted.
auto-increment
A property of a table column (specified by the AUTO_INCREMENT keyword) that automatically adds an ascending
sequence of values in the column. InnoDB supports auto-increment only for primary key columns.
It saves work for the developer, not to have to produce new unique values when inserting new rows. It provides
useful information for the query optimizer, because the column is known to be not null and with unique values.
The values from such a column can be used as lookup keys in various contexts, and because they are autogenerated there is no reason to ever change them; for this reason, primary key columns are often specified as
auto-incrementing.
Auto-increment columns can be problematic with statement-based replication, because replaying the statements
on a slave might not produce the same set of column values as on the master, due to timing issues. When
you have an auto-incrementing primary key, you can use statement-based replication only with the setting
innodb_autoinc_lock_mode=1. If you have innodb_autoinc_lock_mode=2, which allows higher
concurrency for insert operations, use row-based replication rather than statement-based replication. The
setting innodb_autoinc_lock_mode=0 is the previous (traditional) default setting and should not be used
except for compatibility purposes.
See Also auto-increment locking, innodb_autoinc_lock_mode, primary key, row-based replication, statementbased replication.
auto-increment locking
The convenience of an auto-increment primary key involves some tradeoff with concurrency. In the simplest
case, if one transaction is inserting values into the table, any other transactions must wait to do their own inserts
into that table, so that rows inserted by the first transaction receive consecutive primary key values. InnoDB
includes optimizations, and the innodb_autoinc_lock_mode option, so that you can choose how to trade off
between predictable sequences of auto-increment values and maximum concurrency for insert operations.
See Also auto-increment, concurrency, innodb_autoinc_lock_mode.
autocommit
A setting that causes a commit operation after each SQL statement. This mode is not recommended for
working with InnoDB tables with transactions that span several statements. It can help performance for readonly transactions on InnoDB tables, where it minimizes overhead from locking and generation of undo data,
especially in MySQL 5.6.4 and up. It is also appropriate for working with MyISAM tables, where transactions are
not applicable.
See Also commit, locking, read-only transaction, SQL, transaction, undo.
availability
The ability to cope with, and if necessary recover from, failures on the host, including failures of MySQL, the
operating system, or the hardware and maintenance activity that may otherwise cause downtime. Often paired
with scalability as critical aspects of a large-scale deployment.
See Also scalability.
B
B-tree
A tree data structure that is popular for use in database indexes. The structure is kept sorted at all times,
enabling fast lookup for exact matches (equals operator) and ranges (for example, greater than, less than, and
BETWEEN operators). This type of index is available for most storage engines, such as InnoDB and MyISAM.
75
Because B-tree nodes can have many children, a B-tree is not the same as a binary tree, which is limited to 2
children per node.
Contrast with hash index, which is only available in the MEMORY storage engine. The MEMORY storage engine
can also use B-tree indexes, and you should choose B-tree indexes for MEMORY tables if some queries use
range operators.
See Also hash index.
backticks
Identifiers within MySQL SQL statements must be quoted using the backtick character (`) if they contain special
characters or reserved words. For example, to refer to a table named FOO#BAR or a column named SELECT, you
would specify the identifiers as `FOO#BAR` and `SELECT`. Since the backticks provide an extra level of safety,
they are used extensively in program-generated SQL statements, where the identifier names might not be known
in advance.
Many other database systems use double quotation marks (") around such special names. For portability, you
can enable ANSI_QUOTES mode in MySQL and use double quotation marks instead of backticks to qualify
identifier names.
See Also SQL.
backup
The process of copying some or all table data and metadata from a MySQL instance, for safekeeping. Can also
refer to the set of copied files. This is a crucial task for DBAs. The reverse of this process is the restore operation.
With MySQL, physical backups are performed by the MySQL Enterprise Backup product, and logical
backups are performed by the mysqldump command. These techniques have different characteristics in terms of
size and representation of the backup data, and speed (especially speed of the restore operation).
Backups are further classified as hot, warm, or cold depending on how much they interfere with normal database
operation. (Hot backups have the least interference, cold backups the most.)
See Also cold backup, hot backup, logical backup, MySQL Enterprise Backup, mysqldump, physical backup,
warm backup.
Barracuda
The code name for an InnoDB file format that supports compression for table data. This file format was first
introduced in the InnoDB Plugin. It supports the compressed row format that enables InnoDB table compression,
and the dynamic row format that improves the storage layout for BLOB and large text columns. You can select it
through the innodb_file_format option.
Because the InnoDB system tablespace is stored in the original Antelope file format, to use the Barracuda file
format you must also enable the file-per-table setting, which puts newly created tables in their own tablespaces
separate from the system tablespace.
The MySQL Enterprise Backup product version 3.5 and above supports backing up tablespaces that use the
Barracuda file format.
See Also Antelope, compact row format, compressed row format, dynamic row format, file format, file-per-table,
innodb_file_format, MySQL Enterprise Backup, row format, system tablespace.
beta
An early stage in the life of a software product, when it is available only for evaluation, typically without a definite
release number or a number less than 1. InnoDB does not use the beta designation, preferring an early adopter
phase that can extend over several point releases, leading to a GA release.
See Also early adopter, GA.
binary log
A file containing a record of all statements that attempt to change table data. These statements can be replayed
to bring slave servers up to date in a replication scenario, or to bring a database up to date after restoring table
76
data from a backup. The binary logging feature can be turned on and off, although Oracle recommends always
enabling it if you use replication or perform backups.
You can examine the contents of the binary log, or replay those statements during replication or recovery, by
using the mysqlbinlog command. For full information about the binary log, see The Binary Log. For MySQL
configuration options related to the binary log, see Binary Log Options and Variables.
For the MySQL Enterprise Backup product, the file name of the binary log and the current position within the
file are important details. To record this information for the master server when taking a backup in a replication
context, you can specify the --slave-info option.
Prior to MySQL 5.0, a similar capability was available, known as the update log. In MySQL 5.0 and higher, the
binary log replaces the update log.
See Also binlog, MySQL Enterprise Backup, replication.
binlog
An informal name for the binary log file. For example, you might see this abbreviation used in e-mail messages
or forum discussions.
See Also binary log.
blind query expansion
A special mode of full-text search enabled by the WITH QUERY EXPANSION clause. It performs the search
twice, where the search phrase for the second search is the original search phrase concatenated with the
few most highly relevant documents from the first search. This technique is mainly applicable for short search
phrases, perhaps only a single word. It can uncover relevant matches where the precise search term does not
occur in the document.
See Also full-text search.
bottleneck
A portion of a system that is constrained in size or capacity, that has the effect of limiting overall throughput. For
example, a memory area might be smaller than necessary; access to a single required resource might prevent
multiple CPU cores from running simultaneously; or waiting for disk I/O to complete might prevent the CPU from
running at full capacity. Removing bottlenecks tends to improve concurrency. For example, the ability to have
multiple InnoDB buffer pool instances reduces contention when multiple sessions read from and write to the
buffer pool simultaneously.
See Also buffer pool, concurrency.
bounce
A shutdown operation immediately followed by a restart. Ideally with a relatively short warmup period so that
performance and throughput quickly return to a high level.
See Also shutdown.
buddy allocator
A mechanism for managing different-sized pages in the InnoDB buffer pool.
See Also buffer pool, page, page size.
buffer
A memory or disk area used for temporary storage. Data is buffered in memory so that it can be written to disk
efficiently, with a few large I/O operations rather than many small ones. Data is buffered on disk for greater
reliability, so that it can be recovered even when a crash or other failure occurs at the worst possible time. The
main types of buffers used by InnoDB are the buffer pool, the doublewrite buffer, and the insert buffer.
See Also buffer pool, crash, doublewrite buffer, insert buffer.
buffer pool
The memory area that holds cached InnoDB data for both tables and indexes. For efficiency of high-volume read
operations, the buffer pool is divided into pages that can potentially hold multiple rows. For efficiency of cache
77
management, the buffer pool is implemented as a linked list of pages; data that is rarely used is aged out of the
cache, using a variation of the LRU algorithm. On systems with large memory, you can improve concurrency by
dividing the buffer pool into multiple buffer pool instances.
Several InnoDB status variables, information_schema tables, and performance_schema tables help
to monitor the internal workings of the buffer pool. Starting in MySQL 5.6, you can also dump and restore
the contents of the buffer pool, either automatically during shutdown and restart, or manually at any time,
through a set of InnoDB configuration variables such as innodb_buffer_pool_dump_at_shutdown and
innodb_buffer_pool_load_at_startup.
See Also buffer pool instance, LRU, page, warm up.
buffer pool instance
Any of the multiple regions into which the buffer pool can be divided, controlled by the
innodb_buffer_pool_instances configuration option. The total memory size specified by the
innodb_buffer_pool_size is divided among all the instances. Typically, multiple buffer pool instances are
appropriate for systems devoting multiple gigabytes to the InnoDB buffer pool, with each instance 1 gigabyte or
larger. On systems loading or looking up large amounts of data in the buffer pool from many concurrent sessions,
having multiple instances reduces the contention for exclusive access to the data structures that manage the
buffer pool.
See Also buffer pool.
built-in
The built-in InnoDB storage engine within MySQL is the original form of distribution for the storage engine.
Contrast with the InnoDB Plugin. Starting with MySQL 5.5, the InnoDB Plugin is merged back into the MySQL
code base as the built-in InnoDB storage engine (known as InnoDB 1.1).
This distinction is important mainly in MySQL 5.1, where a feature or bug fix might apply to the InnoDB Plugin but
not the built-in InnoDB, or vice versa.
See Also InnoDB, plugin.
business rules
The relationships and sequences of actions that form the basis of business software, used to run a commercial
company. Sometimes these rules are dictated by law, other times by company policy. Careful planning ensures
that the relationships encoded and enforced by the database, and the actions performed through application logic,
accurately reflect the real policies of the company and can handle real-life situations.
For example, an employee leaving a company might trigger a sequence of actions from the human resources
department. The human resources database might also need the flexibility to represent data about a person
who has been hired, but not yet started work. Closing an account at an online service might result in data being
removed from a database, or the data might be moved or flagged so that it could be recovered if the account
is re-opened. A company might establish policies regarding salary maximums, minimums, and adjustments, in
addition to basic sanity checks such as the salary not being a negative number. A retail database might not allow
a purchase with the same serial number to be returned more than once, or might not allow credit card purchases
above a certain value, while a database used to detect fraud might allow these kinds of things.
See Also relational.
C
.cfg file
A metadata file used with the InnoDB transportable tablespace feature. It is produced by the command FLUSH
TABLES ... FOR EXPORT, puts one or more tables in a consistent state that can be copied to another server.
The .cfg file is copied along with the corresponding .ibd file, and used to adjust the internal values of the .ibd
file, such as the space ID, during the ALTER TABLE ... IMPORT TABLESPACE step.
See Also .ibd file, space ID, transportable tablespace.
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cache
The general term for any memory area that stores copies of data for frequent or high-speed retrieval. In InnoDB,
the primary kind of cache structure is the buffer pool.
See Also buffer, buffer pool.
cardinality
The number of different values in a table column. When queries refer to columns that have an associated index,
the cardinality of each column influences which access method is most efficient. For example, for a column with
a unique constraint, the number of different values is equal to the number of rows in the table. If a table has a
million rows but only 10 different values for a particular column, each value occurs (on average) 100,000 times. A
query such as SELECT c1 FROM t1 WHERE c1 = 50; thus might return 1 row or a huge number of rows, and
the database server might process the query differently depending on the cardinality of c1.
If the values in a column have a very uneven distribution, the cardinality might not be a good way to determine
the best query plan. For example, SELECT c1 FROM t1 WHERE c1 = x; might return 1 row when x=50 and
a million rows when x=30. In such a case, you might need to use index hints to pass along advice about which
lookup method is more efficient for a particular query.
Cardinality can also apply to the number of distinct values present in multiple columns, as in a composite index.
For InnoDB, the process of estimating cardinality for indexes is influenced by the
innodb_stats_sample_pages and the innodb_stats_on_metadata configuration options. The estimated
values are more stable when the persistent statistics feature is enabled (in MySQL 5.6 and higher).
See Also column, composite index, index, index hint, persistent statistics, random dive, selectivity, unique
constraint.
change buffer
A special data structure that records changes to pages in secondary indexes. These values could result from
SQL INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements (DML). The set of features involving the change buffer is known
collectively as change buffering, consisting of insert buffering, delete buffering, and purge buffering.
Changes are only recorded in the change buffer when the relevant page from the secondary index is not in the
buffer pool. When the relevant index page is brought into the buffer pool while associated changes are still in the
change buffer, the changes for that page are applied in the buffer pool (merged) using the data from the change
buffer. Periodically, the purge operation that runs during times when the system is mostly idle, or during a slow
shutdown, writes the new index pages to disk. The purge operation can write the disk blocks for a series of index
values more efficiently than if each value were written to disk immediately.
Physically, the change buffer is part of the system tablespace, so that the index changes remain buffered across
database restarts. The changes are only applied (merged) when the pages are brought into the buffer pool due to
some other read operation.
The kinds and amount of data stored in the change buffer are governed by the innodb_change_buffering
and innodb_change_buffer_max_size configuration options. To see information about the current data in
the change buffer, issue the SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS command.
Formerly known as the insert buffer.
See Also buffer pool, change buffering, delete buffering, DML, insert buffer, insert buffering, merge, page, purge,
purge buffering, secondary index, system tablespace.
change buffering
The general term for the features involving the change buffer, consisting of insert buffering, delete buffering,
and purge buffering. Index changes resulting from SQL statements, which could normally involve random I/
O operations, are held back and performed periodically by a background thread. This sequence of operations
can write the disk blocks for a series of index values more efficiently than if each value were written to disk
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immediately. Controlled by the innodb_change_buffering and innodb_change_buffer_max_size
configuration options.
See Also change buffer, delete buffering, insert buffering, purge buffering.
checkpoint
As changes are made to data pages that are cached in the buffer pool, those changes are written to the data
files sometime later, a process known as flushing. The checkpoint is a record of the latest changes (represented
by an LSN value) that have been successfully written to the data files.
See Also buffer pool, data files, flush, fuzzy checkpointing, LSN.
checksum
In InnoDB, a validation mechanism to detect corruption when a page in a tablespace is read from disk
into the InnoDB buffer pool. This feature is turned on and off by the innodb_checksums configuration
option. In MySQL 5.6, you can enable a faster checksum algorithm by also specifying the configuration option
innodb_checksum_algorithm=crc32.
The innochecksum command helps to diagnose corruption problems by testing the checksum values for a
specified tablespace file while the MySQL server is shut down.
MySQL also uses checksums for replication purposes. For details, see the configuration options
binlog_checksum, master_verify_checksum, and slave_sql_verify_checksum.
See Also buffer pool, page, tablespace.
child table
In a foreign key relationship, a child table is one whose rows refer (or point) to rows in another table with an
identical value for a specific column. This is the table that contains the FOREIGN KEY ... REFERENCES
clause and optionally ON UPDATE and ON DELETE clauses. The corresponding row in the parent table must
exist before the row can be created in the child table. The values in the child table can prevent delete or update
operations on the parent table, or can cause automatic deletion or updates in the child table, based on the ON
CASCADE option used when creating the foreign key.
See Also foreign key, parent table.
clean page
A page in the InnoDB buffer pool where all changes made in memory have also been written (flushed) to the
data files. The opposite of a dirty page.
See Also buffer pool, data files, dirty page, flush, page.
clean shutdown
A shutdown that completes without errors and applies all changes to InnoDB tables before finishing, as opposed
to a crash or a fast shutdown. Synonym for slow shutdown.
See Also crash, fast shutdown, shutdown, slow shutdown.
client
A type of program that sends requests to a server, and interprets or processes the results. The client software
might run only some of the time (such as a mail or chat program), and might run interactively (such as the mysql
command processor).
See Also mysql, server.
clustered index
The InnoDB term for a primary key index. InnoDB table storage is organized based on the values of the primary
key columns, to speed up queries and sorts involving the primary key columns. For best performance, choose the
primary key columns carefully based on the most performance-critical queries. Because modifying the columns of
the clustered index is an expensive operation, choose primary columns that are rarely or never updated.
In the Oracle Database product, this type of table is known as an index-organized table.
See Also index, primary key, secondary index.
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cold backup
A backup taken while the database is shut down. For busy applications and web sites, this might not be
practical, and you might prefer a warm backup or a hot backup.
See Also backup, hot backup, warm backup.
column
A data item within a row, whose storage and semantics are defined by a data type. Each table and index is
largely defined by the set of columns it contains.
Each column has a cardinality value. A column can be the primary key for its table, or part of the primary key.
A column can be subject to a unique constraint, a NOT NULL constraint, or both. Values in different columns,
even across different tables, can be linked by a foreign key relationship.
In discussions of MySQL internal operations, sometimes field is used as a synonym.
See Also cardinality, foreign key, index, primary key, row, SQL, table, unique constraint.
column index
An index on a single column.
See Also composite index, index.
column prefix
When an index is created with a length specification, such as CREATE INDEX idx ON t1 (c1(N)), only
the first N characters of the column value are stored in the index. Keeping the index prefix small makes the
index compact, and the memory and disk I/O savings help performance. (Although making the index prefix too
small can hinder query optimization by making rows with different values appear to the query optimizer to be
duplicates.)
For columns containing binary values or long text strings, where sorting is not a major consideration and storing
the entire value in the index would waste space, the index automatically uses the first N (typically 768) characters
of the value to do lookups and sorts.
See Also index.
commit
A SQL statement that ends a transaction, making permanent any changes made by the transaction. It is the
opposite of rollback, which undoes any changes made in the transaction.
InnoDB uses an optimistic mechanism for commits, so that changes can be written to the data files before the
commit actually occurs. This technique makes the commit itself faster, with the tradeoff that more work is required
in case of a rollback.
By default, MySQL uses the autocommit setting, which automatically issues a commit following each SQL
statement.
See Also autocommit, optimistic, rollback, SQL, transaction.
compact row format
The default InnoDB row format since MySQL 5.0.3. Available for tables that use the Antelope file format. It
has a more compact representation for nulls and variable-length fields than the prior default (redundant row
format).
Because of the B-tree indexes that make row lookups so fast in InnoDB, there is little if any performance benefit
to keeping all rows the same size.
For additional information about InnoDB COMPACT row format, see Section 5.4, “COMPACT and REDUNDANT Row
Formats”.
See Also Antelope, file format, redundant row format, row format.
composite index
An index that includes multiple columns.
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See Also index, index prefix.
compressed backup
The compression feature of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product makes a compressed copy of each
tablespace, changing the extension from .ibd to .ibz. Compressing the backup data allows you to keep more
backups on hand, and reduces the time to transfer backups to a different server. The data is uncompressed
during the restore operation. When a compressed backup operation processes a table that is already
compressed, it skips the compression step for that table, because compressing again would result in little or no
space savings.
A set of files produced by the MySQL Enterprise Backup product, where each tablespace is compressed. The
compressed files are renamed with a .ibz file extension.
Applying compression right at the start of the backup process helps to avoid storage overhead during the
compression process, and to avoid network overhead when transferring the backup files to another server. The
process of applying the binary log takes longer, and requires uncompressing the backup files.
See Also apply, binary log, compression, hot backup, MySQL Enterprise Backup, tablespace.
compressed row format
A row format that enables data and index compression for InnoDB tables. It was introduced in the InnoDB
Plugin, available as part of the Barracuda file format. Large fields are stored away from the page that holds the
rest of the row data, as in dynamic row format. Both index pages and the large fields are compressed, yielding
memory and disk savings. Depending on the structure of the data, the decrease in memory and disk usage
might or might not outweigh the performance overhead of uncompressing the data as it is used. See Chapter 3,
Working with InnoDB Compressed Tables for usage details.
For additional information about InnoDB COMPRESSED row format, see Section 5.3, “DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED
Row Formats”.
See Also Barracuda, compression, dynamic row format, row format.
compression
A feature with wide-ranging benefits from using less disk space, performing less I/O, and using less memory for
caching. InnoDB table and index data can be kept in a compressed format during database operation.
The data is uncompressed when needed for queries, and re-compressed when changes are made by DML
operations. After you enable compression for a table, this processing is transparent to users and application
developers. DBAs can consult information_schema tables to monitor how efficiently the compression
parameters work for the MySQL instance and for particular compressed tables.
When InnoDB table data is compressed, the compression applies to the table itself, any associated index data,
and the pages loaded into the buffer pool. Compression does not apply to pages in the undo buffer.
The table compression feature requires using MySQL 5.5 or higher, or the InnoDB Plugin in MySQL 5.1
or earlier, and creating the table using the Barracuda file format and compressed row format, with the
innodb_file_per_table setting turned on. The compression for each table is influenced by the KEY_BLOCK_SIZE
clause of the CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements. In MySQL 5.6 and higher, compression is also
affected by the server-wide configuration options innodb_compression_failure_threshold_pct,
innodb_compression_level, and innodb_compression_pad_pct_max. See Chapter 3, Working with
InnoDB Compressed Tables for usage details.
Another type of compression is the compressed backup feature of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product.
See Also Barracuda, buffer pool, compressed row format, DML, hot backup, index, INFORMATION_SCHEMA,
innodb_file_per_table, plugin, table, undo buffer.
compression failure
Not actually an error, rather an expensive operation that can occur when using compression in combination
with DML operations. It occurs when: updates to a compressed page overflow the area on the page
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reserved for recording modifications; the page is compressed again, with all changes applied to the table
data; the re-compressed data does not fit on the original page, requiring MySQL to split the data into
two new pages and compress each one separately. To check the frequency of this condition, query the
table INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INNODB_CMP and check how much the value of the COMPRESS_OPS
column exceeds the value of the COMPRESS_OPS_OK column. Ideally, compression failures do not
occur often; when they do, you can adjust the configuration options innodb_compression_level,
innodb_compression_failure_threshold_pct, and innodb_compression_pad_pct_max.
See Also compression, DML, page.
concatenated index
See composite index.
concurrency
The ability of multiple operations (in database terminology, transactions) to run simultaneously, without
interfering with each other. Concurrency is also involved with performance, because ideally the protection for
multiple simultaneous transactions works with a minimum of performance overhead, using efficient mechanisms
for locking.
See Also ACID, locking, transaction.
configuration file
The file that holds the option values used by MySQL at startup. Traditionally, on Linux and UNIX this file is
named my.cnf, and on Windows it is named my.ini. You can set a number of options related to InnoDB under
the [mysqld] section of the file.
Typically, this file is searched for in the locations /etc/my.cnf /etc/mysql/my.cnf /usr/local/mysql/
etc/my.cnf and ~/.my.cnf. See Using Option Files for details about the search path for this file.
When you use the MySQL Enterprise Backup product, you typically use two configuration files: one that
specifies where the data comes from and how it is structured (which could be the original configuration file for
your real server), and a stripped-down one containing only a small set of options that specify where the backup
data goes and how it is structured. The configuration files used with the MySQL Enterprise Backup product
must contain certain options that are typically left out of regular configuration files, so you might need to add some
options to your existing configuration file for use with MySQL Enterprise Backup.
See Also my.cnf, option file.
consistent read
A read operation that uses snapshot information to present query results based on a point in time, regardless of
changes performed by other transactions running at the same time. If queried data has been changed by another
transaction, the original data is reconstructed based on the contents of the undo log. This technique avoids some
of the locking issues that can reduce concurrency by forcing transactions to wait for other transactions to finish.
With the repeatable read isolation level, the snapshot is based on the time when the first read operation is
performed. With the read committed isolation level, the snapshot is reset to the time of each consistent read
operation.
Consistent read is the default mode in which InnoDB processes SELECT statements in READ COMMITTED
and REPEATABLE READ isolation levels. Because a consistent read does not set any locks on the tables it
accesses, other sessions are free to modify those tables while a consistent read is being performed on the table.
For technical details about the applicable isolation levels, see Consistent Nonlocking Reads.
See Also ACID, concurrency, isolation level, locking, MVCC, READ COMMITTED, READ UNCOMMITTED,
REPEATABLE READ, SERIALIZABLE, transaction, undo log.
constraint
An automatic test that can block database changes to prevent data from becoming inconsistent. (In computer
science terms, a kind of assertion related to an invariant condition.) Constraints are a crucial component of
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the ACID philosophy, to maintain data consistency. Constraints supported by MySQL include FOREIGN KEY
constraints and unique constraints.
See Also ACID, foreign key, relational, unique constraint.
counter
A value that is incremented by a particular kind of InnoDB operation. Useful for measuring how busy a
server is, troubleshooting the sources of performance issues, and testing whether changes (for example,
to configuration settings or indexes used by queries) have the desired low-level effects. Different kinds of
counters are available through performance_schema tables and information_schema tables, particularly
information_schema.innodb_metrics.
See Also INFORMATION_SCHEMA, metrics counter, Performance Schema.
covering index
An index that includes all the columns retrieved by a query. Instead of using the index values as pointers to
find the full table rows, the query returns values from the index structure, saving disk I/O. InnoDB can apply this
optimization technique to more indexes than MyISAM can, because InnoDB secondary indexes also include the
primary key columns. InnoDB cannot apply this technique for queries against tables modified by a transaction,
until that transaction ends.
Any column index or composite index could act as a covering index, given the right query. Design your indexes
and queries to take advantage of this optimization technique wherever possible.
See Also column index, composite index, index, secondary index.
crash
MySQL uses the term "crash" to refer generally to any unexpected shutdown operation where the server cannot
do its normal cleanup. For example, a crash could happen due to a hardware fault on the database server
machine or storage device; a power failure; a potential data mismatch that causes the MySQL server to halt; a
fast shutdown initiated by the DBA; or many other reasons. The robust, automatic crash recovery for InnoDB
tables ensures that data is made consistent when the server is restarted, without any extra work for the DBA.
See Also crash recovery, fast shutdown, InnoDB, redo log, shutdown.
crash recovery
The cleanup activities that occur when MySQL is started again after a crash. For InnoDB tables, changes from
incomplete transactions are replayed using data from the redo log. Changes that were committed before the
crash, but not yet written into the data files, are reconstructed from the doublewrite buffer. When the database is
shut down normally, this type of activity is performed during shutdown by the purge operation.
During normal operation, committed data can be stored in the change buffer for a period of time before being
written to the data files. There is always a tradeoff between keeping the data files up-to-date, which introduces
performance overhead during normal operation, and buffering the data, which can make shutdown and crash
recovery take longer.
See Also change buffer, commit, crash, data files, doublewrite buffer, InnoDB, purge, redo log.
CRUD
Acronym for "create, read, update, delete", a common sequence of operations in database applications. Often
denotes a class of applications with relatively simple database usage (basic DDL, DML and query statements in
SQL) that can be implemented quickly in any language.
See Also DDL, DML, query, SQL.
cursor
An internal data structure that is used to represent the result set of a query, or other operation that performs a
search using an SQL WHERE clause. It works like an iterator in other high-level languages, producing each value
from the result set as requested.
Although usually SQL handles the processing of cursors for you, you might delve into the inner workings when
dealing with performance-critical code.
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See Also query.
D
data definition language
See DDL.
data dictionary
Metadata that keeps track of InnoDB-related objects such as tables, indexes, and table columns. This
metadata is physically located in the InnoDB system tablespace. For historical reasons, it overlaps to some
degree with information stored in the .frm files.
Because the MySQL Enterprise Backup product always backs up the system tablespace, all backups include
the contents of the data dictionary.
See Also column, .frm file, hot backup, index, MySQL Enterprise Backup, system tablespace, table.
data directory
The directory under which each MySQL instance keeps the data files for InnoDB and the directories
representing individual databases. Controlled by the datadir configuration option.
See Also data files, instance.
data files
The files that physically contain the InnoDB table and index data. There can be a one-to-many relationship
between data files and tables, as in the case of the system tablespace, which can hold multiple InnoDB tables
as well as the data dictionary. There can also be a one-to-one relationship between data files and tables,
as when the file-per-table setting is enabled, causing each newly created table to be stored in a separate
tablespace.
See Also data dictionary, file-per-table, index, system tablespace, table, tablespace.
data manipulation language
See DML.
data warehouse
A database system or application that primarily runs large queries. The read-only or read-mostly data might
be organized in denormalized form for query efficiency. Can benefit from the optimizations for read-only
transactions in MySQL 5.6 and higher. Contrast with OLTP.
See Also denormalized, OLTP, query, read-only transaction.
database
Within the MySQL data directory, each database is represented by a separate directory. The InnoDB system
tablespace, which can hold table data from multiple databases within a MySQL instance, is kept in its data
files that reside outside the individual database directories. When file-per-table mode is enabled, the .ibd files
representing individual InnoDB tables are stored inside the database directories.
For long-time MySQL users, a database is a familiar notion. Users coming from an Oracle Database background
will find that the MySQL meaning of a database is closer to what Oracle Database calls a schema.
See Also data files, file-per-table, .ibd file, instance, schema, system tablespace.
DCL
Data control language, a set of SQL statements for managing privileges. In MySQL, consists of the GRANT and
REVOKE statements. Contrast with DDL and DML.
See Also DDL, DML, SQL.
DDL
Data definition language, a set of SQL statements for manipulating the database itself rather than individual table
rows. Includes all forms of the CREATE, ALTER, and DROP statements. Also includes the TRUNCATE statement,
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because it works differently than a DELETE FROM table_name statement, even though the ultimate effect is
similar.
DDL statements automatically commit the current transaction; they cannot be rolled back.
The InnoDB-related aspects of DDL include speed improvements for CREATE INDEX and DROP INDEX
statements, and the way the file-per-table setting affects the behavior of the TRUNCATE TABLE statement.
Contrast with DML and DCL.
See Also commit, DCL, DML, file-per-table, rollback, SQL, transaction.
deadlock
A situation where different transactions are unable to proceed, because each holds a lock that the other needs.
Because both transactions are waiting for a resource to become available, neither will ever release the locks it
holds.
A deadlock can occur when the transactions lock rows in multiple tables (through statements such as UPDATE
or SELECT ... FOR UPDATE), but in the opposite order. A deadlock can also occur when such statements
lock ranges of index records and gaps, with each transaction acquiring some locks but not others due to a timing
issue.
To reduce the possibility of deadlocks, use transactions rather than LOCK TABLE statements; keep transactions
that insert or update data small enough that they do not stay open for long periods of time; when different
transactions update multiple tables or large ranges of rows, use the same order of operations (such as
SELECT ... FOR UPDATE) in each transaction; create indexes on the columns used in SELECT ... FOR
UPDATE and UPDATE ... WHERE statements. The possibility of deadlocks is not affected by the isolation level,
because the isolation level changes the behavior of read operations, while deadlocks occur because of write
operations.
If a deadlock does occur, InnoDB detects the condition and rolls back one of the transactions (the victim).
Thus, even if your application logic is perfectly correct, you must still handle the case where a transaction must
be retried. To see the last deadlock in an InnoDB user transaction, use the command SHOW ENGINE INNODB
STATUS. If frequent deadlocks highlight a problem with transaction structure or application error handling, run with
the innodb_print_all_deadlocks setting enabled to print information about all deadlocks to the mysqld
error log.
For background information on how deadlocks are automatically detected and handled, see Deadlock Detection
and Rollback. For tips on avoiding and recovering from deadlock conditions, see How to Cope with Deadlocks.
See Also concurrency, gap, isolation level, lock, locking, rollback, transaction, victim.
deadlock detection
A mechanism that automatically detects when a deadlock occurs, and automatically rolls back one of the
transactions involved (the victim).
See Also deadlock, rollback, transaction, victim.
delete
When InnoDB processes a DELETE statement, the rows are immediately marked for deletion and no longer are
returned by queries. The storage is reclaimed sometime later, during the periodic garbage collection known as the
purge operation, performed by a separate thread. For removing large quantities of data, related operations with
their own performance characteristics are truncate and drop.
See Also drop, purge, truncate.
delete buffering
The technique of storing index changes due to DELETE operations in the insert buffer rather than writing them
immediately, so that the physical writes can be performed to minimize random I/O. (Because delete operations
are a two-step process, this operation buffers the write that normally marks an index record for deletion.) It is one
of the types of change buffering; the others are insert buffering and purge buffering.
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See Also change buffer, change buffering, insert buffer, insert buffering, purge buffering.
denormalized
A data storage strategy that duplicates data across different tables, rather than linking the tables with foreign
keys and join queries. Typically used in data warehouse applications, where the data is not updated after
loading. In such applications, query performance is more important than making it simple to maintain consistent
data during updates. Contrast with normalized.
See Also data warehouse, normalized.
descending index
A type of index available with some database systems, where index storage is optimized to process ORDER BY
column DESC clauses. Currently, although MySQL allows the DESC keyword in the CREATE TABLE statement, it
does not use any special storage layout for the resulting index.
See Also index.
dirty page
A page in the InnoDB buffer pool that has been updated in memory, where the changes are not yet written
(flushed) to the data files. The opposite of a clean page.
See Also buffer pool, clean page, data files, flush, page.
dirty read
An operation that retrieves unreliable data, data that was updated by another transaction but not yet committed.
It is only possible with the isolation level known as read uncommitted.
This kind of operation does not adhere to the ACID principle of database design. It is considered very risky,
because the data could be rolled back, or updated further before being committed; then, the transaction doing
the dirty read would be using data that was never confirmed as accurate.
Its polar opposite is consistent read, where InnoDB goes to great lengths to ensure that a transaction does not
read information updated by another transaction, even if the other transaction commits in the meantime.
See Also ACID, commit, consistent read, isolation level, READ COMMITTED, READ UNCOMMITTED, rollback.
disk-based
A kind of database that primarily organizes data on disk storage (hard drives or equivalent). Data is brought back
and forth between disk and memory to be operated upon. It is the opposite of an in-memory database. Although
InnoDB is disk-based, it also contains features such as the buffer pool, multiple buffer pool instances, and the
adaptive hash index that allow certain kinds of workloads to work primarily from memory.
See Also adaptive hash index, buffer pool, in-memory database.
disk-bound
A type of workload where the primary bottleneck is CPU operations in memory. Typically involves readintensive operations where the results can all be cached in the buffer pool.
See Also bottleneck, buffer pool, disk-bound, workload.
disk-bound
A type of workload where the primary bottleneck is disk I/O. (Also known as I/O-bound.) Typically involves
frequent writes to disk, or random reads of more data than can fit into the buffer pool.
See Also bottleneck, buffer pool, disk-bound, workload.
DML
Data manipulation language, a set of SQL statements for performing insert, update, and delete operations. The
SELECT statement is sometimes considered as a DML statement, because the SELECT ... FOR UPDATE form
is subject to the same considerations for locking as INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.
DML statements for an InnoDB table operate in the context of a transaction, so their effects can be committed
or rolled back as a single unit.
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Contrast with DDL and DCL.
See Also commit, DCL, DDL, locking, rollback, SQL, transaction.
document id
In the InnoDB full-text search feature, a special column in the table containing the FULLTEXT index,
to uniquely identify the document associated with each ilist value. Its name is FTS_DOC_ID (uppercase
required). The column itself must be of BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL type, with a unique index named
FTS_DOC_ID_INDEX. Preferably, you define this column when creating the table. If InnoDB must add the column
to the table while creating a FULLTEXT index, the indexing operation is considerably more expensive.
See Also full-text search, FULLTEXT index, ilist.
doublewrite buffer
InnoDB uses a novel file flush technique called doublewrite. Before writing pages to the data files, InnoDB first
writes them to a contiguous area called the doublewrite buffer. Only after the write and the flush to the doublewrite
buffer have completed, does InnoDB write the pages to their proper positions in the data file. If the operating
system crashes in the middle of a page write, InnoDB can later find a good copy of the page from the doublewrite
buffer during crash recovery.
Although data is always written twice, the doublewrite buffer does not require twice as much I/O overhead or twice
as many I/O operations. Data is written to the buffer itself as a large sequential chunk, with a single fsync() call
to the operating system.
To turn off the doublewrite buffer, specify the option innodb_doublewrite=0.
See Also crash recovery, data files, page, purge.
drop
A kind of DDL operation that removes a schema object, through a statement such as DROP TABLE or DROP
INDEX. It maps internally to an ALTER TABLE statement. From an InnoDB perspective, the performance
considerations of such operations involve the time that the data dictionary is locked to ensure that interrelated
objects are all updated, and the time to update memory structures such as the buffer pool. For a table, the drop
operation has somewhat different characteristics than a truncate operation (TRUNCATE TABLE statement).
See Also buffer pool, data dictionary, DDL, table, truncate.
dynamic row format
A row format introduced in the InnoDB Plugin, available as part of the Barracuda file format. Because TEXT
and BLOB fields are stored outside of the rest of the page that holds the row data, it is very efficient for rows that
include large objects. Since the large fields are typically not accessed to evaluate query conditions, they are not
brought into the buffer pool as often, resulting in fewer I/O operations and better utilization of cache memory.
For additional information about InnoDB DYNAMIC row format, see Section 5.3, “DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED
Row Formats”.
See Also Barracuda, buffer pool, file format, row format.
E
early adopter
A stage similar to beta, when a software product is typically evaluated for performance, functionality, and
compatibility in a non-mission-critical setting. InnoDB uses the early adopter designation rather than beta,
through a succession of point releases leading up to a GA release.
See Also beta, GA.
error log
A type of log showing information about MySQL startup and critical runtime errors and crash information. For
details, see The Error Log.
See Also crash, log.
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eviction
The process of removing an item from a cache or other temporary storage area, such as the InnoDB buffer pool.
Often, but not always, uses the LRU algorithm to determine which item to remove. When a dirty page is evicted,
its contents are flushed to disk, and any dirty neighbor pages might be flushed also.
See Also buffer pool, dirty page, flush, LRU.
exclusive lock
A kind of lock that prevents any other transaction from locking the same row. Depending on the transaction
isolation level, this kind of lock might block other transactions from writing to the same row, or might also block
other transactions from reading the same row. The default InnoDB isolation level, REPEATABLE READ, enables
higher concurrency by allowing transactions to read rows that have exclusive locks, a technique known as
consistent read.
See Also concurrency, consistent read, isolation level, lock, REPEATABLE READ, shared lock, transaction.
extent
A group of pages within a tablespace totaling 1 megabyte. With the default page size of 16KB, an extent
contains 64 pages. In MySQL 5.6, the page size can also be 4KB or 8KB, in which case an extent contains more
pages, still adding up to 1MB.
InnoDB features such as segments, read-ahead requests and the doublewrite buffer use I/O operations that
read, write, allocate, or free data one extent at a time.
See Also doublewrite buffer, neighbor page, page, page size, read-ahead, segment, tablespace.
F
.frm file
A file containing the metadata, such as the table definition, of a MySQL table.
For backups, you must always keep the full set of .frm files along with the backup data to be able to restore
tables that are altered or dropped after the backup.
Although each InnoDB table has a .frm file, InnoDB maintains its own table metadata in the system tablespace;
the .frm files are not needed for InnoDB to operate on InnoDB tables.
These files are backed up by the MySQL Enterprise Backup product. These files must not be modified by an
ALTER TABLE operation while the backup is taking place, which is why backups that include non-InnoDB tables
perform a FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK operation to freeze such activity while backing up the .frm
files. Restoring a backup can result in .frm files being created, changed, or removed to match the state of the
database at the time of the backup.
See Also MySQL Enterprise Backup.
Fast Index Creation
A capability first introduced in the InnoDB Plugin, now part of the MySQL server in 5.5 and higher, that speeds
up creation of InnoDB secondary indexes by avoiding the need to completely rewrite the associated table. The
speedup applies to dropping secondary indexes also.
Because index maintenance can add performance overhead to many data transfer operations, consider doing
operations such as ALTER TABLE ... ENGINE=INNODB or INSERT INTO ... SELECT * FROM ...
without any secondary indexes in place, and creating the indexes afterward.
In MySQL 5.6, this feature becomes more general: you can read and write to tables while an index is being
created, and many more kinds of ALTER TABLE operations can be performed without copying the table, without
blocking DML operations, or both. Thus in MySQL 5.6 and higher, we typically refer to this set of features as
online DDL rather than Fast Index Creation.
See Also DML, index, online DDL, secondary index.
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fast shutdown
The default shutdown procedure for InnoDB, based on the configuration setting innodb_fast_shutdown=1.
To save time, certain flush operations are skipped. This type of shutdown is safe during normal usage, because
the flush operations are performed during the next startup, using the same mechanism as in crash recovery.
In cases where the database is being shut down for an upgrade or downgrade, do a slow shutdown instead to
ensure that all relevant changes are applied to the data files during the shutdown.
See Also crash recovery, data files, flush, shutdown, slow shutdown.
file format
The format used by InnoDB for each table, typically with the file-per-table setting enabled so that each table
is stored in a separate .ibd file. Currently, the file formats available in InnoDB are known as Antelope and
Barracuda. Each file format supports one or more row formats. The row formats available for Barracuda tables,
COMPRESSED and DYNAMIC, enable important new storage features for InnoDB tables.
See Also Antelope, Barracuda, file-per-table, .ibd file, ibdata file, row format.
file-per-table
A general name for the setting controlled by the innodb_file_per_table option. That is a very important
configuration option that affects many aspects of InnoDB file storage, availability of features, and I/O
characteristics. In MySQL 5.6.7 and higher, it is enabled by default. Prior to MySQL 5.6.7, it is disabled by default.
For each table created while this setting is in effect, the data is stored in a separate .ibd file rather than in the
ibdata files of the system tablespace. When table data is stored in individual files, you have more flexibility to
choose nondefault file formats and row formats, which are required for features such as data compression.
The TRUNCATE TABLE operation is also much faster, and the reclaimed space can be used by the operating
system rather than remaining reserved for InnoDB.
The MySQL Enterprise Backup product is more flexible for tables that are in their own files. For example, tables
can be excluded from a backup, but only if they are in separate files. Thus, this setting is suitable for tables that
are backed up less frequently or on a different schedule.
See Also compressed row format, compression, file format, .ibd file, ibdata file, innodb_file_per_table, row format,
system tablespace.
fill factor
In an InnoDB index, the proportion of a page that is taken up by index data before the page is split. The unused
space when index data is first divided between pages allows for rows to be updated with longer string values
without requiring expensive index maintenance operations. If the fill factor is too low, the index consumes more
space than needed, causing extra I/O overhead when reading the index. If the fill factor is too high, any update
that increases the length of column values can cause extra I/O overhead for index maintenance. See Physical
Structure of an InnoDB Index for more information.
See Also index, page.
fixed row format
This row format is used by the MyISAM storage engine, not by InnoDB. If you create an InnoDB table with the
option row_format=fixed, InnoDB translates this option to use the compact row format instead, although the
fixed value might still show up in output such as SHOW TABLE STATUS reports.
See Also compact row format, row format.
flush
To write changes to the database files, that had been buffered in a memory area or a temporary disk storage
area. The InnoDB storage structures that are periodically flushed include the redo log, the undo log, and the
buffer pool.
Flushing can happen because a memory area becomes full and the system needs to free some space, because
a commit operation means the changes from a transaction can be finalized, or because a slow shutdown
operation means that all outstanding work should be finalized. When it is not critical to flush all the buffered data
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at once, InnoDB can use a technique called fuzzy checkpointing to flush small batches of pages to spread out
the I/O overhead.
See Also buffer pool, commit, fuzzy checkpointing, neighbor page, redo log, slow shutdown, undo log.
flush list
An internal InnoDB data structure that tracks dirty pages in the buffer pool: that is, pages that have been
changed and need to be written back out to disk. This data structure is updated frequently by InnoDB's internal
mini-transactions, and so is protected by its own mutex to allow concurrent access to the buffer pool.
See Also buffer pool, dirty page, LRU, mini-transaction, mutex, page, page cleaner.
foreign key
A type of pointer relationship, between rows in separate InnoDB tables. The foreign key relationship is defined on
one column in both the parent table and the child table.
In addition to enabling fast lookup of related information, foreign keys help to enforce referential integrity,
by preventing any of these pointers from becoming invalid as data is inserted, updated, and deleted. This
enforcement mechanism is a type of constraint. A row that points to another table cannot be inserted if
the associated foreign key value does not exist in the other table. If a row is deleted or its foreign key value
changed, and rows in another table point to that foreign key value, the foreign key can be set up to prevent the
deletion, cause the corresponding column values in the other table to become null, or automatically delete the
corresponding rows in the other table.
One of the stages in designing a normalized database is to identify data that is duplicated, separate that data
into a new table, and set up a foreign key relationship so that the multiple tables can be queried like a single table,
using a join operation.
See Also child table, FOREIGN KEY constraint, join, normalized, NULL, parent table, referential integrity,
relational.
FOREIGN KEY constraint
The type of constraint that maintains database consistency through a foreign key relationship. Like other kinds
of constraints, it can prevent data from being inserted or updated if data would become inconsistent; in this case,
the inconsistency being prevented is between data in multiple tables. Alternatively, when a DML operation is
performed, FOREIGN KEY constraints can cause data in child rows to be deleted, changed to different values, or
set to null, based on the ON CASCADE option specified when creating the foreign key.
See Also child table, constraint, DML, foreign key, NULL.
FTS
In most contexts, an acronym for full-text search. Sometimes in performance discussions, an acronym for full
table scan.
See Also full table scan, full-text search.
full backup
A backup that includes all the tables in each MySQL database, and all the databases in a MySQL instance.
Contrast with partial backup.
See Also backup, database, instance, partial backup, table.
full table scan
An operation that requires reading the entire contents of a table, rather than just selected portions using an index.
Typically performed either with small lookup tables, or in data warehousing situations with large tables where all
available data is aggregated and analyzed. How frequently these operations occur, and the sizes of the tables
relative to available memory, have implications for the algorithms used in query optimization and managing the
buffer pool.
The purpose of indexes is to allow lookups for specific values or ranges of values within a large table, thus
avoiding full table scans when practical.
See Also buffer pool, index, LRU.
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full-text search
The MySQL feature for finding words, phrases, Boolean combinations of words, and so on within table data, in a
faster, more convenient, and more flexible way than using the SQL LIKE operator or writing your own applicationlevel search algorithm. It uses the SQL function MATCH() and FULLTEXT indexes.
See Also FULLTEXT index.
FULLTEXT index
The special kind of index that holds the search index in the MySQL full-text search mechanism. Represents
the words from values of a column, omitting any that are specified as stopwords. Originally, only available for
MyISAM tables. Starting in MySQL 5.6.4, it is also available for InnoDB tables.
See Also full-text search, index, InnoDB, search index, stopword.
fuzzy checkpointing
A technique that flushes small batches of dirty pages from the buffer pool, rather than flushing all dirty pages
at once which would disrupt database processing.
See Also buffer pool, dirty page, flush.
G
GA
"Generally available", the stage when a software product leaves beta and is available for sale, official support,
and production use.
See Also beta, early adopter.
gap
A place in an InnoDB index data structure where new values could be inserted. When you lock a set of rows with
a statement such as SELECT ... FOR UPDATE, InnoDB can create locks that apply to the gaps as well as the
actual values in the index. For example, if you select all values greater than 10 for update, a gap lock prevents
another transaction from inserting a new value that is greater than 10. The supremum record and infimum
record represent the gaps containing all values greater than or less than all the current index values.
See Also concurrency, gap lock, index, infimum record, isolation level, supremum record.
gap lock
A lock on a gap between index records, or a lock on the gap before the first or after the last index record. For
example, SELECT c1 FOR UPDATE FROM t WHERE c1 BETWEEN 10 and 20; prevents other transactions
from inserting a value of 15 into the column t.c1, whether or not there was already any such value in the column,
because the gaps between all existing values in the range are locked. Contrast with record lock and next-key
lock.
Gap locks are part of the tradeoff between performance and concurrency, and are used in some transaction
isolation levels and not others.
See Also gap, infimum record, lock, next-key lock, record lock, supremum record.
general log
See general query log.
general query log
A type of log used for diagnosis and troubleshooting of SQL statements processed by the MySQL server. Can
be stored in a file or in a database table. You must enable this feature through the general_log configuration
option to use it. You can disable it for a specific connection through the sql_log_off configuration option.
Records a broader range of queries than the slow query log. Unlike the binary log, which is used for replication,
the general query log contains SELECT statements and does not maintain strict ordering. For more information,
see The General Query Log.
See Also binary log, general query log, log.
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global_transaction
A type of transaction involved in XA operations. It consists of several actions that are transactional in
themselves, but that all must either complete successfully as a group, or all be rolled back as a group. In essence,
this extends ACID properties "up a level" so that multiple ACID transactions can be executed in concert as
components of a global operation that also has ACID properties. For this type of distributed transaction, you must
use the SERIALIZABLE isolation level to achieve ACID properties.
See Also ACID, SERIALIZABLE, transaction, XA.
group commit
An InnoDB optimization that performs some low-level I/O operations (log write) once for a set of commit
operations, rather than flushing and syncing separately for each commit.
When the binlog is enabled, you typically also set the configuration option sync_binlog=0, because group
commit for the binary log is only supported if it is set to 0.
See Also commit, plugin, XA.
H
hash index
A type of index intended for queries that use equality operators, rather than range operators such as greaterthan or BETWEEN. It is available for MEMORY tables. Although hash indexes are the default for MEMORY tables
for historic reasons, that storage engine also supports B-tree indexes, which are often a better choice for generalpurpose queries.
MySQL includes a variant of this index type, the adaptive hash index, that is constructed automatically for
InnoDB tables if needed based on runtime conditions.
See Also adaptive hash index, B-tree, index, InnoDB.
HDD
Acronym for "hard disk drive". Refers to storage media using spinning platters, usually when comparing and
contrasting with SSD. Its performance characteristics can influence the throughput of a disk-based workload.
See Also disk-based, SSD.
heartbeat
A periodic message that is sent to indicate that a system is functioning properly. In a replication context, if the
master stops sending such messages, one of the slaves can take its place. Similar techniques can be used
between the servers in a cluster environment, to confirm that all of them are operating properly.
See Also replication.
high-water mark
A value representing an upper limit, either a hard limit that should not be exceeded at runtime, or a record of the
maximum value that was actually reached. Contrast with low-water mark.
See Also low-water mark.
history list
A list of transactions with delete-marked records scheduled to be processed by the InnoDB purge operation.
Recorded in the undo log. The length of the history list is reported by the command SHOW ENGINE INNODB
STATUS. If the history list grows longer than the value of the innodb_max_purge_lag configuration option,
each DML operation is delayed slightly to allow the purge operation to finish flushing the deleted records.
Also known as purge lag.
See Also flush, purge, purge lag, rollback segment, transaction, undo log.
hot
A condition where a row, table, or internal data structure is accessed so frequently, requiring some form of
locking or mutual exclusion, that it results in a performance or scalability issue.
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Although "hot" typically indicates an undesirable condition, a hot backup is the preferred type of backup.
See Also hot backup.
hot backup
A backup taken while the database and is running and applications are reading and writing to it. The backup
involves more than simply copying data files: it must include any data that was inserted or updated while the
backup was in process; it must exclude any data that was deleted while the backup was in process; and it must
ignore any changes that were not committed.
The Oracle product that performs hot backups, of InnoDB tables especially but also tables from MyISAM and
other storage engines, is known as MySQL Enterprise Backup.
The hot backup process consists of two stages. The initial copying of the data files produces a raw backup. The
apply step incorporates any changes to the database that happened while the backup was running. Applying the
changes produces a prepared backup; these files are ready to be restored whenever necessary.
See Also apply, MySQL Enterprise Backup, prepared backup, raw backup.
I
.ibd file
Each InnoDB table created using the file-per-table mode goes into its own tablespace file, with a .ibd
extension, inside the database directory. This file contains the table data and any indexes for the table. File-pertable mode, controlled by the innodb_file_per_table option, affects many aspects of InnoDB storage usage and
performance, and is enabled by default in MySQL 5.6.7 and higher.
This extension does not apply to the system tablespace, which consists of the ibdata files.
When a .ibd file is included in a compressed backup by the MySQL Enterprise Backup product, the
compressed equivalent is a .ibz file.
If a table is create with the DATA DIRECTORY = clause in MySQL 5.6 and higher, the .ibd file is located outside
the normal database directory, and is pointed to by a .isl file.
See Also database, file-per-table, ibdata file, .ibz file, index, innodb_file_per_table, .isl file, MySQL Enterprise
Backup, system tablespace, table, tablespace.
.ibz file
When the MySQL Enterprise Backup product performs a compressed backup, it transforms each tablespace
file that is created using the file-per-table setting from a .ibd extension to a .ibz extension.
The compression applied during backup is distinct from the compressed row format that keeps table data
compressed during normal operation. A compressed backup operation skips the compression step for a
tablespace that is already in compressed row format, as compressing a second time would slow down the backup
but produce little or no space savings.
See Also compressed backup, compressed row format, file-per-table, .ibd file, MySQL Enterprise Backup,
tablespace.
.isl file
A file that specifies the location of a .ibd file for an InnoDB table created with the DATA DIRECTORY = clause in
MySQL 5.6 and higher. It functions like a symbolic link, without the platform restrictions of the actual symbolic link
mechanism. You can store InnoDB tablespaces outside the database directory, for example, on an especially
large or fast storage device depending on the usage of the table. For details, see Specifying the Location of a
Tablespace.
See Also database, .ibd file, table, tablespace.
I/O-bound
See disk-bound.
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ib-file set
The set of files managed by InnoDB within a MySQL database: the system tablespace, any file-per-table
tablespaces, and the (typically 2) redo log files. Used sometimes in detailed discussions of InnoDB file structures
and formats, to avoid ambiguity between the meanings of database between different DBMS products, and the
non-InnoDB files that may be part of a MySQL database.
See Also database, file-per-table, redo log, system tablespace.
ibbackup_logfile
A supplemental backup file created by the MySQL Enterprise Backup product during a hot backup operation.
It contains information about any data changes that occurred while the backup was running. The initial backup
files, including ibbackup_logfile, are known as a raw backup, because the changes that occurred during
the backup operation are not yet incorporated. After you perform the apply step to the raw backup files, the
resulting files do include those final data changes, and are known as a prepared backup. At this stage, the
ibbackup_logfile file is no longer necessary.
See Also apply, hot backup, MySQL Enterprise Backup, prepared backup, raw backup.
ibdata file
A set of files with names such as ibdata1, ibdata2, and so on, that make up the InnoDB system tablespace.
These files contain metadata about InnoDB tables, (the data dictionary), and the storage areas for the
undo log, the change buffer, and the doublewrite buffer. They also can contain some or all of the table
data also (depending on whether the file-per-table mode is in effect when each table is created). When the
innodb_file_per_table option is enabled, data and indexes for newly created tables are stored in separate .ibd
files rather than in the system tablespace.
The growth of the ibdata files is influenced by the innodb_autoextend_increment configuration option.
See Also change buffer, data dictionary, doublewrite buffer, file-per-table, .ibd file, innodb_file_per_table, system
tablespace, undo log.
ibtmp file
The InnoDB temporary tablespace data file for non-compressed InnoDB temporary tables and related objects.
The configuration file option, innodb_temp_data_file_path, allows users to define a relative path for the
temporary data file. If innodb_temp_data_file_path is not specified, the default behavior is to create a single
auto- extending 12MB data file named ibtmp1 in the data directory, alongside ibdata1.
See Also temporary tablespace.
ib_logfile
A set of files, typically named ib_logfile0 and ib_logfile1, that form the redo log. Also sometimes
referred to as the log group. These files record statements that attempt to change data in InnoDB tables. These
statements are replayed automatically to correct data written by incomplete transactions, on startup following a
crash.
This data cannot be used for manual recovery; for that type of operation, use the binary log.
See Also binary log, log group, redo log.
ilist
Within an InnoDB FULLTEXT index, the data structure consisting of a document ID and positional information
for a token (that is, a particular word).
See Also FULLTEXT index.
implicit row lock
A row lock that InnoDB acquires to ensure consistency, without you specifically requesting it.
See Also row lock.
in-memory database
A type of database system that maintains data in memory, to avoid overhead due to disk I/O and translation
between disk blocks and memory areas. Some in-memory databases sacrifice durability (the "D" in the ACID
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design philosophy) and are vulnerable to hardware, power, and other types of failures, making them more suitable
for read-only operations. Other in-memory databases do use durability mechanisms such as logging changes to
disk or using non-volatile memory.
MySQL features that are address the same kinds of memory-intensive processing include the InnoDB buffer
pool, adaptive hash index, and read-only transaction optimization, the MEMORY storage engine, the MyISAM
key cache, and the MySQL query cache.
See Also ACID, adaptive hash index, buffer pool, disk-based, read-only transaction.
incremental backup
A type of hot backup, performed by the MySQL Enterprise Backup product, that only saves data changed
since some point in time. Having a full backup and a succession of incremental backups lets you reconstruct
backup data over a long period, without the storage overhead of keeping several full backups on hand. You can
restore the full backup and then apply each of the incremental backups in succession, or you can keep the full
backup up-to-date by applying each incremental backup to it, then perform a single restore operation.
The granularity of changed data is at the page level. A page might actually cover more than one row. Each
changed page is included in the backup.
See Also hot backup, MySQL Enterprise Backup, page.
index
A data structure that provides a fast lookup capability for rows of a table, typically by forming a tree structure (Btree) representing all the values of a particular column or set of columns.
InnoDB tables always have a clustered index representing the primary key. They can also have one or more
secondary indexes defined on one or more columns. Depending on their structure, secondary indexes can be
classified as partial, column, or composite indexes.
Indexes are a crucial aspect of query performance. Database architects design tables, queries, and indexes to
allow fast lookups for data needed by applications. The ideal database design uses a covering index where
practical; the query results are computed entirely from the index, without reading the actual table data. Each
foreign key constraint also requires an index, to efficiently check whether values exist in both the parent and
child tables.
Although a B-tree index is the most common, a different kind of data structure is used for hash indexes, as in the
MEMORY storage engine and the InnoDB adaptive hash index.
See Also adaptive hash index, B-tree, child table, clustered index, column index, composite index, covering index,
foreign key, hash index, parent table, partial index, primary key, query, row, secondary index, table.
index cache
A memory area that holds the token data for InnoDB full-text search. It buffers the data to minimize disk I/O
when data is inserted or updated in columns that are part of a FULLTEXT index. The token data is written to disk
when the index cache becomes full. Each InnoDB FULLTEXT index has its own separate index cache, whose size
is controlled by the configuration option innodb_ft_cache_size.
See Also full-text search, FULLTEXT index.
index hint
Extended SQL syntax for overriding the indexes recommended by the optimizer. For example, the FORCE
INDEX, USE INDEX, and IGNORE INDEX clauses. Typically used when indexed columns have unevenly
distributed values, resulting in inaccurate cardinality estimates.
See Also cardinality, index.
index prefix
In an index that applies to multiple columns (known as a composite index), the initial or leading columns of the
index. A query that references the first 1, 2, 3, and so on columns of a composite index can use the index, even if
the query does not reference all the columns in the index.
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See Also composite index, index.
index statistics
See statistics.
infimum record
A pseudo-record in an index, representing the gap below the smallest value in that index. If a transaction has a
statement such as SELECT ... FOR UPDATE ... WHERE col < 10;, and the smallest value in the column
is 5, it is a lock on the infimum record that prevents other transactions from inserting even smaller values such as
0, -10, and so on.
See Also gap, index, pseudo-record, supremum record.
INFORMATION_SCHEMA
The name of the database that provides a query interface to the MySQL data dictionary. (This name is defined
by the ANSI SQL standard.) To examine information (metadata) about the database, you can query tables such
as INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES and INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS, rather than using SHOW commands
that produce unstructured output.
The information schema contains some tables that are specific to InnoDB, such as INNODB_LOCKS and
INNODB_TRX. You use these tables not to see how the database is structured, but to get real-time information
about the workings of InnoDB tables to help with performance monitoring, tuning, and troubleshooting. In
particular, these tables provide information about MySQL features related to compression, and transactions
and their associated locks.
See Also compression, data dictionary, database, InnoDB, lock, transaction.
InnoDB
A MySQL component that combines high performance with transactional capability for reliability, robustness,
and concurrent access. It embodies the ACID design philosophy. Represented as a storage engine; it handles
tables created or altered with the ENGINE=INNODB clause. See The InnoDB Storage Engine for architectural
details and administration procedures, and Optimizing for InnoDB Tables for performance advice.
In MySQL 5.5 and higher, InnoDB is the default storage engine for new tables and the ENGINE=INNODB clause is
not required. In MySQL 5.1 only, many of the advanced InnoDB features require enabling the component known
as the InnoDB Plugin. See InnoDB as the Default MySQL Storage Engine for the considerations involved in
transitioning to recent releases where InnoDB tables are the default.
InnoDB tables are ideally suited for hot backups. See MySQL Enterprise Backup for information about the
MySQL Enterprise Backup product for backing up MySQL servers without interrupting normal processing.
See Also ACID, hot backup, storage engine, transaction.
innodb_autoinc_lock_mode
The innodb_autoinc_lock_mode option controls the algorithm used for auto-increment locking. When
you have an auto-incrementing primary key, you can use statement-based replication only with the setting
innodb_autoinc_lock_mode=1. This setting is known as consecutive lock mode, because multi-row inserts
within a transaction receive consecutive auto-increment values. If you have innodb_autoinc_lock_mode=2,
which allows higher concurrency for insert operations, use row-based replication rather than statementbased replication. This setting is known as interleaved lock mode, because multiple multi-row insert
statements running at the same time can receive autoincrement values that are interleaved. The setting
innodb_autoinc_lock_mode=0 is the previous (traditional) default setting and should not be used except for
compatibility purposes.
See Also auto-increment locking, mixed-mode insert, primary key.
innodb_file_format
The innodb_file_format option determines the file format for all InnoDB tablespaces created after you
specify a value for this option. To create tablespaces other than the system tablespace, you must also use the
file-per-table option. Currently, you can specify the Antelope and Barracuda file formats.
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See Also Antelope, Barracuda, file format, file-per-table, innodb_file_per_table, system tablespace, tablespace.
innodb_file_per_table
A very important configuration option that affects many aspects of InnoDB file storage, availability of features,
and I/O characteristics. In MySQL 5.6.7 and higher, it is enabled by default. Prior to MySQL 5.6.7, it is disabled by
default. The innodb_file_per_table option turns on file-per-table mode, which stores each newly created
InnoDB table and its associated index in its own .ibd file, outside the system tablespace.
This option affects the performance and storage considerations for a number of SQL statements, such as DROP
TABLE and TRUNCATE TABLE.
This option is needed to take full advantage of many other InnoDB features, such as such as table compression,
or backups of named tables in MySQL Enterprise Backup.
This option was once static, but can now be set using the SET GLOBAL command.
For reference information, see innodb_file_per_table. For usage information, see InnoDB File-Per-Table
Mode.
See Also compression, file-per-table, .ibd file, MySQL Enterprise Backup, system tablespace.
innodb_lock_wait_timeout
The innodb_lock_wait_timeout option sets the balance between waiting for shared resources to become
available, or giving up and handling the error, retrying, or doing alternative processing in your application.
Rolls back any InnoDB transaction that waits more than a specified time to acquire a lock. Especially useful if
deadlocks are caused by updates to multiple tables controlled by different storage engines; such deadlocks are
not detected automatically.
See Also deadlock, deadlock detection, lock, wait.
innodb_strict_mode
The innodb_strict_mode option controls whether InnoDB operates in strict mode, where conditions that are
normally treated as warnings, cause errors instead (and the underlying statements fail).
This mode is the default setting in MySQL 5.5.5 and higher.
See Also strict mode.
insert
One of the primary DML operations in SQL. The performance of inserts is a key factor in data warehouse
systems that load millions of rows into tables, and OLTP systems where many concurrent connections might
insert rows into the same table, in arbitrary order. If insert performance is important to you, you should learn about
InnoDB features such as the insert buffer used in change buffering, and auto-increment columns.
See Also auto-increment, change buffering, data warehouse, DML, InnoDB, insert buffer, OLTP, SQL.
insert buffer
Former name for the change buffer. Now that change buffering includes delete and update operations as well
as inserts, "change buffer" is the preferred term.
See Also change buffer, change buffering.
insert buffering
The technique of storing secondary index changes due to INSERT operations in the insert buffer rather than
writing them immediately, so that the physical writes can be performed to minimize random I/O. It is one of the
types of change buffering; the others are delete buffering and purge buffering.
Insert buffering is not used if the secondary index is unique, because the uniqueness of new values cannot be
verified before the new entries are written out. Other kinds of change buffering do work for unique indexes.
See Also change buffer, change buffering, delete buffering, insert buffer, purge buffering, unique index.
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instance
A single mysqld daemon managing a data directory representing one or more databases with a set of tables.
It is common in development, testing, and some replication scenarios to have multiple instances on the same
server machine, each managing its own data directory and listening on its own port or socket. With one instance
running a disk-bound workload, the server might still have extra CPU and memory capacity to run additional
instances.
See Also data directory, database, disk-bound, mysqld, replication, server.
instrumentation
Modifications at the source code level to collect performance data for tuning and debugging. In MySQL,
data collected by instrumentation is exposed through a SQL interface using the INFORMATION_SCHEMA and
PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA databases.
See Also INFORMATION_SCHEMA, Performance Schema.
intention exclusive lock
See intention lock.
intention lock
A kind of lock that applies to the table level, used to indicate what kind of lock the transaction intends to acquire
on rows in the table. Different transactions can acquire different kinds of intention locks on the same table, but the
first transaction to acquire an intention exclusive (IX) lock on a table prevents other transactions from acquiring
any S or X locks on the table. Conversely, the first transaction to acquire an intention shared (IS) lock on a
table prevents other transactions from acquiring any X locks on the table. The two-phase process allows the lock
requests to be resolved in order, without blocking locks and corresponding operations that are compatible. For
more details on this locking mechanism, see InnoDB Lock Modes.
See Also lock, lock mode, locking.
intention shared lock
See intention lock.
inverted index
A data structure optimized for document retrieval systems, used in the implementation of InnoDB full-text
search. The InnoDB FULLTEXT index, implemented as an inverted index, records the position of each word
within a document, rather than the location of a table row. A single column value (a document stored as a text
string) is represented by many entries in the inverted index.
See Also full-text search, FULLTEXT index, ilist.
IOPS
Acronym for I/O operations per second. A common measurement for busy systems, particularly OLTP
applications. If this value is near the maximum that the storage devices can handle, the application can become
disk-bound, limiting scalability.
See Also disk-bound, OLTP, scalability.
isolation level
One of the foundations of database processing. Isolation is the I in the acronym ACID; the isolation level is the
setting that fine-tunes the balance between performance and reliability, consistency, and reproducibility of results
when multiple transactions are making changes and performing queries at the same time.
From highest amount of consistency and protection to the least, the isolation levels supported by InnoDB are:
SERIALIZABLE, REPEATABLE READ, READ COMMITTED, and READ UNCOMMITTED.
With InnoDB tables, many users can keep the default isolation level (REPEATABLE READ) for all operations.
Expert users might choose the read committed level as they push the boundaries of scalability with OLTP
processing, or during data warehousing operations where minor inconsistencies do not affect the aggregate
results of large amounts of data. The levels on the edges (SERIALIZABLE and READ UNCOMMITTED) change
the processing behavior to such an extent that they are rarely used.
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See Also ACID, READ COMMITTED, READ UNCOMMITTED, REPEATABLE READ, SERIALIZABLE,
transaction.
J
join
A query that retrieves data from more than one table, by referencing columns in the tables that hold identical
values. Ideally, these columns are part of an InnoDB foreign key relationship, which ensures referential
integrity and that the join columns are indexed. Often used to save space and improve query performance by
replacing repeated strings with numeric IDs, in a normalized data design.
See Also foreign key, index, normalized, query, referential integrity.
K
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE
An option to specify the size of data pages within an InnoDB table that uses compressed row format. The
default is 8 kilobytes. Lower values risk hitting internal limits that depend on the combination of row size and
compression percentage.
See Also compressed row format.
L
latch
A lightweight structure used by InnoDB to implement a lock for its own internal memory structures, typically
held for a brief time measured in milliseconds or microseconds. A general term that includes both mutexes
(for exclusive access) and rw-locks (for shared access). Certain latches are the focus of InnoDB performance
tuning, such as the data dictionary mutex. Statistics about latch use and contention are available through the
Performance Schema interface.
See Also data dictionary, lock, locking, mutex, Performance Schema, rw-lock.
list
The InnoDB buffer pool is represented as a list of memory pages. The list is reordered as new pages are
accessed and enter the buffer pool, as pages within the buffer pool are accessed again and are considered
newer, and as pages that are not accessed for a long time are evicted from the buffer pool. The buffer pool is
actually divided into sublists, and the replacement policy is a variation of the familiar LRU technique.
See Also buffer pool, eviction, LRU, sublist.
lock
The high-level notion of an object that controls access to a resource, such as a table, row, or internal data
structure, as part of a locking strategy. For intensive performance tuning, you might delve into the actual
structures that implement locks, such as mutexes and latches.
See Also latch, lock mode, locking, mutex.
lock escalation
An operation used in some database systems that converts many row locks into a single table lock, saving
memory space but reducing concurrent access to the table. InnoDB uses a space-efficient representation for row
locks, so that lock escalation is not needed.
See Also locking, row lock, table lock.
lock mode
A shared (S) lock allows a transaction to read a row. Multiple transactions can acquire an S lock on that same
row at the same time.
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An exclusive (X) lock allows a transaction to update or delete a row. No other transaction can acquire any kind of
lock on that same row at the same time.
Intention locks apply to the table level, and are used to indicate what kind of lock the transaction intends to
acquire on rows in the table. Different transactions can acquire different kinds of intention locks on the same
table, but the first transaction to acquire an intention exclusive (IX) lock on a table prevents other transactions
from acquiring any S or X locks on the table. Conversely, the first transaction to acquire an intention shared
(IS) lock on a table prevents other transactions from acquiring any X locks on the table. The two-phase process
allows the lock requests to be resolved in order, without blocking locks and corresponding operations that are
compatible.
See Also intention lock, lock, locking.
locking
The system of protecting a transaction from seeing or changing data that is being queried or changed by other
transactions. The locking strategy must balance reliability and consistency of database operations (the principles
of the ACID philosophy) against the performance needed for good concurrency. Fine-tuning the locking strategy
often involves choosing an isolation level and ensuring all your database operations are safe and reliable for that
isolation level.
See Also ACID, concurrency, isolation level, latch, lock, mutex, transaction.
locking read
A SELECT statement that also performs a locking operation on an InnoDB table. Either SELECT ... FOR
UPDATE or SELECT ... LOCK IN SHARE MODE. It has the potential to produce a deadlock, depending on the
isolation level of the transaction. The opposite of a non-locking read. Not allowed for global tables in a readonly transaction.
See Also deadlock, isolation level, locking, non-locking read, read-only transaction.
log
In the InnoDB context, "log" or "log files" typically refers to the redo log represented by the ib_logfile* files.
Another log area, which is physically part of the system tablespace, is the undo log.
Other kinds of logs that are important in MySQL are the error log (for diagnosing startup and runtime problems),
binary log (for working with replication and performing point-in-time restores), the general query log (for
diagnosing application problems), and the slow query log (for diagnosing performance problems).
See Also binary log, error log, general query log, ib_logfile, redo log, slow query log, system tablespace, undo log.
log buffer
The memory area that holds data to be written to the log files that make up the redo log. It is controlled by the
innodb_log_buffer_size configuration option.
See Also log file, redo log.
log file
One of the ib_logfileN files that make up the redo log. Data is written to these files from the log buffer
memory area.
See Also ib_logfile, log buffer, redo log.
log group
The set of files that make up the redo log, typically named ib_logfile0 and ib_logfile1. (For that reason,
sometimes referred to collectively as ib_logfile.)
See Also ib_logfile, redo log.
logical
A type of operation that involves high-level, abstract aspects such as tables, queries, indexes, and other SQL
concepts. Typically, logical aspects are important to make database administration and application development
convenient and usable. Contrast with physical.
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See Also logical backup, physical.
logical backup
A backup that reproduces table structure and data, without copying the actual data files. For example, the
mysqldump command produces a logical backup, because its output contains statements such as CREATE
TABLE and INSERT that can re-create the data. Contrast with physical backup. A logical backup offers flexibility
(for example, you could edit table definitions or insert statements before restoring), but can take substantially
longer to restore than a physical backup.
See Also backup, mysqldump, physical backup, restore.
loose_
In MySQL 5.1, a prefix added to InnoDB configuration options when installing the InnoDB Plugin after server
startup, so any new configuration options not recognized by the current level of MySQL do not cause a startup
failure. MySQL processes configuration options that start with this prefix, but gives a warning rather than a failure
if the part after the prefix is not a recognized option.
See Also plugin.
low-water mark
A value representing a lower limit, typically a threshold value at which some corrective action begins or becomes
more aggressive. Contrast with high-water mark.
See Also high-water mark.
LRU
An acronym for "least recently used", a common method for managing storage areas. The items that have not
been used recently are evicted when space is needed to cache newer items. InnoDB uses the LRU mechanism
by default to manage the pages within the buffer pool, but makes exceptions in cases where a page might
be read only a single time, such as during a full table scan. This variation of the LRU algorithm is called the
midpoint insertion strategy. The ways in which the buffer pool management differs from the traditional LRU
algorithm is fine-tuned by the options innodb_old_blocks_pct, innodb_old_blocks_time, and the new
MySQL 5.6 options innodb_lru_scan_depth and innodb_flush_neighbors.
See Also buffer pool, eviction, full table scan, midpoint insertion strategy, page.
LSN
Acronym for "log sequence number". This arbitrary, ever-increasing value represents a point in time
corresponding to operations recorded in the redo log. (This point in time is regardless of transaction boundaries;
it can fall in the middle of one or more transactions.) It is used internally by InnoDB during crash recovery and for
managing the buffer pool.
Prior to MySQL 5.6.3, the LSN was a 4-byte unsigned integer. The LSN became an 8-byte unsigned integer in
MySQL 5.6.3 when the redo log file size limit increased from 4GB to 512GB, as additional bytes were required
to store extra size information. Applications built on MySQL 5.6.3 or later that use LSN values should use 64-bit
rather than 32-bit variables to store and compare LSN values.
In the MySQL Enterprise Backup product, you can specify an LSN to represent the point in time from which to
take an incremental backup. The relevant LSN is displayed by the output of the mysqlbackup command. Once
you have the LSN corresponding to the time of a full backup, you can specify that value to take a subsequent
incremental backup, whose output contains another LSN for the next incremental backup.
See Also crash recovery, incremental backup, MySQL Enterprise Backup, redo log, transaction.
M
.MRG file
A file containing references to other tables, used by the MERGE storage engine. Files with this extension are
always included in backups produced by the mysqlbackup command of the MySQL Enterprise Backup
product.
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See Also MySQL Enterprise Backup, mysqlbackup command.
.MYD file
A file that MySQL uses to store data for a MyISAM table.
See Also .MYI file, MySQL Enterprise Backup, mysqlbackup command.
.MYI file
A file that MySQL uses to store indexes for a MyISAM table.
See Also .MYD file, MySQL Enterprise Backup, mysqlbackup command.
master server
Frequently shortened to "master". A database server machine in a replication scenario that processes the initial
insert, update, and delete requests for data. These changes are propagated to, and repeated on, other servers
known as slave servers.
See Also replication, slave server.
master thread
An InnoDB thread that performs various tasks in the background. Most of these tasks are I/O related, such as
writing changes from the insert buffer to the appropriate secondary indexes.
To improve concurrency, sometimes actions are moved from the master thread to separate background threads.
For example, in MySQL 5.6 and higher, dirty pages are flushed from the buffer pool by the page cleaner
thread rather than the master thread.
See Also buffer pool, dirty page, flush, insert buffer, page cleaner, thread.
MDL
Acronym for "metadata lock".
See Also metadata lock.
memcached
A popular component of many MySQL and NoSQL software stacks, allowing fast reads and writes for single
values and caching the results entirely in memory. Traditionally, applications required extra logic to write the
same data to a MySQL database for permanent storage, or to read data from a MySQL database when it was not
cached yet in memory. Now, applications can use the simple memcached protocol, supported by client libraries
for many languages, to communicate directly with MySQL servers using InnoDB or MySQL Cluster tables. These
NoSQL interfaces to MySQL tables allow applications to achieve higher read and write performance than by
issuing SQL commands directly, and can simplify application logic and deployment configurations for systems that
already incorporated memcached for in-memory caching.
The memcached interface to InnoDB tables is available in MySQL 5.6 and higher; see InnoDB Integration with
memcached for details. The memcached interface to MySQL Cluster tables is available in MySQL Cluster 7.2;
see http://dev.mysql.com/doc/ndbapi/en/ndbmemcache.html for details.
See Also InnoDB, NoSQL.
merge
To apply changes to data cached in memory, such as when a page is brought into the buffer pool, and any
applicable changes recorded in the change buffer are incorporated into the page in the buffer pool. The updated
data is eventually written to the tablespace by the flush mechanism.
See Also buffer pool, change buffer, flush, tablespace.
metadata lock
A type of lock that prevents DDL operations on a table that is being used at the same time by another
transaction. For details, see Metadata Locking.
Enhancements to online operations, particularly in MySQL 5.6 and higher, are focused on reducing the amount
of metadata locking. The objective is for DDL operations that do not change the table structure (such as CREATE
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INDEX and DROP INDEX for InnoDB tables) to proceed while the table is being queried, updated, and so on by
other transactions.
See Also DDL, lock, online, transaction.
metrics counter
A feature implemented by the innodb_metrics table in the information_schema, in MySQL 5.6 and higher.
You can query counts and totals for low-level InnoDB operations, and use the results for performance tuning in
combination with data from the performance_schema.
See Also counter, INFORMATION_SCHEMA, Performance Schema.
midpoint insertion strategy
The technique of initially bringing pages into the InnoDB buffer pool not at the "newest" end of the list,
but instead somewhere in the middle. The exact location of this point can vary, based on the setting of the
innodb_old_blocks_pct option. The intent is that blocks that are only read once, such as during a full table
scan, can be aged out of the buffer pool sooner than with a strict LRU algorithm.
See Also buffer pool, full table scan, LRU, page.
mini-transaction
An internal phase of InnoDB processing, when making changes at the physical level to internal data structures
during DML operations. A mini-transaction has no notion of rollback; multiple mini-transactions can occur within
a single transaction. Mini-transactions write information to the redo log that is used during crash recovery.
A mini-transaction can also happen outside the context of a regular transaction, for example during purge
processing by background threads.
See Also commit, crash recovery, DML, physical, purge, redo log, rollback, transaction.
mixed-mode insert
An INSERT statement where auto-increment values are specified for some but not all of the new rows. For
example, a multi-value INSERT could specify a value for the auto-increment column in some cases and NULL
in other cases. InnoDB generates auto-increment values for the rows where the column value was specified as
NULL. Another example is an INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE statement, where auto-increment
values might be generated but not used, for any duplicate rows that are processed as UPDATE rather than
INSERT statements.
Can cause consistency issues between master and slave servers in a replication configuration. Can require
adjusting the value of the innodb_autoinc_lock_mode configuration option.
See Also auto-increment, innodb_autoinc_lock_mode, master server, replication, slave server.
multi-core
A type of processor that can take advantage of multi-threaded programs, such as the MySQL server.
multiversion concurrency control
See MVCC.
mutex
Informal abbreviation for "mutex variable". (Mutex itself is short for "mutual exclusion".) The low-level object that
InnoDB uses to represent and enforce exclusive-access locks to internal in-memory data structures. Once the
lock is acquired, any other process, thread, and so on is prevented from acquiring the same lock. Contrast with
rw-locks, which allow shared access. Mutexes and rw-locks are known collectively as latches.
See Also latch, lock, Performance Schema, Pthreads, rw-lock.
MVCC
Acronym for "multiversion concurrency control". This technique lets InnoDB transactions with certain isolation
levels to perform consistent read operations; that is, to query rows that are being updated by other transactions,
and see the values from before those updates occurred. This is a powerful technique to increase concurrency,
by allowing queries to proceed without waiting due to locks held by the other transactions.
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This technique is not universal in the database world. Some other database products, and some other MySQL
storage engines, do not support it.
See Also ACID, concurrency, consistent read, isolation level, lock, transaction.
my.cnf
The name, on UNIX or Linux systems, of the MySQL option file.
See Also my.ini, option file.
my.ini
The name, on Windows systems, of the MySQL option file.
See Also my.cnf, option file.
mysql
The mysql program is the command-line interpreter for the MySQL database. It processes SQL statements, and
also MySQL-specific commands such as SHOW TABLES, by passing requests to the mysqld daemon.
See Also mysqld, SQL.
MySQL Enterprise Backup
A licensed product that performs hot backups of MySQL databases. It offers the most efficiency and flexibility
when backing up InnoDB tables, but can also back up MyISAM and other kinds of tables.
See Also hot backup, InnoDB.
mysqlbackup command
A command-line tool of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product. It performs a hot backup operation for InnoDB
tables, and a warm backup for MyISAM and other kinds of tables. See MySQL Enterprise Backup for more
information about this command.
See Also hot backup, MySQL Enterprise Backup, warm backup.
mysqld
The mysqld program is the database engine for the MySQL database. It runs as a UNIX daemon or Windows
service, constantly waiting for requests and performing maintenance work in the background.
See Also mysql.
mysqldump
A command that performs a logical backup of some combination of databases, tables, and table data. The
results are SQL statements that reproduce the original schema objects, data, or both. For substantial amounts
of data, a physical backup solution such as MySQL Enterprise Backup is faster, particularly for the restore
operation.
See Also logical backup, MySQL Enterprise Backup, physical backup, restore.
N
natural key
A indexed column, typically a primary key, where the values have some real-world significance. Usually advised
against because:
• If the value should ever change, there is potentially a lot of index maintenance to re-sort the clustered index
and update the copies of the primary key value that are repeated in each secondary index.
• Even seemingly stable values can change in unpredictable ways that are difficult to represent correctly in the
database. For example, one country can change into two or several, making the original country code obsolete.
Or, rules about unique values might have exceptions. For example, even if taxpayer IDs are intended to be
unique to a single person, a database might have to handle records that violate that rule, such as in cases of
identity theft. Taxpayer IDs and other sensitive ID numbers also make poor primary keys, because they may
need to be secured, encrypted, and otherwise treated differently than other columns.
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Thus, it is typically better to use arbitrary numeric values to form a synthetic key, for example using an autoincrement column.
See Also auto-increment, primary key, secondary index, synthetic key.
neighbor page
Any page in the same extent as a particular page. When a page is selected to be flushed, any neighbor pages
that are dirty are typically flushed as well, as an I/O optimization for traditional hard disks. In MySQL 5.6 and up,
this behavior can be controlled by the configuration variable innodb_flush_neighbors; you might turn that
setting off for SSD drives, which do not have the same overhead for writing smaller batches of data at random
locations.
See Also dirty page, extent, flush, page.
next-key lock
A combination of a record lock on the index record and a gap lock on the gap before the index record.
See Also gap lock, locking, record lock.
non-blocking I/O
An industry term that means the same as asynchronous I/O.
See Also asynchronous I/O.
non-locking read
A query that does not use the SELECT ... FOR UPDATE or SELECT ... LOCK IN SHARE MODE clauses.
The only kind of query allowed for global tables in a read-only transaction. The opposite of a locking read.
See Also locking read, query, read-only transaction.
non-repeatable read
The situation when a query retrieves data, and a later query within the same transaction retrieves what should
be the same data, but the queries return different results (changed by another transaction committing in the
meantime).
This kind of operation goes against the ACID principle of database design. Within a transaction, data should be
consistent, with predictable and stable relationships.
Among different isolation levels, non-repeatable reads are prevented by the serializable read and repeatable
read levels, and allowed by the consistent read, and read uncommitted levels.
See Also ACID, consistent read, isolation level, READ UNCOMMITTED, REPEATABLE READ, SERIALIZABLE,
transaction.
normalized
A database design strategy where data is split into multiple tables, and duplicate values condensed into single
rows represented by an ID, to avoid storing, querying, and updating redundant or lengthy values. It is typically
used in OLTP applications.
For example, an address might be given a unique ID, so that a census database could represent the relationship
lives at this address by associating that ID with each member of a family, rather than storing multiple copies of a
complex value such as 123 Main Street, Anytown, USA.
For another example, although a simple address book application might store each phone number in the same
table as a person's name and address, a phone company database might give each phone number a special
ID, and store the numbers and IDs in a separate table. This normalized representation could simplify large-scale
updates when area codes split apart.
Normalization is not always recommended. Data that is primarily queried, and only updated by deleting
entirely and reloading, is often kept in fewer, larger tables with redundant copies of duplicate values. This data
representation is referred to as denormalized, and is frequently found in data warehousing applications.
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See Also denormalized, foreign key, OLTP, relational.
NoSQL
A broad term for a set of data access technologies that do not use the SQL language as their primary
mechanism for reading and writing data. Some NoSQL technologies act as key-value stores, only accepting
single-value reads and writes; some relax the restrictions of the ACID methodology; still others do not require
a pre-planned schema. MySQL users can combine NoSQL-style processing for speed and simplicity with SQL
operations for flexibility and convenience, by using the memcached API to directly access some kinds of MySQL
tables. The memcached interface to InnoDB tables is available in MySQL 5.6 and higher; see InnoDB Integration
with memcached for details. The memcached interface to MySQL Cluster tables is available in MySQL Cluster
7.2; see http://dev.mysql.com/doc/ndbapi/en/ndbmemcache.html for details.
See Also ACID, InnoDB, memcached, schema, SQL.
NOT NULL constraint
A type of constraint that specifies that a column cannot contain any NULL values. It helps to preserve
referential integrity, as the database server can identify data with erroneous missing values. It also helps in the
arithmetic involved in query optimization, allowing the optimizer to predict the number of entries in an index on
that column.
See Also column, constraint, NULL, primary key, referential integrity.
NULL
A special value in SQL, indicating the absence of data. Any arithmetic operation or equality test involving a
NULL value, in turn produces a NULL result. (Thus it is similar to the IEEE floating-point concept of NaN, "not a
number".) Any aggregate calculation such as AVG() ignores rows with NULL values, when determining how many
rows to divide by. The only test that works with NULL values uses the SQL idioms IS NULL or IS NOT NULL.
NULL values play a part in index operations, because for performance a database must minimize the overhead
of keeping track of missing data values. Typically, NULL values are not stored in an index, because a query that
tests an indexed column using a standard comparison operator could never match a row with a NULL value for
that column. For the same reason, unique indexes do not prevent NULL values; those values simply are not
represented in the index. Declaring a NOT NULL constraint on a column provides reassurance that there are
no rows left out of the index, allowing for better query optimization (accurate counting of rows and estimation of
whether to use the index).
Because the primary key must be able to uniquely identify every row in the table, a single-column primary key
cannot contain any NULL values, and a multi-column primary key cannot contain any rows with NULL values in all
columns.
Although the Oracle database allows a NULL value to be concatenated with a string, InnoDB treats the result of
such an operation as NULL.
See Also index, primary key, SQL.
O
.OPT file
A file containing database configuration information. Files with this extension are always included in backups
produced by the mysqlbackup command of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product.
See Also MySQL Enterprise Backup, mysqlbackup command.
off-page column
A column containing variable-length data (such as BLOB and VARCHAR) that is too long to fit on a B-tree page.
The data is stored in overflow pages. The DYNAMIC row format in the InnoDB Barracuda file format is more
efficient for such storage than the older COMPACT row format.
See Also B-tree, Barracuda, overflow page.
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OLTP
Acronym for "Online Transaction Processing". A database system, or a database application, that runs a
workload with many transactions, with frequent writes as well as reads, typically affecting small amounts of data
at a time. For example, an airline reservation system or an application that processes bank deposits. The data
might be organized in normalized form for a balance between DML (insert/update/delete) efficiency and query
efficiency. Contrast with data warehouse.
With its row-level locking and transactional capability, InnoDB is the ideal storage engine for MySQL tables
used in OLTP applications.
See Also data warehouse, DML, InnoDB, query, row lock, transaction.
online
A type of operation that involves no downtime, blocking, or restricted operation for the database. Typically
applied to DDL. Operations that shorten the periods of restricted operation, such as fast index creation, have
evolved into a wider set of online DDL operations in MySQL 5.6.
In the context of backups, a hot backup is an online operation and a warm backup is partially an online
operation.
See Also DDL, Fast Index Creation, hot backup, online DDL, warm backup.
online DDL
A feature that improves the performance, concurrency, and availability of InnoDB tables during DDL (primarily
ALTER TABLE) operations. See InnoDB and Online DDL for details.
The details vary according to the type of operation. In some cases, the table can be modified concurrently
while the ALTER TABLE is in progress. The operation might be able to be performed without doing
a table copy, or using a specially optimized type of table copy. Space usage is controlled by the
innodb_online_alter_log_max_size configuration option.
This feature is an enhancement of the Fast Index Creation feature in MySQL 5.5 and the InnoDB Plugin for
MySQL 5.1.
See Also DDL, Fast Index Creation, online.
optimistic
A methodology that guides low-level implementation decisions for a relational database system. The
requirements of performance and concurrency in a relational database mean that operations must be started or
dispatched quickly. The requirements of consistency and referential integrity mean that any operation could fail:
a transaction might be rolled back, a DML operation could violate a constraint, a request for a lock could cause
a deadlock, a network error could cause a timeout. An optimistic strategy is one that assumes most requests or
attempts will succeed, so that relatively little work is done to prepare for the failure case. When this assumption is
true, the database does little unnecessary work; when requests do fail, extra work must be done to clean up and
undo changes.
InnoDB uses optimistic strategies for operations such as locking and commits. For example, data changed by
a transaction can be written to the data files before the commit occurs, making the commit itself very fast, but
requiring more work to undo the changes if the transaction is rolled back.
The opposite of an optimistic strategy is a pessimistic one, where a system is optimized to deal with operations
that are unreliable and frequently unsuccessful. This methodology is rare in a database system, because so much
care goes into choosing reliable hardware, networks, and algorithms.
See Also commit, concurrency, DML, locking, pessimistic.
optimizer
The MySQL component that determines the best indexes and join order to use for a query, based on
characteristics and data distribution of the relevant tables.
See Also index, join, query, table.
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option
A configuration parameter for MySQL, either stored in the option file or passed on the command line.
For the options that apply to InnoDB tables, each option name starts with the prefix innodb_.
See Also InnoDB, option file.
option file
The file that holds the configuration options for the MySQL instance. Traditionally, on Linux and UNIX this file is
named my.cnf, and on Windows it is named my.ini.
See Also configuration file, my.cnf, option.
overflow page
Separately allocated disk pages that hold variable-length columns (such as BLOB and VARCHAR) that are too
long to fit on a B-tree page. The associated columns are known as off-page columns.
See Also B-tree, off-page column, page.
P
.PAR file
A file containing partition definitions. Files with this extension are always included in backups produced by the
mysqlbackup command of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product.
See Also MySQL Enterprise Backup, mysqlbackup command.
page
A unit representing how much data InnoDB transfers at any one time between disk (the data files) and memory
(the buffer pool). A page can contain one or more rows, depending on how much data is in each row. If a
row does not fit entirely into a single page, InnoDB sets up additional pointer-style data structures so that the
information about the row can be stored in one page.
One way to fit more data in each page is to use compressed row format. For tables that use BLOBs or large text
fields, compact row format allows those large columns to be stored separately from the rest of the row, reducing
I/O overhead and memory usage for queries that do not reference those columns.
When InnoDB reads or writes sets of pages as a batch to increase I/O throughput, it reads or writes an extent at
a time.
All the InnoDB disk data structures within a MySQL instance share the same page size.
See Also buffer pool, compact row format, compressed row format, data files, extent, page size, row.
page cleaner
An InnoDB background thread that flushes dirty pages from the buffer pool. Prior to MySQL 5.6, this activity
was performed by the master thread
See Also buffer pool, dirty page, flush, master thread, thread.
page size
For releases up to and including MySQL 5.5, the size of each InnoDB page is fixed at 16 kilobytes. This value
represents a balance: large enough to hold the data for most rows, yet small enough to minimize the performance
overhead of transferring unneeded data to memory. Other values are not tested or supported.
Starting in MySQL 5.6, the page size for an InnoDB instance can be either 4KB, 8KB, or 16KB, controlled by the
innodb_page_size configuration option. You set the size when creating the MySQL instance, and it remains
constant afterwards. The same page size applies to all InnoDB tablespaces, both the system tablespace and
any separate tablespaces created in file-per-table mode.
Smaller page sizes can help performance with storage devices that use small block sizes, particularly for SSD
devices in disk-bound workloads, such as for OLTP applications. As individual rows are updated, less data is
copied into memory, written to disk, reorganized, locked, and so on.
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See Also disk-bound, file-per-table, instance, OLTP, page, SSD, system tablespace, tablespace.
parent table
The table in a foreign key relationship that holds the initial column values pointed to from the child table. The
consequences of deleting, or updating rows in the parent table depend on the ON UPDATE and ON DELETE
clauses in the foreign key definition. Rows with corresponding values in the child table could be automatically
deleted or updated in turn, or those columns could be set to NULL, or the operation could be prevented.
See Also child table, foreign key.
partial backup
A backup that contains some of the tables in a MySQL database, or some of the databases in a MySQL
instance. Contrast with full backup.
See Also backup, full backup, table.
partial index
An index that represents only part of a column value, typically the first N characters (the prefix) of a long
VARCHAR value.
See Also index, index prefix.
Performance Schema
The performance_schema schema, in MySQL 5.5 and up, presents a set of tables that you can query to get
detailed information about the performance characteristics of many internal parts of the MySQL server.
See Also latch, mutex, rw-lock.
persistent statistics
A feature in MySQL 5.6 that stores index statistics for InnoDB tables on disk, providing better plan stability for
queries.
See Also index, optimizer, plan stability, query, table.
pessimistic
A methodology that sacrifices performance or concurrency in favor of safety. It is appropriate if a high proportion
of requests or attempts might fail, or if the consequences of a failed request are severe. InnoDB uses what is
known as a pessimistic locking strategy, to minimize the chance of deadlocks. At the application level, you
might avoid deadlocks by using a pessimistic strategy of acquiring all locks needed by a transaction at the very
beginning.
Many built-in database mechanisms use the opposite optimistic methodology.
See Also deadlock, locking, optimistic.
phantom
A row that appears in the result set of a query, but not in the result set of an earlier query. For example, if a query
is run twice within a transaction, and in the meantime, another transaction commits after inserting a new row or
updating a row so that it matches the WHERE clause of the query.
This occurrence is known as a phantom read. It is harder to guard against than a non-repeatable read, because
locking all the rows from the first query result set does not prevent the changes that cause the phantom to appear.
Among different isolation levels, phantom reads are prevented by the serializable read level, and allowed by
the repeatable read, consistent read, and read uncommitted levels.
See Also consistent read, isolation level, non-repeatable read, READ UNCOMMITTED, REPEATABLE READ,
SERIALIZABLE, transaction.
physical
A type of operation that involves hardware-related aspects such as disk blocks, memory pages, files, bits, disk
reads, and so on. Typically, physical aspects are important during expert-level performance tuning and problem
diagnosis. Contrast with logical.
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See Also logical, physical backup.
physical backup
A backup that copies the actual data files. For example, the mysqlbackup command of the MySQL Enterprise
Backup product produces a physical backup, because its output contains data files that can be used directly by
the mysqld server, resulting in a faster restore operation. Contrast with logical backup.
See Also backup, logical backup, MySQL Enterprise Backup, restore.
PITR
Acronym for point-in-time recovery.
See Also point-in-time recovery.
plan stability
A property of a query execution plan, where the optimizer makes the same choices each time for a given
query, so that performance is consistent and predictable.
See Also query, query execution plan.
plugin
In MySQL 5.1 and earlier, a separately installable form of the InnoDB storage engine that includes features and
performance enhancements not included in the built-in InnoDB for those releases.
For MySQL 5.5 and higher, the MySQL distribution includes the very latest InnoDB features and performance
enhancements, known as InnoDB 1.1, and there is no longer a separate InnoDB Plugin.
This distinction is important mainly in MySQL 5.1, where a feature or bug fix might apply to the InnoDB Plugin but
not the built-in InnoDB, or vice versa.
See Also built-in, InnoDB.
point-in-time recovery
The process of restoring a backup to recreate the state of the database at a specific date and time. Commonly
abbreviated PITR. Because it is unlikely that the specified time corresponds exactly to the time of a backup, this
technique usually requires a combination of a physical backup and a logical backup. For example, with the
MySQL Enterprise Backup product, you restore the last backup that you took before the specified point in time,
then replay changes from the binary log between the time of the backup and the PITR time.
See Also backup, logical backup, MySQL Enterprise Backup, physical backup, PITR.
prefix
See index prefix.
prepared backup
A set of backup files, produced by the MySQL Enterprise Backup product, after all the stages of applying
binary logs and incremental backups are finished. The resulting files are ready to be restored. Prior to the
apply steps, the files are known as a raw backup.
See Also binary log, hot backup, incremental backup, MySQL Enterprise Backup, raw backup, restore.
primary key
A set of columns -- and by implication, the index based on this set of columns -- that can uniquely identify every
row in a table. As such, it must be a unique index that does not contain any NULL values.
InnoDB requires that every table has such an index (also called the clustered index or cluster index), and
organizes the table storage based on the column values of the primary key.
When choosing primary key values, consider using arbitrary values (a synthetic key) rather than relying on
values derived from some other source (a natural key).
See Also clustered index, index, natural key, synthetic key.
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process
An instance of an executing program. The operating system switches between multiple running processes,
allowing for a certain degree of concurrency. On most operating systems, processes can contain multiple
threads of execution that share resources. Context-switching between threads is faster than the equivalent
switching between processes.
See Also concurrency, thread.
pseudo-record
An artificial record in an index, used for locking key values or ranges that do not currently exist.
See Also infimum record, locking, supremum record.
Pthreads
The POSIX threads standard, which defines an API for threading and locking operations on UNIX and Linux
systems. On UNIX and Linux systems, InnoDB uses this implementation for mutexes.
See Also mutex.
purge
A type of garbage collection performed by a separate thread, running on a periodic schedule. The purge includes
these actions: removing obsolete values from indexes; physically removing rows that were marked for deletion by
previous DELETE statements.
See Also crash recovery, delete, doublewrite buffer.
purge buffering
The technique of storing index changes due to DELETE operations in the insert buffer rather than writing them
immediately, so that the physical writes can be performed to minimize random I/O. (Because delete operations
are a two-step process, this operation buffers the write that normally purges an index record that was previously
marked for deletion.) It is one of the types of change buffering; the others are insert buffering. and delete
buffering
See Also change buffer, change buffering, delete buffering, insert buffer, insert buffering.
purge lag
Another name for the InnoDB history list. Related to the innodb_max_purge_lag configuration option.
See Also history list, purge.
purge thread
A thread within the InnoDB process that is dedicated to performing the periodic purge operation. In MySQL 5.6
and higher, multiple purge threads are enabled by the innodb_purge_threads configuration option.
See Also purge, thread.
Q
query
In SQL, an operation that reads information from one or more tables. Depending on the organization of data and
the parameters of the query, the lookup might be optimized by consulting an index. If multiple tables are involved,
the query is known as a join.
For historical reasons, sometimes discussions of internal processing for statements use "query" in a broader
sense, including other types of MySQL statements such as DDL and DML statements.
See Also DDL, DML, index, join, SQL, table.
query execution plan
The set of decisions made by the optimizer about how to perform a query most efficiently, including which index
or indexes to use, and the order in which to join tables. Plan stability involves the same choices being made
consistently for a given query.
See Also index, join, plan stability, query.
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query log
See general query log.
quiesce
To reduce the amount of database activity, often in preparation for an operation such as an ALTER TABLE, a
backup, or a shutdown. Might or might not involve doing as much flushing as possible, so that InnoDB does
not continue doing background I/O.
In MySQL 5.6 and higher, the syntax FLUSH TABLES ... FOR EXPORT writes some data to disk for InnoDB
tables that make it simpler to back up those tables by copying the data files.
See Also backup, flush, InnoDB, shutdown.
R
RAID
Acronym for "Redundant Array of Inexpensive Drives". Spreading I/O operations across multiple drives enables
greater concurrency at the hardware level, and improves the efficiency of low-level write operations that
otherwise would be performed in sequence.
See Also concurrency.
random dive
A technique for quickly estimating the number of different values in a column (the column's cardinality). InnoDB
samples pages at random from the index and uses that data to estimate the number of different values. This
operation occurs when each table is first opened.
Originally, the number of sampled pages was fixed at 8; now, it is determined by the setting of the
innodb_stats_sample_pages parameter.
The way the random pages are picked depends on the setting of the innodb_use_legacy_cardinality_algorithm
parameter. The default setting (OFF) has better randomness than in older releases.
See Also cardinality.
raw backup
The initial set of backup files produced by the MySQL Enterprise Backup product, before the changes reflected
in the binary log and any incremental backups are applied. At this stage, the files are not ready to restore.
After these changes are applied, the files are known as a prepared backup.
See Also binary log, hot backup, ibbackup_logfile, incremental backup, MySQL Enterprise Backup, prepared
backup, restore.
READ COMMITTED
An isolation level that uses a locking strategy that relaxes some of the protection between transactions, in
the interest of performance. Transactions cannot see uncommitted data from other transactions, but they can see
data that is committed by another transaction after the current transaction started. Thus, a transaction never sees
any bad data, but the data that it does see may depend to some extent on the timing of other transactions.
When a transaction with this isolation level performs UPDATE ... WHERE or DELETE ... WHERE operations,
other transactions might have to wait. The transaction can perform SELECT ... FOR UPDATE, and LOCK IN
SHARE MODE operations without making other transactions wait.
See Also ACID, isolation level, locking, REPEATABLE READ, SERIALIZABLE, transaction.
READ UNCOMMITTED
The isolation level that provides the least amount of protection between transactions. Queries employ a
locking strategy that allows them to proceed in situations where they would normally wait for another transaction.
However, this extra performance comes at the cost of less reliable results, including data that has been changed
by other transactions and not committed yet (known as dirty read). Use this isolation level only with great caution,
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and be aware that the results might not be consistent or reproducible, depending on what other transactions
are doing at the same time. Typically, transactions with this isolation level do only queries, not insert, update, or
delete operations.
See Also ACID, dirty read, isolation level, locking, transaction.
read view
An internal snapshot used by the MVCC mechanism of InnoDB. Certain transactions, depending on their
isolation level, see the data values as they were at the time the transaction (or in some cases, the statement)
started. Isolation levels that use a read view are REPEATABLE READ, READ COMMITTED, and READ
UNCOMMITTED.
See Also isolation level, MVCC, READ COMMITTED, READ UNCOMMITTED, REPEATABLE READ,
transaction.
read-ahead
A type of I/O request that prefetches a group of pages (an entire extent) into the buffer pool asynchronously,
in anticipation that these pages will be needed soon. The linear read-ahead technique prefetches all the pages
of one extent based on access patterns for pages in the preceding extent, and is part of all MySQL versions
starting with the InnoDB Plugin for MySQL 5.1. The random read-ahead technique prefetches all the pages for
an extent once a certain number of pages from the same extent are in the buffer pool. Random read-ahead is not
part of MySQL 5.5, but is re-introduced in MySQL 5.6 under the control of the innodb_random_read_ahead
configuration option.
See Also buffer pool, extent, page.
read-only transaction
A type of transaction that can be optimized for InnoDB tables by eliminating some of the bookkeeping involved
with creating a read view for each transaction. Can only perform non-locking read queries. It can be started
explicitly with the syntax START TRANSACTION READ ONLY, or automatically under certain conditions. See
Optimizations for Read-Only Transactions for details.
See Also non-locking read, read view, transaction.
record lock
A lock on an index record. For example, SELECT c1 FOR UPDATE FROM t WHERE c1 = 10; prevents any
other transaction from inserting, updating, or deleting rows where the value of t.c1 is 10. Contrast with gap lock
and next-key lock.
See Also gap lock, lock, next-key lock.
redo
The data, in units of records, recorded in the redo log when DML statements make changes to InnoDB tables.
It is used during crash recovery to correct data written by incomplete transactions. The ever-increasing LSN
value represents the cumulative amount of redo data that has passed through the redo log.
See Also crash recovery, DML, LSN, redo log, transaction.
redo log
A disk-based data structure used during crash recovery, to correct data written by incomplete transactions.
During normal operation, it encodes requests to change InnoDB table data, which result from SQL statements or
low-level API calls through NoSQL interfaces. Modifications that did not finish updating the data files before an
unexpected shutdown are replayed automatically.
The redo log is physically represented as a set of files, typically named ib_logfile0 and ib_logfile1. The
data in the redo log is encoded in terms of records affected; this data is collectively referred to as redo. The
passage of data through the redo logs is represented by the ever-increasing LSN value. The original 4GB limit on
maximum size for the redo log is raised to 512GB in MySQL 5.6.3.
The disk layout of the redo log is influenced by the configuration options innodb_log_file_size,
innodb_log_group_home_dir, and (rarely) innodb_log_files_in_group. The performance of redo
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log operations is also affected by the log buffer, which is controlled by the innodb_log_buffer_size
configuration option.
See Also crash recovery, data files, ib_logfile, log buffer, LSN, redo, shutdown, transaction.
redundant row format
The oldest InnoDB row format, available for tables using the Antelope file format. Prior to MySQL 5.0.3, it was
the only row format available in InnoDB. In My SQL 5.0.3 and later, the default is compact row format. You can
still specify redundant row format for compatibility with older InnoDB tables.
For additional information about InnoDB REDUNDANT row format, see Section 5.4, “COMPACT and REDUNDANT
Row Formats”.
See Also Antelope, compact row format, file format, row format.
referential integrity
The technique of maintaining data always in a consistent format, part of the ACID philosophy. In particular, data
in different tables is kept consistent through the use of foreign key constraints, which can prevent changes
from happening or automatically propagate those changes to all related tables. Related mechanisms include
the unique constraint, which prevents duplicate values from being inserted by mistake, and the NOT NULL
constraint, which prevents blank values from being inserted by mistake.
See Also ACID, FOREIGN KEY constraint, NOT NULL constraint, unique constraint.
relational
An important aspect of modern database systems. The database server encodes and enforces relationships
such as one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and uniqueness. For example, a person might have zero, one,
or many phone numbers in an address database; a single phone number might be associated with several family
members. In a financial database, a person might be required to have exactly one taxpayer ID, and any taxpayer
ID could only be associated with one person.
The database server can use these relationships to prevent bad data from being inserted, and to find efficient
ways to look up information. For example, if a value is declared to be unique, the server can stop searching as
soon as the first match is found, and it can reject attempts to insert a second copy of the same value.
At the database level, these relationships are expressed through SQL features such as columns within a table,
unique and NOT NULL constraints, foreign keys, and different kinds of join operations. Complex relationships
typically involve data split between more than one table. Often, the data is normalized, so that duplicate values in
one-to-many relationships are stored only once.
In a mathematical context, the relations within a database are derived from set theory. For example, the OR and
AND operators of a WHERE clause represent the notions of union and intersection.
See Also ACID, constraint, foreign key, normalized.
relevance
In the full-text search feature, a number signifying the similarity between the search string and the data in the
FULLTEXT index. For example, when you search for a single word, that word is typically more relevant for a row
where if it occurs several times in the text than a row where it appears only once.
See Also full-text search, FULLTEXT index.
REPEATABLE READ
The default isolation level for InnoDB. It prevents any rows that are queried from being changed by other
transactions, thus blocking non-repeatable reads but not phantom reads. It uses a moderately strict locking
strategy so that all queries within a transaction see data from the same snapshot, that is, the data as it was at the
time the transaction started.
When a transaction with this isolation level performs UPDATE ... WHERE, DELETE ... WHERE, SELECT ...
FOR UPDATE, and LOCK IN SHARE MODE operations, other transactions might have to wait.
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See Also ACID, consistent read, isolation level, locking, phantom, SERIALIZABLE, transaction.
replication
The practice of sending changes from a master database, to one or more slave databases, so that all
databases have the same data. This technique has a wide range of uses, such as load-balancing for better
scalability, disaster recovery, and testing software upgrades and configuration changes. The changes can be sent
between the database by methods called row-based replication and statement-based replication.
See Also row-based replication, statement-based replication.
restore
The process of putting a set of backup files from the MySQL Enterprise Backup product in place for use by
MySQL. This operation can be performed to fix a corrupted database, to return to some earlier point in time, or (in
a replication context) to set up a new slave database. In the MySQL Enterprise Backup product, this operation
is performed by the copy-back option of the mysqlbackup command.
See Also hot backup, MySQL Enterprise Backup, mysqlbackup command, prepared backup, replication.
rollback
A SQL statement that ends a transaction, undoing any changes made by the transaction. It is the opposite of
commit, which makes permanent any changes made in the transaction.
By default, MySQL uses the autocommit setting, which automatically issues a commit following each SQL
statement. You must change this setting before you can use the rollback technique.
See Also ACID, commit, transaction.
rollback segment
The storage area containing the undo log, part of the system tablespace.
See Also system tablespace, undo log.
row
The logical data structure defined by a set of columns. A set of rows makes up a table. Within InnoDB data
files, each page can contain one or more rows.
Although InnoDB uses the term row format for consistency with MySQL syntax, the row format is a property of
each table and applies to all rows in that table.
See Also column, data files, page, row format, table.
row format
The disk storage format for a row from an InnoDB table. As InnoDB gains new capabilities such as compression,
new row formats are introduced to support the resulting improvements in storage efficiency and performance.
Each table has its own row format, specified through the ROW_FORMAT option. To see the row format for
each InnoDB table, issue the command SHOW TABLE STATUS. Because all the tables in the system
tablespace share the same row format, to take advantage of other row formats typically requires setting the
innodb_file_per_table option, so that each table is stored in a separate tablespace.
See Also compact row format, compressed row format, dynamic row format, fixed row format, redundant row
format, row, table.
row lock
A lock that prevents a row from being accessed in an incompatible way by another transaction. Other rows in
the same table can be freely written to by other transactions. This is the type of locking done by DML operations
on InnoDB tables.
Contrast with table locks used by MyISAM, or during DDL operations on InnoDB tables that cannot be done with
online DDL; those locks block concurrent access to the table.
See Also DDL, DML, InnoDB, lock, locking, online DDL, table lock, transaction.
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row-based replication
A form of replication where events are propagated from the master server specifying how to change individual
rows on the slave server. It is safe to use for all settings of the innodb_autoinc_lock_mode option.
See Also auto-increment locking, innodb_autoinc_lock_mode, master server, replication, slave server, statementbased replication.
row-level locking
The locking mechanism used for InnoDB tables, relying on row locks rather than table locks. Multiple
transactions can modify the same table concurrently. Only if two transactions try to modify the same row does
one of the transactions wait for the other to complete (and release its row locks).
See Also InnoDB, locking, row lock, table lock, transaction.
rw-lock
The low-level object that InnoDB uses to represent and enforce shared-access locks to internal in-memory data
structures. Once the lock is acquired, any other process, thread, and so on can read the data structure, but no
one else can write to it. Contrast with mutexes, which enforce exclusive access. Mutexes and rw-locks are known
collectively as latches.
See Also latch, lock, mutex, Performance Schema.
S
savepoint
Savepoints help to implement nested transactions. They can be used to provide scope to operations on tables
that are part of a larger transaction. For example, scheduling a trip in a reservation system might involve booking
several different flights; if a desired flight is unavailable, you might roll back the changes involved in booking that
one leg, without rolling back the earlier flights that were successfully booked.
See Also rollback, transaction.
scalability
The ability to add more work and issue more simultaneous requests to a system, without a sudden drop in
performance due to exceeding the limits of system capacity. Software architecture, hardware configuration,
application coding, and type of workload all play a part in scalability. When the system reaches its maximum
capacity, popular techniques for increasing scalability are scale up (increasing the capacity of existing hardware
or software) and scale out (adding new servers and more instances of MySQL). Often paired with availability as
critical aspects of a large-scale deployment.
See Also availability, scale out, scale up.
scale out
A technique for increasing scalability by adding new servers and more instances of MySQL. For example,
setting up replication, MySQL Cluster, connection pooling, or other features that spread work across a group of
servers. Contrast with scale up.
See Also scalability, scale up.
scale up
A technique for increasing scalability by increasing the capacity of existing hardware or software.
For example, increasing the memory on a server and adjusting memory-related parameters such as
innodb_buffer_pool_size and innodb_buffer_pool_instances. Contrast with scale out.
See Also scalability, scale out.
schema
Conceptually, a schema is a set of interrelated database objects, such as tables, table columns, data types
of the columns, indexes, foreign keys, and so on. These objects are connected through SQL syntax, because
the columns make up the tables, the foreign keys refer to tables and columns, and so on. Ideally, they are also
connected logically, working together as part of a unified application or flexible framework. For example, the
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information_schema and performance_schema databases use "schema" in their names to emphasize the
close relationships between the tables and columns they contain.
In MySQL, physically, a schema is synonymous with a database. You can substitute the keyword SCHEMA
instead of DATABASE in MySQL SQL syntax, for example using CREATE SCHEMA instead of CREATE DATABASE.
Some other database products draw a distinction. For example, in the Oracle Database product, a schema
represents only a part of a database: the tables and other objects owned by a single user.
See Also database, ib-file set, INFORMATION_SCHEMA, Performance Schema.
search index
In MySQL, full-text search queries use a special kind of index, the FULLTEXT index. In MySQL 5.6.4 and up,
InnoDB and MyISAM tables both support FULLTEXT indexes; formerly, these indexes were only available for
MyISAM tables.
See Also full-text search, FULLTEXT index.
secondary index
A type of InnoDB index that represents a subset of table columns. An InnoDB table can have zero, one, or many
secondary indexes. (Contrast with the clustered index, which is required for each InnoDB table, and stores the
data for all the table columns.)
A secondary index can be used to satisfy queries that only require values from the indexed columns. For more
complex queries, it can be used to identify the relevant rows in the table, which are then retrieved through lookups
using the clustered index.
Creating and dropping secondary indexes has traditionally involved significant overhead from copying all the data
in the InnoDB table. The fast index creation feature of the InnoDB Plugin makes both CREATE INDEX and DROP
INDEX statements much faster for InnoDB secondary indexes.
See Also clustered index, Fast Index Creation, index.
segment
A division within an InnoDB tablespace. If a tablespace is analogous to a directory, the segments are analogous
to files within that directory. A segment can grow. New segments can be created.
For example, within a file-per-table tablespace, the table data is in one segment and each associated index is in
its own segment. The system tablespace contains many different segments, because it can hold many tables
and their associated indexes. The system tablespace also includes up to 128 rollback segments making up the
undo log.
Segments grow and shrink as data is inserted and deleted. When a segment needs more room, it is extended by
one extent (1 megabyte) at a time. Similarly, a segment releases one extent's worth of space when all the data in
that extent is no longer needed.
See Also extent, file-per-table, rollback segment, system tablespace, tablespace, undo log.
selectivity
A property of data distribution, the number of distinct values in a column (its cardinality) divided by the number
of records in the table. High selectivity means that the column values are relatively unique, and can retrieved
efficiently through an index. If you (or the query optimizer) can predict that a test in a WHERE clause only matches
a small number (or proportion) of rows in a table, the overall query tends to be efficient if it evaluates that test
first, using an index.
See Also cardinality, query.
semi-consistent read
A type of read operation used for UPDATE statements, that is a combination of read committed and consistent
read. When an UPDATE statement examines a row that is already locked, InnoDB returns the latest committed
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version to MySQL so that MySQL can determine whether the row matches the WHERE condition of the UPDATE. If
the row matches (must be updated), MySQL reads the row again, and this time InnoDB either locks it or waits for
a lock on it. This type of read operation can only happen when the transaction has the read committed isolation
level, or when the innodb_locks_unsafe_for_binlog option is enabled.
See Also consistent read, isolation level, READ COMMITTED.
SERIALIZABLE
The isolation level that uses the most conservative locking strategy, to prevent any other transactions from
inserting or changing data that was read by this transaction, until it is finished. This way, the same query can be
run over and over within a transaction, and be certain to retrieve the same set of results each time. Any attempt
to change data that was committed by another transaction since the start of the current transaction, cause the
current transaction to wait.
This is the default isolation level specified by the SQL standard. In practice, this degree of strictness is rarely
needed, so the default isolation level for InnoDB is the next most strict, repeatable read.
See Also ACID, consistent read, isolation level, locking, REPEATABLE READ, transaction.
server
A type of program that runs continuously, waiting to receive and act upon requests from another program (the
client). Because often an entire computer is dedicated to running one or more server programs (such as a
database server, a web server, an application server, or some combination of these), the term server can also
refer to the computer that runs the server software.
See Also client, mysqld.
shared lock
A kind of lock that allows other transactions to read the locked object, and to also acquire other shared locks on
it, but not to write to it. The opposite of exclusive lock.
See Also exclusive lock, lock, transaction.
shared tablespace
Another way of referring to the system tablespace.
See Also system tablespace.
sharp checkpoint
The process of flushing to disk all dirty buffer pool pages whose redo entries are contained in certain portion
of the redo log. Occurs before InnoDB reuses a portion of a log file; the log files are used in a circular fashion.
Typically occurs with write-intensive workloads.
See Also dirty page, flush, redo log, workload.
shutdown
The process of stopping the MySQL server. By default, this process does cleanup operations for InnoDB tables,
so it can slow to shut down, but fast to start up later. If you skip the cleanup operations, it is fast to shut down but
must do the cleanup during the next restart.
The shutdown mode is controlled by the innodb_fast_shutdown option.
See Also fast shutdown, InnoDB, slow shutdown, startup.
slave server
Frequently shortened to "slave". A database server machine in a replication scenario that receives changes
from another server (the master) and applies those same changes. Thus it maintains the same contents as the
master, although it might lag somewhat behind.
In MySQL, slave servers are commonly used in disaster recovery, to take the place of a master servers that
fails. They are also commonly used for testing software upgrades and new settings, to ensure that database
configuration changes do not cause problems with performance or reliability.
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Slave servers typically have high workloads, because they process all the DML (write) operations relayed from
the master, as well as user queries. To ensure that slave servers can apply changes from the master fast enough,
they frequently have fast I/O devices and sufficient CPU and memory to run multiple database instances on the
same slave server. For example, the master server might use hard drive storage while the slave servers use
SSDs.
See Also DML, replication, server, SSD.
slow query log
A type of log used for performance tuning of SQL statements processed by the MySQL server. The log
information is stored in a file. You must enable this feature to use it. You control which categories of "slow" SQL
statements are logged. For more information, see The Slow Query Log.
See Also general query log, log.
slow shutdown
A type of shutdown that does additional InnoDB flushing operations before completing. Also known as a
clean shutdown. Specified by the configuration parameter innodb_fast_shutdown=0 or the command SET
GLOBAL innodb_fast_shutdown=0;. Although the shutdown itself can take longer, that time will be saved on
the subsequent startup.
See Also clean shutdown, fast shutdown, shutdown.
snapshot
A representation of data at a particular time, which remains the same even as changes are committed by other
transactions. Used by certain isolation levels to allow consistent reads.
See Also commit, consistent read, isolation level, transaction.
space ID
An identifier used to uniquely identify an InnoDB tablespace within a MySQL instance. The space ID for
the system tablespace is always zero; this same ID applies to all tables within the system tablespace. Each
tablespace file created in file-per-table mode also has its own space ID.
Prior to MySQL 5.6, this hardcoded value presented difficulties in moving InnoDB tablespace files between
MySQL instances. Starting in MySQL 5.6, you can copy tablespace files between instances by using the
transportable tablespace feature involving the statements FLUSH TABLES ... FOR EXPORT, ALTER
TABLE ... DISCARD TABLESPACE, and ALTER TABLE ... IMPORT TABLESPACE. The information needed
to adjust the space ID is conveyed in the .cfg file which you copy along with the tablespace. See Improved
Tablespace Management for details.
See Also .cfg file, file-per-table, .ibd file, system tablespace, tablespace, transportable tablespace.
spin
A type of wait operation that continuously tests whether a resource becomes available. This technique is used
for resources that are typically held only for brief periods, where it is more efficient to wait in a "busy loop" than
to put the thread to sleep and perform a context switch. If the resource does not become available within a short
time, the spin loop ceases and another wait technique is used.
See Also latch, lock, mutex, wait.
SQL
The Structured Query Language that is standard for performing database operations. Often divided into the
categories DDL, DML, and queries. MySQL includes some additional statement categories such as replication.
See Language Structure for the building blocks of SQL syntax, Data Types for the data types to use for MySQL
table columns, SQL Statement Syntax for details about SQL statements and their associated categories, and
Functions and Operators for standard and MySQL-specific functions to use in queries.
See Also DDL, DML, query, replication.
SSD
Acronym for "solid-state drive". A type of storage device with different performance characteristics than a
traditional hard disk drive (HDD): smaller storage capacity, faster for random reads, no moving parts, and with
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a number of considerations affecting write performance. Its performance characteristics can influence the
throughput of a disk-bound workload.
See Also disk-bound, SSD.
startup
The process of starting the MySQL server. Typically done by one of the programs listed in MySQL Server and
Server-Startup Programs. The opposite of shutdown.
See Also shutdown.
statement-based replication
A form of replication where SQL statements are sent from the master server and replayed on the slave server.
It requires some care with the setting for the innodb_autoinc_lock_mode option, to avoid potential timing
problems with auto-increment locking.
See Also auto-increment locking, innodb_autoinc_lock_mode, master server, replication, row-based replication,
slave server.
statistics
Estimated values relating to each InnoDB table and index, used to construct an efficient query execution
plan. The main values are the cardinality (number of distinct values) and the total number of table rows or index
entries. The statistics for the table represent the data in its primary key index. The statistics for a secondary
index represent the rows covered by that index.
The values are estimated rather than counted precisely because at any moment, different transactions can be
inserting and deleting rows from the same table. To keep the values from being recalculated frequently, you can
enable persistent statistics, where the values are stored in InnoDB system tables, and refreshed only when you
issue an ANALYZE TABLE statement.
You can control how NULL values are treated when calculating statistics through the innodb_stats_method
configuration option.
Other types of statistics are available for database objects and database activity through the
INFORMATION_SCHEMA and PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA tables.
See Also cardinality, index, INFORMATION_SCHEMA, NULL, Performance Schema, persistent statistics, primary
key, query execution plan, secondary index, table, transaction.
stemming
The ability to search for different variations of a word based on a common root word, such as singular and plural,
or past, present, and future verb tense. This feature is currently supported in MyISAM full-text search feature but
not in FULLTEXT indexes for InnoDB tables.
See Also full-text search, FULLTEXT index.
stopword
In a FULLTEXT index, a word that is considered common or trivial enough that it is omitted from the search
index and ignored in search queries. Different configuration settings control stopword processing for InnoDB and
MyISAM tables. See Full-Text Stopwords for details.
See Also FULLTEXT index, search index.
storage engine
A component of the MySQL database that performs the low-level work of storing, updating, and querying data.
In MySQL 5.5 and higher, InnoDB is the default storage engine for new tables, superceding MyISAM. Different
storage engines are designed with different tradeoffs between factors such as memory usage versus disk usage,
read speed versus write speed, and speed versus robustness. Each storage engine manages specific tables, so
we refer to InnoDB tables, MyISAM tables, and so on.
The MySQL Enterprise Backup product is optimized for backing up InnoDB tables. It can also back up tables
handled by MyISAM and other storage engines.
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See Also InnoDB, MySQL Enterprise Backup, table type.
strict mode
The general name for the setting controlled by the innodb_strict_mode option. Turning on this setting causes
certain conditions that are normally treated as warnings, to be considered errors. For example, certain invalid
combinations of options related to file format and row format, that normally produce a warning and continue with
default values, now cause the CREATE TABLE operation to fail.
MySQL also has something called strict mode.
See Also file format, innodb_strict_mode, row format.
sublist
Within the list structure that represents the buffer pool, pages that are relatively old and relatively new are
represented by different portions of the list. A set of parameters control the size of these portions and the dividing
point between the new and old pages.
See Also buffer pool, eviction, list, LRU.
supremum record
A pseudo-record in an index, representing the gap above the largest value in that index. If a transaction has a
statement such as SELECT ... FOR UPDATE ... WHERE col > 10;, and the largest value in the column is
20, it is a lock on the supremum record that prevents other transactions from inserting even larger values such as
50, 100, and so on.
See Also gap, infimum record, pseudo-record.
surrogate key
Synonym name for synthetic key.
See Also synthetic key.
synthetic key
A indexed column, typically a primary key, where the values are assigned arbitrarily. Often done using an autoincrement column. By treating the value as completely arbitrary, you can avoid overly restrictive rules and faulty
application assumptions. For example, a numeric sequence representing employee numbers might have a gap if
an employee was approved for hiring but never actually joined. Or employee number 100 might have a later hiring
date than employee number 500, if they left the company and later rejoined. Numeric values also produce shorter
values of predictable length. For example, storing numeric codes meaning "Road", "Boulevard", "Expressway",
and so on is more space-efficient than repeating those strings over and over.
Also known as a surrogate key. Contrast with natural key.
See Also auto-increment, natural key, primary key, surrogate key.
system tablespace
A small set of data files (the ibdata files) containing the metadata for InnoDB-related objects (the data
dictionary), and the storage areas for the undo log, the change buffer, and the doublewrite buffer. Depending
on the setting of the innodb_file_per_table, when tables are created, it might also contain table and index
data for some or all InnoDB tables. The data and metadata in the system tablespace apply to all the databases in
a MySQL instance.
Prior to MySQL 5.6.7, the default was to keep all InnoDB tables and indexes inside the system tablespace, often
causing this file to become very large. Because the system tablespace never shrinks, storage problems could
arise if large amounts of temporary data were loaded and then deleted. In MySQL 5.6.7 and higher, the default
is file-per-table mode, where each table and its associated indexes are stored in a separate .ibd file. This new
default makes it easier to use InnoDB features that rely on the Barracuda file format, such as table compression
and the DYNAMIC row format.
In MySQL 5.6 and higher, setting a value for the innodb_undo_tablespaces option splits the undo log into
one or more separate tablespace files. These files are still considered part of the system tablespace.
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Keeping all table data in the system tablespace or in separate .ibd files has implications for storage
management in general. The MySQL Enterprise Backup product might back up a small set of large files, or
many smaller files. On systems with thousands of tables, the filesystem operations to process thousands of .ibd
files can cause bottlenecks.
See Also Barracuda, change buffer, compression, data dictionary, database, doublewrite buffer, dynamic row
format, file-per-table, .ibd file, ibdata file, innodb_file_per_table, instance, MySQL Enterprise Backup, tablespace,
undo log.
T
.TRG file
A file containing trigger parameters. Files with this extension are always included in backups produced by the
mysqlbackup command of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product.
See Also MySQL Enterprise Backup, mysqlbackup command, .TRN file.
.TRN file
A file containing trigger namespace information. Files with this extension are always included in backups
produced by the mysqlbackup command of the MySQL Enterprise Backup product.
See Also MySQL Enterprise Backup, mysqlbackup command, .TRG file.
table
Each MySQL table is associated with a particular storage engine. InnoDB tables have particular physical and
logical characteristics that affect performance, scalability, backup, administration, and application development.
In terms of file storage, each InnoDB table is either part of the single big InnoDB system tablespace, or in a
separate .ibd file if the table is created in file-per-table mode. The .ibd file holds data for the table and all its
indexes, and is known as a tablespace.
InnoDB tables created in file-per-table mode can use the Barracuda file format. Barracuda tables can use the
DYNAMIC row format or the COMPRESSED row format. These relatively new settings enable a number of
InnoDB features, such as compression, fast index creation, and off-page columns
For backward compatibility with MySQL 5.1 and earlier, InnoDB tables inside the system tablespace must use the
Antelope file format, which supports the compact row format and the redundant row format.
The rows of an InnoDB table are organized into an index structure known as the clustered index, with entries
sorted based on the primary key columns of the table. Data access is optimized for queries that filter and sort
on the primary key columns, and each index contains a copy of the associated primary key columns for each
entry. Modifying values for any of the primary key columns is an expensive operation. Thus an important aspect
of InnoDB table design is choosing a primary key with columns that are used in the most important queries, and
keeping the primary key short, with rarely changing values.
See Also Antelope, backup, Barracuda, clustered index, compact row format, compressed row format,
compression, dynamic row format, Fast Index Creation, file-per-table, .ibd file, index, off-page column, primary
key, redundant row format, row, system tablespace, tablespace.
table lock
A lock that prevents any other transaction from accessing a table. InnoDB makes considerable effort to
make such locks unnecessary, by using techniques such as online DDL, row locks and consistent reads for
processing DML statements and queries. You can create such a lock through SQL using the LOCK TABLE
statement; one of the steps in migrating from other database systems or MySQL storage engines is to remove
such statements wherever practical.
See Also consistent read, DML, lock, locking, online DDL, query, row lock, table, transaction.
table scan
See full table scan.
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table statistics
See statistics.
table type
Obsolete synonym for storage engine. We refer to InnoDB tables, MyISAM tables, and so on.
See Also InnoDB, storage engine.
tablespace
A data file that can hold data for one or more InnoDB tables and associated indexes. The system tablespace
contains the tables that make up the data dictionary, and prior to MySQL 5.6 holds all the other InnoDB tables
by default. Turning on the innodb_file_per_table option, the default in MySQL 5.6 and higher, allows newly
created tables to each have their own tablespace, with a separate data file for each table.
Using multiple tablespaces, by turning on the innodb_file_per_table option, is vital to using many MySQL
features such as table compression and transportable tablespaces, and managing disk usage. See InnoDB FilePer-Table Mode and Improved Tablespace Management for details.
Tablespaces created by the built-in InnoDB storage engine are upward compatible with the InnoDB Plugin.
Tablespaces created by the InnoDB Plugin are downward compatible with the built-in InnoDB storage engine, if
they use the Antelope file format.
MySQL Cluster also groups its tables into tablespaces. See MySQL Cluster Disk Data Objects for details.
See Also Antelope, Barracuda, compressed row format, data dictionary, data files, file-per-table, index,
innodb_file_per_table, system tablespace, table.
tablespace dictionary
A representation of the data dictionary metadata for a table, within the InnoDB tablespace. This metadata can
be checked against the .frm file for consistency when the table is opened, to diagnose errors resulting from outof-date .frm files. This information is present for InnoDB tables that are part of the system tablespace, as well
as for tables that have their own .ibd file because of the file-per-table option.
See Also data dictionary, file-per-table, .frm file, .ibd file, system tablespace, tablespace.
temporary table
A table whose data does not need to be truly permanent. For example, temporary tables might be used as
storage areas for intermediate results in complicated calculations or transformations; this intermediate data would
not need to be recovered after a crash. Database products can take various shortcuts to improve the performance
of operations on temporary tables, by being less scrupulous about writing data to disk and other measures to
protect the data across restarts.
Sometimes, the data itself is removed automatically at a set time, such as when the transaction ends or when the
session ends. With some database products, the table itself is removed automatically too.
See Also table.
temporary tablespace
The tablespace for non-compressed InnoDB temporary tables and related objects. This tablespace was
introduced in MySQL 5.7.1. The configuration file option, innodb_temp_data_file_path, allows users to
define a relative path for the temporary data file. If innodb_temp_data_file_path is not specified, the default
behavior is to create a single auto-extending 12MB data file named ibtmp1 in the data directory, alongside
ibdata1. The temporary tablespace is recreated on each server start and receives a dynamically generated
space-id, which helps avoid conflicts with existing space-ids. The temporary tablespace cannot reside on a raw
device. Inability or error creating the temporary table is treated as fatal and server startup will be refused.
The tablespace is removed on normal shutdown or on init abort, which may occur when a user specifies the
wrong startup options, for example. The temporary tablespace is not removed when a crash occurs. In this case,
the database administrator can remove the tablespace manually or restart the server with the same configuration,
which will remove and recreate the temporary tablespace.
See Also ibtmp file.
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text collection
The set of columns included in a FULLTEXT index.
See Also FULLTEXT index.
thread
A unit of processing that is typically more lightweight than a process, allowing for greater concurrency.
See Also concurrency, master thread, process, Pthreads.
torn page
An error condition that can occur due to a combination of I/O device configuration and hardware failure. If data is
written out in chunks smaller than the InnoDB page size (by default, 16KB), a hardware failure while writing could
result in only part of a page being stored to disk. The InnoDB doublewrite buffer guards against this possibility.
See Also doublewrite buffer.
TPS
Acronym for "transactions per second", a unit of measurement sometimes used in benchmarks. Its value
depends on the workload represented by a particular benchmark test, combined with factors that you control
such as the hardware capacity and database configuration.
See Also transaction, workload.
transaction
Transactions are atomic units of work that can be committed or rolled back. When a transaction makes multiple
changes to the database, either all the changes succeed when the transaction is committed, or all the changes
are undone when the transaction is rolled back.
Database transactions, as implemented by InnoDB, have properties that are collectively known by the acronym
ACID, for atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability.
See Also ACID, commit, isolation level, lock, rollback.
transaction ID
An internal field associated with each row. This field is physically changed by INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE
operations to record which transaction has locked the row.
See Also implicit row lock.
transportable tablespace
A feature that allows a tablespace to be moved from one instance to another. Traditionally, this has not been
possible for InnoDB tablespaces because all table data was part of the system tablespace. In MySQL 5.6 and
higher, the FLUSH TABLES ... FOR EXPORT syntax prepares an InnoDB table for copying to another server;
running ALTER TABLE ... DISCARD TABLESPACE and ALTER TABLE ... IMPORT TABLESPACE on
the other server brings the copied data file into the other instance. A separate .cfg file, copied along with the
.ibd file, is used to update the table metadata (for example the space ID) as the tablespace is imported. See
Improved Tablespace Management for usage information.
See Also .ibd file, space ID, system tablespace, tablespace.
troubleshooting
Resources for troubleshooting InnoDB reliability and performance issues include: the Information Schema tables.
truncate
A DDL operation that removes the entire contents of a table, while leaving the table and related indexes intact.
Contrast with drop. Although conceptually it has the same result as a DELETE statement with no WHERE clause, it
operates differently behind the scenes: InnoDB creates a new empty table, drops the old table, then renames the
new table to take the place of the old one. Because this is a DDL operation, it cannot be rolled back.
If the table being truncated contains foreign keys that reference another table, the truncation operation uses a
slower method of operation, deleting one row at a time so that corresponding rows in the referenced table can be
deleted as needed by any ON DELETE CASCADE clause. (MySQL 5.5 and higher do not allow this slower form of
truncate, and return an error instead if foreign keys are involved. In this case, use a DELETE statement instead.
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See Also DDL, drop, foreign key, rollback.
tuple
A technical term designating an ordered set of elements. It is an abstract notion, used in formal discussions of
database theory. In the database field, tuples are usually represented by the columns of a table row. They could
also be represented by the result sets of queries, for example, queries that retrieved only some columns of a
table, or columns from joined tables.
See Also cursor.
two-phase commit
An operation that is part of a distributed transaction, under the XA specification. (Sometimes abbreviated as
2PC.) When multiple databases participate in the transaction, either all databases commit the changes, or all
databases roll back the changes.
See Also commit, rollback, transaction, XA.
U
undo
Data that is maintained throughout the life of a transaction, recording all changes so that they can be undone in
case of a rollback operation. It is stored in the undo log, also known as the rollback segment, either within the
system tablespace or in separate undo tablespaces.
See Also rollback, rollback segment, system tablespace, transaction, undo log, undo tablespace.
undo buffer
See undo log.
undo log
A storage area that holds copies of data modified by active transactions. If another transaction needs to see the
original data (as part of a consistent read operation), the unmodified data is retrieved from this storage area.
By default, this area is physically part of the system tablespace. In MySQL 5.6 and higher, you can use the
innodb_undo_tablespaces and innodb_undo_directory configuration options to split it into one or more
separate tablespace files, the undo tablespaces, optionally stored on another storage device such as an SSD.
The undo log is split into separate portions, the insert undo buffer and the update undo buffer. Collectively,
these parts are also known as the rollback segment, a familiar term for Oracle DBAs.
See Also consistent read, rollback segment, SSD, system tablespace, transaction, undo tablespace.
undo tablespace
One of a set of files containing the undo log, when the undo log is separated from the system tablespace
by the innodb_undo_tablespaces and innodb_undo_directory configuration options. Only applies to
MySQL 5.6 and higher.
See Also system tablespace, undo log.
unique constraint
A kind of constraint that asserts that a column cannot contain any duplicate values. In terms of relational
algebra, it is used to specify 1-to-1 relationships. For efficiency in checking whether a value can be inserted (that
is, the value does not already exist in the column), a unique constraint is supported by an underlying unique
index.
See Also constraint, relational, unique index.
unique index
An index on a column or set of columns that have a unique constraint. Because the index is known not to
contain any duplicate values, certain kinds of lookups and count operations are more efficient than in the normal
kind of index. Most of the lookups against this type of index are simply to determine if a certain value exists or not.
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The number of values in the index is the same as the number of rows in the table, or at least the number of rows
with non-null values for the associated columns.
The insert buffering optimization does not apply to unique indexes. As a workaround, you can temporarily set
unique_checks=0 while doing a bulk data load into an InnoDB table.
See Also cardinality, insert buffering, unique constraint, unique key.
unique key
The set of columns (one or more) comprising a unique index. When you can define a WHERE condition that
matches exactly one row, and the query can use an associated unique index, the lookup and error handling can
be performed very efficiently.
See Also cardinality, unique constraint, unique index.
V
victim
The transaction that is automatically chosen to be rolled back when a deadlock is detected. InnoDB rolls back
the transaction that has updated the fewest rows.
See Also deadlock, deadlock detection, innodb_lock_wait_timeout.
W
wait
When an operation, such as acquiring a lock, mutex, or latch, cannot be completed immediately, InnoDB
pauses and tries again. The mechanism for pausing is elaborate enough that this operation has its own name, the
wait. Individual threads are paused using a combination of internal InnoDB scheduling, operating system wait()
calls, and short-duration spin loops.
On systems with heavy load and many transactions, you might use the output from the SHOW INNODB STATUS
command to determine whether threads are spending too much time waiting, and if so, how you can improve
concurrency.
See Also concurrency, latch, lock, mutex, spin.
warm backup
A backup taken while the database is running, but that restricts some database operations during the backup
process. For example, tables might become read-only. For busy applications and web sites, you might prefer a
hot backup.
See Also backup, cold backup, hot backup.
warm up
To run a system under a typical workload for some time after startup, so that the buffer pool and other memory
regions are filled as they would be under normal conditions.
This process happens naturally over time when a MySQL server is restarted or subjected to a new workload.
Starting in MySQL 5.6, you can speed up the warmup process by setting the configuration variables
innodb_buffer_pool_dump_at_shutdown=ON and innodb_buffer_pool_load_at_startup=ON, to
bring the contents of the buffer pool back into memory after a restart. Typically, you run a workload for some time
to warm up the buffer pool before running performance tests, to ensure consistent results across multiple runs;
otherwise, performance might be artificially low during the first run.
See Also buffer pool, workload.
Windows
The built-in InnoDB storage engine and the InnoDB Plugin are supported on all the same Microsoft Windows
versions as the MySQL server. The MySQL Enterprise Backup product has more comprehensive support for
Windows systems than the InnoDB Hot Backup product that it supersedes.
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See Also InnoDB, MySQL Enterprise Backup, plugin.
workload
The combination and volume of SQL and other database operations, performed by a database application
during typical or peak usage. You can subject the database to a particular workload during performance testing to
identify bottlenecks, or during capacity planning.
See Also bottleneck, disk-bound, disk-bound, SQL.
write combining
An optimization technique that reduces write operations when dirty pages are flushed from the InnoDB buffer
pool. If a row in a page is updated multiple times, or multiple rows on the same page are updated, all of those
changes are stored to the data files in a single write operation rather than one write for each change.
See Also buffer pool, dirty page, flush.
X
XA
A standard interface for coordinating distributed transactions, allowing multiple databases to participate in a
transaction while maintaining ACID compliance. For full details, see XA Transactions.
XA Distributed Transaction support is turned on by default. If you are not using this feature, you can disable
the innodb_support_xa configuration option, avoiding the performance overhead of an extra fsync for each
transaction.
See Also commit, transaction, two-phase commit.
Y
young
A characteristic of a page in the InnoDB buffer pool meaning it has been accessed recently, and so is moved
within the buffer pool data structure, so that it will not be flushed soon by the LRU algorithm. This term is used in
some information schema column names of tables related to the buffer pool.
See Also buffer pool, flush, INFORMATION_SCHEMA, LRU, page.
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Index
Symbols
.ARM file, 73
.ARZ file, 73
.cfg file, 78
.frm file, 89
.ibd file, 94
.ibz file, 94
.isl file, 94
.MRG file, 102
.MYD file, 103
.MYI file, 103
.OPT file, 107
.PAR file, 109
.TRG file, 123
.TRN file, 123
A
ACID, 73
adaptive flushing, 73
adaptive hash index, 42, 55, 73
AHI, 74
AIO, 74
ALTER TABLE
ROW_FORMAT, 27
Antelope, 74
Antelope file format, 21, 28
application programming interface (API), 74
apply, 74
asynchronous I/O, 45, 74
atomic, 75
atomic instruction, 75
auto-increment, 75
auto-increment locking, 75
autocommit, 75
availability, 75
B
B-tree, 75
background threads
master, 46, 46
read, 44
write, 44
backticks, 76
backup, 76
Barracuda, 76
Barracuda file format, 9, 21, 27, 53
beta, 76
binary log, 76
binlog, 77
blind query expansion, 77
bottleneck, 77
bounce, 77
buddy allocator, 29, 77
buffer, 77
buffer pool, 47, 77
and compressed tables, 16
buffer pool instance, 78
built-in, 78
business rules, 78
C
cache, 79
cardinality, 79
change buffer, 79
change buffering, 79
disabling, 41
checkpoint, 80
checksum, 80
child table, 80
clean page, 80
clean shutdown, 80
client, 80
clustered index, 80
cold backup, 81
column, 81
column index, 81
column prefix, 81
commit, 81
compact row format, 28, 81
composite index, 81
compressed backup, 82
compressed row format, 27, 82
compression, 9, 82
algorithms, 14
application and schema design, 12
BLOBs, VARCHAR and TEXT, 16
buffer pool considerations, 16
compressed page size, 13
configuration characteristics, 13
data and indexes, 15
data characteristics, 11
enabling for a table, 9
implementation, 14
information schema, 29, 29
innodb_strict_mode, 55
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE, 13
log file format, 17
modification log, 15
monitoring, 14
overflow pages, 16
overview, 9
tuning, 11
workload characteristics, 13
129
compression failure, 82
concurrency, 83
configuration file, 83
consistent read, 83
constraint, 83
counter, 84
covering index, 84
crash, 84
crash recovery, 84
CREATE INDEX, 5
CREATE TABLE
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE, 13
options for table compression, 9
ROW_FORMAT, 27
CRUD, 84
cursor, 84
D
data dictionary, 85
data directory, 85
data files, 85
data warehouse, 85
database, 85
DCL, 85
DDL, 85
deadlock, 86
deadlock detection, 86
delete, 86
delete buffering, 86
denormalized, 87
descending index, 87
dirty page, 46, 87
dirty read, 87
disk-based, 87
disk-bound, 87, 87
DML, 87
document id, 88
doublewrite buffer, 88
downgrading, 63
drop, 88
DROP INDEX, 5
dynamic row format, 27, 88
crash recovery, 7
examples, 5
implementation, 6
limitations, 7
overview, 5
fast shutdown, 90
file format, 21, 90
Antelope, 16
Barracuda, 9
downgrading, 26
identifying, 25
file format management
downgrading, 63
enabling new file formats, 53
file per table, 54
file-per-table, 90
fill factor, 90
fixed row format, 90
flush, 90
flush list, 91
flush list mutex, 52
foreign key, 91
FOREIGN KEY constraint, 91
FOREIGN KEY constraints
and fast index creation, 8
and TRUNCATE TABLE, 55
FTS, 91
full backup, 91
full table scan, 91
full-text search, 92
FULLTEXT index, 92
fuzzy checkpointing, 92
G
GA, 92
gap, 92
gap lock, 92
general query log, 92
global_transaction, 93
group commit, 45, 93
H
early adopter, 88
error log, 88
eviction, 89
exclusive lock, 89
extent, 89
hash index, 93
HDD, 93
heartbeat, 93
high-water mark, 93
history list, 93
hot, 93
hot backup, 94
F
I
Fast Index Creation, 89
concurrency, 7
ib-file set, 21, 95
ibbackup_logfile, 95
E
130
ibdata file, 95
ibtmp file, 95
ib_logfile, 95
ilist, 95
implicit row lock, 95
in-memory database, 95
incremental backup, 96
index, 96
index cache, 96
index dives (for statistics estimation), 56
index hint, 96
index prefix, 96
indexes
creating and dropping, 6
primary (clustered) and secondary, 6
infimum record, 97
information schema tables, 29
INFORMATION_SCHEMA, 97
INNODB_CMP table, 29
INNODB_CMPMEM table, 29
INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET table, 29
INNODB_CMP_RESET table, 29
INNODB_LOCKS table, 31
INNODB_LOCK_WAITS table, 31
INNODB_TRX table, 31
InnoDB, 97
troubleshooting
fast index creation, 8
InnoDB parameters, deprecated, 72
innodb_file_io_threads, 44
InnoDB parameters, new, 71
innodb_adaptive_flushing, 46
innodb_change_buffering, 41
innodb_file_format, 53
innodb_file_format_check, 23
innodb_io_capacity, 46
innodb_read_ahead_threshold, 43
innodb_read_io_threads, 44
innodb_spin_wait_delay, 47
innodb_stats_sample_pages, 56
innodb_strict_mode, 55
innodb_use_sys_malloc, 40
innodb_write_io_threads, 44
InnoDB parameters, with new defaults, 72
innodb_change_buffering, 72
innodb_file_format, 72
innodb_file_format_check, 72
innodb_file_per_table, 72
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct, 46
InnoDB storage engine
compatibility, 1
downloading, 3
features, 1
installing, 3
restrictions, 3
innodb_adaptive_flushing, 46
innodb_adaptive_hash_index, 42
and innodb_thread_concurrency, 42
dynamically changing, 55
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size system variable
and innodb_use_sys_malloc, 40
innodb_autoinc_lock_mode, 97
innodb_change_buffering, 41
innodb_concurrency_tickets, 42
innodb_file_format, 21, 97
Antelope, 16
Barracuda, 9
downgrading, 63
enabling new file formats, 53
identifying, 25
innodb_file_format_check, 23
innodb_file_io_threads, 44
innodb_file_per_table, 9, 98
dynamically changing, 54
innodb_io_capacity, 45
innodb_lock_wait_timeout, 98
dynamically changing, 54
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct, 46
innodb_old_blocks_pct, 47
innodb_old_blocks_time, 47
innodb_read_ahead_threshold, 43
innodb_read_io_threads, 44
innodb_spin_wait_delay, 47
innodb_stats_on_metadata system variable, 54
innodb_stats_sample_pages, 56
innodb_strict_mode, 55, 98
innodb_thread_concurrency, 42
innodb_thread_sleep_delay, 42
innodb_use_sys_malloc
and innodb_thread_concurrency, 42
innodb_use_sys_malloc system variable, 40
innodb_write_io_threads, 44
insert, 98
insert buffer, 98
insert buffering, 98
disabling, 41
instance, 99
instrumentation, 99
intention lock, 99
internal memory allocator
disabling, 40
inverted index, 99
IOPS, 99
isolation level, 99
J
join, 100
131
K
N
KEY_BLOCK_SIZE, 9, 13, 100
natural key, 105
neighbor page, 106
next-key lock, 106
non-blocking I/O, 106
non-locking read, 106
non-repeatable read, 106
normalized, 106
NoSQL, 107
NOT NULL constraint, 107
NULL, 107
L
latch, 100
list, 100
lock, 100
lock escalation, 100
lock mode, 100
lock wait timeout, 54
locking, 101
information schema, 29, 31, 36
locking read, 101
log, 101
log buf mutex, 51
log buffer, 101
log file, 101
log group, 101
log sys mutex, 51
logical, 101
logical backup, 102
loose_, 102
low-water mark, 102
LRU, 102
LRU page replacement, 47
LSN, 102
M
master server, 103
master thread, 103
MDL, 103
memcached, 103
memory allocator
innodb_use_sys_malloc, 40
merge, 103
metadata lock, 103
metrics counter, 104
midpoint insertion, 47
midpoint insertion strategy, 104
mini-transaction, 104
mixed-mode insert, 104
multi-core, 104
multiple buffer pools, 50
multiple rollback segments, 51
mutex, 104
MVCC, 104
my.cnf, 105
my.ini, 105
mysql, 105
MySQL Enterprise Backup, 105
mysqlbackup command, 105
mysqld, 105
mysqldump, 105
O
off-page column, 107
OLTP, 108
online, 108
online DDL, 108
optimistic, 108
optimizer, 108
Optimizer Statistics Estimation, 54, 56
option, 109
option file, 109
overflow page, 109
P
page, 109
page cleaner, 109
page size, 109
parent table, 110
partial backup, 110
partial index, 110
Performance Schema, 49, 110
persistent statistics, 110
pessimistic, 110
phantom, 110
physical, 110
physical backup, 111
PITR, 111
plan stability, 111
plugin, 111
point-in-time recovery, 111
prepared backup, 111
primary key, 111
process, 112
PROCESSLIST
possible inconsistency with INFORMATION_SCHEMA
tables, 37
pseudo-record, 112
Pthreads, 112
purge, 112
purge buffering, 112
purge lag, 112
purge scheduling, 51
132
purge thread, 112
Q
query, 112
query execution plan, 112
quiesce, 113
R
RAID, 113
random dive, 113
raw backup, 113
READ COMMITTED, 113
READ UNCOMMITTED, 113
read view, 114
read-ahead, 58, 114
linear, 43
random, 43
read-only transaction, 114
record lock, 114
redo, 114
redo log, 114
redundant row format, 28, 115
referential integrity, 115
relational, 115
relevance, 115
REPEATABLE READ, 115
replication, 116
restore, 116
rollback, 116
rollback segment, 116
row, 116
row format, 116
row lock, 116
row-based replication, 117
row-level locking, 117
ROW_FORMAT
COMPACT, 28
COMPRESSED, 9, 27
DYNAMIC, 27
REDUNDANT, 28
rw-lock, 117
S
savepoint, 117
scalability, 117
scale out, 117
scale up, 117
schema, 117
search index, 118
secondary index, 118
segment, 118
selectivity, 118
semi-consistent read, 118
SERIALIZABLE, 119
server, 119
shared lock, 119
shared tablespace, 119
sharp checkpoint, 119
SHOW ENGINE INNODB MUTEX, 57
SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS
and innodb_adaptive_hash_index, 42
and innodb_use_sys_malloc, 40
shutdown, 119
slave server, 119
slow query log, 120
slow shutdown, 120
snapshot, 120
space ID, 120
spin, 120
SQL, 120
SSD, 9, 120
startup, 121
statement-based replication, 121
statistics, 121
stemming, 121
stopword, 121
storage engine, 121
strict mode, 55, 122
sublist, 122
supremum record, 122
surrogate key, 122
synthetic key, 122
system tablespace, 122
T
table, 123
table lock, 123
table scan, 47
table type, 124
tablespace, 124
tablespace dictionary, 124
temporary table, 124
temporary tablespace, 124
text collection, 125
thread, 125
torn page, 125
TPS, 125
transaction, 125
transaction ID, 125
transportable tablespace, 125
troubleshooting, 125
truncate, 125
TRUNCATE TABLE, 55
tuning
InnoDB compressed tables, 11
tuple, 126
133
two-phase commit, 126
U
undo, 126
undo log, 126
undo tablespace, 126
unique constraint, 126
unique index, 126
unique key, 127
V
victim, 127
W
wait, 127
warm backup, 127
warm up, 127
Windows, 127
workload, 128
write combining, 128
X
XA, 128
Y
young, 128
134
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