Catering for health - Food Standards Agency

Catering for health - Food Standards Agency
A healthy diet is one that is rich in fruit and vegetables and cereals, and
low in fat, salt and sugar. Improving health and reducing health inequalities
is now a key government priority.
Recognising the links between diet, nutrition and preventable disease such
as heart disease and some cancers, Our National Health, Scotland’s NHS
action plan, supported by Eating for Health: A Diet Action Plan for
Scotland, sets out a multi-agency, multi-sectoral approach to improve
Scotland’s diet. It outlines plans to work with the food industry, including
caterers, to improve the overall balance of the diet with respect to fruit
and vegetables, salt, fat and sugar.
This booklet represents an important resource to achieve this goal. It
provides guidelines and practical tips and a sound basis for improving
health through provision of healthy catering in restaurants, workplaces,
schools and hospitals.
For further information please contact:
Food Standards Agency Scotland
6th Floor
St Magnus House
25 Guild Street
Aberdeen
AB11 6NJ
Telephone: 01224 285100
E-mail: [email protected]
Published by Food Standards Agency Scotland and the Scottish Executive Health
Department 2002. This partially revised edition published June 2006.
Crown copyright 2002.
Extracts from this document may be reproduced for non-commercial education
or training purposes on condition that the source is acknowledged.
Ref: FSA/0572/0606
CATERING
FOR
HEALTH
A guide for teaching healthier catering practices
Working together to support
healthier eating in Scotland
1
2
FOREWORD
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
3
4
SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1
Why is this guide important?
1.2
Using the guide
5
5
6
SECTION 2: HEALTH ON EVERY CATERER'S AGENDA
2.1
Healthier meals: a commercial opportunity
2.2
Contributing to a healthier nation
2.3
The link between food and health
8
9
14
19
21
21
27
SECTION 3: INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING
3.1
What is healthier catering?
3.2
Considering healthier catering practices in menu planning
3.3
Choosing healthier ingredients
3.4
Preparing and cooking food in healthier ways
3.5
Healthier ways to serve foods
3.6
Merchandising and marketing healthier choices
3.7
Healthier catering in practice
35
35
35
36
36
36
37
37
38
39
40
41
42
42
42
SECTION 4: PLANNING MENUS TO SUIT ALL
4.1
Catering for different sectors
4.1.1 Hospitals
4.1.2 Schools
4.1.3 Staff restaurants
4.1.4 Older people in residential care and in receipt of community meals
4.1.5 Childcare establishments
4.2
Catering for different customers
4.2.1 Children
4.2.2 Pregnant and breastfeeding women
4.2.3 Ethnic minority groups
4.2.4 People on a low income
4.2.5 Vegetarians
4.2.6 People on gluten-free diets
4.2.7 People with diabetes
4.2.8 People with food allergy
44
SECTION 5: FACT OR FICTION?
50
SECTION 6: FURTHER HELP AND INFORMATION
55
56
58
60
62
63
64
66
68
APPENDICES
1. The five food groups
2. Providing the essentials
3. The facts about fats
4. The functions of vitamins and minerals provided by foods
5. A look at the label
6. Promoting the right balance of fat, carbohydrate and protein in the diet
7. Taste evaluation form
8. Labelling of genetically modified foods - regulations affecting caterers
9. Copies of some graphs used in the text for photocopying purposes
1
FOREWORD
CONTENT
FOREWORD
It gives me enormous pleasure to write this foreword not only as a Board
Member of the Food Standards Agency, a working chef and an NVQ
assessor of Food Preparation and Cooking, but also as a consumer. Like
me, many consumers now think they should have the choice to eat
healthily when they eat out, whether this is on a regular basis, for example
at school or work, or as an increasingly frequent treat. Caterers can
potentially make a tremendous contribution to improving the nation's
health by providing healthier food choices wherever their work takes them.
By becoming familiar with nutrition recommendations and wholeheartedly
adopting them, caterers can really help drive up nutritional standards.
This guide reflects a strong working partnership between government and
a non-government organisation. The Food Standards Agency and the
Scottish Executive are grateful to the British Nutrition Foundation for creating
a guide that is concise and practical to implement. Simple tips for healthier
catering and adaptations of Practical Cookery recipes bring advice alive
to chef lecturers and their students alike. The myths and facts of healthy
eating are clearly presented and backed up with sound evidence which is
easily understood.
The guide sets out the fundamentals of nutrition without the baffling
science and terminology often associated with such a subject. As trainers
we should feel comfortable about adopting the principles in this guide and
using the advice it provides to enthuse and motivate the next culinary
generation. Indeed I expect that a number of current Head Chefs and
Lecturers will be surprised themselves by the positive implications of some of
the practical suggestions put forward in the guide for improved customer
relations and in turn profits!! As a consumer I welcome the support of the
Food Standards Agency and the Scottish Executive for the long over due
production of these guidelines. I believe that they will make a real
difference to the attitude of a whole new generation of catering students
towards catering for health and I warmly recommend them to you.
Robert Rees
Food Standards Agency Board Member
“Caterers have a
crucial role to play in
encouraging healthier
eating. They can do this
by ensuring that the food
they offer is ‘healthy’ in
terms of ingredients,
preparation and cooking
methods, and by ensuring
that the food they serve is
attractive, interesting and
tasty”.
Scottish Consumer Council
“We want to encourage
and enable the Scottish
people to adopt a better
and healthier balance in
their diet”.
Working Together for a Healthier Scotland, The
Scottish Office Department of Health (1998)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
INTRODUCTION
We should like to thank the members of the
We are also grateful to those who took part
Steering Group who developed this guide:
in the piloting process:
Georgina Ayin
Aberdeen College
Kent Heartbeat Award Co-ordinator,
Barnet College
Nutrition & Catering Consultant
Brake Brothers Food Service Ltd
Dr Judy Buttriss
Canterbury College
British Nutrition Foundation
City and Guilds
Jane Cliff
Highbury College
Education Consultant
Hospitality Training Foundation Scotland
Dr Anita Eves
Kilmarnock College
University of Surrey
Meat and Livestock Commission
Deborah Norman
Mid Kent College
British Dietetic Association
Motherwell College
Anne Pawan
New College Durham
Sodexho Business and Industry
North West Kent College
Karen Peploe
Northampton College
Health Development Agency
Oxford Brookes University
Dr Jenny Poulter
Peterborough Regional College
Nutrition Works!
Sodexho Catering and Support Services
Chris Roby
The Waikato Polytechnic
City and Guilds
Thurrock College
Sara Stanner
West Kent College
British Nutrition Foundation
West Surrey Health Promotion Service
Eileen Steinbock
Brake Brothers Food Service Ltd
We should also like to thank the following
Maureen Strong
people for their help in various aspects of
Sodexho Education Services
compiling this resource:
Stephanie Valentine
Mark Browne,
British Nutrition Foundation
Food Standards Agency
Dr Jenny Woolfe
Chantal de Carvalho,
Food Standards Agency
Caroline Mulvhill and Lesley Hammond,
former Health Education Authority
We thank the following people for their help
Cragg, Ross and Dawson Ltd
in adapting the guide for use in Scotland:
Roz Denny,
John Baird
Food Writer and Home Economist
Reid Kerr College
Paula Hunt,
Maureen Bruce
Nutrition Works!
Scottish Executive Health Department
Dr Sheela Reddy,
Joanne Crone
Department of Health
Scottish Executive Health Department
Robert Rees,
Bill Gray
Food Standards Agency Board Member
Scottish Community Diet Project
The Hotel and Catering International
Janet Haston
Management Association (HCIMA)
Scottish Executive Health Department
Aruna Thaker,
Dr Cathy Higginson
Wandsworth Community Health Trust
Health Education Board for Scotland
Jacqui Webster,
Alistair Low
Food Standards Agency
Scotland’s Health at Work
Sue Wood,
Ross MacDonald
Independent Nutrition Consultant
Scottish Food Advisory Committee
Catriona MacFarlane
Scottish Healthy Choices Award
Alistair MacGregor
1.1
Why is this guide important?
• Leading a healthy lifestyle, which means eating a healthy diet and
taking regular exercise, is actively encouraged for us all.
• A healthy diet contains lots of foods rich in starch and fibre such as
bread, potatoes, pasta and other cereals, as well as plenty of fruit and
vegetables. It also includes moderate amounts of meat, fish and
alternatives (e.g. pulses) and milk and dairy foods. Foods high in fat
should only be eaten in small amounts and foods containing sugar
should not be eaten too frequently.
• More and more consumers are looking for healthier options when they
eat out, as the links between diet and health are becoming increasingly
recognised.
• Providing catering students with the knowledge and skills to be able to
offer a creative, healthier menu will enable them to take advantage of
an increasing market opportunity, while helping them to promote good
health.
This guide is a source of information and practical ideas for chef lecturers
and others, to enable them to incorporate healthier catering practices into
different areas of the Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQ) for the
catering sector, or alternative catering or cookery courses. It has been
produced in consultation with chef lecturers and caterers in order to ensure
that the approach is realistic and practical.
Students should be aware of changes that can be made in all aspects of
food preparation and cooking. Changes in menu planning and food
purchasing through to serving and presentation can be effective without
compromising taste or appearance.
This guide provides accurate, clear and practical information about how
healthier catering practices can be implemented in all aspects of catering
and within a wide range of working environments.
It aims to support chef lecturers to encourage their students to:
• be aware of the importance of food in the maintenance of health and
overall well-being
• recognise the potential benefits for both caterers and customers from
providing a choice of healthier options
• learn about ingredient selection (e.g. lower fat alternatives) and
Samantha McKeown
methods of food production (e.g. grilling, steaming, poaching, stir-frying)
and processing that can produce healthier options
• demonstrate and apply appropriate and relevant skills and knowledge
when planning, preparing and serving healthier foods.
Pamela Reid
Food Standards Agency, Scotland
Sara Stanner
British Nutrition Foundation
Dr Marnie Sommerville
Scottish Food Advisory Committee
97% of customers think
that they should have the
choice to eat healthily
when they eat out.
Health Education Authority (1996)
“Healthy catering can be
addressed in a practical
hands on and integrated
learning programme
without students having to
learn about the in-depth
functions and sources of
nutrients”.
Alistair MacGregor, Qualifications Manager,
Catering students do not need to know about the complex theory of
nutrition in order to learn how to prepare healthier food. But they do need
to be aware of current healthy eating guidelines and be able to apply
them easily within their working environment. Many food preparation
lecturers recognise this need and are keen to teach ‘healthier’ methods of
food preparation.
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Food Standards Agency, Scotland
3
SECTION 1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
2
Scottish Qualifications Authority
“The information provided
in this guide can be easily
incorporated into a
variety of courses,
including the SVQs and
Nutrition National Units
included in National
Qualifications, Higher
National Certificates and
Diploma Courses”.
Morag Blyth, Lecturer in Hospitality Studies
INTRODUCTION CONTINUED
“Healthier catering is not
just about taking chips off
the menu or dropping
cooked breakfasts. The
evangelical days of brown
rice with everything are
gone”.
HEALTH ON EVERY CATERER’S AGENDA
5
By focussing on practical ways to make meals more healthy, rather than
on theory, this guide aims to promote a positive attitude towards healthier
catering practices and to dispel the common myths amongst caterers –
namely that healthier food does not taste good, will not sell, is more
expensive and requires more time and different skills to prepare. But for
those who wish to teach or learn more theory, an appendix with detailed
information on basic nutrition is provided.
2.1
Healthier meals: a commercial opportunity
Consumers are confronted almost daily with information about diet,
nutrition and health in newspapers and magazines, on the radio and
television. They are becoming increasingly aware of, and interested in, the
relationship between what they eat and their health. Food manufacturers
and retailers have seized the opportunity to market ‘healthy options’ and
sales are growing rapidly.
1.2
Using the guide
The guide is designed to be used flexibly, rather than as a continuous text.
A substantial proportion of meals are eaten away from the home or as
‘take-aways’ and this number is increasing.
Dr Jenny Poulter, Nutritionist
Health on every caterer’s agenda – describes the commercial advantages of
“Food is a basic
requirement for life and
should be enjoyed by all,
but sometimes people are
put off ‘healthy’ foods
unless they are made tasty
and appealing. That’s the
challenge for today’s
chefs”.
Roz Denny, Food Writer and Broadcaster
“Knowing about healthier
catering practices will
enable caterers to offer
customers a wider choice
and thus capitalise on a
commercial opportunity.
It will also ensure that
tomorrow's chefs, caterers
and cooks play a vital role
in improving and
maintaining the health of
the nation”.
Robert Rees,
Food Standards Agency Board Member
“Everyone is more aware
nowadays of the benefits
of eating a healthy diet.
We feel it is appropriate
therefore to introduce the
concept of healthy eating
and basic nutrition to
catering students as an
integral part of their
course”.
John Baird,
Lecturer in Hospitality
offering healthier choices, from the point of view of the caterer and the
catering supplier and the benefits of increased choice for the health of the
consumer. This section covers the importance of what we eat and how this
can influence the risk of developing diseases, such as heart disease and
cancer.
Incorporating healthier practices into all aspects of catering - applies
healthy catering principles to all aspects of food preparation including:
Meals eaten out (1994, 1999 and forecast for 2004)
1994
7000
A section is also included on how best to market healthier options.
Practical examples of recipe modification demonstrate how small changes
can have a considerable effect on the nutritional quality of a meal. These
examples can also be used for tasting or cost-comparison exercises. The
latter could be used to teach numeracy skills within the SVQ syllabus.
Planning menus to suit all – most of this guide provides information about
catering for free-living and active people, with no special dietary
requirements, but this section gives some advice about catering for people
with special dietary needs. In the context of menu planning, specific issues
of importance in different sectors of the catering industry (e.g. hospitals,
schools, workplaces) are highlighted and the differing requirements and
preferences of some sectors of the population (including children, older
people, vegetarians, ethnic minority groups and those with special dietary
needs) are considered. This section also provides important information
about food allergies.
Fact or fiction? – provides the answers to common questions about diet
and health. In so doing, it attempts to dispel many of the misconceptions
held both by caterers and the general public.
1999
Forecast for 2004
Growth in sales for food eaten
outside the home
all catering outlets
6000
£million
5000
1994:
1999:
2004:
4000
3000
21,414
22,585
23,510
2000
1000
0
Hotels
• menu planning
• choice and purchasing of ingredients
• cooking methods
• service methods.
Meals eaten out (millions)
Restaurants Fast Foods
Cafes/
Takeaways
Pubs
Travel
Leisure
Total*
* Excludes staff catering, healthcare, education, services/welfare
Source: Foodservice Intelligence Ltd
Many customers are now looking for healthier options within menus,
particularly if they eat out every day. A recent study indicated that 97% of
consumers think that they should have the choice to eat healthily when
they are eating outside the home. More than half (52%) believe it is the
responsibility of the caterer to provide this choice.
In a study of over 2000 restaurant and pub customers:
• a third would like to be offered lower fat milks with beverages and to
have the choice of adding butter to vegetables and potatoes
themselves rather than having it already added
• 83% would prefer their French fries served unsalted, so they can choose
whether to add salt or not
• 96% want to see an alternative to chips on the menu
• more than half (56%) wish to see more grilled alternatives to breaded
deep fried items
• over a third (37%) want to see more lower fat desserts on offer.
Health Education Authority (1996)
Implementing healthier catering practices can also save money, e.g. not
adding butter to potatoes or increasing the amount of pasta compared to
the amount of meat in a lasagne.
Further help and information – gives useful sources of information, including
references and websites, for those wishing to expand on a particular topic.
An important commercial opportunity exists - providing customers with
healthier choices that look and taste good. It is important for the hospitality
industry to grasp this market opportunity by offering healthier choices,
which customers increasingly want to buy.
Appendix – finally, a number of tables are included in an appendix, many
of which are in a photocopiable form for use as teaching aids. Enlarged
copies of some of the graphs and figures that appear in the main text are
also provided.
Contributing to a healthier nation
2.2
Offering a variety of foods, which includes healthy options, can have
marketing, financial and competitive advantages; it can also make a
substantial contribution to improving the health of the population.
SECTION 2
4
This guide will be an
important tool to help chefs,
chef lecturers,
trainers/assessors and
students identify and
implement the changes
necessary for healthier
catering.
Sheila Howorth, Catering and Hospitality,
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Your students will have a
big influence on people’s
eating habits and diet in
the future - help to equip
them with the skills to
meet this challenge.
6
HEALTH ON EVERY CATERER’S AGENDA CONTINUED
HEALTH ON EVERY CATERER’S AGENDA CONTINUED
“With more meals being
eaten outside the home,
it is crucial that those
preparing the foods have
a working knowledge of
current thinking in public
health nutrition”.
Dr Judy Buttriss, Science Director,
Eating outside the home is no longer an occasional, luxury activity. The
catering industry provides at least 3 meals a week for the average person in
Britain. In addition to public houses, restaurants and takeaways, eating
outside the home also includes school meals and workplace restaurants.
Comparison of the total fat and saturates content
of food eaten at home and eaten out
40
British Nutrition Foundation
% of total energy
Fat
39.7%
Saturates
36.6%
30
Around a half of the working
population in the UK
regularly eats a meal at
work. So, healthier catering
in the workplace has an
important role to play in the
health of the workforce.
20
14.6%
15.6%
10
0
Fat
At Home
Saturates
At Home
Fat
Saturates
Eaten Out Eaten Out
The amount of energy derived from fat, particularly saturates (the type of
fat commonly found in animal-derived foods) (see section 3.3, page 18 and
appendix 3 for further details) tends to be higher in food and drink
consumed outside the home (see figure above). Given that around one
eighth of the average amounts of energy from fat and saturates in our diet
comes from food eaten outside the home, healthier catering has a vital role
to play in the population's health.
“These guidelines are a
major step forward in
promoting a healthier
lifestyle in Scotland and
present a significant
opportunity for chef
lecturers to make a very
real difference to our lives.
By influencing our
prospective chefs we can
improve the health of future
generations”.
Ross MacDonald,
Scottish Food Advisory Committee
Sources:
www.scotpho.org.uk
Scottish Health Survey 2003; www.scotland.gov.uk
Scottish Health Statistics; www.isdscotland.org
"Training is a critical issue
in underpinning all these
changes. Caterers need
to clearly understand the
current recommendations,
the importance of healthy
eating and their role in
promoting a better
choice".
Diet Action Plan for Scotland (1996)
Source: National Food Survey, 2000
Almost half the working population in the UK regularly eats a meal at work;
and so these types of catering establishments make a significant
contribution to the nation's diet.
Heart disease and stroke
and related illnesses cost
the NHS an estimated £3.8
billion a year and cancer
treatment £1.3 billion.
A diet high in fat for example, raises cholesterol levels in the blood, while
too much salt is linked to high blood pressure. Having a high blood
pressure or blood cholesterol level substantially increases the chances of
suffering from these conditions.
• It is estimated that 1 in 3 people in Scotland will develop some form of
cancer during their lifetime, and that around 1 in 8 males and 1 in 7
females will develop some form of cancer before the age of 65.
It is estimated that a poor diet contributes to around a quarter of all
cancers. In particular, low consumption of fruit and vegetables is linked
with an increased risk of colorectal and stomach cancer (and possibly
some other cancers).
7
2.3
The link between food and health
An unhealthy diet, which includes too many fatty foods, too much salt and
not enough fruit and vegetables, can increase the risk of a range of
conditions, including heart disease, stroke, some cancers, high blood
pressure, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Too frequent consumption of foods
high in sugar increases the risk of tooth decay.
Currently in Scotland:
• Over the last 10 years there has been a significant increase in the
number of people who are overweight or obese.
In 2003, more than 64% of men and 57% of women were either
overweight or obese in Scotland. There is also continued concern over
the levels of obesity among children in Scotland.
Overweight and obesity develops when the amount of energy (calories)
consumed is too high in relation to levels of physical activity.
Being obese increases the risk of a number of diseases, including
coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some types of cancers.
• Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death
in Scotland.
In 2004, 10,778 people died from CHD and18% of these deaths were
among people under the age of 75 years. Stroke is another major cause
of death and ill-health in Scotland. In 2004, 6,155 people died from
stroke. A diet containing too much fat, salt and not enough fruit and
vegetables is an important contributing factor to the risk of coronary
heart disease and stroke.
In the white paper, Towards a Healthier Scotland, published in 1999, the
Government’s main goal is to tackle cancer and heart disease and
improve the health of children and young people. One of the main
actions outlined to achieve this goal is to tackle lifestyles that lead to illness
and early death (e.g. poor diet and lack of exercise).
The Scottish Diet Action Plan sets national targets to be achieved by 2005
including:
• doubling the average consumption of fruit and vegetables
• reducing the proportion of food energy from total fat and saturates by
over 5%
• doubling the consumption of oily fish
• reducing average sodium (salt) intake.
In order to achieve these targets consumer choices need to be influenced
and to do this healthier choices need to be the easy choices. The Plan
recognises that eating out plays an important and increasing part in
people’s eating habits and highlights the Government’s intention to work
with caterers to improve the overall balance of the diet, including the
amount of salt, fat and sugar in food.
Caterers have a key role in helping the Government achieve these targets.
Caterers represent a key
influence on the nation’s
diet.
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING
SECTION 3
8
Nutrition is not just a theory
subject related to human
biology or science, it is an
integral part of food
preparation and food
production.
Key points for students
• There are two approaches
to healthier catering making small changes
across the whole service
(a ‘behind the scenes’
approach) or highlighting
one or two healthier
options.
This section gives practical information on the application of healthier
catering practices throughout the food production chain, from menu
planning to the serving of food.
It aims to provide the information students need to:
• understand what is meant by ‘healthier catering practices’
• create healthier balanced menus using a model known as Eating for
Health
• select healthier ingredients, as well as cooking and preparation methods
• possess product knowledge so that they can advise customers in their
choices
• consider healthier catering practices at point of service
• effectively promote and present ‘healthier’ options.
3.1
What is ‘healthier’ catering?
THE MYTHS ABOUT HEALTHIER CATERING
There are many misconceptions about what ‘healthier catering’ means.
Healthier catering is not about:
taking chips off the menu
Chips are often one of the most popular menu items and can be part of a
healthier catering plan by making small changes such as cutting potatoes
thickly or buying thick/steak cut chips (that may be pre-blanched in a
steamer), cooking at the correct temperature in unsaturated oil and
draining them thoroughly.
serving brown rice or wholemeal pasta with everything
Brown rice or wholemeal pasta are good choices if they are popular with
customers, but people generally prefer white varieties. Healthier catering
means providing large servings of either type of rice or pasta to increase
carbohydrate intakes. This can also save money as starchy foods, such as
rice, cost less than many other meal components.
adding olive oil to everything
Olive oil is a healthier choice than many other fats or oils because it
contains a high proportion of monounsaturates (a type of fatty acid) (see
section 3.3, page 18 and appendix 3). Rapeseed oil also has a high
proportion of monounsaturates and is a cheaper alternative. However, all
fats and oils should be used sparingly (see section 5, page 46).
only highlighting one ‘special’ dish on the menu
Highlighting one special dish offers customers a choice and can
encourage them to select a ‘healthier’ option. Small changes, across the
board, also have the potential to be of great health benefit to customers
and may largely go unnoticed.
“Highlighting a special dish
on the menu as a healthy
choice, as well as making
small changes across the
board, can both have very
positive impacts on
customers' health”.
Dr Cathy Higginson, Nutritionist
Health Education Board for Scotland
offering a vegetarian option
Vegetarian dishes are not always a healthier option as they can be high in
fat or salt. Those which contain a lot of pastry, cheese, creamy sauces or
nuts can have a substantially higher fat content than dishes containing fish
or lean cuts of meat (see section 5, page 46).
offering non-genetically modified or organic foods
The consumption of organic or non-genetically modified (GM) produce is a
matter of individual choice. There is little evidence to suggest that organic
vegetables are nutritionally superior to their alternatives and the concerns
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
relating to GM foods are about safety, rather than nutrition. For information
about the regulations concerning GM see appendix 8.
avoiding foods with additives
The whole issue of food additives has aroused great concern amongst the
British public but only a very small number of customers will be affected by
them. In fact, the risk of ill-health as a result of an imbalanced diet is about
one hundred thousand times greater than that from additives. The role of
food additives in health should not be ignored but the risk they present
should be placed in perspective.
THE FACTS ABOUT HEALTHIER CATERING
Healthier catering is about:
Introducing healthier alternatives gradually in the menu and/or making
small changes to best-selling items. Providing a ‘healthier’ option can
involve making several changes to improve the nutritional value of one
menu item (e.g. reducing the energy, fat and salt content) and can
broaden the range and choice of foods offered to customers.
Modifications across the board might involve minor changes to many
aspects of food preparation, including the type or amount of ingredients
used, the cooking or preparation methods employed, the way in which
food is served or the portion sizes provided.
3.2
Considering healthier catering practices in menu planning
Why should healthier catering be an integral part of menu planning?
Eating out is no longer something that happens only on special occasions
in this country. For many people it is a part of everyday life, e.g. food eaten
at lunchtimes. Food eaten outside the home now makes a substantial
contribution to total nutritional intake. So, for those who do eat away from
home regularly, it is important that they think about the choices they make
and try to select healthier options. This will only be possible if healthier
options are made available in the first place. Customer surveys suggest
such options would be welcomed.
Eating for Health
Eating for Health was developed as a model for healthy eating in Scotland
by the Health Education Board for Scotland in 1996. It is nationally
recognised and widely used by the food and catering industries, as well as
by health professionals, teachers and individual consumers, as a guide to
the contents of a balanced meal or diet. In England the equivalent model,
the Balance of Good Health, was developed in 1994 by the Health
Education Authority, Department of Health and Ministry of Agriculture,
Fisheries and Food.
The two keys to a healthy diet are:
• Eating the right amount of food for how active you are
• Eating a range of foods to make sure you're getting a balanced diet
A healthy balanced diet contains a variety of types of food, including
lots of fruit, vegetables and starchy foods such as wholemeal bread
and wholegrain cereals; some protein rich foods such as meat, fish,
eggs and lentils; and some dairy foods.
9
“With a few simple
changes to the ingredients
or cooking methods,
menus can be made
healthier without
compromising on taste”.
Stephen Wrenn, Chef
Key points for students
• Eating for Health can be
used to achieve healthier
catering.
• This is a pictorial
representation of the
proportions of the five main
food groups that go to
make up a balanced diet.
Eating
for Health promotes
•
increased consumption of
fruit and vegetables and
starchy foods, together with
moderate amounts of
meat, fish and alternatives,
and moderate amounts of
milk and dairy foods. It
suggests that foods high in
fat and foods high in sugar
should make up a relatively
small proportion of the food
and drink consumed.
• Eating for Health should be
used as a guide for
purchasing ingredients and
for creating balanced
menus.
Eating for Health
Bread, other cereals
and potatoes
Fruit and vegatables
Meat, fish and
alternatives
Foods high in fat
Foods and drinks
high in sugar
Milk and
dairy foods
There are five main groups of valuable foods
It’s all about striking the
right balance.
Photograph Courtesy of the Health Education
Board for Scotland. A larger version of this figure
can be found in appendix 9.
10
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Eating for Health shows the proportion of the overall diet that should come
from each of the five food groups in order to provide enough of the
important nutrients (such as vitamins, minerals and protein) and fibre,
without too much fat (especially saturates) and sugar. Foods in each food
group provide a similar range of nutrients (see appendix 1). For example,
milk and dairy products are rich in calcium, protein, B vitamins and also
provide some vitamin A. The size of each segment represents the
proportion of the diet that each food group should contribute. For
example, fruit and vegetables should make up around a third of the total
diet. Although the guide applies to the whole diet, it can also be used in
planning single meals (see section 3.7).
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Serve plenty of starchy foods - such as bread, pasta, rice,
potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, cassava, breakfast
cereals (see section 3.3, page 15 and section
3.4, page 19). Whole-grain varieties of pasta,
rice, bread and breakfast cereals are higher
in fibre but not always as popular. Whilst
their use helps boost the fibre content
of the diet, this should not be at
the expense of acceptability.
Make starchy foods a main
part of most meals.
The guide applies to catering for most people over the age of 5 years,
including those who are overweight, vegetarians and people of all ethnic
origins, although adapted versions have now been developed for some
ethnic groups (see section 4.2.3). Children under 5 years need to learn to
eat healthily but too much emphasis on cutting down fat intake and
increasing the amount of fibre eaten is inappropriate for this age group - it
can result in a bulky diet and children may not be able to eat sufficient
amounts of food to meet their energy and nutrient needs (see section
4.2.1).
What does this mean for most people in the UK?
A third of total food intake should be made up of starchy foods (e.g.
bread, pasta, rice and potatoes). These foods should make up a main part
of a meal.
To meet this guideline, most people will need to eat half as much again as
they currently do.
A further third should be made up from fruit and vegetables. People should
aim to eat at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables each day.
Most people will need to double the amount they are currently consuming.
Meat, fish and alternatives (e.g. eggs, nuts, pulses, soya products) and milk
and dairy foods provide concentrated sources of essential nutrients. So,
only moderate amounts need to be eaten.
Many people have too much fat in their diet and would benefit from
choosing leaner meats and lower fat dairy products.
Foods containing a large amount of fat or sugar should make up a
relatively small proportion of the total food and drink consumed.
Most people are consuming foods from this group too frequently.
What does this mean for caterers?
Eating for Health is a useful tool for caterers in menu planning as it shows
the overall balance that should be aimed for in the meals served. Having
identified the main ingredients of a dish, balance can be achieved by
altering the proportions, e.g. using more pasta in relation to meat sauce in
a lasagne, or serving slightly smaller portions of the main dishes with extra
fruit, vegetables or bread.
Whatever the type of catering service provided, the principles of balance
and variety apply.
Serve plenty of vegetables and fruit - fresh, frozen, dried,
tinned or as juice (see section 3.3, page 15, and section 3.5,
page 21). At least 5 portions a day are
recommended (see section 5, page
48 for definition of a 'portion').
Variety is important and fruit juice
counts only as one portion, no matter
the number of servings
consumed as drinks. For
caterers, this means
offering plenty of
vegetables and salads
as part of meals and
incorporating
vegetables and fruit into
dishes. Offering fresh fruit,
fruit-based desserts, as
well as fruit and
vegetables as snacks, is
also useful.
11
Student Tips
Healthy eating need not raise
costs - increases in some areas
will be balanced by savings
elsewhere (see section 5,
page 45). Using more starchy
foods is likely to be costsaving as these foods tend to
be less expensive.
Practical ways to do this
include:
• using thick cut bread for
sandwiches
• using more pasta in relation
to meat sauce in lasagne
• using more potato in relation
to meat in cottage pie
• serving Naan bread and
plenty of rice with curries.
Student Tips
Caterers can offer more fruit
and vegetables by:
• incorporating extra
vegetables into casseroles
• offering colourful and
interesting salads (with low
fat dressings) and
vegetables with main meals
• always having attractive
looking fresh fruit on display
(aim for five or more types
so that regular fruit eaters
have some variety)
• trying to offer alternative
fruit dishes (e.g. fruit
kebabs), and incorporating
fruit into other desserts and
dishes, including cold
starters (e.g. asparagus and
orange salad) and savoury
dishes (e.g. citrus chicken)
• adding dried or fresh fruit to
breakfast cereals or desserts
• offering fresh fruit salad and
mixing chopped fresh fruit
into yogurt.
12
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Student Tips
Lower fat dairy products help
to reduce the fat content of
meals but still provide plenty of
calcium. This means:
• switching to semi-skimmed
or skimmed milk
• using fromage frais, quark or
plain yogurt in dishes in
place of some of the cream,
although care must be taken
not to alter the taste and
appearance of the dish (e.g.
adding cornflour to yogurt
will help prevent the mixture
from separating)
• using reduced calorie
mayonnaise in dressings or
diluting with yogurt
• using a smaller amount of a
strong tasting cheese, such
as strong Cheddar or
parmesan, in cooking (e.g.
in sauces)
• Using a béchamel, instead
of a cheese, sauce for dishes
that are covered in cheese
(e.g. lasagne)
• using reduced fat cheeses
in sandwiches or on cheese
boards
• grating cheese for use in
salads, sandwiches and
fillings so that less is required.
Student Tips
Practical ways to do this include:
• adding pulses to meat
dishes to increase the fibre
content, reduce the overall
fat content and add extra
protein
• using alternatives to meat,
such as mycoprotein
(Quorn®), tofu, texturised
vegetable protein-based
products and soya (these
are important sources of iron
and protein in vegetarian
diets) (see section 4.2.5)
• serving slightly less meat
with extra vegetables or
starchy foods (e.g. bread,
rice, pasta).
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Serve relatively small amounts of foods containing
a lot of fat - try to cut down on fat, especially
saturates, which is the type of fatty acid found
largely in butter and hard margarine, pastries,
cakes and biscuits, fatty meats and meat
products and full fat dairy products (see
section 3.3, page 18 and appendix 3). Some
vegetable oils, such as coconut oil and
palm oil, also contain a high proportion
of saturates.
Try to use lower-sugar versions where
you can, particularly for snack foods when sweetening foods or dishes,
remember honey, golden syrup and
treacle all contain lots of sugar.
Offer sugar-free drinks and lowersugar alternatives to cakes,
biscuits and pastries.
Serve moderate amounts of milk and dairy foods – and use lower fat
versions where practical and acceptable (see section 3.3, page 16).
Serve moderate amounts of meat, fish and alternatives - use leaner cuts of
meat (see section 3.3, page 17). Good kitchen practices (e.g. trimming
excess fat from meat, removing the skin from poultry and draining fat from
mince) are also important (see section 3.4, page 19).
Also, try to cut down on the amount of salt used in cooking for caterers this means using alternative flavourings, such as lemon juice,
herbs, spices, onions and peppers, to enhance the taste of food. Look for
lower salt (or sodium) versions of convenience and pre-prepared foods.
Most stock cubes and bouillons, ready-made pickles, sauces and curry
pastes, cured foods (e.g. bacon and ham) and pre-prepared meat
products are high in salt. Use salt sparingly in food preparation and allow
the customer to add extra if required. Provide low sodium alternatives at
the table for those who wish to restrict their sodium intake (see section 3.4,
page 20).
How does Eating for Health apply to composite
(or multi-ingredient) dishes and meals?
Dishes or meals usually contain foods from more than one of the five food
groups. Eating for Health can still be applied by identifying the main food
items or ingredients in the composite dish or meal and thinking about how
these fit with the proportions shown in the guide. By altering the
proportions of ingredients, or serving slightly smaller portions of the main
dishes with extra fruit, vegetables or bread, balance can be achieved.
For example, a sausage, cheese and tomato pizza contains foods from 4
of the main food groups:
The proportion of tomato (from the fruit and vegetable group) relative to
the other ingredients is generally small compared with that shown in the
Eating for Health model. There may be an inadequate contribution of
items from the bread, cereals and potatoes food group, particularly if the
pizza has a thin base.
Try to include more fish on the menu - particularly oil-rich fish (e.g. salmon,
mackerel, herring and trout) that contain oils beneficial to health (see
appendix 3). White fish contains very little fat so is a good choice, but
watch the addition of high fat sauces and provide alternatives to deep
fried items.
13
Student Tips
Ways to cut down on fat and
sugar include:
• not offering too many fried
foods
• using ingredients such as oil
and fat sparingly and
encouraging suppliers to
use reduced fat ingredients
• serving salad dressings and
dessert toppings separately,
so customers can decide
how much they want
• not automatically garnishing
potatoes and vegetables
with butter prior to service
• ensuring the temperature is
correct when frying so that
foods absorb less fat
• reducing the amount of
sugar used in dishes where
practical and acceptable
• using dried or fresh fruit to
sweeten dishes.
Student Tips
Ways to cut down on salt
include:
• using combinations of fresh
herbs and spices instead
(this creates a much wider
range of interesting flavours
than salt alone could
provide)
• experimenting with recipes
to see how much salt
reduction can be achieved
without compromising on
taste.
14
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Fruit and Vegetables
Tomato Paste
Meat, Fish and Alternatives
Sausage
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Bread, other Cereals and Potatoes
Pizza Base
Milk and Dairy Foods
Cheese
Graphic Courtesy of the British Nutrition Foundation
Altering the balance: Making a pizza with a thick base would increase the
proportion of starchy foods in the dish. The topping could be made with
less cheese and more tomato and other vegetables could be added.
Selecting healthier ingredients: Lower fat sausages could be used.
Serving with other foods: The pizza could be served with a salad or other
crudities and followed by a piece of fruit or a fruit pudding.
These changes would provide a meal consistent with the balance of the
food groups shown in Eating for Health.
In summary the key to healthier catering is to:
• make small changes to best selling items
• increase the amount of starchy foods
• increase the amount of fruit and vegetables
• increase the fibre content of dishes, where practical and acceptable
(but not by adding bran - see section 5, page 48)
• reduce fat in traditional recipes
• change the type of fat used
• select healthier ways to prepare dishes
• be moderate in the use of sugar and salt.
“Eating for Health is a
very useful tool for
catering students. It has
made it much easier for
them to consider the
effect food has on
customers’ health when
planning their menus”.
James Walker, Lecturer in Hospitality
Key actions to achieve these goals are to:
• make starchy foods (e.g. rice, pasta, bread, potatoes) a main part of
most meals
• offer a good selection of fruit and incorporate it into dishes, where
practical and acceptable
• offer fibre-rich varieties of bread and cereals
• include plenty of pulses and vegetables in dishes
• use lower fat cooking methods and ingredients
• reduce the amount and alter the types of fat used in food preparation
• use fewer fats that contain a high proportion of saturates by substituting
these with fats and oils with a high content of unsaturates, where
possible (see section 3.3, page 18 and appendix 3)
• use salt and salty foods in moderation
• use added sugar in moderation.
Choosing healthier ingredients
3.3
The choice of commodities can have a significant effect on the nutritional
content and the balance of meals and foodstuffs. Many suppliers have
responded to the increasing demand for healthier ingredients, which are
now easier to find. Several pre-prepared products are available that can
be cooked by one of 3 methods - oven bake, grill or shallow/deep fry.
Caterers should check the labels on pre-prepared dishes to look for lower
fat and salt varieties. For more information about how to read food labels
see appendix 5.
What are the healthier alternatives?
This section provides examples of the types of foods and ingredients that
can improve the nutritional composition of a dish or meal.
BREAD, CEREALS AND POTATOES
Serve larger portions of starchy foods.
The healthier alternatives include:
For baked goods
• a range of thick sliced breads for sandwiches and toast, including
granary, multi-grain and wholemeal
• speciality uncut breads (such as those with poppy seeds, olives or sundried tomato) for crusty wedges to serve with soups (in place of fried
croûtons), salad and pasta dishes
• chapattis, Naan breads and pittas to serve with Indian and
Mediterranean cuisine, flour tortillas to serve with Mexican cuisine
• crispbreads, matzos
• morning goods such as bagels, teacakes, crumpets, pikelets, raisin bread
and English muffins (provide spread separately)
• scones, fruit buns, fruit breads and malt loaf for cake selection (also useful
as alternatives to biscuits at meetings).
For dry cereals
• rolled oats, pinhead oatmeal, cornmeal, couscous, millet, semolina,
cracked wheat, buckwheat
• rice - quick cook, long grain, brown, basmati, risotto, Thai fragrant rice,
arborio, pudding
• wholemeal and wheatmeal flours or a mixture of white and wholemeal
varieties, besan flours, buckwheat flour, gram flour
• all varieties of pasta (white, verdi, red, wholemeal), e.g. spaghetti,
lasagne, macaroni, fettucine, rigatone, cannelloni, tagliatelli
• whole-grain, unsugared breakfast cereals; unsweetened muesli.
Others
• alternatives to chips such as jacket potatoes (with low fat fillings)
• thick (14mm) or steak (19mm x 9mm) cut or oven chips.
FRUIT AND VEGETABLES
Always a healthy option, so include in dishes/meals as often as possible.
The healthier alternatives include:
• a large variety of fresh fruit and vegetables, including salad vegetables
(with lower fat dressings)
• a wide variety of frozen fruit (such as berries) and frozen vegetables
(single or mixed, for stir-frys and casseroles)
• fruit canned in natural juice or vacuum packed rather than fruit canned
in syrup or sweetened with sugar
• pure fruit juices with no added sugar (see section 5, page 47, for
information on sugar and dental health)
• dried fruits e.g. sultanas, apricots, prunes, raisins, dates, figs
• tinned vegetables e.g. green beans, tomatoes, sweetcorn
• dehydrated vegetables, including dried tomatoes.
15
Key points for students
• The choice of ingredients
and the proportions in
which they are used can
make a big difference to
the nutritional content of a
dish or a meal.
• A wide range of healthier
ingredients is now available
to the caterer. For example,
there is a wide variety of
lower fat products (such as
‘half fat’ or ‘light’ creams,
low fat yogurt, semiskimmed milk).
• Meals can be balanced by
the choice of healthier
accompaniments.
It’s a common fallacy
that starchy foods are
fattening; it is the fatcontaining foods that are
added to them that can
make them calorie rich
(e.g. butter and cheese
on baked potatoes, thick
butter on bread) or the
fat added during cooking
(e.g. fried rice, fried
Mexican/Indian breads).
16
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Tasting sessions
encourage students to
become more familiar
with some of the lower fat
varieties listed in this
section.
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
MILK AND DAIRY FOODS
Use lower fat versions where possible and appropriate.
The healthier alternatives include:
For cheeses
• lower fat cheeses for sandwiches or on cheese boards e.g. cottage
cheese, low fat soft cheeses, Edam, feta, Camembert, St Paulin,
Coulommiers, Petit Suisse, mozzarella, reduced fat hard cheeses (e.g.
Cheddar) and spreads
• strong cheeses, such as parmesan, a strong Cheddar or Cheshire, that
can be used in smaller amounts in sauces than a larger amount of mild
cheese, therefore providing less fat
• cheese flavour pastes for sauces.
17
For yogurts
• yogurts, quark or fromage frais as alternatives to double cream or pastry
cream in desserts (mixtures can also be used)
• low fat plain yogurt for cooking or low fat fruited yogurt for desserts
• Greek yogurt in place of sour cream, e.g. for dips
• plain yogurt (stabilised with starch such as cornflour or fécule for savoury
dishes or with arrowroot for desserts) in place of cream in hot soups (e.g.
chicken, cream of tomato, mushroom soup) and sauces
• plain yogurt or lower fat fromage frais for dips, dressings and dessert
toppings.
The fat content of different yogurts and alternatives
Grams of fat per 100g
The fat content of different milks
Grams fat per 100g
10
The graph below provides the fat content for a range of different cheeses.
Portion size determines the total amount of fat but the values are provided
per 100g for easy comparison.
The fat content of different cheeses
30
Feta
Mozarella
Camembert
Edam
Brie
Dolcelatte*
Emmental
Danish Blue
Gouda
Full fat soft cheese
Cheshire
Gruyère
Parmesan
0
Double Gloucester
5
Cheddar
10
Stilton
15
Mascarpone*
20
Vegetarian cheddar
25
3.5
7
6
3.0
5
2.5
4
2.0
3
1.5
1.0
1
0.5
0
Greek yogurt
Full fat
fromage frais
Full fat
plain yogurt
Full fat
fruit yogurt
Low fat
plain yogurt
Low fat
fruit yogurt
Very low fat
fromage frais
0.0
Skimmed
McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 4th Supplement, Milk Products and Eggs. RSC/MAFF (1989)
Cottage cheese
35
4.0
8
2
Ricotta
40
Low fat soft cheese
Cheddar - reduced fat
Grams of fat per 100g
9
For milk
• lower fat milk (e.g. skimmed, semi-skimmed)
• powdered skimmed, skimmed or semi-skimmed milk (without added nonmilk fat i.e non-filled).
McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of foods, 4th Supplement, Milk Products and Eggs. RSC/MAFF (1989)
*JC Robbins. The Healthy Catering Manual (1989)
Semi- Whole milk
skimmed
McCance and Widdowson's
The Composition of Foods, 4th Supplement,
Milk Products
andcontent
Eggs. RSC/MAFF
(1989)
The
calcium
of different
milks
Milligrams calcium per 100g
120
115
MEAT, FISH AND ALTERNATIVES
Encourage students to
investigate the range of
lower fat alternatives now
available on the market.
Low fat dairy products
such as yogurt, fromage
frais, cottage cheese and
lower fat varieties of hard
and soft cheese, still
contain important
nutrients such as protein
and calcium, but have
less fat.
For creams
• ‘half fat’ or ‘light’ creams, reduced fat crême fraîche, lower fat cream
products
• very low fat (0.2%) fromage frais
• reduced calorie mayonnaise or dressings based on low fat yogurt or
fromage frais, rather than cream.
The typical fat content of different creams and alternatives
g fat/100g
Jersey/Clotted cream
Double cream
Crême fraîche*
Whipping cream
UHT canned spray cream
50/50 whipping cream/Greek yogurt
Soured cream
Half fat Crême fraîche*
Single cream
Half cream
50/50 single cream/low fat yogurt
50/50 half fat Crême fraîche*/very low fat fromage frais
Quark
64
48
40
39
32
24
20
15
19
13
10
8
Trace
Select leaner meats and lower fat and lower salt meat products where
possible
The healthier alternatives include:
• leaner cuts of red meat (e.g. beef, pork, lamb, venison)
• lean processed meats (e.g. ham, bacon)
• lower fat and salt (sodium) pre-prepared meat products
• skinless poultry (e.g. chicken, turkey, ostrich)
• fresh and frozen fish and seafood
• oily fish (e.g. herring, mackerel, salmon, fresh tuna, trout, sardines)
• fish (e.g. tuna, salmon, sardines and pilchards) canned in water, tomato
sauce or brine (although this is higher in salt), rather than oil
• meat substitutes - tofu, textured vegetable protein and mycoprotein
(Quorn®)
• dried or tinned peas or beans (e.g. red kidney beans, black-eyed beans,
butter beans, haricot beans, flageolet beans, split peas, chick peas)
tinned beans in tomato sauce or water
• lentils - dried, green or red
• unsalted nuts - though not low in fat, nuts are rich in monounsaturates
(see appendix 3)
• eggs - not fried (see section 5, page 46, for information about
cholesterol in eggs).
110
105
100
Skimmed
Semi- Whole milk
skimmed
McCance and Widdowson's
The Composition of foods, 4th Supplement,
Milk Products and Eggs. RSC/MAFF (1989)
“Improved breeding and
feeding programmes and
modern butchery
techniques have reduced
the fat content of meat,
particularly pork. In the
1950s, pig carcases had
30g of fat per 100g; today
a lean, trimmed pork leg
steak has only 3.7g per
100g”.
Tony Goodger, Trade Sector Representative
McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 4th Supplement. Milk Products and Eggs.
RSC/MAFF (1989). *CJ Robbins. The Healthy Catering Manual (1989).
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
FATS AND OILS
Use sparingly. Replace fats high in saturates with those containing a high
proportion of unsaturates (see appendix 3).
The healthier alternatives include:
• oils and fats that are high in unsaturates - that is polyunsaturates (e.g.
sunflower, soya, sesame, safflower and corn oils, sunflower and soya
margarine) or monounsaturates (e.g. olive oil, rapeseed oil)
• 'white' shortening high in unsaturates for pastry making
• low fat spread for spreading and/or margarines rich in unsaturates for
spreading and cooking using coconut milk in place of creamed coconut
for flavouring and potatoes or low fat plain yogurt (to thicken) in some
curries
• reduced calorie and reduced fat mayonnaise and dressings.
Choosing an oil
Some fats and oils are rich in different types of fatty acids:
High in saturates
High in monounsaturates
PA
LM
OIL
High in polyunsaturates
SAFFLOWER
P E A N UT
CORN
RD
RAPE
SEED
SU N F L O W ER
HAR
MADR
GAR
INE
LA
CR
COEAME
CO D
NU
T
SU
ET
R
BUTTE
RAPE
H 'M
ON
FLOW
E
SEED
SUN
OLIVE
OIL
SPREA R
D
EE
DR I P P I N G
GH
All fats contain a mixture
of fatty acids. But those
that contain a small
proportion of saturates
and a high proportion
of unsaturates
(polyunsaturates or
monounsaturates) are
better for health.
High in unsaturates
SPREA OS'
D
Prepare ‘healthier’ chips by:
• using thick cut chips or
potato wedges - these will
absorb less oil than thin cut
chips
• pre-blanching in a steamer
• using a combination of
steaming, dipping in oil and
oven baking, rather than
deep fat frying in the
traditional manner
• making sure the oil is at the
right temperature - a lower
frying temperature means
longer cooking times and
increased fat absorption by
the food
• draining well
• not refreshing - it can
double the fat content.
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
HIG
18
This classification is simplistic but further details can be found in appendix 3.
Whilst price will be
determined by the
supplier or contractor,
speciality oils (e.g. walnut
oil, peanut oil) do tend to
be more expensive.
But most vegetable oils
(except coconut and
palm oils) will meet the
requirements for healthier
catering.
g of fat/100g
Mayonnaise
Reduced calorie mayonnaise
50/50 reduced calorie mayonnaise/low fat yogurt
FLAVOURINGS
The healthier alternatives include:
•salt-reduced stocks and soup mixes
•herbs, spices, curry powder/paste or mustard powder
•frozen, dried and /or fresh herbs
•tomato paste.
SNACKS AND DESSERTS
The healthier alternatives include:
• biscuits which contain less fat and sugar than other varieties (e.g.
gingernuts, garibaldi, jaffa cakes, rich tea or fig rolls, reduced-fat
digestives)
• plain crackers
• English muffins
• plain popcorn
• unsalted nuts and dried fruit mixes
• dried fruit and fresh fruit to sweeten dishes
• yogurt - and fromage frais-based desserts
• lower fat milk for sweet sauces.
76
28
18
3.4
Preparing and cooking food in healthier ways
Cooking techniques and preparation methods can also make a substantial
contribution to healthier catering practices.
REDUCING THE FAT CONTENT
Whilst the choice of ingredients is very important, several cooking methods
and preparation techniques can be used to reduce the fat content of
dishes.
Easy ways to cut down on fat in food preparation include:
• trimming visible fat from meat
• removing the skin and fat from poultry before cooking or serving
(except for roasts)
• preparing lower fat vinaigrette dressing using 3 parts wine vinegar,
orange or lemon juice to 1 part olive oil.
‘Healthier’ cooking practices to reduce fat include:
• routinely grilling, steaming, stir-frying or oven baking rather than frying or
roasting with added fat
• using non-stick frying pans whenever possible (although this may be
unrealistic in some commercial situations)
• using spray oils
• dry frying or dry roasting spices
• skimming fat from the surfaces of liquids, including gravy, before serving
• sweating onions in cling film (microwavable) in a microwave instead of
sautéing them in oil
• avoiding letting food sit in fat when roasting or oven cooking by roasting
on a rack or trivet and grilling on a rack, rather than a flat oven tray
(keeping basting to a minimum if possible, without affecting taste)
• creating soups and sauces from puréed vegetables or reductions,
instead of roux thickenings
• not enriching with butter (monter au beurre) unless absolutely necessary
(e.g. in classic dishes)
• using a thin batter for fish or oven baking pre-coated products
• using a whisked sponge method or mix for puddings, instead of the
creamed method
• not tossing the item, e.g. pasta, in butter (use a small amount of oil to
prevent sticking for bulk quantities).
INCREASING THE AMOUNT OF VEGETABLES, FRUITS AND
STARCHY FOODS
Adding more vegetables, fruit and starchy foods (e.g. rice, pasta and
potatoes with their skins) and pulses will increase the fibre content of a meal.
Other ways include:
• where possible (i.e. based on dish type), returning ingredients that
provide fibre (e.g. vegetables or fruits) rather than straining them out or
removing them
• adding extra starchy foods, such as cooked pasta and pulses (e.g.
kidney beans and chick peas), brown rice or cracked wheat to salads,
stews and other savoury dishes
• leaving the skins on potatoes, vegetables and fruits whenever possible,
but washing them well (carrots should be peeled and topped)
• using a mixture of white and wholemeal flours.
19
Key points for students
• The way in which food is
prepared and cooked will
have a large impact on the
amount of fat it contains.
For example, simply
removing the skin from
poultry or trimming off
excess fat from meat before
cooking and using
alternative cooking
methods to frying or roasting
(e.g. grilling, steaming,
baking) will substantially
reduce the fat content.
• Similarly, simple measures
can be adopted in the
preparation of food to
reduce the salt and sugar
content, and enhance the
amount of fibre.
• Simple techniques in the
kitchen can also avoid
unnecessary loss of vitamins
from fruit and vegetables,
e.g. short storage periods,
using the minimum amount
of water during cooking,
and placing foods directly
into water that is already
boiling or steaming.
Simply taking the skin off
chicken prior to cooking
can remove threequarters of the fat
(reducing it from 18g to
4g per 100g).
20
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Recipe evaluation can
determine the extent to which
salt can be minimised without
affecting taste or quality.
Students can experiment
during practicals by assessing
the impact of:
• adapting the amount of salt
added during cooking
• weighing out added salt
• comparing the salt content
of ingredients to identify
lower salt alternatives.
REDUCING THE SALT CONTENT
The amount of salt added by chefs reflects their own personal taste but many
people are trying to restrict their salt intake. The choice of ingredients is very
important in controlling the salt content of dishes but there are also ways to
reduce the amount used in cooking.
These include:
• using salt sparingly in cooking - gradual reduction cooking methods affect
the amount of salt in the final dish. So, sauces should be reduced first and
then seasoned
• using herbs, spices, lemon or lime juice to flavour food in place of salt
• avoiding the use of stock pastes, granules, packet soups and sauces that
contain a lot of salt, where possible (see section 3.2, page 13).
REDUCING THE AMOUNT OF SUGAR
There are many ways to lower the sugar content of dishes, such as:
• using reduced sugar recipes where practical and acceptable
• cutting down on the amount of sugar used when sweetening creams,
fillings, puddings and garnishes
• using dried fruit and fresh fruit to sweeten dishes
• reducing the quantity of sugar in sauces where practical and acceptable
• poaching fruits in natural unsweetened fruit juice or low sugar syrups (but
this may affect the keeping and eating quality).
GOOD PRACTICES WITH FRUIT AND VEGETABLES
Simple techniques in the kitchen can minimise the loss of vitamins from fruit
and vegetables.
Losses occur because:
• some vitamins are soluble in water and can be lost by moist methods of
cooking, such as boiling and steaming, or by soaking
• some vitamins can also be destroyed at high temperatures, so certain
cooking methods, e.g. high pressure steaming, can lead to considerable
losses.
Many methods that preserve the vitamin content will also ensure a better
quality product.
Frozen or vacuum-packed
vegetables often contain
larger amounts of vitamins
than stored fresh versions.
Good practice with fruit and vegetables includes:
• never leaving vegetables in water for long periods as water-soluble vitamins
will leach out and be lost
• using the minimum amount of water in cooking; steaming or microwaving vegetables will preserve more of the vitamin content than boiling
• cooking vegetables by placing them directly into water that is already
boiling to minimise losses
• not cutting vegetables into very small pieces (with a greater surface area
for vitamins to leach out into water)
• using a combi oven to steam vegetables
• cooking vegetables rich in vitamin C (which is readily destroyed by heat) in
small quantities and as quickly as possible to preserve the vitamin content
• stir-frying vegetables in a little oil, which is a quick method of cooking
that will ‘seal in’ the vitamins
• using spray oil
• storing foods containing vitamin C for short periods only and using them
as fresh as possible (this will also improve the colour, flavour and texture)
• cutting vegetables with a sharp knife to avoid bruising
• adding lemon -, lime - or vinegar-based dressings to salad to help to
reduce vitamin C loss, as this vitamin is more stable in acidic conditions
• not preparing fruit and vegetables too early, as valuable vitamins will be
lost during warm-holding (the taste and texture will also be affected).
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
3.5
Healthier ways to serve foods
At point of service, caterers have an ideal opportunity to help their
customers understand more about healthy choices and to achieve a
healthy meal in line with Eating for Health (see section 3.2, page 10). Dishes
should not automatically be dressed with higher fat items, e.g. butter or
cream, prior to service. Wherever possible, give customers the choice.
Recent consumer research carried out in pubs and restaurants found that:
• a third of customers would like to be offered lower fat milks with
beverages
• a third would like the choice of adding butter to vegetables and
potatoes themselves rather than having it already added
• 83% would like chips to be served unsalted so that they can add salt if
they wish.
Health Education Authority (1996)
Encourage customers to eat more starchy foods, vegetables and fruit by:
• adjusting the proportions of the components of the main dish to improve
the balance, e.g. serving more starchy foods (such as pasta or rice) and
slightly less sauce
• providing bread with main meals
• offering plenty of vegetables or salad
• offering dressing-free side salads to accompany hot main meals
• offering plenty of fresh fruit, as well as lower fat fruit-based desserts
• providing smaller serving utensils and dishes for higher fat foods, e.g.
smaller ladles and bowls for creamy soups.
Let the customer choose by:
• serving vegetables unglazed and items such as bread, rolls, toast, fruit
breads and baked potatoes unbuttered, and by offering a choice of
butter, unsaturated margarines or low fat spread separately for those
customers who want them
allowing
customers to add their own sauces and dressings. Highlight
•
healthier alternatives, for example ‘fat free’ dressings
• letting customers add their own cream or other toppings to desserts and
by providing a choice of lower fat alternatives (e.g.’half’ fat or ‘light’
creams, reduced fat crême fraîche, low fat fromage frais), although
portion control and cost must be considered
• limiting salt addition during cooking (e.g. chips) and letting customers
add their own salt at the table.
3.6
Merchandising and marketing healthier choices
Despite the growing interest in diet and health, to some customers the term
‘healthy’ can read ‘tasteless’ and ‘boring’. So, informing customers about
healthier catering practices or healthier choices on the menu must be
handled carefully.
Lifestyle is a key determinant in the food selection process and the way in
which the product is presented (merchandising technique) needs to be
flexible and determined by the customer base. As far as the promotion of
healthier items is concerned, a great deal depends on customer profiles,
the client company’s wishes in contract catering and the level of nutritional
awareness of restaurant users.
21
Key points for students
• At the point of service,
caterers can encourage
customers to eat a healthy,
balanced meal by
increasing the portion sizes
of starchy foods, fruit and
vegetables on offer.
• Wherever possible, higher
fat items, e.g. gravies,
dressings and dessert
toppings, should be served
separately so that customers
choose how much they wish
to add.
• Instead of automatically
glazing vegetables or
buttering bread and other
items, these should be
served plain and portions of
low fat spread, unsaturated
margarine and butter should
be made available for
customers who wish to add
fat.
• Extra salt should not be
added to foods (e.g. chips)
prior to service.
Key points for students
• Research shows that
although many people are
interested in health, when
they eat out, their main
priority is still good value.
• 'Healthier' items must be
perceived to be enjoyable
in order to secure demand.
• Simple statements on the
menu or at point of service
can inform customers of
changes to ingredients and
cooking practices.
• Descriptions such as ‘tasty’
or ‘freshly cooked’ may
generate greater interest
than descriptions such as
‘low in fat’ or ‘the healthier
option’.
• There are legal definitions
that must be met when
making a nutritional claim
22
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Key points for students
continued
(e.g. 'low' fat). It is far safer
to inform customers about
changes to cooking methods
or ingredients (e.g. made
with semi- skimmed milk).
• Taking care with the
presentation of healthier
items can make them even
more appetising.
• Putting healthier foods in
places that are easy to reach
at the point of service and
reducing price (e.g.
promotions) can encourage
sales.
• Posters, advertising and
leaflets about healthy eating
can be effective, particularly
in larger catering
establishments. Other
promotional opportunities
include theme days, free
tastings and healthier
catering awards.
• Staff should be kept fully
informed of new dishes and
healthier catering practices
so that they can aid
customers in their food
selection.
Describing healthier choices
on the menu
• Describing foods as ‘freshly
cooked’, ‘tasty’ or
‘satisfying’ is likely to be
more enticing than referring
to the fat content or the
‘healthiness’ of a dish.
• Simple symbols on the menu
or at point of sale are useful
(e.g. V for vegetarian) but
any nutritional claim must
be supported or justified
(see page 25).
• 'Healthier' options should be
placed alongside existing
menu items where
customers are sure to see
them, rather than in a
separate menu section.
• Menus can be illustrated
with colour photographs of
healthier dishes.
To support caterers in providing healthier options to consumers, the Health
Education Authority carried out some research in workplace catering
outlets to compare the effect of different promotional strategies and
presentation styles on sales and customer opinions, e.g. small changes to
popular dishes or active promotion of ‘healthier’ options.
The best strategy was found to depend upon several factors, including the
type of venue and the nature of the changes made. In smaller catering
establishments, where the number of main meals or choices on offer is
limited, adopting ‘across the menu’ changes (see section 3.1) and offering
a healthier dish to everyone without aggressive marketing appears to work
well. A subtle statement emphasising the benefits to customers, whilst
assuring them that popular dishes will still feature and that taste will not be
compromised, is often the best approach. Ways to do this include
displaying a Mission Statement or a Healthier Catering Policy, or by making
general statements outlining any changes (e.g. semi-skimmed rather than
whole milk is now used in all recipes).
In larger outlets where there is scope to offer a wider choice, new menu
items that meet the healthy eating criteria can be introduced and should
sell well alongside other dishes (as long as they are reasonably priced, taste
good and look attractive). The way in which these items are described and
presented on the menu is a key factor in encouraging people to try them
out. Labelling a specific item or dish as ‘the healthier option’ can actually
reduce its popularity in some cases. Emphasising increased choice and
variety or the novelty aspect of new dishes on the menu can be more
effective. Placing healthier options as the first items on a printed menu or
highlighting them as the ‘dish of the day’, on signs placed by the dish at
point of service, can encourage their selection.
Customers can be informed at point of selection of the ingredients in a
dish. This can promote healthier choices, as well as assisting food allergy
sufferers.
Larger establishments may be able to use marketing activities to inform
current and potential customers of their changes. This can take place in
the restaurant area starting with ‘Coming soon’. But it can also involve a
variety of other methods including e-mail (workplace catering),
promotional posters or leaflets. Those catering in a workplace may also
communicate via company newsletters, desk drops, notice boards in
strategic places around a site, displays and links to occupational health
activity, as long as approval is obtained from the appropriate person on
site. Whatever approach is used, the ‘four Ps’ of traditional merchandising
can still be applied:
• providing a good quality product
• presenting foods attractively
• making the price competitive and appropriate
• promoting foods by using displays, communication, advertising and new
ideas.
Product
Although people are becoming more interested in healthy eating, their
main priority when eating out remains good value. Healthier options will
only sell if they are perceived to be of good quality by the customer.
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Presentation
We all know that how a meal looks is very important in determining whether
or not customers decide to purchase it. Positioning is also important; any
new dishes should be displayed prominently, either first or at the front of the
counter within easy sight and reach. However, healthier options should not
usually be positioned separately as this could encourage some people to
leave them out, e.g. all main course hot dishes should usually be kept
together. The challenge to the caterer is then to present these items in a
way that will encourage their selection.
Price
Value for money is still the strongest influence on customer choice.
Although some ingredients (e.g. leaner meat) can cost more, it is a
common misconception that healthier options are always more expensive
for the caterer. Strategies can be adapted to make the cost of healthier
options equal to, or less than, those of traditional meals. These include
providing larger portions of starchy foods (e.g. bread, rice or potatoes) and
vegetables, or reducing the quantities of more expensive items or the
amount of fat used in cooking.
Customers are more likely to try out new options if they are initially
marketed with some kind of sales incentive. Pricing strategies, such as
reducing the cost of healthier menu items, have been found to have a
substantial effect on sales (see below).
Promotional activities
Healthier catering can be promoted using a variety of activities including:
• theme days where the focus is not overtly healthy eating but the foods
offered are based on healthier catering practices (e.g. promoting
Italian, Indian, Thai or Chinese cuisine or links to events, such as the
Olympics or Wimbledon, or to festive occasions, such as Halloween or
Christmas).
For example, an Italian theme day could be used to promote:
• different types of pasta
• a range of different sauces, some of which are lower in fat, e.g. some
tomato-based sauces
• a variety of fruit and vegetables, e.g. beans in salads, fruit desserts
• a range of different breads
• thick-based pizzas with plenty of vegetable toppings and/or lower fat
cheeses or bacon.
An Indian theme could include:
• chapatti and Naan bread
• plenty of boiled rice
• a range of dishes based on lentils, beans or peas
• chicken dishes thickened with yogurt (or potato) and flavoured with dry
fried spices
• dishes cooked in vegetable oil instead of ghee.
• special promotions - e.g. a week of different breads
• reduced price deals - e.g. offering a menu item at a lower price for a
day or two as ‘Dish of the Day’
• seasonal specials - e.g. reducing prices for desserts using fruits in season
• package deals - selling food items together at one price, e.g. a roll with
soup or fresh fruit with a sandwich
23
The success of new menu
ideas can be assessed by:
• using a suggestion box
• carrying out customer
surveys
• talking to customers
• monitoring sales.
Of 2000 restaurant and
pub customers
interviewed, 91% said that
healthier options on the
menu should be no more
expensive than other
items.
Health Education Authority (1996)
24
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
• meal deals - offering a complete meal for a lower price than the total
cost of all the separate items, e.g. a sandwich, yogurt and fresh fruit
• free ride - offering free selected items with purchased foods, e.g. a free
jacket potato with a main meal, a free glass of fruit juice with breakfast
cereals, a free Naan bread with a curry, or an extra serving of
vegetables with a meal
• tying foods - selling a fast moving item with a slow seller at a discounted
price, e.g. ‘buy a chicken sandwich and select a piece of fruit for half
the price’
• offering free tastings of less familiar foods, e.g. fat-reduced cheeses or
unusual fruits
• awards - find out if there are any awards in your local area for caterers
who provide healthier options on the menu. An award provides a caterer
with an external recognition of achievement in healthier catering
practices.
• providing copies of recipes for customers to take home and make
themselves.
The case studies below describe how three caterers have successfully
implemented healthier catering practices.
Case Studies
“I provide catering services for a manufacturing company, with a policy
that supports healthy alliances at work, but my customers took a traditional
approach to food selection despite being offered healthier choices. I
decided to review ingredients and cooking methods and to make gradual
changes to reduce added fat and the amount of added salt. As a chef,
presentation, taste, quality and food cost are the benchmarks on which I
judge my performance. The bonus is that the food still meets customers’
taste and quality perceptions and, by reducing added oil, I have cut my
food costs. The subtle approach worked and I have contributed to giving
the food a healthier profile!”.
Jason Trotman, Food Quality and Production Manager,
Catering and support services supplier, Swindon
“For many years my customers had shown a preference for white bread
and although I offered wholemeal and multi-grain alternatives, there was a
very poor uptake. After an educational promotion on diet and health,
incorporating the principles of Eating for Health, customer food selection
patterns began to change over 1-2 years. This also coincided with the
wider implications of the growth in ‘grazing’ and ‘grab ‘n’ go’ eating
patterns. A complete reversal in bread and sandwich preferences has
taken place. Now at the sandwich and deli bar we offer a similar number
of sandwiches and rolls made from white and whole-grain bread and these
have equal proportional uptake. Customers can have the spreading fat of
their choice, or no spread, and a range of fillings and salad items are on
offer so that they can create their own healthy, or not so healthy,
combination. What matters to me is that the choices on offer are matching
changing customer demand and expectations”.
Sean Charles, Head Chef,
Prestigious Business and Industry Group, Scotland
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
“Following a customer survey, I have introduced a sense of theatre for my
office-based customers. They want to know more about the ingredients I
am using, so I make sure that the catering staff are fully briefed on dish
content and portion sizes before food service. I also decided to give
customers the chance to choose from a range of ingredients to create
their own stir-fry recipe, which I cook for them. They can add rice, noodles
or a range of breads to complete their selection. It’s really popular and
gives extra value, which my customers are prepared to pay for. It satisfies
the messages in the Balance of Good Health, providing a variety of
vegetables, a serving of starchy food, moderate amounts of lean meat, fish
or poultry and a tiny amount of oil. Of course, there are extra items that the
health aware can choose to complete their meal, including fruit and
yogurts”.
Warren Turvey, Head Chef,
Ordinance Survey, Southampton
Making nutritional claims carries risks
When highlighting a healthier choice, it is important to ensure that any claims
are true and not exaggerated in order to avoid prosecution under various
statutory provisions (Trade Descriptions Act 1968, Food Safety Act 1990).
Note: A proposed new EU regulation on nutrition and health claims made on
foods is due to take effect towards the end of 2006 or early in 2007. This
regulation will change some of the conditions for certain claims. Advice
should be sought from the relevant local authority environmental health officer
before making any claim.
There are currently specific regulations covering claims for ‘reduced’ or ‘low’
energy foods and for claims about fat, protein, cholesterol and vitamins and
minerals. There are also guidelines covering the use of terms such as ‘low’,
‘high’ or ‘reduced’ for nutrients such as fat, saturates, sodium (salt), sugars
and for fibre.
For example,
• to describe an item as ‘low fat’ it must contain no more than 3g of fat
per 100g of food (or per 100 ml for liquids)
• a ‘reduced fat’ food should contain at least 25% less fat than a
comparable food
• a ‘low salt’ food must contain no more than 40mg of sodium per 100g.
The regulations require that, when a nutrition claim is made, the label must
bear nutrition information to support that claim, in the prescribed format.
So, foods purchased pre-packed and sold as individual items (e.g. low fat
cottage cheese) must provide nutrition information on the label. When a
claim is made for a non-pre-packaged food sold by caterers (e.g. ‘this is a
low fat pizza’), full nutrition information is not required. However, information
about the nutrient for which the claim is made may be given at the point
of sale on a per 100g (or per 100ml) or per portion basis.
Examples of claims and the guidelines for their use are given in the table
over the page.
25
26
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Making a nutrition claim - not
as easy as it might appear
A While these guidlines are non-statutory,
misleading claims can lead to legal action.
B
Nutritional claims must be supported by full
nutritional information. Recipe analysis can
be carried out by a dietitian or nutritionist
using a computer package. Alternatively, a
sample of food can be sent away for
labaratory analysis. Both methods are time
consuming and can be costly.
C ‘Low fat means that there is no more than 3g
of fat in 100g (or 100ml for liquids) of the
food. This means total fat, not just added fat.
For example
Tomato salsa (serves 12)
2tbsp (22g) olive oil
30g basil
2 (300g) onions
2 (6g) garlic cloves
75g tomato purée
2 cans (800g) tomatoes
Fat content per 100g = 2.2g
This could be described as ‘low fat’
D For foods usually low in
fat/saturates/sugar(s)/sodium, the claim
must be made in the form of ‘a low
(fat/saturates/sugars/sodium) food’
E
This means that the food/dish should contain
a stated amount e.g. less fat (a stated
amount, as a percentage) than a
comparable food/dish.
For example
Tomato salsa (100g)
Total fat
Original
2.2g
Modified (using half as much oil
to fry the onions and garlic)
1.2g
Total fat reduction
45%
This could be described as 45% less fat
F
100g or 100ml is used so that customers can
compare different foods. Nutrition information
can also be given per serving. To ensure that
every dish meets the claims, all ingredients
need to be weighed during food preparation.
G This means that the food contains at least
25% less sodium than a comparable food.
H These claims criteria relate to dietary fibre
A
Claims
Free
Low
Fat
<0.15g/100g or
100ml
<3g/100g
C
D
Reduced
Less
No
added
At least 25% less
x% less E
-
Guidelines for nutritional claims
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
B
Fibre H
-
Saturates
<0.1g/100g or 100ml
Sugars
<0.2g/100g or 100ml
Sodium
<5mg/100g or 100ml
F
<1.5g/100g or 100ml
and should not make
up >10% of total
energy of product
At least 25% less
x% less
-
<5g/100g or 100ml
<40mg/100g or 100ml -
At least 25% less G
x% less
No salt or sodium
have been added to
the food or any of
its ingredients
-
-
Increased -
-
At least 25% less
x% less
No sugar or foods
composed mainly of
sugars added to the
food or any of its
ingredients
-
More
Source
High/Rich Source
-
-
At least 25% more
and >3g/100g or per
daily intake of the food
(if this is less than 100g)
x% more
>3g/100g or per serving
>6g/100g or per
serving
Involving staff
Chefs and catering staff who have been working in one outlet or business for a
while will have a good understanding of what their customers like and what sort
of meals sell best. It is, therefore, sensible to involve catering staff when planning
changes to menus and menu items. As well as providing a source of ideas and
suggestions, they can comment on the practicalities of any proposed changes
and help to develop ideas that are both workable and cost effective.
Making service staff familiar with Eating for Health (see section 3.2), will
enable them to help customers in their food selection. Keeping them
informed of new dishes being offered, will allow them to answer any
questions about what meals contain and how they have been prepared.
There is a legal requirement for all staff to be aware of ingredients in dishes
that may cause a food allergy reaction, e.g. nuts (see section 4.2.8).
The best restaurants have excellent two-way communication between the
kitchen and the service staff. It improves customer relations and promotes
empowerment of staff. Ways of facilitating this include:
• staff meetings
• briefings prior to service
• providing descriptions of foods on the menu
• providing information on dishes with ingredients that might be
unacceptable for some customers (e.g. nuts, gluten) (see Section 4.2).
defined as non-starch polysaccharide.
A recent MORI survey
found that 84% of
customers regarded the
staff working at restaurants
to be an important source
of information to help them
choose what to eat.
Food Standards Agency (2000)
Service staff need to
know about the nutritional
benefits of menu items on
offer if they are to convey
these messages to their
customers.
Below is a case study example of how good staff communication has been
achieved in one catering outlet:
Case Study
“As a company we recognise the importance of good communication.
We are also very aware of the role of diet in health and always include
healthy choices on the menu in our Partners' dining rooms. New staff who
join as catering partners undergo a training programme that includes
information about healthier catering practices. Half-hour communication
sessions are held each week and these provide an ideal opportunity to
keep catering staff up-to-date about any changes on the menu.
We are currently in the process of developing a nutrition pledge to raise
awareness of healthy eating amongst our staff. This will ensure
standardisation in our Partners’ dining rooms across the country, both in
terms of the healthier options offered and the training provided to catering
staff. We are also looking at pricing to ensure that healthier foods are not
more expensive than other options”.
Lynn Johnston, Manager,
Catering Administration for a major retailer
3.7
Healthier catering in practice
• This section provides practical examples to demonstrate the nutritional
benefits that can be achieved through small changes to ingredients and
methods of food preparation, for several of the SVQ Food Preparation and
Cooking units.
• The conventional recipes have been taken from Practical Cookery, where
details of the methods can be found.
• The contribution of fat, protein and carbohydrate to the energy content of
each dish is also given. Whilst the nutritional analysis can be compared with
current recommendations (see appendix 6), these recommendations apply to
overall intake and do not need to be met for each dish/meal.
• Students could carry out a price comparison between the traditional and
modified recipes to demonstrate how healthier catering practices might
affect cost.
• Students can compare the appearance, aroma, taste and texture of the
traditional and modified dishes (see appendix 7 for a taste evaluation form).
• Accompaniments to some dishes are also suggested to demonstrate how to
serve a meal to meet the proportions illustrated in Eating for Health (see section
3.2, page 10).
SOUPS AND SAUCES
Sauces
Sauces are used to add flavour and texture and improve the appearance of
foods but many traditional sauces are very high in fat. This need not matter
quite so much if the amount of sauce in a dish is small, but if large portions are
provided it can have a substantial effect on the energy and fat content of the
dish. Use in this way should be restricted to meals for special occasions. But
choice of ingredients and preparation methods can make a considerable
difference.
Student Tips
• Try using semi-skimmed milk as a substitute for whole milk in sauce making.
• Finish sauces with lower fat creams/cream products, low fat yogurt or
fromage frais, instead of butter, cream or egg (if necessary this could be
stabilised with a little starch such as cornflour or potato starch, e.g. fécule).
• If you are making sauces with cheese, use a smaller amount of a stronger
flavoured cheese, such as parmesan, or a strong Cheddar.
• Try using a béchamel sauce in place of a cheese sauce in dishes which
are topped with cheese.
• Cut down on saturates by substituting margarine high in unsaturates for
butter in white roux sauces (although the taste will need to be considered)
or use pale olive oil.
• Use reduced brown stock, thickened with starch (such as fécule), as a
healthy alternative to brown roux sauces that can contain beef dripping,
which is high in saturates. Many consider this healthier alternative to have a
superior taste.
• Use sauces (e.g. hollandaise, béarnaise) that are very high in saturates in
small quantities. These sauces have a characteristic taste of butter that
cannot adequately be substituted by margarines high in polyunsaturates or
monounsaturates.
• Prepare vinaigrette dressing or mayonnaise with olive oil or walnut oil, which
are rich in monounsaturates.
27
“Healthy foods can be
appetising and tasty. It’s
just a question of getting
the right balance”.
Stephen Holder,
Divisional Craft Trainer for a major catering
and support services supplier
28
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Serving soups with bread
is an easy way to boost
the amount of starchy
foods in a meal. Toasting
croûtons, rather than
frying them, will help to
reduce the fat content.
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Soups
Soups can be a dish in their own right and those made from purées or
sweated broths, in particular, can make a significant contribution to a
healthy balanced diet.
Student Tips
• Try using food processors and liquidisers to make soups without the use
of a roux thickening (using a starchy food, e.g. potatoes, to thicken).
This can reduce the fat content of the dish, provide a lighter product
and reduce cooking time, thereby improving the retention of vitamins
that are readily destroyed by heat.
• Skim off excess fat wherever possible.
• Aim not to add cream to soups (although it is often considered
essential to classic dishes such as velouté soups).
• Use leaner cuts of meats.
• Use salt sparingly and allow the customer to add extra if required at the
table.
• Use fresh vegetable stocks/pastes and bouillons or lower salt versions as
many convenience stocks can be very salty.
• Try using stock cubes and packet soups that have a lower salt content.
Example: Vegetable soup
Traditional recipe for vegetable soup - 10 portions
1kg
Mixed vegetables (onion, carrot, turnip, leek, celery)
125g
Butter
60g
Flour
White stock
2.5 litres (2500ml)
300g
Potatoes
Seasoning:
Bouquet garni, salt, pepper
Serve with croûtons:
125g
Butter
3 slices (108g)
White bread
Proportion of energy coming
from different sources
Traditional vegetable soup
Carbohydrate 27%
Fat 68%
Protein 5%
Modified vegetable soup
Carbohydrate 50%
Fat 40%
Protein 10%
Modified recipe for vegetable soup - 10 portions
1kg
Mixed vegetables (onion, carrot, turnip, leek, celery)
100ml
Olive or sunflower oil
60g
Flour
Vegetable stock
2.5 litres (2500ml)
Potatoes
300g
Seasoning:
Bouquet garni, salt (try using less), pepper
Serve with:
10 thick slices (440g) granary or
olive bread (one slice per person)
Modifications to traditional recipe
• Less oil is used as the vegetables are sautéed with the pan lid on and
softened in the steam created.
• Olive oil or sunflower oil are used in place of butter.
• Olive or granary bread is offered as an accompaniment, instead of
traditional croûtons fried in butter.
How do the nutritional compositions compare?
Nutritional content per portion
Energy(kJ)
(kcals)
Total fat (g)
Saturates (g)
Fibre (g)
Traditional (423g/portion)
Modified (441g/portion)
1167
279
21.2
13.8
2.6
1099
263
11.7
1.5
4.4
These simple adaptations produce a soup with less fat, only a small
proportion of saturates and considerably more fibre.
MEAT, POULTRY AND OFFAL DISHES
Meat, poultry and offal dishes can be an excellent source of protein and
iron, as well as B vitamins (especially B12), zinc and magnesium. However, the
use of fatty cuts of meat can make a significant contribution to overall fat
intake, so using lower fat versions or removing excess fat whenever possible
is important.
Student Tips
• To reduce the fat content of meat dishes, order lean cuts of meat, trim
off excess fat where possible, remove the skin from chicken before
cooking in dishes such as casseroles, and skim off excess fat before serving.
• Bake, grill, roast, dry fry or poach to reduce the fat content.
• If frying, make sure the oil temperature is correct (using thermostats on
deep fat fryers and manufacturers’ guidelines regarding weights of food
per oil volume), change the fat regularly and drain well. Larger pieces of
coated meat will absorb less fat than smaller pieces.
• Always use the minimum amount of additional fat possible without
compromising on taste, and always rack and drain the meat.
• Always drain fried foods well.
• Improve the overall balance of the meal by serving it with plenty of
vegetables or a starchy food (e.g. bread).
Example: Lasagne
Traditional recipe for lasagne - 10 portions
500g
Lasagne
3 tbs (33g)
Oil
250g
Onion
125g
Carrot
125g
Celery
500g
Minced beef
125g
Streaky bacon
125g
Tomato purée
1 litre
Demi-glace (80g butter, 80g white flour, 1330ml stock)
Garlic
11/2 cloves (4.5g)
250g
Mushrooms
Béchamel sauce
(600ml whole milk, 50g white flour, 50g butter)
125g
Cheddar
Seasoning:
Marjoram, salt, pepper
Modified recipe for lasagne - 10 portions
700g
Lasagne
250g
Onion
150g
Carrot
175g
Celery
500g
Lean minced beef *
1200g
Canned tomatoes
1
1 /2 cloves (4.5g)
Garlic
300g
Mushrooms
(600ml semi-skimmed milk, 50g white flour, 50g
Béchamel sauce
polyunsaturated margarine)
Mature Cheddar
100g
Marjoram, pepper
Seasoning:
*Note: Could substitute pulses, e.g. lentils or texturised vegetable protein, in place of some of the minced beef
29
30
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Modifications to traditional recipe
Proportion of energy coming
fat different
produced
is used to sweat down
• The mince is lean and dry fried. Thefrom
sources
the vegetables.
Traditional lasagne
to the sauce
• Bacon is omitted and extra vegetables are addedCarbohydrate
34%
(tomatoes, carrot, celery).
• Extra lasagne is added.
• The demi-glace and tomato purée are replaced by tinned tomatoes.
Fat 49%
• The sauce is made using semi-skimmed milk instead of whole milk.
How do the nutritional compositions compare?
Nutritional content per portion
Protein 17%
Traditional (303g/portion)
Modified (408g/portion)
Energy(kJ)
2545
2061
Modified lasagne
(kcals)
608
493
Carbohydrate 51%
Total fat (g)
33.1
15.5
Saturates (g)
16.3
5.9
Fibre (g)
3.4
4.8
• If possible do not glaze with extra butter before service.
Proportion of energy coming
• If a dish must be finished with butter, try lightly brushing with melted
from different sources
Traditional lasagne
Modified lasagne
The modified lasagne provides less energy and the proportion of energy
coming from fat, particularly saturates, is lower. Skimming the fat from the
meat would reduce the total fat content even further. Serving the lasagne
Protein 21%
with a salad and bread or a jacket potato would provide a meal with the
balance of the food groups shown in Eating for Health (see section 3.2,
page 10).
White fish naturally
contains very little fat but
this is often increased
dramatically by the
addition of high fat
sauces or when it is
coated in batter or
breadcrumbs and fried.
We should be eating at
least two portions of fish
a week, including one of
oily fish. The consumption
of oil-rich fish helps to
reduce deaths from heart
disease.
FISH DISHES
The nutritional composition of any fish dish will depend upon the way the
fish is cooked and the other ingredients added but, in general, fish is an
excellent source of protein and B vitamins and contains several important
minerals including phosphorus, selenium and iodine. The bones of whitebait
and tinned sardines, pilchards and salmon (when eaten) also provide
Proportion of energy coming
plenty of calcium and phosphorus. The oil-rich fish, such as sardines,
trout,sources
from different
herring, mackerel, salmon and tuna, contain the fat soluble vitamins
A and
Traditional lasagne
D. Although this type of fish contains a larger amount of fat than white fish,
the type of fatty acids that it contains (the n-3 or omega 3 fatty acids)
have been shown to have many benefits for health (see appendix 3).
Student Tips
• Offer more fish on the menu, including oil-rich fish.
• Boil, poach, steam, grill or bake rather than deep fry whenever possible.
• Steaming or microwaving fish helps to retain nutrients and avoids
adding fat.
Carbohydrate 34%
butter.
• When baking fish, brush with an unsaturated vegetable oil rather than
Fat 49%
If
you
are
deep
frying
fish,
use
unsaturated
oil
and
make
sure
that
the
•
Protein 17%
temperature is correct. A lower frying temperature means longer cooking
times and increased fat absorption.
Modified lasagne
Shallow
frying
should
be
done
with
a
minimum
of
oil.
•
• Unsaturated vegetable oils can be substituted for butter in some sauces
and garnishes.
• When using cream in sauces, try lower fat varieties or add yogurt or
fromage frais instead.
• For cheese sauces try using smaller amounts of a stronger tasting cheese
(e.g. mature Cheddar, parmesan).
• Use skimmed or semi-skimmed milk in sauce making.
• Try using oven-baked filo pastry in place of enriched pastry. Carbohydrate 51%
• Try seasoning with herbs and spices, rather than salt.
Fat 28%
Protein 21%
butter before service.
Carbohydrate 34%
Fat 28%
For comparison, the nutritional
composition of a portion
(310g) of a pre-prepared
lasagne from a catering
supplier is:
Energy (kJ):
2548
(kcals):
609
Total fat (g):
6.9
2.4
Saturates (g):
0.5
Fibre (g):
However, the composition will
vary, so it is important to
check the label.
31
Example: Fillets of sole mornay
Traditional recipe for sole mornay - 10 portions
5 (1500g)
Sole
Fat 49%
300ml
Fish stock
625ml
Béchamel sauce
(60g butter, 60g flour, 625ml whole milk)
3 (54g) Protein 17%
Egg yolks
125g
Gruyère cheese
60g
Butter
5 tbsp
(150g)
Cream
Carbohydrate 51%
Seasoning:
Salt, cayenne
Modified recipe for sole mornay - 10 portions
Fat 28%
5 (1500g)
Sole
300ml
Fish stock
625ml
Béchamel sauce
(60g polyunsaturated margarine, 60g flour, 625ml,
Protein 21%
semi-skimmed milk)
11/2 tbs (12g)
Mustard
75g
Parmesan cheese
75g
Fromage frais
Salt, cayenne
Seasoning:
Proportion of energy coming
from different sources
Traditional Sole Mornay
Carbohydrate 7%
Modifications to traditional recipe
• The béchamel is made with a polyunsaturated margarine and semi-skimmed
milk, instead of the butter and whole milk in the traditional recipe.
• Half the gruyère is substituted by fromage frais and the other half is
replaced by stronger tasting parmesan.
• Finally the sauce is not finished with double cream, butter and egg yolk.
Fat 60%
Protein 33%
How do the nutritional compositions compare?
Nutritional content per portion
Traditional (323g/portion)
Modified (301g/portion)
Energy(kJ)
1759
1136
(kcals)
420
272
Total fat (g)
28.0
11.8
Saturates (g)
15.7
3.5
Fibre (g)
0.2
0.2
The traditional dish is very high in fat, particularly saturates. Adapting the
sauce makes the dish less rich, with a lower fat content. Serve with new
potatoes and steamed green vegetables to add some fibre.
Modified Sole Mornay
Carbohydrate 12%
Fat 39%
Protein 49%
RICE DISHES
Rice is a good source of starchy carbohydrate, B vitamins and fibre. Brown
rice has a higher fibre and B vitamin content than white rice, as there are
considerable losses of these nutrients during the polishing process. Rice is a
useful alternative to wheat products for people who need a gluten-free diet
(see section 4.2.6).
Many rice-based dishes (e.g. paella, risotto, pilafs) fit with the Eating for
Health model - they contain plenty of starchy foods, a variety of
vegetables and a moderate amount of meat or fish.
Student Tips
• Offer boiled or steamed
rice.
• When using stock to cook
rice dishes, limit the amount
of salt added.
• Try using lower salt versions
of convenience products.
32
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Student Tips
• Wherever possible include
pulses in dishes such as
soups and casseroles.
• Don't add any salt when
cooking pulses - this will
toughen the pulses and
make them difficult to eat.
Add flavour in the form of
herbs and spices instead.
Proportion of energy coming
from different sources
Traditional vegetarian Kedgeree
Carbohydrate 30%
PULSE DISHES
Pulses contain little fat yet they are a good source of protein, carbohydrate
and fibre. They also contain several B vitamins and iron (and are a
particularly important source of this mineral for vegetarians). Pulses are very
flexible and can easily be used to replace meat or fish on the menu.
Example: Vegetarian kedgeree
Traditional recipe for vegetarian kedgeree - 10 portions
250g
Cauliflower
250g
French beans
250g
Courgettes
250g
Mange-tout
300ml*
Sunflower oil
125g
Onion
2-3 cloves (9g)
Garlic
60g
Curry powder
25g
Grated root ginger
9g
Ground cardamom
9g
Turmeric
250g
Basmati rice
500ml
Vegetable stock
180g
Cooked green lentils
1.25 litre (1250ml)
Curry sauce
Modified recipe for vegetarian kedgeree - 10 portions
1 large (240g)
Onion
3 cloves (9g)
Garlic
25g
Grated root ginger
2 large (40g)
Green chillies
5 tbsp (55g)
Sunflower oil
Basmati rice
1kg
1 tbsp (15g)
Mild curry paste
3 x 420g cans
Green lentils
2 litres (2000ml)
Water
5 medium (305g)
Hardboiled eggs
3 tbsp (9g)
Chopped fresh parsley/coriander
*The nutritional analysis has been carried out using 250ml of oil, assuming that 50ml is drained from the vegetables
Fat 62%
Protein 8%
Modified vegetarian Kedgeree
Modifications to traditional recipe
• Much less oil is used to fry the onions and spices.
• Extra lentils and hardboiled eggs replace the fried vegetables (a salad
accompaniment is suggested to provide foods from this group).
• More rice is used.
• One tablespoon of curry paste is used in place of the curry sauce.
Carbohydrate 67%
Fat 17%
Protein 16%
How do the nutritional compositions compare?
Nutritional content per portion
Traditional (367g/portion)
Energy(kJ)
2009
(kcals)
480
Total fat (g)
32.9
Saturates (g)
3.1
Fibre (g)
4.1
Modified (496g/portion)
2509
600
10.6
1.7
5.2
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
The modified version has around a third of the fat and saturates. A perfect
accompaniment would be a salad of finely chopped fresh tomato,
cucumber, onion and lemon juice.
HOT AND COLD DESSERTS
Many desserts, particularly those with lashings of cream, pastry or syrup, are
rich in fat and sugar. The challenge is to produce healthier recipes that are
appetising and appealing to customers.
Student Tips
• Use yogurts, quark, fromage frais and fruit purées as alternatives to cream
and pastry cream where practical and acceptable. Whipping cream has
a lower fat content than double cream and gives more volume.
• Serve desserts with sorbet or lower fat ice cream instead of double cream.
• Fruit-based fillings are a healthier alternative to cream or chocolate fillings.
• Serve portion sizes of cake and sponge items that are sufficient to satisfy
the customer, without encouraging them to overindulge.
• Use oven-baked filo pastry, rather than puff pastry.
• For pastry-based pies use a top crust only and make the pastry using a
fat high in unsaturates, instead of butter.
• Gradually reduce the amount of sugar in desserts, e.g. cut back on
added sugar in fillings when using a sweet pastry or in desserts that
contain dried fruit.
• Offer fresh fruit or fruit salad for customers who want an alternative.
• Experiment with other fruit-based desserts (e.g. fruit kebabs, fruit fools).
Example: Trifle
Traditional recipe for trifle - 8 portions
1 (144g)
Sponge
25g
Jam
1 can (420g)
Fruit in syrup (e.g. peaches, pineapple, pears)
Custard powder
35g
Whole milk
375ml
Caster sugar
50g
Whipping cream
426ml
Decorate with:
Angelica
25g
Glacé cherries
25g
Modified recipe for trifle - 8 portions
Trifle sponges
6 (144g)
Jam
25g
Fruit in natural juice
1 can (420g)
(e.g. peaches, pineapple, pears)
Banana
2 medium (200g)
Custard powder
35g
Semi-skimmed milk
375ml
Caster sugar
50g
Whipping cream
142ml
Greek yogurt
142ml
Decorate with:
Fresh strawberries, raspberries or blueberries
33
INCORPORATING HEALTHIER PRACTICES INTO ALL ASPECTS OF CATERING CONTINUED
Proportion of energy coming
from different sources
Traditional trifle
Carbohydrate 35%
PLANNING MENUS TO SUIT ALL
Modifications to traditional recipe
• Semi-skimmed milk is used in place of whole milk.
• The tinned fruit is in natural juice rather than syrup.
• Less whipping cream is used.
• Fresh banana is added and the trifle is decorated with fresh fruit in place
of angelica and glacé cherries.
Fat 61%
Protein 4%
Modified trifle
Carbohydrate 48%
Fat 45%
How do the nutritional compositions compare?
Nutritional content per portion
Traditional (191g/portion)
Modified (204g/portion)
Energy (kJ)
1699
1199
(kcals)
406
287
Total fat (g)
27.5
14.2
Saturates (g)
15.7
7.2
Fibre (g)
0.8
1.0
These small changes to the recipe produce a trifle with less energy and half
the fat. Although the proportion of fat remains higher than the recommended
overall target, this dessert can be combined with lower fat dishes to provide
a meal in line with Eating for Health (see section 3.2, page 10).
Protein 7%
WHAT CAN THIS MEAN FOR A MEAL?
The traditional and modified recipes provided can be used to demonstrate
the effect of healthier catering on the nutritional value of a meal.
Proportion of energy coming
from different sources
Traditional Menu
For example, for a meal consisting of lasagne, served with a green salad and
followed by a trifle, simple changes to the recipes can produce a meal much
more in line with Eating for Health (see section 3.2, page 10).
Carbohydrate 33%
Lasagne
Traditional recipes
Green salad
Trifle
Total
(served with
French dressing)
Fat 56%
Protein 11%
Energy (kJ)
(kcals)
Fat (g)
Saturates (g)
Fibre (g)
2545
608
33.1
16.3
3.4
Modified recipes
340
81
7.7
0.1
1.0
1699
406
27.5
15.7
0.8
4584
1095
68.3
32.1
5.2
(served with
Modified Menu
low fat dressing)
Carbohydrate 51%
Fat 33%
Protein 16%
Energy (kJ)
(kcals)
Fat (g)
Saturates (g)
Fibre (g)
2061
493
15.5
5.9
4.8
95
23
0.8
0.1
1.0
1199
287
14.2
7.2
1.0
3355
803
30.5
13.2
6.8
Together, the modifications have more than halved the amount of fat and
saturates in the meal and the proportion of energy from the different nutrients
is now much nearer to the recommended values (see appendix 6)
4.1.
Catering for different sectors
4.1.1
Hospitals
Hospital caterers have an important opportunity to promote healthy eating
habits amongst patients and staff (for information about staff restaurants
see section 4.1.3). There is now a growing recognition that food in hospitals
should be part of the treatment and care received. Hospital caterers can
also play a part in improving the nutritional status of patients who enter
hospital undernourished. Some people who are ill in hospital have special
dietary needs that may be at odds with the general recommendations for
those who are healthy. For example, people who enter hospital
undernourished or with a poor appetite need foods that are both energyand nutrient- dense to assist recovery. As well as providing meals with an
appropriate nutritional content, social, cultural, religious and special dietary
requirements must also be considered. This variation in needs presents a
substantial challenge for caterers, requiring close collaboration with ward
staff, dietitians, patient’s representatives and relevant organisations.
NHS Boards have begun to implement the Clinical Standards for Food, Fluid
and Nutritional Care in Hospitals, published by NHS Quality Improvement
Scotland in November 2003. Performance and assessment visits against
these standards began in May 2005.
To ensure more progress, nutrient and food based standards are being
developed to underpin the clinical standards. The Food Standards Agency
Scotland is also currently developing nutrient specifications for public sector
procurement which will further underpin the standards.
4.1.2
Schools
The importance of providing children with better school meals was
highlighted in the Diet Action Plan for Scotland and an expert panel was
established to further this aim. Their report, Hungry for Success: A Whole
School Approach to School Meals in Scotland was introduced in 2002. All
Primary and Special schools were required to adopt the recommendations
in the report by the end of 2004 with secondary schools following by the
end of 2006.
Measures include:
• Nutrient standards for school meals and detailed mechanisms for
monitoring them
• Larger portions of more nutritious food at no additional cost to parents
• Fresh, chilled drinking water available free in school dining halls
• Raising awareness of the entitlement to free school meals
• Improved atmosphere and ambient facilities in dining halls
• Connecting school meals with the curriculum as a key aspect of health
education and health promotion
A number of other initiatives, such as ‘healthy’ tuck shops, breakfast clubs
and fruit and salad bars, are underway to encourage improvements in
children’s diets at school and, in particular, to increase their fruit and
vegetable consumption.
35
SECTION 4
34
Key points for students
• In schools, workplace
canteens, or other
establishments where meals
are consumed by the same
customers on a regular
basis, the food provided
makes a significant
contribution to the overall
diet. It is, therefore,
important that each of
these types of catering
establishment offers
customers a choice of
dishes which give them the
opportunity to eat more
healthily.
• The challenge for school
caterers is to provide high
quality food which is
attractive to children and
which results in consistent
nutritious balanced meals
and snacks.
• Hospital caterers or those
catering for older people in
residential and nursing
homes have a particularly
important role to play in
providing appropriate food
to promote good health
and aid recovery from
illness.
• School caterers are aided
by the nutrient standards
for school meals,
manufactured food
product specifications and
nutritional analysis software
to help plan healthy,
balanced menus.
• Independent practical
guidance has also been
produced to help those
catering for people in
childcare establishments
(e.g. day nurseries),
residential and nursing
homes, and for those
providing community meals.
36
PLANNING MENUS TO SUIT ALL CONTINUED
Increasing fruit intake at
school – a case study
Fruit Plus is a joint healthy
eating initiative between
Glasgow City Council and
NHS Greater Glasgow
designed to encourage
children to eat and enjoy fruit.
It is the largest initiative of its
kind ever launched in the
United Kingdom. Since August
2001, through the project,
nearly 56,000 Primary, SEN and
Pre 5 pupils have received
free fruit in the classroom five
times per week over the entire
school year. The main aim of
Fruit Plus is to encourage a
fruit eating habit amongst
pupils that will continue into
their adult and home lives.
4.1.3
Staff restaurants
Eating away from home, particularly at lunchtime, is a common
occurrence, rather than a special treat. For some people, workplace
caterers may provide the main meal of the day. For others (e.g. those in
the armed forces or working on an oil rig), they may provide every meal
and share the responsibility for total food intake. Providing healthy food at
work can also encourage people to adopt healthier eating habits at
home. Workplace catering establishments can, therefore, have a
substantial influence on the overall diet of the workforce.
Scotland’s Health at Work (SHAW) is a national award scheme that rewards
organisations for their efforts and achievements in building a healthy
workforce, a healthy workplace and a healthy organisation. Guidelines are
available to support the implementation of workplace healthy eating
policies and procedures (see Section 6). Workplace caterers may be
required by contract to use healthier catering practices. Offering menus
based on Eating for Health (see section 3.2, page 10) can also be a good
marketing tool for those who wish to break into workplace catering.
The project places heavy
emphasis on integrating the
principles of healthy eating
into the school curriculum with
the aim of improving long
term health and attainment
levels. An incentive scheme
has been implemented in all
schools to encourage children
to eat fruit. This scheme
rewards children with small
incentives such as badges,
stickers, certificates and
bookmarks.
4.1.4
Older people in residential care and in receipt of community meals
A healthy diet has an important role in maximising good health into old age
and aiding recovery from illness. The provision of appropriate food is essential
to the wellbeing of older people in the community (e.g. Meals on Wheels,
lunch clubs, day centres) and to those in residential care (residential or
nursing homes). Some older people suffer from circumstances that can result
in a poor food intake, such as poverty and social exclusion, others have a
poor appetite (due to illness or medication), a declining sense of taste or
smell, a lack of interest in food because of depression or bereavement, or
difficulties in eating or preparing food (such as poor dentition, swallowing
disorders, arthritis). As a result, many may be undernourished and
underweight. In old age this poses a greater risk to health than being
overweight. While declining activity levels result in falling energy needs,
requirements for essential nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, do not
differ greatly from those of younger adults. Older people, therefore, need to
consume a balanced diet with an emphasis on nutrient-dense foods (i.e. the
same amount of nutrients but in a smaller volume of food).
“Demonstrating the ability
to apply healthier catering
practices is an increasing
requirement in tender
specifications”.
The Caroline Walker Trust has developed practical nutritional guidelines for
caterers who have the responsibility for producing food for older people in
residential and nursing homes and for community meals. A computer
program, known as CORA (Catering for Older people in Residential
Accommodation) is also available to help plan nutritionally balanced,
varied and appetising menus (see section 6 for further details).
PLANNING MENUS TO SUIT ALL CONTINUED
4.2
Catering for different customers
People differ in their nutrition needs. For example, the amount of energy
that someone needs will depend on:
• their gender - women tend to need less energy than men
• their age - older adults need less energy than growing adolescents
• whether they are very physically active - the more active a person is the
greater their energy needs
• life events, such as pregnancy or illness, will also change people's energy
and nutrient needs
• whether they are on a special diet for medical reasons.
In 1991, the then UK Department of Health published recommendations for
the daily amounts of energy and nutrients needed by males and females
of different ages across the UK, including Scotland. Although the amount
of food people need varies, the proportions of foods from the different
groups for all healthy people over the age of 5 years remains consistent
with Eating for Health.
support services supplier.
“The nutritional standard of
food in residential care
accommodation is crucial
to the wellbeing of
residents and patients”.
The Caroline Walker Trust
4.1.5
Childcare establishments
Nutrient standards for the under 5's have been published for providers of
childcare and early education giving advice on nutrition and menu
planning. The guidance has been written by a working group of nutritionists
set up by NHS Health Scotland. It is complementary to Adventures in
Foodland, issued in 2003 by NHS Health Scotland, which provides ideas and
advice on providing food for young children.
Food provision in early years settings is inspected as part of regulation by the
Care Commission - the nutritional guidance advises on how to provide a
well-balanced and healthy diet (as required by Standard 3.4 in the National
Care Standards for Early Education and Childcare up to the Age of 16).
Currently in Britain:
• many older people do not
have enough vitamin D in
their diet, which is necessary
for bone health
• some older people have
low intakes of some vitamins
(e.g. folate and vitamin C)
and minerals (e.g. magnesium,
potassium and zinc)
• those without their own
teeth, living in institutions or
from lower socio-economic
groups, are at highest risk
of vitamin and mineral
deficiencies.
National Diet and Nutrition Survey:
people aged 65 years and over (1998)
This section briefly outlines the differing needs and health concerns of
various groups, including children, pregnant and breastfeeding women,
older people, ethnic minority groups, people on a low budget, vegetarians,
people with diabetes, those following a gluten-free diet and sufferers of
food allergy and other diets for medical reasons. This information will help
caterers to plan suitable menus to meet all their customers' dietary
requirements.
The Scottish Nutrition and Diet Resources Initiative (SNDRI) aims to produce
a range of easily accessible resources on nutrition and diet, which give
consistent health messages to the public. The majority of resources currently
produced by SNDRI are for State Registered Dietitians and other
professionals to use with their patients or clients. The range of resources will
be increasing to include materials for caterers and for the general public.
4.2.1
Children
Growing children have high requirements for energy and nutrients in
relation to their size. Although it is important to progress towards a diet
based on the principles of Eating for Health by around 5 years of age, a
young child’s diet should not contain too many bulky fibre-rich foods or be
too low in fat. This is because young children may not be able to eat
enough of these bulky types of foods to meet their energy and nutrient
needs. Semi-skimmed milk is suitable for most children over 2 years but
skimmed milk is too low in energy and certain vitamins for children under 5.
Anne Pawan,
Company Dietitian for a major catering and
37
Currently children in Britain:
• are eating less than half the recommended 5 portions of fruit and
vegetables each day
• are eating too many foods high in saturates, sugar and salt
• are eating too few foods containing fibre
• are not doing enough physical activity.
National Diet and Nutrition Survey: young people aged 4-18 years (2000)
School meals are one of the most important areas for catering in this group
(for more information see section 4.1.2). A minority of children may have
adverse reactions to foods or additives (see section 4.2.8).
Key points for students
• Nutritional needs vary
throughout a person’s life,
although the general
principles of a well balanced
diet remain the same.
• What people eat is also
affected by their religious
beliefs, cultural habits,
lifestyle and attitudes.
• A knowledge about the
differing needs and health
concerns of various groups
will enable students to cater
for all potential customers.
“A good diet will help
children and young
people to improve their
concentration and
achieve their potential,
both inside and outside
school”.
Stephanie Valentine,
Education Director, British Nutrition Foundation
“The standard of school
meals is an area of huge
concern to parents across
Scotland and it is vital that
all children benefit from and
appreciate the importance
of good nutrition from an
early age”.
Food Standards Agency, Scotland
38
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Healthier catering for children
means:
• Offering some bread, rice,
pasta, cereals, potatoes
• offering plenty of fruit and
vegetables
• including some milk and
dairy foods (under 5s should
have whole or semiskimmed products)
• offering some lean meat,
fish, eggs, pulses, nuts
not offering too many
sugar-rich foods and drinks,
particularly between meals
• not offering too many fatrich foods (such as
sausages, burgers, pies,
crisps, chips or other fried
food)
• limiting the amount of salt
added to foods.
Healthier catering for
pregnant women means:
• offering plenty of bread,
rice, pasta, cereals
(especially fortified cereals),
potatoes
• offering plenty of fruit and
vegetables (especially
green leafy vegetables)
• offering some pasteurised
milk, yogurt, cheese (lower
fat varieties)
• offering some lean meat,
fish, eggs (well cooked,
so that yolk and white are
solid), pulses
• not offering too many
sugar-rich foods and drinks,
particularly between meals
• not offering too many fatrich foods
• limiting the amount of salt
added to food
• not offering liver,
unpasteurised or mouldripened cheeses, raw or
undercooked eggs, nuts for
those with a history of allergy
• being scrupulous about
food hygiene.
Healthier catering for children includes:
• offering child-size portions of a variety of meals, not just a range of fried
favourites
offering
foods from the 4 main food groups shown in Eating for Health
•
(see section 3.2, page 10) i.e.
- fruit and vegetables
- bread, other cereals and potatoes
- meat, fish and alternatives
- milk and dairy foods
• pricing children’s portions appropriately
• for young children, offering small fruits and yogurts, which are usually
popular
• offering healthier snacks, which might include fruit breads, scones, lower
sugar biscuits and cakes, alongside the standard offer
• offering milk, unsweetened fruit juice and water.
4.2.2
Pregnant and breastfeeding women
A woman’s energy and nutrient needs increase slightly during pregnancy
and during the stages of breastfeeding, and a balanced diet is essential for
the health of the child. Particularly important dietary aspects for pregnant
women include the consumption of foods rich in iron, calcium and folate
and those fortified with folic acid (e.g. breakfast cereals) (see appendix 4
for sources). Any serious episode of food poisoning (e.g. salmonellosis) can
increase the risk of miscarriage, so scrupulous food hygiene practices are
essential.
A number of foods should be restricted or avoided during pregnancy.
These include:
• liver and liver-containing foods (e.g. liver paté) because of their
potentially high vitamin A content. Excess vitamin A is toxic to the
growing baby
• foods which increase the risk of food-borne infections, e.g. listeria
poisoning (e.g. unpasteurised milk, pâté, mould ripened cheeses which
are usually soft or blue cheeses), or salmonella poisoning (e.g.
undercooked chicken/undercooked eggs and raw eggs in home-made
mayonnaise or cold desserts, such as Tiramisu)
• excessive alcohol drinking as it can cause damage to the baby at any
stage of pregnancy. Many women choose to avoid alcohol completely,
particularly during the first 3 months of pregnancy.
• avoid any shark, swordfish and marlin because of the levels of mercury in
these fish. At high levels, mercury can harm a baby's developing nervous
system.
Pregnant women who have been diagnosed with food allergy, asthma,
eczema or hay fever may wish to avoid peanuts and peanut-containing
foods.
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4.2.3
Ethnic minority groups
A large number of ethnic minority groups now live in the UK, the largest
being the Asian, African Caribbean and Jewish communities. Some of
these groups follow lacto-vegetarian diets (avoid meat and fish but eat
milk/milk products); others follow diets in which certain foods are prohibited.
As a rough guide the following table provides a summary of the foods
which may be avoided by customers from a selection of religious groups:
Religious group
Muslim
Foods and drinks which may be avoided
Pork, non-halal meat and chicken, shellfish, alcohol
Hindu
Meat (some eat lamb, chicken), fish (some eat
white fish), eggs, alcohol
Sikh
Beef, pork (some are vegetarian), alcohol
Buddhist
Chicken, lamb, pork, beef, shellfish (some avoid
all fish), alcohol
Rastafarian
Animal products (except milk), foods which are not
Ital (i.e. avoid tinned or processed food), alcohol,
tea, coffee
Jewish
Pork, meat which is not kosher, shellfish
Meat and milk products must not be served at the
same meal or cooked together
However, even within an ethnic minority group, the types of food chosen
can vary widely and caterers should find out as much as possible about
foods that are acceptable to their clients/customers and ensure that meals
and menus conform to their dietary laws.
The traditional diets of most ethnic minority groups contain a large amount
of starchy foods (such as cereals, rice, cassava, yams, potatoes), pulses,
vegetables and fruit, and are likely to be beneficial in terms of health.
Although older members of ethnic minority groups often maintain their
traditional dietary patterns in Britain, many younger people, particularly those
born in this country, are increasingly adopting Western style food habits.
A number of health problems are more prevalent among ethnic minorities
than in the indigenous UK population. For example, people from South Asia
are at high risk of diabetes and heart disease, whilst African Caribbean
people are at greater risk of diabetes, high blood pressure and stroke.
Encouraging a healthy balanced diet is, therefore, very important.
Adapted versions of the 5 food group plate model have been developed
for some ethnic groups. For example, the British Nutrition Foundation has
produced a Chinese version.
39
In a recent survey of
restaurant and pub
customers, 96% agreed
that children should be
offered healthier options,
in addition to sausages or
fish and chips.
Health Education Authority (1996)
Healthier catering for ethnic
minority groups means:
• offering plenty of starchy
foods such as bread,
chapattis, rice, yams, sweet
potatoes offering plenty of
fruit and vegetables
• offering some milk and dairy
foods (lower fat varieties),
if eaten
• offering some lean meat,
fish, eggs (if eaten), pulses,
nuts, seeds
• not offering too many
sugar-rich foods and drinks,
particularly between meals
• not offering too many fatrich foods (particularly fried
snacks), replacing ghee
with vegetable oil for
cooking and using potatoes
or low fat plain yogurt to
thicken curries, dry frying
spices, using palm oil and
coconut cream/oil sparingly
• limiting the amount of salt
added to foods.
“It is important when
catering for ethnic minority
groups to use plenty of
vegetables and pulses
and not to offer too many
dairy-based dishes that
are laden with fats or oil”.
Atique Choudhury, Proprietor of a Thai
Restaurant and Director of the Asian and
Oriental School of Catering
40
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Healthier catering for people
on a low budget means:
• offering plenty of bread,
rice, pasta, cereals,
potatoes
• offering plenty of seasonal
fruit and vegetables
• offering some milk and
dairy foods (lower fat
varieties)
• offering some lean meat,
fish, eggs, pulses, nuts
• not offering too many
sugar-rich foods and drinks,
particularly between meals
• not offering too many fat
rich foods
• limiting the amount of salt
added to foods.
Community food projects,
such as community cafés,
lunch clubs or breakfast
services, can address
immediate local needs
and are a practical way of
improving access to food
for people on low incomes.
Their benefit also lies in the
experience and
understanding that local
people bring with them.
Bill Gray, Scottish Community Diet Project
4.2.4
People on a low income
Promotion of healthy choices is possibly even more important when
catering for people living on a low budget. This is because evidence shows
that typical food choice is less varied and that intake of essential nutrients is
poorer. Chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes and heart disease, in
which diet can play a part, are more common amongst the lowest socioeconomic groups in Britain.
Providing foods that are filling, cheap and nutritious, can be a challenge.
But including lots of starchy foods, such as pasta, rice, bread and potatoes,
as well as plenty of seasonal vegetables and pulses, can make the food
offered healthier, at a reasonable cost.
A number of local food initiatives are underway to improve access to, and
the enjoyment of, healthier foods. The case study below describes the
success of a community café in Stirling.
Case Study
Craigend Community Café was set up in 1995 to provide decent and
affordable meals for local people on low incomes, as well as to create
local employment. Healthy menu options also help communicate healthy
eating messages to the community. The café has expanded enormously
from initially providing snacks to now being able to offer three-course meals
and cater for external events and private functions. Food is provided
Monday to Friday between 9am and 3:15pm. Celebrity cooks are invited to
prepare special dishes for customers and surveys have been carried out to
find out what customers want on the menu. As well as serving healthy food,
the café also provides a safe place for people at risk in the community to
visit. Staff at the centre have also set up a successful ‘fruit barra’ to sell fruit
and vegetables to the elderly, single parent families and low-income
families in the community.
Craigend Resource Centre, Greenock
For further details about community food projects, contact the Scottish
Community Diet Project (see section 6 for contact details).
PLANNING MENUS TO SUIT ALL CONTINUED
41
4.2.5
Vegetarians
Strictly speaking, vegetarians do not eat meat or fish but the term
‘vegetarianism’ can mean a variety of different things and the types of
foods restricted can vary enormously. People who say they are vegetarians
can be broadly divided into those who:
• avoid all meat, fish, eggs, dairy foods and anything derived from
animals (vegans)
• avoid all meat, fish, eggs but eat dairy food
• avoid all meat and fish but eat eggs and dairy products
• avoid all meat but eat fish, dairy foods and eggs
• avoid red meat but eat poultry, fish, dairy foods and eggs.
It is, therefore, very important to ask customers which foods they do not eat.
Vegans usually exclude any animal-derived ingredients added to
manufactured food, such as emulsifiers derived from animal fats (e.g.
lecithin) and firming agents (e.g. gelatin). Products which are seen to involve
the exploitation of animals (e.g. honey) or which have undergone safety
testing using animals, may also be avoided. Catering for vegans not only
requires consideration about the ingredients used; the foods must also not
come into contact with any animal products during preparation or service.
Because many foods are restricted, vegan diets require careful
consideration to ensure that they provide sufficient protein, vitamins and
minerals. Avoidance of dairy products can increase the risk of low intakes of
calcium, vitamin B2 and vitamin B12. Vegans are at higher risk of iron and zinc
deficiency.
Alternative sources of these nutrients are:
• cereals, soya products, pulses and nuts for protein
• bread, green vegetables, pulses, nuts, tempeh and soya mince for
calcium
• fortified foods, leafy green vegetables, whole-grain breads and breakfast
cereals for vitamin B2
• fortified foods, for example breakfast cereals or some vegetable extract
spreads for vitamin B12
• fortified breakfast cereals, pulses and legumes, green vegetables, bread,
nuts and dried fruit for iron - serving fruit or fruit juice containing vitamin C
(e.g. citrus fruits) with a meal can improve the amount of iron absorbed
from foods of plant origin
pulses and nuts for zinc.
cereals,
•
The high fibre content of starchy foods, pulses, fruit and vegetables can
make a vegetarian diet very bulky and it may be difficult for children and
others with small appetites to eat sufficient to meet their energy and nutrient
needs. Whole milk, full fat dairy products, soya products and fortified
breakfast cereals are important foods for young children adopting a
vegetarian diet.
A well planned vegetarian diet can be a very healthy one but, as with any
diet, it must contain the right balance of foods. Vegetable-based dishes are
not always healthier choices if they are made with a lot of oil, pastry, cheese
or creamy sauces and it is important for caterers to offer lower fat
vegetarian choices (e.g. vegetable and bean casserole, nut risotto).
Healthier catering for
vegetarians means:
• offering plenty of bread,
rice, pasta, potatoes,
cereals
• offering plenty of fruit and
vegetables (serve vitamin C
containing fruit juice with
meals to help absorb more
iron)
• offering some lower fat
dairy products (if eaten) or
calcium-fortified soya milk
• offering some meat
alternatives, for example
fish and eggs (if eaten),
pulses, soya products (such
as tofu, tempeh or TVP),
nuts and seeds
• not offering too many
sugar-rich foods and drinks,
particularly between meals
• not offering too many fatrich foods
• limiting the amount of salt
added to foods.
42
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Healthier catering for people
following gluten-free diets
means:
• offering plenty of glutenfree cereals, e.g. rice,
potatoes, buckwheat,
tapioca, breakfast cereals
made from corn or rice.
Gluten-free flour is available
but alternatives include
maize, corn and soya flour
• offering plenty of fruit and
vegetables (checking the
labels on canned varieties)
• offering some lower fat
dairy products (avoiding
cheese spreads and
artificial creams containing
flour, or yogurt with muesli)
• offering some lean meat,
fish, eggs, pulses, nuts
(checking the labels of
meat products, such as
burgers, pies, sausages or
fish in batter/crumb)
• not offering too many
sugar-rich foods, particularly
between meals (avoiding
desserts containing flour,
breadcrumbs and suet)
• not offering too many fatrich foods
• limiting the amount of salt
added to foods.
Healthier catering for people
with diabetes means:
• offering plenty of bread,
rice, pasta, cereals, potatoes
• offering plenty of fruit
(fresh, frozen or canned in
natural juice, rather than
syrup) and vegetables
• offering some milk and dairy
foods (lower fat varieties)
• offering some lean meat,
fish, eggs, pulses, nuts
not
offering too many
•
sugar-rich foods and drinks
(offer lower sugar alternatives
especially for snacks)
• not offering too many fatrich foods
• limiting the amount of salt
added to foods.
4.2.6
People on gluten-free diets
Some people (around one person in 100) are unable to digest a protein
found in cereals (e.g. wheat) called gluten. In sensitive people, gluten has
a harmful effect on the digestive system which means that food cannot be
absorbed normally. This condition (known as coeliac disease) can cause
bowel symptoms and weight loss. Sufferers must avoid all gluten-containing
foods, which include wheat, rye and barley and possibly oats. This is difficult
because gluten is present in many foods and drinks, including bread,
biscuits, cakes, pastries, breakfast cereals, pasta, beer and most soups,
sauces and puddings. Naturally gluten-free cereals include rice, millet,
maize and sorghum. Other flour products that are gluten-free are
buckwheat, gram, soya and potato. The products made from these do not
rise on baking. While these flours are acceptable for biscuits, they are not
suitable for making bread. Foods can be made gluten-free by the removal
of gluten from wheat starch and some of these products are available on
prescription for those with a definite diagnosis of gluten sensitivity. The taste
tends to be better than products made from alternatives, such as potato
starch, but as it is gluten that gives wheat its unique baking qualities, the
texture is still not as good as products baked with gluten-containing flour.
The UK Coeliac Society publishes a yearly updated list of gluten-free foods
that it produces on the basis of information provided by food
manufacturers (see section 6 for details).
Care must be taken not to use breadcrumbs and not to dust meat, fish or
poultry with flour before cooking. There must not be any contact with, or
use of, sauces and gravies thickened with flour or any batter. Crosscontamination can occur during food preparation if equipment is not
washed fully and dried before usage.
4.2.7
People with diabetes
Diabetes occurs when the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood is too
high and the body is unable to use it properly. This is the result of a failure to
secrete insulin normally. People with diabetes need to pay particular
attention to their diet as they are at higher risk of suffering from heart
disease and because uncontrolled diabetes can lead to a number of longterm problems, including blindness. These days a highly restricted or
regimented diet is not advised, but adopting the healthy eating guidelines
demonstrated by Eating for Health is vital to keep diabetes under control
(see section 3.2, page 10). People with diabetes may need to balance
their intake of starchy foods with the medication they are taking. This
means that regular meals and snacks are important. While small amounts
of sugar-containing foods can be consumed as part of a meal, the
consumption of lots of sugar-rich foods and drinks, particularly if eaten on
their own as snacks, should be avoided. Specialist diabetic foods, such as
‘diabetic’ sweets and chocolates, are not recommended; they are often
as high in fat and energy as comparable foods and, therefore, offer no
additional benefit. Many adults with diabetes may be trying to lose weight,
so offering lower fat and lower energy alternatives is important. For further
information contact Diabetes UK Scotland which provides a variety of
information leaflets and recipe booklets (see section 6).
4.2.8
People with food allergy
More people believe themselves to be allergic to foods than is actually the
case. But the possibility of food allergy or an intolerance to a food should
always be taken seriously because it can cause severe, possibly lifethreatening, reactions and chronic ill health. Food intolerance is an
PLANNING MENUS TO SUIT ALL CONTINUED
umbrella term covering a wide range of unpleasant reactions to food or
food components. It can result in symptoms such as abdominal pain,
diarrhoea, headaches, migraine, fatigue, asthma or a skin reaction, but
these symptoms can also occur for reasons unrelated to food. Food allergy
is a specific form of food intolerance in which the reaction provoked
involves the body’s immune system.
Many foods can provoke adverse reactions but the most common
triggers of reactions involving the immune system are:
• Peanuts
• Tree nuts (almond, brazil, cashew, hazel, pecan, pine, walnut,
pistachio and macademia nuts)
• Eggs
• Cows’ milk
• Fish
• Shellfish
• Soya
• Seeds (e.g. sesame)
• Cereals containing gluten (including wheat, rye, barley).
The response can be so severe that it can be fatal if untreated. Nuts,
shellfish and sesame seeds are the most common triggers of a very severe,
life-threatening reaction (anaphylaxis). In Britain there are about ten
reported deaths each year due to food-induced anaphylaxis, most of
which are triggered by food eaten out of the home.
Any or all of the following symptoms may occur:
• swelling of the throat and mouth
• difficulty swallowing or speaking
• difficulty breathing
• skin rash or flushing
• abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting
• sudden feeling of weakness (drop in blood pressure)
• collapse and unconsciousness.
Someone diagnosed as having a food allergy will need to ensure that all
possible sources of the problem food are avoided. For some people with nut
allergy even minute quantities can have rapid and fatal effects. If nuts or
nut oils are used in a recipe and their presence is not clear from the name
of the food, or its presentation, the dish should be labelled. It is essential that
suppliers provide accurate written details about all the allergen-containing
ingredients in prepared meals and pre-packaged food.
People with food allergies frequently ask service staff about the ingredients
in foods, so keeping staff informed of any changes or the contents of new
dishes is very important. If staff are not sure whether there is a trace of a
life-threatening ingredient in a meal they should say so and never guess.
Care must be taken in food preparation to avoid transferring a food (e.g.
nuts) that may cause a severe allergic reaction, from one dish to another.
Hands, utensils, cutlery and work surfaces must be washed scrupulously after
handling foods containing potent allergens. Detailed guidance for caterers
is provided by the Anaphylaxis Campaign (see section 6 for details).
Reactions to food additives are far less common than reactions to foods
such as milk, eggs and wheat. Food packaging labels give information
about most additives, so that specific ones can be avoided if necessary.
43
Customers with food allergies
need to know the exact
ingredients in any food they
eat, because even a tiny
amount of the food or
ingredient could kill them.
Caterers can help by:
• making sure staff are aware
of the potential hazards from
the use of foods containing
allergens (such as nut and
nut products), e.g. through
training sessions or notices
• informing the customer if
foods containing such
allergens are used in a recipe
• remembering that oils used
previously to cook products
containing nuts can carry
minute traces of nut proteins
and have the same effect
in a sensitised individual as
nut dishes
• avoiding accidentally
transferring an allergycontaining food from one
dish to another e.g. via
cooking equipment
• asking suppliers to provide
information when the
ingredients or flavourings
used in their products
contain common allergens,
in particular nuts or seeds.
What should caterers do in an
emergency?
• Call for an ambulance
immediately and inform
medical staff that the
person is likely to be
suffering from analphyaxis.
• Send a member of staff to
stand at the entrance to
direct the ambulance crew
to the patient.
• Any staff trained in first aid
should learn what to do in
this situation.
FACT OR FICTION? CONTINUED
FACT OR FICTION?
SECTION 5
44
Items about diet, nutrition and health appear regularly in newspapers, in
magazines, on the radio and on television. Indeed, the majority of people
get most of their information about diet and health through these media
and it is sometimes difficult to discern the myth from the fact. This section
attempts to dispel many of the common misconceptions that exist, not just
amongst caterers but also amongst the general public.
Are the following true or false?
Experts are always changing their minds about ‘healthy’
eating
Healthy eating and healthier catering is restrictive and boring
Providing healthier foods is always more expensive
With small changes a ‘traditional’ cooked breakfast
can be ‘healthy’
‘Low fat’ or ‘reduced fat’ foods are always low in energy
Vegetarian dishes are always a healthier option
Vegetable suet is healthier than beef suet
Margarine has less fat than butter
Red meat is high in fat, while poultry is low in fat
Although we should be cutting down on fat, this does not
include olive oil
Some foods contain ‘good’ cholesterol
Eating eggs causes high blood cholesterol
Starchy foods, such as bread and potatoes, are fattening
Savoury foods are less fattening than sweet foods
It is more important to cut down on sugar in snacks than in
desserts at main meals
Honey contains less sugar than granulated sugar
Try this quiz with your
students to identify the
most common
misconceptions.
Intense sweeteners should not be used in place of sugar as
they are dangerous to health
Fruit and vegetables can be processed and still be healthy
There are different types of fibre with varying effects on
health
Adding bran to foods is the best way to increase the
fibre content
Sea salt is healthier than ordinary salt
Salt is usually referred to as ‘sodium’ on labels
Taking supplements can never replace a healthy diet
People with diabetes need to eat a ‘special’ diet
Allergies are commonplace in Britain
True
False
Experts are always changing their mind about ‘healthy’ eating
False
There is a perception amongst the general public that nutrition experts
don't agree or regularly change their minds. But a lot of the contradictory
messages about healthy eating result from sensational reporting of scientific
findings in the popular press, rather than from disagreement amongst
scientists. Of course, there will always be changes in the detail of nutrition
messages, as new science emerges but, broadly speaking, messages
about diet and health have remained constant for some time. For
example, fruit and vegetables are universally recommended these days
but their importance was recognised during the war years when we were
advised to ‘dig for victory’. The message to reduce fat intake has been the
same for over 15 years.
Healthy eating and healthier catering is restrictive and boring
False
While there are some foods that we should not eat too much of, or eat too
often, there are many foods that we should be increasing in the diet, such
as fruit and vegetables, starchy food and oily fish. This provides ample
opportunity for experimentation and a number of great chefs have now
revolutionised the ‘dull and unappetising’ image of healthier food.
Providing healthier foods is always more expensive
False
Some ingredients recommended for healthier catering can be more
expensive, although they are often used in very small amounts. As demand
for healthier alternatives increases prices will fall. In some instances healthier
catering can actually cut costs. For example, extending meat by using it in
casseroles or stir-frys in combination with beans, pulses or seasonal
vegetables saves money, as these ingredients cost less. Similarly, serving
more bread or other starchy staples with meals is a relatively cheap step.
With small changes a ‘traditional’ cooked breakfast can be ‘healthy’ True
Grilled lean bacon, poached eggs, baked beans, mushrooms cooked
without fat and grilled tomatoes served with thick crusty bread will match
up to Eating for Health (see section 3.2, page 10) and provide a delicious
cooked breakfast.
‘Low fat’ or ‘reduced fat’ foods are always low in energy
False
Foods described as ‘low’ or ‘reduced fat’ are not necessarily low in energy.
Replacing fat with other ingredients can still result in a product with as high,
or an even higher, energy content. To claim that a product is 'reduced fat'
the amount of fat in the food must be lowered by at least 25% (see section
3.6, page 25). But as the types of foods often modified in this way tend to
be high in fat and energy in the first place, the ‘reduced fat’ version can
still have an appreciable amount of both. Quantity is also important - using
a reduced fat product more liberally than a full-fat product may result in
the consumption of the same amount, or even more, fat and energy.
Vegetarian dishes are always a healthier option
False
Vegetarian dishes with substantial amounts of cheese, oil, pastry, nuts or
creamy sauces, or that are fried, can contain a lot of fat. In contrast, red
meat can be low in fat if it is lean and all the visible fat has been removed.
Poultry without the skin and fish are also low fat options, provided they are
cooked without incorporating a lot of fat into the dish.
45
46
FACT OR FICTION? CONTINUED
Vegetable suet is healthier than beef suet
False
Vegetable suet is suitable for vegetarians but is just as high in fat and
saturates as beef suet. Similarly, cheese that is suitable for vegetarians has
alternatives to animal-based rennet used in its production (although it is still
made from milk) but this does not affect the fat content.
Margarine has less fat than butter
False
This is a common misconception. Whilst butter and margarine differ in the
type of fatty acids they contain, both have a similar amount of fat.
Whether you are using butter or margarine, remember to use them
sparingly.
Red meat is high in fat, while poultry is low in fat
False
Removing the visible fat from meat can make a substantial difference to its
fat content. Lean red meat is surprisingly low in fat (4-8g per 100g). Mince
or meat products, in which both the lean and fat components of meat are
blended, can be much higher in fat. Meat products, whether made from
red meat or poultry, may also be high in fat because they contain
additional high fat ingredients, e.g. the pastry component of a pie. The fat
content of skinned poultry meat is only about 1-3g per 100g (white meat
contains less than darker meat). But again if the poultry skin and the fatty
deposits beneath it are not removed, the fat content rises considerably. It
is, therefore, important to select leaner cuts and to remove visible fat from
red meat as well as the skin and visible fat from poultry.
Although we should be cutting down on fat, this does not include
olive oil
False
We should be cutting down on all types of fat. However, oils which contain
a high proportion of unsaturates (monounsaturates or polyunsaturates) are
a better choice than fats or oils containing a large amount of saturates
(see section 3.3, page 18 and appendix 3). Fats high in saturates can raise
the level of blood cholesterol and so increase the risk of heart disease.
Olive oil, as well as some other oils (e.g. rapeseed oil, peanut oil and
hazelnut oil), contains a large amount of monounsaturates. These have a
lowering effect on blood cholesterol levels, as well as blood fats called
triglycerides. High levels of these blood fats can also increase the risk of
heart attack. But do not forget that the amount, as well as the type of fat in
the diet, is important for health.
Some foods contain ‘good’ cholesterol
False
Cholesterol in the diet and cholesterol in the blood are different. Some
people get confused between the two. ‘Good’ cholesterol is not a type of
cholesterol found in foods but refers to the way the body transports
cholesterol in the blood.
Eating eggs causes high blood cholesterol
False
Some foods, e.g. eggs, shellfish (such as prawns) and offal (such as liver
and kidney) contain a large amount of dietary cholesterol. Restriction of
these foods is sometimes advised for people with high blood cholesterol
levels. But for most people trying to lower blood cholesterol, limiting the
amount of fat, particularly saturates, in the diet is more effective than
limiting the amount of dietary cholesterol (see section 3.3, page 18 and
appendix 3).
FACT OR FICTION? CONTINUED
Starchy foods, such as bread and potatoes, are fattening
False
It is a common fallacy that starchy foods, such as bread, potatoes, rice
and pasta, are fattening. It is the fat in the fillings and toppings added to
these foods that make them fattening (such as creamy sauces on pasta,
oil-rich sauces on rice, butter or cheese on baked potatoes). Gram for
gram dietary carbohydrate (the main constituent of starchy foods) has less
than half the energy (calories) of dietary fat (see appendix 2). Starchy
foods also have the advantage that they are bulky and tend to be filling.
Savoury foods are less fattening than sweet foods
False
Both savoury and sweet foods can be high in fat. Fat provides twice as
much energy as the same weight of sugar. So just because a food is not
sweet does not mean it is not fattening. Fried savoury foods can be
particularly high in fat.
It is more important to cut down on sugar in snacks than in desserts
at main meals
True
Although eating too much sugar can contribute towards over-consumption
of energy in an imbalanced diet, the main concern relates to dental caries.
But it is the frequency of sugar consumption, rather than the amount that
seems to be important in terms of dental caries risk. This is because, each
time sugar is eaten, there is the potential for bacteria present in dental
plaque to ferment the sugar, producing acid. It is this acid that attacks
dental enamel. Current advice is to restrict the consumption of sugar-rich
foods and drinks to four or five occasions per day, ideally keeping to meal
times. Providing low sugar snacks is, therefore, more important than reducing
the amount of sugar in desserts, particularly for children.
Honey contains less sugar than granulated sugar
True
Honey contains about 75% of the total amount of sugar contained in white
granulated sugar but it is not considered to be a good source of any other
nutrients. It is slightly sweeter than refined sugar, so smaller amounts can be
used in place of sugar in some recipes. However, it should not be eaten too
frequently as it can contribute to tooth decay.
Intense sweeteners should not be used in place of sugar as
they are dangerous to health
False
Intense sweeteners, such as aspartame and saccharin, are used widely in
manufactured foods. Tablet, liquid and sprinkle sweeteners can also be
added to drinks, on cereals or in desserts. Because they are so sweet, only
small amounts need to be used. Some people are concerned about the
safety of these sweeteners and the fact that they are now added to so
many foods. Sweeteners, like all food additives, are only permitted for use
in food after careful evaluation, which includes rigorous safety checks by
scientific committees. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is set for each
additive. This is the amount that can be consumed every day over a
lifetime without any appreciable health risk. Current trends show that the
ADI for sweeteners is very unlikely to be regularly exceeded by most adults.
However, it is important to dilute concentrated soft drinks containing
saccharin for infants and young children more than adults to avoid the risk
of providing more of the sweetener than is recommended.
47
48
FACT OR FICTION? CONTINUED
A portion of fruit or vegetables
means:
• 1/2 a large fruit
(e.g. avocado, grapefruit)
• 1 medium sized vegetable
or fruit (e.g. apple, orange,
banana)
• a couple of small fruits
(e.g. 2 plums)
• 1 cup of very small fruit
(e.g. grapes)
• 1/2-1 tbsp dried fruits
(e.g. dates, sultanas)
• 2-3 tbsp cooked or
canned fruit
• 2 tbs raw, cooked, frozen or
canned vegetables
• a bowl of salad
• a glass of fruit juice (only
counts as one per day).
• 2-3 tbs beans or pulses (only
counts as one per day).
Fruit and vegetables can be processed and still be healthy
True
People often mistakenly believe that only fresh fruits and vegetables are of
benefit and that processed produce does not provide the same amount of
nutrients, owing to losses during processing procedures. In fact, some
methods of food processing, such as freezing, can actually help preserve
levels of certain nutrients in food, as the activity of the chemicals
responsible for deterioration is greatly reduced whilst the produce remains
frozen. For example, scientific studies have shown lower vitamin C levels in
some raw vegetables, which have been distributed and stored at ambient
or chilled temperatures, than in those that have been immediately frozen
after harvest. Current healthy eating guidelines recommend that we aim to
include at least 5 portions of different fruit and vegetables in our diet every
day; this includes fresh, frozen, tinned and dried fruits and vegetables, fruit
and vegetables in composite dishes (e.g. stews or curries) and fruit juice. In
this context, a typical portion is about 80g. It does not, however, include
potatoes.
There are different types of fibre with varying effects on health
True
Dietary fibre comprises a number of different substances that fall into two
distinct categories - soluble fibre and insoluble fibre.
Soluble fibre is found in oats, other cereals, pulses and some fruits. This type
of fibre can help to regulate blood cholesterol and blood sugar (glucose)
levels. Insoluble fibre is found in wheat and other cereals and in vegetables,
and is important in maintaining a healthy digestive system and preventing
constipation.
Adding bran to foods is the best way to increase the fibre content
False
As well as containing fibre, bran also contains substances called phytates.
These can bind to minerals, such as calcium and iron, and stop them from
being absorbed into the body. Adding a lot of bran to foods is not,
therefore, a good way to increase fibre intake. Good sources of fibre
include whole-grain cereal products (such as bread, breakfast cereals), fruit
and vegetables, beans and pulses.
Sea salt is better than ordinary salt
False
Natural sea salt contains the same amount of sodium as any other salt.
Some alternative flavourings, like soy sauce or anchovy essence, are also
just as high in sodium. However, a number of lower sodium salts are now
available on the market and these can be used in cooking, baking and at
the table (see section 3.4, page 20).
Salt is usually referred to as ‘sodium’ on labels
True
Salt is also known as sodium chloride (1g of sodium is equivalent to around
2.5 g of salt). At the moment most, but not all, foods are labelled with the
amount of sodium they contain in grams per 100g of the product. This is
because not all sodium is in the form of salt/sodium chloride. Other forms of
sodium are used as flavour enhancers and preservatives, e.g. monosodium
glutamate, sodium bicarbonate.
FACT OR FICTION? CONTINUED
49
Taking supplements can never replace a healthy diet
True
Supplements can be useful for certain groups of people who have special
needs. For example, vitamin drops are recommended for children from 6
months to 2 years, elderly or housebound people may benefit from a
vitamin D supplement and women are advised to take folic acid
supplements if they are planning to have a baby and until the end of the
twelfth week of pregnancy.
Eating 5 portions of fruit and vegetables each day may help to protect
against chronic diseases, such as cancer and heart disease, but it is these
foods in their entirety, rather than one particular nutrient in them, which
appears to provide this protection. Supplements should never be used in
place of a balanced diet. In addition, just because a little of a vitamin is
good for you, it does not mean that much more is better. Some minerals
compete with each other for absorption, e.g. high doses of iron can
reduce absorption of zinc. This can cause problems in people who are
marginally deficient in these nutrients. Also, some vitamins and minerals
have adverse effects at very high levels (e.g. vitamin A, selenium).
People with diabetes need to eat a 'special' diet
False
Whilst it is very important that people with diabetes watch what they eat,
the diet recommended follows the general healthy eating guidelines
applicable to the whole population. There is no need for different meals.
Diabetic food and drink products are not recommended as they offer no
health advantage (see section 4.2.7).
Allergies are commonplace in Britain
False
Although the frequency of food allergy in Britain seems to be increasing,
they are not as common as is often assumed. Whilst around 2 in 10 people
believe they are 'allergic' to certain foods, in reality only about 2 in 100
people do have unpleasant reactions that can be measured by clinical
tests. Allergies are not the only type of unpleasant reactions to foods that
can occur; unpleasant reactions to foods also result from food intolerance
reactions, which unlike food allergies do not involve the immune system.
Food allergy is less common than food intolerance. However, caterers must
be vigilant at all times because of the potential severity of symptoms - in
extremely rare cases a severe allergic reaction (such as to peanuts or other
nuts) can result in death. Others who suffer from intolerance to certain
foods also need to be 'catered for' (see section 4.2.8).
How can caterers recognise a
severe allergic reaction?
• If an allergic customer
becomes ill he or she, or
someone they are with, is
likely to recognise that they
are suffering from an allergic
reaction.
• Such individuals may wear
a Medic Alert bracelet.
• An adrenaline injection must
be given as soon as a
reaction is suspected
(sufferers may carry this with
them). For details of what to
do in an emergency see
page 43.
FURTHER HELP AND INFORMATION CONTINUED
FURTHER HELP AND INFORMATION
SECTION 6
50
Useful Addresses and websites
Food Standards Agency Publications
The Food Standards Agency produces a
wide range of publications for the public
and the food industry.
To find out more visit their website:
http://www.food.gov.uk/aboutus/
publications
or telephone: 0845 606 0667
Also for 8 tips for eating well, visit
http://www.eatwell.gov.uk/healthydiet/
8tips
Food Standards Agency
Scotland Office
St Magnus House
25 Guild Street
Aberdeen AB11 6NJ
Telephone: 01224 285100
E-mail:
[email protected]
Website: www.food.gov.uk
Scottish Executive Health Department
St Andrew’s House
Regent Road
Edinburgh EH1 3DG
To find out key information about the
programme of action to influence and
encourage the nation to adopt a more
healthier diet, see:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/
Health/health
Scottish Executive Education Department
Victoria Quay
Edinburgh EH6 6QQ
Telephone: 08457 741741
Website: www.scotland.gov.uk
British Nutrition Foundation
Provides publications and information
about diet.
High Holborn House
52-54 High Holborn
London WC1V 6RQ
Telephone: 020 740 46504
Fax: 020 740 46747
Website: www.nutrition.org.uk
Diabetes UK Scotland
Savoy House
140 Sauchiehall Street
Glasgow G2 3DH
Telephone: 0141 332 2700
Email: [email protected]
To order leaflets, books or other materials
contact:
The Distribution Department
PO Box 1057
Bedford
Bedfordshire
MK42 7XQ
Telephone: 0800 585088
Website: www.diabetes.org.uk
The National Institute for Health and
Clinical Excellence
NICE has taken on the functions of the
Health Development Agency to create a
single excellence-in-practice organisation
responsible for providing national
guidance on the promotion of good
health and the prevention and treatment
of ill health. NICE guidance is for those
working in the NHS, local authorities and
the wider public, private and voluntary
sectors.
Midcity Place
71 High Holborn
London
WC1V 6NA
Telephone: 020 706 75800
Fax: 020 706 75801
E-mail: [email protected]
NHS Health Scotland
Health Scotland provides a national
focus for improving health and work with
the Scottish Executive and other key
partners to take action to improve health
and reduce health inequalities in
Scotland.
Woodburn House
Canaan Lane
Edinburgh
EH10 4SG
Telephone: 0131 536 5500
Fax: 0131 536 5501
For information about obtaining or
purchasing Health Scotland publications,
E-mail: [email protected]
Hospitality Training Foundation Scotland
28 Castle Street
Edinburgh
EH2 3HT
Telephone: 0131 624 4040
Fax: 0131 624 4041
E-mail: [email protected]
The British Dietetic Association
The British Dietetic Association,
established in 1936, is the professional
association for dietitians.
Website:
www.bda.uk.com/sgroupspublic.html
Scottish Consumer Council
Royal Exchange House
100 Queen Street
Glasgow G1 3DN
Telephone: 0141 226 5261
Fax: 0141 221 0731
Website: www.scotconsumer.org.uk
Scotland’s Health at Work (SHAW)
now part of the Scottish Centre for
Healthy Working Lives
Princes Gate
Castle Street
Hamilton
ML3 6BU
Advice line tel: 0800 019 2211
Website:www.healthyworkinglives.com
Scottish Health on the Web (SHOW)
Contains information about health in
Scotland.
Website: www.show.scot.nhs.uk
Scottish Nutrition and Diet Resources
Initiative
Room MS010 (Milton Street Building)
Glasgow Caledonian University
Cowcaddens Road
Glasgow G4 0BA
Telephone: 0141 331 8479
Fax: 0141 331 3208
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: www.sndri.gcal.ac.uk
Sustain Food Poverty Network
94 White Lion Street
London N1 9PF
Telephone: 020 783 71228
Website: www.sustainweb.org
The Anaphylaxis Campaign
PO Box 275
Farnborough
GU14 6SX
Telephone: 01252 542029
Fax: 01252 373793
Website: www.anaphylaxis.org.uk
also: www.cateringforallergy.org
The Caroline Walker Trust
22 Kindersley Way
Abbots Langley
Herts WD5 0DQ
Telephone: 01726 844107
Website: www.cwt.org.uk
51
The Coeliac Society
Coeliac UK
Suites A-D
Octagon Court
High Wycombe
Bucks
HP11 2HS
Telephone: 01494 437278
Fax: 01494 474349
Website: www.coeliac.co.uk
52
FURTHER HELP AND INFORMATION CONTINUED
The Hotel and Catering International
Management Association (HCIMA)
Trinity Road
34 West Street
Sutton
Surrey
SM1 1SH
Telephone: 020 8661 4900
Fax: 020 8661 4901
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: www.hcima.org.uk
The Royal Environmental Health Institute
of Scotland
Involved in the promotion and training of
food hygiene and safety.
3 Manor Place
Edinburgh EH3 7DH
Telephone: 0131 225 6999/5444
Fax: 0131 225 3993
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: www.rehis.com
The Scottish Community Diet Project
(SCDP)
The SCDP was set up in 1996 with the aim
of promoting and focusing dietary
initiatives within low-income communities.
c/o Scottish Consumer Council
Royal Exchange House
100 Queen Street
Glasgow G1 3DN
Telephone: 0141 226 5261
Fax: 0141 221 0731
Minicom: 0141 226 8459
Website: www.dietproject.co.uk
The Stationery Office Bookshop,
Edinburgh
Publishers/distributors of government
documents
71 Lothian Road
Edinburgh EH3 9AZ
Telephone: 0870 606 55662
Website: www.tso.co.uk/about/locations/
bookshops/edinburgh
The Stationery Office Bookshop, London
123 Kingsway
London
WC2B 6PQ
Telephone: 020 724 2 6393
Website:
www.tso.co.uk/bookshop/bookstore.asp?
&trackid000351
FURTHER HELP AND INFORMATION CONTINUED
Sources of information
British Nutrition Foundation (1999).
Nutrition and Food Processing.
Briefing Paper. London, British Nutrition
Foundation.
British Nutrition Foundation (2000). Food
Allergy and Intolerance.
Briefing Paper. London, British Nutrition
Foundation.
Ceserani V, Kinton R, Foskett D (2004).
Practical Cookery. Tenth Edition. London,
Hodder and Stoughton.
Department of Health (1991). Dietary
reference values for food energy and
nutrients for the United Kingdom: report
of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values
of the Committee on Medical Aspects of
Food Policy, The Stationary Office.
Department of Health (1994). Report of
the Cardiovascular Review Group
Committee on Medical Aspects of Food
Policy. Nutritional Aspects of
Cardiovascular Disease. Report on Health
and Social Subjects, No. 46. London,
HMSO (now The Stationery Office).
Department of Health (1998). Report of
the Subgroup on Bone Health, Working
Group on the Nutritional Status of the
Population of the Committee on Medical
Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy.
Nutrition and Bone Health. Report on
Health and Social Subjects, No 49.
London, The Stationery Office.
Department of Health (1998). Report of
the Working Group on Diet and Cancer
of the Committee on Medical Aspects of
Food and Nutrition Policy. Nutritional
Aspects of the Development of Cancer.
Report on Health and Social Subjects, No.
48. London, The Stationery Office.
Department of Health, Scottish Office
(1999). Towards a healthier Scotland: A
white paper on health. Scotland, the
Stationary Office.
Holland B, Unwin ID and Buss DH (1989).
Milk Products and Eggs. Fourth
Supplement to McCance and
Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods.
Cambridge, The Royal Society of
Chemistry.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
(1995). Manual of Nutrition.
10th Edition. London, The Stationery
Office.
The Royal Society of Chemistry and
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
(1991). McCance and Widdowson’s The
Composition of Foods. Fifth edition.
Cambridge, The Royal Society of
Chemistry.
Resources
Breakfast Clubs - More of a Headstart
A step by step guide to the setting up
and running of breakfast clubs in
Scotland. Available from: The Scottish
Community Diet Project.
Community Café Pack, Just for Starters
Provides useful information for those
interested in starting up a community
café.
Available from: NHS Health Scotland
CORA (Catering for Older People in
Residential Accommodation) menu
planner (1998)
A computer program designed for all
those involved in planning or providing
catering in both residential and nursing
homes - chefs, cooks and
managers/matrons. Includes over 800
recipes.
CORA Menu Planner is available either
on CD-ROM or on 3.5" disks.
Available from: The Caroline Walker Trust.
Dietsure.com website
A website providing access to detailed
dietary analysis, a cookbook of recipes
and a nutritional library.
Available from: Dietsure.com, PO Box 911,
Grantham NG33 5GR
Website: www.dietsure.com
Eating for Health
An A5 leaflet explaining the links
between eating and health. This contains
the Eating for Health model – a pictorial
presentation of the proportion of different
types of foods that make up a healthy
diet.
Booklet:
Ref L1674 10/2000
Available from: NHS Health Scotland.
53
Eating for Health - Meeting the
challenge; strategic framework for Food
and Health 2004-2005 (2004)
A Scottish Executive strategic framework
for Food and Health, developed through
dialogue and discussion with key
partners. The framework is being used as
a basis for developing further food and
health policy and to guide national and
local food and health action plans.
Available online from the Scottish
Executive’s publications website at:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2004/
07/19624/39995
Eating Well for Looked After Children and
young People (2001)
This report sets out nutritional guidelines
for the food provided for looked after
children and young people. It is intended
for use by local authority staff responsible
for running children’s homes, contracting
with care providers, and recruiting and
training foster carers; and directors,
managers and senior staff in voluntary
and private sector organisations which
provide care for looked after children
and young people. Training materials to
help implement the recommendations of
the report are also available.
Available from: The Caroline Walker Trust.
Eating well for older people (1995)
Practical and nutritional guidelines for
older people in residential and
community care. This handbook offers
solutions for people who cater for older
people in care homes, nursing homes or
at lunch clubs, or who are responsible for
community meals.
Available from: The Caroline Walker Trust.
Eating well for older people with
dementia (1998)
(Published by VOICES)
Looks at how dementia affects the ability
to eat well. Examines the role that good
nutrition can play in the care of older
people. Provides practical and nutritional
guidelines for residential and nursing
homes and others catering for older
people with dementia.
Available from: The Caroline Walker Trust.
FURTHER HELP AND INFORMATION CONTINUED
2004 Directory of Community Food
Initiatives
A directory of Scottish community food
initiatives produced by the Scottish
Community Diet Project and HEBS.
A quarterly newsletter Fare Choice is also
available.
Available from: the Scottish Community
Diet Project
Gluten-free guide for caterers/food
service
Information about coeliac disease and
gluten-free foods (gluten free recipes
and diet booklets also available).
Available from: The Coeliac Society.
Hungry for Success; A Whole School
Approach to School Meals in Scotland
(2002)
Report of the Scottish Executive's Expert
Panel on School Meals which provides
recommendations to establish standards
for school meals, improve the
presentation of school meals to increase
general take-up and to eliminate any
stigma attached to taking free school
meals.
Available from the Scottish Executive's
website at:
www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/Recent
ICT Activities for Food Technology
A photocopiable booklet and a CD-ROM
providing information and activities for a
wide range of food technology topics
and ICT skills.
Available from:
Heinemann,
P.O. Box 6926,
Portsmouth,
Telephone: 800 225 5800
email [email protected]
Nutrient Specification for Manufactured
Products 2004
To assist caterers to achieve the Hungry
for Success recommended nutrient
standards for an average school lunch,
the Food Standards Agency Scotland has
devised target nutrient specifications for
manufactured products used in schools.
Available from the Scottish Executive's
website at:
www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/education
/niss-00.asp
THE FIVE FOOD GROUPS
Scottish Nutrition and Diet Resources
Initiative (SNDRI)
Provides a range of resources giving
advice on nutrition and diet, including
special dietary needs. The resource is
based on original diet sheets for use by
dieticians and health professionals in
Scotland.
Available from: Scottish Nutrition and Diet
Resources Initiatives.
Scotland’s Health at Work Award Scheme
This pack outlines the criteria each
workplace must meet in order to achieve
an award with the scheme.
Available from: Scotland’s Health at
Work.
Scotland’s Health a Challenge to us All.
Eating for Health - A Diet Action Plan for
Scotland. Department of Health, Scottish
Office (1996)
(ISBN: 0 7 480 3139 1)
A booklet providing a framework for
action over a 10 year period to improve
Scotland’s diet. It makes
recommendations for everyone with an
influence on what people eat – including
food producers, local authorities, schools,
caterers, retailers, the media and
consumers themselves.
Available online from the Scottish
Executive’s publication’s website at:
www.scotland.gov.uk/topics/Health/
health/19133/17941
Tipping the Balance - three chefs make
easy work of healthier catering (1999)
A video produced by the HEA that runs
for 23 minutes and contains practical tips
aimed at encouraging healthier catering
practices in the workplace.
Available from: Food Standards Agency.
55
Food group
Foods included
What they contribute to
the diet
What should
caterers do?
Bread, cereals
and potatoes
• Other cereals includes
Offer lots
breakfast cereals,
noodles, rice, pasta,
maize, millet, cornmeal
• Carbohydrate (starch)
• Some calcium and iron
• Fibre
• B vitamins
Fruit and
vegetables
• Frozen, fresh, dried and
• Vitamin C, carotenoids,
Offer lots
canned fruit and
vegetables
• A glass of fruit juice can
also contribute
• Fibre
• Carbohydrate
Milk and dairy
foods
• Milk, cheese, yogurt,
• Calcium and other
Meat, fish and
alternatives
• Meat, poultry, fish,
• Fat (including essential
eggs, nuts, beans (e.g.
baked beans), pulses
• Meat includes bacon,
salami and meat
products (e.g.
sausages, beefburgers,
pâté) but these are
relatively high fat
choices
• Fish includes frozen and
canned fish, fish fingers,
fish cakes
fatty acids)
• Protein
• B vitamins (especially
B12)
• Minerals (such as zinc,
magnesium, iron)
Foods high in fat
• Margarine, butter, other
• Fat (including essential
fromage frais
spreading fats, cooking
oils, oil-based salad
dressings, mayonnaise,
cream, chocolate,
crisps, biscuits, pastries,
cake, puddings, ice
cream, rich sauces,
gravies
Foods and drinks
high in sugar
• Soft drinks, sweets, jam,
sugar, cake, puddings,
biscuits, pastries, ice
cream
folate
minerals (such as zinc)
• Protein
• B vitamins, especially
B12 and B2
• Vitamin A (and some
vitamin D)
fatty acids)
• Some vitamins
• Some products also
contain salt or sugar
• Carbohydrate (sugar)
• Some products contain
minerals and fibre
Offer moderate
amounts and use
lower fat versions
whenever possible
Offer moderate
amounts and use
lower fat versions
whenever possible
Use sparingly and
offer low fat
alternatives
Offer reduced
sugar versions
wherever possible,
particularly for
snack foods
APPENDIX 1
54
PROVIDING THE ESSENTIALS CONTINUED
What are the essentials?
• Like all working machines, the body needs a supply of energy to keep
it going.
• These days energy is expressed in kilojoules (kJ) but was previously
expressed in calories (1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 4.184 kJ).
• This energy is derived from nutrients in food:
1g carbohydrate = 16 kJ (or 3.75 kcal)
1g protein = 17 kJ (or 4 kcal)
1g fat = 37 kJ (or 9 kcal)
• Alcohol is also a source of kilojoules.
1g alcohol = 29 kJ (or 7 kcal)
• The amount of energy people require varies widely depending on several
factors including age, body size, gender and the amount of physical
activity they do.
FIBRE
• Fibre is a mixture of substances found in plant foods.
• Most people in the UK consume less fibre than is recommended (experts
• In order to maintain body weight, the amount of energy provided by the diet
VITAMINS AND MINERALS
• These are only needed in minute amounts but are required for many
should match the amount that is used by the body.
FAT
• Fat is the most concentrated source of energy.
• It can be stored in the body and is needed for health but in small
amounts.
• Experts generally agree that many people in the UK are eating too much
fat. This may contribute to the high rates of overweight and obesity,
which is now a serious public health problem. A high fat diet may also
increase the risk of heart disease, by increasing levels of blood
cholesterol.
• Fats are made up of fatty acids, of which there are 3 main types:
saturates
monounsaturates
polyunsaturates.
All
fats
contain
a mixture of different fatty acids but the relative amounts
•
can vary considerably.
• Whilst cutting back on the total amount of fat in the diet is important, experts
recommend that a reduction in saturates is most beneficial for health.
PROTEIN
• Protein is essential for the growth and repair of body tissues.
• It is also a source of energy.
• Sources of animal protein include fish, meat, eggs, milk and cheese.
• Sources of vegetable protein include pulses (peas, beans, lentils) nuts
and cereals. Processed vegetable proteins (such as tofu, soya and
mycoprotein) can be an important source for vegetarians.
CARBOHYDRATE
• There are two main types of carbohydrate:
sugars
starch.
• Both types provide the same amount of energy and less than half the
amount provided by fat, gram for gram.
• Sources of starch include breakfast cereals and cereal foods (e.g. wheat,
rice, maize, cassava, oats, rye, barley) roots and tubers (e.g yams,
potatoes, root vegetables), pulses and some fruit.
• Sugars are naturally found in milk, honey and fruit but are also added to
many prepared foods (e.g. biscuits, puddings, sweets and soft drinks).
Frequent consumption of these 'added' sugars has been linked to dental
decay, particularly where dental hygiene is poor.
• At least half of the energy in our diets should come from carbohydrate,
mostly from starchy foods.
suggest 18g each day while the average person consumes around 12g).
• Good sources include whole-grain cereals and breads, rice, pulses,
vegetables, fruit and nuts.
• Some types of fibre help to keep the digestive system working properly
and help to prevent bowel disorders such as constipation. The type of
fibre found in pulses, oatmeal, vegetables and fruit is thought to be
particularly helpful with regard to blood cholesterol levels, when eaten as
part of a low fat diet.
• Most foods that naturally contain plenty of fibre are low in fat and good
sources of vitamins and minerals. They are usually lower in energy but are
also more filling because they are bulky.
processes in the body.
• Since the body cannot make vitamins and minerals they must be
provided by the diet.
• Deficiency of any of these nutrients can result in ill health.
• A varied diet, with plenty of fruit and vegetables, will usually provide all
the vitamins and minerals the body requires (with a few exceptional
circumstances, e.g. the increased requirement for folic acid during
pregnancy).
For further details of the types of fat found in foods see section 3.3, page 18
and appendix 3.
For further details of the functions and sources of vitamins and minerals
see appendix 4.
57
APPENDIX 2
PROVIDING THE ESSENTIALS
APPENDIX 2
56
THE FACTS ABOUT FATS CONTINUED
Why all the fuss about fat?
Too much fat in the diet can contribute to obesity and increase the risk of
chronic diseases, such as heart disease. Although rates have been falling,
Britain still has one of the highest heart disease rates in the world and it is
the most common cause of premature death.
Types of fatty acids
Where they are found
Effects on health
Saturates
• Found largely in fats of animal origin
• A high intake may raise blood
- meat (beef, pork, lamb), meat fats
(suet, lard, dripping) and dairy products
(butter, milk, cream, cheese).
• Although all oils contain some saturates,
two vegetable oils naturally contain a
relatively large proportion of saturates palm oil and coconut oil.
• Fats/oils rich in saturates are used in the
commercial manufacture of many
biscuits, pastries, cakes, pies, snacks
and other baked foods.
• A high intake may raise blood
cholesterol levels and increase the risk
of a heart attack.
Reducing the amount of all fat in the diet has been recommended, but the
type of fat is also important. The fatty acid composition of fats not only
affects their cooking qualities and storage properties, it also contributes to
people's
health.
Grams per 100g
Fatty acid
composition of common fats and oils
Saturates
100
Monounsaturates
Polyunsaturates
Where are dietary fats found?
All fats
contain a mixture of different fatty acids but choosing those which
80
contain higher amounts of unsaturates (polyunsaturates or
60
monounsaturates), rather than saturates, is preferable.
40
Fatty acid composition of common fats and oils
Saturates
80
Ghee, Margarine (soft Butter
butter polyunsaturated)
Coconut oil
Monounsaturates
Palm oil
Sunflower
oil
Polyunsaturates
Rapeseed
oil
Unsaturates
Monounsaturates
20
0
Coconut oil
Palm oil
Sunflower
oil
Rapeseed
oil
- monounsaturates and polyunsaturates.
beneficial to health if they replace
saturates in the diet.
• Found in fats of both plant and animal
Fatty acid composition of selected foods
Polyunsaturates
Monounsaturates
Polyunsaturates
14
12
10
8
6
Fatty
acid composition of selected foods
4
Grams per typical portion
Saturates
Monounsaturates
Packet of
2 shortbread 2 digestive
Slice of
Slice of
biscuits (26g) biscuits (26g) sponge (50g) gateau (85g) crisps (30g)
Polyunsaturates
Mince beef
Whole milk
Cheddar
(raw) (100g) cheese (40g) (1/4 pint/142ml)
10
McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods. Fifth edition. RSC/MAFF (1991)
8
6
4
2
0
2 shortbread 2 digestive
Slice of
Slice of
Packet of
biscuits (26g) biscuits (26g) sponge (50g) gateau (85g) crisps (30g)
Whole milk
Mince beef
Cheddar
(raw) (100g) cheese (40g) (1/4 pint/142ml)
• There are two main families of
polyunsaturates - n-6 (or omega 6) and
n-3 (or omega 3) fatty acids.
• n-6 polyunsaturates are found largely in
fats of plant origin, including sunflower,
soya, sesame, corn, soyabean,
cottonseed and safflower oils.
• Wholegrain cereals (e.g. wheat, barley,
oats) also contain small quantities of n-6
polyunsaturates.
• Some oils (e.g.walnut, rapeseed, linseed
oil) and oil-rich fish (including herring,
mackerel, salmon, tuna - not tinned,
trout) are rich in n-3 polyunsaturates.
Grams per typical portion
Saturates
16
• Used in place of saturates, these fatty
acids may lower blood cholesterol and
reduce the risk of heart disease.
Olive oil
McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods. Fifth edition. RSC/MAFF (1991)
12
• These fatty acids are thought to be
origin. Olive oil and rapeseed oil are
particularly rich sources.
Other
sources include dairy products,
•
nuts and meat.
40
2
16
0
14
• There are two categories of unsaturates
Olive oil
60
Ghee, Margarine (soft Butter
butter polyunsaturated)
cholesterol levels and increase the risk
of a heart attack.
Grams per 100g
20
100
0
59
Trans fatty acids
APPENDIX 3
THE FACTS ABOUT FATS
APPENDIX 3
58
• Hydrogenation, which makes
polyunsaturates more saturated (e.g. in
traditional margarine manufacture),
gives rise to trans fatty acids. These are
now removed by many margarine
manufacturers but they are found in
some spreads and pre-prepared foods,
such as pies and pastries.
• Continual re-heating of oils which are
high in polyunsaturates (such as for
chips) can substantially increase the
amount of trans fatty acids present in
the food.
• Both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturates
are important for health.
• Linoleic acid (an n-6 polyunsaturate)
is essential in the diet, as it cannot be
made in the body.
It
• can help to reduce blood
cholesterol levels.
• Linoleic acid (an n-3 polyunsaturate)
must be provided in the diet, as it
cannot be made in the body.
• Populations which eat large amounts
of oil-rich fish have much lower rates
of heart attacks and strokes.
• This type of fatty acid is thought to
have a similar effect to saturates - it
can raise blood cholesterol levels and
increase the risk of a heart attack.
THE FUNCTION OF VITAMINS AND MINERALS PROVIDED BY FOODS CONTINUED
61
APPENDIX 4
THE FUNCTIONS OF VITAMINS AND MINERALS PROVIDED BY FOODS
APPENDIX 4
60
VITAMINS:
Main functions
Sources
MINERALS:
Main functions
Sources
Vitamin A
• Maintains and repairs tissues, needed
As retinol (pre-formed vitamin A): milk,
fortified margarines, cheese, egg yolk,
liver, fatty fish, (such as herrings, tuna,
pilchards, sardines)
As carotenes (transformed into vitamin A
in the body): vegetables and fruit,
especially carrots, tomatoes and green
leafy vegetables, mango, apricots
Calcium
• Bone and teeth formation
• Muscle contraction
• Nerve functioning
• Blood clotting
Milk and dairy products, bread, pulses,
green vegetables, dried fruit, nuts and
seeds, soft bones in tinned fish, water
Magnesium
• Component of bones and teeth
• Nerve and muscle function
• Energy release
Cereals and cereal products, green
vegetables, milk, meat, potatoes, nuts,
seeds
Phosphorus
• Bone and teeth formation
Milk and dairy products, bread, red
meat, poultry
Potassium
• Controlling the balance of fluids in
Vegetables, potatoes, fruit, fruit juices,
bread, fish, meat, milk, nuts, seeds
for growth and development
• Essential for immune function, normal
and night vision
Vitamin B1
(Thiamin)
• Energy release from carbohydrate, fat
and alcohol
• Important for brain and nerve function
Potatoes and all cereals, especially
bread and breakfast cereals, milk and
dairy products, meat and meat products,
vegetables
Vitamin B2
(Riboflavin)
• Energy release from carbohydrate, fat
and protein
• Normal growth
Milk and dairy products, fortified
breakfast cereals, meat and meat
products, yeast extract
Niacin
• Energy release
Meat and meat products, milk and dairy
products, bread, fortified breakfast
cereals, potatoes, fish
Vitamin B6
(Pyridoxine)
• Protein metabolism
• Formation of healthy blood
Many foods especially potatoes,
breakfast cereals, meat, fish, eggs
Vitamin B12
(Cyanocobalamin)
Folate
(or folic acid, the
synthetic form)
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
• Formation of healthy blood cells and
nerve fibre
• Formation of blood cells
• Reduces the risk of neural tube defects
(such as spina bifida) in early
pregnancy
All animal foods - meat and meat
products, milk and dairy products, fish,
eggs, or fortified breakfast cereals, yeast
extract
Naturally occurring folate - green leafy
vegetables (especially sprouts, spinach,
green beans, peas), potatoes, fruit
(especially oranges), milk and dairy
products
As folic acid - fortified breakfast cereals
and bread, yeast extract
• Structure of bones, cartilage, muscle
and blood vessels
• Helps wound healing and iron
absorption
• Acts as an antioxidant (protecting the
cells from damage by oxygen, which
may lead to heart disease and
cancer)
Fruits (especially citrus fruit), fruit juices,
green vegetables, peppers, tomatoes,
potatoes
• Promotes calcium absorption from
Fortified margarines and spreads, oil-rich
fish (e.g. herrings, mackerel, salmon),
meat, egg yolk, fortified breakfast
cereals, formed in the skin by the action
of sunlight
food
• Essential for bones and teeth
• Helps maintain heart action and
nervous system
the body
• Muscle and nerve functioning
Sodium*
• Maintains normal fluid balance
• Nerve functioning
• Muscle contraction
Processed foods, bread, cereal products,
breakfast cereals, meat products, pickles
canned vegetables, tinned and packet
sauces/soups, packet snack foods, salt
added during cooking and at the table
Iron
• Blood cell formation
Meat, meat products, cereal products,
vegetables, pulses
Zinc
• Protein, carbohydrate and fat
Meat and meat products, milk and dairy
products, bread and other cereal
products, eggs, beans, pulses, nuts
metabolism
• Taste
• Normal growth
• Wound healing
Copper
• Part of a number of enzymes
Shellfish, meat (especially liver), bread
and cereal products, vegetables, water
Selenium
• Component of a number of enzymes,
Cereals and cereal products, meat, fish,
brazil nuts, shellfish
some of which acts as antioxidants
Iodine
• Regulation of growth, development
and energy expenditure
Fluoride
Vitamin E
• Acts as an antioxidant
Vegetable oils, margarines, wholegrain
cereals, nuts, green leafy vegetables
Vitamin K
•Essential for normal blood clotting
Dark green leafy vegetables, vegetable
oils, cereals, meat
• Constituent of bones and teeth
• Protects against tooth decay
Fish, sea vegetables (such as kelp), milk
and dairy products
Tea, fish, water
*Unlike other minerals in the list, recommendations exist to limit sodium intake.
PROMOTING THE RIGHT BALANCE OF FAT, CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN IN THE DIET
The ability to interpret nutrition information on a food label will help caterers
to select healthier options.
The recommendations for the average proportion of energy in an adult's
diet that should come from fat, protein and carbohydrate are:
When should nutrition information be provided on the label of packaged
foods?
• Nutrition information is not required by law for any products, unless a
nutritional claim is made (such as ‘low in fat’).
• But where labelling is used, UK and EU laws and guidelines dictate the
format.
• 33% of total energy should come from fat
• 10% should come from saturates
• 47% should come from carbohydrate foods (mainly starchy foods)
• Protein intake averages 15% of total energy intake
• Alcohol should contribute on average around 5% of energy intake
The ‘Big 4’:
Energy - in kilojoules (kJ) or kilocalories (kcal)
Protein - in grams (g)
Carbohydrate - in grams (g)
Fat - in grams (g)
The ‘Big 4’ and the ‘Little 4’:
Energy - in kilojoules (kJ) or kilocalories (kcal)
Protein - in grams (g)
How should nutrition information be presented?
• At a minimum, the information provided should list the nutrients known
as the ‘Big 4’.
• More detailed information can be provided by listing the ‘Little 4’
(sugars, saturates, fibre and sodium), as well as the ‘Big 4’.
• Other nutrients, such as monounsaturates, cholesterol or starch, can be
declared.
• Which format is chosen will depend on the health claim, e.g. if a claim is
made relating to the content of sugars, fibre or sodium, both the ‘Big 4’
and ‘Little 4’ must be listed.
Carbohydrate - in grams (g)
of which sugars - in grams (g)
Fat - in grams (g)
of which saturates - in grams (g)
Fibre - in grams (g)
Sodium - in grams (g)
How should the information be expressed?
• All information must be given per 100 grams (or 100ml) of the edible
portion of the food.
• Information can also be given per serving or per portion, provided that
the number of portions is stated.
Typical values
Energy
Protein
Carbohydrate
of which: sugars
Fat
of which: saturates
Fibre
Sodium
Per serving (pack)
Per 100g
1260kJ/300kcal
20.4g
42.5g
7.8g
42.5g
1.7g
2.7g
0.7g
370kJ/90kcal
6.0g
12.5g
2.3g
12.5g
0.5g
0.8g
0.2g
What about vitamins and minerals?
• The rules governing labelling of vitamins and minerals are more complex.
• For each vitamin or mineral the amount present can only be listed if the
food provides a significant proportion of the Recommended Daily
Allowance (RDA), as defined by European legislation.
What’s a GDA?
• GDAs, or Guideline Daily Amounts, for energy (Calories), fat and saturates
intakes may be given to help consumers interpret nutrition labelling.
Guideline Daily Amounts
Each Day
Calories (kcals)
Fat
Saturates
Salt
1000 kilocalories (kcals) = 4.184 megajoules (MJ) or 4184 kilojoules (kJ)
Women
Men
2000
70g
20g
6g
2500
95g
30g
6g
These figures are intended as population averages, not as targets for
individuals. They refer to the habitual diet, so do not need to be met on a
daily basis and certainly not by individual meals.
How far from these targets are we?
Although since these targets were published in 1991 there has been
considerable improvement in the UK diet, on average we are still eating
too much fat, particularly saturates.
How much fat is 33%?
For women with an average energy intake of 8100kJ (1940 kcals) per day,
33% of total energy intake would be:
33 x 8100 = 2673
100
Since 37 kJ are provided by 1g of fat, 2673 kJ are provided by:
2673 = 72g fat
37
Therefore, to meet the recommendation total fat intake should average
around 72g per day for women*.
For men with an average energy intake of 10600kJ (2550 kcals) per day,
33% of total energy intake would be 95g of fat.
*Please note that this figure differs slightly from that provided as the
Guideline Daily Amount on food labels where it is rounded down to 70g.
63
APPENDIX 6
A LOOK AT THE LABEL
APPENDIX 5
62
Proportion of energy coming from
fat, protein and carbohydrate
Protein 15%
Alcohol 5%
Fat 33%
of which
Saturates 10%
Carbohydrate 47%
65
(suitable for use by students evaluating dishes prepared)
Dish:
Comments (e.g. made with less oil)
Dish:
Taste the dish and rate how much you like it on the following scales:
Taste the dish and rate how much you like it on the following scales:
Initial appearance
Initial appearance
Very
Very
Bad
Good
Comments:
Dislike
Dislike
Extremely
very much moderately
Dislike
Dislike
Neither like
Like
Like
Like
Like
slightly
nor dislike
slightly
moderately
very much
extremely
Initial aroma
Initial aroma
Very
Very
Bad
Good
Dislike
Dislike
Dislike
Neither like
Like
Like
Like
Like
Extremely
very much moderately
slightly
nor dislike
slightly
moderately
very much
extremely
Dislike
Dislike
Dislike
Neither like
Like
Like
Like
Like
Extremely
very much moderately
slightly
nor dislike
slightly
moderately
very much
extremely
Dislike
Dislike
Dislike
Neither like
Like
Like
Like
Like
Extremely
very much moderately
slightly
nor dislike
slightly
moderately
very much
extremely
Dislike
Comments:
Taste
Taste
Very
Very
Bad
Good
Dislike
Comments:
Texture
Texture
Very
Very
Bad
Good
Dislike
Comments:
Overall, how would you rate the dish?
Dislike
Dislike
Extremely
very much moderately
Dislike
Dislike
Neither like
Like
Like
Like
Like
slightly
nor dislike
slightly
moderately
very much
extremely
Overall, how would you rate
the dish?
Very
Very
Bad
Good
Comments:
What was the best thing about the dish?
What was the worst thing about the dish?
What was the best thing about the dish?
FOR DESSERTS ONLY:
What was the worst thing about the dish?
How sweet was the dish? (a similar scale could be used for saltiness)
Not sweet
About right
Too sweet
enough
FOR DESSERTS ONLY:
How sweet was the dish? (a similar scale could be used for saltiness)
Not sweet
About right
Too sweet
enough
NOTE: If dishes are being compared, add additional rows to the evaluation scales, and add an extra column for the
code numbers (or other identifiers) for the different dishes.
NOTE: If dishes are being compared, add additional rows to the evaluation scales, and add an extra column for the
code numbers (or other identifiers) for the different dishes.
APPENDIX 7b
TASTE EVALUATION FORM
APPENDIX 7a
64
LABELLING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS - REGULATIONS AFFECTING CATERERS
What about functions like wedding reception or parties?
The legislation requires that the caterer provides the labelling information to
the purchaser of the food. In the case of a function, such as a wedding
reception or corporate hospitality event, this would be the organiser. The
caterer is not required to make the information available to those actually
eating the food. Where any further labelling is required, this will be the
responsibility of the event organiser.
How can caterers find out if ingredients are GM?
The legislation requires that businesses supplying food to caterers must
provide labelling information on GM ingredients. This information must be
provided either on a label attached to the food, on a notice, or in
accompanying documents such as an invoice. Caterers can use
information received when buying ingredients to ensure they are correctly
labelling the food they subsequently sell.
How are the requirements enforced?
The Trading Standards or Environmental Health Department at your Local
Authority is responsible for enforcing the labelling requirements. It is
anticipated that they will check for compliance in the course of their
routine inspections. Businesses are required to take reasonable steps and
exercise due diligence to ensure that they comply with the requirements.
As part of this process, it is a good idea for caterers to keep records of the
foods and ingredients they buy, and any accompanying labelling
information.
Who can provide further information?
For further information, you can contact the Food Standards Agency at the
address below. Guidance Notes giving more details of the legislation and
setting out the labelling requirements, are also available.
Food Standards Agency Scotland
St Magnus House
25 Guild Street
Aberdeen AB11 6NJ
Telephone Switchboard: 01224 285100
www.food.gov.uk
The information must be provided either:
• On a label attached to the food
• On a menu or notice
• Verbally via serving staff
How should this information be presented?
The legislation allows caterers a certain amount of flexibility in how they
provide the consumer with this information. The information can be given
on a label attached to the food, or on a menu or notice which the
customer can see when he or she chooses the food. Alternatively, caterers
could display a notice saying that some of the foods sold contain GM
ingredients, and that further information is available from the staff. Where
this option is used, the business must have a procedure in place for
ensuring staff are kept informed of this information.
Caterers are legally required to label foods that contain
• GM soya or maize
• GM additives and flavourings
Which foods need labelling?
Under current legislation, caterers must label any foods they sell to the
ultimate consumer that contain GM soya, GM maize or GM additives and
flavourings.
APPENDIX 8
67
Labelling of Genetically Modified (GM) Foods
APPENDIX 8
66
THE BALANCE OF GOOD HEALTH
69
Milk and
dairy foods
Feta
Mozarella
Camembert
Brie
Edam
Dolcelatte*
Emmental
Danish Blue
Gouda
Full fat soft cheese
Cheshire
Gruyère
Double Gloucester
0
Parmesan
5
Cheddar
10
Mascarpone*
15
Stilton
20
Vegetarian cheddar
25
Meat, fish and
alternatives
30
Cottage cheese
35
Ricotta
Cheddar - reduced fat
40
Low fat soft cheese
Grams of fat per 100g
Bread, other cereals
and potatoes
The fat content of different cheeses
Fruit and vegatables
Copies of some graphs and figures used in the text for photocopying purposes
McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of foods, 4th Supplement, Milk Products and Eggs. RSC/MAFF (1989)
*JC Robbins. The Healthy Catering Manual (1989)
The fat content of different yogurts and alternatives
Foods high in fat
Foods and drinks
high in sugar
Grams of fat per 100g
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Full fat
fromage frais
Full fat
plain yogurt
Full fat
fruit yogurt
Low fat
plain yogurt
Low fat
fruit yogurt
Very low fat
fromage frais
McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 4th Supplement, Milk Products and Eggs. RSC/MAFF (1989)
The fat content of different milks
Grams fat per 100g
The calcium content of different
milks
Milligrams calcium per 100g
3.5
115
3.0
2.5
110
2.0
1.5
105
1.0
0.5
0.0
100
Skimmed
Semi- Whole milk
skimmed
McCance and Widdowson's
The Composition of Foods, 4th Supplement,
Milk Products and Eggs. RSC/MAFF (1989)
Skimmed
Semi- Whole milk
skimmed
McCance and Widdowson's
The Composition of foods, 4th Supplement,
Milk Products and Eggs. RSC/MAFF (1989)
Eating for Health
120
4.0
Graphic courtesy of the Health Education Board for Scotland
Greek yogurt
APPENDIX 9
COPIES OF SOME GRAPHS
APPENDIX 9
68
70
NOTES
NOTES
71
72
NOTES
A healthy diet is one that is rich in fruit and vegetables and cereals, and
low in fat, salt and sugar. Improving health and reducing health inequalities
is now a key government priority.
Recognising the links between diet, nutrition and preventable disease such
as heart disease and some cancers, Our National Health, Scotland’s NHS
action plan, supported by Eating for Health: A Diet Action Plan for
Scotland, sets out a multi-agency, multi-sectoral approach to improve
Scotland’s diet. It outlines plans to work with the food industry, including
caterers, to improve the overall balance of the diet with respect to fruit
and vegetables, salt, fat and sugar.
This booklet represents an important resource to achieve this goal. It
provides guidelines and practical tips and a sound basis for improving
health through provision of healthy catering in restaurants, workplaces,
schools and hospitals.
For further information please contact:
Food Standards Agency Scotland
6th Floor
St Magnus House
25 Guild Street
Aberdeen
AB11 6NJ
Telephone: 01224 285100
E-mail: [email protected]
Published by Food Standards Agency Scotland and the Scottish Executive Health
Department 2002. This partially revised edition published June 2006.
Crown copyright 2002.
Extracts from this document may be reproduced for non-commercial education
or training purposes on condition that the source is acknowledged.
Ref: FSA/0572/0606
CATERING
FOR
HEALTH
A guide for teaching healthier catering practices
Working together to support
healthier eating in Scotland
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