Auralization - Toc - Beck-Shop

Auralization - Toc - Beck-Shop
RWTHedition
Auralization
Fundamentals of Acoustics, Modelling, Simulation, Algorithms and Acoustic Virtual Reality
Bearbeitet von
Michael Vorländer
1. Auflage 2007. Buch. xv, 335 S. Hardcover
ISBN 978 3 540 48829 3
Format (B x L): 15,5 x 23,5 cm
Gewicht: 1480 g
Weitere Fachgebiete > Physik, Astronomie > Mechanik > Akustik,
Schwingungsanalyse
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Content
Introduction .........................................................................................
1
1
Fundamentals of acoustics.........................................................
1.1 Sound field equations and the wave equation ....................
1.1.1 Sound field quantities ............................................
1.1.2 Derivation of the wave equation............................
1.2 Plane waves in fluid media ................................................
1.3 Plane harmonic waves........................................................
1.4 Wideband waves and signals .............................................
1.5 Energy and level.................................................................
1.6 Sound intensity...................................................................
1.7 Level arithmetic .................................................................
1.8 Frequency bands ................................................................
7
8
9
10
13
15
15
16
19
20
21
2
Sound sources .............................................................................
2.1 Spherical waves..................................................................
2.2 Harmonic monopole source and sound power ...................
2.3 Pulsating sphere and radiation impedance .........................
2.4 Multipoles and extended sources .......................................
2.5 Spherical harmonics...........................................................
23
23
24
26
28
31
3
Sound propagation .....................................................................
3.1 Reflection of plane waves at an impedance plane .............
3.1.1 Examples of wall impedances................................
3.2 Spherical wave above impedance plane.............................
3.3 Scattering ...........................................................................
3.3.1 Object scattering ....................................................
3.3.2 Surface scattering...................................................
3.4 Diffraction..........................................................................
3.5 Refraction...........................................................................
3.6 Attenuation.........................................................................
3.7 Doppler effect ....................................................................
35
35
37
41
42
42
43
47
48
49
51
XII
Content
4
Sound fields in cavities and in rooms........................................
4.1 Cavities ..............................................................................
4.2 Modes.................................................................................
4.2.1 Boundary conditions..............................................
4.3 Geometrical acoustics ........................................................
4.4 Statistical reverberation theory ..........................................
4.4.1 Reverberation.........................................................
4.4.2 Steady-state energy density and level....................
53
53
54
56
58
59
61
63
5
Structure-borne sound...............................................................
5.1 Waves in solid media .........................................................
5.2 Waves on plates and their radiation ...................................
5.2.1 Finite-size plates ....................................................
5.2.2 Internal losses and structural reverberation time ...
5.3 Vibrational transmission over junctions ............................
69
69
72
75
75
76
6
Psychoacoustics .......................................................................... 79
6.1 Anatomy of the peripheral hearing system ........................ 79
6.2 Psychoacoustic characterization ........................................ 81
6.2.1 Loudness................................................................ 82
6.2.2 Temporal masking ................................................. 84
6.2.3 Time-varying loudness .......................................... 84
6.2.4 Sharpness ............................................................... 84
6.2.5 Fluctuation strength ............................................... 85
6.2.6 Roughness.............................................................. 85
6.2.7 Tonality, pitch, pitch strength................................ 85
6.3 Binaural hearing................................................................. 86
6.3.1 Head-related transfer functions.............................. 87
6.3.2 Artificial heads ...................................................... 90
6.4 Hearing in rooms................................................................ 92
6.4.1 Reverberance ......................................................... 94
6.4.2 Strength.................................................................. 96
6.4.3 Speech intelligibility and transparence .................. 96
6.4.4 Spatial impression.................................................. 98
6.4.5 Spatial variations in a room ................................... 100
6.4.6 Estimation of the monaural subjective
parameters.............................................................. 101
7
Signal processing for auralization ............................................
7.1 The concept of auralization................................................
7.2 Fundamentals of signal processing ....................................
7.2.1 Signals and systems ...............................................
7.2.2 Impulse response and transfer function .................
103
103
106
106
107
Content XIII
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
Fourier transformation .......................................................
Analogue-to-digital conversion..........................................
Discrete Fourier transformation .........................................
Fast Fourier transformation................................................
7.6.1 Sources of errors, leakage and time windows........
Digital filters ......................................................................
110
112
115
116
117
119
8
Characterization of sources.......................................................
8.1 Airborne sound sources......................................................
8.1.1 Multipole synthesis................................................
8.1.2 Musical instruments...............................................
8.1.3 Singing voice .........................................................
8.1.4 Speaking voice.......................................................
8.1.5 Anechoic recordings ..............................................
8.2 Structure-borne sound sources ...........................................
8.2.1 General approach ...................................................
8.2.2 3-D force sources...................................................
123
123
124
126
128
129
129
133
133
135
9
Convolution and sound synthesis..............................................
9.1 Discrete convolution ..........................................................
9.2 FFT convolution.................................................................
9.2.1 Segmented convolution .........................................
9.3 Binaural synthesis ..............................................................
9.4 Binaural mixing console ....................................................
9.5 Spatial resolution of HRTF ................................................
137
137
139
139
141
143
145
10
Simulation models ......................................................................
10.1 Simulation methods for sound and vibrational fields ........
10.1.1 Reciprocity.............................................................
10.1.2 Frequency domain models .....................................
10.1.3 Time domain models .............................................
10.2 Two-port models ................................................................
10.2.1 Transfer path models .............................................
10.3 Other models ......................................................................
147
147
150
153
162
166
170
173
11
Simulation of sound in rooms....................................................
11.1 General ...............................................................................
11.1.1 CAD room model ..................................................
11.1.2 Absorption coefficients..........................................
11.1.3 Scattering coefficients ...........................................
11.2 Stochastic ray tracing .........................................................
11.2.1 Point-in-polygon test .............................................
11.2.2 Detectors ................................................................
175
175
176
180
181
181
184
185
7.7
XIV Content
11.2.3
11.2.4
11.2.5
11.2.6
Presentation of results............................................
Curved surfaces .....................................................
Reproducibility in stochastic ray tracing ...............
Computation times versus uncertainties –
case studies ............................................................
Image source model ...........................................................
11.3.1 Classical model......................................................
11.3.2 Audibility test ........................................................
11.3.3 Limitations.............................................................
11.3.4 Diffraction .............................................................
11.3.5 Reduction of computational load by
preprocessing .........................................................
Hybrid image source models (deterministic ray tracing) ...
Systematic uncertainties of geometrical acoustics.............
Hybrid models in room acoustics.......................................
11.6.1 Hybrid deterministic-stochastic models ................
Construction of binaural room impulse responses .............
186
188
190
12
Simulation and auralization of airborne sound insulation .....
12.1 Definitions of airborne sound transmission .......................
12.2 Sound insulation of building elements...............................
12.3 Sound insulation of buildings ............................................
12.3.1 Flanking transmission............................................
12.4 Sound transmission prediction models ..............................
12.5 Auralization of airborne sound insulation..........................
227
228
229
233
235
235
238
13
Simulation and auralization of structure-borne sound...........
13.1 Definitions of impact sound transmission..........................
13.2 Impact sound model ...........................................................
13.3 Impact sound auralization ..................................................
13.4 Structure-borne interaction model .....................................
245
245
246
249
251
14
Binaural transfer path synthesis ...............................................
14.1 Source identification and characterization .........................
14.1.1 Airborne sound sources .........................................
14.1.2 Structure-borne sound sources...............................
14.2 Transfer path characterization............................................
14.3 Auralization in BTPS.........................................................
255
257
258
261
262
264
15
Aspects of real-time processing ................................................. 267
15.1 Real-time binaural synthesis .............................................. 268
15.1.1 HRTF in multiple degrees of freedom................... 269
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
197
199
199
202
204
206
207
210
213
216
217
222
Content
XV
15.2 Room acoustical real-time auralization..............................
15.2.1 Source and receiver................................................
15.2.2 Real-time processing of image sources .................
15.2.3 Real-time modelling of reverberation....................
15.3 Hybrid real-time room auralization....................................
270
271
272
275
277
3-D sound reproduction and virtual reality systems ...............
16.1 Headphone systems............................................................
16.1.1 Headphone equalization for binaural signals.........
16.1.2 Individual filters.....................................................
16.2 Loudspeaker systems .........................................................
16.2.1 VBAP surround sound...........................................
16.2.2 Ambisonics ............................................................
16.2.3 Wave field synthesis ..............................................
16.2.4 Binaural loudspeaker technology...........................
16.3 VR technology and integrated VR systems .......................
279
280
283
284
287
288
288
289
293
298
Annex ....................................................................................................
Material data.................................................................................
Tables of random-incidence absorption coefficients, α ...............
Tables of random-incidence scattering coefficients, s .................
Tables of sound reduction indices, R............................................
303
303
304
311
316
16
References ............................................................................................ 319
Index ..................................................................................................... 331
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