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M
UMTVERStTY OF
ILLINOIS LIBRARY
URBANA-CHAMPA1GN
A
Publication of the
Computing and Communications Services
Office
UNIV OF
ILL,
JAN 2 5
The University
Vol. 6 No.
of Illinois
1993
Campus Network
Dec. 1992 -Jan. 1993
1
Icon Key
Exploring the Power of
the Internet Gopher
Novices
of the
INTERNET TREASURES
Golden Gophers)
provide the
Experienced users
flexible
clients
Everyone
Platform/Operating System
HH
Shopper) have also been tracking the devel-
{continued on page 2)
opment
PC
compatibles
(DOS™)
of this increasingly popular
ubiquitous Internet tool. So,
whyanotherarticleabout
gopher? Well first, if you
Macintosh™
S3
H
E
VMD
it.
^^
//^\*gr
Gopher
^
is
"***
the
only application that
truly makes navigating and
using
many
services
on the
In-
ternet as natural as choosing
NeXT™
mainframe, VMD
an
entree from a dinner menu. Yet, for
elegant simplicity, there
CCSO'S IBM™
is
all its
tremendous
power behind gopher's intuitive interface.
Unleashing this power is a matter of understanding a
little bit
about
how gopher
works and discovering some of
UNIX™ mainframes
and workstations
its less
obvious capabilities.
Back
to Basics
For the sake of the uninitiated,
PH
Any
platform
and
haven't yet read about or
seen gopher, you
should make a point
of
X Window System™
Sys-
news, announcements, and other kinds of information to the university community. In order
to make it easy for departmental information providers to maintain control over
their own data, the gopher team sought to
develop a "distributed document delivery
system" that is, a system in which the
data could physically reside on multiple
computers in multiple locations. Their
for disseminating
vided for the coordination and linking of
least
AISS
effort to
now, most UlUCnet users have at
heard about gopher. The furry
little rodent who burrows through
gopherspace on the Internet has been featured twice in CCSO's Updates newsletter
(vol. 3 no. 4 and vol. 3 no. 8) and once in
the semi-monthly UIUC faculty/staff
newspaper Inside Illinois (vol. 12 no. 11).
National publications for computing and
networking professionals and hobbyists
(e.g., MacWeek, Network World, Computer
By
MSS\
an
Campus-Wide Information
tem (CWIS)
Network Administrators
in
UM students and staff with a
let's
review a little bit about the history and
nature of the Internet gopher. Gopher was
born at the University of Minnesota (home
—
solution was a TCP/ IP-based client-server
protocol and a set of applications that pro-
(continued from page 1)
servers across cam-
^^^TulPaf^Raame
time presenting
that information to the end-user in a
such that
all
it
which it is linked. Today
most servers contain more than just text
files and links to other servers. In addition
to holding hundreds of text files, the main
gopher server here at UIUC (a NeXT workstation) includes an engine for browsing
and downloading files from popular ftp
sites, gateways to the archie file archive
database and the WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers) distributed-database systhe server to
Gopher...
way
appears to come from the
same place.
Over the
last two years, gopher has
evolved from a system primarily intended
abreast of the latest server software releases and be willing to
upgrade the server
Although the Unix-based
server is the most powerful, it is also possible to set up a gopher server with limited
capabilities on a Macintosh or PC. Such
servers might be appropriate for a small
department that wants to publish its own
text-based information but does not have
the resources to purchase and maintain a
complex Unix workstation.
as necessary.
tem, direct links to several types of elec-
documents to a highly
customizable environment for providing
access to many different types of files and
popular network services. Gopher has
been adopted by hundreds of sites across
phone books, the ability to do fullon many of the documents
archived on our local server and remote
—including the University of
sions for connecting to popular electronic
of choice.
Today, the same method that
across the Internet, and, of course, links to
was used
to link multiple servers at the
every other gopher server in the world and
on the server and all its
Gopher clients have been developed
for many different types of computers and
to distribute text
the Internet
Illinois
—as the CWIS/information server
University of Minnesota
used
to link
campus
gopher servers
all
is
now
over the
Now
tronic
let's
consider the client side of
The
client is the
gopher.
text databases,
software that communicates with the
server. It provides a friendly front-end for
the end-user to view and select the ser-
library catalogs
preconfigured telnet ses-
and information servers
vices available
links.
the unrestricted services they offer.
operating systems and often differ in terms
The Minnesota gopher development
team is constantly working on expanding
of "look and feel" (see the related article on
all
page
"How
Six
globe. The result is a seamless network of
information servers, all of which can be
easily accessed through a single, menu-
the capabilities of the server software. In
Up"
order to maintain a state-of-the-art gopher
several features in
driven interface.
server, the server administrator must keep
Due
to the
superhuman
8,
.
Gopher
Clients Stack
Nevertheless, all gopher clients have
common.
(continued on page 3)
Lynn Bilger,
the University of Illinois gopher service
Gopher Object Types
is
internationally recognized as one of
the best in gopherspace.
investigate
But,
)
efforts of co-
administrators Paul Gibbs and
now
computer and
text searches
if
some
of
its
Later on, we'll
Normal Types:
features in detail.
you haven't yet had a chance to
want to know how you
access gopher or
Item
is
a file
1
Item
is
a directory
2
Item
is
a
CSO
3
Error
CCSO Resource
4
Item
is
a
BinHexed Macintosh
(you can also request a
copy by sending an e-mail message with
your campus mail address to uiucnet
5
DOS binary archive of some
Item is a UNIX uuencoded file
can use
it
to distribute
tion, get a
Gopher at
your
own informa-
copy of the document called
the University of Illinois, available
in the rack just outside the
Center, 1420
©uiucedu).
DCL
This document provides
all
the information necessary to get started
with gopher. It describes what gopher is,
summarizes what's contained in the UIUC
gopher server, outlines the numerous
methods for accessing gopher, and enumerates the
many
(qi)
phone-book server
file
Item
is
7
Item
is
8
Item points to a text-based telnet session
6
an Index-Search server
9
Item
T
TN3270 connection
is
sort
a binary file
Experimental Types:
options for getting in-
formation into gopher.
Gopher Server(s) and
Clients
Like so many networked applications
today, gopher exploits the client-server
model. The server is the machine that
holds and organizes the data. To a certain
extent, what you can do with gopher depends on your server. A very simple server
might only hold plain text files. By linking
this simple server to another gopher server,
however, users have access to information
and services on both the simple server and
s
g
M
Sound type. Data stream
GIF type
MIME type.
is
Item contains
a
mulaw sound
MIME (Multipurpose
Internet Mail
Extensions) data
h
html type. (HyperText
Web,
Markup Language used by
the
World Wide
a hypertext application for finding and accessing resources
on the Internet)
I
Image type
i
"inline" text type (used by panda, a proprietary version of gopher
used
at
the University of Iowa)
.
004.66977344
L5>(
V.k
1X17
Dec. 1992 -Jan. 1993
Gopher...
(continued from page 2)
The most obvious
gopher
among
similarity
clients is that the
information and
on the server are pre-
services available
sented to the end-user as a series of nested
menus.
menu
This type of
structure
intended to resemble a hierarchical
is
computer
When
users.
menu. This is more or less equivalent
to the "root" directory of a tree-structured
file
system. Like a root directory, the top-
level
menu often contains files and other
which are analogous to
menus,
subdirectories (or folders) in a
file
system.
These submenus may, in turn, contain files,
additional submenus, or other kinds of
objects (such as telnet sessions, index
searches, links to
ph
servers, etc.),
and so
on.
clients are created equal.
transmitted from server to client for item
menu
For example,
submenus
in the
items that contain
Unix
curses client termi-
symbol
Unix environment.
the Mac and NeXT Gopher
nate with a slash
(/),
the standard
for a directory in the
TurboGopher for
represent the
menu
ers within folders.
hierarchy as fold-
Other
clients identify
menus in some consistent but less intuitive
manner. All menus in the X Window
System client, for instance, are preceded
by a "»" symbol, and PC Gopher II for DOS
uses the symbol <D>, which stands for
directory.
worth taking a few moments
to consider what actually takes place during a gopher session. When you start
gopher, your client opens a TCP connection with a gopher server (usually the server
at the
address specified in the
figuration
file).
The
client
client's
con-
sends a car-
riage-return / line-feed to the server, which
in gophertalk means, "Tell
me what you've
what
to
do
if
a
know
Welcome to the U of Illinois Gopher.
Campus Announcements (12/1/92)/
6.
7.
8.
9.
U
New?
of Illinois
(12/3/92).
Campus
Champaign-Urbana
Information/
& Regional Infor-
symbol
stream
in the text
in black ink) is the object type, in
this case "0". Every item displayed in a
gopher menu has an object type associated
with
it.
client
It is
the object type that
what the
specific item
is.
the
tells
The
uses this information to determine
client
how to
sent).
Immediately following the object
type
the actual text that
is
menu (shown
the
is
three pieces of information
how
to access item
select
menu
would open
displayed in
in blue ink).
1
tell
The next
the client
on the menu.
1, your
If
item number
a
TCP
you
client
session with the host
at port 70.
Once
lector string "0/ Welcome" to the server.
The server would respond by sending the
complete text of the welcome message back
to your client.
As it happens, gopher.uiuc.edu is the
alias of UIUC's main gopher server, so
selecting item 1 would initiate another
brief interaction with
not
all
menu
our local server But
.
items on our local server
point to objects that reside locally.
Libraries/
and
10.
Newspapers,
11.
Weather/
Other Gopher and Information Serv-
Newsletters,
For
you were to select the menu
item called 12. Phone Books (PH)/, the
following information would be displayed
example,
if
ers/
Phone Books (PH)/
not be able to make use of all of the services
13.
Internet File Server (ftp) Sites/
available through gopher. Additionally,
even the most up-to-date client may have
limited functionality due to the hardware
constraints of the machine on which it is
installed. For example, some gopher clients (NeXT Gopher, Xgopher 1.2, Unix
curses, etc.) can actually play sound files.
first
gopher.uiuc.edu 70
Computer Documentation/
12.
just
The
(shown
U of Illinois Gopher
the
mation/
means that your client may
It
Welcome to
O/Welcome
connected, the client would send the se-
won't necessarily result in something catastrophic.
1
this:
you see the menu:
message from the server
includes a term it doesn't understand. This
looks like
named gopher.uiuc.edu
Keyword Search of Gopher Menus <?>
older client will not
menu above
raw information
documents as pieces of paper, menus as
folders, ph searches as telephones, and so
on) and what to do with the item, should
the user decide to select it. Type is a text
file (see the table on page 2 for the list of
object identifiers and the types they repre-
5.
An
that listens for re-
graphical clients typically display text
Information about Gopher/
posed).
number
about the contents of the top-level
menu, after which the TCP connection is
closed. Yes, closed! Even though it appears as if your client is maintaining a
continuous connection with the server, client-server conversations in gopher are typically very brief. The server returns just
enough information to the client so that
the client can initiate another TCP connection and perform another action such as
retrieving a file or opening a menu. For
example, when you connect to the U of I
Gopher server with the Unix curses client
What's
added to gopher, new terms
are added to the gopher vocabulary (in
fact, a full-fledged extension to the gopher
protocol called Gopher+ has been pro-
the telnet port
quests on that host. The
turning a stream of carefully formatted
3.
services are
the host on
display the item in the menu (for example,
4.
their ability to
domain name of
which the object resides, and 5)
located), 4) the
is
got to offer." The server responds by re-
gopher client-server protocol
While this might seem self-evident, it's
important to note that as new options and
is
object
it's
2.
interpret the
path in which the
ally the directory or
Before leaving the topic of clients and
servers,
by gospeak and
characteristic shared
the client, 3) a
A Gopher Conversation
1
Another
pher clients
menu on
selector string for retrieving the object (usu-
in the
text
The gopher file system metaphor is
more obvious in some clients than others.
1 .3
displayed in the
a user first con-
nects to a server, he or she sees the toplevel
The CMS client on VMD can display the
names of sound files and assigns the label
<sound> to them, but cannot play them.
PC Gopher II, on the other hand, doesn't
even know about sound files. It can neither display their names nor play them.
Suffice it to say, not all gopher servers and
file
system, a concept already familiar to most
3
1.
U
of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign
<cso>
2.
Internet-wide e-mail address searches/
The client actually receives much more
3.
menu
4.
displayed on the screen. For each
5.
Phone books at other institutions/
VVHOIS Searches/
X.500 Gateway (experimental)/
information about each item in the
than
is
menu
choice, the server sends five sepa-
rate pieces of information:
1)
the object
type, 2) the specific text that should be
(continued on page 4)
—
—
,
Dec. 1992 -Jan. 1993
served that the functionality and sophisti-
Gopher...
cation of the individual
(continued from page 3)
If
you then
selected item
components are
often sacrificed for the convenience of in-
number 2,
the
raw information sent back from the server
would be:
UIUC's gopher server, the ftp option is
listed on the main menu with the title
Internet File Server (ftp) Sites.
and ease of
popular
Is the same thing true for gopher's
implementation of well-known Internet
services such as ftp, telnet, archie, WAIS,
tionally,
ter-application compatibility
use.
Several
by name. Addithe well-known ftp sites
ftp sites are listed
most of
world are organized alphabetically
in the
resources actually makes it more powerful
submenus in this same menu. For
most of the sites in the alphabetical listing,
a brief summary of what the site contains
is provided.
The same method used to
move up and down through gopher's menu
hierarchy (usually point and shoot or point
and click) can be used to browse the directory contents of any ftp site in the list.
And, if you've got the right client, you can
use the same technique to transfer any file
from the remote ftp server to your client
The menu appears
than using a stand-alone application. Let's
machine.
on our local server, but in reality
it comes from somewhere else. This is how
gopher establishes transparent "links" with
take a closer look at several of the services
offered through gopher and determine how
they measure up to alternative methods of
pher server providing access to that host, and
other servers.
access.
3)
1 Internet-wide
e-mail address searches
etc.?
70
answer.
Books/. other gopher.miCTO.umn.edu
Object type
menu
1
means that the item is a
The domain name
(or directory).
gopher.micro.umn.edu indicates that by
selecting this item, you would not be opening a connection with our local server.
Rather choosing this item will point your
client to a menu on the server at the University of Minnesota.
as
Well, that's a difficult question to
/Phone
if it is
For many services, the answer
depends specifically on which gopher client you are using. Some services are "client intensive," and if the gopher client
doesn't do it's job well, it will pale when
compared to a stand-alone counterpart.
But there are at least a few instances where
gopher's ability to pull together multiple
Why should you care about any of this?
I
can think of several good reasons.
First
may be an occasion when you want
to know where the information in gopher
there
actually originates, something that
is
not
Gopher as Document Delivery System
From the outset, gopher was conceived
document delivery system, and it's
as a
fair to
say that this
gopher does
Many gopher
clients,
clients
have the
ability to
raw information that lies bemenu choice. With the Unix curses
you can view this information by
hind a
client,
pressing the = (equal) sign. Second, occasionally a server will identify an object
All
gopher
computers:
1)
ftp transactions involve three
the remote ftp host, 2) the go-
your client. Problems can occur anywhere
this pipe, but the most common problem is that many gopher clients can only display and transfer text files. So, when you are
browsing an ftp site, it may look as if there are
very few files available, when in fact, your
client is only showing you the files types that
it can actually transfer.
For example, PC
Gopher II cannot handle binary file transWhen browsing ftp sites with this
fers.
client, you will only see files with object
along
necessarily apparent from the menu entry.
display the
into
is
one of the things that
gopher servers and
best. All
no matter how primitive, know
handle text documents. Most clients can display text documents on the
screen, save them to a file, and /or print
them. A few clients also offer the option of
mailing the document to another person
how
to
type
Then there are clients
show you the files it thinks
(plain text).
that will only
you want
know about. The Unix curses
file
on the Internet.
Here at UIUC, gopher's
displays
files that
transfer will be unsuccessful.
There is hardly
a local event, announcement, or news item
est to a
Unix
cess to
that doesn't
make it into gopher. Special
Campus Announcements have their own
top level entry on our gopher menu. One
extensions .zip, .exe,
If you try to retrieve a binary
with your client, and the server has
told your client that the file is plain text, the
incorrectly.
Having acraw server data can help diagnose
problems such as this.
how
It's
also fascinating
one can hop
from one server to another in gopher without thinking about a single network adto consider
effortlessly
dress.
Integrated Services
Gopher's strongest selling point is its
ability to integrate a variety of network
text delivery
talents are fully exploited.
could spend hours,
if
not days, browsing
through the menu called U of Illinois Campus Information. Lurking beneath this
menu choice is literally everything you
wanted to know about the U of I, but were
afraid to ask, neatly organized into menus
to
can transfer binary
files,
.sit, etc.
the
software on
names
of
only
are not visible
this
Finally, there are clients,
CMS
it
user. Thus, files with the
when browsing ftp sites with
ent.
but
thinks will be of inter-
it
all
VMD,
file
that
Unix
cli-
such as the
can display
types, but can only
transfer ASCII files. This client is good for
browsing ftp sites, but you have toexitgopher
Campus Crime Bulletin,
and others can be found under the Newspapers, Newsletters, and Weather menu.
Gopher is rapidly becoming the official
and run a separate ftp application to actually fetch the file. The only clients I know
of that can successfully display and transfer all types of binary files are TurboGopher
for the Mac and Xgopher L2. It's a good
bet that most gopher clients will be able to
display and transfer all file types as software development continues. But for now,
vehicle for disseminating important UIUC
gopher's ftp capabilities are definitely lim-
text-based information.
ited
Gopher as FTP
Gopher as Archie
and submenus.
The
full text
of several
services into a single application, so that
local publications including The Daily Mini,
users don't have to learn multiple soft-
Inside Illinois, the
ware packages, commands, and network
addresses to take advantage of them a
revolutionary step towards making the
Internet accessible to the common man.
However, if you've ever had experience
client
by the
versatility of
your
client.
with commercially available integrated
software
—the kind
that
combines word
Client
processing, database, spreadsheet, graph-
Ftp, the TCP/ IP file transfer protocol, is
and telecommunications capabilities
package you may have ob-
one of the areas in which gopher shines
that is, if you have the right client. On
ics,
into a single
—
Client
Gopher's implementation of the archie
service exemplifies
how the integration of
itimtcd on page 5)
.
..
.
.
—
..
.
.
Dec. 1992 -Jan. 1993
Gopher...
Host ux1.cso.uiuc.edu
(continued from page 4)
Location: /mac
DIRECTORY drwxr-xr-x
Loca t on /mac /eudora
F LE -rui-i
r
applications can improve performance.
i
The archie
FTP
the
service, called
Search of Most
Sites (archie), can be
512
Now
18
459636
Oct
18
00:05
eudora
:
1
eudora 1.2.
1991
2.
.si
found beneath
main menu item Internet
(ftp) Sites.
5
File Server
Archie is a searchable database
Figure
Partial results of an archie search on the character string "eudora" using the stand-
1:
alone Unix archie client.
of the file holdings of all major anonymous
ftp sites
on the
Internet.
You can
ternet Gooher Information Client w1
feed
archie a filename (or part of a filename)
Search of Most FTP sites
and archie will return a list of all the ftp
sites that have a file matching your query.
Prior to gopher, the only way to query
archie was to telnet to one of several archie
Archie would send back the desired infor-
you wanted to actually
get the file, you would have to open an ftp
connection with one of the sites listed by
mation. Then,
if
Ids td.comg/src/uni xmac /eudora//
metten fenk mau n 5 /pub /mac/eudora//
mesun eu net§/comp/mac/ma /eudora//
ak u gw tohoku ac j p£ /pub /mac /comm/MacTCP /eudora//
ma er cc f su edu? /pub /mac /eudora / /
f tp.uu.net$/systems/mac/eudora//
pinus.slu. se^/pub/mac/ma l/eudora//
dorm rutgers edu£ /pub /Mac /eudora//
sre doc c ac ukg/comput ng/systems/mac/eudora//
ux 1 cso u uc edu£ /mac/eudora//
miki ,cs. t tech. ac. jp§ /pub /Mac/eudora//
biom3.uni v-lyonl frS /pub /mac /comm /eudora- 122 hqx <HQX>
pub/nfs-mounted/biom3.uni w-lyon fr/mac/comm/eudora-122 hqx <HQX>
luga. latrobe edu au£ /pub /network /eudora//
/Solaris. ims.ac. jp /pub /unix /mac /eudora//
f tpmai
..Solaris. ims.ac.jp/pub/unix/mac/eudora-J/eudoral 2. 2J6.si t hqx <HQX>
solar is. ims.ac.jp/pub/unix/mac/eudora-J/eudora1 2. 2JE4.si t.hqx <HQX>
p aza. aarnet edu. au£ /micros/mac/ma lers/eudora//
.
change
I
.
i
.
i
.
.
I
.
.
i
.
I
.
.
.
i
.
10
11.
to the specified directory,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
i
.
i
i
.
.
i
12.
archie,
archie): eudora
uuor
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
servers or use a stand-alone archie client.
<
.
13.
1
.
.
.
and execute the proper ftp commands.
The gopher archie gateway is integrated
with its ftp engine. Thus, performing an
archie query on gopher will not only provide you with a list of ftp sites and directories, but can literally take you to one of
those ftp sites. And, if your gopher client
knows how to transfer the file, you can
grab it during the same transaction.
Comparing an archie query using the
Unix stand-alone client with the same
query on gopher will demonstrate exactly
how
powerful gopher's archie service
14.
.
15.
16.
.
.
.
I
i
.
Press 3 for Help, 3 to Quit, J to go up a
Page:
1/6
Figure 2: Partial results of an archie search on the character string "eudora" using the gopher
archie service.
\mmmmimm-\i
ux
—
>
1
.
1
1
.
i
•HH.mrraiiMi
cso u uc edu? /mac /eudora/
.
i
.
.
2Changes
2man. glue. si t.hqx <HQX>
2man pm s t hqx <HQX>
.
i
.
3Changes
README
ReleaseNotes.
append x-d
beta/
comm
.sit. hqx < HQX >
diskcopy.hqx <HQX>
doc. .si t.hqx <HQX>
eudora .2.2.
si t.hqx <HQX>
1
8.
9.
.
i
10.
11.
alone archie client on one of CCSO's Unix
1
.no tar
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
is.
character string "eudora" using the stand-
12.
mainframes Once archie has listed all the
ftp hosts on which a file or directory named
13.
14.
"eudora" resides, the transaction is over.
The gopher archie service can take you
16.
shows
I
.
17.
18.
Suppose you wanted to locate the well
know e-mail package called Eudora. Figure 1 on this page shows part of the results
returned by doing an archie query on the
several steps further. Figure 2
.
.
15.
17.
1
.
i
i
1
i
intl/
oldbeta/
sr a pop c
tables/
i
1
.
the
information returned by gopher on the
Press S
f or
Help,
J)
to Quit,
J to go up a menu
Page:
1/1
same query.
Every item followed by a
double slash (//) is a directory. By selecting
item 10 in the menu, you can view the
entire contents of the mac/eudora directory on uxl.cso.uiuc.edu as shown in Figure 3. At this point, you have actually
opened an ftp connection with uxl and are
inside the mac/eudora directory. From
here, if your client permits, you can transfer any of the files listed in the directory to
your local computer. Unfortunately, because ftp and archie are tied together on
gopher,
apply
many of the same limitations that
to ftp also
apply to archie.
Figure 3: The file contents of menu item 10 in Figure 2 above. Items that are files in this menu
to the client machine. Items that are directories (followed by a slash) can be opened
can be ftp' d
just like
any other gopher menu.
Gopher as Telnet and Tn3270 Tool
Gopher has
the ability to launch pre-
Many gopher
own, provide access to on-line library catalogs and other
kinds of information servers. With gopher, you can easily access these systems
without knowing their domain name or IP
address by simply making a menu choice.
However, when you select a telnet session
configured telnet sessions.
servers, including our
from a gopher menu, it is important to
your gopher client is not actually opening the telnet session. In fact,
realize that
choosing a telnet session will cause you to
temporarily leave gopher. The gopher
on
machine and pass the neces-
client will look for the telnet application
your
client
sary address information off to the telnet
program.
Gopher
will also display
(continued on page 6)
any
which can be searched by keyword
and cover a wide variety of subjects. (A
detailed description of WAIS and how it
works is given in the October 1 992 issue of
UlUCnet, vol. 5 no 6.) The gopher implebases,
Gopher...
i
you need to know,
such as the login id and password to give
the remote host. Your telnet program will
special information
mentation of
WAIS lacks many of the feain dedicated WAIS clients.
then try to contact the specified host using
tures
the information provided by gopher. When
you close the session, you will be returned
Most notably, with gopher you can only
search one WAIS database at a time, and
WAIS's unique search refining tool called
to gopher.
Whether a telnet session is successful or
not depends on several factors. Most criti-
making sure that your gopher client
knows how to find your telnet client. The
cal is
gopher clients on CCSO machines have
been configured to launch telnet sessions
for you. If you install a gopher client on
your desktop computer, you may have to
do something special so that gopher knows
how
one feature that
most WAIS clients do not: it allows you to
see the names and search all of the public
WAIS
same
T but returns
open telnet and
tn3270 sessions with gopher is a tremendous convenience. The gopher server at
the University of North Texas, which you
can find under Other Gopher and Information Servers/Recommended Gopher
Servers for Exploration/University of
North Texas/, has an exhaustive menu of
to reach library
over the world. Although
it is
not possible to open a remote login session
with a host that
is
File
Viewer/Player
file.
Thus,
In general, the ability to
all
Gopher as
vides access to our local CCSO Nameserver,
gopher and are
the message "cannot process this type."
catalogs
server application.
can be used to look up the e-mail address
gopher must be able to find the tn3270
program on your client machine. Additionally, your gopher client must know
about the tn3270 object type. Neither PC
Gopher II nor the CMS Gopher on VMD
recognize the tn3270 object type. The DOS
client simply does not display tn3270 sessions in its menu system. The CMS client
and tn3270 sessions
gopher do not allow a user to log
Nameserver to modify his or her
own entry. Despite these minor shortcomings, between the many ph Nameservers
and other electronic directory services
(such as whois databases, the experimental X.500 directory, and the utility called
netfind), gopher offers a set of comprehensive tools for finding someone on the
Internet, unmatched by any other clientin to a
and / or other information about people on
the Internet. The first item in this menu, U
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, pro-
restrictions.
displays the session as type
Per-
stand-alone clients, the ph clients
built in to
work
frames. In principle, tn3270 sessions
telnet
databases that are available.
haps someday, a full-featured WAIS client
will be built in to the gopher software.
few simply don't work. Also, unlike
IBM main-
also launch remote login
just like telnet sessions in
offer
a
many
you are fortunate enough to have the
right software and hardware, gopher can
be used to view images and play sounds.
Sounds and images are experimental object types in Gopher and only a few clients
know what to do with them. Moreover,
like the telnet function in gopher, sound
and image files are not actually played or
viewed by the gopher client. The client
looks for another program on the client
machine that knows how to process the
sessions with computers that require 3270
subject to the
gopher does
Gopher as
Under
terminal emulation, such as
How-
relevance feedback is not available.
ever,
to find telnet.
Gopher can
found
and
not listed in a gopher
(PH)
is
Electronic
the
menu
Phone Book
item Phone Books
a collection of electronic
phone
directories (often called white pages) that
If
For example, if the application Giffer is
known as ph. Many other institutions
have used the ph program to set up their
own electronic directory services. They
installed
can be found mixed in with other types of
like Giffer to display
also
electronic directories in the
Phonebooks
at
submenu
other institutions.
Each gopher client represents ph direcsome consistent way. Some clients use the term CSO, which stands for
CSO Nameserver. Others use an icon resembling a telephone or telephone book.
In any case, ph searches comprise a specific object type in gopher and are handled
tories in
somewhat uniquely. Most searches conducted in gopher are actually handled by
that is, the client asks
a gopher server
you to enter a search string, it then sends
your search string to a gopher server, the
server looks for items matching your search
—
string,
and
finally the results of the search
are returned to your client.
Ph queries, on
on your Mac, when you down-
load a GIF (graphics interchange format)
file,
TurboGopher will ask you if you would
Xgopher
1.2 will
it
for you. Similarly,
pass GIF
files off to
the
X
application called xloadimage.
Finding Things in Gopher
Well, after many words and
pages,
we've only begun to scratch the surface of
gopher, which leads us to the last major
—
with so much information on so many gopher servers all over
the world, how does one actually find
specific information in gopher, and once
found, how can one keep track of where
topic in this article
the information
ally
is
located?
Gopher
actu-
provides several tools for locating
in-
formation. There is a special object type in
gopher called an index-search server. Index
searches often have the word "search" as
menu
menu, if you would like certain libraries or
information servers added to the list of
libraries and terminal-based sessions on
the UIUC gopher server, simply send an email request to our local gopher adminis-
the other hand, involve a direct conversa-
part of their
between the gopher client and a ph
server; a gopher server does not partici-
object types in gopher,
pate in these transactions (except to pro-
trator at the address [email protected]
for a
A gopher administrator can create an index search for any large body of text contained in a gopher menu. This can help
you to rapidly zero in on the documents of
tion
vide the address of the ph server). In order
Gopher as WAIS Client
Among the many services offered by
gopher is a gateway to the WAIS (Wide-
gopher client to conduct a ph search,
must know how to speak the ph protocol, which is something quite different
than the gopher protocol. Most gopher
clients today have a built-in ph client. Some
Area Information Servers) databases.
are easy to use but not very powerful,
WAIS
others are powerful but not very intuitive,
it
is
a collection of distributed data-
entry and, like other
have
a distinctive
abbreviation or icon associated with them.
interest.
For example,
if
you are searching
the electronic version of the Daily
all
recent articles about the
leyball team,
you could go
Illini
women's
to the
(continued on page 7)
for
vol-
Daily
7
Dec. 1992 -Jan. 1993
VERONICA does not eliminate duplicate
Gopher...
items, so a given search can result in
(continued from page 6)
Illini
repetitions of the
Newspaper menu and choose
the
or menu.
Word Search of Latest Month item. When
asked to enter a search
your
string, enter the
word "volleyball." All DI articles from the
last month that contain the word "volleyball" will
But
the
be
how
first
listed as a separate
did
place?
we
menu.
find the Daily
Illini
in
The UIUC main gopher
server has a wonderfully useful resource
level menu called Keyword
Gopher Menus. This item con-
on the top
Search of
tains an index of the titles of every menu
on our server. To find the Daily Illini
amidst the megabytes of information and
multitudes of menus on the server, do a
Keyword Search of Gopher Menus on the
string "daily illini." Or, suppose you know
that there
is
a link to a searchable version
somewhere on our
you haven't a clue where to
look. Just do a keyword search on the
word "thesaurus" and you will be taken
directly to the Roget's Thesaurus menu.
VERONICA. The Keyword Search of
of Roget's Thesaurus
server, but
Gopher Menus handles searching menus
on our own gopher server, but what about
hundreds of other servers on the Inter-
the
net? Let me introduce you to VERONICA.
VERONICA stands for "very easy rodentoriented net-wide index to computerized
archives" and does for gopher what archie
does for anonymous ftp archives (now
we're all waiting for Betty, Reggie, and
Jughead to appear on the Internet).
VERONICA is a utility that indexes the
titles of all levels of menus for most gopher
on the Internet. VERONICA works
any other index search. You enter a
word or group of words that you are looking for, and VERONICA creates a custom
menu of all titles on all menus throughout
gopherspace that match your query. By
selecting an item in the custom menu, you
are transparently connected to the gopher
server on which it is located.
sites
same service, document,
Finally,
VERONICA
you where each
tell
client
many
title
does not
comes from.
If
has the ability to show the
technical information behind each
menu
item (as described earlier in this
article),
then you can find out the domain
name of
the source, but not
capability
and not
all clients
all
users
interpret this information.
have
this
know how
to
VERONICA can
be found on our local server by doing a
Keyword Search of Gopher Menus on the
string "veronica" or by browsing the menu
called Other Gopher and Information
Servers.
Bookmarks. Navigating gopher is normally an up or down proposition. You
can gradually work your way down
through a series of menus and wend your
way back up again, but lateral movement
Suppose you
you
know you'll want to access time and time
again in a menu far removed from the top.
Most gopher clients allow you to create
and save so-called bookmarks. A bookmark keeps track of exactly where a gopher item is located, regardless of whether
it resides on your local server or a remote
gopher server. To go to that item again,
you need only ask gopher to display your
bookmarks and select the bookmark as
you would any other gopher item. Creating a collection of bookmarks is like creating your own customized gopher menu.
The commands for creating, viewing, and
selecting bookmarks vary from client to
client. In Turbo Gopher for the Mac, for
is
generally not possible.
find a
file
or service in gopher that
like
instance, bookmarks are created
ing a gopher
menu
by select-
item and then choos-
ing the Set Bookmark... option from the
Gopher menu
(see Figure 4
on
this page).
Consult the on-line help or written documentation of your gopher client for more
details on bookmarks.
Gopher Broke?
As we've
seen, a
gopher session can
involve many computers and
cations.
It's
things to go
many appli-
not uncommon, however, for
wrong
in gopher. Occasion-
ally a specific server function like ftp will
go down, or a server can go down altogether. And, of course, certain clients simply cannot perform specific tasks. As you
become well acquainted with your gopher
client, you'll get a sense of what it can and
cannot do. If you perform an operation
regularly and suddenly it doesn't work,
the problem probably lies with the server.
If on the other hand, you've never had
success doing something like a tn3270 session with your client, chances are that it
does not support this function or is improperly configured. Hopefully the fore-
going explanation of what takes place during various types of gopher transactions
will help you to determine the source of
any difficulties you might encounter. If
you suspect that there is a problem with
our local server, send an e-mail message to
[email protected] (you can also send com-
ments and suggestions about gopher
to
this address).
Despite occasional problems, gopher
is
open up the Internet to a much
wider audience. Whether you are a power
user or network neophyte, this rapidly
evolving network tool has
likely to
much to offer.
its
In
infancy, go-
pher was called a
distributed docu-
ment
delivery
system.
VERONICA is a relatively new service
is
Today
it
referred to as a
and there are still a few problems to be
worked out. First of all, VERONICA is
very slow and bound to become slower as
more users begin to use it. Developers are
hoping to eventually distribute
distributed infor-
VERONICA searches among multiple serv-
bring?
ers,
mation delivery
system.
morrow
single VERONICA server. Secondly, many
deal of redundancy
among
servers.
to-
may
-Lynn Ward
which should lessen the burden of any
gopher servers point to popular items on
other gopher servers leading to a great
Who
knows what
Figure 4:
A menu of bookmarks sailed in
Each menu item
selecting
it.
in the
TurboGopher for
the Macintosh.
Bookmarks window can be instantly accessed by
How Six Gopher
Xgopher provides support for a variety
CLIENTS FOR CLIENTS
1
of different
file
image
(image
files
or object types including:
files
are displayed by
xloadimage, a separate utility that can dis-
play
PS3
cover story of this issue describes
the Internet gopher can be a
very powerful tool
if
you're using
and if that client is
properly configured. Over the last several
months, I've had the opportunity to work
with about ten different gopher clients,
several of which have already been superseded by new, more powerful applications. To describe each of these clients in
detail would fill a book, and for most gothe right client software
pher clients there is a user's guide, on-line
help, and /or a man page that gives technical information and instructions for use.
Below is a brief sketch of six gopher clients,
each for a different computing platform.
This review highlights the strengths and
weaknesses of each client and, in a few
cases, provides some important undocu-
found
A
or just the
all files
10.
All of the
review can be
to platform)
under the /pub/gopher direc-
Several clients are also available at
CCSO Resource Center,
1420 DCL.
unknown file types, Xgopher defaults
mode) with the copy
selected item to file command.
The bookmarks option is
to binary transfer
viewed. Since
was
re-
Xgopher
many developers continue
can
maintain
mul-
'
'
fe-
mark
file is
bookcompatible with the
Unix curses client, so you can use
the same bookmarks when dialing in from home.
The ph client in Xgopher
fairly
powerful, but not
quite as intuitive as other
implementations.
is
The user
prompted to enter a query
Query name field and
box below.
results are displayed in the
menu
A Show Fields
displays the
names
on
of the fields available
—the Latest and
Greatest
One of the newest kids on the block is
the latest release of Xgopher, an X Window
System client written by Allan Tuchman,
the selected
ph server
and the intended contents of those fields.
There
is
some minimal
senior research programmer here at CCSO.
on-line help, but in order
Xgopher can handle just about any gopher
function that's currently available. The
do anything more complex
than a simple query on the
name field, one must already
interface
is
very simple to use (see Figure
on page 9). Most commands are available by clicking on buttons in the main
window. Less commonly used commands
are tucked away in a pull-down menu
called Other Commands.
1
of the default
of the default settings
can be changed to suit the preferences of
the end-user.
Xgopher is installed on uxl, ux2, ux4,
uxh and can be accessed by anyone with an X terminal or a desktop comMacX. Questions and comments about
Xgopher should be directed via e-mail to
as
Allan
,
1
Tuchman
address
at the
a-
[email protected]
be well acquainted with the syntax of
ph commands.
X Window System gurus can
customize Xgopher by
modifying the application retotally
for the Mac
Although there are several
gopher clients available for
\\
the Macintosh, TurboGopher
a single session. Also, the
scribed here may have been or will be fixed
1.2
Any
parameters.
/ •""
may be loaded during
in the
in a later release.
name
gopher server; the name of the default
bookmarks file; the prefixes used for each
gopher object type; the default screen colors; the default fonts; the specific text used
for all menus, buttons, and dialog boxes;
the specific applications used to play sound
files, display image files, and conduct telnet and tn3270 sessions, and many other
TurboGopher 1.0.5
1.2.
Xgopher
work at improving their software, some
of the bugs and other peculiarities deto
the settings for Xgopher,
also extremely flexible
in
is
Note: The comments below refer to the
specific version of the client that
all
puter running an X server application such
(for
any of which
on page
it
contains
including the host
menu or directory, even unknown types,
can be transferred to the client machine
files,
1
types that
file
uxa, and
the features of each client can be
in Table
file
sources file called Xgopher. This plain text
about. If you opt to see all files,
Xgopher will display unknown types with
a <???> prefix. Any file type in a gopher
bookmark
Xgopher
file
knows
tiple
downloaded from the anonymous ftp host
boombox.micro.umn.edu. They are located in subdirectories (named according
the
see
sum-
technical information.
clients discussed in this
tory.
types of graphics
sound files (sound files can be
played if Xgopher is installed on a workstation that supports sound), Unix binary
files, ph queries, index searches, and telnet
and tn3270 sessions. An options panel
under the Other Commands menu allows
you to tell Xgopher whether you want to
formats),
Thehow
mented
mary of
many different
Up
Clients Stack
1.0.5
among
stands out
the
TurboGopher cannot play
sound files or display raw gopher
crowd.
information, but
it
handles
al-
most every other gopher operation with the greatest of ease and
speed. The ftp function works
particularly well.
file
to
To
transfer a
your Mac, just double click
on its icon. If thefileisBinHexed,
TurboGopher will un-BinHex it
as
it
transfers the file to your local
This gopher client even
disk.
recognizes Unix and
files and will intuitively
in binary
DOS binary
transfer them
mode.
When you
get your copy of
TurboGopher, be sure to download the helper-applications
SitExpand, CptExpand, and Giffer.
If these programs are installed on
your Mac, TurboGopher will offer
to decompress files that have been
archived with the Stufflt or Compactor utilities (files
with a
.sit
or .cpt
GIF
image files immediately after such files have been
downloaded.
extension) and display
(continued on page 9)
UMP*
Gopher
Dec. 1992 -Jan. 1993
Clients...
ngophei
#• Other
Quit
The ph
client in
TurboGopher
easy to use. Unfortunately
it
is
Commands
Help
very
select an item from the
has a major
You can only enter a single name
when doing a search on the name field. If
bug.
you enter a
first
and
<img> bambi. gif
<img> barton gif
<img> batman, gif
beverly
<img> bigcat02. gif
<img> bigcatlG gif
<img> biLbo2 gif
<img> billtcat. gif
sends the query to the server improperly
and
you'll get the
message
"501:
No
your query." Since the name
field is the most common field for doing ph
lookups, this is a big problem. In order to
do a query with TurboGopher' s ph client,
the person you are looking for must either
have a very unique last name or you must
know some additional information about
the person, such as his or her phone nummatches
to
blackcountach
<img> bladel. gif
blastoff
blueghibli
bora
<img> bronze gif
<img> buggsb2. gif
<img> c&s#9 gif
ber or address.
TurboGopher supports both telnet and
tn3270 sessions only
applications
(NCSA
list
gif s
name, the client
a last
9
the appropriate
if
Telnet
and Brown's
TN3270) have been installed on your hard
disk. Additionally, in order to conduct a
tn3270 session, a copy of your config.tel
file must be located in your System Folder.
TurboGopher is installed on all of the
Macs at CCSO's computing sites and is
also available at the CCSO Resource Center.
The software is copyrighted by the
University of Minnesota, but can be copied and distributed freely.
about
letch
Info
selection
directory
Add
Previous
directory
as bookmark
Directory
bookifsark
Bookmarks
UIUC Gopher Information Service
<idx> Search many (2S0) Internet gopher menus by _SINGLE_ keyword
<idx> Search of Most FTP sites (archie)
»
Catalogs Listed by Location
»
Figure
1:
Xgopher
1 .2
for the
X Window System. An image file (BUI the Cat) is displayed in the
foreground and the main Xgopher window
NeXT Gopher 13
Remove
is
in the
background.
For those fortunate enough to have a
NeXT workstation sitting on their desk,
NeXT Gopher 1 .3 offers a slick interface and
good overall functionality. Two notice-
signed to run on
able shortcomings are
cursor to the desired item or entering
cessfully display
and
its
inability to suc-
transfer files other
than plain text (supposedly, unsupported
object types can be displayed
special
but
command
this doesn't
by typing
at the terminal
seem
to
a
prompt,
work) and the
dumb terminals, so there
are no fancy icons or mouse support. Navi-
gating
menus
involves either
moving
the
its
number and then
pressing the <return>
But don't let this simple interface
mislead you. The curses client is fairly
intelligent, although sometimes uncoopkey.
When
erative.
installed on a Unix workgopher client can display imand play sound files. Remote
do
Version 1 .01 of the curses client doesn't
a very good job at recognizing object
When
types.
it
displays executable
DOS
during an archie search, it assigns
them an <HQX> type, which stands for
BinHex. Tn3270 sessions work, but there
is no type identifier next to them.
If you are new to the Unix curses client,
be sure to check out the on-line help with
files
absence of a bookmarks option. With the
help of supporting applications, sound files
station, this
the ?
age
display technical information on an item,
can be played with exquisite clarity and
users with
terminals or terminal
navigate menus, add bookmarks, and cus-
GIF files can be viewed. Gopher
also be mailed to other users with the
emulators can use the curses client to conduct archie searches, telnet and tn3270
tomize your gopher environment. You
can change the program defaults of the
NeXT
sessions,
client.
files
can
One curious aspect of NeXT
Gopher is that it does not have a built-in ph
client. Instead it relies on a separate program, NeXT Ph, which comes bundled with
the distribution. All in all, NeXT Gopher is
probably the "prettiest" client around, but
it still has some catching up to do in order
to
match the X and Mac
The Unix Curses
clients.
Client 1.01
The Unix curses gopher client was de-
files
ph
dumb
queries,
and index searches.
Unfortunately, although the ftp client
is
capable of transferring any type of binary
file, it
files,
only displays the names of ASCII
BinHexed
files,
and Unix
This can be very misleading
binaries.
when brows-
ing ftp sites. Strangely enough, other types
of files such as
DOS
chived
be displayed
files will
archie search,
executable and ar-
and these
files
if
you do an
can be suc-
cessfully ftp'd once they are displayed.
command.
It
will tell
curses client by executing the
command. Within
you how
to
O (options)
the options
menu, you
can specify the default pager, print command, mail command, etc. Bookmarks
and your program defaults are saved in a
.gopherrc file located in your home directory.
The curses gopher client installed on
Unix machines is supported by
staff.
If you have a question or
CCSO
CCSO
(continued on pagi
)
10
UUP*
Dec. 1992 -Jan. 1993
Gopher
kernel or Novell's
Clients...
d from pa
Workplace for
CCSO systems
PC Gopher
II
also supports telnet ses-
properly configured. Be sure
Let's first consider the strong points of the
DOS client. PC Gopher
yes
as an index
Allow Telnet Sessions box is checked
window. Also, in
order to conduct a telnet session, you must
searches, has a respectable
1.2
menus such
sions
While there are several Gopher clients
available for the DOS environment, PC
Gopher II is the only one that does not
require the user to load a commercial TCP/
IP stack such as FTP Software's PC/TCP
displays text files
not items within
search.
face,
PC Gopher II 1.05r3
Xgopher
DOS.
charac-
pseudo-graphical intercomplete with pull-down menus, sizable windows with scroll bars, and support for a Microsoft-compatible mouse.
consultants at 333-6133.
Supported Features
IBM
ter set to create a
problem, send an e-mail message to
[email protected] or call the
LAN
This client uses the extended
tional
ph
client,
II
supports index
and
fully func-
can display the technical
information about an item, and supports
bookmarks. Unfortunately, the bookmarks
feature
is
limited to selecting
if it is
the
in the configuration
set a DOS environment variable so that
gopher knows where to find your telnet
application. To accomplish this, a line can
be added to your autoexec.bat file or the
batch
file
menus only,
that starts gopher.
(continued on page 16)
TurboGopher
NeXT Gopher
Unix Curses
PC Gopher II
1.0.5
1.3
Gopher 1.01
1.05r3
yes
yes
yes
yes (size limited
CMS Gopher 2.2.0
yes
by available
memory)
displays image files
displays
menu
names of all
items/files
yes
yes (GIFS only)
yes
yes (on certain Unix
workstations)
no
no
yes (the user can opt
to display all
yes
yes (according to
no
no
yes
documentation,
but no success
during testing)
regardless of object
type
filenames, even
unsupported types)
plays sound files
yes
no
yes
yes (on certain Unix
workstations)
no
no
transfers text files
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
transfers binary files
(limited types)
yes (unknown types
yes
no
yes
no
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
yes
yes
no
yes
yes (sometimes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes (sometimes
yes
WAIS searches
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
telnet sessions
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
tn3270 sessions
yes
yes (config.tel
yes
yes
no
no
yes (a bug limits
searches on the
yes (uses
separate ph
yes
yes
yes
"name"
client,
are transferred in
binary
mode by
default)
transfers all binaries
archie searches
file
on
all
types
archie searches on
text files
file
must be in
System folder)
ph searches
yes (interface not
very intuitive)
single
field to a
NeXT Ph)
name)
whois searches
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
index-searches
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
some, but not
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
no
no
no
yes
yes
no
yes
yes (only
all
(general)
displays technical
info about
menu
item
recognizes most
object types
many, but not
bookmarks
yes (supports
multiple bookmark
all
files)
Table
1:
Comparison of the features of six
menus/
directories)
different
gopher
clients.
ves (only
menus/
directories)
Dec. 1992 -Jan. 1993
The ACN
is
on the Move Again
work administrators and end-users may
have quite intentionally configured
software to use the IP address in order to
CAMPUS NEWS
Computers,
this problem. However, the domain name problems of the MVS/CAS
computer have long since been resolved,
and now the use of the hostname is desir-
bypass
like people, occasion-
In the case of net-
ally relocate.
their
able,
if
not imperative.
that the computer, again like a person, will
have a new address. Such is the case for the
MVS/CAS system on the Administrative
Computing Network (ACN). In mid-De-
cember, the TCP/ IP interface for the ACN's
name
MVS/CAS system was moved to a router
in
on the FDDI ring
sessions on the
at the University of
Illi-
By connecting this comthe FDDI ring, AISS hopes to
will
puter to
tronic mail
it
affect ftp
VM/PROFS
system. Nor
BITNET elecaddresses of PROFS users.
affect the Internet or
nois at Chicago.
improve the performance of the MVS/
system on the network and to in-
changes will
and outgoing telnet
service. Finally, these
no way
-Lynn Ward
crease the number of possible TCP/IP con-
means
also
ing this system via ftp and telnet will
already have changed by the time this
article hits the streets.
AISS encourages
For this reason,
begin using
all clients to
fully-qualified domain name
UICMVSA.AISS.UIC.EDU when access-
the
ing the
CCSO
that the IP address for access-
MVS/CAS system rather than us-
to the IP address,
Beefs Up Network
MM
UlUCnet
is
no longer just a
tool for
engineers and computer scientists.
ulty,
and
staff
Thousands of students, facuse the network every day
CCSO
for routine activities.
ingly
for this
quality support services to end-users
you are accustomed to accessing the
ACN by typing its IP address when you
invoke your TCP/IP applications (e.g., telnet, ftp, etc.), simply substitute
UICMVSA.AISS.UIC.EDU for the numerical IP address when issuing commands to
open a session on the MVS/CAS system.
For example, if you ordinarily open a session by typing the command tn3270
131.193.163.4, use the
command
tn3270
In addition, all references to the
ACN's
old numerical IP address (131 .193.163.4) in
batch
tion
be
files,
login scripts, telnet configura-
and user documentation should
replaced with the host name
files,
UICMVSA.AISS.UIC.EDU.
aware of the need
to
is
increas-
provide high-
David Ruby, a U of I graduate with a
major in Spanish and minor in computer
science, comes to CCSO from the UIUC
College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, where
for
two years he served
as the
network
administrator for one of the largest and
most complex in-building networks on
campus the 400+ node network in Lincoln Hall. While managing the Lincoln
Hall site, Dave worked extensively with
PCs and Macs on Token Ring, Ethernet,
and LocalTalk networks. David is now
part of CCSO's User Services group and
work Consultant. Currently, he is assisting Randy Cotton, network consultant for
the Network Design Office, with a backlog
server from the
the
ACN's telnet
VM/ PROFS machine to
the
MVS/CAS system last year, there was
problem accessing the latter system with the host name. Thus, many netinitially a
in the process of acquainting himself
NCSA
Telnet, Eudora,
NUPop, Trumpet,
David and Steven make a fine complement to CCSO's existing network support
staff, Randy Cotton of the NDO, Declan
Fleming and Leslie Rankin (manager and
assistant manager of the CCSO sites), and
the many CCSO staff members involved
LAN maintenance.
Users group, which provides a forum for
Novell LAN administrators to share infor-
staff.
holds the title Research Programmer / Net-
moving
running
support
is
transition of
clusters
with
especially important because, during the
This step
DEC VAX
VMS, and Sun clusters running SunOS. As
a newcomer to the U of and CCSO, Steven
and
network administrators. Two new staff
members, David Ruby and Steven Hinkle,
were hired this fall to augment existing
—
uicmvsa.aiss.uic.edu instead.
mainframes,
as
in the future,
If
August of '92. At Buffalo, while working
toward his degree, he also served as a
consultant for a variety of computer systems, including PCs and Macs, IBM CMS
etc.
sometime
hostname
change.
ence from the University of Buffalo in
problems, and supporting popular network applications for PCs and Macs such
because the IP address might change again
whereas the
machine will never
grammer/Systems Consultant for User
computer sci-
mentation, consulting on network-related
CAMPUS NEWS
its
hostname as opposed
of
Research Pro-
with our network, systems, and services.
His role in User Services will include offering short courses for end-users on how to
use the network, writing end-user docu-
Support Staff and Services
numerical IP address. And, in
general, users are urged to always use the
ing
now a
Services, received his B.S. in
is still
However, the move
on the end-user side
networking. Steven,
I
CAS
nections it can handle.
primary source for the support and training of network administrators. Dave will
also provide information and instruction
to CCSO's full and part-time consultants
in order to keep them up to date on network applications and technologies.
Steven Hinkle, CCSO's other new hire,
will concentrate
The new IP address for the MVS/CAS
system will be announced in January, but
AISS will continue to discourage clients
from using it, except in cases where there
is a temporary problem with the domain
worked systems, this often means
11
of troubleshooting requests.
sponsibilities at
dictate.
It is
Dave's
re-
CCSO will evolve as needs
anticipated that he will be a
Recently, Declan
has been working with faculty to
make
instructional software available at CCSO's
networked
sites.
He also started a
Novell
mation and discuss specific topics of intermore information on the Novell
Users group, send e-mail to Declan at d-
est (for
[email protected]).
CCSO
systems consultants are also
spreading the gospel of UlUCnet. Through
a relatively new "outreach" program, consultants are providing on-site seminars to
faculty
and
staff
about the services and
applications available on UlUCnet, with
an eye toward offering special courses on
how to use the network for teaching and
research. Meanwhile, CCSO managers are
taking a fresh look at how to best meet the
ongoing network support needs of this
campus. Their goal is to develop a flexible,
well-rounded program that will maximize
the effect of CCSO's support and training
efforts.
inn Ward
MacTCP
1.1.1 Available at
Apple Computer rolled out
several new models of desktop and
portable computer and, with them,
an incremental upgrade of the Macintosh
operating system. The new OS, called
System 7.1, reportedly offers better font
handling, improved stability and performance, improved support for new CPUs
(so that system upgrades are not required
when new products are introduced), and
the incorporation of Apple's multimedia
known
as QuickTime.
One
thing that System 7.1 does not ofhowever, is compatibility with MacTCP
versions 1.1 and earlier. MacTCP, Apple's
implementation of the TCP/IP protocol
suite, provides a standard interface for
developing TCP/IP-based software (e.g.,
fer,
NCSA
MacTCP 1.1.1 for the First Time
you don't already have a copy of
MacTCP on your system (as will be the
case for individuals who have purchased
new Macs), ask your building network
administrator to assist you with the instalIf
fall,
technology
Telnet, Fetch, Eudora, etc.) for the
lation of the software.
He or she can
help
students through a product
in the
with the UlUCnet hostmnster (the person
keeps track of IP addresses and do-
ration information,
main names
for all
systems attached to
UlUCnet).
Upgrading to MacTCP 1.1.1
Mac TCP 1.1.1 is downwardly compatible
with earlier versions of the Macintosh
operating system and can be installed on
Macs running System
Before installing the
MacTCP, open your
MacTCP
6.x, 7.0,
new
and
7.0.1.
version of
existing
copy of
through the Control Panel and
record the current settings of the software.
or
new Macintosh with System
7.1 pre-installed, as well as users who
have upgraded an older Mac to System
should obtain and
install this latest
version of MacTCP. The software is availall
there
is
a LocalTalk icon
and an
Ethernet icon in the MacTCP window, note
a
name
appears).
Then, write
down
the
Domain Nameserver
Information. All of this information must
new
MacTCP
version of
it.
Once you have recorded this configuyou can throw the files
named MacTCP, AdminTCP and MacTCP
Trash (you may, however,
copy these files to a floppy
disk in case your installation runs amuck).
Then, copy the new MacTCP and
AdminTCP files into your System folder.
For Macs running System 7 or higher, place
the files in the Control Panels folder within
your System folder. Once the new files are
in place, open MacTCP though the Control Panel and configure the software to
match the settings you recorded from your
previous version. If you have any problems with the installation or you install it
and discover that your network applications do not work, contact your building
Prep
in the
want
to first
network administrator
-Lynn Ward
for assistance.
and
UlUCnet users who have ordered
able on
subnet address), and
install
who
Obtain Address, Rout-
ing Information, IP Address (class and
site license.
received a
7.1,
in the boxes labeled
MacTCP 1.1.1. MacTCP 1.1.1
available free to University staff
All
that
page. Write down the information entered
when you
which one is selected. If the LocalTalk icon
is selected, record the name of the
AppleTalk zone that appears beneath it (if
is
window
be entered
MacTCP installed in its System folder as a
To address the compatibility problem
between System 7.1 and MacTCP, Apple
IP Address. Click on
and you should see a
looks like Figure 1 on this
the More... button
whether the address needs to be registered
First, if
control panel device.
number given as the
you determine whether your IP address
will be static or server-allocated and
Mac. Virtually every Macintosh connected
to the campus backbone has a copy of
has released
Resource Center
Installing
CAMPUS NEWS
This
CCSO
Obtain Address:
IP
O Manually
(•)
Class:
Seruer
Network/Mac TCP/ver 1.1.1. Remember
your own floppy disks (doublesided, double density will do) to copy the
Address: 128.0.0.0
1
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
O Dynamically
I
of the Macintoshes in the CCSO
Resource Center, 1420 DCL. It is located
in the AppleShare volume called
RC_MACs in the folders /Public/Communications/Eudora 1.3bl09/Mac TCP
Software and /Public/Communications/
B
Address:
Net
Bits:
Routing Information:Gateway Address:
I
Sl
Subnet
Node
8
8
16
Net:
[32768
Subnet:
!o
Node:
\o
*«<$<
to bring
H 28.1 74.33.1
Domain Name Server Information:
Domain
IP Address Default
128.174.5.58
IfJWHW
®
!
files.
According
to a press release, in addi-
tion to providing compatibility with Sys-
tem
7.1,
the
new MacTCP
support for extension products, such as
AppleTalk Remote Access (ARA), SLIP
(Serial Line IP) and PPP (Point-to-Point
Protocol) drivers, as well as support for
larger 'Hosts' files."
uiuc.edu
128.174.5.50
uiuc.edu
128.174.5.59
offers "better
OK
|
(
Cancel
)
Figurel: The MacTCP configuration window.
o
o
<>
—
13
Dec. 1992 -Jan. 1993
Customizing Telnet Sessions on a PC
NET TIPS
Table
Although telnet the TCP/IP remote
login application,
of the
first
is
probably one
pieces of software to
which new UlUCnet /Internet users are
introduced, very few people have the time
or inclination to learn about and exercise
all
is
remember
its full
#descriptive
host="garcon.cso.uiuc.edu:625"
#domain name and port number
hostip=128.174.5.58
#IP address of library system
nfcolor=WHITE
#screen color settings for
system
for library
all
of library system
sessions with library
ubcolor=white
scrollback=200
unfortunate.
domain name or
name
name=library
ufcolor=black
While you may not have time to read the
manual from cover to cover, browsing the
table of contents or index could expose
you to some features that you might find
very useful. This month's Net Tip focuses
on customizing the telnet environment
on a DOS-based PC so that you can easily
connect to a specific host without having
to
a Sample Config.tel File
rbcolor=cyan
probably safe to say that most
people on campus don't even have the
complete documentation for the version
This
in
rfcolor=red
it's
of telnet they use.
Machine-Specific Entries
nbcoIor=blue
of the options available in the software.
In fact,
1
name
name=uxl
#descriptive/short
hostip=128.174.5.59
#IP address for uxl
erase=backspace
#backspace key functions as standard backspace
copyfrom=library
#borrow other parameters from entry named
name=vmd
#descriptive/short
name
host=vmd. cso.uiuc.edu
#domain name
VMD
keymap=vmd.tbl
#use custom keyboard
for
for uxl
for
map
library
VMD
file
called vmd.tbl for this
#session.
IP
address and preconfigure various session
parameters with such hosts. (In the next
issue of UlUCnet, we will look at the
equivalent procedures for the Macintosh.)
eter
About the
parts of lines that begin with a
Config.tel File
Normally, unless someone has carefully preconfigured your telnet software for
you, when you open a remote login session
with NCSA or Clarkson Telnet, you must
type the
name
of the executable
starts the telnet
file
that
software followed by the
domain name or IP address of the remote host (e.g., telbin uxl.cso.uiuc.edu).
Additionally, the screen colors, keyboard
mappings, scrollback settings, echo mode,
and other parameters will be the same for
full
every session.
You can
simplify the login
process and customize the parameters that
govern the sessions with specific hosts by
modifying the telnet configuration file called
config.tel.
The config.tel file is a plain text file that
contains the default settings used by the
Telnet software.
The format
quite straightforward.
of the
file is
Lines that contain
parameter name followed by an equal
sign and a value (in the form keyword=
is
described in detail in the user's
manual and briefly in a comment on the
same line in the config.tel file. Lines or
(#)
pound sign
are comments.
The beginning of the
config.tel
file
default keyboard
network configuration of your machine
and default settings for the Telnet software. Many of these parameters were probably preset by your network administrator (or whoever installed the software),
and it's generally best not to fuss with
them if your software is working properly. Somewhere toward the middle of the
file, however, you should see groups of
lines with each group headed by a line
them.
beginning with the keyword "name" (e.g.,
name=uxl)
Each of these groups describes the parameters to be used when
communicating with a specific machine
on the network and the keyword name is
used as a delimiter to separate one machine-specific entry from the next (as well
name for
value) are read and used by the Telnet
each system, which can be used in lieu of
its IP address or domain name). Generally, the first name entry begins with the
when open-
ing a session and communicating with a
text
remote host. The meaning of each param-
the default values used for any session
name=default.
named
entry.
If
you
screen colors, the scrollback mode, the
contains important information about the
as to provide a short, descriptive
utilities)
erwise specified in a
are not satisfied with the default values for
a
software (and related
have a specific name entry in
your config.tel file and also determines
the settings of parameters that are not oththat doesn't
This entry contains
all
map, etc., you can change
Any changes you make
will affect
do not have
a specific
sessions that
entry in your config.tel
file.
Following the default settings for telyou should see several other machine-
net,
your config.tel file.
Remember, each machine-specific entry
begins with the line name=value where
specific entries in
value
is
replaced with a descriptive
name
The parameters following
the keyword name may be on separate
lines, or they may be on the same line, each
separated from the next by a semi-colon,
for the system.
colon, or space. In addition to the systems
already specified in your config.tel
file,
you can add entries for the machines you
access on a regular basis. The example in
Table 1 shows three machine-specific entries in a config.tel file (with comments)
one for accessing the on-line library system (beginning with name=library), one
for accessing the CCSO Unix machine uxl
(continued on page 14)
14
rarest
Dec. 1992 -Jan. 1993
Customizing
Telnet...
Table
mtinued from vase
(beginning with name=uxl)
A
2:
Partial List of
Machine Specific Parameters
for the Config.tel File
!
and one for
accessing the CCSO IBM mainframe VMD
,
Parameter
Description
name= value
User-assigned name for system. Replace value with a short
name you can remember easily.
(beginning with name=vmd).
Once you have added machine-specific
entries to your config.tel file, you can ac-
host=/«//t/. qualified, domain, name
the host
by typing the name of
your telnet executable file followed by the
cess these systems
value entered for the
name
library, you
marks
i
,
•
ii ii ii
TlOSTip — TTTT TT
ii ii ii
.
iiiiii
ff Tt TT .TTTT TT
ii ii II
.
you want
to contact.
as well, separate
(e.g.
nameservers
an entry with the name library and
use the parameters specified after
name=library until it encounters the next
name=»fl/M« entry in the file in the case
of our example, name=uxl. Note that the
domain name given with
VMD
host,
Thus
the time
it
takes to con-
Some
an entry, the
scro!lback= m/mmc value
Determines the number of
lines that can be viewed in
mode. Scrollback uses 86 bytes per line saved.
Set your scrollback value to a small number if you are concerned about running out of memory. The typical range is
scrollback
containing only val-
ues for the keywords
up
Determines the function of the backspace key for the session.
hosts prefer the backspace key to be delete and others
prefer the backspace key to be backspace. Set this parameter
to erase=backspace or erase=delete.
erase=(backspace or delete)
a machine-specific en-
brief,
resolve the
file to
the host parameter. Including the
nect to the specified host.
values defined in the entry name=default
can be very
your config.tel
When param-
eters are not specified in
try
listed in
IP address will generally speed
only contains values for
and keymap.
will prevail.
to designate a port
IP address of the host you want to contact. If the IP
address is not included, telnet will contact one of the
file for
name,
you want
host="garcon.cso.uiuc.edu:625").
Telnet software will look in your config.tel
entry for
If
it
The
TTTTTT
could type: telbin library. The
—
system you want to reach. Replace
with the actual domain name of
for the
from the domain name with a
colon and surround the entire value with double quotation
number
of the entry.
For example, to open a session with the
The domain name
fully. qualified. domain. name
name and
100 to 200
(e.g.,
scrollback=200).
host or
hostip; or the entry can be quite extensive,
The following parameters
containing custom values for every possible parameter.
red, yellow,
as many machine specific
your config.tel file as you like.
You can add
entries to
Most users find it convenient to add the
names of systems that they access regularly via telnet or ftp. A list and description of some of the parameters that you can
include in each entry are given in Table
some
slight differences in the
ground colors
manual
for the
complete
normal foreground color
normal background color
rfcolor=co/or
reverse foreground color
rbcolor=a>/or
reverse background color
ufcolor=co/or
underline foreground color
ubcolor=co/or
underline background color
copyfrom=™me
Causes the session
another
ASCII format when saving
in order to remove any application-specific codes that may have been
added to the file by your word processor.
Here are some additional pointers to keep
to
your changes,
•
mind when
editing the
to use the
same parameters
session in the config.tel
same parameters
file.
specified in
For example,
to
use the
as those specified for the session
named
uxl unless alternative parameters were explicitly designated.
Uses the custom keyboard mapping as specified by the value
entered for filename.tbl. Clarkson Telnet provides the user
with a default keymap for vtlOO sessions and a 3270 keymap
for tn3270 sessions. The user can create additional custom
keyboard mappings and associate them with a particular
session by using this parameter. Otherwise default.tbl will
be used for sessions using vtlOO emulation and tn3270.tbl for
keymap=filename.tbl
Editing the Config.tel File
The config.tel file can be edited with a
plain text editor or word processor. If you
use a word processor such as WordPerfect
or Microsoft Word, you must export the
in
named
copyfrom=uxl would cause the current entry
plication.
file
in
of
machine-specific parameters for each ap-
edited
appear
nbcolor=ro/or
nfcolor=co/or
way
list
will
magenta, cyan,
upper case, forehigh-intensity and background
in
colors will blink.
certain parameters are handled. Consult
the user's
and white. When typed
2.
The list is taken from the config.tel parameters for Clarkson Telnet (CUTCP) version
2.2D. If you use NCSA Telnet 2.3, you will
notice
set the screen colors for the ses-
sion. Possible colors are black, green, blue,
file:
Before editing any line in your
config.tel file, be sure to make a copy of
the original file with a name like
sessions using 3270 emulation.
config.old or
some other unique name
name config.bak be-
(do not use the
cause your text editor
may
use
it
as a
backup name, and you could
potentially overwrite your original
during the editing process). Taking this
precaution will enable you to resurrect
your original telnet configuration in
the event that your modifications
cause Telnet to malfunction.
Do not modify or delete any line in
config.tel
its
file if
the
you are uncertain about
function.
default
In the machine-specific section of the
file
you are
likely to
encounter entries
with parameters such as nameserver=#
and gateway=#. These entries have
probably been preconfigured by the
(continued on page 15)
maw
Dec. 1992 -Jan. 1993
15
Navigating and Using the Internet:
A Hands-on Course with
CAMPUS NEWS
—
are not always easy
understand and/or access.
A thread that runs throughout the
course is the rather gray area of what constitutes acceptable and unacceptable behavior on the Internet. For spoken communication and the printed word, there
are both well-defined social rules for interaction and a body of law to deal with
information services
to
MM
Anew
course will be offered through
the Graduate School of Library
and Information Science this
LIS450CC, Advanced Problems
Telecommunications.
in Librarianship
The course combines the learning of realworld skills for navigating the Internet
with a survey of the major uses of and
spring:
—
Professor
issues related to the Internet.
transgressions.
ever,
few laws
In the datasphere,
exist
how-
and the norms of con-
duct are still being formed. A class session
will be devoted to topics such as the Morris
Internet
Worm
and the West German
caught by Cliff Stoll.
who was
Greg Newby will teach the course. Newby,
hacker
who
These and other examples will lead to
discussions about how the end-user can
better recognize and be prepared to deal
with situations requiring ethical judgment
within a networked environment
During the first seven sessions, students will spend about half of each class in
a computer lab acquiring hands-on experience. The Unix operating system, elec-
presented a similar course at Syra-
cuse University, also hopes to offer
LIS450CC to students at remote networked
sites through UIUC's extramural program
in the fall of '93.
Newby's course will concenon computer networking as a me-
Professor
trate
dium
iar
human communication. Familhuman communication the
for
—
forms of
telephone, postal service, and face-to-face
—will
be compared and connetworked communication.
Computer networking shares qualities
with traditional communications media,
but also has important differences. The
norms and standards of networked communication are not yet well established,
and the channels of communication for
example, ftp, mailing lists, and various
interaction
who installed your telnet software and should not be changed unless
you are certain that they are incorrect.
The nameserver entries instruct telnet
to ask specific machines on the campus
net to translate domain names into IP
addresses. The gateway entry specifies
the address of the machine that connects your building network to the campus backbone.
person
If
a
comment wraps around
to a
second
or third line, be sure that each line be-
gins with a
pound
sign
(#).
tools
tunity to investigate
more
specialized ap-
plications, such as Gopher, the World-Wide
(WWW —
Web
a hypertext application
used for locating and accessing information on the Internet), WAIS, Archie, and
Hytelnet
(a
hypertext application for
cilitating telnet sessions
with on-line
fali-
brary catalogs and information servers).
Throughout, the focus is on using network-based resources to extend each
student's personal and professional infor-
mation resources. Students will be encouraged to identify ftp sites, databases, or
mailing lists and newsgroups containing
information pertinent to them. They will
also be encouraged to interact with their
peers or experts in various fields by using
network
tools,
and
to consider the elec-
tronic dissemination of their thoughts, find-
and papers.
The balance of the course is a survey of
various perspectives on computer netings,
foundation
First, a
in
human
data transfer will be treated in detail. Corporate communication, information stor-
Even
you do not have
copy of the
have the section pertaining to the config.tel file on
hand for reference as you make your
if
a
entire Telnet user's guide,
(continued from page 14)
and other basic network
such as telnet and ftp will be covered in
detail. Students will also have the oppor-
communication theory and practice will
be laid, and, from there, various aspects of
computer networking will be addressed.
The history of networking and many types
of computer networks and protocols for
—
Telnet...
tronic mail,
working.
trasted with
Customizing
a Heart
changes.
age and retrieval services, and public access to networked services will also be
covered. Finally, the course will address
questions about the future of computer
networking e.g., how NREN (the National Research and Education Network)
and an increased network presence in libraries and K-l 2 schools might change the
—
users and uses of Internet.
Finally, editing a config.tel file for the
first
time can be a
little
intimidating.
If
you are uncertain about what you are
doing, your building network administrator
tance.
can probably provide some assisAdditionally, the
CCSO
micro-
LIS450CC
will
meet on Mondays from
12:00-3:00 p.m. during the spring semester.
Non-LIS grad students and auditors
are invited to attend, space permitting.
Many
of the readings for the course as
well as the syllabus
may
be obtained via
host
the
computer consultants are well-versed
on Clarkson and NCSA Telnet and can
anonymous
be reached at 244-0608.
- Li/ nn Ward
cated in the directory pub/netinfo. Spe-
ftp
from
gpx.lis.uiuc.edu. These materials are lo-
cific
questions about the course can be
directed to [email protected]
-
t
j
Computing &
Communications
i
Sendees Office
(
DCL
Campus MC 256
1120
1304 W.Springfield Ave.
Urbana.IL 61 801
klfKflStt SCIENCE
306
LIBRARY
CAMPUS
MC-522
Gopher
Clients...
The general syntax
Thus, file transfers are extremely
text files.
of the line should
dictable results. Also, occasionally binary
about gopher and the gopher software
files
(such as GIF files) are misconstrued as
and PC Gopher
con-
from
menu on UIUC's main gopher server.
displaying the complete text of even
mod-
straints of
them.
replaced by the
II
tries to
PC Gopher
to disk
files.
II
display
memory
Additionally, the
erately sized
telnet jiirectory is
prevent
and read or printed with
program
ecutable
When
is
stored and telnetjipp
file (e.g.,
the
of these
ex-
next incarnation of this
telbin.exe, tn.exe, etc.)
invoked by PC Gopher II,
the parameters %a and %p are replaced
with the IP address and port information
provided by the gopher server (if you type
the set
command
file,
at the
DOS command
of including
it
in a batch
use a single percent sign in front of the
and p parameters [e.g., %a %p]). When
using PC Gopher II in conjunction with
Clarkson and NCSA telnet, it may be necessary to surround the % %a % %p parama
eters with
double quotes in order for telnet
number. For
example, the g_tel variable in my
to properly recognize a port
autoexec.bat
file
looks like
this:
set g_tel=c:\telnet\telbin.exe -h c:\telnet\
config.tel
"%%a %%p"
PC Gopher
II is
a
memory hog and does
not support or display tn3270 sessions, so
there is no reason to use the larger applica-
program file.
to be done
can compete with the
tion tn3270.exe as the telnet
There
before
is still
much work
PC Gopher II
mentioned above. This client only
recognizes, displays, and transfers ASCII
clients
will be ironed out in the
is
main
telnet is
prompt instead
problems
-Lynn Ward
a text
editor or word processor. Hopefully, many
of your telnet program's
the
Such files must be saved
name of the directory in which your telnet
name
browse the documents and
it
set g_te\=c:\telnet_directory\ telnet_dpp -h
where
distribution,
Gopher Software Distribution menu
under the Information about Gopher
text files
%%a %%p
More Information
For the most up-to-date information
be:
c:\telnet _directory\ config.tel
For
and archie queries produce unpre-
limited
(continued from page 10)
DOS client.
In the
About UlUCnet
meantime, if you have a Unix account, you
may prefer to use the Unix curses client
tion about the
instead.
published by the Computing Services
UlUCnet provides timely informa-
Office
CMS Gopher 22.0
CMS
Gopher 2.2.0
On
least.
is
the one hand,
quirky, to say the
it
recognizes and
names of almost all object
However, it can only display and
transfer plain text files. To save a text file,
the file must first be loaded into the XEDIT
editor (there is no save command in gopher itself). Although the client supports
ph and archie searches, with a few rare
exceptions index searches fail and return
an error message. The most ironic shortcoming of this client developed for IBM
mainframes is that, while it can launch
telnet sessions and communicate clumsily with Unix hosts, it does not support
types.
tn3270 sessions with other
An
IBM main-
attempt to launch such a ses-
sion will result in the error message "Can'
process this
CMS
file
Gopher
is
is
edited by
Comments and
displays the
frames.
and
campus network.
type."
A new
version of
available, but as of this
Perhaps some of the oddities
are corrected in release
2.3.
Lynn Ward.
suggestions for topics
are welcome. Permission to reprint
all
or part of UlUCnet for non-profit pur-
granted, provided full
of the source is
given. Feel free to reach us via electronic mail ([email protected]), campus or U.S. mail (UlUCnet, Comput-
poses
is
acknowledgement
ing Services Office, 1120 Digital
puter Laboratory,
MC
ComW.
256, 1304
Springfield Ave., Urbana, IL 61 801 ), or
by phone
at (217) 244-0681.
For a free subscription, just send
us your
name and
(preferably cam-
pus) address; be sure to include your
department and mail code if you send
campus address. UlUCnet is also
a
available in electronic form.
Recent
issues are posted to the Netnews news-
group uiuc.pubs.uiucnet. Back issues
are available for download from the
on
VMD.
anonymous
just
noted
in the directory doc/net/uiucnet
writing, has not been installed
It is
from the
ftp host ftp.cso.uiuc.edu
UIUC Gopher server.
and
LSX
UX1
A
Publication of the
*r~?
Computing and Communications Services
Office
^?S~7S~~P ^7
ON»V OF M-U
M*R 2 6
wj
\y \^y
The University
Vol. 6
\^/
LIB
UB
SCI
1993
UBRA
LWW
Campus Network
of Illinois
Feb. -Mar. 1993
No. 2
Icon Key
Free-Nets:
Audience
Letting the
Network Out and
Novices
the
Community
In
Experienced users
sociated with an institution that has Inter-
MISCELLANEA
Network Administrators
MM
a certain irony about being a
There
member of the Internet commuis
AISS
clients
Platform/Operating System
PC
compatibles
(DOS™)
league halfway across the globe; but sending electronic mail to a neighbor equipped
with a computer and modem may be im-
What is a Free-Net?
A Free-Net is a community owned and
to
be a
concept originated with Dr.
position papers of U.S. presidential candi-
of Family Medicine at
Clinton and George Bush, but to
obtain comparable information on seekers
serve University. In
Bill
and
state offices
we were forced to
turn to
X Window System™
even when information of local interest is
available on the Net, it may not be accessible to the audience who could most
benefit from it. For example, students
and staff at the University of Nottingham,
UK (and hundreds of other sites around
CCSO'S IBM™
mainframe, VMD
UNIX™
mainframes
and workstations
anyone with access to
computer and modem. The Free-Net
able free of charge to
the fall of '92, anyone on the Internet could
download or read online the speeches and
Macintosh™
NeXT™
operated online information system, availa
of local
VMD
happens
student or employee of the University. In
dates
a
n
m
movement to establish
Champaign-Urbana.
a Free-Net in
possible, unless he or she
ras
are spearheading a
With a few keystrokes, you
can deliver a message to a friend or colnity.
Everyone
enough to
pay for their own connection). Fortunately,
this situation will change in the very near
future. Members of the UIUC Graduate
School of Library and Information Science
net connectivity (or wealthy
more
traditional media.
And,
formerly a
staff
Case Western Re984 Grudner set up a
small electronic bulletin board to allow
and deliver general health information
the public. The project
was
that
so successful
—with the
fi-
nancial backing
of
AT&T,
Ohio
the
Bell Tele-
Com-
the world), can read the enthusiastic en-
phone
pany, and University Hospi-
to the
UIUC Gopher
server.
1
health professionals to answer questions
dorsement of an Urbana veterinarian or
scan the spring schedule of the Krannert
Center for the Performing Arts by linking
Tom Grudner,
member of the Department
Yet, well
over half the population of Champaign
county is unable to make use of this valuable resource. Simply put, the
numerous
resources on the Internet are currently only
commumembers fortu-
available to
f^n
ImU
nity
Any
platform
nate enough to be as(continued on page 2)
to
r
3
Feb. -Mar. 1993
time" friendship with someone across town
Free-Nets...
tinned from page
1
Internet Connectivity.
•
are affiliated in
1
university.
ten dial-up ports to the public in 1986, and,
ftp, etc.)
provided a venue for
lay people to get information and advice
from professionals in the Cleveland area.
Seven years and several incarnations later,
the system now boasts over 350 separate
information and communications features
sible to install other
many
(including
Internet services)
and
handles up to 12,000 logins per day.
In 1989,Grudner founded the National
Network (NPTN),
agency dedicated to helping
other communities develop Free-Nets and
delivering high-quality network broadcastPublic Telecomputing
a non-profit
ing services (called cybercasts) to
affiliates.
There are
now
NPTN
at least 11 active
Free-Nets scattered throughout the U.S.
Canada, and New Zealand with many
more scheduled to come online this year,
including Prairienet, the Champaign-Urbana Free-Net.
is
con-
campus network and
the
campus network is connected to the Internet, standard TCP/IP applications (telnet,
may be
available.
It is
also pos-
popular network applications such as Gopher, HYTELNET
(an application for accessing remote databases and library catalogs), and WAIS.
These services
are, of course, especially
community members who
wouldn't otherwise have access to them
beneficial to
Any
Electronic mail.
•
registered user
can exchange e-mail with any other user
on the system. If the Free-Net has Internet
connectivity, users can send mail to and
receive mail from anyone on the Internet
and possibly other networks such as BITNET, CompuServe, GEnie, etc.
News
server
news
(NNTP)
software, the Net-
transport software
simple, menu-driven
C-NEWS, and
news
a
reader. Thus,
users can read and contribute to a selec-
tion of
world-wide Usenet newsgroups.
the
community
and dedication of
that supports
it,
but there
Special Interest Groups. Special Interest Groups, or SIGs, are unmoderated dis•
are common characteristics among the sys-
cussion groups on topics of local interest.
most Free-Nets use one of two
registered user can ask the Free-Net
system administrator to create a SIG. SIGs
look and behave like Usenet newsgroups,
but they are not exported to other Usenet
tems.
First,
commercially available software packages,
Freeport or Community Information Exchange
run on Unix systems
and offer a user-friendly front end to many
(CIX). Both products
The Free-Net
metaphor of an elecEach item on the main menu
different kinds of services.
interface uses the
tronic city.
takes the user to a different location in the
city,
and each location
vices (see Figure
Office
is
1).
offers different ser-
age electronic mail. The Library
may offer
li-
brary catalogs as well as electronic books
and newspapers. Users can go to the Pub-
Square
to
engage
in real-time interac-
with other system users
or vote on community issues. Free-Net
menus can be totally customized, so ultimately it is up to the system administrator
to design an electronic city that guides the
tive conversations
user intuitively to the specific services available on the system.
to
sites,
so most or
all
participants are geo-
graphically proximate to one another.
It
can be fun to interact with a fellow angler
from Cambridge via the alt.f ishing Usenet
newsgroup; but a Free-Net Fishing SIG
offers the possibility of establishing a "real-
Even though services vary from system
system, most Free-Nets offer a set of
core services. These include:
information areas. For example, local doctors, lawyers, auto-mechanics, accountants,
agronomists, etc. could upload electronic
brochures and fact sheets and/or answer
posed by users (Q&A
form of moderated newsgroups); the minutes of city council or school board meetings could be
posted by a committee member; governspecific questions
services normally take the
ment officials could
interact electronically
with their constituency. The possibilities
for distributing information both rapidly
and creatively are almost limitless.
Cybercasting Services. Through a spearrangement with American Cybercasting Corporation, NPTN provides all
affiliates with cybercasting services, highquality information features on a variety
cial
The multi-faceted Teledemo-
of subjects.
cracy Project, for example, provides users
1
)
Supreme Court Deweekly summary of three U.S.
the full-text of
cisions, 2) a
Senate and three House
bills with information on how representatives voted on
each measure, 3) a congressional contact
file with the names, addresses, phone numbers, and committee assignments of feder-
ally-elected officials,
and
'92 information service.
FREE-NET DIRECTORY
>»
1 The Administration Building
2 The Post Office
3 Public Square
4 The Courthouse & Government Center
5 The Arts Building
6 Science and Technology Center
7 The Medical Arts Building
8 The Schoolhouse (Academy One)
9 The Community Center & Recreation Area
10 The Business and Industrial Park
11
The
Library
12 University Circle
1
The
Teleport
14 The Communications Center
15 NPTN/USA TODAY HEADLINE
NEWS
h=Help, x=Exit Free-Net, "go help"=extended help
Figure
1:
The Cleveland Free-Net main menu;
an electronic
city.
Campaign
Besides free
cybercasting services, fee-based subscriptions to electronic
news services, journals,
and magazines can be made available to
ALL registered Free-Net users (in which
select
«< CLEVELAND
4) occasional
short-term features such as the
case, the Free-Net picks
and man-
access to local and distant electronic
lic
Any
For example, the Post
a place to send, receive,
•
Moderated Discussion Groups and
Sponsored Information Areas. Free-Nets
are first and foremost community information systems. The success of the system
often rests on the willingness of local professionals and organizations to sponsor
with
Every Free-Net has its own personality,
reflecting the interests
the best local fishing holes.
•
Usenet Network News. The FreePort
software comes bundled with Network
•
all
What Can I Find on a Free-Net?
the Free-Net system
If
nected to the
who knows
some way with a college or
BBS into a comprehensive multi-user community information service known today
as the Cleveland Free-Net. The first version of the Cleveland Free-Net opened its
like its progenitor,
Most Free-Nets
group
up the tab), or to a
of subscribers
who are billed
periodically.
•
K-12 Educational and Recreational
Programming. Free-Nets provide community youths with the opportunity to
explore the vast potential of telecomputing.
NPTN's Academy One
cybercasts offer
programs for students, parents, educators
and school administrators. Interactive
programs such as simulated spaces
shuttles, journeys to "virtual worlds," and
the "TeleOlympics" use Free-Net's electronic mail and conferencing features to
allow participants to interact with one another and coordinate these world-wide
(continued on page 3)
3
Feb. -Mar. 1993
Free-Nets...
;
The
anted from page 2)
NPTN
Student
News
funding (and other types of support) to
(a dedicated, midrange Unix workstation; 32 phone lines,
acquire basic hardware
Network distributes electronic versions of
school newspapers. Academy One's Daily
Report Card is an eight page briefing for
educators on "America's progress toward
modems, and
A special NPTN newsgroup called the Educator Contact File
facilitates communication among teachers
who are interested in coordinating
mately be responsible for fund-raising, pub-
telecomputing projects. A special area of
the net might also be reserved for teen or
youth SIGs and other recreational services.
These are just a few of the many items
you'll encounter on a Free-Net. To really
get a feel for what a Free-Net is like, try
logging in to a remote Free-Net as a guest
with telnet. See the table on this page for
a list of Free-Nets (including the C-U protheir domain names, and guest
totype)
information areas on the system.
events.
better schools."
,
login IDs.
Who Pays for Free-Net Services?
Although there is no charge to get a registered account on a Free-Net, monies are needed
to purchase core equipment (a multi-user
server, phone lines, modems, etc. ) and the staff
to run it. Also, in order for the Free-Net to
become a viable community resource, there is
the additional cost of providing public access
a terminal server;
lection of terminals and
a col-
organizations in the creation and maintenance
of the various information and activity areas to
be found
there.
modems to be placed
and
at public access sites)
and
will seek to engage community members and
to hire a full-time
Volunteers Welcome
information providers (professionals and
Champaign-Urbana
down the communication barriers between the "have nets"
and the "have nots." University staff and
students, who already have Internet access,
organizations) to sponsor community-based
can take advantage of Prairienef s
and half-time systems administraThe Prairienet director would ulti-
director
tor.
lic-relations,
of
UIUC
and
enlisting the aid of local
A number
departments interested in using
Prairienet offers the
area an opportunity to break
commu-
nity-oriented services. In addition to community information services,
community mem-
Prairienet to disseminate information have
bers will also have free access to Internet appli-
already pledged sponsorship if matching
funds can be raised in the community.
cations,
In
its
start-up phase, Prairienet will offer
Champaign-Urbana
residents services such
news feed,
Special Interest Groups, community information services, and links to various Internet
facilities. The system will support 30-40 simultaneous sessions and roughly 2000 registered
as electronic mail, a large Usenet
users.
Subsequent phases of the project
in-
volve the expansion of hardware, information
services, user capacity,
and
staff.
be initially housed on campus and will make use of existing campus
computing services rather than duplicating
Prairienet will
them.
From
the
start,
though, Prairienet will
making
it
them
possible for
to
municate electronically with people
com-
at the
University or anywhere on the Internet.
If you are interested in volunteering time,
money, or expertise (perhaps you'd like to
sponsor an information area) to Prairienet,
send an e-mail message describing your inten-
tions to [email protected] or
paper mail
to
Greg Newby, 410 DKH, MC 707, 1407 W.
Gregory Dr., Urbana, IL 61801. Also, old
terminals, obsolete PCs, and slow modems
can make fine public access terminal equipment. If you own computer equipment
(privately, not University inventory) that
no longer serves your needs, this too can be
donated to the Prairienet cause.
have a focus on community information and
-
Lynn Ward
terminals in schools, libraries, and other places
where people gather. Like public television
and radio, Free-Nets rely heavily on corporate
endowments and private donations. Regular
users, for example, may be asked to contribute
annual, but
strictly
A
Name
/
Partial List of
Location
Free-Nets
Domain Name
Login
/
Password
voluntary, dues.
Prairienet (prototype)
gpx.lis.uiuc.edu
visitor / guest
heartland.bradley.edu
bbguest
yfn.ysu.edu
visitor
freenet.lorain.oberlin.edu
guest
Cleveland Free-Net
Cleveland,
hela.ins.cwru.edu
visitor
Denver Free-Net
freenet.hsc.colorado.edu
guest
Tallahassee Free-Net
Tallahassee, FL
freenet.fsu.edu
visitor
Victoria Free-Net
Victoria, B.C., Canada
freenet. victoria, be. ca
guest
National Capital Free-Net
Ottawa, Canada
freenet.carleton.ca
guest
About Prairienet: the C-U Free-Net
Champaign-Urbana, IL
TheChampaign-Urbana Free-Net project,
dubbed Prairienet, has been under way for
Heartland Free-Net
roughly a year. Actively involved are members of the Graduate School of Library and
Information Science (Greg
Newby, Ann
Bishop, Leigh Estabrook, and Marie Erdman)
Mike Gardner of CCSO, David
Micko (former GSLIS student), and Champaign resident Greg Smith.
Greg Newby has drawn up a two-year
implementation plan, and although things are
as well as
slightly behind schedule, real progress has
been made. Free-Net presentations and demos
have been given at community and school
Tom Grudner of NPTN arranged for
an Ameritech grant to cover the cost of the
Free-Port software for Prairienet. Newby and
Erdman installed the software on Newb/s
Unix workstation and have set up a working
libraries.
Peoria, IL
Youngstown Free-Net
Youngstown,
OH
Lorain County Free-Net
Elyria,
OH
OH
Denver,
CO
prototype.
In order to go public with the system, the
organizing committee is actively soliciting
Eudora
1.3
Released
Supports Terminal Server Login
est" to "lowest" to
CLIENTS FOR CLIENTS
M
affect the
13
sage
Dorner put the
official release of
Eudora
1.3 for
incoming messages can serve to remind
you about the relative urgency of messages in a given mailbox window. Special priorities on incoming messages
are displayed in the Icon Bar of open
the
many new
Macintosh.
Besides offering
features that
improve the overall function-
should be
of special interest to modem users because
it supports the new login procedure for the
ality of the software, this release
CCSO terminal
1 .3
of the
improvements
in
Eudora
A
file
called 1.3Changes,
have
been implemented since the last official
release, Eudora 1 .2.2. Several of the more
briefly describes all the features that
new
new 1.3 fea-
Draggable Mailbox Column Dividers. Place the mouse pointer on any
column divider and drag it to the right
to expand the width of the column or to
the left to shrink it. The default width of
the Status column does not display
message priorities, but by dragging it to
the right, priority icons will appear just
available with the software distribution,
enticing
name,
in the
query box:
ture,
came about as a direct response to end-
user feedback.
first
of the person
on the Finger button. The finger server
on uxa will return the names of every
user on uxa whose real name contains
the string "margaret". The output will
look something like this:
you can't see message priorities in the
Status column, try another
name
[email protected] Next click
servers.
If
the either the
lowing information
messages and the Status column of
mailbox windows.
New Features in Eudora 1.3
Many
think
Assigning priorities to
is.
is
or login
you want to look up. For example,
suppose you have a friend named Margaret who has an account on uxa, but
you can' t remember exactly how to spell
her last name and you don' t know her email address. You could open a Ph
window in Eudora and enter the fol-
will let the re-
know how important you
the message
Infinishing touches on the long-awaited
it
name
last
speed with which your mes-
delivered, but
is
cipient
early February, Steve
where name
any message. For
outgoing messages, the priority will not
options are highlighted be-
low:
Login name: margieS
Directory:
Last login
No
In real
landers margaret
m
Wed Dec
9 19:30
on ttysR from or-macCW
Plan.
Login name: msgl407
Directory:
to the right of the status indicator.
life:
/srudents/homel/margie8 Shell: /bin/csh
In real
life:
Margaret Sarkissian
/students/homel/msgl407
Shell:
/bin/csh
Last login Fri Feb 12 05:49 on ttyqZ from mossberg
•
Subject Editing. Have you ever received an e-mail message with a blank
•
previous version of Eudora, creating
nicknames required either entering both
ambiguous Subject: field in the message header? If you save the message in
or
it
may
Eudora 1.3 allows you to edit the subany incoming message. To use
this feature, turn on the Icon Bar with
the Switches... option under the Special menu. When the Icon Bar is on, you
can enter/edit any text in the Subject:
field that appears above the double line
of an open message. Editing the subject
in this manner does not change the contents of the original message header,
but it does change the subject line in the
mailbox window.
ject of
Message
Priorities.
You can
a
group nickname with
ent.
assign a
menu now includes a finger cli-
Finger
is
a utility that
produces
detailed information about a user acIt is
especially useful
know someone
when you
has an account on a
particular machine, but his/her e-mail
messages. Like subject editing, this function is only active when the Icon Bar is
address is not listed in the CCSO
Nameserver. The syntax for a finger
turned on. Clicking on the small box in
the left hand corner of the Icon Bar
search
pull-down menu that lets you
assign one of five priorities from "high-
opens
a
Shell:
/bin/csh
in.
Plan,
the person you were looking for was
Margaret Sarkissian, you could send
her mail by placing her login name,
"msgl407", before "@uxa.cso.uiuc
.edu",
i.e.,
[email protected]
.
this option.
Finger Client. The Ph option under the
Special
Margaret D. Ford
If
•
•
life:
etc.
outgoing messages, or
of incoming messages.
and incoming
priority to both outgoing
No
In real
/students/home0/mdf31042
Never logged
You can also select multiple nicknames
from the Nicknames window to create
count.
•
Directory:
fields of selected
the From: field
Plan.
Login name: mdf31042
nickname and full e-mail address
manually or doing some creative copying and pasting. The Make Nickname
command under the Special menu can
create nicknames automatically from
the addresses in the To:, Cc:, and Bcc:
the
be difficult to remember what it was about
without actually opening the message.
one of your mailboxes,
No
Make Nickname Command. With the
is:
Reply All Switch. Eudora can now be
configured so that
it
will reply to all
message by default. Previous versions of Eudora addressed rerecipients of a
sender only, unless the opkey was depressed when making
the reply. The Reply All switch is found
in the Switches. option under the Special menu. Another switch called Include Self will add your name to the list
of recipients when Reply All is turned
plies to the
tion
. .
on.
[email protected]
(continued on page 12)
UTO*
5
Feb. -Mar. 1993
Ethernet Addresses:
Six Little
Numbers That Could Save Your Network
network, it's just like people sending pack-
ADMINISTRIVIA
ages of information to each other along the
street. In
order for a package to get to the
must be
Each machine on the network is
identified to the rest of the network by its
unique Ethernet address, just as the address on a house is what identifies it to
whomever is walking down the street. If
your network is healthy, you'll rarely have
to deal with things at the network address
level, but when something goes wrong,
those numbers could be your lifeline.
right house, the correct address
used.
Administrivia
tributed by
for
a //ere
is
UlUCnet column
con-
David Ruby, network consultant
CCSO's User Services group. While nil are
invited to read the column,
it
is
specifically
directed toward the often overworked
derpaid people
and un-
who keep our packets flowing
—
departmental and building network administrators.
row do you keep track of where
I everything is on your network?"
I
JL JLsomebody once asked me.
This
simple question can give even the best
network administrator the shakes. The
best way to keep track of where things are
on a network is to maintain an organized
written log or a database of important
network information. But often networks
start
out small.
You
don't start with a
network of 400 nodes, you build up to it.
Who needs to document anything when
your network is made up of three workstations and a printer, right? Unfortunately,
all that wonderful "free time" you had
before your baby network grew into a
monster is used up with learning things
like how to make the network work, and
not in organizing. Most net admins don't
have time to think about documenting the
network until after it's almost finished. If
you're really lucky, the network gives you
a few days to look at your creation before
it comes crashing down. I'm going to try to
pass on a few things you can do during
those mythical no-network-problems days
that will
make
those
work-problem days
One
a
all
too familiar net-
little less
traumatic.
many
important pieces of
information you should keep about your
building-wide network (or even a small
departmental LAN) is the Ethernet adof the
dress of each node.
An Ethernet address is
unique combination of six hexadecimal
numbers, which is encoded into the firmware of every Ethernet card. What's so
important about this number? Pretend
your network is a street, and the nodes are
houses. When nodes send packets to the
a
Sniffing Packets
If you don't have one yet, purchase or
download a packet sniffer. Packet sniffers
are programs that capture the packets flying by on your network. They don't interfere with the packets
they just copy them
down so you can actually see the traffic on
your network. Much of what you'll see is
just numbers and other data that are only
—
meaningless packets. No other node can
word in edgewise. Your phone starts
ringing off the hook and your pager is
beeping mercilessly with messages from
unhappy users. Your packet sniffer helps
you determine that a card with the address
of 00 00 CO Al 03 ID is having a nervous
breakdown and needs to be turned off.
Right about now, you realize that you
don't have a clue about the location of the
machine with the address of 00 00 CO Al 03
ID. Having a list of which cards are where
could save the day, which returns us to our
theme: "document your network!"
A network crisis doesn't have to be as
dramatic as the whole building network
get a
down.
shutting
is
A commonplace problem
a "stolen IP address."
If
you have
a
building full of people telnetting and ftping,
you're probably aware of the need to keep
IP
numbers unique.
If
two people
try to
use the same number simultaneously, neither one of them will be able to telnet or ftp.
meaningful to your Ethernet cards. However, each packet will have a few bits of
information that will always be useful.
There will be a destination address and a
source address. There also will be a few
This
numbers that specify the protocol in use.
only occurs when both people are trying to
you're trying to see what happens
If
when
a particularly
is
because
it's
annoying problem
usually a case of an error in a
configuration file, so nobody knows they're
stealing
difficult
someone else's number. It's also a
problem to track down because it
same time. If one user works
morning and the other in the after-
telnet at the
you send information to a network printer,
you could watch all the packets that have
in the
the printer as the destination address with
one weekend they both come in to catch up
on their work. By capturing all the packets
with the IP number in question with your
packet sniffer, you can isolate the Ethernet
addresses of the competing machines. If
you have a list of where each address is
physically located, this problem can be
your
sniffer. If
you're trying to figure out
why telnet is slow, you'd want to watch all
the packets that are using the TCP or IP
protocol.
all this
Of
course, to
make anything
information, you'll need a
list
of
of the
node on your
network along with the Ethernet address
physical location of every
noon, you'll never hear about
it
until the
corrected very quickly.
of each node.
Documenting Ethernet Addresses
To demonstrate the usefulness of packet
suppose you have a building
full of Macs and PCs with Ethernet cards.
net address
sniffers, let's
The
easiest
is
way to document an Etherto write down the address
Users happily telnet out of the building,
before you install the card into a computer.
connecting to various servers on and off
On most
network is a fully
functional roadway to the world and
people are happy. Then, something goes
horribly wrong. An Ethernet card somewhere on the net has fried a chip and won't
shut up. It seems to be stuck in the transmit mode and is flooding the network with
marked on the card. Often the address is
on a sticker on a chip, but it also can be
printed on the board itself. Unfortunately,
it's not marked on the part of the card you
can see once it's inside the machine. To
campus. All
in all, the
Ethernet cards, the address
is
find out the address of a card that has
(continued on page 6)
—
Feb. -Mar. 1993
NetJTools directory
Ethernet Addresses...
(continued from page 5)
already been installed, you
may have
to
open the machine, and take the card out
hardly something efficient to do during
tion,
a
One simple suggeswhich may save many headaches
building-wide
later, is to
crisis.
record the address in permanent
marker on the part
once it's installed.
get the last three
shows
of the card that
If
at
ftp.cayman.com.
space is limited, try to
numbers written on the
first three numbers
some Mac information (like chooser name,
or the name of the hard drive, and the type
us that Western Digital made the card and,
of
Mac
in use) along with the
network
Ethernet cards from machine to machine,
so unless you're careful, there
is
no guar-
antee that the same card will be in the same
computer the next time you need to know
its address. Along the same lines, if you do
move an Ethernet card from one machine
to another, remember to update your net-
work log or database.
What do you do if you have a few
hundred machines with cards in them already? Do you have to open them all up?
Well, no. There
is
plenty of software that
can help you here. On a PC, you can use
the diagnostic software that came with the
card. The diagnostic software will typi-
you the Ethernet number as well
as information like the card's hardware
interrupt, base RAM address, base I/O
address, and even the slot you put it in (if
it's a micro-channel or EISA machine), all
of which can be very useful for troubleshooting later. If you use packet drivers on
your PCs, you can also find out an Ethernet address by watching the driver as it
a
it's
PC
card as opposed to a
termine the network address of each ma-
manufacture Ethernet cards for Macs). A
semi-current listing of these prefixes can
be found in RFC 1340, a document that
provides various types of Internet address
information. (RFC 1340 can be retrieved
via anonymous ftp from uxc.cso.uiuc.edu.
chine by using this tool alone, but
a
good idea
to
it's still
go and verify the addresses
yourself.
Let me conclude by providing a little
background on Ethernet addresses. First,
the numbers in an address are in hexadecimal (base 16) notation. The value in each
column can range from through 15; thus,
we need sixteen different symbols. The
You can move
therefore,
my example, 00 00 CO tells
Mac
More about Ethernet Addresses
isn't necessarily helpful.
the address. In
address. In a limited area, you could de-
aren't as important, a point we'll get into
Note that labeling the machine itself
given a certain prefix (or set of prefixes
ages include programs that will collect
outside of the card (the
later).
is
depending on how many cards they've
made), which makes up the beginning of
Also, some commercial packet sniffer pack-
first
ten digits use the traditional decimal
symbols
0-9.
the letters
For the six additional digits,
A through Fare used (i.e., A=10,
card (since Western Digital doesn't
This document is located in the
and has the filename
usually figure out the
B=ll, C=12, and so on). The hexadecimal
prefixes
number OF equals 15 in decimal. AF is 175
short, there is
((10xl6)+15) in decimal.
to ignore the letters
It's
important not
when you write down
an Ethernet address because they are as
much a part of the address as the numbers.
The
first
three
numbers
(00 00
CO
in
my
example) indicate who made the
card. Every manufacturer of Ethernet cards
earlier
RFC direc-
You can
numbers
of an Ethernet address by knowing which
company has which prefix. This is why
recording the last three numbers is more
important if you only have room to write
down half of the address on the card itself.
The only problem is that the list of Ethernet
tory
1340.)
three
first
always behind the times. In
no substitute for keeping a
written or electronic log of critical network
is
information.
-
David Ruby (Note:
If
you have ques-
tions about packet sniffers or other technical aspects of this article, contact
Ruby
via
e-mail
at
the
Dave
address
[email protected])
cally give
loads.
When the packet driver software is
executed, the address of the card
is
echoed
Network Design Update
NEW UIUCNET BACKBONE
NETWORK INSTALLATION
CONNECTIONS: (since 9/92)
IN PROGRESS:
IN
Allerton House
911S.6th-AISS
Assembly Hall
909
S.
6th
-
Div. of
Mgmt.
Architecture
to the screen.
Finding the Ethernet address for a
Mac
easy if you are using a recent version
MacTCP. Go to the MacTCP module
is
of
in
your control panel. Notice that you've got
two or three choices of networks
(LocalTalk, Ethernet, and perhaps
EtherTalk). Click on the Ethernet icon
while holding down the option key, and
the address of the Ethernet card will magically appear. But what if you're not using
MacTCP or have the older version? You
can download a free utility called Node
Informer that does the same thing as the
MacTCP trick and allows you to save the
information to a
file.
To
retrieve
Node
ftp
the
file
called
Informer,
Node_Inf ormer_l.l.sea.hqx from the pub/
Info.
BMRL/Collegeof Medicine
Center for Advanced Studies
Coble Hall Graduate College
English - LAS Development Offfice
Coordinated Science Lab
ISR Residence Halls
DCL - Workstation Lab
EASB - National Soybean Research Lab McKinley - Counseling Center
Sheffield Vivarium
EERL - University Police
-
University High School
NETWORK DESIGN
PROGRESS:
Campus Bookstore
Ceramics Bldg.
Chemical and Life Sciences Bldg.
Davenport Hall- Geography
Grainger Engineering Library
Math
Illini
Hall
Geological Survey Lab
Illini
Union
NETWORK INSTALLATION
Harker Hall - Ul Foundation
ANTICIPATED:
Housing Food Stores
Inst, of Government and Public Affairs
805 W. Penn. - Educ. Theory Annex
Krannert Center
Agr. Bioprocess Lab
Mailing Center
Burnsides Research Lab
Main Library
Law Bldg.
Mumford Hall
Flagg Hall
Observatory
Rehabilitation Center
Stadium
University Fire Station
University Press
Fire Services Institute
-
Noble Hall
Lab
Roger Adams Lab
Plant Sciences
Temple
Buell Architecture Bldg.
.
7
Feb. -Mar. 1993
Customizing Telnet Sessions on a Macintosh
prompt you to enter a Session Name
and a Window Name. For the Session
Name, enter the fully qualified domain
name of the host to which you want to
connect. For example, if you wanted to
connect to the CCSO computer uxl,
you would enter: uxl.cso.uiuc.edu (or
you could enter the IP number of the
host instead, but domain names tend to
be easier to remember). For the Window Name, enter the name that you
would like to appear on the title bar of
your session window. If you do not
enter a Window Name, telnet will pro-
NET TIPS
Q
MM
issue's Net
Last
cused on how
to
Tips column focustomize NCSA
and Clarkson Telnet
for the
PC by
modifying the config.tel file. Although
Telnet for the Macintosh has a
config.tel file that can be edited in a similar manner, there is a much simpler way to
configure telnet sessions on the Mac. To
learn how, read on.
NCSA
vide a default name.
Saving Telnet Configuration Sets
There are two ways
to
open
Now click on the Configure button. A
a telnet
connection using NCSA Telnet for the
Macintosh. The first time you connect to a
menu of configuration options will ap-
host,
you must use the Open Connecoption under the File menu. You'll
be prompted to enter the Session Name
(domain name or IP number) of the remote
machine and optionally to provide a name
for the session window. You can also click
on the Configure button and change many
default parameters. Once you click on the
OK button, assuming that you typed in the
correct hostname or IP address, the session window will appear and you can log
in to the specified host. This is the most
common method for logging in to a host
and it works perfectly well. However, if
you log in to the same host or group of
hosts every day, you can avoid typing the
session name and setting the desired parameters each time you log in by creating
defaults or change
them (an explana-
tion...
tion of each option
given in the user's
a telnet configuration
ration set
is
set.
manual).
OK
3.
open and you
After you are logged
under the
File
menu.
A dialog box will
earlier, the icon for the configuration set
file
will look like the
below.
will
If
you use
one on the
left
release 2.5, the icon
resemble that on the
right.
m*
ux1
ux1
5.
The next time you want to start a session using the same settings, double
click on the icon of the configuration set
you just saved. This will both start the
Telnet software
(if it is
not already run-
ning) and open a telnet session with the
host
you
specified during step 2 above.
A Few Extra Pointers
Saving Multiple Sessions.
A
telnet
more than a
you are accus-
configuration set can contain
window. If
working with multiple sessions
at once (perhaps you keep both a uxl and
a uxh session open most of the time), you
single session
tomed
to
can save multiple session windows in a
To
create a con-
sion window to the location on the desk-
two or more
top where you would like
sessions, open each session successively as
Move
it
the ses-
to
appear
menu and
ex-
appearance and nature of your session.
You can change the style and size of the
display font, the maximum number of
lines in the session
window,
tion of the delete key, the
the func-
echo mode,
and many other parameters. If you
have a color monitor, you may want to
change the foreground and background
colors also an option under the Session menu. (Note: the customization
—
options available in the Configuration
box and Session menu vary from one
version of telnet to the next. The most
recent release,
NCSA/BY U
Telnet
2.5,
offers the richest set of features to date.)
4.
be saved to a file with the specified
name. If you use NCSA Telnet 2.4 or
will
figuration set that contains
When all aspects of the session are configured as desired,
it's
time to save the
session information to a
open the
Connection... option
you can further
plore the options for controlling the
about a particular telnet session. Once
has been saved, you can connect to the
host using the identical settings by simply
double clicking on a configuration set icon.
The procedure for saving a telnet configuration set is given in the Advanced
Features section of the Telnet user's
manual, but it is actually quite easy and
can be as useful for novices as old pros.
Open
in,
Next, open the Session
a set
Select the
window
telnet session
every time you connect to this host.
etc.)
2.
A
customize the session.
space /delete setting, window colors, fonts,
ing on the telnet application icon.
button.
usual.
scrollback setting, back-
Start the Telnet software by double click-
with
log in to the host
the configuration information (hostname,
1
When you are satisfied
will be prompted to
you specified as the
Session Name. Log in to the host as
will
A telnet configu-
Here are the steps involved:
is
the current
the configuration settings, click on the
a separate file containing all of
window name,
You can either accept
pear.
prompted to enter a name for the set.
After you have entered a name, click on
the OK button and the current settings
File
Set... option.
box
menu and
A
file.
To do
select the
so,
Save
single configuration set.
1 through 3 above. Once
you have customized all sessions and
placed the session windows exactly where
you want them on the desktop, save the set
as described in step 4. When you open the
set by clicking on the icon, the two or more
sessions saved in the set will open concur-
described in steps
rently.
Adding Your Configuration Set to the
Apple Menu. If your Macintosh is running System 7 or higher, you can add your
favorite telnet configuration sets to the
Apple Menu. To do so, move the configuration set icon (or an alias of the icon) to the
Apple Menu Items folder in your System
folder. Once the set file is in this folder,
you can start telnet and open the set by
selecting its icon/name from the Apple
menu.
For help with questions and problems
concerning the configuration of
Telnet for the Macintosh, call the
Microcomputer Consultants
standard Save dialog
will appear,
and you
will be
-
Lynn
\\
NCSA
CCSO
at 244-0608.
8
Feb. -Mar. 1993
Expanded Network Access
Are
tired of seeing the "Sorry,
all lines
tell whether the tn3270 software is
on your computer. The sidebar on page 9,
How to Connect to Library Services via
TN3270 and Telnet, gives advice on how
to figure out whether tn3270 is available
on a particular system and how to open a
easy to
CAMPUS NEWS
you
to Library Services
are in use" message when
email questions to [email protected]
Selections
1)
ILLINET Online Network Services
2)
Keyboard map
tn3270 or telnet session with the library.
E
trying to connect to the online
there's good news
AISS are in the process
consolidating and expanding network
library catalog?
ahead.
of
If so,
CCSO and
access to library information services.
Until recently,
UlUCnet users could
only access online library services through
one of CCSO's two TCP/IP gateways, IO
Plus and LCSgated. Due to hardware constraints, these two gateways are limited to
simultaneous connections
(eight ports are used by IO Plus and four
by LCSgated). AISS now offers a faster,
a total of twelve
more robust
service,
which supports over
Getting Started
If you have access to a TCP/IP 3270
emulation utility, you can establish a direct connection with the ACN's IBM mainframe UICMVSA by opening a tn3270 session with the host named uicmvsa
.aiss.uic.edu.
see the
ACN
Once connected, you should
welcome screen, which is
sometimes called the ABC screen
ure
(see Fig-
CHICAGO (312)
EVSELEN
URBANA (217)
HELP DESK
996-4806
333-31 02
10 the UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
Administrative Computing Network
forty concurrent TCP/IP (telnet or tn3270)
sessions
CCSO
own
equipment,
probably will phase out its interim
library services with
its
it's
generally preferable to access library
services
on the
ACN with a 3270 terminal
or 3270 emulation software, it's not always
and press the <enter> key
C
Public Services
ACN. You
NOTICE
that
shown
should see a screen similar to
Figure 4. Select the desired
The welcome screen of the Adminis-
1:
trative
Computing Network,
its
mand==> prompt.
services labelled
Figure
often called the
ABC screen.
to
in
service by entering
To select a service, type the letter and press Enter at the Command ===>
prompt To exit, type X and press Enter at the Command ===> prompt.
number at the Com-
For the most part, the
IOMENU (the full-screen
ILLINET Online catalog), IBIS, and CARL
function exactly as they do when accessed
through CCSO's IO Plus gateway. (All
three are menu-driven systems with online
Most operations involve entering
commands or filling in empty
fields with search criteria.) There is, however, one minor change that will affect
ILLINET Online (IOMENU) users. When
you enter ILLINET Online, you will be
help.
single letter
to the
ILLINET Online Network
<RETURN>
to login.
presented with a screen resembling that
shown in Figure 5 on page
1 0.
If
you press
Figure 2: The ILLINET Online welcome screen
the <enter> key, the default scope for
on illinet.aiss.uiuc.edu.
searches will be
all
statewide system.
This
all
Accessing Library Services
Once you are at the ABC screen, type
the letter b
Press b and
computers on the campus network, AISS offers
two methods for connecting to the library
system, one for 3270/tn3270 users and
another for plain telnet users. Although
not available on
ABC screen shown in Figure 1.
enter the Library Services region of the
Welcome
is
Keyboard Map-
Library Services
Unauthorized use of University of Illinois computerized systems, data, or
resources, or an attempt to gam unauthorized access is prohibited by
University policy and may constitute a violation of Illinois state law
Two Modes of Access
application
For more informa-
tion, see the section called
Administrative Computing Network Services (ACN)
are provided below.
mainframe can only communicate directly
with IBM 3270-class terminals or computers running software that can emulate a
3270 terminal, such as the special version
of telnet called tn3270. Since the tn3270
emulate special keys found on an IBM
to
B
gateway services. Instructions on
how to use AISS facilities to connect to
library services via the campus network
University of Illinois at Chicago.
access screen
A
library
Most of the databases that make up the
online library system reside on an IBM
mainframe, which is part of the Administrative Computing Network (ACN) at the
ILLINET Online
3270-class terminal.
the
Welcome
and provides access to the full
range of library services, including
ILLINET Online, IBIS, CARL UnCover/
UnCoverl, and the University of Illinois at
Chicago's online library catalog. (For more
information on ILLINET Online, IBIS, and
CARL UnCover, see the Dec. 91 - Jan. 92
issue of UlUCnet, vol. 4 no 5.) Since AISS
is able to fully support network access to
Figure 3: The
on illinet.aiss.uiuc.edu.
ping below.) Eventually, you should see
below).
1
Exit
-
Enter your selection here===>
If
a tn3270 application
is
that
shown
a plain
with the intermediary host
illinet.aiss.uiuc.edu.
A
Library Services
-HELP DESK
URBANA
screen similar to
in Figure 2 will appear.
Type
lower case b and press the <enter> key.
You should then see a screen like the one
a
shown in Figure 3.
libraries in the
limit searches to
not available
on your system, you can open
telnet session
800+
To
Select option 1
and
this
(217) 333-3102
Node TCP00013
NO SERVICE
1
2
3
_ 4
CARL
IBIS
IOMENU
LUIS_UIC
SERVICE DESCRIPTION
TYPE
UnCover-Joumal Contents
Bibliographic Info System
Multi
Multi
On-line Catalog
UlC-Library Catalog(Luis)
Multi
III
lllinet
STATUS
Pass
service, type the number and press Enter at the Command
prompt, or tab to the service line and press Enter To exit, type X and
press Enter at the Command ==> prompt
To select a
intermediary host will open a tn3270 session with UICMVSA for you, serving as a
translator between
IBM mainframe.
will display a
your computer and the
(Note: Selecting option 2
map of the keystrokes used
Figure 4: The Library Services menu.
(continued on page 10)
=
HMJP^
How to Connect to
via
From a DOS Machine: If you use
public domain TCP/IP software
such as
NCSA or Clarkson Telnet, change
File
menu and System
Find File
to
with the
name tn3270.)
If
search for a
file
the software.
by typing dir t*.exe at
the DOS prompt. Look for the files called
tn3270.exe and telbin.exe in the directory
listing.
letter "t"
If
the
file
tn3270.exe
open a session with
is
UICMVSA
present,
by
enter-
command
ing the
.uic.edu at
tn3270 uicmvsa.aiss
the DOS prompt. If you can
only find telbin.exe, open a plain telnet
session with the intermediary host by typing telbin illinet .aiss.uiuc.edu at the
DOS
Versions 2.05 and later of the commer-
TCP/IP software PC/TCP incorporate
both telnet and tn3270 into a single application with the filename tn.exe. To access
library services with this package,
change
PC/TCP
command tn
uicmvsa.aiss.uic.edu at the DOS prompt.
to the directory
containing the
software and enter the
the current folder.
AISS,
you see
If
a file called
ACN, UICMVSA,
or something
and it may take you
exactly where you want to go. If not, click
on the Cancel button to close the window
and select the Hostname option under the
similar, try
opening
menu.
Settings
it
that automatically invokes tn3270.exe
when you
enter a
DOS
are set
computers
up
at
and
click
on the
OK
button.
Then, pull
goes well, you should eventually see a screen similar to that in Figure
1 on page 8. (Note: The foregoing describes
a quick
If all
and not-so-elegant method
for set-
up a tn3270 session. Talk to your
network administrator or read the manual
ting
to learn
tings for
how
to
optimize the various
set-
your particular hardware.)
tn3270
to
is
not on your Mac, use
open
a
NCSA
connection with
illinet.aiss.uiuc.edu.
in this manner).
If
there
is
want
command. If it takes you
shown in Figure 1 on page 8,
using the telnet.bat
best
method
to
file is
connect to
From VMD: Since VMD is an
IBM mainframe, the version of
a
to try this
to the screen
probably the
UICMVSA and
on this machine provides
3270 emulation by default (in fact, it works
best when communicating with other IBM
mainframes). To open a direct connection
telnet installed
with the library,
first
by entering the
linkto tcpip at the system
taining the telnet software
ing plain telnet.
command
prompt. Then, enter the
you use a different commercial or
public domain TCP/IP package, or the
suggestions above do not work for you,
contact your building network administrator or the CCSO Microcomputer Con-
telnet
uicmvsa.aiss.uic.edu to open a session
with UICMVSA.
From
a
Unix Machine: Unix ma-
chines may or may not have tn3270
sultants (244-0608) for help.
installed (most
CCSO-administered ma-
chines do). The best
From a Macintosh: Look for an
application called tn3270 or
tn3270-MacTCP on your Macintosh. (System 7.x users can use the Find utility in the
command
try
way
to find
out
with
illinet
(Note: Even if the tn3270 command doesn't
work on your Unix system,
that the tn3270 application
it's
possible
but
has a different name. For more informais
installed,
tion on the remote login utilities available
on your system, talk to your system ad-
ministrator.)
From a DEC/VMS Machine: VMS
machines
may
or
tn3270 installed. The best
is
to try
may not have
way to find out
opening a connection using the
command tn3270uicmvsa.aiss.uic.edu.
you get an
error
message
like
If
"unrecog-
command
verb - check validity and
\TN3270\," the machine probably doesn't have tn3270. If tn3270 is not
available, open a plain telnet session with
nized
spelling
illinet.aiss.uiuc.edu to access library ser-
A popular set of TCP/IP tools
VMS machines called Multinet by TGV
has a telnet
utility that negotiates
is
to
opening a connection using the com-
mand tn3270uicmvsa.aiss.uic.edu. If you
get an error message like "Command not
found," the machine probably doesn' t have
terminal
3270 mode
when necessary. If this software is on your
type on the
fly
and switches
to
command
telnet
uicmvsa.aiss.uic.edu to access the
ACN
directly.
For more information on the
remote login
utilities
available
on your
VMS system, talk to your system administrator.)
Dialing in from a Computer with
link to the disk con-
other remote systems, even those requir-
If
not available, open a
system, you can use the
public sites
telnet.bat file on your computer, you might
is
session
.aiss.uiuc.edu to access library services.
for
Tchwt
tn3270
vices. (Note:
command like
CCSO
If
telnet
Enter the hostname
telnet uicmvsa.aiss.uic.edu (for example,
the
tn3270.
plain
uicmvsa.aiss.uic.edu into the dialog box
If
Some DOS computers have a telnet.bat
file
on your Mac, start
play the names of all tn3270 settings files in
nection.
or tn.exe
is
A pop-up window will dis-
down the File menu and select Open Con-
prompt.
cial
can use
Apple menu
the tn3270 application
with the
6.x users
utility in the
ware and
executable files beginning
Library Services
TN3270 and Telnet
to the directory containing the telnet softlist all
9
Feb. -Mar. 1993
to
a Modem: Although it is possible
conduct a telnet or tn3270 session from
the
CCSO terminal servers, modem users
are urged to use the dial-up facilities pro-
vided by the library. Dialing either 3332494 or 333-8269 will connect you to a pool
of modems maintained by the library. The
brochure called Remote Access to ILLINET
Online and IO Plus (IO+), available at the
main
library
and many departmental lion how
braries, gives detailed information
to
use the use the library's dial-up
ties.
facili-
—
.
10
Feb. -Mar. 1993
Library Services...
items at the UIUC campus, press the <tab>
key
move
to
to the
scope code
enter uc; or enter o at the ==>
complete
a
list
gives the default keyboard
and reset keys vary from one version of tn3270 to the next. Here are some
guidelines to help you figure out which
and Brown's tn3270
keystrokes to use:
This publication can be requested by
clear,
(continued from pag
field
and
prompt to see
of the libraries you can
to the
It
ILLINET Online Public Access Gateway
is a resource sharing system tor the 40 ILCSO libraries
also provides information about items in over 800 Illinois libraries
library or library
system, type
its
scope code below
and press <ENTER>.
To see a list of participating libraries, library systems, and
scope codes, type the letter O and press <ENTER>.
To search
all
Type the
800
letter
MILO03t
libraries simultaneously,
press
and press the <ENTER> key
I
Press
<ENTER>
key
their
for instructions
INTGWYM1
X
-
Exit
==> _
I
OR
-
O
Instructions
-
Other
Figure 5: The ILLINET Online welcome screen
all
<tab> and enter uc
800+
libraries or
to search the
UIUC
Library.
Option 4 (LUISJJIC)
in the Library
Chicago.
4,
Mac and PC use the function keys on
the PC and extended Mac keyboards as
On Unix machines, the tn3270 keyboard
map is usually an ASCII file called
strokes required for the action.
map3270
e.g.,
PF1, PF2,
etc.)
#,
usually use
where #
is
the
PF. Thus, pressing
<esc> 1 is often equivalent to PF1, <esc>
2 to PF2, and so forth, up through PF9.
PF10 through PF12 continue to use the
top row of alpha-numeric keys: <esc>0
= PF10, <esc>- = PF11, <esc>= = PF12.
a screen of instructions will ap-
pear briefly and then the word Port
Although there are no fixed rules for
3270 key mapping, there are a few common conventions that you can try if
you don't have ready access to the keyboard map for your tn3270 software.
The PF keys (programmable function
number following
Like the other three services,
located in the /etc or /usr/
A set of comments
at the beginning of the file
it
explains how
works.
Users
who
access
VMD
7171 controller (with a
through the
dumb
terminal
or a computer with terminal emulation
software) can view VMD's 3270 keyboard maps by entering the command
help 7171 termtype ( e.g., help 7171
vtlOO) where termtype is the standard
abbreviation for your terminal type
i.e., the same name you use when you
respond to the Enter Terminal Type:
prompt before you log
on.
For PF keys higher than PF12, begin
fol-
lowed by a number will appear in the
upper left corner of an otherwise blank
screen. To get past this screen, you must
enter your keyboard equivalent for the
3270 clear function. To exit the LUIS system, enter your keyboard equivalent for
the 3270 PF3 key. (See the next section for
information about 3270 keyboard map-
with the top row of keys again,
this
time with the <shift> key; for example
<esc>! = PF13, <esc>@ = PF14, <esc>
#) = PF15 and so forth. The key se-
quences <ctrl>z and <ctrl>
ercase letter
"1,"
not the
commonly used
1
(the low-
number
1)
are
for the 3270 <clear>
For
More Information
Report problems or bugs encountered
on illinet.aiss.uiuc.edu by sending an email message to [email protected]
If you need help logging on to the library
system, call the UIUC Library Telephone
Center at 333-8400 or CCSO Systems Consulting at 333-6133.
key.
Finally
if
you have
questions about a particular library appli-
ping.)
•
Keyboard Mapping
IBM mainframe
applications such as
ily of terminals.
If
IBM 3270 fam-
keys:
1
is
used
for the <clear>
when you
If
at
key and
A complete
map can be displayed
log on.
you access library services
the address uicmvsa
PF3, clear, and reset (use reset only if your
.aiss.uic.edu, the keystrokes
up and you can't enter any
new commands). The bad news is that
you use will depend on how
your specific tn3270 application
maps your keyboard. The AISS publiUse and Instructions
cation TCP/IP
session locks
there is no universal standard for keyboard mapping. Thus, the keystrokes re-
ILLINET Online,
at 333-2290.
keyboard
•
cation such as IBIS or
.uiuc.edu, the special 3270 keys follow
<ctrl>r is used for <reset>.
emulation software, normally there are
alternative keystroke sequences that can
be substituted for 3270-specific keys. The
make use of three such
library services with plain
contact the UIUC Library Information Desk
<ctrl>
you are using 3270
good news is that the online library appli-
you access
telnet at the address illinet.aiss
the conventions for
ACN often make use of special keys that
are typically found on the
If
mapping PF keys
described above. The key combination
the various library services offered on the
cations only
PF keys. Thus,
PF1=F1, PF2=F2, and so on. Consult
your tn3270 software manual for more
specific information about keyboard
mapping.
substitutes for the 3270
<ctrl> key and do not release it until
you have pressed the remaining key-
the sequence <esc>
LUIS is an intuitive, menu-driven system.
However, getting on and off the LUIS system is a little tricky. When you select
option
keystroke sequences that use the <esc>
keys,
menu
provides access to the library catalog of the University of Illinois at
Services
AISS Help Desk at 333-3102.
Typically, tn3270 applications for the
local/etc directory.
enter scope code
Press <enter> to search
Macintosh.
to
libraries
•
press
for the
that uses the <ctrl> key, depress the
<ENTER>
making choice
after
Most 3270-specific keys are mapped
key or the <ctrl> key in conjunction
with one or more ASCII characters. For
key sequences using the <esc> key,
press and release the <esc> key before
entering any additional keystrokes.
However, when entering a sequence
ILLINET Online
To search a specific
tn3270 applications for DOS computers
calling the
•
search.
Welcome
maps for
PC /TCP's telnet/ tn3270 and Clarkson's
quired to send the equivalent of the PF3,
—
-
Lynn Ward
mo*
Feb. -Mar. 1993
11
UlUCnet E-mail to Fax Service Improved
MM
The
old
the message will be converted to a
CCSO e-mail to fax gateway
has been replaced with newer,
faster hardware (two fax modems
running on ux2, an IBM RISC 6000/540)
and more
flexible software.
term, users won't notice
in the
way
are plans to
machine is busy, the gateway will try to
send it six more times at increasing
intervals within a 90 minute window.
gateway, and the ASCII text of
to the fax
CAMPUS NEWS
bitmapped image that can be printed out
on the receiving fax machine. If you would
like further details on how to use the email to fax gateway, pick up a copy of
When compared to the four retry /eight
minute window of the old fax gateway,
the
retry algorithm greatly in-
creases the chances for successful trans-
1420 DCL.
be notified via e-mail about the success
,
mission.
As in the past, the sender will
or failure of the transmission.
In the short
much
new
CCSO User Guide #301 CCSO E-mail to Fax
Gateway at the CCSO Resource Center,
difference
gateway works, but there
implement some exciting new
Future Enhancements
The fax gateway software supports
the
FAX
features.
PostScript files,
What is the E-mail to Fax Gateway?
If you are new to the campus network,
you may be unfamiliar with the e-mail to
II
sanfax 100
printers),
and several other
Unfortunately, not
all
fax gateway. In a nutshell, this convenient
able to process such
you to send an e-mail message to any fax machine in the United
States and Canada. The procedure is quite
under
service allows
simple.
When preparing your e-mail mes-
sage, enter the following information in
the To: or cc: field of the header of the
Facts about the
The quality
New Fax Gateway
of the output
performance of the new fax
and general
gateway sig-
nificantly surpasses its predecessor. Send-
and
ers
message:
the Hewlett Packard
files in
PCL Level IV language (the printer command language used by HP LaserJet Series
recipients are likely to notice the
following changes and improvements:
name_phone#@f ax.uiuc.edu
•
Replace the variable name with the name of
the person to whom you are sending the
fax and replace the variable phone# with
A handsome
cover page accompanies
every outgoing fax
(it is
no longer pos-
suppress the cover page as with
the previous fax gateway). Included on
sible to
file
formats.
e-mail packages are
files correctly,
and
some circumstances, when
PostScript or PCL files are incorporated
an e-mail message, the resulting fax
can be tens or hundreds of pages of raw
printer instructions. A utility for sending
into
PCL, TIFF and other file types
gateway is currently under de-
PostScript,
to the fax
velopment. Once this utility is in place, it
will be possible to send faxes that include
graphic images and standard Adobe
PostScript fonts.
Faxes are presently restricted to desti-
of the destination fax
the cover sheet are a University banner
nations in the U.S. and Canada, but CCSO
machine. For the name section of the address, you may use the letters A-Z and a-z,
(with address and telephone number),
does plan
name of the recipient, the phone
number of the receiving fax machine,
to fax service.
the e-mail address of the sender, the
international faxes.
the
phone number
the
and the hyphen (-) and
underscore (_) characters. However, the
name section must not end with a digit.
When entering the phone number, use
only the numbers 0-9 with no punctuation
marks. Off-campus fax numbers need not
include the "9" prefix, which is normally
used to get an outside line. Local offcampus numbers should not include the
the
numbers
0-9,
"217" area code.
Also, the "1" prefix
only required for long-distance
date, the subject of the fax
fills
header),
and the
total
including the cover.
number of pages
In addition, a
e-
at
is
calls that
•
The
resulting fax
image
is
noticeably
sharper than that produced by the old
gateway. Unless special codes are embedded in the message (see the Future
length of the text that precedes the
"@fax.uiuc.edu" part of the address, so
possible to include the
the sender
header with a time/date stamp and
mail address of the sender appears
the top of every page.
are within the 217 area code (e.g.,
12174420001). There are no limits on the
it's
(if
in the Subject: field of the e-mail
Enhancements below), the default font
name and office
is
10 point Courier at 12 characters per
•
Message line lengths are now limited
to
80 characters per line. Lines longer than
]oe_Kaufmann_PC_Wliolesalers [email protected]
•
If
the
More
specific infor-
mation about international faxes and support for alternative file formats will be
announced when these
services
become
available.
Restrictions and Support
The CCSO e-mail to fax gateway will
only accept messages from users in the
uiuc.edu and uic.edu domains. The fax
gateway is available to University faculty,
staff, and students, but is intended for
University-related business only (so don't
use
it
Abuse
of the
result in the loss of
CCSO
to order a pizza!).
gateway could
first
attempt to send the fax
If
you encounter problems with the
e-mail message to
new gateway, send an
[email protected]
80 characters will be truncated.
Once you have finished preparing your
message, send it as you would any other email message. The message will be routed
currently free,
services for the offender.
inch.
address or other information about the
recipient. For example:
an international e-mail
While domestic faxes are
there will be a charge for
to offer
is
unsuccessful because the receiving fax
CCSO
Sys-
tems Consultants (333-6133) can also answer basic questions about the service.
- Lynn Ward
DCL
Campus MC 256
1120
1304 W.Springfield Ave.
Urbana.IL 61 801
LIBRARY SCIENCE
306 LIBRARY
CAMPUS
MC-522
Eudora
1.3...
(continued from page 4)
Attention All Modem Users!
As you may recall, CCSO is phasing in
the center. Eudora 1.3 is in the Software/
Mac/Communications/Eudora 1.3 folder.
The application itself and the CiscoNavs
file (for modem users) are in the Program
folder.
Various pieces of documentation
a plan that will require all dial-in users to
including the
log in to the terminal servers before they
PageMaker
can access
CCSO machines and other net-
worked computers on and off campus (for
more information, see the October 1992
issue of UlUCnet, vol 5 no.
6).
Terminal
server login will be required to access CCSO
machines as early as May 18, 1993. If you
use Eudora with a modem, it is critical that
you upgrade to release 1 .3 before terminal
server login
is
enforced.
The
latest release
of Eudora has a Dial-up username: field in
full
1.3 user's
guide
(in
For
Eudora 1.3, contact the CCSO
Microcomputer Consultants at 244-0608.
installing
Bug
reports should be directed to Steven
Dorner via e-mail at [email protected]
4.2 format), release notes, a
HyperCard stack of commonly asked questions and answers, etc. are located in the
Documentation folder. If you are just
upgrading from an earlier version of Eudora, you shouldn't need anything else.
But, if you are installing Eudora for the
first
time, ask a Resource Center consult-
-
files you'll
need.
A
printed
Lynn Ward
About UlUCnet
UlUCnet provides timely informa-
ant to help you figure out exactly which
additional
More Information
For more information on obtaining or
about the campus network. It is
published by the Computing Services
tion
the configuration box. Enter your
version of the Eudora manual can be purchased at the Accounting and Distribution
Office
into this field.
desk in the Resource Center. The price
Comments and
ph alias
You also will need to get the
called CiscoNavs and place it in the
appropriate location in your System folder
file
(see the section called
dora
Upgrading
to
Upgrading
Once you have installed Eudora 1.3,
you will be prompted for two passwords
when you send or check for mail. Enter
your ph password at the first password
prompt and your login password at the
second prompt.
Obtaining Eudora
1.3
Eudora 1.3 is available via anonymous
from ftp.cso.uiuc.edu in the mac/
eudora directory. Be sure to grab StuffltExpander.hqx because some of the archived files in the Eudora distribution are
stubborn and can only be "unstuf fed" with
ftp
this application.
Eudora
1.3 can also be obtained at the
Resource Center, 1420 DCL. It is
available on the AppleShare volume called
Public, which
is
cost of duplication
mounted on every Mac in
to
Eudora
and
is
edited by
Lynn Ward.
suggestions for topics
are welcome. Permission to reprint
all
or part of UlUCnet for non-profit pur-
Eu-
1.3 below).
CCSO
$6.00 and covers the
and binding.
is
1.3
poses is granted, provided full
acknowledgement of the source is
Upgrading to Eudora 1.3 is a snap. If
your Mac is attached to the campus network, just replace your old Eudora application file with the new application file. Eudora 1 .3 will look for existing configuration
and mailbox information in the Eudora
folder inside your System folder. All your
previous Eudora settings will be used unless you decide to change them.
If you use Eudora with a modem, you
also must install the CiscoNavs file. System
7.x users should place the CiscoNavs file in
the Preferences folder inside the System
folder. (Do not just drag the CiscoNavs file
onto the System folder. Unlike many System 7 preference files, it will not be placed in
issues are posted to the Netnews newsgroup uiuc.pubs.uiucnet. Back issues
are available for download from the
the Preferences folder automatically.) Sys-
anonymous
tem 6.x users should copy the file to the top
level of the System folder.
in the directory doc/net/uiucnet
given.
Feel free to reach us via elec-
tronic mail
([email protected]), campus or U.S. mail (UlUCnet, Comput-
ing Services Office, 1120 Digital
puter Laboratory,
MC
ComW.
256, 1304
Springfield Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 ), or
by phone
at (217) 244-0681.
For a free subscription, just send
us your
name and
(preferably cam-
pus) address; be sure to include your
department and mail code if you send
a
campus
address. UlUCnet
available in electronic form.
from the
is
also
Recent
ftp host ftp.cso.uiuc.edu
UIUC Gopher server.
and
L5X
A
Publication of the
Computing and Communications Services Office
UNIV OF ILLIKC
JUL
02
LIB SCI
The University
of Illinois
1993
LIBRARY
Campus Network
April-June 1993
Vol. 6 No. 3
Icon Key
PCs
Novices
with
Experienced users
Network Administrators
QUALCOMM,
MM
clients
I
Eudora, the well-known e-
was
released at
over two years ago,
it
UIUC
a
little
literally revolution-
way Mac users on the campus
network (and eventually all over the world)
processed their electronic mail. Eudora
afforded people the luxury of preparing
outgoing messages and reading and organizing incoming messages within the faized the
Everyone
Platform/Operating System
rag
miliar confines of the graphical,
PC
menu-
driven Macintosh desktop. For most
compatibles
(DOS™)
Mac
—even those well acquainted with
UNIX e-mail software and
editors—
users
text
was time
Macintosh™
a
n
m
VMD
f^\
to say,
"Good-bye Elm and
it
vi,
hello Eudora."
Shortly after Eudora was introduced, PC
users began clamoring for a similar e-mail
X Window System™
NeXT™
package for DOS machines. Several DOSbased e-mail clients entered the
public domain, but until
recently, most were either
unstable, unsupported, or
and
mainframe, VMD
UNIX™ mainframes
previously available in beta
Any
platform
Like Eudora for the Mac, both NUPop
and PC Eudora are POP (Post Office Protocol) clients. In order to use a POP client, you
must have an e-mail account on a multiuser computer that is running POP server
software (all CCSO-administered mainframes including uxa, uxh, uxl, ux4 and
VMD support the POP protocol). Most of
the actions you will perform with the client (NUPop or PC Eudora) do not involve
network communications. For example,
when you prepare a new message, you use
a text-processor built in to the
coming mail are also desktop operations.
The only time the network comes into play
is when you send or retrieve mail (or use
special network utilities such as ph, finger,
etc.).
r
fp%7y
use that
(test)
now production software
and hold much promise for the DOS user
base. NUPop is a text-based application
versions, are
developed at Northwestern University
that can run on both old and new PCs.
For high-end PCs and compatibles,
POP client.
Reading, organizing, and replying to in-
ease-of-
made Eudora an
overnight sensation. However, two packages—
NUPop and PC Eudora—
and workstations
developer of
lacking the extraordinary
functionality
CCSO'S IBM™
Inc. (current
Mac and PC Eudora) offers a Microsoft
Windows version of Eudora that looks and
feels very much like its Macintosh cousin.
mail client for the Macintosh,
AISS
POPping
PC Eudora and NUPop
CLIENTS FOR CLIENTS
When
AIS&
are
(continued on page 2)
PC Eudora and
formatted word-processing
NUPop...
PC Eudora and NUPop both
by e-mail. NUPop and PC Eudora get
around this problem by encoding binary files in the format known as BinHex
(for more information about BinHex
possess a
and configuration options comparable to those found in Eudora
for the Mac. Some of the more outstanding
rich set of features
November 1992 issue of
UlUCnet, vol. 5 no. 7). The binary data
is converted to a format that uses only
format, see the
of these are:
•
Integrated Text Processor.
ASCII characters and
Creating
new messages
or replies is a breeze
with the intuitive word processing ca-
NUPop and PC
pabilities built in to
Eudora.
Word wrap and
select, cut,
also allow the user to
file
Both packages
•
all
or part of the
new message.
into a
Nicknames/Groups. You only need to
type an Internet or BITNET address
once to realize that such addresses are
often long and difficult to remember.
With PC Eudora and NUPop you can
create aliases (called Nicknames in Eudora and Groups in NUPop) for the
people or groups with whom you correspond regularly. Creating an alias
involves entering a user's
full
•
Ph Client. Standard queries
can be sent to the CCSO Nameserver
database with the built-in ph client
Built-in
found under the Special menu in PC
Eudora or the Utilities menu in NUPop.
Ph makes it easy to look up e-mail addresses, phone numbers, and many
other types of other information about
people and units on campus. You can
it to get weather, area code,
also use
campus
Eudora or NUPop, the attachment
are a finger client (for looking
its
is
original
timetable,
mation about a user account on a spe-
ent for logging in to remote hosts,
native format.
webster client for looking
ASCII text files can be attached to
any NUPop or PC Eudora message and
do not require special handling. They
simply appear as part of the body of the
tion
Mailboxes and Folders.
If
you receive
very helpful to be able
according to your own orga-
it
This need
is
ad-
PC Eudora and NUPop with
client,
the IP Finder (an nslookup
which
fied
domain name),
address. For example, an alias for the
at least 2
other nicknames. For example, the nick-
preconfigured with a few essential mailboxes such as IN, OUT, and Trash.
New mailboxes can be created by selecting the appropriate command from
the Mailbox menu. Once a new mailbox
has been created, messages can be
moved from one mailbox to another.
When creating a mailbox in PC Eudora,
you have the option of designating it as
a folder, which is a mailbox that contains other mailboxes rather than messages. Mailboxes can thus be neatly
organized into categories that form a
name "happy hour" might include
hierarchical filing system.
full
the
e-mail address (or alias) for each
member
of the
gang you meet
after
work on Friday afternoons. Helpful
Hint: You can use the copy and paste
•
A
pop-up window and/or alarm signew incoming mes-
nals the arrival of
application,
mail
is
that
many systems can only pro-
cess plain ASCII text, and thus it
is
often
not possible to send binary data such as
PC
a 386 processor or better,
MB of RAM, a sizable hard disk
(PC Eudora only requires 750 KB, but MS
Windows uses roughly 10 MB without any
other applications installed), mouse, and a
VGA or better resolution video subsystem (PC Eudora can run on a 286 machine with a Hercules monochrome graphics or EGA video card, but performance
color
On the software side, two
commercial products Microsoft Windows version 3.1 and FTP Software's PC/
TCP release 2.1 or higher must be installed on your machine in order to run PC
will suffer).
—
—
Eudora. (For information about the
UIUC
site-license for PC /TCP, contact the
CCSO
both low- and high-end machines. The
pseudo-graphical user interface (consisting of windows, buttons with drop-shad-
sages. (Note: because
of the shortcomings of electronic
For optimal performance,
POP account at regular time intervals.
groups.
Binary and ASCII File Attachments.
network.
Accounting and Distribution Desk, 1420
a
One
servers.
Automatic Message Retrieval. NUPop
and PC Eudora can be configured to
check for and download new mail from
copy an e-mail address from
the header of a message or the ph query
window into your list of nicknames or
feature to
up informa-
If you decide to run a POP client on
your PC, which application should you
use, PC Eudora or NUPop? Your choice
will be partially influenced (if not dictated) by your PC hardware and software.
The system requirements for PC Eudora
are not met by many PCs on the campus
Eudora requires
e-mail addresses or even
cli-
and a
System Requirements
the Mailbox menu. Both packages come
sist of multiple
numeric IP
a simple telnet
on Webster Dictionary
dressed in
also con-
will return the
address associated with any fully-quali-
address and a short, easy-to-remember
nickname that corresponds to the full
Nicknames or groups can
NUPop
up infor-
can be used to convert the file back to its
to store
recipient.
local restaurant
cific host),
nizational scheme.
might be "Mel." Once an alias is created, you can use it in the To: or cc: field
of the message instead of the full e-mail
address. The client software takes care
of expanding the alias to the full address when it sends the message to the
and
information. Also included in
and placed in a directory designated by the recipient. If the recipient
uses an e-mail package that cannot decode BinHexed files, a special utility
lots of e-mail, it's
e-mail
•
body of the e-mail message. When a
BinHexed attachment is received by PC
message.
address of a colleague with the e-mail
address [email protected]
•
attached to the
state
open existing text
order to paste
files in
is
automatically restored to
the ability to
copy, and paste blocks of text
are standard features.
files,
spreadsheets, executable programs, etc.,
tinued from pagi
it is
NUPop is a DOS
only convenient to take
DCL,
333-7752).
NUPop, on
the other hand, can run on
ows, and pull-down menus) uses only characters from the ASCII and IBM extended
advantage of timed message acquisition when running NUPop as a back-
ASCII character
ground process under multitasking
software such as MS Windows.)
suffice.
sets.
Thus, even a plain
monochrome video card and monitor will
The NUPop executable and assoup roughly 700 KB of hard
ciated files take
(continued on page 3)
.
^m&
3
April-June 1993
PC Eudora and
uzoa
disk space and require 470 KB of free RAM
DOS and memory resident programs
The only
are loaded.
NUPop
quired by
is
<>
<
ess
ageTGHHiE
wminm _™_
m^mt
Date: 8S-29 -93
(continued from page 2)
after
Mail ox
roup
dit
ile
NUPop...
tilities
I
ialing.
elp
inetow
.
To:
Cc:
>
1
special software re-
DOS
version 3.0 or
higher and a packet driver for your network
interface card (Packet drivers for common
.
brands and models of network cards are
free and ftp'able from many locations on
the Internet. In any case, most PCs on
UlUCnet already have a packet driver installed. For more information on packet
drivers, see the
istrivia
NetWord and Admin-
columns
in this issue.)
NUPop
Power
DOS
winoperation under
MS Windows. In short, just about any
PC with a hard disk and at least 640
KB of RAM can run NUPop.
Apart from system requirements, there
are a few other items to consider before
committing to NUPop or PC Eudora. Although the two programs are roughly equal
in terms of overall functionality, each possesses its own unique set of features and
users can run
in a
dow as a background
flaws.
Figure
Facts and Features
NUPop supports both plain serial and
SLIP (Serial Line IP) connections by way of
CCSO
terminal servers, a feature not
yet available in
PC Eudora.
This means
NUPop from home or office
PC and modem (no direct net-
you can run
with
just a
work connection
ured for
serial
required).
is
If
communication,
config-
NUPop
automatically dials the terminal server and
connects to your mail server
issue the
command
Once
to
when you
send or retrieve
<Alt> key
in
can be executed and menus can be opened with a mouse or by
combination with the highlighted
Additionally,
a set of "hot-
<Alt-0> for
letter; e.g.,
The following
files
Options.
are available:
keys" have been defined for frequently
- ZIP archive of NUPop
(where the variable x stands for the
current version number [nupopl03.zip
used commands.
nupop.v.zip
NUPop Flaws
Few
domain software applicaand NUPop is no exception. Until you get used to it, mastering
NUPop's multiple windows is quite con-
as of this writing])
public
tions are perfect
At
fusing.
More NUPop
NUPop commands
a mailbox.
box),
the
1:
pressing the
start-up, the
Composer
nupopps.zip
Index (IN mail-
(editor for creating
windows
to
if
you have
a PostScript printer)
connect.scr
to the
dard
Dialing script to connect
terminal server with stan-
serial access
to the
-
UIUC
Dialing script to connect
terminal server with SLIP
access (only necessary
NUPop windows have scroll bars and othThere is actually some
method behind this window madness, but,
-
UIUC
slipdial.scr
Some
open up.
ZIP archive of the
new
messages or replies), and Viewer (used for
viewing received messages) windows appear successively on top of one another,
and it is not quite clear what is happening
until the action stops. Invoking the ph
and /or finger utilities causes additional
full-screen
-
PostScript documentation (only useful
if
NUPop
is
the
only SLIP application you use)
ers have a close box.
at first,
it is
not obvious to the user.
In general,
Both the application and documentaZIP archived format. If you do
not already have a utility to unzip the files,
tion are in
NUPop 1 .0.3 is a fairly stable
UNZIP
piece of software, but there are
bugs
is
CCSO terminal
NUPop distribution files at the CCSO Resource Cen-
still a few
be ironed out. For example, occasionally NUPop will behave in an unpre-
a free file-extraction utility called
connection is closed. Special NUPop script
servers are available with the
dictable
manner or lock-up completely.
Such problems do not typically result in
nupop (retrieve the file named unzip.exe).
ter.
the loss of any data but are certainly alarm-
mail.
files
the transfer
is
complete, the
customized for the
to
NUPop and PC Eudora
much easier to use with a mouse, most
NUPop commands can be easily managed
from the keyboard (running PC Eudora
ing
without a mouse, on the other hand, is
extremely cumbersome). Menu and button commands are executed by pressing
the < Alt> key in conjunction with the high-
NUPop
Although both
when
they do occur.
are
lighted letter in the
command name itself.
For example, to open the Options menu,
How to Get NUPop
There are several ways
CCSO
to retrieve the
have prepared a special distribution of NUPop that
includes custom scripts for use with a
modem and the CCSO Terminal Servers.
This distribution is available on the Novell
file
software.
server
staff
volume mounted on
the
use the key combination <Alt - 0> (see
Figure 1 ) The space bar acts as a toggle for
the CCSO Resource Center, 1420
selecting and unselecting messages within
appropriate
.
PCs
at
DCL (Re-
source Center staff can help you copy the
files
onto your
own
disks).
available
on the anonymous
ftp host
ftp.acns.nwu.edu in the directory pub/
When extracting the ZIP archives, you may
be asked whether you want to overwrite
the files named connect.scr and
slipdial.scr. Enter "n" for no so that the
custom UIUC script files will not be overwritten with the files for modem users at
Northwestern University.
The authoritative anonymous ftp source
for
NUPop
is
ftp.acns.nwu.edu.
North-
western University maintains the most upto-date versions of the software and documentation, including test versions of
releases.
The
new
NUPop application and
lated files are located in the
re-
/pub/nupop
(continued on page 4)
PC Eudora and
NUPop...
(continued from page 3)
You may
directory and subdirectories.
download and use these
staff will
files,
but
CCSO
PC Eudora Flaws
Although the system requirements of
PC Eudora are steep, the learning curve is
not. Many of the commands in the File and
PC Eudora is also not without shortcomings. Several options that appear in
various menus have not yet been implemented, notably the Undo/Cut/Copy/
Edit menus (as well as the mouse movements and keystrokes for managing individual windows) are identical to those in
other MS Windows applications. The
menus and commands unique to the Eu-
not of fer assistance on test versions
of the software.
Installation
More PC Eudora Facts and Features
and Support
The NUPop installation procedure may
be difficult for network novices. However,
an excellent installation manual and draft
configuration and operation of
PC Eudora
modem
users.
less identical to the
Although PC and Mac Eudora are very
similar, the
Windows version offers a con-
venient feature not yet available on the
Mac. An icon bar appears across the top of
every open mailbox window, providing
quick access to message management commands such as Reply, Reply All, Forward,
Redirect, Print, and Trash. Once one or
more messages are selected from the mailbox, clicking on the appropriate icon will
produce the desired result (see Figure 2).
Finally, PC Eudora takes full advantage of the
Windows
multitasking envi-
ronment. As a background application,
PC Eudora can check for mail regularly
without any direct user intervention. For
Send requests for NUPop support by e-mail
to [email protected] Bug reports and suggestions should be sent by e-mail directly to
NUPop developer Philip R. Burns at
users
who
are heavily dependent on e-
mail and want a package that will notify
them as soon as new mail has
Eudora is a good pick.
[email protected]
switches under the Special menu. Also, at
present,
and more or
version.
NUPop.
Windows shortcut keys for these
some of the
functions do work) and
Mac
user's guide are available in PostScript for-
documentation for $5.00 from the CCSO
Accounting and Distribution Desk, 1420
DCL. This manual should answer most of
your questions about installing and configuring NUPop. If you need further assistance, try contacting your building or departmental network administrator. CCSO
can also offer assistance with the proper
standard
dora application are largely self-explanatory
mat from the CCSO Resource Center and
come highly recommended. If you do not
have access to a PostScript printer, you can
buy a spiral-bound, printed copy of the
Paste commands under the Edit menu (the
arrived,
PC
offers
no support
for
One of the most disconcerting aspects
PC Eudora is that it does not conform to
the Windows Multiple Document Interface
of
(MDI) standard. Every Eudora entity (the
bar, each open message and mailbox, the configuration menu, etc.) exists in
an independent window and appears in
the Windows Task List as a separate task.
If you open a message, for example, the
opened message window may hide
Eudora's main menu or the icon bar on the
Mailbox window. Thus, it's often necessary to bring the application or a Mailbox
menu
window
into the foreground in order to
reply to or print an open message. In
MDI-
compliant applications, documents and
other items generated by an application
are all contained within a single window
and constitute a single task. It is impossible to cover up the menu bar with a
document created by the application. According to PC Eudora developers, this
problem, which was a limitation of the
kit used to build PC Eudora,
be addressed in a future release.
software tool
PC Eudora
File
Edit
Mailbox
Message
Transfer
James Renals, 04:05 PM
will
Help
Special
How to Get PC Eudora
5/30/93, UlUCnet Newsletter
PC Eudora can be downloaded from
Subject: UlUCnet Newsletter
the anonymous ftp server ftp.cso.uiuc.edu.
Date: Sun, 30 May 93 16:05:07 GMT
X-Ph: [email protected]
The application and
related files are found
pc/pc-eudora/windows directory.
The PC Eudora distribution includes the
in the
IsPhalham.rtPinnn.nn.iili
following
I
• Ed Krol
02:l»3
Ed Krol
02:*»3
02:ii3
Ed Krol
Janes Renals
Sandra Gorringe
Lynn Ward
PM
PM
PM
OH: 05 PM
08:37 AM
08:39 AM
5/29/93
5/29/93
5/29/93
5/30/93
5/31/93
5/31/93
pcex.exe
Gl
E
-
files:
-
Self-extracting archive of the
PC Eudora application (where the vari-
unistart
unistart
UlUCnet Ne us let tie
NEWSLETTER SUBSCR
Re: NEWSLETTER SU
able X stands for the current version
number
[pcel0.exe as of this writing])
README.TXT A file containing basic
-
PC Eudora disyou download this file,
good idea to rename it because the
information about the
tribution files
it's
a
(if
archived application file [pcex.exe] also
includes a file with the name readme.txt)
Figure
2:
An
icon bar appears along the top of every open mailbox ivindow in
PC
Eudora.
(continued on page 5)
I
rare
April-June 1993
PC Eudora and NUPop...
(continued from page 4)
f tpvar.lst - A list of FTP Software Value
Added Retailers located outside the US
CCSO will
tory on this host.
-
An MS Windows
dy-
namic link library required to run PC
Eudora (this file is included with PC/
TCP2.11)
you have PC/TCP version 2.11 or
later, the only file you should need is
If
file in its own direcC:\EUDORA) and decompress
pcex.exe. Place this
tory (e.g.
,
name. You should see
an executable file named pcapp.exe and a
text file called readme.txt. The readme.txt
it
by typing
file
its full
gives further information for installa-
tion.
ftp source for PC Euftp.qualcomm.com. The most recent production and test versions of PC
Eudora are found in the pceudora direc-
The authoritative
dora
is
for the Mac are so
Mac manual should an-
Eudora and Eudora
similar that the
ware.
included in
swer most PC Eudora questions (except
those regarding installation). The manual
is available in PostScript format from the
ftp host ftp.qualcomm.com (change to the
pceudora/windows directory and down-
As
load the self-extracting archive called
with NUPop, installing and configuring
PC Eudora may be too difficult for beginners, especially if PC/TCP has not yet
been installed. If you do not have experience modifying your autoexec.bat file, cre-
1_3EUMAN.EXE). Spiral bound copies of
the Mac Eudora user's guide are sold at the
Installation
and Support
Instructions for installing
are given in the readme.txt
wsocket.dll
not provide
help on alpha or beta versions of the soft-
file
PC Eudora
the self-extracting archive pcex.exe.
ating directories
and plain
text files,
and
new Windows applications
manually, seek out the help of an experienced user or your network administrator.
installing
The readme.txt
file
describes the informa-
CCSO Accounting and Distribution Desk,
1420 DCL, at $6.00 per copy.
Although
CCSO
is
not yet officially
supporting PC Eudora, staff members will
do their best to help users with the installation
and operation of the software. Send
e-mail requests for help to [email protected],
and someone
back to you as
Bug reports and com-
will get
be entered into the configuration window under PC Eudora's
Special menu once the software has been
quickly as possible.
installed.
developers at the e-mail address pc-eudora-
Aside from the readme.txt file, there is,
as of yet, no documentation written specifically for PC Eudora.
However, PC
[email protected]
tion that should
ments or suggestions about the software
should be sent directly to the PC Eudora
-
Lynn Ward
NetWord: Packet Driver
Another BPD problem was that each
network application developer had to pro-
NETWORD
A
packet driver
is
a piece of soft
vide software support for many different
brands and models of network interface
cards. This meant updating and developing new software to support every new
came on
communicate with each and every
work
Packet drivers also allow different net-
work
applications to identify themselves
to the driver
cation.
and keep track of each
appli-
More than one application can talk
to the packet driver at a time, so
the market.
net-
interface card.
ware that provides an interface
between a network application
(e.g., NCSA Telnet, Novell NetWare, LAN
Manager, etc.) and a PC network interface card, usually an Ethernet card.
In the olden days before packet drivers (BPD), a network application typi-
card that
cally talked to the interface card directly
cards. Packet drivers provide a solution to
both problems. When a packet driver is
loaded, it serves as an intermediary be-
tions concurrently.
tween a network application and the network interface card. The network application talks to the packet driver and the
ers.
packet driver talks to the card. This means
ports the packet driver interface. There are
and took control of the card. This meant
that the card could only support one
network protocol (e.g., TCP/IP, IPX, XNS,
etc.) at a time. For example, if you had
loaded the software necessary to access
your Novell LAN server, the card would
have only been capable of sending and
receiving Novell (IPX) packets. In order
to use a TCP/IP package on the same
machine, you would typically have had
two problems:
1
)
a
network
it
is
were
possible to run multiple network applica-
interface card
tions (as long as they use different protocol
So, before packet drivers there
could only support one network applica-
stacks) without
and 2) network application
developers had to continually provide software updates to support new network
trol of
tion at a time,
any single one taking conmeans you
the network card. This
can potentially access a Novell or LAN
Manager server and run TCP/IP applica-
Most public domain TCP/IP-based
applications for the
PC
use packets driv-
Also, a special version of IPX (Novell's
native network transport protocol) devel-
oped
at
Brigham Young University sup-
some
that the
network application no longer
also
needs to
know how to communicate with
packet drivers to coexist with Microsoft
hundreds of
cards;
it
different
only needs to
network interface
know how to talk to
special
programs
that allow
Windows and two other well-known open
network interface specifications, NDIS (a
to reboot
a piece of software that conforms to the
standard developed by Microsoft and
that talked directly to the card, at
packet driver interface specification.
Not all
network applications know how to com-
3Com) and OD7 (a standard developed by
Novell and Apple). For more detailed
municate with packet drivers, but if they
no longer need to know how to
information about packet drivers, see the
and load the TCP/IP software
which
point you would no longer be able to
access your Novell server.
do, they
Administrivia column on page
-
Lynn Ward
8.
—
Plugging
in to
Electronic Journals
phers to describe serial publications whose
primary method of dissemination is elec-
INTERNET TREASURES
tronic text as
MM
opposed
to the printed page.
To
professional journals.
—by making
tent
all
a certain ex-
phases of publication
faster, cheaper, and easier
—computer tech-
nology has contributed
to this flood of
scholarly output. Widespread availability
of word processing and desktop publish-
ing hardware and software, for example,
has significantly reduced the time and expense involved in editing and printing
academic journals. Most editors today
require authors to submit a typescript and
copy
any
accepted for
publication. Editorial changes can be made
electronic
of
article
directly in the electronic version,
which
is
ultimately used to produce camera-ready
copy in house or passed on to a professional typesetter. Working with electronic
text eliminates the costly, labor-intensive
step of rekeying and manually typesetting
an article.
It
also reduces the possibility of
introducing
new errors into the text, espe-
when inputting complex equations,
lengthy passages in a foreign language, or
other technical material.
cially
The recent infusion of computer networking technology into the international
title
handful of electronic journals are subject
to any type of peer review, so in most cases
there is no board of distinguished scholars
making decisions about what does and
several hundred electronic journals available on the Internet are dominated by less
formal publications dealing with science,
technology, and computer communications. However, as scholars become increasingly aware of the economic and practical advantages of electronic publication,
all of academia will eventually participate
both general and increasingly specialized
appears in an ejournal catano guarantee that the publicagood or even mediocre. Only a
a
(often called Zines) and newsletters to peer-
reviewed academic journals. Today, the
resulting in an astonishing proliferation of
if
log, there is
or perish." This all-too-fa-
miliar
Even
Broadly speaking, the genre includes everything from counter-culture magazines
maxim has controlled the
lives of many young academics as
they make their way down the tenure track,
Piublish
quality control. Virtually anyone with an
e-mail account can publish on the Internet.
in the flowering of this
new medium.
EJournal Pros and Cons
So, what exactly do electronic journals
have
to offer
over and above printed jour-
nals? First, ejournals are extremely inex-
pensive to produce, distribute, and store
no paper, postage, or shelf space is required. A single issue may use as little as
15 to 150 KB of computer storage space,
and not a single tree has to die on its behalf.
Because ejournals are so economical, there
are usually no subscription fees. Typically, one subscribes to and receives
ejournals by electronic mail. Ejournals can
also be produced far more rapidly than
printed journals, thus delivering important or time-critical information in a timely
fashion. Perhaps most significantly, electronic journal articles can be indexed and
searched with tools as simple as word
processing software or as sophisticated as
full-text retrieval systems using multiple
thesauruses, soundex routines, and fuzzy
logic. When it comes to plowing through
volumes of text, the human hand, eye,
and brain will never be able to compete with even a run-of-the-mill
desktop computer running
text searching software.
Electronic
publishing
also
down
has
its
side, at
tion
is
doesn't get published. Finally, the visual
presentation of many ejournals leaves
something to be desired. Most are produced as plain ASCII text files and lack the
tables, figures, illustrations, and typographical effects that bring the printed
page to life. Although most of these problems will undoubtedly be solved within
the next several years, for now we must
either accept the drawbacks of ejournals or
ignore a burgeoning outlet for serious
scholarship.
EJournal Catalogs
If you would like to know
and types of
the
names
electronic journals available
today, there are several sources to which
turn. Michael Strangelove at the
University of Ottawa compiled and maintains the Directory of Electronic journals and
Newsletters. This document identifies, describes, and provides instructions on how
to subscribe to roughly 140 different electronic publications on topics as diverse as
you can
drosophila, ethnomusicology, postmodern
culture, librarianship, and so on. A lengthy
introduction provides information on other
network resources for electronic publications, a bibliography on the present and
future ramifications of electronic publishing, and an informative article by Charles
W.
Bailey,
Jr.
entitled "Getting
an ISSN
[International Standard Serial Number] for
an Electronic Journal." Strangelove's directory can be retrieved in two ways, by email or
anonymous
ftp.
To request
the
directory through e-mail, send a message
to [email protected] The body of the
message should consist of these following
two lines and nothing else (note the spelling of ejournl and directry):
least for the
community has added some
in-
time-being.
academic publishing arena. With electronic mail and file
Since ejournals
are the exception rather than the rule, many of the advantages listed above have not yet been
realized by scholars in most disciplines.
Moreover, coverage of topics outside of
science and technology is sparse, and it's
difficult to know what's available unless
you happen to trip upon one of the few
research
teresting twists to the
transfer,
now scholars can easily share data
and collaborate on
over long distances without the delays associated with
sending disks and paper over land and
sea. Computer networking has also given
rise to a new and important publication
articles
medium, the electronic journal.
The term electronic journal, or ejournal,
is used among librarians and bibliogra-
catalogs of electronic journals (we'll trip
upon them later). Then there is the issue of
get ejournll directry
get ejournl2 directry
The directory will be sent to your email address as two separate, rather lengthy
You can also grab the
messages.
Strangelove directory from the anonymous
ftp server ftp.eff.org. Change to the /pub/
journals directory and get the file called
EJournal.Directory2.1.Z. This file is in
(continued on page 7)
scription information for electronic publi-
the catalogs listed above). The body of the
message should contain the text subscribe
listname Your Name (e.g., subscribe psyc
vide you with advice and the tools necessary to get started. Before you begin production, you may want to acquaint yourself with common electronic publishing
conventions along with the problems typically associated with this medium. The email discussion list [email protected] .bitnet is
for people specifically interested in schol-
cations the Kent State Directory of Scholarly Electronic Conferences (copyright 1992
some variation of this
arly electronic journals and electronic pub-
basic command.
out an issue to
EJournals...
(continued from page 6)
UNIX compressed
format and must be
uncompressed before it can be used.
There are two other well-known directories that include descriptions and sub-
—
by Diane Kovacs) and the
so-called List of
Unlike Strangelove'sdirectory, which
Lists.
limits itself to serial journals
ters,
these
works
and newsletmoderated
also catalog
and unmoderated e-mail discussion
all
subscribers.
Although
the procedure for subscribing to particular
journals may vary, the usual method is to
send an e-mail message to a designated
address (e-mail addresses are provided in
Sigmund Freud)
or
If
you normally append a
signature to your e-mail messages, leave it
off. Subscription requests are often handled
automatically by list processors, which will
interpret the lines of your signature as bad
or unknown commands. After subscrib-
you
To subscribe, send an e-mail message to [email protected] bitnet and enter the
following text in the body of your meslishing.
.
sage:
sub vpiej-1 Your Name.
Another
useful resource is the peer-reviewed electronic journal called EJournal, which, according to the Strangelove directory, focuses on "theory and praxis surrounding
the creation, transmission, storage, inter-
just looking for ejournals,
ing,
have to sift through many unrelated
items when working with these two documents, but both are invaluable tools for
anyone looking for specialized information on the Internet.
The Kent State directory is on the anony-
that
message and
tronic text." Back issues of EJournal are
available on the CICNet gopher server. To
subscribe to Ejournal, send e-mail to
mous
ftp server ksuvxa.kent.edu in the library directory (ksuvxa is a VAX/VMS system, so, even though the name of the directory
is LIBRARY.DIR, use the command cd li-
EJournal Archives
[email protected] .bitnet
Back issues of ejournals are often archived and can be obtained by e-mail or
There are also several sites on the
ftp.
sub
brary [not cd library.dir] to change to the
Internet that hold extensive collections of
mation on
The catalog itself is broken up into
eight files, ACADLIST.FILE1 through
ACADLIST.FILE8, each covering one or several major subject areas. To find out what is
in each file, get and read the file called
electronic publications.
The newest and
most comprehensive collection is managed
by Billy Barron, well known for his direc-
ing
tory of online library catalogs {UNT's AcIt resides
on the net and how to format your
publication for optimal presentation. For
assistance along these lines, contact Lynn
Ward at [email protected] or Lynn Bilger
ACADLIST.README. This file will tell
you how to retrieve the other files using ftp
on a host owned by CICNet, a regional
network serving Big Ten universities and
other institutions in the Midwest. The
CICNet collection is accessible by Gopher
(from the UIUC Gopher Main Menu, go to
Other Gopher and Information Servers/
USA/A11/CICNET gopher server/Electronic Serials). This gopher menu offers
groups.
If you're
you'll
directory).
or e-mail.
It
also gives general instructions
on how to subscribe to electronic publications and conferences.
The List of Lists is a directory of special
interest group mailing lists available on
the Internet and is updated quarterly.
Entries are listed alphabetically by e-mail
list name and provide more or less the
same type of information as the Kent State
directory. Because the list is not organized
by subject matter, this resource is a little
awkward
to use, but a simple text searching tool like the find utility in your word
processor or text browser can help you
locate items of interest. An electronic copy
of the List of Lists can be ftp'd from
ftp.nisc.sri.com.
The
file,
called interest-
groups, is in the /netinfo directory and is
roughly 1.2 MB. A hardcopy, indexed
version of the catalog is published by
Prentice Hall under the title Internet Mailing Lists (ISBN 0-13-327941-3). It can be
ordered directly from the publisher by
calling 1-515-284-6751.
Subscribing to EJournals
to
son or group responsible for the publication makes arrangements to set up a mail
LISTSERV, which makes
possible to use a single
command
processed. In the latter case, read the error
try subscribing again, making the necessary adjustments.
cessing Bibliographic Databases).
access to over 200 serial publications. You
can look for items alphabetically, by general subject heading, or by Library of Con-
gress subject classification. If you want to
collect all of the back issues of a single
journal from the CICNet archive, it may be
faster to ftp to ftp.cic.net. The journals are
to
it
send
pretation, alteration and replication of elec-
Your
ejrnl
Name
and enter the line
body of the
in the
message.
CCSO staff can provide you with inforfiles to
how to convert word processplain ASCII text for dissemina-
tion
at [email protected]
Once you are ready to begin distribuyou should establish an electronic
mailing list on CCSO's main list server.
tion,
Non-commercial, university-related mailing lists can be set up for faculty and staff
at
no
The
cost.
list
manager software
(a
UNIX program called Majordomo) will automatically add new subscribers to your
mailing
list or,
in the case of private
lists,
send the subscription request to you (the
list owner) for approval. When ready to
send out an issue of your publication, simply create an e-mail message addressed to
your
list
name
(e.g.,
esoteric [email protected]
and incorporate the
of your ejournal into the body of the
organized alphabetically in subdirectories
beneath the /pub/nircomm/gopher/e-se-
listserv.cso.uiuc.edu)
rials/alphabetic directory.
message. All list subscribers will receive a
copy. For more information on setting up
and managing a mailing list, contact Paul
The bulk
of the
CICNet electronic
als collection currently derives
seri-
from two
other ftp archives, red.css.itd.umich.edu
(maintained at the University of Michigan
by Paul Southworth) and ftp.eff.org, a
host maintained by the Electronic Frontier
Foundation, an organization dedicated to
issues of privacy, civil rights, and public
policy as they pertain to national and international
Most electronic journals are distributed
subscribers by e-mail. Usually the per-
reflector or
will receive e-mail notification
your name has been added to the list
or that your subscription could not be
computer networks.
text
Pomes
at [email protected]
Electronic publishing
on the
just
one of
Unlike other types of
Internet.
Internet information services,
mailing
list
requires very
managing a
little
technical
an efficient and inexpensive vehicle for disseminating information worldwide.
knowledge and
How to Start Your Own EJournal
If you, as an individual or member of a
professional society, are interested in publishing an electronic newsletter or journal,
CCSO and other organizations can pro-
is
many ways to make information available
-
Lynn Ward
is
8
April-June 1993
Once Upon A Packet
The packet
driver, in turn, dutifully directed IP packets to the TCP/IP application and server related packets to the server
program. So today, if a packet driver is
ADMINISTRIVIA
installed,
Packet drivers are a daily part of
for the
trator.
life
modern network adminisThey're just another one of
those voodoo magic things that net admins
configure, and, when the gods are pleased,
it
all
works. We, however, have heard the
and know what
it is supposed to do and why. Lean closer
to the page (or screen depending on how
you're reading this), and we'll tell you the
story of the packet driver
tale of the
a time, back in the olden
days, when LANs were everything a lab of
IBM PCs and clones could hope to become,
users only ran one network program at a
time. These were not modern times like
today, when you might be logged into a
few servers and have telnet and PC Gopher sessions running, all while trying to
ftp a large file from a site in Austria. No,
these were simpler times when your
autoexec.bat file consisted of a PATH statement and an additional line or two that
logged you into your
LAN server.
One day, the Internet became available
to these isolated
LANs.
Entire buildings
were networked so
that individual PCs
could access Internet hosts across campus
and around the world. At around the
same time, a strange and new program
was
distributed
—telnet
it
was
called.
A
few brave network administrators installed
telnet on their lab machines, configured it
according to the instructions, tried to connect to a campus mainframe to read their
e-mail and... their PCs froze up impressively.
It seemed that the network card
was unable to run two network programs
simultaneously, so the programs fought it
out to determine who (if either) would
ultimately have access to the network. For
a while, it was impossible for applications
using the TCP/IP protocols (such as telnet
and ftp) and programs using IPX (Novell
NetWare's native transport protocol)
to
but eventually a software utility
called the packet driver came along to
coexist,
keep the peace.
The packet driver promised
to
mediate
access to the network interface card so that
all network programs could get along. Of
course, network applications had to promise to recognize the packet driver and abide
by
Telnet and IPX (as well as
other network programs) were rewritten
to check for packet drivers and to give the
packet driver control of the network card.
its
wishes.
many network applications can
coexist happily ever after.
Stalking the Wily Packet Driver
Vocabulary Alert. Packet drivers cirunder several assumed names, so
you may not recognize a collection of them,
even when they are right under your
nose. This is because many people and
organizations have been involved in the
evolution of the packet driver, and their
documentation
for the
Crynwr collection.
for some reason
wuarchive.wustl.edu
is unreachable, another good anonymous
ftp source for packet drivers is vax.frp.com.
Public domain drivers are in the /pub/
packet. driver/pubdom directory and
Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)
drivers are in the /pub/packet.driver/oem
If
directory.
culate
names
wily packet driver.
Once upon
Driver...
name
are often prefixed to the collection
The original specificawas created by John Romkey and is
currently maintained by James van
Bokkelan at FTP Software, Inc. The collection of drivers themselves was originally
as a whole.
Configuring the Wily Packet Driver
The packet driver has to know the exact
with which it is
going to communicate in order to correctly
pass commands and packets to the right
places. The typical syntax for loading a
Crynwr packet driver is:
details of the Ethernet card
tion
supported and maintained by Russ Nelson,
who previously worked at Clarkson University
ware.
and now works
at
Crynwr
Soft-
A packet-driver compatible version
IPX was developed at Brigham Young
University. Thus, packet drivers are often
referred to as the "FTP Software packet
drivers," the "Clarkson packet drivers,"
the "Crynwr packet drivers," and even the
"BYU packet drivers." The current term
of
for the large public domain collection of
packet drivers is the Crynwr collection,
but some ftp sites still call them the Clarkson drivers.
In addition to the generic name for the
collection, there are many different flavors
of packet drivers, at least one
not several
for every brand and model of Ethernet
card, and each has a different filename. So,
where do you find them? Some Ethernet
card vendors provide a packet driver along
with the software that comes with the card.
For example, Standard Microsystems Corporation (the company that took over
Western Digital's Ethernet card division)
includes the 8003PKDR.EXE driver on
their diagnostics diskette.
The largest single collection of public
domain packet drivers is the Crynwr collection. The Crynwr drivers can be found
on hundreds of anonymous
if
on
A reliable source for the most
the Internet.
recent drivers
ftp hosts
wuarchive.wustl.edu,
which is a mirror of the well-known
SIMTEL20 archive. The collection is found
in the mirrors/msdos/pktdrvr directory.
The
all
file
is
00-index.txt in this directory
of the files in the directory
and
lists
their
purpose (this file is reprinted in Table 1 on
page 9). The archive named drivers.zip
contains the executable files and detailed
drivername software_interrupt [liardwarejnterruptl
[VO_address] [RAMjiddress]
where hardware Jnterrupt, l/0_address, and
RAM_address are in hexadecimal notation
and correspond exactly to the settings of
the Ethernet card (these settings are usually controlled by jumpers and/or dip
switches on the card, or set by software
that came with the card). For example:
wd8003e 0x60 0x5 0x280 OxdOOO
The syntax
for each different packet
driver varies slightly, but it is always useful to know these parameters when installing a packet driver or any other software
or hardware that uses memory and hard-
ware resources (upper memory blocks,
interrupt requests, etc.) on your PC.
If you are installing a brand new card,
you must be sure that the hardware interrupt and memory settings do not conflict
with any other devices in the machine.
Many Ethernet cards, however, were installed in pre-packet driver days, which
means you'll have to use some method of
determining the settings of the card. This
may involve running diagnostic software
or opening up the machine and using the
documentation for the card to check what
the jumper settings mean. As always,
write
down
already,
the settings,
and put them
if
later referral.
One
you haven't
in a safe place for
dp, from us to you
—remember
that once you've loaded a packet driver,
programs
that try to access the Ethernet
card (including the card's own diagnostic
programs) usually bump into the packet
driver instead of the card This means that
if you misconfigure your packet driver
.
(continued on page 9)
.
.
April-June 1993
Packet Drivers...
(continued from page 8)
driver and WINPKT in your autoexec file.
The two lines might look something like
use. Like
this:
correct packets to the correct applications,
and then try to use a diagnostic program to
see what you did wrong, the diagnostic
program will see the settings of the packet
driver software, not the Ethernet card itself. Remember to comment out any packet
driver calls in the autoexec.bat file before
trying to figure out what went wrong.
Nifty Tricks for You and Your Packet Driver
We've yet to touch on one critical piece
of information that is usually given when
the packet driver is loaded, the software
interrupt.
What is a software interrupt
anyway? The short answer is, just set it to
0x60 and don't worry about it. The long
answer is that packet driver-compatible
programs look at a point in memory for
sending and receiving commands. Normally, the location is 0x60 and many network programs check this location by default. The software interrupt is not something you set on the Ethernet card; it is
9
number
to
each network application in
WINPKT, PKTMUX
directs the
it has the additional benefit of being
able to differentiate between multiple programs using the same network protocol.
but
wd8003e 0x62 0x5 0x280 OxdOOO
winpkt 0x60 0x62
Confusing? Yes, but not nearly as confusing as trying to run more than one TCP/
IP program at a time with packet drivers.
Running Multiple TCP/IP Applica-
One of the big
advantages of the Windows environment
tions
under Windows.
that you can run multiple applications
simultaneously. Suppose that, while you
are sorting a large database in one window
is
With
PKTMUX loaded, you can run up to
eight
TCP/IP programs at once (or a com-
bination of TCP/IP programs and applications using other protocols) and each will
be assigned a unique channel number.
PKTMUX is not for the faint of
Configuration depends on exactly
which network applications you plan to run
and many other variables. The software
comes with a 50 page document providing
Installing
heart.
and downloading a large file with ftp in
another, you'd like to send a file to a printer
basic installation instructions and examples
cation combinations. Software and docs are
purely software related, and really packet
on your Novell network and read your email on uxl The database is not a network
operation, so it can go about its business
without worrying about the other three
applications. The packet driver will let
you print while accessing your e-mail, and
WINPKT lets you do both operations while
within Windows. But what about the ftp
driver related at that.
session? Well, packet drivers can distin-
Using Packet Drivers and Windows.
you want to run telnet from within Windows, you'll have to understand a little bit
more about the software interrupt. Among
other things, Windows is a memory man-
guish between different network protocols like IPX and IP, but not the programs
that use them. So, if you try to run more
than one TCP/IP program (e.g., telnet, ftp,
NUPop, PC Eudora, etc.) simultaneously
in Windows, the packet driver will assume
all IP packets belong to just one of those
applications. When this happens, either
none of the programs will work or your
machine will lock up completely. To solve
this problem, Graham Robinson developed
a packet multiplexor program called
If
ager.
Windows
is
tended and virtual
large
able to use both ex-
memory
to
load very
programs and /or run multiple
DOS
This involves moving data in
and out of the conventional 0-640 KB range
so DOS programs can get to data as needed
Unfortunately, it also shuffles around the
sessions.
area of
memory
that the packet driver
and strangles it. What's needed
is a program to communicate between Windows and the packet driver, a Windowsresides in
packet-driver driver.
Happily, there is
such a beast named WINPKT.COM. It
comes with the Crynwr collection and is
also commonly distributed with some network programs for the PC.
Remember how we said you could set
your packet driver software interrupt to
0x60 and not worry about it? If you are
running Windows, forget we even mentioned it. Telnet, IPX, and Trumpet, etc. all
look for the packet driver at the software
interrupt 0x60 by default. Normally, you'd
put the packet driver there, but your machine will lock up if you install the packet
driver without WINPKT. So, you put the
driver somewhere else (say, 0x62), and
put WINPKT at 0x60. WINPKT forwards
all of telnet's inquiries to the packet driver
which in turn keeps track of exactly which
network protocol (i.e., TCP/IP, IPX, XNS,
etc.) is used by which packet. So, if you're
going to run packet driver-aware applications in Windows, you should load a packet
.
PKTMUX.
of how to use
PKTMUX with various appli-
bundled together
in
the
file
called
pktmuxx.zip (where x is the current version
number) and is available at wuarchive
.wustl.edu as
shown
in Table
1
Sigh!
In order to run most
domain TCP/IP packages or to run
a TCP/IP program together with another
network protocol, you need a properly
configured packet driver, and all of your
network applications must be packet driver
aware. If you want to run packet driveraware applications under Windows, you
So, let's review.
public
need to know the software interrupt assigned to your packet driver and need to
install
WINPKT.
Finally,
if
you want
you long
PKTMUX recognizes multiple network
for the
olden days.
-Dave Ruby and Lynn Ward
programs by assigning a separate channel
Table
1
00-index.txt
Directory
PD1 <MSDOS.PKTDRVR>
Filename
Type
Length
3c509a.zip
B
dis_pkt9.zip
B
B
B
B
B
53583
32264
338294
268293
149548
61432
26703
26173
99509
29000
15323
drivers.zip
drivers1.zip
drivers2.zip
drivers3.zip
ipxtcpip.zip
novell.zip
pdclk145.zip
pdether.zip
pdipx103.zip
pktmux12.zip
popml272.zip
slippr13.zip
telnetd.zip
trmp105g.zip
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
72021
200991
14243
29365
131992
Date
Description
930216
3c509(Etherlinklll)packetdriver,v10.1
921211
920201
920201
920201
PacketdriverthatrunsoveranNDISdriver
Crynwrv10.0packetdriversexecutables&docs
Crynwrv10.0packetdriversw/sources,part1
Crynwrv10.0packetdriversw/sources,part2
Crynwrv10.0packetdriversw/sources,part3
ConfigurationhelpforNovelllPXPKTusers
920315
920618
920402
921007
920402
920929
930215
920623
930228
920617
920807
to
run several TCP/IP programs concurrently, you need to install PKTMUX. Confusing? Tricky? Well, yes. Kind of makes
BYU'spacketdriverlPX(triedandtrue)
SetsPCclockusingUDP/IPtimeserverviaLAN
Intel'spacketdriverlPX
PacketdrivershellbylntelforNetWare
RunsimultaneousTCP/IPsessionswithDV/Win3x
POPMail:TCP/IPemail,useCrynwrpktdrivers
TCP/IPpacketdriversforserialSLIP&CSLIP
RemotetelnetlogintoPCconsoleviaTCP/IP
NNTPUsenetnewsreader.UsesCrynwrdrivers
—
VMD
FTP and
assume you've used a tn3270 program to log in to VMD. If you execute the
ftp command at the VMD system prompt
let's
NET TIPS
MM
open an
in order to
VMD
is
with uxl,
ftp session
the client and uxl
is
the server.
On
if you had used telnet to
and started an ftp session with
VMD from the UNIX system prompt, uxl
is the client and VMD is the server. Note
that in both of these cases, your desktop
computer is neither client nor server.
Users often want to move files from
the other hand,
(Editor's Note: This article
assumes a working
knowledge of ftp. If you are not yet familiar
with the ins and outs [or puts and gets} of ftp,
see Appendix B of CCSO User Guide #401,
FREE SOFTWARE'How
get
ifHow
to
make
it
to find
ifHow
usable (uncompress
CCSO Resource Center,
DCL and at most CCSO sites.)
available at the
to
it),
1420
log in to uxl
VMD to their desktop computer.
This
where things get
you've
a
little
hairy.
If
is
VMD
Mastering
ftp,
the
TCP/IP
file
transfer utility, is no small task.
Aside from memorizing a number of obscure commands, in order to use
ftp successfully, you also need to know
about different operating systems, file sys-
tems, file naming conventions, file compression formats, and lots of other technical minutia. Using ftp to transfer files to or
from
(or any IBM mainframe runoperating system) prening the
sents some additional obstacles. In the
following paragraphs, we'll explore some
of the common questions and problems
that arise when trying to use ftp with VMD.
VMD
VM/CMS
Client versus Server
Regardless of platform, one of the most
concepts to grasp is which end
of the connection is the client (or local host)
difficult ftp
and which the server (or remote host). The
point of confusion arises because your
desktop computer can be the client, the
server, or neither, depending on how you
start the transfer. A good rule of thumb is
that the client is always the computer from
which you initiate the transfer. For example, if you open an ftp session with
VMD by typing a command like ftp
vmd.cso.uiuc.edu, the computer on which
you executed the command is the client. If
you type the command from the operating
system prompt of your desktop PC or
workstation, your desktop computer is the
client and VMD is the remote host. Similarly, if you start an ftp application that
asks you to enter the name of the host you
want to contact (such as Fetch for the Macintosh or WFTP for Windows), the client is
the machine on which that application is
installed, usually your desktop workstation.
VMD
VMD
as
if it
ment:
a telnet or tn3270 session. Under these
circumstances, the computer into which
are logged
is
the client. For example,
were two
1)
different pieces of equip-
a terminal connected directly to
VMD and 2) a host on the Internet running
an
Whenever you
ftp server.
ftp
from
VMD to another machine, your terminal
tells VMD to open an ftp session with
another node on the Internet.
happens that, in this case, the host running the
ftp server is your desktop computer, but it
could just as easily be a mainframe in New
doesn't really know or
Zealand.
care where the ftp server is located; it only
It
just
VMD
knows
its
name or IP address.
VMD
is
the server, the reverse
command
is
true
used to move
files from the client machine to VMD and
the get command is used to move files
from VMD to the client. Either way, there
that
is,
the put
is
some special issues to consider when
moving files to and from VMD.
are
Filenames
Every operating system has its own
naming files. Filenames on VMD
rules for
(and other
VM/CMS
three parts separated
ample,
systems) consist of
by spaces,
may
and the
on which the
status of the
file.
file
When
naming files, both the first and second
parts must be typed explicitly, but the
filemode defaults to "A" (your personal
minidisk) unless otherwise specified.
filenames require special treat-
VMD
ment during an
when
typing a
ftp session.
First of all,
VM/CMS filename after a
put or get command, the parts of the
filename should generally be separated by
a period rather than a space. Secondly,
when moving a file "from" another operating system "to" VMD, you must be sure
that is, one
to give a valid target filename
that contains both a filename and filetype
(and optionally a filemode). For example,
if you are trying to get a file from a UNIX
system called README, you would have
to give both the original name and a VM/
—
CMS-compatible
get
command
target filename after the
(e.g.,
README.TEXT).
get
README
the original filename
has two parts already (e.g., uiucnet.index),
If
you need not specify a target filename
unless you want the file to have a different
filename on VMD (e.g., get uiucnet.index
or get uiucnet.index uiucnet.text). If the
original filename has three or more parts
separated by periods, the target filename
must be changed so that it only has two
parts (e.g., get virus-detective. 506strings.hqx virus.detectiv). Finally, if the
first or second part of the original filename
is longer than 8 characters, the extra characters will automatically be removed from
name when
VMD.
When
the
file is
transferring a
file
transferred to
from
VMD to
another machine, the same rules apply.
For example, to put the file called UNREAD NOTEBOOK AO onto another system, separate the parts of the name by a
period rather than a space and leave off the
filemode unless it is required because the
file is on a minidisk other than "A." If you
do not specify a target filename, the VM/
CMS filename will usually be adapted to
conform to the naming conventions of the
remote system. For example, if you try to
put the file UNREAD NOTEBOOK AO
onto your PC, the resulting DOS filename
will be unread.not.
for ex-
UNREAD NOTEBOOK AO.
The
contain no more than eight
characters and is the filename proper. The
second part describes the contents or nature of the file and is thus referred to as the
filetype. The filetype is also limited to
The third part, the
eight characters.
part
resides
the
When VMD is the client, the put command is used to move files from VMD to
the server and the get command is used to
move files from the server to VMD. When
first
Things get a little more complicated
when you start an ftp session from within
you
logged in to
with tn3270 software
from your desktop computer and then
execute an ftp command at the
system prompt (or press a special key combination) to open an ftp session with your
is the local host and your
Mac or PC,
desktop computer is the remote host or
server. In a geographical sense, this is
counter-intuitive because your PC is "more
local" than VMD. But during an ftp session within a tn3270 session, your PC acts
filemode, uses one or two characters to
indicate the minidisk
Transfer Mode: ASCII vs. Binary
Another peculiarity of VMD (and many
other
IBM
systems)
is
that plain text files
conform to the EBCDIC rather than the
ASCII standard for using numerical val(continued on page 11)
.
April-June 1993
FTP and
VMD
Shortcuts
DOS Users. If you want to establish an
ontinued from page 10)
connection with your desktop commay be a few short cuts you
can take. For example, if you're using
Clarkson University's tn3270 program to
conduct a remote login session with VMD,
once you've executed the linkto tcpip command, you can initiate an ftp session by
pressing <Alt - 1>. This key combination
will pass a string to the
ftp client that
will automatically open a session with your
desktop computer in other words, you
don't have to type the command ftp host
at the system prompt.
Then, if the ftp
ftp
ues to represent printable characters. In
EBCDIC, an uppercase "A" has the decimal value of 193, while in ASCII the same
character has the value of 65. In order to
safely transfer a text file from an ASCII
system to an EBCDIC system or vice versa,
the ftp transfer mode must be ASCII. If the
transfer mode is set to ASCII, the file will
be converted from EBCDIC to ASCII or
ASCII to EBCDIC on the fly. But if you set
the type to binary, the resulting file will be
indecipherable.
puter, there
VMD
—
obvious that a file is a
Files with names like readme
server on your PC is password protected,
you can press <Alt - w> to automatically
or index or extensions like doc, txt, etc.,
are usually text files. Also, any readable
file on your
minidisk is a text file.
This includes your main configuration file
send an internal password from VMD to
your server.
Macintosh Users. Although the standard ftp commands will work with the
Mac, there is a set of utilities installed on
Sometimes
plain text file.
it's
VMD
(PROFILE EXEC), mail files, names files,
and so on. There some additional file
types that should also be transferred in
ASCII mode. PostScript files, which often
end with a ps extension, are text files. Two
other common formats are BinHexed files
(which often end with an hqx extension)
and uuencoded files (which often end with
uue). The latter two types are binary files
that
have been encoded into ASCII
safe transport over e-mail
and
for
VMD that make
it
much easier to
help cms wmac or help cms rmac
system prompt.
The most complicated aspect of using
ftp client to open a session with the ftp
server on VMD is the login procedure.
Aside from knowing your login name and
password, you must also know the name
of your personal minidisk and your
minidisk write password. The name of your
minidisk is generally your USERID followed by .191. For example, the name of
an
my minidisk is lynnward.191.
Your minidisk write password is someyou must set up during a regular
VMD terminal session with the
VMSECURE utility. To establish minidisk
thing
passwords, follow these steps:
Log in to VMD with your terminal emulation software, usually some form of
1
tn3270.
files to
2.
mac at the system prompt. Then, to down-
chived files are Z, tar.Z, zip, sea, sit,
exe, pak, zoo, lzh, lzw, lzs, and arc.
cpt,
Link to the
3.
VMD
Enter the
the system prompt.
tem prompt:
you
VMD
to enter
filename
Many
users find
it
VMD
communicate. Once connected to the
host, you'll be prompted to enter your
username (or "anonymous," for anonymous ftp archives) and perhaps your password. Once logged in, you will be presented with a Command: prompt and can
enter any valid ftp command supported by
the VMD client, including common ftp commands such as dir, put, get, mget, ascii,
binary, etc.
For a complete list of com-
user at
be asked
1
similar to that
below.
•N
29May93
where filename and filetype are the exact
name and type of the file as displayed by
the filelist or listfile commands on VMD
(and filemode and (options are optional).
Note that the name, type, mode, and op-
wmac all notebook.
Once you've executed the wmac com-
easier to invoke the
other machines rather than the reverse. No
matter where you're going, there is one
method of starting an ftp session on
that will always work. First, link to the
minidisk on which VMD's TCP/IP applications are stored by typing the command
linkto tcpip at the system prompt. Then
enter the command ftp host, where host is
the IP address or fully-qualified domain
name of the computer with which you want
will
filetype [filemode]
[(options]
periods; for example,
VMD and ftp "from" VMD "to"
menu
in Figure
*.4A
Release
Userld: LVMMWAFD
mand, the standard Macintosh Save
log box will appear.
VMS!
Manager: MAINT
r's Minidisk
:
ftp client on
You
your login password and then
will see a
shown
wmac
minidisk by
command vmsecure
load a file from
to your Mac, enter
the following command at the
sys-
tions are separated with spaces rather than
VMD as FTP Client
VMSECURE
entering thecommand: linkto vmsecure
Instead of linking to the standard TCP/IP
minidisk, enter the command linkto tcpip
bulletin
board systems. These files too should be
transferred in ASCII mode.
Files that have been archived or compressed with file compression software
should usually be transferred in binary
mode. Common file extensions for ar-
at the
VMD as FTP Server
transfer
and from your Mac in conjunction
with Brown University's TN3270 software.
11
and Password
ion Code
ivai Lable
tng Symbols
5
6
••• Not available
Screen Co:.
•
10 Delete a I,
11 Review the
:
/
dia-
You can either accept
Figure
1
:
Vie VMSECURE User Selection Menu.
and folder or change
them as you would when saving any file to
the default filename
your Mac.
4.
To move
(from your
files in
Mac
to
the other direction
VMD), use
the
com-
Minidisk Link Mode
and Passwords. You will then see a
Select option 2,
screen similar to that shown in Figure 2.
mand:
Systems Center. Inc.
rmac filename
filetype
[filemode]
[(options]
to
mands available to you, enter the command
help
at the ftp
Command: prompt.
where filename and filetype are the name
and type you want the file to have on
VMD. A standard Mac Open dialog box
will appear and you can select the file you
want to transfer.
Files transferred using wmac and rmac
are treated as ASCII files by default unless
you add the (binary option to the command; for example, wmac pceudora sea
(binary. To see a complete list of options
for
wmac
or rmac, enter the
command
Figure 2: The
VMSECURE
Minidisk Link
Mode and Passwords menu.
(continued on page 12)
.
[Computing and
Communications
j
i
Services Office
DCL
Campus MC 256
1120
1304 W.Springfield Ave.
Urbana,
IL
61801
LIBRARY SCIENCE
306 LIBRARY
CAMPUS
MC-5 2 2
FTP and
VMD
1
Use your client to initiate an
ftp session
For
More Information
When it comes to ftp, VMD is a strange
withtheremotehostvmd.cso.uiuc.edu.
(continued from page 11)
enter your username and password as
usual. You will then see a message that
looks something like "230
logged in; no working directory de-
Aside from the points discussed above, you may encounter additional VMD-specific quirks. If you have
problems or questions about doing file
transfers between
and another computer, contact the CCSO Systems Consult-
fined."
ants at 333-6133.
sort of beast.
2.
5.
Using the tab key, move
Type
Pass: field.
to the Read
password of
and then tab to
Type another
a read
eight characters or less
the Write Pass: field.
password of eight characters or less in
this field.
(It's a good idea to enter
different passwords for read and write
access to your minidisk.) Do NOT create a password for the Mult: field!
6.
Once connected, you
will
be asked
to
LYNNWARD
3.
To view your newly created passwords,
press your keyboard equivalent of the
3270 PA2 key. If you are satisfied with
them, press F12 (or your keyboard
equivalent) to save the passwords.
Link to your personal minidisk by entering the command cd userid.191,
where userid is your VMD login name;
You
for example, cd lynnward. 191.
will then see an error message like "Per-
mission
denied
to
LINK
VMD
-
About UlUCnet
to
LYNNWARD 191; still no working directory." Ignore this message and go on
to step 4.
Lynn Ward
UlUCnet provides timely informa-
campus network. It is
published by the Computing Services
tion about the
Office
VMD
Note: Any
user who knows your
minidisk passwords can link to your
minidisk during his or her terminal session. Keep this information confidential unless you want others to be able to
access your
Note for Fetch Users: To link to your
minidisk, go to the Remote menu and
choose the Send FTP Command... option.
Then enter the command: cwd
userid.191, where userid is your VMD
login name. You will see both of the
error messages previously described,
and another dialog box will tell you that
there is still no working directory. Click
on Okay and go on to step 4.
files.
Once you know your minidisk name
and write password, you can open an
with
ftp session
VMD using
virtually
The login procedure is
described below (a typical login sesany
ftp client.
sion
is
shown
in Figure 3):
ftp vmd.cao.uiuc.edu
220 Conned
i/nnward
(password for
i
I
A
edited by
4.
command quote acct
writepass, where writepass is your
minidisk write password. You will finally be connected to your minidisk
and can use your ftp client as usual to
manipulate files on the client and server.
Enter the
Lynn Ward.
are welcome. Permission to reprint
all
or part of UlUCnet for non-profit pur-
poses is granted, provided full
acknowledgement of the source is
given.
Feel free to reach us via elec-
([email protected]), campus or U.S. mail (UlUCnet, Computtronic mail
ing Services Office, 1120 Digital
puter Laboratory,
To enter your
write password, go to the Remote menu
and choose the Send FTP Command...
option.
Send the command acct
writepass, where writepass is your
Note
quote sect private
3:
is
MC
ComW.
256, 1304
Springfield Ave., Urbana, IL 61801),or
by phone
at (217) 244-0681.
just send
us your name and (preferably campus) address; be sure to include your
department and mail code if you send
For a free subscription,
yon ward le entered here)
lynnward. 191
Figure
and
Comments and suggestions for topics
typical login session with
VMD ftp server.
the
for Fetch Users:
minidisk write password.
a
campus
address. UlUCnet
available in electronic form.
is
also
Recent
issues are posted to the Netnews newsgroup uiuc.pubs.uiucnet. Back issues
are available for download from the
anonymous
ftp host ftp.cso.uiuc.edu
in the directory doc/net/uiucnet
from the
UIUC Gopher server.
and
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