I am from Mexico. - Pro Lingua Associates

I am from Mexico. - Pro Lingua Associates
Chapter 1
I am from Mexico.
L
earning a language is like building a building. You start
at the bottom and work your way up. In this chapter
you’ll be introduced to the basic building blocks of language:
nouns, pronouns, and verbs. You’ll also learn how to use the
verb to be (ser and estar), the most common verb in the
English language. Finally, you’ll use what you have learned to
write simple sentences in English.
At the end of this chapter you will be able to
• identify nouns.
• distinguish between singular and plural nouns.
• recite the subject pronouns in English.
• use the verb to be (ser and estar).
• write a sentence in English that tells where you are from.
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
1
1.1
Nouns: The Building Blocks of Language
When you were a baby, the first words you said were most likely the names of people
and objects around you. These words, such as mamá and pelota, are called nouns. A
noun is a person, place, animal, or thing. For example,
▶▶ maestra is a noun that is a person.
▶▶ parque is a noun that is a place.
▶▶ elefante is a noun that is an animal.
▶▶ mesa is a noun that is a thing.
In Spanish, nouns are distinguished by gender, either masculine or feminine. For
example, la casa is a feminine noun; el parque is a masculine noun. In English, the
only nouns that are feminine or masculine refer to certain people and animals. For
example, father (padre) is a masculine noun and mother (madre) is a feminine noun.
Only a few English nouns are masculine or feminine. This is good news if you are
learning English because it means that you rarely need to think about whether a noun
is masculine or feminine!
Using the
The most common word in the English language is the. In Spanish, there are four
words for the: el, la, los, and las. In English, it’s easy: you always use the.
A noun can either be singular or plural. A singular noun refers to one person, place,
animal, or thing. A plural noun refers to more than one. The following table gives you
examples of how to use the with singular nouns. Study these words. You will use them
in the exercise on the next page.
the house
(la casa)
the school
(la escuela)
the store
(la tienda)
the car
(el carro)
the table (la mesa)
the chair (la silla)
the book (el libro)
Vocabulary: Singular nouns
the student (el estudiante, la estudiante) the teacher (el maestro, la maestra)
2
the girl (la niña)
the boy (el niño)
the sister (la hermana)
the brother (el hermano)
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
rn!
u
Your t
1.1.a Directions: Read the sentence in Column 1. In Column 2, write each noun in the sentence. The first
question is done for you.
Column 1
Column 2
List each noun in
the sentence.
1. Laura tiene un perro y dos gatos.
1a. Laura
1b. perro
1c. gatos
2. Me gusta comer arroz y frijoles.
2a.
2b.
3. Veo una paloma en el jardín.
3a.
3b.
4. Los estudiantes están en el aula.
4a.
4b.
5. La casa es grande.
5a.
6. Miguel y Ernesto son amigos.
6a.
6b.
6c.
7. El lápiz está en la mesa.
7a.
7b.
8. Juan vive en Chicago.
8a.
8b.
1.1.b Directions: Translate these phrases. Use the word list on the previous page. The first two are done
for you.
1. la silla
the chair
7. la casa
2. la tienda
the store
8. la estudiante
3. el libro
9. la escuela
4. la niña
10. el carro
5. la mesa
11. el niño
6. la maestra
12. el maestro
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
3
1.2
Singular and Plural Nouns
As you learned in the previous section, nouns can be singular or plural. A singular
noun refers to one person, place, animal, or thing. A plural noun refers to more than
one person, place, animal, or thing. In both Spanish and English, you usually make a
noun plural by adding s.
Plant (planta) is a singular noun.
Plants (plantas) is a plural noun.
Book (libro) is a singular noun.
Books (libros) is a plural noun.
Study the singular and plural nouns in the following table. Notice that each plural
noun ends with s. Notice also that in English you use the same word, the, whether the
noun that follows is singular or plural.
Singular nouns
Plural nouns
the house (la casa)
the houses (las casas)
the school (la escuela)
the schools (las escuelas)
the store (la tienda)
the stores (las tiendas)
the car (el carro)
the cars (los carros)
the table (la mesa)
the tables (las mesas)
the chair (la silla)
the chairs (las sillas)
the book (el libro)
the books (los libros)
the student (el estudiante, la estudiante)
the students (los estudiantes, las estudiantes)
the teacher (el maestro, la maestra)
the teachers (los maestros, las maestras)
In English you sometimes make nouns plural by adding es or ies, instead of s. You’ll
learn more about these plural nouns later in this book.
4
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
rn!
u
Your t
1.2.a Directions: Write S after the noun if it is singular and P after the noun if it is plural. The first two are
done for you.
1. the student
S
9. the houses
17. the cat (gato)
2. the students
P
10. the house
18. the cats
3. the nurse
11. the book
19. the sister
4. the nurses
12. the books
20. the sisters
5. the teachers
13. the chairs
21. the schools
6. the teacher
14. the chair
22. the school
7. the dog (perro)
15. the table
8. the dogs
16. the tables
1.2.b Directions: Make each noun plural. The first one is done for you.
1. the nurse
the nurses
7. the book
2. the teacher
8. the house
3. the student
9. the car
4. the store
10. the table
5. the dog
11. the school
6. the chair
12. the brother
1.2.c Directions: Translate each phrase into English. The first two are done for you.
1. la mesa
the table
10. las maestras
2. las mesas
the tables
11. la madre
3. el perro
12. las casas
4. los hermanos
13. los carros
5. los gatos
14. el estudiante
6. las sillas
15. la estudiante
7. la maestra
16. las estudiantes
8. los libros
17. los estudiantes
9. la silla
18. las hermanas
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
5
1.3
Verbs and Subjects
To learn a new language, you need to think about how your native language functions;
then apply that information to the language you’re learning. In this section, you’ll
learn how to identify verbs and subjects in Spanish sentences. In the next section,
you’ll learn how to use verbs and subjects in English.
¡Cuidado! Even though you’re eager to learn about English grammar (as
opposed to Spanish grammar), don’t skip this section. If you do, you’ll be
confused later on.
A verb is a word that shows action. For example, bailar, hablar, and nadar are all
verbs. But the most common verbs in Spanish, ser and estar, don’t show any action at
all. They simply tell the current state of things.
The subject of a sentence is usually the first noun in the sentence. The subject tells who
or what the sentence is about. The verb usually comes immediately after the subject.
Consider this sentence:
▶▶ Gabriela es maestra.
The verb is es. To identify the subject, look for the first noun in the sentence. As you
can see, it’s Gabriela. Notice that Gabriela comes immediately before the verb, es.
Now, consider this sentence:
▶▶ Las casas son grandes.
The verb is son. The first noun in the sentence, casas, is the subject. Here again, the
subject comes immediately before the verb.
There are many sentences where the first noun in the sentence is not the subject of
the sentence and where the noun does not come immediately before the verb, but you
won’t be studying those types of sentences until you’ve mastered more grammar.
Here are more examples of complete sentences. In each example, the subject is
underlined and the verb is in bold.
▶▶ Carlos es médico.
▶▶ Los edificios son muy grandes.
▶▶ Mis hermanas están en Puebla.
▶▶ Ángel está muy guapo.
6
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
rn!
u
Your t
1.3.a Directions: The subject of each sentence is underlined. Write S if the subject is singular and P if the
subject is plural. The first two are done for you.
1. El estudiante es de Texas.
S
9. Yo soy de Los Ángeles.
2. Los estudiantes ahora están en Nueva York.
P
10. Nosotros somos estudiantes nuevos.
3. Isabel y yo somos amigas.
11. Jennifer López es actriz.
4. La maestra está en el aula.
12. Las montañas son muy altas.
5. Las sillas son nuevas.
13. Las mujeres están en el teatro.
6. El vecindario es peligroso.
14. Nosotros somos de Brasil.
7. El carro siempre está roto.
15. La tienda está cerrada.
8. Los estudiantes todavía están cansados.
16. Yo estoy enfermo.
1.3.b Directions: Put one line under the subject. Put two lines under the verb, ser or estar. The first two
are done for you.
1. El estudiante es de Texas.
10. Alex y yo somos estudiantes nuevos.
2. Ellos están en Nueva York.
11. Jennifer López es actriz.
3. Nosotras somos amigas.
12. Las montañas son muy altas.
4. La maestra está en el aula.
13. Las mujeres están en el teatro.
5. Las sillas son nuevas.
14. Enrique y yo somos de Brasil.
6. El vecindario es peligroso.
15. Los perros están en el parque.
7. El carro está roto.
16. Los libros están en el suelo.
8. Los estudiantes están cansados.
17. La tienda está cerrada.
9. Yo soy de Los Ángeles.
18. Lucas está enfermo.
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
7
1.4
Subject Pronouns
You have learned that the subject of a sentence is the word or words that tell who or
what the sentence is about. Read this sentence:
▶▶ Jorge es de Nicaragua.
The subject of the sentence is Jorge.
A pronoun is a word that you can use to replace a noun. A personal pronoun is a
pronoun that takes the place of a noun that is the subject. For example, instead of
saying
▶▶ Jorge es de Nicaragua.
you can replace Jorge with the pronoun él. The new sentence is
▶▶ Él es de Nicaragua.
Similarly, instead of saying
▶▶ Los niños están en el parque.
you might say
▶▶ Ellos están en el parque.
The following are subject pronouns in English and Spanish.*
I (yo)
he (él)
she (ella)
you (tú, usted,
ustedes)
we (nosotros,
nosotras)
they (ellos,
ellas)
*The pronoun it cannot be easily translated into Spanish. You’ll learn about it in the next chapter.
English vs. Spanish: In English, the pronoun you is used for tú, usted and ustedes.
That means that you’ll use the same pronoun whether you’re talking to a child or the
President of the United States! You’ll also use you when you are talking to one person
and when you are talking to a group of people. Consider these examples:
English
Spanish
You are from Peru.
Tú eres de Perú.
You are from Peru.
Usted es de Perú.
You are from Peru.
Ustedes son de Perú.
English vs. Spanish: In English the pronoun they means both ellos and ellas. In
other words, they is used to refer to a group of males, a group of females, or a group
of males and females that you’re not part of. Similarly, the pronoun we means both
nosotros and nosotras, so it can be used to refer to you and one or more males or
females.
8
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
rn!
u
Your t
1.4.a Directions: Translate these subject pronouns from English to Spanish. The first one is done for you.
ellos
1. they
ellas
4. we
2. he
5. you
3. I
6. she
1.4.b Directions: Use the clue to fill in the correct English pronoun. The first one is done for you.
he
1. Usas este pronombre personal para hablar de un hombre.
2. Usas este pronombre persoal para hablar de una mujer.
3. Usas este pronombre personal para hablar de ti mismo.
4. Usas este pronombre personal para hablar de un grupo de hombres, un grupo de
mujeres o un grupo de hombres y mujeres del cual no eres parte.
5. Usas este pronombre personal para hablar de ti y una o más personas.
6. Usas este pronombre personal para hablar de la persona con la que estás
conversando.
1.4.c Directions: Translate these subject pronouns from Spanish to English. The first one is done for you.
1. ella
she
6. usted
2. tú
7. yo
3. él
8. ustedes
4. ella
9. nosotros
5. ellas
10. ellos
1.4.d Directions: Write the subject pronoun–he, she or they–that you can substitute for each noun. The
first two are done for you.
Noun
Pronoun
1. Emma
she
Noun
9. the sister
2. Mario
he
10. the sisters
3. Nina and Marco
11. the brother
4. Fred, Tom, and Dan
12. the brothers
5. the girl
13. the students
6. the girls
14. Anna
7. the boys
15. Eduardo
8. Lucas
16. Sharon and Frank
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
Pronoun
9
1.5
Introducing the Verb To Be
The most common verbs in Spanish are ser and estar. In English when you want to
use a verb that means either ser or estar you use the verb to be. What’s confusing is
that you never say, I be, you be, or he be. Instead, you say I am, you are, he is and so
on. The remainder of this chapter focuses on this important verb. To begin, study this
table.
Conjugating the verb to be: Part 1
I am
yo soy, yo estoy
Notice the following:
▶▶ The English phrase that means I am has two translations: yo soy and yo estoy.
▶▶ When using the verb to be, you always use am after the pronoun I.
Read this conversation:
*¿De dónde eres? **Yo soy de México. Soy de México.
Here are some important things to notice about this conversation:
▶▶ Your response must include the subject pronoun, I. This is different from Spanish
where the subject pronoun, yo, is optional. This sentence is correct:
I am from Peru.
This sentence is not correct:
Am from Peru.
▶▶ The English word for de is from.
▶▶ Specific geographic locations are capitalized. Thus Mexico always starts with a
capital M.
▶▶ All statements in English must begin with a capital letter and end with a period.
Punctuation is very important in English. In fact, if you don’t use correct punctuation,
people may think you’re not very well-educated, even if you are! Thus, when you write
sentences in English, make sure that you begin every sentence with a capital letter and
end every statement with a period. You’ll learn more about English punctuation as
you continue in this book.
10
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
rn!
u
Your t
1.5.a Directions: Rewrite these sentences with correct capitalization and punctuation. Remember that the
names of specific locations must begin with a capital letter. The first one is done for you.
He is from San Luis Potosi.
1. he is from san luis potosi
2. linda is from zacatecas
3. anna is from nicaragua
4. peter is from ecuador
5. jesus is from cuba
6. wendy is from chihuahua
7. dulce is from guerrero
8. francisco is from santiago
9. gabriela is from hidalgo
10. edgar is from the usa
1.5.b Directions: One of the sentences in each pair is not a correct sentence. Cross out the incorrect
sentence. The first one is done for you.
1a. I am from Bolivia.
1b. I from Bolivia.
2a. I from New York.
2b. I am from New York.
3a. My from is Puerto Rico.
3b. I am from Puerto Rico.
4a. I from Guatemala.
4b. I am from Guatemala.
5a. I am from Seattle.
5b. Am from Seattle.
6a. I from Ecuador.
6b. I am from Ecuador.
7a. Am de Mexico.
7b. I am from Mexico.
1.5.c Directions: Translate these sentences. Make sure to begin every sentence with a capital letter;
capitalize the names of countries, cities, and states; and end every sentence with a period. When you check
your work, make sure that each of your sentences is exactly the same as the sentence in Appendix A in the
back of this book. The first one is done for you.
I am from San Salvador.
1. Yo soy de San Salvador.
2. Soy de San Salvador.
3. Yo soy de Honduras.
4. Yo soy de Chiapas.
5. Soy de Chiapas.
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
11
1.6
Using To Be with He and She
You now know how to tell someone where you’re from, but suppose you want to talk
about the place of origin of your sister or your friend? To do that, you need to use the
verb to be with he or she or a noun that you use instead of he and she. To begin,
study this table:
Conjugating the verb to be: Part 2
he is
él es
él está
Marco is
Marco es
Marco está
the boy is
el niño es
el niño está
she is
ella es
ella está
Maria is
María es
María está
the girl is
la niña es
la niña está
Notice the following:
▶▶ Each English phrase has two translations: one that includes a form of the verb ser
and one that includes a form of the verb estar.
▶▶ When using the verb to be, you always use is after the pronouns he and she and
after nouns that refer to one person.
Study the following sentences:
*Él es de Cuba.
*Ella es de Perú.
It is not correct to say
▶▶ Is from Mexico.
12
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
rn!
u
Your t
1.6.a Directions: Complete each sentence using am or is. The first two are done for you.
am
1. I ________
from Mexico.
6. He ________ from Mexico.
is
2. Lucy ________
from Peru.
7. She ________ from Puerto Rico.
3. Lucinda ________ from New York.
8. I ________ from Toluca.
4. Robert _________ from Guatemala.
9. The boy ________from Escatepec.
5. My teacher ________ from Morelia.
10. I ________ from Havana.
1.6.b Directions: Rewrite the sentence by replacing the underlined words with he or she. The first one is
done for you.
1. The boy is from Los Angeles.
He is from Los Angeles.
2. The girl is from Managua.
3. Ana is from Bogota.
4. My sister is from San Jose.
5. Ramon is from the United States.
1.6.c Directions: One of the sentences in each pair is not a correct sentence. Cross out the incorrect
sentence. The first one is done for you.
1a. She is from England.
1b. She am from England.
2a. I is from New York.
2b. I am from New York.
3a. Is from Miami.
3b. Juan is from Miami.
4a. He is from Chicago.
4b. Is from Chicago.
5a. Am from Santo Domingo.
5b. I am from Santo Domingo.
1.6.d Directions: Translate these sentences. The first one is done for you. Make sure you start each
sentence with a capital letter and end each sentence with a period. When you check your work, make sure that
each of your sentences is exactly the same as the sentence in the Answers section in the back of this book.
Susan is from San Salvador.
1. Susan es de El Salvador.
2. Juan es de Michoacán.
3. Mi hermano es de Leon.
4. Él es de Guadalajara.
5. Yo soy de Oaxaca.
6. El niño es de San Juan.
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
13
1.7
More About the Verb To Be
In the last section, you learned how to use the verb to be with the pronouns I, he and
she. But what form of this verb do you use with all the other pronouns? Study this
table to find out.
Conjugating the verb to be: Part 3
you are
tú eres, tú está, usted es, usted está,
ustedes son, ustedes están
we are
nosotros somos, nosotros estamos
Bob and I are
Bob y yo somos, Bob y yo estamos
they are
ellos son, ellos están, ellas son, ellas están
the boys are
los niños son, los niños están
the girls are
las niñas son, las niñas están
After looking at this table, you can see that, when using the verb to be, you use the
verb are after the pronouns you, we and they or after nouns that refer to you and one
other person or to a group of people that doesn’t include you.
English vs. Spanish: Remember that the pronoun you refers to tú, usted, and
ustedes. That means that you’ll say you are in each of these situations:
▶▶ You are from Sonora. (Eres de Sonora o Tú eres de Sonora.)
▶▶ You are from Sonora. (Usted es de Sonora.)
▶▶ You are from Sonora. (Ustedes son de Sonora.)
English vs. Spanish: In Spanish, you can omit the pronoun that comes before the verb
if the meaning of the sentence is clear without the pronoun. For example, in Spanish
you can say
▶▶ Tú eres de Guatemala. o Eres de Guatemala.
In English, you must include the pronoun. Thus you must say
▶▶ You are from Guatemala.
Grammar Summary
When to use the verb to be (ser o estar):
▶▶ use am after the pronoun I.
▶▶ use are after the pronouns you, we and they.
▶▶ use is after the pronouns he and she.
14
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
rn!
u
Your t
1.7.a Directions: Write the correct form of the verb to be (am, is or are). The first one is done for you.
am
1. I ________
from Mexico.
11. The teachers ________ from San Francisco.
2. You ________ from Mexico.
12. Leo and Luis ________ from Nicaragua.
3. He ________ from Peru.
13. My mother ________ from Los Angeles.
4. She ________ from Chicago.
14. You ________ from the United States.
5. We ________ from Paris.
15. Marco and Dan ________ from El Salvador.
6. You ________ from Guatemala.
16. I ________ from the Dominican Republic.
7. They ________ from Texas.
17. We ________ from Latin America.
8. Luis ________ from Cuba.
18. My mother ________ from Canada.
9. I ________ from Madrid.
19. They ________ from Mexico City.
10. Hector ________ from Cancun.
20. You ________ from Zapopan.
1.7.b Directions: Translate these sentences. The first one is done for you. When you check your work,
make sure that each of your sentences is exactly the same as the sentence in the Appendix in the back of this
book.
Susan is from San Salvador.
1. Susan es de San Salvador.
2. Juan y Nancy son de Chicago.
3. Mi hermana es de Dallas.
4. Ellos son de Lima.
5. Nosotros somos de San Juan.
1.7.c Directions: One of the sentences in each pair is not a correct sentence. Cross out the incorrect
sentence. The first one is done for you.
1a. She is from England.
1b. She are from England.
2a. I are from New York.
2b. I am from New York.
3a. We is from Miami.
3b. We are from Miami. 4a. He is from Chicago.
4b. He are from Chicago.
5a. The boys are from Cuba.
5b. The boys am from Cuba.
6a. My from is Santiago.
6b. I am from Santiago.
7a. You is from Tokyo.
7b. You are from Tokyo.
8a. Lourdes are from the United States.
8b. Lourdes is from the United States.
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
15
1.8
Correct and Incorrect Sentences
This chart shows you the pattern of the sentences you have studied.
Subject (noun or
pronoun)
Verb to be
(ser o estar)
Location
I (Yo)
am (soy)
from La Paz. (de La Paz.)
Luis
is (es)
from Bogota. (de Bogotá.)
We (Nosotros, Nosotras)
are (somos)
from Caracas. (de Caracas.)
As you can see, each sentence begins with a noun or pronoun, followed by the
conjugated form of the verb to be, followed by a location. While this may seem
straightforward, it’s very easy to make mistakes. Here are some examples of the kinds
of mistakes new English speakers often make.
Sentences with no subject
In English, it is not correct to say
▶▶ Is from Morelia. (Es de Morelia.)
In English, unlike in Spanish, you can’t omit the subject. (The only exception is
commands, which aren’t discussed in this book.) It is correct, for example, to say
▶▶ Luis is from Morelia. (Luis es de Morelia.)
Or you can say
▶▶ He is from Morelia. (Él es de Morelia.)
Sentences with a redundant subject
It is not correct to say
▶▶ Luis he is from Morelia. (Luis, él es de Morelia.)
This sentence isn’t correct because you can’t use both a noun and a pronoun for the
same subject. Instead, you can either say
▶▶ Luis is from Morelia. (Luis es de Morelia.)
Or you can say
▶▶ He is from Morelia. (Él es de Morelia.)
Sentences with no verb
Another common mistake is to omit the verb altogether. For example,
▶▶ He from Morelia. (Él de Morelia.)
Note that, in English, a grammatically correct sentence must include a verb.
16
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
rn!
u
Your t
1.8.a Directions: Two sentences on each line are correct and one is incorrect. Cross out the incorrect
sentence. The first one is done for you.
1a. Susan she is from NY.
1b. She is from NY.
1c. Susan is from NY.
2a. Bob is from Boston.
2b. Bob he is from Boston.
2c. He is from Boston.
3a. Lily is from Reno.
3b. She is from Reno.
3c. Lily she is from Reno.
4a. He is from Peru.
4b. Dan he is from Peru.
4c. Dan is from Peru.
5a. The girls they are from LA.
5b. They are from LA.
5c. The girls are from LA.
1.8.b Directions: One sentence on each line is correct and one is incorrect. Cross out the incorrect sentence
on each line. The first one is done for you.
1a. Is from NY.
1b. She is from NY.
2a. Jose he is from Ecatepec.
2b. Jose is from Ecatepec.
3a. Are from Ciudad Juárez.
3b. Louisa and Anita are from Ciudad Juárez.
4a. Is from Puerto Rico.
4b. He is from Puerto Rico.
5a. Lisa she is from Camaguey.
5b. Lisa is from Camaguey.
6a. We are from San Luis Potosí.
6b. Are from San Luis Potosí.
7a. I am NY.
7b. I am from NY.
8a. Ernesto is Guadalajara.
8b. Ernesto is from Guadalajara.
9a. Louisa and Anita from LA.
9b. Louisa and Anita are from LA.
10a. He is from Guatemala City.
10b. He is Guatemala City.
11a. Lisa from Culiacan.
11b. Lisa is from Culiacan.
12a. We are from Zapopan.
12b. We from Zapopan.
13a. I from Santo Domingo.
13b. I am from Santo Domingo.
14a. They are Guadalupe.
14b. They are from Guadalupe.
1.8.c Directions: Write the correct form of the verb to be (am, is or are). The first one is done for you.
am
1. I ________
from Madrid.
5. They ________ from Australia.
2. You ________ from the Dominican Republic.
6. You ________ from Guatemala.
3. Antonio _________ from Bolivia.
7. The students ________ from Puerto Rico.
4. We ________ from Honduras.
8. Esmeralda ________ from the United States.
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
17
Chapter 1 Summary
Nouns
▶▶ A noun (sustantivo) is a person, place, animal or thing.
▶▶ A noun can be singular or plural. A singular noun (sustantivo singular) refers to one noun (that is, one
person, place, animal or thing.). A plural noun (sustantivo plural) refers to more than one noun. In both
Spanish and English, you usually make a noun plural by adding an s.
Pronouns
▶▶ A pronoun (pronombre) is a word that you can use to replace a noun.
▶▶ In English, a subject pronoun or personal pronoun (pronombre personal) is a pronoun that takes the
place of a noun that is the subject of the sentence.
▶▶ The English subject pronouns with Spanish translations are as follows:
Personal Pronouns
I (yo)
we (nosotros, nosotras)
he (él)
you (tú, usted, ustedes)
she (ella)
they (ellos, ellas)
it
Verbs
▶▶ A verb (verbo) is a word that shows action or state of being.
Subjects
▶▶ The subject (sujeto) of a sentence is the person or thing that the sentence is about.
The verb to be
▶▶ The most common English verb is to be (ser and estar). You conjugate the verb to be like this:
I am
we are
he is, she is
you are
it is
they are
The article the
▶▶ The means el, la, los and las.
English sentences
▶▶ English sentences always include a subject and a verb.
▶▶ The English sentences you learned in Chapter 1 have this form:
18
Subjeto (noun or pronoun)
Verb to be (ser o estar)
Location
I (Yo)
am (soy)
from La Paz. (de La Paz.)
Luis
is (eres)
from Bogota. (de Bogotá.)
We (Nosotros, Nosotras)
are (somos)
from Caracas. (de Caracas.)
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
More Practice!
P1.a Directions: Make each noun plural. The first one is done for you.
sons
1. son _______________
5. book _______________
2. daugher _______________
6. sister _______________
3. friend _______________
7. teacher _______________
4. boy _______________
8. girl _______________
P1.b Directions: Write S after the noun if it is singular and P after the noun if it is plural. The first two are
done for you.
1. dogs
P
9. books
2. cat
S
10. girl
3. store
11. table
4. stores
12. cars
5. chair
13. dog
6. car
14. cats
7. book
15. house
8. chairs
16. teachers
P1.c Directions: Put one line under the subject of each sentence and two lines under the verb, ser or estar.
The first one is done for you.
1. Mi hermana está feliz.
6. Nosotros estamos aquí.
2. Ellos son amigos.
7. La fiesta es en el parque.
3. El libro es de Benito.
8. Las mujeres son muy bonitas.
4. Ella está en su casa.
9. Él es de los Estados Unidos.
5. Enrique es el capitán.
10. Las maestras están en la oficina.
P1.d Directions: Translate these subject pronouns from Spanish to English. The first one is done for you.
1. ellos
they
6. él
2. yo
7. ustedes
3. nosotras
8. ellas
4. usted
9. nosotros
5. ella
10. tú
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
19
P1.e Directions: Write the correct form of the verb to be (am, is or are). The first one is done for you.
is
1. He __________
from Sinaloa.
11. I ___________ from Mexico City.
2. We __________ from Nayarit.
12. The teacher __________ from Zacatecas.
3. Antonio ___________ from Yucatan.
13. The students __________ from the USA.
4. Lilia and Jose __________from Guerrero.
14. Mr. Lopez __________ from Coahuila.
5. They __________ from Campeche.
15. I __________ from Quintana Roo.
6. You __________ from Santo Domingo.
16. My boyfriend (novio) ________ from Tamaulipas.
7. The brothers __________ from Tobasco.
17. My girlfriend (novia) __________ from Hidalgo.
8. Alejandro __________ from Guanajuato.
18. You __________ from Aguascalientes.
9. Obdula __________ from Colima.
19. She __________ from Baja California Sur.
10. Sara __________ from Havana.
20. I __________ from Baja California Norte.
P1.f Directions: Change the subject in each sentence from singular to plural. Then change the verb to
make a correct sentence. The first one is done for you.
The girls are from Mexico.
1. The girl is from Mexico.
2. The boy is from Puerto Rico.
3. The teacher is from Guatemala.
4. The girl is from Bolivia.
5. The doctor is from El Salvador.
6. The student is from San Francisco.
P1.g Directions: One sentence on each line is correct and one is incorrect. Crossout the incorrect
sentence on each line.
1a. I am Chicago.
1b. I am from Chicago.
2a. Ernesto is from Guadalajara.
2b. Ernesto he is from Guadalajara.
3a. Louisa and Anita from LA.
3b. Louisa and Anita are from LA.
4a. Is from Guatemala City.
4b. He is from Guatemala City.
5a. Lisa is from Haiti.
5b. Lisa she is from Haiti.
6a. We are from Caracas.
6b. We from Caracas.
7a. I from Mexico City.
7b. I am from Mexico City.
8a. Louisa she is from Guadalupe.
8b. Louisa is from Guadalupe.
9a. He from the United States. 9b. He is from the United States.
10a. My brother is from Boston.
10b. My brother he from Boston.
20
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
P1.h Directions: Rewrite the sentence by replacing the underlined words with a pronoun (he, she or
they). The first one is done for you.
1. The girls are from New York.
They are from New York.
2. The girl is from Panama.
3. My brothers are from Brazil.
4. My father is from Argentina.
5. The teachers are from Santiago.
6. Miguel and Carlos are from Las Vegas.
7. Martin is from the United States.
8. My mother is from Mexico City.
P1.i Directions: Translate these sentences into English.
1. Ella es de Nicaragua.
She is from Nicaragua.
2. Nosotros somos de San Diego.
3. Las niñas son de Chicago.
4. La maestra es de Guadalajara.
5. Ellos son de Cancún.
6. Los estudiantes son de Bogotá.
7. Yo soy de San Francisco.
8. Los maestros son de Havana.
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
21
22
English Grammar: Step by Step 1
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement