# Course Catalog

R e v i s e d J a n u a r y 2 0 1 7

# Secondary (

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In Seventh Grade Language Arts, students are responsible for obtaining copies of Sounder by William H.

Armstrong, The Westing Game by Ellen Raskin, and Call It Courage by Armstrong Sperry. All three books are Newberry Award Books. Students complete comprehension checks in each unit to respond to what they have read and engage in activities for developing vocabulary-building skills and strategies. As they read, students are required to use the writing process for writing business letters, summaries, and a research paper. They will also present a variety of speeches.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course, students determine the appropriate form of rational numbers to solve problems using a variety of strategies to reason, estimate, compute, solve, and explain solutions of problems; develop and analyze algorithms for computing with percents and integers; extend their knowledge of the real number system by demonstrating an understanding of rational and irrational numbers, exponents, scientific notation of large numbers, absolute value, and square roots; and apply appropriate techniques and strategies to select, measure, and convert units of length, area, volume, and derived units. In geometry, students develop formulas for finding area and volume of plane and solid figures, distinguishing the difference between surface area and volume; define, describe, and draw attributes and properties of plane figures; plot locations in a coordinate plane; identify line and rotational symmetry, perform transformations of plane figures, and draw representations of three-dimensional figures from different views. Students use models to engage in equation-solving processes using inverse operations; graph linear equations and inequalities; use formulas to solve problems; read, create, and interpret graphs including box and whisker plots and stem-and-leaf plots; analyze data using the measures of center and spread; identify the misuses and influence of misrepresentations of data; compute probability of compound events; and design and conduct experiments to test theoretical probabilities, make predictions, and evaluate the actual outcomes.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students learn to describe interactions of matter and energy throughout the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. They continue to develop skills of scientific inquiry, explain how matter can change forms and describe how energy is potential or kinetic and takes many forms. Students apply math skills to evaluate and analyze variables and data from investigations as they draw conclusions from scientific evidence. Seventh-grade students are able to recognize that technology can create environmental and economic conflicts, affect the quality of life, and that science and technology cannot answer all questions and cannot solve all human problems. Students access knowledge to explain how energy entering the ecosystems, such as sunlight, supports the life of organisms through photosynthesis and the transfer of energy through the interactions of organisms and the environment.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course, students begin with a study of the ancient world. This study incorporates each of the seven standards into the chronology. Students learn that each historic event is shaped by its geographic setting, culture of the people, economic conditions, governmental decisions and citizen action. Students also expand their command of social studies skills and methods.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Students in Spanish 170 will be introduced or re-introduced to skills in order to begin or resume communication in the target language. They will gain knowledge and understanding of pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar structure and simple conversation as well as study the many cultures of the target language including music, dance, art, sports, literature, cuisine and festivals.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In Eighth Grade Language Arts, students engage in skill units that increase vocabulary and comprehension.

They are responsible for obtaining copies of Number the Stars by Lois Lowry, Bridge to Terabithia by

Katherine Paterson, and Jacob Have I Loved by Katherine Paterson. All three books are Newberry Award

Books. Students also read and examine informational text including newspaper columns, editorials, and warranties. Writing requirements based on the writing process are expanded to include persuasive and expository writing. A research paper is required. Students develop and present a variety of speeches.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course, students estimate, compute, solve, and judge reasonableness of problems with real numbers including ratio, proportion, percent, integers, rational numbers, numbers expressed in scientific notation, and square roots of perfect and non-perfect squares; solve a variety of real-world and multistep problems; and convert, compare, and order size of US customary and metric units of measurement. In geometry, students apply direct and indirect measurement techniques, tools, and derivation of formulas to determine perimeter, area, volume, and various attributes of plane and solid geometric figures; and use coordinate geometry to analyze properties of two-dimensional figures and perform translations, reflections, rotations, and dilations. They explain and generalize patterns, sequences, and functions using tables, graphs, and symbolic algebra; solve and graph linear equations, inequalities, and systems of equations; determine slope, midpoint, and distance in the coordinate plane; compute with polynomials; and explore simple quadratic equations. Students use measures of center and spread to analyze data; investigate and evaluate the change of data and display it appropriately in graphs; make predictions based on samples representative of a larger population; use permutations and combinations to calculate the number of possible outcomes recognizing repetition and order; and compute the probability of compound events, independent events, and simple dependent events.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students in the eighth grade explore space and plate tectonics as they continue to draw conclusions from scientific evidence that support theories related to the change of Earth's surface. They acquire knowledge to describe how positions and motions of objects in the universe cause predictable and cyclic events.

Students explain that the universe is composed of vast amounts of matter and that it is held together by gravitational force. They explore equipment to study the universe - telescopes, probes, satellites and spacecraft. Motion of objects, effects of forces on objects, and how waves (sound, water and earthquake) transfer energy are explored. Students will be able to explain how extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and its adaptive characteristics are insufficient to allow survival. Students design a solution to a problem or design and build a product, given certain constraints. Technological influences on the quality of life are also explored in this grade level.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course, students will focus on European, British, French, and Spanish colonization of Americas,

Indentured Servitude in Colonial America, Introduction of Slavery to the 13 Colonies, Development of

Plantation System, The Colonial Assemblies; Northwest Ordinance, The Louisiana Purchase, Manifest

Destiny, Causes of the Mexican-American War, Texas War for Independence; The Lewis and Clark

Expedition; Selected Statistics on Slavery in the United States, States' Rights, Calhoun’s Contribution,

Taney and the Territories, Secession and the Confederate Constitution, State Rights in the Confederacy,

Economies of the North and South, Dred Scott: Introduction, Impact of Dred Scott, Kansas-Nebraska Act;

Frederick Douglass, John Brown (abolitionist), Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, The Lincoln

Douglas Debate, The Election of 1860, The South’s Secession; Abraham Lincoln, General Robert E. Lee,

Farewell to the Army of Northern Virginia, Ulysses S. Grant, The Emancipation Proclamation, The Battle

Of Gettysburg; The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Reconstruction: Radicalism vs. Conservatism, 13th amendment, 14th amendment, black codes, Ku Klux Klan, 15th amendment; The Middle Colonies as the

Birthplace of American Religious Pluralism, Religious Toleration in the Middle Colonies: A Trade-Off,

Reacting to religious diversity, Religious Exclusivism, Pluralism & Inclusivism, How people respond to religious diversity, Exclusivism and religious freedom; Social, Economic, and Political effects of stereotyping and prejudice, Position Statement on Racism, Prejudice and Discrimination, Discrimination,

Institutionalized Discrimination and Responses, Racism, Origins of racism, Institutional racism, Permanent

Frontier, Indian Removal, Protection of the Frontier, Permanent Land Lost, A Long History of Treaties, The

Reservation System, Native American Lands Sold under the Dawes Act, Treaties Between the United States and Native Americans; Enslavement of Africans in America; History of Women’s rights and diverse people in the U.S.; Geography: Places and Regions/Human Environmental Interaction; Factors changing geographic patterns in the United States; Economics and the Civil War; Regulations of the Economy; Role of Government; Rules and Laws of Government; The United Sates Constitution and the Bill of Rights; How a bill becomes a law; Citizenship rights and responsibilities; The American Revolution; Obtaining information, and problem solving.

### 1 Semester: 18 units

Students in Spanish 180 will be introduced or re-introduced to skills in order to begin or resume communication in the target language. They will gain knowledge and understanding of vocabulary, grammar structure, pronunciation and conversation as well as study the many cultures of the target language including music, dance, art, literature, cuisine and traditions.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In the first semester, students review writing conventions, including parts of speech, sentence combining, parallel structure, capitalization, and punctuation. They apply the writing process to develop persuasive, descriptive, narrative, and expository paragraphs. They also write business letters and a longer expository composition. During the second semester, students read, analyze, and respond to various literary genres including poetry, short stories, nonfiction, and the novel, Neighbor Rosicky by Willa Cather.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In the first semester, students review writing conventions, including parts of speech, sentence combining, parallel structure, capitalization, and punctuation. They apply the writing process to develop persuasive, descriptive, narrative, and expository paragraphs. They also write business letters and a longer expository composition. During the second semester, students read, analyze, and respond to various literary genres including poetry, short stories and nonfiction.

### Mathematics Path

: Listed below are suggested math paths to follow when selecting and/or assigning mathematics courses in the Virtual Learning Academy. The guide is provided to give students the best opportunity for success in mathematics.

## Path I Path II

### Integrated Math III

Optional courses include: Calculus, AP Calculus AB, Intervention Math, OGT Mathematics, and Transition to College Math (a semester course)

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course students connect physical, verbal, and symbolic representations of the real number system; investigate properties including closure; demonstrate fluency in computations with real numbers; solve and graph linear equations and inequalities. They use formulas to solve problems including exponential growth and decay; add, subtract, multiply, and divide monomials and polynomials; and solve quadratic equations with real roots by graphing, formula, and factoring. Students define functions, determine slope, calculate distance, and draw graphs of linear equations using slope, y-intercept, parallel, and perpendicular lines; determine the characteristics of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions; solve systems of linear equations involving two variables graphically and symbolically; simplify and compute with rational and radical expressions; model and solve problem situations involving direct and indirect variation. They describe and interpret rates of change from graphical and numerical data; find, use, and interpret measures of center and spread to compare and draw conclusions about data; evaluate the appropriateness of data collection and analysis; and identify possible misuses of statistical data. They use counting techniques and the Fundamental Counting Principal to determine possible outcomes, compute probabilities of compound events, independent events, and simple dependent events; and make predictions based on theoretical probabilities and experimental results. Students define basic trigonometric ratios in right triangles and apply proportions to solve problems involving right triangle trigonometry.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course students connect physical, verbal, and symbolic representations of the real number system.

They investigate the properties of real numbers and estimate, compute, solve, and judge reasonableness of problems with real numbers including ratio, proportion, percent, integers, rational numbers, numbers expressed in scientific notation, and square roots of perfect and non-perfect squares. Students generalize patterns and sequences and apply formulas to real-world problem situations. Students examine basic geometric properties of two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes. They graph solutions to equations; use coordinate geometry to analyze properties of two-dimensional figures and perform translations, reflections, rotations, and dilations; define basic trigonometric ratios in right triangles; and apply proportions to solve problems involving right triangle trigonometry. Students apply direct and indirect measurement techniques and tools, and derive formulas to determine perimeter, area, volume, and various attributes of plane and solid geometric figures. They use measures of center and spread to analyze data; evaluate the change of data and display it appropriately in graphs; make predictions based on samples representative of a larger population; use permutations and combinations to calculate the number of possible outcomes recognizing repetition and order; and compute the probability of compound events, independent events, and simple dependent events. Students solve and graph linear equations, absolute value equations, and inequalities; compute with polynomials; define functions; determine slope and intercepts; draw graphs of linear equations and inequalities; solve systems of equations, and explore simple nonlinear equations.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students enrolled in Integrated Physical Science study the same topics presented in Physical Science to assure total alignment with the Academic Content Standards. However, assessment has been adapted to a more appropriate format and level of difficulty. This course addresses physical science and related principles in Earth and Space Sciences. Physical Science concepts include the nature of matter and energy; identifiable physical properties of substances; and properties of forces that act on objects. Students will learn about forces and motions, structures and properties of atoms, how atoms react with each other to form other substances, and how molecules react with each other or other atoms. Earth and Space Science topics include processes that move and shape the Earth, Earth's interaction with the solar system, and gravitational forces and weather. Students continue to develop a deeper understanding of the processes of scientific inquiry and how these processes use evidence to support conclusions based on logical reasoning. Students investigate ways in which science and technologies combine to meet human needs and solve human problems. Students will trace the historical development of scientific theories and ideas, explore scientific theories and develop their scientific literacy to become knowledgeable citizens.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Physical Science addresses related principles in Earth and Space Sciences. Physical Science concepts include the nature of matter and energy; identifiable physical properties of substances; and properties of forces that act on objects. Students will learn about forces and motions, structures and properties of atoms, how atoms react with each other to form other substances, and how molecules react with each other or other atoms. Earth and space science topics include processes that move and shape Earth, Earth's interaction with the solar system, and gravitational forces and weather. Students continue to develop a deeper understanding of the processes of scientific inquiry and how these processes use evidence to support conclusions based on logical reasoning. Students investigate ways in which science and technologies combine to meet human needs and solve human problems. Students will trace the historical development of scientific theories and ideas, explore scientific theories and develop their scientific literacy to become knowledgeable citizens.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Why are students required to study world history when they have already read the history of their own country? The answer is both simple and complex. Knowledge of local history is not sufficient for people who will spend their lives on a relatively small interconnected planet. This class examines many of the events from 1750 to the present era and considers their ongoing impact on the world community. The course also addresses economic, political, social and cultural developments which shape our thoughts and values. In short, to understand world history is to understand our past, present and future.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students review writing conventions, including parts of speech, sentence combining, parallel structure, capitalization, and punctuation. They will apply the writing process to develop argumentative/persuasive/opinion, narrative/descriptive, and informative/expository/explanatory paragraphs in various writings. They also write business letters, give a speech, and present a longer informative/expository composition. Students will read, analyze, and respond to various literary genres including poetry, short stories, nonfiction, and the novellas, The Pearl by John Steinbeck and Neighbor

Rosicky by Willa Cather

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students review writing conventions, including parts of speech, sentence combining, parallel structure, capitalization, and punctuation. They will apply the writing process to develop argumentative/persuasive/opinion, narrative/descriptive, and informative/expository/explanatory paragraphs in various writings. They also write business letters, give a speech, and present a longer informative/expository composition. Students will read, analyze, and respond to various literary genres including poetry, short stories, nonfiction and novellas.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course students formally define geometric figures; describe and apply the properties of similar and congruent figures; and justify conjectures involving similarity and congruence. They recognize and apply angle relationships in situations involving intersecting lines, perpendicular lines, and parallel lines; use coordinate geometry to represent and examine the properties of geometric figures including slope, midpoint, distance, parallel, and perpendicular lines; draw and construct representations of two- and three-dimensional geometric objects using a variety of tools such as straightedge, compass, and technology. Students represent and model transformations in a coordinate plane and describe results; prove or disprove conjectures and establish the validity of conjectures about geometric objects, their properties and relationships by counterexample, inductive and deductive reasoning, and critiquing arguments made by others. Students use right triangle trigonometric relationships to determine lengths and angle measures; use algebraic representations to model and solve problem situations and to describe and generalize geometric properties and relationships; connect physical, verbal, and symbolic representations of irrational numbers; calculate and explain the difference between absolute error and relative error; interpret the relationship between two variables using multiple graphical displays and statistical measures; model problems dealing with uncertainty with area models; differentiate and explain the relationship between the probability of an event and the odds of an event.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course students study the topics presented in geometry but in a modified format. On occasion, students find that problems and/or explanations have been adapted to a simpler format. Students are given extra guidance with more difficult problems. Students formally define geometric figures; describe and apply the properties of similar and congruent figures; and justify conjectures involving similarity and congruence. They recognize and apply angle relationships in situations involving intersecting lines, perpendicular lines, and parallel lines; use coordinate geometry to represent and examine the properties of geometric figures including slope, midpoint, distance, parallel, and perpendicular lines; draw and construct representations of two- and three-dimensional geometric objects using a variety of tools such as straightedge, compass, and technology. Students represent and model transformations in a coordinate plane and describe the results; prove or disprove conjectures and establish the validity of conjectures about geometric objects, their properties and relationships by counterexample, inductive and deductive reasoning, and critiquing arguments made by others. Students use right triangle trigonometric relationships to determine lengths and angle measures; use algebraic representations to model and solve problem situations and to describe and generalize geometric properties and relationships.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

This course emphasizes the concepts, principles and theories that enable people to understand the living environment. Students study biology concepts such as cells and their structure and function, the genetic and molecular bases of inheritance, biological evolution, and the diversity and interdependence of life.

Students explain the Earth's history using geologic evidence, identifying the Earth's resources, and exploring processes that shape the Earth. The flow of energy and the cycling of matter through biological and ecological systems are addressed in the course. Embedded throughout this study are the basic science processes of inquiry, modeling investigations and the nature of science. Students learn to trace the historical development of scientific theories, ideas, ethical guidelines in science, the interdependence of science and technology, and the study of emerging issues to become scientifically literate citizens.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students enrolled in Integrated Bio Science study the same topics presented in Life Science to assure total alignment with the Academic Content Standards. However, assessment has been adapted to a more appropriate format and level of difficulty.

This course emphasizes the concepts, principles and theories that enable people to understand the living environment. Students study life science concepts such as cells and their structure and function, the genetic and molecular bases of inheritance, biological evolution, and the diversity and interdependence of life. Students explain the Earth's history using geologic evidence, identifying the Earth's resources, and exploring processes that shape the

Earth. The flow of energy and the cycling of matter through biological and ecological systems are addressed in the

Integrated Bio Science course. Embedded throughout this study are the basic science processes of inquiry, modeling investigations and the nature of science. Students learn to trace the historical development of scientific theories, ideas, ethical guidelines in science, the interdependence of science and technology, and the study of emerging issues to become scientifically literate citizens.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Successful republican government depends on a well-informed and knowledgeable electorate, and the purpose of this course is rooted in this theme. Students examine the events, political philosophies and social movements that shaped United States history from 1877 to the 21st century. The analyses of both primary and secondary sources provide opportunities to apply basic concepts of historical thinking and to examine alternative courses of action with their possible repercussions. Significant documents pertinent to the development of the United States as we know it are featured and are studied in their original text. Students also consider the challenges facing future generations of Americans.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In the first semester, students review the basics of grammar, refine writing, improve vocabulary, and delve into the world of American literature. Students apply the writing process to review paragraph writing and functional document writing such as business letters and resumes. Students also write longer descriptive and persuasive compositions and engage in several creative writing activities. They apply research skills to develop a persuasive speech. During the second semester, students read, analyze, and respond to various genres in American literature, including poetry, short stories, nonfiction, and the novel, Ethan

Frome by Edith Wharton.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In the first semester, students review the basics of grammar, refine writing, improve vocabulary, and delve into the world of American literature. Students apply the writing process to review paragraph writing and functional document writing such as business letters and resumes. Students also write longer descriptive and persuasive compositions and engage in several creative writing activities. They apply research skills to develop a persuasive speech. During the second semester, students read, analyze, and respond to various genres in American literature, including poetry, short stories, nonfiction, and a novel.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course students will begin by reviewing basic algebra and geometry topics. They demonstrate fluency in operations with real numbers, vectors and matrices; represent and compute with complex numbers; use fractional and negative exponents to find solutions for problem situations; describe and compare the characteristics of the families of quadratics with complex roots, polynomials of any degree, logarithms, and rational functions. They investigate rates of change, intercepts, zeros and asymptotes of polynomial, rational, and trigonometric functions graphically and with technology; identify families of functions with graphs that have rotation symmetry or reflection symmetry about the y-axis, x-axis, or y

=x. They solve problems with matrices and vectors, solve equations involving radical expressions and

complex roots, solve 3 by 3 systems of linear equations, and solve systems of linear inequalities; solve quadratic expressions, investigate curve fitting, and determine solutions for quadratic inequalities. They investigate exponential growth and decay and use recursive functions to model and solve problems; compute with polynomials and solve polynomial equations using a variety of methods including synthetic division and the rational root theorem; solve inverse, joint, and combined variation problems; solve rational and radical equations and inequalities; and describe the characteristics of the graphs of conic sections. Students use permutations and combinations to calculate the number of possible outcomes recognizing repetition and order; compute the probability of compound events, independent events, and dependent events.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course students study the topics presented in algebra but in a modified format. On occasion, students find that problems and/or explanations have been adapted to a simpler format. Students are given extra guidance with more difficult problems. In this course, students review basic algebra and geometry topics. They demonstrate fluency in operations with real numbers, vectors and matrices; represent and compute with complex numbers; use fractional and negative exponents to find solutions for problem situations; describe and compare the characteristics of the families of quadratics with complex roots, polynomials of any degree, logarithms, and rational functions. They investigate rates of change, intercepts, zeros and asymptotes of polynomial, rational, and trigonometric functions graphically and with technology; identify families of functions with graphs that have rotation symmetry or reflection symmetry about the y-axis, x-axis, or y =x. They solve problems with matrices and vectors, solve equations involving radical expressions and complex roots, solve 3 by 3 systems of linear equations, and solve systems of linear inequalities; solve quadratic expressions, investigate curve fitting, and determine solutions for quadratic inequalities; investigate exponential growth and decay and use recursive functions to model and solve problems. They compute with polynomials and solve polynomial equations using a variety of methods including synthetic division and the rational root theorem; solve inverse, joint, and combined variation problems; solve rational and radical equations and inequalities; and describe the characteristics of the graphs of conic sections. Students use permutations and combinations to calculate the number of possible outcomes recognizing repetition and order; and compute the probability of compound events, independent events, and dependent events.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course, students draw on their previous experience and connect Earth, space, life and physical sciences into a coherent study of the environment. Emphasis is placed on the interactions between humans and Earth, ecosystems, biological evolution, populations and diversity. Students also explore matter and energy relationships. The human interactions with science and technology are discussed, as well as how man has modified current ecosystems and natural systems. Students have the opportunity to use basic science processes of inquiry, scientific investigation, and the nature of science to examine past events, current situations, and to develop and revise scientific predictions, ideas or theories.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students enrolled in Differentiated Environmental Science study the same topics presented in

Environmental Science to assure total alignment with the Academic Content Standards. However, assessment has been adapted to a more appropriate format and level of difficulty.

The students draw on their previous experience and connect Earth, space, life and physical sciences into a coherent study of the environment. Emphasis is placed on the interactions between humans and Earth, ecosystems, biological evolution, populations and diversity. Students also explore matter and energy relationships. The human interactions with science and technology are discussed, as well as how man has modified current ecosystems and natural systems. Students have the opportunity to use basic science processes of inquiry, scientific investigation, and the nature of science to examine past events, current situations, and to develop and revise scientific predictions, ideas or theories.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

In this course, students will learn the personal economic responsibilities highlighted in this course. General topics addressed include: effects of shortages and surpluses, incentives; inflation, components of the economic system, supply and demand, purchasing power of money, comparative advantage, trade, exchange rates, taxes, role of individuals, and consequences of economic choices.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

In this course, students will focus upon the historic roots of the political system and how it has changed over time. It also continues to develop an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course, students read and respond to English literature from the Anglo Saxon Period through the

Twentieth Century. The first half of the course focuses on writing. Students apply the writing process to write paragraphs, persuasive and expository compositions, and reflective essays. They also engage in an extensive research project and develop a formal research paper. During the second semester, students read, analyze, and respond to various genres in British literature, including poetry, essays, and the

Elizabethan drama, Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course, students read and respond to English literature from the Anglo Saxon Period through the

Twentieth Century. The first half of the course focuses on writing. Students apply the writing process to write paragraphs, persuasive and expository compositions, and reflective essays. They also engage in an extensive research project and develop a formal research paper. During the second semester, students read, analyze, and respond to various genres in British literature, including poetry, essays, and the

Elizabethan drama, Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course students determine what properties hold for operations with complex numbers. They apply combinations as a method to create coefficients for the Binomial Theorem; solve problems involving derived measurements; use radian measures to solve problems involving angular velocity and acceleration; apply informal concepts of successive approximation, upper and lower bounds, and limits in measurement situations. Students use matrices to represent translations, reflections, rotations, dilations, and their compositions; derive and apply the basic trigonometric identities; relate graphical and algebraic representations of lines, simple curves, and conic sections. Students recognize and compare specific shapes and properties in multiple geometries; analyze the behavior of arithmetic and geometric sequences and series as the number of terms increases; translate between the numeric and symbolic form of a sequence or series. They describe and compare the characteristics of transcendental and periodic functions and represent the inverse of a transcendental function symbolically; solve systems of equations using matrices and graphs, with and without technology. They use mathematical induction and explore the concepts of limit; compare estimates of the area under a curve over a bounded interval by partitioning the region with rectangles; translate freely between polar and Cartesian coordinate systems; use the concept of limit to find instantaneous rate of change for a point on a graph as the slope of a tangent at a point. They use descriptive statistics to analyze and summarize data, including measures of center, dispersion, correlation, and variability; and use theoretical or experimental probability to determine probabilities in real-world situations involving uncertainty.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

In this course, students will focus on current events and recent history while being allowed to choose topics of particular interest. Students demonstrate skills necessary for active, effective citizenship.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

This course is a semester course designed with lots of practical applications of mathematics. Students compute work wages, commission, piecework pay, tips, and net pay for an earnings statement. They record checkbook progress, reconcile checking account statements and examine various types of savings accounts; and use recursive functions such as determining compound interest for a financial investment.

Students create and analyze tabular and graphical displays of data such as making and adjusting budgets and displaying results in circle graphs; determine measures of central tendency and create and interpret frequency tables, stem-and-leaf plots, and bar graphs. Students compute sales tax, use installment plans, and investigate finance charges associated with credit cards; examine comparative shopping techniques including best buys, discount prices, catalog orders, and the consumer price index. Students use scale drawings and estimate and compute perimeter, area, and volume in real-world problem situations; examine permutations and combinations and their applications in consumer situations; compute the probability of compound events, independent events, and dependent events. Students compute with matrices, representing and generalizing real-world problem situations; examine purchasing and owning a car including gas mileage, depreciation, insurance coverage and financing; determine the costs of financing a home including house payment, property taxes, insurance, maintenance, and improvements; estimate total costs for a trip by determining distance on a map, calculating gas mileage, finding best buy for lodging, and exchanging currency; and connect statistical techniques to consumer situations by evaluating health, sports and advertising data.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Students taking the Marketing Basics course will learn about the basic components of marketing, its methods and uses for businesses/companies. Marketing focuses on the promotion of various products offered by businesses/companies and can include either goods or services. Topics that will be discussed throughout this course will include: understanding what marketing is, promotion, missions statements, pricing, advertising, decision-making, digital marketing, developing new ideas, supply chains, sales, and customer relationship management.

## English/Language Arts

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Greek Mythology is a semester elective course. Since we find many references to mythology in literature, music, the arts, advertising, history, and language, Greek mythology serves as a background for multidisciplinary curricula. Myths focusing on major Greek gods, goddesses, and heroes encourage and motivate students to read and explore classical mythology. Students read several myths, use the writing process to respond to each selection, and independently research several mythical characters.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Poetry is a semester elective course. Poems were selected to encourage and motivate students to read and enjoy American poetry. Students read and analyze poems and use the writing process to respond to poems. They also study literary terms related to each selection.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Roman Mythology is a semester elective course. Since we find many references to mythology in literature, music, the arts, advertising, history, and language, Roman mythology serves as a background for multidisciplinary curricula. Myths focusing on major Roman gods, goddesses, and heroes encourage and motivate students to read and explore classical mythology. Students read several myths, use the writing process to respond to each selection, and independently research several mythical characters.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Short Stories is a semester elective course. The stories selected are intended to encourage and motivate students to read and enjoy literature from a wide variety of authors. Students will be required to read stories that represent a variety of genres, and use the writing process to respond to each selection. They will also be required to complete projects and conduct independent research.

## Family and Consumer Sciences

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Thinking about your career or careers brings thoughts of the schooling and training that will be involved in preparing you for that vocation. It may take years to get equipped. What about preparing to be a parent? How much time will it take studying and training for that responsibility?

Parenting involves many years of a person’s life, but often people are not prepared for the challenge. This course will encourage students to think about skills involved in parenting, exploring if or when someone would like to become a parent, and the development and changes which occur during a pregnancy. Child

Development, in addition, will explore the growth a child experiences through physical, emotional, moral, social, and intellectual development.

Many careers available today touch on some facet of child development. This course will briefly touch on some of these professions, looking at what is involved and the training necessary.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

If a student is anxious to be independent, then this Family Living course will prepare students for life after high school. Students will explore available housing choices as well as advantages of renting an apartment or buying a home. They will look at setting up a house and what they can do to turn it into a home. They will learn about food preparation and practice skills as they complete a couple of labs while preparing simple recipes. Washing clothes will be a breeze after examining laundry basics. Budgeting, writing checks, and examining consumer issues will prepare students to work with finances. Practicing decision making and good communication skills will make them easier to use every day.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Financial Literacy is designed to help students make the most of their money. Students will learn personal financial planning, budgeting, banking, using credit wisely, how to protect their money, consumerism, investing and philanthropy. More specifically, it examines the ability of individuals to use knowledge and skills to manage limited financial resources effectively for a lifetime of financial security.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Do you want to live on your own someday? Get a good job? Earn money? This Integrated Family Living course will help you get ready for life after high school. Students enrolled in this course study the same topics presented in Family Living to assure alignment with the Academic Content Standards. However, content and assessment has been adapted to a more appropriate format and level of difficulty. Students will learn how to make good decisions and solve problems, become an informed consumer, manage money, communicate and resolve conflicts, balance work and family, and choose a career that is right for them. They will also learn to be a good citizen and leader, choose a place to live, learn how to furnish and take care of a home, learn how to go green and take care of the environment. In addition, they will learn to make good clothing choices and learn how to care for clothing, make choices for strong social, mental, and physical health, make healthy decisions about the food they eat, plan and prepare meals, and get along with others. The information learned in this course will help students right now and all of their life.

## Fine Arts

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

In Art History, the student will learn not only to analyze and appreciate art, but to enjoy it. This course covers the changes and artistic movements from the prehistoric to the modern. Students start by studying cave art and Classical Greek art, and then move through history and study the Renaissance, Colonial

American, Realism, Impressionism, and end with the late 20th century's New Media. All this is covered and more, giving a cohesive timeline to illustrate the transformation of art through history.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

In The History of Jazz, students will begin the course with a brief lesson in basic music terminology that will help them understand the development of this American popular music genre. They will then study the origins of jazz in the nineteenth century and the numerous musical style developments including,

Ragtime, Swing Music, BeBop, Cool Jazz, Free Jazz, Fusion, and Modern Jazz. Students will also get an indepth look at some of the biggest names in the development from Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington to Miles Davis, and Wynton Marsalis. Numerous video and audio recordings will be used throughout the class as a resource to truly understand the development of this genre of music.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

In The History of Rock and Roll, students will begin the course with a brief lesson in basic music terminology that will help them understand the development of this American popular music genre.

They will then study the origins of Rock and Roll beginning in the 1950s and the numerous musical style developments including, Rockabilly, Motown, the British Invasion, Folk Rock, Psychedelic Rock, Hip Hop,

Disco and Funk. Students will also get an in-depth look at some of the biggest names in the development of Rock and Roll from Elvis and Little Richard to Led Zeppelin and Kurt Cobain. Numerous video and audio recordings will be used throughout the class as a resource to truly understand the development of this genre of music. Some of these videos and recordings might be considered inappropriate due to the topics covered within the music or language used within the songs. They are integral part, however, of the history of the history of Rock and Roll.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

In Junior High Music Appreciation, students will begin the course with a brief lesson in basic music terminology that will help them understand the development of music history. Students will then learn about important music developments in each musical time period including The Middle Ages,

Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, 20th Century, Jazz, and Rock and Roll. Important composers from Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven to Elvis, Louis Armstrong, and the Beatles will also be discussed. Numerous video and audio recordings will be used throughout the class as a resource to truly understand the development of this genre of music. PLEASE take the time to listen and watch ALL videos as material from those videos will show up in the assessments at the end of each lesson. Some of these videos and recordings might be considered inappropriate due to the topics covered within the music or language used within the songs. They are integral part, however, of the history music.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Throughout this course, students will learn about the Theatre from its origins to a modern day opening night. Students will also have the opportunity to develop their own skills in Lighting, Set and Costume

Design; as well as Acting, Directing, Producing and Script Development. Various forms of plays will be discussed; covering a large span of time periods, targeting the relationship Theatre has with society.

Students will also learn to develop an appreciation for Theatre and skills for critical evaluation of theatrical productions.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Music history is a reflection of the history of our world and/or country. Each country has developed a specific music giving it its own humanistic value. With extensive world travel music has grown to encompass many cultures and venues resulting in many blended styles. Music Appreciation gives us a chance to understand and appreciate each period of history: how it has influenced the past, present, and how it will affect the future. This course is designed to give students a taste of the music and culture from each designated period in the timeline of music history. The topics will be covered with the use of video to help comprehend the era in which each style of music was incorporated. Many audio pieces will give

students a feel for the spectrum of music history, its composers, and/or their repertoires. Music

Appreciation will help students gain a better understanding of and a new appreciation for the world of music.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

In Renaissance Art, students learn about the rebirth of ideas and art from the classical period of the Greeks and Romans. They study the lives and works of Michelangelo, Da Vinci, and Raphael, three primary artists featured in this course, and learn that versatility was a key to the greatness of Renaissance artists who were also writers, scientists, and mathematicians. Students learn how the arts flourished during the

Renaissance period and about artists who were often individuals of great social stature, wealth and influence.

## Health

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

The Health course focuses on helping students become responsible for their own personal health.

Students develop a basic knowledge and understanding of body systems, body functions, and body needs.

They practice and implement healthy habits and routines that properly support and care for these systems, functions and needs.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

In this course, students will learn about being active and improving physical fitness. Being active is the key to a better physical YOU, now and in the future.

The minimum requirement for this course is to participate in a physical activity, chosen by each student, for fifty minutes, three days a week. These fifty minutes include ten minutes of warm-up, thirty minutes of activities, and ten minutes of cool down. The warm-up and cool-down activities will be further explained in the course. Students may also decide to increase the number of days and minutes of each activity.

In addition, improving physical activity, students will be learning about various aspects of fitness and a healthy lifestyle. Students will learn to set goals, both in the level of personal fitness and other areas of life. They will learn about proper clothing for working out, how to stay hydrated, and how the new food pyramid can help you make better choices. You will learn to properly warm-up before and cool-down when exercising. Students will test their own fitness levels throughout the course and hopefully see improvement in their own abilities as they strive to achieve a more active lifestyle.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

In this course, students will be learning and studying about extreme sports from all over the world.

Students will also learn about being active and improving physical fitness levels. Some of the sports included in the course are mountain climbing, backpacking, snowboarding, cheese rolling, barrel riding over the Niagara Falls and many more exciting extreme sports! To learn about staying active and improving physical fitness levels, units will include tips on proper clothing for working out, how to stay hydrated, and how to eat properly by using the MyPyramid Food Guide and the new Myplate Food

Guidelines unveiled June 2,2011.

Students will learn to properly warm-up before and cool-down when exercising. They will test their own fitness levels throughout the course and hopefully see improvement in their own abilities as the strive to achieve a more active lifestyle.

The minimum requirement for this course is to participate in a physical activity, chosen by each student, for fifty minutes, three days a week. These fifty minutes include ten minutes of warm-ups, thirty minutes of activities, and ten minutes of cool down. The warm-up and cool-down activities will be further explained in the course. Students may also decide to increase the number of days and minutes of each activity. They will keep track of their daily activity on a weekly activity *log that will be attached to the question section in each unit once a week. Students will also be required to take Pre and Post physical fitness tests (push-ups, curl-ups, the one mile walk/run, shuttle run, and the V-sit reach) Body Mass Index

(BMI) and body measurements. Each unit will also review some main points of the Physical Education I course.

# Math

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

The study of AP Calculus AB in the Virtual Learning Academy (VLA) environment is designed for students who want to extend their knowledge of mathematics and broaden their success in solving problems intuitively. Students will rigorously explore, discover, and reinforce rich mathematics topics and applications of calculus concepts. The intent of this course is to give students a "true" understanding and interpretation of calculus concepts and enable them to apply their knowledge in varied problem-solving scenarios, both real and simulated. Students will complete many-in-depth investigations and often use the TI-Nspire graphing calculator as a tool to complete their investigations. Students will have ample opportunities to express and connect problem-solving results graphically, numerically and verbally. The culminating activity in this course will be the completion of the AP Calculus AB exam successfully.

Note:

A TI-Nspire graphing calculator is required for this course.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course, students connect physical, verbal, and symbolic representations of the real number system; investigate properties including closure; demonstrate fluency in computations with real numbers; solve and graph linear equations and inequalities. Students use formulas to solve problems including exponential growth and decay; add, subtract, multiply, and divide monomials and polynomials; and solve quadratic equations with real roots by graphing, formula, and factoring. Students define functions, determine slope, calculate distance, and draw graphs of linear equations using slope, y-intercept, parallel, and perpendicular lines; determine the characteristics of linear, quadratic, and exponential functions; solve systems of linear equations involving two variables graphically and symbolically; simplify and compute with rational and radical expressions; model and solve problem situations involving direct and indirect variation.

In Algebra I, you will begin your journey to learn mathematical and theoretical concepts which lay the foundation to take more advanced math classes, both in high school and beyond. Mathematics knowledge is built in steps and Algebra I is one of its building blocks. With mastery of Algebra I skills, you will have a solid foundation to pursue many different paths and further your knowledge of mathematics.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

In this course students will begin by reviewing basic algebra and geometry topics. They demonstrate fluency in operations with real numbers, vectors and matrices; represent and compute with complex numbers; use fractional and negative exponents to find solutions for problem situations; describe and compare the characteristics of the families of quadratics with complex roots, polynomials of any degree, logarithms, and rational functions. Students investigate rates of change, intercepts, zeros and asymptotes of polynomial, rational, and trigonometric functions graphically and with technology; identify families of functions with graphs that have rotation symmetry or reflection symmetry about the y-axis, x-axis, or y = x. They solve problems with matrices and vectors, solve equations involving radical expressions and complex roots, solve 3 by 3 systems of linear equations, and solve systems of linear inequalities; solve quadratic expressions, investigate curve fitting, and determine solutions for quadratic inequalities. They investigate exponential growth and decay and use recursive functions to model and solve problems; compute with polynomials and solve polynomial equations using a variety of methods including synthetic division and the rational root theorem; solve inverse, joint, and combined variation problems; solve rational and radical equations and inequalities; and describe the characteristics of the graphs of conic sections. They analyze the behavior of arithmetic and geometric sequences and series. Students use permutations and combinations to calculate the number of possible outcomes recognizing repetition and order; compute the probability of compound events, independent events, and dependent events. They use descriptive statistics to analyze and interpret data, including measures of central tendency and variation.

In some of the units, a graphing calculator will be useful. It is recommended that the graphing calculator be at least a TI-83 model.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Calculus is a course intended to cover topics similar to the topics explored in an entry-level College

Calculus course offered at most colleges or universities. This course is written in accordance with the Ohio

Academic Content Standards and includes such topics as Limits, Rates of Change, Differentiation,

Functions of Derivatives, Indefinite and Definite Integrals, Areas in a Plane, Volumes of Generated Solids,

L’Hôpital’s Rule, and Slope Fields. This course can be demanding at times; however, when explored with an open mind, Calculus can be an enjoyable challenge. Be prepared to be amazed by how math works! A

GRAPHING CALCULATOR IS REQUIRED FOR THIS COURSE. Instructions for using the graphing calculator will be based on a TI-84 Plus.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

This course is designed to review the student in basic concepts necessary for success in applying mathematics involved in everyday life. The subject matter studied is familiar and motivational, integrating problem solving and focusing on real applications of mathematical skills. This course is designed primarily for the student who seeks to improve his or her knowledge of basic mathematics. Topics studied include computations and applications of whole numbers, decimals, fractions, ratios, and percent; measurement in metric and customary units; geometric figures, finding volume and surface area; statistics, graphs, and probability; and integers, the coordinate plane, and algebraic equations.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

This course covers traditional topics in college algebra and trigonometry at the freshman level. This course was written in accordance with the Ohio Academic Content Standards for grades 11 and 12 and includes such topics as: Systems of Linear Equations, Complex Numbers, Quadratic Functions, Logarithms,

Trigonometry, Matrices, Vectors, and the Conic Sections.

## Science

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

If you’ve ever been on an airplane you know what a thrill it is to fly. If not, this Aviation course may spark a desire in you to explore the world of flight, as well as learn the strong science, mathematics and technology aspects of aviation. Students will have the opportunity to learn about the beginning of aviation, some of the major milestones, events and key individuals who have influenced its advancement throughout history. Technological advances in airplane design and navigation equipment have broadened the capabilities that pilots have to get you from point A to any destination in the world that you want to go. This course is designed to give a basic overview of what you would need to learn if you, yourself want to learn how to fly.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Do you wonder why you have to take chemistry? To put it as straightforward as possible, chemistry is everywhere. From the clothes you wear, to the cell phone you use, the food you eat, and the car you ride in; chemistry involves understanding the physical and chemical nature of substances known as matter.

Not exciting enough? How about this? If you can speak the language of chemistry, you will find yourself with access to a whole new molecular world, a world where billions of dollars are made every day and have been made for centuries. Here’s the best part, you don’t have to be a chemist or a researcher with a PhD.

With the wealth of information available to every person with web access, just knowing content is no longer acceptable. Employers of today want people who can take this large amount of information and process it quickly. In this course you will be taught to reason scientifically, communicate using chemical and physical terminology unique to chemistry, and examine the theories that led to and are still leading to new discoveries every day. Most importantly, you will take what you have learned and apply critical thinking skills to evaluate, predict, and apply your own theories or to confirm the theories of other people.

In essence, you are being asked to learn a new language and to take this new language and communicate with others. If you were taking a foreign language class, you would learn how to read, write and articulate that language. In this course, you will do the same thing, except this time, you will learn the language of chemistry.

*** Required course fee.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Forensic Science will allow students opportunities to develop and extend scientific skills and processes through problem-based learning. Students will engage in activities that will relate to other subject areas such as: biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, sociology, archaeology, anthropology, anatomy, health, and writing. Forensic Science will connect these subject areas to real-life applications used in criminal investigations.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

This is a survey course aligned with the twelfth grade Academic Content Standards. Students learn about cell specialization, biotechnology, DNA, evolutionary theory, equilibrium of systems, electromagnetic radiation, isotopes, radioactive decay, and concepts of forces and motion as applied to large and small objects and energy levels. Integrated with these topics are historical perspectives, the process of inquiry, the nature of science, ethical practices and the use of appropriate technology. Students apply the principles of forces and motion and describe and predict the net effects of forces and motion of objects or systems. Students explore scientific research, scientific literature, and the relationship of science and society.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Marine Biology is the study of all things pertaining to the oceans, both living and non-living. Marine Biology is a survey course designed for students who already have had a successful foundation in biology. The first part of the course focuses on oceanography and looks at physical aspects like tectonics, tides, and currents. The second half of the course deals with living components, starting with microscopic life and moving forward to advanced animals.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Physics is described as the study of matter and energy, how matter and energy relate to each other, and how they affect each other over time and through space. Physicists ask the fundamental questions. How did the universe begin? How and of what is it made? How does it change? What rules govern its behavior?

Through research and understanding those basic questions came laws, theories and principles. Physics is the study of our physical world and the fundamental laws of nature on which all science is based. Topics to be covered are Newtonian mechanics, energy, momentum, static mechanics, fluid mechanics, waves, sound and light.

* Required course fee.

### 2 Semester: 36 Units

The Physics course addresses the science of matter and energy and the interactions between the two.

This study is grouped in traditional fields such as motion, acoustics, optics, thermodynamics, electrical applications, magnetism, and nuclear applications. Students have the opportunity to explore basic science processes of inquiry and scientific investigation as they progress through the course.

## Social Studies

### 2 Semester: 36 Units

Welcome to AP World History. You have just embarked on an exciting and challenging journey. World

History can be one of the most interesting and strange subjects around. For example, did you know that the Mongols had one of the largest and most successful empires in all of history? Did you know that

Great Britain, an island off the coast of Europe once controlled almost ¼ of the world? That’s pretty impressive for just about anyone. World History can also be very challenging as there are many people, places and events that you need to remember and understand if you hope to succeed in the course.

As you go through each unit, just remember to relax and pace yourself. Each unit will start with a short introduction and some questions you should keep in mind as you read and complete the assigned work.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Financial Literacy is designed to help students make the most of their money. Students will learn personal financial planning, budgeting, banking, using credit wisely, how to protect their money, consumerism, investing and philanthropy. More specifically, it examines the ability of individuals to use knowledge and skills to manage limited financial resources effectively for a lifetime of financial security.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

In this course, students will have the opportunity to study the interaction of people and cultures, as well as natural and physical environments in the major areas of the world. The course is designed to familiarize students with the world and how they, along with their community, can play a role in the development of the world. Students will also study and develop an understanding of various regions of the world and will focus on several geographic topics in each region. In addition, students should develop an understanding of how physical geography impacts the way humans live and interact with their world and how humans have changed the world’s physical geography. As citizens our lives are greatly impacted by the rest of the world and this is our opportunity to learn about many of these places and issues.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

The Study of Psychology is a fascinating look at human development and behavior. Psychology is a social science like criminology and sociology. It is a study of what makes us unique as human beings. There are mental processes or procedures that humans use to interact and function successfully. As children grow physically, emotionally and psychologically, they are influenced by many factors. Psychologists and psychiatrists are people who can directly affect the lives of children in need. A study of the types of

psychologists and psychiatrists is included in unit one. Also studied are key vocabulary words used in psychology. There is a study of a family and its interactions with each other that allows students to see a character as he or she develops into adulthood.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

This course is an introduction to the field of Sociology. Students will have the opportunity to explore the study of social relationships in a variety of areas. The students begin by understanding what sociology is, then learn how sociology applies to real life. Students examine topics that they can relate to, such as cultural diversity, adolescent development, and society’s rules. Students gain an understanding of society’s functions and how people function in society. At the conclusion of this course, students will have insight to themselves, to other people in their lives, and to their world as a whole.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

The course is designed to prepare students for leadership roles and responsibilities. Students should be able to apply leadership principles and skills in their everyday lives.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

This course teaches the fundamentals of dramatic storytelling. Stories that you read work very differently than stories you see. For example, novels work very differently than films, plays, television shows, or games. Each of the visual mediums works slightly differently, yet all of them share more similarities when compared to written fiction.

*Pre-requisite-Games through the Ages

## Technology

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Who invented the computer? This may seem like an easy question, but the answer may be a surprise. In this course, students will explore the evolution of the computer. They will investigate the role that early inventors played in the development of the personal computers used today.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

This course focuses on the skills that students will need to be successful as digital citizens in a global economy. The topics that this course will cover have been selected to give the student an understanding

of technology and the ability to use productively use technology in their daily lives. Students graduating from high school today will need to have the ability to analyze a problem, and then apply the appropriate technological approach to solving that problem. This will be the case in most fields that students will be entering. Additionally, some students will need the ability to use technology to create. In this course, students will be asked to create original works using various technologies. After completion of this course, students will be more prepared to compete and thrive in an increasingly digital and global economy.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Students in Introduction to the Internet learn to use the Internet for school and personal reasons. They learn where the Internet came from and become experts at finding just what they are looking for. They use online study tools, find people, download useful software, and use the Internet to help plan for their futures. When students are finished with this course, they will have visited many websites and know how to organize those sites so they can use them in the future. Students learn to avoid viruses and hoaxes and how to stay safe while they are online. Students spend time becoming web experts!

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

This course has been designed to help students learn to use the main features of Microsoft’s Excel software. Excel is electronic spreadsheet software that helps present data in an organized and graphical format. A spreadsheet is a document which helps organize data in rows and columns of cells. Each cell can contain words, numbers, or a formula that may be calculated accurately or sorted in an organized way.

The Excel chart wizard is used to create colorful graphs of the data. Spreadsheets were originally created as "number crunchers", programs to handle manipulating and calculating large amounts of numerical data.

Your textbook is Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Illustrated Introductory, CourseCard Edition, by Reding and

Wermers. It is broken into eight different topics which will be covered in eighteen different units and unit reviews.

* Required course fee.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 is a computer program that is used to create visually compelling presentations. With PowerPoint 2007, students can create individual slides and display them as a slide show on a computer, video projector, or even via the Internet. In this course students will learn to create presentations, speaker’s notes, handouts, outlines, and web presentations using PowerPoint 2007.

Students will work with text, graphics, charts, animations, sounds, and templates.

Your textbook is Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 Illustrated Introductory, CourseCard Edition, by

Beskeen. It is broken into eight different topics which will be covered in eighteen different units and unit reviews.

* Required course fee.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

This course has been designed to teach personal computer skills, as well as get students started on acquiring a valuable job skill. Microsoft Office Word 2007 is a computer program that makes it easy to create a variety of professional-looking documents, from simple letters and memos to newsletters, research papers, blog posts, business cards, résumés, financial reports, and other documents that include multiple pages of text and sophisticated formatting. This software has many powerful tools that will be used for editing text, formatting pages and spell-checking a document. In addition, this software will help communicate your thoughts more effectively.

The textbook in this course is Microsoft Office Word 2007 Illustrated Series, CourseCard Edition,

Introductory Edition by Jennifer Duffy. The Illustrated Series is designed to help students see a picture of what they are learning. It is perfect for the beginner because of the descriptive pictures and extra information in the margins and at the bottom of some pages.

* Required course fee.

## Career Training

### 9 Weeks: (1/4 credit)

In this nine week course students will learn what it means to have a career in business. They will also research 8 careers in the "Business Cluster," as well as search for information regarding these careers of the Ohio Means Jobs website. Students will be introduced to Business Ethics, Information Technology,

Human Resources, Communications, Accounting/Finance, Sales and Project Management.

### Semester: (1/2 credit)

The process of finding a job can be overwhelming and a little intimidating. This nine week course will guide students step by step through the process, from applying, to accepting, to keeping a job. A good start is to decide what type of job is right for each student. By looking at some questions, and thinking about past experiences, students can find what career will best suit them. They will also learn about creating a resume, and the interview process.

### Weeks: (1/4 credit)

This nine-week course is designed to give an introduction to the Ohio Means Jobs website. At the completion of this course, students will have a career plan and be ready to search and apply for jobs on this site. Students will cover topics such as: communication in the workplace, education and training option, scholarships and more.

### Weeks: (1/4 credit)

In this nine week course students will learn about and research careers in law, public safety, corrections and security job cluster. Students will also research 8 careers in the “Public Safety” cluster, as well as search for information regarding these careers on the Ohio Means Jobs website. They will learn more about the careers Police Office, Firefighter, EMT/Paramedic, Probation Officer, Judge, Paralegal and Park

Ranger.

## Test Preparation

th

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

This course will prepare students to take the ACT test. The textbooks, Essential Skills Required for

College and Career Readiness Student Text, 12th Edition and Victory for the ACT Test ACT Aspire

(formerly EPAS) and the College and Career Readiness System, 12th Edition from Cambridge Educational

Services, accompanies this course. The instructions within each unit will direct students to the section of the textbook that they need to reference.

* Required course fee.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

The Argumentative and Informative/Essay writing course is divided into two 9 unit sessions. The first nine weeks will focus on creating argumentative essays. This section will be broken down into an overview of arguments, transition words, introduction paragraph, body paragraphs, claims, counterclaims, and the closing paragraph. The second nine weeks will hone in on how to create an informative/expository essay. Units will focus on introductory paragraphs, body paragraphs, closing paragraphs, as well as an overview of the informative essay. Students will be asked to use in text citation for both essays. This will be reviewed in both sections.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

This course will explore the government of the United States of America. How the American people govern themselves at national, state and local levels of government is the basis for this course. Students will examine the basic principles of the Constitution, the structure and functions of the federal government, the role of the people, and the importance of the economy.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

This course examines the history of the United States of America from 1877 to the present. The federal republic has withstood challenges to its national security and expanded the rights and roles of its citizens.

The episodes of its past have shaped the nature of the country today and prepared it to attend to the challenges of tomorrow. Understanding how these events came to pass and their meaning for today’s citizens is the purpose of this course. The concepts of historical thinking introduced in earlier grades continue to build with students locating and analyzing primary and secondary sources from multiple perspectives to draw conclusions.

### 1 Semester: 18 Units

The study skills and strategies course is broken into two 9 unit sections. The first nine weeks concentrate on student learning styles, management of study time and routines, note taking strategies from textbooks, classes, and presentations, and ends with test taking tips strategies. The second nine weeks concentrate on using reference sources, remembering strategies, standardized test taking strategies, building vocabulary through clues, and ends with final exam and college preparation strategies.

Each unit consists of Prezi or Power Point lectures. Students will encounter different types of activities and video presentations as they follow along with the lecture. A concept check is administered to assess student content knowledge at the end of each unit. As the students finish course, they will be asked to complete a study skills and strategies portfolio. This portfolio will be used as a reference source for the rest of their high school and college careers.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students in French I develop knowledge and skills to begin communicating in the target language. They speak, listen, read, and write the language in short sentences and paragraphs that contain the learned vocabulary words and phrases. Students also gain insight into the target culture by examining literature, music, laws, foods, values, traditions, and behaviors.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students in French II will participate in simple conversational situations using sentences and groups of sentences. They create with the target language by combining and recombining learned phrases and words. Students write simple messages, read texts dealing with familiar topics, and understand main ideas when listening to conversations dealing with familiar topics or themes. Students also gain an awareness and understanding of, and appreciation for, cultural contributions made by people of the target language.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students in French III initiate and sustain conversations by making statements, asking questions, and giving appropriate responses. They communicate using correct time frames on everyday topics, both orally and in writing. When writing, students compose cohesive paragraphs related to familiar topics and personal experiences. Students develop understanding of main ideas and significant details in extended discussions and presentations, both live and recorded. They acquire new knowledge and information from texts including short literary texts and media. Students continue to expand their knowledge and understanding of the cultural significance of the target language.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students in French IV speak and write the target language using coherent paragraphs. They learn to initiate, sustain, and bring to closure a wide variety of communicative tasks using appropriate time frames.

They expand comprehension skills that allow them to acquire knowledge and information from comprehensive, authentic texts including literary texts and media. Students continue to develop insight into the nature of the target language and culture.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students in Spanish I develop knowledge and skills to begin communicating in the target language. They speak, listen, read and write the language in short sentences and paragraphs that contain the learned vocabulary words and phrases. Students also gain insight into the target culture by examining literature, music, laws, foods, values, traditions, and behaviors.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Students in Spanish II participate in simple conversational situations using sentences and groups of sentences. They create with the target language by combining and recombining learned phrases and words. Students write simple messages, read texts dealing with familiar topics, and understand main ideas when listening to conversations dealing with familiar topics or themes. Students also gain an awareness, understanding of, and appreciation for cultural contributions made by people of the target language.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Spanish III is offered to students interested in pursuing greater fluency in reading, writing, speaking and understanding the target language. The students will be required to recall previously learned words and phrases and build upon them as they learn to create more native-like writing and conversation. This course also continues with a more intense study of grammar and appreciation for cultural contributions made by people of the target language.

### 2 Semesters: 36 Units

Spanish IV is offered to those students interested in becoming proficient in reading, writing, speaking and understanding the target language. The students will be required to review all grammatical structure and recall previously learned vocabulary to strive for a native-like proficiency level as well as continue a more intense study of cultural aspects including art and literature. The student will be responsible for comprehension and discussion of these works in the target language as well as public presentation including personal opinion.