CompTIA Network+ Study Guide
Written by Networking Authority Todd Lammle
Includes Real-World Scenarios, Written Labs,
and Leading-Edge Exam Prep Software Featuring:
• Custom Test Engine
• Hundreds of Sample Questions
• Electronic Flashcards for PCs, Pocket PCs,
and Palm Handhelds
ON
APPROVE
D
TENT
• Entire Book in PDF
QUALITY C
Study Guide
Exam N10-004
Todd Lammle
27477ffirs.indd 2
2/26/09 1:38:02 PM
CompTIA Network+ Study Guide
N10-004 Exam Objectives
Objective
Chapter
1.0 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES
1.1 Explain the function of common networking protocols
6
TCP; FTP; UDP; TCP/IP suite; DHCP; TFTP; DNS; HTTP(S); ARP; SIP (VoIP); RTP
(VoIP); SSH; POP3; NTP; IMAP4; Telnet; SMTP; SNMP2/3; ICMP; IGMP; TLS
1.2 Identify commonly used TCP and UDP default ports
6
TCP ports: FTP – 20, 21; SSH – 22;TELNET – 23; SMTP – 25; DNS – 53; HTTP – 80;
POP3 – 110; NTP – 123; IMAP4 – 143; HTTPS – 443
UDP ports: TFTP – 69; DNS – 53; BOOTPS/DHCP – 67; SNMP – 161
1.3 Identify the following address formats
7
IPv6; IPv4; MAC addressing
1.4 Given a scenario, evaluate the proper use of the following addressing technologies
and addressing schemes
7, 8
Addressing Technologies: Subnetting; Classful vs. classless (e.g. CIDR,
Supernetting); NAT; PAT; SNAT; Public vs. private; DHCP (static, dynamic APIPA)
Addressing schemes: Unicast; Multicast; Broadcast
1.5 Identify common IPv4 and IPv6 routing protocols
10
Link state: OSPF; IS-IS
Distance vector: RIP; RIPv2; BGP
Hybrid: EIGRP
1.6 Explain the purpose and properties of routing
9
IGP vs. EGP; Static vs. dynamic; Next hop; Understanding routing tables and how
they pertain to path selection; Explain convergence (steady state)
1.7 Compare the characteristics of wireless communication standards
12
802.11 a/b/g/n: Speeds; Distance; Channels; Frequency
Authentication and encryption: WPA; WEP; RADIUS; TKIP
2.0 NETWORK MEDIA AND TOPOLOGIES
2.1 Categorize standard cable types and their properties
3
Type: CAT3, CAT5, CAT5e, CAT6; STP, UTP; Multimode fiber, single-mode fiber;
Coaxial: RG-59; RG-6; Serial; Plenum vs. Non-plenum
Properties: Transmission speeds; Distance; Duplex; Noise immunity (security, EMI);
Frequency
27477book.indd 2
2/25/09 1:29:12 PM
Objective
2.2 Identify common connector types
chapter
3
RJ-11; RJ-45; BNC; SC; ST; LC; RS-232
2.3 Identify common physical network topologies
1
Star; Mesh; Bus; Ring; Point to point; Point to multipoint; Hybrid
2.4 Given a scenario, differentiate and implement appropriate wiring standards
3
568A; 568B; Straight vs. cross-over; Rollover; Loopback
2.5 Categorize WAN technology types and properties
16
Type: Frame relay; E1/T1; ADSL; SDSL; VDSL; Cable modem; Satellite; E3/T3; OC-x;
Wireless; ATM; SONET; MPLS; ISDN BRI; ISDN PRI; POTS; PSTN
Properties: Circuit switch; Packet switch; Speed; Transmission media; Distance
2.6 Categorize LAN technology types and properties
4
Types: Ethernet; 10BaseT; 100BaseTX; 100BaseFX; 1000BaseT;
1000BaseX; 10GBaseSR; 10GBaseLR; 10GBaseER; 10GBaseSW;
10GBaseLW; 10GBaseEW; 10GBaseT
Properties: CSMA/CD; Broadcast; Collision; Bonding; Speed; Distance
2.7 Explain common logical network topologies and their characteristics
1
Peer to peer; Client/server; VPN; VLAN
2.8 Install components of wiring distribution
3
Vertical and horizontal cross connects; Patch panels; 66 block; MDFs; IDFs; 25
pair; 100 pair; 110 block; Demarc; Demarc extension; Smart jack; Verify wiring
installation; Verify wiring; termination
3.0 NetWOrK DeviceS
3.1 Install, configure and differentiate between common network devices
5
Hub; Repeater; Modem; NIC; Media converters; Basic switch; Bridge; Wireless
access point; Basic router; Basic firewall; Basic DHCP server
3.2 Identify the functions of specialized network devices
5
Multilayer switch; Content switch; IDS/IPS; Load balancer; Multifunction network
devices; DNS server; Bandwidth shaper; Proxy server; CSU/DSU
3.3 Explain the advanced features of a switch
11
PoE; Spanning tree; VLAN; Trunking; Port mirroring; Port authentication
3.4 Implement a basic wireless network
Install client; Access point placement; Install access point—Configure appropriate
encryption, Configure channels and frequencies, Set ESSID and beacon—Verify
installation
Exam specifications and content are subject to change at any time without
prior notice and at CompTIA’s sole discretion. Please visit CompTIA’s website
(www.comptia.org) for the most current information on their exam content.
12
Objective
Chapter
4.0 NETWORK MANAGEMENT
4.1 Explain the function of each layer of the OSI model
2
Layer 1 – physical; Layer 2 – data link; Layer 3 – network; Layer 4 – transport;
Layer 5 – session; Layer 6 – presentation; Layer 7 – application
4.2 Identify types of configuration management documentation
20
Wiring schematics; Physical and logical network diagrams; Baselines; Policies,
procedures, and configurations; Regulations
4.3 Given a scenario, evaluate the network based on configuration management
documentation
20
Compare wiring schematics, physical and logical network diagrams, baselines,
policies and procedures and configurations to network devices and infrastructure;
Update wiring schematics, physical and logical network diagrams, configurations
and job logs as needed
4.4 Conduct network monitoring to identify performance and connectivity issues using
the following:
20
Network monitoring utilities (e.g. packet sniffers, connectivity software, load
testing, throughput testers); System logs, history logs, event logs
4.5 Explain different methods and rationales for network performance optimization
20
Methods: QoS; Traffic shaping; Load balancing; High availability; Caching engines;
Fault tolerance
Reasons: Latency sensitivity; High bandwidth applications—VoIP, Video
applications—Uptime
4.6 Given a scenario, implement the following network troubleshooting methodology
19
Information gathering – identify symptoms and problems; Identify the affected
areas of the network; Determine if anything has changed; Establish the most
probable cause; Determine if escalation is necessary; Create an action plan and
solution identifying potential effects; Implement and test the solution; Identify the
results and effects of the solution; Document the solution and the entire process
4.7 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common connectivity issues and select an
appropriate solution
19
Physical issues: Cross talk; Nearing crosstalk; Near end crosstalk; Attenuation;
Collisions; Shorts; Open impedance mismatch (echo); Interference
Logical issues: Port speed; Port duplex mismatch; Incorrect VLAN; Incorrect IP
address; Wrong gateway; Wrong DNS; Wrong subnet mask—Issues that should be
identified but escalated: Switching loop, Routing loop, Route problems, Proxy arp,
Broadcast storms; Wireless Issues: Interference (bleed, environmental factors),
Incorrect encryption, Incorrect channel, Incorrect frequency, ESSID mismatch,
Standard mismatch (802.11 a/b/g/n); Distance; Bounce; Incorrect antenna placement
27477book.indd 4
2/25/09 1:29:12 PM
Objective
chapter
5.0 NetWOrK tOOLS
5.1 Given a scenario, select the appropriate command line interface tool and interpret
the output to verify functionality
17
Traceroute; Ipconfig; Ifconfig; Ping; Arp ping; Arp; Nslookup; Hostname; Dig; Mtr;
Route; Nbtstat; Netstat
5.2 Explain the purpose of network scanners
18
Packet sniffers; Intrusion detection software; Intrusion prevention software; Port
scanners
5.3 Given a scenario, utilize the appropriate hardware tools
18
Cable testers; Protocol analyzer; Certifiers; TDR; OTDR; Multimeter; Toner
probe; Butt set; Punch down tool; Cable stripper; Snips; Voltage event recorder;
Temperature monitor
6.0 NetWOrK SecUritY
6.1 Explain the function of hardware and software security devices
15
Network based firewall; Host based firewall; IDS; IPS; VPN concentrator
6.2 Explain common features of a firewall
15
Application layer vs. network layer; Stateful vs. stateless; Scanning services;
Content filtering; Signature identification; Zones
6.3 Explain the methods of network access security
13
Filtering: ACL—MAC filtering, IP filtering—Tunneling and encryption—SSL VPN,
VPN, L2TP, PPTP, IPSEC— Remote access—RAS, RDP, PPPoE, PPP, VNC, ICA
6.4 Explain methods of user authentication
13
PKI; Kerberos; AAA—RADIUS, TACACS+—Network access control—802.1x—CHAP;
MS-CHAP; EAP
6.5 Explain issues that affect device security
15
Physical security; Restricting local and remote access; Secure methods vs.
unsecure methods—SSH, HTTPS, SNMPv3, SFTP, SCP; TELNET, HTTP, FTP, RSH,
RCP, SNMPv1/2
6.6 Identify common security threats and mitigation techniques
Security threats: DoS; Viruses; Worms; Attackers; Man in the middle; Smurf; Rogue
access points; Social engineering (phishing)
Mitigation techniques: Policies and procedures; User training; Patches
Exam specifications and content are subject to change at any time without
prior notice and at CompTIA’s sole discretion. Please visit CompTIA’s website
(www.comptia.org) for the most current information on their exam content.
14
CompTIA
Network+
®
Study Guide
27477ffirs.indd 1
2/26/09 1:38:02 PM
27477ffirs.indd 2
2/26/09 1:38:02 PM
CompTIA
Network+
®
Study Guide
Todd Lammle
27477ffirs.indd 3
2/26/09 1:38:03 PM
Acquisitions Editor: Jeff Kellum
Development Editor: Susan Herman
Technical Editors: Steven Johnson and Derek Lewis
Production Editor: Christine O’Connor
Copy Editor: Tiffany Taylor
Production Manager: Tim Tate
Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard Swadley
Vice President and Publisher: Neil Edde
Project Manager 1: Laura Moss-Hollister
Associate Producer: Shawn Patrick
Media Quality Assurance: Angie Denny
Book Designer: Judy Fung, Bill Gibson
Compositor: Craig Woods, Happenstance Type-O-Rama
Proofreader: Publication Services, Inc.
Indexer: Jack Lewis
Project Coordinator, Cover: Lynsey Stanford
Cover Designer: Ryan Sneed
Copyright © 2009 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published simultaneously in Canada
ISBN: 978-0-470-42747-7
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections
107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or
authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood
Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should
be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030,
(201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.
Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties
with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or
extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for
every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal,
accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom.
The fact that an organization or Web site is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Web
site may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Web sites listed
in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read.
For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our
Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (877) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317)
572-4002.
Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be
available in electronic books.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.
Lammle, Todd.
CompTIA Network+ study guide (Exam N10-004) / Todd Lammle. — 1st ed.
p. cm.
ISBN 978-0-470-42747-7 (paper/cd-rom) -- ISBN 978-0-470-42748-4 (cloth/cd-rom) 1. Computer networks—
Examinations—Study guides. 2. Electronic data processing personnel--Certification. I. Title.
TK5105.5.L3555 2009
004.6076—dc22
2009001904
TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John
Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without
written permission. Network+ is a registered trademark of The Computing Technology Industry Association, Inc.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with
any product or vendor mentioned in th is book.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
27477ffirs.indd 4
2/26/09 1:38:03 PM
Sybex is an independent entity from CompTIA and is not affiliated with CompTIA in any manner. Neither
CompTIA nor Sybex warrants that use of this publication will ensure passing the relevant exam. Network+ is
either a registered trademark or trademark of CompTIA in the United States and/or other countries.
The logo of the CompTIA Authorized Quality Curriculum (CAQC) program and the status of this or
other training material as “Authorized” under the CompTIA Authorized Quality Curriculum program
signifies that, in CompTIA’s opinion, such training material covers the content of the CompTIA’s related
certification exam. CompTIA has not reviewed or approved the accuracy of the contents of this training
material and specifically disclaims any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
CompTIA makes no guarantee concerning the success of persons using any such “Authorized” or other
training material in order to prepare for any CompTIA certification exam.
The contents of this training material were created for the CompTIA Network+ exam covering CompTIA
certification objectives that were current as of 2008.
How to Become CompTIA Certified:
This training material can help you prepare for and pass a related CompTIA certification exam or
exams. In order to achieve CompTIA certification, you must register for and pass a CompTIA certification exam or exams.
In order to become CompTIA certified, you must:
Select a certification exam provider.
1.
2.Register for and schedule a time to take the CompTIA certification exam(s) at a convenient location.
3.Read and sign the Candidate Agreement, which will be presented at the time of the exam(s).
4.
Take and pass the CompTIA certification exam(s).
For more information about CompTIA’s certification process, and to learn more about their industry
acceptance, benefits, or program news, please visit http://www.comptia.org/certification.
CompTIA is a non-profit information technology (IT) trade association. CompTIA’s certifications are
designed by subject matter experts from across the IT industry. Each CompTIA certification is vendor-neutral,
covers multiple technologies, and requires demonstration of skills and knowledge widely sought after by the
IT industry.
To contact CompTIA with any questions or comments please email them at:
[email protected]
Sybex is an independent entity from CompTIA and is not affiliated with CompTIA in any manner.
Neither CompTIA nor Sybex warrants that use of this publication will ensure passing the relevant exam.
Network+ is either a registered trademark or trademark of CompTIA in the United States and/or other
countries.
27477ffirs.indd 5
2/26/09 1:38:03 PM
27477ffirs.indd 6
2/26/09 1:38:03 PM
Dear Reader,
Thank you for choosing CompTIA Network+ Study Guide. This book is part of a family
of premium-quality Sybex books, all of which are written by outstanding authors who combine practical experience with a gift for teaching.
Sybex was founded in 1976. More than thirty years later, we’re still committed to producing
consistently exceptional books. With each of our titles we’re working hard to set a new standard for the industry. From the paper we print on, to the authors we work with, our goal is
to bring you the best books available.
I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. I’d be very interested to hear your comments
and get your feedback on how we’re doing. Feel free to let me know what you think about
this or any other Sybex book by sending me an email at [email protected], or if you think
you’ve found a technical error in this book, please visit http://sybex.custhelp.com. Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex.
Best regards,
27477ffirs.indd 7
Neil Edde
Vice President and Publisher
Sybex, an Imprint of Wiley
2/26/09 1:38:03 PM
Acknowledgments
Monica Lammle’s writing style, editing ability, encouragement, and dedication to ensuring
that my books are concise yet highly readable has been invaluable to the success of this and
many other projects.
Susan Herman was the development editor of this, the newest book in the Sybex CompTIA series. Thank you, Susan, for having the patience of Job, and for working so hard on this
book with me. I’m so happy (and relieved) that you took on the job and, most of all, that you
didn’t run screaming from the room the next day!
Jeff Kellum is instrumental to my success in the Cisco world and is my acquisitions editor
for this new CompTIA Network+ book. Jeff, thanks for your guidance and continued patience
for all our books we’ve published together!
In addition, Christine O’Connor was an excellent production editor and she worked really
hard to get the book done as quickly as possible, without missing the small mistakes that are
so easy to over look. I am always very pleased when I hear that she will be working with me on
a new project. Tiffany Taylor was latest copy editor, and she was patient, helpful, and detailed,
but yet worked extremely hard to get this book out the shelf as fast as possible, and for that I
thank her tremendously.
Steven Johnson literally hashed and rehashed each topic in this guide with me at all
hours of the day and night, scrutinizing the material until we both agreed it was verifiably
solid. Thank you, Steve!
I also want to mention Patrick Conlan, who tech-edited my CCNA book and is writing
the Sybex Cisco Network Professional’s Advanced Internetworking Guide. Pat was very
helpful in throwing ideas at me for this book, and was the photographer for all the pictures
I put in this book.
27477ffirs.indd 8
2/26/09 1:38:03 PM
About the Author
Todd Lammle, CompTIA Network+, CCSI, CCNA/CCNP, CCSP/CCVP, MCSE, CEH/
CHFI, FCC RF Licensed, is the authority on Network Certification and internetworking.
He is a world-renowned author, speaker, trainer, and consultant. Todd has over 25 years
of experience working with LANs, WANs, and large licensed and unlicensed wireless networks. He’s president and CEO of GlobalNet Training and Consulting, Inc., a networkintegration and training firm based in Dallas, Texas. You can reach Todd through his
forum at www.lammle.com.
27477ffirs.indd 9
2/26/09 1:38:03 PM
27477ffirs.indd 10
2/26/09 1:38:04 PM
Contents at a Glance
27477ffirs.indd 11
Introduction
xxvii
Assessment Test
xlviii
Chapter 1
Introduction to Networks
1
Chapter 2
The Open Systems Interconnection Specifications
33
Chapter 3
Networking Topologies, Connectors, and Wiring Standards
61
Chapter 4
The Current Ethernet Specifications
97
Chapter 5
Networking Devices
131
Chapter 6
Introduction to Internet Protocol (IP)
177
Chapter 7
IP Addressing
215
Chapter 8
IP Subnetting, Troubleshooting IP, and Introduction to NAT
241
Chapter 9
Introduction to IP Routing
287
Chapter 10
Routing Protocols
311
Chapter 11
Switching and Virtual LANs (VLANs)
339
Chapter 12
Wireless Technologies
377
Chapter 13
Authentication and Access Control
423
Chapter 14
Network Threats and Mitigation
463
Chapter 15
Physical and Hardware Security
499
Chapter 16
Wide Area Networks
545
Chapter 17
Command-Line Tools
575
Chapter 18
Software and Hardware Tools
629
Chapter 19
Network Troubleshooting
659
Chapter 20
Management, Monitoring, and Optimization
699
Appendix A
Subnetting Class A
731
Appendix B
About the Companion CD
741
Glossary
745
Index
791
2/26/09 1:38:04 PM
27477ffirs.indd 12
2/26/09 1:38:04 PM
Contents
Introduction
xxvii
Assessment Test
xlviii
Chapter
Chapter
27477book.indd 13
1
2
Introduction to Networks
1
First Things First: What’s a Network?
The Local Area Network (LAN)
Common Network Components
Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
Network Architecture: Peer-to-Peer or Client/Server?
Physical Network Topologies
Bus Topology
Star Topology
Ring Topology
Mesh Topology
Point-to-Point Topology
Point-to-Multipoint Topology
Hybrid Topology
Topology Selection, Backbones, and Segments
Selecting the Right Topology
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Labs
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Labs
2
3
5
8
9
10
11
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
21
22
23
24
25
29
31
The Open Systems Interconnection Specifications
33
Internetworking Models
The Layered Approach
Advantages of Reference Models
The OSI Reference Model
The Application Layer
The Presentation Layer
The Session Layer
The Transport Layer
The Network Layer
The Data Link Layer
The Physical Layer
34
35
35
36
37
39
39
39
45
48
50
2/25/09 1:14:46 PM
xiv Chapter
Chapter
Contents
3
4
Introduction to Encapsulation
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
51
52
52
53
54
58
60
Networking Topologies, Connectors,
and Wiring Standards
61
Physical Media
Coaxial Cable
Twisted-Pair Cable
Fiber-Optic Cable
Serial Cables
Properties of Cables
Transmission Speeds
Distance
Duplex
Noise Immunity (Security, EMI)
Frequency
Wiring Standards
568A vs. 568B
Straight-Through Cable
Crossover Cable
Rollover Cable
Hardware Loopback
Installing Wiring Distributions
Vertical and Horizontal Cross-Connects
Patch Panels
Verifying Correct Wiring Installation
Verifying Proper Wiring Termination
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
63
64
66
69
73
75
75
76
76
76
77
77
77
78
78
79
80
82
82
83
86
86
87
87
88
89
93
95
The Current Ethernet Specifications
97
Network Basics
Ethernet Basics
Collision Domain
Broadcast Domain
27477book.indd 14
98
100
100
100
2/25/09 1:14:46 PM
Contents Chapter
27477book.indd 15
5
xv
CSMA/CD
Half- and Full-Duplex Ethernet
Ethernet at the Data Link Layer
Binary to Decimal and Hexadecimal Conversion
Ethernet Addressing
Ethernet Frames
Channel Bonding
Ethernet at the Physical Layer
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
101
102
104
104
108
108
111
111
116
116
118
121
125
127
Networking Devices
131
Common Network Connectivity Devices
Hub
Repeater
Modem
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Transceiver (Media Converter)
Bridge
Switch
Wireless Access Point (AP)
Router
Firewall
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Server
Other Specialized Devices
Multilayer Switch
Content Switch
Intrusion Detection or Prevention System (IDS/IPS)
Load Balancer
Multifunction Network Devices
Domain Name Service (DNS) Server
Bandwidth Shaper
Proxy Server
Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU)
Network Segmentation
Switches and Bridges at the Data Link Layer
Hubs at the Physical Layer
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
132
133
134
134
136
137
139
140
141
142
143
144
147
147
148
148
149
149
149
154
155
156
157
163
165
166
166
168
2/25/09 1:14:46 PM
xvi Contents
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
27477book.indd 16
6
7
8
169
173
175
Introduction to Internet Protocol (IP)
177
Introducing TCP/IP
A Brief History of TCP/IP
TCP/IP and the DoD Model
The Process/Application Layer Protocols
The Host-to-Host Layer Protocols
The Internet Layer Protocols
Data Encapsulation
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
179
179
180
182
190
195
200
204
205
206
207
211
213
IP Addressing
215
IP Terminology
The Hierarchical IP Addressing Scheme
Network Addressing
Private IP Addresses
Broadcast Addresses
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
Why Do We Need IPv6?
The Benefits of and Uses for IPv6
IPv6 Addressing and Expressions
Shortened Expression
Address Types
Special Addresses
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
216
217
218
222
223
225
225
226
227
228
229
230
230
231
232
233
237
239
IP Subnetting, Troubleshooting IP,
and Introduction to NAT
241
Subnetting Basics
How to Create Subnets
Subnet Masks
242
243
244
2/25/09 1:14:47 PM
Contents Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
Subnetting Class C Addresses
Subnetting Class B Addresses
Troubleshooting IP Addressing
Determining IP Address Problems
Introduction to Network Address Translation (NAT)
Types of Network Address Translation
NAT Names
How NAT Works
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Labs
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Labs
Chapter
Chapter
27477book.indd 17
9
10
xvii
245
247
256
264
267
271
273
273
274
275
276
277
278
283
285
Introduction to IP Routing
287
Routing Basics
The IP Routing Process
Testing Your IP Routing Understanding
Static and Dynamic Routing
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
288
291
297
298
301
301
303
304
308
310
Routing Protocols
311
Routing Protocol Basics
Administrative Distances
Classes of Routing Protocols
Distance-Vector Routing Protocols
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
RIP Version 2 (RIPv2)
VLSM and Discontiguous Networks
EIGRP Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
Link-State Routing Protocols
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS)
IPv6 Routing Protocols
RIPng
EIGRPv6
OSPFv3
312
313
315
316
317
318
319
321
323
324
325
327
328
329
329
329
2/25/09 1:14:47 PM
xviii Contents
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
Chapter
Chapter
11
12
Switching and Virtual LANs (VLANs)
339
Networking Before Layer 2 Switching
Switching Services
Limitations of Layer 2 Switching
Bridging vs. LAN Switching
Three Switch Functions at Layer 2
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
Spanning-Tree Port States
STP Convergence
Virtual LANs (VLANs)
VLAN Basics
VLAN Memberships
Static VLANs
Dynamic VLANs
Identifying VLANs
VLAN Identification Methods
Switching and Network Security
Port Security/Authentication
How VLANs Enhance Network Security
Two Additional Advanced Features of Switches
Power over Ethernet (PoE)
Port Mirroring/Spanning
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab 340
344
345
345
346
351
352
353
354
354
358
358
359
359
360
362
362
362
363
364
366
367
368
369
370
374
376
Wireless Technologies
377
Introduction to Wireless Technology
The 802.11 Standards
2.4GHz (802.11b)
2.4GHz (802.11g)
5GHz (802.11a)
5GHz (802.11h)
2.4GHz/5GHz (802.11n)
27477book.indd 18
330
330
331
332
336
338
378
381
382
383
384
385
385
2/25/09 1:14:47 PM
Contents Comparing 802.11 Standards
Wireless LAN Modulation Techniques
Range Comparisons
Wireless Network Components
Wireless Access Points
Wireless Network Interface Card (NIC)
Wireless Antennas
Installing a Wireless Network
Ad hoc Mode: Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS)
Infrastructure Mode: Basic Service Set (BSS)
Design Considerations with Large Wireless Networks
Installing and Configuring Hardware
Wireless Security
Open Access
Service Set Identifiers (SSIDs), Wired Equivalent
Privacy (WEP), and Media Access Control (MAC)
Address Authentication
Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) or WPA 2 Pre-Shared Key
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
Chapter
13
Authentication and Access Control
Security Filtering
Access Control Lists
Tunneling
Encryption
Remote Access
Managing User Account and Password Security
Network Resource-Sharing Security Models
Managing User Accounts
Managing Passwords
User-Authentication Methods
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
Kerberos
Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)
Network Access Control (NAC)
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
27477book.indd 19
xix
387
387
388
389
389
390
391
393
393
394
396
398
406
407
407
408
409
410
412
412
414
415
419
421
423
425
426
427
432
436
439
439
440
443
447
447
448
449
451
451
2/25/09 1:14:47 PM
xx Contents
MS-CHAP
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
Chapter
14
Network Threats and Mitigation
Recognizing Security Threats
Denial of Service (DoS)
Viruses
Worms
Attackers and Their Tools
Rogue Access Points
Social Engineering (Phishing)
Understanding Mitigation Techniques
Active Detection
Passive Detection
Proactive Defense
Policies and Procedures
Security Policies
Security Training
Patches and Upgrades
Updating Antivirus Components
Fixing an Infected Computer
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
Chapter
15
Physical and Hardware Security
Using Hardware and Software Security Devices
Defining Firewalls
Network-Based Firewalls
Host-Based Firewalls
Firewall Technologies
Access Control Lists (ACL)
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
Protocol Switching
27477book.indd 20
452
452
453
453
454
455
459
461
463
464
465
468
471
471
474
475
476
476
476
477
477
478
483
484
486
488
488
489
490
491
495
497
499
500
502
503
503
503
504
506
507
2/25/09 1:14:47 PM
Contents Dynamic Packet Filtering
Proxy Services
Firewalls at the Application Layer vs. the Network Layer
Stateful vs. Stateless Network-Layer Firewalls
Application-layer Firewalls
Scanning Services and Other Firewall Features
Content Filtering
Signature Identification
Zones
Intrusion-Detection and -Prevention Systems
Network-Based IDS
Host-Based IDS
VPN Concentrators
Understanding Problems Affecting Device Security
Physical Security
Logical Security Configurations
Restricting Local and Remote Access
Secure and Unsecure Application Protocols
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
Chapter
16
Wide Area Networks
What’s a WAN?
Defining WAN Terms
The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
WAN Connection Types
Bandwidth or Speed
T-Series Connections
The T1 Connection
The T3 Connection
Transmission Media
Wired Connections
Wireless Technologies
Broadband Services
DSL Technology and xDSL
Cable Modem
WAN Protocols
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Frame Relay Technology
27477book.indd 21
xxi
508
509
511
512
513
514
515
515
516
518
519
521
522
523
523
525
527
529
534
534
536
537
541
543
545
547
547
548
549
551
551
552
553
553
554
555
556
557
559
560
560
562
2/25/09 1:14:48 PM
xxii Chapter
27477book.indd 22
Contents
17
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
565
565
567
567
568
569
572
574
Command-Line Tools
575
Using Traceroute
Using ipconfig and ifconfig
Using the ipconfig Utility
Using the ifconfig Utility
Using the ping Utility
Using the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
The Windows ARP Table
Using the arp Utility
Using the nslookup Utility
Resolving Names with the Hosts Table
Using the Mtr Command
Using the Route Command
Using the route Command Options
Some Examples of the route Command
Using the nbtstat Utility
The –a Switch
The –A Switch
The –c Switch
The –n Switch
The –r Switch
The –R Switch
The –S Switch
The –s Switch
Using the netstat Utility
The –a Switch
The –e Switch
The –r Switch
The –s Switch
The –p Switch
The –n Switch
Using the File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Starting FTP and Logging In to an FTP Server
Downloading Files
Uploading Files
577
578
578
582
583
586
586
587
590
592
593
594
595
597
597
598
600
600
601
601
602
602
603
603
606
607
608
608
608
610
612
613
614
616
2/25/09 1:14:48 PM
Contents Using the Telephone Network (Telnet) Utility
How to Enable Telnet in Vista
Don’t Use Telnet, Use Secure Shell (SSH)
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
Chapter
Chapter
18
19
617
617
618
619
619
620
621
626
628
Software and Hardware Tools
629
Understanding Network Scanners
Packet Sniffers
Intrusion Detection and Prevention Software (IDS/IPS)
Port Scanners
Identifying Hardware Tools
Cable Testers
Protocol Analyzer
Certifiers
Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR)
Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)
Multimeter
Toner Probe
Butt Set
Punch-Down Tool
Cable Stripper/Snips
Voltage Event Recorder
Temperature Monitor
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
630
630
632
634
637
637
639
640
640
641
642
642
644
644
646
647
648
649
649
650
651
655
657
Network Troubleshooting
Narrowing Down the Problem
Are There Any Cabling Issues? Did You Check
the Super Simple Stuff?
Is Hardware or Software Causing the Problem?
Is It a Workstation or a Server Problem?
Which Segments of the Network Are Affected?
Is It Bad Cabling?
27477book.indd 23
xxiii
659
661
662
665
666
667
667
2/25/09 1:14:48 PM
xxiv Contents
Troubleshooting Steps
Step 1: Information Gathering—Identify Symptoms
and Problems
Step 2: Identify the Affected Areas of the Network
Step 3: Determine if Anything Has Changed
Step 4: Establish the Most Probable Cause
Step 5: Determine if Escalation Is Necessary
Step 6: Create an Action Plan and Solution,
Identifying Potential Effects
Step 7: Implement and Test the Solution
Step 8: Identify the Results and Effects of the Solution
Step 9: Document the Solution and the Entire Process
Troubleshooting Tips
Don’t Overlook the Small Stuff
Prioritize Your Problems
Check the Software Configuration
Don’t Overlook Physical Conditions
Don’t Overlook Cable Problems
Check for Viruses
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
Chapter
20
Management, Monitoring, and Optimization
Managing Network Documentation
Schematics and Diagrams
Baselines
Policies, Procedures, and Regulations
Monitoring the Network and Optimizing Its Performance
Network Monitoring and Logging
Reasons to Optimize Your Network’s Performance
How to Optimize Performance
Summary
Exam Essentials
Written Lab
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Answers to Written Lab
27477book.indd 24
672
672
673
674
675
678
680
683
683
684
685
685
685
686
686
687
687
688
688
690
691
695
697
699
702
703
709
711
713
713
716
718
721
722
723
724
728
730
2/25/09 1:14:48 PM
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement