Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design

Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
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Fire Protection Engineering
in Building Design
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Fire Protection Engineering
in Building Design
Jane I. Lataille, P.E.
Fire Protection Engineer
Los Alamos National Laboratory
~ U T T E R W O R T H
E ! N E M A N N
W
An imprint of Elsevier Science
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Contents
vii
Foreword
ix
Preface
Introduction: The Importance of
Integrating Fire Protection Design
xiii
Chapter 1:
What Is Fire Protection Engineering?
1-1 The Discipline
1-2 The Professional Society
1-3 What FPEs Do
1-4 How Fire Protection Engineering Differs
1
1
5
6
7
Chapter 2:
Functions of Fire Protection Systems
2-1 Preventing and Protecting Against Fire
2-2 Reasons for Installing Fire Protection
Systems
2-3 Protecting Assets
2-4 Relating Design Features to Function
9
9
11
12
14
Chapter 3:
Performance-Based Fire Protection Design
3-1 Design Elements
3-2 Fire Science
3-3 Design Fire Scenarios
3-4 Other Design Considerations
3-5 Examples of Performance-Based Design
19
19
22
25
26
28
Chapter 4:
Prescriptive Fire Protection Design
4-1 Desirability of Prescriptive Design
4-2 Prescriptive Codes
4-3 Inherent Risk
4-4 Design Coordination
33
33
34
36
37
Chapter 5:
Interfacing With the Other Disciplines
5-.1 Architectural
5-2 Chemical
5-3 Electrical
5-4 Mechanical
5- 5 Structural
40
40
46
59
69
75
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vi Contents
Chapter 6:
Fire Protection for New and Existing Buildings
6-1 The Design Process
6-2 New Construction
6-3 Existing Buildings
Chapter 7:
Writing Fire Protection Specifications
7-1 Coordinating the Specifications
7-2 Traditional Project Specifications
7-3 Division 13 - Special Construction
7-4 Expanded Construction Specifications
90
90
96
100
101
Related Professional Organizations
Alphabetical Listing
Listing By Type
Listing By Related Discipline
105
106
108
114
120
References
Index
83
83
84
86
129
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Foreword
Fire protection is an integral part of building design and must be
integrated into the overall design process from the very beginning
of the project.
It is vitally important for everyone involved in the building design process~architects; structural, mechanical, and process engineers; interior designers, and other design professionals~to be
aware of the fire protection engineering issues that need to be
considered at each step in the process.
In this book, Jane Lataille, a well known fire protection engineer
with over 27 years of experience in the field, explains in an easyto-understand, straightforward fashion, what fire protection engineering involves and what issues need to be considered in integrating fire protection into the overall building design process.
This book provides excellent guidance to the non-fire protection
engineer on the coordination necessary during the design process
to make sure that the fire protection design provides a level of
safety acceptable to building owners, insurers, and code enforcers
that does not impose unnecessary constraints on the overall building design or operation.
Arthur E. Cote, P.E.
Executive Vice President- NFPA International
oo
VII
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Preface
In an ever-tightening economy, protecting assets as economically
as possible is highly critical. Fire protection systems protect people, property, and mission, but they can also be expensive. Designing these systems as cost-effectively as possible requires a
high level of knowledge about how they work in the built environment.
Older prescriptive-type fire protection codes could sometimes be
overly conservative and therefore unnecessarily expensive.
Newer prescriptive codes have alleviated some of the inefficiency, but they still might not provide the most effective designs
for very specialized buildings.
Performance-based designs allow maximum flexibility while
achieving a specified level of protection. With this newfound
freedom from prescriptive requirements comes the responsibility
for setting goals, selecting appropriate levels of protection, and
determining the performance available from the fire protection
design options being considered. This requires extensive knowledge of both fire science and fire protection engineering.
Being able to design prescriptive sprinkler or fire alarm systems
does not usually constitute a sufficient background for determining fire protection system performance. However, engineers of all
disciplines on a project can work with the architect, prime engineering professional, and fire protection engineer to implement
performance-based requirements.
The goal of this book is to explain what fire protection engineering involves and how to integrate fire protection design into an
overall building project. It describes the coordination between the
architectural and engineering disciplines required to accomplish
the integration. And it discusses the critical interrelationships beix
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x Preface
tween fire protection and building design for both performancebased and prescriptive fire protection criteria.
This book does not explain how to design fire protection systems.
It assumes that the fire protection systems on a building project
are designed by experienced fire protection engineers with BS
degrees or P.E. licenses specifically in fire protection engineering, or by those with comparable training.
The Introduction discusses the importance of integrating fire protection design into the overall building project. The first two
chapters lay the groundwork for integrating fire protection design. Chapter 1 reviews what the discipline of fire protection engineering encompasses and where it interfaces with other engineering disciplines. Chapter 2 briefly describes the fire protection
systems most commonly used in building projects and the many
functions they can serve.
Chapter 3 discusses using performance-based design in meeting
fire protection requirements, and explains how this affects all
facets of the building design. It stresses the importance of documenting all the factors affecting a performance-based design and
of managing future change.
Chapter 4 discusses using prescriptive fire protection design,
which is still very common on building projects. Chapter 5 lists
areas where fire protection system design interfaces with the traditional engineering disciplines. These interfaces apply to both
prescriptive and performance-based designs.
Chapter 6 explains how integrating fire protection design applies
to existing buildings as well as to new construction. Chapter 7
addresses writing fire protection specifications, and the References section lists useful fire protection information sources, including professional societies and published references.
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Preface xi
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) publishes fire
codes that architects, engineers, and building officials use every
day. However, only the most common NFPA codes are well
known. Fire protection is a very complex subject, and so are all
the codes that address it. Throughout this book, applicable NFPA
codes are cited for each facet of fire protection in buildings.
Even in its better known prescriptive mode, fire protection engineering is often misunderstood or misapplied. Adding performance-based design has made fire protection all the more challenging to grasp. In 2000, The Society of Fire Protection Engineers
(SFPE) and NFPA jointly published the benchmark for understanding performance-based fire protection design: The SFPE
Engineering Guide to Performance-Based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of Buildings. SFPE has also published many articles on performance-based fire protection design in Fire Protection Engineering magazine. These sources are indispensable for
understanding performance-based fire protection design.
Many people helped this book emerge from its original concept. I
would like to thank Morgan J. Hurley, P.E., Technical Director,
SFPE; and Brian Meacham, P.E., of Arup Corporation for their
review of the book concept and for their insightful comments and
suggestions.
Thanks also go to everyone else who reviewed material in this
book, including Robert F. Daley, P.E., Morgan J. Hurley, P.E.,
Brian Meacham, P.E., James R. Streit, P.E., Allen Trujillo, and
Julia H. Wood, P.E.
Special thanks go to Arthur Cote, Executive Vice President of
NFPA, for writing the Foreword. Finally, I would like to thank
the Los Alamos National Laboratory for its support in developing
the book.
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Introduction" The Importance of
Integrating Fire Protection Design
Fire protection is an integral part of the built environment. As
such, it should always be engineered in conjunction with the
overall building design. Multi-discipline engineering firms sometimes have engineers of other disciplines design the fire protection systems; sometimes they outsource the fire protection design
to engineering consultants. Either option can result in inefficiency, improper design, or excess cost if not properly coordinated.
Fire protection design was once almost exclusively prescriptive.
In other words, projects incorporated specific fire protection
measures prescribed by codes. Prescriptive fire protection design
is still commonly used on many projects.
Engineers in disciplines other than fire protection are often
charged with designing the fire protection in accordance with
prescriptive code requirements. Proper design of fire protection
systems for a prescriptive-type project requires coordinating the
fire protection design with the overall building design and integrating the fire protection design features with the other engineering disciplines. Fire protection features that are not designed
while a building is being planned can sometimes be very difficult
to incorporate later. Adding these features later increases the cost;
leaving them out compromises the level of protection provided in
the building.
In contrast with prescriptive design, performance-based fire protection design considers how fire protection systems perform
given the selected building design and its expected fire loading.
Performance-based fire protection design is steadily becoming
more common. This type of design requires very close coordination with the building design, because every change specified to
ooo
XIII
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xiv Introduction
the building can affect fire protection system performance. Following prescriptive code requirements and coordinating them
with the other engineering disciplines is not sufficient.
Just as experienced structural engineers design or oversee the design of bridges, experienced fire protection engineers should design or oversee the design of fire protection systems. Even for
prescriptive designs, the information available in codes is not sufficient for a design basis. The fire protection engineer must also
understand fire loading, fire development and growth, heat transfer, and how available fire models handle all these elements.
In addition, the fire protection engineer and architect must closely
coordinate all fire protection design features and document their
place in the performance-based design. For example, if a wall is
intended to increase available occupant egress time or to eliminate the need for sprinklers in a particular area, then the interior
designer must be made aware that the wall cannot be changed
without changing the fire protection design. Many buildings with
atria have special design features that likewise should not be
changed. Once the performance-based fire protection design features have been selected and documented, they can be specified
and coordinated with the other engineering disciplines.
Whether a building is new or existing, or whether the fire protection design is prescriptive or performance-based, this book explains how to integrate fire protection engineering into the building design.
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I
0
What Is Fire Protection Engineering?
I-I The Discipline
Fire protection engineering is not widely understood by those
outside the discipline. Many engineers from other disciplines
have never heard of it. Some of them think fire protection engineering is manual firefighting, while others think it is fire code
enforcement. Still others think it is forensic engineering (e.g., reconstructing what happened after a fire has occurred). Although
fire protection engineering could include elements of any of these
activities, it is a far more comprehensive discipline than most
people realize.
Fire protection engineering interfaces with all the major disciplines on a building project. From an architectural standpoint, fire
protection engineers concern themselves with how building layout affects firefighting access, egress characteristics, and other
life safety features.
From a structural standpoint, fire protection engineers concern
themselves with the strength, thickness and fire resistance rating
of building construction materials; the location of and protection
of openings in fire walls or fire barriers; and the ability of a structure to support the weight of water-filled sprinkler piping. They
also concern themselves with earthquake resistance.
From a mechanical standpoint, fire protection engineers calculate
the flow of water through sprinkler piping, the discharge of special extinguishing agents through nozzles, and flow of air and
gases through smoke control systems. From an electrical standpoint, they address the wiring of fire alarm systems, detection
systems, special extinguishing systems and fire pumps. They also
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2 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
address backup power supplies, emergency lighting, and electrical equipment for use in hazardous locations.
Finally, from a chemical standpoint, fire protection engineers
analyze the hazards of chemical interactions and processes. This
includes"
9 Recognizing hazards of materials and material interactions;
9 Identifying potential sources of ignition;
9 Identifying potential sources of spills, amounts that could be
spilled, and the consequences of ignition of a spill;
9 Determining the consequences of unsafe pressures, temperatures,
flows or concentrations of materials in reactions; and
9 Analyzing process control systems, including the parameters
requiring control, monitoring, interlocks and shutdowns.
Furthermore, fire protection engineers must integrate these diverse building features into a uniform design package.
Like other engineering disciplines, fire protection engineering
involves designing devices, systems and processes to serve a particular function. In this case the function is protecting peopJe,
property and business operations from the results of fire. Like
other engineers, fire protection engineers typically have engineering degrees and might or might not have Professional Engineering (P.E.) licenses.
Fire protection engineering is one of fifteen engineering disciplines that offer a P.E. examination through the National Council
of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES). (See
References.) NCEES publishes several sources of information
about fire protection engineering, including an exam syllabus and
a standard of minimal competence.
The P.E. examination must cover all the subjects on the fire protection exam syllabus. These subjects illustrate what the discipline encompasses. (See Figure 1.)
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What Is Fire Protection Engineering? 3
Figure 1: Subjects from the NCEES P.E. Exam Syllabus for
Fire Protection Engineering
PLANNING AND DESIGN OF WATER SUPPLIES
Water supplies dedicated to fire protection, public water supplies
PLANNING AND DESIGN OF BUILDING SYSTEMS
Structural fire resistance, fire barriers, opening protection, means of
egress, construction materials, smoke management systems, building
use and occupancy
PLANNING AND DESIGN OF WATER-BASED SUPPRESSION
SYSTEMS
Specifying, evaluating, testing, and maintaining sprinkler and water
spray systems; fire and explosion suppression systems
PLANNING AND DESIGN OF NONWATER-BASED
SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS
Specifying, evaluating, testing, and maintaining CO2, dry chemical,
foam, and alternate agent systems; fire and explosion suppression
systems
PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DETECTION AND ALARM
SYSTEMS
Specifying, evaluating, testing, and maintaining heat, smoke and
flame detectors; alarm and supervisory systems
PLANNING AND DESIGN OF FIRE PREVENTION
Control of combustible materials, ignition sources, and oxidizing
agents
IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING OF FIRE
PREVENTION
Inspection, testing, and preventive maintenance; process safety;
hazard abatement
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF HAZARD AND RISK
ANALYSIS
Quantification of frequency and severity of fire events, estimation
of time available for occupant egress from rooms, analysis of
damage potential to exposed objects from fire or explosion
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4 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
As can be seen from this syllabus, fire protection engineering encompasses facets from all the major engineering disciplines:
structural, mechanical, electrical, and chemical engineering.
These facets of fire protection engineering must be addressed as a
system for them to work together properly in a building. The ability to integrate these wide-ranging facets into an effective design
is one of the greatest strengths of the fire protection engineering
discipline.
In addition to the exam syllabus, NCEES also publishes a Standard of Minimal Competence for each engineering discipline.
This standard briefly describes what minimally competent engineers are expected to understand. It is used to find the appropriate
difficulty level of P.E. examination problems. Figure 2 reproduces the Standard of Minimal Competence for fire protection
engineers.
Figure 2: NCEES Standard of Minimal Competence for Fire
Protection Engineers
The minimally competent Fire Protection Engineer must possess:
9 A thorough understanding of fundamental fire protection
systems and practices as they pertain to life safety and to
fire prevention, detection, control, and extinguishment. This
includes the ability to apply this understanding in conjunction
with commonly used fire protection standards;
9 A working knowledge of the nature and characteristics of
fire and related hazards, including how fires originate,
develop, and spread;
A basic understanding of the effects of fire and fire protection
measures on life, property, operations, and the environment;
A basic understanding of hazard and risk; and
An awareness of related fire protection standards and tools.
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What Is Fire Protection Engineering? 5
1-2 T h e P r o f e s s i o n a l Society
Another good source of information about fire protection engineering is the Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE). (See
References.) As the primary professional society for fire protection engineers, SFPE is concerned with what fire protection engineering encompasses and the qualifications of those practicing it.
SFPE defines fire protection engineering as follows:
Fire Protection Engineering is the application of science and
engineering principles to protect people and their environment
from destructive fire and includes:
1. analysis of fire hazards;
2. mitigation of fire damage by proper design, construction,
arrangement, and use of buildings, materials, structures,
industrial processes, and transportation systems;
3. design, installation, and maintenance of fire detection,
suppression and communication systems; and
4. post-fire investigation and analysis.
SFPE also defines a Fire Protection Engineer:
A Fire Protection Engineer (FPE) by education, training, and
experience:
1. is familiar with the nature and characteristics of fire and the
associated products of combustion;
2. understands how fires originate, spread within and outside of
buildings/structures, and can be detected, controlled, and
extinguished; and
3. can anticipate the behavior of materials, apparatus, and
processes as related to the protection of life and property
from fire.
These definitions track with both the P.E. standard of minimal
competence and with SFPE membership requirements.
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6 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
1-3 W h a t FPEs Do
Most FPEs do not work in all the categories listed on the P.E.
exam syllabus. A typical FPE works in several fields falling under one or more of these categories. For example, a suppression
system designer might evaluate the hazard to be protected, select
detection methods, specify suppression system performance, and
lay out the system. Or a fire protection consultant might conduct
hazard analyses and compare the overall risk to an entire facility
from various combinations of fire protection design options.
The underlying requirement is that FPEs be qualified by experience and training in their work areas. This is true whether or not
the FPE has a degree in fire protection engineering, a degree in
another engineering field, or a P.E. license.
FPEs responsibilities vary with their employer. Employers of
FPEs include"
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
Consulting firms;
Educational institutions;
Fire protection associations and societies;
Fire protection equipment manufacturers;
Fire testing laboratories;
Government agencies;
Industry;
Insurance companies; and
Municipalities.
Employers involved in building design need the most comprehensive understanding of how fire protection engineering interfaces with the other engineering disciplines. This is one reason
why they hire fire protection engineers.
Many job functions in fire protection-related fields do not fall
directly in the P.E. exam categories, but they can still interface
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What Is Fire Protection Engineering? 7
with many facets of building system design. Such job functions
include"
9 Alarm/detection system technicians;
9 Building officials;
9 Emergency response teams;
9 Extinguishing system technicians;
9 Fire marshals;
9 Fire protection system plan reviewers;
9 Fire science researchers;
9 Forensic investigators;
9 Hazard evaluators;
9 Industrial fire protection/security officers;
9 Insurance company fire protection representatives;
9 Life safety professionals;
9 Process safety systems technicians; and
9 Sprinkler system technicians.
As an example, the responsibilities of a sprinkler system technician could include laying out sprinkler systems in accordance
with engineering specifications or confirming that a given sprinkler system layout meets a specified design. Personnel in these
related fields are rarely responsible for coordinating fire protection with other disciplines, though they may be aware of the interrelationships.
1-4 How Fire Protection Engineering Differs
Few practitioners of the major engineering disciplines have an indepth knowledge of fire protection engineering. This is because
the major disciplines apply engineering concepts to certain traditional design areas. For example, mechanical engineers apply the
concepts of fluid flow to design plumbing and HVAC systems.
This works well because plumbing and HVAC system loads are
usually easy to determine.
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8 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
The potential problem with sprinkler system design is that there
is much more uncertainty about the potential heat load (i.e., what
the sprinkler system hydraulic design should be). In addition, different reliability and maintenance considerations apply to sprinkler systems because they are primarily idle, while other mechanical systems are in constant use. Mechanical engineers are
not normally trained in how to handle these considerations.
This is just one example of how knowing what fire protection
engineering encompasses can help integrate it in a building project. Later chapters give many other examples.
For additional information on the discipline of fire protection engineering, see Fire Protection Engineering magazine, Issue
Number 3 (Summer 1999). This issue, subtitled "Progress in Professional Practice," contains four articles about different facets of
the discipline.
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0
Functions of Fire Protection Systems
2-1 Preventing and Protecting Against Fire
Having an adequate level of protection against fire is important in
meeting facility goals. However, preventing as many fires as possible is just as important, if not more so. Preventing fires is accomplished through a facility's fire prevention programs.
The fire prevention measures based on engineered systems must
be implemented in the project design stage. In this respect, fire
prevention and fire protection measures closely overlap. Sometimes no distinction is drawn between them. Engineered fire prevention measures can include"
9 Separation distances between hazards and exposures;
9 Combustion safeguards on fuel-fired equipment;
9 Systems for liquid containment, drainage or run-off;
9 Provisions for bonding and grounding to control static;
9 Explosion-proof electrical and heating equipment in hazardous
areas; and
9 Process safety control systems.
Fire prevention measures based on programs and procedures (as
opposed to engineered systems) are not often considered in the
planning stages of construction, despite the fact that this is the
best time to develop them. The fire protection engineer generally
recommends appropriate fire prevention programs for each project. For these programs to be effective, the project team must
help integrate them into the project design.
Fire protection systems are of many types. Selecting the appropriate type requires understanding the hazard to be protected, the
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10 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
types of protective systems that are appropriate for that hazard,
and the level of protection each type of system can be expected to
provide.
Examples of different types of fire protection systems include:
9 Detection systems with interlocks for door or damper closure,
HVAC shutdown, or process shutdown;
9 Fireproofing for buildings, structures, or processes;
9 Fire walls, fire barriers, fire doors, and other fire resistant
construction;
9 Inerting systems;
9 Smoke control systems;
9 Sprinkler systems;
9 Deluge and preaction systems; and
9 Special extinguishing systems, including those using wet or dry
chemicals, foam, or "clean" agents.
Whether a design is prescriptive or performance-based, understanding of the following elements is essential for proper fire protection design:
9 Reason(s) for installing the system;
9 Assets being protected;
9 Function the system is serving; and
9 Science behind the system design.
The remainder of this chapter addresses the first three elements.
Chapters 3 and 4 address the fourth element.
The discussion of fire protection systems in this chapter assumes
that appropriate fire prevention programs are already in place or
are being planned. The subject of fire prevention programs is beyond the scope of this book. Many existing books address this
subject in great detail.
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Functions of Fire Protection Systems 11
2-2 Reasons for Installing Fire Protection Systems
Fire protection systems can be installed for many different reasons. Most often, fire protection systems are expected to meet a
combination of purposes. Designing a fire protection system requires knowing the purposes it must serve.
Requirements to install fire protection systems usually stem from
mandatory codes, but the systems installed to meet these codes
will not necessarily meet all the owner's goals unless this is
specified.
Reasons for installing fire protection include the following:
Meeting codes. Most fire protection systems are installed to meet
codes. In the U.S. this means NFPA 13 as well as other NFPA
codes. The U.S. regional building codes also require installing
fire protection systems.
Making trade-offs. Sometimes installing additional fire protection
allows more flexibility in architectural design. For example, installing curtain water spray systems might allow having an open
atrium in a mall.
Satisfying AHJs. Based on conditions in a particular jurisdiction
or in a particular building, an AHJ could require fire protection
systems that are not addressed in the applicable codes.
Protecting assets. Fire protection systems can be installed to protect a building or a building's contents, to control specific hazardous processes or areas, to safeguard human life, or to preserve
mission continuity. The level of fire protection required for protecting particular assets can sometimes exceed the minimum required by codes.
Maintaining community relations. Sometimes an isolated, smallvalued hazard that would not normally require or warrant fire
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12 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
protection is protected for the good of the community. One example of this is protecting a hazard that has the potential for causing damage to neighboring properties.
Most fire protection systems are installed for several of the above
reasons. One of the challenges of designing fire protection systems is to achieve several purposes as effectively as possible.
Another challenge is to anticipate likely future occupancy
changes in the original fire protection design basis.
Chances that fire protection systems will serve a building's needs
are greatly increased if they are coordinated throughout the project. A good reference for coordinating building code needs is
Cracking the Codes, by Barry Yatt (see References). Chapter 5 of
this book addresses coordinating with fire protection-related
codes. Similar coordination is also needed for noncode needs.
The building owner must coordinate these needs by working with
the project team.
2-3 Protecting Assets
Asset protection is a very important function of fire protection
systems. Assets that fire protection systems can be intended to
protect include:
Property. Conventional sprinkler systems protect buildings. Inrack sprinkler systems keep fire from spreading through rack
storage. Sprinkler systems limit property damage, but they cannot
totally eliminate it. Directional water spray systems protect special hazards, like oil-filled transformers. Protecting a transformer
does not save it from damage, but keeps it from damaging nearby
buildings and structures, including other transformers.
Special extinguishing systems, such as those using gaseous
agents, are sometimes used to protect critical computer or data
processing facilities. These extinguishing systems are designed to
actuate before conventional sprinkler systems would actuate, and
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Functions of Fire Protection Systems 13
they can extinguish fire while damage is still minimal, even preventing some equipment damage. Sprinkler systems are still provided as back-up protection for the building.
On the other hand, explosion suppression systems can protect
equipment and structures from damage. These systems operate so
fast that the pressure wave started by ignition of an explosive atmosphere is suppressed before it reaches a high enough pressure
to cause any damage.
Life. Controlling fire sufficiently to protect a building can also
keep fire from harming people. Since people are also harmed by
the smoke fire generates, smoke control systems are used to allow time for people to evacuate before smoke concentrations
reach dangerous levels.
The basis for protecting life is in ensuring fast egress from buildings. This involves:
9
9
9
9
9
9
Provision of adequate exit capacity;
Maximum allowed distances for egress travel paths;
Minimum allowed widths of egress travel paths;
Reliably illuminated and marked exits;
Maximum allowed length of dead ends; and
Protected exits to public ways.
All the above features depend on the number of occupants in a
building and their mobility. NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 9 and
model building codes address these features.
Mission continuity. After a fire, lost property can be replaced and
damaged buildings can be repaired. But business lost to competitors while operations are down cannot always be recovered.
Competitive industries sometimes provide more fire protection
than required for protection of life and property to decrease possible downtime that may occur after a fire.
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14 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Protecting mission continuity requires not only carefully designed fire protection systems, but also effective fire prevention
programs. Engineers who only design fire protection systems
may not know what fire prevention programs are necessary. Fire
protection engineers are usually very familiar with developing
these programs.
Environment. Risk management principles often dictate protect-
ing lives and high value property. Unoccupied buildings of relatively low value may not normally require protection. However,
this changes if a fire in such buildings could have an adverse effect on the environment. This could be due to the contents of the
building or to its location near a waterway or watershed area.
Protecting the environment boils down to asset protection for two
reasons. First, a company could be held liable for environmental
damage caused by a fire on its property. Second, an unpolluted
environment is everyone's asset.
2-4 Relating Design Features to Function
Knowing the function of fire protection systems to be installed
and what they are expected to protect is essential for designing
them properly. Fire protection system design takes many functions into account:
Detection. A common misconception is that fire detection is a
form of protection. Some might argue that a building with smoke
detectors does not need sprinklers. This is not true. Fire protection systems may require detection to operate, but detection alone
does not constitute protection.
Note that in cases where risk analysis has determined that a fire
protection system need not be provided, detection can be provided for other reasons. These reasons may include process shutdown or occupant notification.
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F u n c t i o n s of Fire P r o t e c t i o n S y s t e m s 15
Given that detectors actuate fire protection systems, the optimum
detector type should be chosen. Conventional sprinklers operate
as heat detectors and are suitable for protecting ordinary combustibles. Smoke detectors operate smoke control systems. Special
extinguishing systems can be operated by any type of detector.
The type of detector is selected to match the hazard being protected.
Available types of detectors include the following:
9 Conventional spot-type ionization and photoelectric smoke
detectors;
9 Duct-type smoke detectors;
9 Line-type photoelectric smoke detectors;
9 High sensitivity spot-type smoke detectors;
9 High sensitivity air sampling smoke detectors;
9 Fixed temperature heat detectors, including sprinklers;
9
Rate-of-rise heat detectors;
9
Rate-of-rise compensated heat detectors;
9 Flame detectors;
9 Pressure sensors for sensing air shock waves generated in the early
stages of a deflagration;
9 Combustible gas sensors;
9 Oxygen sensors;
9 Sensors for temperatures, pressures, flows, liquid levels, and other
process parameters;
9 Sensors for detecting presence of liquids; and
9 Position limit switches.
Occupant warning. The time occupants have to evacuate a building depends on how soon they are notified of conditions requiring
evacuation. The detection system or systems used determine how
promptly occupants are notified.
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16 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
The detection system used to initiate occupant notification could
be any or all of the following:
9 Manual pull stations;
9 Smoke detectors used to actuate smoke control systems;
9 Smoke or heat detectors used for area fire detection;
9 Water flow alarms actuated by operation of sprinkler systems;
9 Alarms actuated by operation of special extinguishing systems; and
9 Alarms associated with process upsets.
Fire department notification. The speed of fire department response depends on how quickly they are notified as well as other
factors, such as travel time. Fire department notification can be
initiated by the same systems used for occupant warning, by
other systems, or by a combination of these systems. Fire department notification is usually required by code and may also be
required by the municipality. The municipality may also dictate
the types of detection that can initiate notification.
Process shutdown. Hazardous processes can be shut down upon
detecting any number of abnormal conditions. Knowing the process and what abnormal conditions might occur helps determine
what parameters should be monitored.
Operations that could release flammable vapors provide a classic
example of process monitoring and shutdown. Normally, flammable vapor sensors would be installed in areas where vapors
could be released. The sensors would be set to provide an alarm
at 25% of the lower explosive limit and to shut down the process
at 40% of the lower explosive limit. The parameters monitored
and when alarms and shutdowns occur depend on the process. A
process hazards evaluation would help determine how to design
the safety control system.
Smoke control The design goal of most smoke control systems is
to keep smoke from harming occupants during evacuation.
Smoke control systems can have other design goals, as well.
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Functions of Fire Protection Systems 17
Many NFPA codes discuss facets of smoke control. Ordinary
building ventilation systems can be used for smoke control purposes, or the systems can be dedicated smoke control or smoke
management systems.
Smoke control systems are addressed in:
9 NFPA 90A, Standardfor the Installation of Air-Conditioning and
Ventilating Systems
9 NFPA 90B, Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating and
Air-Conditioning
9 NFPA 92A, RecommendedPracticefor Smoke-Control Systems
9 NFPA 92B, Guidefor Smoke Management Systems in Malls, Atria,
and Large Areas
9 NFPA 105, RecommendedPracticefor the Installation of SmokeControl Door Assemblies
NFPA distinguishes between smoke control and smoke management systems based on the size of the area in which smoke is being controlled. Smoke management systems control smoke in
large areas, such as malls and other buildings having large atria.
NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 9 states when smoke control systems are needed. NFPA codes developed for particular occupancies also discuss smoke control. For example, NFPA 318, Standard for the Protection of Cleanrooms, discusses smoke control
in cleanrooms, and NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities, discusses smoke control in health care facilities.
Smoke and heat venting is intended for limiting lateral smoke
spread and enabling firefighting operations. It is not intended for
protecting occupants during evacuation, though that may be one
result. NFPA 204, Guide for Smoke and Heat Venting, discusses
these systems.
Control of exposure to radiant heat. A classic example of a fire
protection system that controls exposure to radiant heat is a water
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18 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
curtain installed for exposure protection. Water curtains can
spray on outside building walls to protect a building from an external fire exposure, or they can spray on glass walls facing an
atrium inside a building. They can be used in many other ways.
Protecting a building, structure, or process from fire in an exposing hazard does not mean that the exposure itself need not be protected. This issue must be considered independently.
Fire control. This is the most common goal of the familiar sprinkler system. Code-compliant sprinkler systems are designed to
control fire, but not necessarily extinguish it. Final extinguishment usually depends on fire department operations or other
manual intervention. A facility's risk analysis needs to take this
into account. In other words, the analysis should not assume that
sprinkler systems extinguish any fire completely.
In some areas, fire extinguishment by an automatic fire protection
system may sometimes be desirable. Examples are inaccessible
areas or areas that might be too dangerous for people to enter.
Different types of fire protection systems or fire protection system design can accommodate this need.
Fire extinguishment. In enclosed areas, properly designed total
flooding gaseous extinguishing systems can extinguish fire. In
storage buildings, properly designed sprinkler systems using
ESFR (Early Suppression Fast Response) sprinklers can extinguish fire. Systems using ESFR heads have many stringent design
rules, and even small deviations from these rules can render the
systems ineffective.
Other types of systems that can extinguish fire include inerting
systems, spark suppression systems, and explosion suppression
systems. Other methods that can extinguish fire include interlocks that automatically drop lids over open tanks when smoke,
heat, or fire is sensed. Fire protection engineers can design control and extinguishment systems for many types of hazards.
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o
Performance-Based Fire Protection Design
3-1 Design Elements
Engineers in the major disciplines commonly use performancebased designs. Structural engineers design bridges to withstand a
particular load. Mechanical engineers design air conditioning systems to cool an area by a given number of degrees in a specified
time. Two elements are required to make performance-based design possible:
1. The underlying science must be well understood and developed. In the case of bridge design, the physics of structural loading is contained in the Newtonian equations for balancing forces.
In the case of cooling system design, the thermodynamic properties of fluids are embodied in heat transfer equations.
2. The design loads must be known. Maximum traffic loads can
be set for a bridge, and snow, wind, and earthquake loads are obtained from codes that are based on historical information. The
maximum amount of cooling required for a building can be determined from local climate information, the location and number
of windows, and the amount of heat expected to be generated by
equipment and occupants.
Twenty years ago, the underlying science of fire protection engineering~called fire science, or fire d y n a m i c s ~ w a s in its infancy. It was not well enough developed to serve as a basis for
performance-based designs. Fire science has since been much
more highly developed. In theory, it can now be used to calculate
the results of any fire scenario. In practice, it is used mainly for
simple scenarios, because of the extensive amount of calculations
required for the more complex scenarios tax the capacity of to-
19
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20 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
day's computers. The challenge is to use the simple scenarios as
realistically as possible. This requires a thorough understanding
of the models now available to fire protection engineers.
Determining realistic fire loads also involves many challenges.
The possible arrangements of fire loads in most buildings are so
numerous that no design could account for all of them. Fire protection engineers often address this difficulty by determining
worst case fire loads, or bounding loads. Sometimes fire protection engineers determine the most likely fire loads for many different scenarios and analyze them all. The potential problem with
using the most likely fire loads is that relatively minor changes to
a building can result in requiring a new analysis and additional
fire protection, unless the original analysis was sufficiently conservative.
The assumed fire loads and design fire scenarios must then be
documented. Whenever any feature or use of the building departs
from the documented assumptions, the performance-based design
may no longer be valid. Selecting appropriate fire loads and design scenarios is therefore extremely critical to the performancebased design process.
Understanding the science and being able to determine fire loads
is just the beginning. To implement a performance-based design,
the applicable code must permit it~either by being a performance-based code or by allowing performance-based alternatives
to prescriptive code provisions. If such designs are permitted,
performance criteria must be agreed upon, plausible designs must
be developed, the designs must be tested against the performance
criteria, and a final design must be selected. Other considerations
include coordinating the design with the other disciplines, developing and updating the design documentation, and getting the
authority having jurisdiction to accept the design.
The SFPE Engineering Guide to Performance-Based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of Buildings, published jointly by the
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Performance-Based Fire Protection Design 21
National Fire Protection Association and the Society of Fire Protection Engineers in 2000, provides detailed and helpful guidance
in implementing performance-based design projects. As the title
implies, this guidance can be used to analyze existing buildings
or to design new ones.
The Guide presents a process for performance-based design centered around the following major steps:
1. Defining the Project Scope
2. Identifying the Fire Safety Goals
3. Defining Stakeholder and Design Objectives
4. Developing Performance Criteria
5. Developing Design Fire Scenarios
6. Developing Trial Designs
7. Evaluating Trial Designs
8. Selecting the Final Design
Each step in this process requires an understanding of."
9 Fire hazards and risk;
9 Characteristics of fire;
9 How fires start, develop, and spread;
9 How fires affect people, buildings, and processes;
9 The underlying science of any fire models used; and
9 Principles of fire prevention, detection, and control.
These subjects are included in fire protection engineering curricula and are tested on the Fire Protection P.E. Exam. Professional
fire protection engineers draw on their knowledge of these subjects to accomplish the steps in the performance-based design
process.
The SFPE guide also covers the written reports required to properly document performance-based design projects and what elements they should contain.
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22 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
The performance of existing buildings can be analyzed when any
changes are being planned. Performance-based analysis is particularly useful when it would be difficult to bring an existing
building into compliance with prescriptive fire protection requirements. This is becoming a very common way of handling
changes to existing buildings.
The next three sections of this chapter discuss fire science (the
underlying science), design fire scenarios (design loads), and
other considerations in performance-based fire protection design.
The last section gives examples of projects having performancebased fire protection designs.
3-2 Fire Science
Fire science applies the principles of thermodynamics and fluid
mechanics to calculate various characteristics of diffusion flames.
For example, several flame height correlations have been developed that express flame height as a function of Froude number
and the size of the burning surface. Each correlation applies to a
particular range of Froude numbers. Using these correlations
properly requires knowing enough about the fuel to make a reasonable determination of the Froude number.
Many simpler flame correlations have been developed that depend only on the heat release rate of the fuel. These correlations
were developed for particular fuels and/or fuel configurations,
and some of them were developed to fit empirical results. Like
using the more complex flame height correlations, using the simpler ones requires knowing when they are suitable. It also requires knowing how to determine a reasonable effective diameter
of the flame source. The more irregular the source, the harder the
effective diameter is to determine.
Because the actual height of a flame varies constantly, calculated
flame height must be considered a statistical quantity. The flame
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Performance-Based Fire Protection Design 23
height correlations described above calculate mean flame height.
Variation from the mean height must also be considered.
Fire science correlations have also been developed for fire plume
temperatures and velocities. These correlations are derived from
conservation laws using assumptions about gas buoyancy and air
entrainment by the plume. Their final forms depend on many factors, including gas density variations and flame height-todiameter ratio. Like flame height, plume temperatures and velocities must be considered statistical quantities.
Other relevant characteristics of fire that can be calculated are
heat release, heat transfer to exposed surfaces, and ignition of exposed surfaces. These calculations develop the initial flame into a
fire scenario. Although the calculated fire is still smaller than the
real world fires of concern to engineers, it forms the basis for calculating larger fires. It's similar to calculating the structural force
on one bridge support before putting together the whole bridge.
Many fire protection references give the equations for calculating
the fire characteristics described above, as well as the assumptions on which these equations are based. These references include The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, The
NFPA Fire Protection Handbook, and An Introduction to Fire
Dynamics, among others. Many of these equations are also given
in more general engineering handbooks, such as Marks" or
Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. (See References.)
Fire models repetitively calculate the equations for small flames
over larger areas and times. They don't model fire so much as its
effects on the compartment in which it is burning. Knowing the
effects of fire is sufficient for analyzing a performance-based design. However, the analysis is only as good as the characteristics
of the fire selected for modeling.
The effects of fire include temperature increase, smoke buildup,
and flashover. Fire models estimate how a fire increases the tem-
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24 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
perature in a compartment and fills the compartment with smoke.
Some of these models account for the different effects when a
fire reaches compartment walls and comers.
Examples of the many effects that fire models estimate are:
9 Temperatures of fire plume, fire jet, smoke layer, and lower
compartment;
9 Plume velocity;
9 Height of smoke layer;
9 Time to flashover;
9 Ventilation limits;
9 Mass flow through openings and vents;
9 Time to ignition of a target;
9 Flame spread;
9
Sprinkler/detector actuation;
9 Fire endurance of structural materials;
9 Smoke travel; and
9 Occupant egress.
Applying fire models appropriately requires knowing which effects they estimate, what approximations they make, what limitations apply, and how the results affect the risk of the facility being designed or modified.
References useful for understanding fire, fire effects, and appropriate uses of fire models include:
9
An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, by Dougal Drysdale
9
Principles o f Fire Behavior, by James G. Quintiere
9
Enclosure Fire Dynamics, by Bjorn Karlsson and James G.
Quintiere
9
The SFPE Handbook o f Fire Protection Engineering
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Performance-Based Fire Protection Design 25
3-3 Design Fire Scenarios
In selecting design fire scenarios (the design fire load) for a performance-based design, all possible fire scenarios should be considered. Determining all possible fire scenarios requires knowing
as much as possible about the building and its contents and occupants.
Examples of necessary building information are its construction,
layout, and building services. Relevant features include fire resistance ratings, fire cutoffs, and the type and arrangement of building services (electricity, gas, oil, HVAC, communications, etc.).
Information about existing or proposed fire protection systems
would also be relevant. Obtaining information about the building
is usually fairly straightforward.
Examples of information needed about building contents are
processes, operational characteristics and combustible loading.
Relevant features include hazardous materials used in the processes, process energy input and output, process material flow, and
the likelihood of the occupancy to change. In most buildings, the
processes and operational characteristics dictate the combustible
loading. Determining the likely combustible loading can be very
challenging, but it is one of the most important factors in estimating reasonable fire characteristics.
Necessary information about occupants includes their number,
distribution throughout the building, familiarity with the building,
and physical and mental capabilities. This enables a performancebased design to account for and control the effects of fire on people.
Many resources are available for identifying possible fire scenarios. Historical data about the facility and about facilities of similar occupancy can be useful. Simple brainstorming about "what
if?" an event occurs can also yield useful results. More analytical
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26 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
techniques include event tree analysis, fault tree analysis, failure
analysis, and hazard operability studies.
Once all possible fire scenarios have been developed, they can be
sorted into groups with similar likelihood and outcomes. The next
step is then to select a representative fire scenario from each
group with risk that exceeds the agreed upon level of acceptable
risk. The filtered set of scenarios form the basis of the design fire
scenarios to be used in the performance-based design.
In selecting the design fire scenarios, the fire protection engineer
must be sure that they bound the potential hazards. The most
likely fires could be too lenient; likewise, the worst possible case
can be too severe. The selected design fire scenarios should reflect the facility's risk from fire as accurately as possible while
being appropriately conservative.
3-4 Other Design Considerations
No matter how suitable a performance-based design may be, it
can only be implemented if allowed by the applicable codes. Today's prescriptive codes are moving toward accepting performance-based design alternatives as equivalent to meeting particular
prescriptive code provisions. In the absence of performancebased alternatives in the codes, some authorities having jurisdiction will accept such equivalencies.
The next logical step is for the codes themselves to be performance-based. Instead of specifying how to design fire protection
systems, they will specify the performance criteria these systems
are required to meet. The fire protection engineer would then be
responsible for developing a design and showing that it meets the
performance criteria.
Whether for a performance-based equivalency or a performancebased code, developing performance criteria involves determining an acceptable level of risk. Determining this level can be a
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Performance-Based Fire Protection Design 27
problem because of the widespread, but erroneous, belief that following a prescriptive code reduces the risk to zero. Reluctance to
document an acceptable level of risk can hold up acceptance of a
performance-based design philosophy. Resolving issues like this
requires increasing people's understanding and awareness of risk.
Given that a performance-based design has been accepted, all the
assumptions on which the design is based must be documented.
Performance-based fire protection designs usually make assumptions about the building construction and layout, utility systems,
use and occupancy, combustible loading, and occupants. Future
change to any of these features has the potential to affect the validity of the fire protection design. Therefore, a good performance-based design should account for the changes most likely to
be made in a building.
Just as structural engineers are best equipped to develop performance-based structural designs for bridges, fire protection engineers are best equipped to develop performance-based fire protection designs for buildings and other projects. Many new fire
protection hardware and software tools are developed each year,
and a thorough understanding of these tools is essential for using
them effectively.
The article "The New Toolbox for Fire Protection Engineers," by
J. Kenneth Richardson, discusses this concept. This article appeared in the premier issue (Winter 1999) of Fire Protection Engineering magazine, a publication of The Society of Fire Protection Engineers. The following quote from this article explains:
Knowledge of how to approach a problem, how to select and use a
model, what's an appropriate input, and how to interpret the calculated results only comes from education and experience. Professional knowledge--what's often called "engineering judgement"~ is essential.
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28 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Fire protection engineers use their engineering judgement to develop effective performance-based fire protection designs. Those
not trained in the discipline can sometimes be misled by popular
myths. See "Shattering the Myths of Fire Protection Engineering," also in the premier issue of Fire Protection Engineering
magazine.
A further complicating factor in the case of fire protection design
is that it interfaces intimately with the other engineering disciplines on a building project. Therefore, practitioners of the other
disciplines need to be aware of these interrelationships. This
chapter explains how the design fire scenarios relate to the other
disciplines. The next two chapters address additional areas where
the disciplines interface.
3-5 Examples of Performance-Based Design
Performance-based fire protection design has been found to be
well suited for special-purpose buildings, such as enclosed sports
arenas and other large places of public assembly. One reason for
this is that meeting the provisions in prescriptive codes may not
always considered the most effective way of protecting these
buildings. Another reason is that the future use of these buildings
is unlikely to change. Assumptions critical to the performancebased design are therefore likely to remain valid over the life of
the building.
A long-held tenet of prescriptive codes is that every story of a
building must be cut off from the other stories by construction
with a given fire resistance rating. Performance-based design can
accommodate vertical openings while meeting all applicable fire
protection performance criteria. Likewise, performance-based
design can accommodate many other features not normally contemplated in prescriptive codes. The key is in developing appropriate performance criteria and verifying that the design meets
them.
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Performance-Based Fire Protection Design 29
Fire Protection Engineering magazine has published many general articles about performance-based design, as well as many
case studies about projects using performance-based design. The
following summaries give an idea of the range of these articles.
General Articles
Issue Number 7 (Summer 2000):
"Using Models to Support Smoke Management System
Design," by James A. Milke, Ph.D. Zone, field and network flow models can help validate smoke control system
design.
Issue Number 7 (Summer 2000):
"An Overview of Atrium Smoke Management," by John
H. Klote, Ph.D., P.E. Smoke management system designs
are based on several computer models.
Issue Number 8 (Fall 2000):
"Pathfinder: A Computer-Based, Timed Egress Simulation," by Joe Cappucio, P.E. This egress simulation computer software tracks individuals and tracks evacuation by
room or floor. It can be coupled with a fire model to form
a portion of a fire hazard analysis.
Issue Number 10 (Spring 2001):
The entire issue is devoted to managing risk in fire protection. All five articles address facets of how performancebased design addresses risk.
Issue Number 11 (Summer 2001):
"Performance Metrics for Fire Detection," by John M.
Cholin, P.E., and Chris Marrion, P.E. To keep up with
performance-based design methods, improved prediction
of detector response is needed. A possible solution for
smoke detectors is to have one metric for detector sensitivity and another for smoke entry delay.
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30 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Issue Number 12 (Fall 2001):
"Proactive vs. Prescriptive Fire Protection for the Offshore Industry," by John A. Alderman, P.E., CSP, and
Marion Harding, P.E. The offshore industry, which has
typically used prescriptive design, is better matching fire
protection to risk through performance-based design.
Issue Number 13 (Winter 2001):
The entire issue is devoted to fire models; including how
to evaluate, select, and apply them; and models currently
being developed.
Issue Number 14 (Spring 2002):
"The Performance-Based Design Review Process Used in
the City of Phoenix," by Joe McElvaney, P.E. How the
city of Phoenix handles performance-based designs, including an example.
Issue Number 14 (Spring 2002):
"Applications of the Fire Dynamics Simulator in Fire Protection Engineering Consulting," by Jason Sutula. Desktop computers run NIST's CFD models on a variety of
scenarios.
Case Studies for Existing Buildings
Premier Issue (Winter 1999):
"Fire Protection for the Star Spangled Banner," by Michael J. Rzeznik, P.E. Protecting the fragile fibers in this
historic flag required a specially designed combination of
fire prevention and fire suppression systems.
Issue Number 2 (Spring 1999):
"Rehabilitating Existing Buildings," by John M. Watts,
Jr., Ph.D. Performance-based design can preserve the
character of historic buildings while providing a level of
protection comparable to the current code.
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Performance-Based Fire Protection Design 31
Issue Number 5 (Winter 2000):
"Small Atria Smoke Control," by Kurt Ruchala, P.E. A
performance-based code equivalency meets the needs of
this renovated three-story college dormitory.
Issue Number 8 (Fall 2000):
"Performance-Based Analysis of an Historic Museum,"
by Andrew Bowman. Renovation of an important historic
museum required performance-based analysis of fire
safety.
Issue Number 14 (Spring 2002):
"Smoke Control Analysis of a High-Rise Building Using
a Network Flow Model," by Sanjay Aggarwal, P.E., Brian
D. Gagnon, and Mark D. Reed, P.E. A network flow
model analyzes smoke travel in a 14-story building.
Issue Number 14 (Spring 2002):
"Application of a Systematic Fire Safety Evaluation Procedure in the Protection of Historic Property," by Alexander G. Copping, Ph D. A systematic evaluation procedure
is applied to historic churches.
Case Studies for New Buildings
Issue Number 3 (Summer 1999):
"A Smoke Management Analysis of a Regional Performing Arts Center," by Eric Rosenbaum, P.E., Scott
Laramee, and Craig Beyler, Ph.D. A smoke exhaust system is shown to satisfy the occupant safety objectives of a
new performing arts center.
Issue Number 4 (Fall 1999):
"Performance-Based Structural Fire Safety for Eiffel
Tower II," by Edward Fixen, P.E. A performance-based
code equivalency allows this replica to duplicate the exposed construction of the original Eiffel Tower.
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32 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Issue Number 5 (Winter 2000):
"Performance-Based Design of a Professional Hockey
Arena," by Michael A. O'Hara, P.E. and Ryan Bierwerth.
A combination of prescriptive and performance-based design protects occupants from smoke in this sports arena.
Issue Number 6 (Spring 2000):
"A Risk-Based Fire-Engineered Alternative for Nursing
Homes," by Tony Parkes and Carol Caldwell, P.E. Reliability and performance of sprinklers and smoke detectors
replace the usual code-required self-closing fire doors to
the rooms.
Issue Number 12 (Fall 2001):
"Fire Safety Design of the Fundaci6n Caixa Galicia
Building in Spain," by George Faller, C.Eng. Performance-based design helped make this cultural center a work
of art.
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0
Prescriptive Fire Protection Design
4-1 Desirability of Prescriptive Design
Despite the advent of performance-based design, much fire protection design is still prescriptive. An important advantage of prescriptive design is that it requires little analysis, and therefore
(presumably) little time or knowledge to apply. Implementing
prescriptive design is very much like following a recipe.
Another advantage of prescriptive design is that it can cover a
broad range of conditions. This is appropriate given the diversity
of facilities being protected and the wide-ranging properties of
fire. Through its inherent safety factors, prescriptive design can
sometimes be more flexible than custom performance-based design.
Many other factors have kept prescriptive design in common use.
Prescriptive design is a "known." It is what has worked in the
past. It matches other designs at existing facilities. AHJs are comfortable with prescriptive design and readily accept it.
One disadvantage of prescriptive design is that the safety factors
can be so high as to render the design unduly expensive. A second disadvantage is that a prescriptive design might not result in
the most effective way of protecting a particular facility. It neither accommodates a facility's specialized needs nor coordinates
with other systems in the facility. The fire protection engineer's
struggle with the efficacy of prescriptive design has helped support the trend toward performance-based design. (See Chapter 3.)
Prescriptive design is desirable so long as the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. For many facilities, prescriptive design
33
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34 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
can be fast and inexpensive. Its inherent safety factors can also
provide sufficient flexibility for future changes. This type of design still serves light manufacturing facilities very well.
The more specialized the building, and the more its architecture
departs from assumed norms, the higher the chance that performance-based design can better serve that building's fire protection
needs.
4-2 Prescriptive Codes
Most prescriptive fire protection design is dictated through prescriptive codes. In the U.S., the prescriptive codes most often
used in fire protection are the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) codes and regional building codes. The regional
building codes adopt many NFPA codes by reference. Some
other countries also adopt NFPA codes, and some have their own
comparable codes.
Prescriptive codes are both easy to apply and easy to misapply.
The codes are straightforward, but the situations to which they
apply might not be. In addition, several codes may apply simultaneously. Using some codes and leaving others out might compromise a design.
Probably the most familiar code that prescribes fire protection
design is NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler
Systems. All major U.S. building and fire codes adopt NFPA 13
by reference. Just about everyone involved in building projects is
familiar with this code.
Following the prescribed designs in NFPA 13 is an easy matter.
However, using an NFPA 13 design does not necessarily ensure
adequacy of fire protection. For one thing, the selected design
must apply to the facility. For another, code provisions from
sources other than NFPA 13 must also be met. (See Section 4-3,
Design Coordination.)
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Prescriptive Fire Protection Design 35
Furthermore, NFPA 13 has more sprinkler design choices than
ever before. Selecting the best one requires understanding all the
options, their advantages and disadvantages, and their applications and limitations.
Some options have very limited applications, like ESFR technology and extended coverage sidewalls. Yet designers sometimes
select these options whenever they appear to cost less, whether
they apply to a project or not. This is unsatisfactory fire protection design.
Like any other code, NFPA 13 cannot be applied in isolation. For
example, designing a sprinkler system based on a reported water
flow and pressure is not sufficient. The fire protection engineer
must also verify that the water supply is acceptable. For example,
is the supply dedicated to fire protection or does it have mixed
service use? Is it a gravity or pumping supply? How reliable is
the water supply, and is the level of reliability appropriate for the
facility?
Different problems can arise if the design specified in NFPA 13
cannot be met by the available water supply. Then a decision
must be made whether to reinforce the supply, protect the facility
by some other means, reduce the protection requirements of the
facility by changing its design, or use a performance-based design. Options like these are best compared by the project design
team early in the design.
Many other NFPA codes prescribe different facets of fire protection design. For example, NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible
Liquids Code, 9 covers storage and use of flammable liquids, and
NFPA 2001 covers clean agent extinguishing systems. Some
NFPA codes are occupancy-specific. For example, NFPA 318,
Standard for the Protection of Cleanrooms, describes the protection required for cleanrooms. (See References.)
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36 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
4-3 Inherent Risk
In contrast to using performance-based design, using prescriptive
design does not require selecting an acceptable level of risk. For
this and other reasons, many people believe that using prescriptive design totally eliminates any fire risk. This is not true. All
prescriptive designs encompass an unstated, and usually uncertain, level of risk. All prescriptive codes encompass this risk
within the code requirements.
Quantifying the risk in prescriptive designs is difficult, because
applying the same fire protection recipe to different facilities results in as many levels of risk. Paradoxically, the risk inherent in
prescriptive design can be estimated by using performance-based
analysis. Having an idea of the level of risk involved in a prescriptive design is very important. For one thing, it allays the
misperception of lack of risk. Secondly, it provides a base for
valid comparison to performance-based alternatives that may be
considered.
Prescriptive codes are still being written. Understanding the level
of risk incorporated during code-writing could help make these
codes more effective. For a discussion of the issue of risk in
codes, see "The Importance of Risk Perceptions in Building and
Fire Safety Codes," Fire Protection Engineering magazine, by
Armin Wolski, Issue No. 10, Spring 2001.
Understanding the risk inherent in prescriptive design also paves
the way for accepting performance-based design, where the level
of risk is specified as a basis for the design. Future prescriptive
fire protection codes and codes for all the other engineering disciplines will continue to merge prescriptive and performancebased design elements until the differences between the two types
of design are imperceptible. This is why familiarity with prescriptive codes is not necessarily sufficient to adequately design engineered systems for a building.
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Prescriptive Fire Protection Design 37
The perceptions of the public have an effect on what codes require. This is why education of the public about risk has become
increasingly important. See "Addressing Risk and Uncertainty in
Performance-Based Fire Protection Engineering," Fire Protection
Engineering magazine, by Brian Meacham, Ph.D., P.E., Issue
No. 10, Spring 2001.
Other publications that address risk and uncertainty in fire protection include:
Introduction to Performance-Based Fire Safety, Custer and
Meacham
9
NFPA
9
SFPE
Fire Protection Handbook
Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering
4-4 Design Coordination
Because prescriptive fire protection codes can be followed like
recipes, engineers and technicians in other disciplines are sometimes charged with applying them. However, because fire protection features interrelate with features of all the other building disciplines, applying prescriptive fire protection codes requires extensive coordination between the disciplines.
Traditionally, provisions for prescriptive fire protection design
have been incorporated into codes that focus on the major discipline to which the provisions are most closely related. For example, electrical features of fire protection design are addressed by a
group of codes that are electrically oriented. Chemical, structural,
and mechanical features are likewise addressed by other groups
of codes. This means that even simple prescriptive fire protection
designs require knowledge of and coordination between many
codes. (See Chapter 5.)
NFPA 13 is a good example of a prescriptive fire protection code
requiring interdisciplinary coordination. Applying this code requires knowing the building construction and occupancy (fire
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38 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
loading). It also requires knowing enough about the hazards in
the building to know when other codes apply.
Another example of the need for code coordination in fire protection design is in specifying a flammable liquids storage cabinet.
The appropriate code, NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible
Liquids Code, 9 does not require the cabinet to be grounded.
However, other codes may apply. If the cabinet is installed in a
flammable liquids dispensing area, flammable vapors are likely
to be present and NFPA 497, Recommended Practice for the
Classification of Flammable Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of
Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in
Chemical Process Areas, would also apply. The cabinet would
then have to be grounded.
Electrical engineers, who are usually very familiar with
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, 9 may not have a working
knowledge of all the fire protection codes with provisions relating to electrical systems. Chapter 5 discusses many other areas
where such coordination is required.
Several recipes are available for addressing life safety issues.
Everyone working on a project must be aware of the recipe being
used.
NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 9 is referenced by the U.S. regional
building codes. It is applied by fire protection engineers, as well
as by architects and building designers. Although this code is often used, NFPA 101A, Guide on Alternative Approaches to Life
Safety, is also available. This alternate code can be applied where
accepted by the AHJ. NFPA 101A tailors life safety requirements
to more specific conditions at a facility than NFPA 101, but it is
still primarily a prescriptive code. The extent to which the alternative methods in NFPA 101A are used must be coordinated.
Chapter 9 of NFPA 101A presents a model called the Computerized Fire Safety Evaluation System (CFSES). This model is in-
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Prescriptive Fire Protection Design 39
tended to compare the risks of various life safety design altematives. It is one of just a few models that simulates flame spread.
This is the start of performance-based life safety design altematives to the more common prescriptive code.
NFPA 101 B, Means of Egress for Buildings and Structures, is
intended to be used with a building code that does not otherwise
specify means of egress features.
The examples in this chapter give an idea of the extent of coordination required for the fire protection and fire protection-related
aspects of a building project, even when using straightforward
prescriptive codes. By training, fire protection engineers develop
a familiarity with all the applicable codes and how they interface
across the disciplines on a project. See Chapter 5 for many other
features requiring coordination across the disciplines of a project.
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o
Interfacing With the Other Disciplines
5-1 Architectural
Project management for larger projects often rests with an architectural or A/E firm. The architect makes sure the buildings meet
jurisdictional requirements as well as the functional needs of the
owner. The architect must also make sure the project meets acceptable levels of risk in line with the owner's risk management
goals. In doing this, architectural features must be coordinated
with all the engineering designs.
Building architectural engineering is one of the newer engineering disciplines recognized by the National Council of Examiners
for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES). The P.E. examination
syllabus includes the following areas:
9 General Knowledge of Building Systems, Materials, and Codes;
9 Construction Management;
9 Electrical Systems;
9 Mechanical Systems; and
9 Structural Systems.
The General Knowledge category includes an item for "fire protection systems relevant to electrical, mechanical, and structural
design/components." This chapter discusses these systems.
Areas of concern to fire protection engineers that interface with
architectural engineering include:
9 Locations of buildings;
9 Exposures to buildings;
9 Sizes of buildings;
9 Sizes of fire areas;
40
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 41
9 Building layout;
9 Combustibility of building finishing materials; and
9 Security issues.
Architects make sure that projects meet the requirements of the
appropriate building code. The building codes most frequently
followed in the U.S. today are"
9 National Building Code, published by BOCA, the Building
Officials & Code Administrators International, Inc. This code
is used mainly in the northeastern part of the U.S.
9 Standard Building Code, previously called the Southern Standard
Building Code, published by SBCCI, the Southern Building Code
Congress International. This code is used mainly in the
southeastern part of the U.S.
9 UniformBuilding Code, published by ICBO, the International
Conference of Building Officials. This code is used in the western
U.S.
Also note that many organizations, including the International
Code Council (ICC), the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA), and the National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA), support the development and use of one national building code in the U.S. The first edition of the International Building Code was published by the ICC in 2000. The first edition of
The NFPA 5000 Building Code is currently out for review and
comment.
Locations o f Buildings
A fire protection concern in locating buildings is capability and
response speed of fire fighting services. Two other concerns are
proximity to fire protection water supplies and availability of fire
alarm services.
Related concems are the flood, earthquake, and wind zones in
which the building falls. These are fire protection concems because flood, earthquake, and wind incidents can start fires, make
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42 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
the results of fire worse, or affect the protection in service at a
facility. Flood, earthquake and wind concerns are factors for
other disciplines, as well.
Exposures to Buildings
Placement of buildings on a site dictates their exposure to and
from other buildings, structures, and hazards. Examples of exposures that are not buildings or structures include yard storage,
tank farms, and electrical substations.
Exposures can be from part of the facility being designed or
modified, or they can be from another property. Exposures are
usually considered to include those from wildfires and lightning.
In many cases, exposures are also considered for flooding, earthquakes, and major windstorms. Effects of these exposures have a
bearing on facility layout and design. (Also see Section 5-5.)
The following codes include guidance on protection from exposures.
Recommended Practice for Protection of Buildings
from Exterior Fire Exposures
9 N F P A 299, Standardfor Protection of Life and Property from
Wildfire
9 NFPA 780, Standardfor the Installation of Lighming Protection
Systems
9
N F P A 80A,
Sizes of Buildings
The sizes of buildings can affect the risk from a single incident.
The incident could be fire-related, business-related, or otherwise.
While larger buildings are often better for process flow and building maintenance considerations, they can also increase the
owner's risk. The risk must be weighed when making decisions
on building size.
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 43
Sizes of Fire Areas
Sizes of fire areas present similar concerns to those on building
size. Some fire separations are required by codes, some are required by AHJs, and some are desired by building owners for
other reasons.
Building Layout
The interior building layout must meet applicable codes for life
safety egress requirements. The usual code in the U.S. is
NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. 9 NFPA 101A and/or NFPA 101B
may apply instead, as may other codes. (See Chapter 4.)
Other factors can affect building layout. Walls may be used to
restrict the extent of hazardous (classified) locations for the purpose of specifying electrical equipment. They may also be installed to restrict access to particular areas or to control how particular areas are accessed. In the end, both code and noncode
provisions must be satisfied.
Hand in hand with the interior building layout comes locating fire
extinguishers and hose standpipes. Such factors as size of areas,
location of fire cutoffs, and occupancy hazards all affect the
placement of these manual fire protection systems. The codes
pertaining to these systems are:
9 N F P A 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers
9 N F P A 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private
Hydrant, and Hose
Combustibility of Fin&hing Materials
Selecting high flamespread interior finishing materials or insulation would negate the gains of specifying fire resistive or noncombustible building construction. The same codes that specify
egress requirements also specify required characteristics of interior finishing materials for various types of buildings.
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44 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
The following NFPA codes pertain to properties of interior finishing materials"
9 NFPA 253, Standard Method of Test for Critical Radiant Flux of
Floor Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat
Energy Source
9 NFPA 255, Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building
Materials
9 NFPA 264, Heat Release Rates for Materials
9 NFPA 265, Evaluating Room Fire Growth Contribution from
Textile Wall Coverings
9 NFPA 286, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Evaluating
Contribution of Wall and Ceiling Interior Finish
to Room Fire Growth
Security Issues
Building design features for maintaining security affect fire protection in three primary ways:
9 Means of egress for occupants;
9 Access for firefighting; and
9 Design of fire protection systems to eliminate their use as listening
devices.
The first issue is addressed in NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. 9 Any
security system provided must meet the applicable provisions of
this code. NFPA 101 addresses such features as areas of refuge
and delayed egress locks. Each occupancy chapter in NFPA 101
addresses security features that are acceptable for that occupancy.
Many other NFPA codes address security issues.
Normally closed doors can add more confusion or delay in egress
paths and may even block the view of potentially hazardous conditions on the other side of the door. Prisons or buildings with
detention areas have many security concerns that must be balanced with fire protection and life safety needs.
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 45
Access for firefighting is addressed in:
9
N F P A 1, Fire Prevention Code
9
N F P A 601, Standard for Security Services in Fire Loss Prevention
Access to secure areas for firefighting purposes can be a very
complex issue. If the security is to protect property or information, then the responding fire department can be given keys to the
building or to key access boxes. Where it is not desirable for the
fire department to keep doors open for bringing in hose lines, interior standpipes can be provided.
On the other hand, if the security is for protecting people against
physical, radiological, or biological hazards, then more coordination is needed in letting the fire department into the building.
People knowledgeable about the hazards must advise firefighters
whether areas can be safely entered. For high hazard areas where
firefighting is not likely to be safe, the building and its fire protection systems would have to be designed to function without
human intervention.
In buildings with security boundaries all building systems, including fire protection systems, must be designed so that no part
of the system can be used as a listening device. This includes piping, wiring, and ductwork, as well as radio transmitters, which
can be found on alarm systems and control panels.
The book Fire Safety and Loss Prevention, by Kevin Cassidy,
exclusively addresses the fire protection/security interface. (See
References.)
Security measures can also benefit fire protection. Well
areas should have fewer uncontrolled ignition sources,
larly from personnel. All facility personnel should be
with facility security measures and should be trained in
curity affects operations, including emergency response.
secured
particufamiliar
how se-
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46 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
5-2 Chemical
Fire is a chemical reaction, so it stands to reason that fire protection engineering has a large overlap with chemical engineering.
Rare is the chemical process that does not introduce some type of
hazard. Areas of concern to fire protection engineers that interface with chemical engineering include:
9 Materials hazards;
9 Materials storage;
9 Process hazards evaluation; and
9 Process utilities.
NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection f o r Laboratories Using
Chemicals, addresses chemical hazards in the laboratory environment for all the above areas. The NFPA Fire Protection
H a n d b o o k and other occupancy-related NFPA codes also address
these areas.
Materials Hazards
Different types of materials bum differently. This may be for either physical or chemical reasons, or both. Physical reasons include the amount of surface area on the material, the fineness of
the material, and the material's arrangement, configuration, and
packaging. Chemical reasons include whether the material is a
solid, liquid, or gas, the heat content, the rate of heat release
when the material is burning, and the material's volatility, reactivity, flammable limits (for liquids), and ignitable concentrations
(for dusts).
Many handbooks give the general physical and chemical properties of materials, including the following"
9
Chemical Engineers'Handbook, Perry
9
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
9 Lange's Handbook of Chemistry
9 NFPA Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 47
Fire protection-related physical and chemical properties are also
found in"
9
Drysdale, An Introduction to Fire Dynamics
9
NFPA Fire Protection Handbook
9
NFPA Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials
9
SFPE Handbook o f Fire Protection Engineering
9
N. Irving Sax, Dangerous Properties o f Industrial Materials
Ordinary combustibles include wood, cardboard, and paper. They
burn, but not so severely as to require protection beyond conventional sprinkler systems at the ceiling. The prescriptive method of
designing conventional sprinkler systems (described in NFPA 13)
includes classification of areas as Light Hazard, Ordinary Hazard
Group 1, Ordinary Hazard Group 2, Extra Hazard Group 1, and
Extra Hazard Group 2.
Buildings containing small amounts of ordinary combustibles
only would normally fall into one of the first three categories.
Buildings containing larger amounts of ordinary combustibles
would require different designs. NFPA 13 addresses these designs. The extra hazard categories are suitable for only small
amounts of hazardous materials. They do not provide unlimited
protection for hazardous materials of any type or amount.
Protection of rolled paper and baled cotton is handled separately.
Their configuration increases the fire hazard beyond ordinary.
Plastics have their own classification system of Groups A, B, and
C. These classes depend on the burning characteristics of the
plastics. Plastics in the highest hazard category, Group A, burn
fiercely while melting into a flammable liquid that quickly
spreads the fire. Rubber tires have their own hazard category and
protection criteria. NFPA 13 addresses protection of all these
commodities.
Another category of materials presenting a fire and explosion
hazard is combustible dusts. NFPA 499, Recommended Practice
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48 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
for the Classification of Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous
(Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical
Process Areas, divides combustible dusts into three categories as
follows:
9 Group E, Atmospheres containing combustible metal dusts,
including aluminum, magnesium, and their commercial alloys, or
other combustible dusts whose particle size, abrasiveness, and
conductivity present similar hazards in the use of electrical
equipment.
9 Group F, Atmospheres containing combustible carbonaceous
dusts that have more than 8 percent total entrapped volatiles (see
ASTM D 3175 for coal and coke dusts) or that have been sensitized
by other materials so that they present an explosion hazard. Coal,
carbon black, charcoal, and coke dusts are examples of
carbonaceous dusts.
Group G, Atmospheres containing other combustible dusts,
including flour, grain, wood flour, plastic, and chemicals.
Metals are not normally considered combustible. However, most
metals can burn under the right circumstances, such as when they
are divided into sufficiently small or thin pieces and exposed to
sufficient heat, oxygen and moisture. The metals referred to as
combustible are those most easily ignited. These metals include
lithium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, titanium, and zirconium.
Sodium, potassium, and lithium are particularly volatile, due to
their chemical characteristics as alkali metals.
Though not as easy to ignite, steel, aluminum, and other metals
also burn. Fine metal shavings burn more readily in the presence
of hydrocarbon-based oils. For example, fires are common on
aluminum rolling mills. The fires usually start in the combustible
rolling fluids, but they also involve the aluminum. The NFPA Industrial Fire Hazards Handbook includes fire hazards information on metals processing.
A few metals are pyrophoric (self-igniting in the presence of
oxygen). These metals must be stored and handled under very
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 49
controlled conditions, including keeping them under inert atmospheres. Pyrophoric metals include metal alkyls, alkali metals, and
metal hydrides.
Relevant NFPA Codes for protecting combustible metals include:
9 NFPA 480, Storage, Handling, andProcessing of Magnesium
9 NFPA 481, Storage, Handling, andProcessing of Titanium
9 NFPA 482, Storage, Handling, andProcessing of Zirconium
9 NFPA 485, Standardfor the Storage, Handling, Processing, and
Use of Lithium Metal
NFPA 651, Standardfor the Machining and Finishing of
Aluminum and the Production and Handling of
Aluminum Powders
The NFPA Fire Protection Handbook and the NFPA Industrial
Fire Hazards Handbook also contain information on occupancies
handling combustible metals.
Peroxides and other oxidizers increase the intensity of any fire
they become involved in. This includes the gaseous oxygen found
in the Earth's atmosphere, which is a particular hazard at higher
than normal concentrations. Because of their very high reactivity,
peroxides are used in making explosives.
Protection of oxidizers, peroxides and explosives is addressed in
the following codes:
9 NFPA 50, Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites
9 NFPA 53, Fire Hazards in Oxygen-EnrichedAtmospheres
9 NFPA 68, Guidefor Venting of Deflagrations
9 NFPA 69, Explosion Prevention Systems
9 NFPA 99B, Standardfor Hypobaric Facilities
9 NFPA 430, Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers
9 NFPA 432, Codefor the Storage of Organic Peroxide
Formulations
9 NFPA 490, Storage of Ammonium Nitrate
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50 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
9 NFPA 495, Explosive Materials Code
9 NFPA 1124, Codefor the Manufacture, Transportation, and
Storage of Fireworks
Solids must usually be heated to emit vapors, except for combustible metals where chemical reactions release vapors. Most liquids readily emit vapors at ambient temperatures. Controlling the
fire hazards of flammable and combustible liquids therefore involves controlling both the liquid and vapor phases.
Liquids themselves don't burn, their vapors do. The degree of
hazard of a liquid depends on many properties, including its boiling point, flash point, autoignition temperature, and lower and
upper flammable limits.
NFPA 497, Recommended Practice for the Classification of
Flammable Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process
Areas, divides flammable gases and vapors into four groups.
Note that these groups have no relation to the groups for classifying plastics.
9 Group A: Acetylene.
9 Group B: Flammable gas, flammable liquid-produced vapor, or
combustible liquid-produced vapor mixed with air that may burn or
explode, having either a maximum experimental safe gap (MESG)
value less than or equal to 0.45 mm or a minimum igniting current
ratio (MIC ratio) less than or equal to 0.40. (A typical Group B
substance is hydrogen.)
9 Group C: Flammable gas, flammable liquid produced vapor, or
combustible liquid produced vapor mixed with air that may burn or
explode, having either a maximum experimental safe gap (MESG)
value greater than 0.45 mm and less than or equal to 0.75 mm, or a
minimum igniting current ratio (MIC ratio) greater than 0.40 and
less than or equal to 0.80. (A typical Group C substance is
ethylene.)
9 Group D: Flammable gas, flammable liquid produced vapor, or
combustible liquid produced vapor mixed with air that may burn or
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 51
explode, having either a maximum experimental safe gap (MESG)
value greater than 0.75 mm or a minimum igniting current ratio
(MIC ratio) greater than 0.80. (A typical Group D substance is
acetone.)
Flammable and combustible liquids are further divided into
classes as follows:
9
Class IA: Liquids having flash points below 73~ and boiling
points below 100~
9
Class IB: Liquids having flash points below 73~ and boiling
points at or above 100~
9
Class IC: Liquids having flash points at or above 73~ but below
100~
Class II: Liquids having flash points at or above 100~ but below
140~
Class IIIA: Liquids having flash points at or above 140~ but
below 200~
9
Class IIIB: Liquids having flash points at or above 200~
N F P A 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 9 contains
the primary protection measures for combustible and flammable
liquids. Other N F P A codes address specific operations involving
flammable and combustible liquids.
Applicable codes for storing and using flammable and combustible liquids include the following:
9 NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 9
9 NFPA 33, Spray Application of Flammable and Combustible
Materials
9 NFPA 34, Dipping and Coating Processes Using Flammable or
Combustible Liquids
9 NFPA 35, Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings
9 NFPA 77, Static Electricity
9 NFPA 86, Ovens andFurnaces
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52 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
9 NFPA 96, Installation of Equipment for the Removal of Smoke and
Grease Laden Vaporsfrom Commercial Cooking
Equipment
9 NFPA 395, Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids on
Farms and Isolated Construction Projects
9 NFPA 496, Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for Electrical
Equipment in Hazardous Locations
9 NFPA 497, Recommended Practice for the Classification of
Flammable Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of
Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical
Installations in Chemical Process Areas
Liquefied and compressed flammable gases present their own fire
and explosion hazards. Codes relevant to protecting these hazards
include:
9 NFPA 50A, Gaseous Hydrogen Systems at Consumer Sites
9 NFPA 50B, Liquefied Hydrogen Systems at Consumer Sites
9 NFPA 51, Design and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for
Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes
9 NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code 9
9 NFPA 55, Compressed and Liquefied Gases in Portable Cylinders
9 NFPA 58, Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases
9 NFPA 59, Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases at
Utility Gas Plants
9 NFPA 59A, Production, Storage and Handling of Liquefied
Natural Gas
9 NFPA 86C, Industrial Furnaces Using a Special Processing
Atmosphere
Pyrophoric gases are more hazardous than flammable gases because they are both flammable and self-igniting. The semiconductor industry uses many of these gases for doping semiconductor chips. The properties that make particular gases good semiconductor dopants also seem to make them pyrophoric.
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 53
The most common pyrophoric gases are the silanes, which are
hydrides of silicon. NFPA 318, Protection of Cleanrooms, addresses the protection measures needed when using these gases.
NFPA 55, Compressed and Liquefied Gases in Portable Cylinders, addresses storing these gases.
Another special material classification is for aerosols. The liquid
aerosol product can be an inert, combustible or flammable liquid.
The propellant can be an inert or flammable gas. Flammable
aerosols propelled by flammable propellants are the most hazardous, but all aerosols present hazards. This is because when exposed to heat the containers rocket, presenting a projectile hazard
and potentially spreading fire. NFPA 30B, Aerosol Products,
Manufacture and Storage, addresses these hazards.
New materials are being developed with increasing frequency. It
is almost impossible for general materials handbooks to stay up
to date. Industries that develop and use new materials sometimes
prepare their own handbooks. One example is the National Semiconductor Chemical & Radiation Safety Handbook. This handbook lists and describes many of the new chemicals being used in
the semiconductor industry for manufacturing chips. Many of
these chemicals are found in the general handbooks, but some of
them are not.
Chemicals that do not present fire or explosion concerns may be
toxic and/or carcinogenic. Like fire protection issues, these safety
issues are of concern to all disciplines on a building project. Materials handbooks normally cover these properties in addition to
the ones already mentioned.
A handbook dealing specifically with toxins and carcinogens is
the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, published by the
Center for Disease Control. NIOSH also publishes other chemical
handbooks.
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54 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Materials Storage
Not only do physical and chemical characteristics affect the fire
and explosion hazards of a material, but so does its configuration.
Following are examples of configurations that affect the hazard
of given materials:
9
How the material is packaged, i.e., if it is in boxes with foam
peanuts or cocoons, or whether it is shrink-wrapped;
9
Whether the material is stored in bulk, on pallets, in double-row
racks or in multiple-row racks;
9
Aisle widths between piles or racks of storage;
9
The dimensions of racks and their longitudinal and transverse flue
spaces;
9
Whether sprinkler coverage of material in racks is blocked by solid
shelves, closed-top bins or other obstructions;
9
How high the material is stored;
9
How much material is in a given fire area;
9
Whether flammable liquids are stored in small containers, drums,
tanks, or large tank farms;
9
Whether flammable liquids are stored in safety cans, safety
cabinets, or properly protected flammable liquids rooms; and
9
What else in a facility the storage exposes.
Process Hazards Evaluation
Processes involving chemicals present many hazards. These include the generation of unexpected heat or pressure, rupture of
pipes and vessels, and many other problems. The Kirk-Othmer
Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology is one of the most comprehensive guides on what chemicals are used in today's industrial processes and how they present hazards.
The most dangerous chemical reactions are exothermic, or heatproducing. The temperatures and pressures generated by these
reactions must be controlled by proper introduction of raw material and by sufficient agitation and cooling. These processes must
also be designed to withstand reasonable upsets. This is accom-
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 55
plished by reactor construction safety factors and by providing
adequate normal and emergency vessel venting. One common
resource for sizing reactor vents is the manual from the Design
Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS).
Designing safe chemical processes involves considering many
features, including the following:
9 Hazards of raw materials, intermediates, and finished products;
9 Hazards of material interactions;
9 Designing for a minimum volume of hazardous material holdup;
9 Safe temperature ranges and safety factors;
9 Safe pressures and design of normal pressure/vacuum venting and
emergency venting;
9 Liquid flow rates and levels;
9 Leak control through dikes, drains, and holding tanks;
9 Cooling water system and backup system;
9 Agitation required;
9 Safety ventilation;
9 Required sensors for monitoring unsafe conditions and interlocks
for shutting down;
9 Making hazardous features of the process failsafe; and
9 Providing safe distances between hazards and exposed property.
The safety of a process is not assured until the management programs are in place to support it. These programs include"
9 Normal startup, operating, and shutdown procedures, including
safety checks;
9 Safe off-normal and emergency procedures;
9 Operator training and refresher training in the procedures;
9 Inspection, testing, and preventive maintenance of process and
safety equipment; and
9 Management of change.
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56 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Process safety features are best considered at the time of facility
and/or process design to enable specifying the correct equipment
and designing a proper layout. They apply to simple processes as
much as they apply to the more complex ones.
Taking the last item, management of change to a process involves
analyzing all possible effects each change might have on that
process. This amounts to conducting a new process hazards
evaluation. Common examples of process changes that warrant a
process hazards evaluation are:
9 Using different raw materials, solvents, catalysts, or other
substances;
9 Changing how materials flow through the process;
9 Operating at different speeds, temperatures, or pressures;
9 Increasing or decreasing equipment tolerances;
9 Adding new subsystems, such as coating, drying, or drainage
systems;
9 Changing the characteristics of the finished product;
9 Revising maintenance schedules, frequencies, or methods; and
9 Changing the area ventilation, construction, or other
characteristics.
Considering these features before selecting equipment can result
in better design choices.
When the project involves existing equipment, a common example that might not be flagged for a new process hazards evaluation is replacement of a part with a like part. However, this too
warrants a new process hazards evaluation for the following reasons:
9 The process may have been adjusted or reworked due to wear in the
part being replaced.
9 The replacement part may not be identical in all respects to the
part it is replacing. Manufacturers of parts frequently change
manufacturing methods, gasket materials or other characteristics
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 57
of parts. They could also change a part's pressure rating or their
specifications for how a part should be installed or calibrated.
9 The people installing the part may not have been present at the
initial process setup. Their review of a new process hazards
evaluation will familiarize them with loss scenarios involving
that part, as well as the rest of the process.
9 A better part may have been developed and may have become
available since the process was first set up. This option should
always be checked before automatically assuming a straight
replacement should be done.
9 The need to replace a part could be an opportunity for improving
other process features, sometimes at reduced cost. This possibility
should always be reviewed.
Process Utilities
Chemical processes often need specialized utilities, which can
present their own fire and explosion hazards. Some processes
may use conventional fuels, others may use special fuels or fuel
mixes. Some process raw materials are purchased in bulk from
utility suppliers. This is fairly common for liquid oxygen, liquid
nitrogen, inert gases, and semiconductor gases. Liquids can also
be purchased this way.
Many chemical processes require close temperature control. Facilities can buy or make their own steam, or they can use heat
transfer fluids. The most common heat transfer fluids are combustible oils, which can present serious problems if they are
overheated or if they leak from piping or containment vessels.
Other processes use combustible hydraulic fluids, which are usually under very high pressure.
Codes pertaining to heat transfer systems include"
9 NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 9
9 NFPA 61, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust
Explosions in Agricultural and Food Products
Facilities
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58 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
9 NFPA 70, National Electrical Code 9
9 NFPA 86, Standard for Ovens andFurnaces
9 NFPA 86C, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using a Special
Processing Atmosphere
9 NFPA 86D, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using Vacuum as
an Atmosphere
9 NFPA 664, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Explosions in
Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities
Note that the occupancy-related codes for agricultural and wood
processing facilities address fire prevention design features for
heat transfer systems that could also apply to other types of facilities.
The cost of discharging hazardous waste encourages treatment or
recovery of process materials like catalysts and solvents. Common recovery measures include filtering, collection, and distillation systems. These operations can be very hazardous and must
be protected accordingly.
Finally, chemical processes often depend on pollution control
measures like incinerators, flare stacks, precipitators, and other
pollution control equipment. Protection for these potentially hazardous operations downstream of the actual process must be included in the process design.
The process hazards analysis must consider all process utility
systems. Controlling the hazards from utility systems requires
appropriate design; adequate inspection, testing, and maintenance
procedures; and good operator training programs. In addition,
utility systems must be reviewed from a potential business interruption standpoint. For example, even if a particular problem
with a utility system is not expected to cause a fire, it could have
the potential to shut a process down for an unacceptably long period of time.
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 59
5-3 Electrical
The bulk of the electrical work for most building projects is usually designing ordinary circuits for building electrical power and
laying out the lighting systems. Electrical systems for some types
of buildings, like hospitals, also have special requirements that
engineers must learn about. For heavy industry, electrical design
could also include designing large power distribution systems for
feeding power-intensive process equipment.
Electrical engineers are very familiar with NFPA 70, National
Electrical Code 9 (NEC), codes published by the International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) or comparable electrical
codes (for other countries outside the U.S. and Europe). The requirements in the applicable generic code are sufficient for the
design of most electrical systems.
Additional requirements apply to wires and cables used in airhandling spaces. The NFPA code addressing this subject is
NFPA 262, Standard Method of Test for Flame Travel and
Smoke of Wires and Cables for Use in Air-Handling Spaces.
Because fire alarm, security, and fire protection control systems
must be wired, their design often falls to electrical engineers.
Meeting the generic electrical code is not sufficient. To design
these systems properly, the electrical engineers must be familiar
with a host of electrically related fire protection requirements.
Fire protection engineering interfaces with electrical engineering
in the following areas"
9 Building system controls;
9 Fire detection and alarm systems;
9 Extinguishing system control;
9 Electric motor-driven fire pumps;
9 Emergency lighting;
9 Backup power supplies;
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60 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
9 Electrical equipment for hazardous (classified) locations; and
9 Electrical protection systems.
Building System Controls
Controls for various building systems present both electrical and
fire protection concems. These systems include the following:
9
9
9
9
HVAC systems;
Smoke control systems;
Cranes; and
Elevators.
HVAC systems are now often arranged to perform energy management functions. Smoke control can be handled by HVAC systems or by separate systems. The electrical portions of HVAC
and smoke management systems are important because the controis dictate the action of the system.
Controls are also susceptible to being changed by people, which
introduces the potential for eliminating intended design features
or for creating new hazards. Because these are mechanical systems, they are also discussed in Section 5-4.
Operations in many facilities require permanently installed
cranes. The cranes can be inside, outside, or both. Crane controls
are very important for prevention of many types of losses, including fires. Crane wiring must often be exposed, so it must be well
grounded and protected. The logic of the electrical control system
protects the crane and the building, as well as the building contents. Operator training is also very important.
Control systems for elevators must be in compliance with NFPA
101, Life Safety Code. 9 This ensures the safety of building occupants as well as responding firefighters.
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 61
Fire Detection and Alarm Systems
The applicable code for design of detection and alarm systems in
the U.S. (and in some other countries) is NFPA 72, National Fire
Alarm Code. 9 For detection systems, this code contains provisions for:
9 Selection of detectors;
9 Location and spacing of detectors;
9 Wiring of the detector circuits;
9 Wiring to the detection control panel;
9 Back-up power requirements;
9 Arrangement, location, and wiring of audible and visible
alarms; and
9 Location of manual devices.
More types of fire detectors are available than ever before. Selecting the most appropriate detector for the application requires
extensive knowledge of detector types, how they work, and their
advantages and disadvantages.
For alarm systems, NFPA 72 contains provisions for:
9 Arranging initiating device and signaling line circuits;
9 Monitoring circuit integrity;
9 Back-up power requirements; and
9 Requirements related to the type of alarm service, e.g., central
station, remote supervising station, proprietary supervising station,
or other type of service.
In all cases, equipment should be listed for its intended purpose.
For example, alarm system control panels can be listed for central
station, remote supervising station, or proprietary supervising station service, or for any combination of these services. A central
station control panel should have a listing for central station use.
Writing proper electrical specifications requires confirming the
type of alarm system to be provided and understanding the rele-
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62 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
vant code requirements. Many other requirements can pertain to
alarm systems, including what conditions the alarm system
should monitor and whether the system is to be certificated or
placarded. Specifications should usually include listing by nationally recognized testing laboratories, the most common of
which is Underwriters' Laboratories.
A potential source of confusion in listings for fire alarm equipment is that many different types of listings apply. Separate listings are provided for protected premises fire alarm systems and
for three types of supervising station fire alarm systems. Other
listings are also provided for public reporting systems, security
systems, and burglar alarm systems. Specifying a listing is not
sufficient; the type of listing must also be specified.
Extinguishing System Control
Fire protection special extinguishing systems include those using
alternate (gaseous) agents, carbon dioxide, dry chemical, foam,
foam-water, water, and wet chemical. The NFPA codes for these
types of systems include:
9 NFPA 11, Standard for Low Expansion Foam
9 NFPA 11A, Standard for Medium- and High-Expansion Foam
Systems
9 NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
9 NFPA 12A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems
9 NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire
Protection
9 NFPA 16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler
and Foam- Water Spray Systems
9 NFPA 17, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems
9 NFPA 17A, Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems
9 NFPA 750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems
9 NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 63
The electrical control of these systems is covered in the above
codes. Factors to consider when designing these control systems
include the factors listed in the section on fire detection and
alarm systems, plus the following additional features:
9 Control panel listing for release device service and for use with the
type of release mechanism on the selected extinguishing system;
9 Special arrangement of detection circuits, e.g., cross-zoning or
other means of confirming an alarm signal;
9 Presence of time delays, aborts, or maintenance disable switches;
9 System interlocks to be provided, e.g., door and damper closure,
electrical power shut-off, HVAC shutdown; and
9 Monitoring by the building alarm panel.
Cross-zoning is now a generic term for any algorithm that requires two detectors to operate before an extinguishing agent is
discharged. These control panel algorithms were designed to reduce chances of unnecessary discharge of extinguishing agent.
Such algorithms are only appropriate for conventional spot-type
smoke detectors. They should not be used for beam-type or high
sensitivity smoke detectors, or for heat, flame, or spark detectors.
Including time delays, aborts, and maintenance disable switches
in an extinguishing system can be very controversial. Designing
them becomes particularly complex when two detectors must operate to discharge the extinguishing agent. The designer must coordinate design decisions about these features with the owner and
the owner's authority having jurisdiction.
Electric Motor-Driven Fire Pumps
NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for
Fire Protection, contains special requirements for wiring power
feeds to electric fire pump controllers. The requirements include
how the circuits should be arranged (wired), controlled
(switched), and protected against exposure to damage.
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64 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Issues of critical importance concerning electric motor-driven fire
pumps are:
9 Connecting the pump's power feed upstream of manual shut-off
switches, so that the pump runs even if all remaining power has
been shut off;
9 Setting circuit breakers so that the pump motor's inrush current
does not trip them;
9 Setting circuit breakers so that the circuit remains energized for a
specified duration at locked rotor current; and
9 Properly arranging and installing automatic transfer switches.
Many fire pump controllers have settings that need to be specified. Decisions about how to set fire pump controllers should be
made in consultation with the owner and the authority having jurisdiction.
Emergency Lighting
NFPA 101, Life Safety Code 9 requires emergency lighting so that
even in the event of loss of electrical power to a facility, occupants have enough light to safely exit the building. The code offers several options for meeting backup power requirements.
Backup Power Supplies
Some occupancies require backup power supplies for critical systems. For example, NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities, requires backup power in certain health care occupancies.
The following codes cover backup power supplies:
9 NFPA 110, Standardfor Emergency and Standby Power Systems
9 NFPA 111, Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and
Standby Power
Even when facilities do not have full backup power supplies, individual systems are required to have their own backup power
supplies, including fire protection systems. Emergency lighting
systems are a good example. It is also common for the AHJ to
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 65
require backup power supplies for other operations, such as ventilation systems, smoke control systems or critical process safety
controls.
In addition, many other fire protection systems require backup
power supplies. Examples of such systems include fire alarm systems and special extinguishing control systems. The specific requirements for these backup systems are found in the codes pertaining to these systems. For the alarm system example, the ~ertinent code would be NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code. Extinguishing systems are addressed in several NFPA codes, including the following:
9 N F P A 11, Standard for Low Expansion Foam
9 N F P A 11A, Standard for Medium- and High-Expansion Foam
Systems
9 N F P A 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
9 N F P A 12A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems
9 N F P A 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire
Protection
9 N F P A 16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler
and Foam-Water Spray Systems
9 NFPA 17, Standardfor Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems
9 NFPA 17A, Standardfor Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems
9 NFPA 750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems
9 NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
Electrical Equipment in Hazardous (Classified) Locations
For the purpose of specifying electrical equipment, hazardous
(classified) locations are locations likely to contain flammable
vapors, ignitable dusts, or combustible fibers and flyings. The
National Electrical Code specifies types of electrical equipment
suitable for these locations. However, it does not specify how to
determine the extent of classified locations.
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66 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Guidance on classifying locations on and selecting appropriate
electrical equipment is given in:
9 NFPA 497, RecommendedPracticefor the Classification of
Flammable Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of
Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical
Installations in Chemical Process Areas
NFPA 499, Recommended Practice for the Classification of
Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous (Classified)
Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical
Process Areas
Hazardous areas are classified by type of exposure:
9 Class I for flammable liquid vapors;
9 Class II for ignitable dusts; and
9 Class III for combustible fibers and flyings.
Class I is divided into Groups A, B, C, and D depending on the
gas or vapor's specific gravity and required ignition energy.
NFPA 497 gives the classifications for most liquids. Class II is
divided into Groups E, F, and G, depending on the characteristics
of the dust. NFPA 499 gives the classification of most dusts.
Hazardous area classifications are further subdivided by likelihood of exposure to the hazardous material. Two systems of subdivision are in common use: the older NEC system and the newer
IEC/NEC system. The first system has Divisions 1 and 2, the
other Zones 0, 1, and 2. (Note that Division 1 and Zone 1 are not
equivalent.) Both these systems are recognized in the latest
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. 9 Specifying the correct division requires knowing which system of classification is being
used.
Many types of electrical equipment are suitable for hazardous
(classified) locations. The most well-known is explosion-proof
equipment, which is commonly used in areas likely to contain
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 67
flammable liquids vapors. The analogous equipment used in areas likely to contain dusts is called dust-ignitionproof.
Another type of electrical equipment suitable for hazardous locations is purged or pressurized equipment. NFPA 496, Standard
for Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for Electrical Equipment,
contains the requirements for this type of equipment.
A potential area of confusion with respect to electrical listings is
in whether a piece of equipment is listed for use in hazardous
(classified) locations, or is listed for containing hazardous materials. One example is in the listing of refrigerators. Refrigerators
listed under category STRV of the UL Hazardous Locations
Equipment Directory are suitable for use in hazardous (classified)
locations. Refrigerators listed under category SOVQ of the UL
Electrical Appliance and Utilization Equipment Directory are
suitable for containing flammable liquids.
A common area of misunderstanding in the electrical field is in
what constitutes intrinsically safe electrical equipment. Most engineers know the basic requirement that energy from the equipment cannot ignite a hazardous atmosphere. But they may not
know that the design depends on the division or zone, or how to
determine the fault currents. Requirements for this equipment are
specified in ANSI/UL 913. Nationally recognized testing laboratories list equipment that meets this standard as intrinsically safe.
Ordinary low voltage equipment that is not so listed, including
battery-operated flashlights, is not intrinsically safe.
Electrical Protection Systems
Electrical protection systems include systems for grounding,
surge protection and lightning protection. These systems protect
buildings and contents from electrical damage; they also reduce
the potential for electrical ignition of a fire.
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68 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Grounding systems prevent accumulation of static charges that
could ignite vapors. They can be designed to protect equipment
and personnel, and they can ensure appropriate power quality.
Grounding systems are an essential part of systems for surge protection and lightning protection. See NFPA 77, Recommended
Practice on Static Electricity.
Surge protection is installed primarily to protect electrical equipment from damage due to unpredictable swings in the normal
electrical power supply. It maintains acceptable power quality.
This protection can also keep equipment from smoking, burning
out, or starting a fire. Surge protection is not the same as lightning protection.
Buildings and other structures are often protected against lightning, particularly in areas prone to frequent lightning strikes or
for structures likely to contain ignitable atmospheres. Traditional
lightning protection systems use receptors (lightning rods), main
conductors, and ground terminals to carry the strike current safely
to earth.
Applicable references for lightning protection are"
9 NFPA 780, Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection
Systems
9 UL 96A, Standard for Installation Requirements for Lightning
Protection Systems
9 LPI-175, Lightning Protection Institute Standard Practice
Lightning is extremely unpredictable. Occasionally, even areas
considered to be fully protected against lightning have suffered
damage. Traditional lightning protection is acknowledged to be
imperfect. Nontraditional methods for providing lightning protection include charge dissipation and early streamer emissions systems. These methods are controversial and have not yet been incorporated in traditional codes.
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 69
5-4 M e c h a n i c a l
The most well-known overlap between the mechanical and fire
protection disciplines is in laying out conventional sprinkler systems, but there are other areas of mutual concern. Fire protection
systems that interface with the mechanical discipline include:
9 Piped fire protection systems;
9 Fire protection water supplies;
9 Pneumatic power and control systems;
9 Building HVAC systems;
9 Smoke control and smoke management systems; and
9 Area ventilation systems.
Piped Fire Protection Systems
Piped fire protection systems that are water-based include wet
and dry pipe sprinkler systems, deluge and preaction sprinkler
systems, and open- and closed-head water spray systems. Each
type of system has a particular application.
The NFPA codes pertaining to water-based fire protection systems include"
9 NFPA 11, Standard for Low Expansion Foam
9 NFPA 11A, Standard for Medium- and High-Expansion Foam
Systems
9 NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
9 NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire
Protection
9 NFPA 16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler
and Foam-Water Spray Systems
9 NFPA 750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems
Some publications categorize piped fire protection systems as
either sprinkler systems or special extinguishing systems. The
special extinguishing systems would include the foam and water
spray systems bulleted above, as well as the nonwater-based sys-
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70 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
terns. Piped fire protection systems that are nonwater-based include CO2, Halon, dry and wet chemical, and clean agent systems.
The NFPA codes pertaining to the nonwater-based fire protection
systems include:
9 NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
9 NFPA 12A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems
9 NFPA 17, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems
9 NFPA 17A, Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems
9 NFPA 69, Explosion Prevention Systems
9 NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
NFPA codes that cover features above and beyond the piped fire
protection systems are also relevant. The most common example
is NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage. Other
occupancy-related NFPA codes would also apply.
Relevant listings for fire protection piping, valves, and other devices are found in the UL Fire Protection Equipment Directory.
The F M Approval Guide contains similar listings, as do directories published by other nationally recognized testing laboratories.
Fire Protection Water Supplies
Fire protection water supplies include water storage tanks,
pumps, underground fire protection mains, hydrants, and feeds to
sprinkler systems. NFPA codes pertaining to fire protection water
supplies include"
9 NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
9 NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private
Hydrant, and Hose Systems
9 NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for
Fire Protection
9 NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanksfor Private Fire Protection
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 71
NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service
Mains and Their Appurtenances
Pneumatic Power and Control Systems
In hazardous (classified) areas where ignition sources must be
eliminated, pneumatic systems are often used as power sources
for opening and closing doors or for positioning machinery.
Pneumatic systems can also be used for process control to eliminate the ignition sources presented by electrically operated control panels.
A common misconception is that all low voltage control panels
are intrinsically safe. However, this is only true if the panel is designed to particular standards and is listed as intrinsically safe.
(See the Electrical section of this chapter.) Finally, pneumatic
systems can be used for conveying combustible or noncombustible particulates.
Although there is no NFPA code specifically for pneumatic systems, over 50 NFPA codes address them, including the several
codes on life safety and health care facilities. Codes on hazardous
occupancies, extinguishing systems, and alarm and detection systems also address pneumatic systems.
Two examples are:
9 NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using
Chemicals
NFPA 650, Standard for Pneumatic Conveying Systems for
Handling Combustible Particulate Solids
Building HVA C Systems
The design of some building HVAC systems must take fire protection features into account. One example is when the HVAC
system serves hazardous (classified) areas. The parts of the
HVAC system serving these areas must be properly isolated from
those serving nonhazardous areas.
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72 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Sometimes hazardous areas have standalone HVAC units, which
must be appropriate for the hazard. Another example is when areas of a facility are maintained at a higher pressure than the rest
of the building for the purpose of keeping vapors or dusts from
entering areas not designed for that hazard. Finally, HVAC systems can be arranged to shut down to prevent spreading of
smoke.
Protection of the boilers that provide the source of building heat
is addressed in NFPA 85, Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code.
Building HVAC systems are often adapted to provide some
smoke control functions. This is in contrast to dedicated smoke
control systems, which are discussed in the next section.
Requirements for different types of building HVAC systems are
covered in the following NFPA codes:
9 NFPA 90A, Standardfor the Installation of Air-Conditioning and
Ventilating Systems
9 NFPA 90B, Standardfor the Installation of Warm Air Heating and
Air-Conditioning Systems
9 NFPA 91, Standardfor Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of
Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate
Solids
9 NFPA 96, Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial
Cooking Operations
,,
NFPA 318, Standardfor the Protection of Cleanrooms
Smoke Control and Smoke Management Systems
NFPA 92A, Recommended Practice for Smoke-Control Systems,
addresses smoke control by using barriers, air flows, and pressure
differences to confine smoke to the zone of fire origin and thus
maintain a tenable environment in other zones. Smoke control
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 73
systems require specifically designed ducts and/or plenums, control systems, and control system logic.
NFPA 92B, Guide for Smoke Management Systems in Malls,
Atria, and Large Areas, addresses smoke management in largevolume, noncompartmented spaces. Rather than focusing on controlling the path of any smoke, this standard explains how to determine where smoke will go for a given building design. The
idea is to design buildings where smoke accumulates outside of
egress paths. The primary application of this standard is for stadia, malls, and atria.
NFPA codes that address generation and venting of smoke include:
9 NFPA 204, Standardfor Smoke andHeat Venting
9 NFPA 262, Standard Method of Test for Flame Travel and Smoke
of Wires and Cables for Use in Air-Handling Spaces
9 NFPA 271, Standard Method of Test for Heat and Visible Smoke
Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an
Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
Area Ventilation Systems
Mechanical ventilation is often needed for protection from fire
and explosion in localized areas. A classic example is for the ventilation systems specified in NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 9 for flammable liquids dispensing rooms.
Another common example is the safety ventilation required by
NFPA 86, Standard for Ovens and Furnaces, for ovens drying
off flammable vapors.
Other applications for area ventilation are around process equipment that could release toxic or carcinogenic vapors, or around
hazardous gas cylinders stored inside a facility. NFPA codes
relevant to the occupancy address specific requirements.
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74 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Ventilation is required for rooms housing battery banks, because
of the possibility that the batteries generate hydrogen. The following codes cover the ventilation requirements for backup
power supplies:
9 NFPA 110, Standardfor Emergency and Standby Power Systems
9 NFPA 111, Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and
Standby Power
Sometimes specialized ventilation is used to reduce the chance of
vapors or dusts of approaching hazardous concentrations near a
process area. This allows for use of less stringently rated electrical equipment in that area, as well as other potential sources of
ignition. Such ventilation systems must be interlocked so that the
process capable of generating vapors or dusts is shut down if the
ventilation system is not operating. Dedicated ventilation systems
are also provided for exhaust systems on paint spray booths, over
dip tanks, and on laboratory benches using hazardous materials.
Two of many NFPA codes addressing bench exhaust systems are:
9 NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using
Chemicals
9 NFPA 318, Protection of Cleanrooms
Another application of mechanical systems for fire safety is in
deflagration venting of process vessels. In this case, the venting
system must be designed to withstand the maximum expected
pressure developed in a deflagration. NFPA 68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations, covers these systems.
Buildings or rooms can also be designed for deflagration venting.
It should be noted that no type of design for deflagration works if
the material presenting the hazard can detonate. See Deflagration
Venting for Buildings in the next section.
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 75
5-5 S t r u c t u r a l
Relevant fire protection questions about a structure are: Will the
structure itself add to the facility's combustible loading? If so,
how much? If not, how much heat can the structure withstand? If
a fire started, how far would it be possible to spread? The interface between fire protection and structural engineering includes
the following specific areas:
9 Combustibility/fire resistance of building structural materials;
9 Fireproofing of building structural elements;
9 Fire resistance ratings of barriers;
9 Protection ofopenings;
9 Deflagration venting for buildings; and
9 Flood, earthquake, snow, and wind design.
Combustibility~Fire Resistance of Building Structural Materials
No building material meets all possible needs. Pound for pound,
wood is superior for withstanding earthquakes and other structural stresses, but it is combustible. Lightweight noncombustible
materials fail quickly when exposed to heat. Heavy noncombustible materials are expensive and can be labor intensive to install.
Building construction materials must be chosen to meet the applicable codes, local conditions, architectural needs, and the
owner's goals.
NFPA codes relevant to structural features include:
9 NFPA 203, Guide on Roof Coverings andRoofDeck Construction
9 NFPA 220, Types of Building Construction
9 NFPA 251, Fire Tests of Building Construction Materials
9 NFPA 256, Methods of Fire Tests of Roof Coverings
9 NFPA 259, Test Method for Potential Heat of Building Materials
9 NFPA 268, Standard Test Method for Determining Ignitability of
Exterior Wall Assemblies Using a Radiant Heat
Energy Source
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76 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Underwriters Laboratories lists noncombustible roofing materials
and systems in the UL Roofing Materials and Systems Directory.
UL Fire Classified roofs are rated for internal fire exposure. UL
Class A, B, or C roof coverings are rated for external fire exposure. The FM Approval Guide designation of Class 1 applies to
both internal and external fire exposure.
Fireproofing of Building Structural Elements
If a selected building construction material does not provide the
fire resistance desired for a particular part of a building, fireproofing can be used in that part. Information on fireproofing
building structural elements is found in the Underwriters Labora-
tories Fire Resistance Directory.
Fireproofing systems for withstanding fires in ordinary combustibles are tested in accordance with ANSI/UL Standard 263 and
listed in the directory under category BXUV. Each fireproofing
system is designated by a design letter followed by three numbers. The letter specifies the construction element (walls, floors,
ceilings, beams, columns) and the number specifies the type of
fireproofing (membrane protection, direct applied, unprotected).
Fireproofing systems for withstanding rapid temperature rise fires
are tested in accordance with ANSI/UL 1709 and listed in the
directory under category BYBU. The system designation is the
same as for ANSI/UL 263 systems except that the letter R is
added after the first letter. The engineer must be sure to specify
the correct fire exposure (ordinary or rapid temperature rise) for
the building of concern. As an alternate to using listed systems,
fire resistance ratings can be calculated from first principles.
However, the correct fire exposure must still be used.
The FM Approval Guide contains information similar to that in
the UL directories, as do the listings published by other nationally recognized testing laboratories.
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 77
Fire Resistance Ratings of Barriers
Fire resistive walls or barrier walls are sometimes used to divide
buildings into separate fire areas. Fire walls are used for various
reasons, including"
9 Dividing spaces into areas for different tenants;
9 Separating egress paths from other areas of a building;
9 Separating office, manufacturing, and storage areas;
9 Dividing manufacturing buildings into areas of different
occupancies or processes;
9 Separating service areas (boiler rooms, transformer rooms) from
the remainder of a facility;
9 Separating high hazard occupancies (flammable liquids vaults)
from the remainder of a facility; or
9 Subdividing a large area of similar occupancy to limit possible
fire loss.
NFPA codes pertaining to fire walls and fire barrier walls are:
9 NFPA 221, Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls
9 NFPA 251, Fire Tests of Building Construction Materials
Also see the Underwriters Laboratories Fire Resistance Directory, FMApproval Guide, and listings published by other nationally recognized testing laboratories.
Protection of Openings
Moving people and materials through a facility requires that interior walls have openings. Routing utilities through a facility
sometimes requires wall penetrations. Openings and penetrations
in fire barrier walls need protection that provides fire resistance
comparable to that of the wall.
Many types of protection for openings are available, including
the following:
9 Fire doors;
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78 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
9 Assemblies with fire-rated glass;
9 Fire shutters for conveyor openings and other small openings;
9 Fire dampers for ducts; and
9 Fire-rated materials for sealing duct, pipe, and wire penetrations.
Note that in the strict sense of the term, a true fire wall (as opposed to a fire barrier wall) must be self-supporting and can have
no penetrations. This is so that a building collapse on one side of
the wall does not affect the other side. True fire walls can have
protected openings, but they should be kept to a minimum.
The following NFPA codes address opening protection:
9 NFPA 80, Standardfor Fire Doors and Fire Windows
9 NFPA 252, Fire Tests of Door Assemblies
9 NFPA 257, Fire Tests of Window Assemblies
The Underwriters Laboratories Building Materials Directory
lists fire doors under category GSNV and fire dampers under
category EMME. The Underwriters Laboratories Fire Resistance
Directory lists fire-rated penetration protection under ThroughPenetration Firestop Systems (XHEZ), Fill Void or Cavity Materials (XHHW), and Firestop Devices (XHJI). UL also lists Perimeter Fire Containment Systems (XHDG). The F M Approval
Guide lists similar systems for opening protection, as do other
nationally recognized testing laboratories.
Deflagration Venting for Buildings
Deflagration venting limits building structural damage by allowing an intentionally weak part of a building to blow out while
leaving the rest of the structure intact. Deflagration venting is often provided for flammable liquids storage or dispensing rooms
or for buildings containing hazardous processes.
Deflagration venting is often called explosion venting, but that is
a misnomer. In deflagrations, propagation of the combustion zone
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 79
is less than the speed of sound. In detonations, propagation of the
combustion zone is greater than the speed of sound. Deflagrations
can be successfully vented in low strength enclosures, whereas
detonations cannot be.
NFPA 68, Guide for the Venting o f Deflagrations. NFPA 69,
Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems, also discusses deflagration venting. It includes information on deflagration suppression systems and deflagration pressure containment.
NFPA codes that address when deflagration venting should be
provided include, but are not limited to, the following:
9 NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire
Protection
9 NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 9
9 NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol
Products
NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or
Combustible Materials
9 NFPA 35, Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings
9 NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using
Chemicals
9 NFPA 61, Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions
in Agricultural and Food Products Facilities
9 NFPA 86, Standardfor Ovens and Furnaces
9 NFPA 91, Standardfor Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of
Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible
Particulate Solids
9 NFPA 318, Standardfor the Protection of Cleanrooms
9 NFPA 654, Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust
Explosions from the Manufacturing, Processing,
and Handling of Combustible Particulates
9 NFPA 664, Standard for the Prevention of Fires andExplosions in
Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities
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80 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Most of the NFPA codes pertaining to explosive materials, oxidizers, peroxides, and combustible metals also address deflagration venting. See Section 2 of this chapter for lists of those codes.
Flood, Earthquake, Snow, and Wind Design
Flood, earthquake, snow, and wind design of buildings are all of
concern to fire protection engineers because these natural perils
can either cause fires or take important fire protection systems
out of service. Any of these perils can also slow or prevent response of emergency services to a facility, including firefighting
services.
In addition to building codes, many NFPA codes contain design
features intended to mitigate the effects of natural perils. Many of
the NFPA codes listed in Sections 2 and 4 of this chapter address
these perils.
Flooding can cause electrical power loss and disable alarm systems, security systems, process safety controls, and other electrical equipment critical to fire safety. Flooding can also wash away
tanks, including tanks holding fire protection water supplies and
fuel for engine-driven fire pumps. Therefore, judicious layout and
structural design of facilities near flood plains are an important
part of facility fire prevention programs.
In addition to the codes listed in Section 2 of this chapter, NFPA
codes that address design for protection from flooding include:
9 NFPA 1, Fire Prevention Code
9 NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps
for Fire Protection
NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 9
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code 9
NFPA 75, Standard for the Protection of Electronic
Computer~Data Processing Equipment
NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities
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Interfacing With the Other Disciplines 81
Many other NFPA codes also contain provisions for protection of
buildings, rooms, equipment, and fire protection systems from
the effects of flooding.
Proper building structural design for earthquake resistance is essential for achieving earthquake resistance of systems attached to
the structure, including piped systems. Earthquakes can break
fuel gas piping, which is a very common cause of fires and explosions. The many NFPA codes that cover compressed and liquefied fuel gases have earthquake design provisions.
Earthquakes can also break fire protection piping, taking these
systems out of service. If the break cannot be isolated, this reduces the water available for other fire protection systems or for
manual firefighting.
Earthquakes can cause many other fire protection-related problems, including breaking flammable liquids storage tanks and
tanks holding fire protection water. Damage from earthquakes
can also restrict accessibility to the site by emergency responders.
Most codes that cover the installation of piped fire protection systems contain provisions for designing them to withstand earthquakes. NPFA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, is the most familiar example of a code for piped fire protection systems that contains earthquake design provisions. Other
codes containing such provisions include those listed in Section 4
of this chapter.
Wind perils include high winds, monsoons, tornadoes, and hurricanes. Windstorms also bring the potential for water damage,
whether it is from wind-driven rain, storm water run-off, or
flooding. Wind can down power lines and topple elevated tanks.
Fallen trees can damage buildings, process equipment and storage tanks. Like flood and earthquake, windstorms can cause fires
and impair fire protection systems.
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82 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Building codes contain the structural design features for flood,
earthquake and wind, as well as for snow, ice, and other loads.
Excessive snow and ice can cause roof collapse, which would
break any fire protection piping in the collapsed area.
Most of the building codes currently used in the U.S. already incorporate the provisions of ASCE-7, Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures. The new editions of the existing
building codes and the new national building codes are expected
to be adopting ASCE 7-2002.
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0
Fire Protection for New and Existing Buildings
6-1 The Design Process
Buildings are designed to meet many needs. They must have a
particular amount of space, accommodate a particular number of
occupants, and serve particular functions. They must also have
electrical, mechanical, and ventilation systems to support the
planned operations. The structural, electrical, and mechanical
systems are designed to meet these needs as well as to meet applicable codes. Each discipline is coordinated as necessary to
meet the project's goals.
Meeting fire protection goals requires the same type of coordination. Fire protection must be integrated into the design process
and coordinated throughout construction. This is true whether
planning a new building or making changes to an existing one.
As a member of the design team, the fire protection engineer can
help identify and resolve fire protection issues and keep them
from adversely affecting the project.
Sometimes the fire protection design approach is different for
new construction than for existing buildings, but the underlying
design principles are the same. Effectively integrating fire protection requires being very familiar with the construction, layout,
and occupancy of the building and knowing the functions that the
fire protection systems are expected to serve. (See Chapter 2.)
New construction projects are usually more straightforward than
projects involving changes to existing buildings. Rather than having to adapt to what is already there, each engineering discipline
can start with the designs recognized as being most appropriate.
83
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84 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
The optimum design may often be feasible; if not, alternate designs are usually easy to develop.
Making changes to existing buildings can be a design challenge
for all the engineering disciplines. Every proposed change can
affect all the other disciplines, including fire protection. This is
why coordination is very important on projects involving changes
to existing buildings.
Sometimes bringing existing buildings up to current prescriptive
building codes is not feasible. This is where performance-based
fire protection design alternatives can be used to achieve a level
of protection equivalent to that specified in the current code. The
other engineering disciplines may also use performance-based
alternatives to achieve the intent of prescriptive provisions that
cannot otherwise be met. In all cases, performance-based alternatives must be coordinated with the other disciplines. And in all
cases, these alternatives are best developed by engineers licensed
in the appropriate discipline.
Combined architectural/engineering firms are often the prime
professionals on very large building projects. Architectural firms
are often the prime professionals on moderate sized new construction projects, and engineering consulting firms are often the
prime professionals on renovation projects. However, this can
vary from project to project. The important thing is for the prime
professional to coordinate the designs of all the disciplines, including fire protection, and to help integrate these designs into
the project.
6-2 New Construction
While new construction projects may present fewer initial design
restrictions, they also present more potential design choices.
Making these choices requires research into issues like potential
sites, building and process design choices, and other issues. The
fire protection engineer would research fire protection water sup-
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Fire Protection for New and Existing Buildings 85
plies, available alarm services, fire department capabilities, site
drainage, fire exposures, special jurisdictional requirements, and
other features that may affect fire protection design.
At this point, the fire protection engineer determines whether the
usual prescriptive fire protection design best suits the project.
This is often the case. The fire protection engineer then implements the prescriptive design while coordinating features of all
the relevant codes with the other disciplines.
To implement a performance-based design, the fire protection
engineer must know the goals and objectives that have been
specified by the owner. All system designs must then be shown to
meet these goals and objectives.
The trickiest part of the fire protection design is that it depends
on the building construction, layout, and occupancy; and on the
mechanical, electrical, and process systems in the building.
Therefore, any time any other discipline changes a design, the
fire protection has to be checked. This is why fire protection must
be coordinated throughout the project.
Coordination is equally important for prescriptive and performance-based designs. In a prescriptive design, a requirement for
hose standpipes might apply when the fire area per floor exceeds
a particular amount. An initial building design may control these
areas by adding fire barriers and doors to corridors on each floor.
If a later design revision removes the doors, the hose standpipes
would then be required. The fire protection water supply piping
to the hose standpipes would need to be sized and placed. This is
best done as early as possible in the design.
In a performance-based design, any change to the building can
affect whether the fire protection systems meet the performance
specifications of the owner. Decreasing the size of an atrium may
affect visibility during occupant egress. The smoke control system might have to be redesigned. The amount of combustible ma-
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86 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
terials in a given area can increase when changing construction
materials, room layout, occupancy, or storage locations. All such
changes would require rechecking the performance of sprinkler
systems, if provided, or rechecking the performance of other
building systems. Alternately, the configuration of the combustible materials can be changed.
Chapter 4 addresses the coordination issues that accompany performance-based fire protection design. Chapter 5 addresses code
coordination issues, which would primarily apply to prescriptive
designs. However, such code coordination issues would also apply to performance-based equivalencies; and they might also apply to some performance-based designs.
6-3 Existing Buildings
Even changes seemingly unrelated to fire protection can affect
fire protection system design. Moving fire walls can affect the
size and value of fire areas, which in turn can affect the required
level of protection. Moving unrated walls or partitions can affect
local coverage of sprinkler heads or detectors. Changing building
layout can affect provisions for means of egress.
Even changes that do not affect the building structure or layout
must be considered. Examples include changes in amounts or location of storage, or changes in occupancy. Other examples are
changes in interior finishes, process equipment, or building ventilation.
Developing an effective fire protection design requires addressing management of change both during the design process and
after completion of the project. Management of change includes
many familiar issues, including changes to"
9 Building construction;
9 Buildinglayout;
9 Building systems;
9 Occupancy;
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Fire Protection for New and Existing Buildings 87
9 Process design; and
9 Storage configuration.
Many projects in existing buildings involve these kinds of
changes.
Some building renovation projects could be seen as not involving
significant design changes. Such projects can include these types
of activities:
9 Replacing existing construction materials or building systems
with essentially the same materials or systems;
9 Using the same as existing type of construction, floor plans,
ventilation systems, or protective systems in new areas; or
* Selecting "comparable" or "similar" materials or systems.
These activities might not be seen as changes requiring management. However, managing these activities is important for at least
three reasons. First, what a manufacturer deems to be "the same"
could have differences of concern in meeting the design goals.
Fabrication methods can change, as can specified thicknesses or
safety factors. Such things as bolts, filters, gaskets, and other accessories can also change.
Second, even if everything is exactly the same, the question must
be asked whether that is appropriate for the new facility. This is a
chance to develop new, more relevant facility goals. Third, even
if it is appropriate for everything to remain the same, the construction process itself introduces temporary changes that must be
addressed. All these factors have the potential of affecting the fire
protection design.
The fire protection design process for projects in existing facilities should follow these steps"
9 Find and review the existing fire protection design basis.
9 If the design basis is not available, analyze existing building
construction, building systems, occupancy, and fire protection
systems.
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88 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
9
9
9
9
Document the new facility goals.
Determine any changes required to meet the new goals.
Analyze the effects of anticipated changes.
Determine whether prescriptive or performance-based design
will best serve the project.
9 Consider using combinations of prescriptive and performancebased designs.
Fire protection design can be especially challenging for certain
types of renovations to existing buildings. Common examples
would be for renovating buildings with restrictive space limitations and for renovating historic buildings while maintaining their
character. These types of renovations frequently require performance-based design or performance-based design alternatives to
prescriptive code provisions.
NFPA codes relevant to historic buildings include:
9 NFPA 909, Code for the Protection of Cultural Resources
9 NFPA 914, Code for Fire Protection of Historic Structures
The following articles from Fire Protection Engineering magazine describe how performance-based design or performancebased design altematives were used in building renovation projects:
Premier Issue (Winter 1999):
"Fire Protection for the Star Spangled Banner," by Michael J. Rzeznik, P.E. Protecting the fragile fibers in this
historic flag required a specially designed combination of
fire prevention and fire suppression systems.
Issue Number 2 (Spring 1999):
"Rehabilitating Existing Buildings," by John M. Watts,
Jr., Ph.D. Performance-based design can preserve the
character of historic buildings while providing a level of
protection comparable to the current code.
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Fire Protection for New and Existing Buildings 89
Issue Number 5 (Winter 2000):
"Small Atria Smoke Control," by Kurt Ruchala, P.E. A
performance-based code equivalency meets the needs of
this renovated three-story college dormitory.
Issue Number 8 (Fall 2000):
"Performance-Based Analysis of an Historic Museum,"
by Andrew Bowman. Renovation of an important historic
museum required performance-based analysis of fire
safety.
Issue Number 14 (Spring 2002):
"Application of a Systematic Fire Safety Evaluation Procedure in the Protection of Historic Property," by Alexander G. Copping, Ph D. A systematic evaluation procedure
is applied to historic churches.
Also see the article "Fire Protection Performance Evaluation for
Historic Buildings," by John M. Watts, Jr., Journal o f F ire Protection Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 4 (2001).
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0
Writing Fire Protection Specifications
7-1 Coordinating the Specifications
Project specifications cover all the disciplines on a project. Most
specifications have standard divisions for site work and building
structural elements, and for mechanical and electrical systems.
Other systems, like automated storage and retrieval systems or
process control systems, are sometimes given their own divisions
for a particular project. Fire protection systems are almost always
worked into existing project divisions. Fire protection features
covered by project specifications include the following:
9 Building construction;
9 Building layout;
9 Special fire/explosion hazards;
9 Detection/alarm systems;
9 Fire protection water supplies;
9 Sprinkler systems;
9 Special extinguishing systems;
9 Exposure protection; and
9 Fire prevention features.
Other disciplines also cover some of these features, so the project
specifications must be coordinated. Chapter 5 lists the fire protection codes, standards, and other references that are relevant to
each feature.
Building Construction
This category covers building structural materials and their arrangement, as well as interior finishing materials and their characteristics. It includes the following features:
90
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Writing Fire Protection Specifications 91
9 Combustibility of structural materials;
9 Fire resistance ratings of structural materials;
9
Sizes, locations, and ratings of fire areas;
9 Protection of openings and penetrations;
9 Fireproofing for buildings and other structures;
9 Flamespread of interior finishing materials; and
9 Amounts and locations of interior finishing materials.
Building Layout
Project specifications should state the underlying assumptions
that are incorporated in the building layout and shown on project
plans. The building layout must meet the basic requirements for
occupant egress and life safety. These assumptions include:
9 Building use and occupancy;
9 Occupancy classification per applicable codes;
9 Hazard classification per applicable codes; and
9 Number of occupants to be accommodated.
Special Fire~Explosion Hazards
All buildings have particular fire and/or explosion hazards. Some
are common to many buildings, some are characteristic of a particular occupancy, and some are unique to one building. These
hazards need to be identified so that appropriate building construction and layout can be planned, and so that appropriate special fire protection systems can be specified. Such hazards include:
9 Hazards associated with building utilities;
9 Warehousing of ordinary commodities;
9
Storage and use of hazardous materials; and
9 Hazardous chemical processes.
The hazards associated with building utilities include those associated with fuel firing of heating equipment and with electrically-
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92 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
related hazards. Specifications address these hazards through detailing combustion safeguards and arrangement of electrical systems. The fire loading and chance of extensive downtime presented by grouped cables can also be addressed by specifying
where and how they will be run and what protection will be provided for them.
As discussed in Chapter 5, the hazards of materials can include
combustibility, flammability, explosivity, or reactivity. They can
also include other hazards aggravated by fire, including toxicity,
radioactivity, biological activity, and capability for polluting the
environment. Hazards of materials are also greatly affected by
their configuration. For example, storing products in foam cocoons or pressurizing liquids in aerosol cans increases the hazard.
Finally, the hazards of using materials derive from heating, cooling, pressurizing, agitating, or atomizing them.
Detection and Alarm Systems
Detection systems can be associated with fire protection systems,
or they can be independent. Both detection and fire protection
systems can (and should) be connected to a fire alarm system.
Project specifications state what detection and protection will be
provided and what parameters the facility's fire alarm system will
monitor. System features to be considered include the following:
9 Type of automatic detection to be provided in which areas;
9 Building fire protection systems to be monitored;
9 Monitoring of buildings, equipment, processes, and hazards for
off-normal conditions;
9 Transmission of alarms to a central alarm receiving station; and
Evacuation of occupants.
Specifications should include information on any systems that are
programmable, including how they are to be programmed and
who will have the authority to change the programming. They
should also include how the original programming and any
changes made to it will be documented.
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Writing Fire Protection Specifications 93
Another issue that specifications must sometimes address is combined fire alarm and security systems. Today's digital alarm panels can monitor far more conditions than a human operator can
assimilate. To assure fast response to fire alarms, the combined
panel must be programmed to give fire alarms the highest priority
and not allow them to be inactivated or deleted from the display.
Fire Protection Water Supplies
Many features of the fire protection water supply must be specified. The first step is to determine the adequacy and reliability of
available fire protection water supplies. Then, the specifications
would address how to pipe the supplies to the fire protection systems and whether they need augmenting by pumps, tanks, or alternate supplies. Issues to consider include"
9 Location and number of water supplies;
9 Location, number, spacing, and type of hydrants;
9 Location of sprinkler lead-ins;
9 Location of control and sectional valves;
9 Location of fire department connections;
9 Supplies dedicated to fire protection or for combined use; and
9 Need for multiple independent supplies for reliability.
Sprinkler Systems
This is the aspect of fire protection that most architects and engineers are used to specifying. Sprinkler system specifications inelude:
9 Type of pipe and fittings;
9 Location, spacing, and type of hangers;
9 Location and type of control valves;
9 Other valves to be used, such as check valves, alarm check valves,
and backflow preventers;
9 Type of heads;
9 Head spacing;
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94 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
9
9
9
9
System hazard classification;
System hydraulic design;
Location of fire department connection; and
Location of sprinkler riser.
Selecting sprinkler heads is more complex than ever due to the
increasing number of varieties now made. This requires knowing
the uses and limitations of the heads now available. Specifying
the hydraulic design for sprinkler systems is complicated by the
fact that these systems might be performance based and do not
depend on the prescriptive designs that many engineers have become familiar with. See Chapter 3.
Special Extinguishing Systems
Special extinguishing systems provide additional protection for
special fire and explosion hazards when building construction,
building layout, and sprinkler system features do not sufficiently
mitigate the potential risk. Prime uses of special extinguishing
systems are for protecting operations involving flammable or
combustible liquids. They have many other uses.
Specifying a special extinguishing system requires determining
the following:
9 Nature and extent of the hazards at the facility;
9 Values at risk from the hazards at the facility;
9 Which hazards require special protection;
9 Detectors of appropriate responsiveness for the hazard;
9 Suitable control system logic for operating the extinguishing
system;
9 Function of the extinguishing system (fire control, fire
extinguishment, exposure protection, inerting, spark suppression,
explosion suppression, etc.);
Extinguishing agents effective for the material that may burn;
Design basis for the system (rate by volume, rate by area, local
application);
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Writing Fire Protection Specifications 95
9 Appropriate hydraulic design for the selected agent and hazard; and
9 Suitable storage and delivery system for the agent.
Many types of agents are now used in special extinguishing systems. Fire protection engineers are familiar with how to best apply these agents to particular hazards at a facility.
Exposure Protection
Exposure protection is provided for buildings that may be exposed to fire from outside sources. Sources of exposure fires can
include"
9 Fire in buildings or structures on the same premises;
9 Fire in off-premises buildings or structures;
9 Fire or explosion in outside electrical distribution equipment;
9 Forest fires or brush fires; and
9 Lightning.
Exposure protection can be achieved by providing separation,
fireproofing, special equipment design, or water spray systems.
Protection from unique perils, like lightning, is achieved with
specially designed protective systems.
Fire Prevention Features
Many fire protection features installed in buildings prevent fire
from occurring rather than control or extinguish it. Examples of
fire prevention features include:
9 Combustion safeguards on fuel-fired equipment;
9 Heating equipment for hazardous areas;
9 Electrical equipment for hazardous areas;
9 Diking/drainage for liquids and fire protection water run-off;
9
Fail-safe process design;
9 Process monitoring and interlocks~pressure, temperature, level,
flow, concentration, and other process parameters; and
9 Bonding and grounding to control static electricity.
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96 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Like fire protection systems, fire prevention features must be
specified as part of the building project and coordinated with the
other disciplines.
A good example of a fire protection coordination issue that encompasses many disciplines is in sealing fire wall penetrations.
The fire protection engineer must confirm this is addressed for
power and communications wiring, ductwork, potable water, and
process piping, as well as for fire protection piping and wiring.
Descriptions of these elements are usually spread through many
different sections of the project specifications.
Two primary systems of organizing project specifications are
commonly used. Either requires the fire protection specifications
to be coordinated. One system uses traditional project specifications and another uses a special section" Division 13 - Special
Construction. These next two sections describe these systems.
A new system for organizing project specifications is under development. The last section of this chapter describes the new system.
7-2 Traditional Project Specifications
The most frequently used specifications format is that of the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI). Using a uniform format
helps in finding specifications for standard project features on
every project. However, this standardization does not usually include all the fire protection aspects of a project.
The Construction Sciences Research Foundation, Inc. (CSRF), a
research foundation founded by CSI, developed SPECTEXT |
Master Guide Specifications that provide master specifications in
CSI format. Many other versions of electronic specifications in
CSI format are available. Most Architectural and A/E firms use
standard electronic specifications and adapt them to each project.
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Writing Fire Protection Specifications 97
The CSI format is as follows:
Specifications
Division
Subject
01
General Requirements
02
Site Construction
03
Concrete
04
Masonry
05
Metals
06
Wood and Plastics
07
Building Protection
08
Doors and Windows
09
Finishes
10
Specialties
11
Equipment
12
Furnishings
13
Special Construction
14
Conveying Systems
15
Mechanical Systems
16
Electrical Systems
The General Requirements division covers site access and safety,
construction schedule, and all the project contractual requirements. This division usually includes provisions for substitutions
and requirements for acceptance, including tests.
Division 7, Building Protection, is used to specify the building
thermal and moisture protection. Division 10, Specialties, includes such items as toilet and bath accessories, louvers, lockers,
and folding walls. Division 11, Equipment, includes dock levelers and appliances.
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98 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
Traditionally, Division 15 contains major sections for potable
water and HVAC systems. Sections are also added for other mechanical systems, like water treatment systems, natural gas piping, boilers, chillers, and other mechanical equipment. Sprinkler
systems are generally placed in a section in this division, as are
inside fire protection standpipes.
To illustrate the coordination required for the fire protection aspects of a project, here is an example of how fire protection
specifications may be spread throughout the divisions of project
specifications:
Fire Protection Feature
Alarm Systems
Applicable Division(s) in
Specifications
16
Classified Electrical Equipment
16
Classified Heating Equipment
1
Combustion Safeguards
1
Construction of Buildings
3,4,5,8
Construction of Roofs
Detection Systems
16
Elevator Control
14
Emergency Lighting
16
Exit Doors
Extinguishers
1
Fire Barrier Penetrations (ducts)
10,15
Fire Barrier Penetrations (pipes)
1
Fire Barrier Penetrations (wires)
1
Fire Doors
8
Fire Protection Underground
2
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Writing Fire Protection Specifications 99
Fire Protection Feature
Flamespread of Air Handling Filters
Applicable Division(s) in
Specifications
15
Flamespread of Insulation
Flamespread of Soundproofing
Hydrants
Interior Finishes
Piping, Fittings, Valves, Backflow
Preventers, Other Devices
2,15
Process Safety Control Systems
15, 16, special process
division(s)
Smoke Control Systems
15, 16
Special Extinguishing Systems
15
Sprinkler Systems
15
Standpipes
15
Water Supplies (pumps)
2, 3 through 5, 15
Water Supplies (tanks)
Two points must be kept in mind concerning the coordination of
fire protection features:
0
0
Fire protection features for particular systems are spread
throughout many divisions. For example, the elements of
a sprinkler system can be split between divisions 2, 15,
and 16.
Particular divisions can address several fire protection
features. For example, Division 16 can address detectors,
alarm systems, smoke control systems, explosion-proof
electrical equipment, process safety controls, and protection of wiring penetrations.
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100 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
7-3 Division 1 3 - Special Construction
A more recent suggestion made for handling the fire protection
systems on a project is to place them in Division 13 - Special
Construction. The current CSI draft for this division includes sections as follows"
Division 13
Subsection
13100
Subject
Special Facilities and Components (includes
kennels, pools, aquariums, and hot tubs)
13200
Storage Tanks (includes elevated, ground
level, and underground tanks)
13300
Integrated Construction (includes sound,
vibration, and seismic control)
13400
Measurement and Control Instrumentation
13500
Recording Instrumentation
13600
Special Structures (includes air-supported
structures, grandstands, greenhouses,
observatories, and towers)
13700
Special Purpose Rooms (includes cleanrooms,
planetariums, and vaults)
13800
Reserved
13900
Reserved
Some projects have used Section 13800 for fire alarm systems
and Section 13900 for sprinkler systems. Section 13200 can be
used for tanks storing fire protection water. Process monitoring
and interlocks could be placed in Section 13400.
Following the above suggestions does not solve all the coordination issues. For example, specifications for a fire pump would be
separated from those for the pump suction tank. Also, many other
fire protection-related features would still not be in Division 13,
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Writing Fire Protection Specifications 101
such as fire resistance ratings of walls, fire doors, fire barrier
penetrations, interior finishing materials, fire extinguishers, hydrants, smoke control systems, explosion-proof electrical equipment, combustion safeguards on fired equipment, special extinguishing systems, standpipes, and many other features.
On the other hand, if all remaining fire protection and fire prevention features were put in Division 13, the same amount of coordination with the other disciplines would still be required. No
one way of handling fire protection specifications eliminates the
need for their coordination on a project.
7-4 Expanded Project Specifications
The Construction Specifications Institute is in the process of expanding the MasterFormaff M specifications. New divisions are
being created and plans are to move the traditional Division 15
and Division 16 systems to the new divisions.
Following is a summary of the current proposal for expanding
specification divisions:
Divisions
Content
Divisions 0-2
Procurement, Contracting, General
Requirements, and Existing Conditions
Divisions 3-14
Technical Building Construction Divisions,
similar to the traditional divisions
Divisions 15-20
Left open for future content
Divisions 21-25
Building Engineering Divisions, including
Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, and
Telecommunications
Divisions 26-30
Left open for future content
Divisions 31-43
Civil Engineering Divisions
Divisions 35-40
Left open for future content
Divisions 41-43
Process Engineering Divisions
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102 Fire Protection Engineering in Building Design
As with the other systems of specifications, fire protection features can be spread throughout the divisions. Many items would
be included in Divisions 21 through 24. Examples of where various fire protection features could appear are:
Fire Protection Feature
Fire Protection Piping/Valves
Applicable Section
in Specifications
21300
Fire Pumps
21340
Fire Suppression Systems
21400
Fire Suppression Sprinkler Systems
21410
Fire Extinguishing Systems
21450
Detection and Alarm Systems
21500
Fire Detection and Alarm
21510
Gas Detection and Alarm
21530
Specialty Sensors
21560
Protection Systems
21700
Lightning Protection
21720
Fire and Smoke Protection
21800
Applied Fireproofing
21810
Firestopping
21840
Fire Protection Devices
21900
Fire Extinguishers and Cabinets
21920
Process Piping
22200
Gas Piping
22210
Heat Generation Equipment
23500
Heating Boilers
23510
Fuel-Fired Furnaces
23530
Fuel-Fired Heaters
23540
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Writing Fire Protection Specifications 103
Fire Protection Feature
Facility Electrical Power
Applicable Section
in Specifications
24200
Battery Equipment
24240
Lighting
24500
Emergency Lighting
24530
These are just examples of some of the fire protection features
that projects could include. There are many others. Divisions 41
through 43 could contain specifications for process safety controls and interlocks that would be important to fire protection.
There is no specific section assigned for smoke control systems.
These could be handled under HVAC sections or could be given
their own section for a particular project.
The proposed expanded specifications can be viewed on the CSI
web site. A place on the site is currently being set up for people
to submit comments. The expanded specifications are expected to
be made available in late 2003.
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This Page Intentionally Left Blank
Fire Protection Feature
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References
This chapter lists the references cited in this book, as well as
other references relevant to the fire protection aspects of building
design. These references include books, handbooks, magazines,
journals, building codes, NFPA codes, and UL directories.
The first section lists the related professional organizations with
information for contacting them. These organizations published
many of the references listed in subsequent sections of this chapter. The subsequent sections list the references alphabetically, by
type of reference and by related discipline. The references under
related disciplines necessarily overlap, and they may not include
every NFPA code that applies to a project for that discipline.
Where the codes apply will depend on how the project is coordinated. (See Chapter 7.)
This reference list gives the latest edition for only those references without a specific schedule for updating. Most of the handbooks listed here are updated approximately every five years.
Older editions of these handbooks are still useful. Most laboratory listings are updated annually.
Individual NFPA codes are normally updated on three- to fiveyear cycles, the duration depending on the code. New/updated
standards are officially adopted twice a year. Hard copies of the
codes are published annually, and electronic codes are published
twice a year. Often, building codes refer to a particular edition of
an NFPA code. In other cases, the code in effect the year a facility was built may apply. Or, the most recent NFPA code may apply. The NFPA codes listed here are all cited elsewhere in this
book. There are many other NFPA codes. Hard copy or electronic
sets of all the NFPA codes are available from NFPA.
105
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106 References
Related Professional Organizations
Acronym
AEI
AIA
AIChE
ANSI
ASCE
ASHRAE
ASME
ASSE
ASTM
BOCA
CSI
Organization and Address
Architectural Engineering Institute
1801 Alexander Bell Drive
Reston, VA 20191-4400
American Institute of Architects
1735 New York Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20006
American Institute of Chemical
Engineers
3 Park Avenue
New York, New York 10016-5991
American National Standards Institute
1819 L Street NW
Washington, DC 20036
American Society of Civil Engineers
1801 Alexander Bell Drive
Reston, VA 20191-4400
American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning
Engineers
1791 Tullie Circle NE
Atlanta, GA 30329
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers
1828 L Street NW
Washington, DC 20036
American Society of Safety Engineers
1800 E Oakton Street
Des Plaines, IL 60018
American Society for Testing Materials
100 Barr Harbor Drive
PO Box C700
West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959
Building Officials and Code
Administrators, Inc.
4051 West Flossmoor Road
Country Club Hills, IL 60478
Construction Specifications Institute
99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 300
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone~Web Site
703-295-6360
www.aei.org
800-242-3837
www.aia.org
212-591-8100
www.aiche.org
202-293-8020
www.ansi.org
703-295-6300
www.asce.org
404-636-8400
www.ashrae.org
202-785-3756
www.asme.org
847-699-2929
www.asse.org
610-832-9585
www.astm.org
708-799-2300
www.bocai.org
800-689-2900
www.csinet.org
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References 107
Acronym
DIERS
FMRC
ICBO
ICC
IEEE
NCEES
NFPA
NIOSH
NIST
NSPE
OSHA
Organization and Address
Design Institute for Emergency Relief
Systems
3 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10016-5991
FM Research Corporation
1151 Boston-Providence Turnpike
PO Box 9102
Norwood, MA 02062
International Conference of Building
Officials
5360 Workman Mill Road
Whittier, CA 90601-2298
International Code Council
5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 600
Falls Church, VA 22041
Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers
1828 L Street NW, Suite 1202
Washington, DC 20036-5104
National Council of Examiners for
Engineering and Surveying
PO Box 1686
Clemson, SC 29633-1686
National Fire Protection Association
1 Batterymarch Park
Quincy, MA 02269-9101
National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health
4676 Columbia Parkway
Cincinnati, OH 45213
National Institute of Standards and
Technology
100 Bureau Drive
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
National Society of Professional
Engineers
1420 King Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
Occupational Safety & Health
Administration
200 Constitution Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20210
Phone~Web Site
212-591-7353
www.aiche.org/
diers
781-762-4300
www.fmglobal.com
800-423-6587
www.icbo.org
702-931-4533
www.intlcode.org
202-785-0017
www.ieee.org
864-654-6824
www.ncees.org
617-770-3000
www.nfpa.org
800-356-4674
www.cdc.gov/
niosh
301-975-6478
www.nist.gov
703-684-2800
www.nspe.org
Six regional offices
(see web site)
www.osha.gov
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108 References
Acronym
SBCCI
SEI
SFPE
UL
Organization and Address
Southern Building Code Congress
International
900 Montclair Road
Birmingham, AL 35213-1206
Structural Engineering Institute
1801 Alexander Bell Drive
Reston, VA 20191-4400
Society of Fire Protection Engineers
7315 Wisconsin Avenue
Bethesda, MD 20814
Underwriters Laboratories
333 Pfingsten Road
Northbrook, IL 60062-2096
Phone~Web Site
205-591-1853
www.sbcci.org
703-295-6360
www.seinstitute.org
301-718-2910
www.sfpe.org
847-272-8800
www.ul.com
Alphabetical Listing
Approval Guide, published by FM.
Assessing Flame Radiation to External Targets from Pool Fires, published by
SFPE.
Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook (companion to NFPA 13), published
by NFPA.
Building Materials Directory, published by UL.
Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Perry, published by McGraw-Hill, New
York.
Combustion and Flame, published by The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA.
Cracking the Codes." An Architect's Guide to Building Regulations, by Barry
D. Yatt, published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1998.
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, published by CRC Press, Boca
Raton, FL.
Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, vols. I through III, N. Irving
Sax and Richard J. Lewis, Sr., published by Van Nostrand Reinhold,
New York, New York.
Design of Smoke Control Systems for Buildings, published by ASHRAE.
Designing Fire Protection for Steel Beams, published by American Iron and
Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
Designing Fire Protection for Steel Columns, published by American Iron and
Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
Electrical Appliance Utilization Directory, published by UL.
Enclosure Fire Dynamics, by Bjorn Karlsson and James G. Quintiere,
published by CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2000.
Eschbach's Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals, published by John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
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References 109
Fire Alarm Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 72), published by NFPA.
Fire and Materials, published by Wiley Europe Ltd., Chichester, W. Sussex,
UK.
Fire Journal, published by NFPA.
Fire Prevention Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 1), published by
NFPA.
Fire Protection Engineering, published by SFPE.
Fire Protection Equipment Directory, published by UL.
Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials, published by NFPA.
Fire Protection Handbook, NFPA.
Fire Resistance Directory, volumes I and II, published by UL.
Fire Safety and Loss Prevention, by Kevin Cassidy, published by Butterworth-
Heinemann, Wobum, MA, 1992.
Fire Safety Journal, published by Elsevier Science, Wobum, MA.
Fire Safety Science and Engineering, edited by T. Z. Harmathy, published by
ASTM Special Technical Publications.
Fire Technology, published jointly by NFPA and Kluwer Academic
Publishers.
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code Handbook (companion to
NFPA 30), published by NFPA.
Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, published by SFPE.
Handbook of Hazardous Chemical Properties, by Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff,
published by Butterworth-Heinemann, Wobum, MA.
Hazardous Location Electrical Equipment Directory, published by UL.
Industrial Fire Hazards Handbook, 3d ed., published by NFPA, 1990.
International Building Code, ICC.
Introduction to Fire Dynamics, An, 2d ed., by Dougal Drysdale, published by
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1998.
Introduction to Performance-Based Fire Safety, by Richard L. P. Custer and
Brian J. Meacham, published jointly by SFPE and NFPA, 1997.
Journal of Applied Fire Science, published by Baywood Publishing Company,
Amityville, NY.
Journal of Fire Sciences, published by Sage Publications, London, UK.
Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, published by SFPE and Sage
Publications, London, UK.
Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, published by John Wiley
& Sons, New York, NY.
Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, published by McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Life Safety Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 101), published by NFPA.
Lightning Protection Institute Standard Practice, LPI-175, Lightning
Protection Institute, Harvard, IL.
Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2d ed., vols. 1 and 2, by Frank P.
Lees, published by Butterworth-Heinemann, Wobum, MA, 1996.
LP-Gases Handbook (companion to NFPA 58), published by NFPA.
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110 References
Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, published by
McGraw-Hill, New York.
Manual of Steel Construction, published by American Institute of Steel
Construction, Inc., Chicago, IL.
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE-7,
published by ASCE.
National Building Code, BOCA.
National Electrical Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 70), published by
NFPA.
NFPA Codes:
30B, Aerosol Products, Manufacture and Storage
90A, Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems, Standardfor the
Installation of
90B, Air Heating and Air-Conditioning, Standard for the Installation
of Warm
61, Agricultural and Food Products Facilities, Standard for the
Prevention of Fires and Dust Explosions in
651, Aluminum and the Production and Handling of Aluminum
Powders, Standard for the Machining and Finishing of
490, Ammonium Nitrate, Storage of
85, Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code
251, Building Construction Materials, Fire Tests of
220, Building Construction, Types of
255, Building Materials, Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of
259, Building Materials, Test Methodfor Potential Heat of
12, Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Standard on
2001, Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems, Standard on
318, Cleanrooms, Protection of
499, Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for
Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas,
Recommended Practice for the Classification of
654, Combustible Particulates, Standardfor the Prevention of Fire
and Dust Explosions from the Manufacturing, Processing, and
Handling of
75, Computer~Data Processing Equipment, Standardfor the
Protection of Electronic
650, Conveying Systems for Handling Combustible Particulate
Solids, Standardfor Pneumatic
96, Cooking Equipment, Installation of Equipment for the Removal of
Smoke and Grease Laden Vaporsfrom Commercial
909, Cultural Resources, Code for the Protection of
252, Door Assemblies, Fire Tests of
17, Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems, Standardfor
70, Electrical Code, 9National
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References 111
496, Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations, Purged and
Pressurized Enclosures for
499, Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas,
Recommended Practice for the Classification of Combustible
Dusts and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for
497, Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas,
Recommended Practice for the Classification of Flammable
Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of Hazardous (Classified)
Locations for
111, Emergency and Standby Power, Standard on Stored Electrical
Energy
11O, Emergency and Standby Power Systems, Standard for
91, Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and
Noncombustible Particulate Solids, Standard for
69, Explosion Prevention Systems
495, Explosive Materials Code
80A, Exposures, Recommended Practice for Protection of Buildings
from Exterior Fire
72, Fire Alarm Code, 9National
80, Fire Doors and Fire Windows, Standard for
1O, Fire Extinguishers, Standard for Portable
1, Fire Prevention Code
24, Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances, Standard for the
Installation of Private
221, Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls
1124, Fireworks and Pyrotechnic Articles, Code for the Manufacture,
Transportation, and Storage of
30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 9
395, Flammable and Combustible Liquids on Farms and Isolated
Construction Projects, Storage of
33, Flammable and Combustible Materials, Spray Application of
497, Flammable Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of Hazardous
(Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical
Process Areas, Recommended Practice for the Classification of
34, Flammable or Combustible Liquids, Dipping and Coating
Processes Using
253, Floor Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source,
Standard Method of Test for Critical Radiant Flux of
11, Foam, Standard for Low Expansion,
11A, Foam Systems, Standard for Medium- and High-Expansion
16, Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems, Standard
for the Installation of
86C, Furnaces Using a Special Processing Atmosphere, Standard for
Industrial
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112 References
86D, Furnaces Using Vacuum as an Atmosphere, Standardfor
Industrial
54, Gas Code,~ National Fuel
59A, Gas, Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural
59, Gases at Utility Gas Plants, Storage and Handling of Liquefied
Petroleum
55, Gases in Portable Cylinders, Compressed and Liquefied
58, Gases, Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum
12A, Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems, Standard on
99, Standardfor Health Care Facilities
271, Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and
Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter, Standard
Method of Test for
264, Heat Release Rates for Materials
914, Historic Structures, Code for Fire Protection of
50A, Hydrogen Systems at Consumer Sites, Gaseous
50B, Hydrogen Systems at Consumer Sites, Liquefied
99B, Standard for Hypobaric Facilities
45, Laboratories Using Chemicals, Standard on Fire Protection for
101, Life Safety Code~
101A, Life Safety, Guide on Alternative Approaches to
780, Lightning Protection Systems, Standardfor the Installation of
485, Lithium Metal, Standardfor the Storage, Handling, Processing,
and Use of
480, Magnesium, Storage, Handling, and Processing of
101 B, Means of Egress for Buildings and Structures
35, Organic Coatings, Standardfor the Manufacture of
432, Organic Peroxide Formulations, Code for the Storage of
86, Ovens and Furnaces
430, Oxidizers, Storage of Liquid and Solid
50, Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites, Bulk
53, Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres, Fire Hazards in
51, Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting, and Allied
Processes, Design and Installation of
20, Pumps for Fire Protection, Standardfor the Installation of
Stationary
203, Roof Coverings and Roof Deck Construction, Guide on
256, Roof Coverings, Methods of Fire Tests of
601, Security Services in Fire Loss Prevention, Standardfor
204, Smoke and Heat Venting, Guide for
92B, Smoke Management Systems in Malls, Atria, and Large Areas,
Guide for
105, Smoke-Control Door Assemblies, Recommended Practice for the
Installation of
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References 113
92A, Smoke-Control Systems, Recommended Practice for
13, Sprinkler Systems, Standard for the Installation of
14, Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and Hose Systems, Standard for the
Installation of
77, Static Electricity
230, Storage, Standard for the Fire Protection of
481, Titanium, Storage, Handling, and Processing of
68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations
286, Wall and Ceiling Interior Finish to Room Fire Growth, Standard
Methods of Fire Tests for Evaluating Contribution of
268, Wall Assemblies Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source, Standard
Test Method for Determining Ignitability of Exterior
265, Wall Coverings, Evaluating Room Fire Growth Contribution
from Textile
750, Water Mist Fire Protection Systems, Standard on
15, Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection, Standard for
22, Water Tanksfor Private Fire Protection, Standard for
17A, Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems, Standard for
299, Wildfire, Standard for Protection of Life and Property from
257, Window Assemblies, Fire Tests of
262, Wires and Cables for Use in Air-Handling Spaces, Standard
Method of Test for Flame Travel and Smoke of
664, Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities, Standard for the
Prevention of Fires and Explosions in
482, Zirconium, Storage, Handling, and Processing of
NFPA 5000 Building Code, NFPA.
Performance-Based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of Buildings,
published by SFPE.
Piloted Ignition of Solid Materials Under Radiant Exposure, SFPE.
Predicting 1st and 2nd Degree Skin Burns, published by SFPE.
Principles of Fire Behavior, by James G. Quintiere, published by Delmar
Publishers, Albany, NY, 1998.
Principles of Fire Protection Chemistry and Physics, 3d ed., by Raymond
Friedman, published by NFPA, 1998.
Roofing Materials and Systems Directory, published by UL.
Sprinkler Hydraulics, 2d ed., by Harold S. Waas, Jr., published by SFPE, 2001.
Standard Building Code, SBCCI.
Standard for Installation Requirements for Lightning Protection Systems,
UL 96A.
Standard for Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associated Apparatus for Use in
Class I, II, and III, Division 1 Hazardous (Classified) Locations,
ANSI/UL 913.
Structural Fire Protection, published by ASCE.
Uniform Building Code, ICBO.
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114 References
Listing By Type
BOOKS
Cracking the Codes: An Architect's Guide to Building Regulations,
by Barry D. Yatt, published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
New York, NY, 1998.
Design of Smoke Control Systems for Buildings, published by
ASHRAE.
Enclosure Fire Dynamics, by Bjorn Karlsson and James G. Quintiere,
published by CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2000.
Fire Safety and Loss Prevention, by Kevin Cassidy, published by
Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn, MA, 1992.
Fire Safety Science and Engineering, edited by T. Z. Harmathy,
published by ASTM Special Technical Publications.
Introduction to Fire Dynamics, An, 2d ed., by Dougal Drysdale,
published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY 1998.
Introduction to Performance-Based Fire Safety, by Richard L. P.
Custer and Brian J. Meacham, published jointly by SFPE
and NFPA, 1997.
Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2d ed., vols. 1 and 2, by
Frank P. Lees, published by Butterworth-Heinemann,
Woburn, MA, 1996.
Principles of Fire Behavior, by James G. Quintiere, published by
Delmar Publishers, Albany, NY, 1998.
Principles of Fire Protection Chemistry and Physics, 3d ed., by
Raymond Friedman, published by NFPA, 1998.
Sprinkler Hydraulics, 2d ed., by Harold S. Waas, Jr., published by
SFPE, 2001.
Structural Fire Protection, published by ASCE.
BUILDING CODES
International Building Code, ICC.
National Building Code, BOCA.
NFPA 5000 Building Code, NFPA.
Standard Building Code, SBCCI.
Uniform Building Code, ICBO.
HANDBOOKS AND GUIDES
Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Perry, published by McGraw-Hill,
New York.
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, published by CRC Press,
Boca Raton, FL.
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References 115
Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, vols. I through III, N.
Irving Sax and Richard J. Lewis, Sr., published by Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York.
Designing Fire Protection for Steel Beams, published by American
Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
Designing Fire Protection for Steel Columns, published by American
Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
Eschbach "s Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals, published by
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
Handbook of Hazardous Chemical Properties, by Nicholas P.
Cheremisinoff, published by Butterworth-Heinemann,
Woburn, MA.
Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, published by
John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, published by McGraw-Hill, New
York.
Lightning Protection Institute Standard Practice, LPI- 175, Lightning
Protection Institute, Harvard, IL.
Marks" Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, published by
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Manual of Steel Construction, published by American Institute of
Steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, IL.
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE-7,
published by ASCE.
NFPA Code Handbooks:
Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook (companion to
NFPA 13)
Fire Alarm Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 72)
Fire Prevention Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 1)
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code Handbook
(companion to NFPA 30)
Life Safety Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 101)
LP-Gases Handbook (companion to NFPA 58)
National Electrical Code Handbook (companion to
NFPA 70)
NFPA Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials.
NFPA Fire Protection Handbook.
NFPA Industrial Fire Hazards Handbook, 3d ed., 1990.
SFPE Engineering Guides:
Assessing Flame Radiation to External Targets from Pool Fires
Performance-Based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of
Buildings
Piloted Ignition of Solid Materials Under Radiant Exposure
Predicting 1st and 2nd Degree Skin Burns
SOFTbank E-Book Center Tehran, Phone: 66403879,66493070 For Educational Use. www.ebookcenter.org
116 References
SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering.
LABORATORY LISTINGS AND STANDARDS
ANSIAJL 913, Standard for Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and
Associated Apparatus for Use in Class I, II, and III,
Division 1 Hazardous (Classified) Locations
FM Approval Guide
UL 96A, Standard for Installation Requirements For Lightning
Protection Systems
UL Building Materials Directory
UL Electrical Appliance Utilization Directory
UL Fire Protection Equipment Directory
UL Fire Resistance Directory, volumes I and II
UL Hazardous Location Electrical Equipment Directory
UL Roofing Materials and Systems Directory
MAGAZINES AND JOURNALS
Combustion and Flame, published by The Combustion Institute,
Pittsburgh, PA.
Fire and Materials, published by Wiley Europe Ltd., Chichester, W.
Sussex, UK.
Fire Journal, published by NFPA.
Fire Protection Engineering, published by SFPE.
Fire Safety Journal, published by Elsevier Science, Woburn, MA.
Fire Technology, published jointly by NFPA and Kluwer Academic
Publishers.
Journal of Applied Fire Science, published by Baywood Publishing
Company, Amityville, NY.
Journal of Fire Sciences, published by Sage Publications, London, UK.
Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, published by SFPE and Sage
Publications, London, UK.
NFPA CODES
1, Fire Prevention Code
10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers
11, Standard for Low Expansion Foam
11A, Standard for Medium- and High-Expansion Foam Systems
12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
12A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems
13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and
Hose Systems
15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection
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References 117
16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and FoamWater Spray Systems
17, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems
17A, Standardfor Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems
20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire
Protection
22, Standard for Water Tanksfor Private Fire Protection
24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and
Their Appurtenances
30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 9
30B, Aerosol Products, Manufacture and Storage
33, Spray Application of Flammable and Combustible Materials
34, Dipping and Coating Processes Using Flammable or
Combustible Liquids
35, Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings
45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals
50, Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites
50A, Gaseous Hydrogen Systems at Consumer Sites
50B, Liquefied Hydrogen Systems at Consumer Sites
51, Design and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding,
Cutting, and Allied Processes
53, Fire Hazards in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres
54, National Fuel Gas Code 9
55, Compressed and Liquefied Gases in Portable Cylinders
58, Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases
59, Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases at Utility
Gas Plants
59A, Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas
61, Standard for the Prevention of Fires and Dust Explosions in
Agricultural and Food Products Facilities
68, Guidefor Venting of Deflagrations
69, Explosion Prevention Systems
70, National Electrical Code 9
72, National Fire Alarm Code 9
75, Standard for the Protection of Electronic Computer~Data
Processing Equipment
77, Static Electricity
80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows
80A, Recommended Practice for Protection of Buildings from
Exterior Fire Exposures
85, Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code
86, Ovens and Furnaces
86C, Standardfor Industrial Furnaces Using a Special Processing
Atmosphere
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118 References
86D, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using Vacuum as an
Atmosphere
90A, Standardfor the Installation of Air-Conditioning and
Ventilating Systems
90B, Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating and AirConditioning
91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors,
Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids
92A, Recommended Practice for Smoke-Control Systems
92B, Guidefor Smoke Management Systems in Malls, Atria, and
Large Areas
96, Installation of Equipment for the Removal of Smoke and Grease
Laden Vaporsfrom Commercial Cooking Equipment
99, Standard for Health Care Facilities
99B, Standardfor Hypobaric Facilities
101, Life Safety Code~-~
101A, Guide on Alternative Approaches to Life Safety
101 B, Means of Egress for Buildings and Structures
105, Recommended Practice for the Installation of Smoke-Control
Door Assemblies
11O, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems
111, Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and Standby
Power
203, Guide on Roof Coverings and Roof Deck Construction
204, Guidefor Smoke and Heat Venting
220, Types of Building Construction
221, Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls
230, Standardfor the Fire Protection of Storage
251, Fire Tests of Building Construction Materials
252, Fire Tests of Door Assemblies
253, Standard Method of Testfor Critical Radiant Flux of Floor
Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source
255, Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials
256, Methods of Fire Tests of Roof Coverings
257, Fire Tests of Window Assemblies
259, Test Methodfor Potential Heat of Building Materials
262, Standard Method of Testfor Flame Travel and Smoke of Wires
and Cables for Use in Air-Handling Spaces
264, Heat Release Rates for Materials
265, Evaluating Room Fire Growth Contribution from Textile Wall
Coverings
268, Standard Test Methodfor Determining Ignitability of Exterior
Wall Assemblies Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source
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References 119
271, Standard Method of Test for Heat and Visible Smoke Release
Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen
Consumption Calorimeter
286, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Evaluating Contribution of
Wall and Ceiling Interior Finish to Room Fire Growth
299, Standardfor Protection of Life and Property from Wildfire
318, Protection of Cleanrooms
395, Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids on Farms and
Isolated Construction Projects
430, Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers
432, Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations
480, Storage, Handling, and Processing of Magnesium
481, Storage, Handling, and Processing of Titanium
482, Storage, Handling, and Processing of Zirconium
485, Standardfor the Storage, Handling, Processing, and Use of
Lithium Metal
490, Storage of Ammonium Nitrate
495, Explosive Materials Code
496, Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for Electrical Equipment in
Hazardous Locations
497, Recommended Practice for the Classification of Flammable
Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas
499, Recommended Practice for the Classification of Combustible
Dusts and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical
Installations in Chemical Process Areas
601, Standardfor Security Services in Fire Loss Prevention
650, Standardfor Pneumatic Conveying Systems for Handling
Combustible Particulate Solids
651, Standardfor the Machining and Finishing of Aluminum and the
Production and Handling of Aluminum Powders
654, Standardfor the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions from
the Manufacturing, Processing, and Handling of Combustible
Particulates
664, Standardfor the Prevention of Fires and Explosions in Wood
Processing and Woodworking Facilities
750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems
780, Standardfor the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems
909, Code for the Protection of Cultural Resources
914, Code for Fire Protection of Historic Structures
1124, Code for the Manufacture, Transportation, and Storage of
Fireworks and Pyrotechnic Articles
2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
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120 References
Listing By Related Discipline
ARCHITECTURAL
Cracking the Codes: An Architect's Guide to Building Regulations,
by Barry D. Yatt, published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
New York, NY, 1998.
Fire Prevention Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 1), NFPA.
International Building Code, ICC.
Life Safety Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 101), NFPA.
National Building Code, BOCA.
NFPA Codes:
1, Fire Prevention Code
1O, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers
14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private
Hydrant, and Hose Systems
80A, Recommended Practice for Protection of Buildings
from Exterior Fire Exposures
101, Life Safety Code<C~
101A, Guide on Alternative Approaches to Life Safety
101 B, Means of Egress for Buildings and Structures
220, Types of Building Construction
253, Standard Method of Test for Critical Radiant Flux of
Floor Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat
Energy Source
255, Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building
Materials
264, Heat Release Rates for Materials
265, Evaluating Room Fire Growth Contribution from
Textile Wall Coverings
286, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Evaluating
Contribution of Wall and Ceiling Interior Finish to
Room Fire Growth
299, Standard for Protection of Life and PropertyJ?om
Wildfire
601, Standard for Security Services in Fire Loss Prevention
780, Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection
Systems
NFPA 5000 Building Code, NFPA.
Standard Building Code, SBCCI.
Uniform Building Code, ICBO.
CHEMICAL
Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Perry, published by McGraw-Hill,
New York.
SOFTbank E-Book Center Tehran, Phone: 66403879,66493070 For Educational Use. www.ebookcenter.org
References 121
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, published by CRC Press,
Boca Raton, FL.
Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, vols. I through III, N.
Irving Sax and Richard J. Lewis, Sr., published by Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York.
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code Handbook (companion to
NFPA 30), NFPA.
Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials, NFPA.
Handbook of Hazardous Chemical Properties, by Nicholas P.
Cheremisinoff, published by Butterworth-Heinemann,
Wobum, MA.
Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, published by
John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, published by McGraw-Hill, New
York.
Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2d ed., vols. 1 and 2, by
Frank P. Lees, published by Butterworth-Heinemann,
Woburn, MA, 1996.
LP-Gases Handbook (companion to NFPA 58), NFPA.
NFPA Codes:
30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 9
30B, Aerosol Products, Manufacture and Storage
33, Spray Application of Flammable and Combustible
Materials
34, Dipping and Coating Processes Using Flammable or
Combustible Liquids
35, Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings
45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using
Chemicals
50, Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites
50A, Gaseous Hydrogen Systems at Consumer Sites
50B, Liquefied Hydrogen Systems at Consumer Sites
51, Design and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for
Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes
53, Fire Hazards in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres
54, National Fuel Gas Code 9
55, Compressed and Liquefied Gases in Portable Cylinders
58, Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases
59, Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases at
Utility Gas Plants
59A, Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied
Natural Gas
61, Standardfor the Prevention of Fires and Dust
Explosions in Agricultural and Food Products Facilities
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122 References
68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations
69, Explosion Prevention Systems
77, Static Electricity
86, Ovens and Furnaces
86C, Standardfor Industrial Furnaces Using a Special
Processing Atmosphere
86D, Standardfor Industrial Furnaces Using Vacuum as an
Atmosphere
96, Installation of Equipment for the Removal of Smoke and
Grease Laden Vaporsfrom Commercial Cooking
Equipment
99B, Standardfor Hypobaric Facilities
318, Protection of Cleanrooms
395, Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids on
Farms and Isolated Construction Projects
430, Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers
432, Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide
Formulations
480, Storage, Handling, and Processing of Magnesium
481, Storage, Handling, and Processing of Titanium
482, Storage, Handling, and Processing of Zirconium
485, Standardfor the Storage, Handling, Processing, and
Use of Lithium Metal
490, Storage of Ammonium Nitrate
495, Explosive Materials Code
496, Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for Electrical
Equipment in Hazardous Locations
497, Recommended Practice for the Classification of
Flammable Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of
Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical
Installations in Chemical Process Areas
499, Recommended Practice for the Classification of
Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous (Classified)
Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical
Process Areas
651, Standardfor the Machining and Finishing of Aluminum
and the Production and Handling of Aluminum
Powders
664, Standardfor the Prevention of Fires and Explosions in
Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities
1124, Code for the Manufacture, Transportation, and
Storage of Fireworks and Pyrotechnic Articles
Principles of Fire Protection Chemistry and Physics, 3d ed., by
Raymond Friedman, published by NFPA, 1998.
SOFTbank E-Book Center Tehran, Phone: 66403879,66493070 For Educational Use. www.ebookcenter.org
References 123
ELECTRICAL
Electrical Appliance Utilization Directory, UL.
Fire Alarm Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 72), NFPA.
Hazardous Location Electrical Equipment Directory, UL.
Lightning Protection Institute Standard Practice, LPI-175, Lightning
Protection Institute, Harvard, IL.
National Electrical Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 70),
NFPA.
NFPA Codes:
11, Standard for Low Expansion Foam
11A, Standard for Medium- and High-Expansion Foam
Systems
12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
12A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems
15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire
Protection
16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler
and Foam-Water Spray Systems
17, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems
17A, Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems
20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for
Fire Protection
70, National Electrical Code 9
72, National Fire Alarm Code 9
77, Static Electricity
101, Life Safety Code 9
101A, Guide on Alternative Approaches to Life Safety
101 B, Means of Egress for Buildings and Structures
11O, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems
111, Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and
Standby Power
262, Standard Method of Test for Flame Travel and Smoke
of Wires and Cables for Use in Air-Handling Spaces
497, Recommended Practice for the Classification of
Flammable Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of
Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical
Installations in Chemical Process Areas
499, Recommended Practice for the Classification of
Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous (Classified)
Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical
Process Areas
750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems
2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
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124 References
Standard for Installation Requirements for Lightning Protection
Systems, UL 96A.
Standard for Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associated Apparatus
for Use in Class I, II, and 111, Division 1 Hazardous
(Classified) Locations, ANSI/UL 913.
FIRE SCIENCE
Assessing Flame Radiation to External Targets from Pool Fires,
SFPE.
Combustion and Flame, published by The Combustion Institute,
Pittsburgh, PA.
Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, vols. I through III, N.
Irving Sax and Richard J. Lewis, Sr., published by Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York.
Enclosure Fire Dynamics, by Bjorn Karlsson and James G. Quintiere,
published by CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2000.
Fire and Materials, published by Wiley Europe Ltd., Chichester, W.
Sussex, UK.
Fire Journal, published by NFPA.
Fire Protection Engineering, published by SFPE.
Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials, NFPA.
Fire Protection Handbook, NFPA.
Fire Safety and Loss Prevention, by Kevin Cassidy, published by
Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn, MA, 1992.
Fire Safety Journal, published by Elsevier Science, Woburn, MA.
Fire Safety Science and Engineering, edited by T. Z. Harmathy,
published by ASTM Special Technical Publications.
Fire Technology, published jointly by NFPA and Kluwer Academic
Publishers.
Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering, SFPE.
Handbook of Hazardous Chemical Properties, by Nicholas P.
Cheremisinoff, published by Butterworth-Heinemann,
Woburn, MA.
Industrial Fire Hazards Handbook, 3d ed., 1990, NFPA.
Introduction to Fire Dynamics, An, 2d ed., by Dougal Drysdale,
published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY 1998.
Introduction to Performance-Based Fire Safety, by Richard L. P.
Custer and Brian J. Meacham, published jointly by SFPE
and NFPA, 1997.
Journal of Applied Fire Science, published by Baywood Publishing
Company, Amityville, NY.
Journal of Fire Sciences, published by Sage Publications, London,
UK.
SOFTbank E-Book Center Tehran, Phone: 66403879,66493070 For Educational Use. www.ebookcenter.org
References 125
Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, published by SFPE and Sage
Publications, London, UK.
Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2d ed., vols. 1 and 2, by
Frank P. Lees, published by Butterworth-Heinemann,
Wobum, MA, 1996.
Performance-Based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of
Buildings, SFPE.
Piloted Ignition of Solid Materials Under Radiant Exposure, SFPE.
Predicting 1st and 2nd Degree Skin Burns, SFPE.
Principles of Fire Behavior, by James G. Quintiere, published by
Delmar Publishers, Albany, NY, 1998.
Principles of Fire Protection Chemistry and Physics, 3d ed., by
Raymond Friedman, published by NFPA, 1998.
MECHANICAL
Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook (companion to NFPA 13),
NFPA.
Design of Smoke Control Systems for Buildings, published by
ASHRAE.
Fire Protection Equipment Directory, UL.
NFPA Codes:
11, Standard for Low Expansion Foam
11A, Standardfor Medium- and High-Expansion Foam
Systems
12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
12A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems
13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private
Hydrant, and Hose Systems
15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire
Protection
16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler
and Foam-Water Spray Systems
17, Standardfor Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems
17A, Standardfor Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems
20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for
Fire Protection
22, Standardfor Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection
24, Standardfor the Installation of Private Fire Service
Mains and Their Appurtenances
30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 9
45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using
Chemicals
68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations
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126 References
69, Explosion Prevention Systems
85, Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code
86, Ovens and Furnaces
86C, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using a Special
Processing Atmosphere
86D, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using Vacuum as an
Atmosphere
90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and
Ventilating Systems
90B, Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating and
Air-Conditioning
91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of
Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate
Solids
92A, Recommended Practice for Smoke-Control Systems
92B, Guide for Smoke Management Systems in Malls, Atria,
and Large Areas
96, Installation of Equipment for the Removal of Smoke and
Grease Laden Vapors from Commercial Cooking
Equipment
204, Guide for Smoke and Heat Venting
262, Standard Method of Test for Flame Travel and Smoke
of Wires and Cables for Use in Air-Handling Spaces
271, Standard Method of Test for Heat and Visible Smoke
Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an
Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
318, Protection of Cleanrooms
650, Standard for Pneumatic Conveying Systems for
Handling Combustible Particulate Solids
750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems
2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, published by
McGraw-Hill, New York.
Sprinkler Hydraulics, 2d ed., by Harold S. Waas, Jr., published by
SFPE, 2001.
STRUCTURAL
Building Materials Directory, UL.
Designing Fire Protection for Steel Beams, published by American
Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
Designing Fire Protection for Steel Columns, published by American
Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC.
Fire Prevention Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 1), NFPA.
Fire Resistance Directory, UL.
SOFTbank E-Book Center Tehran, Phone: 66403879,66493070 For Educational Use. www.ebookcenter.org
References 127
International Building Code, ICC.
Life Safety Code Handbook (companion to NFPA 101), NFPA.
Manual of Steel Construction, published by American Institute of
Steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, IL.
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, ASCE-7,
published by ASCE.
National Building Code, BOCA.
NFPA Codes:
1, Fire Prevention Code
15, Standardfor Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire
Protection
30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 9
30B, Aerosol Products, Manufacture and Storage
33, Spray Application of Flammable and Combustible
Materials
35, Standardfor the Manufacture of Organic Coatings
45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using
Chemicals
61, Standardfor the Prevention of Fires and Dust
Explosions in Agricultural and Food Products Facilities
68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations
80, Standardfor Fire Doors and Fire Windows
86, Ovens and Furnaces
91, Standardfor Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of
Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate
Solids
101, Life Safety Code 9
101A, Guide on Alternative Approaches to Life Safety
101B, Means of Egress for Buildings and Structures
203, Guide on Roof Coverings and Roof Deck Construction
220, Types of Building Construction
221, Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls
251, Fire Tests of Building Construction Materials
252, Fire Tests of Door Assemblies
256, Methods of Fire Tests of Roof Coverings
257, Fire Tests of Window Assemblies
259, Test Methodfor Potential Heat of Building Materials
268, Standard Test Methodfor Determining Ignitability of
Exterior Wall Assemblies Using a Radiant Heat
Energy Source
318, Protection of Cleanrooms
654, Standardfor the Prevention of Fire and Dust
Explosions from the Manufacturing, Processing, and
Handling of Combustible Particulates
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128 References
664, Standardfor the Prevention of Fires and Explosions in
Wood Processing and Woodworking Facilities
NFPA 5000 Building Code, NFPA.
Roofing Materials and Systems Directory, UL.
Standard Building Code, SBCCI.
Structural Fire Protection, published by ASCE.
Uniform Building Code, ICBO.
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Index
of interior finishing materials,
44
of roof assemblies and
coverings, 76
Codes
building, 11-13, 20, 26, 28,
34, 36, 38, 39, 41, 80, 82,
84
fire, 17, 34, 36-38, 42-44,
49-52, 57-66, 69-75,
77-81, 88, 90
life safety, 13, 17, 38, 40, 43,
44, 60, 64
Combustible
liquids, 35, 48, 50-53, 57, 73,
79, 80, 94
materials, 3, 25, 27, 35, 38,
47, 76, 85, 86
metals, 48, 49, 80
Combustion safeguards, 9, 72, 92,
95
Commodities, classification of.
See Classification of
commodities
Computerized Fire Safety Evaluation System (CFSES), 38
Construction materials, 1, 25, 27,
28, 37, 43, 76, 83, 87, 90,
91,101
Coordination. See Design
coordination
Cranes, 60
Aerosols, 53, 79
Air-handling systems, 7, 17, 19,
41, 45, 55, 56, 59, 60, 63,
65, 69, 71-74, 79, 80, 83,
86, 87, 98, 99, 103
Alarms, 1, 3, 7, 16, 61-63, 71, 85
Architects, 38, 40, 41, 93
Architectural engineering, 1, 4, 11,
40, 84, 96
Batteries, 67, 74, 103
Boilers, 72, 77, 98, 102
Building. See also Classification
of construction materials,
Codes, Construction
materials, Existing
buildings, Historic
buildings, Insulation,
New Construction,
Roofing, and Walls
projects, 1, 8, 21, 22, 28, 29,
34, 35, 38-41, 53, 56, 59,
83-88, 90-92, 96-98,
100, 101,103
systems, 3, 7, 33, 36, 40, 45,
59, 60, 85-87, 90
Chemical engineering, 2, 4, 46
Chemicals, 46-48, 50-55, 71, 74,
79
Classification
of commodities, 38, 47
of construction materials, 75,
76, 90
of electrical equipment in
hazardous locations, 2, 9,
38, 43, 48, 50-52, 60,
65-67, 71, 95, 98
of flammable liquids, 50, 51
Deluge systems, 10
Design coordination, 2, 7, 12, 34,
37-39, 83-86, 96, 98, 99,
101. See also
Performance-based and
Prescriptive design
129
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130 Index
Detection, 1, 3-5, 7, 10, 14, 21,
24, 59, 61, 63, 71, 86, 90,
92, 94, 98, 99, 102
Detectors
combustible gas, 15, 102
flame, 15, 63
heat, 15, 16, 63
oxygen, 15
smoke, 14-16, 32, 63
spark, 63
water flow, 16
Diking, 55, 95
Drainage, 9, 55, 56, 85, 95
Ducts, 45, 63, 73, 78
Dusts, 46, 48, 57, 65-67, 72, 74,
79, 96, 98
Earthquake, 1, 19, 41, 42, 75,
80-82, 100
Egress, 1, 3, 13, 24, 29, 39, 43, 44,
73, 77, 85, 86, 91
Electrical engineering, 1, 4, 37,
59, 61,101
Electrically classified locations.
See Classification of
electrical equipment
Elevators, 60, 98
Emergency lighting, 2, 59, 64, 98,
103
Engineering. See Architectural,
Chemical, Electrical, Fire
protection, Mechanical,
and Structural
engineering
Engineers, professional. See
Professional engineers
Existing buildings, 83, 84, 86-88
Exits, 13, 64, 98
Explosion, 47, 48, 52-54, 57, 73,
81, 90, 91, 94, 95
Explosion-proof electrical
equipment, 9, 66, 99, 101
Explosion suppression, 3, 13, 18,
70, 94
Explosive limits. See Flammable
limits
Explosive materials, 49, 52, 79, 80
Exposures, 9, 18, 40, 42, 63, 66,
76, 85, 90, 94, 95
Extinguishers, 43, 98, 101, 102
Extinguishing
agents, 10, 35, 62, 65, 69, 70,
95
systems, 1, 3, 12, 15, 16, 18,
35, 62, 65, 69-71, 90, 94,
99, 101,102
Fibers, 65, 66, 88
Fire. See also Alarms, Codes,
Detection, Pumps,
Suppression, and Walls
barriers, l, 3, 10, 72, 75, 77,
78, 85, 98, 101
control, 4, 5, 18, 21, 50, 54,
57, 58, 94
cutoffs, 25, 43
dynamics, 19, 23, 24, 30, 47
hazard, 3, 5, 38, 46-58, 73,
74, 90-92, 94
models, 20, 21, 23, 24, 29, 30
prevention, 3, 9, 10, 14, 21,
45, 88, 90, 95, 96, 99
proofing, 10, 76, 91, 95, 102
science, 7, 11, 19-23
Fire protection engineering, 1-8,
19, 21, 40, 43, 46, 47, 59,
80
Fire protection systems. See also
Deluge, Special
Extinguishing, and
Sprinkler systems
nonwater-based, 3, 69, 70
water-based, 3, 69
Flame
detection, 15, 63
height, 22, 23
spread, 24, 39, 43, 59, 73,
91, 99
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Index 131
Flammable. See also
Classification
gases, 38, 66
limits, 16, 46, 50
liquids, 35, 38, 47, 50-54, 57,
66, 67, 73, 77-81
vapors, 16, 35, 38, 65-67
Flood, 41, 42, 75, 80-82
Fuel loading, 20, 22, 25, 27, 38, 75
Fuel-fired equipment. See Boilers,
Combustion Safeguards,
Furnaces, and Ovens
Furnaces, 51, 52, 58, 73, 79, 102
Gases, 38, 46, 49, 50, 52, 53, 56,
57, 62, 66, 72, 73, 79, 81
Hazardous (classified) locations.
See Classification of
hazardous areas
Hazardous materials. See
Chemicals, Combustible,
Explosive, Flammable,
and Pyrophoric materials
Heat detection, 15, 16, 63
Heat release, 22, 23, 44, 46, 73
Heat transfer systems, 57, 58
Historic buildings, 88, 89
HVAC. See Air-handling systems
Insulation, 43, 99
Interlocks, 2, 10, 18, 55, 63, 74,
95, 100, 103
Laboratory listings, 61-63, 67, 70,
71, 76-78
Life safety, 11, 17, 38, 40, 44, 71,
91. See also Codes,
Egress, Emergency
lighting, Exits, and
Travel distance
Lighting, 59, 103. See also
Emergency lighting
Lightning, 42, 67, 68, 95, 102
Liquids. See also Diking,
Drainage, Flammable
liquids, and Combustible
liquids
run-off, 9, 81, 95
Listings. See Laboratory listing
Management programs, 9, 55, 56,
86, 87
Materials. See Chemicals,
Combustible,
Construction, Explosive,
Flammable, Pyrophoric,
and Storage
Means of egress. See Egress
Mechanical engineering, 1, 4, 37,
69, 101
Metals, combustible, 48, 49, 80
Models, fire, 20, 21, 23, 24, 29, 30
Natural perils. See Earthquake,
Flood, Lightning, Snow,
Wildfire, and Wind
NCEES, 2-4, 40
New construction, 83, 84, 87, 88
NFPA, 11, 13, 17, 23, 34, 35,
37-39, 41-53, 57-81, 88
Occupancy, 3, 12, 17, 25, 27, 35,
37, 43, 44, 46, 49, 58, 64,
70, 71, 73, 77, 83, 85-87,
91
Occupants, 13-16, 19, 24, 25, 44,
60, 64, 83, 85, 91, 92
Opening protection, 1, 3, 28, 75,
77, 78, 91
Ovens, 51, 58, 73, 79
Oxidizers, 49
Piping
penetrations, 1, 78, 98
process, 54, 57, 81, 96, 98,
102
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132 Index
Piping (continued)
sprinkler, 1, 69, 70, 82, 93,
99, 102
standpipe, 43, 45, 85, 98, 99,
101
Penetrations. See Piping and Wall
penetrations
Performance-based design, 10,
19-32, 33-37, 39, 84-86,
88, 89, 94
Peroxides, 49, 80
Power supplies, 2, 59, 61, 63-65,
68, 69, 71, 74, 80, 81
Prescriptive design, 10, 20, 22,
26-28, 33-39, 47, 94
Process safety, 2, 3, 7, 9, 16, 55,
57, 58, 85-87, 99, 103
Professional
engineers, 2, 3
societies, 5
Project Coordination. See Design
coordination
Pumps, fire, 1, 35, 59, 63, 64, 70,
80, 93, 99, 100, 102
Pyrophoric, 48, 49, 52, 53
Rate of heat release. See Heat
release
Risk, 3, 4, 6, 14, 18, 21, 24, 26,
27, 29, 30, 32, 36, 37, 39,
40, 42, 94
Roofing, 75, 76, 82, 98
Security, 41, 43-45, 59, 62, 80, 93
Separation, 9, 43, 77, 95, 100
SFPE, 5, 20, 21, 23, 24, 37, 47
Smoke
control, 1, 10, 13, 15-17, 29,
31, 60, 65, 69, 72, 85, 89,
99, 101,103
detection, 1, 3, 4, 14-16, 32,
63
layer height, 24
management, 3, 17, 29, 31,
69, 72, 73
travel, 24, 31, 72, 73
Snow, 19, 75, 80, 82
Societies, professional. See
Professional societies
Special extinguishing systems. See
Extinguishing agents and
Extinguishing systems
Specifications, 57, 61, 62, 85,
91-93, 96-98, 101-103
Sprinkler
coverage, 35, 54, 86
heads, 15, 24, 69, 86, 93, 94
systems, 3, 7, 10, 12, 16, 18,
34, 35, 47, 69, 70, 86
piping, 1, 69, 70, 82
protection, 24, 32, 47, 69,
70, 81
valves, 70, 99, 102
Storage, 12, 42, 46, 47, 49, 50,
52-54, 70, 77-79, 81, 86.
See also Classification of
commodities
configuration, 46, 47, 54, 87
Structural engineering, 1, 4, 37,
75, 80-82
Suppression, 3-5, 12, 18, 30, 40,
88, 102
Travel distance, 13
Valves. See Sprinkler valves
Vapors. See Flammable vapors
Ventilation. See Air-handling
systems
Venting, 17, 49, 55, 70, 73-75,
78-80
Walls
construction materials, 1, 25,
27, 28, 75, 76, 83, 87, 90,
91,101
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Index 133
Walls (continued)
fire resistance ratings, 1, 10,
18, 19, 28, 75, 77, 78,
86, 91
penetrations, 1, 78, 91, 96, 98,
99, 101
Water spray systems, 11, 12, 17,
18, 62, 65, 69, 79, 95
Water supplies, 35, 41, 70, 80, 81,
84, 85, 90, 93, 99
Wildfire, 42
Wind, 19, 41, 42, 75, 80-82
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About the Author
Jane Lataille has worked in the field of fire protection
engineering since 1976. Twenty-four years of that work was with
Industrial Risk Insurers (now GE Global Asset Protection
Services), and two years involved preparing fire protection plans
and specifications for a multidiscipline engineering consulting
firm. She is now a fire protection engineer with the Los Alamos
National Laboratory.
Jane is very active with the Society of Fire Protection Engineers
(SFPE), having served on the Board of Directors and as
Engineering Licensing Committee Chair, and staying active on
the Publications and Engineering Licensing Committees. She
helped start SFPE's newest magazine, Fire Protection
Engineering, and serves on its Editorial Advisory Board.
Throughout the years, SFPE has acknowledged Jane's support of
the fire protection engineering discipline with the Hat's Off
Award, the President's Award, and most recently, the D. Peter
Lund Award in May 2002. SFPE elected Jane to the grade of
Fellow in 1997.
She has also been active with the National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA), serving on 12 committees responsible for
preparing over 20 codes and standards. She has published several
chapters in the last four editions of the NFPA Fire Protection
Handbook and one chapter in the new NFPA handbook
Understanding Flammable Liquids. She is currently managing
NFPA's new handbook on Fire Protection of Storage Facilities.
Jane received a BS in Physics from Worcester Polytechnic
Institute and an MS in Electrical Engineering from Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute. She also earned the Associate in Risk
Management designation from the Insurance Institute of
America. She is a licensed Professional Engineer in five states.
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