Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
0. INTRODUCTION TO THIS EDITION
No attempt at usurpation of Avalon Hill‘s copyright is intended, as this volume should never be sold, rather given away freely, to anyone who already owns an official game set.
All ―Definitive Question Box‖ (DQB) entries are highlighted in grey.
1. INTRODUCTION TO THE 4
THIRD REICH may be played by two to six players.
(More than four cannot play the 1944 scenario; more than five cannot play the 1942 scenario.) Diplomacy
(player interchange and dealing) is absent in a two-player game, but may play an important role in multi-player games. The rules are identical, regardless of the number of players.
Because of the complexity of THIRD REICH, each term peculiar to the game is not always defined at its first appearance in the rules. The new player is advised to first skim over the rules, then read them, then be prepared for several re-readings. The new player may wish to skip reading the DQB entries at first. It takes several play sessions before a new player begins to become familiar with this game. New players might also find it helpful to begin play with the 1944 scenario, which is the simplest of those provided.
One of the most important features of THIRD REICH is its Basic Resource Points (hereafter referred to as
BRPs), which represent the economic/industrial capacities of the nations involved and thus their war effort potential. Each nation begins a game with a base amount of BRPs, which it may increase by economic growth when it has unused BRPs remaining at year‘s end, and which may be reduced by Strategic Warfare
(bombers and submarines). This base amount is recreated at the start of each year. A nation may also increase the BRPs available to it in a given year (but not its base) by occupying conquered countries and colonies.
A nation may spend BRPs to declare war, to conduct offensives, to construct combat units, to wage strategic warfare, and to grant BRPs to other nations. It may involuntarily lose BRPs by losing control of a country it occupied at Year Start, by the loss of an area vital to it, or by the results of Strategic Warfare.
THIRD REICH is played in game turns representing
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules three months each. Each game turn contains two player turns, the side with the higher BRP total usually moving first within the game turn. Player turns are further subdivided into Movement, Combat, Construction, and
Strategic Redeployment phases. There is a separate
Year Start Sequence between each winter and spring game turn, during which Strategic Warfare resolution and construction take place and BRP levels are calculated and adjusted.
The mapboard is divided into three separate fronts by heavy redlines - Western, Eastern, and Mediterranean.
At the beginning of a player turn each major power selects, for each of the three fronts separately; either an
Offensive Option, an Attrition Option, or a Pass Option.
Victory is determined by either the number of redprinted objectives a player controls, or the number of turns a nation may survive in the game, or by the turn on which the last Axis major power falls to the Allies.
2. VICTORY CONDITIONS
The winner of most multi-player games, and of the two-player 1939 and 1942 scenarios, is determined by possession of the red-printed objective hexes at the end of play. Objectives in neutral and minor countries which have never become involved in the war are not credited to either side. If Russia surrenders during the game, any objective hexes remaining in Russian control are counted in the Allied total. The objective hexes are:
WESTERN FRONT: Antwerp, Berlin, Birmingham,
Bonn, Breslau, Budapest, Essen, Leipzig, London,
Lyons, Manchester, Marseilles, Oslo, and Paris. (14)
EASTERN FRONT: Astrakhan, Dnepropetrovsk,
Grozny, Kharkov, Krakow, Leningrad, Lvov, Maikop,
Moscow, Riga, Smolensk, Stalingrad, Stockholm,
MEDITERRANEAN FRONT: Alexandria, Athens,
Belgrade, Genoa, Gibraltar, Istanbul, Madrid, Malta,
Milan, Mosul, Ploesti, Rome, Suez, Tripoli. (14)
TWO-PLAYER VICTORY CONDITIONS:
Conquer Axis by Summer 1944
Conquer Axis by Winter 1944
Conquer Axis by Summer 1945
If Axis not conquered by Summer
Control at least 28 objectives at the end of winter 1943 turn
Conquer any two Allied major powers; peace talks result in substantial Axis territorial gain.
Conquer three Allied major powers; US sues for peace
Germany is the master of Europe.
Note that to fulfill their victory conditions the Allies must capture both Berlin and Rome (or force an Italian surrender; see
occurs in the game turn in which the conquered nation fails to recapture its occupied capital. (EXCEPTION:
If the Axis fulfills their victory conditions, the game
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich does not necessarily end unless the Allied player wishes to concede. It is still possible (though unlikely) for the
Allied player to attain an equal or higher victory level by rapid conquest of the Axis.
Conquer Germany in Winter 1944
Conquer Germany in Spring 1945
Conquer Germany in Summer 1945
Allies conquer Germany Fall 1945
Allies conquer Germany Winter 1945
Allies conquer Germany Spring 1946
Victory conditions for the two-player 1939 and 1942 scenarios are found on the scenario cards.
MULTI-PLAYER VICTORY CONDITIONS: (numerals show objectives which must be controlled to attain a given level of victory).
In any scenario when there are two separate British and US players, how are the Victory Conditions applied to each player?
They always play as partners (i.e. the win or lose jointly)
US/UK France Germany Italy USSR
If Italy survives the Winter 1944 turn, the 1942 scenario is over.
How is it possible to win a Tactical Victory without also qualifying for a
The Italian victory conditions should be changed to Fall 1944.
US/UK USSR Germany Level
Be conquered in Fall 1945
Be conquered in Winter 1945
Be conquered in Spring 1946
All non-neutral objectives are assigned to either
Britain/US or to Russia at game end. A hex which has never been controlled by either goes to the nation which has forces closest to it; if tied in distance it goes to the side that captured Berlin. A ―neutral‖ objective is one in a country that has not participated in the game - such as
Stockholm if Sweden remains neutral throughout.
US/UK France Germany Italy USSR
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
The Campaign Game ends with the summer 1945 turn unless both Germany and Italy are conquered sooner.
The incl usion of dates or the word ‖survival‘‘ in any of the above victory conditions instead of a number of objectives indicates that the nation involved can attain that level of victory if they are not conquered during or prior to that game turn or if they survive the scenario unconquered.
Note that in a multi-player game a nation may win a
―victory‖ yet fail to win the game – e.g., France could win a tactical victory in the Campaign Game by surviving its
Summer 1941 turn, yet lose to an Italy that held four objectives and a decisive victory.
If Italy or Russia remain neutral, objective hexes under their control are still counted in Axis/Allied objective totals in a two-player game, and toward
Italian/Russian victory levels in a multi-player game.
In a multi-player game, a player may withdraw from the game at any time by assigning play of his major power to another player participating in his alliance. As players withdraw, the game may ultimately become a two player game in which normal two-player victory conditions apply. However, in cases where one player controls two or more powers in a game still governed by multi-player victory conditions that player must immediately abide by the victory conditions of the nation he controls which currently controls the most objective hexes (his choice in case of a tie). Although he continues to control the forces of the other powers under his command, that power no longer is considered for victory determination purposes other than by its indirect influence on the victory criteria of the determinant powers.
Does this rule also apply when a player begins a multi-player scenario controlling two powers?
3. THE SCENARIO CARDS
The scenario cards for Germany, Russia, Britain, and
Italy contain information for the Campaign Game and for the 1939 scenario on one side; for the 1942 and 1944 scenarios on the other. The French and American cards have scenario information on one side, and frequently used charts on the other. Information pertinent to the
1939 and 1942 scenarios is printed in black; that pertinent to the Campaign Game and the 1944 scenario is in red. The U.S. 1942 information is also used for the
U.S. when playing the Campaign Game or 1939 scenario.
Each card contains a BRP track which players may use to record BRP levels by moving each nation‘s three
BRP counters along the 100's, 10‘s and 1‘s lines.
Players may find it more satisfactory to keep a written running record of BRPs
—such record is immune to table jostling and is much more useful in providing reliable answers to ―Did I subtract my BRPs for that Offensive
Option yet?‖ and like questions.
CONTENT OF THE CARDS:
Each card shows the amount of BRPs a nation begins each scenario with, and its BRP growth rate percentage. The latter is used to increase BRPs during
Year Start Sequences.
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―Duration‖ defines the length of the scenario.
―Situation‖ shows what nations are at war at scenario start, and with whom. No BRPs are paid out to attain these states of war.
―Order of Deployment‖ indicates the sequence in which the various nations make their opening placement of their forces prior to play.
―Deployment Limits‖ may specify minimum forces which a nation must place in a given location or area.
These minimum forces may be added to, subject to stacking limits where applicable, but they may not be altered:
Britain could not place a
air unit in Malta instead of the
that is specified
—but Britain could place a second ground unit in Malta to augment the required
1-3 infantry. Britain, if she started a
armor in Egypt, could not use the
armor elsewhere. With the exception of certain Russian units which must stay in place until approached by Axis forces at war with Russia,
Deployment Limits apply only to opening setup
—forces may move freely thereafter.
May the Russian garrison unit started in Moscow, Kharkov, etc. at game start be removed as Attrition losses or voluntarily destroyed before the Germans have come within the required five hexes?
What if Russia is able to attack a non-garrisoned Finland while still not at war with Germany, and wishes to attack out of Leningrad.
Could the required garrison unit attack out of the city?
Yes, but it could not advance after combat. If eliminated, it must be reconstructed in Leningrad in that same player turn. It could not be taken as an exchange loss unless Russia could not meet the required loss in any other way.
―Control‖ shows those geographical areas, if any, that a nation controls in addition to its homeland. Its opening setup of units may be only in those controlled areas: Britain could not open Fall 1939 with units already in France, nor Italy with units in Hungary, etc. But Britain could move units into France; and Italy, if actively allied with Germany, could move units into Hungary on the opening turn, with the permission of the French/ German players respectively.
The German 1942 scenario card says,
―at least one armor and one infantry unit in Libya
‖ – a sanctioned violation of Rule 3.36. May more German units be placed in Libya during set-up?
―Two Player Victory Conditions‖ provide a ready reference to the victory conditions of the scenario for a two-player game. Lastly, additional notes pertinent to the nation/scenario may appear at the bottom.
The ―Force Pool‖ shows the ―At Start‖ units which a player places during initial setup, and ―Allowable Builds‖ which he may spend BRPs to construct during his Unit
Construction phases. Units eliminated during the game are returned to the Force Pool, where they immediately become Allowable Builds. (Note that France, for instance, has no air units shown as Allowable Builds
— but eliminated French air units would return to the Force
Pool and automatically become Allowable Builds.)
airborne units are eliminated permanently and not
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules govern the reconstruction of naval losses.
―Surplus SW‖ appears only on the 1942 and 1944 scenario cards of Germany, Britain, and the U.S. This is the amount of Strategic Warfare factors which that nation already has to start that scenario with. This amount can be increased by Strategic Warfare builds during that Year
―Foreign Aid‖ appears only on the 1939 and Campaign
Game scenario cards of powers eligible to give foreign
those to which that power is eligible to give aid.
When beginning a game, a player should place his
Allowable Builds on the Force Pool section of his scenario card. The BRP tracks, if not used to keep track of BRPs, are a handy place for substitute air/naval counters, air base counters and bridgehead counters.
Players will notice a few extra Italian ground units and
American fleets in the counter mix; these are for use in
Ground and air unit counters show a combat factor as the first (left) number on the counter, followed by a movement factor. EXCEPTION: replacement counters, which cannot move, show only a combat factor.
Naval unit counters show only a combat factor; their range is unlimited within their front.
Strategic Warfare counters (submarines, ASW, SAC bombers, and interceptors) show only a number representing the amount of strength.
Ten numbered variant counters are provided for use
underlined before use; they are indistinguishable otherwise.
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BRP counters are markers for use with each nation‘s
BRP tracks on their scenario cards (France and the U.S. share the white BRP counters). Year and season counters are provided for the Time Track on the mapboard. Airbase and bridgehead counters are explained later.
5. TERRAIN & THE MAPBOARD
GRID COORDINATES: Each hex of the hex grid superimposed over the mapboard may be located by a specific grid coordinate reference. Each row of hexes running East-West has been given a specific letter designation, which has been printed on both the East-
West map edges. For example, the third row from the top is row
and contains both Oslo and Bergen. A second reference is composed of numbered rows running diagonally NW-SE. Examples: Lisbon is
, and Perm
PLAYABLE HEXES: National borders (thick black lines) and geographic features have been rationalized to conform to the hexagonal grid. Solid gray hexes are not playable. Switzerland, for example, is impassable to all units
—both ground and air. All other hexes not printed in gray are playable.
LAND/SEA HEXES: Land terrain is defined as the white area inside the black coastal shoreline bordering all bodies of water. The black shoreline is not considered sufficient area in itself to allow ground movement or combat across a hexside. Hexsides must contain white land area on both sides to allow normal ground movement or combat across them. Similarly, sea or lake hexsides are defined as any hexside containing blue on
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules both sides of the hexside, provided that ―blue‖ is not solely attributable to a river. Naval movement is allowed
the red front boundary follows a coastline it is treated as sea for purposes of this rule.
Hexsides which are partially sea and partially land may be considered both land and sea for any purposes.
Any completely black land mass is considered impassable to ground units. Thus, the islands east of
) do not exist for game purposes.
Similarly, the extended northernmost peninsula on the
Caspian Sea in
is non-existent for game purposes and included on the map only for aesthetic purposes.
Any ground unit in
would be considered on the southernmost peninsula.
is not considered a one
portion of the island is unplayable.
LAND MOVEMENT: Terrain never slows ground units; however, all water hexsides (ocean or lake) may not be crossed except at a Crossing Arrow or with naval assistance.
Units are not ―adjacent‖ for purposes of Pass Option movement and Strategic Redeployment when they are separated by all-water (non-river) hexsides including those containing Crossing Arrows.
The Zones of Control (hereafter referred to as ZOC,
hexsides including those containing Crossing Arrows.
These ZOC do extend across rivers.
CROSSING ARROWS: Red Crossing Arrows permit ground units to cross or have combat (either Offensive or
Attrition) in either direction. They occur only in Denmark
(3), Scotland (1), the Turkish Straits (2), the strait of
Kerch (1), and the strait of Messina (1).
At a number of points, the coastline is considered to pass exactly over the intersection of three hexes,
; direct land movement is not possible between
, but the North Sea does not extend into
; direct naval movement is not possible between
, but there is no land in
. Such differentiation should be obvious in most cases, but for those who insist on being specific other instances are listed below.
C44/D43/D44 J28/K27/K28 E26/E27/F26 U18/V17/V18
Capitals (any city designated by a star, including those in colonies) may not be selected for Attrition occupation. The capitals of countries serve as supply sources if their country has combat units represented in the game.
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
Objectives (any city printed in red) may not be selected for Attrition occupation.
Ports (any city designated by an open, non-solid black or red circle) may base naval units. Capital-ports
(Athens & Stockholm) function as both a port and a capital. Brindisi is on the east coast of
; fleets may traverse it only via the easternmost of the two water areas within the hex. Similarly, Plymouth is on the southern coast of its peninsula (
All other cities, designated by black dots, have no special significance except for their ability to base air units. Cities have no effect on defensive combat strength; doubling, etc. is determined by the other terrain in the hex. The term ―city‖, wherever used in the rules, always includes ports and capitals.
Malta and Gibraltar are always fortress hexes. All other fortress hexes lose their fortress status permanently as soon as occupied by an enemy unit.
Additionally, Maginot Line fortresses lose their status upon the fall of France.
DQB (& 5.53)
If the Allies occupied a West Wall hex before 1944, but the Axis control it at 1944 YSS, does it become a fortress hex?
DQB (&5.56 &5.58)
Can a hex which has lost its fortress status be occupied on an Attrition option? Can an unsupplied Sevastopol?
Maginot Line hexes are not treated as fortress hexes in the 1942 and 1944 scenarios.
The West Wall (Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Bonn, and
Essen) is shown with gray fortress symbols on the board.
West Wall hexes do not become actual fortress hexes until the start of 1944, and then only if under Axis control.
Fortress hexes are quadrupled against attack from any direction, even where all hexsides do not show fortification symbols.
Fortress hexes serve as limited supply sources.
their turn on the fortress hex.
DQB (& 15.4 & 27.13)
May Russia place new construction in Leningrad if Leningrad is isolated?
Yes; the same goes for Sevastopol, and Maginot and West Wall hexes, so long as they retain their fortress status.
Fortress hexes may not be selected for occupation during an Attrition Option.
into fortress hexes, but they do extend out of fortress hexes.
Leningrad and Sevastopol are under Russian control at the start of the 1942 and 1944 scenario, but
Sevastopol is considered a fortress only so long as the
Russian player controls another port on the Black Sea, or can trace a line of supply from Sevastopol to the East edge of the board (across the Kerch Strait,
, if necessary) at the start of his player turn.
Must the other port on the Black Sea be able to trace a normal supply line?
Is Sevastopol a fortress in the 1944 scenario?
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Sevastopol loses its supply line, but the Axis don
‘t occupy it.
Russia restores the supply line. Does Sevastopol regain fortress status?
Yes, Axis forces must control it to make the loss permanent.
ISLANDS: Islands that have beach hexes may be invaded only at those beach hexes. Islands so small that they show no white terrain, only black, are not invadable or playable. One hex, white islands (and Gibraltar) can be invaded provided they do not have a port containing a
Is Scapa Flow considered a one-hex island for purposes of this rule, in spite of the red crossing arrow?
Yes. While on the subject, the northern tip of Denmark is
considered a one-hex island. See 29.431 regarding the other two
TERRAIN EFFECTS ON LAND COMBAT: The various terrain features on the map are illustrated in the
Terrain Effects Chart.
Terrain Effects Chart
Defending ground units have their combat factor at least doubled in any terrain (see
exception). They are quadrupled when in a fortress hex.
Defending ground units have their combat factor tripled when behind a river, or a hexside crossing arrow and all attackers are on the opposite side. A partisan unit cannot untriple such an attack, but any other ground unit (including airborne) can. Defenders are also tripled when on a mountain or swamp hex, or on a beach hex when defending against seaborne invasion.
Beach hexes are not tripled if attacked by land only, but if seaborne invasion is being attempted, whether in conjunction with land attack or not, nothing will untriple them.
Defensive benefits are not cumulative; a unit on a mountain behind a river is only tripled. Terrain effects on movement and combat are summarized on the Terrain
Neither combat nor land movement is allowed across an all Quattara hex-side (
NN27, MM26-NN26, and MM27-NN26
Can supply be traced across Quattara Depression hexsides?
Solid red front boundaries separate the mapboard into three fronts; Eastern, Western, and Mediterranean.
These boundaries are of significance to the choice of options by a player and to naval capabilities.
The basic stacking limit is two ground units per hex, regardless of their combat strength. EXCEPTIONS:
Three ground units may stack in London, but only if all three are British.
Airborne units are never counted for stacking limit purposes and may be added to any legal stack. This is true even if the unit moves like normal infantry, not making a paradrop (EXCEPTION:
The defender may temporarily overstack if forced to do so when retreating during an Attrition Option. He must remedy the overstack during his own next
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich movement phase; if unable to do so he must eliminate excess units of his choice.
Armor units may overstack on a Breakthrough
end of the attacker‘s Strategic Redeployment phase, or excess units of his choice must be eliminated.
counter. There is no increase in the stacking capacity of
Stacking of naval and air units is unlimited while at sea/in the air. (EXCEPTION:
presence of naval or air units in a hex does not reduce the number of ground units that may stack in that hex
Stacking limits do not apply to ground units while moving; nor while embarked on naval units, but no unit may end its Combat phase or its turn so embarked.
There are some restrictions on units of allied nations
Can Minor Allies and the major power they are allied with stack together?
Yes. Rule 6.4 makes cross-reference to prohibitions; anything not prohibited is allowable
7. HEX CONTROL
Each land hex is controlled by the last nation to have ground units on it or to pass ground units through it.
country. A unit which traverses hexes controlled by a major power ally does not change the control of those hexes.
After the United States
‘ entry, are the British contolled hexes jointly controlled by both Britain and the United States?
Each nation automatically controls its own hexes, as well as the hexes of all areas listed as under its control on the scenario card, at the start of each scenario.
When an "EX‖ occurs in combat and attacker loses his entire ground force, or for any other reason falls to occupy the attacked hex with ground units, the attacked hex remains in the control of the defender. Thus a capital or objective hex, or any other, does not necessarily pass to the control of the attacker when its defenders are eliminated. The attacker must also advance a ground unit into the hex in order to control it if an airborne unit drops atop enemy defenders and both sides are eliminated in an exchange, the defender still controls the hex.
Placing an enemy-controlled hex in the ZOC of a friendly armor unit does not affect its status. A ground unit must physically pass over it or remain on it in order to effect control.
8. ZONES OF CONTROL (ZOCs)
Every ground unit exerts a zone of control (hereafter referred to as ZOC) on the hex it occupies.
Armor units (only) exert an additional ZOC on the six hexes adjacent to the hex they occupy, with some
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules qualifications:
Armor ZOCs do not extend across all-water (not river) hexsides, across hexsides containing crossing arrows, nor into fortress hexes.
Armor units inside a fortress hex do exert a ZOC outside their fortress hex. Armor
do extend across rivers and across the Suez Canal.
Zones of control adversely affect enemy movement
A Bridgehead counter may, at attacker‘s option, be placed on:
A hex successfully occupied by seaborne invasion.
The hex need not have contained a defending unit, but it must have been controlled by a hostile major or minor power when invaded, and must have been occupied by a surviving, attacking, seaborne invading unit (or a just dropped airborne unit attacking in conjunction with the
DQB (& 29.436)
Assuming the Germans
in Norway following a British invasion by a seaborne invasion of their own in D35, can the
German player place a bridgehead counter on the beach hex invaded?
Yes, the beach does not become friendly to them until Germany actually intervenes via the seaborne invasion.
A tripled river hex or crossing arrow hex successfully occupied by Offensive Option attack.
Bridgehead counters may be placed on Maginot/West
Wall hexes even though the defender was quadrupled rather than tripled, provided that the attack was entirely cross-river. They may also be placed when an airborne drop untriples defenders who would otherwise have been tripled against cross-river attack.
DQB (& 14.4)
Can armor attack a vacant hex across a river and place a
– there is no defender in the hex to be tripled.
Attacker places the Bridgehead counter, if he wishes, immediately upon the post-combat advance of his first ground unit into an eligible hex. He may then continue post-combat advance with other eligible units, up to the
Bridgehead stacking limit. An attacker who chooses not to place a Bridgehead counter in an eligible hex may not later change his mind and place one there.
Bridgehead counters in play are limited to those provided with the game: five Allied, three Axis.
A Bridgehead counter may be removed whenever the player who placed it desires
—even if it is to switch that counter for use in another invasion. The player could even await the outcome of the impending invasion before deciding whether to remove an existing Bridgehead in order to accommodate the new invasion. It must be removed when solely occupied by the enemy. It also must be removed at the end of the owner‘s player turn if it is both no longer required to provide supply (i.e. any units previously supplied through the Bridgehead could trace supply by other means) and no enemy ground units are within four hexes by land. Any units left over-stacked at the end of the owner‘s player turn by the removal of a
Bridgehead are eliminated (owner‘s choice of units to be eliminated).
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Assume an Allied invasion of Casablanca and later advance to
Oran. Must they remove the Casablanca bridgehead even though doing so will double (27.26) the number of supply fleets needed?
– bridgeheads need not be removed if the player can demonstrate that doing so would worsen his supply situation.
Five ground units (plus, of course, airborne) may occupy a Bridgehead. Only two may attack during an
Offensive Option (EXCEPTION: three if all three are
British in London). All five are counted if in contact with the enemy during an Attrition Option. All five defend against opponent‘s Offensive Option; all five counterattack when required.
If an airborne unit is on a bridgehead, can the number of units allowed to attack out of it be increased to three?
Yes. See 31.5
A bridgehead counter is adjacent to a front boundary and also adjacent to enemy units on both fronts. One or two on the counter make an Offensive Option attack on one front. May all other units be counted in an Attrition Option on the other front?
DQB (& 14.37)
Can more than five units occupy a bridgehead and more than two attack form it when using it as a Breakthrough hex?
Bridgeheads may not be selected for occupation during an Attrition Option.
In a multi-player game, any player may place a
Bridgehead counter, provided his side has unused ones, with or without the concurrence of his allies. Neutral
Russia and Italy before active alliance with the Allies/Axis may not use more than one Bridgehead counter without permission from their future ally(s).
must permission to place more than one bridgehead counter be unanimous?
If it isn‘t, 5.15 applies.
10. THE YEAR START SEQUENCE (YSS)
The Year Start Sequence consists of Strategic
Warfare (hereafter referred to as SW) resolution, BRP calculations; and SW construction. It takes place between the end of each Winter turn and the start of each Spring turn. No Year Start Sequence (hereafter referred to as YSS) precedes the start of either the
Campaign Game or the 1939 scenario. The 1942 and
1944 scenarios are preceded by Strategic Warfare
may play variant construction.
Existing SW units are resolved.
Both sides reveal their SW counters in the SW box. Factors are mutually eliminated in an even one for one exchange (ASW for submarines; interceptors for
SAC) until only one type of each pair of SW counters remains; i.e. either ASW or submarines
—or interceptors or SAC. In the 1943 YSS each ASW factor can be exchanged for 1½ submarine factors. In the 1944 and 45
YSS, each ASW factor can be exchanged for two submarine factors. Fractional losses are resolved in favor of the Axis player. The excess factors surviving these mutual eliminations remain in play, determine BRP losses, and are returned to the SW box to await the next
Each surviving submarine factor eliminates three
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
BRPs from the remaining British arid/or American BRPs.
(German player decides which or both, but he cannot choose to eliminate American BRPs before the 1943
Each surviving SAC factor eliminates two BRPs from the remaining German BRPs. In addition during any YSS in which SAC inflicts BRP losses, the German player must remove one of his
air units from the board in exchange for an additional five interceptor factors for use in Strategic Warfare. These interceptor factors are in addition to any constructed using the 10%
BRP SW limit. The
air unit which is removed may not be rebuilt (in essence it is subtracted from the Force
Pool Allowable Builds). If no
air unit is available to be removed it must be built during the Spring
Construction phase and immediately transformed into interceptor factors for the SW box. In any subsequent
YSS that Germany again suffers SAC-inflicted BRP losses, yet another
air unit is removed and exchanged in similar fashion. On the other hand, in any subsequent YSS in which Germany suffers no SACinflicted BRP losses, one
air unit may be returned to the German Force Pool. However, the German Force
Pool can never be expanded beyond the six units with which it starts the game.
If Britain is conquered, her SW counters remain in play if America has entered the war. If America has not entered, British SW counters are reduced prior to SW resolution as follows: if conquered on a Fall turn, ¼
(rounded down) of the British SW factors are removed;
Summer, ½; Spring ¾; on a Winter turn there is no reduction. If both ASW and SAC counters are involved, the fractional reduction is applied separately to each.
The turn of conquest is the game turn in which Britain fails to recapture London. Should any British SW factors survive the subsequent SW resolution, they are nevertheless removed from the game (after inflicting BRP and/or submarine losses).
RESOURCE POINT (BRP)
BRPs are calculated separately for each major power. Begin with a nation‘s Base determined in the previous YSS, or from the start of the scenario as appropriate. If a nation has unused BRPs remaining from the previous year, multiply them by the nation‘s growth rate, drop fractions, and add the result to the
Base. EXCEPTION: No BRP Base growth occurs in
1939. Omit this calculation from the 1940 YSS.
If, on the other hand, SW reduced a nation‘s BRPs below zero, subtract the deficit from the Base. (If the nation was already below zero before SW losses, subtract only that part of its deficit that resulted from
SW.) SW losses below 0 are the only way to reduce a
EXAMPLE: If the BRP level is -3 and SW losses are -6, the nation would forfeit 9 BRPs from its BRP start this coming year, and 6 BRPs every year thereafter (although this ongoing loss may be reverted by subsequent growth)
The resulting figure is the nation‘s new BRP Base
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich for the coming year. (The 1940 figure will always be the same as the 1939 Campaign Game starting Base, because neither growth nor SW losses can occur.)
Record this figure on scrap paper for reference in the next YSS.
To the new BRP Base, add the BRP value of all active Minor Allies, attacked but unconquered Minors for which the country has intervened and all conquered countries and colonies not already controlled by the nation at the start of the scenario.
A conquered major power yields only half
(rounded down) of the BRPs it began the scenario with to the conquering nation.
If a previously controlled country or colony was just captured from the nation during the last half of the
Winter turn, add it on also. These BRPs must be immediately subtracted if the nation does not regain control during its coming Spring turn.
DQB (& 24.3)
If these BRPs are indeed lost in the Spring turn, would there be any effect on SW counters already built? Would the pre-turn
BRP spending limit be immediately reduced?
Never include a territory controlled by the nation at the beginning of the game/scenario, not even if lost
major power that has been conquered during the scenario being played does, if later reconquered by its own side, yield BRPs to the controlling power.
EXAMPLE: Germany conquers France in a Campaign Game. During the 1944 YSS, the US controls Paris and therefore receives 42 BRPs for the reconquest.
BRPs are not gained by conquest (EXCEPTION:
constitute a conquest) between YSS. For example, if
Germany captures Denmark during the Spring 1940 turn
Germany does not receive the 10 BRPs for its conquest until the 1941 YSS, and then only if it still controls
BRP totals are always derived by adding conquests since the start of the scenario and allied minor country BRP totals to an existing BRP base. BRPs are never subtracted for loss of a country or colony if the nation started the scenario with that country or colony in its control
In the 1940 YSS only; multiply any unused 1939
BRPs by the nation‘s growth rate, drop fractions and add to the 1940 BRP starting inventory. This does not change the nation‘s BRP Base which remains identical to the 1939 BRP Base.
If the nation ended the previous year with a BRP deficit due to involuntary losses, subtract that part of the deficit not caused by SW from the coming year‘s available BRPs. (No growth rate multiplication of deficits is performed.)
Germany may gain an additional 15 BRPs for control of Leningrad and/or Moscow during each YSS.
Similarly, Russia loses 15 BRPs each during any YSS in which it does not control these cities. These additions are valid only if Russia has not surrendered to the Axis.
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Assume that in the 1940 YSS Germany has 50 BRPs remaining from
1939 and his also overrun Poland. The unused BRPs are multiplied by the German growth rate of 50%, yielding an additional 25 BRPs for
—the other 25 being lost. When added to the Scenario BRP base for Germany, a total of 175 BRPs for the 1944 YSS is obtained. In addition, the 20 conquered Polish BRPs are added directly to the
German BRP total giving the German player 195 BRPs for 1940.
Germany‘s BRP inventory counters are moved to this figure and play resumes.
Assume that in the 1941 YSS Germany has 30 unused BRPs left and has conquered an additional 40 BRPs through conquest of Denmark,
Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The unused BRPs are lost but provide a growth of 15 BRPs in this and any following YSS.
Germany‘s new BRP base is 165. In addition, 40 BRPs are added to this total due to the recent conquests, plus 20 BRPs for Poland which
Germany still controls. The German 1941 BRP total will be 225.
Assume that in the 1942 YSS Germany has no unused BRPs left and has managed to conquer only 25 additional BRPs by taking Eastern
Europe from Russia, There will be no BRP growth in 1942.
Furthermore, because the German player has lost ten BRPs to British
Strategic Warfare success during this Y
SS, Germany‘s new yearly BRP
Force Pool. To this base the German player may now add the 85 conquest BRPs it now controls for a total of 240. To this, the German can add the 45 BRPs of Germany‘s Active Minor Allies, which became active in the preceding year. Germany will have a total 1942 YSS BRP allocation of 285, although her base BRP figure will remain at 155.
Assume that in the 1943 YSS Germany has ten unused BRPs remaining and has conquered Leningrad and Moscow for an additional
30 BRPs by way of territorial conquest without losing any of her prior acquisitions. However, her SW losses have increased to 20 BRPs due to Allied bombing. The SW losses negate the German 10 BRP surplus, and also reduce the German‘s yearly BRP Base to 145 (155 - 10 =
145). To this figure the German player can add 115 conquest BRPs and 45 BRPs for Germany‘s Active Minor Allies to derive a total 1943
YSS BRP allocation of 305.
10.4 STRATEGIC WARFARE CONSTRUCTION
Germany, Britain and (commencing in the 1942
YSS) the United States may now each spend up to 10% of their total BRP allotment (fractions rounded down) to construct SW counters. (The U.S. uses the British SW counters).
BRP costs per constructed factor are shown on the
BRP Costs Chart on the right side of the mapboard.
Germany may build only submarine and interceptor counters; the Allies may build only antisubmarine (ASW) and strategic bomber (SAC) counters.
New counters join counters surviving from the previous year‘s resolution in the SW box, face down, where they await SW resolution during the next YSS.
(During the year, submarine and ASW counters may be moved to the Murmansk box. If desired, they could be initially placed in the Murmansk box when constructed.)
Instead of placing counters in the box, players may wish to record their mix of SW factors on a sheet of paper in order to prevent an opponent from making any deductions from the number of counters placed. The number of BRPs spent must be revealed in order to keep an accurate BRP record.
If BRP totals are close enough that SW expenditures could have an effect on which side plays first in the coming Spring turn, each side must write their spending decisions on a sheet of paper, revealing them to each other simultaneously.
SW construction occurs before the start of the
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
Spring turn; BRPs spent thereon do not count toward the
1945 SW: The rules regarding the resolution of SW for the year 1945 are altered after the resolution of 1944
SW in the 1945 YSS and subsequent BRP level calculation.
Since the Allies start the scenario with an excess of SAC, must
Germany convert a 5-4 air unit into five factors of interceptors immediately?
No. See 10.1, fourth sentence. Such action may be necessary after the Spring 1945 turn or 1945 YSS or, per 10.52, after the Spring 1945 game turn.
At the end of the Spring 1945 game turn both sides reveal their SW Builds and resolve SW as if it were a normal YSS. Any BRP losses that result are quartered
(fractions rounded down) and deducted immediately from the respective BRP inventories. These same BRP losses are inflicted again at the end of each game turn until the 1946 YSS or the end of the game.
Should the German player suffer BRP losses due to SW in the Spring 1945 turn, he must remove one
5-4 air unit from the board as per
German gains no interceptor units for use in SW as a consequence until the next YSS. The German player need not remove any other units due to SW resolution during the remainder of 1945.
11. BRP SPENDING LIMIT
After SW construction BRPs have been subtracted, divide each nation‘s total remaining BRPs by two, dropping any fraction, and record it for reference. This figure is the maximum amount of BRPs that the nation may spend during any one player turn in the forthcoming year.
This half-of-total spending limit also applies from the start of each scenario. If a player holds a variant counter
scenario, he must play the counter during opening setup if he wishes to increase his spending limit during the first year of the scenario.
EXAMPLE: During the two 1939 turns (assuming no variant counters affecting BRPs are played) Britain could spend no more than 62 BRPs each turn, France no more than 42, Russia more than 45, Germany no more than 75, and Italy no more than 37.
DQB (& 33.41)
If the Axis intend to play variant #9 during the opening setup, must it be played during Italian setup or can it be played during
Italian setup. If played during German setup, it does not increase
Italy‘s 1939 per-turn spending limit.
Involuntary losses of BRPs are disregarded in connection with this limit.
EXAMPLE: Britain‘s limit is 62; the Axis moves first in the game turn and capture Gibraltar, immediately costing Britain 25 BRPs. Britain may still spend up 62 BRPs in her own player turn if she has that many remaining.
A player may never take voluntary action which would exceed his limit or which would reduce his BRPs below zero. But note the following: Britain, with 15 BRPs remaining, has just lost a Free French colony for which she had received 5 BRPs at Year Start. Reconquest is impossible, no units are in position to attempt it; the
BRPs are certain to be lost. Yet, Britain may elect to pay
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
BRPs for an Offensive Option, because the 5 BRP loss, although inevitable, will not occur until the end of the
British Combat phase. After her Combat phase, when the loss of the colony becomes official Britain would incur a 5 BRP deficit towards the start of the next YSS.
DQB (& 12.11)
Germany has incurred a BRP deficit through loss of conquered territories and has a -8 BRP total at the beginning of a game turn. Italy has 15 BRPs remaining. Is the
total for initiative ―15‖ or
12. SEQUENCE OF PLAY
BRP LEVEL DETERMINATION AND ORDER OF
Allied and Axis sides each total their remaining
BRPs at the beginning of each game turn. The side with the higher total is considered to have the Initiative and plays first in the coming game turn. Should BRP totals be equal, the order of play from the previous turn prevails. EXCEPTION: Axis always moves first in the first turn of the 1939, 1942, and Campaign Game scenarios.
If Poland survives the first turn may Poland‘s BRP‘s be added to those of Britain and France for determination of initiative?
No, although if she survives the
turn Britain would receive her BRP‘s during 1940 YSS.
The side which played last in a game turn may be able to limit its BRP expenditures so as to be able to play first in the coming game turn, thus getting what amounts to two turns in a row. This development is known as a turn ―flip-flop‖ and offers exceptional opportunities as well as hazards to the side obtaining it.
Italian BRPs are always included in the Axis total and Germany and Italy conduct their turn together whether or not Italy has entered the war. Russian and
American BRPs are not included in the Allied total until they are at war with Germany. However, Russia and the western Allies conduct their turn together throughout the game, even if a neutral Russia has a larger BRP total than the Axis.
American BRPs are included in the Allied total beginning with the summer 1942 turn (although U.S. declares war in the Spring, she has not yet done so at the beginning of the Spring 1942 turn). EXCEPTION:
Minor Ally BRPs are included in the BRP level of the controlling major power from the beginning of the player turn in which they are activated (Summer 1941 or
When activated by Allied attack plus Axis Intervention, their BRPs are added when Intervention occurs
—but this will not be at the beginning of a turn.
Minor countries, if attacked but not yet conquered, and if their attacker‘s opponents have not yet Intervened
and Combat phases only) immediately after the invader‘s turn. Even if a turn flip-flop occurs, the minor does get such a separate turn between the attacker‘s turns.
OF WAR & OPTION
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Each major power must, at the start of its player turn, announce any Declarations of War (hereafter referred to as DoW) it is making that turn and pay their cost (10 BRPs on a minor country, 35 BRPs on a major
country which has had a DoW made against it are set up
Each major power must next announce whether it is undertaking Offensive, Attrition, or Pass Options on each of the three fronts, and pay the 15 BRP cost for each front on which it announces Offensive Options.
Each major power must select one, and only one, Option on each front.
A power may take an Attrition Option even though it will not engage in Attrition combat on that front.
Contact with adjacent enemy ground units at the end of movement is necessary to engage in Attrition combat, but is not necessary to enter uncontrolled hexes.
Therefore, a power may use an Attrition Option provided no allied major power is engaging in an Offensive Option on the same front.
A player selecting an Offensive Option must either make at least one ground combat attack, or conduct one offensive air or naval mission against the enemy.
mission satisfies this rule even if interception prevents the mission from being completed.
If a nation selects an Offensive or Attrition Option on a given front, its allies must either join in that
Offensive or Attrition Option, or else pass. A nation may not select an Attrition Option while an ally selects an
Offensive Option on the same front. In multi-player games, if allies cannot agree on the option to be used on a front, the player desiring an Offensive Option prevails
must either join in the Offensive Option or Pass on that front (EXCEPTION. Russia always determines the Allied option to be used on the Eastern Front once actively allied against the Axis). When allies join in conducting an
Offensive Option, each ally participating must pay 15
BRPs. This restriction does not apply until an alliance is activated.
EXAMPLE: If Italy is not yet as war with the Allies she could take an
Attrition vs. a minor on the same front where Germany takes an
Offensive vs. the British, and vice versa.
Options must also be announced at this time for any minor countries which have been attacked by the opposing side but are not yet conquered.
If Intervention has taken place the minor country automatically conforms to the option chosen by its major power allies on that front.
If Intervention has not occurred the minor country may select any option. No one pays any BRPs if it takes an Offensive Option. The minor country immediately proceeds to its Movement and Combat phases before the major powers proceed further. If two or more minors are to play at this time, the one with higher BRP value proceeds first with ties resolved by a roll of the die.
Option selection by the minor country, as well as
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules movement and combat by its forces, are controlled by the opposing major power nearest to the minor country as determined by the number of hexes between the major and minor capitals except in the case of Poland whose forces are deployed by the British player.
An Offensive or Attrition Option turn contains
Movement, Combat, Unit Construction, and Strategic
Redeployment phases in that order. A Pass Option differs in having no Combat phase.
All allied nations conduct their turn simultaneously, fi rst performing all of that side‘s movement on all three fronts, etc.
Before beginning his Movement phase, a player may voluntarily destroy any of his own units and return them to his Force Pool. EXCEPTIONS: French players before 1942, and airbase counters. An airborne unit destroyed under this rule is not eligible to be rebuilt
voluntarily destroyed may not be reconstructed during the same game turn
13. THE OFFENSIVE OPTION
— MOVEMENT PHASE
A player may move all, some, or none of his units.
Ground units may move up to the limit of their movement factor. Naval units may change base (but may not move to another front in so doing) and air units may stage.
units may move into or out of the Murmansk box.
EXCEPTIONS: submarines may move out of Murmansk only during a Spring turn.
Terrain does not affect movement except for certain
land movement costs one movement-factor per unit per hex traversed.
The ZOC of hostile armor units does affect movement. It costs two extra movement factors, for a total of three, to leave a hex in the ZOC of hostile armor, or to move from one such hex to another. There is no extra cost to enter a ZOC. ZOC has no effect on movement of air and naval units.
Ground units may never move onto or through hexes occupied by hostile ground units, only around them. Airborne units may drop atop hostile ground units, however.
Movement factors are not transferable from one unit to another nor may they be accumulated from one turn to the next.
Ground and air units moving from one front to another must abide by all rules pertaining to the Option being employed on the front they enter. If being moved up to a frontal boundary to attack (by Offensive or
Attrition combat) a hostile unit across the front boundary, they are moved according to the Option employed on the front they attack.
Naval units which change base during the
Movement Phase are subject to possible Interception.
Attacker must indicate all base changes he will attempt before defender makes Interception decisions. Base changes are made before any movement of air and
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich ground units.
At the end of the Movement Phase, the moving player announces which, if any, of his fleets are committed to providing supply during that game turn (see
second player turn of the game turn, any fleets so designated must not have Intercepted during the opponent‘s turn. Any inverted fleets are placed face up again at the end of the game turn.
DQB (& 27.44)
Does rule 27.44 permit an unused fleet to be designated as a supply fleet during the SR Phase?
No. the ―previously unused‖ fleet would have had to be designated as a supply fleet in the proper point in the Sequence of Play as per 13.8
This rule and the Sequence of Play indicate that designation of supply fleets is done at the end of the Movement Phase. How then can a base change provide supply to unsupplied units and permit them to move as 27.231 states?
Rule 13.8 and the Sequence of play are in error; 55.II.7.c and 7.d should be interchanged. (Done)
14. THE OFFENSIVE OPTION
— COMBAT PHASE
During the Combat phase the following sequence is followed:
Attacker announces all naval and air missions
(less interceptions and missions which may take place during exploitation) he is performing and places naval
are resolved. Attacker need not commit himself to any specific attacks at this time.
Defender announces any allocations of Defensive
Air Support (hereafter referred to as DAS), any air attacks on naval forces at sea, and any naval
Attacker announces any air Interception missions and any air attacks on, or naval Interceptions of, defender‘s naval interceptors. These are resolved.
Defender‘s naval Interceptions are then resolved,
concluded and the naval units returned to their base.
Attacker may make airborne drops.
Attacker announces and resolves on the Combat
Results Table (hereafter referred to as CRT) located on the mapboard all ground attacks he desires to make, in whatever order he chooses. He may resolve each attack he announces before he announces his next attack.
Exploiting units are moved to breakthrough hexes.
Air attacks on naval forces in port are resolved.
drops and offensive and defensive air (but not naval) activity by uncommitted units may again take place at this time. Exploitation attacks are resolved. See
DETAILS OF GROUND COMBAT:
Attacker may attack with all, some, or none of his ground units which are adjacent to (or on top of in the case of airborne units) enemy ground units.
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
EXCEPTION: Replacement counters, even when adjacent to the enemy, may not attack except as a part of a CA result. An attacker is never forced to attack except when he has made an airborne drop on top of enemy ground units or has received a CA result from a defender‘s counterattack.
Combat factors of attacking units are always basic.
Defending unit combat factors are generally doubled,
All defending ground units in a hex must be attacked collectively, combat factors added together, as if they were one unit. Attacker may not attack them separately. Conversely, attacker‘s units in a given hex need not all attack the same hex; one unit could attack in a northeasterly direction for example while another attacked to the southeast or did not attack at all.
Attacker‘s units in one hex may attack units in two or more adjacent hexes, treating it as one attack. All attacking units must be adjacent to (or on top of) all the defending units they are attacking. In such an attack, any air units conducting Ground Support or DAS may be placed on any of the hexes being attacked. No ground unit may ever ―split‖ its combat factors, all must be applied to one attack. Aside from CRT dictated CAs, a unit may not be attacked more than once per player turn except as a result of a subsequent exploitation (including
May ―attacker‘s units in one hex attack units in two or more adjacent hexes‖ if such units are on different fronts (even assuming
Offensive Options on both) or is the attacker precluded by 20.2 from attacking jointly?
Yes he may, but
if the attacker is conducting Offensive Options on both fronts.
Could Gibraltar be attacked from two fronts at once, with invasion fleets carrying the maximum two ground units for an amphibious assault
– making a total of four ground units available for the actual amphibious assault?
Invasion fleets could sail from both fronts but they must combine in the Gibraltar hex prior to invasion combat. The maximum number of ground units allowed to attack would still be two.
If two or more adjacent hexes are attacked, can all attacked hexes be treated as breakthrough hexes as long as 15.3 is adhered to?
Yes; however, this cannot be stretched to include an attack on an occupied hex and a vacant hex (14.4)
If, because of an Attrition Option retreat followed by a turn flip-flop, defender has more than two units stacked in an attacked hex, only two of those units may defend. (Defender determines which two.) The excess units are eliminated along with the defending ones on a
―D‖ result and, unless attacker had the smaller force, eliminated by an ―EX‖ result. Attacker would disregard the excess units in determining his own exchange losses.
The excess units would share the fate of units forced to counterattack, but are not used to determine those counterattack odds. Normally only two ground units may attack from any one hex. There are three EXCEPTIONS:
to three British units may attack from London; 3.)
DQB (& 14.37)
Can a player attack from a breakthrough hex with more than two armored units?
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
When all preparations for attack and defense are complete, each attack is resolved as follows: the attacker totals the factors of his attacking force, including any factors from Ground Support air missions and naval
Shore Bombardment. Defender totals his own factor strength, including DAS and any multiplicative value from terrain. The total attacker strength and defender strength are expressed as a ratio (fractions ignored), the die is rolled and the appropriate odds column on the CRT is consulted. Attacks stronger than 5:1 use the 5:1 column; attacks weaker than 1:4 automatically result in the elimination of the attacker.
EXAMPLES: 20 factors attacking 10 would be a 2:1 attack; 19 factors attacking 10 would be only a 1:1 attack; 5 factors attacking 13 would be a 1:3 attack.
May the attacker voluntarily choose to make an attack at odds of less than 1:4?
Combat Results Table (CRT) outcomes:
A: All attacking units, including air but not naval, are eliminated and returned to the Force Pool on their scenario card.
D: All defending units including air are eliminated and returned to the
Force Pool on their scenario card.
EX: Exchange. -The side with fewer combat factors loses its entire force. The larger side removes at least an equal number of factors.
Attacker must match the doubled, tripled or quadrupled value of defender‘s units, unless it is the defender who rolls the EX while counterattacking.
EXAMPLE: The defending force is a doubled
infantry with one factor of DAS. Attacker attacks (with seven or more factors) and rolls
EX. Attacker must remove at least seven factors to match defenders loss. But if the defender rolls EX while counterattacking, the attacker need remove only four factors, If the attacker cannot exactly match the defender‘s factor loss he must remove additional factors until he has lost at least as many factors as his opponent; he can also voluntarily choose to lose more factors than required.
CA: Counterattack. All of the defender‘s units must immediately attack all units which originally attacked them. Factors involved are checked, the die is rolled and the proper odds column consulted. All factors are basic when defender counterattacks; neither side‘s units are doubled, tripled or quadrupled, but if the defender rolls CA and the original attacker must attack again, defender‘s units resume their original value and attacker‘s die roll is at the original odds. Note, too, that when defender counterattacks, an A result eliminates the original defender while a D result eliminates the original attacker. If defender‘s counterattack would be at worse than 1:4 odds he is automatically eliminated without a die roll.
CA1: Defender must counterattack as above; he rolls on the 1:1 odds column regardless of factors involved.
CA2, CA3: Identical to CA1, using the 1:2 and 1:3 odds column respectively.
If the attacker rolls EX on a 1-2 attack, does the defender figure his losses at the doubled (tripled, quadrupled) rate? Example: a 2-3 attacking two doubled 1-3s.
Yes. the defender would have to remove only one 1-3 to match the attacker‘s loss.
No battle may end with a counterattack result.
Each battle must ultimately end with an A, D, or EX result.
Neither side may bring additional forces to bear during counterattacks, not even when such forces are adjacent to the attacked hex.
Whenever combat results in elimination of the origin al defender‘s ground units, the original attacker‘s surviving attacking ground units may advance into the defender‘s vacated hex, up to the stacking limit,
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules immediately after combat. EXCEPTIONS: units which were unsupplied at the start of their turn and airborne units which dropped during their turn may not so advance; exploiting units may not be able to advance,
allies have ground forces participating in an attack, they must agree on which one of them will control the vacated hex, prior to occupying it; if unable to agree neither one may advance. The defender may never advance, not even when he wins a counterattack.
Can the original attacker advance his forces following a CA by the original defender which resulted in the original defender‘s elimination?
Yes. The original attacker may always advance after combat; the original defender never
– regardless o who was actually attacking when elimination occurred.
OF BREAKTHROUGH AND
Whenever attacker‘s ground units include at least one armor unit, and any attacking ground unit survives and advances into the defender‘s hex, a Breakthrough results. Defender‘s hex becomes the ―Breakthrough hex‖.
The Anglo-French restrictions are in effect. French armor and British infantry attack a hex; the British infantry advances into the hex. May British armor now exploit from that hex?
Yes. An Anglo-French Breakthrough may be utilized by the country whose unit advances into the hex, regardless of which country
‘s armor is used to meet the armor requirement of 14.31.
Any or all armored units that made no attack during Combat, but that were adjacent to or stacked with any unit (including airborne) that did attack the
Breakthrough hex, may now be placed on the
Breakthrough hex. This placement is free; movement factors and stacking limits are ignored.
Units so placed are ―Exploiting units‖. The unit(s) that survived the original attack and occupied the
Breakthrough hex is not an exploiting unit and may not move nor attack during Exploitation (even to participate in a defender generated CA).
After all normal ground combat has been resolved, movement may be made from each Breakthrough hex as follows: the first Exploiting unit may only move up to two hexes from the Breakthrough hex, Each subsequent
Exploiting unit may either move up to two hexes from the
Breakthrough hex, or duplicate exactly the move of a previous Exploiting unit and then move up to two additional hexes of its own. In no case may a unit exceed its movement factor, which is counted from the
Breakthrough hex and is limited normally by the ZOC of any enemy armor in the vicinity.
May a single exploiting armor unit move up to the limit of its MF as long as it remains within two hexes of the breakthrough hex?
No. This type of question has been asked so frequently that we feel obliged to reiterate what the rule already states. The first exploiting unit may enter only two hexes other than the breakthrough hex. A second exploiting unit may (a) move two hexes in a different route
(b) duplicate exactly the move of the first then move two additional hexes.
A third exploiting unit may do either (a) or (b), or may duplicate exactly the route of the second one, then move one or two additional hexes depending on its MF.
If, say, the first or second exploiting unit in a ―chain‖ of three
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich makes an exploitation attack and is eliminated (thus ―breaking the chain‖), is there any adverse effect on the more distant units?
Exploiting units may not enter or attack neutral countries unless a DoW was already made. They may cross a front boundary, in which case their movement after crossing must conform to whatever Option attacker announced for the entered front: if entering a Pass
Option front they could do so only over already friendly hexes controlled at the start of the turn and could not pass adjacent to any enemy unit. If entering an Attrition
Option front they could conceivably add their factors to the Attrition total there. Whenever this situation could arise, it behooves the attacker to complete combat on the
Offensive Option front before turning to the Attrition front.
If Exploiting up to, but not across a front boundary,
Exploiting units could attack across the boundary only if an Offensive Option had been announced on the other front; they could also Attrition across the boundary if
Attrition had been announced for the other front. See
Only Exploiting units, airborne units that dropped during Exploitation movement, and their air support may engage in Exploitation attacks. All Exploitation movement must be completed before these attacks are announced and resolved. No unit may ever attack (not
CA) more than once during a player turn. After movement, the attacker may make any airborne drops and fly any Ground Support missions he desires, in conjunction with his Exploitation attacks, but the air support must not have flown previously during the game turn, and the airborne must not have been dropped previously in the turn, nor even moved, nor have engaged in combat. Defender may commit defensive air, attacker may intercept it, and ground Exploitation combat is then resolved on the CRT. Counterair and offensive naval missions may never be undertaken during
Exploiting units that survive their Exploitation attacks may advance to occupy the defender‘s hex, but not if such advance would break the required two-hex chain of Exploiting units. Note that such an advance does not constitute a new Breakthrough hex, and that the intervening hex between the last unit in the chain and the hex to which the attacker advances must be one through
Can you be more prec ise on exactly what constitutes ―breaking the chain‖ when advancing after exploitation combat?
Two requirements must be met: 1) the hex advanced into must be adjacent to the previous unit in the chain
be separated from it by one hex already passed through by an exploiting unit; 2) the advance must not leave a more distant unit in the chain in violation of the first requirement.
Some or all Exploiting units could have remained on the Breakthrough hex, and all who so remained could have attacked there from
, even if ―overstacked‖. But if, after casualties, post-Combat advance, and SR phase, the breakthrough hex should still be overstacked, the attacker must eliminate excess units of his choice.
Overstacking is permitted on the Breakthrough hex only
—units that move off the Breakthrough hex may not
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules be overstacked at the end of Exploitation movement.
Armor units must trace a normal supply line at the start of the player turn in which they exploit. In the game turn following Exploitation, and only in that game turn, they are automatically in supply and need not trace a
EXAMPLE: An armored unit exploits in the Spring turn. At the start of its Summer turn it is able to trace a normal supply line (in addition to being automatically in supply). It can exploit again in the Summer turn.
EXAMPLE: An armored unit exploits in the Spring turn. At the start of its Summer turn it is not able to trace a normal supply line. It is automatically in supply and can move normally, but it cannot exploit.
Units of a nation taking a Pass Option on the front of the Breakthrough hex can never exploit their ally‘s
Breakthrough, even if they could do so by moving over controlled hexes without coming adjacent to enemy units.
Breakthrough and Exploitation may occur without a defender being eliminated from the Breakthrough hex anytime a player with a supplied armor unit which has not attacked during that player turn declares his intention to
―attack‖ a vacant enemy controlled hex with that armor unit (and any other units adjacent to the attacked hex which have not yet attacked in that turn and wish to be included in the ―attack‖). The ―attacking‖ armor unit is moved into th e ―attacked‖ enemy hex and thereby creates a Breakthrough hex from where other armor units
hex in this manner so as to advance into it as a result of the noncontested ―combat‖ only if an armor unit is involved in the ―attack‖ and will occupy the ―attacked‖ hex
undefended Breakthrough hex is not allowed if the
Breakthrough hex is adjacent to an enemy ground unit, or if a supply line cannot be traced to it at the moment of combat.
– The three black infantry units and the DAK armored unit are attacking the red 3 rd
Gds unit at 13:6 (2:1).
– Black won the attack and eliminated the red 3 rd
Gds unit and has occupied the vacated hex with his victorious 1 st
Infantry. The three black armored units in adjacent hexes not participating in the attack have been moved onto the Breakthrough hex at no movement cost.
– The three black armored units are exploiting but can't get very far due to the ZOC of the red 5 TK unit. The first hex moved into costs one movement point, but it brought the black armor units into the red ZOC, forcing them to expend three movement points to leave it.
Thus the black armor can exploit only two hexes, even though they th have two movement factors remaining. Note that if the red 5 TK unit had been a non-armor unit, that the three black armor units could have penetrated all the way to hex Z creating a chain of armor units in hexes
X, Y, and Z. As it is, black may attempt to attack the 5 th
Tank unit now after Exploitation movement or remain where it is, having already nd isolated the red 2 Gds unit. Even if successful in its attack against the red armor unit, black may move no further this turn other than occupying the defeated unit's hex.
Can an armor unit attack and occupy a vacant hex even if there
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich will be no subsequent exploitation out of that hex?
– but if there is to be no exploitation from the Breakthrough hex, the attacker may not over-stack therein.
May more than the one required attacking armor unit be moved into the vacant breakthrough hex?
May an exploiting unit attack a vacant hex so as to be able to advance a hex farther?
May more than the one required attacking armor unit be moved into the non-contested hex to form the Breakthrough hex?
Yes. (This DQB is a correction of a previous General DQB answer)
DQB (& 29.436)
Can units which have invaded an undefended beach, attack units adjacent to the beach in the same turn?
A. Units eligible for exploitation can; others cannot.
Must the attacker designate a supply fleet to provide supply to an undefended beach hex when he plans to invade then exploit from it during the Combat Phase?
Yes. Similarly, SR has to be over
, controlled hexes. So, if you drop a paratroops unit on Great Yarmouth, for example, you must have had a fleet predesignated in order to SR units thence.
Exactly what is a vacant hex?
A hex without a defending ground unit; an airbase, air or naval unit does not disqualify it as a vacant hex.
15. THE OFFENSIVE OPTION
— UNIT CONSTRUCTION
Prior to beginning construction, a player should review BRPs he has already spent during the current turn, and compare them with the turn limit on BRPs he may spend. He may now spend remaining BRPs, up to this limit, on construction of units from his scenario card
Force Pool and/or on BRP grants to other nations.
Construction costs in BRPs per combat factor are shown on the table on the right side of the mapboard.
See the Naval and Air Warfare and Partisan sections for special rules governing the construction of these units.
Constructed units must be initially placed in their home country, on any supplied, controlled hex not in enemy ZOC. Units may not be constructed on a hex which their country did not control at the beginning of the current game turn. Where not yet at war, units may be placed at a border despite the ZOC of a future enemy‘s armor unit there. American units go in the U.S. box on the upper left of the mapboard. East Prussia is an integral part of Germany for this rule as is Ulster part of
Britain, and Sicily part of Italy. But France may not place units in Corsica, nor Italy in Sardinia, etc. Neither may
Russia place units in East Europe after its occupation.
Britain wishes to construct a unit in Ulster. Must a supply fleet have been designated to meet the ―supplied, controlled hex‖ requirement?
Yes. this applies even for construction of naval and air units in
– since it is the hex which must be supplied and not the units
– one naval factor will suffice to supply all of Ulster for construction purposes. Note this ruling applies to a multitude of parallel situations (e.g., Russia, with a fleet in Batum, building in a controlled but otherwise isolated hex suppliable through Odessa).
DQB (& 32.6)
Can Russia construct non-partisan units in a partisancontrolled hex?
Not unless the hex was controlled by Russia when the partisan entered it and meet the other 15.4 criteria.
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
BRP grants to other nations are designated at this time and transferred to the recipient during SR. The following restrictions apply to BRP grants:
May BRP grants be made to a major power against that power‘s will (for instance to attempt to indu ce an unwanted turn ―flip-flop‖)?
One nation may not grant more than 40 BRPs to another nation in one turn.
The western Allies together may not grant more than 40 BRPs to Russia in one turn.
No nation may spend more than half of its total yearly BRP allotment (after SW construction) on BRP grants to all other nations, during that year. BRPs count against this limit once granted, even if some are subsequently lost on the Murmansk run.
Once a nation grants BRPs to another nation, the recipient may not in the future grant BRPs to the granting nation for the remainder of the game.
Russia may not grant BRPs to major powers.
Russia may not receive BRPs from the West until at war with Germany, and then only via Murmansk or Lend
Neither France nor the U.S. may grant BRPs until
Note that BRPs are deducted from the granting nation in the Construction phase but are not added to the total of the recipient until the SR phase. The recipient is unable to spend any of these BRPs on his own
Construction phase until the following game turn.
FREE SIBERIAN TRANSFER: This is the only exception to the Unit Construction process. In the Winter
1941 turn the Russian player may designate any four ground units currently in his Force Pool for placement on the board during the Construction Phase without any
BRP construction costs. In the Spring 1942 turn he may so designate an additional three units without cost, plus two more units in Summer 1942, and one in Fall 1942.
Note that much of Russia‘s Force Pool may not be constructed until 1942
—these units may not be designated in Winter 1941.
Only ground units are eligible for free placement in this manner. Airborne units may never be selected for free placement. The number of armor units selected for free placement can never exceed the number of infantry units taken for free placement in each turn. Free placement options cannot be accumulated from one turn to the next. They must be used during their scheduled turn or they are lost.
Units selected for Free Siberian Transfer must be placed initially in a friendly Russian city which can trace a line of supply to the east edge of the board. Normal stacking limits must be adhered to during such placement.
Can the city receiving Free Siberian Transfer be in Axis ZOC?
Yes. ―Friendly‖ hexes are defined by ―control‖ (7.12).
Use of the Free Siberian Transfer is not automatic; it is an option open to the Russian player. Such a withdrawal of forces from the Soviet Far Eastern defenses will have consequences of global proportions
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich due to its effect on the grand strategy of Japan. If Russia opts to use the Free Siberian Transfer the Victory
Conditions for certain game scenarios change as a result.
TWO PLAYER CAMPAIGN GAME: Shorten the
Axis conquest dates by one game turn for each level of victory.
MULTI PLAYER CAMPAIGN GAME: Increase
USSR objective requirements by two objectives for each level of victory.
TWO PLAYER 1939 & 1942 SCENARIOS:
Increase Allied objective requirements by one objective for each level of victory.
MULTI PLAYER 1939 & 1942 SCENARIOS:
Increase Russian objective requirements by one objective for each level of victory.
16. THE OFFENSIVE
REDEPLOYMENT (SR) PHASE
Each nation whose player turn it is may now redeploy a number of its supplied units, moving them any distance, subject to the following limits on number of units moved: U.S. 10, Germany 9, Britain 7, Russia 6,
Italy 5, and France 5. Strategic Redeployment (hereafter referred to as SR) is not transferable from one nation to another and may not be accumulated from one turn to the next. Units redeployed by SR are not subject to interception in any manner.
When a player sea escorts an ally‘s unit in the SR Phase, which unit is charged with the actual SR.
The unit being SRed
– not the escorting unit.
Can the German player use Italian SR capacity to move lent
Italian forces which remain under German control?
Can Italian units be lent, then SRed in the same turn?
– either Germany or Italy uses one SR for the loan; Germany then uses an additional SR for the actual redeployment. (The same applies for units returned to Italian control).
Units SR‘ed by land may move only over controlled, supplied hexes (including hexes controlled by an ally).
Any SR'ed unit (ground, air, or naval) may not be adjacent to nor pass adjacent to any enemy unit including air, naval, airbase counter, and partisan at the start, end, or at any point of its SR Exc. 29.66. Note however that a unit is not ―adjacent to an enemy unit‖ if the enemy is a future enemy, not yet at war. (See also
Ground units and BRP grants may not cross any allwater hexside (crossing arrows excepted) during SR
Can airborne units ―fly‖ across all-water hexsides during SR?
– they are ―ground‖ units.
Naval units moving by SR may not cross more than one front boundary. (Exception: Fleets performing Sea
Escort may not cross a front boundary.) They may pass through the strait of Gibraltar only if Gibraltar is controlled by their side. Hostile forces in any other hex adjacent to the strait (including
) do not prevent SR through Gibraltar, so long as Gibraltar itself is controlled.
Similarly, naval SR may not pass through the Turkish
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules straits if any one of the four hexes adjacent to the
Crossing Arrows is controlled by hostile or neutral forces.
Air units may SR over water only by use of Sea
Escort or by tracing a path of no more than eight hexes from a controlled air base to another controlled air base on the far shore. They may cross more than eight water hexes total in this manner by using a chain of bases no more than eight hexes apart. They may SR over partial land-sea hexes if the land therein is friendly or neutral, but not if it is enemy-controlled.
DQB (& 34.4)
May British air units SR over water by using Frenchcontrolled cities/airbases?
Yes, and they may do so even if a French unit is present.
Each grant of 20 BRPs or fraction thereof to another nation counts as one SR against the granting nation‘s limit. BRPs travel from capital to capital and thus may not be SR'ed if the capital of either country is adjacent to an enemy unit. EXCEPTION: Russia may receive BRPs as long as she has not surrendered nor been conquered
Special rules apply to units in the U.S. box:
May fleets in the US box which have not initially deployed perform any naval duties, even if Britain and France have fallen?
See 29.17. The restrictions there apply whether the fleets have initially deployed or not, and regardless of whether the Western Allies have fallen.
SRs from America to Britain (―Initial Deployment‖) are normally limited to 6 per turn, but may be raised to 7 or lowered to 5 by certain variant counters, Each 20 BRP grant (or fraction thereof) to an ally counts against this
Initial Deployment limit, whether via Murmansk, Lend
Lease (as applicable to the first turn of the two-turn Lend
Lease process), or across the Atlantic; and whether granted to Britain or another ally. Once a U.S. fleet has been deployed to Europe and for any reason returns to the U.S. box, it is not counted as an initially deploying unit if it again SRs to Europe.
Are eliminated and rebuilt US units forced to redeploy to Britain again under the limitations of Initial Deployment or can they be rebuilt in
All Initially Deploying units must end their SR as follows:
—if France has been conquered and Britain not: in
Britain (including Ulster).
—if Britain has been conquered and France not: in
France through a western front port.
—if neither Britain nor France has been conquered: in either one through a western front port.
—if both Britain and France have been conquered; in any hex reachable through a friendly port in or bordering on the Western Front.
—if no such friendly port exists, Initial Deployment may be made only by invading any invadable hex in or bordering on the Western Front (see also
Initial Deployment may be by Sea Transport in rare
Units may not move farther than the areas
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
of an additional SR.
EXAMPLE: Only France has been conquered: the U.S. and Britain have invaded occupied France. A U.S. unit deploys to Britain, it may not SR from Britain to France until the following turn.
Air and naval units may perform defensive missions in the game turn that they arrive in Britain if they were constructed in an earlier turn or were ―At Start‖ units.
No Sea Escort is required for units which SR from
America to Britain, but it is required for BRP grants to any other ally. All such Sea Escort must be U.S. based.
DQB (& 29.61)
These rules seem contradictory. Does the US require
Sea Escort to give BRPs to Britain?
No. Insert ―other‖ between ―any‖ and ―ally‖ in 16.75 <already inserted>
DQB (& 29.61)
If Britain is conquered, must units which SR from
America have Sea Escort?
Yes. Note, in the rare game in which France is unconquered when the US enters, rule 16.71 would apply to SRs to Britain and France combined. Rules 16.74 and 16.75 would apply equally to France/
French fleets could be additional Murmansk escort fleets (16.8).
Britain falls; France has not. Do the U.S. units initially deployed into France require Sea Escort?
No. Britain should be taken as
―Europe‖ in this rule – and in 16.74 and the first 16.71 also (sic).
If Britain is conquered, American Initial
Deployments are limited to 4 per turn (and may be raised to 5 or lowered to 3 by the variant counters). Should the
Allies recapture London, Initial Deployments would return to 6 (7 or 5).
In invasion Initial Deployment, only the units aboard the invasion fleet would count against the
Deployment limit. The fleets themselves would not, since they do not deploy but rather perform a mission from their U.S. bases and then return there.
Either the U.S. or Britain may designate additional fleets to protect Sea Escorted BRPs in the Murmansk box by moving them to the Murmansk box. Each naval counter so designated counts as one SR; it may be based anywhere in the Atlantic including the U.S. Allied
ASW counters may also move from the SW box to the
Murmansk box during the Allied SR phase; but they may return from there only during a Spring turn SR phase. No
Partisans may not SR. Minor country forces may, if they are allied with a major power; such SRs being charged against that major power.
17. UNSUPPLIED UNIT REMOVAL
Units which were unsupplied at the start of their turn and remain unsupplied at the end of it are now removed from the mapboard regardless of the Option employed and returned to their force pool. (Unlike units lost from other causes, they may not be reconstructed in the same turn they are lost.)
18. THE ATTRITION OPTION
Movement, Construction and SR phases of the
Attrition Option are identical to those of Offensive
Options. Only Attrition combat differs. After movement,
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules the attacker totals the ground factors he has in contact (if any) with adjacent enemy ground units on the front. He may include units unable to trace supply. His units on another front, but in contact with enemy ground units on the Attritioned front, may be included provided they are not participating in Attrition or in Offensive Option combat on their own front. Units in contact only with enemy units on another front are not counted, nor are units in contact only across all-water hexsides (unless a hexside crossing arrow is present). The attacker must count all eligible units in his total
—he may purposely omit an eligible unit only if that unit is participating in an Offensive option attack on an adjacent front.
Units of all allies participating in the Attrition are totaled together for one Attrition die roll.
EXAMPLE: Italy could not be subjected to one Attrition die roll in the
Mediterranean from British forces and a second from French forces.
However, Italy could be subjected to one die roll from combined
Franco-British forces and another from an invaded but unconquered
Greece if Allied intervention and alliance had not yet occurred in
Greece. if two non-allied minors are involved, they could each make a die roll; that, to continue the example, Italy could be subjected to yet a third die roll from Yugoslavia should Italy have attacked both Greece and Yugoslavia but conquered neither.
EXAMPLE: If red turn, unit A could participate in Attrition combat on either front, but not both. If black turn, units B and C could participate in Attrition combat only on the Eastern Front.
Can there ever be more than one Attrition die roll on the same front in one player turn?
No. The 18.2 example contains what may be mistaken for an exception, but it is not, because the attacked minor gets a ―mini-turn‖ pf its own before the next major power player turn. The example is not reversible: the Axis could not take separate attrition rolls against
Britain/France, Yugoslavia and/or Greece
– even if interventions had not occurred.
Attacker finds the appropriate column on the
Attrition Resolution Table on the mapboard and rolls the die. The result may indicate a number of unit counters
(C) which the defender must lose and a number of hexes
(H) which he must give up to the attacker.
Defender first chooses which unit counters he will lose and returns them to his scenario card Force Pool.
He may not choose to lose more than the number called for. They must be ground units which belong to any defending country which has ground units in contact with the enemy, and may be located anywhere on the
Attritioned front. Partisans may be taken as Attrition losses. Units of a defending major power‘s active minor allies or of a minor in which the defending major power
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich has intervened may be taken to satisfy the major‘s losses and vice versa. Russian units which are required by their scenario card to remain in place until Axis approach may not be taken as Attrition losses until they have been released by such approach. If defending allies cannot agree on which units to lose, they split the losses with the odd unit (if any) coming from the nation with the larger number of ground factors in contact with the enemy on the front. Similarly, if attacking allies cannot agree on which hexes are to be gained, they split the rewards with the one having the most factors in contact for the Attrition getting first choice. Ties are resolved by a die roll. Units still in the U.S. box may not be taken as Western Front
Could the Axis take two Attrition attacks in the Mediterranean: one vs. an unconquered minor and another vs. a major which has not been intervened?
In order for units ―of a defending major power‘s active minor ally or of a minor which the defending power has intervened‖ to be taken as attrition losses to satisfy the major‘s losses and vice versa, isn‘t it necessary that at least one ground unit be in contact with an enemy ground unit on the attritioned front?
What happens if the defender does not have enough ground units on the attritioned front to satisfy attrition losses?
He loses what he has there; the excess losses are ignored.
The attacker may now select a hex (if entitled by the die roll) for occupation. He may not select a fortress, capital, objective or bridgehead hex, nor one which can only be occupied through a hexside containing a crossing arrow. He may select Luxembourg unless a Bridgehead counter is in that hex. The selected hex must contain an enemy ground unit and must be adjacent to one of the attacker‘s ground units, eligible to advance.
(Replacements and units unsupplied at the start of their turn are not eligible to advance.)
Defender retreats his unit(s) one hex off the selected hex. Attacker must advance at least one adjacent ground unit into the selected hex. If unable or unwilling to do so, he may not require defender to vacate it. Defender may overstack; if forced to do so he may retreat into enemy ZOC, or into a vacant enemycontrolled hex. He may not retreat into a hex which attacker will vacate to make his advance, nor into a hex occupied by any enemy ground, air, naval or air base counter.
When retreating after Attrition combat may the defender retreat to an enemy-controlled hex pr into a hex creating an overstack if there are other alternative retreat routes available?
No. Add the words ―if forced to do so‖ after ―overstack‖ in the fourth sentence so as to agree with 6.13 <already included in 4 th
Once the attacker has designated all the hexes which he wishes to occupy and is entitled to by the
Attrition Combat die roll, the defender vacates all such hexes simultaneously followed by the attacker‘s simultaneous occupation of those hexes. The vacate/occupy process is not done one hex at a time; all hexes must be vacated before the attacker advances to occupy the first vacated hex, but the defender cannot retreat into a hex which the attacker will select to occupy in his advance. The attacker is not required to select all,
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules or any, hexes for occupation when he rolls ―H‖. He may elect to remain in his positions.
If defender overstacks when retreating, he has until the end of his own next Movement Phase to meet stacking limits. If he does not, he must destroy the excess units of his choice. If defending units have no retreat (totally surrounded by enemy units or impassable hexsides) they are destroyed when required to vacate.
EXAMPLE: Black has taken an Attrition Option on the Eastern Front with 25 ground factors in contact with Red ground forces and has rolled a ―1‖ - Red must eliminate three corps and give up two hexes. Red eliminates two
‘s from another part of the front but does not wish to give up Vologda so he eliminates his 1st Tank unit, leaving Vologda vacant and denying Black the chance to occupy it. Seeing this, Black decides to occupy hexes X and Y instead. Red‘s 7th Guard is forced back into Vologda, its only other retreat into hex Y being blocked by black‘s advance into hex Y. Red‘s 11th Guards retreats into hex Z.
Naval or air units which must withdraw due to
Attrition may redeploy to the nearest friendly base. If no other friendly naval bases exist on that front, the naval units are eliminated. Air units would be eliminated only if no other friendly air bases exist within eight hexes regardless of front boundaries. In no case may basing
19. THE PASS OPTION
The Pass Option contains no Combat phase.
Construction and SR phases are identical to the other options. The Movement Phase has major differences from that of the Offensive or Attrition Options.
Ground units may move only over already controlled hexes, even if the hex in question is already vacant and lies within the moving player‘s ZOC. If adjacent to any enemy unit (see
another front, they may not move. Their move may not begin in, end in, nor pass through any hex adjacent to any enemy unit (ground, air or naval) including partisans and airbase counters. Units of a power taking a Pass
Option may enter hexes captured by an ally during the same Movement phase, provided no other restrictions apply.
Air units may stage only over already controlled or all-water hexes.
Naval units may change base only if the enemy has no fleets on the front and has no air units within four hexes of the course taken. This is true even if the enemy fleets/air units are ineligible to intercept.
A ground or air unit which changes front during movement or which attacks an enemy unit across a front
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich boundary is not bound by these restrictions if it enters or attacks a non-Pass Option front. The front entered/ attacked governs. Similarly, a naval unit may (during the
Combat phase) move through a Pass Option front to bombard or invade another front, or to land a Sea
Transport mission in a debarkation port on another front;
(However, the Sea Transport mission could not land a unit in a Pass Option front port, even if the unit proceeded to move farther by land and enter or attack a hex of another front. The port of debarkation is the hex that ―receives the action‖ of this naval mission.
— OPTION CONSIDERATIONS
T he hex that ―receives the action‖ in all cases determines what Option is required.
EXAMPLE: Naval units in the Mediterranean could invade southern
France, or land a Sea Transport mission at Marseilles, even though their nation was taking a Pass or Attrition option in the Mediterranean.
Air units in north Italy could similarly attack southern France. All these actions would of course require an Offensive Option on the Western
EXAMPLE: Naval units in the Mediterranean could not land a Sea
Transport mission at Genoa in the example above, even if the transported units proceeded to move by land and attack a Western
EXAMPLE: Ground units in Turin and
could attack adjacent units in
France during a Western Front Offensive Option even if an Attrition or
Pass Option was used in the Mediterranean. Similarly the Turin units could be counted as part of a Western Front Attrition, even if an
Offensive or Pass Option was used in the Mediterranean. In both of the foregoing, the units in Italy could ignore the restrictions on Pass Option movement in moving to the border.
In no case could any unit participate in action on two fronts. A unit at the front boundary could not take part in
Offensive attacks on both fronts, nor take part in Attrition on both fronts, nor in Attrition on one front and an offensive attack on the other (see
however, exploit from one front into an Offensive or
Attrition attack situation on another front.
Combat is not a requirement to take an Attrition
Option. The nation may want only to transit uncontrolled territory
—thereby controlling it.
The Pass Option must be selected for a given front when:
A. An allied nation wishes to conduct an Offensive
Option on that front and other powers are unwilling or unable to do so themselves. Allied nations can take either an Offensive or Attrition Option on each front.
They cannot exercise both even if the Attrition Option is contemplated without Attrition combat. Dissenting nations must take the Pass Option.
B. If a nation finds itself unable to comply with the requirements of an already announced Option, it must take a Pass Option instead with a loss of any BRPs it may have previously paid for an Offensive Option.
21. DECLARATIONS OF WAR (DoW)
May DoW ever be shared by two countries?
Declarations of War (hereafter referred to as DoW) may be made only at the beginning of a player‘s turn.
They cost 35 BRPs against a major power, 10 against a minor country. No player may attack forces of another
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules country unless he is at war with it, nor may he violate its territory (or fly over it), including its colonies and conquests unless, of course, it is his ally and he has permission to do so (EXCEPTION: partial land-sea
war on Switzerland.
One DoW places the declaring nation at war with all allies of the nation it declares against, including their colonies, and allied with all nations that are on the opposing side. No additional BRP costs are incurred save the one DoW cost, no matter how many nations are involved. A nation, having war declared against it, does not itself pay out BRPs to reciprocate the declaration.
If a minor country survives its first turn at war, and if on the attacker‘s subsequent player turn a second, already allied, major power joins in attacking that minor, the second attacker is not required to pay DoW costs. It is not allowed to make such an attack without the approval of the original attacking power. Similarly, two already allied powers may both attack the same minor in the same turn, only one paying DoW costs. The other could not join the attack without approval of the paying
invoked, each power pays full DoW costs.
In Fall 1939 a neutral Italy declares war on Yugoslavia which survives the turn. In Winter 1939 Italy declares war on France. May
Germany attack Yugoslavia in Winter 1939 without paying for a DoW?
A major power that declares war on a minor must on the turn of declaration, either move forces into that minor during the Movement or Combat Phase or conduct an
Offensive or Attrition Option attack against that minor‘s forces. If a nation finds itself unable to comply with this rule, its DoW is revoked and the BRPs lost. The DoW is revoked if the declaring nation selects a pass option on the front containing the minor. The minor is at peace with all powers and may not be attacked in the future without a new 10 BRP DoW expenditure.
EXAMPLE: A nation compelled to take a pass option because of another nation‘s offensive would have its DoW revoked.
Can Germany and Italy, while still unallied, both declare war on the same minor, but with only one of them actually attacking after the minor has set up his defense against the other?
– if a country declares war it
meet the 21.4 requirements or see its DoW revoked. Moreover, both DoWs would have to be made before the minor set up its defense
– see the sequence of play.
DQB (& 36.23)
Can Italy declare war and then Germany use a lent
Italian unit to meet the requirement of 21.4 for Italy?
Must a nation declaring war take an Attrition or Offensive Option against the nation being attacked, or can it make use of the last sentence of 19.2 to take a Pass Option?
At what point in the Sequence of Play is a DoW revoked?
At the end of the declarer‘s Combat Phase. The minor country‘s units are removed from the mapboard then.
Would this revocation of a DoW also apply to a Major Power? For example, could France declare war on Italy and then take a Pass
Option while Britain makes an offensive against Rome?
It applies. France could not declare war without attacking Italian forces or occupying an Italian-controlled hex.
DQB (& 36.1)
Suppose Italy has declared war on France but the DoW
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich is revoked. German units end the combat phase in Italy. What happens?
The German units must leave by SR or be eliminated at the end of the player turn.
Does the revocation of DoW apply even if the interception of a seaborne invasion or a sea transport mission by another country prevents the attacker from launching his attack against the new enemy?
No, provided that the attacker can show that his mission would have met the requirements of 21.4 had it not been intercepted.
Can the 21.4 requirements be satisfied by using minor allied units? Lent Italians? Units of a minor in which the attacking power has intervened?
Yes to all. Note that units in the last category cannot leave their home country; however, they can attack across the border.
DQB (& 25.21)
Don‘t these rules contradict each other?
No; 25.21 covers the rare case of an attack at the border which fails, leaving no attacking units on a hex of the minor country at the end of the attacker‘s turn.
Does the application of this rule prevent a DoW by the United
– the following should be added:
A major power declaring war against another major power must either move forces into a territory controlled by that major power or conduct an Offensive or Attrition option attack against that major power
’s forces. Failure to do so results in a revocation of the DoW (21.4)
[EXCEPTION: the United States
’ DoW against the Axis powers].
Any nation that declares war on a colony or minor country must, if such action will automatically result in war with a major power, pay 35 BRPs instead of 10 for such declaration.
Germany and Italy may not attack the same minor country, until Italy is at war with the Western Allies.
Russia and the western Allies may not declare war on the same minor country until Russia is at war with
Germany or Italy.
Russia may not declare war on Germany or Italy or take any action that would automatically result in war with
Germany until the Fall 1941 turn. (EXCEPTION:
she may declare war only on bordering minor countries.
She may not declare war on Axis Minor Allies (active or not) if the minor is garrisoned by at least one German ground factor. If Russia has conquered a minor country, she may on a subsequent turn declare war on other minor countries which border the conquered minor.
(Should Germany neglect to garrison Finland, and
Russia conquer it; Russia would, off the north edge of the mapboard, border Sweden and Norway; and could declare war on those countries in anticipation of making a seaborne invasion. Off-board land movement and combat is not allowed.) Russia may not attack a Vichy colony until she is at war with Germany or Italy, and then would have to declare war on Vichy France to do so, unless Vichy had been activated or deactivated.
Neutral Italy declares war on Russia. Are the Western Allies allowed to declare war on Italy, since this would place Russia at war with Germany in violation of 21.54?
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Yes. the prohibitions of 21.54 apply to
actions. The Western
Allies are prefectly free to declare war on Italy nad such action does cause Russia and Germany to be at war.
The Campaign Game/1939 scenario begins with
Germany already at war with Britain, France and Poland.
No DoW BRPs are subtracted.
The 1942 scenario begins with the U.S. at war and as a result no BRPs are subtracted. However, in the
Campaign Game/1939 scenario the U.S. must pay 35
BRPs to declare war on Germany at the beginning of the
Spring 1942 turn.
A DoW cannot be made that would result in war between the eventual Axis partners (Germany & Italy), or between the eventual Allied nations (France, Britain,
Russia, and the United States).
22. MINOR COUNTRY OPERATIONS
When war is declared on a minor country, the nearest major power opponent or potential opponent of the attacker (as determined by distance in hexes from minor capital to major capital) sets up the minor country‘s forces in their home country. Should the minor country survive the initial player turn of invasion, control of the minor‘s forces would pass to whatever major power first intervenes. (Germany always controls her Minor Allies in the event they are attacked. Polish forces are set up and controlled by the British player.) Setup is done before front Options are announced. At least one ground unit must be initially placed in the minor country capital; it need not remain there. Attacker‘s opponent continues to move and control the minor country‘s forces as long as they survive, and selects the Options they employ.
Hungary is inactive, two German ground units and a 5-4 air are in
Budapest. The Western Allies declare war on Hungary. One minor ground unit must be placed in Budapest; the Hungarian air has no base. What happens?
Any minor unit which cannot be legally placed is eliminated, unless the DoW is revoked.
The Minor Country Forces Chart on the mapboard shows the forces available to each minor. The minor neutral counters provided with the game do not allow placement of all minor neutral forces simultaneously, since it‘s extremely unlikely they would all be in play on a given turn. If Yugoslav forces are required in Fall 1939 there may be a shortage of
Spanish or Turkish counters can be substituted here.
Some countries, e.g. Portugal, have no armed forces; therefore an invader will be unopposed but he must still pay DoW costs.
On the DoW player turn, previously hostile major powers may oppose attacks on a minor only by naval interception (when possible). Such interception does not constitute intervention. No major power air units may interfere with attacks on the minor on this turn.
At the start of the Campaign Game/1939 scenario
Poland is allied with Britain and France. Should Poland survive into 1940, France and Britain may split Polish
Minor country units, when lost, are lost permanently; they may not be reconstructed. EXCEPTION: Active
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If isolated from their own capital, minor country units may be supplied by any country presently at war with the invader without constituting Intervention.
Minor country ground units may not leave their home country (even if allied [see
power); air and naval units may not base outside their home country. (Spain may have units in the Balearic
Islands and Spanish Morocco.) Again, Active Minor Allies are excepted. Ground units may attack adjacent units across their border, but may not advance into the crossborder hex after combat. Air and naval units may operate freely from their in-country bases, the one restriction being that on the player turn of invasion they may operate only against those forces of the invading power which are attacking their home country.
EXAMPLE: A Sea Transport fleet which will land ground units at a nearby port to attack a minor country could be intercepted by the minor country‘s air/naval units. The same major power‘s fleets, operating only against an enemy major power or a different minor country, could not be so intercepted by the minor on the player turn of invasion.
May minors leave units based outside their home country on a possession ( such as Swedish units in Gotland)?
Yes, possessions should be considered part of their ―home country‖.
Minor country units may be supplied from their own capital or from any supply source controlled by a major power already at war with their attacker, even if intervention has not yet occurred. Such major power
23. MINOR COUNTRY INTERVENTIONS
Can an opponent of the attacker move forces into the invaded minor country during the Movement Phase and out again during the SR
Phase and still be considered to have intervened?
If a minor country is not conquered on the turn of
DoW, any opponent of the attacker may intervene by sending ground, naval or air units to the minor country during his own Movement, Combat or SR phase.
Conducting a naval or air mission in a hex of the minor country is, by itself, insufficient to constitute Intervention.
These intervening units may stack with the minor country‘s units. The intervening power, if not already at war with the attacker, must declare war at the start of its turn in order to so intervene. Such Intervention results in the minor country becoming allied with the intervening power(s) and, if the attacker does not capture the minor capital, will deliver its BRPs to the intervening power(s) in the next YSS.
Britain wishes to intervene in Greece by sending an air unit to
Athens. The British would have to place an airbase counter in Crete to do this. Legal?
No. If Britain first intervened in some other manner (by sailing a fleet to Athens perhaps), she can
place airbase counters in Greece that same phase. But intervention must precede placement.
DQB (& 25.2 & 25.31)
If an Axis Minor is activated by Axis intervention after Allied attack, when does the intervenor receive the BRPs?
DQB (& 28.23)
May a major power stage over the hexes of an attacked minor in order to intervene?
After Intervention and alliance occur, the minor country takes its turn in unison with its allies. Otherwise its turn comes immediately after its attacker‘s turn. If a
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules minor country survives initial attack, it will always get at least one independent turn before Intervention and
If intervening units moved into the Minor during a game turn in which the Minor has already taken an independent turn, the Minor‘s forces, having already had their turn, may not move or participate in Offensive or
Attrition attacks. They are unaffected by any combat results incurred by the intervening power, even if intervening units stack with minor units in order to attack.
24. CONQUEST OF MINOR COUNTRIES
Minor countries are conquered when a hostile unit occupies their capital. They do not get one turn to try to recapture it. All remaining minor units are removed from the mapboard, wherever located, at the end of the attacker‘s Combat phase. Axis Minor Allies are not excepted. (By recapturing a Minor Ally‘s capital immediately, Germany would avert loss of the Minor
Ally‘s BRPs, but the Minor Ally units would be permanently out of the game.)
Upon conquest, all hexes of the minor country become controlled by the conqueror at the end of his
Combat phase. EXCEPTIONS:
Does the island of Saare (F39) become friendly to the present controller of the Baltic States?
Yes, to whomever first controls the Baltic States. Thereafter, normal hex control rules apply (7.1)
If a colony is conquered by the establishment of control over all its cities and ports, does the conqueror gain control over all other hexes of the colony?
Yes; the conqueror does not need to move through each hex in the colony to establish control over them. Colonies are treated as minor countries, except for the differences set out in 24.4.
The rule applies only to initial conquest. Normal hex control rul es govern whenever the country‘s capital subsequently changes hands.
The rule does not apply to Minor Allies if already activated. It does apply to a Minor Ally activated by attack plus intervention.
If hostile major power ground units are in the conquered country, and can still trace a line of supply at the end of the conqueror‘s Combat phase, the hexes they are on and the hexes of their supply line do not pass to the conqueror‘s control. The owner of the units in question chooses exactly which hexes will be his supply route (or routes if more than one is needed), but the routes must be as few and as short as possible and must go to the nearest port or controlled friendly border. The conqueror controls all other hexes. He may not cut the supply route(s) by SR-ing armor adjacent to them until a later turn.
―Conqueror … may not cut the supply route(s) by SRing armor adjacent …‖. Does this mean that the conqueror cannot SR armor adjacent to a supply route; or that he may do so, but the supply route remains uncut?
Do the special provisions for tracing supply in conquered minor countries apply if supply is traced through conquered Minor to units which are not in that minor country?
Greek, Swedish, and Spanish islands, and
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Spanish Morocco, turn friendly to a conqueror along with their home territory.
A conquered minor country yields its entire BRP value as printed on the mapboard to the major power which controls its capital during each YSS it is held. If, after such YSS, an opponent gains control of the capital the ejected owner has one turn in which to drive out the opponent and reestablish control of the capital. If he fails to do so on his next player turn he loses the BRPs derived from the country immediately (during the Combat phase such failure occurs). If control is lost during the second half of Winter turn, the losing power does receive the BRPs during YSS; but the must be deducted immediately if it fails to regain control during its Spring turn. The opponent who physically occupied the capital would also receive BRPs for the country during YSS in such a case pending a final decision on who controls it.
Even though one side must eventually lose these BRPs both sides may include them in their YSS BRP totals to determine the various maximum spending limits derived from such totals. Luxembourg is treated as if it had a capital for this purpose.
Does this rule also apply to a conquered
When a major power loses control of an area on the last half of a
Winter turn, must it have controlled that area in the
YSS in order for dual BRPs to be awarded during the coming YSS?
No. For example, Germany conquers Belgium in Winter 1939.
France occupies Brussels on the last half of Winter 1939. Both powers receive Belgium‘s BRPs during the 1940 YSS.
Control of, and any BRPs derived from, conquered colonies are treated in the same manner except that:
A nation must establish control over all cities and ports in a colony in order to receive BRPs for it at YSS.
This is true even if the colony has a star symbol for its capital city.
Once such control has been established, and withstood the enemy's one turn chance to retake a city, the nation continues to receive BRPs at YSS so long as it controls any one city.
BRPs are deducted only when the nation loses control of all cities and then fails to reestablish control over any one city in its next Combat phase.
EXAMPLE: Algeria is Free French. At the start of 1941 the Axis controls Constantine (only). The British receive Algeria‘s BRPs in 1941
YSS. In the last half of Winter 1941 the Axis captures the last Alliedcontrolled city, Oran. Both the British and Axis will receive Algerian
BRPs in 1942 YSS. The British will have to deduct theirs immediately if they fail to recapture any one Algerian city in their Spring 1942 combat phase.
A nation may never derive BRPs from a country or colony controlled by its side at the beginning of a scenario, nor may it lose BRPs from the loss of such territory. EXCEPTIONS: Minor Allies in the 1942 and
1944 scenarios are added to the beginning total and are lost when the capital is lost. BRPs are always lost when the Axis fail to retake a partisan-occupied capital.
Can Germany ever lose BRPs from the loss of Paris or
Rome in the 1942/44 scenarios?
Only when those capitals are lost to partisans.
May partisans inflict BRP losses on the Axis every year by moving in and out of a capital which reverts to Axis control after
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules each exit, even though it may be behind Allied lines?
No. The capital does remain
―Axis-controlled‖, but subsequent BRP losses are not imposed unless an Axis ground unit has been physically present in the capital in the intervening year.
A nation may not lose BRPs when it loses a country or colony for which it did not receive BRPs during the
YSS of the current year. EXCEPTION: Minor Allies when their BRPs were received during a year rather than at
—Wherever two or more allies have participated in the conquest or reconquest of a country or colony, or in Intervention, any
BRPs derived from that action during subsequent YSS may be shared in any agreed manner so long as the proportions do not change from year to year. If the allies are unable to agree, then the BRPs are shared equally, dropping fractions. If one of the participants is conquered, the surviving participant(s) receives all of the
BRPs at YSS, provided he controls the area.
The original conqueror (or original owner) of any
BRP-producing territory may not transfer it to any ally, nor may he give control of an objective hex to an ally.
Such changes of possession may only be made as a
EXAMPLE: Italy may allow German units to occupy any or all Albanian hexes, but those hexes (and Albania) remain under Italian control (see
Germany or Italy could control Albania. Neither country could receive
EXAMPLE: Italy alone attacks Yugoslavia; occupying and therefore controlling Belgrade. Italy later leaves Belgrade and allows a German unit to enter. This doesn‘t give Germany any Yugoslav BRPs, nor does it alter the status of Belgrade as an Italian controlled objective hex.
EXAMPLE: The Axis makes a Cooperative Conquest of Yugoslavia.
Either nation may control Belgrade, whichever one occupied it; and the
Yugoslav BRPs maybe split in any agreed manner. Regardless of the manner in which Yugoslavia was conquered, if the Allies subsequently occupy Belgrade and hold it for one Axis turn, and one Axis nation alone reconquers Belgrade, that nation receives all of the Yugoslav naps and controls Belgrade. However, if the other Axis nation has units in, or makes an attack on, any Yugoslav hex, the reconquest is
Cooperative and the resulting BRPs may be split in any newly agreed
Italy controls Belgrade; partisans capture it. Germany promptly recaptures it. Who gets the Yugoslav BRPs next YSS?
The same situation as above but Germany recaptures Belgrade after the BRPs have been deducted from Italy a turn or two latter?
Germany receives the BPRs, with two qualifiers: If German units do not advance into Belgrade after eliminating the partisans, Italy retains control. And if Italian units are anywhere in Yugoslavia, a newly agreed
BRP split is in order (24.8, third example, fourth sentence).
25. AXIS MINOR ALLIES
Could Germany/Italy declare war on their own inactive minor
Yes. Any garrison units in the country would be temporarily removed until after the minor‘s forces have been set up. The Axis player may then replace any garrisoning units any =where in the minor country not occupied by a minor country unit .
Certain minors have these additional rules and exceptions.
Minor Allies. Finland, Hungary, Rumania and Bulgaria
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich are German Minor Allies and are normally activated at the start of the Summer 1941 turn. Certain variant counters may activate Turkish or Iraqi rebels as German
Minor Allies, or Spain as an Italian Minor Ally. (Where
Spain is concerned, ―Germany‖ should be read as ―Italy‖ in all rules pertaining to Minor Allies.) Turkey, Spain, and
Iraq are not treated as inactive minor allies prior to play of their variant counters. Vichy France may be activated as a German Minor Ally by variant counter or by German
attack plus Axis intervention may also activate Finland,
Hungary, Rumania, or Bulgaria early. Allied Foreign Aid
Minor Ally even when Axis variant 5 calls for early activation, but cannot make such a country a part of the
Do the Axis Minor Allies normally activate at the start of the
Summer 1941 game turn, or the Axis player turn?
If an inactive minor ally is subjected to a DoW,
Germany may choose to intervene and must declare war to do so if not already at war with the attacking nation. If
Germany does not intervene, no German units may enter the minor ally, the minor units do not become part of the
German force pool and may not be replaced if lost,
Germany does not receive the Minor Ally BRPs, and the minor may exercise independent turn options in the same manner as any other attacked, unallied minor neutral.
German Intervention, however, activates the Minor Ally for all the foregoing purposes even if Foreign Aid
(Italy could intervene instead of Germany, in which case the minor would be activated as an Italian Minor Ally. In a multi-player game, Italy could do so either with German concurrence, or without German concurrence (Germany elected not to intervene or was unable to.)
Germany destroys her 3-3 Finland garrison in order to stage a 5-4 air unit to Helsinki to support an attack on Sweden. Can Russia now declare war on Finland and thereby become automatically at war with
Yes. This is an exception to the emphatic italics of 21.54, but to rule otherwise would allow Germany to evade the
unit requirement of 25.8. Russia must pay 35 BRPs for the DoW as per 21.51
What happens if Italian (only) units are in Rumania and a neutral
Russia DoWs Rumania?
Russia may not attack Italians (but could force an air or naval unit to change base). Russian forces may move through, and stack upon,
Italian units; they may attack a Rumanian/Italian stack as though only the Rumanian units were present. On the next Axis turn, assuming
‘s DoW is not revoked, Italy has the choice of (a) removing her units by movement or SR ( on this turn only Italy may SR through
Russian hexes), and/or (b) destroying her units, and/or a DoW on
Russia in order to intervene However, if Germany chooses to intervene and Italy is at war with the West, there are no constraints on the Italian units.
If the Minor Ally is not actually invaded, with hostile forces on its soil at the end of its attacker‘s turn,
Germany may send forces into the country without intervening/declaring war. Such action does constitute a
was the attacker) from further attacks on the minor.
Neither could the minor forces attack Russian units
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules across the border; in effect German pressure has forced
Russia to back down. Russia has lost the BRPs she spent to declare war; peace is restored. This process, in itself, does not activate the Minor Ally.
If Russia has troops in Bessarabia but not in Rumania proper at the end of its turn, can Germany garrison Rumania?
Intervention would automatically activate Spain or
Turkey as Minor Allies of the intervening power regardless of the variant counter held and regardless of
Does this apply to an Allied power intervening in response to an
Yes; the Allied power would immediately receive that Minor‘s BRPs.
If the Allies declare war on Vichy France at a time when any Axis unit is in any Vichy territory, or on
Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, or Finland when a German unit is therein, Intervention is automatic and immediate.
The Axis could intercept initial invasion moves of any type if able to do so.
If an inactive,
Axis Minor Ally is attacked by the
Western Allies, may Axis air fl y DAS over the minor‘s units?
Axis Intervention does not activate Vichy France; only the proper variant counter or success on the Vichy
Activation die roll can do that.
If, at the time a minor ally is due to activate, (a) it has been attacked but not yet conquered by Russia, (b)
Russian forces are present in the minor ally, and (c)
Russia and Germany are not yet at war, then Germany
Since Germany must declare war on Russia in order to intervene, activation would, in this rare instance, not occur at the beginning of the player turn.
Whenever a Minor Ally is activated, its BRPs are immediately added to the German total and continue to be added during each subsequent YSS as long as it is controlled. Its units become part of the German Force
Pool; they may be moved by SR, counting against the
German SR limit.
Addition of BRPs occurs at the beginning of the
Axis player turn when Finland, Hungary, Rumania, and
Bulgaria are activated (Summer 1941 or thereafter as per
by variant counter occurs at the beginning of the game turn however.
In all scenarios Germany receives the BRPs for her Minor Allies in addition to her BRP Base, and loses
BRPs for them when lost to Allied conquests.
Excepting Spain and Turkey, Minor Allies are automatically at war with Germany‘s enemies when activated; no DoW costs are paid.
Even if activated as a minor ally, Iraq and Vichy
France proper yield Germany no BRPs. Vichy colonies
If a Minor Ally is activated by Allied attack plus Axis
Intervention, any units it loses before Intervention are permanently out of the game, and do not become part of the German Force Pool.
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Upon initial activation, Minor Ally units are placed on any hex of their home country, with at least one ground unit in the capital, whence they can be moved and SR'ed normally. Rebuilt combat losses must also be placed on a supplied, controlled hex of the home country, not in enemy ZOC. At the start of the 1942 and 1944 scenarios
Axis Minor Ally units may be placed on any Axiscontrolled hex on the mapboard subject to the following limitations:
Do these restrictions on placement of Axis Minor‘s apply to the
1939 scenario and Campaign Game as well as the 1942 and 1944 scenarios?
May minor allies attack into, or ―attrition into‖, an area they not enter?
Yes; the principles of 22.7 apply
Are there any restrictions on placement/employment of active
Finnish units may never move farther than six hexes from the Finnish border or coastline. In the 1942 scenario, Finnish ground units may start only in Finland or hexes
. In the 1944 scenario they may start only in Finland.
Can Finnish units enter countries other than Russia?
Yes, but the restrictions of 25.41 still apply.
Bulgarian units may be placed only in Bulgaria,
Yugoslavia, Greece, and European Turkey.
Rumanian units may be placed only in Rumania,
Yugoslavia, East Europe, and Russia. Rumanian units may be placed in Bessarabia (the Eastern Front portion of Rumania) if Russia has not occupied East Europe, or if the Axis has already reconquered that portion of it.
Hungarian units may be placed only in Hungary,
Yugoslavia, East Europe, Poland, and Russia.
Spanish and Turkish units may be placed only on the Mediterranean Front, with two exceptions: Turkish units may enter Russia and Spanish ground and air units may enter East Europe and Russia, and may SR through the Western Front.
Should Spain become an Allied Minor Ally per 25.22, could her units enter France?
Yes, in this case her geographical limitations would be expanded to include both the Western and Mediterranean Fronts.
Iraqi rebels may be placed only in Iraq, Persia,
Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Transjordan, and Arabia. Iraqi rebels draw supply from Mosul. If Mosul should be garrisoned by Allied units at the time the Iraq variant is played, the Iraqis have one turn to capture Mosul with an
Iraqi ground unit; if they fail they are eliminated. During their turn of initial creation Iraqi units need not trace supply if Mosul is occupied by Allied units, and therefore may advance into Mosul following a successful attack. If
Mosul and Munawir are both garrisoned, the Iraqi air unit may be held off the board on the turn of activation and placed on the following turn. Once activated, the Iraqis are eliminated if the Allies capture Mosul.
never enter an area in which they may not be placed. Air and naval units must always be based in accordance
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules with the above restrictions, but may operate freely from their bases. Thus the Spanish navy could base in north
Spain and operate in the Atlantic.
Active Minor Allies must conform to the Option being used by Germany on each front. Germany pays reconstruction costs for eliminated units.
Prior to activation, Germany may have no more than
20 German factors total (ground and air only) in Finland,
Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria as a group. Of these
20, no more than five may be placed in Finland.
Germany treats these four minors (but not Spain, Turkey nor Iraq), while inactive, as controlled territory and may freely move, SR, and trace supply through them, and may launch attacks from their territory. Germany has the same privileges in Vichy French territory, but exercising them has adverse effects on the Vichy Activation die roll
(EXCEPTION: Germany can trace supply through Vichy without penalty). Allied units may make cross-border attacks on German units at the border of a minor ally, but could not advance after combat, use air support in the attack, or in any other way violate the territory of the minor unless they are at war with it.
Are Italian forces allowed within German Minor Allies before activation?
Yes. ―German‖ and ―Germany‖ should be read as ―Axis‖ throughout this rule, except that it is Germany, not Italy, who actually controls the minor‘s hexes.
May Germany have more than five factors in Finland activation?
An Axis unit, forced to vacate its hex by Allied attrition, has no retreat except into an inactive minor ally. The retreat would put the Axis over the 20-factor limit in minor allies. Is the unit eliminated instead?
No, it may retreat. As with a number of other such limits and minimums, the 20-factor cap is judged at the end of each Axis movement phase and player turn.
An inactive minor ally whose capital falls to the
Allies cannot thereafter be activated, and whether inactive or active it does not get one turn to attempt to retake its capital. If either Germany or Italy declares war on any potential Minor Ally, that minor ally may not later be activated.
Until Fall 1941, Russia, unless already at war with
Germany, is prevented from declaring war on bordering
Minor Allies by a garrison of at least one German ground combat factor in that Minor Ally. (A replacement counter will do, an Italian unit will not.) Note that Finland has no ports or beaches; if Germany fails to garrison Finland on opening setup; she can do so later only by dropping her airborne unit there. Turkey may not be so garrisoned before her variant counter is played. Germany may not place a garrison unit in Bessarabia without declaring war on Russia.
Can Russia declare war on a garrisoned inactive Minor German
declaring war on Germany
Fall 1941 or a German violation of the Polish Partition Line?
If the Germans start the game in an Axis Minor then move out, can the Russians declare war on the minor?
– the prohibition against a Russian DoW depends on the current existence of a physical garrison.
How does a German garrison in Finland draw supply?
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See 27.11. Helsinki is, by definition, a supply source even though
Finland is still inactive.
26. CONQUEST OF MAJOR COUNTRIES
The United States cannot be conquered.
Germany, Italy and Britain may be conquered by controlling their capital. The conquering power(s) must hold control of the capital for one opposition turn,
Conquest occurs immediately after the conquered power fails to regain control of the capital during its combat phase.
Units which move to counterattack their capital must be in supply from some source other than their capital at the start of their turn.
Immediately upon conquest (the end of the
Combat phase of the conquered nation), or surrender
Minor Allies (if any) are removed from the game.
In each subsequent YSS the major power controlling the conquered capital receives half (rounded down) of the BRPs the conquered nation began the scenario with, as shown on its scenario card. Control of
Paris in a 1942 or 1944 scenario YSS yields 42 BRPs for the Allies; control of Rome in a 1944 scenario YSS would yield the Allies 37 BRPs.
Should a major capital be occupied on the last half of a Winter turn, the conqueror does not receive the half-
BRPs during the ensuing YSS because conquest is not effective until the occupied nation has had one chance to retake its capital. A normal YSS calculation is made for the nation with the occupied capital.
All hexes in the major power become controlled by the conqueror(s) at the end of the Combat phase in which the conquered nation fails to retake its capital.
The provisions of
there is no restriction on the conqueror‘s SRs. He may freely cut supply lines during his next player turn.
Non-French colonies, active Minor Allies, and conquests of a conquered power are controlled by no one and belong to the first player to occupy them. Note that such occupation may not be done during a Pass
Option, since the hexes are not controlled. All forces of an active Minor Ally cease to exist when its Major power ally is conquered.
If Italy is conquered, do Sardinia and Rhodes pass to Allied control?
Sardinia yes, Rhodes no. (The former was and is administratively part of Italy; the latter, a colony)
ITALY: A special surrender situation in addition to that listed above can apply to Italy. Italy surrenders if all of the following conditions are met:
A. In spring 1943 or thereafter the Allies have a supplied non-airborne unit in mainland Italy at the end of an Axis
Combat phase. An Allied presence on Sicily does not count.
B. There are no Axis forces (other than unactivated
Vichy units) in Africa (including all of Egypt).
C. The Allies control every hex of Sicily, or every hex of both Sardinia and Corsica.
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
D. The Allies hold the initiative (i.e. they moved first in the current game turn).
If Italy surrenders as a result of this rule, all Italiancontrolled hexes pass to German control. Germany receives half of the BRPs which Italy started the scenario with during each subsequent YSS that she controls
Rome. All Italian units are removed from play. The surrender is treated as a conquest for all other purposes.
At the end of the Combat phase in which Italy surrenders or is conquered, the German player may roll a die and add two to the result. The resulting number is the amount of Italian naval factors (assuming they still exist) that the Germans may seize and use as their own.
The German may select any mix of partial counters he chooses to fulfill this number, and may place them in any supplied, German-controlled port(s) on the same front.
Neither these nor other Italian naval units may be reconstructed for the duration of the game. If engaged in naval combat these naval factors retain their Italian
France. The following special rules apply:
Do these restrictions still apply if Paris is only Axis controlled, not occupied?
Yes, although normal attacks would be permitted if the Allies regained control of Paris during the Movement Phase.
French attacks while Paris is occupied by Axis units are limited to those which could conceivably lead to the recapture of Paris.
French attacks on hexes other than Paris are allowable only if success could conceivably permit
Exploitation movement into, or a 1:2 or better attack on,
French attacks on Paris at 1:3 or 1:4 odds may be made only if an ―EX‖ result would remove all Axis ground units from Paris, and other units, Exploiting, from another attack, could conceivably then occupy it.
Paris may not be attacked by French units unless at least one French attacking ground unit is in supply and thus eligible to advance into Paris after combat.
units on a separate hex could participate in the attack, they are ineligible to advance into Paris. In rare instances, however, it might be possible for a British unit to recapture a vacant, Axis-controlled Paris by moving through it. While Paris is occupied, French units in
Europe may trace supply only from London (or the U.S. box, but only if London is occupied or isolated) or a
If France lacks sufficient BRPs to take an
Offensive Option in the west, or the defender is able to demonstrate that he could commit DAS it such a way that
Paris could not possibly fall, French attacks may not be made and the units that would have provided the necessary DAS may not undertake other missions in that game turn. Even in this event, however Paris is not considered conquered until after the Allied Combat
While Paris is enemy occupied, France may not
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich use an Attrition Option on any front, may use an
Offensive Option only on the Western Front, may not make naval interceptions, and may not make a DoW.
French air units may fly Counterair missions only against those Axis air units which are in position to oppose legal French ground attack by flying DAS. Air attacks on enemy fleets may not be made, either in port or at sea during the French player turn.
If French units do reoccupy Paris, those French units on the western front which have not yet attacked may do so without restriction during the remainder of the same Combat phase. However, no retroactive alteration to France‘s Option selections on other fronts is permitted, nor may air/naval units undertake missions they could not have done at the start of the Combat phase. Air units may, of course, fly Ground Support Interception in connection with a post-reoccupation Exploitation attack.
France may not move any units from France outside European France while Paris is occupied.
French units are not all removed upon conquest; the status of French colonies is determined by die rolls.
Any British units in France when France falls are
supply line through Vichy France.
RUSSIA: Special rules apply to Russia. Russia is not conquered just because her capital is lost to the Axis.
Axis conquests of Moscow or Leningrad result in immediate Russian loss and Axis gain of 15 BRPs for each city. This is a one-time event; if control of a city seesaws back and forth there is no BRP loss/gain upon second and subsequent Axis captures. But during each
YSS that the Axis controls either city, 15 BRPs per city are added to the Axis and subtracted from the Russian totals. Russia does not get one turn to attempt recapture before these adjustments are made.
If Russia should recapture Moscow, does Germany then lose 15
– if it had the 15 BRPs added during the previous YSS (i.e., if
Germany had captured Moscow during a previous year).
Whenever at the end of a Russian player turn the
Russians have less than 50 factors of ground and air factors on the mapboard, and combined Axis strength inside Russia‘s original boundaries exceeds the Russian total by at least a 3:2 ratio, Russia is considered defeated and must make a one-time offer to surrender. Partisans in Russia count toward the 50 factor limit.
Does ―combined Axis strength‖ include naval factors?
If the Axis accept the surrender, each objective hex not yet in Axis control has a Russian unit placed on it; these objective hexes count toward Russian/Allied victory conditions at the end of the scenario. The Axis receives half of the Russian BRPs (as shown on the
Russian scenario card) during subsequent YSS; they cease to receive YSS BRPs for Moscow and Leningrad.
The Axis must maintain a 45 factor garrison within
Russia‘s original borders, at least 30 factors of which must be ground units, until the end of the scenario. Air
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules and naval units which comprise part of the 45 factors may conduct missions from their Russian bases; the 45 factor limit must be met at the end of each Axis
Movement phase and player turn following the Russian surrender. The Axis may not later declare war on Russia again in order to capture more objective hexes.
If Russia surrenders, which side assumes controls of partisanoccupied objective hexes?
Whichever side last controlle d them before the partisan‘s presence.
Do non-objective hexes pass automatically to Axis control when
No, but the Axis units can pass through them unimpeded ( on other than a Pass Option) and extend their control. They can never, of course, control the Soviet-occupied objectives.
If the Axis rejects the surrender in order to capture more objective hexes, they may not later change their mind. Russia remains in the game until the instant her last combat factor inside Russia (original borders) is eliminated. The Axis does not receive Russian half-
BRPs until said last factor is eliminated; they do continue to receive the BRPs from Moscow and Leningrad in the interim. As above, the Axis must maintain a 45 factor garrison (30 of which must be ground) in Russia until scenario end, even after eliminating the last factor.
If the German and Italian players disagree on whether to accept a surrender, the player with the most combat factors inside Russia‘s original borders prevails.
If the Axis fall short of the required 45 factor garrison, at the end of either their Movement phase or player turn, they must permanently concede one Russian objective hex of their choice previously under their control to the Russian player and pay a 15 BRP penalty.
Furthermore, the Axis may not use SR for purposes other than correcting the garrison shortage until the 45 factor garrison has been reinstated. This penalty can be reassessed as many turns as the garrison does not meet its requirements, or until the Axis no longer control a
Russian objective hex. It can only be assessed once per turn, however.
Can British units trace supply from Allied capitals, such as Paris?
– this is not prohibited by Rule 34. Note that 45.5 expressly forbids supply from Russian source, clearly implying that the western
Allies are allowed to trace supply from each other
All capitals of major and minor powers are supply sources for the side that controls them, provided that their country has unit counters represented in the game.
Lisbon and Jerusalem, for example, do not qualify.
EXCEPTION: Moscow is a supply source for Russia only.
Does ―… provided that their country has units represented in the game‖ mean a capital is a supply source only when its units are in play on the board?
No, capitals of minor countries are supply sources at all times, even though their unit counters have been eliminated from play or not yet brought into play. Capitals of countries that
have armed forces are not supply sources.
DQB (& 36.1)
May German units trace supply from Italian-controlled sources and vice versa before they are allied?
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All ports in Libya are supply sources for Axis only; all ports in Egypt are supply sources for Allies only.
These supply sources are contingent on other
sources of supply for French units, but this supply cannot be shared with other nationalities. After these ports become Free French or Vichy they can supply only Free
French or Vichy units respectively. Of course, any port can be used to receive supply from a designated supply
DQB (& 35.4 & 35.5)
If Beirut or Tunis is a Vichy supply source, are
Vichy units counted against the 18-factor limit?
No. The Vichy units can then be considered to be tracing an overland supply route
If the Axis capture an Egyptian port and the Allies recapture it, does it again become an Allied supply source?
All fortress hexes supply units in the fortress hex, and only those units
—units outside a fortress hex may never trace a supply line thereto. EXCEPTIONS: Malta ceases to supply Allied units in Malta if the Allies control neither Gibraltar nor Suez/Alexandria and Sevastopol as
The entire east edge of the board as far south as
Z53 is a supply source for Russia only.
What constitutes the ―east edge of the map board‖?
Any non-playable hex off the east edge
– e.g. O60—south to and including Z54 is considered a Russian supply source. If the Lend Lease route has been opened, this is extended south to GG46 (but not for the purposes of rule 40.5).
Mosul functions as an Iraqi supply source if Iraq
The United States is a supply source only if both
London and Paris are Axis-occupied or isolated. This is true whether or not the U.S. has declared war. Units in the U.S. box are always automatically in supply.
Greek units on Greek islands are automatically in supply. Spanish units in Spanish Morocco may be supplied by sea through Tangiers despite the lack of a port there.
Konigsberg and Durazzo are supply sources for, respectively, Germany only and Italy only at the start of the 1939 scenario/Campaign Game. They lose this status as soon as a normal land supply line is opened to these areas.
Each supply source may supply an unlimited number of units unless specified otherwise.
A unit is in supply if it can trace a line of controlled hexes, free of enemy ZOC, between itself and a supply source. Enemy ZOC over the unit and/or the source does not block this supply line as long as all hexes in the supply line between the unit and the source are free of enemy ZOC. Units adjacent to a supply source are always in supply unless both the supply source and the adjacent unit are in the ZOC of the same enemy unit.
Supply lines, like ground units, may cross water without naval assistance at a Crossing Arrow. The controlled hexes may be hexes controlled by the power tracing the supply line and/or hexes controlled by allies of the tracing
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules power. Allies may not deny each other the opportunity to trace supply lines over hexes which they respectively control.
A unit is adjacent to a friendly supply source; both unit and supply source are in ZOC of the same enemy armored unit. However, the unit can trace a legal supply line out of the capital, back to itself, through another hex or hexes. Is it in supply or not?
DQB (& 32.6)
Can the Allies trace supply through a partisan-controlled hex?
Only if the hex was Allied-controlled before the partisan moved onto it.
Supply over water is more complex. A fleet must be designated to carry supply. A land route must be traceable from the supply source to the fleet‘s base. The fleet may do nothing else
—neither Intercept, Sea Escort, nor perform any missions
—during the game turn it carries supply.
The fleet may change base during Movement, and should such base change open a sea supply line to the units which were otherwise unsupplied, such units are considered supplied at the start of their turn. They may move and are not subject to elimination for lack of supply. The converse is equally true: should such a base change place any units out of supply, they are not in supply at the beginning of their turn and may not move.
If a fleet is eliminated while changing bases, any units it was intended to supply are isolated barring the availability of another fleet to take its place.
Each naval factor may supply one ground unit (or airbase)
—thus a 9-factor fleet could supply nine ground units, partial fleet counters could supply lesser numbers.
One fleet counter could provide supply to more than one port/Bridgehead on the far shore.
The supply line is now traced from the source, by land, to the base of the designated fleet, thence across water to a port or Bridgehead (islands without a port may also be supplied by sea through any one non-alterable coastal hex designated by the occupant), thence by land to the supplied unit(s). Both land portions of the line must be composed of controlled hexes and free of enemy ZOC. Units in a port or Bridgehead can be supplied by sea even though the port/Bridgehead itself is in enemy ZOC. Bridgehead counters may receive sea supply lines in this manner only if they were placed as a result of seaborne invasion.
DQB (& 37.3)
Can sea supply be traced from a supplied Western Front port around Africa to Suez?
– sea supply routes must be traced on the mapboard.
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EXAMPLE: The Black player has just finished his move, leaving all of the Red units isolated and out of supply except for the 10th infantry, which although in a German ZOC, is not surrounded by them. The shaded hexes are the ZOC of the armored units forming the encirclement. Note that in all cases supply can be traced into a ZOC, but never through it. The Red 10th Infantry then is supplied through both hexes X and Y.
ZOC ends at the water‘s edge. Hostile armor in
Calais or Harwich, for example, would not prevent tracing a sea supply line through the English Channel.
Although Gibraltar itself may not supply units outside Gibraltar, a supply line could be traced from
London through Gibraltar to a Mediterranean port or
Bridgehead. This would require two designated fleets: one to carry supply from England (or elsewhere) to
Gibraltar; one at Gibraltar to carry it onward in the
Mediterranean. Similarly supply could be traced from a
Mediterranean source to a port/Bridgehead in the Atlantic provided two fleets were used. Supply may be traced similarly through Kiel and Istanbul in either direction. A fleet counter in a two-front port could provide supply to ports/bridgeheads in either or both fronts.
Could supply be traced through the port of Gibraltar via a fleet from, say, a British or Egyptian port?
DQB (& 37.3)
Can units in excess of Egyptian port restrictions be supplied by fleet around the Cape, as in SR to Suez?
Units of the western Allies may not trace supply from Russian or Russian-controlled sources and viceversa. However, western units could trace supply across hexes controlled by the Russian to their own source of supply and vice-versa.
French units in Europe may trace supply only from
Paris until 1942. If Paris is Axis-occupied, they may trace supply only from London or from a captured capital
(or from the U.S., but only if London is also occupied or isolated).
Axis supply lines may not be traced through partisans.
Naval, air and partisan units are always in supply
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Armor units which Exploit are in supply for one turn after Exploitation.
Airborne units which paradrop are in supply for one turn after the drop.
Armor or airborne units which are moved by SR in the same player turn following their Exploitation or drop
CONSEQUENCES TO UNSUPPLIED UNITS:
Unsupplied units retain their full combat factor.
They may attack during an Offensive Option; they are counted when in contact with the enemy during an
Unsupplied units may not move during their
Movement or Combat phase. They may not advance to attack the enemy, may not advance after combat, may not exploit a Breakthrough, and may not advance to occupy an Attrition-gained hex. They may be moved by
SR, but only if supply has been restored in the interim and a legal SR path exists.
If British units in Vichy were unsupplied at the
of the turn in which France fell, may they SR out per 49.6?
No. Rule 27.42 prevails unless supply is restored before the SR phase.
Unsupplied units are eliminated if still unsupplied at the end of their player turn. This is so even if they were in supply at some intermediate point of their turn.
Elimination occurs at the end of the player turn, units are lost after unit construction; therefore units lost from lack of supply cannot be reconstructed during the turn of their loss.
Supply status is determined during the Movement phase, after movement of naval units but before movement of any other unit. A previously unused fleet could SR to the front and provide supply to a previously unsupplied unit to save it from elimination, but the resupplied unit could not move during that SR phase.
A supplied unit begins its Movement Phase by moving one hex to an unsupplied hex. May it continue to move?
Yes. Once supply status has been determine, a supplied unit may use its full movement factor during both the movement phase and (if applicable) exploitation.
28. AIR WARFARE
Each city (including ports) on the mapboard may base five air factors. A hex containing two cities may therefore base ten factors.
Each major power is also provided three air base counters. Each counter may be initially placed on any controlled, supplied hex
—even one in the ZOC of enemy armor
—at any point of a player‘s turn. Some or all may be placed as part of initial setup. No more than one air base counter may be placed on the same hex. After initial placement, air base counters move only by SR.
They count against SR limits and require Sea Escort to cross water.
Could Britain initially place airbase counter in France if Britain never had any other units in France?
Yes; but only with French concurrence. Note that this reply applies to initial placement,
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An air base counter increases the basing capacity of its hex by five factors. Placed on a non-city hex it may base five factors; on a city hex, 10; on a two-city hex, 15.
British air units may not be placed on French air base counters and vice versa before 1942. Russian air units may not be placed on air base counters of the western Allies and vice-versa. All air base counters may be used only by air and airborne units of their own nationality during the player turn of initial placement on the board. EXCEPTION: lent Italian air forces can use
German air base counters.
Can Italian air bases base Italian air units that have been lent to
Can German air units use Italian air base counters?
Yes, once actively allied, but only after the player turn of the base‘s initial placement.
If an air base counter is overrun or placed out of supply by enemy action, it is removed and placed on its country‘s capital. If out of supply it is not relocated until the end of its own SR phase (and does not count against
SR limits), but if overrun it is relocated immediately.
Should more than one counter be placed on the capital in this manner, the capital still can base no more than 10 air factors. Should the capital be enemy occupied or controlled at the time of overrun, the counter is destroyed and may not be returned to play. EXCEPTION: If
Moscow has fallen, overrun or isolated Russian air base counters are placed east of the Urals by the Russian player. Overrun or isolated American air base counters are returned to the U.S. box, from where they must be deployed to Europe in order to be used again.
What happens to an air unit on an isolated air base that must be relocated at the end SR Phase?
Rule 28.24 applies.
If SR of an airbase counter reduces basing capacity below the number of air factors present, the excess factors must also be SR'ed (separately) or be eliminated.
An air unit may stage (change bases) up to eight hexes during its Movement phase. The new base hex need not be on the same front as the old base. It must have been controlled by the staging side at the start of its
May a player, advancing during movement, create an unused air base on a forward hex gained during that Movement Phase and then stage an air unit to it on the same Movement Phase?
May an air unit stage to an unsupplied air base?
An air unit may fly four hexes from its base to perform air missions during the Combat Phase of
Offensive options. Note that this is in addition to staging
—an air unit may stage eight hexes during
Movement Phase, then fly an additional four hexes
units may also fly four hexes to perform defensive tasks.
Surviving factors always return to the same base they have begun the Combat phase in
—should the enemy
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Neither staging, Combat phase flight nor defensive flight may pass over any hex which contains any neutral land. Air units moving by SR may cross hexes which are
the movement of air units by SR.
May air units stage over enemy-controlled territory?
Yes; note that 19.3 specifically prohibits this during Pass options, but normally it is permitted.
Air units on bases which are overrun by enemy units are not destroyed. They move to the nearest controlled air base that has room to base them. Such movement may not be intercepted. Should two such bases be equidistant, the owning player chooses.
Should no such air base exist within eight hexes, then the air units are destroyed. An air unit forced to move in this manner may still perform missions from its new base, if not Counteraired. Should a base be captured while its air units are absent on a defensive air mission, this rule is applied at the end of the Combat phase. Surviving air units are then placed at their new base as if they had been at their former base when it was captured.
Are air units in a base hex occupied by both a friendly ground unit and an enemy airborne unit forced to move before the resolution of combat?
Are air units in flight, unable to return to their base of departure displaced four or eight hexes? Measured from their old airbase or their target hex?
Eight hexes from the old airbase.
During any full game turn air units may perform one, and only one, mission, offensive or defensive.
Defending survivors of a Counterair mission may not perform any mission, offensive or defensive, for the remainder of the game turn. Newly constructed air units may not fly any mission, offensive or defensive, during the game turn they are constructed.
EXAMPLE: in Spring, the Axis move first, During the Allied portion
(second half) of the Spring turn, any newly constructed Axis air units may not fly, Any Axis units that flew offensive air missions may not fly.
any Allied air that flew during the Axis turn, nay not fly. Comes
Summer: it's now a new game turn. Whichever side has first turn in
Summer: Allied units newly constructed In the Spring turn may fly,
Allied units that just flew offensive missions in Spring may fly, and Axis units just subjected to Allied Counterair in Spring or that just flew defensive missions during the Allied turn may fly. (―Fly‘‘ in the foregoing example does not refer to staging nor SR movement
—these are always permitted provided the attendant criteria are met for the type of movement being employed.)
Any air unit which performs a mission, or is
Counteraired or newly constructed should be inverted until the end of the current game turn.
OFFENSIVE AIR MISSIONS:
Offensive air missions (Ground Support,
Counterair, Interception and Attack on Naval Bases) are flown during the Combat phase of an Offensive Option.
Air units within four hexes of a hex being attacked by ground units may fly to the attacked hex and add their
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich combat factor to that of the attacking ground units. Any
Exploitation attacks may be similarly supported by air units which have not yet flown in the game turn. Once ground support has been placed, that hex must be attacked during regular combat or exploitation at legal odds or the air units are eliminated. They cannot be withdrawn without making a legal attack.
If an air unit is placed to give ground support for a seaborne invasion but the invasion is aborted by an intercepting naval force, is the air unit eliminated because a legal odds attack can not be made?
– the air unit couldn‘t make an attack of any kind without ground forces and therefore is not forced to attack, but 28.455 would apply to the extent that the air unit‘s attempt to attack counts as an Offensive air mission and it is inverted.
The total air factors attacking any one hex may not exceed three times the total ground factors attacking that hex.
Attacking air units are destroyed by an ―A‖ result in ground combat. If the attac ker suffers an ―Ex‖ result he may elect to take his losses from either air, ground, or bombarding fleet units in any combination, so long as he eliminates sufficient factors.
If, in Ground Attack, attacker is using units on one hex to attack enemy units on two or more adjacent hexes in one attack, he may add Ground Support to the attack if his air units are able to reach any one of the attacked hexes.
Air units within four hexes of enemy air bases may fly to that hex and attack the enemy air. Only uninverted defending air factors may participate in the ensuing air combat.
AIR COMBAT: Both sides roll a die to determine combat losses. The die roll is subject to modification as follows:
A. The larger side receives a + 1 DRM for each factor in excess of the smaller side.
B. Nationality modifiers are applied as shown in the Air
Force Nationality DRM Chart. The lowest modifier is used when a side consists of nationalities with different
Air Force Nationality DRM Chart
Germany, US, Britain
Russia, Italy, France
When mixed nationality air forces re involved in air combat, how are losses distributed between nationalities of the same side?
Use the 29.572 naval method.
The defender commits DAS over a hex which also contains defending air units which are
going to fly. The attacker intercepts the DAS and inflicts losses exceeding DAS factors. Are the excess losses taken from the non-flying air units per 28.4321?
No. This situation does not parallel a counterair attack; the air units on the ground are not liable to losses. The attacker might have separately counteraired it; in that case, there would be two distinct air combats in the hex.
The side with the lower aerial combat die roll
(after modification) is the loser and must eliminate air factors equal to the difference between the modified die rolls. If the difference is greater than the loser‘s air
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules factors, the loser proceeds to eliminate sufficient inverted air factors that may be present in the hex to equal the difference between the modified die rolls. If, after eliminating all uninverted and inverted air factors present in the hex, the difference has not been reached, there is no further penalty.
The winner then eliminates half as many
(fractions rounded down) air factors present in the hex as were actually removed by the loser.
Does the winner remove half the total defending factors lost including any inverted factors which were lost?
DQB (& 28.641)
The die says says the loser has to eliminate one air factor. He happens to have some ―partials‖ in use and it develops that he has to lose two factors because of this, per 28.641. Does the winner now have to eliminate a factor per 28.4322?
Ties are resolved as drawn battles. A third die roll is made; each side loses that number of air factors, but neither side loses more factors than were present in the smaller force.
Does the ―smaller force‖ include inverted factors? For example, if three factors attack a hex with two active fighters and three inverted factors and a drawn battle results, what is the greatest number of factors each side can lose: two or three?
Surviving factors of both sides return to base, are inverted, and may not be used for the remainder of the game turn. EXCEPTION: If defender (a) had the larger force in combat and (b) was the winner; then surviving defending factors are not inverted and are available for further use during the game turn. All restrictions on counteraired units elsewhere in the rules do not apply to such factors.
Attacker may counterair a hex containing only inverted enemy air. The defender has zero factors to participate in air combat; die rolls are made and losses extracted accordingly. No nationality modification is made to defender‘s die roll.
An air unit based in Malta may, at its option, decline combat when Counteraired. However, it is inverted if it so declines.
Suppose five factors of air attack a single naval factor and the latter is eliminated on the first roll. Must the remaining four air factors still attack and chance their own elimination?
After defender has committed his air units to DAS missions, attacker may use air units which have not yet flown nor been successfully counteraired during the game turn to intercept such support. Interceptions may also be made in connection with Exploitation attacks.
Interception must take place at the hex where defender has placed his DAS. The intercepting air must, of course, be based within four hexes of the target hex.
Attacker may intercept with a force of any size, it need not equal defender‘s force although a numerically inferior force is less likely to succeed in the resulting
If defender has the larger force in combat and
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich wins the aerial combat, his survivors may continue their
DAS mission or return to base and invert at his option.
Otherwise, his survivors (and always intercepting survivors) must return to base and invert.
ATTACKS ON NAVAL BASES:
Air units within four hexes of an enemy naval base may attack naval units therein. Such attack is not resolved until after resolution of all ground combat.
Are naval units in a base attacked by air units eligible to conduct missions against the attacker
‘s fleets during the attacker‘s Combat
– the air attack is resolved after all naval combat is resolved and the defender‘s surviving fleets have returned to base.
If enemy air units are present at the attacked hex, and if they have not yet flown during the game turn, they must be attacked by Counterair and must be defeated. If this is not done, the naval units may not be attacked.
Defender‘s air units near, but not in, the naval base hex may not fly defensively
—attacker need concern himself only with air units in the naval base hex itself.
EXCEPTION: Air units in Malta have the option to decline
entire force is free to attack naval units in Malta.
If the Counterair attack fails, does the flight by the other air units that were to attack the naval forces count as a mission, even those units which cannot now attack?
Does ―defeated‖ in this rule mean complete elimination or only that the defending air factors take the greater loss in air combat?
The latter; to be specific, the attacker‘s modified aerial combat die roll is higher than the defender‘s.
Air factors not used for Counterair purposes then attack the naval forces. Each attacking air factor rolls one die. A die roll of ‗1‘ or ‗2‘ eliminates a naval factor; a die roll of ‗3‘ or ‗4‘ has no effect; a die roll of ‗5‘ or ‗6‘ eliminates the attacking air factor.
Can the attacker elect to destroy one factor each from two fleets rather than two factors from one fleet?
Attacker may also attack defender‘s naval units at sea, if defender attempts naval Interception and his course comes within the fourhex range of attacker‘s uncommitted, eligible air unit regardless of the Option in effect Combat is identical except that at sea it takes a '1‘ die roll to eliminate a naval factor, and a ‗6‘ die roll to eliminate an attacking air factor.
EXAMPLES: 15 British air factors attack a German 9-factor fleet and
air unit in Brest. The British commit 6 factors to Counterair. Both players roll a ‖3‖ for aerial combat so the British win the aerial combat
(4:3). The German loses one air factor, and the rest are unusable for the remainder of the turn. The British Counterair force takes no losses.
The nine remaining British air factors attack the naval force‘ by rolling 3,
5, 1, 5, 1, 1, 2, 6, 4. Four naval factors are lost along with 3 attacking air factors, Note that the British survivors of the Counterair combat are not eligible to also join in the attack on the naval unit; this would be performing two missions in one turn.
Should air units move to attack an enemy naval base but the naval factors therein are subsequently displaced by a successful ground attack first, the air units may not attack although their attempt to do so counts as an Offensive air mission.
DEFENSIVE AIR MISSIONS:
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
DEFENSIVE AIR SUPPORT (DAS):
During the Combat phase of an enemy Offensive
Option, after the opponent has allocated his Ground
Support air missions, uninverted defending air units within four-hex range of any hex under potential ground attack including attack by seaborne invasion or airdrop may fly to that hex. Their factors are added to those of the defending ground units in determining the odds of ground combat. These added air factors remain basic, they are not multiplied by terrain as are defending ground units.
Defender may similarly commit air units which have not yet flown in the game turn to Defensive Air
Support (hereafter referred to as DAS) during exploitation attacks.
DAS may be given to ground units only and may not exceed three times the basic number of ground factors defending in that hex. Air units committed to DAS are vulnerable to Interception by uncommitted enemy air units.
May one allot more air factors than could legally be counted in the combat odds in anticipation of intercepting aircraft reducing the DAS strength?
If attacker has committed Ground Support and defender has committed DAS to the same ground battle, there is no direct air interaction. Each side simply adds its factors to those of its ground units.
Defending air units can be destroyed by adverse results in ground combat. (Note that an air unit which is merely based in an attacked hex, and has not been committed to DAS is not destroyed
—it is merely displaced (see
after combat.) Should an exchange leave defender with any factors surviving, he may elect to take his losses from either air or ground units or both, in any combination, so long as he eliminates sufficient factors.
EXAMPLE: Eight German ground factors attack a French 2-3 Infantry unit (doubled on defense). Odds are 8:4. The German also attacks with four air factors making it a 12:4 (3:1) attack. The French player commits three of his own air factors to fly DAS for the battle, making the odds 12:7 (1:1). A "CA" is rolled and the French must counterattack at
5:12 (1:3). They roll an ―A‖ and both the infantry unit and the three
French air factors are eliminated. The German units nay occupy the vacated hex and the German air units return to base.
Air units committed to DAS have performed a mission even if the attacker does not attack their hex.
Does DAS placed at the beginning of a Combat Phase and not intercepted or attacked remain there for possible Exploitation combat?
ATTACK ON NAVAL UNITS AT SEA:
Defender may attack naval units moving at sea during either Movement or Combat phase of an
Offensive Option, and during the Movement phase of an
Attrition Option, if their course brings them within the four-hex range of his air units eligible to fly. The moving naval units may be attacked in their base hex (since they enter the water portion of it as soon as they leave port), in their target hex, or in any intermediate hex.
PARTIAL AIR COUNTERS:
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
air counters (as well as
) may be broken down into smaller counters at any time during their owner‘s player turn. Smaller counters may be recombined into larger ones at any time. Counters must always be of the same nationality: the Axis could never use a minor ally air counter in this manner.
May air counters be broken down during the opponent‘s turn in order to allocate DAS?
A player may never have more air factors in play than are allowed by the Force Pool of his scenario card.
Subject to this limitation, a player may construct partial air units. Such partial counters must be placed on, either during Construction or SR, and combined with another partial counter during the turn of construction; a full 5-4 air counter must result. Axis Minor units are not considered partial counters and may be reconstructed, provided that the minor was active at the time of loss.
EXCEPTION: The British have 19 air factors shown in their 1939/Campaign Game force pools. They may construct their 20th air factor and have four
air units. They may do this either by gathering four
air factors on the same hex in Britain, where the fifth factor may be constructed without need of a partial counter to do so; or by combining their
1-4 s; substituting a
counter, then constructing one factor and combining with four factors somewhere on the board. If any factors have been lost in combat Britain can follow the same procedure, constructing factors as necessary. If four factors are lost, Britain may construct her fourth
5-4 without further ado. Although the 1-4s are shown in the
British Force Pool, combat losses may not be reconstructed unless a
counter results; nor may
Britain ever have more than 20 air factors in play at one time.
Breakdown and buildup of air counters are always subject to availability of air counters with which to do so.
If a player must lose some air factors due to combat and does not have partial factors available to
―make the correct change,‖ he must lose more factors than he otherwise would have.
Players, particularly during an Offensive Option
Combat phase, will have a tendency to allot a factor of air to this mission, a couple more to that, etc., without bothering with the partial counters. This is often convenient. Players should remember, however, that such breakdowns may be limited by the number and size of partial counters available to them. Should an opponent doubt the ability of the allotting player to allocate his air as advertised, that opponent is entitled to require the allotting player to place his partial counters on the mapboard.
Partial air counters count as one unit apiece for all purposes, including SR. even if stacked together.
(However, a player could combine, say two
1-4 s on the same airbase into a
just before SR.)
An inverted 3-4 air and an unused 2-4 air unit are stacked together; may they be combined to a 5-4 for SR?
Yes. The 5-4 is inverted if left on the board. However, it could be
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules broken down again at destination to the same inverted 3-4 and face-up
air units have no partial counters and therefore may not be broken down.
Spanish, Turk and Iraqi
units may be reconstructed only if those nations become active Minor Allies. Should
Vichy France have partial air counters at the time of activation as a Minor Ally, such partial counters could be reconstructed.
DQB (& 49.11)
May Vichy air units use French partial counters to break down or absorb partial losses?
Yes. Free French may also, and Vichy naval units may absorb partial losses similarly.
When an air counter is going to use its factors to perform different missions on the same hex, it need not use partial counters to do so.
unit could fly to a hex containing enemy ground and air, use two factors for Counterair and three for Ground Support, without having to split up into partial counters. It would, of course, have to split up
—or lose the entire
—if either mission sustained casualties.
29. NAVAL WARFARE
Each port on the mapboard may base up to 36 naval factors. (EXCEPTION: Malta,
containing two ports may therefore base up to 72 factors.
Britain, with four 9-factor fleets at Gibraltar, sails two to Egypt and two more from Britain to Gibraltar during the movement phase. The
Egyptian-bound fleets are intercepted and turned back. What happens?
The overstack is involuntary and no fleets are destroyed, provided
Britain does remedy it by the end of the SR phase. However, the two overstacked fleets may not perform missions, intercept, provide supply nor sea escort during the remainder of the player turn
Is a two-port hex considered as one naval base or two for interception purposes?
A fleet is considered based on the front which contains the ocean area on which its port abuts, even though the actual port may be on an adjacent front.
EXAMPLE: A fleet based on the north German (Baltic) coast is based on the Eastern Front, even though its port hex lies on the western
EXAMPLE: A fleet at Marseilles is based in the Mediterranean, even though its port hex lies on the Western Front.
In neither example above does the fleet‘s base necessarily require an
Offensive Option on the western Front in order for the fleet to conduct
Kiel, which was connected by canal, is a two-front port for all purposes; fleets based there may conduct missions on either the Eastern or Western Front. An eastern-based fleet may move to Kiel during Movement, then during Combat perform a mission on the Western
Front or vice versa. If the Allies capture Kiel (and whenever Kiel changes hands thereafter), it ceases to be a two-front port. This simulates combat damage to the
Kiel Canal. When the canal is inoperative fleets could be based in either the Atlantic or Baltic port, or some in each; it is up to the players to keep them straight. Kiel again becomes a two-front port as soon as either side has controlled it for two consecutive complete game turns.
Gibraltar is also a two-front port for all purposes
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich capable of sustaining missions on either the Western or
Mediterranean Front and has all the other advantages of a two front port. Fleets at Gibraltar may escape to either the Western or the Mediterranean front if overrun by
Istanbul is also a two-front port for all purposes capable of sustaining missions in either the
Mediterranean or Black Sea and has all the other advantages of a two-front port except that supply and passage into or from the Mediterranean outside the
Turkish Straits is not allowed unless all land hexes composing the strait (
Z33, Z34, AA31, BB31
) are controlled by friendly forces.
Only Russian and German fleets may base in any
Russian port or in the Baltic States. Russian fleets may only base in Russian controlled ports.
Russian fleets based in the Black Sea may SR to the
Mediterranean if they gain control of a Mediterranean port and both sides of both crossing arrows in the Turkish straits are under friendly control.
Fleets based in the U.S. are under special restrictions:
They may perform Shore Bombardment and
Invasions only if no friendly port exists on the Western
Front. They may perform Sea Transport only if all friendly Western Front ports are ineligible to receive SR because of Axis units being adjacent.
They may carry supply only if London and Paris are both controlled or isolated by the Axis. For purposes of this rule, isolation is defined as: no supply line traceable from the capital to an Atlantic port and seaward. French or British fleets may change base or
SR to the U.S. box and perform this function even before
America enters the war (thus, they are able to supply a
British counterattack against occupied London).
They may Intercept at any time (but only after
America enters the war) and are considered to be at maximum range on the Interception Table.
French fleets must base only in France, French colonies, or captured French-controlled ports until Spring
return to Marseilles (unless Britain holds variant counter
3) and undergo the usual Vichy halving process. French fleets returning to Marseilles due to the fall of France are allowed free passage past Gibraltar. Germany may subsequently base Vichy fleets in Vichy colonies if she wishes, or in Marseilles or Corsica; if Vichy becomes a
German Minor Ally the Vichy fleets may be based with no restrictions.
If French fleets are forced to move because their base is captured, and no legal French base is available on their front, they may temporarily move to a Britishcontrolled port on the same front provided no British units are present. They must, at their first Movement or SR opportunity, return to a French-controlled port or be eliminated. They may perform no other activities while based in this temporary port.
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
May inverted (previously used) naval units make a base change?
– a naval unit may change base and perform an activity resulting inversion, in either order, in the same turn.
Fleets may change base during the Movement phase of Offensive or Attrition Options. They may change base during a Pass Option only if no enemy fleets are based on their front, and if their course to their new base does not pass within four hexes of enemy air units. (This is true even if the fleets/air units in question are ineligible to Intercept.) Base changes are vulnerable to Interception by enemy naval or air units. The new base must be on the same front as the old base and must have been controlled by their side at the start of their player turn. Base changes are made before any movement of air and ground units.
DQB (& 29.573)
Are fleets which are intercepted and defeated, in an attempt to change base during the Movement Phase, forced to return to their original base? Can they perform any other functions during that game turn?
Yes. They are forced back to their original base, but they have not yet performed a mission and are not inverted (this is an exception to the last sentence of 29.33)
Fleets have unlimited range on the front on which they are based, during both Movement and Combat phase, but they cannot move out of that front except by
Fleets may move through any water or partly water hexside. Neither enemy-controlled land, neutral land, nor presence of enemy units is any obstacle to such movement. EXCEPTIONS: Fleets may not move through or into the Suez canal unless the adjacent land hexes are controlled by their side. They may not move through any strait containing a crossing arrow unless both land sides of the arrow are under friendly (not neutral) control. They may move into such a strait to carry out a mission in the strait hex, so long as they exit the same side they entered and do not pass through the strait. Fleets may not cross the front boundary near
Gibraltar except during SR, and then only if Gibraltar is not controlled by a hostile force. Fleets may not enter
C35 (Oslo) nor any river.
A fleet may not change base nor SR directly from the Black Sea to the Baltic nor vice versa.
Each U.S. fleet may initially move out of the U.S.
initially deployed to Europe should be so signified by being placed upside down in the U.S. box. With this one exception, U.S. and Allied fleets may freely move to and from the U.S. box during both Movement and SR. Fleets so moving enter/exit the map at any west edge hex EE1-
DQB (& 42.2)
Are additional US fleets assigned to protect the
Murmansk convoy counted against the overall SR limit of ten or against the Initial Deployment limit of six?
Both if the fleet has not yet been initially deployed; otherwise, only as the SR limit.
Fleets at bases which are overrun by enemy ground units are not destroyed. They are displaced to the nearest controlled port on the same front that has room for them (but may not go from the Black Sea to the
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
Baltic, nor vice-versa). Such movement may be
Intercepted. Should two such ports be equidistant, the owner of the fleets chooses. Should no such port exist on the same front, the fleets are destroyed
(EXCEPTIONS: Fleets in Two Front ports: (Gibraltar,
Kiel, Istanbul) may escape to either front. The owner may choose the front, even if a base in the non-chosen front is nearer, but must place the fleets in the closest
DQB (& 29.58)
If a naval unit is displaced from its base and then intercepted and defeated so that it has to return to its original base, what happens?
It attempts to return to the next nearest available friendly port on that front
– tracing its path from the point of interception. It is again subject to interception by any as yet uncommitted enemy fleets/air. If no such other friendly port is available on the front, the defeated fleet is eliminated.
Naval hexside movement from Suez to
is considered a move of two hexes.
During any full game turn, a fleet may do any one, but no more than one, of the following:
Conduct an Offensive mission (Shore
Bombardment, Sea Transport, or Invasion) during an
Offensive Option Combat phase. EXCEPTION: unused portions of a fleet engaged in a seaborne invasion may lend Shore Bombardment support to that invasion
DQB (& 29.433)
Two 9-factor fleets carry two 3-
3‘s to an invasion.
Interception eliminates a naval factor and consequently one 3-3. May the 8-factor fleet now provide two factors of shore bombardment?
Intercept opposing fleets (during own or opponent‘s turn).
Perform Sea Escort (during SR phase).
Escort a Murmansk Convoy (during SR phase
After performing any of the above functions or being newly constructed, the fleet counter is inverted until the end of the current game turn.
A fleet may change base during Movement phase and still perform any one of the above functions. A fleet that has performed any one of the above functions except Sea Escort or Murmansk Escort may still be
SR'ed during the SR phase.
After the Movement phase, a fleet may not again change base until the SR phase. Fleets that leave their base during Combat phase must return to the same base, as must any fleet that intercepts during Movement phase. In the course of any one Combat phase, a given fleet may not return to its base and leave again, NOR enter any other port more than once (except to debark units in case of an aborted mission), NOR enter the sea portion of more than one target hex, (unless an alternate route to its destination is unavailable) even though it takes no action there. Fleets that leave a base during the Movement phase may not return to the same base during that phase.
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Newly constructed fleets may not perform any of
on the mapboard.
A fleet counter carrying supply may not leave its base (except to change base during Movement or SR phase). A 9-factor fleet being used to supply only three units could not use its six surplus factors for any other purpose.
Attacker moves his fleets to the water portion of a coastal hex containing enemy ground units which are to be attacked by his own ground units in a seaborne invasion. For each three naval factors, one factor is added to the strength of attacker‘s ground units when determining odds of the ground combat.
Attacker may combine Shore Bombardment with
Ground Support from his air units in the same attack, in support of ground units.
Attacker may not use Shore Bombardment in support of an Exploitation attack or in any attack against a hex not under attack by seaborne invasion.
EXCEPTION: Shore Bombardment may be used in support of non-exploiting, attacking ground units against any coastal fortress or one hex island.
If the coastal fortress is also a port with a 9-factor fleet, may the attack still be made using shore bombardment?
Yes defending fleets do not prevent shore bombardment.
Are Leningrad and Sevastopol considered fortresses such that shore bombardment may be conducted against them in conjunction with a ground attack?
Can shore bombardment be used with non-exploiting units attacking across a crossing arrow?
Not normally. If attacking a one hex island (e.g. Scapa Flow) across a crossing arrow, then yes. Rule 29.431, second sentence applies to
Danish islands for shore bombardment purposes only.
Bombarding fleets are not affected by an ―A‖ result in the ground combat. If attacker suffers partial losses from an exchange, he may choose to take some or all of his losses in naval units in order to preserve other units. Such losses are taken at the Shore
Bombardment rate however: three naval factors must be lost to equal the loss of one ground or air factor.
EXAMPLE: Two seaborne invading
infantry units and four bombarding fleets attack a tripled
armor unit on a beach hex at 3:1.
EX is rolled; defender loses his armor unit. Attacker may choose to lose only his two infantry units. If he wishes to have an infantry unit survive in order to occupy and control the attacked hex, he could choose to lose one infantry unit and 9 naval factors.
Suppose, in the rulebook example, the attacker had only one 3-4 unit. In order to preserve it, would he have to lose two 9-factor fleets (to match the defender
‘s losses) or only one fleet (to match the loss of the
He would have to lose two fleets.
When are bombarding fleets eliminated in an
―EX‖ combat result?
This rule is badly worded. What was intended was that bombarding fleets are never eliminated after a combat result unless the attacking player
eliminates them in order to preserve other units. This applies to all combat results. The second sentence of 29.414 refers to the only time when any rational player would wish to eliminate fleets.
The example following the rule should be extended
– if the defender had a 3-3 infantry unit instead of a 2-5 armor unit, the attacker would
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich still only lose his two invading 3-4 infantry units on an EX
… unless he chooses to remove enough fleets to preserve one or both of them. The defender
‘s losses are not reduced, however, to reflect the attacker‘s decision..
Fleets move from one controlled port to another controlled port on the same front, carrying ground or air units. Each two naval factors may transport one ground or air combat factor.
DQB (& 29.65)
May a unit be sea transported by two fleets in the same manner as sea escort?
Fleets need not be based at the port of embarkation. They may move from their base to the port of embarkation, thence to the port of debarkation, thence back to their original base. There may be more than one port of embarkation for one Sea Transport mission; but there may not be two ports of debarkation. The latter requires two independent missions.
DQB (& 29.573)
Are units being Sea Transported returned to the port of embarkation or the fleet‘s base (assuming the two are different) if the mission is intercepted and defeated
The port of embarkation.
Ground or air units may move their full ground movement factor during the Combat phase in which they are Sea Transported. It costs them no movement factors to embark, one factor to disembark. Enemy armor adjacent to a port of embarkation reduces land movement accordingly
—ground units embarking in a port in enemy ZOC would pay two MF to embark, not zero.
This applies even if both the ground unit and the fleet which is to carry it begin their turn in the same port hex.
armor starts its turn next to a port. It moves to the port hex (1 MF), embarks there (0 MF), and disembarks at a distant port (1 MF); it may then move three additional hexes from the port of debarkation.
The reference to ground MFs for air units is confusing. Does an air unit pay one MF to disembark and therefore can only fly a total of three hexes to perform a mission?
– but, unlike ground units, it would not have to pay a two MF cost for embarking in enemy ZOC
May an air unit be sea transported to a port where it could become overstacked after combat?
No, the port must have the basing capacity to receive the air unit, as determined at the end of the Movement Phase.
Ground or air units thus transported may engage in combat after debarkation.
DQB (& 29.573)
May units being sea transported which are intercepted, defeated and returned to base still able to move and/or perform missions?
Yes; even though the Sea Transport mission has been aborted, it still counts as a mission and therefore its units still have the same capabilities even though thy disembarked in a different port. Note, assess one MF for disembarking at the port in addition to any MFs they may have spent prior to that.
Although Sea Transport takes place during the
Combat phase, units being transported may not move twice; rather, they move during the Combat phase only.
Air units must have begun the player turn in their port of embarkation; the port of debarkation is then treated as their new air base- They may not perform Counterair missions that player turn, and attacker must announce any intended air missions at the time he announces his other air missions.
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Ground units which were unsupplied at the start of their turn may not be moved by Sea Transport, because of the debarkation cost.
All Sea Transport must be concluded prior to resolution of any ground combat.
Both ports of embarkation and debarkation must have been under friendly control at the start of the transporting player‘s player turn.
Sea Transport may not be used to land forces on a Bridgehead counter unless the Bridgehead hex also contains a port.
SEA BORNE INVASIONS:
Invasions may be directed against any beach hex, Gibraltar (see
can be invaded only by fleets based in Baltic ports. Ground units defending against
Invasion are tripled, even if simultaneously attacked from an adjacent land hex or by airborne drop.
DQB (& 29.57)
The Lorient hex has two separate beaches
– what happens if it is invaded from both directions? How are the interceptions handled?
The two invasions are separate missions and must be intercepted separately, even if intercepted in the target hex. Interceptors must sail to the northern or southern (or both) water portions as appropriate.
Ground combat is still handled as one battle.
If the target hex contains a 9-factor fleet, at the start of the player turn, Invasion may not be attempted there. EXCEPTIONS: If no ground units were in such hex, an airborne drop could drive the fleet out and permit
Invasion. If such an airborne drop is to be made, attacker‘s fleets may enter the invasion hex despite the presence of enemy fleets. If attacker should change his mind and not make the airborne drop, no invasion may be made.
If the target hex contains naval factors, but not a 9-factor fleet, thus allowing a Seaborne Invasion, those factors are displaced to the nearest friendly port on the same front. They may attempt to intercept the invasion from their new port if otherwise eligible to do so.
If an airborne drop drives a fleet out, thus permitting an invasion on an otherwise undefended beach, may a bridgehead counter still be placed?
– the invasion hex would be controlled by the attacker prior to the actual invasion.
Would nine naval factors (for example eight Spanish and one
Italian) prevent the invasion of a port beach hex, or is a 9-factor fleet counter necessary?
DQB (& 29.5)
Could naval factors displaced to a friendly port on the same front by a seaborne invasion of its port/beach hex elect to automatically intercept the invasion fleet before displacement?
Yes, but not exactly ―before displacement. There aren‘t displaced unless invasion succeeds and an enemy ground unit controls their hex.
At interception decision time, they have the same opportunity to intercept or not that a fleet in any other port would have.
For Invasions, three naval factors are needed to carry one ground factor. Air may not be carried. Any number of units may be carried, up to the capacity of the invading fleets, but only two units may attack the target hex (plus any airborne units which drop). The attacking units may receive Shore Bombardment factors from any excess naval factors not engaged in carrying ground
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich units; they may also receive Ground Support from any air units in range.
EXAMPLE: Two 9-factor fleets carry a
armor unit and a
1-3 infantry unit. Only 15 naval factors are required to carry the ground units; the other three may provide one factor of Shore Bombardment.
Invading units must start their turn in supply, in a port. Unlike Sea Transport, they may not move to reach their port of embarkation. Said port must be the base of the fleet which carries them, although fleets on the same front could change base to that port during their
Provided that at least one initially attacking unit is armor, and one initially attacking unit survives to occupy the target hex, and that more armor is in reserve aboard the Invasion fleet, Breakthrough and Exploitation may be achieved. If the attacker also happens to have ground units not participating in the invasion already adjacent to the beach, such units could not participate in any resulting Exploitation unless the invasion hex is also attacked by land in combination with the invasion. The armor unit which must attack the beach hex to create a
Breakthrough can come from either the seaborne invasion force or the adjacent land units.
If the Invasion succeeds (at least one initially invading ground unit surviving and landing), a
Bridgehead counter may be placed. Ground units aboard the Invasion fleet which did not participate in the attack may also be placed on the Bridgehead, up to the five-unit stacking limit. If the target hex contained no enemy ground units, success is automatic and a
Bridgehead counter may be placed (but not if the target hex was already controll ed by attacker‘s side). Invading units may not attack enemy units adjacent to the target hex, except by Exploitation attack. (In such case one armored unit would have to ―attack‖ the undefended beach to establish a Breakthrough hex and would be ineligible to Exploit).
The attacker may not take Exchange losses from embarked units that did not participate in his initial attack.
He may choose to take Exchange losses from naval factors providing Shore Bombardment, but not from those carrying the Invasion force, at the three-for-one
Shore Bombardment rate. Fleets are not affected by an
―A‖ result; neither are those ground units that did not participate in the actual attack.
A Bridgehead hex not containing a port may not be reinforced by SR or Sea Transport. The attacker could reinforce only by conducting subsequent
―Invasions‖ against that hex until he captures a port.
Does this rule prevent the SR or staging of an air unit into a bridgehead?
No, but it does prevent the SR of an airbase into a bridgehead.
When attacker moves his fleets during the
Movement phase of Offensive or Attrition Options, or during the Combat phase of an Offensive Option, defender may attempt to intercept with any of his fleets based on the same front, Interceptions may not be attempted unless the countries involved are already at war; a player may not declare war during his opponent‘s
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules turn in order to Intercept. Fleets carrying supply, performing Sea Escort, or SR may not be Intercepted.
Britain sails two interceptable missions from Portsmouth. May
Germany choose to intercept them both in the Portsmouth hex, treating it as one naval battle?
– in fact Germany may not choose otherwise
if she intercepts in the base hex
. The missions do not become separate until they enter separate hexes; similarly, two missions directed at the same hex must be treated as one if intercepted in that hex.
Two fleets on separate mission cross paths. May they both be intercepted as one interception at the crossing point?
If there is only one common hex where the missions cross paths, the defender may only intercept separately. One interception of one mission could be made in that crossing hex, the other elsewhere. If the missions have more than one hex in common, the defender may intercept both missions in any common hex and must treat it as one battle if he does.
Whenever defender wishes to Intercept, attacker must indicate the exact course(s) of hexes taken by his moving units. Defender then chooses a hex at which he will intercept. He may choose the hex where attacker‘s fleets are based (since they enter the water portion of that hex as soon as they leave port), or the destination hex or any intermediate hex.
Could Italian fleets based in the Med intercept British fleets based in Gibraltar performing missions in the Atlantic by intercepting them in the base hex?
– and this would apply equally to similar situations in Kiel and
Istanbul. Fleets based in a two-front port may be intercepted in their base hex only by enemy fleets based on the front through which they will move to perform their mission.
hex is a two front port, may the defender attempt interception in the target hex with fleets from both fronts?
Naval Interception may be attempted at only one point along any given fleet‘s course; although defender‘s air units might also attack that fleet at one or more other points.
EXAMPLE: Italian fleets from Taranto, Tripoli and Tobruk sail independently, rendezvous south of Crete, and proceed thence to a mission. The Allies could attempt three different Interceptions (which would have to originate from three different bases) against the three groups before they combine, lf the Italians had instead combined their fleets by sailing the Taranto fleet to Tripoli, thence to Tobruk, and onward, the Allies could have attempted to intercept only once, at any point between Taranto and the ultimate destination (inclusive).
All naval units at a given base must attempt
Interception against the same target. If the Axis were moving two interceptable missions in the Mediterranean, four Allied fleets at Gibraltar could not be split up into two groups of Interceptors
—but the Gibraltar fleets could attempt to Intercept one mission while fleets from other ports attempted to intercept the other. If fleets from more than one base do attempt to Intercept the same enemy mission, they must select a common hex at which
Interception will be attempted.
Can fleets in the same hex, but different ports, intercept different missions?
Yes. Note that fleets in a hex with more than one port must declare which port they are in as soon as they enter. Also note that fleets in separate ports within the same hex attempting to intercept the same mission must roll twice for interception
– once for each port.
During Movement the attacker is required to indicate all naval base changes he will make before the defender decides whether and where to attempt
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
Interception. Similarly, during Combat phase, attacker must announce all naval missions he will undertake before defender makes Interception decisions. Attacker must specify what ground units, if any, are aboard his fleets and he must specify destinations.
The foregoing does not prevent attacker from leaving some of his naval units uncommitted. Such uncommitted units may themselves attempt to Intercept defender‘s intercepting fleets before defender‘s fleets reach their Interception hex. (Theoretically, defender could then counter-counterintercept attacker‘s counterinterceptors and so on, until one player or the other had no more uncommitted fleets.) Counter-Interceptions of this sort may also be made by attacker‘s fleets and by his ally‘s fleets, regardless of the Option they have chosen on that front. Defender‘s fleets may also be attacked by attacker‘s uncommitted air, if in range. After defender has made all Interception rolls (but before interception combat) attacker announces all naval and air counterinterceptions. Combat is resolved in inverse order; the fleets sailing last resolve their interceptions first.
Suppose a counter-interception succeeds in the same hex where an interception has already succeeded? Do the fleets join together in one naval battle?
No. Combat is still resolved per the last sentence of 29.56
The defender counts the hexes along his chosen route from his naval base(s) to the Interception hex(es) counting his port hex itself as the first hex traversed and rolls the die once for each base involved. Success or failure is determined from the Interception Table printed on the map-board. The attacker then announces any
Counter-Interceptions he wishes to attempt against defender‘s successful interceptors; these are rolled for, and, if successful, resolved, Units which fail to Intercept are not considered to have performed a mission and may be used for other purposes during the remainder of the game turn, but may not try again to Intercept during the current player turn. Fleets based in the U.S. box are considered to be at maximum distance for Interception attempts.
EXAMPLE: An Italian fleet attempts Sea Transport from Taranto to
Tripoli. One British fleet from Gibraltar and two from Alexandria attempt to intercept it in the Tripoli hex. The Interception die roll for Gibraltar fails, but the one for Alexandria succeeds. Italy now attempts to
Counter-Intercept the Alexandria fleet at
with a second Taranto fleet and succeeds. Italy also announces an air attack by a unit from
Tobruk on the Alexandria fleet in II-24. France then tries to Counter-
Intercept the second Italian fleet, at
, with fleets from Marseilles and succeeds. Italian fleets from Naples now try to and do Counter-
Intercept the French at
. Two British fleets from Gibraltar try to and do Counter-Intercept the Naples fleets at
. Finally, an Italian flees from Livorno manages to intercept the Gibraltar fleets at
The combats are resolved in reverse order of the listing above: beginning with the Livorno fleet vs. the Gibraltar fleets, and ending with the surviving factors of the Alexandria fleets vs. the original Sea
The British, although they have one remaining uncommitted fleet in
Gibraltar, cannot attempt to intercept the Livorno fleet with it because of
fleets, however, does not prevent the other British fleets there from making their successful attempt against the Naples fleets.
The air and naval attacks in
can be resolved in either order the
Italian player chooses. Had the fleet been attacked by naval and air in separate hexes, the order would depend on which attack the fleet
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules encountered first along its course.
If the Alexandria Interception die roll, or any later one, had failed,
Counter-Interception opportunities would have ended. A side may not announce an attempt, roll the die, then announce another against that same target.
If a naval and air interception of a naval mission occurs in the same hex, which attack is resolved first?
The interceptor‘s choice.
Have naval/air interceptors, whose intended naval target was destroyed or forced to abort due to previous interception attacks, performed a mission?
May fleets that fail their interception die roll be intercepted by an eligible enemy air or naval unit?
NAVAL COMBAT: If interception succeeds, both sides roll a die to resolve naval combat with the side rolling the higher number being the winner (ties are won by the intercepting force). Each side‘s naval combat die roll is subject to modification due to nationality and relative size.
The larger sized force in any naval combat is always entitled to a favorable die roll modification
(hereafter referred to as DRM) if it has at least a third more naval factors than its opponent. The amount of the
DRM is determined by the Naval Advantage Chart.
Naval Advantage Chart
DRM's must also be applied to naval combat for the nationality of the respective combatants. If a force is comprised of two or more nationalities the lower of the respective DRM's applies.
Naval Nationality DRMs
US, Britain, Sweden
French (including Vichy and Free)
Italy (if battle in or south of row N)
Russia, Turkey, Spain, Italy
The loser of a naval battle must eliminate naval factors equal to the difference between the two sides‘ respective naval combat die rolls (after modification). If the losing side has 18 or more naval factors involved in the battle his losses are multiplied by the number of 9factor fleets (or their equivalent) which he employed in the battle. The winner of the naval battle them eliminates half (fractions rounded down) as many of his own naval factors as lost by the loser. Naval losses from a force of mixed nationality must be distributed equally among the nationalities involved (with any remnant loss which cannot be divided equally being taken by the nationality having the most factors involved; of if equal factors were involved
—the nationality with the lower DRM).
How many naval factors are lost in a naval battle where the modified die rolls are a tie?
None; although the interceptor wins the battle and forces the cancellation of the mission, there are no naval losses.
The loser of a naval battle must immediately return to port; any mission it may have been on and not yet accomplished is cancelled for that turn.
EXAMPLE: A British 9-factor fleet attempts to Sea Transport a
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich ground unit from Gibraltar to Malta. Italy decides to Intercept with two
9factor fleets; the Interception die roll succeeds. Both aides roll a ‗‗3‖ for naval combat, but Britain‘s die roll becomes a "4" (+1, nationality) and Italy‘s becomes a 5 (+3 for 2:1 advantage and -1 for nationality).
The Italians win the battle. The British lose one naval factor and return to Gibraltar. Had the Italian rolled a ‗‗1‖ (prior to modification) they would have lost the battle and two naval factors and the British could have continued their mission after losing one naval factor.
Any intercepting fleet (but never a transport, invasion, or bombardment fleet, or fleet changing bases) may, before combat is resolved, elect to break off combat. In such cases it automatically loses the battle, but its losses are halved (fractions rounded down) from
in no case exceed half of its factor strength. The wi nner‘s losses are also reduced correspondingly. If the loser should then ―win‖ the modified die roll, neither side loses any factors.
EXAMPLE: Four British fleets from Gibraltar and one from Port Said attempt to intercept four Italian fleets. The Gibraltar fleets, but not the
Port Said fleet, fail the Interception die roll. The British player chooses to break off combat because of the adverse odds faced by his single fleet. Each side rolls a ‗3‘, which modifies to: Britain 4, Italy 7 - Britain would hav e lost three factors and Italy one, but because of Britain‘s decision to run for it, she loses only one while Italy loses none. Britain could not have lost more than four of her nine factors no matter how adverse the die roll.
In case France and Britain both wish to Intercept the same enemy mission (before 1942) and can‘t agree, the player with the most naval factors on the front prevails.
After Combat resolution intercepting survivors return to their original base. An Intercepted force may continue on its original mission (or base change) if it won the battle, or may choose to abort and return to its base(s). Should it choose to abort, any ground/air units being carried must be landed at the port of embarkation.
If enough units are turned back to a given port of embarkation to create an overstack there, must the excess be eliminated?
Yes, if not remedied by the end of the SR phase. Note that, in addition to the SR possibilities, units might have unused MFs which can be used immediately upon landing.
If Interception combat losses reduce a Sea
Transport or Invasion fleet to the point where it lacks the naval factors required to carry its ground or air units, these units are immediately eliminated as necessary (air units can be broken down to accept losses) to meet the fleet‘s reduced carrying capacity. The units cannot be saved by aborting the mission even if the interception takes place in a port of embarkation or target hex.
During SR, in order for a land unit or BRP grant
(or, in some circumstances, an air unit
cross water, a 9-factor fleet must provide Sea Escort.
(EXCEPTIONS: crossing arrows, American Initial
Deployment into Britain.)
Each 9-factor fleet may Sea Escort one unit counter of any size or 20 BRPs. Lesser fleets may not perform Sea Escort. The unit or BRPs must be able to move to the escorting fleet‘s base by controlled land hexes.
EXAMPLE: A fleet based in Britain could not pick up a unit from Bergen and SR it. The fleet would itself have to be SR'ed to Bergen; on the
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules following turn it could then SR the unit out. Alternatively, it could have changed base from Britain to Bergen during the Movement phase, and could then SR a unit out on the same turn.
Fleets used for Sea Escort may not be used for any other purpose during the game turn, although they could have changed base during the Movement phase.
Sea Escort fleets end the SR phase on the same base from which they began it. Fleets themselves may be moved to a new base, even a new front, by SR
—but they may not during the same turn provide Sea Escort, not even for a unit going to the same destination.
Sea Escort fleets may not leave their front; however a chain of Sea Escort is possible. One fleet may escort a unit from an Atlantic Ocean port to Gibraltar where a Gibraltar-based fleet may then escort it onward in the Mediterranean. The reverse route is equally possible. The unit is counted only once against SR limits even though two fleets took part in its SR. Kiel and
Istanbul may similarly serve as front-to-front transfer points.
Hostile units in Cadiz or any other hex adjacent to
Gibraltar do not obstruct the SR/Sea Escort of units through, into, or out of Gibraltar. Naval units, whether performing Sea Escort or being themselves moved by
SR, may not pass through the Turkish straits unless both sides of both crossing arrows there are under friendly
(not neutral) control. In order to SR fleets from the North
Sea to the Baltic or vice versa, either Kiel or both
must be under friendly control. Otherwise, hostile adjacent ground units do not bar sea passage except through Crossing Arrows, although they would prohibit the landing of such units in an adjacent hex.
Does a neutral Denmark qualify as being under ―friendly control‖ for SR purposes?
DQB (& 33.62)
May British foreign aid still be sent to Finland if
Copenhagen (I32) is Axis-controlled?
Yes, off the board via Petsamo in the extreme north of Finland.
The Sea Escort portion of any given SR must begin and end in controlled ports. EXCEPTION: Units may be SR'ed into or out of controlled islands without ports and not connected to another body of land by a crossing arrow, by a fleet based elsewhere on that front
—provided that the ―other end‖ of their cross-water portion of the SR does involve that fleet‘s base. (The exception does not apply to non-island areas without ports, such as Finland.)
PARTIAL NAVAL COUNTERS:
Unlike air units, naval units may not be voluntarily broken down into smaller units to perform separate tasks.
Naval units are replaced by partial counters only when combat losses occur.
A fleet taking losses must reduce itself to the fewest possible partial counters.
EXAMPLE: A 9 factor fleet losing two factors must be replaced by a 6factor and a 1-factor fleet, if available. A split into 4, 2, and 1 factor counters, or any other combination, would not be allowed unless 6 and/or 1 factor counters were not available.
If a player does not have partial naval counters available to ―make the correct change‖ when he suffers
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich naval losses, he must lose more factors than he otherwise would have.
Partial naval counters may be combined together when at the same base. A player with two 6-factor fleets could replace them with
-factor fleet counters.
Each partial counter is one unit for SR purposes.
A player could combine two smaller partial counters into a larger one just before SR, if available partial counters permit.
Unlike air, partial naval counters may not be constructed. A player may construct only 9-factor fleets at a cost of 27 BRPs.
A player may construct those 9-factor fleets shown as ―Allowable Builds‖ in his Force Pool normally, but there are restrictions on construction which replaces combat losses: a nation must have nine factors of naval losses, and a 9-factor counter must have been returned to the Force Pool. Reconstructed combat losses are not placed on the mapboard until one full year after the BRP construction costs have been paid. Whenever reconstructing combat losses a player must name the port at which his rebuilt fleet will reappear one year hence. If that port falls to enemy control at any time during the ensuing year, that fleet and the BRPs spent for its purchase are lost.
EXAMPLE: A player pays 27 BRPs to reconstruct a lost fleet in his
Spring 1940 Construction phase. The player places that fleet on the mapboard in his Spring 1941 Construction phase. Spring 1941 is the
Turkey, Spain, Vichy France, Sweden, and the
Free French may never rebuild fleets even if they should become active Minor Allies.
In any form of combat where naval factors are lost, a player may refuse to allow his opponent‘s losses and require opponent‘s naval counters to remain on the board. This does not affect the player‘s own losses.
This unusual tactic is usually employed to prevent Allied attempts to deliberately ―lose‖ the French fleet when the fall of France is imminent, and thus avoid the possibility of the French navy falling into Axis hands.
30. REPLACEMENT COUNTERS
Replacement counters represent training organizations feeding new levies into combat units. Their main function is to provide players with cheap units which they may choose to eliminate when subjected to Attrition combat, Russia, with an abundance of equally cheap
infantry, has no replacement counters.
Replacement counters, once placed, cannot move except by SR, or when required to retreat by an opponent‘s Attrition hex selection.
Replacement counters have one combat factor and defend accordingly against enemy Offensive Option attacks. They may attack only as part of defender‘s counterattack when required during an enemy Offensive
Option. They may not attack during their own side‘s
Offensive Option, not even if adjacent to the enemy.
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
They are not counted for Attrition if in contact with the enemy, and may not advance to occupy an Attritiongained hex.
To make an airdrop, an airborne unit must begin its turn on an air base able to trace a supply line, and not in enemy ZOC. (It may not move to an air base during
Movement and then drop later in the turn, nor may it drop during a turn in which it is moved by Sea Transport or
Invasion. If attacker, at the start of his turn, places an unused air base counter ―under‖ an airborne unit, that does not constitute the unit beginning its turn on an air base.) It may drop during the Movement phase or immediately prior to ground combat resolution, or
Exploitation combat resolution, during an Offensive
Option. It may drop on any hex within six hexes of its air base, but, like air units, may not cross hexes containing any neutral land to do so.
Can an airborne unit take off from a city hex instead of an airbase counter?
May airborne units drop during the Exploitation Movement Phase even if there is no subsequent exploitation combat; even if no breakthrough has occurred and therefore there is no exploitation?
An airborne unit begins its player turn on a border airbase adjacent to a neutral armor unit. Its owner declares war on that neutral.
May the airborne unit drop?
Yes. (It was not in hostile ZOC at the beginning of its turn.)
An airborne unit may drop on a hex containing enemy units. If it does so it must attack them and no other adjacent units, either alone or in conjunction with other attacking units. If not dropped on hostile units it may attack hostile units adjacent to its drop hex.
An airborne unit may not voluntarily move from the hex on which it drops, except by SR if possible, until the following game turn. If dropped, it may not advance after combat. It is automatically in supply on the game turn
not airdrop unless at the beginning of its turn it is able to trace a normal supply line to a source other than the hex on which it dropped the previous turn and meets the other drop requirements.
A dropped airborne unit which is eliminated before the end of the following game turn is removed from the game permanently and may not be reconstructed, unless, in that Combat phase it was: able to trace a normal supply line to a source other than the hex on which it was dropped; or adjacent to or stacked with a friendly ground unit (other than another recently dropped airborne unit or partisan). An airborne unit which met the latter condition would not be permanently removed even if the friendly ground unit was eliminated in the same
Combat phase or was itself unsupplied.
In the second player turn, an airborne unit drops on a hostile port where it could be supplied by sea. In the first player turn of the following game turn, it is attacked and eliminated. Is elimination permanent, because the owner has not yet had an opportunity to designate a supply fleet for the current game turn?
No, provided a supply fleet
designated during its owner‘s player turn.
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
Airborne units ignore all stacking limits and are never counted in determining the number of units in a stack. They may both attack and defend in situations where another unit would be
―overstacked‖. This rule applies even if the airborne unit is moved and used like infantry. It does not apply to seaborne invasion combat if the airborne unit is embarked on a naval unit; only two embarked ground units may attack and this cannot be increased to three by using the airborne. It may, of course, join the invasion combat by dropping from an air base, if otherwise capable of doing so.
Partisans may not be constructed in any country until Russia is at war with Germany or Italy.
Can partisans stack and attack with friendly units?
Yes, with two exceptions; a Russian-constructed partisan may not stack with a Western Allied unit, and vice versa. The principle of rule
45.4 applies here.
Do partisans stay in play after their country has been recaptured by the allies?
Yes, but the provisions of 32.2 continue to apply.
Partisans may be constructed and placed by any
Allied player during his Construction phase.
EXCEPTIONS: Only Russia may construct and place partisans in Russia. Partisans may not be placed in the same country two game turns in a row, even if a different major power constructs them.
infantry units are used to represent partisans. The maximum number of partisan units allowed in each country is: Yugoslavia 4, Greece 3,
Russia 3, France 2, Britain 3, and Italy 1 (after Italian surrender). Partisans may not be placed in any unconquered country except Russia. Partisans may not be placed in any country other than the six specified above.
Could Italian partisans be created if Italy was conquered rather than having surrendered?
Partisans must be placed on hexes that are vacant
(or contain another partisan unit constructed by the same player), that are controlled by the Axis, but that are not in
Axis ZOC. If no hexes in the country meet these criteria, partisans may not yet be placed there. Partisans may not be constructed in nor move into Vichy France
(including Corsica) until it is activated as a German Minor
Ally, is deactivated, or has had war declared on it by the
Allies. Partisans may be placed in Ulster, Sicily, Sardinia or the Greek islands if desired.
Partisans are moved and controlled by the nation that constructed them and must conform to that natio n‘s
Option choices on their front (EXCEPTION: Partisans may always move, without regard to hex control and regardless of the Option in effect). If two Allied players each wish to construct partisans in the same country at the same time and cannot reach agreement, they split the maximum with the odd unit, if any, going to the nation with ground forces closest (as the crow flies) to the capital of the country in question. If equally close, roll a die.
EXAMPLE: Russia and Britain both want to construct partisans in
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Greece. The nation with ground units closest to Athens may construct two and gets first and third choice of placement within Greece. The other nation may construct one and gets second choice of placement.
Partisans are eliminated if the major power that constructed them is conquered.
Partisans in Russia count as Russian combat factors for purposes of Attrition resolution, Russian
Partisans cannot be moved by SR, cannot leave their country and cannot attack across its borders (CRT dictated counterattacks across a border are allowed), or move by sea. They would not be counted for Attrition if they were in contact with the enemy only across a national border. Russian partisans cannot be placed in, nor move into, East Europe. Partisans cannot receive
Ground Support (unless major power ground units are involved in the same attack and the amount of such
Ground Support is dependent on the number of major power ground factors involved) or DAS.
Partisans attack like normal infantry except that they cannot untriple a defender against a cross-river attack.
EXCEPTION: If all units involved in a cross-river attack were partisans, then a part isan on defender‘s side of the river would untriple defender.
If all units involved in a crossing arrow attack are partisans, then would a partisan on the defender‘s side of the arrow untriple the defender?
Partisans may be counted in Attrition totals, may be taken as Attrition losses, and may advance to occupy an
Attritiongained hex so long as they don‘t advance out of their country.
Partisans are always in supply and never need to trace a supply line.
A partisan controls only the hex it is on, and that only temporarily; as soon as it moves away the hex automatically reverts to Axis control. A partisancontrolled hex is not controlled by its Allied creator: a partisan-controlled port could not receive Sea Transport nor SR; a partisan-controlled capital, although it deprives the Axis of BRPs, yields no BRPs to the Allies; and an objective hex controlled by partisans is not counted in the total of either side. A partisan unit can force Axis fleets
remains on the base hex at the end of Movement.
Passing through a base is not sufficient. Allied naval and air factors cannot base in a partisan controlled hex.
If partisans control their country‘s capital and Axis counterattack fails, the BRPs are deducted from the controlling Axis nation provided it received them in the previous YSS (or in the 1942 and 1944 scenarios controlled the capital at the start of the scenario).
(EXCEPTION: partisan control of Moscow never results in an Axis loss of more than 15 BRPs). Note that if an
Axis counterattack on a partisans-controlled capital results in an Exchange which leaves no Axis ground unit able to advance after combat, the Axis nevertheless
not suffer any BRP loss.
If partisans control Moscow or Leningrad, the Axis
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich lose the 15 BRPs they received BRPs for the city at YSS.
Loss is immediate; recapture cannot prevent it.
Is a 15-BRP loss for partisan-controlled Moscow imposed if the
Axis receive 15 BRPs during the year but not the last YSS?
33. VARIANT COUNTERS
Prior to beginning a game the British and German player each draw one of the ten numbered variant counters. Each player may, but need not, disclose the counter he has drawn to his Allies.
Some counters may be played at any time; others may be played only at a certain point or during a certain time frame. To play his counter, the player discloses it to all other players and the effects described below are followed.
If the counter drawn is not applicable to the scenario being played, the player does not redraw. He may keep his opponents in doubt for the entire scenario by leaving his counter unplayed. If Britain or Germany is conquered before playing their variant, the controlling player may still play the variant if still applicable at any later point. In a multi-player game he must pass the unplayed variant to an ally.
EFFECTS OF VARIANT COUNTERS:
1: Iraq becomes a German Minor Ally due to a successful pro-Axis coup there. The Iraqi rebel forces consist of five
1-3 infantry and one 2-4 air (use minor neutral counters) and draw supply from Mosul or any other controlled supply source. Mosul may not supply any other units.
Iraq is conquered when Mosul is occupied by the Allies.
1943. Not applicable to 1944 scenario.
2: Axis aid to Irish resistance forces threatens British political interests. Britain must divert ten factors of ground and/or air units to Ulster and keep them there for one full year. The ten factors or their substitutes must be present at the end of each British Movement and SR phase. Units may be moved to Ulster by Sea Transport,
SR/Sea Escort, or (air units) staging or may be constructed there. Play during any German turn; conditions must be met by end of following British turn or
Britain signs a separate peace and withdraws from the game as a neutral. Britain is not considered conquered for purposes of
Ireland is under Axis control, play of this counter has no
With #2, Germany drops her airborne in Belfast, then plays the variant. Void or valid?
Void. ―Ireland‖ in the exception should be taken as referring to the entire island, including Ulster.
Revealing #2, Germany plays the variant, then enter Ireland in the second turn of a ―flip-flop‖. Void or valid?
Still void. Britain must have a turn to meet the conditions before Axis entry.
With #2, as British player, one sees some possible benefit from signing a separate peace and withdrawing as a neutral. What exactly happens when Britain does this?
British units remain on the board and British BRPs continue to be recorded and may be used to build units from the British force pool.
Britain may not declare war on any major or minor power. The Axis may
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules declare war again on Britain (for 35 BRPs); other Allied nations may not. Any minors controlled by Britain also turn neutral. Any British hexes under Axis control remain so and vice versa. British units in hexes controlled by other Allies must reposition on the nearest Britishcontrolled hex. While neutral, other Allied units may not enter British controlled hexes and would have to be SRed out or destroyed if already present. British-constructed SW factors remain in existence but cause reduced losses (as in 10.24) in the next YSS, and none thereafter unless Britain is again at war. Britain may grant no more foreign aid wile neutral, but that already granted remains fully effective.
With regard to the above, then can Britain voluntarily ―sign a separate peace‖ to obtain the above?
Not really. A truce is possible by diplomatic agreement and could have much the same effect. But there would be no restriction on British
DoWs, no BRP cost to either side to resume hostilities, no change to
SW procedures, no restrictions on other Allies (unless the British player refused them passage!),no effect on minors and no mandatory repositioning of units.
DQB (& 39)
Can US/Britain declare war on Ireland? If they do conquer it is the German variant counter #2 voided?
3: Vichy France becomes a German Minor Ally. Play at the start of any Axis turn, but no earlier than the third game turn after the fall of France. Play at start of any
Axis player turn in 1942 scenario. Not applicable to 1944 scenario.
4: Spain becomes an Italian Minor Ally providing France has been conquered, and Italy is still in the game, controls five objective hexes, and is at war with a major power. Italy must pay 35 BRPs for the Spanish DoW.
Play only at start of Italian Spring 1941 turn. Not applicable to 1942 and 1944 scenarios.
5: Finland, Rumania, Bulgaria and Hungary become active German Minor Allies provided France has fallen and Germany is at war with Russia. Play at start of any
German player turn in which the conditions have already been met. Not applicable to 1942 and 1944 scenarios.
6: Hitler does not cut back on armaments; Germany expands production. Add 50 BRPs to German total during 1942 YSS; play at that time. Play at beginning of
1942 scenario. Not applicable to 1944 scenario.
7: Turkey becomes a German Minor Ally providing
Germany is at war with Russia and holds a combat factor advantage on the Eastern Front. All Axis combat factors are counted in determining whether the factor advantage exists, including Active Minor Allies and Italians (whether lent or not). Germany must pay 35 BRPs for the Turkish
DoW. Play at start of any German turn that conditions can be met, prior to 1943. Not applicable to 1944 scenario.
With #7, are Axis fleets in Kiel considered as being in the Eastern
Front for the purposes of determining a combat factor advantage on the
With #7, may the German player activate Turkey with variant #7 if
Germany lacks a full 35 BRPs for a DoW?
– Germany cannot use Turkey‘s 30 BRPs to pay for the Turkish
DoW. See Sequence of Play
– II.D.1 & 2.
8: Submarine warfare very successful. If submarines in
SW box outnumber ASW by 3:2, U.S. Initial Deployment to Britain is reduced to five units per turn for the remainder of the game. Play any time after 1941. When played, Germany must reveal her submarines in the SW box. The Allies, to avoid the effect of the counter, must
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich reveal at least enough ASW to avoid the 3:2 ratio. They need not reveal all, nor any.
With #8, if the Allies ―avoid the effect of the counter‖, may the
German hold it to play it again later?
9: Mussolini encounters less Royalist opposition to armament program. Italy may add 25 BRPs to their total for current year only. Add two
armor and two
2-3 infantry units to Italian Force Pool. (These units must be constructed to be used; they are not added to the At Start forces.) Play during any Italian turn prior to 1942 or during opening setup. Not applicable to 1942 and 1944 scenarios
10: Hitler does not interfere with development of jet fighters and they are mass-produced earlier. Each two interceptors maybe exchanged for three SAC factors
(fractions resolved in favor of the German player) for the remainder of the game. German air units are also entitled to a +1 nationality DRM in any Air Combat
resolution. In 1944 scenario, play during 1944 YSS.
Effects apply during all subsequent YSS. Not applicable to 1939 scenario.
1: Better French pre-war preparation. All replacement and infantry units in the
French ―Allowable Builds‖ must deploy during opening setup without paying any BRPs for unit construction. Play prior to French opening setup.
Not applicable to 1942 and 1944 scenarios.
2: French economic boom; add 40 BRPs to French total for current year only. Play at any time prior to fall of
France. Not applicable to 1942 and 1944 scenarios.
3: If France falls, all French colonies and units outside
Europe and Corsica automatically become Free French.
The French fleet also becomes Free French and fights under British control, and is not halved like other Vichy units (see the Vichy France rule). If the fleet is in a colony it remains there, otherwise it proceeds to the nearest British-controlled port. Free French naval, air, and armor units may never be rebuilt once lost. Play upon the fall of France, but not before Fall, 1940. If
France falls before Fall, 1940 the variant is void. Not applicable to 1942 and 1944 scenarios or if Britain has been conquered.
4: Increased commitments from the Dominions raise the
British growth rate to 50%. Play at any time.
5: U.S. Navy makes full commitment to protect shipments to Britain from unrestricted submarine warfare. Allies lose only two BRPs (instead of three) for every surviving submarine factor in Strategic Warfare resolution for the remainder of the game. Play only in 1941 YSS for immediate resolution.
May British Variant #5 be played at the start of the 1942 and 1944 scenarios?
6: America concentrates her Navy in the Atlantic. Fleets shown under ―Allowable Builds‖ are placed in the ―At
Start‖ category instead, at no BRP cost. Two surplus 9factor counters provided with game now become
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
increased to +2. Play at time of American Dow, or at start of 1944 scenario.
7: Allied strategic bombing concentrates on German crucial industry. Each surviving SAC factor subtracts four BRPs from Germany instead of two for the remainder of the game. Play during 1944 YSS for immediate resolution. Not applicable to the 1939 scenario or the 1942 scenario.
With #7, why should this variant not apply to the 1942 scenario?
The 1944 YSS occurs during the 1942 scenario play.
– change to read ―Not applicable to 1939 scenario‖. <struck out>
8: Higher shipping concentration in the Atlantic raises
American Initial Deployment into Britain to seven units per turn. Play any time after 1942. Not applicable to
9: Successful Soviet Five Year Plan; add 50 BRPs to
Soviet total for current year only. Play at start of any game turn.
10: Severely hard winter. Soviets get a free Offensive
Option on Eastern Front. Axis units, except Finns, east of the original Russian border are not doubled (but are still tripled whenever applicable). Germany may not select an Offensive Option on the Eastern Front. Play at start of any Winter game turn. Effects apply for one game turn only.
INTELLIGENCE: During the Construction phase, any one major power per alliance may spend five BRPs to make a major intelligence effort. This expenditure entitles the spending player to roll two dice and consult the Intelligence Table. If two or more allies each wish to roll, both players roll a die and the one rolling the highest gets to make the Intelligence Table die roll (ties are resolved in favor of the player with the most BRPs). A still neutral Russia or Italy may use the Table but only if their future Allies do not wish to, or cannot; or if Russia or
Italy wins the die roll just described. The US player may not use the Table prior to his entry into the game.
Dice Roll Results
The opponent's variant counter is nullified if not yet played, and cannot be replaced.
The opponent's variant counter must be disclosed.
A nation of your choice loses an amount of foreign aid equal to (but not exceeding the amount already given) the roll of a die in any one minor country of your choice.
You may draw one unused variant counter. This variant counter must be returned to the unused variant counter pile for a possible redraw by either side. The counter has no effect beyond its value as a clue regarding the possible identity of the opponent's variant.
Opponent must reveal the contents of his SW box.
Opponent must reveal the contents of his Murmansk box.
Your intelligence network has been compromised.
Your side may not use the intelligence table next turn.
Same as "4" and the next intelligence effort by your side will cost 10 BRPs
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
2 Same as "4" and the next two intelligence efforts by your side will cost 10 BRPs
When a nation announces its intention to use this rule, any one major nation (except the US before entry into the game) wishing to oppose it may immediately spend 5 BRPs on Counterintelligence. This expenditure subtracts one from that specific Intelligence dice roll, but must be announced prior to that dice roll. Additional BRP expenditures never lower the Intelligence dice roll by more than one. A nation could not make this expenditure if it had already spent its BRP limit for the current game turn, or is closer than five to the limit. This is the only case in which a nation may spend BRPs during an opponent‘s turn.
―Additional BRP expenditures never lower the Intelligence dice roll by more than one.‖ Does this imply that a player may make such expenditures just to waste unwanted BRPs (for example, to avoid a turn
No, no more than 5 counter-intelligence BRPs could be expended.
Neither could two or more powers spend five BRPs each.
Every time a nation makes an Intelligence investment which is not matched by an opponent‘s
Counterintelligence effort, that nation is entitled to a + 1 dice roll modification to the dice roll. This modification is not cumulative and therefore may be used only once per unmatched Intelligence investment.
The player using the Intelligence Table may elect to use the result of any lower number in lieu of the number he actually rolls.
All disclosures made as a result of the Intelligence
Table are made only to the player actually using the table. He may elect to keep this information to himself or share it with his allies as he desires.
The player using the Intelligence Table need not specify who his opponent is until after making the dice roll. In a multi-player game it is possible that a player may want to use the Intelligence Table vs. an uncooperative ally or future ally which he doesn‘t trust.
If a ―12‖ or higher is rolled on the Intelligence Table, can the player ask what the variant counter is and, once revealed, can he elect not to have it nullified as a form of blackmail against an uncooperative ally?
Yes, but once he has elected, he can‘t change his mind.
FOREIGN AID: Players may exert political pressure, diplomatic skills, and ―gifts‖ or ―foreign aid‖ to influence certain neutral minor countries to stay neutral or become active participants. This rule is applicable only to the
1939 and Campaign Game scenarios.
After the US declares war, is it allowed to give Foreign Aid to inactive Axis Minor Allies?
If Rumania and/or Hungary have not been activated by the end of the game, do their objective hexes count towards the German total?
– no more so than any uninvaded neutral‘s objective hexes count toward the German total.
DQB (& 49.4)
Exactly what is the interrelationship between Foreign Aid and the Vichy Activation/Deactivation Table?
The two rules call for two separate and distinct die rolls. First, either side may roll on the ―Current Status‖ of Vichy France on the
Activation/Deactivation table; Foreign Aid is ignored at this point in the
Vichy activation process. Once either side succeeds, the result is unchangeable and the table may no longer be used. If Germany
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules succeeds, Vichy becomes ―due to activate‖ and a second die roll is made during the next Axis player turn under 33.63, using any Foreign
Aid modifiers applicable. There is no further cost to Germany for any of the 33.63 die rolls ( other than additional Foreign Ais grants, if any).
BRP grants to certain minor countries are possible in much the same manner that BRPs are transferred to major powers within the following guidelines:
**All such BRPs are forfeit if Russia controls Besssarabia
If variants 11-20 are in use, can Yugoslavia receive Foreign Aid?
Yes, from any of the four ―Granting Major Powers‖
Russia takes East Europe. After attacking Russia, Germany occupies the two Bessarabian cities. Rumania is still inactive. May
Russia now give Foreign Aid to Rumania, assuming an SR path can be found?
No. If Russia controls a Bessarabian city at any time, the footnote to the 33.61 table applies permanently thereafter.
BRPs thus granted actually vanish since the recipient minors have no independent Force Pools or
BRP levels of their own. Foreign Aid grants cost SRs in the same manner as major-to-major BRP grants. One
SR must be used for each grant to a different country.
The total amount granted by one nation in one year cannot exceed 10% of its starting BRP total for that year.
Controlled-hex routes and Sea Escort (when necessary) are required, but, for this purpose only, neutral hexes
(even those of garrisoned inactive Axis Minor Allies containing a garrison unit) are treated as controlled.
Helsinki and Dublin, although not ports for any other purpose, may receive Sea Escorted BRPs under this rule but the Germans must use an additional SR for any grant to Dublin, and the British must use an additional SR for any grant to Helsinki. In this case, a BRP grant to
Finland can be accomplished with just one Britain-based fleet for Sea Escort and two SRs. Otherwise, a Foreign
Aid BRP grant to a minor costs only one SR even if it passes through more than one front via Sea Escort.
EXAMPLE: if Axis Minors are inactive, Britain may send BRPs to
Hungary via Sea Escort Greece, Bulgaria, and Rumania.
Suppose Britain captures Norway and the Sweden, thus acquiring a Baltic port, may Foreign Aid then be given to Finland at the normal
When do Foreign Aid BRPs ―vanish?
Immediately upon granting, in the sense that they can no longer be used for unit construction, do not grow during YSS, cannot br transferred elsewhere, and so forth. They remain in the minor permanently, but their only possible use is to affect its activation die roll.
May British Foreign Aid pass through Russian-controlled hexes?
Not until Russia is at war with the Axis.
Does the 10% limit on Foreign Aid expenditures apply to a country‘s total before SW expenditures, or after?
Britain grants Foreign Aid to Rumania by sending it around Africa to Suez; what is the SR cost?
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Whenever a Minor Ally is due to activate, whether by variant counter or any other means, the activating major power player must roll a ―1‖ or higher with one die.
This die roll is subject to a modification of -1 for each
BRP of Foreign Aid granted to that minor by the other side (including still neutral major powers destined to become an opponent) in excess of that granted to the minor by the activating major power. If neither side had granted BRPs to a given minor, it could be activated normally without a die roll. Germany is similarly prevented from playing variant 2 if Britain has spent at least six more BRPs on Ireland than has Germany.
Foreign Aid from a power which has since been conquered or has attacked that minor is negated, but otherwise BRPs spent on foreign aid are cumulative and remain in effect after previously failed activation attempts.
DQB (& 46.3)
If the Axis invade Spain, the Axis must roll a ―6‖ to activate the other Minor Allies. Can the Axis lower this by Foreign Aid?
Players must reveal the total amount of BRPs they spend on such grants during each Construction phase, as well as the specific countries the BRPs have been granted to.
Does one reveal the exact amount
A player does not forfeit his variant counter or
Minor Ally activation capability if he attempts to play it and fails because of adverse BRP grants; he may retain it and continue to attempt to play it on future turns. Axis variant 4, normally playable at only one specific time point, may be tried repeatedly when this rule prevents its play.
A power may not use Foreign Aid to activate a
Minor Ally it is not normally entitled to; it can only influence its activation by the normal controlling power.
Foreign Aid modification determination die rolls are made whenever a minor is due to activate, whether by variant or other means, and Foreign Aid by itself can never affect this timing.
Activation attempts must occur at the beginning of the player turn
—but after Initiative determination for that game turn.
TURKEY: In certain situations Turkey may become a British Minor Ally.
Britain may attempt to activate Turkey as a British
Minor Ally at the start of its player turn if all of the following criteria are met:
Allied ground combat factors in the
Mediterranean front exceed Axis ground combat factors in the front.
Allied naval factors based in Mediterranean ports exceed Axis naval factors so based. Italian ground and naval factors are counted as Axis whether yet actively allied with Germany or not.
The Allies control at least seven of the 14
Mediterranean front objective hexes.
Turkey is either neutral or has been attacked, but
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules not yet conquered, by the Axis.
Britain must pay 35 BRPs on the turn of activation to activate Turkey barring a prior Axis DoW on Turkey
Germany/Turkey apply equally to Britain/Turkey.
34. ANGLO-FRENCH COOPERATION
There was much friction between the French and British early in the war. Therefore, the following special rules apply:
British units may not be in the Maginot line, Paris,
Marseilles, nor the city of Vichy. They may pass through these hexes during Movement or SR, but may not pause in them at any point of a turn. If forced to retreat into such a prohibited hex they are eliminated.
May Britain land units in Marseilles by sea transport?
Yes, if they move out immediately after landing. Debarkation does not constitute a ―pause‖.
DQB (& 34.2)
Could French air units give ground support to a British counterattack on occupied London?
Yes. If based in France, they may operate freely from their bases.
However, the 34.2 exception would
allow a French sea transport or invasion force to land in Britain.
French units may not enter Britain or British colonies
(including Gibraltar). EXCEPTIONS: If a British colony has been occupied by the Axis, the French could then
May French air units fly missions over, or SR through, Britain and
British and French units may not stack together under any circumstances.
If France has a minor ally
– say, Spain or Turkey – may British units stack with that minor
‘s units before 1942?
No, and the reverse is equally true if Britain has a minor ally.
British fleets may neither carry nor Sea Escort
British air units may give offensive Ground Support to French ground units (because the British air would be placed atop the attacked Axis units rather than atop the
French) provided the attacked units are not in a hex prohibited by
French, because they may not be atop the French units.
May British air units give ground support to French units and vice versa when making a seaborne invasion?
Yes, the land and sea portions are treated separately.
British armor may not Exploit a French breakthrough. (If British and French units on separate hexes attack the Breakthrough hex, then armor units of whichever nation occupies the Breakthrough hex may
Exploit (even if that armor was adjacent only to participating attackers of the other nationality)
—in this case there would be no Anglo-French combined stack.)
British air may base on a French air base (i.e., a
French city) only if no French units are in the hex. The same applies to British naval units basing in French ports. British air may never base on a French air base counter nor may British fleets or ground units stack with a
French airbase counter.
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French fleets may not carry British units, etc.
British and French air units and fleets may not combine to perform any mission. Note one exception: if ground units on one hex were attacking Axis units on two
Support could be flown over one of the attacked hexes and French Ground Support over the other.
If British fleets fail an interception die roll, can French fleets then try to make the interception (or vice versa)?
Not against the same enemy mission. All attempts must be announced before die rolls are made
– if French and British both succeeded it would be illegal; therefore they can‘t both attempt the intercept. See also 29.57, the last paragraph of the example.
Units may pass over each other freely during
Movement, flight, etc.
French/British fleets may carry supply for each other‘s units.
are lifted at the beginning of 1942. Commencing with the
Once a Maginot Line hex is occupied by Axis forces
fall of France.
There are never any restrictions on combined stacks of, or cooperation between, British/U.S. and Free
35. AXIS FORCES IN AFRICA
Rule 35 has been one of the thorniest and most questioned since the 1981 rules revision. It has now been extensively rewritten; only sections 35.2 and 35.3 survive as they appear in the 3 rd
and 4 th
editions of the rulebook. Rule 35.1 and the rules 35.31 and subsequent are replaces by the following:
No more than 18 German combat factors of all types may be supplied from any Libyan source, or by sea through any North African port west of the Suez Canal, or in any combination thereof, so long as the Allies control
No more than 18 German combat factors (including air, naval,
German Minor Allies, and activated Vichy French) may be supplied from any Libyan source, or through any ports or bridgeheads in Africa west of the Suez Canal, so long as the Allies control Malta. (EXC: A
Casablanca bridgehead is not subject to this rule.)
Each Allied naval or air factor based at Malta reduces this 18 factor limit by one. Due to the restrictions on Allied basing in Malta, the limit can never fall below four.
German units already in North Africa may not be eliminated by an increase in Allied strength on Malta, but only that amount of factors within the current limit is in supply and allowed to move during the Movement and/or
Combat phase. An armor unit that has just Exploited or an airborne that has just dropped is not exempted from this limit by its automatically-in-supply status.
The German player determines which units are to be considered unsupplied. Once he makes that decision, however, he may not change it until the start of his next player turn, even if the units designated as supplied are subsequently eliminated or removed from the affected area.
The German player designates which units are to be unsupplied;
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules this is done when normal 27.44 supply determinations are made. The designations may not be altered until the same point of the next Axis player turn, even if supplied or unsupplied units are subsequently eliminated or removed from the area. Air and naval units designated as unsupplied are inverted, and remain so until the next Axis turn.
Unsupplied units may be counted in Attrition totals.
Units unsupplied due solely to this rule are not eliminated at the end of their turn and can be SR'ed.
Unsupplied units are counted in attrition totals. Ground units unsupplied under Rule 35 but supplied under rules 27.23 and/or 27.24 are not eliminated at the end of their turn and may be SRed.
Italian units (whether lent to Germany or not) and
Spanish units never count toward the limit. German
Minor Ally units, including activated Vichy French, do count towards the limit, even if they are in a Vichy colony when activated and remain there.
DQB Italian units (even if lent) and Italian Minor Allies are never counted toward the limit. Activated Vichy French units count only if they cannot trace a ground supply line to a Vichy supply in Tunis or Beirut.
A sea supply route through one or more of the following ports: Antioch, Beirut, Haifa, and Port Said, would also be limited to a maximum of 18 factors and this limit would include Italian and Spanish units as well. The
18 factor limits do not apply to factors which can trace an overland supply route to any non-Libyan port source (i.e. through Turkey or Persia to some source of supply). The
Allies can decrease this maximum limit in a similar manner to which Malta acts on Libyan supply sources if they have an air unit on Cyprus, Crete or Rhodes or more naval factors stationed in the Mediterranean east of the Suez Canal than the Axis. Should the above situation arise the amount of supply the German could draw through one or more of the above ports is limited to the 18 factor limit minus one factor for each Allied air factor on Cyprus, Crete or Rhodes or within four hexes of the Axis port, and minus one factor for each Allied naval factor stationed east of the Suez Canal. Note that if the
Allies stationed two 9-factor fleets in the Mediterranean east of Suez Canal no Axis units could be ―supplied‖ through the port. NOTE: Axis units are never automatically in supply solely because they are within the limits of this rule. Supply must still be provided by Axis fleets to the respective ports.
Axis forces in the Eastern Mediterranean which draw supply through Antioch, Beirut, Haifa, Port Said pr any of the three Eastern
Mediterranean beaches are also limited to 18 combat factors of all types. The limit applies to all Axis units
Vichy French tracing ground supply to Tunis or Beirut. It does not apply to units able to trace a normal supply line through Turkey or Iraq.
The Eastern Mediterranean limit may be reduced by the Allies in a manner similar to that of 35.2. (There is no minimum of four; it is possible for the limit to fall to zero.) Each Allied air factor (even if inverted) on Cyprus, Crete, Rhodes or within four hexes of all Axis ports or bridgeheads in the area reduces the Axis limit by one factor. Each
Allied naval factor based in the four ports (Antioch, Beirut, Haifa, Port
Said) reduces the limit by one factor. However, Axis naval factors based in any of the four ports may offset the Allied naval factors; they are subtracted from the Allied naval factors and only those Allied factors in excess of the Axis ones serve to reduce the limit. Inverted naval units of both sides are included in this determination.
Axis ground units are never automatically in supply because they are within the limits of Rule 35.5; Axis fleets must still supply the appropriate ports or bridgeheads per rules 27.23/27.24.
All provisions of Rules 35.3, 35.31 and 35.32 apply equally to the
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All Allied and Axis naval and air factors involved in these supply determinations are simultaneously capable of normal functions.
All non-inverted Allied and Axis air and naval factors involved in these supply determinations are fully capable of performing normal functions.
German units in excess of their current supply capabilities as detailed in
moved into Africa or the area east of Suez by any means.
Axis units in excess of the current supply capability may not enter either area by any means except as noted below:
If the Axis players have no units in the area in question, they may enter it by seaborne invasion and/or paradrop.
Axis units moving overland (as from Turkey into Syria) are of course under no restrictions. However, if an Allied counterthrust should cut off any part of the axis force, any portion dependent on sea supply would become subject to the provisions of Rule 35.5
Axis units moving from Libya across the Suez Canal would be subject to the Libyan limits. Once Port Said or any of the other four ports are captured, they could supply part of this force under the provisions of Rule 35.5.
Naval units may move or SR into the four eastern ports if their presence will ―offset‖ enough Allied naval factors under the provisions of Rule 35.51 to make room for the factor increase in the area. Note naval factors could change base during the Movement Phase, offset
Allied naval factors, then be inverted
– and thus allow both the movement of units already in the area (35.31) and perhaps also later
SR of additional units.
36. GERMAN-ITALIAN COOPERATION
Until Germany and Italy are allied (both at war against the same major power) their units may not enter each other‘s controlled territory, and naval units may not embark the other‘s units. Once actively allied, German and Italian units may always stack together.
LENT ITALIAN FORCES:
As soon as Germany and Italy are allied, Italian units may be lent to Germany during SR phases. The total under German control at any one time may not exceed ten factors. Air base counters may not be lent.
Each unit so lent counts as one SR (which may be charged against either nation‘s SR limit) on the turn in which it is transferred whether it is or is not moved on the mapboard. A unit may be lent (or reclaimed) even if isolated or adjacent to the enemy, but it could not also be
SR'ed. A lent unit must meet the usual criteria for SR
The German player controls lent units as if they were his own, paying for Offensive Options in which they participate. If lost in combat they return to the Italian
Force Pool; the Italian player must pay their BRP cost if reconstructed; they are then again under Italian control until again transferred during a SR phase. Hexes gained by lent units are controlled by Germany, not Italy.
Other than during transfer (when being lent or reclaimed), are
SRing lent Italian forces counted against the SR limit of German. Italy, or either at Axis option?
May lent Italian units be used as part of Germany‘s 20-factor East
Front garrison? May they be in the Murmansk box?
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Italy may reclaim her units during any Axis SR phase, each unit again costing one SR. (Italy could reclaim her units without German concurrence
—but might find she gained little since she could not SR or move them over German-controlled hexes without
German permission.) If Italy is conquered, lent units are removed from play immediately.
If Germany is conquered, lent Italian units remain in play and revert to Italian control. There is no SR cost for the reversion, although there is SR cost if and when
such reverted units may often be in a difficult situation, unable to move by SR and/or to remain in supply.
Loss of Gibraltar costs Britain 25 BRPs immediately.
The British do not get one turn to try to recapture it. If the
British have previously suffered a 25 BRP loss for
Gibraltar, they do not again lose 25 BRPs for losing
Gibraltar a second time. Should this result in a BRP deficit, Britain may make no further BRP expenditures during that year and the deficit would be subtracted from
The side (and only that side) that controls Gibraltar may SR units (by Sea Escort) into, out of, or through
Gibraltar, regardless of the presence of enemy units on any adjacent hex. The converse is not true; units may not SR into/out of hex Z8 if hostile units are in Gibraltar.
If the Allies lose Gibraltar, the supply capacity of the
Egyptian ports becomes restricted. They may supply only four ground units. Allied air and naval presence in the Mediterranean is limited to a maximum of four counters. Partial air/naval counters count one each even if stacked together. Free French units do not count against the limit, but all other Allied units do. In rare cases units in excess of the limit might be able to trace supply from a source outside the Mediterranean Front
— units in Spain via a Spanish port/sea supply line to
Britain, for example. Otherwise, units in excess of the limit must leave the Mediterranean front by the end of their next player turn or be eliminated. SRs from Egypt via the Suez Canal, off the board around South Africa and back on the board in the Atlantic are allowed
—but each unit counter thus moved counts as two SRs against
SR limits. The reverse route is also allowed at double
SR cost even if Gibraltar remains in Allied hands. Two fleets may be needed if the escorted unit is to move on into the Mediterranean by sea from Suez (in this case
Suez acts as a sort of two front port); a Suez-based fleet must provide the Mediterranean portion of the Sea
Escort. Sea Escort is required for any non-naval unit thus SR'ed, but is not doubled unless the unit moves to and away from Suez in the same SR.
Could either side carry supply to Suez in excess of the 37.3 limits by using double supply fleets (27.23) in the same manner as double
No. Furthermore the Axis could not even supply the four units allowed the Allies by 37.3
DQB (& 41.3)
Do Allied units based in Malta count against Egyptian supply limitations?
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Does this rule apply when non-Egyptian port sources on the
Mediterranean Front are controlled by the Allies?
No, it restricts only the Egyptian ports. The seventh line would read better as
―…from non-Egyptian port sources.‖ (Unchanged)
The Axis control Gibraltar but the Allies control Madrid. The Allies have based a supply fleet in a Spanish port, enabling more than four ground units to remain in supply. What about Allied air/naval units in excess of four in the Mediterranean?
They are fully operational. As long as the Allies can trace a supply line, with or without supply fleets, to a non-Egyptian port source, the limit of four air/naval counters is not in effect.
Gibraltar, as a two front port, may be invaded by both Mediterranean and Western Front fleets (requiring
only if a 9-factor fleet is not present in Gibraltar.
Iraq is a British colony, even though it may become a
German Minor Ally by play of the Iraqi revolt variant counter. BRP transfers may not pass through Iraq. See
Northern Ireland (Ulster) is treated as an integral part of
Great Britain for all purposes. The remainder of Ireland is a neutral minor country.
Lend-Lease is a method of sending BRPs from the
West to Russia via Persia in addition to or in place of the
In order to activate the route, a Western Allied nation must pay 25 BRPs during its Unit Construction
Phase. This represents the cost of opening and improving the transportation facilities through Persia and the exertion of political pressure. Allied units may, but need not, enter Persia; the Allied action places all
Persian hexes under Allied control. Russian units may enter Persia only with the concurrence of the nation which paid the BRP charge. The Axis need not pay a
DoW cost if they subsequently enter Persia.
The Axis declare war on Persia before the Lend Lease route is opened. The Allies subsequently drive the Axis out and wish to open the route. Does this action still cost the full 25 BRPs?
Yes. This is also true if the Allies should declare war on and enter
Persia before the route is open.
Lend-Lease BRPs require two turns to reach their destination. During SR (beginning in the same turn in which they activate the route) the Allies may SR BRPs to the Lend-Lease box on the mapboard, providing U.S. or
British based Sea Escort, as appropriate. On the following turn‘s SR Phase, the BRPs may move on to
—no Sea Escort is required, but the BRP movement must be charged against the SR limits of whichever nation moved the BRPs to the Lend-Lease box. Should the surrender of Russia or other game developments cause the Allies to change their mind,
BRPs in transit can be returned to the lender from the
Lend-Lease box, by reversing the process. Once SR'ed,
BRPs do not exist on any BRP Inventory Track until actually delivered; they are not subject to growth or reduction during a YSS while in the Lend-Lease box.
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
BRPs in the Lend-
Lease box count as part of the lender‘s total BRPs when determining initiative. BRPs may remain in the Lend-Lease box indefinitely, but no more than 20 may accumulate there.
How many BRPs may be given to Russia via Lend Lease in one turn?
The Axis may cut the Lend-Lease route by capturing both Tabriz and Sarab, or Grozny, Astrakhan, and
Krasnovodsk. The Allies reopen the route (without any additional BRP expenditure) if they recapture any one city, provided they then control at least one city of each group. Any BRPs in transit at the time of Axis capture may remain where they are (awaiting possible Allied recapture) or may be returned to the west during an
Allied SR phase.
If the Allies control Turkey, or part of it, and can trace a land route from a Mediterranean port to the current Russian supply source thereby, they may use it for Lend-Lease without paying any activation cost. Such route may not pass through Iraq, and BRP transfers require the same two-turn process as the Persian route.
Two Sea Escort fleets (one in U.S./Britain, one in
Gibraltar) are required for the first turn; none for the second. The Axis may cut such a route either by actually interposing their forces/ZOCs outside Russia, or by capturing Grozny and Astrakhan. The BRPs are considered to have reached the Mediterranean port at the end of the first turn. They are destroyed if the Axis occupies this port before they move onward; they may not move to Russia if the Axis blocks the intended route.
Lend-Lease activation costs may not be paid prior to a state of war existing between Russia and Germany.
If the nation which paid the 25 BRPs to activate the
Lend-Lease route is subsequently conquered, the route is closed until another Western Allied nation pays another 25 BRPs to open it again.
Malta may not base more than nine naval and five air factors. Naval and air units in Malta inhibit German forces in Africa; see rule 35.
Air units in Malta may, at their option, decline
Counterair combat. Should they so decline, attacking air units are free to attack any naval units in Malta, ignoring defender‘s air; moreover, the declining Malta unit would be barred from flying any air missions for the remainder of the game turn.
If Britain loses both Suez/Alexandria and Gibraltar,
Malta ceases to be even a limited supply source (see
The Western Allies may send BRPs to Russia by means of Murmansk convoys. This method is not subject to the two-turn delay of the Lend-Lease route, but may be subjected to Axis opposition.
May the Allies SR ground and air units to Russia via Murmansk?
No, Murmansk and Lend-Lease routes may be used to only send
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The granting Allied nation(s) assigns BRPs (no more than 40) to a Murmansk convoy during its
Construction phase, then assigns Sea Escort fleets (one for each 20 BRPs) during SR. Additional fleets above the minimum required for Sea Escort may be assigned for convoy protection if desired; each fleet so assigned counts as an additional SR. The actual Sea Escort fleets must be based in the U.S. and/or Britain as appropriate depending on the source of the BRPs; but additional convoy protection fleets could be based anywhere on the
Western Front. These additional convoy protection fleets are themselves considered to be performing Sea Escort and may perform no other functions during the game turn. The Allies may also transfer ASW factors from the
SW box to the Murmansk box for convoy protection; such transfers are not charged against SR‘s, but the counters so moved must remain in the Murmansk box at least until their next Spring turn SR phase.
If no Axis units are in the Murmansk box, the convoy is unopposed and 100% of the BRPs convoyed are added to the Russian total.
The Axis may oppose Murmansk convoys only if they already have units in the Murmansk box. They may place air and fleet units in the Murmansk box only if they control Bergen. Control of Bergen is not necessary for the placement of submarine counters in the Murmansk box; however, if Bergen is not controlled by the Germans each submarine factor eliminates one less BRP from the convoy than would normally be the case.
The Germans may move naval and air units already in Norway to the Murmansk box and vice versa during any German Movement phase. A unit elsewhere could not stage or change base to Norway then move to the Murmansk box later in its turn. The German may also move submarine counters from the SW box to the
Murmansk box on any Movement phase, but subs may move from Murmansk back to the SW box only in a
Spring turn Movement phase prior to the 1945 YSS.
German movement to and from the Murmansk box cannot be intercepted, and may take place regardless of the Option chosen. Italian and Axis Minor Ally forces are never allowed in the Murmansk box.
Axis fleet strength opposing the convoy is compared to Allied fleet strength. (The latter includes the units Sea Escorting the BRPs as well as any extra convoy protection fleets.) If the Axis-to-Allied naval ratio is less than 1:3, nothing happens. For 1:3 and higher ratios a die roll is made; results are as follows:
1:3: On die roll of ‗1‘, Axis fleets feint sortie—convoy scatters and loses an extra BRP for each factor of submarine and air attacks.
1:2: On die rolls ‗1‘ or ‗2‘, Axis fleets sortie, drawing Allied reaction. Convoy scatters and automatically loses 10% of its BRPs (fractions rounded down) plus an extra BRP for each factor of submarine and air attacks.
1:1: On die rolls ‗1‘, ‗2‘ and ‗3‘ Axis fleets sortie. Convoy scatters and loses 20% of its BRPs plus an extra BRP for each factor of submarine and air attacks.
3:2: On die rolls of ‗1‘ through ‗4‘, Axis fleets sortie.
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Convoy scatters and loses 30% of its BRPs plus an extra
BRP for each factor of submarine and air attacks.
Any ratio greater than 3:2 is treated as 3:2. These losses from surface naval opposition are determined first before any further BRP deductions are made for successful air or submarine opposition. If the Axis fleets sortie, both sides roll a die to determine if a naval battle will occur.
The player rolling the higher number may decide whether to join battle or not (Axis player wins ties). If battle is joined, naval losses are extracted in the normal manner
the percentage convoy BRP loss is not affected.
For each air factor in the Murmansk box a die is rolled with the resulting number indicating the BRPs lost from the convoy. (There is a + 1 die roll modifier if the convoy scatters and a -1 die roll modifier for every excess 9-factor fleet beyond those needed to transport the BRPs if the convoy does not scatter. After each air factor attacks another die is rolled to see if the air factor survives. The air factor survives on any die roll less than
―6‖. There is a +1 die roll modifier for every accompanying 9-factor fleet providing protection (i.e. not needed for transport of BRPs) if the convoy does not scatter.
For each submarine factor in excess of escorting
ASW factors, 3 BRPs are lost from the convoy (4 BRPs if convoy scatters). Submarine and ASW counters are mutually eliminated as in SW resolution in whatever ratio
BRPs surviving German opposition are added to the
After resolution, all German surface and air units remain in the Murmansk box until moved out during the
Movement phase of a subsequent Axis turn. Allied surface units return to their bases immediately. Surviving
Allied ASW or German submarines remain in the
Murmansk box; they may not move back to the SW box before the next Spring turn.
Assume the Allies have the initiative in Spring 1944. Could
Germany place all her 1944 YSS U-boat builds in the Murmansk box to oppose a Spring Murmansk convoy, and then return them to the SW box in her own Spring turn
– thus pulling double duty?
No. The rule states U-boat transfers to the SW box must be made in the
Spring turn. If used in the Spring turn
– or even if they sat in the Murmansk box unused
– they couldn‘t be transferred until the 1945
Spring turn. Double use of U-boats and ASW in this manner is never allowed.
German units withdrawn from the Murmansk box must reappear at Bergen (air/naval), Oslo or an air base counter in Norway (air only), or the SW box (submarines only). EXCEPTION: If Allied conquest of Norway traps
German air or naval units in the Murmansk box, they must be moved to Germany itself during the next Axis
Movement phase, and may not oppose Allied convoys in the interim. If Bergen, but not Oslo, is Allied-controlled, surface fleets must be withdrawn but air units need not be and may continue to oppose convoys. Submarines remain in Murmansk until the next Axis Spring turn, or may continue to oppose Murmansk convoys, albeit at
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German forces in the Murmansk box should be kept inverted until used. The German may leave units physically in Norway and/or the SW box while keeping a secret record of which of these units are actually in the
Murmansk box; the Allies may do the same with ASW counters. If, while using this method, the Allies wish to invade Bergen, they must take an Offensive Option and send an invasion fleet to find out what‘s there—only then do they learn if a 9-factor fleet is present in Bergen to prohibit the invasion. Whichever method is used, the
Germans need not reveal all their Murmansk force in response to an Allied convoy, but only as much as they desire to commit to action against the convoy. The Allies need not reveal their ASW strength until after the
German player has committed his submarines.
The Murmansk convoy route is closed if the Axis has both Leningrad and Vologda controlled or isolated.
The two cities are not isolated if they can trace a supply line free of enemy ZOC to the east edge of the map or to
Moscow. Supply traced from any other source, such as a Russian controlled Helsinki, does not break this isolation, for purposes of this rule only.
43. POLAND/EAST EUROPE
The Campaign Game/1939 scenario begins with
Germany at war with France, Britain, and Poland; none of the major powers pay DoW costs unless they declare war on additional countries. Germany must begin with an Offensive Option on the Eastern Front (this Option is free, Germany does not pay 15 BRPs for it) and must make at least one ground attack on Polish ground units.
Germany must continue to attack Polish forces on subsequent turns, with either Offensive or Attrition Option combats, until Poland is conquered.
Germany must, on opening setup, place at least 20 ground and/or air combat factors on the Eastern Front.
She must continue to maintain 20 factors there until
Russia and Germany are at war. For opening setup only, units on the Western Front but adjacent to the Polish border may be counted as part of the 20 factors.
Thereafter, at the end of each German Movement phase and German player turn, Germany must have 20 factors physically located on Eastern Front hexes. Losses to this force incurred during an opponent‘s turn do not cause Germany to default this requirement, provided at least 20 factors are in this area after the next German
Movement Phase. Failure to comply with this requirement releases the Russian player from the ban on
Minor Allies prior to Fall, 1941. Italian and Minor Allied units do not count, nor do units in Rumania or Turkey.
Air units comprising part of the 20 factors may conduct missions from their Eastern Front bases. It is permissible for Germany to move units into the Eastern Front thereby releasing other units to leave the East during the same
Movement (or SR) phase.
May a German unit attack or attrition across a neutral border as in the case of a German garrison unit in Rumania attacking Russia while
Rumania is still inactive?
Yes. See also the last sentence of 25.6
Must the 20 ―factors‖ maintained on the Eastern Front be
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules composed entirely of ground and/or air units?
Germany is found lacking the 20-factor requirement but Russia does not declare war at her first opportunity. Germany then meets the
20-factor requirement again. May Russia still declare war?
Yes. Any breach of the 20-factor requirement lifts the ban permanently.
May Germany choose to accept the risk of a Russian DoW and place less than 20 factors in the East on opening setup?
The dotted red line running north-south in Poland is the partition line agreed to in the Nazi-Soviet pact of
August 1939. German units may cross this line in their attack on Poland, but may not remain there at the end of their turn without jeopardizing their non-aggression pact with Russia. If a German unit remains east of the partition line at the end of its player turn, the Russian player may make a Dow on Germany prior to Fall, 1941
back across the partition line by advance after combat or
SR he may choose to eliminate the unit rather than violate the non-aggression pact.
Germany violates the Pact by leaving units in East Poland in the
Fall of ‘39, Russia chooses not to make a DoW on Germany immediately, but instead responds with a DoW on East Europe. There are several gray areas…?
Russia can enter East Poland as well as East Europe, but may not enter German-controlled hexes in doing so. (In East Poland, Germany controls only those hexes she has entered per rule 7.1; others are uncontrolled.) Russia cannot attack German units, but may move adjacent to them and may ignore their ZOCs. Since neither 43.41 nor
43.5 applies, neither player will get the 25 BRPs until one side or the other controls all East European cities.
DQB (& 43.31)
If Russia and Germany go to war, what is the status of
Polish forces if they are still on the board?
Polish and Russian forces are friendly to each other, but rule 45
– applies. The British player still controls the
Poles per 22.1. Poland must conform to Russian option selections, but may join in Russian offensive options without BRP costs to Britain.
On the Russian Fall 1939 turn or thereafter, Russia may declare war on and occupy East Europe. East
Europe is comprised of the Baltic States, Poland east of the partition line and Bessarabia (Rumania east of the
Eastern Front boundary). Russia must pay 10 BRPs to declare war on all of East Europe. Unlike the Germans,
Russian units may not move across the Polish partition line unless at war with Germany. Russia need only occupy the three Eastern Polish cities to satisfy the
Polish portion of her East Europe conquest requirements
—even if Poland remains unconquered. If not at war but both powers are operating against Poland,
German and Russian units may ignore each other‘s
ZOCs but may not move over each other. They may not enter a vacant hex controlled by the other, and may trace supply only through hexes under their own control. Once
Germany has withdrawn across the partition line, hex control is automatically determined by the partition line.
The Eastern Front boundary becomes the new
Rumanian border after Russian occupation of East
Poland survives the first Axis turn and Russia enters East Europe on an Attrition Option. Must Russia make an attrition die roll against
Only if adjacent to a Polish unit which is east of the Partition Line.
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
Should Germany declare war on Russia before
Russia declares war on East Europe, the following special considerations apply.
Does this rule apply if Russia legally declares war on Germany
(for example, due to German violation of 43.3)?
Russia may enter any part of Poland without declaring war on East Europe.
Neither Russia nor Germany may enter the Baltic
States until one or the other spends 10 BRPs to declare war on that area.
Bessarabia remains part of Rumania. Since the
Russo-German pact is broken, Russia may not enter this area without a separate DoW on Rumania. Otherwise,
25.6 governs Russian actions.
In order to control East Europe, Russia must control every city in the area. Should Russia fail to enter East
Europe at all by the end of winter 1939, Germany may then declare war on and occupy East Europe at the same costs and benefits. (Germany would not need to occupy Bessarabia, which would remain in Rumanian hands.) Should neither side have declared war on East
Europe by the end of Spring 1940, eastern Poland is not divided along the Nazi-Soviet Partition line and belongs to whomever controls Warsaw, and the Baltic States become a separate area worth 25 BRPs and must have war declared on it separately if at all. Bessarabia remains a permanent part of Rumania. Neither
Bessarabia nor Eastern Poland have any separate BRP
of the Baltic States.
May Germany attack East Europe in Fall 1939?
Only by declaring war on Russia. See 43.41 for the consequences.
Note that 43.3 allows the Axis temporary transit to East Poland.
East Europe‘s BRP value is 25. Once conquered,
Russia continues to receive 25 BRPs for East Europe during YSS as long as she retains control of at least one city therein. Control of East Europe and determination of which side gets the BRPs is handled in the same manner
The Russian DoW on East Europe does not activate
Rumania, unless the Russians also proceed beyond the
Eastern Front boundary there. This would cost Russia another DoW on Rumania, and in any event could not be done unless Germany had left Rumania ungarrisoned.
Should Russia have the opportunity to declare war on an ungarrisoned Rumania, she need not first declare war on
East Europe. The four Rumanian hexes of East Europe would be treated solely as part of Rumania and would be excluded from East Europe conquest requirements.
May Rumania set up its forces in Bessarabia if Russia declares war on it and East Europe at the same time?
East Europe after occupation does not become part of Russia for purposes of unit construction, partisan construction or movement. The occupation of East
Europe does not lower the BRP value of Poland or
If Poland survives Germany‘s first turn attack, her
Movement phase is executed before Russia‘s. Poland,
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules although allied to France and Britain, may take an independent Offensive or Attrition Option in the east at no cost to Britain (an exception to
Russian forces may have entered Eastern Poland,
Poland‘s Attritions or Offensives may be directed only against the Axis and only those Polish forces adjacent to
Axis units are counted for Attrition.
44. THE RUSSIAN WINTER
On the first Winter game turn following DoW between Russia and Germany, all Axis forces (except
Finns) east of the original Russian border are not doubled on defense. Units behind rivers, on swamps or mountains, etc., are still tripled. The Axis may not use an
Offensive Option on the Eastern Front.
Russia may, at her option, elect to postpone the effect of this rule until the second Winter provided there are currently less non-Finnish Axis ground units east of the original Russian border than the total rolled by four dice. Such choice must be announced at the beginning of the first Winter game turn after the four dice roll.
If the German DoW comes in a Winter turn after the time for the
Russian Winter dice roll has passed, is that turn automatically subject to the severe winter penalties?
– the Russian Winter dice roll could not occur until the next
If Russia declares war on the Axis and does so on a
Winter turn, that turn is the first Winter (even if the Axis have already conducted their own Winter player turn) and
Russia may not elect to postpone first Winter effects.
Could Russia and the Western Allies attack by seaborne invasion in this manner, a second attack being made if the first fails?
No. The Sequence of Play requires that invasion fleets be in the target hex before combat die rolls begin. This would violate 45.1/34.3.
Similarly, Russian/Western Allied paradrops could not be made in the same hex
– an exception occurring if one dropped and was eliminated in the Combat Phase (the other could then drop during exploitation).
Allied variant counter 10 may be played the same
Winter this rule is effective (in which case the only extra benefit to Russia is a free Offensive Option), or it may be held for use on a subsequent Winter turn. If Russia postpones the regular first Winter effects, she may use this variant counter for the first Winter.
In the 1942 and 1944 scenarios the first Winter is assumed to have already occurred and this rule is inapplicable.
45. RUSSO-ALLIED COOPERATION
All stacking restrictions contained in
Allied units throughout the game. The following restrictions are additional.
Russia may not give air or naval support to any western Allied ground combat or naval or air mission, and vice versa.
Russian and western Allied ground units may not combine to attack the same hex. Should they both wish to attack the same hex, whichever group is able to bring the largest number of combat factors to bear (not necessarily the best odds attack) against the hex gets to attack first. If they fail to eliminate the defender, the other may then try. Any Axis DAS which survives the
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich first attack must also be used against the second and cannot be added to or withdrawn prior to the second attack.
Where Russia and the western Allies have both
the ―Russian‖ partisans may not stack with the ―Allied‖ partisans nor may the two combine to attack the same hex or hexes in a single attack.
Russian controlled sources/fleets may not provide supply/sea supply lines for the Western Allies and vice versa. Russian air/naval units may not base at Western
Allied bases and vice versa. Russian air units may not
SR over water via Western Allied bases and vice versa.
May a Western Allied air base counter be initially placed on, or
SRed to, a Russian controlled hex?
Yes, and vice versa. Note however, the prohibitions of 28.14 and that per 28.12/28.15/45.5 the hex would have to be supplied from a
No more than ten western Allied factors may ever be placed in Russia.
Does this rule still apply if Russia has been defeated?
46. SPAIN AND SPANISH COLONIES
Spanish Morocco and the Balearic Islands are integral parts of Spain. They pass to the control of the first major power to conquer Spain. Spain may not construct units in Spanish Morocco or the Balearic
Islands although it may place them there when initially invaded.
Spain (only) may supply Spanish (only) ground units in Spanish Morocco by sea despite the lack of port therein.
Should the Axis declare war on Spain their prestige suffers from striking at a fellow fascist government. As a
already played and the Axis player must roll a ―6‖ or
How does the Axis player roll ―or higher‖ than a ―6‖; does this mean Foreign Aid recipients can get +1 DRMs for BRP grants rather than just cancelling out an enemy‘s BRP grants.
No, de lete ―or higher‖.<Struck out>
47. THE SUEZ CANAL
are the Suez Canal; they are treated as a river for all purposes (Movement, Combat, etc.), the only exception being that naval units may enter them. Naval movement may occur only if the hexes adjacent to the canal are under friendly control. The two remaining hexsides to the south are full ocean (Gulf of Suez) and are treated accordingly.
If the Axis control both Suez city and Alexandria,
Britain immediately loses 25 BRPs. Britain does not get one turn to try to recapture. If the British previously suffered a 25 BRP loss for this area they do not again lose 25 BRPs, but they could suffer a 25 BRP loss for this area in addition to a 25 BRP loss for the loss of
If the Axis gain control of any hex adjacent to the
Suez canal, and the Allies fail to immediately recapture it,
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules the canal becomes unusable by both sides. Being made unusable does not activate the 25 BRP penalty for the
side has controlled all canal-side hexes for two complete game turns. Thereafter, the side that controls the canal may move through it and may SR/Sea Escort as
prevent Axis SR/Sea Escort through Suez by removing any one nine factor fleet from play. This fleet is placed, for convenience, in the Lend Lease box, moving it there
(or thereafter returning it to play in any port in Britain [or
France if French] and thereby lifting the blockade of the
Gulf of Suez) costs one SR. The blockading fleet may perform no other function while in blockade position. The two-turns-to-repair rule is effective whenever the canal subsequently changes hands.
Can Britain SR a unit into Suez city from England if Gibraltar is lost and the canal has been damaged?
If Axis ground units control Suez city, any fleets there must be relocated to the closest friendly
Mediterranean port (fall other Suez canal hexsides and
Gibraltar are still under Allied control. Otherwise, such fleets are out of play until the next Allied player turn, when they reappear at any western front port during the
SR phase. This costs one SR each; the owner may delay their reappearance if he wishes to use his SRs for other purposes.
No nation may declare war on Switzerland. Switzerland hexes may not be entered by ground units or overflown by air units.
49. VICHY FRANCE
The following actions occur immediately when
France is conquered (i.e., following the Allied Combat phase when counterattack on Paris fails):
Half (rounded up) of each type of French unit, including air base counters, surviving in European
France remain in play as Vichy French units. Existing naval and air factors are each totaled and halved to gain the surviving half. All units in France remaining in play immediately move within the borders of Vichy France at no SR cost, and are positioned therein by the German player. They may be placed on any vacant hex in the
Vichy zone, regardless of adjacency or ZOC of either
Axis or Allied units.
EXAMPLE: Seven infantry and three armor units survive; four infantry and two armor remain as Vichy; three infantry and one armor are removed.
The die is rolled once for Lebanon-Syria and once for Tunisia-Algeria-Morocco. If the die roll is even, the colonies become Vichy French; odd, they become Free
French. This die roll would not change the status of any colony already controlled by the Axis as a conquest.
DQB (& 49.9)
France falls; the Axis powers control Tunis but the Allies did not have their 24.42 chance to retake it. Is Tunisia Axis or Vichy: does the Axis receive Tunisia‘s BRPs next YSS?
Axis controls Tunisia and do receive the BRPs. Control of all cities suffices for purposes of rule 49.12/49.9.
Units in French colonies become Vichy or Free
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
French according to the die roll above. They are not halved. Units outside both France and her colonies move to the nearest non-Axis controlled French soil
France they are counted during the halving process, if to a colony they follow the colony die roll. French fleets, wherever located, return to Marseilles (unless the Allies hold variant counter
may move them to the nearest British controlled port on their current front) and undergo the halving process. If any other unit is equidistant between France and a colony, or between two colonies, the German player chooses where it goes. He must choose before the colony die rolls are made.
Corsica becomes Vichy without a die roll. Any
French conquests and any other French-controlled hexes become Axis. Any French units in Corsica would remain there but would be counted in the halving process.
EXCEPTION: Any controlled hexes which can trace supply to a Free French colony remain in Free French control unless they are closer to European France or a
Vichy French colony.
Vichy France‘s status is now that of an inactive
German Minor Ally, with three differences: Allied DoW on
Vichy plus German Intervention is insufficient to activate
Vichy; only the appropriate variant counter or the Vichy activation die roll described below can do this. An active
Vichy yields no BRPs to Germany, only units for the
German force pool. Vichy units remain on the board from the fall of France instead of being off-board awaiting activation. Vichy city functions as the capital of Vichy
France between the fall of France and the conquest or deactivation of Vichy France. It is treated as an ordinary city at all other times.
Is the city of Vichy a supply source for (1) Vichy units and/or (2)
(1) Yes; (2) only if Vichy is activated as an Axis Minor Ally.
Germany controls the movement and placement of
Vichy forces. She may freely move units back and forth between Vichy and her colonies. German units may freely move and SR through, or remain in, Vichy territory
(although doing so reduces the chance of Vichy activation) and may stack with Vichy units. Italian units may do the same with German permission if Italy is actively allied with Germany. Any SRs by Vichy units count against German SR limits. Vichy units may be supplied by any Axis-controlled supply source, While
Vichy is neutral, Vichy fleets may perform no functions except to supply and Sea Escort Vichy units.
May unactivated Vichy ever be moved outside of Vichy territory
(except for movement between Vichy and Vichy colonies)?
– not even if Vichy is being attacked.
During any German Construction phase beginning the player turn after the fall of France, Germany may spend five BRPs to make a Vichy activation die roll. If,
roll is ‗6‘ or more, Vichy is activated as a German Minor
During the Axis Construction Phase, Vichy activation succeeds.
Does Vichy activate immediately, so that her fleets may be used for sea escort during Axis SR Phase?
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
No. See the Sequence of Play
– the 33.63 die roll, even though it might be automatic, does not occur until the next Axis player turn, between DoWs and options selection.
During any British Construction phase beginning two game turns after the fall of France, Britain may spend five BRPs to make a Vichy deactivation die roll. If, after
‗1‘ or less, Vichy ceases to exist as a political entity
(becoming again merely a part of France); each Vichy colony is controlled by no one and maybe acquired by the first power able to occupy all ports/cities therein. The hexes of European Vichy France and Corsica pass to
German control, unless Allied units have already made them friendly to the Allies. All Vichy forces are removed from the board at the end of the British Construction
DQB (&49.5 &49.9)
If the Axis acquire control of a Vichy colony after
Vichy is deactivated, may they receive BRPs for it?
Yes; after deactivation, there are no
In addition to possible restraints to Vichy activation due to Foreign Aid (33.6), the following modifications are applied to the Vichy die roll when applicable.
Dice Roll Results
+1 If Britain does not control Malta
If the Allies declare war on Vichy France
If Britain does not control Suez and/or Alexandria
If Britain does not control Gibraltar
If all French colonies are Free French and/or under
If no Axis units are in Africa (including the east bank of Egypt)
If Axis forces have crossed Vichy territory, except on the first Axis player turn after the fall of France. This penalty does not apply if Axis forces intervene in
Vichy territory after Allied attack on Vichy. Axis may trace supply through Vichy territory at any time without penalty.
If US/British non-airborne forces are in a Bridgehead or control a port on the European continent. (Gibraltar and Norway don't count, neither does Sicily nor any other island.)
If the US has declared war on the Axis
If Axis declares war on Spain
Does the -1 DRM penalty apply if Axis forces occupy Vichy territory without ―crossing‖ it ?
If Britain controls Suez but not Alexandria or vice versa, does the
+2 modification apply?
Yes, the slash is read as ―and/or‖.
Britain and Germany may each make only one activation/deactivation roll per player turn. Once either nation succeeds, including activation by variant counter
3, no further rolls on the table may be made.
Whether active or inactive, all Vichy units are removed from the game at the end of the Combat phase in which the city of Vichy is solely occupied or controlled by Allied forces other than partisans. Control of any hexes in Vichy France not yet occupied by the Allies reverts to Germany; any remaining Vichy colonies are controlled by no one. Marseilles and Lyons count as
Axis-held objectives while under Vichy control. All Vichy units are also removed from the game at the end of the
Axis Combat phase in which they fail to retake an Allied controlled Paris. A partisan controlled Vichy or Paris
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Suppose Italy controls Lyons and/or Marseilles when France falls.
Do they count as Italian-controlled objective hexes?
Any British units trapped in Vichy territory by the fall of France must leave during the SR phase of the Allied player turn in which France is conquered. SR over the uncontrolled Vichy hexes is permitted on a one-time basis in this instance, but must obey all other SR rules
— this exception does not extend to British units which find themselves in the non-Vichy portion of France (See
Adjacency to Vichy units does not prevent British SR in this instance, but adjacency to any Axis unit does. If
Britain is unable to remove all units she must, at the start of the next Allied player turn, either declare war on Vichy
France or else destroy those units beginning their turn in
Vichy territory. If Britain declares war on Vichy France,
SR over controlled Vichy hexes is still allowed during that player turn.
Must the British SR units out of Vichy territory if they can do so, but would rather declare war on Vichy?
They must SR out if able to do so and must be given first priority over available SRs.
The fall of France catches a British airbase counter in the north tip of Corsica. Since Britain can‘t destroy it (12.5) and can‘t get it out by
SR, will she be forced to declare war on Vichy France?
No. The fall of France has placed the counter out of supply; relocate it to London as per 28.15.
Could British units totally surrounded by Vichy units SR through those units to non-Vichy territory?
What is the DoW cost against Vichy France?
10 BRPs, same as a DoW against any other minor country.
Any Vichy units destroyed in combat before Vichy
France becomes an active Minor Ally are removed from play permanently and may not be reconstructed. Any units destroyed after activation may be reconstructed by
Germany in the same manner as any other active Minor
Ally, but must be constructed in a continental Europe
Britain receives BRPs for Free French colonies in each YSS that they remain out of Axis control. Free
French units function as British in all respects: Britain pays for their Offensives; if eliminated they are returned to the British Force Pool and may be reconstructed in
Britain. If Britain is conquered, any Free French units remain in play. If destroyed before America enters the war, they are permanently out of the game. After entry, they become part of the American Force Pool and the colonial BRPs go to America in the next YSS. Such units could take Offensive Options prior to American entry at no BRP cost. Objective hexes controlled by Free French units count as British (or U.S.) controlled.
The Axis never receives BRPs for Vichy colonies, unless they are conquered before the fall of France, or they are conquered by the Allies and later reconquered by the Axis.
50. SPECIAL SCENARIO RULES
THE 1939 SCENARIO: (Twelve game turns: Fall
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
1939 - Summer 1942).
No Allied invasions are allowed during the Summer 1942 turn. This is to prevent Allied invasions made to grab objective hexes on the last turn
—invasions which would have been highly unrealistic in the context of a longer war.
The Axis always move first in Fall, 1939 even if the
Allies play a variant counter giving them the BRP advantage at game start.
The United States must spend 35 BRPs for a DoW when it enters the game and is not eligible for any growth in the 1942 YSS.
Within the time span of this scenario, the
Americans may make no Allowable Builds and can deploy only ―At Start‖ forces and BRP grants.
THE 1942 SCENARIO: (Twelve game turns: Spring
1942 - Winter 1944.)
The Axis always moves first in the Spring 1942 turn. Normal BRP level determination governs thereafter. ERRATA: The German force pool should show the airborne unit as an Allowable Build
Available At Start
—and there should be only three
German fleets, not four.
The U.S. begins the scenario already at war and does not pay DoW cost to enter. All American At Start forces start in the U.S. box.
There is no 1942 YSS except for SW Builds for
Germany, U.S., and Britain which may be added to their
Vichy France is inactive. Vichy units are: in
European France or Corsica, five
infantry and a 9factor fleet; in Tunisia-Algeria-Morocco, one
Axis units may not be placed in Tunisia-Algeria-Morocco on opening setup; rule
The Free French have two
Germany adds 45 BRPs for her Minor Allies to her beginning Base.
Britain has control of Tobruk and those Libyan hexes either partially or wholly south and/or east of
Tobruk, however, these hexes need not be occupied.
THE 1944 SCENARIO: (Up to nine game turns:
Spring 1944 - Spring 1946.)
The Allies move first in the Spring, 1944 turn.
Normal BRP level determination governs thereafter.
There is no 1944 YSS except for SW Builds for
Germany, U.S., and Britain which may be added to their
Germany adds 45 BRPs for her Minor Allies to her beginning BRP Base.
There is no Vichy France. There are two Free
2-3 infantry which must start in the
Germany gets the use of six Italian naval factors in any German-controlled Mediterranean port(s). Rule
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Neither side may invade or violate the territory of any minor country which starts the scenario neutral.
51. THE MULTI-PLAYER GAME
Two, three or four players may play any scenario or the Campaign Game. Five players may play any version except the 1944 scenario, while six players may play either the Campaign Game or the 1939 scenario.
Recommended allotment of major powers to varying numbers of players is:
If a player withdraws from a multi-player game, play continues with control of the withdrawing player‘s power(s) assigned to one of his allies. If, from withdrawals, only two players remain, the victory conditions for the two-player game apply. If three or more players play to completion, the multi-player victory conditions are used. Under the multi-player victory conditions even though one side loses the game, a member of that side could come out the biggest individual winner. Th us keeping one‘s allies busy against the enemy while picking up objectives oneself becomes quite critical. The Allies may find a strange reluctance on the part of the Russian player to get involved in the fray unless Germany threatens to win it all, and the Italians will be equally reluctant to do Germany‘s bidding without getting something out of it themselves.
Players may make any agreements they wish, with allies, enemies, future enemies or future allies, so long as their agreements are not contrary to the rules of the game. Agreements may include, but are not limited to: cooperative intervention, neutrality, truce, BRP grants, spheres of influence, command arrangements, basing privileges, air and naval support, and limitations on SW or on other arms construction.
Agreements need not be kept. Players are free to break them at any time (just as many nations freely broke treaty commitments during
—and before and since—the war years). The only penalty for breaking an agreement is to ensure the offended player‘s distrust for the remainder of that, and possibly future, games.
Players may wish to agree before a game to limit diplomatic discussions to the beginning of each turn and/or to put a time limit on them.
No player may move ground units to or over hexes controlled by an ally, during Movement or SR, without
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules that ally‘s consent. Nor may he base air or naval units at a base controlled by his ally without consent. A player who controls a supply source may never refuse to allow
Whenever on the same turn two allies wish to attack the same minor country or colony, or to intervene in the same minor country, and cannot reach agreement on how to proceed, a coin is flipped. Winner of the flip may move one unit into, or adjacent to the forces of, the territory in question. The loser then moves one unit, and they continue to alternate until one or the other does not desire to move any more units in that vicinity. This procedure may be used either during Movement,
Combat, Exploitation, or SR; and may be adapted for other instances where allies cannot reach agreement on how to proceed. Since such disagreements indicate a strain on the alliance, units of the allies concerned may not stack together on that front for the remainder of that player turn
—though units already stacked together could remain so if they did not move.
On subsequent turns, no nation may enter a country which has been attacked by its ally without that ally‘s permission. Such permission, once given, may not later be revoked. When two or more allies participate in a conquest which yields BRPs, they may divide those
BRPs in any manner they desire. If they are unable to reach agreement the BRPs are divided equally, dropping fractions.
A player may agree to place some of his units under the control of one of his allies. But, except as specifically
such change of control cannot be used to enable one ally to evade the BRP cost of an Offensive Option; nor can it be used to transfer‖ unused SRs from one ally to another.
52. A SAMPLE TURN
The game begins with a selection of one of the three scenarios or the Campaign Game. The units are then issued to each player according to individual Force Pool requirements of the scenario being played. All replacements and new units will be drawn from the players‘ respective of Force Pools during the course of the game. The players then place their Basic Resource
Point markers (hereafter referred to as BRPs) on the
BRP Inventory Charts of their respective scenario cards.
Players then set their available At Start forces on the board in the Order of Deployment specified by the
Scenario and subject to stacking and the Deployment
Limitations of the scenario being played. Play then begins.
In play, the party moving first decides which Options he wishes to take on each of the three Fronts
Mediterranean, or Eastern
—where he will conduct operations. The player(s) deduct BRPs for any Offensive
Options chosen by moving the BRP markers down to the appropriate level on each player‘s BRP Inventory Chart.
The player(s) for the moving side then move their pieces on all fronts, taking care not to execute a maneuver not allowed on a Front by the particular Option chosen for
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Players need not choose the Offensive Option. They may instead select Pass or Attrition Options, which do not require an expenditure of BRPs. Each player must decide which Option is the best course of action for him on each Front on which he has units that turn and then follow the procedures allowed by the Option chosen on each particular Front. A player may elect to use the same Option on each Front, a different one on each
Front or one Option on two Fronts and another on the third so long as the Option chosen is the same (or a Pass
Option) as that taken by his allies on the same front.
After conducting Movement and Combat according to the directions of the Option he has chosen for each Front, a player can create new units by ―paying‘ for them with
BRPs that he subtracts from his BRP level according to the dictates of the BRP Costs Chart, adjusting the BRP markers on his BRP Inventory Tracks downwards to reflect the lower level of remaining BRPs. He may also give BRPs to major powers that are allied with him, again reducing his own BRP Inventory markers in preparation for the BRP transfer which takes place in the SR phase.
Finally, the moving player may move a number of each major power‘s units under his command anywhere on the board subject to SR limits.
Play then moves to the other major Alliance or player who may repeat the steps of the turn outlined above. At the conclusion of their move the Time Markers are moved on the TIME TRACK printed on the board and a new turn begins with the new adjusted BRP totals of each side checked to see who moves first in the new turn. If the new turn is also the start of a new year, a
YSS is resolved first and each power receives new BRPs for the year. These new BRP totals are checked to determine who moves in the coming turn. The winner is that nation or individual player who has achieved the highest level of victory as determined by control of objective hexes and scenario victory requirements.
53. CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE
Events that occur at a specific time point in the game are summarized below.
No BRP Base growth.
Germany may declare war on East Europe as
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Free Siberian Transfer Placement Option
longer be played. Restrictions on Anglo-
French cooperation and on French BRP grants, and basing of fleets lifted.
declare war (Campaign Game/1939 scenario only). New units appear in Campaign
Game/1939 scenario Russian and Italian force pools.
No Allied invasions allowed in 1939 scenario only). 1939 scenario ends. New units appear in US and British force pools.
destroy 1½ submarine factors each.
appear in German force pool. Italian surrender becomes possible.
Axis win marginal Campaign Game victory if they control 28 objectives (two-player game only).
now destroy 2 submarine factors each.
1944 scenario begins. West Wall hexes become fortresses. New units appear in
German Campaign Game force pool.
1942 scenario ends.
Campaign Game ends.
1944 scenario ends.
The following percentage chances of various outcomes at different odds on the Combat Results Table is provided as a helpful aid to the beginner. EX (full) is an
EX rolled by the attacker, in which he has to match the terrain-multiplied value of the defender's units; EX (CA) is an EX rolled by the defender when counterattacking, in which the attacker has to match basic value only. Attacks at 1:2 and 1:1 vary depending on the odds which the defender would enjoy when counterattacking.
1:2, D CA 1:4
1:2, D CA 1:3
1:2, D CA 1:2
1:2, D CA 1:1
1:2, D CA 2:1
1:1, D CA <1:4
1:1, D CA 1:4
1:1, D CA 1:3
1:1, D CA 1:2
1:1, D CA 1:1
Original Research & Design: John Prados
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
Redesign: Donald Greenwood
Development: Larry Bucher and Donald Greenwood
Production Assistant & MYP: Mark C. Nixon
Cover Art: Scott Moores
Rulebook Illustration: Rodger MacGowan
Mapboard: Dale Sheaffer
Playtesting: Bill Nightingale, Robert Cross, Sam Mustafa, Kevin Combs,
Tom Becker, Charles Cottle, R. Andrew Warmer, David Smith, John
Sutherland, Patrick Lucas, Dr. F. Mueller, Richard Shagrin, Marcus
Watney, Michael Crane, Jim Burnett, Benjamin Hackman, Scott
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Swanson, Bob Beyma, Alan R. Moon, George Minde, Mark
Printing: Monarch Services, Inc.
Typesetting: Colonial Composition.
FOURTH-AND-A-HALF EDITION RULES CREDITS
Invaluable Help: Gary Krockover, Nigel Wright
Editing: Lewis Goldberg, Stephen Rochelle
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
YET MORE POSSIBILITIES
– ADDITIONAL VARIANT COUNTERS FOR THIRD REICH
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
By Larry Bucher
When Larry and I redesigned THIRD REICH we discussed at length the wisdom of making the variant counters a required part of play and doing away with their old optional rule status. The big factor in favor of the change was simply that the variants added so much interest to the play of the game and got it out of the stereotyped rut of the historical sequence of events that repeated play often generated. The negative aspect of making the variants part and parcel of the basic game was that it would force an ahistorical, albeit possible, event to occur and thus destroy the chance of playing a purely historical game. The answer to this problem was found in the development of the Intelligence Table in which players could conceivably void their opponent‘s variant counter thus allowing the possibility of a purely historical game while retaining the chance for a surprising twist that could wildly fluctuate the prevailing strategies. Yet another argument against enforced employment of the variant counters was the extreme power some of the possible variant combinations embraced. The
Spanish and Turkish Minor Ally draws were widely viewed to be extremely powerful tools for the Axis and a threat to play balance. My solution for this was not to do away with the variants, but rather to increase their number so that the chances of drawing a particularly strong variant are diluted. Many of the following variant proposals are worthy of placement within the original ten, but we felt that the new proposals could not be playtested sufficiently prior to publication to warrant breaking up the original, time-tested set. Therefore, it was decided to offer a new set of ten variant situations to augment the original ten strictly as an optional rule. I think you‗ll find that by blending the two sets of variants into one combined range of possibilities that the game will be even more exciting and less luck dependent.
The extra variant counters introduced here for use with THIRD REICH should be used with skepticism and caution
—a couple of cautions at least. They have not been playtested, not at all. And they have not been exhaustively examined for possible conflicts with the new rules, with the existing variants, or even with each other. Examined, yes, but not exhaustively, and unforeseen rule complications are virtually guaranteed to creep in somewhere. However, players who have grappled with the old THIRD REICH are certainly not strangers to rule complications; no group of gamers should be better qualified to cope!
Players who dislike fooling with home-made counters can easily crank in the additional variants by adding a hidden draw from a deck of cards at the time they draw variant counters. If the draw is red, the counter drawn is an original 1-10 variant; if black, it‘s one of the new 11-20 variants below.
#11 Unrest in French North Africa
Play during any Axis player turn provided Axis control at least three hexes of European France.
If played while North Africa is Vichy, each colony becomes a minor neutral with forces of: Tunisia, one 1-3; Algeria, three 1-
3s; Morocco, two 1-3s. Any Vichy units present in North Africa are removed from the game permanently.
If played while North Africa is Free French and/or under Allied control, the Axis may construct partisan units in each colony, in the same numbers as above.
If played before the fall of France, France must maintain at least three 2-3 infantry and one 5-4 air in North Africa.
Conditions must be met by the end of the French player turn after the counter is played. If unable to do so, France loses 15 BRPs each turn conditions are not met, and may not use SRs for any other purpose. When France falls a normal colony die roll is made and the appropriate one of the two above procedures is followed.
#12 Poland Backs Down
Hitler obtains corridor without war. Hexes J35/K34/L34 become part of Germany. The Fall 1939 turn opens with no one at war; Britain, France, and Poland are not yet actively allied. Germany does not get her free offensive option in the East; her
20-factor requirement in the East is still in effect. Russia may occupy east Europe (Baltic States and Bessarabia) as usual, but may not enter the eastern half of Poland until Germany does attack Poland. Either Britain or France may declare war on Germany at no BRP cost, whichever one does so last. Play prior to opening setups. Not applicable to 1942/44 scenarios.
#13 Stalin is More Obdurate than Usual
… and Axis anti-communist propaganda more potent. Anti-communist attitudes harden in west. U.S. may not grant BRPs to Russia; Britain may grant no more than 20 per turn. Play when Russia enters war, or at start of 1942/44 scenarios.
#14 Bavarian Redoubt
Berchtesgaden becomes both an unlimited supply source and a fortress. It, in addition to Berlin, must be captured and held for one opposition combat phase in order to conquer Germany. Play immediately (may not be delayed) when Allies advance into any hex of Germany, but not before 1943. Not applicable to 1939 scenario.
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
#15 Improved German Planning And Preparation For Winter Operations
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
to invoke Russian Winter rule. Not applicable to 1942/44 scenarios.
#16 Wafdist rising in Egypt
Axis may construct two partisan counters in Egypt. They are not able to close the Suez Canal nor to cost Britain 25 BRPs by occupying Suez and Alexandria. Play during any Axis construction phase provided at least one supplied Axis armor or infantry unit is in Egypt. Lost Wafdist counters may be reconstructed only if an Axis armor or infantry unit or another
Wafdist counter is present in Egypt.
#17 Germany Expands Airborne Capability
The 2 Fsjr may be treated as an airborne unit. Play when 2 Fsjr constructed, but not before 1942. Counter may not be played if 2 Fsjr has already been constructed as ordinary infantry, nor if 1 Fsjr has been taken as a casualty at any time.
#18 Goering Puts More Emphasis On Bombers
Battle of Britain deals heavier damage to British industry. Play only on first Axis player turn following fail of France, for immediate effect. At end of German combat phase, count German air factors within four hexes of London, subtract number of British air factors within same radius, and subtract that number of BRPs from Britain. Italian air doesn‘t count, even if lent. Not applicable to 1942/44 scenarios.
#19 No Anti-Nazi coup in Belgrade
Yugoslavia becomes an Axis minor ally at the same time as Hungary. Only two partisans are allowed in Yugoslavia and
Hungary activates, or when intervening in Yugoslavia, or at beginning of 1942/44 scenarios. Yugoslav forces are limited to
Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Rumania, Hungary, East Europe, and Russia.
#20 No Pearl Harbor
Play just prior to Allied winter 1941 construction phase, or at beginning of 1942 scenario. Not applicable to 1944 scenario.
Roll one die:
1: Japan does nothing. U.S. enters in Summer 42 on roll of 6, Fall 42 on 5-6, etc., Summer 43 and thereafter on 2-6. U.S. naval combat modifier becomes +2.
2: Japan attacks Russia. U.S. enters in Spring 42 on roll of 6, Summer 42 on 5-6, etc., Spring 43 and thereafter on 2-6.
Free Russian builds (15.6) are not allowed; Russian force pool is permanently reduced by five
3-3 s. U.S. naval combat modifier becomes +2.
3-6: Japan attacks only British/Dutch possessions. U.S. enters in Summer 42 on 4-6, Fall 42 on 3-6, Winter 42 and thereafter on 2-6. Common to all rolls: U.S. may begin to build SW in a given YSS if she is already in the war or succeeds in entering in the Spring turn immediately following that YSS. U.S. may always begin to construct force pool units and to make BRP grants in Spring 42; but limits until entry are 27 BRPs/turn on construction, and 20/turn, 60/year on grants.
#11 Belgium And Luxembourg Agree To Defensive Cooperation With Allies
Allied units may enter in Fall 1939 (but may not set up there) and Allied air units may fly DAS against any Fall 1939 Axis attacks. Axis must still declare war in order to enter or to attack any units in these countries. Allied units may not move across nor attack across the German frontier from these countries, and Allied air units may not cross their air space to reach Germany, until they are attacked. Belgium becomes a French minor ally upon Axis DoW. Play prior to Axis Fall
1939 movement phase. Not applicable to 1942/44 scenarios.
#12 Italian Delay
Allies may buy off Italy for one year only (provided Italy is not at war with a major power) by demilitarizing (completely evacuating) Malta, Tunisia, and Corsica and paying 25 BRPs to Italy. Allies must evacuate the areas on the turn they play the counter (note that this could necessitate the destruction of some units on Malta). Italy may not declare war on any major power until the game turn one year from the time the counter is played; thereafter she may declare war on either the
Allies or Germany at her option. The Allies may not reoccupy the demilitarized areas either during or after the one-year period unless at war with Italy. Italy‘s multi-player victory conditions are raised by two objective hexes in the 1939 scenario and become 3-4-5-6 in the campaign game. If Italy later declares war on Germany, German multi-player victory conditions are reduced by four objective hexes. Play during any Allied player turn; normal SR procedures must be used to get the
BRPs to Rome. Not applicable to 1942/44 scenarios.
#13 ―Purge Him Before He Purges You.‖
Tukhachevsky paraphrases a traditional barracks axiom and removes Stalin. The Red Army is not weakened by purges;
Russian infantry availability is as follows:
At Start: four
Allowable Builds: six
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
Available 1942: ten
At Start: ten
Allowable Builds: eight
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Play during opening setup. Not applicable to 1944 scenario.
#14 Full Anglo-French Cooperation
#15 Hitler Assassinated
Germany must pass on all fronts. Air and naval units are frozen in place. No DoWs may be made. 100 BRPs of the
German per-turn spending limit are frozen
—they are not lost, Germany simply may not spend them for any purpose during her turn. Ground units moved by SR may end their SR only in Germany. All restrictions apply for one entire Axis player turn only. Play at start of any Axis player turn in 1942 or later, provided Allies have already taken their own player turn
(Axis are moving second).
#16 France Builds Armor Instead Of Maginot
The Maginot fortresses are plain terrain; all three French armor units are available at start. France may choose to add to her allowable builds either (a) three more
armor, or (b) one more
armor and one more
AF. (Counters must be provided.) Play during French opening setup. Not applicable to 1942/44 scenarios.
#17 France Extends Maginot Line To Channel
All French hexes bordering Belgium are fortresses. Play during French opening setup. Not applicable to 1942/44 scenarios.
#18 Spanish Civil War Won By Loyalists
Spain sympathetic to western democracies and will activate as minor ally if France is still in game at 1941 YSS, or if Rome and all of Africa are under Allied control. Spain becomes a French minor ally if France is still in game, otherwise British; the major power must pay 35 BRPs to activate Spain. As an exception to usual minor ally rules, Spain does not disappear if France is conquered after this counter is played; rather, she switches her allegiance to Britain and Britain inherits her
BRPs at next YSS. Allies may build up to four partisans in Spain behind Axis lines if Axis enter.
this special roll is ‗6‘, the Loyalist government is communist-dominated and Spain can activate only as a Russian minor ally, and only if Russia is at war with the Axis. The other conditions do not apply.
If Spain becomes either a French or British minor ally, Portugal simultaneously becomes a British minor ally. Play at start of any Allied player turn. If Axis have entered Spain, Allies may play counter solely to be able to build partisans.
#19 No Winter War
Not having suffered Russian attack and land-grab, Finland has no bones to pick eastward and will not activate as a minor ally. If attacked, she will become a minor ally of any intervening power; otherwise she remains a minor neutral. Play during 1940 YSS or prior to opening setup of 1942/44 scenarios. Any Axis units in Finland must be relocated to Germany
(at no SR cost) when the counter is played in 1940, and Finland may not then be attacked by Russia until Russia is at war with Germany. Counter may not be played if anyone has declared war on Finland.
#20 Roosevelt Outfoxes Isolationists
U.S. may enter early. Beginning Winter 1940 U.S. rolls one die at start of turn; may enter on: Winter 40, 6; Spring 41, 5-6;
Summer 41, 4-6; Fall 41, 3-6; Winter 41 and thereafter, 2-6. Subtract one from the die roll if France is still in the game; add one if Axis control a port or bridgehead in Britain. The U.S. base if she enters in 1940 is 145; in 1941 it is 185. U.S. At-
Start forces are:
Winter 40: four lnf, two Fleets
Spring 41: five Inf, three Fleets
Summer 41: six Inf, three Fleets, one AF
Fall 41: seven Inf, four Fleets, one AF, one Armor
Winter 41: nine Inf, four Fleets, one AF, one Armor
The U.S. force level is fixed, and she begins to pay BRPs for additional construction, whenever the die roll permits her to enter, whether she chooses to declare war on that turn or not. Her usual allowable builds are not available until 1942.
U.S. may build SW in 1941 YSS should she succeed in entering in 1940 or in Spring 1941. Play at start of any game turn
Winter 1940 or later. Not applicable to 1942/44 scenarios.
both holding a Spain variant.
The #12 variants are likely to encounter the most skepticism, particularly from conservative players. While Allied #12 shouldn‘t be all that devastating in a two- or three-player game, a lone German will be hard pressed if the Italian player can
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules be persuaded to join the good guys. The victory condition tinkering is an effort to prevent total imbalance in such a situation; whether it is adequate or not is unpredictable.
The course of a game which starts with no one at war is even harder to foresee. I‘d expect Germany to begin by gobbling up the low countries and, if left alone by the West, to continue absorbing minors. Her superior growth rate applied to acqui red minors would rapidly outpace the western economies, so I‘d expect Britain and France to feel virtually forced to declare war early. Those were my initial thoughts; my second thoughts run: what if the Allies don‘t oblige with a DoW and instead gang up on Italy early? But all this is unplaytested speculation. BRP-wise, the variant causes Germany to lose her
DoW on Poland and her free offensive in the east (25 BRPs in all) while the Allies, presuming they eventually attack
Germany, lose 35.
Players who c onsider the #12 variants too far out and can‘t stomach the thought of drawing one have a couple of alternatives: they can agree to treat #12 as a result of ―No Effect‖, or they can replace the #12s with other variants of their own design.
BONUS - HISTORICAL NOTES FROM THE 3
By now, such a great deal has been written about the Second World War that it seems superfluous to add anything more.
Analysis of the conflict has itself become like a game, in which people compete at citing more esoteric points in support of their positions. When all is said and done, though, it may still be worthwhile to return to the storm. The defeat of the Third
Reich does bear witness to a number of causal factors, which both maintain their relevance today, in thinking about conflicts between industrialized nations, and also retain interest in themselves. While this piece can in no sense claim to be definitive, it can present some of these points in the hope that the reader will be as intrigued as writers and that what is being conveyed herein can deepen an understanding of the dynamics of the war which the
simulation itself seeks to convey. pretext must have seemed politically naïve.
THE PREWAR SITUATION:
In considering the genesis of the war, one endlessly stumbles over the events of
Munich, and Austria and the Rhineland before it. Munich was supposed to have been the last appeasement, and was supposed to have occurred because the British and
French were desperately seeking the time with which to arm and meet Germany. In truth, a pattern
developed by 1938 - periodically Hitler would make semithreatening noises and then military moves, simultaneously protesting his good intentions. Hitler did gain from the political use of blackmail, but this is not the whole story.
In the first place, if the military balance at the time of
Munich is examined, it does not show such a preponderance of German strength as the explainers of
Munich would have us believe. The French had in 1938 practically all the divisions they would have in 1939, and so did the British. Their naval superiority was even more pronounced, before the German battlecruisers joined the fleet and while the big battleships were much further from completion. In the air, it is true that the Allied air forces were inferior, but the Germans had not reached their
1939 establishment either. Nor did the Germans have more than three panzer divisions, and even the French possessed more tanks than they. Considering that many of these weapons were as yet untried, Allied thinking ought to be questioned more closely.
The point that should be made was that there were independent political reasons for Munich and for other
German successes. The most important of these is that
German claims in Europe were to a great extent legitimate. The Rhineland, Austria, the Sudetenland, and for that matter, the Polish Corridor (with Silesia) were undoubtedly German territory. Germany's national aims could be seen quite logically in her attempts to establish the national territory as it had existed before Versailles.
For the British and French, going to war on such a
Nevertheless it is also true that the repetition of such
German actions brought Allied determination to fight. It is significant though that not until after the remainder of
Czechoslovakia was occupied and turned into a German preserve, in March 1939 did the Allied nations demonstrate their determinations through the guarantees to Poland and Rumania. What may have in fact been most important were the
Hitler used, and not the ends he sought. In each case, the German leader resorted to military action, and not as a last resort, but in the immediate instance. This procedure of going to the brink each time must have gone a long way toward convincing the Allies that war was inevitable and steeling them for the conflict. Then again, the German move against the remainder of Czechoslovakia served notice that Hitler had no longer intended to confine himself to the purely national claims of his country. The idea of a
German will to power was compelling and faced the West with a dilemma between the undesirability of war and its necessity.
The Germans had been afraid of war at the time of
Czechoslovakia. Beck, at the General Staff level, argued against it. The Case Green plan (Czechoslovakia) recognized that 25 divisions would be tied down against
Prague with its modern army, leaving the West with a great superiority in strength. Munich ended as a triumph for Hitler in his struggle with the generals, and the next year, the West Wall was given first priority in materials and effort, providing a modicum of security along the
Rhine. But when the panzers rolled into Poland, Hitler did not see the West back off, and event to which he had become accustomed.
THE WAR OF INDUSTRY:
One question that comes back when considering 1939 is why the war occurred at all that year. Germany was not prepared, her armaments minister said and rightly. The British were producing
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich more aircraft than the Germans (though their units, like
Bomber Command, were so far under establishment that they could not catch up). The French had more tanks.
The Americans were likely to sell to the British and
French, but not to Hitler. Mussolini made attempts at the last moment to remind Hitler of their agreement that the war must not be allowed to occur before 1942 (the
Italians considered that there was an 80% chance of victory in 1942, but only a 60% chance in 1939), but
Hitler would not budge, it was his unalterable intention to deal with the Polish question.
Having started from behind, the Germans made huge efforts to catch up. But their efforts were to no avail. The organization of the Fascist economy, essentially run on the principle of limited competition, introduced inefficiencies which would eventually destroy the Third
Reich. Materials were wasted. The situation was compounded by Hitler's attempts to procure guns and butter simultaneously, in search of political popularity within Germany. Thus in 1940 he backed off after issuing orders for 1,000 units per month construction of tanks. For the whole war, tank production averaged out at 620 a month, but most of this was achieved only after
Germany had visibly lost. In the strictest sense, if the
Wehrmacht could not win with its inventory on hand in
1939, it would not win, and Hitler seems to have recognized this with his constant insistence that conditions would not again be so favorable for Germany.
THE PERIOD OF GERMAN SUCCESS:
Germany's victories were mostly won in the first three years of the war. Afterwards, while there were still tactical successes, mostly in defensive battles, the Germans had little chance of winning the war. Historically, World War II has been known as the ultimate was of attrition, and it is commonly recognized that the enormous preponderance of military equipment possessed by the Allies submerged
Germany. The interesting point, however, is that the factors of more numerous production are precisely those which
be used to explain Germany's period of successes.
Germany was inferior in tanks to the French and in planes to the Anglo-French air forces, but France was overrun in six weeks. Germany was far inferior in naval strength to the British, yet she was able to pull off the amphibious invasion of Norway against the main strength of the British fleet. In North Africa, the Afrika Korps never achieved quantitative superiority over the 8 th
Army in any category, but Rommel launched successful offenses and defeated most of the British ones up until Alamein. If
German success can't be explained by things like better tactics, morale, and generals, then there is
to explain the war from 1939 to 1942.
On balance, one must conclude that the Wehrmacht's victories can be attributed to three main elements. The first was a lead in the development of tactics in the period immediately preceding the war, combined with practical experience gained by the Wehrmacht in Austria and
Czechoslovakia, something which none of the Allies possessed. Uniformly in the early battles, even when
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules caught at a disadvantage, (as by the British at Arras in
May 1940) the German troops were able to react with such rapidity as to cancel advantages their enemy might possess in numbers or equipment. A second element in the German successes was superior staff work, which enabled the Germans to make the best possible use of the resources they did have. Time and again in the warm and even after the German ascendancy was ended, staff work allowed the Germans to take their enemies by surprise, as at the Bulge. The third element in Wehrmacht achievements, which is related to the second to some extent, is the unitary nature of high command, responding to the wishes of Hitler. Because the high command responded to one man it was more difficult for the Allies, who utilized what amounted to a committee approach, to anticipate his actions. In addition, the German leader was, and remained, more disposed to take incredible risks in his operations than the Allies, a fact which gave him considerable advantages. The West Wall garrison during the entire
undertaking represented such risks as would be incomprehensible to the Allies.
By contrast, Allied, and especially American, high command was equally incredibly conservative. Every
Allied offensive operation, wit the single exception of
, was characterized by overkill in conception and execution. Mountbatten, for example, was sent to
Washington in early 1942 when thought was first being given to the invasion of France, to convince the
Americans that the 28 German divisions then in that country was capable of defeating any invasion the Allies could mount. When risks were taken, as in Anzio-
Nettuno, and operations undertaken which failed to reach their objectives by narrow margins, the Allied high commands were as likely as not to conclude that failure was the result of major faults in conception and strategy.
Thus after Anzio, the Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) determined that no further coastal flanking invasions would be carried out to support ground campaigns.
Later, in France, such operations would have been of tremendous value but they were not considered. Even the organization of combat units, with their large ration of support to combat troops (indeed, the average US division could put only as many combat troops in the field for its 50,000 man division slice as in Vietnam much later), showed this trend to conservatism. Americans complained endlessly of the reconstituted French army, which had a support to combat ratio higher than the
German but too low for the Americans. So the Allies waited years for their counteroffensive to regain the continent, occupying themselves with operations in the
Mediterranean that were only marginally useful. When the invasion actually came, it could be seen that they waited too long
– the Atlantic Wall was an egg broken by a sledgehammer. In this context, many of the complaints
Stalin was making about the Anglo-American delay in instituting the second front were quite valid. Unlike the
Germans, the Allies never tried to run their operations on a shoestring, capitalizing on the skill of their men (except perhaps in the Pacific, which was another case
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich altogether).
THE HIGH COMMAND:
From the reams of commentary which have issued forth on Hitler the war leader, there are some points which must be made. Hitler's great strengths were that he was a shrewd judge of men and an intelligent military technician. He was able to choose excellent field commanders and staff officers and to recognize good plans when he saw them. In this manner, he was able to pick up von Manstein's plan for
France against OKH opposition. Similarly, he could often catch his officers in their omissions, as when Hitler himself discovered the Armaments Ministry failure to carry out his order to re-equip the PzKw-III tank with the long 50mm gun. Hitler's great decisions, in the 1938 war threats, the 1939-1940 invasions, and the 1941 refusal to withdraw before Moscow, were rooted in these strengths.
But Hitler's strengths amounted to shrewd leadership rather than military ability. Militarily, and these points can be made quite independently of the criticisms which the
German generals leveled at him after the war was over and the man was dead, Hitler's ability can be questioned on a number of levels. Strategically, Hitler evinced several counterproductive fixations. First and ultimately most important was that on economics. Time and again through the war, Hitler insisted upon operations to capture important raw materials sources. Later in the defensive period of the war, he continuously insisted upon the diversion of scarce military resources to defend various sources, from nickel mines to oil heads. While on one level quite right, Hitler failed to make any connection between
of raw materials and finished products proceeding into his armies' inventories.
Thus Hitler would insist upon the defense of Finnish nickel mines, for example, at which no workers were available to extract nickel. These operations merely used up military resources to defend positions from which Germany had derived no benefit.
Take the Ukraine. As early as
Hitler had shown a preoccupation with German expansion into the
Ukraine, claiming that domination of that area would have prevented German starvation in 1914-1918. In
1941, Hitler forced a major ground campaign in the
Ukraine, and lost the big chance at Moscow. The following year it was the Ukraine again
– Stalingrad and the Caucasus. In 1943, just when the Germans had succeeded in recovering some of their strength after the winter debacle, Hitler insisted on the Kursk offensive. In
1944, he similarly insisted upon the detachment of an entire army, plus further Rumanian forces, to defend the
Crimea, signing a death sentence for these troops at a time when his front line formations were critically short of strength. Hitler's strategy in Russia showed a clear
Ukrainian fixation. What is true is that concern with the
Ukraine tended to blur the lines of German ground force strategy in Russia.
Another Hitler miscalculation was that of the anticomintern
– the life and death struggle upon which he insisted between Fascism and Communism. For, if Hitler was pledged to a war against Stalin, and the German
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules policy of expansion into the Balkans and Southeast
Europe unavoidably brought the opposition of the Anglo-
French powers, then there was no way for Germany to avoid a two-front war. As far back as 1924, again with
, Hitler himself had condemned Germany's leaders of 1914-1918 for the two-front war, claiming it inevitably brought defeat. Granted that Hitler hedged the
Russian problem with his pact with Stalin in August 1939, both parties to that pact still knew that its effect could only be temporary (indeed, Germany lost much face with
Italy for making the deal against the anti-comintern interests), and the resulting German failure to convert the
Soviets into full Allies weighed heavily in the scales of the eventual outcome of the war.
In addition to his strategic errors, Hitler was guilty of a second range of organizational mistakes that should have never been made given his own leadership talents.
The most important of these was the logical consequence of Hitler's own methods and had been an advantage in the early years of the war. This might be called the Intuitive Method. By means of centralizing control of all military and other resources of the German state in his own person, Hitler was able to determine
Wehrmacht operations himself at the highest levels. This was accomplished by means of restricting the scope of the army high command, OKH, and establishing his own armed forces high command, OKW, for control of theaters other than Russia. In the early days, this had been an advantage because information about upcoming operations had not easily leaked, and in addition, Hitler had made it extremely difficult for the Allies to anticipate his own moves.
The institution of the Fuehrerdirective increasingly lost value after 1942, however. Its inherent weaknesses were two, both of which were masked during the early period of German victory. First, when a directive was issued upon a specific subject it must necessarily continue in effect until Hitler's attention could again be brought to that subject. This meant that the original intuitive strategy for an area remained no matter how far outrun by events it had been. As the war continued, the sheer overload of one event coming on top of another swamped Hitler's OKW command system. Second, the
Fuehrerdirective system failed to provide any mechanism for continuing review of strategy and systematic future planning. Among other things, this meant that there was no coherent body of written ideas on strategy that could be used as the base for forming interallied policy with the
Italians, something the Allies consciously aimed for with their own command system.
The Fuehrerdirective system therefore broke down, with the intuitive approach, after Germany no longer had the initiative and could not dominate events. The whole tenor of the directives changed after 1942. They became general documents trying to establish systems of defensive tactics rather than orders naming priorities for objectives. Hitler finally stopped assigning numbers to these documents. The Kursk offensive of 1943, along with that of the Bulge in 1944 and the Budapest offensive of 1945 were all undertaken without any Fuehrerdirective
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich at all. The fundamental problem was that Hitler's intuitive approach failed to leave him with any method of understanding how to react when he was on the receiving end of an opponent's offensive scenario. In the period of defeat, Hitler kept waiting for the Anglo-
American-Soviet alliance to break up as a result of the conflicts of interests among its participants. He made attempts, as with the Bulge offensive, to hasten that process by German moves, and to the end he failed to understand why the demise of the alliance had failed to take place. Of course, Hitler was not far wrong
– interallied differences, especially over postwar Eastern
Europe, threatened the alliance increasingly by late 1944 and early 1945, but the mistakes already made by
Germany meant that the Germans would not be around when the Allies' divorce finally came.
Then again, the Fuehrer was guilty of gross political miscalculations in his conduct of the war. It was commonly assumed that German industrial potential was inferior to that of the Allies, and indeed, one of the reasons for Allied strategic conservatism discussed above was precisely the understanding that they could win simply by sitting back until they had accumulated enough strength to shatter the Wehrmacht. Similarly,
German manpower resources were also inferior, both against the Anglo-Americans and the Soviets alone.
Given these facts, the only way for the Germans to have won the war was the creation of a broad front of political cooperation among the European have-nots and
Germany against the Great Powers. This Hitler failed to do
– he refused cooperation with the various nationalisms, Ukrainian nationalism most importantly, with disastrous consequences. While he managed to raise four Croatian divisions, along with two Slovak and a
Spanish and assorted battalions of Indians, Danes,
Dutch, and French, there was never an attempt to cooperate with the nationalist groups until the Vlasov
Army of disaffected Russians was formed, and that was not until 1945.
Similarly, the Hitler political method of inflicting military punishments for alleged slights was counterproductive and eliminated the desires of foreign nationalists to cooperate with Germany. The bombing of Rotterdam, and the handling of Czechoslovakia in 1938 and
Rumania in 1940 clearly showed German intentions of subjugation to the small countries which were subjected to these demonstrations. This went on with the Vichy
France operation in 1942 and that in Italy the following year, not to mention the German coup in Hungary in
August 1944. Ultimately, the sequence never ended
Hitler's insistence on the Lake Balaton-Budapest offensive in early 1945, using up the last remaining
German offensive potential. Was a last attempt to break the Balkans, retake some of the oil he had lost, and punish his perfidious Hungarian allies. Small wonder that the 60-odd divisions contributed to the German war effort by the minor allies never had much military potential.
Finally, Hitler himself was also guilty of major operational errors which robbed Germany of needed victories, even assuming the strategies he chose intuitively were good
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules ones. First there was the order to halt the panzers before Dunkirk in 1940, which has an adequate military explanation if considered in isolation, but looms more ominous when seen in conjunction with his other moves.
Second was the lack of reality attaching itself to Hitler's plans to knock the British out of the war, and his failure to assign adequate forces to the Mediterranean to achieve this objective in 1940-41 when it was possible. Third was his wavering before Moscow in 1941, when he insisted on going for Kiev and wasted precious time. Fourth were his ridiculous ideas about the use of heavy tanks in the
operation designed to capture Archangel in
1941. Fifth was his decision to attack on the wrong front in 1941
– the Ukraine – when his armies were poised a bare couple of hundred miles from Moscow again. Sixth was his poor handling of Fourth Panzer Army in the 1942 offensive
– sending it south to help Kleist force the Mius where it was of no use and then back north to Stalingrad where it arrived too late.
– an error on a par with
Napoleon's handling of Ney and D'Erlon's 1 Corps in the
Ligny-Quatre Bras action of the Waterloo campaign.
Seventh was Hitler's lack of any conception of the real capabilities of the forces he commanded, the sheer ridiculousness, for example, of the Archangel-Vologda-
Astrakan objective line he assigned to the Russian offensive in the
directive. Eighth and last was Hitler's refusal to fight a rational defensive campaign after the defeat of his forces had become apparent in
1942. This last error typifies the result of the intuitive strategy and is worth further comment.
Table 1. German Output of Selected Weapons with
1) Artillery figures refer to guns of 75mm caliber or better
2) German and British aircraft production figures include combat types only. America and Soviet figures are crude, and include other aircraft types as well.
3) The German category of Other AFV includes principally armored cars and assault guns.
FRITTERING AWAY THE ARMY:
With the reestablishment of stasis on the Russian Front after
Stalingrad and the Manstein 'miracle', Hitler recalled
Guderian as inspector general of armored troops. The latter officer prepared plans to reconstruct the strength of the Wehrmacht mobile forces and to this end advocate a defensive strategy until such time, 1944 as he saw it, when the strength of the forces would be rebuilt and offensives could be resumed once again. In the end,
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
Hitler insisted upon renewed attacks, and whatever armored formations had been reconstituted were committed to the great Kursk offensive of 1943. The
1,900 tanks there were largely destroyed, and Soviet offensives which followed closely on the German failure continued almost without interruption until January 1945.
By August 1944 the Soviets had reached the line of the
Vistula, and by this time the Anglo-Americans had landed in and broken out of Normandy. Hitler had insisted upon an attack on the Americans with the forces of Panzer
Group West, and these were caught in a massive pocket at Falaise losing their equipment and many troops. His combination of tactics, no withdrawals and constant counterattacks, along with the 'wave-front' idea of fortress defense in the east, meant the constant marooning of scarce troops and equipment in positions from which they could not escape. No matter how many enemy forces were tied down in these encirclement battles, and the enemy could frequently use second line forces while the Germans had to use good formations, the forces committed were totally lost to the Germans.
Thus, by September 1944, First Army, defending an 87 mile front before Metz, possessed a total equipment of
112 guns, 116 heavy anti-tank guns, and 52 tanks; less than a corps. LXXXVII Corps, holding Aachen, had only
33 guns, 20 anti-tank guns, and 21 tanks. In fact, in that month the total strength of 30 infantry and 17 panzer or motorized divisions manning the Western Front amounted to only 1,800 guns, 800 armored vehicles, and
The OKW method turned out to be one of ruthlessly depriving line units of replacements in order to build up reserve units to full strength. While this method reduced the Germans' ability to defend their fronts, they were provided with a breathing space as the Anglo-American and Soviet forces finally outran their supply systems and were forced to halt. The result was that in late 1944, for the first time since Kursk, the Germans were able to build up an offensive striking potential of full-strength armored units, 12 of which were re-equipped by 20 November, and four more by 10 December. In the end, however, most were thrown into the Bulge offensive, and additional five panzer and a parachute formation into the Colmar offensive, and the other available units into three offensives on the Eastern Front, two of which had
Budapest as their objective. Whatever strength had been created was decimated, Panzer Lehr division, for example, limping back to the West Wall on 10 January
1945 with six assault guns, ten tanks, and a total of 400 troops. In fact, when the Soviet attack across the Oder against Berlin began, the entire Eastern Front (with 103 infantry and 37 panzer or mobile divisions) had some 750 guns and 600 anti-aircraft guns. The heaviest panzer formation had only 79 tanks.
Thus German defensive efforts were always hampered by the aims of Hitler's high command, which worked at cross-purposes with the field commanders. The few decisions correctly made in time were prevented in their implementation by communication and coordination problems. Hitler himself played an obstructionist role.
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
He intervened repeatedly on the tactical level, as with his wave-front theory of defense and in his obstruction of the different fortification plans, often with disastrous results.
The repeated offensives he called in Hungary in 1945 bespoke lack of economic understanding at least equal to that which he accused his generals
– concentration on
Hungary meant acquiescence in the loss of Silesia and the remaining German industrial base. The end of production left no tanks or planes to be fueled even if the oil at Budapest had been recaptured, and no transport system to move anything that could be extracted from the
Hitler made great attempts later in the war to heighten the morale of his generals by speaking of his wonder weapons that would change the course of the war.
There were the jet fighters, including the He-162 that could be mass produced without many strategic materials, and the V-weapons that could carry the war to the enemy. There were the Walthers U-Boats, using a revolutionary new system that enabled them to travel faster submerged than many of the Allied escorts on the surface combined with revolutionary new torpedoes that could be set to home in on different types of ships like destroyers. Perhaps most importantly the Germans were close to some type of a super bomb, for which confirmation has been had from three different sources, and at least one of which was exploded in a test on the
Baltic coast witnessed by an Italian reporter. The bomb destroyed an area of three miles radius, burning all the trees to stumps, but it acted more like some behemoth incendiary than like an atomic bomb.
One question on the Third Reich is what effect these new weapons would have had on the war, and although it is possible to argue the question, my own opinion is that the super weapons came too late for Germany. First, they came at a time when it was no longer possible to build enough of them. Second, by 1944 the Germans no longer had the trained and skilled manpower to operate them effectively, which was unfortunate considering that but for Hitler's own decisions it might have been possible to deploy jet fighters as early as 1942. Third, though the new weapons provided means of wreaking large destruction on Europe, they did not provide any means for the Germans to regain lost territory. Blowing up
London or Antwerp or Warsaw made little difference to the war situation with the Russians less than a hundred miles from Berlin and the Western Allies on the Rhine.
What was needed in 1945 was more conventional armaments, which Hitler threw away in his 1944-45 counter-offensives. The best the new weapons might have managed was a return to the sort of stasis that had existed before Kursk, but even that would have been only temporary. After all, what would have happened once the Americans had dropped atom bombs on Berlin, given
Hitler's centralized control over the Wehrmacht?
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Table 2. Wehrmacht Strength and Deployments
1) East refers to Russia, Finland, Poland, and the Baltic States. Med refers to Italy, North Africa, and the Balkans. West refers to France, the
Low Countries, Norway, and Denmark.
2) The information presented in this table was developed from a number of sources, the most useful of which was perhaps Albert
The Russo-German War 1941-1945.
One of the most interesting things about World War II is the ability of the Germans to hold out so long and to do so much in spite of all the disadvantages they labored under. Aside from their early superiority in tactics, which the Allies later matched, the single most valuable asset of the Germans appears to have been their organizational ability. When the
Germans attacked, in Poland, France, and Russia, their enemies' forces lost cohesion, disintegrated, and became worthless. Even in the last days of the French campaign, for example, the French were
superior to the Wehrmacht, in numbers and quality of tanks. The reverse did not happen, however. In the period of Allied superiority, the German units held together time and again when by all measures they should have long since collapsed.
The most obvious example, of course, is the Russian
Front. After Stalingrad was encircled, a hole of some hundreds of miles had been knocked though the German front. There were no organized German forces to prevent Soviet mobile troops from pressing on to the west as far as they wanted to go. Nevertheless, the
Soviets were stopped; by a handful of under strength divisions, one full strength one, and a number of scratch forces which assembled around leaders of ability who insisted on continuing the fight. These scratch units were vital to the war effort, assembling out of remnants and rear-echelon forces and often reaching division or even corps strength. Similarly the cadre of divisions continued to fight. Common Western practice has it that a unit becomes worthless at a point where it has lost 40% of its effective strength. But German divisions, with an establishment of 12,000 would go on fighting with 2,000 troops and less. When Panzer Lehr got back to the West
Wall after the Bulge it had only 400 men but it was still a division.
German command practice capitalized on this ability of their formations. Divisions would be left in the line until they had been bled white, and then the entire division would be pulled back to Germany for reconstitution. The advantage was that the survivors would constitute a
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules cadre who had been through everything that could be thrown at them
– they enabled new recruits to participate in the formation's traditions and to be broken in by a set of veterans who were real hard core. Consequently, the
German formations maintained their cohesion through long years of defeat and poor equipment right up until
February 1945, when desertions finally rose from their formerly inconsequential level to a torrent. By contrast, the Allied practice of funneling replacements through centers up to the line units resulted in practically complete turnover in the personnel of divisions, and inferior method.
The really distinctive development of
World War II has got to be airpower. Luftwaffe strikes played vital roles in paralyzing enemy maneuver capabilities during the early invasions. Later, with the shoe on the other foot, German panzer reinforcements arrived at Normandy only after taking devastating losses to Allied air. Strategic bombing was important during the war, but the dominant effect of airpower was on targets of intermediate category in relation to ground operations.
Destruction of the French rail net, for example, was important in delaying German reinforcement of
At the strictly tactical level, the Luftwaffe showed the way in the early days and the Allies themselves followed.
With growing strength of the Allied air forces and the failing ability of the Luftwaffe (along with its diversion to home defense), the field was left to the Allied forces.
This was especially important for the British battle for
Caen, which might have taken much longer without naval and air support given the heavy concentration of panzer forces against Montgomery's front. However, it is difficult to find instances in which tactical air intervention proved decisive in ground combat situations. Individually speaking, we can see many such instances in small-unit actions, but there are few occasions in which application of such means can clearly be said to have made
difference in actions of divisional or larger formations.
Perhaps in reaction to this the Allies began to evolve new means of using air forces to support ground units. The most important new method was the use of heavy bombers to carpet bomb segments of German defenses as part of the preparation for Allied attacks. This method was the direct forerunner of the use of B-52 bombers in the ARC LIGHT strikes in Viet Nam, and like them the older heavy bombers seemed to have had mixed success. Some officers, notably Eisenhower, Bradley, and Montgomery, were convinced of the tremendous effectiveness of this weapon. Yet the occasions on which it was used, at Monte Cassino, Caen, the Cotentin
Peninsula, and in the Arnhem offensive, were almost uniformly failures as ground attacks. On the other hand, teams covering the ground struck by the bombers frequently found that the planes had in fact caused great disruption of the German defenses. What can be said with some assurance is that carpet bombing techniques were too primitive to ensure ground success. For instance, at Caen the bombers did take out the German defenses but the destruction they caused was such as to
Page 64 of 71
Rise and Decline of the Third Reich prevent the British armored columns from maneuvering over the ground struck by the planes. Consequently by the time the tanks had gotten over the cratered ground, a new German defensive crust, manned by the types of scratch battlegroups we discussed above, had already appeared to bar their way.
The major capability provided by airpower was the great flexibility it provided to the ground forces. Air supply gave new length to the supply lines of divisions, as the
German forces discovered in Russia and the Allies in
France (1944). Airborne firepower could be concentrated at widely separated points and suddenly appear to aid the attack of a ground formation which by itself did not
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules appear to have sufficient power for an attack. Surprise thus achieved did much to throw enemy command elements off balance.
Consequently tactical and intermediate airpower played a vital role in the course of the battles that brought down the Third Reich. And at the same time, the strategic bombing forces, by forcing the withdrawal of the
Luftwaffe to the homeland, ensured that all the benefits of airpower would accrue to the Allies and not the
Germans. And with their production and training decisions, the Germans themselves went some distance toward aiding this Allied objective.
Table 3. Luftwaffe Strength and Deployments of Aircraft
1) Some discrepancies in the figures have been produced by differences in Luftwaffe returns and inconsistencies in the RAF study,
The Rise and Fall of the Luftwaffe
, from which most of the figures were taken.
2) It should be noted that most of the increases in Luftwaffe inventory after the beginning of 1943 are almost totally caused by the growth of the singleengine fighter and night fighter arms
THE RUSSIAN FRONT:
In the long view, it is impossible to overemphasize the importance of the Russian Front in
World War II. Some idea of the ferocity of the fighting there may be gained from the sheer total of 21,000,000 casualties suffered by the Soviets. In fact, the Russian
Front was responsible in large part for the defeat of
Germany. At the very beginning, Russia helped to save
England from a German invasion, even given the unreality of German plans for Sea Lion. For the next four years Russia consumed the major part of German forces and destroyed the best part of the Wehrmacht's elite units.
It was in Russia that the weaknesses of the Wehrmacht were first revealed to their opponents. Before then these had been masked by the continuous stream of German successes. The inadequacy of German strength, obsolescence of much equipment, and low cross-country ability of mobile forces became strikingly apparent when the Wehrmacht matched itself up against this country.
Actually these might have remained hidden somewhat longer had the Germans chosen realistic objectives in that country, but uniformly the OKW proved unable to define just what constituted German objectives in that eastern nation.
One point that is worth making about Russia is that strictly speaking, Germany was not defeated by the twofront war. Russia was not invaded until after the Western
Front had been liquidated by the fall of France.
Afterwards the Wehrmacht did not face a major Allied ground threat, other than Russian, until the start of the
Italian campaign, more than two years later, but even
Italy was stabilized with the commitment of relatively small German forces. In September, 1943 the West and the Mediterranean together held down only 35% of the available German divisions. This climbed to 39.5% by
January 1944, and to 42% at the time of the Normandy invasion. But many of these units were second line formations (ranging, in the parlance of the Wehrmacht mobilization bureaus, down to formations of the 'sixth wave'), and thus represented somewhat less of the total
German resources than their percentage might indicate.
The 'real' second front occurred with the invasion of
Normandy. It was then that the Western Allies drew off considerable German strength from Russia. The absence of armored formations, particularly the II SS
Panzer Corps, which the Germans had been holding in reserve behind their front, played an important role in the success of the Soviet offensives aimed at Army Group
Center and Army Group South. But the important fact is that the turn in German fortunes occurred at Stalingrad, twenty months earlier. The new trend was confirmed at
Kursk, eleven months earlier. Germany was on the run before any second front existed, even that in Italy. The
Western Allies made a difference in terms of increasing
German problems, and thus reduced the length of the war. But by themselves, the Soviets still would have won. While it is true that the Germans lost 400,000 men in France during the latter half of 1944, they had lost more than twice that in their initial, largely successful,
offensive of 1941, and their losses had continued at an accelerating rate.
So the Wehrmacht perished on the Russian steppes.
Much of the fault for this, or at least for the operational mistakes which led to later defeats must be laid squarely
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich at the door of the General Staff, the OKH, which prepared the plans for
. Halder's diaries, for example, are replete with references to the Soviet forces which indicate the extent to which he downgraded their ability. OKH planning underestimated the strength of the
Soviet forces. In fact while planning was still going on the force estimates were increased by 30%, but this led to no corresponding increase of the German forces allotted to the offensive. Planning assumed the German forces could reach the vast, although undefined objectives which Hitler had assigned, in the course of a single campaign, which would have been difficult even if the Germans had had no Soviet resistance whatsoever with which to contend.
Perhaps the worst mistake was the Germans' failure to make adequate logistics plans. The armies which entered Russia had only a week's worth of reserve supplies, calculated at the textbook rate which turned out to be far short of actual consumption. The divisions were assumed to be well-equipped for a campaign of fifteen weeks' duration and then this fact was ignored when successive decisions were taken which inevitably lengthened the campaign. As early as July supplies had already been moved to the forward spearheads by means of aerial drops. In Guderian's panzer group, which had a high supply priority, divisions were limited to defending only their most important positions for lack of ammunition. By August 1941 the panzer formations, which had started out with 3,500 tanks, were 40-60% understrength, but it was only at that time that the first tank replacements were granted, a mere 85 tanks of which only 15 were of the PzKw-IV class which were able to stand against all then-current Soviet AFV.
Inevitably the strength of German formations declined precipitately. By the end of 1941 the average division had fallen to the strength of a regiment before the invasion. Due to their low production, the Germans were never able to make up their losses. Some of these
Wehrmacht problems might have been mitigated, at least to some extent. In the 1941 campaign alone, for example, the Germans captured several thousands of
Soviet tanks. And not all of these were obsolescent ones
– there were 1,475 Soviet tanks of the KV and T-34 varieties in the frontier military districts on 22 June 1941.
But the Germans, so noted for their organizational abilities, had developed no organization to classify, repair, and make use of captured military equipment. In comments of the fighting of 1944, Mellinthin has remarked that his XLVIII
Panzer Corps alone captured hundreds of Soviet anti-tank guns, a category in which the Wehrmacht was critically short and which were easily
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules convertible to German ammunition. Similarly the
Germans neglected to make use of intelligent military organizations developed by their enemies. It is Mellinthin again who complained, in one example, of the
Wehrmacht refusal to create anti-tank divisions which could be committed to threatened sectors of the front.
The effect of similar Soviet anti-tank units on the Kursk offensive gives some idea of what such forces might have accomplished, especially given the lesser tactical ability of the Soviet tank formations of 1943-1944. Again, looking at the Soviet success with the use of artillery divisions to enhance the firepower of sectors on which offensives were planned, the Germans neglected, except for a short period during 1943, to make use of equivalent units. It is true they formed some artillery 'corps' in 1944, but these were in no way comparable, being merely battalions with fancy titles.
The Soviet Union did not win because the Wehrmacht failed to achieve victory. Rather the Soviets won on their own ability and efforts, and, it can be argued, in spite of the 'second front' not because of it. In 1941, the Soviets forestalled German victory with hopelessly outmoded military forces. They managed to increase their armaments productions even though the Germans had captured vital Soviet production centers, a trend which continued throughout the war and which was made possible though their concentration on the production of only a handful of different types of equipment. By contrast Germany produced what often amounted to a bewildering array of weapons and consequently a lot fewer of them. Soviet armor production in 1944, 22,000 units, totaled half of Germany's tank production for the entire war. In 1942 the Soviets achieved strategic parity with Germany before the advent of the second front. The following year, again before any second front, they managed to soak up the entire Wehrmacht offensive at
Kursk. And before the landings at Normandy they had already recaptured most of European Russia.
No simple set of historical notes can hope to deal adequately with the full panorama of events which constitute the Second World War. This piece has not even attempted to do so. I have instead chosen to discuss a set of points which are of interest to me in thinking about the war, hoping that they will be of interest to readers as well. The basic idea is that these notes should be seen as a part of a totality
– one which includes the designer's comments, the suggestions and the Third Reich simulation itself. strategy
– John Prados
Page 66 of 71
Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
Activation Die Roll (Vichy) adjacent advance after combat
Activation of Minor Allies
Africa air bases
ASW (Anti-Submarine Warfare)
Attacks on Naval Bases
Attacks on Fleets at Sea
Axis (Italy & Germany) Forces in Africa
Axis Minor Allies
Base Changes (Naval Movement
Basing (naval) beach hexes
BRP Spending Limit
BRPs (Basic Resource Points)
Chronological Sequence cities
Coalition (2 player game) Victory
Conquest of Major Powers
East Front Garrison
Free Siberian Transfer
Conquest of Minor Countries
Construction (naval) controlled hexes
CRT (Combat Results Table)
Deactivation Die Roll (Vichy)
Declarations of War (DoW)
Defensive Air Support (DAS) deficit spending penalty
DRM (die roll modifications)
(France, Britain, USA, Russia)
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
See Defensive Air Support
See Declarations of War
Page 67 of 71
Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
Gulf of Suez
Inactive Minor Ally
Lent Italian Forces
Ireland islands isolation (out of supply units)
Minor Country Operations
Refusal of Naval Losses
SAC (Strategic Bomber)
Sequence of Play
Objectives, List of
Offensive Option, Movement phase
Offensive Option, Combat phase
Offensive Option, Construction phase
Order of Deployment
Partial Air Counters
Partial Naval Counters
Quarterly Attrition Resolution Table
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
See Voluntary Elimination
Page 68 of 71
Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
Special Scenario Rules
Spending BRP Limits
SR (Strategic Redeployment)
SR national limits
Stacking (by Allied nations
Strategic Warfare (SW)
Terrain Effects on Land Combat
see Strategic Warfare
Two Front Port
US Based Fleets
US Deployment Limits
Victory Conditions; Two Player
Victory Conditions; Multi-Player
Voluntary Elimination of Own Units
Winter, Severe (Allied Variant 10)
YSS (Year Start Sequence)
Zones of Control (ZOC)
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
see Russian Winter
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Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
55. SEQUENCE OF PLAY
I. Year Start Sequence (YSS)
– Not a part of any turn – it occurs between each Winter and Spring game turn.
C. BRP Level Calculation
E. Determination of BRP Spending Limits
II. Game Turn
B. Russian Winter dice roll (winter turns only
D. First Player Turn
3. Placement of forces of newly-attacked Minor
of BRPs Derived from newly-activated Minor
5. Movement & Combat phases of any Minors which have been attacked, but not yet
e) Eliminate any units still overstacked from retreat during enemy Attrition
a) Attrition Combat
may be performed before or after Offensive
Option combat at Attacker's option. b) Attacker announces all naval and air
d) Defender announces DAS missions and any attacks on attacker's naval
e) Attacker announces DAS interceptions and any attacks on defender's naval
h) Conclude Sea Transport missions i) j)
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
3) Conclude Seaborne Invasion
k) Exploiting units move to Breakthrough l)
Resolve air attacks on naval units in
n) Announce Ground Support missions
p) Attacker announces & resolves DAS
t) Remove remaining units of any major or minor countries conquered during
u) Hostile major power units in newlyconquered countries choose supply
v) Deduct BRPs for failure to recapture a
x) Relocate Vichy forces and determine
c) Vichy Activation/Deactivation attempts
a) Allied ASW counters may move to and
b) Movement of Lend-Lease box BRPs
d) Eliminate any units overstacked on a
e) Relocate unsupplied airbase counters
E. Second Player Turn
F. Turn up all inverted air and naval counters
Page 70 of 71
Rise and Decline of the Third Reich
5.7 Terrain Effects Chart:
Start Line Marks
Fourth-and-a-half Edition Rules
Effect on Combat Effect on Movement
Defenders tripled against seaborne invasion. Otherwise doubled
Can‘t be selected for Attrition advance after combat.
Can‘t be selected for Attrition advance after combat.
Ground units can be landed using seaborne invasion.
None, other than use as an airbase.
None, other than use as an air and/or naval base.
Can be used as an airbase.
None allowed between hexes connected only by coastline.
Defenders are tripled vs. attacks across a crossing Ground units may cross these hexsides in both arrow hexside.
Defense i s quadrupled. Can‘t be taken by Attrition or
None. ZOC have no effect on Fortresses.
Units crossing or attacking across must abide by restrictions of Option chosen on Front moved into or attacked.
Not allowed across all-water hexsides.
Defense is tripled. None.
Defense is tripled. None.
Cannot attack or move across while country is neutral. If neutral, a Declaration of War must be declared before crossing or attacking into it. If already at war or conquered, there is no effect.
Can‘t be selected for Attrition advance after combat.
Can be used as a base.
Only special Air and Naval combat allowed. Can be crossed only by Fleets and Air units that can
Stage 8 hexes or less over it to another Airbase.
Double defense. None.
None allowed across completely Quattara hexsides.
Defense is tripled against attacks across river.
Crossing such lines in France, Rumania, and Poland has the same effect as crossing a National Boundary.
Page 71 of 71
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