Popular Electronics - American Radio History

Popular Electronics - American Radio History
Popular Electronics°
WORLD'S LARGEST SELLING ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE
DECEMBER 1981 /$1
THE ELECTRONIC WORLD
A User's Guide to Computer Languages
Detect Car-Battery Drain Before It's Too Late
Comparing New High-Tech Audio Cassettes
.r
0
1.0
ft+0
F
s'F10dH3HhJI,
3g nH OhaF,2 853n_.
r 3h1. ,. l' H13h113>I
Gn22880T 3h11
48905b
ésts
61
14024 14278
I
BM's
Personal Computer
www.americanradiohistory.com
Baked Apple.
Last Thanksgiving, a designer from
Lynn /Ohio Corporation took one of
the company's Apple Personal Computers
home for the holidays.
While he was out eating turkey, it
got baked.
His cat, perhaps miffed at being left
alone, knocked over a lamp which started
www.americanradiohistory.com
a fire which, among other
unpleasantries, melted
his TV set all over his
computer. He thought
his goose was cooked.
But when he took the
Apple to Cincinnati Computer Store,
mirabile dictu, it still worked.
Anew case and keyboard made it
as good as new.
Nearly 1,000 Apple dealers have
complete service centers that can quickly
fix just about anything that might go
wrong, no matter how bizarre.
So if you're looking for a personal
computer that solves problems instead of
creating them, look to your authorized
Apple dealer.
You'll find everything well-done.
The personal computer.
appIC
For the authorized dealer nearest you, call (800) 538 -9696. In California, call (800) 662-9238. Or write: Apple Computer Inc., 10260 Bandley Dr.,
Cupertino, CA 95014.
CIRCLE NO 4 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
In a world where sound
reaches new levels every day,
ADC delivers
the ultimate high.
l he ultimate high is total control.
And an ADC Sound Shaper Frequency Equalizer lets you control
your sound and custom- tailor your
music with the mastery of a pro.
And no better way demonstrates
t he benefits of .an ADC Sound
Shaper than taping. Even without
a studio environment, you can
recreate your personal recordings
by changing the frequency response
curve of the source material -making the sound more like the original
and more agreeable to your ears.
Our complete ADC Sound Shaper
IC line' has an equalizer that is right
for you and your system. The SS -110
ten -band full octave equalizer, a
step up from our SS -1, features
LED -lit slide controls and one -way
tape dubbing. If you desire even
more control, our twelve -band SS -II
and top -of- the-line SS -III include
two -way tape dubbing and sub -sonic
filters. Our SS -III Paragraphic'
with 24 ancillary switches that
enable you to control 36 bands
plottingof the equalization curve.
And all ADC Sound Shapers
embodythe outstanding ADC technology that has made us the leaders
in the industry.
the ease and control of a graphic
equalizer with the precision and
versatility of a parametric. All at a
price you can afford.
All of our equalizers feature LED lit slide controls allowing for visual
To really complete your custom tailored control- ability, our ADC
Real Time Spectrum Analyzer is a
must. Equipped with its own pink
noise generator and calibrated
microphone, the SA -1 provides a
visual presentation of the changing
spectrum through 132 LED displays. SD you can actually see
proof of the equalized sound you've
achieved.
With an ADC Sound Shaper and
an ADC Real Time Spectrum
Analyzer, you can attain a new level
of control. And ultimately, isn't
that the musical high you've always
wanted
Frequency Equalizers
and Spectrum Analyzer
per channel combines
AD
A BSR
COMPANY
Sound thinking has moved us even further ahead.
Write for a free 24 -page booklet. "Shaping Sound at Home:A Guide to Equalization" (A $2.50 value.)
BSR (USA) Ltd., Blauvelt, N.Y. 10913, BSR (Canada) Ltd., Rexdale Ontario
Sound Shaper is a registered trademark of Audio
Dynamics Corporation.
IC indicates new Sound Shaper® series.
CIRCLE NO. 64 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
DECEMBER 1981
VOLUME 19, NUMBER 12
Popular Electronics
Give
Record
WORLDS LARGEST -SELLING ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE
Abrasion
the
Feature Articles
HOLIDAY GIFTS FOR ELECTRONICS ENTHUSIASTS
59
COMPARING HIGH -TECH AUDIO CASSETTE TAPES/ Craig Stark
63
Performance tests on latest top -quality cassette tapes.
Brush
Off
103
POPULAR ELECTRONICS 1981 ANNUAL EDITORIAL INDEX
The Electronic World
COMPUTER LANGUAGE CONFUSION
...
SORTING IT OUT /Stanley Veit
Discussion of high -order computer languages and their availability.
39
Construction Articles
AN EARLY- WARNING CAR BATTERY-DRAIN INDICATOR / Thomas R.
69
DESIGNING WITH THE 8080 MICROPROCESSOR /Randy
Part 4: A Typical Program.
74
Fox
Provides advance warning of rapidly discharging battery.
A LED PENDULUM METRONOME /Fred
A modern version
Carlstrom
79
Blechman
of the old mechanical music timer.
Equipment Reviews
12
MITSUBISHI MODEL LT -5V RECORD PLAYER
RCA CTC -111A 19" COLOR TV RECEIVER
23
IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER
31
GLOBAL MODEL 4401 FREQUENCY STANDARD
92
Brush away stylus contamination with the SC- 2TMStylus
Care System. Two drops of
SC -2 fluid on the special
nylon fiber brush effectively
loosens and wipes away
harmful coatings.
Columns
COMPUTER BITS/ Carl Warren
85
Beef Up Your H -89.
COMPUTER SOURCES /Leslie Solomon
88
91
FUNDAMENTAL FACTS/ Walter Buchsbaum
The Basic Network Laws.
SOLID -STATE DEVELOPMENTS
/Forrest M. Mims
Liquid Crystals.
97
Forrest M. Mims
Experimenting With a Joystick
Part 2: Some Typical Applications.
PROJECT OF THE MONTH/ Forrest M. Mims
A Light- Sensitive Tone Generator.
EXPERIMENTER'S CORNER/
System.
106
Departments
For a free copy of our "Guide to
Record Care" write to Discwasher.
l
EDITORIAL/ Art Salsberg
The IRS Cometh.
6
8
NEW PRODUCTS
119
120
ADVERTISER'S INDEX
PERSONAL ELECTRONIC NEWS
COVER PHOTO BY JAY BRENNER Copyright
Protect your stereo system
and maintain Its sound
with the SC -2 Stylus Care
94
m
1981
COPYRIGHT e 1981 BY ZIFF -DAVIS PUBLISHING COMPANY. All rights reserved. Popular Electronics (ISSN 0032 -4485) December 1981, Volume 19, Number 12. Published monthly by Ziff-Davie Publishing Co., at One Park Ave., New York, NY 10018. Richard
P. Friese, President; Selwyn Taubman, Treasurer; Bertram A. Abrams, Secretary. One year subscription rete for U.S. and
Possessions, $15.00; Canada, $20.00; all other countries, $23.00 (cash orders only, payable in U.S. currency). Second Class Postage
Paid at New York, N.Y. 10018 and at additional mailing offices. Authorized as second class mail by the Post Office Dept., Ottawa,
Canada, and for payment of postage in cash. POPULAR ELECTRONICS including ELECTRONICS WORLD, Trade Mark Registered.
Indexed in the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature. Ziff-Davie aleo publishes Boating, Car and Driver, Cycle, Flying, Popular
Photography, Skiing, Stereo Review, Electronic Experimenter's Handbook, and Tape Recording 8 Buying Guide. Forma 3579 and
all Subacffptlon Corraapondancr POPULAR ELECTRONICS. Circulation Dept. P.O. Box 2774, Boulder, CO 80302. Please allow
at least eight weeks for change of address, enclosing, it possible, an address label from a recent issue. Permissions. Material in
this publication may not be reproduced in any form without permission. Requests for permission should be directed to John Babcock, Rights and Permissions, Ziff-Davis Publishing Co., One Park Ave., New York, NY 10018.
discwasher
PRODUCTS TO CARE FOR YOUR MUSIC:
1407 North Providence Road,
Columbia. MO 65201 USA
A
DIVISION OF JENSEN
CIRCLE NO.
DECEMBER 1981
R,
11 ON FREE
an EJMARK Company
INFORMATION CARD
3
www.americanradiohistory.com
Introducing
the Sinclair ZX81
If you're ever going to buy
personal computer, now is the
time to do it.
The new Sinclair ZX81 is the
most powerful, yet easy -to -use
computer ever offered for anywhere
near the price: only $149.95* completely
assembled.
Don't let the price fool) you. The
ZX81 has just about everything you
could ask for in a personal computer.
a
A breakthrough
in personal computers
The ZX81 is a major advance over
the original Sinclair ZX80-the world's
largest selling personal computer and
the first for under $200.
In fact, the ZX81's new 8K Extended
BASIC offers features found only on computers costing two or three times as much.
Just look at what you get:
Continuous display, including moving
graphics
Multi- dimensional string and numerical
arrays
'Plus shipping and handling. Price includes connectors
for TV and cassette, AC adaptor, and FREE manual.
NEW SOFTWARE:Sinclair has
published pre- recorded programs on cassettes for your
ZX81, or ZX80 with 8K BASIC.
We're constantly coming out
with new programs, so we'll
send you our latest software
catalog with your computer.
Mathematical and scientific functions
accurate to 8 decimal places
Unique one -touch entry of key words
like PRINT, RUN and LOST
Automatic syntax error detection and
easy editing
Randomize function useful for both
games and serious applications
Built -in interface for ZX Printer
'K of memory expandable to 16K
The ZX81 is also very convenient
to use. It hooks up to any television set
to produce a clear 32 -column by 24 -line
display. And you can use a regular
cassette recorder to store and recall
programs by name.
ZX PRINTER: The Sinclair ZX
Printer will work with your ZX81,
or ZX80 with 8K BASIC. It will
be available in the near future
and will cost less than $100.
If you already own a ZX80
The 8K Extended BASIC
chip used in the ZX81 is available
as a plug-in replacement for your
ZX80 for only $39.95, plus shipping
and handling -complete with new keyboard overlay and the ZX81 manual.
So in just a few minutes, with no
special skills or tools required, you can
upgrade your ZX80 to have all the
powerful features of the ZX81. (You'll
have everything except continuous display, but you can still use the PAUSE
and SCROLL commands to get moving
graphics.)
With the 8K BASIC chip, your
ZX80 wil also be equipped to use the
ZX Printer and Sinclair software.
Warranty and Service Program**
The Sinclair ZX81 is covered by a
10 -day money -back guarantee and a
limited £0 -day warranty that includes free
parts and labor through our national
service -by -mail facilities.
"Does not apply
16K MEMORY MODULE:
Like any powerful, full fledged
computer, the ZX81 is expandable. Sinclair's 16K memory
module plugs right onto the
back of your ZX81 (or ZX80,
with or without 8K BASIC).
Cost is $99.95, plus shipping
and handling.
www.americanradiohistory.com
to ZX81 kits.
ZX81 MANUAL: The ZX81
comes with a comprehensive
164 -page programming guide
and operating manual designed for both beginners and
experienced computer users.
A $10.95 value, it's yours free
with the ZX81.
Intlroduciig
the ZX81 kit
If you really want to
save money, and you enjoy
building electroni7 kits, you
can order the ZX81 in kit form
for the incredible prica of just
899.95* it's the same, fuli-featured
computer, only you put it together
yourself. We'll send complete, easy to-follow instructions on how you can
assemble your ZX81 in just a few hours.
All you have to supply is the soldering iron
How to order
Sinclair Research is the world's largest .manufacturer of personal computers.
The ZX81 represents the latest
technology in microelectronics, and it
picks up right where the ZX80 left off.
Thousands are selling every week.
We urge you to place your order
for the new ZX81 today. The sooner you
order, the sooner you can start enjoying
your own computer.
To order, simply call our toll free
number, and use yourMasterCard or VISA.
To order by mail, please use the
oupon. And send your check or money
order. We regret that we cannot accept
purchase orders or C.O.D's.
CALL 800 -543 -3000. Ask for operator #509. In Ohio call 800 -582 -1364.
In Canada caul 513 -729 -4300. Ask for
operator #509. Phones open 24 hours
a day, 7 days a week. Have your MasterCard or VISA ready.
These numbers are for orders
only. For information, you must write to
Sinclair Research Ltd., One Sinclair Plaza,
Nashua, NH 03061.
"
AD CODE Ne...,,12PEj
ZX81 Kit
99.95
39.95
6K Memory Module (for ZX81 or ZX80)
99.95
Shipping and Handling
4.95
I
I
$149.95
8K BASIC chip (for ZX80)
1
I
PRICEt
ZX81
To
DTY.
AMOUNT
$4.95
ship outside USA add $10.00
TOTAL
MAIL TO: Sinclair Research Ltd., One Sinclair Plaza, Nashua, NH 03061.
NAME
ADDRESS
CITY/STATE /ZIP
t U.S. Dollars
www.americanradiohistory.com
EDI'fOWAL
The IRS Cometh
Most readers determine their true income -tax bite on a calendar -year basis,
so December 31 likely spells the end of
the tax year for you. Therefore, you still
have time to avail yourself of tax reductions related to your special interest in
electronics for the year 1981.
Obviously, one cannot claim deductions for a purely avocational pursuit.
But since so many readers use electronic- related equipment for business purposes, you may well have a legal opportunity to reduce your income tax. This is
an advantage you might take even
though you are an employee!
I remember a study made of purchasers of the MITS "Altair" computer in
early 1975 in which more than 40% of
respondents indicated that they purchased the computer for either business
or combined business and personal use.
Doubtless, this percentage has increased
today.
"Business" means an activity for profit, of course. This might even be a
requirement by an employer for the end
user to do work at home that requires
use of a computer. If this can be a proven fact, discuss the activity with your
accountant. It could mean that the computer may be depreciated as business
equipment. Furthermore, there's an ex-
Popular Electronics
JOE MESICS
Publisher
ARTHUR P. SALSSERO
Editorial Director
LESLIE SOLOMON
tra depreciation that can be taken during the first year of a purchase, which
has two clear advantages: Recouping
more of your investment during the year
you bought it and, if taken in '81, a more
desirable year for tax deductions than
1982. Consider software tax deductions,
too, as well as diskettes, printer paper,
and so on.
Must you have a professional calculator, such as a Hewlett- Packard
HP -41CV, which is not inexpensive, for
your job? Well, this could be considered
a tool of the trade, much as a plumber's
or carpenter's tools. Do you pay dues to
a professional organization such as the
IEEE? Subscribe to publications to help
you keep up with your profession, such
aS POPULAR ELECTRONICS? Buy texts on
electronics? Don't overlook these possible deductions, either.
Additionally, do you earn extra income by servicing electronic equipment,
producing computerized mailing lists for
local business people, etc.? If you do,
then you open up a new world of possible
tax deductions, such as your telephone
expenses, business entertainment, promotional material, automobile depreciation and expenses, test instruments,
hand tools, home utility costs, etc. If the
foregoing are also used for personal rea-
Ziff -Davis Publishing Company
Richard
Publisher
Joe E. Mesics
212 725 -3568
Furman Hebb
Phillip T. Heffernan
Sidney Holtz
Edward D. Muhlfeld
EDWARD I. SUZMAUM
Art Director
Sales:
ANDRE DUZANT
Technical Illustrator
CARMEN ROULES
Production Editor
JEPP NEWNAN
Editorial Assistant
Contributing Editors
Carl Warren, Stan Prentiss, Glenn Hauser,
Julian Hirsch, Forrest Palms, Walter Suohsbaum
MARIE MAESTRI
Executive Assistant
eason s reefings
and
Plapmj New 'gear
One Park Avenue
New York, New York 10016
212 725 -3500
New York Office
Advertising Manager:
Richard Govatski (725-7460)
DAVID M. WESER
Features Editor
income.
Do check all this out with an accountant for the tax implications. There's a
fair chance you're giving money to the
IRS that rightly belongs to you.
Editorial and Executive Offices
Senior Technical Editor
JOHN R. RIGGS
Managing Editor
JOSEPH DESPOSITO
Technical Editor
sons, then you would have to apportion a
percentage of the expenses used for
business purposes.
One doesn't even have to make a profit all the time to justify being in "business," so long as there is some profit for
two or more years within a five -year
period. Thus, you might be able to
report some losses within a five -year
period, decreasing your tax burden
along the way.
A personally rewarding way to earn
income as a result of your experience in
electronics, of course, is to write articles
for POPULAR ELECTRONICS. To get
started, simply send a brief summary of
your proposed article to my attention. If
it's a construction project, include approximate cost to the builder and a legible schematic. There's no better way to
prove that you're using your electronic
gear (and typewriter, desk, et al.) for
profit- making than to have your byline
accompanying a published article, as
well as a payment stub as proof of
Tom Ballou (725 -3578)
Ken Lipka (725 -3580)
Midwestern Office
Suite 1400, 180 N. Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, IL 60601 (312 346 -2600)
Sales: Ted Welch
Western Representative
Norman S. Schindler & Associates, Inc.
7050 Owensmouth Ave., #209
Canoga Park, CA 91303 (213 999 -1414)
Sales: Norm Schindler, Jon Marshall
Representation In Japan
James Yagi
Oji Palace Aoyama
6 -25, Minami Aoyama, 6 Chome, MinatoKu
Tokyo, Japan (407-1930/6821, 582-2851)
www.americanradiohistory.com
Albert
P.
S.
Friese
Traîna
President
President, Consumer
Magazine Division
Executive Vice President
Senior Vice Presidents
Philip Sine
Robert Ravier
Baird Davis
George Morrissey
Selwyn Taubman
Bertram A. Abrams
Vice Presidents
Treasurer
Secretary
Editorial correspondence: POPULAR ELECTRONICS,
Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. Editorial contributions
must be accompanied by return postage and will be handled
with reasonable care; however, publisher assumes no responsibility for return or safety of manuscripts, art work, or
models submitted.
1
The publisher has no knowledge of any proprietary rights
which will be violated by the making or using of any items
disclosed in this issue.
ABC)
Member Audit Bureau
or Circulation,
Q
Synthesized
Hand-Held
Scanner!
Chances are the police, fire and weather
emergencies you'll read about in tomorrow's paper are coming through on a
scanner right now. All scanners sold by
Communications Electronics bring the
real live excitement of action news into
your home or car. With your scanner, you
can monitor the exciting two-way radio
conversations of police and fire departments, intelligence agencies, mobile telephones, energy /oil exploration crews,
drug enforcement agencies and more.
Some scanners can even monitor aircraft
transmissions! You can actually hear the
news before it's news. If you do not own a
scanner for yourself, now's the time to buy
your new scanner from Communications
Electronics. Choose the scanner that's right
for you, then call our toll-free number to
place your order with your Master Card or
Visa. A scanner is an excellent holiday gift.
We give you excellent service because CE
distributes more scanners worldwide than
anyone else. Our warehouse facilities are
equipped to process thousands of scanner
orders every week. We also export scanners
to over 300 countries and military installations. Almost all items are in stock for
quick shipment, so if you're a person who
prefers fact to fantasy and who needs to
know what's really happening around you,
order your scanner today from CE!
NEW!
Bearcat°350
The Ultimate Synthesized Scanner!
Allow 30 -60 days for delivery after receipt of
order due to the high demand for this product.
List price $599.95/CE price $419.00
7 -Band, 50 Channel
Alpha-Numeric
Nocrystal scanner AM Aircraft and Public
Service bands. Priority Channel AC/DC
Bands: 30-50,118-136 AM, 144 -174, 421 -512 MHz.
The new Bearcat 350 introduces an incredible
breakthrough in synthesized scanning: Alpha Numeric Display. Push a button -and the Vacuum
Fluorescent Display switches from "numeric" to
word descriptions of what's being monitored. 50
channels in 5 banks. Plus, Auto & Manual Search,
Search Direction, Limit & Count. Direct Channel
Access. Selective Scan Delay. Dual Scan Speeds.
Automatic Lockout. Automatic Squelch. Non -Volatile
Memory. Reserve your Bearcat 350 today!
Bearcat°
300
List price 5549.95/CE price $339.00
50 Channel Service Search Nocrystal scanner AM Aircraft and Public
Service bands. Priority Channel AC/DC
7 -Band,
Bands: 32-50, 118-136 AM, 144 -174, 421 -512 MHz.
The Bearcat 300 is the most advanced automatic
scanning radio that has ever been offered to the
public. The Bearcat 300 uses a bright green fluorescent digital display, so it's ideal for mobile
applications. The Bearcat 300 now has these added
features: Service Search, Display Intensity Control,
Hold Search and Resume Search keys, Separate
Band keysto permit lock -in /lock-out of any band for
more efficient service search.
Bearcat°
250
$429.95/CE price $269.00
List price
6-Band, 50 Channel
Stores
Recalls
Priority Channel
Fanon Slimline 6 -HLU
Crystalless
Searches
Digital clock
Delay
AC /DC
Count Feature
Frequency range 32 -50, 146-174, 420 -512 MHz.
The Bearcat 250 performs any scanning function you
could possibly want. With push button ease you can
program up to 50 channels for automatic monitoring.
Push another button and search for new frequencies.
There are no crystals to limit what you want to hear. A
special search feature of the Bearcat 250 actually
stores 64 frequencies and recalls them, one at a time.
Overseas customers should order the Bearcat 250FB
at $379.00 each. This model has 220 V AC/12 V DC
power supply and 66-88 MHz low band coverage.
Bearcat° 20/20
NEW!
$449,95/CE price $279.00
List price
Crystalless
Searches
AM Aircraft and Public Service bands
AC/DC
Priority Channel Direct Channel Access Delay
7 -Band,
40 Channel
Frequency range 32 -50, 118-136 AM, 144-174, 420.512 MHz.
The Bearcat 20/20 automatic scanning radio
replaces the Bearcat 220 and monitors 40 frequencies from 7 bands, including aircraft. A two- position
switch, located on the front panel, allows monitoring
of 20 channels at a time.
Bearcat° 210XL
List price $349.95/CE price $219.00
6 -Band, 18 Channel Crystalless
AC/DC
Frequency range: 32 -50, 144 -174, 421 -512 MHz.
The Bearcat 210XL scanning radio is the second generation scanner that replaces the popular Bearcat 210
and 211. It has almost twice the scanning capacity of
the Bearcat 210 with 18 channels plus dual scanning
speeds and a bright green fluorescent display. Automatic search finds new frequencies. Features scan
delay, single antenna, patented track tuning and more!
160
Bearcat°
$299.95/CE price $184.00
List price
5 -Band, 18 Channel
Dual Scan Speeds
AC only Priority
Direct Channel Access
NEW!
Bearcat® 100
The first no-crystal programmable handheld scanner.
Allow 60 -120 days for delivery after receipt of
order due to the high demand for this product.
List price $449.95/CE price $299.00
8-Band, 16 Channel Liquid Crystal Display
Lockout AC/DC
Search Limit Hold
Frequency range: 30-50, 138 -174, 406 -512 MHz
The world's first no-crystal handheld scanner has
compressed into a 3" x 7" x 11/4" case more scanning
power than is found in many base or mobile scanners.
The Bearcat 100 has a full 16 channels with frequency
coverage that includes all public service bands (Low,
High, UHF and "T' bands), the 2 -Meter and 70 cm.
Amateur bands, plus Military and Federal Government
frequencies. It has chrome-plated keys for functions
that are user controlled, such as lockout, manual and
automatic scan. Even search is provided, both manual
and automatic. Wow...what a scanned
The Bearcat 100 produces audio power output of 300
milliwatts, is track -tuned and has selectivity of better
than 50 dB down and sensitivity of 0.6 microvolts on
VHF and 1.0 microvolts on UHF. Power consumption is
kept extremely low by using a liquid crystal display and
exclusive low power integrated circuits.
Included in our low CE price is a sturdy carrying case,
earphone, battery charger /AC adapter, six AA ni -cad
batteries and flexible antenna. For earliest delivery
from CE, reserve your Bearcat 100 today.
$94.00
Lockout
4-Band, 8 Crystal Channels
The Fanon Slimline 6 -HLU gives you six channels of crystal
controlled excitement. Unique Automatic Peak Tuning Circuit
adjusts the receiver front end for maximum sensitivity
across the entire UHF band. Individual channel lockout
switches. Frequency range 30 -50, 146-175 and 450 -512
MHz. Size 2% x6'/4 x 1:' Includes rubber ducky antenna.
Order crystal certificates for each channel. Made in Japan.
Fanon Slimline 6 -HL
List price $149.95/CE price $99.00
8- Channel performance at 4- channel cost!
Frequency range: 30-50, 146 -175 MHz.
if you don't need the UHF band, get this model and save
money. Same high performance and features as the model
HLU without the UHF band. Order crystal certificates for
each channel. Made in Japan.
OTHER SCANNERS & ACCESSORIES
NEW! Regency' # D810 Scanner
$319.00
NEW! Regency' 0300 Scanner
$219.00
NEW! Regency 0100 Scanner
$169.00
NEW! Regency 11604 Scanner
$129.00
Regency' M400 Scanner
$259.00
Regency M100 Scanner
$199.00
Regency. R1040 Scanner
$149.00
SCMA -6 Fanon Mobile Adapter/Battery Charger.... $49.00
CHB-6 Fanon AC Adapter/Battery Charger
$15.00
$15.00
CAT-8 Fanon carrying case with belt clip
AUC-3 Fanon auto lighter adapter /Battery Charger
$15.00
PSK-8 Base Power Supply /Bracket for SCMA -6
$20.00
SP50 Bearcat AC Adapter
$9.00
SP51 Bearcat Battery Charger
$9.00
SP58 Bearcat 4 -6 ThinScan" carrying case
$12.00
MA508 Regency carrying case for 11604
$15.00
FB -E Frequency Directory for Eastern U.S.A.
$12.00
FB -W Frequency Directory for Western U.S A
$12.00
FFD Federal Frequency Directory for U.S.A.
$12.00
TSG "Top Secret" Registry of U.S. Government Freq.... $10.00
B -4 1.2 V AM Ni-Cad batteries (set of four)
$9.00
A135cc Crystal certificate
$3.00
Add $3.00 shipping for all accessories ordered at the same time.
INCREASED PERFORMANCE ANTENNAS
you want the utmost in performance from your
scanner, it is essential that you use an external antenna.
We have six base and mobile antennas specifically
designed for receiving all bands. Order *A60 is a
magnet mount mobile antenna. Order #A61 is a gutter
clip mobile antenna. Order #A82 is a trunk-lip mobile
antenna. Order #A63 is a s/+ inch hole mount. Order
#A64 is a% inch snap -in mount, and #A70 is an all band
base station antenna. All antennas are $35.00 and
$3.00 for UPS shipping in the continental United States.
If
Frequency range: 32 -50, 144 -174, 440 -512 MHz.
Would you believe...the Bearcat 160 is the least
expensive Bearcat crystalless scanner.
This scanner presents a new dimension in
scanning form and function. Look at the smooth
keyboard. No buttons to punch. No knobs to turn.
Instead, finger -tip pads provide control of all scanning
operations, including On/Off, Volume and Squelch. Of
course the Bearcat 160 incorporates other advanced
Bearcat features such as Priority, Direct Channel Access,
Dual Scan Speeds, Lockout, Scan Delay and more.
Bearcat®
5
List price $134.95/CE price
List price $169.95/CE price $109.00
Low cost 6- channel, 4 -band scanned
AC only
Frequency range: 33 -50, 146 -174, 450-508 MHz.
The Bearcat 5 is avalue- packed crystal scanner built for
the scanning professional
at a price the first-time
buyer can afford. Individual lockout switches. Order one
crystal certificate for each channel.
BUY WITH CONFIDENCE
the fastest delivery from CE of any scanner, send
or phone your order directly to our Scanner Distribution
Center" Be sure to calculate your price using the CE prices
in this ad. Michigan residents please add 4% sales tax.
To get
Written purchase orders are accepted from approved government agencies and most well rated firms at a 10%
surcharge for net 10 billing. All sales are subject to availability, acceptance and verification. All sales on accessories
are final. Prices, terms and specifications are subject to
change without notice. Out of stock items will be placed on
backorder automatically unless CE is instructed differently.
Most products that we sell have a manufacturer's warranty.
Free copies of warranties on these products are available
prior to purchase by writing to CE. International orders are
invited with a $20.00 surcharge for special handling in
addition to shipping charges. All shipments are F.O.B. Ann
Arbor, Michigan. No COD's please. Non -certified and foreign
checks require bank clearance. Minimum order $35.00.
Mail orders to: Communications Electronics;
Box 1002, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 U.S.A. Add
$7.00 per scanner or phone product for U.P.S.
ground shipping and handling, or $14.00 for faster
U.P.S. air shipping to some locations. If you have a
Visa or Master Card, you may call anytime and
place a credit card order. Order toll free in the
U.S.A. Dial 800 -521 -4414. If you are outside the
U.S. or in Michigan, dial 313-994-4444. Dealer
Inquiries Invited. Order without obligation today!
Scanner Distribution Center" and CE logos are trademarks of Communications Electronics"
t Bearcat is a federally registered trademark of Electra
Company, a Division of Masco Corporation of Indiana.
# Regency is a federally registered trademark of Regency
Electronics Inc.
Copyright®1981 Communications Electronics"
MasterCard
-
Bearcat® Four-Six ThinScan'
List price $189.95/CE price $124.00
Frequency range: 33-47, 152 -164, 450 -508 MHz.
The incredible, Bearcat Four-Six Thin Scan" is like
having an information center in your pocket. This four
band, 6 channel crystal controlled scanner has patented
Track Tuning on UHF. Scan Delay and Channel Lockout.
Measures 23/4 x 6'/4 x 1:' Includes rubber ducky antenna.
Ordercrystal certificate for each channel. Made i n Japan.
TEST ANY SCANNER
scanner purchased from Communications
31 days before you decide to keep it. It for
any reason you are not completely satisfied, return it in
original condition with all parts in 31 days, for a prompt
refund (less shipping /handling charges and rebate credits).
Test
any
Electronics' for
NEW! Bearcat® 350
CIRCLE NO.
1
ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
/COMMUNICATIONS
ELECTRON ICS
854 Phoenix D Box 1002 1 Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 U S A
Call TOLL. FREE (8001521.4414 or outsle U.S.A. (3131994 -4444
We're first
with the best:M
Front -Operation Betamax
Additional information on new products
covered in this section is available from the
manufacturers. Either circle the item's code
number on the Free Information Card
or write to the manufacturer at the
address given.
Sony's new Betamax viedeo cassette recorder, the SL -5000, loads from the front,
where controls are also located. The SL-
5000 has all the usual features associated
with Betamax: BetaScan, pause control,
freeze frame, and an electronic tuner /timer
with a 14- pushbutton channel selector. The
unit records in Beta II or Beta Ill, and plays
back in the mode of either Beta I, II, or III. A
24 -hour timer can be set to program at the
same time of day, as long as there is tape
on the feed side of the cassette. A four digit counter keeps track of the tape contents. $895.
CIRCLE NO. 94 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Mitsubishi Receiver
VIC 20 Printer
The top -of- the -line DA -R35 has linear
switching circuitry, a built -in moving -coil
head amp, quartz- synthesized tuning with
fluorescent digital display, and seven AM
and seven FM presets. The R35 offers 85
watts per channel and features two- speaker relay switching, 12 dB/ octave high and
low filters, separate record selector with
two-tapedeck duplication, mode switch,
ten -position loudness compensation, and
an input selector with separate MM and MC
switches. Specs (amp section): frequency
response 20 to 20,000 Hz ±3 dB; THD,
0.0050/0. The tuner section offers automatic
scan, LED signal-strength and multipath
indicators, and auto i -f and high -blend circuits with LED indicators and manual defeat. Specs include a THD of 0.100/o on
wide -band stereo, and a capture ratio of
1.5 dB. $650.
CIRCLE NO. 91 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
3.7 to 4.2 GHz and features digital channel
display, preset and variable audio subcarrier selector, afc, and full metering. For
installation versatility, the down converter
module (included) may be mounted internally or at the antenna. Accessories (op-
Commodore's Computer Systems Div. has
announced availability of a printer for its
personal computer, the VIC 20. The printer.,
designated VIC 1515, can print any of the
alphabetic, numeric, and graphic symbols
common to the VIC 20. It uses a dot -matrix
format and has a speed of 30 cps. Options
allow the VIC 1515 to print extra -wide and
reversed (negative) characters. $395.
tional) include
a
remote control, a remote
tuning meter, and splash -proof housing.
$1000.
CIRCLE NO. 95 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Polyphonic Moog
Synthesizer
CIRCLE NO. 93 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Earth Station Receiver
The ESR24 earth station receiver from R.L..
Drake operates over a frequency range of
Household Remote Control
The System X -10 from BSR is designed for
use in conjunction with a remote -control
setup (also from BSR) for home appliances. If you are away, but able to telephone your home, it is now possible to turn
any or all of your appliances on or off as
long as they are plugged into the base sta-
tion. The system is comprised of a calculator -sized telephone transmitter and a base
station connected to the owner's telephone. To operate it, the owner dials a
three -number security code into the base
station before leaving the house. When it
receives a call, the base station waits 40
seconds and then answers. The owner
places the transmitter to the telephone
mouthpiece, enters the code and punches
in the desired commands. It works the
same way with answering machines; the
owner ignores the outgoing message and
proceeds as above. The transmitter, designated Model TR274, has to be used with
the TR270 telephone responder /controller.
As a set they cost $100. A transmitter
alone costs $30, and any number of them
can be used with the TR270.
CIRCLE NO. 92 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
The Realistic MG -1 Synthesizer (42 -2000
by Moog is being introduced at Radio
Shack stores. The unit is said to be able to
recreate the sounds of musical instruments -from a piccolo to a tuba to an
well as creating special effects
organ
such as churning helicopters, raging
storms, etc. Its polyphonic quality permits it
-as
to play whole chords, rather than simply
one note at a time. The MG -1 features a
21/2- octave full- chromatic keyboard with
three-octave tone sources that produce
variable wave shapes (square, triangular,
random). Also offered is a detune control
for a dissonant or full -interval offsetting of
pitch. A modulation section cres:es vibrato
and tremolo, pulsating notes, random tone
sequences, and glide effects. The four -control filter alters timbre by controlling cutoff
frequency, peak emphasis, and contoured
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
8
www.americanradiohistory.com
Why use their flexible discs:
Athana, BASF, Control Data, Dysan, IBM, Maxell, Nashua,
Scotch, Shugart, Syncom, 3M, Verbatim or Wabash
when you could be using
MEMOREX
for as low as $1.94 each?
Find the flexible disc you're now using on our cross reference list...
then write down the equivalent Memorex part number you should be ordering.
CE
839u,2.n..
F
3a-.,00e401198
6.,
1
o-.ae0,....
.
333
,
-,-,,..
28 013 76
.,,
,0M
,.
. w.,
351. 32363ee16
,u Cow.. 1125 0/9
sn7eu,,,,,17...
10.1
...1014
OM
1755
IBM
,
6/5
0/5
15
71.60,.
,
.w0..,-,aa.m ,.6..50.,713e,.
cn moo Commie.
1. Comp..
°
5308-19.82 R.
O-00..4.
,. 6/5
-`
3.0e..50,2.31615sc002
'
2
.. 4 .41or
211.13.31
^'
1119
0-,60 u.,,.n. w..
Soll
3..1
530
0333
S.
32
'
4
41130
_
_
319
03072
54431
_
4720,7
.501
mega
473073
-
_
7.0
23055.
3.x264
-
-_
>aaem
70,.70
.om
-
-
05 ,7313321017
-
F93
_
_
-
_
.remi
4466
50111e
-
3706
3.68
2.69
3.o9
-
-
-
-
-
-
.13
109
-
54423
830014
1730870
453
3.09
42m15
2730703
m323m
_
_
3.U9
-
4r
of 2139/
1303
21.404
09.
O. 1.
ww.
16
ß12M-O.n.,nwe.
3s.
."
n
160.0 4.c50.39w
'^v
7199
2435
^de
03.4
oo..,. 0...,,.
10
wd.
.
n
..
3431
3.7
.10
.m
e.,6/
14.
,e71..d3..50.,71. 17,
701
1
NM
.
3450
119.3417436
..e.e
0-.w..n.2-0.
10
3421
Nara Ssclor
3473
,
^
-1
3/8313
.m
R.
ro
971.,.4..503m33 199
3491
3016
-
-
464.103
2333419
-
49130
1.3
30109033
_
15164
FmO40,2
_
55103
0039,130,
-
4.73
..m
44400
0440
_
.
-
01/m
_
-
_
_
naato
-
_
_
_
_
_
4.61
_
VON
_
_
475001
44254
104,1
_
0
_
_
475015
_
54250
406/5
-
111145
.m118
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-
_
_
_
_
-
_
-
-
_
-
-
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2.59
2.59
2.59
2.79
2.78
2.79
_
_
_
_
_
-
-
_
-
-
_
-
04400
2.14
2.14
2.14
2.34
2.34
2.34
_
2034
,
wows
r
-
uA.1m
-
_
_
_
44.86.
_
15100
0034-015
743.1024
_
15102
3034-110011
4444
313.161
14126
0032
7
-
-
_
1024
Fps-lam
1
U.
6/3-103
1.0
8067901
8110113
441002
11059315
25102113
441162
_
-
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-
-
-
,
310.53
744-1
1532e
M325-1.
14057901
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
40.4
17416,
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
A,
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
8055901
_
_
_
_
1705.16
-
-
-
425622
5110
_
-
F1471110
_
_
_
-
42302
47002
42607
-
_
-
21461113
_
_
_
4200
_
21441113
509011
12671
_
-
-
_
-
-
42.12
_
5.502
on,.
3,22,1,3
474377
_
_
_
_
-
2911113
_
.
-
-
-
-21
_
_
70.150
ble
-
237.113
-
54479
1,101
O22vom
-
4734,2
-
1.94
1.94
-
-
1
2.14
2.14
2.14
_
_
994
34.
"
15230
_
0920
269
.3 5.34
8493498
-
-
_
3301
-
742-0
91.3
7pM113
302-7540
3851
18315354.11
2
2093031
_
30712002
,ems
-
3.49
3.39
70 81131321.14.311
033e C93.5.
31
1760177
Fles. 31. 20
0emor. 551
20369000
741
-
1.6
_
3,09
_
-_
31161113
wow.
109
20050S0
_
30112
eM.
47.407
15003
44324
_
erY
-
uA_1o1
r.,
_
v.,Wll.
_
1
3105
.,
0.530
201
-
011.1
_
-
0134
31.y.ncan,2e.mw,d65000
-
.02
_
374000
.»6
13002
_
-
473477
6r--
--
.see
_
6ti-r
WA 100
owns
184071
1019
!e
7.0
7.o^
2.69
99 55-50.1
50
,
3043
3114
'
30
-
8.109.1
0.63..3271.s.a
_
-
3.09
3.09
3.09
3.08
10
-
-
2.39
2.04
1.99
1.99
3103
293134
e.s.11073
FO1,130
26.930
5/3
'
,
Ww
2305030
s..-
,
17809
253
1
Mr
GOO.
-
3091
03
Or..n
53.30
47601
.. 0...,«.. 321,.. e..M, .,M.S P.
G...
63Y
.7707,
tag
3093
6113943
W
60.
1.99
249
269
3.1931
.
aes
1178
.
0.9
s.v,.o..2.a.
23
quant
price
p60d8t61
3013
06/u2
6311
M.a.
3.9,
17.
5..81
..6.1 w.,-.,,.1.237 799 Se.
l
z.a
379.1044
6
^49
3,3.3
6.1.19/
,
11
nml
545.0
-
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
34062.1
-
2052616
_
_
_
1.105.01
806799
00440
0
Memorex Flexible Discs...The Ultimate in Memory Excellence
Quality
Memorex means quality products that you can depend on.
Quality control at Memorex means starting with the best
materials available. Continual surveillance throughout the
entire manufacturing process. The benefit of Memorex's years
of experience in magnetic media production, resulting, for
instance, in proprietary coating formulations. The most sophisticated testing procedures yogi II find anywhere in the business.
100 Percent Error Free
Each and every Memorex Flexible Disc is certified to be 100
percent error free. Each track of each flexible disc is tested.
individually, to Memorex's stringent standards of excellence.
They test signal amplitude, resolution, low -pass modulation,
overwrite, missing pulse error and extra pulse error. They are
torque-tested, and competitively tested on drives available
from almost every maior drive manufacturer in the industry
including drives that Memorex manufacturers. Rigid quality
audits are built into every step of the manufacturing process
and stringent testing result in a standard of excellence that
assures you, our customer, of a quality product designed for
increased data reliability and consistent top performance.
Customer-Oriented Packaging
Memorex's commitment to excellence does not stop with a
quality product. They are proud of their flexible discs and they
package them with pride. Both their packaging and their
labeling have been designed with your ease of identification
and use in mind. The desk-top box containing ten discs is
convenient for filing and storage. Both box labels and jacket
labels provide full information on compatibility, density, sectoring, and record length. Envelopes with multi-language care
and handling instructions and color -coded removable labels
are included. A write-protect feature is available to provide
data security.
Full One Year Warranty
- Your Assurance of Quality
Memorex Flexible Discs will be replaced by Memorex if they
are found to be defective in materials or workmanship within
one year of the date of purchase. Other than replacement,
Memorex will not be responsible for any damages or losses
(including consequential damages) caused by the use of
Memorex Flexible Discs.
itloVISA
Quantity Discounts Available
-
Memorex Flexible Discs are packed 10 discs to a carton and
10 cartons to a case. Please order only in Increments of 100
units for quantity 100 pricing. We are also willing to accommodate your smaller orders. Quantities leas than 100 units are
available in Increments of 10 units at a 10% surcharge.
Quantity discounts are also available. Order 500 or more
discs at the same time and deduct 1%; 1,000 or more saves
you 2 %; 2,000 or more saves you 3 %; 5,000 or more saves you
4 %; 10,000 or more saves you 5 %; 25,000 or more saves you
8 %; 50,000 or more saves you 7% and 100,000 or more discs
earns you an 8% discount off our super low quantity 100 price.
Almost all Memorex Flexible Discs are Immediately available
from CE. Our warehouse facilities are equipped to help us get
you the quality product you need, when you need it. If you need
further assistance to find the flexible disc that's right for you,
call the Memorex compatibility hotline. Dial 800- 538 -8080
and askfor the flexible disc hotline extension 0997. In California
dial 800-672-3525 extension 0997.
Buy with Confidence
To get the fastest delivery from CE of your Memorex Flexible theca reno
or phone your order directly to our Computer Products Division. Be sure
to calculate your price using the CE prices in thin ad. Michigan residents
pease add 4% sales tax. Written purchase orders are accepted from
approved government agencies and most well rated firms at a 10%
surcharge for net 10 billing. At sales are subject to availability,
acceptance and verification. All sales are final. Prices, terms and
specifications are subject to change without notice. Out of stock Items
will be placed on backorder automatically unless CE is instructed
differently. Minimum order $50.00. International orders are invited with
252000 surcharge for special handling in addition to shippingcharges.
ax shipments are F.O.8, Ann Arbor, Michigan No COD's please. Noncertified and foreign checks require bank clearance.
Mail orders to: Communications Electronics, Box 1002, Mn
Arbor. Michigan 48106 U.S.A. Add 58.00 per case or partial-case of
100 8 -Inch discs or 56.00 per case of 100 54 -inch mini-discs for
U.P.S. ground shipping and handling in the continental U.S.A. If you
have a Master Card or Visa card, you may call anytime and dace
a credit card order. Order toll-free In the United States. Call
anytime 800- 521 -4414. If you are outside the U.S. or in Michigan.
dial 313-994 -4444. Dealer Inquiries Invited. AS Order lines at
Communications Electronics are staffed 24 houm.
Copyright 01981 Communications Electronics
CIRCLE NO.
2 ON
FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
Order Toll -Free!
(800) 521 -4414
In
For Data
Michigan (313) 994 -4444
Reliability- Memorex Flexible Discs
TM
MCOMMUNICATIONS
ELECTRONICS'
Computer Products Division
854 Phoenix O Box 1002 O Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 U.S.A.
Call TOLL-FREE ( 800) 521.4414 or outside U.S.A. (313) 994-4444
nets' products
MFJ
SHORTWAVE
cutoff. The contour section adjusts tonal
rise and fall times; and a sustain feature
can be switched in and out. Volume control
is available at both headphone and phono type output jacks that permit direct connection to most sound systems. Dimensions are 2012 "L X 12 "W X 5 "D. $500.
ACCESSORIES
CIRCLE NO. 96 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
NEW Indoor Tuned Active
Antenna. Rivals, can even
exceed reception of outside long wire.
OD.
Logic- Control /MetalCassette Deck
Rivals long
wires
$7995
MFJ -1020 NEW INDOOR ACTIVE ANTENNA
sits on your desk ready to listen to the world.
Rivals, can often exceed, reception of outside
long wire. Unique Tuned Active Antenna mini
mizes intermod, provides RF selectivity, re
duces noise outside tuned band. Also use as
preselector for external antenna. Covers 300
KHz to 30 MHz in five bands. Adjustable tele
scoping antenna. Controls: Tune, Band Selector.
Gain, On -Off /Bypass. LED. FET, bipolar circuitry.
Phono jack for external ant. 6x2x6 inches.
912 VDC or 9 V battery for portable use
110 VAC with optional AC adapter, $9.95.
r':..:« .
:4,
s999s
6
MFJ -1040 RECEIVER PRESELECTOR. Improves
weak signal reception, rejects out -of-band signals, reduces image response, 1.8 to 54 MHz.
Up to 20 db gain. Low noise MOSFET. Gain
control. Bandswitch. Can use 2 ant., 2 rcvrs.
ON -OFF /Bypass. 20 db attenuator. LED. Coax,
phono jacks. 8x2x6 in. Also for XCVRS to 350
watts input. Auto bypass. Delay control. PTT
jack. MFJ -1045, $69.95. Same as MFJ -1040,
less attenuator. xcvr auto bypass, delay control,
PTT. Use
ant., 1 rcvr. 5x2x6 in. 9V bat. Both
requires 9 -18 VDC or 110 VAC with optional
AC adapter, $9.95.
The Luxman Div. of Alpine Electronics of
America introduces its K -117 two -headed
cassette deck that offers full -logic solenoid
controls, metal -tape capability, and Dolby
B noise reduction. A front -panel bias control switch permits a user to alter frequency
response of any tape to ± 15% of the normal bias point. A fluorescent peak -level
indicator adds 3 -dB calibration for metal
tape, up to ±8 dB. Other features include
an MPX filter, and independent left and
right input level controls. Specs: 0.04%
wow and flutter, 70 dB S/N (Dolby metal),
20 Hz to 20 kHz response (metal), and
0.7% THD (LH tape) at the 1- kHz /0 -dB level. Dimensions are 18 "W X 5 "H X 10112 "D.
$400.
CIRCLE NO. 97 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
ammummimmememsom
Video Control Center
can present data in both time and state
domains. State data are formatted in hexadecimal on the four -digit LED display. Timing diagrams can be displayed on most
conventional oscilloscopes. The memory
permits storage of 16 "words," at 16 bits
per "word," providing a total memory capacity of 256 bits. The signature analyzer
is formatted in hexadecimal and offers continuous and hold modes. It is compatible
with TTL, MOS, or CMOS, and has self-test
capability. Autoranging circuitry eliminates
the need for a separate DVOM; ac and dc
voltage and resistance are displayed on a
31'2 -digit LED. After a user selects a function and interfaces to a circuit being tested,
a built -in microprocessor automatically selects the range providing maximum resolution. Accuracy is claimed to 0.1% dc, 0.5%
ac; and to within 0.3% for resistance. The
frequency counter also provides autorangHz to 25 MHz.
ing measurements from
Resolution is given as Hz. The unit weighs
14 lb. $1,745.
1
1
CIRCLE NO. 99 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Laser -Designed
Speakers
1
'89C95
,,..,;,,k,,,...,.tl
IP
{
MOBILE SWL CONVERTERS to hear the short-
wave world while you drive. MFJ -304 ($69.95)
covers 19, 25, 31, 49 meter bands. MFJ -308
($89.95) adds 13, 16, 41, 60 meters. Two
dual -gate MOSFETS give excellent sensitivity,
selectivity with car receiver. Push button band
selector. Tune with car radio. Plugs between
antenna and radio. 12 VDC. 304 is 51/4x1V4x4 ".
Free catalog.
308 is 6/4x11 /4x5 ".
MFJ -10, 3 toot coax with connectors, $4.95.
Order from MFJ and try it. If not delighted,
return within 30 days for refund (less shipping).
One year unconditional guarantee.
Order yours today. Call toll free 800 -647.1800.
Charge VISA. MC. Or mail check, money order.
Add $4.00 each for shipping and handling.
CALL TOLL FREE
...
800 -647-1800
601.323 -5869 for technical information, order /repair status. Also call 601.323 -5869 outside continental USA and in Mississippi.
Call
MFJ ENTERPRISES,
INCORPORATED
f\Box 494, Mississippi State,
MS
39762)
The Model VCC -1 Video Control Center
from Amco Electronics is a passive 4input/3- output rf switcher for use with
home video systems. Any four sources
such as antenna (vhf and uhf), cable, VCR,
disk, computer, video games, etc. can be
selected independently for viewing on two
TVs; and any three can be selected for
VCR recording. Internal shielding maintains
isolation of at least 60 dB between ports
(channels 2 -13). Weight is two lb. Dimensions are 8"W X 21/2"H X 51/2"D. $100.
S
CIRCLE NO. 98 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Portable Digital Lab
B&K-Precision has introduced a lab -logic
analyzer, the LA -1000. Designed for use by
field engineers in the maintenance of microcomputers, it features a 20 -MHz single channel logic analyzer (TTL, CMOS) that
Celestion Industries claims to have corrected the minor distortions that affect
vibration modes of loudspeaker surfaces
by using laser interferometry. The Ditton
110 speaker is an acoustic suspension system with an 8" PVC -surround cone woofer and a 1" dome tweeter, aligned vertically. Specifications: frequency response,
72- 20,000 Hz; crossover frequency, 2.3
kHz; impedance, 5 ohms; amplifier requirements, 10 to 50 W /ch; dimensions,
163/4 "H x 91/2 "W x 83/4 "D. $350 a pair.
CIRCLE NO. 100 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
CIRCLE NO. 30 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
Listen to
your planet
on a shortwave receiver!
Communications Electronics, the world's
largest distributor of radio scanners, is pleased
to introduce Panasonic Command Series
shortwave receivers. Panasonic lets you
listen to what the world has to say. Unlike a
scanner, a Command Series radio lets you
listen to shortwave broadcasts from countries around the world, as well as the U.S.A.
It's the space age shortwave performance
you've been waiting for...at a down to earth
price you can afford.
All Panasonic shortwave receivers sold by
Communications Electronics bring the
real live excitement of international radio to
your home or office. With your Command
Series receiver, you can monitor exciting
radio transmissions such as the BBC, Radio
Moscow, Ham Radio and our own Armed
Forces Radio Network. Thousands of broadcasts in hundreds of different languages are
beamed into North America every day. You
can actually hear the news before it's news.
If you do not own a shortwave receiver for
yourself, now's the time to buy your new
receiver from CE. Choose the receiver that's
right for you, then call our toll-free number to
place your order with your credit card
We give you excellent service because CE
distributes more scanners and shortwave
receivers worldwide than anyone else. Our
warehouse facilities are equipped to process
thousands of orders every week. We also
export receivers to over 300 countries and
military installations. Almost all items are in
stock for quick shipment, so if you're a
person who needs to know what's really
happening around you, order today from CE.
Panasonic°", R F-6300
Allow 30 -120 days for delivery after receipt of
order due to the high demand for this product.
List price $749.95/CE price $499.00
Bands: LW 150 -410 KHz., MW 520 -1610 KHz.,
SW1 -5 1.6-30 MHz., FM 87.5 -108 MHz.
The new Panasonic RF-6300 Command Series
PLL synthesized 8 -band portable communica-
tions receiver, lets you hear the world. The
RF-6300 has features such as microcomputer
pre -set tuning and PLL quartz synthesized
digital tuner. Microcomputer stores up to 12
different frequencies for push-button recall.
FM/MW /LW /SW1 -5 reception. Manual tuning
knob. Wide/Narrow bandwidth selector. Double
superheterodyne system. Fast /Slow manual
tuning. Built -in quartz digital alarm clock. 5 inch
dynamic PM speaker. 3 antennas. Multi- voltage.
Detachable AC cord. Operates on 6 "D" batteries
(not included). Made in Japan.
Panasonic
Command
RF-4900
Panasonic® RF -4900
List price $549.95/CE price $389.00
Bands: MW 525.1610 KHz., SW1 -8 1.6 -30 MHz.
FM 88 -108 MHz.
The Panasonic RF-4900 shortwave receiver features a 5 -digit fluorescent display for all 8 SW
bands, as well as for AM /FM. AC or battery operation.
Full coverage from 1.6 to 30 MHz on SW. Covers
SSB and CW. Premix Double Superheterodyne.
Fast /slow 2 speed tuning. AFC Switch on FM,
narrow/wide selectivity switch for AM and SW.
Antenna trimmer. Calibration control. FET RF circuit.
Mode switch for AM -CW/SSB. BFO Pitch control.
ANL switch for AM. RF gain control. Tuning -Battery
meter with meter function switch. Separate bass
and treble tone control. Dial light switch. Digital
display on /off switch. Separate power switch. Rack
type handle. Made in Japan.
Panasonic® RF -3100
Allow 30 -120 days for delivery after receipt of
order due to the high demand for this product.
List price $369.95 /CE price $269.00
Bands: MW 525 -1610 KHz., SW1 -29 1.6 -30 MHz.
FM 88 -108 MHz.
The Panasonic RF-3100 portable 31 -Band portable radio has PLL Quartz- Synthesizer tuning
that "locks" onto SW stations. Operates on AC
or battery. SW frequencies from 1.6 to 30 MHz.
are in 29 bands. All -band 5 -digit frequency
readout. Horizontal design with front mounted
controls for shoulder strap operation. Double
superheterodyne for clean SW reception. BFO
pitch and RF gain controls. Separate bass and
treble controls. Wide/Narrow bandwidth selector. Meter for tuning and battery strength. LED
operation indicator. Meter light switch. 3'/2" PM
dynamic speaker. Comes with detachable
shoulder belt. Battery power (8 "D" batteries
not included). Made in Japan.
Panasonic® RF -2900
List price $349.95/CE price $249.00
Bands: MW 525 -1610 KHz., SW1 -3 3.2-30 MHz.
FM 88 -108 MHz.
The Panasonic RF-2900 is a portable five -band
shortwave radio with digital five digit fluorescent
frequency display. Full coverage from 3.2 to 30
MHz. on SW. Covers SSB and CW. Double
superheterodyne receiver. Fast /slow two speed
tuning. AFC switch on FM, narrow/wide selectivity switch for AM and SW. FET RF circuit. BFO
switch and pitch control. RF gain control. Tuning
battery meter. Separate bass /treble tone control. SW calibration control. Dial light switch.
Digital display on /off switch. Separate power
switch. Detachable dial hood included. Rack
type handle. Includes whip antenna and ferrite
coré antenna, speaker, earphone, recording
output jacks, AC line and detachable adjustable shoulder belt. Made in Japan.
Panasonic
RF -3100
TEST ANY RECEIVER
Test any receiver purchased from Communications Electronics for 31 days before you
decide to keep it. If for any reason you are not
completely satisfied, return it in original condition
with all parts in 31 days, for a prompt refund (less
shipping and handling charges).
NATIONAL WARRANTY SERVICE
All Panasonic receivers listed in this ad are
backed by a two-year limited warranty on parts
and labor. In addition, this warranty is backed by
a broad network of Panasonic service centers.
For two years after original purchase, Pana-
sonic will repair or replace your receiver if
purchased and retained in the U.S.A. Customer
must take it to an authorized service center.
Warranty does not cover damage from abuse,
misuse, or commercial use. Proof of purchase is
needed for in- warranty service.
To
BUY WITH CONFIDENCE
get the fastest delivery from CE
of any
receiver send or phone your order directly to our
Consumer Products Division. Be sure to calculate
your price using the CE prices in this ad. Michigan
residents please add 4% sales tax. Written purchase orders are accepted from approved government agencies and most well rated firms at a
10% surcharge for net 10 billing. All sales are
subject to availability, acceptance and verification.
Prices, terms and specifications are subject to
change without notice. Out of stock items will be
placed on backorder automatically unless CE is
instructed differently. International orders are invited
with a $20.00 surcharge for special handling in
addition to shipping charges. All shipments are
F.O.B. Ann Arbor, Michigan. No COD's please. Non certified and foreign checks require bank clearance.
Mail orders to: Communications Electronics':
Box 1002, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 U.S.A. Add
$12.00 per receiver for U.P.S. ground shipping and
handling. If you have a Master Card or Visa, you
may call anytime and place a credit card order.
Order toll free in the U.S.A. Dial 800-521-4414.
Outside the U.S. or in Michigan, dial 313- 994 -4444.
Dealer inquiries invited. Order your Panasonic
Command Series receiver today at no obligation.
CE logos are trademarks of Communications Electronics:t Panasonic is a registered trademark of Panasonic Company,
a Division of Matsushita Electric Corporation of America.
Copyright
981 Communications
VISA
Electronics
/
(Mas.ard
aCOMMUNICATIONS
ELECTRONICS''
Consumer Products Division
854 Phoenix .] Box 1002 Ann Arbor, Michigan 46106 U.S.A.
Call TOLL -FREE (SOO) 521.4414 or outside U.S.A. (313) 994.4444
Panasonic
RF-6300
Command Series
R F-2900
CIRCLE NO.
3 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
We're first
with the best:M
Audio Product of the Month
CHOSEN BY THE EDITORS OF POPULAR ELECTRONICS
°wise
Mitsubishi 115 V
Record Plater
Mitsubishi LT -5V record
player offers a novel mechanical
format. Vertically positioned, its linear tracking servo- driven tonearm is suspended from its pivots with the cartridge
hanging down. The heavy cast turntable
is belt -driven by a dc servo motor and
controlled by an LSI logic system
through light -touch pushbuttons. Because of its vertical alignment, the platter is rigidly fastened to the drive shaft
and the record is clamped to the rubber
mat by a swing -away arm that locks to
the center spindle when the record
player is operating.
The depth of the LT -5V is very small
(only 8 ") so it can be installed on ordinary bookshelves. However, since its
height is 17 ", a large vertical clearance
is needed. Each of the four rubber feet is
separately adjustable for leveling. Turntable width is 181/2 ", and it weighs 271/2
pounds. $450.
THE
General Description. Other than its
unusual orientation, the drive system of
the Mitsubishi LT -5V is conventional.
The servo -controlled dc motor drives a
heavy inner flywheel through a belt. The
external platter and rubber mat (which
together weigh about 4 pounds) mount
on an extension of the drive shaft. The
center spindle screws into the end of the
drive shaft to hold the platter in place.
An illuminated stroboscope pattern on
the internal flywheel is visible through a
window on the vertical "motorboard." It
is marked for 331/3 and 45 rpm at 50 or
60 Hz. Near the viewing window is a
clear plastic prism that causes a light
beam to shine across the mat. The mat
and platter are perforated at four places
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
12
www.americanradiohistory.com
Pocket Concert Hall
PRICE SLASHED
Was $199, then $179 - --We cut
it to only $118
NOW JUST $69
Cybernet
a problem. They built over 100,000 of these fabulous
Pocket Concert Halls. They built them to be better than the Sony
Walkman, but by the time they got them here, the price had already
come down on the Walkman (it's now as low as $139 in some areas)
and lots of cheap Hong Kong -made recorders had hit the market.
The Cybernet was built to sell for $200 and wholesale for $119. It
has a very sophisticated dual flywheel tape drive system and superb
electronics. The best way to test a portable is to play music and shake
it. If the music wows badly, or even stops, you have a cheap unit.
Both Sony's and Cybernet's can pass this test. Not may others can.
So, if you want the best sound and the most stable unit, Cybernet has
35,000 left. And at only $69 ($2.50 P &H), it's an incredible bargain.
Remember this is a $200 retail unit, and the January 1981 wholesale
price sheet shows dealer cost at $119.97. We'll be glad to send you a
copy if you'd like to see it. Use DAK's Super Sale Order Number
9192. Of course you get DAK's 30 day risk free trial and Cybernet's
one year warranty described below.
has
First there was silence. Then from
nowhere, there explodes an awesome
kaleidoscope of sound. Violins from the
left, trumpets from the right, while the
sounds of a vocalist seem to come from
somewhere above.
You've just experienced a breathtaking
experience in sound. It's better than siting in the middle of a full symphony
orchestra.
As you take off the almost weightless
11/2
ounce headphones and tentatively
look around for the orchestra, the realization of the experience sinks in.
Now you can enjoy more beautiful
sound from your cassettes while you are
jogging or washing the car than when
you are sitting in front of your stereo.
SOMERSAULTS AND CARTWHEELS
If you were on a diet yesterday, you
probably lost more weight than the trifling 16 oz. of the Pocket Concert Hall.
The Concert Hall goes where you go
with a protective leatherette case that
easily hangs on your belt or rides comfortably in your pocket. It also comes
with an adjustable shoulder strap.
Whether you're into gymnastics, long
walks, or just mowing the lawn, you'll
enjoy the unbelievably rich stereo sound
of the Pocket Concert Hall. And, to
prove our point, we offer you a 30 day
risk free trial.
ENGINEERED FOR STRESS
Most fine stereo equipment is designed
to be lovingly placed on a shelf and
never moved. Obviously, this isn't a
practical way to listen when you're
walking your dog or riding a bike.
The Pocket Concert Hall incorporates
a special dual flywheel tape movement
system with a unique anti -rolling mechanism resembling a fine clock. It keeps
the music smooth and stable, even when
you're doing cartwheels.
The Pocket Concert Hall is specifically
designed for rough treatment. Other
machines are really redesigned dictation
recorders. The Pocket Concert Hall is
designed to provide superb stereo music
while you're on the move.
You can expect years of enjoyment
from this finely crafted revolutionary
new sound machine.
You can listen to the outside world by
pushing the talk switch without taking
off the feather-light stereophones. Dual
volume controls, auto -stop and a bat-
tery condition /operation indicator light
round out a full compliment of convenience features to enhance your musical
enjoyment.
MULTINATIONAL GUARANTEE
Cybernet is an extremely large Japanese
Company with a large presence here in
the U.S. They manufacture component
systems valued in the thousands of dollars and sophisticated wireless trasmission systems.
Cybernet backs the Pocket Concert
Hall not with the usual limited 90 day
parts and labor guarantee, but with a
limited full one year guarantee.
DAK is America's largest direct selling
manufacturer of magnetic products. We
add our own 30 day 100% satisfaction
guarantee to protect your purchase.
TRY THE POCKET CONCERT HALL
RISK FREE
Take your Pocket Concert Hall on
walks, to the mountains or as you commute to work. Enjoy your favorite
music wherever you are and experience
incredible concert hall realism.
If for any reason you aren't 100% satisfied, simply return it in its original box
for a courteous refund.
To order your Pocket Concert Hall
risk free with your credit card, call our
toll free hotline, or send your check for
MUSIC AT YOUR COMMAND
You won't be 'roughing it' when you
leave home. You can play all your cassettes since there is an equalization
switch for Metal /Chrome or standard.
The sound is crisp and clean with a
frequency response of 30- 14,000hz.
The entire system is operated by 4 AA
batteries (included).
There are convenient lock -in fast forward and rewind buttons, plus cue and
review. If you want to listen to a song
again, just press the review button without ever leaving play.
CIRCLE NO. 58 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
(CA res add
6% sales tax).
Why settle for a radio station's choice
of music and commercials when you can
choose your favorite music on cassettes
anywhere, any time.
DAK
INDUSTRIES
INCORPORATED
Call TOLL -FREE
(800) 423 -2636
n California Call
(213) 984 -1559
10845 Vanowen St., North Hollywood, CA 91605
audio
.1111111111111111111MI
on each of four radii, allowing the light
to pass through to photo sensors located
below the motor board. This prevents
operation of the unit without a record in
place and protects the stylus from contact with the mat. The arm merely travels to the center of the platter with the
cartridge raised, and returns to rest,
shutting off the motor. If a 12 -inch disc
is on the turntable, the arm descends at
the lead -in groove (since all the light
"windows" are blocked by the record).
A 7 -inch record will block only the
innermost holes, switching the turntable
speed to 45 rpm and indexing the arm to
a 7 -inch diameter.
Special combinations of size and
speed (such as 12 -inch 45 rpm, 7 -inch
331/3 rpm, or any 10 -inch discs) must be
played manually, using procedures described in the instruction manual. This
also applies to translucent or colored
records, or records of nonstandard size.
The tonearm is driven on a track rod
by a small servo motor operating
through a worm gear and a fine stainless -steel wire. The arm is free to pivot
slightly (parallel to the record surface)
and optical sensors on the arm carriage
detect any deviation from the vertical
position -in which the pickup is tangent
to the record groove. The arm servo
motor drives the carriage to reduce the
tracking error toward zero. The servo
operates both toward and away from the
center of the record, and can accommodate slightly eccentric records, as well.
The arm itself is a short, straight tube
equipped with a universal four -pin
bayonet -mount headshell (cartridges
with integral plugs can also be used).
The cartridge is installed in its shell with
the aid of a plastic gauge to set its longitudinal position and its distance from
the shell mounting surface. First the
arm is balanced with the cartridge hanging down vertically by turning a weight
threaded into the structure at the rear of
the arm. After balancing, the tracking
force scale on the weight is set to zero,
and the entire weight is then turned to
provide the desired tracking for the stylus. The scale is calibrated from 0 to 2.5
grams at 0.1 -gram intervals.
One advantage of the vertical record
player is that the cartridge does not have
to be counterbalanced, since its mass
acts along the axis of the arm tube and
pivot. Therefore, cartridges can be interchanged merely by plugging them in,
with no need for re- balancing.
The tonearm has a relatively low
mass, being just long enough to locate
the stylus on a record radius, with no
unnecessary overhang or bends to add
mass to the arm. This provides very good
tracking on warped records. The absence of an antiskating bias gives added
stability in the presence of vibration or
jarring.
The vertical format of the LT-5V also
serves to isolate the unit from base -conducted vibration. Vertical motion has
virtually no effect on the cartridge output, since it acts along the axis of the
rigid arm tube. Horizontal motion can
have the same effect as on any other
record player.
OPERATING FEATURES
Controls
(Flat pushbuttons)
Initiates operating cycle and slews
arm inward when held in.
STOP: Initiates end of operation and slews
arm outward when held in.
SPEED: Changes speed between 331/3 and
45 rpm on alternate operations (turntable
always starts at 331/3 rpm)
REPEAT: Causes record to be repeated
START:
indefinitely (second touch cancels).
Raises and lowers pickup on
alternate operations.
Speed Vernier Wheels: Marked "33"
and "45 "; produce ±3% shift in the
nominal speeds.
LIFT /CUE:
Indicator Lights:
On panel above operating buttons. Arrows show up or down
arm position, direction of slew inward or
outward. Dot shows status Of REPEAT
function. Arm deviation from tangency is
shown by arrows flanking TRACKING ERROR
line.
Disc Clamper:
Swinging arm that locks
to center spindle and clamps disc to
turntable. Carries index scale for arm
cueing. Matching scale above arm carriage.
Arm Lock /Power Switch: Shuts off
power when arm is clamped to post.
Turntable is switched on by releasing
arm lock.
Tracking Force: Dial on adjustable
weight mounted on arm pivot housing,
used to balance arm vertically before
setting tracking force.
A top-hinged clear plastic cover,
that covers the arm and about half the
turntable when lowered.
Cover:
AtaGNIVISIPSIXIIVAIVIINfOREINN
ings of 0.5 units. By sighting across the
top of the scale to the disc, one can esti-
mate the numerical reading corresponding to any band or section of the
record.
Along the upper part of the record
player, next to the rear (top) of the tone arm, is an identical scale. When read
against a line marked on the rear of the
arm carriage, this scale shows the position of the cartridge along the playing
radius. Although the two scales are on
opposite sides of the disc, their readings
are mirror images and therefore equivalent. By transferring the reading from
the clamp scale to the fixed scale, the
pickup can be lowered to the record with
reasonable assurance of contacting the
selected passage.
The operating controls of the Mitsubishi LT -5V are flat pushbuttons that
require little pressure and almost no
movement. When the unit is activated
by unlocking the arm clamp (thereby
lighting a "power -on" indicator), a
touch on START turns on the motor and
causes the arm to scan in to the lead -in
groove and descend to playing height.
At the end of the record, it lifts, returns
to the rest, and shuts off the motor. This
can also be done at any time by touching
STOP. These buttons serve as clewing
controls, since holding in either START or
STOP causes the arm to move continuously inward or outward, stopping
when the button is released. A touch on
LIFT /CUE is required to lower the pickup
to the record after it has been slewed.
Small green arrows above the control
panel show the operating mode of the
record player. The "up" and "down"
arrows show the status of the LIFT /CUE
control, and "left" and "right" arrows
next to them show the slew direction of
the arm. A green dot lights when
REPEAT is engaged. Finally, the TRACK
ING ERROR "0" bar lights up when the
arm is tangent to the groove (its normal
condition). Arrows on either side are lit
when the tracking error exceeds the
rated maximum of 0.1 degree. This can
happen when the pickup enters the
eccentric groove at the end of a record,
or while the arm is being slewed.
-
The record clamp is claimed to act as
a stabilizer, exerting a damping action
on the disc by pressing its center to the
turntable platter. Mitsubishi has also
used the clamp bar to help solve a problem peculiar to the vertical format
how to cue the pickup to a specific diameter of a record. Under normal circumstances the stylus cannot be seen, calling
for some guesswork if cueing is to be
done by eye. However, the clamp bar
carries a scale, extending across the
recorded surface of a record, and calibrated linearly from 0 to 10 with spac-
Laboratory Measurements. We installed several different cartridges and
found the process straightforward and
rapid. The measurements were made
using an ADC Integra XLM Ill, which
has an integral plug -in "shell ".
Because of the unusual orientation of
the record player, it was not possible to
measure the actual tracking force or the
effective arm mass. However, all the
cartridges performed properly when the
tracking force dial was set properly, and
we have no reason to doubt its accuracy.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
14
www.americanradiohistory.com
0
LOCL
It's already a fad in Australia. And
the minute you unlock its secret, you'll
understand why.
The product is a digital watch in a
lock called the LocLoc. The LocLoc
hangs from your belt loop and the digital display is upside down to everybody
but you.
Want the time, flip up the LocLoc and
glance down. There's no watch to
wear on your wrist, nothing to lug in
your pocket and it makes a great way
to keep track of the time while wearing
a beautiful new piece of jewelry on
your jeans. You can wear the LocLoc
on everything from a pair of Calvin
Kleins, to formal evening attire or even
as a piece of jewelry around your neck.
The LocLoc is a full 5- function digital
watch with night light -all housed in a
solid brass case. The case is water
resistant and comes in three textures:
gold-tone, silver -tone, and anodized
black.
Just twist the clasp on the lock and it
opens. Then slip it over your belt loop.
You'll enjoy the freedom of having
T M
Turn those plain looking belt loops
into the latest jewelry fad with
America's newest way to tell time.
nothing on your wrist and the convenience of always having the correct time
at a glance.
Want more? The LocLoc comes in a
see through vault-like container that
fits into a denim drawstring tote bag. In
fact, ifs packaged as a perfect gift for
both men and women -and for any age
group.
Try one at no risk. Send your check
for $29.95 for the silver -tone version or
$39.95 for the anodized black or gold tone version, plus $3.00 postage and
handling. (Illinois residents add 6%
sales tax.) Credit card buyers may use
our toll-free number below.
Weill send you your LocLoc digital
watch and clear vault -like container all
packaged in its handy gift denim drawstring tote bag. After you receive it,
attach t to your belt loop. Feel the freedom of not wearing a watch on your
wrist. See how easy it is to glance
down at the time and notice what a
great accessory and piece of jewelry it
makes If you're not absolutely convinced that LocLoc is perfect for you,
www.americanradiohistory.com
return it for a full refund, including your
$3.00 postage and handling charge.
But if you really like it, order more for
gifts or for your friends.
Each LocLoc has a one -year limited
warranty. Your LocLoc was designed
to take plenty of abuse. In fact, the
case is actually housed in a solid brass
lock. But if service is ever required, our
service -by -mail center is as close as
your mailbox. JS &A is America's premiere electronics company and a
company built upon service.
If you're looking for a really innovative gift-one that you yourself will enjoy -order a LocLoc today.
o
C
JS4LRODU
THINK
TS
Dept. PE
One JS &A Plaza
Northbrook, III. 60062 (312) 564 -7000
Call TOLL -FREE
800 228-5000
In Nebraska Call
800 323-6400
©JS &A Group, Inc.,1981
This man is looking for
AH ELECTRONIC
UGH.
BREAKTH
Join him in the incredible world of
electronics with NRI's all -new training
in the career of the future...
Electronic Design Technology.
www.americanradiohistory.com
It's an electronic world we live
in. And the designers of electronic
circuits, controls, and systems are
the people who are shaping it. Take
your place in this exclusive company
with this exciting new training from
NRI.
You can learn Electronic Design Technology at home, in your
Professional Equipment
Included
NRI Fast-Track Training
This is the unique NRI lesson
concept that simplifies and speeds
All the way, you work with
professional- quality instruments like learning. From the very basics to
advanced, state -of-the -art electhe Beckman 6- function, 26 -range
tronics, each lesson is especially preLCD digital multimeter. It gives you
pared for individualized instruction.
fast, accurate measurements of voltages, currents, and resistances, even Each subject is covered fully and
thoroughly, but extraneous material
forward voltage
spare time. Without quitting your
is eliminated, language is clear and
job, tying up your evenings at night
to the point, organization is
school, or wasting gas travellogical and effective. From
/i
77-'"_`
ing to classes. Because NRI
Fundamentals of Electronic
comes to you, makes you a
..
Circuits through MicroprocesvuuL^ j!class of one with a complete,
sors, your lessons are designed
effective, low -cost learning
with you in mind.
program designed exclusively
No Experience
for home study. You get it all...
Necessary
at your convenience.
You don't have to be an
Hands-On Training
engineer (or even a college stuNRI trains you for action.
dent) to succeed. High school
You get real -life experience
graduates with some algebra
that builds priceless confidence,
handle it without any trouble.
gives you working knowledge
We start you at the beginning, let
of lab practices and techniques.
i
you advance just as quickly as
It's all built into the NRI Design
you're ready. We even include the
Lab a complete combination of
wr
NRI Math Refresher Module to
equipment, hardware, training,
help you brush up on your math
Training includes NRI Design Lab,
and reference materials. You'll deBeckman digital multimeter, Texas Instruments
and
teach you any new concepts
scientific calculator that you use and keep.
sign your own circuits from the very
you may need.
beginning, progressing from basic
drops across in-circuit diodes
Free Catalog,
passive networks through key cirand transistors.
No Salesman Will Call
cuits like power supplies, amplifiers,
You'll breadboard your deOur free, 100 -page catalog
oscillators, digital and logic circuits,
signs on the unique NRI Circuit
gives
phase- locked loops
you
all the details, including
Designer. It features built-in multilesson outlines, equipment specificaand more. You'll move ple power supplies, variable signal
tions, and career opportunities. Send
on to linear and digigenerator, logic switches and LED
for it today and find the breaktal integrated circuits,
indicators. It handles almost any
through for your future. If card has
the heart of modern
circuit you can design...linear and
been removed, please write to us.
electronic equipment.
digital integrated circuits as well as
You'll prototype your
discrete components such as trandesigns and verify
NRI SCHOOLS
sistors and diodes.
McGraw-Hill Continuing
operation, learning
Analysis and design work is
Education Center
professional test and
speeded with the Zëxas Instruments
3939 Wisconsin Ave.
Washington, DC 20016
measurement proceTI -30 scientific calculator. This en1:111
dures as you progress.
gineer's instrument includes full
We'll give you tomorrow.
trigonometric functions, logarithms,
square root, squares, powers, memory, and more. All this fine equipment is part of your training, yours
to keep and use in your work.
u
.
U'J
NRI
I
19
www.americanradiohistory.com
audio
MITSUBISHI
buttons, there was never any tendency to
(continued)
jar the record player when using the
The capacitance to ground of the arm
and signal cable wiring was 215 pF per
channel. The low frequency resonance
of the arm and cartridge system was 12
Hz, with an amplitude of 7 to 8 dB.
Turntable rumble was very low, measuring -38 dB unweighted and -63 dB
with ARLL weighting. The major rumble component was at 10 Hz, with a
smaller one at 30 Hz. The flutter was
0.13% weighted peak (DIN) and 0.09%
weighted rms (JIS). It mostly occurred
at rates of 4 and 10 Hz, and its spectrum
dropped off rapidly above 15 Hz.
The speed vernier controls had maximum ranges of +3.9 to -6.5% (331/3
rpm) and +5.6 to -6.9% (45 rpm),
both well beyond the rated 3% range.
However, the strobe markings were very
difficult to see -lit by a dim red light
and recessed so far into the body of the
player that they could be viewed only
from a narrow angle directly above the
window.
The operating controls worked
smoothly and silently. Because of the
very small force needed to activate the
controls. The START cycle required
about 8 seconds, and the STOP cycle
some 13 seconds. The arm slewing functions were easy to use, but they were
very slow- requiring some 18 seconds to
cover the surface of a 12" record. The
arm lift and cueing mechanism worked
very well -operating in less than 2 seconds with only a slight repeat of the
record (2 or 3 seconds) each time the
arm was raised and lowered in place.
The protective system that prevents
the pickup from descending to an empty
but rotating platter worked well. The
instructions warn against trying to move
the arm manually (which could damage
its drive system since the arm is constrained at all times by the stainless steel
drive wire). However, if the arm is not
moved beyond its region of free movement, no harm will result. With the
record player operating, we found manual cueing faster and more convenient
than the slow internal slew system. If
the pickup is lifted by its finger lift and
slowly moved in either direction, the servo causes the arm to follow and there is
he
- -
KuPP-
,,:`, P,'7,81
hg Tgól-'lct
dbCK
Claussancl
Ce),t`j
F,ëàturings
fetime guarantee
on all these tools by
R & K Supply Co.
Full refund if not
completely satisfied.
20 of the most durable tools available:
Allen Hex Key Set (std.)
Feeler Gauge (blade type)
Knife (electrician
2- blades)
Nut Driver Kit
6 Pliers
Scissors
Screwdrivers
2 Phillips
3 Regular
1,11511,1"
Tape Measure
Vise Grip'
Wire Stripper
Wrench (adjustable)
Zipper Tool Case
Call Today and Place Your Holiday Order
R&K
SUPPLY
not be determined.
Since one of the claims made for the
superiority of the vertical turntable
mounting is its resistance to vibration,
we were especially interested to see how
it would fare when placed on vibrators
used to measure base isolation. It performed very well, and we consider the
manufacturer's claims for this feature to
be justified, i.e., a single transmission
mode in the 20- to-30 -Hz range was
measured through the rubber mounting
feet. Isolation from vertical vibration
was excellent.
User Comment. It would be easy to
dismiss the novel design of the Mitsubishi LT -5V as a "gimmick" or novelty to
catch the attention of a prospective
buyer. While there may be some validity
in that assumption, it is a fact that the
LT-5V does a superb job of record playing, and would be hard to surpass in any
of its measured characteristics.
The advantages claimed for it in improved base isolation are quite real.
Although we could not measure its isolation at infrasonic frequencies, we found
that vigorous pounding on the supporting shelf usually had no effect on the
contact of the pickup with the groove,
nor on the sound we heard from the
speakers. We conclude that this is a very
well engineered record playing system.
To us, one of the chief attractions of
the LT-5V is that it fits easily on a narrow shelf. The drawback is that it
requires at least 17" of vertical clearance. In any case, the consumer now has
a choice not previously available.
In using the unit, we found only a few
minor inconveniences resulting from its
format. Because the spindle has a
notched tip that locks the pivoted clamp
holding the record in place, you have to
wiggle the record a bit to remove it from
the turntable. Also, the arm indexing
/;7Y"
rodùced by
Chenn
no need to approach the mechanical limits of the arm's movement. Lateral pickup displacement required to light the
TRACK ERROR indicators was about
± 0.8 degrees. Whether the servo actually responds to a smaller error could
Available ONLY through R &
TOLL FREE NUMBERS
K
Supply
COMPANY In Ohlo, Call 1-800-362-1715
16600 Sprague Road -Cleveland, Ohlo 44130
scales, while accurate, are inconvenient
to use unless they are at eye level.
Otherwise, parallax becomes a problem.
Finally, the stroboscope markings are
much too difficult to see, and should be
lit more brightly if they are to remain in
their present location.
The appearance, construction, finish,
and smoothness of operation of the Mitsubishi LT-5V are suggestive of a more
expensive record player. If its special
qualities meet one's needs, it might well
be the system of choice for many
users.-Julian
D.
Hirsch
CIRCLE NO. 101 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
20
www.americanradiohistory.com
ODYSSEY2
THE EXCITEMENT OF
A GAME.
Of A COMPUTER.
THE MIND
ALL FOR THE PRICE OF
AN ORDINARY VIDEO GAME.
S,mulaled
t
1981 N A P
TV
Some video games are exciting but
short on challenge.
Odyssey?, on the other hand, lets
you choose your excitement from
more than 40 arcade, sports, education and new Master Strategy
games that are full of challenges as
well as fun, so they keep you coming
back for more.
And some video games have an abundance of brainpower, but cost an arm
and a leg. Only Odyssey? includes, at no
extra cost, a full 49- character alphabet
LO and number computer keyboard
that gives you
access to the mind
behind the games.
And now there's The Quest
For The RingsTM from Odyssey? Its
the first in our new Master
Strategy SeriesTM of video
games that combine computer
technology, your TV set and
an advanced game board to
transport you to a startlingly
realistic alternate world.
Odyssey? Video game fun.
Computer keyboard challenge.
All for the price of an ordinary
video game. It's waiting for you
now, at your Odyssey2 dealer.
Odyssey2 games include:
D1ue
CONSUMER ELECTRONICS CORP
//
"L
The Quest For The Rings Speedway*
Spin-Out* Crypto- Logic* Las Vegas
.,
._..--...c:_,o, _
,-
ummillimmosow
Blackjack Armored Encounter Sub chase Football Bowling Basketball
Math -A -Magic Echo Computer Intro
Matchmaker Logix Buzzword Baseball Computer Golf Cosmic Conflict Take
The Money And Run I've Got Your Number
Invaders From Hyperspace Thunderball Showdown in 2001 A.D. War Of Nerves Alpine Skiing
Helicopter Rescue Out Of This World Hockey
Soccer Dynasty Volleyball Electronic Table Soccer
Pocket Billiards Pachinko Blockout Breakdown
Casino Slot Machine UFO Alien Invaders -Plus.
*Included with original Odyssey' purchase.
ya+rar,r..
4,,._
..,s
The excitement of a game.
The mind of a computer.
±CIRCLE
NO.'3
3N FREE INFORMATION CARD
SOUND UNLEASHED
=--fl.a
-..L
You may not realize it, but you've only been
listening to music in two dimensions. In
fact, owners of the most sophisticated
systems utilizing the latest enhancement
techniques are also only hearing
two -dimensional sound, totally lacking the
missing third dimension, Omnisonic
Imagery'". Even owners of the most modest
stereo systems will recognize the 801
Omnisonic Imager° as one of the most
significant improvements in music
reproduction in years. This advance,
available after extensive research by
Omnisonix in the field of psychoacoustics, is
intended to provide the enjoyment and
feeling of live musical performance. To
vastly upgrade the performance of your
stereo system, simply connect the 801 to the
tape or preamp input /output jacks and
listen to clear, distinct sound images that
seem to surround you, even while moving
about. In fact, the impact is so great that the
sound seems to come from outside the
MMMIMOWWW
illIMMINEM111111111.
speaker plane, often overhead and
to the rear. Your home virtually becomes a
concert hall.
Hearing is convincing
To experience the dramatic presence and
detail that have been missing from your
records, digitally recorded discs, and
pre- recorded tapes, take a few of your
favorites to an Omnisonix dealer for a
demonstration; you are in for a musical
delight. And amazingly enough, any tape
you record through an Omnisonic Imager
will retain the Omnisonic quality when it is
played back on a conventional stereo
system. The 801 Omnisonic Imager also
adds a dimension to FM, monophonic AM
and TV sound, with a simple adjustment.
Highway imagery
The new Imager 801 -AT" does for your car
stereo what the 801 does for your home
music system. It raises the sound from the
floor level to the ear level. The variable
CIRCLE NO. 38 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
imager control allows you to vary the image
to any auto environment.
Hear what you've been missing
Join the growing thousands of music
listeners who have found it completely
affordable to enjoy the delight of Omnisonic
Imagery and discover what they had been
missing with conventional stereo.
Since all Omnisonic Imagers are
designed and built for lasting performance
under strict quality control conditions,
Omnisonix offers a lifetime warranty on the
active proprietary circuitry.
Call today, toll free
1- 800 -243 -0688
For additional information and the
name of
your nearest Omnisonix dealer. Write:
Box 430, Northford, Ct. 06472 or call
203 -239 -6213 in Connecticut.
P.O.
QMNISONIX, LTD.
Setting Sound Free
video
Popular Electronics Tests
RCA CTCIÍJA
19" Color TVReceiver
T
HE CTC -111 A 19" color chassis
for 1981/82 offers 127 -channel
tuning, CCD comb -filtering, and pseudo- stereo sound. It's quite different from
either last year's top -of-line CTC -101 or
the more recently developed XL -100
CTC -108.
The table model examined here measures 17 "H x 17 "D x 26 "W. It has a
black- striped silver front, and walnut colored plastic top and sides. Large, red
LED channel numbers are located
above a push /pull on -off and volume
control switch that's situated immediately to the left of a 12- button direct channel address and a programmable
up /down slow and rapid scan arrangement. Directly below and behind a 5" x
2.5" plastic door are controls for channel- select, sharpness, brightness, contrast, color, tint, and treble /bass. Suggested retail price is $580.
General Description. 127- Channel
Tuning. When the on /off switch is
pulled, audio comes on immediately and
the picture appears in about four seconds, a vast improvement over previous
11- second warmups for older -type cathode ray tubes. Channels are selected by
up /down pushbuttons, activating a frequency- synthesis manual -scan tuning
system that covers all vhf, uhf, midband,
superband, and hyperband CATV chan-
nels. Selected u/v frequencies may either be added or deleted in the receiver's
electronic tuner by simply pressing an
add or erase button. And when a channel is entered in memory, the select /lock
switch fixes it in position. Memory is
retained even if the receiver is disconnected from the ac line. On the set's
back are switches for cable -TV -mode
tuning and "ColorTrak" defeat.
Electronically, the MST007 composite tuner is divided into three sections:
uhf, vhf, and superband /hyperband.
Shielding separates the uhf section from
the other two. Not only does the tuner
furnish the usual 82 u/v channels, but
also cable channels A -1 through A -5, A
through I, J through W, and W +1
through W +17, for a total of 127. The
cable /normal switch does not affect vhf
channels 2 through 13, but must be set
to normal position for uhf. In addition, a
sync detector has been added from a
transistor on the chassis to defeat aft
during improper sync cable search.
Channel scan can be expanded automatically in discrete steps from -2
MHz below video carrier to +2.25
MHz above. After full search, the sync
detector cuts off and the system returns
to normal operation. Then, even carriers
without apparent sync may be received.
But such special sync operates only in
the CATV position.
DECEMBER 1981
Other Features. The CTC- 111A's
SAW (surface wave) filter input, its
transistorized preamplifier, the i -f, aft,
agc /video detector IC, and the 28 -pin
LSI chroma and luminance processor
are incorporated into the same monolithic chips used in the CTC -108 (POPULAR ELECTRONICS, June 1980). The
charge -coupled- device comb filter was
used first in the RCA CTC -101 chassis.
(See PE, October 1981 review of Toshiba's CB965 TV set for details on how
the comb filter works.) Finally, there is
an automatic peaking detector, a vastly
improved sound detector and output,
and a new horizontal /vertical oscillator
and regulator control IC -all new for
this series.
Auto Peaker. Vertical detail resolution from the comb filter is extracted
through a nonlinear processor. This is
summed with the delayed luminance in
a U701 peaker IC. Further correction is
supplied from an automatic peak-frequency detection circuit, the idea being
to offer uniform horizontal resolution
from one TV station to the next, and to
compensate for any poor SWR of the
receiving antenna. This occurs without
the user having to adjust preferred
sharpness for individual channels.
Consequently, a peaking circuit has
been designed that consists of three
transistors, and related components.
23
www.americanradiohistory.com
HEATH /ZENITH
A GIANT STEP FORWARD
Computer power, printer speed,
hard disk storage -all in one system.
The three elements you need for smooth, rapid data handling
are together now in one Heath /Zenith system. For word
processing, business and financial applications, or custom
programming- this is the performance standard evolving in
computer technology. It's what you expect from a strong
partner.
All -In -One Computer
The heart of the system is the Heath /Zenith 89 Computer,
a complete, stand -alone unit with professional keyboard,
smart video terminal and 51/4 -inch disk drive. It's easy to use
for people having little or no experience -yet it can also
run extended languages like BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN
and Pascal.
The 89 comes with 48K bytes RAM, expandable to 64K.
It has two Z80 microprocessors, one for computer functions,
one for terminal functions. And three serial I/O ports for
interface with printers and modem.
The video display features a 12 -inch diagonal, high resolution CRT that's easy on the eyes. It displays up to
2,000 characters at a time, 24 lines (plus 25th status line)
by 80 characters, with full cursor control. Also 33 block
graphic characters for charts and graphs.
The heavy -duty keyboard follows standard typewriter format
for easy operator training. All terminal functions are programmable from keyboard or I/O ports.
The 51/4 -inch floppy diskette stores 100K bytes of information and interfaces on line with the Heath /Zenith 67
Hard Disk System.
Winchester Disk System
The 67 Disk System features one hard disk and one
8 -inch, soft -sectored floppy for total on -line storage of
10.782 megabytes (formatted). That's a huge data base.
The floppy is double- sided, double- density and can also
operate in single -sided or single -density modes, compatible
with standard IBM 3740 format.
The 67 features write -protect switches for both drives to
prevent accidental erasure of information. The average
access time of the hard disk drive is 70 milliseconds.
High -speed printer
The Heath/ Zenith 25 Printer is a heavy -duty, high- speed,
dot matrix printer that gives you sharp, clear printouts. It
prints over 150 characters per second with whisper -quiet
smoothness.
The entire 95- character ASCII set prints in upper case and
lower case with descenders, in a 9 x 9 matrix. Also, 33 block
graphic characters let you create graphs and charts. All
functions and timing are microprocessor- controlled.
uses standard edge -punched papers and features a
convenient cartridge ribbon for easy, no-mess replacement.
It
titi.1.-..`~.,..°.\....
www.americanradiohistory.com
...;,:;
.
ANNOUNCES
IN SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
Versatile software and accessories
Visit Your Heathkit Electronic Center*
The Heath /Zenith System offers you a choice of operating
systems, including popular CP/M.
where Heath/Zenith Products are displayed, sold and serviced.
There are programs for word processing, business applications, and versatile utility functions. And the Heath User's
Group offers a library of over 500 low -cost programs for
home, work or play.
For your custom programs, Microsoft languages are available in BASIC (compiler and interpreter), FORTRAN and
COBOL. Or learn to write and run your own programs with
special self -study programming courses for Assembly,
BASIC, Pascal or COBOL.
PHOENIX, AZ
2727 W. Indian School Rd.
602-279 -6247
MISSION, KS
5960 Lamar Ave.
913- 362 -4486
CLEVELAND, OH
28100 Chagrin Blvd.
216 -292 -7553
ANAHEIM, CA
330 E. Ball Rd.
714 -776 -9420
LOUISVILLE, KY
12401 Shelbyville Rd.
502 -245 -7811
COLUMBUS, OH
2500 Morse Rd.
614- 475 -7200
CAMPBELL, CA
2350 S. Bascom Ave.
KENNER, LA
1900 Veterans
TOLEDO, OH
48 S. Byrne Rd.
419 -537 -1887
408- 377 -8920
EL CERRITO, CA
6000 Potrero Ave.
415- 236 -8870
LA MESA, CA
8363 Center Dr.
714 -461 -0110
Free demonstration awaits you at
your Heathkit Electronic Center
Pick the store nearest you from the list at right. And stop
in today fora demonstration of the new Heath /Zenith System.
If you can't get to a store, send $1.00 for the new Zenith
Data Systems Catalog of assembled commercial computers
and also receive free the latest Heathkit Catalog. Write to
Heath Co., Dept. 010-844, Benton Harbor, MI 49022.
LOS ANGELES, CA
2309 S. Flower St.
213 -749 -0261
POMONA, CA
1555 N. Orange Grove Ave.
714 -623 -3543
REDWOOD CITY, CA
2001 Middlefield Rd.
415- 365 -8155
SACRAMENTO, CA
1860 Fulton Ave.
916- 486 -1575
WOODLAND HILLS, CA
22504 Ventura Blvd.
213 -883 -0531
Memorial Hwy.
504- 467 -6321
BALTIMORE, MD
1713 E. Joppa Rd.
301 -661 -4446
ROCKVILLE, MD
5542 Nicholson Lane
301 -881 -5420
PEABODY, MA
242 Andover St.
617 -531 -9330
WELLESLEY, MA
165 Worcester Ave.
617 -237 -1510
DETROIT, MI
18645 W. Eight Mile Rd.
313 -535 -6480
E. DETROIT, MI
18149 E. Eight Mile Rd.
313- 772 -0416
WOODLAWN, OH
10133 Springfield Pike
513-771 -8850
OKLAHOMA CITY, OK
2727 Northwest
Expressway
405- 848 -7593
FRAZER, PA
630 Lancaster Pike
(Rt. 30)
215-647-5555
PHILADELPHIA,PA
6318 Roosevelt Blvd.
215- 288 -0180
PITTSBURGH, PA
3482 Wm. Penn Hwy.
412 -824 -3564
WARWICK, RI
558 Greenwich Ave.
401 -738 -5150
DALLAS, TX
DENVER, CO
5940 W. 38th Ave.
303 -422 -3408
HOPKINS, MN
101 Shady Oak Rd.
612- 938 -6371
ST. PAUL, MN
1645 White Bear Ave.
612 -778 -1211
AVON, CT
395 W. Main St. (Rt. 44)
203 -678 -0323
BRIDGETON, MO
3794 McKelvey Rd.
314 -291 -1850
SAN ANTONIO, TX
7111 Blanco Road
512- 341 -8876
HIALEAH, FL
4705 W. 16th Ave.
305 -823 -2280
PLANTATION, FL
7173 W. Broward Blvd.
305- 791 -7300
OMAHA, NE
9207 Maple St.
402-391 -2071
MIDVALE, UT
58 East 7200 South
ASBURY PARK, NJ
1013 State Hwy. 35
201- 775 -1231
TAMPA, FL
FAIR LAWN, NJ
4019 W. Hillsborough Ave. 35 -07 Broadway (Rt. 4)
813 -886 -2541
201 -791 -6935
ATLANTA, GA
AMHERST, NY
5285 Roswell Rd.
3476 Sheridan Dr.
404 -252 -4341
716 -835 -3090
CHICAGO, IL
3462-66 W. Devon Ave.
312 -583 -3920
JERICHO, L.I. NY
15 Jericho Turnpike
DOWNERS GROVE, IL
224 Ogden Ave.
312 -852 -1304
ROCHESTER, NY
937 Jefferson Rd.
716- 424 -2560
516 -334 -8181
2715 Ross Ave.
214 -826 -4053
HOUSTON , TX
1704 W. Loop N.
713- 869 -5263
801 -566 -4626
ALEXANDRIA, VA
6201 Richmond Hwy.
703 -765 -5515
VIRGINIA BEACH, VA
1055 Independence Blvd.
804 -460 -0997
SEATTLE, WA
505 8th Ave. N.
206 -682 -2172
TUKWILA, WA
15439 53rd Ave. S.
206 -246 -5358
MILWAUKEE, WI
5215 W. Fond du Lac
414 -873 -8250
N. WHITE PLAINS, NY
INDIANAPOLIS, IN
'Units of Veritechnology
7 Reservoir Rd.
2112 E. 62nd St.
Electronics Corporation in
the U.S.
914- 761 -7690
317- 257 -4321
Prices and specifications subject to change without notice.
HEATH /ZENITH
Your strong partner
25
DECEMBER 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
video
TVERT
A46ñ1 C463
FROM
SYNC
INPUT
VERI
BLANKING
SYNC
COMP
FF
!33xIZ200
SKEW
SWITCH
i-+ G462-R477
330
1000
MA
465
OK
Ri
flit
LOOP
PHASE
DETECT
R467
300
&
C474
+
Ì
1.
VERT
BLANK
10 STAGE
COUNTER
"V VERT
20 FEEDBACK
J
525
PULSE
10 STAGE
COUNTER
2H
OV
Ttni
35v
RAMP
RESET
SWITCH
8H
+
I
(DC VOLTAG
TO
21
eV
22
I
SIZE
TO
VERT
DRIVE
VERT
OUTPUT
18
FF
CONTROL
VERT
525
FF
C476
033
100V
Functional
block diagram of
the 3 -part
horizontal /vertical
phase -lock,
count -down and
regulator IC.
Fig.
47
75
4y
25
R9
-
n
!SKEW'
I
HOR12
1G
h
STD
SYNC
DET
r-
LJ
NOT
COUNT
DOWN
.COUNT
DOWN
RETRACE
2
1
L_
,ov
L461
1D
I 6H
VERT
OUTPUT
TO R496
FF
TO
U401-
lo
10V
4771
4700
TO
HORZ
OSC
DRIVER
4V
I
J
LIN
STAGE
COUNTER
R462
6200
FROM
11ev
VERT
4S
DEFLECTION
DELAY
U401
SISTOR
15
R470
CONTROL
10V
SHJNT
REG
WIDTH
PULSE
PHASE
SHIFT
COMP
14
2.0 LOOP
PHASE
DETECTOR
I
SUMMATION
INT REF
FIRING
POINT
COMP
82 5K
CR463
13
ç
RAMP
GEN
TRAN-
2W
R46B
27 4K
1
av
4
ev
TP C465
411
01
IF
FROM
R464
0V
FLYBACK
XFORMER
33K
GND
C464
SCR
RIVE
100T
S.
ev
92ev
10 75v 11
TO SCR
POWER
REGULATOR
SV
C162
1000
FROM FLYBACK
XFORMER
R168
47K
--7MV1/-
C163
3300
)1
----f-
FROM SECONDARY
SCR DRIVER XFORMER
A Horizontal /Vertical Oscillator and
Regulator Control, a U401 IC, was first
used successfully in RCA's 9 -inch CTC115 color chassis that was introduced
earlier this year. It's a rather complex
24 -pin IC, with three feedback loops.
The first two of these are used for sync
control and the third operates an SCR
voltage regulator.
Circuit operation begins with a 16 X
15,734 -Hz horizontal- frequency LC461
tank circuit that oscillates at 251.744
kHz as sync input enters the monolithic
chip in Fig. between R466 and C462.
A standard sync detector receives normal sync and compares it with internal
frequencies (derived from double the
1
Internal view of the CTC-1 11A chassis.
normal horizontal frequency and divided by 525). Seven fields of 262.5 lines
each constitute an acceptably good signal, while a defective one overlaps and
free -runs temporarily, pending extended
568 -line countdown and lockup. When
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
Y6
www.americanradiohistory.com
From the dawn of recorded stereo,
millions of audiophiles have turned to
Shure phono cartridges to get the most
from their stereo systems -and for
gocd reason. We introduced the first moving magnet
carridge, the first truly high fidelity low mass stereo
car ridge. and a host of other innovations, righ: up to
today's Hyperelliptical stylus tip, Dynamic Stabilizer, and
SICE -GUARD stylus protection system. From the original M3D, the first high fidelity stereo cartridge (which is
still available) to the V15 Type IV Shure has been the
-ader in phono cartridge technology.
Our complete phono cartridge line, with over 100
mootels for all applications, is by far the widest selection
offered by any phono cartridge manufacturer in the
world For more than 25 yeas. Shure has been the
performance, technological. and sales leacer it higr
fidel ty phono cartridges ... and that's why millions of
audiophiles around the world have made ustheir source
of sound. See your Shure dealer about upgrading your
system with the number one name in phono cartridges.
Uf-7T
Sure
B o
In
SHURE
hers Inc.. 222 Hartrey Avenue Evanstoi. IL 60204
Canada: A. C Simrronds & Sons Limitad
Manufacturer of high fidelity components, microphones, loudspeakers. sound systems and related circuitry.
www.americanradiohistory.com
video
RCA MODEL FFR495W (CTC -111A)
19" COLOR TV TABLE MODEL
RESPONSE OE
CHANNEL ",5
LABORATORY DATA
RESPONSE OF
ANNEL "R
Parameter
Tuner /receiver sensitivity
(min. signal for snow -free picture):
Voltage regulation w /signal input
(line varied from 105 to 130 V):
20
40
80
160
1280
320
640
FREQUENCY ;Hz)
2560
5120
10
20K
Fig. 2. Frequency response of
the synthesis stereo circuit.
`
Luminance bandpass at video detector:
Luminance bandpass at CRT:
S/N at CRT:
Convergence:
Horizontal overscan:
Pincushion /barreling:
Agc response (before sync clipping
or white /black level shifts):
CRT color temperature measurement
(with normal picture on screen):
Dc restoration:
CB interference (at 60 ft):
Power requirements (signal applied)
Measurement
vhf (Ch. 6): -11 dBmV
uhf (Ch. 30):
dBmV
Low voltage: 125 -V supply -99.6ßb
16 -V supply -95%
High voltage: 29 -V supply -96.8%
-3
4 MHz
4 MHz (approx.)
46 dB
99%
Bob
None
66 dB
6500 °K
88%
Slight on Ch. 2
125 W (max.)
NOTE: Instruments used in these measurements are: Tektronix 7L12 and 7L5 spectrum analyzers; Tektronix/
Telequipment D66, D67 oscilloscopes; Sadelco FS -3D -VU 1/e meter; Winegard DX -300 amplifier; Data Precision
245, 258, 1750 muhimeters and 585 frequency counter; BAK- Precision 1248, 1250 color bar generators and 3020
function generator: Sencore VA48 (modified), CG 169 color bar and signal generators, PR57 variable power supply;
Tektronix C -5A camera.
Fig. 3. Multiburst test at the video
detector (top) and CRT (bottom).
Fig. 4. Spectrum analyzer display
of luminance at the CRT.
Fig. 5. Swept chrome test at video detector
and CRT. Vector test is at center.
channel or other changes cause sync
interrupt, the vertical sync pulse is first
detected between the 513 and 568
count. The vertical ramp will then reset
at a 525 count. Following seven consecutive fields of coincidence between the
525 count and detected vertical sync,
the countdown is locked up in standard
mode. To get out of the countdown
mode, there must be two consecutive
fields that are not apparent in the 525
count. Following the 525 -line flip-flop,
the count /no- countdown flip-flop makes
the decision and, if the result is no, it
resets the counter.
Frequency synthesis within the U401
begins with the high- frequency LC461
tank oscillator via the 16H oscillator
block and goes from there to the counter
and chain of dividers.
Dual Dimension Sound was first introduced in RCA's CTC -101 series in
1979, and has seen major improvements
for the 1981/1982 line. This pseudo stereo effect is created by synthesizing
audio sound separation into two channels so that one speaker handles midfrequency audio between 60 and 200 Hz
and 1.2 and 10 kHz, as shown in Fig. 2.
This is done by selective filter separation, with two electrical paths each
going to a single- output amplifier.
Both L and R jacks seem to have adequate power to drive stereo hi -fi amplifiers with a quasi- stereo effect.
The limiter /amplifier, FM detector,
and dc volume control and tone controls
are contained in a TDA2791 16 -pin IC
package. The power amplifier, a
TDA2611A, is capable of 5 watts output
(here about 3.5 W) and comes in a 9 -pin
in -line package, with a dc operating
voltage of 24 V, and a THD of 0.3 %.
Laboratory Measurements. RCA's
charge- coupled comb filter supplies
about 4 MHz (Fig. 3) to the CRT without crosstalk between chroma and
monochrome. A high voltage of 29 kV
and a warm white color CRT temperature measured at 6500 K (5800° K is
average) produced a well -illuminated
picture with fine contrast. Video S/N is
46 dB (Fig. 4); and vhf tuner /system
signal pickup is
dBmV. An agc
swing of 66 dB gives a fast response to
aircraft flutter. Convergence is accurate; and overscan is a precise 8 %.
The ColorTrak mixing circuit in the
42 -pin LSI squeezes only oranges and
reds together (losing the usual 30° separation (Fig. 5) between the first four
petals of the 10 -spoke vector). Blues and
green, however, are not disturbed.
°
-
1 1
Comments. This new TV chassis
is
evidently a fine one, fortified by its 127 channel electronic tuner, pseudo- stereo
sound capability, good cable-TV response, better -than -average dc restoration, a CRT that brings out the best in
color, and a handful of very satisfactory
specifications in other areas.
Nothing is perfect, though. Serviceability on the chassis might be improved, for example, and we would like
to have seen a "cold" chassis for safety's
sake when servicing. Too, front -end filtering against CB intrusion on Ch. 2
could be better, and audio is not completely muted when the volume switch is
turned down. But these aside, the RCA
CTC -1 1 A receiver is a fine chassis,
featuring a sharp, bright picture, as well
as better -than -average sound for a table -top model. -Stan Prentiss
1
CIRCLE NO. 103 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
28
www.americanradiohistory.com
Productivity
at your fingertips.
The NEC PC -8000 Series
The chart of accounts
and financial statements
can be entirely customized. Multiple bank
product vity is something accounts, 8 separate
payroll accounts, and
of a national pastime.
as many as 10 individual
Now American ingenuity profit centers can be
has provided it
tracked with separate
with the NEC statements, along with a
and you
General Accounting
consolidated one.
System, an efficient and
Individual client informacomprehensive
and stored
small business software tion is input
diskette.
data
own
its
on
package that's as
balancing,
Maintenance,
is
it
as
use
_o
simple
formatting, and report
comprehensive.
generation is handled by
All ope ations take place another diskette. This
in English, in logical
allows your client to
sequerce. Each of your
make all entries during
clients can utilize his own the month, on his
combination of journals computer system, at his
and ledgers, most
place of business, while
suitable to his unique
providing you, as the out accounting requirements side CPA, with the ability
to print and study reports
in your own office.
is
the best-selling micro-
computer system in
Japan, z- country where
- -
Generally accepted U.S.
accounting principles
have been used throughout of course. This not
only rrakes good
business sense, it makes
it simple to conver- to
the NEC system.
For more information,
about this package, or any
of the other business
software now ava lable for
the PC-8000 Series contact
an NEC America dealer.
NEC America, inc.
Personal Computer
Alk
Products
1401
Elk
Estes
Avenue
Gave Village L 60007
(312)
8-5900
YOU ALREADY OWN HALF
OF THE WORLD'S MOST ADVANCED
HOME ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEM.
You're already halfway to Magnavision®
right now. Because all you have to do is
plug it into your present color TV set.
Magnavision is a turntable. A video
turntable as well as an audio one. It plays
discs that show pictures on your TV. With
stereo sound capability.
And what pictures. Magnavision delivers
a picture that's clearer and crisper than
video tape TV, even TV itself. And the
Magnavision picture lasts, because the
discs are impervious to wear.
See the buttons on the front of the
Magnavision unit? They give you total
control over what you watch and how you
watch it. Consider the possibilities: Reverse.
Slow motion. Individual frame -by-frame
indexing. More. And you can exercise
control from anywhere in the room, since
Magnavision Model 8005 (shown here)
gives you a full -feature remote control.
ment source. Many of the discs are interactive. You can carry on a dialogue with
them. How To Watch Pro Footballt, The
First National Kidisct- games, puzzles,
questions and answers for your children,
The Master Cooking Cou,set and Jazzerciset
are just four examples.
You can put as many different kinds of
programs on your television screen with
Magnavision as you can imagine. Choose
from over 120 videodisc albums now.
They range from classic movies to new
releases. From sports instruction to art
gallery tours. From cartoons to concerts.
And new programs are continually being
developed exclusively for videodiscs.
AMAZING: PICTURES WITH STEREO SOUND.
Magnavision even gives you high -fidelity
stereo sound.
Just run it through your present stereo
system and choose from one of the
many stereo videodiscs (concerts, musicals,
shows). You can't get stereo with video
tape, and stereo TV is years away. Imagine,
now you can see Liza Minnelli? for example,
as well as hear her in stereo concert!
All of this wonderwork comes from
Magnavision's laser -optical scanner. It is a
beam of light that works like an audio
player's "needle' But Magnavision's laser optical scanner has none of the archaic
limitations of a needle.
Magnavision is full of ideas. It can be a
learning machine as well as an entertain-
So put your half of the world's most
advanced home entertainment system
together with Magnavision soon. For the
name ofyour nearest dealer please call tollfree 800-4474700 (in Illinois, 890- 322-4400).
©
1981 N.A.P. CONSUMER ELECTRONICS CORE_
'Liza In Concert©. Pioneer Artists" tOptical Proçramming Associates©
MAGNAVISION
got
IIBMVflx11
OÁ P3(ÁZCát EÖPROCUn
I
The brightest ideas in the world
are here today.
BEIPML<I!rtrM<;.
CIRCLE NO. 27 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
computers
Popular Electronics Tests
The /BM Personal Genputer
THE long- awaited entry of IBM into
the microcomputer field- rumored
since 1976 -has occurred. Happily, we
were able to spend considerable "hands on" time with it and can share the
results with our readers without delay.
This 16 -bit microcomputer (based on an
Intel 8088) is designed for business,
school, and home use. It will be available from ComputerLand dealers and
business-equipment outlets of Sears,
Roebuck Co., as well as through IBM's
sales centers and a sales unit in its Data
Processing Division.
The basic expandable system consists
of a detached keyboard (cable- connected to the System Package) and the System Package that contains 16K of
RAM, 40K of ROM (carrying the operating system and BASIC), a TV receiv-
er adapter, and a cassette port. The cassette recorder is not supplied. This basic
package chas a suggested retail price of
$1565.
The full system includes 64K of
RAM, a 12" monochrome video monitor, two Tandon 51/4" disk drives
(mounted within the System Package),
and an Epson MX -80 printer (carrying
the IBM logo). The complete system has
a suggested retail price of $4500 (the
single -disk version is $3005). Options
include a full -color monitor and adapter,
joysticks, and a light pen. The independent enclosures are pearl -white to match
any environment.
Gomm'a' Doscriptlon. The microprocessor- controlled keyboard has 83 keys
including 10 for numeric entry and cur-
DECEMBER 1981
sor- control and 10 for special functions
(user definable). Each key features autorepeat. The sloped keyboard has both
tactile and "click" touch feedback, concave tops, and 1/4" key travel. Furthermore, the keyboard can be positioned
flat on the operating surface or via a
pair of detent supports, at a shallow but
comfortable angle. Some keytop legends
are unusual. For example, there is no
key marked RETURN but there is a large size key marked with the international
"return" symbol (a left- facing arrow).
A four -character keyboard buffer is provided, and many keys have four selectable functions -normal, shifted, control,
and alternate.
Of the 256 characters available, 16
are for game and special- character
graphics that include the four playing-
31
www.americanradiohistory.com
or>tputex
card suits, music symbols, etc.; 16 are
used as a word-processing editing set; 96
are conventional ASCII upper /lower
case, numerics, and symbols; 32 form an
international character set for foreign
languages; 16 form an extended Spanish
and special character set; 48 are line
graphics; and the remaining 32 are
devoted to a mix of Greek and scientific
symbols.
Physically, the keyboard is 20"W X
2 "H X 8 "D, and it weighs about 6
pounds. It is cable- connected to the System Package via a six -foot coiled telephone-like cable. A pencil "ledge" is
provided above the keyboard, and four
synthetic cork, nonskid bumpers are located near each bottom corner.
The Systems Package contains the
8088 and its associated logic on a "motherboard" having five bus -expansion
slots. The system switching power supply, a fan, the cassette I/O port, a 21/4"
speaker, and up to two 51/4" disk drives
are located in this enclosure.
The disk drives use double- density,
single -sided diskettes in a Tandon 51/4"
drive. There are 512 bytes /sector, 8 sectors /track, 40 tracks /diskette, with
160K -byte capability and 320K bytes
maximum. A LED "in -use" indicator
signals disk activity. Power requirement
is 63.5 watts.
The 8088 CPU combines a 16 -bit
internal architecture with an 8 -bit bus
interface. There are 16 -bit wide registers, data paths, ALU, and a set of powerful 16 -bit instructions identical with
the 8086 CPU. The 20 -bit memory
address range and the I6 -bit I/O port
address range allows for 1- megabyte of
memory and 64K I/O ports. In this
computer, the 8088 operates with a
4.77 -MHz clock. The RAM memory
uses a ninth bit for parity checking, and
can be expanded to 256K bytes. The
40K ROM contains the IBM operating
system and BASIC.
On power -up, 2K of ROM provides a
series of 14 diagnostic tests including
the processor, an 8K ROM checksum,
DMA, 16K RAM, ROM checksum, interrupt controller, timers, video RAM,
cursor, video sync, remaining RAM,
keyboard, cassette port, and disk system. Any problems are reported via the
speaker and video display. The test takes
about 15 seconds.
Physically, the System Package is 20"
W X 16 "D X 5.5 "H and weighs 21
pounds without the disk drives, 25
pounds with one drive, and 28 pounds
with two drives installed.
The monochrome monitor uses an
111/2"-wide screen having a P39 (green)
phosphor. An anti -glare screen surface
and contrast and brightness controls are
supplied. The display is 25 lines by 80
columns using a 7 X 9 character within
a 9 X 14 character box. Underline,
blinking, high- intensity, reverse video,
and nondisplay for security are provided. Characters can be displayed in
three background shades. Graphics resolution is 720 by 350 pixels, and a 4K
screen buffer is supplied.
The CRT sweep speeds are unusual in
that the horizontal sweep speed is 18
kHz, while the vertical sweep is 50 Hz.
The bandwidth of 18 MHz makes for an
excellent, crisp display. An optional
add-on card is provided for using conventional NTSC monitors.
When using BASIC, each of the 10
l `L
i...
hnniuüuwülWu
user -definable keys can be made to display its function along the 25th line.
This feature can be defeated.
Three types of software are provided.
Cassette BASIC is provided in 32K
ROM and uses the cassette for data
storage with no disk facility. Disk BASIC comes on the DOS diskette and
requires 32K of RAM. It provides access to both cassette and disk, has an
RTC for date and time, and supports
RS-232 as well as two additional drives.
Advanced BASIC also comes on the
DOS diskette and requires 48K of
RAM. It features automatic event trapping and the use of function keys, joysticks, light pen, etc. It provides advanced graphics and supports graphic
commands CIRCLE, GET, PUT, PAINT, and
DRAW. It also provides music support via
the PLAY statement.
Other software includes VisiCalc, EasyWriter word -processing package, Accounts Receivable /Payable and General
Ledger from Peachtree Software, the
Microsoft Adventure game package, a
Communications package that uses the
Asynchronous Communications Adapter, plus a PASCAL compiler. Both CP/
M -86 and UCSD p- System are being
adapted.
IBM will also solicit software from
outside sources. To do this, IBM has
created a new department called Personal Computer Software Publishing
Department (Dept. 765, Armonk, NY
10504). IBM employees and external
authors, from professional programmers
to hobbyists, can submit programs for
consideration.
The IBM 80 CPS Matrix Printer is
actually the popular Epson MX -80 featuring bidirectional printing, a one -line
buffer, horizontal and vertical tabs, a
choice of 40/66/80/132 characters per
line, 12 character styles, and variable
vertical spacing. The character set includes 96 standard ASCII, 64 graphic
symbols, and 9 special symbols all using
a 9 by 9 matrix. A "ripple print" test is
provided.
The Asynchronous Communications
Adapter supports RS -232C and is fully
programmable with 5, 6, 7, or 8 bit characters, even /odd /no parity, and 1/11/2/
2 stop bits. Baud rate is from 50 to
9600.
The 450 -page loose -leaf manual is excellent and is exceptional in its clarity of
explanation. It is very detailed and profusely illustrated.
Evaluation. Visually, the IBM Person-
al Computer is attractive. The three
basic units (Keyboard, Systems Package, and the video monitor) complement
each other with their pearl- white,
IBM Personal Computer plug -in modules.
Lower row, left to right are: game adapter,
asynchronous communications card,
printer adapter card, and 32K memory board.
Upper left is the 64K memory board and
upper right is the disk drive adapter.
Top center is the monochrome display /printer
adapter, and lower center, the color graphics board.
smooth, round -cornered enclosures. The
keyboard attaches via a coiled cable and
it can be angled to the workspace in
either of two positions -both very comfortable, and based on research developed in Sweden (of course, if you're a
Mediterranean type . . ).
In the basic system, on power up,
.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
32
www.americanradiohistory.com
computers
BASIC is automatically booted. In the
disk system, BASIC resides on the same
diskette as the DOS and has to be called
as usual. The IBM DOS "looks" a lot
like CP /M, but it isn't.
We used the system with both monochrome and a Hitachi color monitor.
The video display in both cases was
clean and crisp and easily usable to all
four edges. Owing to the unusual horizontal /vertical sweep speeds, a conventional video monitor cannot be used
unless an adapter is plugged in. In the
chroma mode, the colors are exceptionally distinct and the alphanumerics and
graphics are crisp. The disk drives are
unusually quiet, with each drive having
a LED to signal disk activity.
The Microsoft BASIC is very fast,
with a lot of the speed due to the 4.77 MHz clock. In the graphics mode, BASIC statements allow the creation of
graphic figures that can be stored as an
array, and "called," in a manner similar
to machine -language routines. The
speed of animation is about as fast as
machine -language routines. We were
impressed by the smooth animated transitions of a "car" while operating a slot car- racing game on screen. It puts comparable micros to shame.
The BASIC contains some 147 statements, functions, and variables. Among
the novel instructions are CIRCLE, where
OLYMPIC
SALES
COMPANY
218 S. Oxford Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90004
raHEWLETT
HP-85 Microcomputer
HP.83 Microcomputer
16K Exp. mem. module
Graphics plotter 7225
Personality mod. for 7225
26318 Impact printer, hey duty
Opt. 020 for 2631B
8 disk drives to choose from
82902S
9895A 8" dual drive
Graphics tablet 9111A
HPA1CV 2.2K bytes of memory
HP-41C Calculator
Card ruder for 41 CV /41 C
Printer for 41 CV /41C
Optical wend for 41CV /41C
Quad Rem
=
4 mem. mods.
Memory mod. for 41C
10.97 Progrmble printer
HP61 Progrmble calculator
HP 34C Progrmble scientific
HP38C Progrmble business R/E
HP32E Advanced scientific
HP,37E Business management
3250.00
2250.00
295.00
2450.00
750.00
3950.00
150.00
Your Cost
2595.00
1795.00
259.95
2089.95
679.95
3295.00
129.95
1300.00
6850.00
2050.00
325.00
250.00
215.00
385.00
125.00
95.00
1149.95
5595.00
1699.95
259.95
188.95
168.95
284.95
97.95
94.95
26.95
750.00
375.00
579.95
297.95
150.00
150.00
117.95
119.95
48.95
58.95
00
7500
55
Texas Instruments
Rera/ Your
TI-99/4 A Home ComputerNEW KEYBOARD/
We carry
a
295.00
130.00
225.00
179.96
89.95
149,95
NEW! Calculator Watch w /Alarm TI 810.11
Many features 8 1 yr guarantee from TI
TI 584.11 Alarm Chron. Dual Time Zone
ATARI' Computer
400
800
Cosr
595010 8 359.95
large inventory of software, 8 accessories
TI.59 Progrmble calculator
TUSK Progrmble calculator
PC 100C Printer /plover for 59/58
SPECIAL PRICE, 16K
29.95
19.95
Reta,I Yo
595.00
No language Inc., opt'1 base,
16K Comp ter
1080.00
,
Retail $225.00
Your Cost:
5137.95
Minimum 3
339.95
0.95
759.95
O.K.
SONY L500,2 hr
$11.89
L750, 3 hr
14.69
RCA VK250, 6 hr
13.95
HONOR
makes
your
SO`1
APPLE COMPUTERS
-
II
8 III
We are an authorized Apple servicing dealer
Graphics tablet
16K.32Ki8K- 64K -121K
Drive with controller 00S 3.3 and others
80 column cords
VisiCalc and more and more
We have the best prices on Apple computers m
America
"CALL US!"
-
SEIKO (USA) WATCHES -(Limited
Ofer!I
Current models & MORE!
Thew models guaranteed by Seiko anywhere
within USA
Retail
FJ113 Dino watch, 300 h; S/S
195.00
YH006 Ladies quartz LCD,gldtne 295.00
YH002 Ladies quartz LCD, ghltne 250.00
YH016 Ladies quartz LCD, gldlrse 225.00
YH003 Ladidquartz LCD, slvrtne 215.00
And many more-compare our prices with the
s
-Les Solomon
CIRCLE NO. 102 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
TA
laPPia computar
Casio
to this, especially since codes at the bottom of the screen enable one to really
reduce typing.
We found the green- phospor screen
easy on the eyes, fortified by highlighting functions such as underlining, blinking reverse images, and high intensity.
The only negative comment we can
make about this system is the fact that,
at the present, the user is locked into
software that works with the IBM DOS.
We were told that CP/M -86 is just
down the pike and may be available by
the time this review is in print. [Editor's
Note: As we went to press, more information became available. See "Computer Sources" in this issue.] With this CP/
M, the five expansion slots, and the services of some outside software authors,
this new computer will be a force to be
reckoned with. Furthermore, there is no
doubt that a "cottage industry" will
spring up about the IBM bus just as
occurred with some other small computers. Also, it would be nice to have an 8"
disk option, as 330K dual -disk capacity
doesn't seem to be quite enough if one
expands memory to its full 256K.
We found the IBM Personal Computer to be an excellent example of what
small computers are about. This is a lot
of machine for the money.
WE
you,
Coo,
79.95
79.95
74.95
69.95
69.95
neanrt Seiko dealar.
WATCHES aanvo c:at
CA 90 Calc /stopwch w/alarm 6 more! on Casio 44.95
wircnes!
CA 901 Caldstopwch w/alarm,all metal
59.95
W 100 Dives stopwch 300 ft wtr 'n 6 more
34.95
W 150C Dives nopwch 300 ft wtr res SIS nue
48.95
W 150 Dives stopwch 300 ft wtr res all meta
53.95
MATTEL INTEL LIVISION
Retail $325 00
Most animated TV game
Y/C:S239.95
SONY®
Software is the key to using your computer's
power. Our CP/M® Compatible Software Catalog
is your single source for locating your microcomputer software solutions. We're Digital
Research, and our CP/M operating system is
used by over 200,000 microcomputer owners.
Our catalog lists over 100 domestic and foreign
companies with software for commerce, industry, government, the professions and specialty
applications. Send this coupon and $5 to:
Digital Research, P.O. Box 579U, Pacific Grove,
CA 93950. (Calif. residents add 30( sales tax.)
Name.
Title:
Company:
Address.
City/State /Zip:
MANY NEW ITEMS FROM SONYcall for
AT DISCOUNTED PRICES,
information
PAPER TIGER EPSON DIABLO SANYO
CORNUS OHIO SCIENTIFIC b etc ate., es.
Check Enclosed
AMDEK(Leedex) Duality Monitors
Card Number
12" BAY, 12 MHz
12" Green, 12 MHz
12" Green. 18 MHz
300 -G
13" Color, NTSC comp.
Color
input, audio amp 8 speaker
Color II 13" Color, RBG input,
100
Cosi 100.6
ATARI' VIDEOTAPES
tepes/M,.ed
TV GAME
L
(2131739 -1130
PHONE ORDERS:
TOLL FREE
out of Cal 800 -421 -8045
in Calif. 800.252 -2153
Telex: 67 34 77
Cable: "OLYRAV" LSA
SINCE 1947
PACKARD
Retail
the user can define the parameters of
the circle which can then be colored by a
PAINT instruction. The circle can be
opened up and generally manipulated.
Since both alphanumerics and graphics
can exist simultaneously, circle segments can be labelled. This is great for
business applications when you want to
see how the "pie" is divided. Several
other graphic commands allow the creation of a limitless number of designs.
The computer can also create music up
to 32 tones in one voice (with graphics if
desired). The SOUND command allows
determining the tone frequency and duration. There are also commands for the
joystick (STICK), and light pen (PEN). A
light -pen adapter is available for the latter mode.
We ran the IBM demo programs,
which are very impressive, but didn't
have the time to write any lengthy programs of our own. Simple benchmark
tests showed this machine to run as fast
as (or faster than) the speediest micro
hardware /software combinations we
have tested to date.
We did write several short programs
that used color, and they were great.
The ten "function keys" on the left
side of the keyboard may initially add
some confusion for the operator, as
might some keys with international symbols. However, one adapts very quickly
I
179.00
199.00
249.00
449.00
139.95
174.96
199.95
339,95
999.00 699.95
hi ras gnphia, spookier
®E ®D
10 DJGJTJRL RE5EAFiCXf
Exp. Date
"r"."0
CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research.
CCopyright 1981 Digital Research
All goods subject to availability; this ad superced*s all
p *woos ads; NO Me not responsible for typoprephiul
Mron; ore will m , or beat any adrertiad once if our
competition bra the goods on hued. Minimum Mpg &
handling $4.95. All orders subject to nr/fiction and
acceptance.
CIRCLE NO 36 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
CIRCLE NO. 54 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
33
If you have put off
learning more
electronics for any
of these reasons,
act now!
I don't have the time.
High school was hard for me and
electronics sounds like it may be
hard to learn.
I can't afford any more education.
I have a family now.
I'm here. You're there. I've never
learned that way before. I'm not
sure it will work for me.
Read the opposite page and see how you can get started today!
www.americanradiohistory.com
Be honest with yourself. Are
the reasons really excuses? You
already know enough about
electronics to be interested in
reading this magazine. So why
not learn more? If you need
encouragement, read on and
see how excuses can be turned
into results.
You don't have the time. Be realistic.
All you have in life is a period of time.
Use it. Try to know more tomorrow
than you do today. That's the proven
way to success. CIE studies require just
about 12 hours of your time a week, two
hours a day. You probably do have the
time.
Electronics sounds like it may be hard
to learn. You already know something
about electronics or you wouldn't be
reading this. Now, build on that. CIE
Auto -Programmed e Lessons help you
learn. Topics are presented in simple,
logical sequence. All text is clear and
concise for quick, easy understanding.
You learn step by step, at your own
pace. No classes to attend. Nobody
pressures you. You can learn.
You can't afford any more education.
Actually, you can't afford NOT to
gain the skills that can put you ahead of
the others. You know what inflation is
doing to you now. Education-learning
a skill-is an inflation -fighter that can
be yours. If you are not able to pay full
tuition now, CIE will lend you funds on
a monthly payment plan.
You have a family now. All the more
reason why you have the responsibility
to advance yourself. For the sake of
your family. Do you want them to have
what you had or have more than you
had? The choice is yours. Electronics is
a rewarding career choice. CIE can help
you to get started on that career.
You're there. We're here. How does
CIE help you learn? First, we want you
to succeed. You may study at home, but
you are not alone. When you have a
question about a lesson, a postage
stamp gets you your answer fast. You
may find this even better than having a
classroom teacher. CIE understands
people need to learn at their own pace.
When CIE receives your completed
lesson before noon any day of the week,
it will be graded and mailed back the
same day with appropriate instructional
help. Your satisfaction with your
progress comes by return mail. That's
how CIE helps you learn.
NOW, IF YOU AGREE CIE
TRAINING CAN WORK
FOR YOU, HOW ELSE
CAN CIE HELP YOU?
Cleveland Institute of Electronics is the
largest independent home study school
in the world that specializes exclusively
in electronics. Although "big" does not
always mean "best :' it is evidence that
CIE is a strong, successful institution
with the people and resources to help
you succeed.
Find out more!
Today. Now.
There's a card with this ad. Fill it in
and return. If some other ambitious
person has already removed it, use the
coupon.
You'll get a copy of CIE's free
school catalog, along with a complete
package of personal home study
information.
Step -by -step learning includes
"hands -on " training.
The kind of professional you want to be
needs more than theory. That's why
some of our courses include the
Personal Training Laboratory, which
helps you put lesson theory into actual
practice. Other courses train you to use
tools of the trade such as a 5MHz
triggered- sweep, solid-state oscilloscope
you build yourself-and use to practice
troubleshooting. Or a Digital Learning
Laboratory to let you apply the digital
theory that's essential today for anyone
who wants to keep pace with electronics
in the eighties.
For your convenience, we'll try to
arrange for a CIE representative to
contact you to answer any questions
you may have.
If you are serious about a rewarding
career, about learning electronics or
building on your present skills, your
best bet is to go with the electronics
specialists-CIE. Mail the card or
coupon today or write CIE (please
mention the name and date of this
magazine), 1776 East 17th Street,
Cleveland, Ohio 44114.
This could be the best decision
you've made all year.
Associate Degree
Now, CIE offers an Associate in
Applied Science Degree in Electronics
Engineering Technology. In fact, all
or most of every CIE Career Course
is directly creditable towards the
Associate Degree.
"If you're going to learn
electronics, you might as well
learn it right!'
John Cunningham
Senior Technical Director
Your FCC License can impress
employers.
For some electronics jobs, you must
have your FCC License. For others,
employers usually consider it a mark in
your favor. Either way, your License is
government- certified proof of your
knowledge and skills. More than half
of CIE's courses prepare you to pass
this exam. Surveys show that some
80% of CIE graduates who take the
exam are successful.
r
MI MI
Cleveland Institute
of Electronics, Inc.
PE-52
1776 East 17th Street. Cleveland, Ohio 44114
YES...I want to learn from the specialists in electronics -CIE. Send me my FREE
CIE school catalog...including details about the Associate Degree program...plus my
FREE package of home study information.
Print Name
Address
Apt
City
State
Age
Zip
Phone (area code)
Check box for G.I. Bill bulletin on Educational Benefits:
MAIL TODAY!
www.americanradiohistory.com
Veteran
Active Duty
37
I
Your prayers
have been
answered.
then chances are that
from time to time, you've wished that someone could simplify
programming.
Because as useful as micro -computers are, they can only ever
be as good as the programs they run.
Well then, how does this sound?
No more program- coding. No more debugging. And no more
time wasting.
Arguably more comprehensive and advanced than anything else
of its kind, The Last One is a computer program that writes computer
programs. Programs that work first time, every time.
By asking you questions in plain English about what you want
your program to do, The Last One uses your answers to generate a
ready -to -use program in BASIC.
What's more, with The Last One, you can change or modify
your program as often as you wish. Without effort, fuss or any
additional cost. So as your requirements change, your programs
can too.
And if, because of the difficulties and costs of buying, writing
and customising software, you've put off purchasing a computer
system up to now, you need delay no longer.
Available now.
The Last One costs $600 plus local taxes where applicable and is
now available from better computer stores.
For further information, write to D.J. `AI' Systems Ltd.,
Two Century Plaza, Suite 480,
2049 Century Park East,
Los Angeles,CA 90067.
If you own or use a micro -computer,
Tel: (213) 203 0851.
38
THE IASTCNE:
CIRCLE NO. 13 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
www.americanradiohistory.com
A. ir..
.,.TdL
I
IIt
iiiiii fj iiiiiif1
rd,J1l1.tk
l.
1
i
® E1a
t
`ti
"..;'Apo
,` I..,;
t
. . .. 1
LL
U1T/tef
'tii.
C304 i i
.
..
.
ls;«
.1.trt_aJR
j
III
1ai
a/ñ
/s;
ÿ;
%fj,l
ppIL`''
E/#
;4*xirai
4
iA
111ú141.
illllilf
.
®
101
sa7+ü77.7u
:_
T
OF3
74L
GSOF3T
741. S307AP
Turn yourApple into the world's
most versatile personal computer.
The SoftCardT*^Solution. SoftCard
turns your Apple into two computers.
A Z -80 and a 6502. By adding a Z-80
microprocessor and CP/M to your
Apple, SoftCard turns your Apple into
a CP /M based machine. That means
you can access the single largest body
of microcomputer software in existence. Two computers in one. And, the
advantages of both.
Plug and go. The SoftCard system
starts with a Z-80 based circuit card.
Just plug it into any slot (except 0) of
your Apple. No modifications required.
SoftCard supports most of your Apple
peripherals, and, in 6502 -mode, your
Apple is still your Apple.
CP/M for your Apple. You get CP/M
on disk with the SoftCard package. It's
a powerful and simple -to-use operating
system. It supports more software
than any other microcomputer operating system. And that's the key to the
versatility of the SoftCard /Apple.
CIRCLE 37 ON READER SERVICE CARD
BASIC included. A powerful tool,
BASIC-80 is included in the SoftCard
package. Running under CP /M, ANSI
Standard BASIC -80 is the most
powerful microcomputer BASIC
available. It includes extensive disk I/O
statements, error trapping, integer
variables, 16 -digit precision, extensive EDIT commands and string functions, high and low -res Apple graphics,
PRINT USING, CHAIN and COM-
MON, plus many additional commands. And, it's a BASIC you can
compile with Microsoft's BASIC
Compiler.
More languages. With SoftCard and
CP/M, you can add Microsoft's ANSI
Standard COBOL, and FORTRAN, or
Basic Compiler and Assembly Language Development System. All, more
powerful tools for your Apple.
Seeing is believing. See the SoftCard
in operation at your Microsoft or Apple
dealer. We think you'll agree that the
SoftCard turns your Apple into the
world's most versatile personal
computer.
Complete information?
It's at your
dealer's now. Or, we'll send it to you
and include a dealer list. Write us. Call
us. Or, circle the reader service card
number below.
SoftCard is a trademark of Microsoft. Apple II and
Apple II Plus are registered trademarks of Apple
Computer. Z -80 is a registered trademark of Zilog,
Inc. CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital
Research, Inc.
Microsoft Consumer Products, 400 108th Ave. N.E.,
Bellevue, WA 98004. 1206) 454 -1315
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE ELECTRONIC WORLD
IT
WOULD BE nice if people and computers shared a common language. However, since human
languages are so complex, it has been necessary to invent computer languages. Most people who buy
personal or small -business computers have little choice of computer languages. Someone has already
made the decision for them so that, when they turn on the machine, an announcement such as "RADIO
SHACK LEVEL II" or "APPLESOFT" is seen on the monitor.
In this article, we will discuss computer languages as thoroughly as possible to provide ai understanding
of what is available and to enable the computer user to choose the language most appropriate for his
needs. The diagram below shows the various levels of computer languages from machine language at the
bottom to some types at the top that actually resemble human language. We will examine each step and
weigh its cost in computer resources and flexibility.
At the heart of your small computer is the microprocessor chip. It is the computer. Everything else,
except the memory, supports the chip. It may be an 8080, Z80, 8085, 6502, 6800, etc. What these
chips have in common is more important than their differences. They are all 8 -bit chips with an 8 -bit
bi-directional data bus and 16 -bit address bus. They all use instructions of one, two, or three bytes that
perform similar operations. All of the microprocessors consist of an arithmetical logic unit, control circuits,
and various registers. The 8-bit bus means that the word size is 8 bits (one byte) and the data bus is used
to send 8 bits of data to or from external memory or input/output devices. The 16 -bit address bus means
that the microprocessor can directly address 65,536 (216) unique memory locations.
All of the computer instructions are unique to a particular microprocessor
and are implemented by an 8 -bit binary code, which is the only thing the
NATURAL HUMAN
LANGUAGES
microprocessor can understand. In other words, the computer only
knows if the potential is on or off. Potential on means a "one," no
C.A.I. LANGUAGES
potential means a "zero." Any number or letter can be constructed
from a series of ones and zeros. This is the basis of binary logic,
ARTIFICIAL INTEWGENCE
(USI')
and it is common to all computers and languages. But languages differ in other respects, as we shall see.
Ada
FORTRAN
BASIC
Forth
ASSEMBLER
MONITORS
MACHINE LANGUAGE
DECEMBER 1981
41
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE
CIRON IC WORLD
Direct
Programming
in Machine
Language
THE METHOD of directly programming the microcomputer in binary form (or its equivalent) is called
machine language. Everything else must be translated
into machine language before it can be used by the
microprocessor.
Programming in machine language consists of supplying the microprocessor with machine instructions,
memory locations, and data in certain forms and
sequences. The microprocessor cannot distinguish between instructions and data except through the form of
the program. The instructions are unique to each microprocessor and are built into the chip, with the "power" of
the microprocessor defined by the number and complexity of the instructions it can perform.
Early minicomputers and microcomputers used a set
of front -panel switches to represent the binary digits. If a
switch was set in one direction it was a "one." In the
other direction, it was a "zero." When the row of
switches was set to represent the desired binary number
The
Monitor
Operating
Program
MODERN computers permit direct access to the
microprocessor through an operating program called a
Monitor. The program is usually stored in Read Only
Memory (ROM) and starts to run as soon as the computer power is turned on. Since it is more difficult to work
with strings of binary numbers, it has become common
practice to shorten the machine codes by using octal
notation (base 8) or hexadecimal notation (base 16).
Figure 1 shows a short program in binary, octal, and
hexadecimal notations.
The Monitor program, written in machine language
and burned into the ROM has commands that allow the
user to do many things. In minimal computers using cassette -tape data storage, the monitor may act as the
for the starting memory location, another switch was
operated to cause the computer to go to the specified
memory location.
The data switches were then set to represent the first
instruction. To enter the instruction into the computer, a
switch marked ENTER had to be operated. After each
ENTER, the system automatically stepped to the next
memory location. The data switches were set to the next
binary number and so forth, until the program was
entered one binary number at a time. There was usually
a set of LEDs associated with the switches to indicate
that the program had been entered correctly. When the
correct binary number was stored in each successive
memory location, another switch was pressed and the
computer ran the program. It was a good thing there was
not much memory available at the time since the process
of manual entry forced the programmer to keep the programs very short. Even today, however, simple single board computers can be programmed this way.
operating system. Some of the programming functions in
the Monitor permit a user to examine the contents of any
memory location, step through the memory showing the
contents of one location at a time, and load the memory
location with instructions or data in the form of two hex
digits (or three octal digits). Each of the hex digits represents four bits (one nybble) of the eight -bit code (one
byte) contained in the memory location. The user can
also go to any memory location, display its contents, and
change it if desired. The Monitor program can also move
blocks of code from one memory location to another.
Moreover, it can usually operate the cassette machine to
store programs.
It is thus possible to enter a machine -language program from the keyboard. To do this, starting at the memory location desired as the program origin, a user enters
the hex equivalent of the binary instructions and data
comprising the program. As each two hex numbers are
entered, the Monitor steps to the next memory location
in sequence. If there are any "jump" instructions, the
programmer must figure them out and tell the Monitor
what memory location to go to and return. After entering
the program and checking it, by going to the starting
location and again stepping through the program while
observing the indicator lights or CRT screen, it can be
run by returning to the starting memory location and giving the GO command. If the program runs correctly,_ it
may be saved on a cassette tape so that the next time it
may be loaded from tape instead of from the keyboard.
This procedure is an improvement over the front panel
switches, but not a big one.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
42
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE ELECTRONIC WORLD
NIX
JOINT
HEx
MMMM
III
M
MINN
09
IIIIi1E1
171
7E
1111111
1111111
247
3)2
47
M11t111
117
MINN
N
MI
II
1111141/
272
11
MMMII
13
11111101
03
33
1111011
MINN
el
W
M
CA
CO
143
23
11111111
311
C3
1111M11
M3
13
MMM/I
MI
MMMM
MMMM
M
IIMIMI
IIIIMI
Some computers do not come with Monitor programs
so it may be necessary to purchase them either as a
tape or in the form of a plug -in ROM.
In cases where only BASIC is provided (the TRS -80
MOD I, for example), you might want to enter a
machine-language program to do something that you
can't do in BASIC. The PEEK statement is provided to
examine the contents of any memory location and the
POKE statement is provided to change its contents,
should you wish to. To enter the machine language program you have to POKE each memory location with the
Il
correct instruction, or data byte. When the program
loaded, it can be run by using the usR statement
MI
II
MI
M
M
31t
CI
BASIC; or your version of BASIC may permit a CALL to a
machine language program which may be in a separate
is
in
library of machine language routines.
It should be noted that in Microsoft BASIC (including
Radio Shack and Applesoft), the contents of memory for
PEEK and POKE statements are expressed in decimal rather than in hex or octal. It is therefore necessary to convert the code in the machine -language program into
decimal format before using PEEK and POKE. It is also necessary to be familiar with the memory map of the computer you are using so that POKES are not made into
reserved memory areas.
1. A short program in three
numbering systems: binary,
octal and hexadecimal.
Fig.
Assembly
Language
and Assemblers
THE DEVELOPMENT of a machine-language program requires the programmer to write the source listing
so that he can figure out the memory locations, how
many of them are required for each instruction. and how
many memory locations are required for the data. To do
Fig. 2. Program source for Fig.
,INIS
F0
S;iRw11N SEARà
F1PST IICN4IEICE
M
;TIF LOA114
;iR
,IF
EMI
71E
IF
OF
THE
A
1
514186 lyNÿE -4DeRE9S IR
written on an editor.
REG
PAIR
this using binary numbers makes the program almost
impossible to read, so symbols were invented to stand
for the instructions. These symbols are called mnemonics (memory aids), and each microprocessor has a
unique set of them. Usually several manufacturers will
Fig. 3. Same program as in Fig.
Ki
,1X15
rill REG 1)
eETIRIEI IN REG M11 K
51110 IS NINES MIN A MN) 1IlE tAStll MEU
13 RETAIN] IN AFB PAIR
IS 01 FOM) A
IN
OF
A
CHARACTER
CNARACTEI
SEARCHES
FIRST 456101 CE
A STRING
in
Ell N
,11E
IF
THE
THE
511111 IS
CIARAC1E1
IS
RIES
NOT FOMM 4 ZERO
MG
1111
411Eí
assembly language.
cMSE ADDRESS IA
(IS
RF A 111WAC1ER
REG
;CSE LOCATION OF THE CNAAACIER IS RETURNED IN REG
na
MOM
solaria
'FOR THE
II
1
A
ZERO 121E
AEG
PAIR
4
1)
P411 IC
(ASCII
IS RETURN) IN
REG
MN
MAI)
PAIR
K
SEARC4
11111
13)
ENV
SIN 11MM
TO ZERO
;1S 1817
,A1UST
STEIL
ITT
SO
TRAT
ZERO
OFFSET IS LOCATION
;INA NFU' i CINAGE FLAGS
,10117 N IEXT CHARACTER
,LN4 45411
FOL11
SO
RET7M 7EIt0
NM 4,4
411 A
IT
1114 17
,1
OF
;
111111112E COSY 10 ZERO
SUNNI
1113
;PICK N NEAT CHARACTER
,5451 TEST
ZERO
;IM
LAI 1,1
I
4115
carol
8111
M
3Z
S1REM
411113
CW 1
111 1
111M CE
12
4111 23
110
MAI
IAN
111101
;P1C1 AI NOT CSMICIER
,FAST TEST FOR ZERO
,ER1 OF STRING
.IS THIS ITT
,AINST FN ZEN OFFSET AT
NES MT CIMNGE FLAGS
,la
la
4
JR
SEARC11I;lOO1
LOCATION
1
,POINT TO NEXT CHARACTER
454)4
SHREW
1112 CT
LAI 1,1
III
,MT FOUW
SO
RETAIN ZERO
1
DECEMBER 1981
43
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE ELECTRONIC WORLD
make the same chip, but all of them use the mnemonics
of the originator. These instruction sets are published by
the semiconductor manufacturers and are made available to users.
Four identical programs are shown in Figs. 2 through
5. They represent the program source as written on an
editor, as well as the assembled, BASIC, and Pascal versions.
The process of using mnemonics and a particular syntax to write a program is called Assembly Language. The
form of an Assembly Language line for one instruction is
shown below.
LABEL OPERAND ARGUMENTS
;
COMMENTS
SEARCH:
LXI
;INITIALIZE
COUNT TO
ZERO
B4O
In the example, taken from Fig. 1, the Operand is from
the Intel 8080 instruction set, where Lxi means Load
Immediate. The arguments B4O indicate that the register
pair BC are to be loaded with zero. Sometimes, when the
value of an argument is not known, a symbolic expression is used to represent it. The label field is optional and
represents the location of the memory address of the
instruction (which may be unknown), and which will
change from application to application. In addition, each
Assembler will have a set of pseudo-ops which do not
produce machine code. The pseudo -op replaces the
instruction mnemonic in the operand field. For example,
the pseudo -op ono (origin) tells the assembler that the
program starts at a given location, e.g., ORG 100H
(where H stands for hexadecimal).
The pseudo -op END ends the program, while Eoll
equates the symbolic name in the program to the argument given (i.e.: Eou KBD 1 equates the name KBD to the
value 1). At assembly time, the name KBD is placed in a
is associated with it.
Symbol Table and the value
The program that translates the assembly language
source code into the machine language object code is
called the Assembler. Sometimes a simple Assembler is
provided as part of a Monitor program, but most often
the Assembler is a stand -alone program sold for your
computer, or provided with the Operating System. CP /M
and UCSD Pascal Operating Systems include Assemblers, and they also take care of the input/output connection and disk storage management required by the
assembled programs.
A typical Assembler is a two -pass program. The first
pass figures the length of the instruction and updates the
1
Fig. 4. The sample program is written here in BASIC.
MP Imi
ail o
srNUN4
1151
SEND sUM9RIfE
SPADES STEIN 51
ifA Nil
10 If st(L)
IIMEXiL
ra
CNARNCTEI C1
NETUANS
LOdpd
I1
l
10 LE11(s1)
1
=
CI
DO
location pointer in the microprocessor. It will also construct a Symbol Table, putting each symbolic name in
alphabetic order. By the end of the first pass, all the
symbols should have been given a value; if not, it is
called an unresolved reference, and an error message
will be printed.
On the second pass, the Assembler again reads the
source statements and translates them into object code
in machine language, filling in the memory reference
addresses with values from the operand field of the
source, or with symbolic values from the Symbol Table. If
there is an error, an error message is printed. If not, the
object code version is printed (See Fig. 3) and the result
is saved on the disk.
The object code presents the machine code in a form
that can be read by a Loader program and run on the
computer.
Some Assembler programs have the capability of
creating and using a collection of routines called
macros, and are therefore called Macro Assemblers.
These are defined as one or more valid statements that
may be called up by using a single symbol within the
assembly -language program.
The macro has to have been previously defined by the
user, within the body of the program. The macro call is
the statement that names the macro as the statement
operator and gives it the necessary arguments. Such a
call within a program causes a macro to be included at
the point of the call. It will cause one or more machine
instructions to be assembled and the binary code to be
generated.
Not every Assembler program is a Macro Assembler
and they are not usually included within an operating system. For example, in CP /M the Assembler is not a
Macro Assembler (MAC is the Macro Assembler sold by
Digital Research, the authors of CP /M).
If you want to use one, you have to buy it as an option.
However, once a programmer becomes an accomplished assembly -language user, the extra expense of a
Macro Assembler is worthwhile.
A Macro Assembler allows the use of a subroutine
(macro) many times in a Linker program by simply calling
it by an assigned name. However, most programmers
have collections of subroutines that they would like to
use over again within many programs.
This program permits the user to have a library of
macros stored on a disk. The Linker ties them into a
program at assembly time. Of course, the Linker you use
must be compatible with the Assembler program in your
machine.
One thing that keeps programmers from using assem-
Fig. 5. Same program as before is shorter in Pascal.
FUEi1U WM(
M
RETUIN
1
L
If
lldlCS,
SDE
11E33
INI l
=
S
AMY
L
E
INTEGER]
HMO,
r'=c
MILE
t1611£11101
IMT
P
CIS
(SPl
<> C)
Aq
(P ( N> 10
P`=P+1;
IfSI7)<C
41C1750FT FOP
DIE SAIE
Jlg.
WPM,
lfä.RF Is
A
N11LT-If
MUM
P
f1EN
ELSE SPIS
==
1
IISPR(SS,CS)
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
44
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE ELECTRONIC WORLD
-
bly language to a greater extent is that finding and correcting errors debugging
like trying to map a can
-is
of worms. Don't worry. There are Debugging programs
that make life easy. Using these, you can trace the
execution of a program, and see the instructions executed. A program can be traced one step, or more, at a
time, and can be modified to correct errors. Breakpoints
can be set to stop on an error, and the contents of registers and memory can be displayed. The CP /M debugger is called DDT (Dynamic Debugging Technique), and
it's a good one, but it is not the only one in use. There
are others with equal capacity and features. Some are
sold separately and others are part of operating- system
packages. Check the package before buying.
Disk-Operating
Systems
(DOS)
systems are a topic that must be
any discussion of computer languages
because they are really the control language that makes
everything else work.
Before the use of floppy disks for microcomputers,
the Monitor program could handle the simple I/O and
language support, but with the use of disks everything
DISK- OPERATING
included
in
changed.
The operating system controls the allocation of the
system resources. It operates the disk system, keeping
track of the storage and retrieval of programs and data.
It also creates, opens and closes files. The DOS contains all of the system utilities used to format diskettes,
to copy files and entire disks, and to make a back -up
copy of the disk system. In addition it provides the
input /output connection for all of the languages running
on the computer.
A DOS is indeed a complete language, full of commands that must be used in correct syntax to direct the
operation of the system. Many of the commands require
a complete set of extensions and modifiers. Since the
DOS is not one program, but a software system, learning
it requires study and experience before a user or programmer can become skilled in its use. CP /M, for example, comes with six manuals to explain its operation. The
same can be said of UNIX and almost any complete
disk-operating system.
When you buy a computer with floppy disks, it must
include a disk -operating system. To get the most out of
the operating system you must make a commitment to it
that will cost a lot of money, and take a lot of time. The
choice of an operating system, more than anything else,
may determine the success or failure of your computing
program.
The language and the application programs that you
choose all depend upon the operating system that runs
on the computer. Since the disk -operating system also
controls the input /output methods, it indirectly determines the type of peripherals you can use.
Often we read about some great new language we
would like to use, or an application program that is just
what we need. Upon reading a little more, we find that it
runs on a different operating system, uses a different
disk format, or needs more memory than the system
allows. Sorry, but you are just not going to run that soft-
ware. With some computers, it is possible to change
your operating system. Of course, you may lose your
investment in languages and application software, but it
could still be worth it. If you have an 8080, Z80, 8085, or
8088 system running in an S -100 bus, you have several
choices. You can use CP /M, or one of its offspring such
as CDOS, SDOS, IMDOS, OS, MPP /M, and TP /M. The
same chip family can also use OASIS, MV FAMOS,
UCSD -P System, CIS COBOL, and many others.
The TRS -80 Mod I, II, and Ill have TRSDOS in several
versions, to say nothing of NEWDOS, VDOS and LDOS.
And they can also use CP /M. Zenith /Heath has its own
system called HDOS, and you can also choose CP /M or
UCSD P- system. If you use a 6800 or 6809 on the SS-50
bus there is FLEX, UNIFLEX, OS -9, UCSD P-system, and
a few others. The 6502 -based APPLE II offers a choice
of APPLE DOS and the UCSD P- system, but you can also
plug in a Z80 and run CP /M. APPLE Ill uses a new system called SOS. The OSI computers have several versions of OS -65 and the UCSD P- system. Challenger III
models, which have several microprocessors, can also
run CP /M on the Z80. Commodore PET /CBM machines
can use only the version of PET DOS they were made to
use, and nothing else.
If you begin to get the idea that CP /M is almost a de
facto standard for microcomputers, you are correct.
That is why IBM and Xerox made sure their new micros
could use it. CP /M offers the widest choice of languages
and application software; and it will remain that way for
some time because software authors write for the market where there are the most customers. The UCSD Pascal system (now called the UCSD P- system) is available
as an alternate operating system on most computer systems- underscoring Pascal's rising popularity.
With the advent of .16 -bit chips and multi -user systems, new DOS's are being introduced. We do not know
what will be the "CP /M" of the future, but there are
already indications that today's CP /M software will be
able to run under the new improvements.
The UNIX operating system from Bell Labs has many
advantages -among them, excellent language and application support. (Cromemco's CROMIX is based on it.)
It is predicted that UNIX will become the major operating
system for minicomputers and microcomputers. However it runs only on 16 -bit machines with memory in excess
of 64K, and is intended primarily for multi -user systems.
There are some "UNIX lookalikes" that may run on 8 -bit
machines, but they have not become widely used. In the
future, UNIX -based systems may replace CP /M, although MP /M Il and CPM -86 are also contenders for
future dominance, and they would not make all the pres-
ent software obsolete.
DECEMBER 1981
45
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE ELECTRONIC WORLD
BASIC
(Beginners
All-Purpose
Symbolic
Instruction Code)
BASIC is the most popular of all computer languages.
is also the most versatile. Not really one language,
BASIC is a tribe of languages having a common root.
They range from Tiny BASIC, which fits into a single-chip
computer, to a multi -dimensional disk BASIC for a large
It
main -frame computer.
BASIC was invented in 1963 at Dartmouth College by
Professors Kemeny and Kurtz to enable noncomputer
science students to use the school computer, which was
one of the first interactive time- sharing systems.
BASIC was based on an earlier language, FORTRAN
(discussed next), and it can do many of the same things.
It has been so effective that it was extended by Digital
Equipment Corp. (among others) and soon became a
standard language for minicomputers.
The first microcomputers had only enough memory
for small machine -language programs. With the introduction of the Altair microcomputer and the S -100 bus
by MITS, more memory was added and Altair BASIC
from Microsoft became the micro standard. Today, most
of the microcomputers on the market use some form of
Microsoft BASIC. It has been configured for 8080, Z80,
6502, and 6800, as well as for some of the 16 -bit chips
of tomorrow. Versions exist in ROM, and there are some
on cassettes, floppy disks, and hard disks. Other notable versions are DEC BASIC -Plus, Commercial BASIC
(Basic Four), E -BASIC and CBASIC -2 (both intermediate
code types). There are also North Star BASIC, Benton
Harbor BASIC, Alpha BASIC, TSC BASIC, TI BASIC, and
many more.
There are both interpretive and compiled versions of
BASIC and some that use a combination of both methods. An interpretive language translates the program
source from the high -level language syntax into machine- readable code, on a line -by -line basis. When the
RUN command is given, the interpreter translates the first
line into machine code and the computer executes it.
Then the second line is translated and executed, then
the rest of the program, one line at a time. If an error is
found, the process stops and an error message is
printed. If the BREAK key (or "control C" is pressed) the
program stops and the line number where the halt
occurred is reported.
The interpretive process must be repeated each time
the program is run. However, if changes or corrections
are needed, only a few words or lines need be modified.
The interpreter is quite large and it must always be present in the memory.
A compiled language has several parts associated
with the writing and running of a program. First, there is
the original document consisting of statements written in
the language format. This is called the "source" and it is
composed using an editor program. After it is checked
and stored on a disk, the source is compiled (or translated) into a machine -code version called the "object"
code. The object code is also stored on the disk. When
the program is to be run, the object code is loaded from
the disk into the computer memory. Then the RUN corn mend is given. This is much faster than the interpreted
method because only the object code has to be loaded
into the computer. However, if any change is needed, it
is made on the source code and the program must be
recompiled. The old object code is destroyed.
There is a third method of translation called Intermediate that is a combination of compiler and interpreter.
Both E -BASIC and CBASIC2 (among the most popular
BASIC dialects) use this method. In intermediate code
languages, the source is written and complied as if it
were a compiled language. However, the compiler produces an intermediate -code version rather than a
machine -language version. Both the source and the
intermediate code are saved on the disk. When the program is run, another program is also loaded at the same
time as the intermediate code. This is called a Run -time
Package and it is an interpreter that translates the intermediate code into machine code on a line -by -line basis
and executes it. You may ask "why go to all that trouble?" The answer is that it makes it very easy to transport the language from one computer to another.
When we examine the reasons for the universal popularity of BASIC we find that it is mainly because BASIC is
so friendly. Other computer languages are complicated.
They use unfamiliar words, symbols and syntax, but
BASIC speaks English. It is a very simple English, using
only a few hundred words instead of the thousands of
words in human language, but you can understand it
from the start.
BASIC does have some defects caused by its inherent
lack of structure. It is often said that, in BASIC, programmers have too much freedom to jump around. If a complex BASIC program is not well documented with comments, after a while it is even hard for the author to
understand what has been done. To overcome this,
Structured BASIC was developed. However, purists
claim that the best cure for the defects of BASIC is not to
use it.
As in FORTRAN, the common mathematical rules are
generally followed, except that multiplication uses " "
as a sign instead of "x." Trigonometry, arrays, matrices
and other advanced operations can be done in many
versions. With the extensions added over the years,
BASIC has become an almost universal language.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
46
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE ELECTRONIC WORLD
The letters of the alphabet are used in equations. If
you run out of A through Z, some versions let you use
two letters, or a letter and a number.
Although BASIC is simple, it must be "spoken" with
precision. It will not tolerate sloppiness. There are a few
ground rules that must be followed.
A BASIC program (Fig. 4) consists of statements on
numbered lines which are executed one at a time. The
program can be made to jump around successive statements, or to other sections of the program, and then
return to execute the next line in the program. Control of
the program operation is executed via a few easily
learned commands, such as PRINT, RUN, GOTO, GOSUB,
RETURN, READ, and INPUT. A beginner who has never operated a computer can be writing programs after one or
two hours of instruction.
One of the most useful features is BASIC's ability to
access machine -language routines through call instruc-
tions and PEEK and POKE commands. Some versions have
the ability to chain BASIC programs together into a complete software system.
The original operating mode of BASIC was as an interactive interpreter. In the interactive mode of operation,
the user types a line and then presses the RETURN key or
its equivalent. This returns control to the computer which
acts upon what the user has typed. The BASIC then
returns control to the user, who types the next line.
Many of the more complex versions of BASIC have
been written as compilers. Previously, many commercial
publishers of business software were afraid to publish
application programs in interpretive BASIC because the
source had to be supplied to run the program. The introduction of compiled BASIC and intermediate versions
removed this condition and has been an important factor
in the growth of microcomputer software development
for the entire field.
THIS was one of the first high -level languages to
achieve standardization and wide acceptance. It was
mainly designed for scientific and mathematical use with
large computers, and is always a compiled language.
Many business calculations are performed in the FORTRAN language.
FORTRAN is a statement -oriented language, using
alphanumeric, mathematical symbols, and logical ex-
pressions. Only lines with labels that are referenced
elsewhere in the program are numbered in ascending
order. FORTRAN executes statements in order and is
much more rigid in format than BASIC. The sequence of
the program statements is: 1. Specification, 2. Statement
Function Definition, 3. Executable Statements. In addition, it is possible to call machine -language subroutines,
or FORTRAN subroutines from a previously compiled
library.
Early microcomputers did not have the memory
capacity to run FORTRAN programs and, therefore,
made do with BASIC. With the development of larger
memories and the ability to run compiled languages, it
became possible to run FORTRAN on smaller computers. There are now many FORTRAN compilers used with
microcomputers. But because of the wide availability of
compiled BASIC and its ability to do anything that FORTRAN can do, weaknesses aside, the latter has not
replaced BASIC in popularity.
COBOL
(COmmon Business
Oriented Language)
DESIGNED to be used in a business environment,
within a short time after COBOL's introduction it seemed
that every computer installation had evolved its own version. To straighten out the confusion and under the lead-
ership of the U.S. Navy, a new standard language of
business was created, known as ANS (American National Standard) COBOL. Today, many versions of COBOL
have extensions beyond the standard, but this is clearly
indicated in the instruction manuals.
DECEMBER 1981
47
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE ELECTRONIC WORLD
COBOL is a statement -oriented, compiled language,
very rigid in format, designed to match the flow of data in
normal business transactions. This data is collected,
punched into cards, and processed under COBOL programs in a batch mode on mainframe computers.
Interactive COBOL was only recently developed,
matching the development of key -to -disk data input (replacing punch cards). This type of COBOL can run on
minicomputers.
COBOL has only been available on micros for a short
time and it has been used for many business applications from large computer sources. Little original programming has yet been done with microcomputer
COBOL, so it is early to say if it will prove to be as popular on micros as it is on larger machines. Where software packages written in COBOL have been sold, often
only the object code has been supplied, while the language has been transparent to the user.
COBOL programs are separated into divisions. The
first is the Identification Division which always includes
the author's name, and the date when the program was
compiled. In addition, this division lists the Installation,
-
Date Written, Security level and Remarks, if desired.
The second is the Environmental Division which specifies the hardware needed by the program, and how it
relates to the files. The Configuration Section and Special Names are also part of this division. The Input /Output Section is needed if files are used. For each file there
is a SELECT entry and an ASSIGN clause.
The Data Division includes the File Section and the
Working Storage section. Finally, the Procedure Division
completes the program. All of this must be done within
rigid specifications. This creates a self- documenting program that only requires an additional explanation of why
certain procedures were selected for a problem.
The trouble with using COBOL for interactive microcomputer programs is that all these requirements were
originally developed for a punch -card operation in a
batch mode, where the programming and operating
functions are separated. In an interactive operating
mode, these requirements take up space and use a lot
of the computer memory. This is one of the reasons
there has been no rush to adopt the COBOL now available for microcomputers.
which
created at IBM by Kenneth Iverson. It
an internal language until it was released in the
an interactive, time- sharing language running
mainframe computers. APL was originally a
language noted for its ability to create and
APL was
remained
1960s as
on large
scientific
manipulate multidimensional matrices.
A number of the IBM people who had been involved in
the development of APL left the company and started
time -sharing services devoted to the language. These
services extended APL, added file structures, and made
it into a business -oriented language. APL is especially
valued by insurance companies and airlines for their
complex routing and scheduling problems.
APL has been implemented on mainframes and large
minis, but only on two microcomputers. Recently, however, two versions were released to run under CP /M.
There are several problems with APL as a popular language. First, it has a character set which is different from
any other. Some of the characters require two keystrokes with a backspace in the middle and this is not
compatible with most terminals. It does not use the ASCII
code (the industry standard) but instead uses Z -code,
is
completely different. Second, all operations
in
APL are evaluated from right to left. In our culture we are
used to evaluating things from left to right and this can
be confusing. Third, APL uses very complex operators
that permit programmers to express complicated ideas
on a single line. This has lead to a very compact code
that is hard to read unless it has frequent comments.
APL is always an interpretive language, using a lot of
memory space and running slower than compiled languages. It gives each user a large block of memory
called the Workspace as soon as he signs -on the system. In addition, it does not save individual programs
(called functions), but instead saves the entire Workspace. This also uses up memory space.
APL has been restricted to large computers until
recently. Thus, it does not have the wide application of
COBOL, FORTRAN, or BASIC. In addition, with the
development of Pascal, C, and Ada, which can also use
multidimensional arrays, one of the main advantages of
APL has been usurped. It should be mentioned that the
new IBM small computers no longer support APL and
that cassette software in APL for the Model 5100 is also
no longer supported.
STRUCTURED LANGUAGES
Structured language is based on a
hierarchy of operations starting with
the general and proceeding to the specific. There has been a movement In
computer sdence toward languages
that fully utilize data structures and
require a user to declare an the *Pacification* for a program change. Pascal, PL/1, C, and Ada are languages of
this type; and they are replacing the
older languages for both business and
scientific computing. Structured languages, especially Pascal are becomMg the major Instructional languages
in computer science departments. Accordingly, they are expected to encroach on FORTRAN, COBOL, and poesibly even BASIC M time as the most
Important languages. Pascal Is already
supported on all major minicomputers,
microcomputers, and a great many
mainframes. PL /1, which was originally a language for very large computers,
has been adapted for smaller machines. And the U.S. Defense Dept. will
make Ada mandatory for an its offices
and contractors by 1985
gig*
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
48
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE
E
CTRONIC WORLD
PascalBASIC's
ABOUT the same time that FORTRAN was being
developed in the United States, another language was
designed to implement solutions to complex algorithms.
It was called ALGOL (Algorithmic Language) and it
became popular in Europe. It is an excellent language,
but somewhat difficult to learn. In 1971, Niklaus Wirth of
Zurich, Switzerland, invented Pascal as a tool for teaching ALGOL and to demonstrate the principals of structured language. In 1975, the standard Pascal was
defined in Pascal User Manual and Report by Kathleen
Jensen and Niklaus Wirth. Pascal is an easy language to
learn and it is suitable for defining the data structures
needed for problem solutions. The language was named
for Blaise Pascal, the French mathematician who
invented one of the first mechanical computing devices.
So the name is not an acronym and, therefore, all letters
are not capitalized.
Pascal compilers were written for mainframe computers and the language gained popularity in the computer
community. At the University of California, San Diego, Dr.
Kenneth L. Bowles started to implement Pascal on mini
and microcomputers. The result has been the UCSD
Pascal System. This is not only an implementation of
Pascal, but an entire operating system that includes several Editors, a File Handling System, an Assembler, a
Compiler, and a Debugger. UCSD Pascal now runs on
Apple, North Star, Texas Instrument, Radio Shack TRS80 Mod II, OSI, DEC, Western Digital Microengine, and
many other personal computers. Other versions of Pascal are used on minicomputers, large mainframes, and
microcomputers. Almost every manufacturer of computers supports some kind of Pascal in addition to whatever
other language he uses.
Like BASIC, Pascal "speaks" English, and uses the
conventional mathematical symbols. It can do trigonometry and advanced mathematical operations, and deal
with character data and strings. Pascal operates on
standard data types such as integer, real, and Boolean,
but gives the programmer the freedom to define new
data types. The programmer can also define new functions and procedures.
Pascal is a compiled language, but it does not usually
compile into machine code. Instead, it compiles into an
intermediate pseudo -code called p-code. The p -code is
then saved on the disk file system. At run -time, the
p -code file is interpreted into the machine code of the
computer.
As with all other intermediate -code languages, this
method makes the language portable. To move Pascal
to a new computer, all you have to do is write a new
interpreter from p -code to the machine language, a far
simpler task than adapting a complete language. In one
computer, the Western Digital Microengine, p -code is the
machine language of the microprocessor, allowing it to
run without the interpretive step.
There are other versions of Pascal that do compile
into machine code, called "native -code compilers."
They run very fast, but are not transportable from
machine to machine. Pascal-Z, produced by Ithaca Inter systems Inc. for the Z -80, is of this type.
Pascal is fast becoming the most popular language
for application software, a fact that is not always apparent because only the object code and a run -time package are delivered with the application system. (This provides a measure of protection for the software publisher). Figure 5 shows the same problem used in preceding
references, done in Pascal.
The C Language
THE language called C is a computer language
designed at Bell Laboratories to operate upon the powerful OS called UNIX. It is a structured language with
some resemblance to Pascal. However, Pascal uses
both functions and procedures, while the C language
achieves modularity only through the use of functions. It
builds the entire program structure through the use of
functions even to the point of having no Print or Read
statements. It does input and output through use of functions. It does have "if- then -else," "while loops," global
and local variables and data types, pointers and arrays.
Like Pascal, it can replace single statements with compound statements to promote program flow. C is a compiled language in which programs are composed using
an Editor and then are compiled into machine code versions to be run on the computer. It has no I/O structure
49
DECEMBER 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE ELECTRONIC WORLD
of its own; instead, it uses the I/O of whatever operating
system it is implemented on.
A C program is a set of functions. The ability of the
programmer to create his own functions according to his
needs make C an unusually flexible language. There are
no line numbers in C. The program starts with the name
of the function, then a square bracket to start function
definition. This consists of compound statements between two square brackets. Statements are nested to
any depth required and are treated just like simple statements. There are libraries of standard functions and
those functions previously defined by the user. All of
these can be called for use in the program. There can be
both Global and Local variables and there can be arguments for the functions. There are also Expressions
which are used to calculate and store data. C can call
THE COBOL language became a standard business
language because it was required by government agencies in the 1960's. Now, the U.S. Department of Defense
has decided that a new language is needed to coordinate the application needs of the Army, Navy, and Air
Force. The process of development for this language
was started in 1975 when suggestions were solicited
from the three military services, industry, and academia.
At the same time, an intensive study of existing languages was made to determine if any of them met the
requirements for a universal language, and if not, to
develop specifications for one. It was recommended that
either Pascal, ALGOL 68, or PL/ be used as the starting point for the new design. Pascal was the one put
forward, and the new language was developed from it.
Called the "Green" language, it was renamed Ada in
honor of the first computer programmer, Lady Ada
1
machine -language routines when needed as well as any
of the personal or standard function libraries.
While C originated on the UNIX OS, it has been transported to run on other operating systems such as CP /M
and Unix -like systems. Many application software packages for micros have now been written in the C language
and sold only in object code form. As the UNIX OS and
its look alikes become more popular, the C language will
become more widely used. With Pascal, the original idea
of a language that was transportable between machines
seems to be lost as more and more incompatable versions come into use. With C this has not happened. The
entire language was written by one person and there is
one book specifying it: The C Programming Language
by Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritche (Prentice Hall, 1978).
Augusta Byron, Countess Lovelace, daughter of the
poet Lord Byron. Since then, Ada has been undergoing
extensive tests and compilers have been written for several mainframe computers.
Dr. Kenneth Bowles, the leader of the project that
developed UCSD Pascal, has left the University of California and is working on implementing Ada on some of
the advanced microcomputers using Western Digital
microprocessors and the Motorola 68000 chip. Other
versions will follow. This kind of support, and the fact
that Ada will be mandatory for the Defense Dept. and all
its contractors by 1985, portends a very important role
for the new language.
Ada looks like Pascal. It has a declarative part and a
statement part. It is a strongly typed language because
all identifiers must be declared and their attributes specified. The two most important control structures are the
conditional statements (which select alternative actions)
and loop statements (which specify repetition of an
action). Ada uses many types of functions and subprograms called Procedures. In addition, Ada also has two
kinds of modules called Packages and Tasks.
Packages are used to define logically related collections of resources for use in computation. Tasks are
separate jobs that are done at the same time in either a
time- sharing environment, or a distributed processing
system. The collective term for this is 'Multitasking' and
ADA has been designed to set up and run such jobs as
part of a program. Similar things can be done _by Pascal,
C, or PL/ 1, but Ada is the first language created to nianage the complex computing activities that use multiple
processors with almost unlimited memory resources.
ForthAn Independent
Language
following of programmers who have carried its banner
at all computer meetings and shows, more like a cult
than a computer language user group.
Forth is not an easy language to learn as it is quite
dissimilar from anything we are used to. In addition, it
does its calculations in Reverse Polish Notation (RPN). It
is sometimes called the unfinished language because
the programmer has almost unlimited freedom to create
new Words. Everything in Forth is a Word (which is
a
THIS is another language created by one man,
Charles H. More, and it was first used to control the telescope at Kitts Peak Observatory. It has since developed
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
50
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE ELECTRONIC WORLD
another term for a function) It 1s not much good as a
number cruncher, but it can link to subroutines in other
languages for the heavy math It greatly reduces the cost
and work of subroutines The programmer keeps on
defining new words by using old ones, and before you
notice, the lob is done. You do not have to do much
original work to write a new program because when the
system comes up. so does all the work you have ever
done before, just as if it had always been part of the
language' Now you see why programmers take the trouble to learn this strange language
When you look at a Forth program, it is confusing
because everything seems to run together, but after a
while it begins to make sense
In Forth, most operations communicate by using the
Stack (that section of memory where you store numbers
in last -in- first -out order) While all languages use the
stack, its operation is usually incorporated into the language itself Not so in Forth, where the programmer controls the stack directly
There are some normal things about Forth. It is a
structured language with no GOTOS or labels for statements It is an interpretive language that is later compiled
into machine- readable code, and therefore needs very
little space in the computer memory A full Forth can fit
into a 16K machine and have room for 8K of programs
In addition, it is low cost The Forth Interest Group has
made versions available for almost every microprocessor Even the commercial versions are cheap and offer a
lot of features for the money
One other characteristic of Forth is that it is a
Threaded Language This means that programs are
constructed from a few subroutines which are connected together by a series of subroutine calls to perform a
larger task This entity is then called by a larger routine
and connected to others to form a still larger entity
Threadedness is not restricted to Forth, but whole other
languages can use it, all Forth versions do use it
When you go to a computer show and you see the
cult members who have found the One True Language
and wear the funny buttons, don't laugh Perhaps they
have found It and the rest of us are lust lazy
LISP
(LISt Pmcessing
Language)
THE language of artificial intelligence research, LISP
was based upon John McCarthy's work on nonnumeric
computer languages published In 1960 The language
LISP was implemented at MIT and is described in the
LISP
5 Programmers Manual It has since been configured on many mainframe computers, minicomputers and
microcomputers,
LISP is a nonmathematocal language composed of
words, like any language In LISP there are two kinds of
words atoms and lists Atoms are the basic entities of
LISP Basically, any combination of the characters of the
alphabet, A,B,C
X,Y,Z with any of the ten digits
0,1
9 os an atom, as long as it starts with a letter A
lost is the second type of word in LISP, and it is built up
from atoms and other lists A list consists of a left par1
MODEL
II
enthesis followed by any number of atoms and lists, terminated with a right parenthesis The language has functions. variables, and arithmetic operators, but it looks
strange to BASIC programmers because all the arithmetic operations are in Reverse Polish Notation (RPN) A
LISP sentence looks like a list, but it carries meaning and
it is actually an elementary program All LISP functions
have a single value and a program consisting of functions applied to arguments The LISP language has many
built -in functions, and the programmer can create functions at will
The printout of a LISP program looks unusual, but if
the LISP includes a "Prettyprint program," which formats
a program by indenting subsections, the listing will look
much more conventional.
MODEL Ill
TRS-80® DISCOUNT
BUY DIRECT
We carry the full line of TRS -80 Computers. All
other software, furniture, and accessories at discount from catalog price. We stock most items
to assure you fast delivery and save you money.
'611"
64K
1
WRITE FOR A FREE CATALOG
DISCOUNT
Off List
DRIVE $3288.00
No Taxes on Out of Store Sh,pmenls
Im,ned,ose Sh.pmenr On Most hems
DECEMBER 1981
1
-800- 841 -0860
Toll Free Order Entry
MICRO MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, INC.
DEPT.
NO
1
2
DOWNTOWN PLAZA SHOPPING CENTER
SECOND AVE S.W.
CAIRO. GEORGIA 31728
EXPORT PHONE NO 012` 377 712C
115
GA
S
26 1061 4K
I
26 -1062 16K III
26- 1066 48K Ill
2
Drives, RS232
$609.00
849.00
2069.00
C
nSf USA
CIRCLE NO. 31 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
51
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE ELECTRONIC WORLD
PILOT
(Pmgrammed Inquiry,
Learning Or Teaching)
PILOT was the first computer language dedicated to
computer -aided instruction, and was developed at the
University of California, San Francisco. rt has been implemented on many computers ranging from very large
mainframes to the simplest micros. This interactive language enables a person without prior computer experience to develop and test dialogue programs for teaching, since its structure and syntax are easy to explain to
student.
Using PILOT, the teacher can present the student with
a reading passage, give him time to study it and then ask
him multiple- choice questions based upon the passage.
The program can include computer responses keyed to
the answer the student has given. It can also scan his
response and give him advice or comment based upon
that response. It can introduce a mathematical problem
and offer the solution on a step-by -step basis or give the
student an opportunity to discover as many of the steps
as he can, with hints from the computer.
PILOT instructions are divided into six categories:
1. Core Instructions. These basic functions are single- letter instructions and are standard for all of the ver-
sions of PILOT. Thus the programs are portable from
machine to machine. The instructions are:
T:
A:
M:
J:
U:
E:
a
TYPE (includes Y: and N:)
ACCEPT
MATCH
JUMP
USE
END
C: COMPUTE
R:
REMARK
There are also multiword instructions called "keywords"
that have been added to PILOT for special applications
and are not included in all versions.
2. Cursor and video instructions to determine where
the text will appear on the screen.
3. Instructions that set various kinds of parameters
related to the computer such as output ports, display
speed, or memory locations.
4. File system instructions relating to storing and
retrieving programs and data.
creates that move around the screen at any speed the
THE LOGO language represents a completely different path to learning than does PILOT. Its inventor, Sey-
mour Papert, believes that CAI techniques, like PILOT,
only transfer the old methods of teaching to the computer without using the unique capabilities of this new tool to
combine text, form, color, and sound into a new learning
system. For the last ten years at MIT, he and his colleagues have been working to perfect the techniques
used in LOGO. The result is a language in which a five year -old can quickly learn to write a program. Yet it is
sophisticated enough for higher instruction.
In the child's version, LOGO uses basic modes called
sprites and turtles. The sprites are forms that the child
child selects. The turtle is a figure that the child can interact with, moving it over the screen, coloring it, and making it draw or erase lines.
The teacher can also program more complex functions (programs) that children can interact with through
simple keyboard responses. Children learn color, direction, letters, words, and sounds through this medium and
usually find it fun. It also teaches them planning, and the
use of the computer which will be one of their major educational tools throughout their school years.
At this time, LOGO is available for the T.I. 990/4 computer, and there is a version for the more popular Apple Il
that MIT has not yet released.
(Continued on page 56)
www.americanradiohistory.com
The most comprehensive and useful
computer reference in the world.
Take the
RALSTON &
MI E K
ENC
ENCYCLOPEDIA
OF COMPUTER
OF
SCIENCE
COMPUTER
yours for only
PIA
-a $60.00 value -
$295
when you join The Library of Computer
and Information Sciences. You simply
agree to buy 3 more books -at handsome
discounts -within the next 12 months.
Find the answers to virtually all your data processing
questions in the ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COMPUTER
SCIENCE.
Thousands of photos, diagrams, graphs and charts
completely illuminate the ENCYCLOPEDIA's clear and
thorough coverage of every area of the computer sciences- software, hardware, languages, programs, systems, mathematics, networks, applications, theory, history
and terminology.
Appendices provide abbreviations, acronyms, special
notations and many numerical tables. An additional highlight is a complete cross -reference system that assists the
reader seeking in -depth information.
What is The Library of Computer and Information
everything
from Access Methods to Working Set, in
1,523 pages, 470 articles and over 1,000
illustrations, tables and charts.
Authoritatively compiles by over 200
internationally respected authorities.
A mammoth volume cowering
Sciences?
It's the oldest and largest book club for the computer
professional. In the incredibly fast -moving world of data
processing, where up-to -date knowledge is essential,
we make it easy for you to keep totally informed on all
areas of the information sciences. In addition, books
are offered at discounts up to 30% off publishers' prices.
Begin enjoying the club's benefits by accepting the
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COMPUTER SCIENCE. It's the
perfect reference for computer professionals... and it's a
great bargain, too.
T
The Library of Computer
and Information Sciences
Riverside, N.J. 08075
t
7 -A X 6
Please accept my
4 Good Reasons to Join
O COMPUTER SCIENCE (44900-3), billing me only
agree to purchase at least three additional Selections or
Alternates over the next 12 months. Savings range up to 30% and
occasionally even more. My membership is cancelable any time after
buy these three books. A shipping and handling charge is added to all
shipments.
110-Risk Guarantee: If you are not satisfied -for any reason -you may
return the Encyclopedia of Computer Science within 10 days and your
membership will be cancelled and you will owe nothing.
$2.95.
The Finest Books. Of the hundreds and hundreds of books submitted to us
each year, only the very finest are selected and offered. Moreover, our books
are always of equal quality to publishers' editions, never economy editions.
2. Big Savings. In addition to getting the ENCYCLOPEDIA OF COMPUTER
SCIENCE FOR $2.95 when you join, you keep saving substantially -up to 30%
and occasionally even more. (For example, your total savings as a trial
member-including this introductory offer-can easily be over 50% That's like
getting every other book free!)
3.. Bonus Books. Also, you will immediately become eligible to participate in
our Bonus Book Plan, with savings up to 70% off the publishers' prices.
4. Convenient Service. At 3-4 week intervals (16 times per year) you will
receive the Book Club News, describing the Main Selection and Alternate
Selections, together with a dated reply card. If you want the Main Selection,
do nothing and it will be sent to you automaticawy. If you prefer another
selection, or no book at al simply indicate your choice on the card, and return
it by the date specified. You will have at least 10 days to decide If, because of
late mail delivery of the News, you should receive a book you do not want, we
guarantee return postage.
I
I
Name
Address
City
,
L
Zip
State
(Offer good in Continental U.S. and Canada only. Prices slightly higher
in Canada.)
DECEMBER 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE ELECTRONIC WORLD
bers" software. They present the user with a set of fill -inthe -blank screens to enable the user to specify just what
he wants to do. The answers to these questions constitute a psuedo program from which the system "writes" a
program in BASIC, or whatever language the system is
designed to use. In reality, the "system" is an English to -BASIC translator language. PEARL and "The Last
One" are typical of this type of system, but are by no
means the only ones or the last ones.
PL/1. This language was one fo the first structured
languages and was designed by IBM to run its mainframe
computers. The language suffered from its great scope
and complexity. Later subsets of PL/ 1, such as PL /M,
were designed to run on minicomputers, and they were
often used as cross -compilers to develop microcomputer software on larger machines. Until very recently, no
micro had enough memory and capacity to run PL/ 1.
However, with the development of the 16 -bit and 32 -bit
microprocessors, this language has a future for use on
the large micros. Digital Research, the developer of CP/
M, has a version called PL/ -80 to run under advanced
versions of CP /M and MP /M.
1
CAI. (Computer Aided Instruction) Languages. This term designates a family of languages
used with computers as a teaching tool. In the next
decade, CAI will become more important as we learn to
use the computer to enhance our educational system.
Some of the languages designed to aid in education
have already been discussed.
Report Generation Languages. RPG II is one of
the most widely used languages for mainframes and
large minicomputers. It is used to create report formats
for the output of all kinds of application software. In the
future, with multiuser and multitasking computers being
designed around 16 -bit and 32 -bit microprocessors,
RPG languages may be used by all computers.
'
Data Description Languages. These languages
are used to create, input, select, sort, and format information stored in a general application data base. They
are generally not called "languages" by the software
publishers, who only refer to the complete system by
name. However, the CODASYL (Conference on Data
Description Languages) which was formed to set standards for data base systems uses this term to refer to
the entire Data Base Management System (DBMS).
Some of the commercial DBMS systems using very
complex data description languages are TOTAL, RAMIS,
ADBS, and IMS. All of these run on large mainframe computers. With the development of large floppy -disk and
hard -disk storage systems, data -base systems became
possible using mini and microcomputers. Some of the
larger DBMS were scaled down to run on minis, but most
of the micro systems were written for microcomputers
specifically. They all use operators and functions that
are complex enough to be a complete language.
Program Generation Languages. This is a new
family of software systems that constitute a set of languages. Their object is to automatically write programs
in another language. They are a kind of "paint- by-num-
Conclusion. Once you have read about computer
languages and begun to understand their differences,
you may find that you still can't decide which one is the
best for you. There are just too many choices. For example, you may need to control a robot that has a single board computer and only 4K of memory. You could use
machine language or assembly language, or you could
write in Forth and compile to machine code. However,
you could also use Control BASIC or Tiny Pascal. The
choice is yours, and there is no single answer.
If you are interested in business applications, home
controls, or scientific research, the options are still
wider. Perhaps this is why Charles More invented Forth
to control his telescope; machine and assembly language took too long to use while other languages were
too rigid and did not allow him adequate flexibility.
Today, you do not have to invent a language to tailor a
program to your needs.
For most people, the choice has been made for them.
Usually, a computer comes with a language, most often
a simple version of BASIC in ROM. Once you learn this
BASIC, you will probably find that you can do all kinds of
wonderful things with it. You will likely want to do more by
adding memory and a floppy disk or two. This, in turn,
opens up the world of disk software for word processing, business applications, etc. This is also when you find
out that you have to buy the exact package to run with
your BASIC and your DOS because there were many different types.
Do you want to try different languages on your computer? Well, it's simple. All you have to do is buy a version of a language that runs under your DOS and does
not require more memory than you have. Then read the
manual that comes with the package, put the diskette in
your drive, and you are running PASCAL, FORTRAN, or
COBOL. You also will need a good textbook -one
designed for microcomputer versions of the language.
The manual you get with the language package teaches
you how to run the language and what special things are
in that version. It does not teach you the language. Study
your text, use what you learn on your computer, and it
will bring back the fun you had when you first bought the
machine as well as giving you opportunities to use more
efficient languages for particular purposes.
For those who haven't yet bought a computer, but are
thinking of it, everything we have said applies to you
also. If you want to have a choice of languages later, be
sure you choose a machine that has a variety of languages available.
Most often, language packages are available from the
computer manufacturer. However, they are also sold by
software companies that specialize in one or more languages. Another good source is the computer clubs
since they may serve as a distribution channel for languages developed by universities and the government.
Language user groups also distribute languages at low
cost. The FIG (Forth Interest Group), for example, sells
its software and books -and at reasonable prices. 0
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
56
www.americanradiohistory.com
Actual Size,
5/8
x
23/4 x 6 -'s'
o Shack's TRS-80®
Pocket Computer and Save $60
Printer
Cassette Interface
Save '20
.;i.
Reg. 149.9'
s
995
you use a recorder to load and save
programs and data on cassettes.
hard copy printouts, too. With Ad,
apter/charger, three rolls of paper.
assette Interface
ave 39%
299
The first programmable computer so
small it fits in a Christmas stocking.
Like a calculator, it has 15 built -in
functions that are immediately available. Plus, there's 26 memories and
numeric output with a 10 -digit mantissa and a 2 -digit exponent. To compute trig and angular functions, for
example, it works just like a calculator and with the same precision.
Unlike a calculator, the real power of
the Pocket Computer is in its ability
to run our own, or user -written, programs in BASIC. The 1424 -step
memory can be partitioned into multiple programs.
And the full alphanumeric display
permits writing programs that
prompt in plain English and display
Oil"àt1
rograrns on cassettes.
Cable and plugs incl
extra.
R
answers with comments. The Edit
and Debug mode make programming easier than it is with a programmable calculator. Inputting is
simplified with the typewriter -style
keyboard and separate 20 -key numberpad. The LCD shows 24 characters with automatic scrolling and
manual playback for longer lines.
Another thing: memory is retained
even when the power is off.
By adding the Cassette Interface,
anyone can immediately run our soft-
ware. And look what's available!
Electrical and Civil Engineering,
Aviation, Surveying, Real Estate,
Business Statistics, and more. You
can't buy a smarter gift. Better hurry
-sale ends Dec. 27th.
R
The biggest name in little computers
A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION
OVER 8000 LOCATIONS WORLDWIDE
Prices may vary at individual stores and dealers
www.americanradiohistory.com
Wabash Diskettes Are Still Running Strong!
It takes a lot to be a winner in the computer industry
these days. When it comes to magnetic media it
takes a successful magnetic coating formulation
and expert manufacturing skills. It takes steady
performance in critical applications, and endurance
So the next time you're faced with a purchasing
decision, don't take chances. Any way you look at it,
Wabash diskettes are your best bet for the long run.
over the long run.
Wabash MAXI- MYTE" 8" diskettes and
MINI- MYTET" 51/4" diskettes are a quality buy no
matter what your criteria. In standards testing
performed by 25 prestigious drive manufacturers
(including the world's largest) Wabash diskettes
emerged a sure winner... with the papers to prove it.
The fact is, Wabash quality is unsurpassed in the
industry, with a five year usage warranty that will
keep your customers satisfied for years to come.
Wabash Tape Corporation 2700 Des Plaines Avenue, Des Plaines, IL 60018
58
800- 323 -9868 Illinois Call: 312 -298 -8585
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
CIRCLE NO. 51 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
Holiday Gifts
far
Electronics
Enthusiasts
some
Here are
ideas for gifts you
might bestow upon yourself to keep you up
front in the electronics revolution.
...SPRING- LOADED BINDING POSTS
Developed by ITT Pomona Electronics, the insulated binding
posts eliminate exposed wires to prevent potential shock
($3.98 each).
...PERFECT FOR LARGE REC
ROOMS
A programmable robot from the Industrial
Robot Div. of ASEA.
...A NEW EXPANDABLE
BREADBOARD SYSTEM FOR
PROTOTYPING
Scotchflex solderless plug and strips from
3M uses "U-cc ntract" system with self -feeding wiring tool.
...ADD A SHADY SPOT
IN YOUR BACK YARD
Heathkit /Scientific Atlanta's earth station antenna picks up TV
signals directly from satellites for the ultimate in TV viewing
pleasure and neighbors' gawking.
www.americanradiohistory.com
L
Holiday Gifts ..
...PADDED CARRYING CASES FOR
AUDIO/VIDEO GEAR.
To carry around your VCR. LP records, cassettes, etc., you
might like to protect them with the padded silver-color carrying
cases by Osawa under the Sound Pepper brand.
...A VIDEO CASSETTE
...DISPLAY APPLIANCE
TITLE & LABEL KIT.
BIB's new VE -17 system gives a professional look to ones VC library.
ENERGY CONSUMPTION
INS &C.
The "Energy Teller" plugs into
an electrical wall outlet and gives
continuous 5 -digit LCD readout
of accumulated cost when an
appliance is plugged into it.
...PORTABLE CALCULATOR /PRINTER WITH
SCIENTIFIC PRINTOUT
New Canon FP -l0 provides permanent record of calculations.
...MULTIMETER'S
SCALES CHANGE
WITH FUNCTION.
You can't read the wrong
scale with Soltec's LCD -900
analog multimeter, since
unused ones disappear from
the meter face.
RE QUE
1.11;L. N
VW itl
T-dtKE4
-
bPEEfi 6,Mi ,geolEe
... PHONO
CARTRIDGE FOR A
ROLLS ROYCE
OWNER.
...TALK OF THE TOWN.
TYPE-N-TALK, VOTREX's text -to -speech synthesizer, allows a personal computer
with the standard RS232C interface to produce highly intelligible English speech
from text typed on the computer's keyboard.
www.americanradiohistory.com
Only $ 1200.00, the TK100LC
from Signet is distinguished by
a tubular ruby cantilever and
toroidal coils wound with silver
wire, plus the omnipresent diamond stylus.
..SECOND COMPUTER
IN EVERY HOME.
Mattel's "Children's Discover
System... designed for youngsters age 6 to 11, gives them a
computer learning experience
and frees your personal com-
puter from tiny hands until
they're a little older. Has 2K
memory, musical effects, LCD
viewer, keyboard, and plug -in
program cartridges.
...FROM THE PEOPLE
WHO GAVE YOU
"WALKMAN :'
A stereo FM headphone radio.
Model MDR -FM7, from Sony.
...ONE -PIECE PHONIE WITH AUTO MEMORY
DIALING & MEMORY -ON -HOLD.
U.S. Tron's innovative replacement telephones store 11 or 22
phone numbers in memory and uses a custom IC that requires no
extra power source.
...PLUG-IN CARD ADDS
CP /M TO APPLE II.
With Microsoft's "Softcard;' you
can run all the Z- 80/8080 software
you thought your Apple II's 6502
CPU couldn't handle. It contains the
CP /M operating system, Microsoft
BASIC -80, and a Z -80 CPU.
00000
...A TALKING
TIMEPIECE.
The OMNI "Voice Master" by
Personal Electronics tells you
The time in a synthesized voice
when you press the "speak"
button or the 24 -hour alarm is
activated. For wrist, desk, or
automobile, you'll never be
lonely again.
000CCC.I
...TWIN- CASSETTE DECK FOR EASY DUBBING.
With Onkyos TA -W80 you can duplicate cassettes at twice the normal speed
using only one machine.
...LAZY MAN'S
WIRE- WRAPPING TOOL.
A new battery -powered wire
wrapper from O.K. Machine and
Tool Corp.
www.americanradiohistory.com
NOW YOUR
ETA MACH NE
CAN PERFORM
EVEN :ETTER
THAN WHEN
YOU BOUGHT T.
No matter how well your video
cassette recorder has been
performing, it's never lived up
to its full potential. Because
until recently, you couldn't
buy High Grade video
..ape for Beta systems.
With Maxell High
Grade Beta tape,
you'll finally see
what your machine
can do. You'll get
better color
resolution,
sharper images
and clearer
sound.
To create High Grade,
Maxell uses finer, sharper Epitaxial
CIRCLE NO. 48 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
particles and a unique binding
process. The resulting tape
not only produces a
better picture than ordinary video tape, it's a lot
more durable. This drastically reduces video recorder
head wear and lets you
enjoy a better picture longer.
So if you own a Beta
recorder, try Maxell High
Grade. You'll discover that the
machine you own is even better
than the one you bought.
maxell
IT'S WORTH IT.
AM.rll'rrlx. ri,r
rlllriM Nr.rtirrhir
rJ
1
()7()74
BY CRAIG STARK
\C
OMRAR
HIGH-TECH
AUDIO CASSETTE TAPES
What makes one cassette tape better than
another? Are there any real differences between
the technologically best products? To provide
an answer to these questions, samples of some
of today's "top tapes" were subjected to a
number of established tests designed to bring
out their strengths and weaknesses.
LET's begin our comparison with an
overview of the tape market. There
are four major cassette tape types currently available. The most widespread is
Type I, ferric oxide (Fe203), which is
produced in all grades of quality, from
3- for -a- dollar unbranded specials to topnotch formulations, some of which are
lightly laced with cobalt to improve
their magnetic performance. As a type,
ferric -oxide tapes use the least record
bias, and are designed to be played back
with 120- microsecond equalization (see
Fig. 1).
Type II tapes are known generically
as chromium dioxide (Cr02), though
most such tapes today are cobalt enhanced ferric -oxide formulations,
usually designated as "chrome equivalent." Chrome -type tapes use roughly 50
percent more bias than ferries, and are
intended for playback with 70-microsec-
DECEMBER 1981
ond equalization. The difference between 70- microsecond (chrome) and
120 -microsecond
(ferric) playback
equalization affects the amount of tape
hiss you hear. All else being equal
(though it rarely is!), you'll get less hiss
from 70- than from 120- microsecond
playback equalization (see Fig. 1).
Ferrichrome (FeCr) tapes are designated Type III, and use two separately
coated layers of magnetic material: a
relatively heavy layer of ferric oxide,
topped by a thin layer of chromium
dioxide. Highly popular in the car stereo
market, ferrichromes have not won wide
acceptance among home-based audiophiles because of wide variations from
brand to brand. Thus, hi -fi cognescenti
rarely use these tapes for home systems;
and for that reason they were not tested
in this study.
The newest entrants on the cassette
scene, Type IV, are the metal -particle
tapes. Although these can be played
back on any tape deck with a 70- microsecond ( "chrome ") equalization position, their extremely high bias requirement- approximately twice that of
63
www.americanradiohistory.com
cassette tapes
Cr02-demands that they
be
recorded
on a deck whose heads and bias oscillator are designed to handle the high current associated with such high bias.
Theoretically, the "best" tape is that
which produces the least inherent noise
while providing the greatest undistorted
signal storage capacity across the range
of desired wavelengths. "Wavelengths"
correspond to "frequency response,"
once you factor in tape speed. One second's worth of a 1000 -Hz tone at a tape
speed of 15 inches -per- second has a
wavelength eight times as long as the
same one -second tone at the cassette
speed of 17/8 ips, and a tape formulation
optimized for the former speed will not
be equally suitable for the latter.
"Undistorted" is admittedly a weak
word, but long- standing tradition, based
on successful experience, favors defining
it in terms of 3% third -harmonic distortion at a suitable middle frequency for
the tape speed involved. For the tests in
this report, the 400 -Hz frequency used
by Dolby -level calibration tapes was
chosen.
Practically, of course, the "best" tape
is that which most closely approximates
the theoretical ideal on your machine.
This is an important caveat. Tapes do
test (and perform) somewhat differently
on different tape decks and under different bias (and record equalization) conditions. I used the top -quality three head Nakamichi 582, which has a wide
record -head gap (3.5 microns) and a
narrow -gap playback head (0.9 microns). A typical two -head cassette recorder, on the other hand, might have a
record -playback head with a gap of 1.2
to 1.3 microns. The head gap affects
both the high- and low- frequency extremes. Too wide a gap limits treble
playback response; too narrow a gap
may limit penetration of the record signal to the full depth of the magnetic
coating.
In practical terms, a deck with a wide
record -head gap will favor tapes with a
relatively thick magnetic coating when
measuring signal -to -noise ratio; the advantage of the thick coating may not be
realized on a two -head deck. Similarly,
a recorder with a narrow -gap playback
head will tend to favor tapes with highly
polished surfaces, which facilitate flat
response to 20,000 Hz and beyond,
though this advantage might not show
up at all on a typical two -head deck,
whose response may only extend to
about 16.5 kHz.
Record bias and equalization are additional considerations when tapes are
compared. Most decks provide a 3- or
4- position switch that sets bias and
equalization (EQ) for optimum performance from a specific tape within
84
deck owners have to use. I chose instead,
therefore, to set up my test deck with the
tapes most frequently specified as having been used in factory alignment by
the numerous deck manufacturers
whose recorders I have tested in recent
years. These are: Maxell UD -XLI (ferric); TDK SA (CrOZ- type); and TDK
each basic type. Brand -to -brand differences among tapes of the same type do
exist, however, which is the rationale for
the "bias optimization" controls included in many decks. Using the adjustments available on my tape deck, I could
have optimized the deck for each tape in
turn, but this wouldn't show up tape differences under the fixed conditions most
MA (metal).
IIIIIII
..111111111
_70U
20
100
500
IK
I111111IIIIII1111
III111120K
IHERTZ)
IMilli
SK
IOK
Fig. 1. Comparison of noise -level between 70- microsecond
(colored curve) and 120 -microsecond (black curve) playback equalization.
The 70-dB level is with reference to 2W nanowebers /meter (Dolby level).
The 70- microsecond equalization is standard for chromium dioxide tapes
and 120- microsecond for ferric. If all other factors are equal,
there should be less hiss from the 70-microsecond playback equalization.
muIIIIIo
imummimu imam
m
Illlli
IIIIII
.ilIIIII
-20
20
100
500
1K
IU1IIIIII
(HERTZ)
5K
IOK
20K
Fig. 2. Response curves for the three reference tapes: Type I, Maxell
UD -XLI (ferric), solid black curve; Type Il, TDK SA (chrome),
solid color curve; Type IV, 7DK MA (metal) dotted color curve.
(These conventions with regard to the curves and Types apply
to all of the response curves on the opposite page.)
The tape deck used in the tests was adjusted for the three
reference tapes and left that way for the rest of the tests.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
-20
(HERTZ)
1K
5K
IOK
20K
(HERTZ)
IK
Fig. 3. BASF Professional I
(solid black); BASF Professional ll
(solid color).
5K
10K
20K
Fig. 4. Fuji FX-1 (solid black);
Fuji FX-ll (solid color);
Fuji Metal (dotted color).
(HERTZ)
5K
10K
20K
Fig. 6. Maxell XL -IS (solid black);
Maxell XL -lIS (solid color);
(HERTZ)
5K
20K
10K
Fig. 5. Loran Normal Bias (solid black);
Loran Chrome (solid color);
JVC ME -P (dotted color).
-20
-20
1K
1K
-20
(HERTZ)
IK
5K
10K
20K
Memorex MRX-1 (solid black);
Memorex HBII (solid color);
Memorex Metal IV (dotted color).
Fig.
Maxell MX (dotted color).
IK
(HERTZ)
5K
IOK
20K
Fig. 8. PO Tri -Oxide Ferro (solid black);
PD 500 Crolyn (solid color);
PD 11010 Metal (dotted color).
7.
-20
-20
IK
(HERTZ)
5K
IOK
Fig. 9. Scotch Master I (solid black);
Scotch Master Il (solid color);
Scotch Meta fine (dotted color).
20K
IK
(HERTZ)
5K
IOK
20K
Fig. 10. Sony HFX (solid black); Sony
EHF (solid color); Sony Dey. Hi-Bias
K
(HERTZ)
5K
IOK
20K
Fig. 11. TDK AD (solid black);
TDK SA -X (solid color).
(dotted black); Sony Metallic (dotted color).
DECEMBER 1981
65
www.americanradiohistory.com
0
VA
03
HITACHI SCOPE
SALE CONTINUED BY
POPULAR DEMAND!
YOUR
MAIL-ORDER
ELE TR NIC
ELECTRONIC
SUPPLY
YEARWARE
k.hir
NOVEMBER
8 CHANNEL SCOPE
MULTIPLEXER, DM -12
UP TO
Convert your single channel scope Into a 4 or 8 channel instrument. lust connect
the DM -12.8 channel scope multiplexer to your scope. clip the 8 input probes to
can handle logic level TTL
the signals you want to view Simple. easy, fast
signals from OC to 3MHz. Features separate spacing and trace amplitude conall to insure easy clear scope display.
trols and selectable sampling rate
-
-
OFF OUR
Completely
Assembled and
tested! Ready
to use!
PRT
Arte"
-
---
-compatible input channels (1 TTL load per
channel) can drive 50 Ohm scope cable.
Maximum full screen amplitude 1.6 Volts adjustable.
Trace amplitude and spacing controls.
4 or 8 channel selector switch.
8 color coded input cable, 24" long with insulated
alligator clips.
External 9 VDC power supply included (Model
MMAC -2).
8 TTL
Size
625 "o3.75 "x2".
BNC Output Cable Accessory
.A1AAt7
N
00
(Model PSA -2 add
SI 4.95).
LOW COST CAPACITANCE
METER MODULE DM -8
Connect this high quality low cost Capacitance Meter Module, DM8 to your digital Volt Meter and turn it into a Digital Capacitance Meter
the Low Cost Way!
-
a
Brdii>
Fin
MI
w
ae
1:1
.al
Completely
assembled and
tested! Ready
to use!
PAW
ai
rean
/rM
--
Vertical deflection
Sensitivity and bandwidth
CO/
Mgr
15MHz. - 34B
5 %. DC --
1mWdiv- IV div
-5MHz Typ. -348
6 %. DC
(Using x5 amplifier)
24ns
Rise orne
More than /My at 15MHz
Dynamic range
Direct IM Ohm. approx 30pF
600Vp-p or 300V (DC + AC peak)
Input n and C
Maximum input voltage
Display mode
x-rt operation
CHt. CH2. DUAL, ADO,
DIFF
DC- 500 kHz. 5mV div - SV'div
Phase difference DC -10660 3°
Horizontal deflection
sweep mode
TV synchronization
Internal
-1
Auto. NORM, TV + 1- TV(
TV sync -separator circuit
Over 1 dry (V sync -signal)
Over tVp -p (V sync -signal)
1
External
MODEL NO. DM -7
6 Digit High Frequency Counter s easy to use switch
selectable time base input by a single BNC. nothing to build,
The Albie Model DM -7
--B
--
5 He
Frequency
Internal
Externa
20Hz- 2MHz
O.Sdw
200mV
5div
800mv
2- 15MHz
Trigger sensitivity
Trigger slope
n
LOW COST HIGH
FREQUENCY COUNTER
/1///1/////1111111 1111111\\\ \ \ \\\\\\
Over 5Vp-p
1
10 times
100ns: div
Sweep -time magnifier
Max sweep rate
1kHz
Amplitude calibrator
Waveform
Voltage
5V
o
-
10°% Typ.
(-
1
Convenient benchtop size 17"x10`41
durable attractive case
COMPLETELY
ASSEMBLED
PRE -CALIBRATED
PRE -TESTED
7 %)
1
to 550 MHz
big easy -to -read 43" high intensity LED display
Crystal
3 ppm 4, 25 controlled 0.1 or 1 0 sec gate times
o 21xS.dry - 0 25 /dry _ 5 %. 19 calibrated steps
Sweep time
Mi_.
tiv
Display area
Acceleration potential
intensity modulation
5mwdry- SWdiv
VIEW 8
CHANNELS
AT ONCE!
$
130BUB3f (5 -inch. round shape)
8x1Odiv (1 dry =9 5mm)
Approx. 2kV
CRT
Square wave
100V(120220240V) r 10%
Power requirements
50'60Hz. 40W
Approx 275(W)
Dimensions
Approx 8
0 - + 40°C
5k
x 1901111x
FREQUENCY METER MODULE
"5Hz to 100MHz ", DM -11
400(D)mm
1N-11 TAt11t1CT
Weight
Push to read range (button) from 1pF to
20.000 F
Zero calibration control
In one easy to use. self- contained package.
Battery powered. with "push to read" battery saver circuit (9V batteries not included
Size 6.25 "x3.75'02 ".
00
$135 °°
3%
TI
NA/Alt
1111TACt
Illlaz
/MI
-OINI-
Ambient operation
temperature
fIMIt
Ilit-
UI-
MODEL V-152B
WITH 2 YEAR MFG. WARRANTY
,,,/-tlMat
-IIM
-i11Mlr
r
tow
BUN Humana
REGULATED TRIPLE POWER
DM -6
LOWsupply
PRICED!
SUPPLY,
that provides sold. fully wired triple
fully assembled and tested
a
power
power supply including fixed 5V rri 1 Amp 5V to 15V (à 0.5 Amp, and - 5V to
15V (r 0.5 Amp- all supplies regulated. short proof. Each supply has short
indicator LED. Complete and ready for use in a durable (8" x 6" x 3 12 ") metal
case.
A
$64495
-
$9000
Measure frequencies from 5Hz to 100MHz on your digital voltmeter with a resolution of 312
nome hobbyists Connect the
lab testing
perfect for held service
easy to use
digits
DM-11 to your DVM. set the DVM to the 2VDC range. connect a signal to the 0M -11 via a BNC
cable (not included) and measure the frequency of any source. Hi Lo Range LEDs insure last
WITH FREE DM -12
8 CHANNEL MULTIPLEXER
A COMBINED VALUE
AT LIST OF $804.95
--
It for any reason, whatsoever, you are not completely satisfied with
your purchase, return it within 30 days of purchase date for a full
refund
its as simple as that! Shipping & Handling charges not
refundable.
-
-
-
accurate readings
Frequency Range 5Hz to 100MHz
Input Impedance MegOhm
Input sensitivity <100Ht-r80MV
100 Ht - 60M14z <30MV
40MHz, 70MV
-
-
YOU SAVE $160.00
FREE 1981
SALE FLYER
NOW BEING
MAILED! SEND FOR
YOUR COPY TODAY!
-
-
1
site 625 "x375" x
2"
External 9V DC power supply included
(Model MMAC -2)
BNC Input Cable Accessory ¡Mode! PSA.2)
add 814 95
$63°°
ALBIA SATISFACTION WARRANTY:
FOR FAST AND DEPENDABLE DELIVERY SERVICE
CALL TOLL FREE: 1- 800 -243 -6953
IN CT, AK & HI CALL
COLLECT (203) 467-5590
A.M. to
P.M. E.S.T.
9
5
WE ACCEPT MASTER CHARGE, VISA AND AMEX CREDIT CARDS
71'20,0 Sales Tau
Prices shown in U S currency only Foreign orders add 15 %.
Connecticut Residents add
ALBIA ELECTRONICS INC
44 KENDALL ST.
P.O. BOX 1833
NEW HAVEN. CT. 06508
CIRCLE NO. 56 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
POSTAGE 8 HANDLING
ORDERS
UPTO$10.00
ADD
$1.95
$10.01
-
$25.00
3.75
$25.01
-
$50.00
4.65
$50.01 - $100.00
6.45
ORDERS OVER $100.00
WITHIN UNITED STATES
7.55
FREE ALBIA
DESIGNERS
TEMPLATE
WITH EVERY
ORDER RECEIVED
30% OFF!
END HOLIDAY
HOUSE CLEARANCE!!
ist THROUGH
DECEMBER 31st, 1981 ONLY!!
50% IN SAVINGS
ALREADY LOW FACTORY DIRECT PRICES!
A FAVORITE
OF PROFESSIONAL
ENGINEERS FOR
SETTING UP TEMPORARY
DESIGNS
QUICKLY EASILY
Alb a
I
Design
DM -9 Logic Probe
ALBIA'S ECONOMY DIGITAL
DM -9 MULTI -LOGIC
COMPATIBLE 5 -15VDC PROBE
The features are many on this quality Albia
test instrument; will
detect low rep. rate
pulses (up to 1.5
MHz); detects low,
high or pulsed logic
levels with a minimum detectable
pulse width of
300 nsec.
Easy -tointerpret 3 LED
readout. Built in over-Voltage
and reverse
polarity
protection.
SPECIFICATIONS
INPUT
MateTM
1
Circuit Designers
-
-
contained circuit designer
-
Control switches and buffered
LED logic indicators
Plug your ICs into solderless
breadboards, tie in power and
ground, connect your logic
switches and LED indicators
-
MODEL $
DM -5
FAST, EASY TO USE!
All interconnections between
LEDs, switches and circuits via
22 -26 solid wire
STOCK NO.
14 -0555
NOTA KIT!
Self- powered, in one compact,
good looking and durable
carrying case
thresholds (LO -LED) 30% Vcc; MIN DETECTABLE PULSE WIDTH 300 nanoseconds.
MAX. INPUT SIGNAL FREQUENCY 1.5 MHz. PULSE
DETECTOR (PULSE LED) High Speed pulse trau or
single events
or
transitions) activate 110 see_
0
lt
No. DM-9
No.
-
cotiinuouse 120VACetor less than 15 seconds POWER
REQUIREMENTS 5 Volt Vcc 30 Ma 15 Volt Vcc 40 Ma 25
Volts max. with power lead reversal protection. OPER147x254x17.8mmC)WEIGHT30zy
Stock IY
17-0009
-0009
xD58x100.?
(85g) POWER LEADS 36" (61
cm) with color coded Insulated
clips.
86
$
LIMITED
SUPPLY
Ideal for home experiments,
the laboratory and students
LOW COST RESISTOR
SUBSTITUTION BOX
Battery (4 11/2 Volt C cells *) or
AC powered providing economical bench use or convenient portable use
RESISTOR Su85TnU11014 BOX
'Batteries not included
DM5 -B POWER SUPPLY ADAPTER ACCESSORY
Design MateTM 2 Low Cost Function
Generator DM -2 is a 3-waveform function
Logic
Model
Pre -wired pre- tested
ion't let this price fool you, this
is a high quality, high IC capacity, portable self -
IMPEDANCE 300.000
Ohms. THRESHOLD Logic
thresholds (HI.ED) 70% Vcc
RANGE
$18.50
330
no
tllr
100
150K
880
\
I
i,
x \\
1,,
47
generator, with a short-proof output amplifier
providing both variable signal amplitudes and
constant output impedance. Completely wired,
tested, calibrated and ready to test anything from
audio amplifiers or op -amp and educational
laboratory designs to complex industrial laboratory projects.
Model
2
Stock Noo. 05 -0020
RANGE 2
1
470
-
100K
ix
1.511
2.2K
22K
Lim
\
V
151
1M
22M
I
3.31(
4 7K
470K
1
-
I
22
226(
\
47K
4.764
10K
©
nNGE1-nANGE2
1pM
0M13
Model DM -13 Kit
4
LIMITED
SUPPLY!
LIMITED
SUPPLY!
Have fun building this useful kit and save money at the same time Stop
wasting time looking for the right resistor, here's a handy kd that you can
easily assemble that will provide everything you'll probably need at your
--
fingertips.
With complete step-by -step easy to understand assembly instructions
All resistors are 12 Watt. tolerance - 5%
5% accuracy
24 positions
2 ranges
--
DM -4 Multipurpose Pulse Generator
47/
The Design -Mate 4 may be used as a clock source. delayed
pulse generator. synchronous clock source. manual system
stepper, pulse stretcher, clock burst generator and in
tandem with one or more DM -4's used to gate the output of
one or more additional DM -4's The wide range of controls and
functions will give you an
idea of the many ways DM -4 can save you
time and effort with digital circuits.
Model 0M -4
Stock No. 05 -0040
ORDER TODAY!
NOTICE!
SALE PRICES LIMITED TO ACTUAL
INVENTORY AT TIME OF SALE!
NO DEALER ORDERS PLEASE!
SANTA SAYS
ORDER NOW FOR
HOLIDAY
DELIVERY!
CIRCLE NO. 56 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
MODEL
DM -13
STOCK NO.
15 -0013
cassette tapes
Testing the Tapes. Using these tapes
as reference points for each type, the
first test was of tape sensitivity at 400
Hz, the Dolby calibration frequency.
Each tape was fed a fixed -level tone, and
the resulting output was measured. The
results are in the first column of the
Table. A variation of ± dB is hardly
consequential in and of itself. As ± 2 dB
is approached, however, it is possible
that some frequency- response errors
may occur when using the Dolby noisereduction system if your deck is not set
up with this particular tape.
After checking sensitivity, I raised or
lowered (as necessary) the 400 -Hz level
so that the tape played back at a standard 200 nanoWeber /meter (Dolby)
level, and measured the third -harmonic
distortion, using a General Radio 1900 A wave analyzer. These results are
1
recorded in the second column. The
record signal input was then raised to
the point where the tape playback produced 3% third -harmonic distortion, the
normal reference level for signal -to-
noise measurements. The higher the
number in the third column (400 Hz
Maximum Output Level) of the Table,
the higher is the record level you can use
before the onset of serious (audibly
noticeable) distortion.
At the 400 -Hz 3% maximum, the
input signal was short -circuited so that
biased tape noise level could be measured under no- signal conditions. The
noise level was passed through an IEC
"A" weighting network (whose weighting, by frequency, corresponds closely to
the sensitivity of the ear to low -level
sounds such as tape hiss), and the difference between the MOL and the biased
tape noise is reported in the fifth column
as the A- weighted signal -to -noise level.
To check the high-frequency capacity
of the tape, I used a 10-kHz tone,
adjusting the signal -input level to obtain
maximum possible output. This is shown
in the fourth column of the Table, with
reference to the 400 -Hz Dolby level of
200 nWb /m. As can be seen, no tape
could produce that much output at 10
TAPE TEST RESULTS
Tape
Type
400-Hz
Sens.(dB)
I
Dolby -level 400-Hz
Distortion
(
I7'.
Maxell UD-XLI
BASF Professional
Fuji FX -1'
Loran Normal Bias
Maxell XL -IS
0.50
-0.8
Memorex MRX-I
PD Tri-Oxide Ferro
Scotch Master I
Sony HFX
TDK AD
Type
0.51
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.38
0.44
0.31
0.34
0.45
0.38
0.27
0.38
II
0.0
0.64
+5.0
-1.4
1.05
+4.1
0.0
0.86
+ 4.8
-0.3
Loran Chrome
Maxell XL -IIS
-0.4
-0.2
Memorex HBII
1.2
PD 500 Crolyn'
+0.8
Scotch Master II
+0.6
Sony EHF
Sony Dey. High -Bias" +1.3
1.20
+4.1
+4.2
TDK SA
BASF Professional
Fuji FX -11'
II
-
+1.6
TDK SA -X
0.97
0.80
1.00
0.49
0.77
0.40
0.30
Type IV
I
+4.8
+4.5
+6.5
+5.2
+ 7.0
+5.2
-0.4
-1.0
-0.4
0.54
0.60
0.54
0.58
+6.5
Fuji Metal'
JVC ME -P
Maxell MX
Memorex Metal IV
PD 1100 Metal'
Scotch Metafine "'
Sony Metallic
+0.3
0.31
+0.5
0.94
0.48
0.54
+7.9
+5.5
+6.8
+6.5
0.0
TDK MA
-0.8
0.0
S/N
-5.2
-5.8
-6.2
-6.0
-3.0
-5.5
-6.2
-4.8
58.0
56.8
58.5
59.5
58.2
59.8
58.5
58.2
-5.5
-6.5
-5.0
-6.3
-4.5
-4.8
-9.8
-5.5
-7.0
-4.8
-3.0
A -wtd (dB)
+6.1
+6.2
+6.2
-5.8
-2.8
-3.8
-3.5
-6.2
-5.0
-2.8
-2.8
-5.2
-4.5
56.1
58.9
59.1
61.2
60.1
60.9
58.8
59.5
61.1
60.4
59.7
61.1
59.6
59.8
59.5
60.0
60.2
61.4
59.5
62.3
60.8
Sinpte sample only supplied
New product,
-
Conclusions. The differences between
-0.8
-1.0
-1.0
-1.3
10 kHz
MOL (dB)
%)
+6.5
+5.5
+4.8
+7.0
+7.0
+6.2
+7.0
+7.2
+4.8
+4.8
0.0
I
MOL (dB)
kHz, so the numbers are all negative.
The closer the negative number is to
zero, the more 10 -kHz storage capacity
the tape has, given the bias /machine
conditions imposed. A lower bias level
would raise the maximum l0.kHz output capacity of all the tapes, but it
would also lower the 400-Hz MOL (column 3) and raise distortion at 200
nWb /m (column 2). It would also
influence the high- frequency response of
all of the tapes. On the other hand, a
higher bias level would depress the 10kHz MOL still further, though it might
slightly increase the 400-Hz MOL.
As a final test, each of the tapes was
measured for frequency response across
the 20 -to- 20,000 -Hz range, both at a 0dB record level (200 nWb /m) and at the
20-dB level normally
conventional
used for checking frequency response.
These results are presented graphically.
Where a tape shows a rising high -frequency response at -20 dB, it is probable that it is slightly under -biased;
where there is a treble fall -off at this level, it is almost certainly overbiased, since
all of the tapes in this survey are capable
of flat response throughout the audio
range. The degree of high- frequency
roll -off at the 0 -dB level is an index of
short -wavelength storage capacity.
to be released soon
tapes purchased 4/81 commercially
"No samples supplied;
tape types and among brands are slight
enough to be virtually inaudible. Usually, a 3 -dB difference between sounds of
like frequency is necessary before a listener can determine which sound is less
distorted or "noisy." Looking at each
column of the Table, it is clear that the
performance of any single tape falls
within 3 dB of almost all the others.
(The percent of Dolby -level distortion in
the second column also reflects differences which would be inaudible to even
the listener with above -average sensitivity.) Still, differences can be measured, if
not always heard.
As a group, the metal tapes provide a
very slight advantage over the Cr02
types and a more significant advantage
over the ferric oxides in terms of signal to -noise ratio. In terms of 10 -kHz storage capacity, metal tapes, overall, are
better than ferrics and chromes -hardly
surprising since this is metal tape's
claim to fame. Keep in mind, though,
that the metal tapes cost about 70%
more than the other two types. (Ferrics
and chromes cost about the same.)
Which should you buy? That's a
tough question. If you don't have a high end cassette deck, it probably doesn't
make any difference. If you do, you can
check the figures in the Table given here
and make a determination based on
numbers alone. Or you can trust your
ears. Good luck!
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
68
www.americanradiohistory.com
BY THOMAS R. FOX
AN
CA
\ \C
A-RN-WA
BATTERY-DRA
ND CATO?
To avoid a dead battery, replace the standard
with a visual-audible monitoring system
IKE THE common cold, the
syndrome seems
to be especially prevalent in the winter. This project, the Multipurpose
Electrical System Monitor And Tester (MESMAT), may help your car
avoid the dreaded ailment.
MESMAT replaces the ineffective
"idiot" light, which will not light until
the 12 -V battery is discharging at a
rate of 10 to 15 amperes. Consequently, a battery could be completely discharged while the car is running without the standard warning light being
activated. The project uses five LEDs
to continuously monitor the condition
of the vehicle's electrical system, as
well as a buzzer that sounds when
voltage exceeds 16 to 17 V. (Excessive
voltage might be caused by a defective
voltage regulator, which could damage an alternator or other part of an
electrical system.)
In addition to providing an early
warning if a battery is being rapidly
discharged, MESMAT audibly indicates when headlights are still on and
the ignition is switched off. Furthermore, it can act as a continuity tester
for checking fuses, bulbs, etc.
J.J"dead battery"
How It Works. MESMAT operates
from a circuit board that mounts on
DECEMBER 1981
"idiot" light
the underside of the car's instrument
panel. Five LEDs light up in sequence
as the voltage through the electrical
system is increased. One or the other
of three green LEDs will remain lit
over the range of normal voltage. A
yellow and a red LED on either end of
the display light when the voltage is
too low or high, respectively.
As shown in Fig. 1, MESMAT is
built around two integrated circuits
the LM3914 dot /bar graph display
driver and the LM324N low -power
quad operational amplifier.
In addition to a large network of
voltage comparators, the LM3914
contains its own adjustable reference
and accurate 10 -step voltage divider.
In MESMAT, the LM3914 is used in
its dot- display mode and some of its
-
outputs are connected together so that
it drives four different LEDs instead
of the normal 10.
As shown in Fig. 1, RI is adjusted
so that pin 6 of ICI is 1.1 volts more
positive than pin 4. (These pins are
basically reference voltages.) The
voltage (with respect to ground) at pin
6 determines the point when ICI's
LED No. 10 output turns on (this output sinks current when it turns on).
The voltage at pin 4 plus 0.11 volt
determines the point when ICI turns
on its LED No.
output. The other
ICI outputs turn on at voltages between that at pin 4 and pin 6. The
input at pin 5 is equal to approximately one -third that of the positive
supply. Note that the positive supply
is connected to the R13/R5 voltage
divider. When the voltage at pin 5
exceeds that at pin 4 plus 0.11 volt,
ICl turns on its LED No. output.
When the voltage at pin 5 exceeds
that at pin 6, ICI turns on its LED
No. 10 output. The outputs at LED
No. 2 through LED No. 9, of ICI,
turn on when the voltage at pin 5 is
somewhere between that at pin 4 and
1
1
pin 6.
In this particular device, 10 different LEDs indicating 10 different voltage levels are unnecessary (and may
actually be more confusing than helpful), so several of the outputs are connected to the cathode of a single LED.
This is possible since ICI uses open collector outputs. Since outputs on
LED Nos. 1, 2, and 3 are all connected to the cathode of LED2, this LED
is lit whenever these outputs are
turned on. This occurs only when the
applied vehicle voltage is between
about 12 and 13.1 volts. ICI's LED
No. 4 through LED No. 6 outputs are
connected together so LED3 stays lit
in the 13.1 -to- 14.2 -volt range. The
outputs on LED No. 7 through LED
No. 9 are tied together, which means
LED4 stays lit in the 14.2 -to -15.3 -volt
range. The LED No. 10 output is connected to the cathode of LED5 , which
lights when the supply voltage exceeds
about 15.3 volts. The LM3914 has a
small amount of over -lap between segments to ensure that all LEDs are not
off at once.
Op amps IC2A, IC2B, and IC2D
are used as voltage comparators. The
69
MESMAT
1
LED
YELLOW
I
LOW
3
LED 4
GREEN
GREEN
LED
LED 2
GREEN
\
1
LED
82E1
LED
LED
No 3 No 4 No 5
LED
LED LED
No 6 No. 7
LED
No 2
20V
TO
RADIO/
ACCESSORY
CONNECTION
11952508
IO
18
019
/4A
D6
LED 5
RED
(HIGH)
LED
LED
No. 6 No. 9
No. 10
REF
OUT
MODE
IC)
LM3914
SIG
IN
LED
No
l
V-
O
4
3
R
HI
REF
ADJ
5
H
R14
266
TD
DIMMER
SWITCH
WIRE
R6
ION
B
R9
IDO
1C2
RIO
10K
LM324N
D3
R7
R8
ION
101(
IN914
TEST PROBES
Fig.
1.
There are two ICs in the circuit: a display driver and a quad op amp.
PARTS LIST
-6-V
minibuzzer
C1-10-AF, 25 -V electrolytic
D1,D2,D3 -1N914 or equal silicon diode
D4,D5- 1N4001 or equal silicon rectifier
D6- 1N5250B or equal 20 -V, 500 -mW zener diode
F
/4 -A fuse
IC1- LM3914N dot /bar graph display
A
1
1
-)
driver
IC2- LM342N quad op amp
LEDI- Yellow LED
LED2, LED3, LED4 -Green LED
LED5 -Red LED
Q1- 2N5129 or equal general purpose
npn transistor
noninverting input of IC2A is connected to pin 4 of ICI and its inverting
input to voltage divider R11/R12. The
inverting input of 1C2Á is at a potential slightly less than one -third that of
the supply. Trimmer R11 is adjusted
so that LEDI (which alerts the driver
to the presence of an abnormally low
voltage in the electrical system), just
lights when the supply voltage drops
below the value that turns on LED2,
which is about 12 volts. This is the
same point at which the potential at
the inverting input of IC2A drops
below the potential at pin 4 of ICI.
Notice that the R11/R12 voltage divider is required since, if the inverting
R
1
-500 -4
R2,R17
Misc.- Printed
-1 -ki2,
R3 -2.2 -kit,
R4- 2.5 -kt2,
T
10% resistor
10% resistor
/4 -W,
1/4 -W,
etc.
pc trimmer potentiometer
R5,R6- 10 -kQ,
"4 -W, 1% resistor
"4 -W, 10% resis-
R7,R8,R9,R10- 10 -k4,
tor
R
R
1
1- 500 -kit,
12- 470 -ktt,
pc trimmer potentiometer
"4 -W, 10 °k resistor
R13 -20 -kit, "4 -W,
R14- 26 -k4, "4 -W,
R15,R16- 100 -kt2,
R18- 270.4, "4-W,
R19-82-Q,
circuit board, fuse holder,
alligator clips, wire, acrylic panel, small
right -angle brackets, screws, solder,
pc trimmer potentiometer
1% resistor
1% resistor
"4-W, 10 °k resistor
10% resistor
"4 -W, 10 °b resistor
input of IC2A were connected directly
to pin 5 of ICI (which, at first glance,
would seem the thing to do), IC2A
wouldn't turn on until the supply voltage dropped below 11.67 volts. Also
remember that ICI's LED No. output doesn't turn on until the supply
voltage exceeds approximately 12
volts. The output of IC2B is connected, through D1, to the noninverting
input of IC2C, which functions as a
buffer. The output of IC2C is connected to the base of QI, which drives
alarm AI. Transistor Q1 also reduces
the loading on IC2C, which could
cause instability.
Power for IC2, through D4 and D5.
1
Note: A complete kit of parts, including
the circuit board but not the front panel, Is available from MAGICLAND,
4380 South Gordon Ave., Fremont, MI
49412 for $27.50 postpaid In the United States. Also available separately
from Danocinths, Inc., PO Box 261,
Westland, MI 48185: pc board for
$7.00 postpaid. Ask for part number
F402. Michigan residents, add 4%
sales tax.
from two different sources the radio accessory connection at the vehicle fuse block which leads to point A
on the circuit board, and a headlight
dimmer switch connection which
leads to point B. The radio accessory
connection is "hot" only when the
ignition switch is on, and the dimmer
switch connection is hot only when the
headlights are on. Thus, IC2 is powered when either (or both) the ignition
switch or the headlights are on. Due
to R9 and RIO, !C2D's noninverting
input has a potential of one -half the
battery voltage when the headlights
are on, and 0 volt when they are off.
The inverting input to IC2D is equal
is
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
70
www.americanradiohistory.com
LEDI
LED
2
LED 3
LED 4
LED
-R16-
A -R,--TI
N
-CI=RI9
I
5
-D6-
-R5- -R13-
EI
RI4
I
i
D4-
RIG
I
-RI2j0a
)
-R9
IC2
-D2-
-A
C
C
-RI7-D3-
-RI5
-RIO-
-
-B
-R8
E
--T2
-R18-
D
Fig. 2. Exact -size foil pattern (top) and component layout.
Use 1/8" drill bit for holes marked with an "X"
to the battery voltage when the ignition switch is on and is at zero otherwise. Thus, when the headlights are
on but the ignition is off, IC2D
switches on, which, in turn (through
D2, IC2C, and QI), turns on the
alarm.
The theory behind the operation of
the audible continuity tester portion
of MESMAT is simple. When a sufficiently low resistance exists between
points Tl and T2, the positive voltage
from TI is applied to pin 5 of buffer
IC2C through D3. The buffer, in turn,
provides a current to the base of Ql,
which then provides sufficient current
to operate .9I. Fuse Fl maintains the
auto's electrical system reliability and
zener diode D6 increases MESMAT's
reliability.
Construction. The circuit can be
assembled on a pc board such as that
shown in Fig. 2. Connect Al's black
(negative) lead to point C on the circuit board and its red (positive) lead
to point D. For use as an audible continuity tester, connect short lengths of
flexible wire, with an alligator clip at
one end, to points TI and T2 on the
circuit board.
While the circuit board can be
mounted in any small enclosure, the
prototype had only a colored acrylic
front panel, with the bulk of the circuit board exposed. Holes in the front
panel were drilled for the LEDs, and
two small right -angle brackets were
used to attach the front panel to the
circuit board. The front panel is used
only for cosmetic reasons, as the circuit board can be mounted to the
auto's instrument panel.
Before applying power, check polarities of the LEDs, diodes, buzzer, and
capacitor. Also, check to make sure
you have installed the ICs and transis-
tor properly.
Testing and Adjustment. A dc
power supply, continuously adjustable
from 0 to 18 volts or more, and a dc
voltmeter are required. (The current
requirements of the supply are less
than 50 mA.) Set trimmer pots (RI,
R4, and RI I) to their approximate
midpoint. Connect the power supply's
ground to the circuit ground and the
DECEMBER 1981
supply's positive terminal to point A
on the circuit board.
Set the voltmeter to measure 1.2
volts and connect its negative lead to
pin 4 of ICI and positive lead to pin 6.
Adjust RI for a 1.1 -volt meter indication. Then set the voltmeter so it will
be able to measure 20 volts and connect its negative lead to ground and its
positive lead to point A. Adjust the
power supply until the meter indicates
12.0 volts, and adjust R4 until LED2
just barely goes off. (Make sure that
LED3 doesn't glow when LED2 is not
illuminated.)
For the final adjustment, leave the
power supply set at 12.0 volts and
adjust RI] so that the yellow LED
just barely glows.
To check the adjustments, set the
power supply at 5 volts, and note that
LED) (yellow) starts to glow, and
remains on to 11 volts. At 12.2 volts,
LED2 (green) should be lit but LEDI
should go off. (Note: As long as the
voltage is over 5 volts, at least one of
the LEDs should be lit at all times.)
As the voltage is increased to 13.3
volts, LED2 should be off and LED3
(green) should glow. At 14.4 volts,
only LED4 (green) should glow. At
15.5 volts, LEDS (red) should glow.
As the voltage is increased over 17
volts, LEDS should still be lit but the
alarm will sound. If necessary, readjust Rl, R4 and /or R11. Note that, if
you desire the alarm to sound off at a
specific voltage of your choosing, replace R14 with a 50,000 -ohm potentiometer and adjust it so the alarm
sounds off at your specified voltage.
To check the headlight -on reminder
circuit, set the supply to 12 volts and
disconnect the power supply's positive
supply lead from point A on the circuit board and connect it to point B.
The alarm should sound off. Temporarily connect a jumper wire from
point A to point B. The alarm should
immediately be silenced.
To check out the optional continuity
tester, short the two alligator clips
(TI and T2) together. The alarm
should sound off immediately. Be sure
you remove the temporary jumper between points A and B before installation in the vehicle.
Installation. The circuit board is
designed to be mounted, foil side up,
to the underside of the auto's instrument panel. Use two suitable screws
(sheet metal screws will usually work)
and two nonconducting thick washers
or short spacers. Other types of
mounting, including recess, can be
used with slight modifications. Al71
www.americanradiohistory.com
MESMAT
LMWORD
TOLL FREE:
21
Oruro NAyT
220)21.81.81:5(18001221-8350
n6olaMn
-160
:
VSi{.TAILIR
THIS MONTH'S
SUPER
SPECIALS!
VIDEO
and
'
AUDIO
VIDEO RECORDER
STEREO-TO-GO
.. .129.90
S899 SONY WA1gA.W
tila`leeal. 149 90
$799 KIN XJLO ir-CsssrvMn
.51025 APMAC511 iCc9.9lEMSle9.299C 1.. .16490
N
5]]9
RCA VFP 170
Iß-FI
COLOR T.V.
1'2 IAxro,e)
SONYKM122/R
SON91991515 I15 SCreenl
SCOFF 199,1746R
I,
$149
5396
5520
5569
,er^olel
r
SONYKV-19466 1,0 5AmcRel ..
COO* TELEVISION'S
FREIGHT COLLECT ONLY!
'ALL
7490
134 90
l-
-.
Peco.:.)
224.90
..
349 90
10990
Wi,156I^.adawasñ-i'SAC V.9 ICos5ene DecKI
AKA/ 6)940 IC<sssene Dec,
2090
21990
9389
24990
CosseneEàcxl
TECM4C5RSA4260
546790
Internal view of the authors prototype.
VIDEO ACCESSORIES
ß08698(1x ERASER
IELEDA79F20-2W
0000 DM
M
ReCe990
PIONEER 59,5
PIONEER 5x-7
..............569
(CaseneSlweol
5995 PANA9OMCRQAIJ
5995 10511111A
3679
.
.
1
SONY 5ßF-40 1IM 51e,eu1
COVER
HEADPHONES
2995
2995
1495
189.95
VOCRAE, WARDS
34.90
41 90
SONY MDR...,.,
SONY f.DR*]IMr,.
rc,l
BOG GS
4990
2490
....
2055PR04A
290
AIAIDECIMCAAINI Alc,ul
*ANSWERING MACHINES
CALCULATORS
CASIO V690
CANON PICO
..
3990
PANAYJMCK%T1530
79 90
9
HP-38C
PANASONIC
1290
..
8336
11
$20
..
.
9335
.
522
REOOROACALL BpA
590
4190
Il
CLOCK RADIOS
SCANNERS
39.90
2390
5490
2490
.i. ,,.
IN-DASH CASSETTE
PIONEEßKF5100
;
SWYOFIG1211nç'
CIARKJNCLA ......
190161120412
42
3] 90
,I
TELEPHONES
WATCHES
CASIO 5430
CASO OJOO
34 90
90
5129 SONY IC 12
$39 SONY IC- 15,:..
5369 PANASONIC RC-68
BLARCAI THIN SCAN
IP.+sn Hurle,
....
15490
MORA90:.
59
WFBCOP550
gffCOM PHONL 1135010
1]990
24590
AISBI11033
--
'
JE6EN11201
6290'4.11:
'
PKxB*1SX9
,.
PANASONICEA592
SONY %Só6 e.. _.
-
-,
1:.:.
139
r.. _
10904011.
FOR 124464
FOX ß900E
12.54
RADARM®C(YR
AUDIO MINIMUM ORDER
1
1
a
.499
205
O
90
.
299
SCOTCH '.TJnalaer C N 3159
SCOTCH '.900- IC 00.
SCOTCH Mcs1er5CVU 2A
-
MFMORE%
0ß85C 90
$CNY
-
'.,
SONY.
TI.
rC91
-
4A9
...2.99
....259
....
299
.16.99
C
164
2.45
5 09 0 [Meld!.----...
LC.I a141%1$ Ci0 .-
M/JOU
UDXL
MOM
UD
%L9-
245
tes
75
91060
TAPES BY AMPS%
BASF.
PANASONIC.
NC. MAXELL. MEMORE%.
RCA. SCOTCH, SONY AND MK
10.95
1295
.1495
VHS 1-120 (Excel.101.»
MATTEL -HP
C% 2E00
ATARI ':x2101
ATARI '_099.915
ATARI Aslerogs
ALL
229 50
12995
2195
atlers.....
295
2150
ALL MATIE GAIE CARTRIDGES
ALL ATARI GAME CARIROG*3 AVAILABLE!
D15CWASMR
....
0,45 stem
...
..
995
-.3495
AWE( 1129 .12.95 AAfEX 1500 9.95
120
13.95
NM 1 AA ..12.95
3.2 FILA
995
BASE L-800 (Pure Cnranlum)
2p
.....13.95
599 8430 L -120 (Pure Cnrfmlum)
.16 95
!COO MIS Clearer)
993 MAXELL
16.95
MNBI
0 _10 19ela
4615 MK 9--120..14.49 MK 1101,120
1995
-
MUxOl
la UO
FUJI.
Au MIA L,503
325 ALL MTA4]W
C Co
C 90
MC SA
WE CARRY
299
-G, 4E0111-0P-10g
DI( AD
TDK
00
109 50
199 50
VIDEO
12 TAPES.
AWE% r,+eal C-60
C-90
, ,
BASF
FUA
22490
11990
..13490
FVUSIDIUSTERI542erro,
901A
109.9009-0
RADAR DETECTORS
90201910! 0015
FUTAI9lEQAecno,
00
225
1
CAR SPEAKERS
20.90
11190
299.90
:
39 90
39.90
G I E FRpfase
WF9COR ]2] ..I
DISCWASM* U5KI
1
CGD
C90
.
/MAIL µq6110 MJaa OermO]
'
-
MAMIE HEA4(Cos 029109)
MW. COLOR Mc 226 AND BETA VIDEO RECORDERS AND ($0BS MOVES
FROM ALL MAJOR HOLLYWOOD 3ßD006 SIED FOR FREE CA141001
WE STOCK
494E9ß0!: 269'5 POKY
610
FEET OR BEAT ANY
BY AWN: FOR 41X%141 0 1D COuRIEOUS SARAN- SEND ACNE
CERTIFIED CHECK. 0.449Eß5 CHECK. MASTERCARD VGA [Inch,.
dare
MIogra,Onnel DO NOT WC CASTI. PERSONAL AND
HUIAIESS CHECKS MUST GUAR 041% RATIO BEFORE PROCESS,. 502O61G MIO
15SU0A0415 CHARGE 6 41
,P WITH A 83.95 MINIMI CHARGE NEW
TONA
All AERCNAN09E IS BRAND NEW.
STATE RESIDENTS MIDST A X.
FACTORY MERINO 1001 GUARANTEED
HOW TO ODDER
RDEP
<X.
axl
O
though the author's prototype doesn't
have a cabinet all that is really visible
to the driver is the front panel.
After you have attached the project
to the instrument panel, connect a
wire from its ground connection to the
auto's ground. A nearby screw which
threads into a metal chassis or body
part is usually satisfactory. Next, connect a wire from point A to the auto's
radio or accessory connection at the
fuse block. (A connection can be
made at the fuse block without soldering by bending a thin solder lug into a
semicircle and squeezing it between
the fuse and fuseholder.) Use your
VOM to make sure this connection is
only "hot" when the ignition switch is
"on." Note: Whenever you make a
connection to a fuse block, always
check that the connection is made to
the "protected" side -the side that is
"dead" when the fuse is removed.
Connect point B on the circuit
board to a connection at the dimmer
switch that is "hot" whenever the
headlight switch is "on." The position
of the dimmer switch shouldn't matter. If you are on the ultra- cautious
side, add a I/4 -amp in -line fuse in
series with the wire to point B on the
circuit board.
If you don't like to see the continuity tester's leads dangle when they
aren't in use, simply clip the alligators
to the bottom of the front panel.
cad
'
'
"
PE, NEW YORK CITY, 10038
SEND FOR FREE 200 PAGE AUDIO/VIDEO CATALOG
23 PARK ROW, Dept
Use. When the voltage of the electrical system is within normal limits
(about 12 to 15 volts) one of the green
LEDs will glow. Sometimes two
LEDs glow at one time, but usually,
the center or right green LED will be
glowing. Under a heavy electrical
load (as happens when the headlights,
wipers, fan and electrical defrost are
on at the same time) the left green
LED may be the only one on. If the
yellow LED glows for any extended
time, the battery is being discharged
and you most likely have some trouble
with the alternator or battery. Another possibility is that there is an excessive load due to some short or a malfunction in an electrical part.
When there is little electrical load,
it is usually OK for the right green
LED and red LED to glow at the
same time. However, if the red LED
alone stays on for an extended time,
you may have voltage- regulator problems. (Immediately after some cold
weather starts, the red LED may glow
for a few minutes. This is OK.) If the
red LED comes on and the alarm
sounds off, the voltage in the electrical system of the auto exceeds approximately 16.5 volts, which can cause a
multitude of problems with the electrical system- ruined battery, short
headlight life, and blown fuses. The
difficulty should be determined and
repaired as soon as possible.
The headlight -on reminder causes
the alarm to sound off if you leave the
headlights on and turn the ignition
switch off. If you wish to operate the
headlights with the engine off and not
listen to the alarm, place the ignition
switch in the accessory position.
The built -in audible continuity
tester can be used to check questionable fuses and bulbs. Simply touch the
alligator clips to the appropriate contacts on the fuse or bulb. If the alarm
sounds, the part is OK.
In addition to being a worthy accessory for an automobile, MESMAT
can be useful in a boat or any other
vehicle that uses a 12-V battery. 0
CIRCLE NO. 25 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
www.americanradiohistory.com
Introducinq
the first no crystal hand-held scanner.
The Bearcat® 100.
Now you can have the
one scanner you've always
wanted -a no crystal, fully
channel access. Even a liquid crystal display. Flexible
scanner. The incredible,
adapter /battery charger and
carry case are included.
antenna, earphone,
synthesized hand -held
new, Bearcat 100.
Push button programming.
The new Bearcat 100 works just like
the full size, no crystal Bearcat Scanners. Push button controls tune in all
police calls, fire calls, weather warn-
ings, and emergency information
broadcasts, the split second
they happen. Automatically.
frequencies.
8
band coverage
-
including high, low, UHF and "T"
public service bands; both the 70 cm
and 2 meter amateur bands; plus, for
the first time ever, both the military
and federal government land mobile
bands. Both automatic and manual
search, lockout, scan delay, direct
0
channels for storing
1981 Masco Corp. of Indiana.
DECEMBER 1981
Your Bearcat Dealer wants
to hand you an earful.
See your Bearcat Dealer now for a
demonstration of the amazing, new
Bearcat 100. Get complete information about the world's one and only
hand -held, no crystal scanner.
Electra Company
Division of Masco Corp. of Indiana
300 East County Line Road
Cumberland. Indiana 46229
International Business Office
Suite 102, 1828 Swift
North Kansas City, Missouri 64116
All the features you want.
16
AC
SCANNERS
CIRCLE NO 14 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
73
BY RANDY CARLSTROM
DHSC\ \C
WI
TI IL
8080 MICROPROCESSOR
Part 4: A Typical Program
PREVIOUS parts of the article have
described how a typical microprocessor works and gave design details for
a practical module. Last month, we covered the details of designing software for
the system. Here is an example.
Morse Receiving Program. What
would Samuel F.B. Morse have thought
if he had heard his code being sent at
100 words per minute at the same time it
was being printed out on a printer or
television screen? Actually, the process
involved in such a scheme is fairly simple
and straight forward (if you happen to
have a microprocessor). The procedure
involves converting Mr. Morse's combinations of dots and dashes (which may
come from a shortwave receiver) into a
more modern and usable code called
ASCII (American Standard Code for
Information Interchange). ASCII is a
widely -used code in which 96 displayable characters (letters, number, etc.)
and 32 non -displayable control characters are each assigned a unique 7 -bit
code. For instance, the character "A" is
represented in the ASCII code as 4116;
the character "3" is assigned the code
3316 (see Fig. 22). Many of today's computers communicate with each other using the ASCII code, and ASCII has
tions in the 8080 instruction set.) The
parity bit will not concern us in our discussions, however; we will assume it is
always 0.
The Morse code is comprised of two
types of marks -the dot and dash -and
three types of spaces -the mark space,
character space, and word space. Theoretically, the length of a dash is three
times the length of a dot. Likewise, a
even found its way into radio.
The 8080 readily handles the ASCII
code since each register and memory
location is capable of holding one ASCII
character code. Occasionally the unused
eighth bit (MSB) is utilized as a parity
bit, which serves to minimize data errors
when large amounts of information are
being transferred. (This is the principal
use of the Parity flag -related instruc-
-
Character ASCII Code Morse Code
(hex)
A
41
B
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
4A
4B
4C
4D
llama
4E
4F
....
D
E
F
G
H
-...
Character ASCII Code Morse Code
(hex)
aomm
K
L
N
Q
51
R
V
52
53
54
55
56
W
57
X
58
59
5A
S
T
U
Y
Z
31
2
32
3
33
4
8
9
34
35
36
37
38
39
--
(
2E
2C
3F
3B
3A
28
6
7
MEMO
M
30
1
5
-I
P50 - - - I
0
....
-
....
--
- ---....,
....
...o.
--
of
sage
Wait
End of work
Invitation
to
transmit
Error
OEM
10
-e . .
11D
=Nis.
MOM.
Gli
2F
2D
End
.....
.m.
ed
.
_.
mes-
11=
111 MS
Fig. 22. The ASCII code for the Morse symbols.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
74
www.americanradiohistory.com
8080 microprocessor
mark space is equal in length to a dot, a
character space equal to a dash, and a
word space equal to seven dots.
Ideally, a Morse recognition algorithm would test mark and space lengths
at the points half-way between mark and
space types, e.g., 2/3 of a dash would be
the "critical point" for deciding if a
received mark was a dot or a dash, etc.
However, after much experimentation
with these critical points, a slightly modified algorithm was obtained. For instance, it was observed that many users
of the code (hams in particular) tend to
cut character spaces too short, which
would confuse the ideal algorithm. For
this reason, the character space critical
point was changed from the ideal 2/3 dash
to 1/2 dash (a 17% reduction), which
enhanced character -recognition probability. A similar change was made for
dot recognition for the same reason.
Attempting to change or experiment
with these critical points in a random logic implementation of the code converter would be a large chore in itself.
The program has incorporated into it
a subroutine for checking some types of
noise often encountered while receiving
Morse code on a radio receiver. This
routine has proven to be quite effective
in discriminating between some types of
random noise and Morse code. In this
respect, the routine can be thought of as
a "software noise blanker." The "bandwidth" can be adjusted simply by changing the value of a parameter byte at
memory location O10C of the program
(the beauty of using a microprocessor).
The bandwidth, and therefore the maximum code speed that may be accurately
received, is inversely proportional to the
numeric value stored in this memory
location.
The Morse program assembly listing
is shown here. The source program,
which appears in the third column, was
assembled beginning at memory location
0. The memory locations in the first column are followed by the object code contained, or assembled, into them. The second column lists the line numbers of the
source program which are of no particular significance to the program itself.
Throughout the source program are
"labels" to the immediate left of some of
the instruction mnemonics. These labels
represent relative addresses which are
later assigned memory addresses during
the assembly process. Labels allow the
source program to reference other parts
of the program (such as subroutines)
without the need of knowing their memory addresses. For example, to Call the
subroutine which checks for noise (labeled "VLDMK"), the corresponding
source program instruction would be
written as CALL VLDMK. VLDMK
symbolizes the beginning address in pro -
gram memory of the noise -checking subroutine. A list of all labels used in the
Morse program, followed by their computed values and source program line
numbers that use them, appears at the
end of the assembly listing.
When assembling a source program
by hand, the numeric values of any
labels used must be determined before
the corresponding machine language instructions can be completely assembled
(labels will usually complete an instruction's operand, such as an address). In
the case of the VLDMK label, its
address was determined to be 010416
after counting the number of bytes that
preceded it in memory. So, in this case,
"CALL VLDMK" and "CALL
0104H" are equivalent instructions and
may be used interchangeably in the
source program. It is more convenient,
however, to use the symbolic label representation since the memory address may
not even be known until the source program is completed. For this reason, and
the fact that program changes are
almost inevitable in the course of writing
new programs (which will most likely
change all the memory addresses of the
instructions following the program
changes), it is recommended that calculating memory addresses be one of the
last steps performed when writing new
programs. Using labels freely throughout the source program will help avoid
some of the tedious work when program
changes have to be made.
The next part of this article will cover
the hardware implementation of the
CPU module.
MORSE-TO -ASCII CONVERSION PROGRAM
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0001
0004
0007
000A
000D
0010
0010
0010
0010
0010
0010
0013
0016
0019
001B
001E
0021
0022
0023
0024
0025
0028
F3
31 FD
OB
CD AC 00
21
11
01
40
00
00
00
20
00
CD 04 01
DA 10 00
CD 4B 00
26
00
CD 04.01
D2
16
00
87
7C
17
B^
DM 10
00
CD 7A 00
0100
0105
0110
0115
0120
0125
0130
0135
0140
0145
0150
0155
0160
0165
0170
0175
0180
0185
0190
0195
0200
0205
0210
0215
0220
0225
0230
0235
0240
0245
0250
0255
0260
0265
0270
0275
0280
0285
0290
0295
0300
0305
0310
0315
0320
0325
0330
0335
0340
0345
0350
0355
0360
0365
0370
0375
0380
0385
0390
0395
0400
0405
0410
0415
0420
04?
0430
0435
ORG 0000
TERMINAL WIDTH
MORSE INPUT PORT
DATA INPUT BIT 0 HAS MORSE
LOCATE PSTN BYTE AT END OF RAM AREA
LEN EQU 64
CW EQU OFCH
MASK EQU 01
PSTN EQU OBFFH
MORSE -TO -ASCII CONVERSION PROGRAM
WRITTEN
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
BY
RANDY CARLSTROM,
9/78
MORSE RECOGNITION ALGORITHM
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
IF THE NEW MARK LENGTH IS GREATER THAN OR
EQUAL TO TWICE THE LENGTH OF THE LAST MARK, THE
NEW MARK IS STORED AS A DASH.
IF THE NEW MARK
LENGTH IS LESS THAN ONE -HALF THE LENGTH OF THE
LAST MARK, THE NEW MARK IS STORED AS A DOT. IF
THE NEW MARK DOES NOT FALL INTO EITHER ONE OF
THESE CATEGORIES, THE NEW MARK IS STORED AS THE
SAME TYPE AS THE LAST MARK.
IF A SPACE LENGTH REACHES ONE -HALF THE
LENGTH OF THE LAST DASH, A CHARACTER SPACE HAS
BEEN RECEIVED AND THE ELEMENTS ARE ASSEMBLED AND
CONVERTED TO THE CORRESPONDING ASCII CHARACTER.
THE CHARACTER IS THEN PRINTED AT THE OUTPUT
PERIPHERAL AND SPACE MEASUREMENT CONTINUES.
IF THE SPACE LENGTH REACHES THREE -HALVES THE
LENGTH OF THE LAST DASH, A WORD SPACE HAS BEEN
RECEIVED AND THE SPACE IS PRINTED.
REGISTER
*
B =
E =
H =
ALLOCATION
DASH REG.
C = DOT REG.
D = LAST MARK LENGTH
LAST MARK TYPE: 00 = DOT, 01 = DASH
MARK /SPACE COUNTER L = LAST DASH LENGTH
INITIALIZATION
DI
LXI SP,OBFDH
CALL CRLF
LXI H,0040H
LXI D,2000H
LXI 13,0000
DISABLE INTERRUPTS
INITIALIZE STACK POINTER IN RAM
START A NEW OUTPUT LINE
LAST DASH LENGTH = 64; COUNTER =
LAST MARK LENGTH = 32; LAST MARK
CLEAR DOT AND DASH REGISTERS
MAIN
WAIT
CALL VLDMK
JC WAIT
NEWMK CALL MKTYP
MVI H,00
SPTYP CALL VLDMK
JNC NEWMK
ORA A
A,H
RAL
CMP L
JC SPTYP
CALL CONVT
110V
DECEMBER 1981
0
=
DOT
PROGRAM
IS THERE A VALID MARK YET?
NO: WAIT
FIND MARK TYPE AND STORE IT
CLEAR MARK /SPACE COUNTER
IS THERE A VALID MARK YET?
YES: PROCESS NEW MARK
NO: CLEAR. CY FLAG AND
CHECK SPACE LENGTH
PEG. A = 2 * CURRENT SPACE LENGTH
SPACE )= 1/2 LAST
SM? (CHAR.-SPACE'
NO: CONTINUE MEASURING SPACE LENGTH
YES: CONVERT MORSE TO ASCII
YES:
75
www.americanradiohistory.com
8080 microprocessor
FREE...
Catalog of
great gift
ideas
0028
002E
0031
0033
0036
0039
003C
003D
003°
003F
0040
CD BB 00
CD DB 00
FE 3E
D4 AC 00
CD 04 01
D2 16 00
0041
0042
87
7D
1F
85
0480
0485
3D
0490
BC
D2 36 00
0495
0500
0045 CD E3 00
0048 C3 10 00
0505
0510
0515
0520
0525
0530
0535
0540
Otl4B
004B
004B
004B
0048
0048
0048
004B
004B
004B
0048
004B
004B
004C
004D
004E
004F
0052
0053
0054
0056
0057
0058
005A
0058
005C
0050
005E
005F
0060
0061
0062
You'll find the right gift for all the
electronics buffs on your Christmas list- from clocks and radios
to gas- saving car accessories to
computers - all in easy -to- build,
money- saving kits.
Prices start at under
$20.
This year, shop the
fast, easy way in the
Heathkit Catalog.
0545
0550
0555
0560
0565
0570
7A
17
3D
BC
D2 5F 00
54
6C
18
01
78
07
F6
47
01
79
07
4F
C9
7C
17
3D
BA
0063 D2 72 00
0066 54
0067 1E 00
0069 79
006A
0068
006D
006E
006F
0070
0071
0072
0073
0074
0077
007A
007A
007A
007A
007A
007A
007A
07
F6
01
4F
78
07
47
C9
7B
1F
DA 52 00
C3 66 00
0 07 A
Heathkit
coupon is missing, write
Heath Co., Dept. 010 -842
Benton Harbor, MI 49022.
If
Send to: Heath Co., Dept.010 -842
Benton Harbor, MI 49022.
Send my free Heathkit Catalog now.
am not currently receiving your catalog.
I
Name
Address
City
State_
CL -745
Zip
0440
CALL OUT
0445
CALL IPSTN
0450
CPI LEN -2
0455
CNC CRLF
0460 GENSP CALL VLDNK
0465
JNC MEI)MK
0470
ORA A
0475
110V A, L
007A
007A
0078
007C
007D
0080
0081
0084
0085
008R
0089
008A
0088
008E
008F
0090
0091
0094
0095
0096
0097
0098
0099
009A
009C
009D
009D
009D
009D
009D
009D
009D
009D
009D
009D
79
07
80
01 00
E5
21 19
BE
CA 94
00
01
00
F5
7E
B7
CA 98 00
F1
23
23
C3 84
23
7E
El
C9
F1
El
3E
C9
00
0575
0580
0585
0590
0595
0600
0605
0610
0615
0620
0625
0630
0635
0640
0645
0650
0655
0660
0665
0670
0675
0680
0685
0690
0695
0700
0705
0710
0715
0720
0725
0730
0735
0740
0745
0750
0755
0760
0765
AND PRINT IT, THEN
UPDATE PRINTER POSITION
DO A CR/LF IF AT END OF LINE
IS THERE A VALID NARK YET?
YES: PROCESS NEW NARK
NO: CLEAR CY FLAG AND
CHECK SPACE LENGTH
RAP
ADD L
DCR A
REG.
CMP H
SPACE >= 3/2 LAST DASH? (NORD SPACE)
NO: CONTINUE MEASURING SPACE LENGTH
YES: PRINT A SPACE OR CR/Le
DONE; WAIT FOR A NEW CHAR. TO BELI^
JNC GENSP
CALL SPOUT
JIIP WAIT
A = 3/2
LAST DASH
SUBROUTINES
MKTYP COMPARES THE NEW MARK 11ITH THE PREVIOUS NARK TO
SEE IF THE NEW NARK IS A DOT OR A DASH. IF THE NEW
MARK IS < 1/2 THE PREVIOUS ONE, IT IS A DOT. IF THE
NEW MARK IS >- 2
THE PREVIOUS ONE, IT IS A DASH.
OTHERWISE THE NEW MARK IS THE SAME AS THE. PREVIOUS MARK.
MKTYP MOV A,D
RAL
DASH
DOT
DCR
CMP
JNC
MOV
MOV
MVI
MOV
RLC
ORI
MOV
MOV
RLC
MOV
RET
110V
REG. A =
DOT
D,H
L,H
E,01
A,B
*
LAST MARK LENGTH
NARK >= 2
LAST MARK LENGTH? (DASH)
NO: GO SEE IF A DOT
YES: UPDATE LAST HARK LENGTH REGISTER
AND LAST DASH LENGTH REGISTER
UPDATE LAST MARK TYPE REGISTER
SHIFT A "1" INTO DASH REGISTER
01
B,A
A,C
SHIFT A "0" INTO DOT REGISTER
C,A
A DASH WAS
RECEIVED AND STORED; RETURN
REG. A
*
A,H
RAL
DCR A
CMP D
JNC SAME
DOTT
2
A
H
NOV
MVI
MOV
RLC
ORI
MOV
D,H
E,00
A,C
F10V
A, B
=
2
CURRENT MARK LENGTH
MARK < 1/2 LAST MARK LENGTH? (DOT)
NO: WAS THE SAME AS LAST MARK
YES: UPDATE LAST MARK LENGTH REG.
AND LAST )PARK TYPE REGISTER
SHIFT A "1" INTO DOT REGISTER
IS
01
C,A
SHIFT A "0" INTO DASH REGISTER
RLC
SAME
MOV B,A
RET
MOV A,E
RAR
JC DASH
JMP DOTT
A DOT WAS RECEIVED
AND STORED; RETURN
GET LAST MARK TYPE
WAS IT A DASH?
YES: GO TO DASH ROUTINE
NO: GO TO DOT ROUTINE
CO1IVT ASSEMBLES THE. DOT AND DASH REGISTERS IN SUCH
THEN
* A WAX THAT IT FORMS A NEW UNIQUE 8 -BIT CODE.
0770
A TABLE OF THESE UNIQUE CODES IS SEARCHED FOR A MATCH,
0775 * AND THE CORRESPONDING ASCII CHARACTER IS RETURNED IN
0780 * THE ACCUMULATOR. IF NO MATCH WAS FOUND, AN ERROR CHAR.
0785
IS RETURNED.
0790
0795 COUVT MOV A,C
GET DOT REGISTER
0800
RLC
MULTIPLY IT BY 2
0805
ADD B
AND ADD DASH REGISTER
0810
LXI 8,0000
READY DOT AND DASH REG. FOR NEXT CHAR.
0815
PUSH H
REG. A NOII HAS UNIQUE CODE
POINT TO TABLE STARTING ADDRESS
0820
LXI H,TABLE
FOUND CHARACTER?
0825 NEXT CMP N
YES: CONVERT TO ASCII
0830
JZ ASCII
I10:
0835
PUSH PMI
SAVE UNIQUE CODE AND
0840
110V A,II
CHECK FOR END OF TABLE
0845
ORA A
END OF TABLE?
YES: NO MATCH WAS FOUND
0850
JZ ERROR
NO: GET UNIQUE CODE RACK AND
0855
POP PMI
0860
INX H
BUMP REG. PAIR H TO NEXT
0865
INX H
CHARACTER ADDRESS
AND TRY AGAIN
0870
JIIP NEXT
POINT TO ASCII CHAP.. IN TABLE
0875 ASCII INX H
0880
MOV A,M
AND PUT IT III REG. A
POP
0885
0890
RET
RETURN WITH IT
ELSE RETURN WITH A " *"
0895 ERROR POP PST
IF 110 MATCH WAS FOUND
0900
POP U
NVI A,'
0905
0910
RET
0915
0920
DLY1 IS A TINE DELAY USED IONEN MEASURING THE LENGTH
0925
0930
OF A MARK OR SPACE. THE VALUE OF REG. 8 ACTS AS A
0935
"COURSE- ADJUST," WHILE THE. VALUE OF REG. C ACTS MORE
0940
LIKE A "FINE -ADJUST." THE PRESET VALUES FOR REGISTERS
0945
B AND C MAY BE CHANGED FOR DIFFERENT CODE SPEEDS OR
0950
CPU'S, BUT THESE VALUES ARE OPTIMUM FOR ON- THE -AIR USE
0955
USIIIG AN 8080, 8085, OR Z -80 CPU RUNNING AT 2 I1HZ.
REG. H SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO COUNT ABOVE 7FE DURI'IO
0960
II
2A
CIRCLE NO. 18 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
76
www.americanradiohistory.com
8080 microprocessor
Limited time, introductory offer
.654
,rte
Assembled
009D
009D
009D
009D
009D
009D
009E
00A0
00A2
00A3
00A6
00A7
nOAA
OOAB
oOAC
00AC
OoAC
oOAC
00AC
00AE
0081
0083
0086
0087
COBA
0088
CS
06
03
OE 40
OD
C2 A2 00
05
C2 A2 00
Cl
C9
3E OD
CD BB 00
3E OA
CD BB 00
A£
32 FF OB
C9
00138
OOBB
OOBB
001313
008B
OOBB
OOBC
00BD
OOCO
00C1
C5
47
CD 19 CO
Cl
C9
00C2
0006
OOCA
GOCE
0002
0006
OODB
00013
OoDB
OODB
OODB
00DB 3A FF OB
000E 3C
000F 32 FF OB
00E2 C9
00E3
00E3
00E3
00E3
00E3
00E3
00E3
00E3 3A FF OB
00E6 FE 36
00E8
00E8
00EE
00EF
00F1
00F4
00F7
00F8
00F8
00F8
00F8
00F8
00FR
00F8
00F8
00F8
00F9
oOFC
00FE
0100
0103
0104
0104
0104
0104
0104
0104
0104
0104
0104
0104
0105
0107
010A
010G
010D
0110
0111
0112
0113
0114
0115
0116
DA EF 00
CD AC 00
C9
3E 20
CD BB 00
CD DB 00
C9
24
CD 9D 00
DB FC
E6 01
C2 F8 00
C9
85
00
CD F8 00
26
7C
FE 06
DA 13 01
33
33
C9
7C
El
R4
67
0965
0970
0975
0980
0985
0990
0995
1000
1005
1010
1015
1020
1025
1030
1035
1040
1045
1050
1055
1060
1065
1070
1075
1080
1085
1090
1095
1100
1105
1110
1115
1120
1125
1130
1135
1140
1145
1150
1155
1160
1165
1170
1175
1180
1185
1190
1195
1200
1205
1210
1215
1220
1225
1230
1235
1240
1245
1250
1255
1260
1265
1270
1275
1280
1285
1290
1295
1300
1305
1310
1315
1320
1325
1330
1335
*
*
$249.95
A MARK MEASUREMENT,
OR THE MORSE ALGORITHM WILL FAIL.
INCREASING THE VALUE OF REGISTER PAIR B INCREASES THE
LENGTH OF THE TIME DELAY, THEREBY DECREASING THE FINAL
COUNT OF REG. H FOR'A GIVEN MARK OR SPACE LENGTH.
DLY1
PUSH B
MVI 8,03
MVI C,40H
LOOP1 DCR
JNZ
DCR
JNZ
POP
C
KIT
-$24945.
$219.95
PRESET VALUE FOR REG. B
PRESET VALUE FOR REG. C
KILL SOME TIME...
PaccOM
LOOP1
B
B
RET
TRAINING UNIT
*
*
Rated Best Value by instructors!
CRLF OUTPUTS A CARRIAGE - RETURN LINE -FEED WHEN CALLED.
CRLF
MVI A,ODH
CALL OUT
MVI A,OAH
CALL OUT
XRA A
STA PSTN
RET
OUTPUT A CR
LEARN COMPUTING
FROM THE GROUND UP!
OUTPUT A LF
SET PRINT POSITION COUNTER TO
0
Design and code microprocessor software
Use logic and bit manipulation techniques
*
*
*
*
*
PUSH B
MOV B,A
CALL 00019H
POP B
RET
DS 4
DS 4
DS 4
DS 4
DS 4
DS 5
*
*
*
MY OUTPUT DRIVER NEEDS THE CHAR.
IN REG. B
CALL MY MONITOR'S OUTPUT DRIVER
RESTORE REG. B
AND WE'RE DONE!
HERE'S MORE STORAGE AREA FOR THOSE
Comes to you complete:
LONGER OUTPUT ROUTINES...
THE CHAR. TO BE PRINTED IS IN REG. A
AND THE ROUTINE MUST END WITH A 'RET."
ALL REGISTERS MUST BE UNALTERED UPON
RETURN, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF REG. A.
IPSTN INCREMENTS THE PRINT
EACH TIME IT IS CALLED.
Step by step instruction manual
Operators manual
8085A sub -routine manual
352 page 8085A Cookbook
334 page 8080/8085A Software Design book - over
190 programs
Fully expandable for other applications
Deluxe operating system
POSITION COUNTER ONCE
BUMP PRINT POSITION ONE COUNT
IPSTN LDA PSTN
INR A
STA PSTN
RET
*
Enter and execute programs on your
own computer
Understand microprocessor architecture and
support chips.
Control programmable input /output ports
Implement real -time interrupt handling and
data transfer
Design your own micro -computer
OUT SENDS THE CHAR. TO BE PRINTED TO THE OUTPUT
DEVICE (CRT, PRINTER, ETC.). THERE IS RESERVED
STORAGE SPACE HERE FOR THE USER'S OWN OUTPUT ROUTINE.
OUT
8 0 8 5A
MICROPROCESSOR
LOOP1
Hardware:
Fully assembled, tested 8085A unit
CPU circuitry with 44 pin connector
User determined BUS system
Wire wrap area for buffers, gates, etc.
Two sockets for EPROMS
SPOUT OUTPUTS EITHER A SPACE OR A CR/LF, DEPENDING
ON IF WE ARE GETTING CLOSE TO THE END OF A LINE.
IN THIS WAY WORDS ARE NOT BROKEN BETWEEN LINES
OF OUTPUT.
SPOUT LDA PSTN
CPI LEN -10
JC PRSP
CALL CRLF
RET
PRSP NVI A,'
CALL OUT
CALL IPSTN
RET
'
r
GET PRINT POSITION
ARE WE NEAR END OF LINE?
NO: CONTINUE ON SAME LINE
YES: START A NEW LINE
$21995
$249..95
8085AKC CPU Board Kit
8085AAC CPU Assembled
8085AKD Display Board Kit
8085AAD Display Board Assmbld
CPU Printed Circuit Board
Display Printed Circuit Bd
UPDATE PRINT POSITION
MKLEN MEASURES THE LENGTH OF A MARK. THE. LENGTH
IS RETURNED IN REG. H, AND SHOULD NEVER RE
ALLOWED TO BE GREATER THAN 7FH (SEE DLY1).
REG. H IS INCREMENTED BY ONE IF A MARK IS NOT
PRESENT (SPACE) WHEN THIS ROUTINE IS CALLED.
$129.95
149.95
89.95
99.95
26.00
26.00
MANUALS
8085A Cookbook
8085/8085 Software Book
8080/8085 Software Book 2
8255 PPI Interface
TEA Co- resident /Assembler
Instruction Manual
Operator's Manual
8085A Sub -routines Manual
$13.95
10.95
10.95
8.95
10.95
3.00
3.00
5.00
1
1340 t1KLEN INR H
for orders
under $25.00, add
TOTAL
Add 6% postage & handling.
Washington residents add
5.4% sales tax.
000.00001(
('l4803
E
$2.00
$
fir
VISA'
NE
Redmond
,
40th,
PE12
WA
98052
wa.II
TOLL -FREE 1-800 -426 -1044
TOTAL ENCLOSED
$
D VISA D MSTCRD
ACCT NO.
BANK NO.
EXP
NAME
ADDRESS
0
CITY
PHONE
STATE
ZIP
SEND FREE INTRO PLUS PARTS
CIRCLE NO.
www.americanradiohistory.com
0
FOR IMMEDIATE DELIVERY CALL
II
DECEMBER 1981
NOW
SAVE
TRAINING UNITS
8085AKT Training Unit Kit
8085AAT Tr. Unit Assembl'd
SEPARATE UNITS
PRINT A SPACE
BUMP MARK LENGTH COUNT
1345
CALL DLY1
1350
IN CW
1355
ANI MASK
END OF MARK?
1360
JNZ HELEN
NO: BUMP COUNT AGAIN
1365
RET
YES: RETURN WITH NARK LENGTH
1370
1375
1380 * VLDNK CHECKS THE VALIDITY OF A MARK. ANY MARK LENGTH
1385 * LESS THAN 6 IS CONSIDERED NOISE, THE NOISE LENGTH
1390 * BEING ADDED TO THE PRESENT SPACE LENGTH BEFORE RETURN.
1395 * OTHERWISE THE VALID MARK LENGTH IS RETURNED IN REG. H.
1400 * THE CY FLAG IS CLEARED UPON RETURN IF A VALID MARK
1405 * WAS RECEIVED; OTHERWISE IT IS SET.
1410
1415 VLDMK PUSH H
SAVE SPACE LENGTH TEMPORARILY
1420
MVI H,00
SET UP TEMPORARY MARK COUNTER
1425
CALL GREEN
MEASURE MARK LENGTH
1430
NOV A,H
1435
CPI 06
VALID NARK? (BANDWIIDTH IS SET HERE)
1440
JC SPACE
NO: ADD MARK LENGTH TO SPACE LENGTH
1445
INX SP
YES: NE!'I MARK; DON'T WANT OLD
1450
INX SP
SPACE LENGTH ON STACK
1455
RET
RETURN !7ITH t1E)) MARK LENGTH AND CY =
1460 SPACE í10V A,H
ADD INVALID !MARK LENGTH TO
1465
POP
SPACE LENGTH
1470
ADD H
1475
MOV H,A
REG. H HAS ADJUSTED SPACE LENGTH
CHECK YOUR CHOICE OF THESE
GREAT VALUES - ORDER TODAY
16
LIST
ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
410
SIMPLE SIMON KITS
!
rNto
pax
TM
r
8080 microprocessor
ZYZZX
[0
VHF-UHF WIDE8AND
40)
ANTENNA AMPLIFIER
-
MODEL ALL -1
50 MHz
900 MHz
12 dB GAIN ± 0.5dB
SIMPLE SIMON ELECTRONICS
INTRODUCES
A REVOLUTIONARY NEW ONE STAGE
HYBRID IC BROADBAND AMPLIFIER
This unit is not available anywhere else in the world. One unit
serves many purposes and is available in Kit or Assembled
form. Ideal for outdoor or indoor use. Input-output impedance
is 75 ohms. Amplifier includes separate co -az feed power
supply. Easily assembled in 25 minutes. No coils, capacitors
etc. to tune or adjust.
$24.95
ALL-1
Complete Kit plus Power Supply
$34.95
ALL -1 Assembled / Tested plus Power Supply
.
+
7
KITS
11 PARTS
MITSUMI
il1I,
VARACTOR
UHF TUNER
Model UES -A56F
Freq. Range UHF470
- 889MHz
,,
eIT
e
li
Antenna Input 75 ohms
Channels
a,i V11
1
Ua
14-83 Output Chanel
dl
3
PARI
NO
PRICE
DESCRIPTION
NO
..
Varactor UHF Tuner, Model UES -458F
I
VTI -SW
2
CB1
3
TP7 -SW
4
FR35 -SW
5
P11
-SW
$34.95
18.95
Printed Circuit Board, Pre -Drilled
P.C.B. Potentiometers,
5
.
-SW
1
-20K,
1
-1K, and
5 95
-10K ohms, 7- pieces
i/ Watt, 5% Carbon Film, 32- pieces... 4.95
Resistor Kit,
Power Transformer, PRI- 117VAC, SEC- 24VAC,
250ma
6
PP2
E
Panel Mount Potentiometers and Knobs,
-SW
and
1
1
595
-pss, Diodes 4 -pcs, Regulators 2 -pcs
Heat Sink 1 -piece
7
S$14-SW IC's
0
CE9 -SW
9
CC33 -SW
Electrolytic Capacitor Kit, 9- pieces
Ceramic Disk Capacitor Kit, 50 W.V., 33- pieces
CT -SW
Varible Ceramic Trimmer Capacitor Kit,
10
7
29.95
595
...
7.95
5 95
5- 65pfd, 6- pieces
11
Coil Kit. 18mhs 2- pieces, .22yuhs
14-SW
I
5.00
Sockets, Tin inlay. 8-pin 5- pieces
12
ICS
-SW
I.C.
13
SR
-SW
Speaker,
1.95
and 14-pin 2- paces
4x6"
Oval and Prepunched
14.95
Wood Enclosure
MISC -SW
Misc. Parts Kit Includes Hardware, (6/32, 8/32
Hookup Wire, Ant. Terms. OPOT
Nuts, 5 Bolts),
9.95
139.95
Ant. Switch. Fuse, Fuseholder, etc
When Ordering All Items,
(1
thru 14). Total Price
ANTENNAS & ACCESSORIES
SNA -ISTV
SNA -2 -SN
Vagi Antenna.
13.5
dB. 15
Yagi Anisons. 13.5 dB, 75
CX
raili"...
F -59
-54
ohm, Chan. 20 -28
ohm, Chan. 42
...
MT -1 Special UHF
Transformer ea..
75 OHM Antenna Amplifier
-
-
.
$
ea
75 -300
ALL -1 Indoor Outdoor HYBRID IC
Mad Order Only
$9,95
9.95
-75 Coaxial 75 ohm Low Loss Ant. Cable
S .12 P /FT.
Coaxial Connectors
OHM
.39
Matching
$1.45
Widebatd VHF -UHF -FM
Kit
Assembled...
$24.95
834.95
-
Send Check or Money Order To
VISA and Mastercard Acceptable
SIMPLE SIMON ELECTRONIC KITS
Calif. Orders
3871S. Valley View, Suite 12, Las Vegas, Nevada 89103
Tel: (702) 322 -5273
All Other Orders
11850 S. Hawthorne Blvd., Hawthorne, Calif. 90250
Tel: (213)
05
41
16
42
14
43
OA
44
02
45
0123 1C
0124 46
0125 08
0126 47
0127 lE
0128 48
0129
012A
012B
012C
012D
012E
012F
0130
0131
0132
0133
0134
0135
0136
0137
0138
0139
013A
013B
013C
06
013E
013F
0140
0141
0142
0143
0144
0145
0146
0147
0148
0149
53
01
54
49
17
4A
09
4ß
lA
4C
03
4D
04
4E
07
4F
18
50
11
51
675-3347
Minimum Order. $19.95. Add 10% Shipping and Handling
For Orders over $40.00, Add 5 %. Catalog $1.00.
OD
55
1D
56
OB
57
15
58
13
074a 59
014B 12
014C
014D
014E
014F
0150
0151
0152
0153
0154
0155
0156
0157
-piece (prewound
inductors) and 1 737 -12 Ferrite Torroid
Core with 3 8. of #26 wire.
14
95
-1KBT
-5KAT w/Switch
37
C9
OC
52
013D OE
II
$34.95
0117
0118
0119
0119
0119
O11A
Ol1B
011C
011D
011E
011F
0120
0121
0122
0158
0159
015A
015B
015C
0150
015E
015F
0160
0161
0162
0163
0164
0165
0166
0167
0168
0169
016A
0168
016C
016D
016E
016F
0170
0171
0172
0173
0174
5A
1F
30
2F
31
37
32
3B
33
3D
34
3E
35
2E
36
26
37
22
38
20
39
51
28
72
3F
2C
2F
69
2E
4B
2C
46
3A
54
3B
2D
2D
1480
STC
1485
RET
1490
1495
1500 TABLE DB 05H
DB 'A'
1505
DB 16H
1510
1515
DB 'e'
1520
DC 1411
DB 'C'
1525
1530
1535
1540
1545
Oß
mn
DB
DC
0211
DB
'E'
1550
1555
1560
1565
1570
DC
ICH
DB
'F'
1575
1580
1585
1590
1595
1600
1605
1610
on
'F1'
CRLF
DC
0611
'I'
CV
DASH
1615
1620
1625
1630
1635
1640
1645
1650
1655
1660
1665
1670
1675
1680
1685
16 90
D'
on 08H
DB 'G'
ASCII
0094
0830
DC
CONVT
007A
00AC
0435
00FC
1350
0740
1E11
ERROR
GENSP
IPSTN
OODB
DB
DB
DB
LEN
LOOP1
MASK
MELON
MKTYP
NEXT
0040
00A2
0001
00F8
004B
0016
0084
OUT
OOBB
PRSP-
00EF
PSTN
OBFF
SAME
0072
0113
00E3
001B
0119
0675
VLDMK
0104
WAIT
0380
0010
0385 0510
'J'
DOT
013
0911
DOTT
0311
'71'
0411
DB 'N'
DB 07H
DB '0'
DB
DB
1811
'P'
1111
'0'
DB
DR
R'
DB
DB
C
0
DB
OEM
DB
DB
011i
Fr
DB
'T'
DP.
ODTi
U'
liaS
DD
1750
1755
1760
1765
1770
DC
DB
1775
DB
'1'
1780
1785
1790
1795
1800
1805
1810
1815
DB
37H
DC
DB
DB
DB
0500
0445 1290
0450 1260
1010
1355
1020
1360 1425
0390
0405 0465
0870
0440 1060
1265
1080 1200
1070 1285
1210 1255
1440
0505
0430
0820
0400 0460
'C7'
DB 15H
DB
DS
'X'
1311
1211
'Z'
1FF
DB
'0'
DP.
2
F
DB
'2'
On
.On
31111
DB
3D1;
'3'
DB
'4'
Dß
DB
3
E
'5'
DC 2EH
DC '6'
DC 2611
DB '7'
DB 22H
DB
DB
DB
2011
DB
51H
'8'
'9'
DB
'('
DB
7211
DB '?'
DB 2CH
DB '/'
DD 6911
DB
DB
41311
DB
DB
DB
DB
DB
46H
'
54H
'
DB 2DH
DB
OFFH
r
DB
34H
3C
1955
0175 28
0176 23
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
DB
DB
DB
DB
DB
DB
DB
DB
1990
TABLE
0850
'V'
DB
1985
SPACE
SPOUT
SPTYP
0595
0745
On11
DB
017A 3E
017B 00
NEWME
1345
DB 1DH
1940
1945
1950
0177 36
0178 25
0179 79
0455 1270
DB 'K'
DB IAH
DB 'L'
DLY1
DC
1695
1700
1705
1710
1715
1720
1725
1730
1735
1740
1820
1825
1830
1835
1840
1845
1850
1855
1860
1865
1870
1975
1880
1885
1890
1895
1900
1905
1910
1915
1920
1925
1930
1935
0335
0052
009D
005E
0066
0098
0036
on
on 37H
5C
34
FF
SET INVALID MARK FLAG ICY = 1)
AND RETURN 19ITH NEW SPACE LENGTH
ERROR
\r
END OF MESSAGE
28H
EXCLUSIVE INVITATION TO TRANSMIT
36H
47AIT
79H
END OF 170RK
00
END -OF -TABLE
FLAG
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
78
www.americanradiohistory.com
BY FRED BLECHMAN
AND DAVID McDONALD
A LED
An electronic replacement
for the old mechanical
music timer
The mechanical metronome, reputedly invented by Maezel in
the 19th century, has been a familiar
sight around musicians and music students for many years. It uses a windup clock mechanism to swing a
weighted arm, generating a series of
clicks as the escapement gears make
contact. The clicking rate is conventionally adjustable from 40 to 210
beats per minute by positioning the
weight on the calibrated oscillating
arm to change the moment of inertia
and the rate of the swing.
Redoubtable though it may be,
Maezel's brainchild suffers from defects common to all mechanical devices: wear, drift of calibration, and
the need for fairly frequent maintenance. In addition, it must be wound
often. A battery-operated, solid -state
METRONOME
electronic design, such as the LED
Pendulum
Metronome
described
here, circumvents or alleviates the
problems of the mechanical metronome. It is stable in calibration and
reliable.
Partly for nostalgic reasons, the
pendulum movement of the mechanical metronome is simulated in the
project as a flashing sequence of
LEDs arranged in an arc. (A click
from a loudspeaker occurs as the LED
at either end of the string fires.) However, the LEDs offer the user the
option of "reading" the metronome
signal visually in circumstances where
a click might be inaudible or objectionable to the user.
Circuit Operation. The "beats" are
generated by ICI, which is used as an
DECEMBER 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
oscillator (Fig. 1). Resistors RI, R3,
and capacitor CI limit the frequency
of operation that can be set by means
of potentiometer R2. Capacitor C2
decouples the ¡Cl modulation input.
Each cycle of operation of ICI results
in a positive -going pulse at pin 3,
which is fed to the clock input of updown counter IC4. This counter can
be set to count from 0 to 9 (10 counts)
or 0 to 15 (16 counts), depending on
the status of pin 9. With pin 9 positive
(as shown), IC4 counts from 0 to 15.
Counting up or down is controlled by
pin 10; positive for up- counting,
ground for down -counting. The A, B,
C, and D outputs of IC4 (pins 6, 11,
14, and 2) go positive in a 4 -bit binary
sequence with the D output (pin 2)
low during counts 0 to 7 and high during counts 8 to 15.
Both IC2 and IC3 are identical 1of-8 switches. Depending on the 3 -bit
binary input, one of eight outputs is
connected to pin 3 through a low
resistance (typically 120 ohms). This
is called the "on" condition for this
pin. The A, B, and C inputs to IC2
and IC3 (pins 11, 10, and 9) are
addressed by the output pins (6, 11
and 14, respectively) of IC4. However, IC2 or IC3 must be enabled by a
low on pin 6. For counts 0 to 7, pin 2
of IC4 is low, enabling IC2. Notice,
however, that pin 6 of IC3 is high
because of IC5A, one section of a
quad 2 -input NAND gate, wired as
an inverter. This disables IC3 while
IC2 is enabled.
As IC4 counts from 0 to 7, the outputs of IC2 are turned "on" in
sequence. In this case, on is not
ground, but is an internal low resistance to pin 3, which is grounded. This
low resistance to ground allows the
LED connected to an on pin to glow.
Only five LEDs are connected to
the eight outputs, with LEDI connected to three outputs, LED2 to two outputs, and LED3, LED4, and LED5 to
one output each. This is done to simulate the swinging motion of a pendu-
metronome
lum, which is fastest near the center
but slows down near each end of its
swing as it finally stops and reverses.
By using multiple counts for the
LEDs farthest from the center, the
apparent motion of the pendulum
seems to slow down, stop, and reverse
at each end of its swing. This same
technique is used for the five LEDs
connected to IC3.
As IC4 counts from 0 to 7, only IC2
is enabled, with IC3 cut off. When
IC4 reaches the count of 8, the D output at pin 2 goes high. This turns off
IC2, but, via the inversion by IC5A,
IC3 is enabled, lighting LEDs 6 to 10
in sequence. Therefore, the first eight
counts of IC4 are used to command
the IC2 outputs, and the next eight
counts command IC3 outputs.
Up to this point, IC4 was counting
up since its pin 10 was high. This is
controlled by the output of a flip-flop
formed by NAND gates IC5B and
IC5C. When power is first turned on
by closing switch SI, pin 9 of IC5B is
pulled high through R6, and pin 5 of
IC5C is pulled low by pin 13 of IC2.
Pin 4 of IC5C is therefore high since it
has a low on at least one input. Pin 4 is
connected to IC4 pin 10, so IC4
counts up. The flip-flop holds this
high on pin 4 of IC5C, even though
the first count changes pin 5 of IC5C
to a high. On count number 15 (actually the sixteenth count, if you start
at instead of zero), pin 4 of IC3 is
switched on (low resistance to
ground). This pin is directly connected to pin 9 of IC5B, pulling it low, so
output pin 10 of IC5B goes high. This
provides a high input to pin 6 of IC5C.
Since pin 5 is already high, pin 4 of
IC5C goes low to switch IC4 to the
1
down- counting mode. Even though
IC5B pin 9 goes high on the next
count, the flip-flop logic keeps pin 4 of
IC5 low.
When IC4 gets down to the zero
count, pin 13 is turned on, and pin 5 of
IC5C is pulled low, making pin 4 of
IC5C high, and thus putting IC4 in
the up- counting mode. The top count
of IC4 then causes the flip -flop to
again change the output at pin 4 of
IC5C. This flip-flop action keeps occurring at each end of the pendulum,
causing it to "swing" back and forth.
Capacitors C4 and C5 prevent noise
from accidentally changing the up/
down mode of IC4.
The clicking sound occurs at each
end of the pendulum swing (as counts
0 and 15 are reached) by changing the
state of IC5D. Pins 12 and 13 of IC5D
are normally high, so pin 11 is in a low
IR5
220n
4
2
4
5
9
10
2
V
6
10
I
5
6
41
121
131
31
71
C5
OIyF
.15F
.011.1F
02
2N3904
C3
.15F
5666
IN914
Rn
IC 5
4011
Fig. 1. Basic schematic diagram of the metronome circuit.
The "beats" are generated in IC1, a standard 555 timer.
PARTS LIST
B1-640-9-volt battery (see text)
C1,C3- 0.1 -µF disc capacitor
C2,C4,C5- 0.01 -µF disc capacitor
D1 through D4-1N914 diode
IC 1
-555
timer
1C2,IC3 -4051 1 -of -8 switch
IC4 -4029 up down counter
IC5 -4011 quad 2 -input NAND
LED1 through LED10-Jumbo red LED
Q1,Q2- 2N3904
or similar transistor
1,R4,R6- 10 -kt2, l /4 -W, 10% resistor
R2-1.5-MO, liner -taper potentiometer
R
R3- 120 -k9, -W, 10% resistor
R5- 220-t2, "4 -W, 10% resistor
144
S
1
-Spst
switch
SPKR- Miniature
842 speaker
Misc. -IC sockets (optional), battery holder, knob, suitable enclosure, mounting
hardware, etc.
Note: The following Is available from
PPG Electronics Co., Inc., Dept. B,
14663 Lanark St., Van Nuys, CA
91402 (213-988-3525): complete kit
of parts including pc board (PM-K) at
$14.95. Also available separately:
plastic "cabinet" (PM-C) at $9.95;
etched and drilled pc board (PM-B) at
$5.95. Add $2 shipping and handling.
California residents, add 6% sales tax.
No foreign orders.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
80
www.americanradiohistory.com
You'll like our service. You'll love our price!
Ohio Scientific Superboard
The Superboard Il can be expanded
economically, for business uses, or to
remotely control your home appliances
ability.
Video interface and audio cassette
other computers.
-
-
The Ohio Scientific Superboard II at
in today's economy
has got
to be the best buy by far. It will entertain you with spectacular graphics
made possible by its ultra high resolution graphics and super fast BASIC. It
will help you in school or industry, as an
$329
system on a board.
Superboard Il uses the ultra powerful 6502 Microprocessor
8K Microsoft BASIC-in -ROM
ultra powerful scientific calculator. Advanced scientific functions and a built -in
"immediate" mode allow you to solve
complex problems without
programming.
Buy Now. Quantities Limited!
610 Board
For use with Superboard II and Challenger 1P.
8K static RAM. Expandable to 24K or 32K system total.
Accepts up to two mini-floppy disk drives. Requires + 5V
@4.5 amps.
$ 298
Mini -Floppy Disk Drive Includes Ohio Scientific's PICO
DOS software and connector cable. Compatible with 610
expander board. Requires + 12V @1.5 amps and + 5V
@ 0.7 amps. [Power supply & cabinet not included. ]
311
4KP 4K RAM chip set.
79
PS -005 5V 4.5 amp power supply for Superboard II.
45
PS- 00312V power supply for mini -floppies.
45
RF Modulator Battery powered UHF Unit.
35
C1 P Sams C1 P Service manual
8
C4P Sams C4P Service manual
16
Ohio Scientific and independent suppliers offer hundreds of programs
for the Superboard II, in cassette and mini -floppy form.
Freight Policies
All orders of $100
or more are shipped freight prepaid. Orders of less than
$100 please add $4.00 to cover shipping costs. Ohio
residents add Ohio Sales Tax.
atHours: Call Monday thru Friday.
8:00 AM to 5:00 PM Eastern Time
TOLL FREE: 1- 800-321 -5805
Guaranteed Shipment
guarantees shipment of
systems
hours upon receipt of your order. Our fe
wthn 48
t
ship
within 48 hours entitles you to 535 of software,
FREE.
I Order Form:
I
MIN
$329.
4K static RAM on board, expandable to 8K
Full 53 -key keyboard, with upper
and lower case. Plus user expandinterface.
It's the first complete computer
H
`
To
and security. Even communicate with
Read
what's been written
about Superboard II:
"We heartily recommend Superboard
for the beginner who wants to get into
microcomputers with a minimum cost.
A real computer with full
expandability."
11
-POPULAR ELECTRONICS, MARCH 1979
"The Superboard I1 is an excellent
choice for the personal computer enthusiast on a budget."
--BYTE, MAY 1979
OS-650 V3.3 Operating System
Supports a command "KERNEL ", Microsoft 9 -digit
BASIC, a 6502 Assembler Editor and debugger utility.
Available for C1 P, C4P and C8P floppy disk computers.
Expanded to a self -teaching operating system. V3.3 comes in
set with an easy -to-follow manual which leads the first
time user from the operation of simple menuized programs
through programming in BASIC and storing data on disk to a
complete program development system with advanced
a 6 disk
capabilities.
BASIC feature expansions including a full feature screen
editor, full upper /lower case compatibility with "Normal"
typewriter operation, PRINT USING, and screen formatting
capability.
Improved graphics support including direct X, Y plotting and
the ability to dump medium resolution (64 x 128) graphics
directly to the AC-19A low cost printer.
Enhanced utilities including greatly simplified Create, Initialize
and Delete functions, new Single Disk Copier, a communications
support utility for the optional modem and Resequencer.
Compatible with OS-65D V3.2 files and programs but has
greatly improved disk I/O throughput.
24K Ram Required Only 579
Order:
Or to get our free catalog CALL 1- 800 -321 -5805 TOLL FREE. Charge your
order to your VISA or MASTER CHARGE account. Ohio residents call: [216] 464-8047. Or
write, including your check or money order, to the address listed below.
,
CLEVELAND CONSUMER
COMPUTERS & COMPONENTS
pP. O Box 46627
Cleveland, Ohio 44146
MI IMIN SI= IM
III= MI11111= MS MIN MM
MN MI=
NAME:
CLEVELAND CONSUMER
COMPUTERS S. COMPONENTS
P.O. Box 46627 Cleveland, Ohio 44146
Superboard II $329.
El 610 Board $298.
I
1
ADDRESS:
CITY
STATE:
ZIP:
PHONE:
1
Payment by: VISA
MASTER CHARGE
MONEY ORDER
Mini -Floppy Disk Drive $311.
Credit Card Account #
El RF Modulator $35.
Expires
Interbank # [Master Charge]
OS-650 V3.3 [Specify System] $79. TOTAL
CHARGED OR ENCLOSED $
(Ohio Residents add Ohio Sales Tax)'
Orders of less than $100, please add $4.00 to cover shippng costs. Orders will be accepted from U.S. and Canada only.
Cl P Sams Service Manual $8.
All prices quoted are U.S., date of publication, standard UPS shipping FOB the factory.
[Attach separate sheet for other items.]
PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE
P
' ---I
II Nu
DECEMBER 1981
-INE
EMI
MOM
------ - - -
CIRCLE NO 35 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
Elm
-ill
81
metronome
state. When IC2 pin 13 or IC3 pin 4 is
pulled low, on counts 0 or 15 respectively, pin 12 or 13 of IC5D is made
low, and pin 11 of IC5D, following
NAND logic, goes high. This positive
voltage swing charges C3, causing a
small positive pulse to forward -bias
transistors Ql and Q2, which are
arranged in a Darlington circuit. The
small current pulse through the series- connected base-emitter circuits of
QI and Q2 enables a larger current
flow from the power source, through
the speaker and the collector- emitter
circuit of Ql. This is heard as a click.
When pin 13 of !C2 or pin 4 of IC3
goes high on the next count, a high is
put back on pin 12 or 13 of IC5D. Pin
11 goes low again, and capacitor C3 is
discharged through diode D4. Since
transistor Q2 is now reverse -biased,
there is no sound from the speaker
until the pendulum "swings" to the
other end.
Diodes D2 and D3 block the low
voltage from pins 14 and 15 of IC2
and pins 5 and 2 of IC3 so the count is
not prematurely reversed. Diode Dl
prevents damage to the circuit from
reversed power leads, or from inserting the battery backwards.
Construction. The LED Pendulum
Metronome circuit can be built on a
perforated board with point -to -point
to the appropriate length and trimming about 1/4" of insulation from
each end. Insert through the top of the
board and solder on the foil side.
-05a
v
ICI
2Z
I5
di
R2
II
SI
Li
ICS
L
aa
02
I
BI
SPKRI
Fig. 2. An actual-size foil pattern
for a printed-circuit board is shown
below. Above is the component layout
diagram. Install jumpers first.
wiring. However, there are 120 terminations for the ICs, resistors, capacitors, diodes, and transistors -and this
doesn't count the external speaker,
potentiometer, switch, and battery
wiring. Thus, it is more convenient to
use the printed- circuit pattern and
parts layout shown in Fig. 2.
If you use the pc board, assembly is
straightforward. A small 25 -watt soldering iron and resin -core solder
should be used. First, install the 15
jumpers shown in Fig. 2, cutting wires
84
Next, install and solder the resistors
and diodes, making certain the bands
(cathodes) on the diodes are properly
oriented. Next, solder in the five sockets, but do not install the ICs yet.
Now, solder in the three capacitors.
The LEDs must be installed in the
proper orientation. The cathode (bar
of arrow symbol) is identified by a
flat -spot or notch at the base of the
LED, and the cathodes of all LEDs
face the main portion of the circuit
board. Next, solder in the transistors,
with the flat side facing as shown, so
the E, B, and C leads are properly
placed. Solder two leads each for the
speaker, switch, battery, and potentiometer, and your circuit board wiring
is completed.
Your final packaging will dictate
the placement of the external parts
and the lengths of the leads. Double sided tape can be used to mount the
speaker to the foil side of the board.
Potentiometer R2 should be located
below the circuit board to allow room
for a calibrated scale and knob on
whatever front panel you use. The
switch and battery leads can be
located wherever convenient.
A unique, modern package is provided by using two sheets of Plexiglas
with spacers and screws used to
mount the circuit board sandwich fashion, as shown in the photo.
Since all the ICs have a broad voltage operating range (roughly 3 to 15
volts), you have a choice of what battery configuration to use. At 9 volts,
the circuit draws an average of 30
mA, so it's practical to use a standard
9 -volt transistor radio battery. Used 4
hours daily, a standard 9 -volt zinc carbon battery (such as Burgess 2V6)
should last about 5 hours; an alkaline
9 -volt cell should run at least 20
hours. For long, hard use, it would be
less expensive to use four "AA" pen
cells, "C" or "D" cells wired in series
to provide 6 volts initially. Although
the LEDs will not be quite as bright
and the clicking not as loud, the average current drain is only about 20
mA. Four regular zinc -carbon pen
cells should run the metronome for
almost 50 hours, used 4 hours a day.
Using zinc -carbon "C" cells under the
same conditions you can expect 125
hours of use. Alkaline batteries will
provide from 4 to 10 times as much
useful life. Actually, the circuit will
operate with as little as 3 volts, and
only uses an average of 4 mA at that
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
www.americanradiohistory.com
add truth
voltage -but it's not very loud or
bright, so not as effective!
Testing & Calibration. It's a good
idea to test and calibrate the unit
before final installation in whatever
cabinet you're using. Install the ICs
carefully in their sockets, making sure
they are oriented properly and that no
pins are bent out or under. Since all
the ICs except ICI are CMOS devices, take precautions to avoid static
electricity when handling them. Solder
the speaker, switch, potentiometer,
and battery connector (if used) to the
leads from the circuit board and don't
forget the jumper across two of the
potentiometer terminals.
Connect the battery power and turn
on switch SI. If nothing happens,
make sure that DI is not connected
"backwards" and that battery polarity is correct. If any individual LED
does not light, it may be soldered to
the board backwards. If only one LED
lights, the 555 (ICI) may not be operating. Check for the presence of positive voltage on pins 4 and 8, and see
that pin is grounded. Also make sure
the values for resistors RI and R3 and
capacitor CI are correct. As always,
solder connections should be checked.
If the LEDs swing properly, but you
hear no sound, check transistor installation and diode D4 polarity. If you
encounter problems beyond that, an
ohmmeter, logic probe, and the circuit
description should allow you to pinpoint the problem.
Calibration ideally requires a stopwatch, but a sweep- second watch or
seconds -counting digital watch will
do. You'll also need patience. The
major calibration points are 60, 120,
and 180 beats per minute (bpm),
since these are 1, 2, and 3 beats per
second. You can tell pretty closely in a
15- second timing period what the
minute -rate will be for a particular
pointer setting by just multiplying the
number of beats by four. By trial and
error, mark the pointer scale at these
points. Next find the 90, 150, and 210
bpm points. Once you've found these
points, space the other points equally
between the calibrated points and
you'll be close enough for all but precision use. If the clicking sound is too
loud, add a resistor (up to 100 ohms)
in series with either speaker lead. (A
100-ohm potentiometer or variable resistor can be used as a volume control
if desired.)
The LED Pendulum Metronome is
not intended to be used in precision timing applications, but is a modern
version of an established musical
teaching aid.
1
DECEMBER 1981
to your
system.
30X
Buy a 3BX Dynamic Range Expander and get a dbx Disc Decoder free.
Add a 3BX Dynamic Range Expander to your stereo,
and your records and tapes will go from an ordinary 40 to
50 decibels of dynamic range, to a breathing 60 to 75
decibels. Much closer to the true sound of five music. Do
it by December 5, and you'll get a dbx Disc Decoder free,
soyou can play the revolutionary dbx Discs.
For the names of participating retailers near you write
dbx, Inc. 71 Chapel St., Newton, Mass. 02195 U.S.A.
dbx
Tel. 617 -964 -3210.
Offer void where prohibited by law. Valid only at participating db, U.S. authorized consumer products retailer.. Quaoútio may be limited.
CIRCLE NO. 9 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
APPLE HARDWARE
CALL TOLL FREE:
1- 800 -547 -2492
¡appkz
16k+
$1029
New CFI Verslote
48k+
New CFI Verston
$1075
wilt
ADUIe
Memorb
M
D
OLIVE 14/13
CONTROLLER
SILENT'. RIMER
/INTERFACE
GRAPHICS TAUET
ARIE SOFT OR INTEGER
CARD
PASCAL LANGUAGE CARD
PARASOL RIMER CUD
SERIAL PRINTER CARD
CENTRONICS PRINTER CARD
LOWER CASE ADAPTOR
400116111
800 (16k
$329
$739
439
H.
an
SW
'o,
%9
11,9
MOUNTAIN C.I.S.
II.
MUIrNUNCTION
Il KEYPAD (A.I.S.)
SUP-11-TER/61 IN COO
IY Mar
SUP -I-MOD (MODULATOR
1121
219
MARI
133
FMO4
49
ESPANSION
IOYSTICK U.G. OR
PROCRAMMA)
YE
IoW MONITOR ISANYOI 11x3
9' law MONITOR IN-IC.)
IT YW MONITOR (SANTO) 1115
or GREEN MONITORISANYOI4T
'la
ITCOOR MONITOR ISANK&
1145
1145
L DS. MSG PRINTER
FOP
I.D.S. NOG PRINTER
1353. SOG PRINTER
EPSON ME
445
-lI
MI.
MI.HT
EPSON
EPSON
EPSON
EPSON CARLE
EPSON
MHO
a INTERFACE
CRAM.;
145
PRINTER
ET PRINTER
43e
W
6321
'M,
MODEM
INTERFACE MODULE
453 141 MEMORY MANSION
II.
'fT
VT
121
CONTROL
Ir MW 15.5(4 SPECIAL
IH
MT
DIVE
DISK
421
MKROMODEM(HATES)
HT
SMUT MODEM )MATES)
1321
MOUNTAIN CLOCK
.IH
MOUNTAIN MUSIC SYSTEM YT
MOUNTAIN A/D CONVERTER .219
MOUNTAIN INTROI/I-H
ISIL
415
PROGRAM RECORDER
la MINTER
1121
1134
I.
Y
ATARI HARDWARE
C1-3aN VIDEO GAME
Ile
Ile
HA RAM CARD ¡MICROSOFT/1154
CARD IMKROSOFT)
4T
,
ATAR I AL
YT
Disa DRIVE ONO
Tf
SOFTWARE
VISICALC(ATAeII
1lt
IN
LIT
RAMC I ATARI)
VISKALC
VISSOEX
6121
1121
41R1.O1
H.
FEWER.
VRTIEND
T,
O
O.O.S. LO
KIT
D.O.S. 3.3 UPDATE
MKROAR DATA FACTORY
D
MUTER )STONEWARE)
I
ABIS
WRITER
SLR -I -TEIL It
II>9
49
1319
(ea.)
1319
GENERAL BUSINESS
CONTROLLER
SOFI.TLCH PATROL&
IST
55OCKFII5 INVENTORY
ADVENTURE
KORK
SAIGON
649
4l9
11114
WORDS,U
1.1.1. SOFTWARE
' 1S9
.T
21
ID
CHESS
GALAIRAN
1.n .o. D1.x .MD-.141
6179
1349
121
AND
yon1
HO
459
1'f9
1
T
HI
L//SA`
HO
WRITE FOR CATALOG
toll tree number for order desk only.
In Oregon and for service or
warranties call (503) 479-4150. Ilan& .ices, cashiers checks and baokcards
accepted immediately. Allow 30 days for personal checks. MasterCard and
V15Á add 3 "e. sorry no C.O.D.'s. Add 3 ".. (minimum S4.00) for all U.P.S.
shipments to rover height. handling and insurance. 1100.00 minimum order
(no sales Ds). Prices subject to change without notice. NOTE: We are
registered with the Slate of Oregon. have been in electronic sales and
service for 5 years and are lolly qualified for repair of any micro computer
system. Three IoM -Sim. certified technicians insure one -day turnaround on
most Apple repair,. Hours: 9:00 to 5:00 Monday Through Saturday.
"A Unique Combination of
ouaRtu Products. Comoetitlue Prices. and Serulce"
530 N.E. `E' Street
Grants Pass, Ore. 97526
CIRCLE NO 55 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
83
www.americanradiohistory.com
M
1GS
SABTRONICS NOW OFFERS
AN ENTIRE RANGE OF TEST
Salo
AND MEASUREM ENT
INSTRUMENTS AT LOW LOW PRICES
r9
All
merchandise
advertised is ready
assembtestandfactory
01,1m-
Interfaceable DMM Model
Sabtronics SUPERSCOPE
Model 9005 at super low
price
2020 MP
Features:
* 0.1% basic DCV accuracy
10 amps current measurement
* 31 ranges and 6 functions
Hi power and Lo power Ohms
*
Features:
* Sharp clear 3" CRT
* Lower threshold triggering: less than
division at 5MHz
* Sharper focus especially at high
frequencies
* Fiberglass pcb
* Colour coded input terminals
Unique touch and hold capability**
* Battery or AC operated "'
* Interface for most popular computers
1/2
1
included
Specifications:
3' digit large 0.4" LED readouts
* and a usable response to beyond
Automatic decimal and minus ( -) sign
ACV frequency response: 40Hz to
40kHz on 200mV, 2V and 20V ranges
Overload protection: 1200V (DC AC
peak) on all voltage ranges
5MHz
Specifications:
Usable bandwidth DC to 5MHz plus
Vertical deflection sensitivity: 10mV per division
Horizontal deflection sensitivity: 50(nV per division
Time base sweep frequency: 10Hz to 100KHz in 4 ranges
Synchronisation: internal and external
Size: 202(W)x160(H)x306(D) mm
Weight: approx. 3.8 kg
Features:
,r Wide 1Hz to 200kHz frequency range
Sine, square, triangle and separate
TTL square wave output
Continuously variable output to
10V P -P
Frequency sweepable over 100:1
range
Short- circuit proof outputs
:^r Vanier frequency dial with fine
adjustment control
*
*
*
4
only
229:0
Low cost Function Generator
Model 5020A
"CRT not included
"'Batteries or AC adaptor optional
Give your computer test and measurement capabilities by
using our interfaceable Model 2020 MP DMM.
299°
1GHz 9 -digit Frequency Counter
Model 8000B
Features:
>r 9 -digit resolution for more precise
readings
Excellent 30mV sensitivity up to
1GHz
3 switch selectable gate times
10MHz crystal controlled time base
for greater accuracy
2 separate inputs for added
versatility
Front panel sensitivity control
*
*
*
*
*
IMP
Specifications:
Specifications:
Up to
Frequency range: Model 80008: 10Hz- GHz in 3 ranges. Model
8610B: 10Hz- 600MHz in 3 ranges
Display: 9-digit 0.4" (10 mm) LED with automatic decimal point;
separate LED gate activity indicator
Resolution: 10MHz range: 0.1 Hz with 10s gate time. 100MHz range:
1Hz with 10s gate time. 600MHz/1GHz range: 10Hz with 10s gate time
Sentitivity: <20mV ruts, 10Hz- 100MHz; <30mV nns, 100- 600MHz;
<35mV ens, 600MHz -1GHz
Input impedance: Input A- 1Mf2/100pF. Input B -500 nominal
Time base: Frequency: 10MHz. Setability ±2ppm. Temperature stability:
±1ppm from 0 to 40°C.
Gate time: 0.1 second, second, 10 seconds switch selectable.
1
Frequency range: 1Hz to 200kHz in five overlapping decade ranges.
Waveforms: Sine wave: Distortion <1% from 1Hz to 100 kHz;
<3% from 100kHz to 200kHz
Square wave: Rise /fall time <250nsec. Symmetry <98%
Triangle wave: Non -linearity <1% to 100kHz
$
Output: Impedance: 60052 short- circuit proof. Amplitude
(continuously variable): 10V P -P open circuit; 5V P -P into 60011
max. Low Level: -40dB of high output. TTL square wave: >10 std.
TTL loads
Sweep input: Impedance: 27kí2. Range: >100.1. Input voltage:
00
10V_
239
"Model 8610B
600MHz for
only $169.00
1
AUTORANGING DMM Model 2040 with
10 amps current measuring capability
Solderless Breadboard
This is a very sensitive, general purpose instrument which
provides the facilities and quality required by today's electric/
electronic technicians and engineers.
Features:
3 terminal strips 5 distribution strips
* Aluminium plate
* Size: 200x 175x8 mm actual area
Model 356S
Specifications:
5
129:°
of breadboard
Display: Numerical display: 3.5 digit LCD, maximum reading
1999. Unit and sign: mV, V, mA, A, f2, Kí2, AUTO, BATT,
ADJ, LO, -, AC
Range selection: Autoranging on VOLT and OHM
Polarity: Autopolarity, (-) sign when minus, ( +) sign is
implied and is not shown
Battery warning: LO BATT sign
Sampling rate: Two times per second
Power consumption: 5mW typically
Power supply: Two 1.5V batteries, type UM -3 or AA
Battery life: 300 hour continuous operation
Overload protection: One 3A 600V, BBS type fuse and
one 0.3A 250V, 5x20 mm fuse for OHM and mA ranges
Operating temperature and humidity: 0 to +40°C, less than
80%
Zero adjustment: Zero adjustment by ZERO ADJ.
Keyswitch
Low power OHM ranges: For in-circuit resistance
measurements at voltage levels below 0.33 volts
Features:
Easiest operation: AUTORANGING SYSTEM requires no range selections
* Easiest reading: Automatic indications of units, signs, polarity, decimal point,
overrange and battery warning
* Low battery consumption of 5mW: 300 hour continuous use with two 1.5V batteries,
type UM-3 or AA
* Difference Measurements: This instrument can be used like a galvanometer
* Ultimate Portability: Actualized light weight and compactness in excellently designed
ABS cases
We also have many other products. Contact us for our full catalogue.
Ordering Information:
Domestic: Shipping and Handling, add 10% of purchase up to $100.00, add 5% on orders
over $100.00.
For orders call: (813) 623 2631 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. E.S.T.
We accept Master Charge or VISA Credit Cards. Florida residents add 4% Sales tax.
Overses orders: Add $25.00 for all instruments except Model 9005 Scope: Add $65.00 or
ask us for a list of our overseas distributors.
* Silver-plated contacts
* Accept all DIP size including RTL,
*
and CMOS devices
, DTL
Interconnect with any solid 20 to
*
Low Cost
Handheld DMM
Model 2038A
29AWG (0.3 -0.8 mm) wire
Breadboard elements are mounted
on ground plane, ideal for high
frequency, high speed and low
noise circuit
Other models also available.
Logic Probe Model LP -1
Features:
3'/2 -digit LCD display
* 0.6% basic DCV
accuracy
* DC voltage:
* AC voltage:
Features:
* Input impedance: 100Kí2
* Operating frequency: 10MHz
* Min. detectable pulse width: 50nsec.
* Input overload protection: ±50V
Cont.
* Power requirements: 5 to 15V less
than 3omA.
* LED indicator for HI and LO
* Memory and DTL/TTL CMOS
1000V
750V
* Input impedance: 10MS
* Low battery indicator
* High impact ABS case
$3995
1
* AC/DC current: 2 amps
* Overload protection
* 2000 hours battery life
switch
* Autozero
$890°
$2495
sabtronics W
INTERNATIONAL INC.
Sabtronics International, Inc., 5709
Telephone (813) 623 2631
Telex 808 700 sab tpa
www.americanradiohistory.com
N.
50th Street. Tampa, FL 33610 USA
FOR ONLY $129.95 Learn Computing
From The Ground Up
Build a Computer kit that grows
with you, and can expand to 64k
RAM, Microsoft BASIC, lRxt Editor/Assembler, Nbrd Processor,
Floppy Disks and more.
COMPUTER
t.714,20.3 45
EXPLORER /85
9."
Plug in Level E here, unreels Microsoft. BASIC or
Nt'ironü'y Hex Editor/Assembler in ROM
Plug
5. Add 1500100 'roods
Keyprd/Dtsplay
2 Add Level B to convert to 6. Add you own custom cifroils 1prolotyping amt)
MOO
3 Add 4k RAM
7 Connie:) terminal
1,
Here s the low
BITS
By Carl Warren
Beef Up Your H -89
IF YOU'VE been thinking about additional capacity for
your H -89 microcomputer, you might want to consider the
double -density floppy disk controller from Magnolia
Microsystems (2812 Thorndyke Ave. W., Seattle, WA 98199.
Tel. 800 -426 -2841).
The $595 unit comes with the PROMs, cables, CP /M, and
documentation necessary to bring your system into the double-density world. The board supports up to 1210K bytes on a
double -sided drive, and as much as 162K bytes on single -sided
drives (such as those supplied in the Model H -77 disk system
from Heath).
Other attributes of the controller include: the ability to
work in concert with either the Heath single- or double -density controller, ease of configuration for a wide variety of systems, the ability to support as many as four 8" single- or double -sided drives, as well as four 5" single- or double -sided
drives at the same time the Heath controller is supporting
three 5" single -sided drives.
You should be aware, however, that the Magnolia board
does not support either HDOS or Heath /Zenith CP /M. The
CP /M Ver 2.2 that comes with the controller is optimized to
take advantage of the various board characteristics and drives
that can be attached to it.
Installation. Installing the controller takes about an hour.
Most of the time is spent removing the CPU and terminal
boards in order to make the necessary PROM and powersupply changes.
Because many of the H -89s in current use have the original
power supply whose regulator is incapable of meeting the necessary current loads, your first step is to adapt the regulator
by adding the part supplied for that purpose.
Your next task is to change the monitor PROMs designed
to support the controller, and provide a well- thought -out command structure. Specifically, besides boot, you have P for program counter, s (substitute), G (go execute), nt (dynamic
memory test), and T (test drive rotational speed). Unlike the
split-octal used by Heath, numbers are displayed on the monitor in hexadecimal.
Once you've made the necessary hardware additions and
checked out the monitor commands, you're ready to configure
the drives. On the 5" drives with your system, you only need to
change the jumpers for head-load with motor. Incidentally,
all the drives should be configured in this manner.
The 8" drive I chose was the single -sided FDD-100, 48 tpi
(tracks -per -inch) from Siemens. Magnolia sells and recommends Qume's Data Trak 8, which currently is the only drive
referenced in the set -up manual. (As of this writing, a new
manual is being prepared to address a wider variety; getting
the proper jumpers can be troublesome.)
As configured, my H -89 uses the Heath controller for the
terminal- mounted drive, while the H -77 outboard drives are
on the Magnolia controller, as is the 8" drive. The total system storage capacity is 1M byte: 80K bytes for the Heath
drive, 160K bytes each for the 5" drives on the Magnolia controller, and 600K bytes for the 8" drive. All the drives are 48
tpi; but I could add 96 -tpi drives in the daisy chain-either
the 5" or 8" variety.
The Magnolia board is integrated into the system configuration via a specific program. This program is menu -driven
and offers a number of selections, including density (single- or
double- track), and one or two operational sides.
cost way to learn the fundamentals of corn.
puling. the all -important basics you'll need mom and
more as you advance in computer skills. For lust $120.95
you gel the advanced- design Explorer/85 motherboard,
with all the features you need to learn how to write and
use programs. And it can grow into a system that is a
math for any personal computer on the market. Look at
these features: 8085 Central Processing Unit. the
microprocessor "heart" of the Explorer/85. (join the
millions who will buy and use the 8030 /80&5 this yea
aone!)... Four &bit plus ore 6-hil input/output ports from
which you can input and output your programs as well as
control exterior switches, relays. lights. etc.
a cassette
interface that lets you store and reload programs you've
learned to write . . deluxe 2.000 byte operating
system /monitor makes it easy to learn computing in
several important ways:
It allows simpler. faster writing
programs
It permita access by you
and
pa ente the system
of
you can check on the status of
any point in the program
It allows tracing each program step by step. with provision for displaying all the
contents of the CPU (registers. Bags. etc
and it
does much more!
You get all this in the starting level (level A) of the
Explorer/85 for only $148.95. Incredible! To use. (just
your Be DC power supply and terminal or
kpayb.
if you dori have them. nee our
I offers Film.
Level A computer kit (Terminal Version) ... 3140.69
plus $3 Ph
Level A kil (Hex Keypad/Display Version) ... $140.88
plus $3 P&L '
LEVEL B
This "building block" converts the motherboard into a two-slot 5100 bus (industry standard) corn puler. Now you can plug in any of the hundreds of SIO0
.
plug
l'
a
4
i
CRT monitor or a TV no (if you have an RF modulator).
O Hex Keypad /Display kit.... 369.38 plus $2 P &1.
O ASCII Keyboard /Computer Terminal kit featuring
full 128 character sel. u&I case full cursor control, 75 nhm
video output, convertible to
baudol output, selectable baud
rate. RS 232 -C or 20 mal/O. 32
or 84 character by 16 line for
mals
$14995 plus 1.3 P&I.
O Steel Cabinet for ASCII Keyboard/Terminal ... $19.95
plus $2 50 P&1.
O RF Modulator kit (allows you to use your TV set as a
monitor)
33.33 postpaid.
D 12" Video Monitor (10MHz bandwidth) .. $13935
plus$5 P &1.
O Deluxe Steel Cabinet for the
Explorer/95
143.95 plus $3
&l'
P
O Fan for cabinet
plus 31.50 P &I.'
313.99
-
ids available.
O Level B kit ...$49.95 plus $2 P &1.
D Sl00 bus connectors (two required)
postpaid.
-
Add still now
computing power, this "building block" mounts directly on
the motherboard and expands
the 5100 bus to six aloe.
D Level kit ...$30.95 plusf2
LEVEL C
ORDER A SPECIAL -PRICE
EXPLORER/85 PAK -THERE'S
ONE FOR EVERY NEED.
.. $4.05 each.
-
3eMener P.O (Save 828.00)
You gel Level A (Ter al Version) with Monitor Source Listing ($25 value)
AP- 1.5-amp. power supply. Intel BOBS Users Manual ...
(Reg $19395) SPECIAL 8196.95 plus $4 P &I.
Experimenter $0k (Save $53.40)
You get Level A
-
P&L'
D S100 bus connectors (five
required)...
$4.55 each.
postpaid.
LEVEL
When you reach the point in teaming that requires
memory, we offer two choices: either add 4k
f
o directly on the motherboard. or add 16k to
y
of a memory
ry y means of a single Sl00card. our famous
D-
JAWS.
Level D kit: (CHECK ONE) ... D 4k on -board ... $49.90
plus $2 PM.: O 16k SI00 "JAWS
$14990 plus $2
Pel':O 32k S100 "JAWS "...$196.95
P&l'
40k
S100 "JAWS" ... $249.96 plus $2 P&l': D 64k S100
".JAWS" ... 34A35 plus S2 P&P.
LEVEL E
An important "building block:" it activates
Bleak ROM/EPROM space on the motherboard. Now just
plug in our Bk Microsoft BASIC or your own custom
lus$2:D
-
program.
-
D Level E kit ... $0.95 plus 50e P&L.'
Microsoft BASIC
It's the language that allows you to
talk English to your computer! It is available three ways:
ekcassette version of Microsoft BASIC: (requires Level
B and 12k of RAM minimum: we suggest a 16k S100
"JAWS"
see above) ... $04.93 postpaid.
O 8k ROM version of Microsoft BASIC: (requires level B
& level E and 4k RAM: just plug
to your Level E socket
Wes
either the 4k level DRAM expansion or a 16k
5100 "AWS.
$99.85 plus $2 P&I.
D Dis version of Microsoft BASIC' (requires Level B.
32k of RAM. floppy disk controller. 8" nappy disk drive)
... $325 postpaid.
-
"(.
tM
-
TEXT EDITOR/ASSEMBLER
The editor /assembler
ofsoftware tool (a program) designed to simplify the task
writing programs. As your programs become longer
d more complex. the assembler can save you many
hours of programming time. This software includes an
editor program that enters the programs you write. makes
the
cassettes.
bchanges.
r erformss the cleprograms
cal rusk of
embolic
code into the computer - readable object codeThe editor/
assembler program is available either in cassette or a
ROM version.
D Editor /Assembler (Cassette version: requires Level
"B" and ek (min) of RAM
we suggest 16k "JAWS"
above) ... 159.95 plus S2 P &1.
O Editor /Assembler (ROM version. supplied on an SIno
card: requires Level B and 9k RAM (min.)- we suggest
either Level D or 16k "JAWS ")
$9995 plus $2 P &1.
3" FLOPPY DISK
remarkable "building black."
Add our 8" floppy disk when you need feeler operation,
more convenient program storage. perhaps a business eppliceion. and access to the literally thousands of programs
and program languages available today. You simply plug
them into your Explgqger /85 disk system
it accepts all
IBM -formatted CP /Mt ragrams.
O 8" Floppy Disk Drive
9469.95 plus $12 P&I.
Floppy Controller Card ... 1196.96 plus $2 P&I.'
Disk Drive Cabinet & Power Supply ... 191.95 plus
Dplay. Intel 8085 User Manual. )level A Hex Mondor
Source Listing. and AP.1,5 -amp. power supply ... (Reg.
$279.95) SPECIAL $219.98 plus $6 P&L '
O Spec 1a1 Microsoft BASIC Pak (Save $103.00)- You get
Levels A (Terminal Version), B. D (4k RAM). E. Bk
Microsoft in ROM. Intel 9085 User Manual. Level A Monitor Sousse Listing. and AP -1. 5 -amo power supply ...
(Reg. $439.70) SPECIAL tulles plus $7 P &L
D Add a Row.Version Text Editor /n.,sembrer (Requires
levels 9 and D or S I(l0 Memoro), ..599.95 plus $2 Psd
Sumer
Diak System - Includes Level n. B Floppy disk
controller. one CDC e" disk -drive two -drive cable. two
S100 connectors: just add your own power supplies.
cabinets and hardware
D (Reg. $1085.00) SPECIAL
$999.98 plus $13 P&1.'
D 32k Starter System. $1045.95
plus $13
513 plus $13
&I. O 64k StarterSystem. 61145.96 pIsa
D
to any of above Explorer steel cabinet, AP -1 five
supply, Level C with two S100 connectors.
AApdd
drive cabinet
power supply. two sub -D connectors for
.. (Reg.
SPECIAL S169u98 plus $13 POI
D Complete HR 89uem, Wired 8 Tested ... $1650.00
plus $28 P&I.'
D Special! Complete Business Software Pak (Save
$625.00)- Includes CP/M 22 Microsoft BASIC. General
Ledger. Accounts Receivable. Accounts Payable. Payroll
Package
(Reg. $1325) SPECIAL 199996 postpaid.
.
I"
.
ar
amp
.
'P&1 slnnds (nr"patinae F
dent. double this amount.
Continental Credit Card Buyers Outside Connecticut:
TO ORDER
Call Toll Free:
800 -243 -7428
rlati
-
-A
-
.
-
.
&I.
S3 P
O Drive Cables (set up for two drives)
$1.50 P &1.
CP/M 2.2 Disk Operating System:
.
si
ve
one
r
Hex
Keypad /Display kit that displays the information on a
calculator type screen. The
Cher choice is our ASCII
Keyboard/Computer Terminal
kit. that can be used with either
To Order From Connecticut,
or For Technical Assistance,
Call (203) 354-9375
*
CP /M a
a
reg. trademark of
Digital Research
(Clip and mail entire
ad)*
SEND ME THE ITEMS CHECKED ABOVE
Total Enclosed (Conn. Residents add sales tax):
Paid by:
O Personal Check
$_
O Cashier's Check/Money Order
$25.00 plus
includes Text
Editor /Assembler. dynamic debugger. and other features
that give your Explorer /B5 access to thousands of existing
CP/M -based programs... $150.00 postpaid.
NEED A POWER SUPPLY? Consider our AP -1. It can
supply all the power you need for a fully expanded Explorer/85 (rote disk drives have their own power supply).
lus the API fits neatly into the attractive Explorer steel
cabinet (see below).
API Power Supply kit (BV 5 am I in deluxe steel
cabinet ... $38.96 plus $2 P&L
».
NEED A TERMINAL? We
offer you choices: the least e xpen
insurance" For Crtnodiun ar-
F
O VISA
O MASTER CARD (Bank No
Acct No
)
Exp Dale
Signature
Print Name
Address
City
*bfb
$
Sit
-'r
State
Zip
IVETRONICS Research& Development Ltd.
33 Litchfield Road, New Milford, CT 06776
DECEMBER 1981
85
www.americanradiohistory.com
computers
This way, the controller knows the
bits per inch (bpi) are doubled; and for
the 96-tpi drives, that you have more
than 40 tracks to address. In addition,
the configuration program permits logical and physical drive assignments in a
lookup table. This technique maps the
drives as they appear in your system.
Moreover, you can set up a boot drive. I
currently boot off a double -density 5"
drive and use the 8" for maximum storage capacity.
During configuration, you can establish the density of a specific drive so that
you can read a variety of disks. This is
important since most software is delivered on single- density, IBM -compatible
formats. Ideally, what you'd want is one
8" drive in double-density, the other in
single. Should you have only a single 8"
drive, prepare to make two systems
disks, one configured for single-, the
other for double- density.
Capabilltiss. The Magnolia controller
achieves its double- density capability by
the method it uses to record the data.
With a 5" single -sided drive, such as
that offered by Heath, you have tracks
laid out 48 to an inch. Typically, the
effective number of available tracks is
40, since the head travels just a little
under an inch for a full stroke. The next
parameter of concern is the linear densi-
ty, that is, number of bits recorded per
inch. For the Siemens Model FDD 200 N, for example, the bit density is 2938
bpi for frequency -modulated (FM) recording. The total areal density (bpi X
effective tracks) is equal to 125K
bytes.
To double the amount of data that can
be put on the drive, only one parameter
can be changed-the number of recorded bits per inch. The track density
(tpi) is a physical limitation of the drive,
although newer drives do offer 96 tpi,
with an effective number of tracks ranging from 77 to 80.
Consequently, some method of increasing the bpi must be found, and the
usual course is to employ modified frequency modulation (MFM) or M2FM.
These two recording techniques reduce
the size of the bit cell by applying a new
definition of when a clock pulse starts or
ends and data begins. The overall effect
is to increase the number of bits per
inch, thus increasing the overall real
density of the drive. In the case of the
Siemens drive, instead of 125K bytes
you end up with 250K bytes. This is the
technique employed by Magnolia.
You may have noted that I said the
Magnolia controller gives you 160K
bytes on the Heath drive, but that 250K
bytes are specified with MFM recording
techniques. The difference stems from
the fact that the 250K bytes is not formatted, while the 160K bytes is. Formatting implies overhead, in this case
about 90K bytes.
The overhead is from the space required to define the sectors, provide sufficient spacing, and implant information
on a track as to how the operating system should handle the disk. All of this
must be accounted for by the controller
so that errors aren't introduced. The
Magnolia controller does this without
any problems.
The Magnolia controller is well worth
the money: it adds flexibility to your
Heath system without sacrificing functionality.
I encountered only two problems as a
result of the addition of the board. The
first was system power difficulty due to
low line voltage. This is easily cured by
moving the line switch on the H -89 to
low; but be aware that if the line comes
up to nominal (typically 112 V), you will
need to switch back to high or have a
power supply running hot.
The second problem was making the
Diablo Model 630 daisy -wheel printer
work correctly. To do this, it is necessary
to open the printer up, change a jumper
between pins 5 and 6 on the HYPRO
interface board, and then employ a pinto -pin cable. The problem I had was in
using a cable wired for an RS -232C that
The MX-100.
Not just better. Bigger.
Epson.
The new Epson MX-100 is a printer that must be seen
to be believed.
For starters, we built in absolutely unmatched correspondence quality printing and a high resolution
bit -image graphics capability. Then we added the
ability to print up to 233 columns of information on
15.5" wide paper to give you the most incredible
spread sheets you're ever likely to see. Finally, we
topped it all off with both a satin - smooth friction feed
platen and fully adjustable, removable tractors. And
the list of standard features goes on and on and on.
Needless to say, the specs on this machine and
especially at under $1000 are practically unbelievable. But there's something about the MX -100 that goes
far beyond just the specs. Mere words fail us. But
when you see an MX -100, you'll know what we mean.
It's not only better ... it's bigger.
-
-
EPSON
EPSON AMERICA, INC.
3415 Kashiwa Street Torrance, California 90505
(213) 539 -9140
CIRCLE NO. 15 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
86
www.americanradiohistory.com
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
_computers._
Now with added words! *
WEONLY
.. $59.95
ELECTRIC MOUTH
carried a less- than-full signal, and, as a
consequence, "clear -to- send" was not
being monitored by the H -89, so buffer
overflow resulted. Changing the cable
fixed the problem.
Speaking of cables, I've found that no
matter where you go to buy either a
round or flat one, the prices range from
$30 to $40 for a six -foot section with
connectors. Interestingly, the actual cost
to the manufacturer is only about $3.
Okidata Microlin 83A Printer.
With your storage needs solved, you
might want to look at bettering your
hardcopy output. One printer that deserves attention is the Microline 83A,
made by Okidata Corp. (111 Gaither
Dr., Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054).
The Microline 83A serial dot -matrix
printer designed for applications requiring long -duty cycles, letter -quality
printing, and full -size (15 ") paper.
Sporting both a 1200-bps RS232C
serial interface and an 8 -bit parallel
interface, the Model 83A operates at
120 cps with a bidirectional print mechanism with shortline-seeking logic. In
addition, standard characters are produced with a dense 9 x 9 dot pattern by a
9 -wire, stored -energy print head. The
Model 83A includes the full 96 ASCII
character set (upper and lower case)
plus 64 block graphics shapes. Furthermore, special character sets for British,
German, French, Swedish, Danish,
Norwegian, Dutch, Italian, and special function TRS -80 codes are standard. A
136- character buffer is also standard.
The 64 graphics characters are similar to those of the TRS -80, and can be
combined with the condensed and double -width functions to produce charts
and graphs like those created on raster type printers.
An optional 9600 bps is also available.
The price for the high -speed interface
Model HS- RS232, with a 256 -byte buffer is $180; with a 2K -byte buffer the
price is $270.
The printer with the optional $50
tractor feed supports paper widths up to
15" or 14" with friction feed. Standard
throughput ranges from 232 1pm for a
20- character line to 47 1pm for a full 136
characters per line.
In addition, line spacing is programselectable (either 6 or 8 1pi), with a standard character size of 0.081" W X
0.105" H, with spacing of 10 cpi. In the
condensed mode, spacing is 16.5 cpi, and
double width is 5 cpi.
The flexible printer permits the use of
single -sheet plain paper with friction
feed, or continuous paper with the tractor feed. In addition, the adjustable
snap-on tractor accommodates four -part
stock up to 15" in width.
The Microline 83A power requirements range from 100V to 240V at 50 or
60 Hz, with a maximum power dissipation of 150 W. The 20.2" x 12.9" x 5.2"
printer weighs 30.9 lb, and is priced at
$1195, with owners manual and interfacing guides. You can find it at most
computer stores.
for
S I00,
TR.S-80,
Elf
-
Level
11,
Apple
Frem
ll"
$99.95 kit
teach your computer to talk,
increasing interaction between you
and your machine.
Now
1
t4ltttdiitáiii' i
THEAnything
That's right: the ELECTRIC MOUTH actually lets your computer talk! Installed
and on -line in just minutes. ifs ready for spoken-language use in office. business. industrial and commercial applications. and in games. special projects.
R&D, education. security devices- there's no end to the ELECTRIC MOUTH'&
usefulness. Look at these features:
Supplied with 143 letters/words/phonemes /numbers. capable of producing
hundreds of words and phrases,
Expandable on -board up to thousands of words and phrases with additional
garish ROM& (see new speech ROM described below).
Four nmdels. that plug directly into Slop, Apple. Elf II and IRS-80 Level II
4i'ti)°`"
Board'
Dedicate it, then separate it!
Does anything you want it to!
Now. anything you can dream up. Netronics can help you
realize -inexpensively and easily with the Anything Board I if,
the first and only microprocessor you can dedicate. then
separate from the Programming Board so it runs by itself). All
this-for only $59.95 so it's inexpensive. and easy to work with.
too. because Netronics helps you every step of the way, with the
programming. with the hardware.
computers.
Gel ELECTRIC MOUTH to talk with either Basic or machine language (very
easy lo use. complete instructions with examples included).
Uses National Semiconductor's "Digitalker.Includes onboard audio amplifier and speaker. with provisions for external
Installs to just minutes.
Principle of Operation: The ELECTRIC MOUTH stores the digital equivalents
of wools in ROMs. When words. phrases and phonemes are desired. they
simply are called for by your program and Then synthesized into speech. The
ELECTRIC MOUTH system requires none of your valuable memory space except fora few addresses if used in memory mapped mode. In most cases output
ports (user selectable) are used.
lira,
SPOKEN MATERIAL INCLUDED (Vox if
at
dollar inches number
one
two
eighteen
nineteen
cancel
d
three
twenty
thirty
forty
fifty
case
equal
Wilbees tone
Wherts tone
feet
sixty
20ms silence
seventy
eighty
40ms silence
noms silence
fuel
gallon
go
four
five
six
eight
ninety
hundred
thousand
million
veto
again
ampere
re
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
fifteen
sixteen
teen
t
cent
few
and
degree
oat
o
left
out
gg
wx
less
over
star
parenthesis start
percent
lop
h
y
please
than
k
limit'
low
lower
mark
looms silence gram
econd d
set
sse
kilo
lesser
space
speed
greater
have
high
meter
mile
plus
point
pound
pulse,
the
time
try
up
milli
rate
von
higher
hour
in
m
minus
320ms silence great
ti
check
comma
control
of
a
,
abort
add
adjust
complete
continue
connect
ales
cream
all
assistance
fifth
fire
fins
Rao
fourth
forward
deposil
light
load
lock
longer
next
no
attention
blue
brake
button
buy
enterg
cal
entry
get
si'
called
caution
eelsiu
centigrade
charyle
n
exil
cigar
close
cold
going
7
ate
hale"
be
in
incorrect
fast
key
level
intruder
4'ßg
I
to
p
Programmer Board shin, n ii ih cabinet and expansion boards.
/O
station
system
red
Gunk
notice
You can program the Anything Board by I . plugging into an
ELF II microcomputer or 2. plugging into our programmer
s
range
reached
receive
repeat
replace
board with its special and sophisticated debugging and testing
components. The growth is limitless. You can add inputs and
outputs. A to D/D to A boards. color graphics. PROTO
boards. Electric Mouth Talking Boards. expand the memory.
Got something in mind? It can be anything ... a robot. burglar
alarm. telephone dialer. industrial machine controller ... home
heating/cooling system ... ANYTHING' With your imagination and skills. backed up by Netronics' know -how and help.
you can make the Anything Board do anything you want it to do.
There are expansion boards -even cabinets to house your
Anything project. Give it a professional finished look' The
Anything Board ... only from Netronics. Only $59.95.
As your needs for programming grow. you can add system
monitors. cassette /0. an assembler -text editor-disassembler.
video terminals. EPROM burner. full basic and more. All plug
into the Anything Board expansion Bus.
witch
empemlure
pest
mild
this
rum
under
use
heat
hello
help
hurts
hold
j
Wt
quarter
repair
not
fail
failure
fahrenheit
faster
m
nortal
north
operator
safe
second
or
Ras
sedol
er
per
send
side
pressure
slow
slower
pull
push
south
th
waiting
warning
water
west
wind
window
yellow
1
Yea
Zone
Specifications Anyttung Board
1802 microprocessor. I K RAM. 8 Bit input port. 8 BIT output pen. imerrupe,
DMA and processor flag inputs, addressdecoders. provisions for a 2716 EPROM.
power on and manual reset. crystal cluck. power supply regulator and provision for
battery back up.
:
*Registered Trademarks
:Continental US.A. Credit Card Buyers Outside Connecticut
I
TO ORDER
Specifications. Programmer Board
HEX key pad input. 16 bit address and 8 bit data display outputs. led status
indicators. mentor, protect. watt, load. reset and in put switches plus a single step
erode which allows you to sup through your program one machine cycle al a lime
Call Rill Free: 800 -243 -7428
^
a..
tea
i
b
ADDTONAL VOCABULARY NOW AVAILABLE (VOX
R
t
f
weight q
ready
right
near
''....
~
To Order From Connecticut, or For Technical
Assistance, call (203) 354 -9375
Continental U.S.A. Credit Card Buyers Outside Connecticut
CALL TOLL FREE 800 -243 -7428
NETRONICS R &D LTD.
To Order From Connecticut or For Technical Assistance, Etc.,
333 Litchfieid Road, IOW Milford. CT 06776
Please send the items checked below:
S100Electric Mouth" kit wNox I
Elf n "Electric Mouth" kitwNoxl
Apple "Electric Mouth" kit wNox I
TRS-80 Level II "Electric Mouth" kit wNox I
VOX II (Second Word Set)
Call (203) 354 -9375
Dept PE
NETRONICS R &D LTD...,
333 Litchfield Road, New Milford,
Please send the items checked below:
ANYTHING BOARD
99.95
99.95
$119.95
$119,95
s 39.95
S
S
Programming Board
Add $20.00 for wimd tested units instead of kit. VOX II pontage & lnsuranre
SI IX) all others $3.m postage and insuranra Conn res old sales lax
1
Cashier's Check/Money Order
Total Enclosed
S
Personal Check
Cashier's Check /Money Order
Visa
Master Charge (Bank No.
Exp Date
Acct No.
Signature
Print
Name
Address
Signature
Print
Name
Address
City
State
54.00 Canada)
Connecticut Residents add sales tax
Master Charge (Bank No
Visa
Acct. No.
$59.95
$79.95
Plus $2.00 each item for postage, handling and insurance
Total Enclosed $
Personal Check
PE ll
CT 06776
Exp. Date
City
Zip
State
L
DECEMBER 1981
-J
87
www.americanradiohistory.com
VIDEO
QUALITY
BREEDS
QUALITY
36 Channel Up Converter
TELEVIS ON SYSTEMS
3JOC Kirkwood
Burli igton, Iowa 52601
& VTR
Cable VHF to UHF
1
-3 pieces 4 pieces & up
192
.
324gea.
BRUCE 37- Channel
Wireless Remote Control
Commander 500
TV Tuner
1-9 pcs
When you insist on
Winega-d products for
TV -FM -VCR
you will gepeak reception and
performance f-om
you- audio and video
components.
Look for ... ask for
Winegard reception
products by narre.
oo
WI NEGARD
for TV
Model V5736
OMPU1R
SOURCES
By Leslie Solomon
Senior Technical Editor
109eaf
10pcs &up
éá.
$9995
r
Reg.
Hardware
$199.95
TEKNIKA Wireless
Remote Control TV Tuner
Model 6301
909E.
Reg.$169.95
FORD
855 Conklin St Farmingdale, N.Y. 11735
ADD FOR SHIPPING
Master Charge
ANO INSURANCE
COD's extra
BankAmericard
to $ 250.00
S 4.50
®
VISA
COD
Money Order
Check
$251.00 to
501.00 to
751.0010
500.00
750.00
1000.00
over 1000.00
6.00
11s0
1200
12.50
Apple Multifunction Card. The CPS
MultiFunction Card provides all the capabilities of serial interface, parallel
output, and a real time calendar /clock
on a single slot Apple II plug -in card.
Serial and parallel output may be used
simultaneously. The card is configured
from a set-up program on diskette which
sets all desired parameters. Once configured, it need never be set again. Address:
Mountain Computer Inc., 300 El Pueblo
Rd., Scotts Valley, CA 95066.
N.Y. State residents add appropriate sales tax
Minimum order $25. plus $4.50 shipping and handling.
TFREE
OLL
(800)645 -9518
in N.Y. State call (516) 752 -0050
Software
IBM Personal Computer OS. SB -86
is a proposed standard operating system
for 16 -bit systems and is completely
compatible with the new IBM Personal
Computer. It is written in 8086 assembly language. It has no 64K program
space limitation, although a single model can exceed 64K. The relocatable linking loader can provide for separate segments thus making it a truly relocatable
operating system. It supports advanced
error recovery procedures and has a
device- independent I /O. Interfacing
with hardware is simplified by its variable physical disk sector size. Disk programs can specify any logical record size
making large files very efficient. SB -86
has no file or disk size limitation (unlike
CP /M) and includes such features as
text editing template, no need to log in
disks, variable length logical records,
remembered EOF markers, and the
stamping of the creation and last- access
dates and times on each file. IBM will
offer software running under SB -86. Future extensions include disk buffering,
graphics and cursor positioning, Kanji
support, XENIX compatibility, multi user, hard disk, and networking. Address: Lifeboat Associates, 1651 Third
Avenue, New York, NY 10028 (Tel:
212- 860 -0300).
MUSIC LIVES ON TDK
ZX-SO Music. The Player ZX80 is a
music synthesis for the Sinclair ZX-80
with 4K BASIC and K RAM. It is single voiced with a 2- octave range and can
1
TDK cassettes are warranted for a lifetime.
88
© 1981 TDK Electronics Corp., Garden City, N.Y. 11530
CIRCLE NO. 59 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
computers
perform tunes up to 127 notes in length.
It can be run at any tempo and continuously replays until interrupted. Space
Muse-ak, a random sound program is
also included. $6.95. Address: Wm. D.
Maples, 688 Moore St., Lakewood, CO
80215.
Activity Scheduler. "Schedule"
was
developed for the North Star system,
and is soon to be made available for other systems. In operation, it can record as
many as 10 activities a day for a year,
with exact times and reminders of activities with no set time. All activities are
sorted with timed ones displayed in the
proper order, and reminders displayed
after timed activities. The output can be
selected from a single date, or a span
between dates. The data can appear on a
CRT or printer. It is written in North
Star BASIC, requires 8K of RAM, and
a
single- drive, single- density disk.
$19.95. Address: Azimuth Associates,
Box, 1636, Arlington, VA 22210.
Armored Attack. TANKTICS
Reference Charts. Printed
on durable credit -card plastic 81/2" X 11"
sheets, the MICRO CHARTS contain
the instruction set, disassembly tables,
ASCII, hex -to- decimal, compare vs
jump, effect on flags, interrupt structure, pinout, cycle times, memory map,
diagrams, addressing, powers of two,
and more. These charts are available for
the Z80, 5502 (65XX), 8080A, 8085A,
and relatives. $5.95 plus $1 postage/
handling. Address: Micro Logic Corp.,
Dept. PE, Box 174, Hackensack, NJ
07602 (Tel: 201 -342 -6518).
Applesoft Compiler. This product
translates standard Applesoft BASIC
programs into true machine code that
runs up to 12 times faster than the interpreter. Programs can be written in Applesoft BASIC, then compiled with the
advantage of machine language. It requires 48K RAM, Applesoft, Autostart
ROM, and at least one disk drive. It can
also operate in a 64K environment with
RAMcard. All Applesoft features, except dynamic array dimensioning and
interpreter statements such as List and
Trace, are supported. The 3.3 DOS ver-
Universal breadboarding elements
with 840 solderless plug -in tie points.
Combines distribution system with
.1 "x.1" matrix.
Compatible with all DIPs
and discretes with lead diameters up to
.032 ". Needs no special patch cords.
is a
war game in which a human plays tank
warfare against the computer. Five
scenerios are provided. It comes with a
22" by 16" mapboard and over 240
counters depicting 15 different armored
vehicles. Cassette version includes Atari
400/800 with 24K, Apple II with Applesoft and 16K, PET with 16K, and
TRS -80 Level II with 16K; $24. Diskettes versions include TRS -80 with
32K, Apple II with 32K, and Atari 800
with 40K; $29. Address: Avalon Hill
Game Co., 4517 Harford Rd., Baltimore, MD 21214 (Tel: 301 -254-5300).
ZX -80 Games. Written for the Sinclair
ZX -80 and MicroAce computers, A
Night in Las Vegas contains Slot Machine, Roulette, Blackjack, and Craps,
all with graphics. Comes with cassette,
manual, guide cards, miniature layouts,
chips, and full color keyboard overlays.
$9.95. Address: Lamo -Lem, Box 2382,
La Jolla, CA 92038 (Tel: 714-2625681).
TRS -80 Mailing List. MAIL -M3 features multiple labels (up to 4) across a
page, form input, report writer, multi sort keys, duplicate label checking, ran-
dom access, and search. Screen and edit
functions allow cursor movement, and
delete lines and characters. Fields include 9 -digit zip codes, and remarks.
The report writer allows specifying report formats without programming,
multiple sort keys, filter criteria, field
selection and record delete. It also
allows unlimited report formats. The report generator allows for record range,
selection code range, and sort field. You
can also set the number of lines on a
page. MAIL can store 500 records of
127 bytes each per diskette. It requires
TRSDOS. 48K version is $79, 32K version is $59. Address: Micro Architect
Inc., 96 Dothan St., Arlington, MA
02174 (Tel: 617-643 -4713).
DECEMBER 1981
ERASABLE CIRCUIT BUILDING.
Build a circuit almost as fast
as you dream it up. Pull it
as many as nine 14 -pin DIPs.
apart and do another everything's as good as new.
Instant -mount backing
and quick-removal screws
make stacking and racking
Our versatile Super -Strip
mini -breadboards give you
the same top -quality contacts you get in our fullscale ACE All-Circuit Evaluators. Not so "mini;' either.
You can build circuits with
a snap, too.
Where to buy? Phone (toll free) 800- 321 -9668 for the
name of your local A P distributor. In Ohio, call collect
216 -354 -2101. And ask for our
complete A P catalog.
A P PRODUCTS INCORPORATED
9450 Pineneedle Drive
P.O. Box 603
Mentor, Ohio 44060
[216] 354 -2101
TWX: 810-425 -2250
In Europe, contact A P PRODUCTS GmbH
Baeumlesweg 21 D -7031 Weil 1 W. Germany
CIRCLE
www.americanradiohistory.com
5
ON READER SERVICE CARD
computers
0550).
able. Address: Acorn Software Products
Inc., 634 North Carolina Ave., SE,
Washington, DC 20002 (Tel: 202 -5444259).
TRS -80 Bowling. TENPINS is a machine- language bowling game for one to
four players on a Model I /II system.
The game features realistic action and
sounds. Scoring, pinsetting, and ball return are all automatic, and the score sheet is readily available. Cassette is
$14.95, disk for Model I is $20.95. Disk
version for Model III soon to be avail-
TRS -80 Complier. The RSBASIC
(26 -2204) compiler is designed for the
TRS -80 Model I and Model III machines, having 48K dual -disk drives. It
will not convert programs written in the
BASIC interpreter. The software features sequential, random and single -key
ISAM file access; direct calls to machine language programs; full program
sion will soon be available. $200. Address: Hayden Book Co., 50 Essex St.,
Rochelle Park, NJ 07662 (Tel: 201 -843-
chaining capabilities with common variable storage; numerical accuracy to 14
significant digits for real numbers; step
and trace debugging; printer and disk
utilities; strings, arithmetic, trigonometric and bit operations; conversion between data types; and full editing. $149.
Model II Compiler BASIC (26 -4705)
requires a 64K single disk Model II and
is priced at $199. Address: Radio Shack
stores and Computer Centers.
FP FORTH. Floating point FORTH is
available for Z80/8080/8085 systems
with CP /M or CDOS and must be
ordered as an option with any version of
Timin FORTH. It is written in 8080
code and requires a minimum of 24K.
This product allows the user to work
with decimal numbers similar to BASIC
and FORTRAN. The 16 -bit and 32 -bit
integer capability of FIG FORTH is
retained, but a floating point mode is
added. These are single precision floating -point numbers with approximately 7
significant decimal digits. Addition,
subtraction, negation, multiplication, division, integer conversion, and comparison are supported. $100 plus cost of
Timin FORTH). Address: Timin Engineering Co., 9575 Genesee Ave., Suite
E -2, San Diego, CA 92121 (Tel: 714455- 9008).
R-600
Digital display, easy tuning,
front speaker
The R-600 is a high performance,
general coverage communications receiver covering 150 kHz
to 30 MHz in 30 bands, at an
affordable price. Use of PLL synthesized circuitry provides high
accuracy of frequency with
maximum ease of operation.
R -600 FEATURES:
150 kHz to 30 MHz in 30 bands,
AM, SSB, or CW.
Five-digit frequency display.
6 kHz filter for AM (wide), and
2.7 kHz filters for SSB, CW, and
Optional 13.8 VDC operation,
using DCK -1 cable kit.
Carrying handle, headphone
jack, and record jack.
R-1000
High performance,
easy to tune, covers
200 Hz to 30 MHz
Five-digit frequency display
with kHz resolution and
analog dial with precise gear
dial mechanism.
Built -in digital quartz
clock/timer.
Three IF filters, built -in.
Noise blanker.
1
AM (narrow).
RF step attenuator.
120 -240 VAC, optional DC.
Up- conversion PLL circuit, for
improved sensitivity, selectivity,
and stability.
Communications type noise
blanker.
RF attenuator allows 20 dB
attenuation of strong signals.
Tone control.
Front mounted speaker.
Coaxial, and wire antenna
terminals for 2 MHz to 30 MH z.
"S" meter, with 1 to 5 SINPO
scale, plus standard scale.
Wire terminals for 150 kHz
to 2 MHz.
100, 120, 220, 240 VAC,
50/60 Hz, switch selected.
90
KENWOOD
TRIO -KENWOOD COMMUNICATIONS
1111
West Walnut, Compton, California 90220
CIRCLE NO. 47 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
Baseball Program. Major League
Baseball contains statistics on every major league player and the rules of baseball. The user is the team manager and
you can play a game, recreate a season,
series, or World Series. A box score is
provided at the end of each game, and
season's statistics are provided for each
player used. TRS -80 Model I, Level II
16K cassette is $25; Apple II 32K cassette is $25; TRS -80 Model I, Level II
32K diskette is $30; Apple II 48K diskette is $30. Atari 800 version upcoming.
Address: Avalon Hill Game Company,
4517 Harford Rd., Baltimore, MD
21214 (Tel: 301 -254-5300).
TRS -80 Medical Program. The Medical Office Management program maintains 10,000 active patients and can
schedule up to 19,000 current and future appointments. The system can be
expanded to handle multiples of 10,000
active patients in a clinic setting and can
provide an appointment horizon as long
as 40 months. It can handle about 190
patients per physician a day with up to
600 transactions. A complete billing and
report system are included as well as a
complete payment, billing, label printing,
appointment reminders and
changes, and a help function. The program requires two or three disk drives,
130 -column printer, and a 48K TRS -80
Model I (Level II) or TRS -80 Model III
(Basic III) with TRSDOS. $449.95 Address: Charles Mann and Associates,
Micro Software Div., 55722 Santa Fe
Trail, Yucca Valley, CA 92284 (Tel:
0
714 -365- 9718).
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
Thevenin and Norton Equivalents.
These two theorems offer a means to
simplify complex networks by consoli-
dating them into an equivalent voltage
source with a series impedance (Thevenin) or into an equivalent current source
with a shunt impedance (Norton). The
WNEb'1MEIITAL
Z
FACTS
Z3
.1.
By Walter Buchsbaum
The Basic Network Laws
THE NAMES Kirchhoff, Thevenin,
and Norton are known to anyone
who has ever studied the principles of
electricity. In the complexity of modern
electronics, we tend to forget that any
circuit can be understood in terms of the
basic network laws laid down by these
men. In analyzing a new circuit, we can
apply them to gain an understanding of
how the circuit is supposed to operate.
Kirchhoff's Current Law. This law
states that the algebraic sum of all currents toward a node is zero. In other
words, all current flowing into a node
must also flow out of it. As illustrated in
Fig. 1, the sum of the currents flowing
from the node to the resistor, the capacitor and the inductor must be exactly
equal to the current flowing into that
node from the source. In the case of
varying currents, we use the operators p
and /p. These are simply shorthand
notations for the ac response of C and L.
When considering sine waves, these
operators become 27f, with the frequency given in hertz.
i
+
V
Z
1
(A)
trated in Fig. 2, it means that we can
determine an unknown voltage drop by
knowing the applied voltage and the other drops in the circuit. As in the current
law, the time -varying characteristics of
the capacitor and the inductor are represented by the operators p and /p.
1
Examples. In the small -signal, linear transistor amplifier shown in Fig. 3
there are two nodes, and Kirchhoff's
current law can be used to check that
the base -bias current, iB, will produce an
= VA Z2/(21 +
ZT=Z3+Z211Z1
VT
IN
=
=
Z2)
(Zi + Z2) + Z1 Z2]
Z2) /(Z3(Z1 + Z2) + Z1 Z2]
VA Z2 /(Z3
+
(Z1
For example:
I
If, VA
=
12 V
and Z1 = Z2 = Z3
Therenin equivalent:
=
1
kg
VT= (12 X 1)/2 =6V
ZT =
+ 0.5 = 1.5 kit
1
Norton equivalent:
NODE
= (12 X 103)/(2 X 106 +
= 12/(3 X 103) =4mA
YN = 2/(3 X 103)
= 0.667 millimhos
IN
Kirchhoff's Current Law:
IA
CURRENT
SOURCE
If,
= + i2 + i3
= CpV + V/R + V /Lp
= (Cp + 1/R + /Lp)V
p = d / dt (derivative operator)
1/p = fdt (integral operator)
11
1
Fig.
1.
Kirchhoff's current law.
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law.
This
states that the algebraic sum of all the
voltages around a closed loop of a network is zero. Thus, the applied voltage
must equal the sum of all the voltage
drops. This law, too, is based on the conservation of energy, one of the fundamental principles of physics. As illusV,
=
=
+
+
iB
ip
is
12 V; Va= 7.5 V; Vc = 8V; VE =
0.45V and R1 = 2.7 k12; R2 = 6.8 k12;
IE
Vcc
iB
=
=
kg; R4 = 10012
= 4.5/2.7 = 1.65 mA
ip= 7.5/6.8= 1.10 mA
is =4.0/1 = 4.0 mA
iE= 0.45/100 =4.5mA
And: is = iA
ip = 1.65
1.10
= 0.55 mA
R3
Then:
1
-
-
Fig. 3. Example using current law.
emitter current, iE, that adds up to the
sum of the is and iB.
In the high -voltage bleeder network of
a CRT power supply (Fig. 4), to determine the anode voltage, it is necessary to
measure only the focus voltage. Since
the value of each bleeder resistor is
known, the drops across them can be
subtracted from the focus voltage.
ANODE
FOCUS
R
V3
=
=
V1
Ri
(R
+V2 +V3
+ Lpi + i/Cp
+ Lp + 1/Cp)
Vfocuf
vonnde
TRANS
FORMER
i
Fig. 2. Kirchhoff's voltage law.
Fig. 5. At (A) is a typical network.
Solution at (B) uses Thevenin
equivalent; at (C), Norton equivalent.
iA
VOLTAGE
SOURCE
V=
106)
00004. `
ANN,.
Fig. 4. Example using voltage law.
DECEMBER 1981
network in Fig. 5A consists of a voltage
source, a Y- connected set of impedances, and a load or terminal impedance, Z. In actual applications, much
more complicated networks, including
those with multiple voltage sources, can
be simplified by applying Norton's or
Thevenin's theorems. The Thevenin
equivalent is shown in Fig. 511, together
with the formulas for the Thevenin voltage source, VT, and the Thevenin series
impedance, ZT. Another way to represent the network example would be
through Norton's equivalent, illustrated
in Fig. 5C. The current source, IN, and
the shunt admittance, YN, have somewhat more complex formulas than the
Thevenin equivalents, but this is due to
the particular example we have chosen.
Anyone doing network analysis soon
learns which network features lend
themselves to a voltage (Thevenin) or a
current (Norton) transformation. Once
either equivalent is obtained, it is relatively simple to get impedence matching
solutions for any kind of Z.
O
91
www.americanradiohistory.com
test equipment
Popular Electronics Tests
Global Model 4401 Frequency Standard
VA maximum. A 215- 230 -volt, 50-60 Hz version also is available.
Comments. The Model
4401 Frequency Standard was checked by the Lock-
l-
HE Global Specialties Corporation's Model 4401 Frequency
Standard is a low -cost, line-powered instrument capable of generating 24 frequencies of very stable, 50% duty cycle
square waves between 0.1 Hz and 5
MHz. It measures 3 "H x 10 "W x 7 "D
and weighs 2 pounds. Suggested retail
price is $288.
General Description.
All controls, indicators, and output connections are
made on the front panel. There is a row
of eight LEDs indicating output at 0.1,
1, 10, and 100 Hz; I, 10, and 100 kHz;
and
MHz. These LEDs glow in
accordance with the selection made via
1
CAI,IBRAT1dN
tNC
ATE.
IHONc C.OFIPANY.
C
of
cLRTmc
..
(.i(hY\ill)Fll.,.
the FREQUENCY SELECT pushbutton.
Multiplication of the base frequency
(X1, X2, and X5) is made via the FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER rotary switch. Another LED is used to indicate OVEN
READY conditions. The 10-MHz crystal
oscillator is maintained at a constant
temperature within this oven to provide
accuracy and long-term stability despite
ambient changes.
Two BNC connectors provide outputs
at 10 MHz and the selected frequency.
The POWER toggle switch is on the left
side. The case is supported on four skid proof bumpers and ventilation slots are
provided on both the upper and lower
surfaces of the enclosure.
The 10-MHz output provides a 50ohm, TTL- compatible square wave, buffered to drive up to 10 TTL loads. It is
short -circuit protected and the rise and
fall times of the output waveform are 20
nanoseconds into a 50 -ohm load. The
selected output frequency is also 50ohm, TTL- compatible and can drive up
to 10 TTL loads. It too is short -circuit
protected, with 20- nanosecond rise and
fall times into 50 ohms.
The basic frequency reference is a 10MHz crystal mounted within an oven
maintained (as long as power is turned
on) at 55°C. Stability is ± 0.5 ppm
(parts per million) and aging is less than
ppm /year. An accessible, internal control can be used to calibrate the instrument against station W W V B. Power requirement is 105 -135 volts, 57 -63 Hz, 5
1
heed Electronics Instrumentation Measurement Laboratory against a cesium beam frequency standard (HP5O62C)
traceable to the National Bureau of
Standards. The Model 4401 met or
exceeded its claimed specifications in all
respects.
The Model 4401 is an excellent source
of discrete, selectable, square waves that
can be used as an oscilloscope time -base
calibrator, precision clock source for
digital circuits including microprocessors, a frequency counter calibrator, or
any other application where a precise
frequency source is required.
Once power is turned on, the 4401
should be allowed to "sit" for 15 to 20
minutes with the OVEN READY indicator
glowing. (This indicates that the internal crystal oven has come up to temperature.) During this period, the default
frequency is 0.1 Hz as indicated by its
glowing LED. The FREQUENCY SELECT
pushbutton is then depressed to step the
glowing LED indication to the desired
frequency. The FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER
rotary switch is used to select either X1
(the front -panel LED indicated frequency), X2, or X5. This arrangement allows
for 24 frequencies between 0.1 Hz and 5
MHz.
While the 4401 was warming up, we
checked the accompanying well -written
and profusely illustrated manual. Besides giving full details of installation,
operation, and testing of the 4401, the
manual provides some examples of application for the instrument.
The first use we made of the 4401 was
to check out our frequency counters and
scopes. The two frequency counters
were "on the head," but one of our
expensive scopes was found to require
some work in the horizontal section to
improve the linearity. Any measurements (frequency or period) made with
this scope would have been almost 10%
off! With the information provided by
the manual, we used the output square
waves to check some audio equipment.
Square waves can be used for audio testing since, in order to reproduce, say a
10 -kHz square wave, the amplifier must
resolve at least 10 harmonics, making it
good to 100 kHz. This is an excellent
and fast test for audio systems, since it
also shows the effect (and confirms
operation) of bass /treble controls, and
any variable equalizers in the circuit. In
an instant, you can see the reaction of
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
92
www.americanradiohistory.com
conplique
test equipment
complique
11/l
the input square wave to the adjustable
frequency response of the system. A
small value capacitor can be connected
across the audio input terminals to
"slow down" the 20 -µs risetime.
The manual section on testing of
transmission lines sparked quite a bit of
interest since we often use long lengths
of coaxial cable. The tests show whether
a short, open, or "kink" in the line can
affect performance. Various impedance
discontinuities show up when using the
4401 with a scope, and the technique
will even measure the length of cable
when the cable is still on the spool!
We did not use the 4401 to clock a
microprocessor, but we did use it to trigger some digital logic circuitry we were
working on. We experimented with raising the clock rate, then hand -selecting
the input TTL logic, until we could run
the circuit at almost double the clock
rate we had originally intended to use.
We are using the model 4401 as a frequency standard to check many of our
bench instruments. We turn the standard on first thing in the morning and
allow it to keep warm all day in the
interest of stability. Frequency counters
and scopes are checked each morning to
make sure that all measurements made
during the day will be "on the head."
Using the 4401, a scope, and Lissajous
patterns, we also check the dial calibration of our audio and r -f signal generators. About the only thing we cannot
check with the 4401 is our DMMs.
We routed the SELECT output signal,
via a switch, to our audio bench, where
it was terminated in a 50 -ohm resistor,
and used for fast audio system checking.
This same source is used to check digital
circuits that require clocking, since a
wide variety of clock rates is available.
Although an accurate frequency
standard may appear as a luxury item at
first glance, given the state-of- the -art of
most modern electronic appliances, a
service bench without some type of standard against which instruments can be
checked, is an instrument bench that
may be giving false data.
-Les Solomon
computique
HEWLETT
ChP] PACKARD stead y uarters
THE HP -85!
Complete Enhancements,
APPLE E. II PLUS
I IRK. 32K. 48K1
APPLE III
DOS 3.3
APPLE PLOT
APPLE PASCAL 164K1
APPLE FORTRAN
VISICALC 16 SEC
VISIPLOT
VISITRENO
Peripherals
and Accessories
MICRO- COURIER
EPSON
CENTRONICS
UME
ILEN TYPE
ANADEO
SANYO. BW. COLOR
APPLE WRITER
GRAPHICS TABLET
BPI
IGL. AR. & PAYROLL'
MODEM
DDW JONES NEWS
& QUOTES
DECISION
HP
HP-32E SCI
Texas Instruments
PROGRAMMABLE.
TI-59 960 PROG
PC -100C
LCD -PROD NEW
TI -3011 NEW
TI
-35SP SC
7I -40 SCI NEW
BUS ANAL
..
BUS ANAL II
BUS CARL
MBA
INVEST ANALYST
TI.54 SCI NEW
1.5511 NEW
TI 57 PROM SCI
TI 58C PPL/Û CAI C
I
179.95
169.95
59.95
18.95
22.50
28.95
19.95 SPEAK 8 SPELL. READ
44.95 SPEAK 8 MATH.. ..
39.95 TOUCH 8 TELL NEW
54.95 TI -5100 DISPLAY
48.95 TI -5010 HAND /PRINT
39.95 TI -5120 PRINTER
44.95 TI -5130 PRINT /DISP
39.95 TI -5135 PRINTIDISP
89.95 11 -5142 PRINT DISP
.
.
59.95
CALL
CALL
CALL
HP -11C NEW
HP -12C NEW
HP-43, 41CV
.CALL
HP -85
CALL
HP -125 NEW
ATOUCH THE FUTURE
ATARI 400 (16K)
ATARI' VISICALC AVAILABLE
349.95
CHESS CHALLENGER
SENSORY CHESS
89.95
129.95
SHARP
59.95
59.95
54.95
39.95
49.95
59.95
79.95
79.95
99.95
HP -37E BUS
79.95
114.95
119.95
49.95
.
HP -38C BUS /RE
AUTHORIZED DEALER AND SERVICE CENTER
GET A S20 REBATE
ON THE TI-59
..
.
HP-34C SCI
WARRANTY
_-
-
289.95
584.95
HP -33C SCI
GREENSCREEN
EXTENDER
EVALUATOR
CONTROLLER
-67
HP -97
.-se
CALL
7
5813 SCI PROGRAMMABLE
1182A PRINT /DISPLAY
.34.95
74.95
79.95
89.95
.
TALKING CLOCK
EL -6200 DIG EXEC SEC
ALARM
CASIO
INSTRUMENT CALC
W100 DEPTH TESTED ALARM CHRONO
FX7100 SCI CHRONO ALARM CALC ..
FX3500 SCI PROGRAMMABLE CALC
69.95
39.95
49.95
39.95
.
.
(714) 549-7373
(800) 432 -7066
(800) 854 -0523
INFORMATION LINE
TOLL FREE (Within CA1
TOLL FREE (Outside CAI
WILL MEET OR BEAT ANY COMPETITOR'S ADVERTISED PRICE ON MOST ITEMS IF HE HAS THE MDSE. ON HAND.
VISA, MASTERCARD, MONEY ORDER, PERS CK 114 WRKG DAYS TO CLR. I, COD ACCEPTED, MIN 54 95 SHIPPING U S A
AIR ON RI /OST; CAL, RES ADD 6%, SALES TX ALL MDSE SUBJ TO AVAIL., PRICES SUBJ TO CHAN' /E.
WE
MAIL
S PHONE
ORDERS ONLY
WRITE
OR CALL
3211 SO. HARBOR BLVD.
SANTA ANA, CA 92704
NEWPORT
17141 549 -7373
PASADENA
MID -WILSHIRE
12131 795 -3007
12131 385 -7 77 7
TARZANA
FOR
FREE
12131
LAWNDALE
705-7507
WEST LOS ANGELES
CATALOG
121 31
42 00423
(2131 370-5795
BREA
(7141 990-6600
PROFESSIONAL DISCOUNTS
CIRCLE NO.
8 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
McIntosh
STEREO CATALOG
and FM DIRECTORY
Get all the newest and latest information on the new
McIntosh catalog. In addition you will receive an FM station directory that covers all of North America.
CIRCLE NO. 104 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
TO--0-.
00000 0
-o=l-
SEND
-l'osJ
McIntosh Laboratory, Inc.
East Side Station P.O. Box 96
Binghamton, N.Y. 13904
PE
NAME
TODAMI
ADDRESS
CITY
'N-ENRy/
DECEMBER 1981
STATE
ZIP
If you are in a hurry for your catalog please send the coupon to McIntosh.
For non rush service send the Reader Service Card to the magazine.
CIRCLE NO. 29 ON FREE INFORMATION CARO
www.americanradiohistory.com
SOUD-SVIlE
DENCLOPMCNTS
By Forrest M. Mims
Liquid Crystals
IF LIQUIDS flow and crystals are solid, then how can a crystal be a liquid?
The answer to this question provides the
key to why liquid crystals can be used in
such important applications as tempera-
ture measurement, pressure detection,
electro- optical shutters and various
kinds of displays.
A liquid crystal is a viscous fluid containing rodlike molecules aligned in a
recognizable order. Many organic compounds fit this description.
Liquid crystals are categorized, according to the alignment of their molecules, into three major types: nematic,
smectic and cholesteric. Figure illustrates the molecular alignment of the
three types.
The molecules in the nematic liquid
crystal are parallel to one another. The
word "smectic" comes from the Greek
1
11101.01
1
0!"1''''1
0110111IHIM
..
'7TT-r
..qT...
¡T,``,'.+!.,
...-s
.r..'T..+.!`..
si.--r-'r.,,
-..-.r'.-._.
-l
Fig.
1.
How molecules are organized
in liquid crystals: (A) nematic,
(B) smectic, and (C) cholesteric.
word for soap, the most common representative of this kind of liquid crystal.
Its molecules are arranged in layers.
Adjacent layers can slide over one another since the molecules in one layer
cannot move into an adjacent layer.
The molecules in cholesteric liquid
crystals are also in layers. However, in
each layer, they are parallel to one
another and so the crystals resemble
nematic material. The orientation of the
molecules in a layer is displaced slightly
from the layer above and the one below.
Plotting the orientation of the molecules
in each layer along a vertical axis shows
how the molecules rotate to give a helical pattern.
Applications for Liquid Crystals.
Cholesteric and nematic liquid crystals
have several important applications in
solid -state electronics. All liquid crystals
exhibit temperature sensitivity, but cholesteric crystals indicate temperature
differences by changing their color. Nematic crystals, which are normally
transparent, can be made opaque by the
application of a low voltage. Both these
effects are caused by the movement of
molecules in the liquid crystal.
There are two principal ways of using
cholesteric liquid crystals to detect temperature. In one method the liquid crystal is mixed with a solvent called a carrier and sprayed or brushed over a
black, water -soluble lacquer which has
previously been applied to the object
being tested. The solvent quickly evaporates, leaving behind a thin film of cholesteric fluid.
Depending upon the cholesteric material used, temperatures ranging from 0 °
C to 200° C can be detected. Within
this broad range, the liquid crystal will
indicate a temperature interval as narrow as 0.5° C by a change in color from
red (coolest temperature) to blue
(warmest temperature). The crystal will
appear black, the color of the underlying
paint, at temperatures above and below
the sensitive region. The sensitive region
of some materials may be several tens of
degrees wide.
Often, color photographs are made of
a cholesteric liquid- crystal temperature
monitoring test. The resolution of the
process is high enough to permit thermal
mapping of some integrated circuit
chips. This permits hot spots to be pin-
pointed. A cholesteric coating can also
reveal the location of conductors in an
opaque material, cracks in metal and
flaws in honeycomb structures.
Even though a coating of cholesteric
liquid crystals can be removed with
water, the application and removal of
the material is messy and takes time. I
know from firsthand experience because
I've used cholesteric liquid crystals on
mylar films to visualize the cross -section
of infrared laser beams.
A far better approach is to encapsulate the liquid- crystal compound in
spherical capsules about 10 to 30
microns in diameter using a process perfected by the National Cash Register
Company (Dayton, OH 45409). NCR
sells encapsulated crystals in a water based slurry suitable for direct application over a black background. This precludes the need for the solvent which is
required in direct application of the
material.
NCR also makes paper and plastic
sheets coated with encapsulated, and
therefore dry, crystals. These temperature- sensitive sheets can be used to
make disposable thermometers, temperature indicators for power transistors
and ICs and many kinds of novelty
devices.
You can buy liquid -crystal thermometers at department and specialty stores.
Edmund Scientific (101 E. Gloucester
Pike, Barrington, NJ 08007) sells assorted sheets of encapsulated liquid
crystals. They offer at least six different
temperature ranges.
The major application for nematic liquid crystals is alphanumeric displays for
'J1H1H11i1p11tf111f1i111i1111111l
Large- format LCD readouts from Beckman
Instruments operate on 3 to 15 V rms
and require as little as 50 microwatts.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
94
www.americanradiohistory.com
solid-state developments
clocks, watches, calculators and other
devices with digital readouts. This technology has come a long way in the ten
years since I first experimented with a
homemade nematic crystal electrooptical shutter. In those days commercial nematic liquid -crystal displays were
unavailable and it was necessary for
experimenters to place drops of greasy
nematic compound on small sheets of
glass coated with a conductive layer of
tin oxide. Air bubbles and leakage were
the two biggest problems- assuming the
experimenter was able to hold everything together with tape or glue.
Today a wide range of both digital
and alphanumeric nematic liquid -crystal display (LCD) devices are available.
Recently several companies have begun
offering high-density dot -matrix LCDs
which permit low- resolution graphic displays. The availability of these and other
kinds of LCD readouts has made a great
impact on the market for light- emitting
diode (LED) displays. Since both LCD
and LED displays are widely used in
applications requiring miniature readouts, it's instructive to compare their
advantages and disadvantages.
LED Displays. LEDs can be directly
driven by most ICs, although CMOS
chips may require buffering if high current levels are desired. They operate at
less than 2 volts and possess the long life,
reliability and robust nature of most
other solid -state devices. And they are
readily multiplexed.
On the other hand, the manufacture
of LED readouts involves a complex
series of fabrication steps. Light -emitting semiconductors are much more
costly than liquid crystals. A single segment or element of a LED readout consumes from 0.5 to 5 milliamperes. Also,
LED displays are difficult or even impossible to read in bright sunlight.
Liquid Crystal Displays. LCDs are
easier to make and less costly than their
LED counterparts. They are easily read
in bright sunlight. They consume minuscule amounts of power (typically to 5
microamperes per square centimeter of
display area). And they can be made in
much larger formats than LED versions
PAY TV
-
ANTENNAS
BAND MICROWAVE
RECEIVE EXCELLENT RECEPTION OF "COMMERCIAL FREE" FIRST
RUN MOVIES, SPORTS,
8
CONCERTS.
BEWARE OF CHEAP
IMITATIONS
Fully Assembled MDS Rod
Down Converter Factory Built Tuner
Full Guarantee
Easy to Follow Instructions
ALSO.. UHF DECODERS, BLACK
BOX CABLE DESCRAMBLERS.KITS
.
°law r BOARDâF ANSJWTENNAS.
All Mounting Hardware
YOUR DECODER HEADQUARTERS
FOR NFORMATCN PACKAGE SEND SID
*****
THE
:15995
NivOL
DISCOUNTS
VIDEO MAGICIAN
FOR CREDIT CARD
ORDERS CALL TOLL FREE...
VISA OR MASTERCARD
1-800-227-1617 Ext. 680
LIMITED TIME ONLY!
Calif. Residents 1- 800. 772.3545 Ext. 680
1604-675 W. HASTINGS STREET VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA
CANADA, V6BINZ 1604) 682 -2559
CIRCLE NO. 49 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
"...A thrilling
experience!"
That's what Video magazine had
to say about the NOVABEAM®
Model One color projection video
system. They also called it's 6.5'
diagonal- measure picture, the
largest available in home television,
"the sharpest, brightest picture
we have ever seen."
It's no wonder that the best home
projection system available is built
by Kloss Video. Back when the
big TV manufacturers were still
saying it couldn't be done, electronics pioneer Henry Kloss was
developing the means to make life -size television a
reality. He came up with innovations like the unique
NOVATRON® projection tube which make the
NOVABEAM Model One, according to CBS LABS in Video Review magazine,
"by far the most impressive projection TV we have ever seen!'
1
of the same display.
Beckman Instruments, Inc. (2500
Harbor Blvd., Box 3100, Fullerton, CA
92634) makes large- format, 7- segment
LCD readouts that can be driven directly by suitable CMOS circuitry and can
operate at 3 to 20 volts rms. Normally
all segments are transparent. Applying a
voltage to a segment causes the nematic
crystal to become opaque and the segment to appear dark.
Power consumption of the Model 740
6 -digit readout is only 50 microwatts. A
comparable LED readout would consume some 70 milliwatts assuming a forward voltage of 2 volts, a drive current
of 5 milliamperes per segment and a
multiplexing scheme wherein only one
of the six digits is on at any time.
Operating advantages like these are
The NOVABEAM Model One provides a viewing experience unmatched by
any other conventional or projection TV set, yet at a price which Videophile
Magazine called "clearly one of the biggest bargains in home video today."
Visit your authorized Kloss Video dealer to find out why Videophile also said,
"See the NOVABEAM before handing over any of your hard-earned
dough for another projector!'
NOVABEAM
oOHEFROM KLOSS VIDEO CORPORATION
"The Projection Television Experts"
fJ
For information & name of nearest dealer, write to
Kloss Video.
145 Sidney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139
617-547-6363
NOVABEAM
CIRCLE NO 26 ON FREE INFORMATION CARO
DECEMBER 1981
95
solid -state developments
(+3
á
ICS
BCD
INPUTS
VDO
TO +15V)
f16
CI
10
2
a
C
3
(A>
LCD
READOUT
b
543
5
lb
f
el
lc
e
BLANK
(WHEN HIGH)""
d
f
SAVE
(WHEN LOW)
BACKPLANE
T.005j4F
HUSTLER
-
STILL THE LEADER
IN DUAL CB
ANTENNA SYSTEMS
Since introducing the industry's first dual
CB antenna systems, Hustler has continually led the way in the development
of these advanced designs.
Today, Hustler offers you the widest selection of quality dual CB systems available. Whether you're behind the wheel
of the family car, RV, or a long -haul
semi, a Hustler dual antenna system
will give you a signal pattern unmatched in uniformity. Total electrical
and mechanical reliability. Freedom
from fading and blind spots when you
change direction, and twice the signal
capture area.
Hustler dual antenna systems feature
professional -quality components: heavy
chrome plated mounts, oversized
"Hi -Q" resonators, superflex stainless
steel radiators, dual phasing harnesses
with balanced power feed, and much
more...
For a consistently clear channel any
way you turn, you can't surpass dual CB
antenna systems by the original: Hustler
- still the standard
of performance.
3275 North "B" Avenue
Kissimmee, Florida 32741
Alanuveon
Como.y
Fig. 2. How to use the 4543 CMOS LCD
7- segment
latch /decoder/driver.
accompanied by several drawbacks. One
is that LCD readouts cannot be read in
the dark. For this reason some LCD
readouts include a miniature incandescent lamp. Another disadvantage is that
LCD readouts must be powered by an
ac, not dc, voltage (usually 3 to 15 V).
The driving requirements preclude direct drive of LCDs by standard ICs.
Instead, special driving circuits or LCD
compatible chips are required.
Operating temperature is another
drawback since nematic liquid crystal
will both freeze and boil. This gives a
typical useful operating temperature
range from about -10° C to +70° C.
Finally, LCD readouts have much slower turn -on and turn-off times than
LEDs. This and their driving requirements make multiplexing difficult.
Their disadvanatages notwithstanding, LCD readouts have all but replaced
LED displays in watches and calculators. One of the main reasons is their
ultra -low power consumption. Couple
this with CMOS circuitry and you have,
for example, a watch that continuously
displays the time for up to two years
before battery replacement is required!
Of course LED readouts still have an
important role to play, particularly
when a self -illuminating display is required. In addition, LEDs are inherently
sturdier than their glass- encased LCD
counterparts.
For this reason, some IC makers cater
to both kinds of displays. For example,
Intersil makes two versions of a single chip panel meter. The ICL 7106 is
designed to drive LCDs while the ICL
7107 is designed to drive LEDs. They
are available from Intersil (10710 N.
Tantau Ave., Cupertino, CA 95014).
An LCD Driver Chip. Many different
clock and watch chips designed specifically for driving LCDs are now available. But what if you want to interface a
circuit of your own design with an
LCD? One approach is shown in Fig. 2.
Here a 4543 CMOS BCD -to -7- segment
latch /decoder /driver is used to drive a
7- segment LCD display. Though the
4543 can drive various kinds of displays,
it is specifically designed for driving
LCD readouts.
When used to drive an LCD display, a
square wave must be applied to both the
phase input (pin 6) of the 4543 and the
backplane of the LCD readout. This
provides the ac driving voltage required
by the LCD. The decoded outputs from
the 4543 are connected directly to the
LCD segment pins.
Note how two NAND gates are used
in Fig 2 to make a simple square -wave
generator for the 4543. Be sure to tie
unused inputs to V10 or ground. For
more information about the 4543, see
the data sheets published by Motorola,
National and other CMOS companies.
The National data sheet for its version
of the 4543 (CD4543BM /CD4543BC)
includes the circuit for a 31/2 -digit DVM
with an LCD readout.
Reader Mall. I would like to thank
Walter S. Swift of Boynton Beach, FL,
for suggesting the topic of this month's
column. Walter wrote to ask about the
possibility of a liquid -crystal indicator
much like the LED variety. He then
suggested I cover the subject of liquid
crystals in a forthcoming column.
As a result this month's column does
not include news about new chips and
components. And we've just barely begun to cover the subject of LCDs. For
more information about liquid crystals,
consult the hundreds of articles and
technical papers on the subject that have
been published since about 1965. You
will find most of them at your local
library. If you would like to suggest a
topic for coverage in this column, jot
down your idea on a postcard. Though
the volume of mail makes it impossible
to answer individual suggestions, I will
try to schedule coverage of the suggestions which have potential.
CIRCLE NO. 20 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
96
www.americanradiohistory.com
EYPEJME11TER'S
CORNER
By Forrest M. Mims
Experimenting With a Joystick
Part 2. Some Typical Applications
LAST MONTH we learned about and experimented with
a few basic applications for single and two -axis joysticks.
This month we'll experiment with several analog and digital
applications for this very important type of control device.
The joystick I used with the experimental ciruits we'll be
discussing, each of which I assembled and tested, contains two
100 -kSI linear -taper potentiometers. It's available from Radio
Shack for $4.95 (catalog number 271 -1705). Other joysticks
may also be used. Those containing logarithmic-taper potentiometers, for example, are usually better suited for audio
control applications. Other sources for joysticks include some
of the mail order electronic parts supply companies that
advertise in this magazine. You can also salvage used joysticks from discarded video games and remote -control transmitter systems.
A Joystick -Controlled Mixer. A summing amplifier
allows two or more signals to be simultaneously amplified.
When used for audio applications, summing amplifiers are
usually called mixers.
A typical mixer is a relatively simple circuit that allows two
or more microphones to be connected to a single power amplifier. The mixer may or may not include a stage of preamplification. More elaborate mixers have half a dozen or more
inputs, each having its own gain and, perhaps, other signal
controls.
You can make a simple, but functional mixer by connecting
several resistors, one for each channel, to one of the inputs of
an operational amplifier. If potentiometers are used instead of
fixed resistors, it is possible to control the amplitude of the
signal from each channel.
This is where the joystick comes in. Normally, a separate
potentiometer is required for each channel. Since the joystick
incorporates two or four pots in a single structure, the signal
amplitude of two to four channels can be controlled by moving
a single control.
Figure 1 shows a very simple joystick -controlled mixer. The
simplicity of this circuit will allow you to appreciate the ver/N
R/
R3
our
/N
B
RI AND R2
AteE
R/=,PZ =R3
,vz,
oysT/cK
POTENT/ONETERs
_
Fig.
1.
A
joystick- controlled
mixer amplifier.
satility of a dual -channel mixer having a single mixing control. For example, I fed two audio channels (music and a tone)
into the two inputs and was able to control the mixture with
one hand while making other changes with the other hand.
I used a joystick containing 100 -ka linear -taper potentiometers in this circuit. Logarithmic -taper pots would be better.
You can try the basic resistive summer with many different
op amps and audio amplifier chips. Joysticks containing four
pots are hard to find, but they permit four channels to be
simultaneously controlled.
Joystick -Controlled Tone and Amplitude. Figure
2
shows an experimental joystick tone- and amplitude -controlled amplifier. In operation, RI controls the amplitude of
the signal while CI and R2 serve as a simple, but adjustable,
tone -control filter.
To experiment with this circuit, connect an audio -frequency
tone source to the input. A sine wave works better than fast rising square waves. Move the stick so that RI is rotated and
the amplitude of the tone from the speaker will be altered.
+9v
ca
./RF
2
C/
(ssa TEXT)
--i( t
-C3
LH386
t
4
/N
1
c3
T.
oSA.F
R3
R
1!
8n'N
sPtR
Fig. 2. Experimental
joystick -controlled amplifier.
1
77'
o
ysr/c.t
R/= Rz =
(SEE TEXT)
Move the stick so that R2 is rotated and the amplitude of
the tone will also be altered; but in this case, the change in
amplitude is dependent upon the frequency of the incoming
signal.
The first -order, high -pass Butterworth filter formed by Cl
and R2 has a half -power frequency cutoff that is the reciprocal of 6.28R2C1 or 0.159/R2CI. The actual cutoff frequency
you obtain may differ from that predicted by the formula. For
example, when R2 is 50,000 ohms and CI is 0.0001µF, the
formula predicts a half -power frequency cutoff of 3,185 Hz. I
measured a half -power frequency cutoff of about 1,000 Hz.
In any event, this simple circuit demonstrates how a single
control can alter both the gain and frequency response of an
amplifier. If you wish to design your own joystick -controlled
amplifiers, there are several excellent books which contain
helpful design guidelines. Among them are: The Design of
Active Filters, With Experiments by Howard Berlin (E &L
Instruments, 1977); Handbook of Operational Amplifier Circuit Design by David Stout and Milton Kaufman (McGraw Hill, 1976); and Don Lancester's Active-Filter Cookbook
(Sams, 1975). You can find these and other books on the
design of suitable filters in better libraries. You can also find
some design information in application notes published by
various op -amp manufacturers. See, for example, National's
Audio /Radio Handbook and Linear Applications Handbook.
(Due to the volume of mail I receive, I will be unable to design
custom joystick -controlled circuits for individual readers.)
Dual -Tone Mixer. Figure 3 is an experimental joystick -controlled dual -tone mixer with which I've been experimenting.
The circuit is designed around a 556 dual timer chip.
The 556 is functionally identical to two 555 timers on a
single chip. Each half of the circuit in Fig. 3 is connected as an
DECEMBER 1981
97
www.americanradiohistory.com
experimenter's corner
astable multivibrator whose frequency of oscillation is controlled by one of the two 100 -k12 potentiometers in a joystick.
The frequency is also controlled by CI and C2.
Both halves of the circuit will oscillate without C3 and C4;
but the capacitors are necessary to prevent uncontrolled interactions between the two oscillators.
The output from each tone generator is coupled into a simple audio mixer made from R5, C6 and a 741 op amp. Potentiometer R5 also serves as a balance control.
Capacitor C5 is not part of the mixer, but serves to stretch
the fast rising and falling pulses from the two tone generators.
This causes the sounds produced by this circuit to be more
tolerable than they normally are.
For initial experiments, connect an external amplifier to pin
6 of the 741. The values of CI and C2 should be similar or
identical. Move the joystick off center, apply power and
adjust R5 until the two simultaneous tones have approximately the same amplitude. You can then move the joystick in
various directions to produce a wide range of unusual tone
combinations.
The tones produced by this circuit are for the most part very
unpleasant. Nevertheless, the circuit nicely demonstrates how
a single control device can regulate two independent circuits.
If you would like to follow up with circuit ideas of your own,
consider substituting the 4046 CMOS phase - locked loop for
the 556 (see the July and August 1980 installments of this
column). The following circuit shows just one way the 4046
can be used in conjunction with a joystick.
Percussion Synthesizer. The sound produced by percussion instruments such as drums and wood blocks can be simulated by a damped op-amp oscillator. Changing one or two
component values permits a variety of percussion sounds to be
synthesized.
The circuit in Fig. 4 permits many different percussion
Components Express, Inc.
1
380
E.
Have you k,ssed your computer lately?
Edinger. Unit CC Santa Ana. CA 92705 (714) 558.3972
BROAD BAND MICROWAVE
RECEIVER SYSTEM
1.8GHZ to 2.4 GHZ
snooze d'o
only
$295.
/A'fl
P°'
E
1/,t,
oysT/ck
r I
r00
1111111
k
Mounting Bracket
Mounting Clamp
Instructions
300 Ohm to 75 Ohm
RS
IOOk(BHCHNCE)
9
I
c6
556
R6
e-,\M/
/k
/OOk
+ 9V
7
cz
.ot-lr,.F
7
/µF
F
+
OUT
Fig. 3. Dual -tone mixer.
sounds to be generated under complete manual control. Percussion synthesizers described previously in this column operate when a switch is closed and released. The percussion
effects produced by the circuit in Fig. 4 can be controlled in
real time simply by moving a joystick back and forth. Wide,
circular movements of the joystick produce sounds ranging
from that emitted by a plucked violin string to a tapped glass.
Various bell -like sounds can also be produced.
Referring to Fig. 4, note that RI is the horizontal -axis pot
in a two -pot joystick and is connected as a voltage divider
Micromint will put both a
computer development system
and an OEM dedicated controller
in the palm of your hand
for only $ 195
Z8 MICROCOMPUTER
On
board tiny BASIC interpreter.
Parallel and serial I/O ports.
6 interrupts.
RS -232 CONNECTOR
Just attach a CRT terminal and
immediately write
control programs in BASIC.
4K BYTES OF RAM
2
with Connectors
3 Feet Coax Cable
with Connectors
Blow power quasi-static
As featured in
onboard parallel ports.
7.3728MHZ crystal for fast control operations.
Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar,
JUMPER SELECTABLE MEMORY OPTIONS
RAM, 2716 or 2732 EPROM operation.
LOW POWER
Consumes only 11/2 WATTS at +5, +12
and 12V
Byte Magazine,
July and August 1981.
4K
Line of sight to 250 miles.
Will receive within the frequency band from satelites
primary microwave stations, and repeater microwave
booster stations.
CONTENTS: Completely packaged in 19 "x19"x4 1/2" corrugated
carton complete with list.
WARRANTY:
180 days for all factory defects and electronic failures for normal
useage and handling Defective sub assemblies will be replaced with
new or re- manufactured sub assembly on a 48 hour exchange
guarantee.
This system is not a kit and requires no additional devices or
equipment other than a TV set to place in operation.
Deelaf ingiones invited
X
RAM. EPROM pin compatible.
SWITCH SELECTABLE BAUD RATES
110.9600 BPS.
FULLY EXPANDABLE
Data and address buses available
for 124K memory
and I/O expansion.
750 Ohm to
300 Ohm Adapter
60 Feet Coax Cable
RANGE:
SCOPE:
7
3
5
R3
/k
261324K
ALA RM
Adapter
CIRCLE NO.
INIt
OUTPUTS
With built -in- converter to channel
2, 3, or 4 of any standard TV set.
24" Dish
Feed -Horn Receive,
®
+9V
RI
Optional power supply
+5, +12 and -12V) $35.
Please include $4 for shipping and handling.
To Order:
Call Toll Free: 1.800. 645.3479
(In N.Y. State Call: 1.516. 374.6793)
(
Za is
a
trademark of Ziiog Inc.
For Information Call:
1.516.374.6793
MICROMINT INC.
917 Midway
Woodmere, N.Y. 11598
CIRCLE NO. 32 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
98
www.americanradiohistory.com
which provides a variable voltage to the input of the voltage controlled oscillator (vco) section of a 4046 phase -locked loop.
The vco output is coupled into a 741 op amp through gain
control R2. Capacitor C3 enhances the percussion sounds by
stretching the incoming signal from the 4046.
The vertical -axis pot in the joystick, R3, can be adjusted
along with R2 to alter the gain of the 741. Experimenting
with the resistance of R2 will help provide a full range of
percussion sounds. The sounds themselves are produced when
the joystick is moved in various patterns.
To create percussion sounds, for example, orient the joystick so that back and forth movements control the amplitude
pot (R3). Push the stick away to its outermost limit, and the
sound will cease as the noninverting input of the 741 is
brought to ground through R2. Pull the stick straight back to
achieve the percussion effect. You'll hear a sudden tone followed by rapid damping as the stick reduces the amplitude of
the signal. For different tone frequencies, move the stick to
the left or right before pulling it back. This will let you quickly change from plucking sounds to bells, etc.
If the joysticks are connected as shown in Fig. 4, the sound
will cease when the stick is pulled back and rotated to the left.
This allows you to fully recover and prepare for a new sound
cycle without the presence of an intermediate (and highly distracting) tone.
For tinkling bell or plucked string effects, rapidly rotate the
stick in a clockwise direction. You can experiment with the
values of Cl and C3 and of R2 for different effects.
OYS T iC K
ARRqNGEMEN r
7v/(oAVZ)
79/(OiNC)
I
fib
teacher. etc
I
Op4
OU4j$
EG3000
Ser1eS
4PPV}.pps
j$
go-
`1'
WITH
/
''
\\\:::::,,,,-----
ONLY
16K user RAM
plus extended 12K Microsoft
$575
POSTAGE ¡
BASIC in ROM Fully TRS -BO Level II
$20
software compatible Huge
range of software already available
Self contained, PSU.
UHF modulator. and cassette Simply plugs into video
monitor or UHF TV Full expansion to disks and printer
Absolutely complete - lust fit Into mains plug
"
-,
o,44.,-....4
-,
.
04)"'
SHARP
PC1211
$190
Figure 5 shows a straightforward hardware approach. This
circuit digitizes the status of one of the pots in a joystick. The
joystick pot is connected as a voltage divider which provides a
variable voltage to the input of the analog -to- digital (A /D)
converter chip. Many different A/D chips can be used in this
application. The 8703, a product of Teledyne Semiconductor
(1300 Terra Bella Ave., Mountain View, CA 94043), is a 24pin DIP which provides 8 bits of conversion. Since the chip is
a CMOS device, its power dissipation is a very low 20 m W
110.45
{0.55
74LS365
74LS373
74LS157
74LS165
61.20
$1.75
REG.78005
`
MIcroc
A
*0.15
20 PIN $0.15
{5.90
RS232 nterfaceCardsnot
necessary for pparallel.
y
Full TRS80
¡
yPE
N AS
JP
12,9'
VIDEO UPGRADE KIT
Only runs with NEW ROM
(Smooth screen display!
*i
I
*'
II
= POSTAGE
3
SLOTS WITH EXTRA POWER SUPPLY
$20
16K $149
Y E'`
over $200.
i
I'!
.
-t
'
1
f"
1
power supply
I
$50.00
I)
POSTAGE
an
ACCESSIT AUDIO ADD -ONS
O ac
A COMPLETE
COMPUTER
99 for
only $199
Complete kit.
41'1
V
4K $110
and save
i
$29
° "`y
MICROACE /SINCLAIR
16K RAM PLUS
EXPANSION BOARD
r-
Professional
audio mixer
that you can
build yourself
Pm.
$35
ONLY
MICROACE/SINCLAIR
COMP PRO MIXER
?a
MICROACE/
SINCLAIR USERS
SUPER ROM PACK
50.90
UHF Modulators $9.90
I
i4,
-
8K FLOATING POINT
84.0
24 PIN $0.25
40 PIN $0.30
Price on application
II-f.
PCB. sound & vision modulator, memory chip
and rie rode chip Very simple to construct $30.00
OR PCB $6.00 MAIN LSI $17.00
$2.75
32.20
I
LOS
WITH NEW MANUAL
18 PIN
$
l yrS:
-
lPaPA
O
:
10
::Mra
re
is a
'
put
4
2K Kit
Post
Sinclair
A
e
g
E
Registered Trademark of Sinclair Research Ltd.
and money orders payable to MicroAced or phone your order quoting Master Charge, Visa,
Diners Club or American Express number for immediate despatch. Add 6% Tax for Shipments inside California.
MicroAce, 1348 East Edinger, Santa Ana, California, Zip Code 92705. Telephone: (714) 5472526
Please make checks
1
,
our
synthesizer.
MX80 Ft MX70 PRINTER AND
SAVE A FORTUNE
it
7M/
Fig. 4. Percussion -instrument
GET YOURSELF A NEW EPSON
,
-
7
C3
o 56
10V Power Adapter 600m1.
®''1
TV GAME BREAK OUT KIT
MINI KIT
$0.10
$0.10
14 PIN
16 PIN
-. -.
Has got to be one of the world's
greatest TV games You really get
hooked Has also 4 other pinball
games and lots of options
Good kit for up grading old
amusement games
C2
SOCKETS LOW PROFILE
,oc isse
Long Battery Life.
k
74LS74
74LS86
g."
,itt
äoo-
COMPUTER
POWER THAT
ONCE FILLED A ROOM
CAN NOW BE CARRIED IN YOUR POCKET,
"OWERTY" Alphabetic
Programs in BASIC
Keyboard 1.9K Random Access Memory
,Ur Gist
$0.35
V
z
Interface Cards for Apple,
T"'
4
_._
$0.15
$0.15
$0.20
74LS10
74LS32
NEW
EXTRA
KEYS!
Rt
/oo
LI
f
zsok
TTL SALE
74LS00
75LSO4
RE
r-
ators. The practical implementation of this interface generally requires some form of analog -to- digital conversion.
Some joystick interfaces utilize software to detect the various tones produced by a joystick- controlled tone generator.
PMC PERSONAL COMPUTER
look
I
Digitizing the Output from a Joystick. Joysticks provide
a very important interface between computers and their oper-
Ideal for small businesses, schools, colleges, homes, etc
Suitable for the experienced. inexperienced, hobbyist,
---1 R3
+9v
DECEMBER 1981
99
www.americanradiohistory.com
experimenter's corner
The 8703 has three -state outputs and is thus ideally suited
for connection to microcomputer buses. Pin 24 controls the
outputs; when it is low, the outputs are enabled. When pin 24
is high, the outputs assume the high impedance (off) state.
Eight bits per joystick pot is probably all or even more than
you will need. If you need even higher resolution, you can
select the 8704 (10 -bit) or 8705 (12 -bit) chips. These chips
are essentially identical to the 8703 with the addition of more
1 1
O /N /T/RrE
ORTÑ
Busy vmuo
oy5T,cr
Poi;
-
1
CoN VERS /oN
I
4-SV
outputs.
When the circuit in Fig. 5 is connected as shown, the output
will indicate an 8 -bit binary count of 0000 0000 to 11 11
as the joystick pot is rotated from one extreme to another.
Since joystick pots are usually limited by a plastic or metal
template to only a portion of their maximum rotation, you
may not obtain the full range of conversion. However, you can
connect the joystick pot to a higher voltage to enhance the
overall range.
Having spent some time experimenting with the circuit in
Fig. 5, I would urge you to obtain the 8703 data sheet before
using the chip in an actual circuit. ADC chips are sometimes
a little tricky to use (certainly more so than op amps and
unclocked logic), and the data sheet will help you understand
their operation.
For example, you can vary the rate at which the 8703 performs conversions by connecting an external clock to pin 21.
Each time the clock sends a positive pulse to pin 21, the 8703
will begin a new conversion cycle unless it is busy performing
an existing cycle. When pin 21 is connected to VDD (pin 19),
the 8703 goes into a free -running mode in which conversions
are automatically performed at a rate of approximately 800
1
SJ
c/
=
2
R.
/,y
%c
C3
1
1
F-7
/S/5
ouTGUr
ENABcL
tumEN 1-04J
S'
/4
6
Yin/
8-6/r
.270
PF
fSy
ks
n
R3
B/NFR y
8703
A/O
/oo
OurPur
/6
.7ok
ZERO
,90 utT
/Oak
/8
/31
R6
/K
/71
20
R7
250
K
* SEE
TEXT
-sv
Fig. 5. Digitizing the output
from a joystick with an A/D converter.
tion of the position of the joystick. Figure 6 shows one way to
decode half the output from the 8703 A/D converter.
The 4049 buffers provide CMOS- to -TTL interfacing for
the 8703. (The 8703 will interface directly with CMOS and
LS chips.) The 74154 is a 4 -to -16 -line decoder which transforms a 4 -bit input into its hexadecimal equivalent. When the
joystick is swept from one extreme to another, the LEDs light
per second.
Decoding the Output from an ADC. The binary output
from a joystick with an ADC can be connected directly to a
digital data bus. Or it can be decoded for a real -time indica-
SEE YOUR DEALER TODAY
DEMAND THE ORIGINAL
FREE!
`f irestik'
DISCOUNT
1981
ELECTRONICS
CATALOG
The #1 Helically Wire -Wound and
Most Copied Antenna In the World!
27MHz AM /FM /SSB CB
2
METER
MARINE TELEPHONE
LAND MOBILE TELEPHONE
FIBERGLASS ANTENNAS
AND ACCESSORIES.
f
NEW
CORDLESS
TELEPHONE
ANTENNA
INCREASES DISTANCE
5 TO 20 TIMES
JOIN THE PAK!
rSSAVE!"
TIME
MONEY
FREIGHT
QUALITY STEREO EQUIPMENT
AT LOWEST PRICES.
QUOTA-
Send for our Free catalog and become a
member of our exclusive Pak. Our
YOUR
REQUEST
TION
RETURNED SAME
members receive Poly Paks'
iúue.ne
exciting catalog several
times a year. We offer:
FOR
çSAVE ON NAME BRANDS LIKE:
Penny Sales, Free
PIONEER
JVC
Premiums and Low,
Low Prices on a wide variety of
KENWOOD
TEAC
MARANTZ
SANSUI
TECHNICS
SONY
Electronic Products such as Computer Peripherals,
Integrated Circuits, Speakers, Audio
Equipment, Rechargeable Batteries, Solar Products, Semiconductors, and much, much more!
AND MORE THAN 50 OTHERS
BUY THE MODERN WAY
BY MAIL -FROM
Take advantage of our 25 years as America's
Dealer & Distributor Inquiries Invited
SEND FOR FREE CATALOG
'Ftrestlk' Antenna Company
2614 East Adams /Phoenix, AZ 85034
foremost Supplier of discount electronics.
RUSH ME YOUR FREE DISCOUNT CATALOG!
NAME
ADDRESS
Name
Street
CITY
City
STATE:
State
Zip
Serving the CB and
Communications Market Since 1962.
5 -YEAR REPLACEMENT WARRANTY
CIRCLE NO. 17 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
BANK CARDS ACCEPTED
12 East Delaware
ZIP.
CLIP AND MAIL COUPON TODAY TO:
POLY PAKS. INC.
942, P0-12
LYNNFIELD, MA. 01 940
P.O. BOX
S.
-
DAY.
FACTORY SEALED CARTONS
wucé
AND INSURED.
GUARANTEED <.o
(617) 245- 3828
CIRCLE NO. 40 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
Chicago, Illinois 60611
312 -664 -0020
800 -621 -8042
CIRCLE NO. 21 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
470
zF
n
up in succession. By placing the axis of the joystick pot perpendicular to the row of LEDs, the position of the glowing
LED will track the position of the joystick.
/7
Going Further. This two -part series on joysticks has provided only a hint at what you can do with these important
interface devices. Now that you know something about them,
perhaps you can think of some circuits and applications of
your own.
For example, try connecting a pair of circuits like the one in
Fig. 5 to both pots in a two -axis joystick. This will provide you
with a digitized indication of the real position of the joystick.
You can place this data on a 16 -bit microcomputer bus. Or
you can place the same data on an 8 -bit bus by using the four
highest -order bits from each A /D.
You might want to experiment with applications which do
not involve manual movement of the joystick. For example, if
the joystick is inverted and connected to a weight, it will indicate movements of the potentiometer assembly by appropriate
changes in resistance (or voltage). This application can be
used in automatic leveling equipment, low- frequency vibration detection and anywhere you desire to measure the change
in position or attitude of an object large enough to support the
joystick assembly.
Finally, you might wish to design your own video games or
radio -control devices using a joystick interface. One possibility for the latter application is a dual -tone two -channel control
scheme. One pot varies the tone for one channel from, say, 50
to 500 Hz while the second pot varies the tone for a second
channel from, say, 5,000 to 10,000 Hz. The receiver is
designed with two output stages, one of which passes only the
low- frequency tone range and the second only the high -frequency tone range. Separate frequency -to- voltage converters
at each output provide the desired control signals. This, of
course, is only one possibility. You can think of others.
0
o
7y
16
P/N/0
8703
P/N 9
8703
P/N
>
}-7
8>
8703
23
/ç'
A
22.
5
P/N 7
V4
8 7o 3
90
8
NOTE: CONNECT
o
/2.
[/NIJSEO /NP//TS
OF 4,04'9 (P /NS //AND /u) TO 9,.5Oaf CGNO
Fig. 6. How to decode the four
lowest -order bits from the 8703 A /D.
Put Professional Knowledge and a
COLLEGE DEGREE
in your Electronics Career through
NTERNATIONAL ELECTRONICS UNLIMITED
.1111
ELECTRONIC
COMPONENTS
Wholesale
-
Retail
-
SPECIAL
15% OFF ON $25.00
(total of computer components)
280A CPU
280A PIO
280A LTC
ZEIOA S10 /0
280A DMA
280A DART
O.E.M.
I Amp 10-220 Voltage Regulators
PART*
1.24
7805
(LM340T-5)
7812
(11340T-12)
7815
(LM340T -15)
7818
(LM340T -18)
.89
25.99 100-499 S00 +
.75
.65
Call
.75
.65
for
.89
.75
.65
.89
75
.65
Quote
.354 "1ong
x
1
STANDARD
Resistors
2 watt
Package of 5
Package of 100 (one value)
Package of 1000 (one value)
....
....
pk -10
pk -25
1.10
2.00
7.50
1.00
1.90
7.00
.55
.95
1.80
6.50
154
13105-14
14140 -14
.35
1.29
'5-8
.45
1456N -8
1458N -8
14960 -14
1800N -16
2208N -8
25
-9 -8
.89
'4-8
N -8
.89
WESTLAND
ELECTRONICS, INC.
7387 Ford Rd., Westland, MI 48185
-0664
Toll Free Order Line 1- 800 -521
Circle #60 for Distributor catalog
Circle #61 for excess Inventory Flyer
www.americanradiohistory.com
741N -8
7410 -14
7485-8
.29
.30
1.09
'N -14
.45
.79
N -16
;65N -14
2.95
.95
5676-8
7038 -8
7238 -14
1.09
FROM 10 ONM TO 1.21 M0181
VOLTAGE
LED's
Jumbo diffused .20'd x .34 "1
0-10 p6-25 100- 10005E0
11.00 $2.25
.08ea .078e4
.29
.25
2.50
WHITE
1.10
YELLOW 1.40
GREEN 1.40
.65
.89
01.00
CLEAR 1.10
GREEN 1.40
YELLOW 1.40
RED
a
15/81.00
Rp
x
E
NI
Ill
IOSI
..904
SI
Iry
-306
I
.
,.
-
10-
-55
Ilea
I5ea
25ea
abea
25
25
Ilea
Ilea
12ea
45
1000.04ea
.06ea
.10ea
.OSea
.
.22uf/358
.33uf/358
1u5/355
1.5u1/205
.I
R
Y55Á.
M
1
-
Sea of above
T -5
04ea
-
.5.5 9R.,
RESIDE
..
i1aNR
2.281/239
3.381/358
4.7uf/258.
6.8ßf/358
12e4
OD
51.25
5-.
= os
l00/258
158f/208
22uf/358
33uf /154'
$27.50
."OR sR IRryN4/waNMIIa
as ORDER
3LUE
ELIa1R1
aEtrs
[MALE ,pR ,P5/C00 Aa
x.M M E. 510.a
INTERS11 MIS MI F F:CrRTNICS t'NCIMITLO
535 Fest St
Suite 19 A
Bohan 3. Ca
93467
-
-
a
100-
.
.Ilea
.Elea
.35eá
-50ea
I.'..
.10f /358
100.05ea
.07ea
.11ea
et .M8c. 40R.
us.. carts +NC +
e
.30
.078ea
.085ea
.10ea
.10ea
TANTALUM CAPACITOR KIT
SOLID 01P 820%
nee'
Ie
5P/5
5CN
-10 NPN
111-32
1000-
.08ea
.0984
.11ea
.11ea
V9
10 -42
'.'275
DIODES
193064
15 /51.00
144001
12 /81.00
144007
10/11.00
144148 (15981)
diffused
$2.25
2.50
3.25
3.25
1R0NSI510RS
,AUb
,
7905 -58
7912 -12V
7915 -158
.09ea .085ea
.11ea .10ea
.11ea .10ea
.125 "2 x .21"1
0-25 100pk -I0
.79
1.29
REGULATORS
81.19
1.19
1.19
1.19
1.19
2.50
3.25
3.25
Subminiature
2.40
.79
3081N -16
1.25
30824 -16 1.25
.45
39008 -14
751505-9
.35
75050N -8
.35
75453N -8
.35
754914 -14
75492N -14
-
.49
.39
+58
ea
.32
22098-8
30468 -14
.45
'-n5
qty
oee 38 553.33
.95
-19 +BV
'012 +12V
7815 +15V
7824 +248
pk -100
pk -5
.65
.60
.25
.29
73311
l
1
/4W
.25
1.45
.
1
/2W
2.00
1.90
1.80
$.25
311N-ß
318N -8
15.00
1
pk -100
.45
.40
.40
-999
.20
1.65
12.00
Sampler box consisting of 5 each of all 145
standard 5% values between 1 ohm and 1
Meg Ohm
1/4 watt sampler box
22.00
1/2 watt sampler box
27.00
- $10.00 minimum order Send for our full line catalog of IC's, socket,.
capacitors, trim pots, diodes, bridges, LED,.
Enclosures. switches, crystals, etc.
/4W 6
1000-
1
$.25
.32
1.05
1.75
1
pk -10
10,40E7°9025.00
CIRCUÌTí
3248 -14
3390 -14
3765-8
nnON -14
.10
.10
pk -5
.25
.25
.20
5000-
Total
301N -8
3078 -8
309H
watt
$.10
METAL FILM RESISTORS
METAL FILM VALUES
1%
LINEAR
1
Meg ohm.
Package of 5
Package of 100 (one value)
Package of 1000 (one value)
-IO, banded
ea
Sty
-999
100050001
(body)
1
ohm and
Grantham College of Engineering
2500 So. laCienega Blvd.
Los Angeles, California 90034
Total
METAL FILM 'IS
RN60 (R.Ohm CR860=8)
/4wat/
Low temp roe( - 5Jppm /oC
.138 "dia X .355 "1ong (body)
e
5% Carbon Film
Vo
CARBON FILM RESISTORS
(body)
1
.146 "dia
We stock all 5% standard values between
No commuting to class. Study at your
own pace, while continuing your present
job. Learn from easy -to- understand lessons, with help from your home-study
instructors whenever you need it.
In the Grantham electronics program,
you first earn your A.S.E.T. degree, and
then your B.S.E.T. These degrees are accredited by the Accrediting Commission
of the National Home Study Council.
Our free bulletin gives full details of
the home -study program, the degrees
awarded, and the requirements for each
degree. Write for Bulletin ET -82.
[Á080N FILM 152
/4watt (R.ONm R25)
.095 "dia X .250'long
/2watt (R.Ohm Rio)
1
.89
21141 200ns LP 53.35
4116 200n5
2.95
5.85
1702A lus
5.00
2708 45Ons
6.75
2716 450ns 5V
80805
5.25
4.65
16028 5V 12V
510.95
7.95
7.95
32.45
30.60
18.80
I
bas 6eN 2747
CIRCLE NO. 22 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
.
THIS OFFER
TAKES COURAGE
JENSEN
ONKYO
T415 & A 60
TA 1900
COSE
Series
601
$99
1".'
Watt System
TOLL FREE
Over
Technics
Pioneer
Marantz
Kenwood
San sui
Jensen
Special Closeout
Metal Capable
Weekdays
B00- 356 -9514
9 -9
Saturdays 9 -5
100 Brands like:
Maxell
Empire
Sony
Teac
Cerwin
Nikon
Vega
Altec
Akai
Sharp
Phillips
Shure
Dual
Koss
Onl-yo
Audio
Canon
Minolta
Pentax
Technica
Vivirar
Clarion
Yashica
TDK
Number
One.
When it comes to logic
probes, more people buy
Global Specialties. Because
no one can match us for value.
Our four logically -priced
probes -including our
remarkable new 150 MHz
ECL- deliver more speed,
accuracy, flexibility and
reliability than others costing
considerably more! So why
compromise? Discover
for yourself why we're
the number -one
logical choice!
I
4111111111111
50
Here's
why we're
WISCONSIN DISCOUNT STEREO
2417 W. badger rd madison, WI 53713
608 2716889
CIRCLE NO. 53 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
CALCULATOR SAVINGS
RemoveVrocal5
HEWLETT
PACKARD
Cfih
Remove the lead vocal and substitute your
own voice with most stereo reCordin-3s using our new, low cost VOCAL ZAPP_RTM
Great for practice- professional demos or
lust for fun.
HP -11C Slim Scientific
HP -12C Slim Financial
HP -32E Scientific
.
$107.95
117 95
-_
-
'"
$42.95
68.95
HP-33C Programmable
HP -34C Adv. Program..... 114.95
58.95
>
HP -37E Financial
HP-41C Alpha Program. ... 187.95
lä1 --HP-41CV (Full Memory) ... 237.95
164.95
Card Reader /41
289.95
Printer /41
92.95
Optical Wand /41
HP-83 Desk Computer ... 1695.00
249.95
16K Memory Module
76.95
Quad Memory /41C
287.95
HP-67 Programmable
579.95
HP -97 Desk Program.
249500
HP-85 Desk Computer
2285.00
HP -125 CP /M Computer
Call for Law Prices on all Calculator and Computer Accessories.
-
WITH THE
- - --
--
-
-
....
Standard LP-1, $50.00, with memory
-captures pulses to 50 nsec,
TEXAS INSTRUMENTS
TI-35
TI -55
$19.95
29.95
42.95
89.95
TI-55-11
TI -58C
.
9179.95
PC-100C... 159.95
Progrmr ... 49.95
TI-5040.... 67.95
T1-59
Coll ter Low Prices on All TI
Sharp
PC -1211
10
TI -99/4A
Console $379.95
Language Tutor ... 99.95
59.95
Speak 8 Spell
Business Analyst II 39.95
.
CNalaton
end Watches
$149.95
Handheld Computer
CE -121 Cassette interface
CE -122 Printer /cassette interface
EL -5100 Alphanumeric scientific programmable
EL -7001 Miniature typewriter and calculator
CT-660E Talking digital alarm clock
Caalo
FROM
MA Electronics, Inc.
1020 W.
Rush my Vocal Zapper
&
Kit, $24.95 plus $3 postage
99.95
159.95
54.95
124.95
159.95
34.95
39.95
Slim programmable, 512 steps
FX -702P Handheld computer
VL-1 Musical, 10D -note memory
FX -602P
M -10
Compact musical keyboard
MT-30 Compact musical keyboard
W -100 Water sports alarm chrono, 325 feet
CA -90 Calculator alarm chrono watch
Wilshire, Oklahone City, OK 73116- (405$43-9626
1
39.95
109.95
.. 69.95
99.95
59.95
Peildeerdm'S202 Microcassene tape recorder
S802 Two -speed. two-hour recorder
handling enclosed.
79.95
99.95
139.95
199.95
S801 Olympus' smallest. two -hour
Send assembled Vocal Zapper,
postage& handling enclosed.
$39.95 plus $3
Send Free Catalog
X -01
New electronic recorder
Craig
M100 Language translator
Olivetti
Praxis 35 Electronic portable typewriter
49.95
579.95
name
For faster delivery use cashier s check or money order Add Sh,p,rg
of your order ($3.00 min I East of M,ssp R,v add $1 50 CA Res
add 6% Sublad to avadab4,ty VISA and MC accepted. USA paces
address
TOLL -FREE
I
city
Visa
MC
ORDER
state
_
Wilshire, Okla. City, OK 731116
CIRCLE NO. 39 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
12131
633-3262
Tam's
zip
card no
PAIA Electronics, dept.121111020 W.
800-421 -5188
Information line
Outside
CA, AK, HI
PE-12
A
Ave.
14932 Garfield
Gep.
tam's
Paramount, CA 90723
(213) 633 -3262
CIRCLE NO. 46 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
102
www.americanradiohistory.com
MHz, guaranteed.
Economy LP-2, $32.00 ", to 50 nsec,
1.5 MHz.
High -speed LP -3, $7700' with
memory, guaranteed to 10 nsec
(6 nsec, typical), 50 MHz!
New ECL LP-4, $150.00', the new
industry standard -with memory,
guaranteed to 4 nsec (2 nsec, typical),
150 MHz!
GLOBAL
SPECIALTIES
CORPORATION
70 Fulton Ten New Haven. CT 0650912031624 -3103 TWX 710- 465 -1227
OTHER OFFICES San Francisco (415)648-0611. TWX 910- 372 -7992
Europe Phone Saffron-Walden 0799 -21682. TLX 817477
Canada. Len Finkler Ltd
Downsview. Ontario
Call toll -free for details
1-800-243 -6077
During business hours
'Suggested
U S
resale Paces specifications sublecl to change without notice
O Copyright 1961 Global Specialties Corporation
CIRCLE NO. 62 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Tune Your Receiver By the Numbers
(McClellan)
Zapper Makes You a "Superstar"
(Anderton 8 Karr)
Wireless AD'ZAP Turns ON TV Commercials
(Seaman)
Woofers, Electronic Bass Boost for
(Kaufman)
Popular
DEPARTMENTS AND COLUMNS
INDEX
VOLUME 19
JANUARY TO DECEMBER 1981
AUDIO AND VIDEO
Mo. /Pg.
Audio Cassette Tapes, Comparing High -Tech
(Stark)
Audio Level Meter (Gorin)
Audio Power Amplifiers; PE Tests Eight
(Hirsch, Rodgers)
Bass -Summing Amplifiers, Cancel Rumble
With This (Davis)
Dolby Does It Again, Shhhl (Forrest)
Dynamic Range Processor, Peak Unlimiter
Audio (Sutton)
Patch Box, Signal -Processor (Stosich)
Phono Preamplifier, A High-Performance
(Roberts)
Out of Tune Correction
Projection TV. Is It For You? (Mitchell)
Satellite Transmissions, Home Earth
Stations for (Prentiss)
Sound -Effects Generator, Unimod -A Versatile
( Barbaretlo)
Tune Your Receiver By the Numbers
(McClellan)
TV From Outer Space, The Coming of Direct
Broadcast Satellites (McVeigh)
TV Satellites, DXing those (PE Editorial
Staff)
VHS Meets Beta (Prentiss)
Video Camera, Choosing a (Berger)
Video Cassete Recorders, A Buyer's Guide
(Isaacs)
Video Disc Players, Laser Disc va. CED
(Prentiss)
Video Movie Making, A Guide to (Berger)
Vocal Zapper Makes You a "Superstar"
(Anderton and Karr)
Woofers, Electronic Bass Boost for
(Kaufman)
COMMUNICATIONS
Dec.
Oct.
63
87
Jan.
52
Apr.
77
CONSTRUCTION
Jun.
59
Sept.
75
Aug.
60
Mar.
79
Jun.
Jul.
6
12
Jul.
24
Feb.
65
Oct.
33
May
53
Oct.
Aug.
Jul.
49
38
32
Jul.
20
Oct.
26
56
May
78
Nov.
47
Jul.
Mo. /Pg.
Aiming the Antenna (Weber)
Crystal Receiver, Build an Ocean- Spanning
(Lash)
Morse-a- Keyer, Build a; Part ( Steber)
Morse-a- Keyer, Build a; Conclusion
(Steber)
Multiband Shortwave Antenna for SWLs
(Johns)
RTTY Meets the Computer (Thurber)
Satellite Transmissions, Home Earth
Stations for (Prentiss)
TV From Outer Space, The Coming of Direct
Broadcast Satellites (McVeigh)
TV Satellites, DXing Those (PE Editorial
Staff)
1
RTTY Meets the Computer (Thurber)
Target, an Elf Game (Burch)
Word Processing (Werner)
Oct.
52
Jul.
Jan.
69
Feb.
83
Jun.
53
May
61
Jul.
24
May
63
Oct.
49
61
Mo. /Pg.
-
4060 As a Timer, Using the (Gross)
Computer Language Confusion
Sorting it Out (Veit)
EPROM Programmer, 1802 Based (Bregoli)
Expanded Elf, Simple Display and Operating
Program for the (Dollhausen)
Memory Addition for Training Computers
(Wolach)
Microprocessor Applications for the 80's;
Part 3, A Computerized Automatic
Telephone Dialer (Reese)
Microprocessor Applications for the 80's;
Conclusion, A Computerized Telephone
Dialer (Reese)
Microprocessor, Designing With the 8080:
Part 1, The Basic System (Carlatrom)
Microprocessor, Designing With the 8080;
Part 2, The CPU Module (Carlstrom)
Microprocessor, Designing With the 8080;
Part 3, Software (Carlstrom)
Microprocessor, Designing With the 8080;
Part 4, A Typical Program (Carlstrom)
Numbers, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal
(Blechman)
Program Merging on a TRS -80 (Friddle)
Jun.
Dec.
73
Jun.
39
68
Sept.
84
Apr.
61
Jan.
68
Feb.
79
Sept.
57
Oct.
80
Nov.
88
Dec.
74
Mar.
83
82
May
61
Aug.
29
83
Mo. /Pg.
4060 As a Timer, Using the (Gross)
Alarm for Toxic Gases (Lewart)
Analog Meter, Single LED ( Leithauser)
Appliance "Off" Reminder (Valeacu)
Audio Level Meter ( Gorin)
Automatic Alert to Shut Off Car Headlights
(Ball)
Automobile Clocks, Rejuvenate Defunct
(Clark)
Bass- Summing Amplifier, Cancel Rumble with
this (Davis)
Battery Booster /Trickle Charger ( Lewart)
Burglar Baffler, Protect Your Home With
the (Martin)
Camera Timer for Time -Lapse Photography
(Lemen)
Car Battery-Drain Indicator, An Early Warning
(Fox)
Commercial Killer for a Clock Radio
(Bresnick)
Crystal Receiver, Build an Ocean- Spanning
(Lash)
Dynamic Range Processor, Peak Unlimiter
Audio (Sutton)
Electronic Fuse, High -Speed (Lenny &
Davenport)
Electronic Ringer for Telephone Lines, A
Jun.
Sept.
Sept.
-A
81
76
87
Jan.
67
Oct.
92
Apr.
Jan.
77
66
Jul.
65
Sweeten Your Apple
Systems and Software
Beefing Up Your H -89
DX Listening (Hauser)
Trends in International Broadcasting
Sports on Shortwave
Shortwave Broadcasting and the FCC
Revolution By Radio Revisited
Slow -Scan Television on Shortwave
33
May
78
Feb.
44
Nov.
47
Mo. /Pg.
Apr.
89
Jun.
40
Jan.
30
32
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
Jul.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
48
33
37
48
62
45
25
32
84
Jan.
94
Feb. 100
Mar. 97
Broadcast
Science & Technology Programs
Strikes Disrupt International
Broadcasting
About Time to Stop Tampering
May
92
Jul.
Aug.
79
Sept.
Nov.
96
93
May
4
Jun.
4
4
81
Editorial (Rodgers)
Nov.
Dec
Jun.
-
Headlight Modulator for Cycle Safety, Build
a (Jones)
Light Controller, A "Smart" Greenhouse
(Williams)
Line Voltage Regulator, An Automatic (Elkin)
Metronome, A LED Pendulum (Blechman)
Metal Detector, "Coinahooter" (Lahr)
Microprocessor Applications for the 80's;
Part III: A Computerized Automatic
Telephone Dialer (Reese)
Microprocessor Applications for the 80 "s;
Conclusion: A Computerized Automatic
Telephone Dialer (Reese)
Microprocessor, Designing With the 8080;
Part 2, The CPU Module (Carlstrom)
Microprocessor, Designing With the 8080;
Part 3, Software (Carlstrom)
Microprocessor, Designing With the 8080;
Part 4: A Typical Program (Carlstrom)
Morse -a- Keyer, Build a, Part
( Steber)
Morse -a- Keyer, Build a, Conclusion ( Steber)
Multiband Shortwave Antenna for SWLa
(Johns)
Oscilloscopes Can Display Multi -Channel
Logic Signals, How Ordinary (Solomon)
Oscilloscope Time -Base Generator (Geivett)
Patch Box, Signal -Processor (Stosich)
Phono Preamplifier, A High -Performance
(Roberts)
Out of Tune Correction
Power Supplies for Op Ampa (Block)
Out of Tune Correction
Power Supplies from Recycled AC Adapters
(Tenny)
Programmable Control, Vary the Speed of
Synchronous Motors with this (McClellan)
Reactance Measuring Set, Build the
(Barbarello & Nye)
Sound-Effects Generator, Unimod
Versatile (Barbarello)
Strobe, Build the Poor Man's (Gorgenyi)
Tachometer for Auto Tune -Ups. Wireless Idle
(Davis)
Telephone Ringer, Melodic (Chapman &
Paulkovich)
Temperature Probe, Build A Diode
73
79
Oct.
Jun.
Low -Cost (Albing)
EPROM Programmer, 1802 Based (Bregoli)
Fluorescent Lamp, A Battery Operated (Walden)..
Freezer Over-Temperature Alarm (Field)
1
COMPUTERS
May
Apr.
Amateur Radio (Thurber)
The Morse Code, Alive and Kicking
Computer Bits (Solomon)
Free Computer Networks
Computer Bits (Warren)
Backup May Be On Your Mind
Roll Your Own Computer Show
Good Grief! More Conversion
NCC Is Just Around the Corner
New Systems for 1981
Coming Attractions Plus a Tip
This Is the Year of Software
High -End Systems (for Low -End Buyers)
Oct.
85
69
67
The Video Guerrilla Army
By Their Fruit
The Amplified Mind
Jul.
69
Hunting of the Quark
Babel Revisited
Sept.
75
A Bridge to Tomorrow
Aug.
48
May
70
68
Jun.
Aug.
Apr.
53
75
June
71
May
67
85
79
Mar.
Dec.
Aug.
55
Jan.
68
Feb.
79
Oct.
80
Nov.
68
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
74
Jun.
53
Feb.
60
Nov.
Aug.
77
Mar.
Jun.
Apr.
Jun.
79
Feb.
57
Apr.
85
Mar.
67
Feb.
Jun.
65
63
May
76
Nov.
57
Feb.
62
DECEMBER 1981
61
83
60
6
57
6
Jul.
Editorial (Salsberg)
Across My Desk
Computer User Discovery
Computer Literacy
Experimenting With Electronics
Onward, Ever Onward
The IRS Cometh
English Broadcasts Audible in North America
(Hauser)
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
7
Aug.
6
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
4
Apr.
4
4
4
6
6
4
91
Jun.
88
Oct.
107
Entertainment Electronics (Berger)
Life With Video Discs
Mar. 14
A Little Traveling Music
Apr. 14
TV Connection
May 14
Jul.
42
Indoor FM Antennas
Stylus Replacement -Original and Brand "X "... Aug. 50
Video Accessories from the Camera Store
14
Sept.
Oct. 24
The Problem of Video Camera Compatibility
Video Begins to Get Convenient
Nov. 24
Entertainment Electronics (Rodgers)
Miscellany
Jan.
22
Can We Hear Phase Distortion?
Feb. 15
New Sonic Hologram
Mar. 20
18
Digital Sturm and Drang
Jun.
Experimenter's Comer (Mima)
Experimenting With a Light Pen, Part 2
Jan. 86
Feb. 95
CMOS Basics: The 4011 Quad NAND Gate
Programmable -Gain Amplifiers
Mar. 93
Apr. 83
Electronic Aids for the Handicapped
May 88
Polapulse Wafer Battery
Do -lt- Yourself Batteries
Jun. 84
Remote Sensing; Part
Jul.
75
Remote Sensing; Part 2
Aug. 76
Experimenting With an Air Pressure
Switch
Sept. 90
Experimenting With High -Speed Logic
Oct. 102
1
Experimenting With a Joystick; Part
Basic Concepts and Applications
Experimenting With a Joystick; Part 2,
Some Typical Applications
Fundamental Facts (Buchsbaum)
The Basic Network Laws
Project of the Month (Mims)
Ultra- Simple Power Flasher
A Simple Wind -Speed Indicator
Transistorized Light Flasher
Liquid -Level Indicator for the Blind
Model- Railroad Crossing Light
Steam Engine and Whistle Sound
Synthesizer
Simple, Low -Cost Timer
Simple, BCD Keyboard Encoder
Precision CMOS Clock Generator
Audible Pulse Indicator
1,
Nov.
88
Dec.
97
Dec.
91
Jan.
99
Feb. 109
Mar. 100
Apr.
96
May
96
Jun. 96
Jul.
87
Aug. 90
Sept. 104
Oct. 118
103
www.americanradiohistory.com
INDEX
(continued)
A Solid -State Panel
Meter
Nov.
Dec.
A Light -Sensitive Tone Generator
Solid -State Developments (Mims)
Wire -and-Glass Holdovers from the
Pre -Solid -State Age
A New Super LED
Magnets. Bubbles and Garnets
Amber and Lodestones and Other Topics
Optoisolators -The Photon Connection
100
106
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
84
92
88
86
85
Jellybean Op Amps
A Potpourri of Developments
Solid -State Speech
The Billion -Transistor Chip?
The Electrostatic Discharge Problem
The Flashlight -Battery Laser
Liquid Crystals
FEATURES
Aiming the Antenna (Weber)
Audio Cassette Tapes, Comparing High-Tech
(Stark)
AMAZING
DEVICES
)))Ili
r(I((( PHASERS
PHASER PAIN FIELD
-
This device recently developed and patented in our labs is being evaluated by law enforcement agencies for riot and crowd control It is now available but
soon will come under the Iurfsdiction of weapons and internal
machine control making it unavailable to the public. The device
is hand -held and looks like a BUCK ROGERS ray gun. It is hazardous if not used with discretion.
PLANS
$15.00
PPF1
This
IPG-1 INVISIBLE PAIN FIELD GENERATOR
amazing, simple hand -held device is about the size of a pack of
cigarettes and generates a directional field of moderate to intensive pain in the !ewer part el the head up to a range of 50' Device is simple and economical to make
IPO.1K ALL PARTS $39.50
1P0-1 PLANS $7.00
IP0.10 ASSEMBLED &TESTED FOR ANIMAL CONTROL $49.50
PPF -1
-
LASERS
-
Produces highly intense red
RUBY LASER RAY PISTOL
beam. capable of burning A hazardous device PLANS. PARTS.
$15.00
SOURCES
Audio Power Amplifiers, PE Teats Eight
(Hirsch, Rodgers)
Automobile Circuits, Transient Protection
for (Pease)
Computer Language Confusion- Sorting
It Out (Veit)
Dolby Does It Again, Shhhl (Forrest)
Electronic Games, Space -Age Leisure
Activity; Part 4, Video Cartridge Games
(Eimbinder)
Electronic Ignition Systems, Understanding
(Bowman)
Infinite Resistor Network Quiz (Fox)
Gating Circuit Quiz ( Belin)
Out of Tune Correction
Glitches, In Pursuit of (Cohen)
Holiday Gifts for Electronic Enthusiasts
Learn More to Earn More (Frenzel)
Microprocessor, Designing With the 8080;
Part 1, The Basic System (Cadatrom)
Multiband Shortwave Antenna for SWL5
(Johns)
Numbers, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal
Jun.
Jul.
Aug.
78
72
67
Sept.
Oct.
86
99
83
94
Nov.
Dec.
Mo. / Pg.
Oct.
52
Dec.
63
Jan.
52
Feb.
75
Dec.
39
Jun.
59
Jan.
78
Jul.
Nov.
Feb.
Apr.
81
Jul.
Dec.
Oct.
57
59
73
Sept.
57
52
78
8
Jun.
53
Mar.
Apr.
Mar.
Apr.
Jun.
May
Jul.
May
83
Jul.
Aug.
Apr.
24
87
44
83
while on vacation activating sensitive mike without plane
ringing. Excellent property protection and mtrusan device
(Blechman)
Oscilloscopes 1981 (Marlin)
Pocket Pagers, Beep! A Look At (Leon)
Power Supplies for Op Amps (Block)
Out of Tune Correction
Program Merging on a TRS -80 (Friddle)
Projection TV, Is It For You? (Mitchell)
RTTY Meets the Computer (Thurber)
Satellite Transmissions, Home Earth Stations
for (Prentiss)
Soldering, Successful (Bomeman)
Some Like It Hot (Fox)
Target, An Elf Game (Burch)
They're Wooing You in Electronic Land
$7-00
$49.50
(PE Editorial Staff)
TV From Outer Space, The Coming of Direct
Jan.
82
Broadcast Satellites (McVeigh)
TV Satellites, DXing Those (PE Editorial
May
53
Stan)
VHS Meets Beta (Prentiss)
Video Camera, Choosing a (Berger)
Video Movie Making, A Guide to (Berger)
Video Cassette Recorders, A Buyer's Guide
Oct.
Aug.
HIGH POWERED CARBON DIOXIDE BURNING AND CUTTING
$15.00
Complete plans and all parts sources
SOLID STATE IR 12 WATTS with built in power supply
plans
Complete kit with collimator
$74.00
$$.00
plans
$7.00
Also complete plans and parts
Complete kit
$39.50
sources for RUBY. YAG. NEODYNIUM. HeNe ARGON. DYE.
NITROGEN and many more lasers.
POCKET LASER pulsed, visible red
SECURITY
SNP -2.
SNOOPER PHONE
SNP2E
51010
-
Dial home or Office
ALL PARTS
ASSEMBLED AND TESTED
LONG RANGE XMTR PLANS.
SEE-IN -THE-DARK PLANS
DIRECTIONAL SHOTGUN MIKE PLANS
SUPER SENSITIVE PARABOLIC MIKE PLANS
SOUND & TELEPHONE OPERATED TAPE RECORDER
CATALOG ON PLANS, KITS &
Send check or money order
I
INISHED UNITS
Nil .03031
$99.50
$7.00
$10.00
$8.00
$8.00
$7.00
11.00
To
SCIENTIFIC SYSTEMS,
AMHERST,
plane
Dept.
07.
Boo 716
CIRCLE NO. 44 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
(Isaacs)
Video Disc Players, Laser Disc vs. CED
(Prentiss)
VMOS Power FET (McClellan)
Word Processing (Werner)
Sept.
Jul.
Oct.
51
59
57
8
82
12
81
49
38
32
58
Jul.
20
Jul.
26
Sept.
81
Aug.
29
PRODUCT TEST REPORTS
Mo. /Pg.
Acoustic Research Model AR93 "High
Tech" Speaker System
Altec Lansing Model 14 Two -Way Speaker
System
APF Imagination Machine
Apple II Plus Personal Computer System
Atari Model 800 Personal Computer
Jan.
27
Feb.
Apr.
28
47
39
48
48
Sept.
Jun.
Jul.
BSK Precision Model 2845 Digital Multimeter
Sept. 21
Bang & Olutsen Beogram 8000 Turntable
Mar. 44
Beckman Tech 310 Digital Multimeter
Oct. 18
dbx 20/20 Computerized Equalizer /Analyzer
May 34
RMS
Multimeter
Fluke Model D811 True
General Electric 13AC1542W 13" Color TV
Jun.
27
Receiver
General Electric 1VHD3042W Video
Aug.
21
Disc Player
Dec. 92
Global Model 4401 Frequency Standard
33
Jan.
Heath Model H -89 Microcomputer
May 48
Hewlett -Packard Model HP -85 Computer
Digital
Hickok Model MX -333 Universal
Jun.
37
Multimeter
18
Feb.
Hitachi CT 1308 13" Portable Color TV
Dec. 31
IBM Personal Computer
May
22
System
Three
-Way
Speaker
JBL Model L112
Aug.
25
KEF Electronics Model 303.2 Speaker System
Mar.
23
Luxman Model K -8 Stereo Cassette Deck
43
Jul.
Micro -Acoustics Model 830 Phono Cartridge
14
Dec.
-5V
Record
Player
Mitsubishi Model LT
Oct. 22
Netronics "Explorer" Model 85 Computer
Optonica Model RT -6805 Stereo Cassette Deck Nov. 37
Panasonic Model CT-9080 19" Color TV Receiver Jan. 43
Mar. 31
Pioneer Model VP -1000 Videodisc Player
Quasar Model WT5977T 19" Color TV Receiver Nov. 41
Jul.
7
Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer
RCA Model VP3301 Interactive Computer Data
Nov.
25
Terminal
Dec. 27
RCA CTC -111A 19" Color TV Receiver
Aug. 51
Sabtronics Model 80008 Frequency Counter
27
Sept.
Sampo Model 9519 19" Color TV Receiver
Sansui Model AU -D11 Integrated Stereo
Jun. 23
Amplifier
Sencore Model SC 80 Widebander Dual Trace
Sept. 31
Oscilloscope
Apr. 28
Sharp 19E91 19" Color TV Receiver
Oct. 77
Simpson 280 Model 7 VOM
17
Aug.
Sinclair Research ZX80 Personal Computer
Apr. 30
Tektronix 1922 Dual Trace Oscilloscope
May
25
TV
Receiver
19"
Color
CA944
Toshiba Model
Oct. 48
Toshiba Model CB965 19" Color TV Receiver
Apr. 22
Yamaha T-7 FM /AM Tuner
TEST EQUIPMENT
Mo./Pg.
Analog Meter, Single-LED (Leithauser)
Glitches, In Pursuit of (Cohen)
Oscilloscopes 1981 (Marlin)
Oscilloscopes Can Display Multi- Channel
Signals, How Ordinary (Solomon)
Oscilloscope Time -Base Generator (Geivett)
Reactance Measuring Set, Build the
(Barbarello 8 Iriye)
Tachometer for Auto Tune -Ups, Wireless Idle
(Davis)
Temperature Probe, Build a Diode
Sept.
81
Jul.
Apr.
57
Feb.
60
Nov.
77
Mar.
67
May
Feb.
75
82
51
on
depends
Sonic accuracyA-T,
square
At
stylus.
your
weprr
best styli
our
shape
micron accuracy
A
shanks to
= 0.0000393")
is drilled
(one micron
hole
perfect mountingcantilever
In the beryllium
by laser. Another
mor
stylus surface
checks each ment far more
absolute
a)than any microscope
accurately you uncommonly
y
All to assure and dramatic
mpossible
IoW distortion
ara
sep
stereo
round-shank
with ordinary Audio Technica
the
styli. Hear
today!
difference
Gnat's
Eyebrow,
audio
CIRCLE NO. 6 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
104
www.americanradiohistory.com
technica
-
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
1
EAST/WEST
FRF'
COLL'
INTERTEC SUPERBRAIN 64K RAM
$2799
QDSUPERBRAIN
$2999
NEC 5510 SPINWRITER (7710) $2345
NEC 5520 SPINWRITER (7720) $2695
NEC 5530 SPINWRITER (7730) $2345
NEC 12" MONITOR
$ 229
40444V:.
i44%°*
e
aQ'opr\Qts
S
e
d5
GaV
Ctea\`
cara<9e
5c
o
y
+tt7turF
/
OKIDATA MICROLINE80
$ 399
OKIDATA MICROLINE-82
$ 529
OKIDATA MICROLINE -83
$ 769
DIABLO 630
$1995
APPLE II PLUS 48K
$1139
APPLE DISK w /3.3 DOS Controller
$ 525
APPLE DISK w/o Controller
$ 449
HAZELTINE 1420
$ 799
NORTHSTAR HORIZON II 32K QD
ANADEX DP- 9500/9501
TELEVIDEO912C
TELEVIDEO 920C
TELEVIDEO 950
CBM 8032 COMPUTER
CBM 8050 DISK DRIVE
CBM 4032 COMPUTER
CBM 4040 DISK DRIVE
CBM 4022
CBM VIC -20
$2925
$1249
$ 669
$ 729
$ 929
$1149
$1349
$1029
$1029
649
269
139
$ 169
$
$
$
LEEDEXIAMDEK 100
LEEDEX /AMDEK 100G
LEEDEX /AMDEK COLOR -1 13" Color
Monitor
$
MICROTEK 32K
$
149
EAST COAST
1
-800- 556 -7586
11tt\1
\
z
Good thru
Dec. 15
Buy an ATARI 800 16K and
receive a
Bracelet
1
(Actual size
Genuine 14K 24.95 retail)
ATARI SPECIALS
ATARI
400
16K Personal Computer
ATARI PERIPHERALS
410
810
820
822
MICROTEK 16K RAMBOARD for Atari
79
fit tiltat44ttt0t114
$749
329
$
ttAirnrrnit
825
830
850
Program Recorder
Disk Drive
40 Column Printer
40 Column Thermal
Printer
80 Column Printer
Acoustic Modem
Interface Module
$349
ATARI ACCESSORIES
8K RAM Memory
$
60
$449
CX852
$299
CX853
16K RAM Memory
$349
$599
$159
$139
CX30 -04
Module
Paddle Controller
(pair)
CX40 -04
Joystick Controller
Module
$39.95
$89.95
$15.00
$15.00
(pair)
With any purchase of ATARI Hardware or Software over $500
you can buy the bracelet for only $9.95.
WE CARRY THE COMPLETE LINE OF ATARI SOFTWARE.
CALL FOR THE
WEST COAST
1
-800- 235 -3581
OMEGA SALES CO.
WEST COAST
1
-800- 235 -3581
PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO
CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE.
3533 Old Conejo Rd. #102
Newbury Park, CA 91320
1- 805 -499.3678
CA. TOLL FREE 1- 800 -322 -1873
EAST COAST
1
-800- 556 -7586
OMEGA SALES CO.
12 Meeting St.
Cumberland, RI 02864
OMEGA SALES CO.
www.americanradiohistory.com
1- 401
-722 -1027
QUALITY parts at
DISCOUNT PRICES!
*
KEY SWITCH
4PDT PRINTED
CIRCUIT 12 VDC
14 pin
3 amp
S. P.S.T.
RATED 4 AMPS
125 VOLTS
style
contacts
r
BRAND NEW
P.0 Mount
1
DPDT RELAY
AROMAT
12 VDC
HL2 -P -DC 12VDC
-^¿I
volts 756 ea
3
WITH PIN TERMINALS
3 to 7 volte
WITH PIN TERMINALS
4PDT RELAY
COMPUTER
GRADE
CAPACITOR
EACH
1,700 mfd. 150 VDC
21/2 "01c X43/4" $2.00
3 600 mfd.
4OVDC
3/8" DIA. X 3" HI
6,400 mfd.
60VDC
2.50
13 /8`otc X 4 114"
111,500mfd.18VDC $1.50
speedy coil voltage
LARGE QUANTITIES AVAILABLE
SOCKETS FOP RELAY SOC earn
RANSFORMER
1
120 volt
primaries
6 VOLTS at 150 mA
$1.25
12 V.C.T. at 500mA
$2.50
16.5 V. at 3 AMPS
58.50
18 VOLTS at 1 AMP
$4.50
25.2 VCT at 2.8 AMP 55.50
20,000 mfd. 25VDC
" DIA. X 214" HIGH $2.00
22,000 mfd.25VDC
2" CIA X 2 I/2*eice $2.50
mfd.4OVD
440/220 TO 110 VOLT 22,000
2" DIA. X 6" HIGH $3.00
TRANSFORMER
45.000 mfd. 25 VDC
SOLA r HTIBZI00 2" DIA. X 4" HIGH
$3 50
440 or 220 volts 52,000 mfd. 15 VDC
2b1A X 4 1/2".1.4 $3.00
to Ito volts
Rated 100 VA 72,000 mfd.15VDC
2
2" DIA.
$ 15.00
4"
X
Aá,;.50
HIGH
CLAMPS TO FIT CAPACITORS 50e ee
i,
SEND FOR OUR NEW
-eel 40 PAGE CATALOG ft`' e;
TYPE N
L.E. D.'s
CONNECTOR
STANDARD JUMBO
KINGS 00526 B/U
FITS RG55, RG5B,
DIFFUSED
RED
TYPE
RG141, RG142,
SOLDER
RG223
GREEN
51.75 EACH
FOR
10 for
FOR
2
lint to ground
l
51.70
POLAR L E D
51.70
FOR
2
SUB MINI LED
----tom
.079" .098"
X
20mA at 1.75v
10
51.00
FOR
200 FOR $18.00
QUANTITY PRICES AVAILAPLE.
170 MFD 330 VOLT
1/!"x 7/8"
2 for $1.50
CANNON XLR
CONNECTOR
$700
3
PRONG
CHASSIS MOUNT
CONNECTOR
750 MFD 330 V
PHOTO FLASH
$2.00 EACH
10 for $19.00
RECHARGABLE
X
SEALED
LEAD -ACID
1/4" DIA.
EACH
10 FOR
!
51.50
52.00
$2.00
OPERATION
JUMBO SIZE
SUPER SMALL
PHOTO -FLASH
1
FOR
5 VOLT
to
51.25
I-OR
:7
FLASHER LED
noise suppression
CORCOM o 10K6
Rated:10 amp
115/250 v 50 -400 hz
$ 3.75 ea. to for $35.00
2" HIGH
10
YELLOW
RFI
LINE FILTER
for line
line
8
PROJECT
OF. THC MONTH
750 each
pin $10111
amp contacts
24 volt de. or
20 you a.c.
Und eut luny tested
3
$1.70
3 volts 756 ea
WITH WIRE LEADS
to
1hto
ÿl
$3.00 each
3.50 EA.
$
MINI SIZE
BUZZERS
$ 2.75 EA.
compact size
10 amp contacts
PC. mount
*
$11.00
BATTERIES
*SPECIAL !! *
10 MEG POTS
By Forrest M. Mims
A Light- Sensitive Tone Generator
IF YOU like circuits which respond
to light, you'll love the light-sensitive tone generator shown in Fig. 1.
Most light- sensitive tone generators
have a single light- sensitive component. The circuit in Fig. 1 has two.
This provides an unusual up -down audible tone.
In operation, the 741 is connected
as an oscillator which produces a
clipped sine wave at its output. The
output waveform therefore resembles
a square wave with slow rise and fall
times.
Photocells PC1 and PC2 control the
frequency of oscillation of the 741.
For best results, use cadmium sulfide
photocells having a very low resistance when illuminated and a high
dark resistance. Most of the photocells available from electronics part
suppliers that cater to hobbyists and
experimenters fall in this category.
When both PC1 and PC2 are dark,
the frequency of the 741 oscillator will
fall to about 700 Hz. If PCI is illuminated with a small flashlight while
PC2 remains dark, the frequency will
suddenly fall to a few Hz and then rise
quickly to 1 kHz or more.
If PC2 is illuminated with the flashlight while PCI remains dark, the frequency will suddenly rise to 3 kHz or
more. When both PCI and PC2 are
illuminated, the frequency will level
off at about 1.2 kHz.
I made these measurements when
the wiper of balance potentiometer
R3 was at its center position. The setting of R3 can be altered to produce a
wider range of tone frequencies.
The signal from the 741 is converted into an audible tone by an
LM386 audio amplifier. Potentiometer R4 serves as a gain control. When
you first apply power to the circuit,
make sure R4's wiper is rotated
toward the ground connection. Otherwise the tone from the speaker may be
uncomfortably loud. Caution: Don't
substitute an earphone for the speaker! The sound level may be too high.
This circuit has more than its obvious novelty value. You can, for
example, use it as a light -controlled
sound effects generator. For this application both photocells should be
placed at one end of individual plastic
or cardboard tubes which have been
coated on their inside with black
paper or paint. The circuit can then be
"played" by flashing light down the
tubes or by blocking a continuous
light source with your finger tips.
The circuit has educational value as
well. It nicely demonstrates the feedback which makes possible the conversion of an amplifier into an oscillator. And it demonstrates the "memory
effect" of cadmium sulfide photocells.
You'll quickly notice this phenomenon while experimenting with the circuit. A cadmium sulfide photocell requires several seconds or even minutes
to resume equilibrium following the
removal of light, and this gives rise to
a gradually changing tone even when
the light source is removed.
Finally, you can replace the two
photocells with two potentiometers in
a joystick to obtain full manual control of the circuit. Pushing the stick
back and forth will sweep the output
frequency across its full spectrum.
Moving the stick in a circular fashion
will produce a sound like a siren. 0
ttj
4.9v
4 for 51.00
10 for S 2.00
100 for
2
"DIA.
2X
315X
1
41
IN.
$10.00
'2VDC
6 VOLTS
BUZZER SPECIAL
506 each
100OIIon
1C
a VOLTS 6AMPPIR
515.00
41/2
X 2
54.00
X
71/2 AMP
41/2
IN. HR
6
S12.50
R3
2" ALLIGATOR CLIPS
3
7
for $1
100 cliDe
clips for 512.00
500 clips for $50.00
905 S. Vermont Ave.
P O BOX 20406
Los Angeles, Calif. 90006
(213) 380-8000
Mon.
Fri.
+
y
CS!
.oSµf1
ALL ELECTROAICS
9AM -5PM
f
LH3B6
50X
Saturday
10 AM
-3PM
Re!
CORP.
Cf
r ioO.t`F
Bnr
SiDKR
/Ok
TERMS
Quantities Limited
Mon Order St000
Add S
2.50
Shipping USA
Calif Res Add 6
Prompt Shipping
®CO'
Fig.
1.
Up -down audible light sensor.
CIRCLE NO. 57 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
www.americanradiohistory.com
-ive
tElectronic
NOW AVAILABLE
Actives New Product Catalog
return this form for a free copy
1
I
I
Sales Corp
I
Name
WE'RE BACK IN
POPULAR ELECTRONICS!
OUTSTANDING DEAL
1
I
1
Address
ROCKWELL AIM 65
I
Harnessed for work. AIM 65 as a "bare -board" micro computer outperforms in ris puce category Features: 120 brie/min. 20- column hard
copy printer 54 key alphanumeric keyboard. full bus expansion, plug
irr sockets, basic interpreter firmware and much more
4K version. Only S445.00
City
Zip
State
411=
a
ms
a a as a a a a a a a a qa
TECHNICAL BOOKS
Silicone
Ia8C1U
Toshiba
Unitrode
7806-tiro
n
0
MH,
MO,
780 -P10
r
S
MHz
7308 -P10
4
0 MHz
I80-cT6
1 5
7861.C1C
780 -080
Zilog
MHz
0 MHz
4
MHz
0 MHz
7 5
2808.068
4
LINEAR IC'S
7
55
7 5
780 -510/1
7800.510/1
780 -SC /2
7808 -510/2
780.010/9
7808 -510/9
286 DMT
1808 -DART
9 45
6.65
7.65
5.95
7.65
17.99
22.95
MHz 22.45
MHz 27.95
5 MH7 16.85
0 MHz 21.54
5 MHz 11.95
0 MHz 14.95
2 5
4 0
2
4
7
4
MOS MEMORIES
MOS Static RAM's
LM301AN 8
LM307N 8
32
SN76477NF
SN 76489A N
Part No.
LM358N8
48
48
36
Prix*
59
LM747CN 14
LM748CN 8
LM1458N-8
so
43
LM 308N 8
LM308CH
LM309K
LM310HC
LM311CH
LM311NH
LM318N 8
LM318CH
LM323K
95
1.56
1 99
85
49
LM555N 8
LM556N 14
LM567CN 8
28
LM 1488N
64
2101.35
2102.25
52
89
59
.64
LM1489N
LM1495CN 142.10
LM1496CN 14 1.38
LM2211CN 14 2.95
LM2240PC
1.80
LM3081DC
1.67
LM3403N 14
19
LM3524PC
130
LM3900N
.98
LM4136N 14
.88
ULN2003AN
79
3.85
1.25
2.65
L
L
L
1.67
5.34
48
M 324 N
1
M 709CH
M 714CH
LM723CH
LM723CN 14
LM725CN 8
LM733CN 14
LM739CN I4
LM74 ICH
LM741CN 8
19
LM339N
N8T26N
N8T28N
29
438
69
2.95
.78
48
1.22
1.36
1.69
59
28
14
14
IK (256 o 4) 350NS 22 PIN
IK (IK x 1) 25ONS 16 PIN
P2111 -45 IK (256 x 4) 45ONS 18 PIN
P2112 -35 IK (256 x 4) 350NS 18 PIN
21141.
Low Power 4K (1024 x 4) 300NS
2147
4K (4K x 1) 55NS
2147
4K (4K x 1) 7ONS
C04001BE
CD4002BE
C 040060E
CD40070E
00400813E
CD40098E
CC/40108E
CD40118E
CD40128E
CD40r38E
C 0401413
CD4015BE
CD4016BE
CD4017BE
C04018BE
CD4019BE
CD40200E
CD40218E
CD40228E
CD4023BE
040240
CD4025BE
.22
CD40406E
CD40416E
CD4042BE
CD4043BE
CD4044BE
CD40468E
C04047BE
C040498E
CD40508E
AYS -1013A
40 Khz Single 5V Supply
18
59
24
.61
39
39
22
re
33
56
56
32
54
CE/405113E
0040520E
CD4053BE
CD40608E
CD4066BE
CD4068BE
CD4069BE
C04010BE
C04011BE
52
44
66
57
79
C0401213E
19
CD4073BE
44
20
C0401513E
CD4076BE
C04078BE
C04026eE
145
CD4027BE
42
CC/402813E
S4
C04029BE
C 0403013
CD4033BE
CD4034BE
C 040350E
69
C040918E
0040828E
CD40858E
CD40868E
36
167
244
CD4093BE
00409913E
CD41040E
69
ñ
54
.52
.79
.72
.34
.32
.79
.79
79
.89
54
24
25
29
39
19
29
28
59
28
25
19
47
59
56
0045118E
CD45128E
C045148E
CD45r5BE
CD45168E
01345190E
C045208E
004528BE
72
C0453113E
01345328E
64
64
59
175
0174PC
2.39
0175PC
TTL
7400N
7401N
7402N
7403N
7404N
7405N
7406N
7407N
7408N
7409N
7410N
7412N
74135
7414N
7416N
7417N
7420N
74225
7423N
7425N
7426N
7427N
7428N
7430N
7432N
7433N
.23
.25
.24
.24
.26
.26
7438N
7440N
7442N
7445N
7446N
.36
.36
7450N
7451N
7453N
7454N
7472N
7473N
7474N
7475N
7476N
7483AN
26
.28
.25
.47
.42
.42
.36
.36
.29
.37
.37
.32
.39
.32
.48
.22
.42
42
38
38
.25
.44
74478N
7484AN
7485N
7486N
7490AN
7491AN
7492AN
7493AN
7494AN
74954
74nr,N
-N
1
.95
.94
.65
.25
.29
.29
29
36
.38
.36
.42
.42
.48
1.36
.66
.39
.42
.44
.38
.38
.68
.54
.59
1.89
156
74104N
.64
74107AN .44
74109N
.44
74110N
.52
74111N
.72
74116N 1.38
74120N 1.38
74121N
.48
74122N
.54
74123N
.48
74125N
.52
74126AN .48
74128N
.64
74132N
.45
74136N
.52
74141N
.64
74142N
74143N
74144N
74145N
74147N
74148N
74150N
74151N
74153N
74154N
74155N
74157N
3.27
3.79
3.79
-67
1.32
.89
1.44
.44
.38
1.44
48
80
1
LED'S
56
1039
14
16
18
72
72
74159N
74160N
74161AN
74162N
74163AN
74164N
74165N
74166N
74170N
74172N
74173N
74I74N
74175N
74176N
74178N
74179N
74180N
74182N
74184N
74185N
74190N
74191N
74192N
74193N
74194N
74195N
74196N
CPU
CPU
CPU
CPU
6.65
8.45
19.95
2.65
2.65
2.65
29.50
2.95
3.65
C1TMS2516
2716
(Intel version)
2.75
4.95
4.95
6.95
7.95
17.95
17.95
19.84
78.00
TMS2532 (T Pin Out)
14
.14
20
98
96
.16
.18
.20
3.98
S
6.98
450 os
C2732 (Intel version)
32K (4096 x 8) 450 ns
7.45
CPU
CPU
7.65
7.65
5.95
7.95
10.85
$18.75
TMS2564
TMS2764
64K (8K
x
558.40
$44.00
8) 450 ns
16K STATIC RAM
11.10
TMM2016P -1 16K (2K
TMM2016P150ns
$16.45
$21.00
$14.88
x 8) 100 ras
T M M 2016 P -2 200 ns
256 0t. 16 PIN
16. 16 PIN
1K. 16 PIN
2K. 16 PIN
2K. 16 PIN
4K. 18 PIN
4K. 24 PIN
4K. 24 PIN
8K. 18 PIN
8K. 24 PIN
16K. 24 PIN
16K MOS DYNAMIC RAM'S (16 PIN)
4116.20 (200NS)
4116.30 (300NS) Ceramic
5
2.65
Special S 2.25
4K MOS DYNAMIC RAM'S
TMS4060.30
4K (4K
x 1)
Special
S
2.65
300NS 22 PIN
64K MOS DYNAMIC RAM
4164 64K (64K o 1) 200NS 16 PIN
x 1)
$24.00
$29.95
15ONS 16 PIN
EXAR PRODUCTS
11
.24
16
8b00
15
Rx1acP
PHASE.LOCKED LOOPS
5515 MowiamnD.mwaMtor5
Loop
Lu
LLocnLoco
.use
onoletnc lone Decodo
.24
.28
x1:133%
011.334cP
OROM1CP
RAMIC
8114x1.
A UANOV .40
cFa
1R224C
q127CP
xRMMC
1
x*210C
4,4
Generator
i
DISPLAY DRIVERS
xe2771C Fluorescent D'spiav 05re,
08012CP Hqn Nonage 7 0q1 0,595 Dure,
1451160 Fluorescent 13,iä15 Dore,
rec.aton wasetorm Gene,ator
TIMING CIRCUITS
hecropouree Immg Gcu,t
Dorr lecruporeer Grnmec.,cui
Ousel T,mer Grcuu
Dual Grong Gucu,t
Long Range firme,
g2
Loo
r
Preovon
P
529
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
1180440 Prpp,ammabie Orad Opamp
x84220 P,og,ammabie Due, Op amp
unclon Generator
dtyeCon rdH4 Osc 4tor
r
Ope,.umoai Mmupuer
MulterneoLlelector
49
UNCTION GENERATOR
t
1R2rG
1Rmcr
MULTIPLIERS and MODULATORS
1R22015G55
High Sre
1Rgxvc
R2170 Da1
24
28
40
.14
20
x 8)
4164 64K (64K
LED 220
LED 222
LED 224
TIL 220
19
7.95
S
$19.95
I
32K (4096
CPU
T-1-3/4 LED'S
09
S
16X 45055 Single 5V Supply
256 bit. 16 PIN
1.98
1.88
2.75
LOW PROFILE, SOLDER TAIL, DIP SOCKETS.
PINS
PRICE
PINS
PRICE
8
.08
22
.22
89
69
42
79
-
2.98
4.45
3.95
3.45
745288
745188
93427/825129
93417/825126
93446/7621
93436/7620
93453/7643
93448/7641
93451/825181
825185/7128
74547817132
825191/7138
SOCKETS
2.sa
1
Dol
MHz
APPLICATION NOTES
AVAILABLE WITH YOUR ORDER.
m
1
single 1024
1
5800
6802
6808
6809
6810
6820
6821
6845
3-W 6850
2.34 6852
4.97
5.95 6502
9.95 6504
5.95 6505
9.95 6520
9.95 6522
10.95 6532
36.00 6551
32.00
PROM'S
Special 3.95
' REE
LED 209
LED 211
LED 212
TIL 209A
25
159
CD4702BE
40097PC
40098PC
40161PC
FIFO
64 Bit
T
7e
1
CD4527BE
0045390E
0045438E
0045536E
0045558E
0045560E
0045818E
0045828E
C045840E
0045858E
ITO-SI
7.25
7.95
4.95
7.95
9.00
2.25
4.25
1.98
8035 CPU
8039 CPU
80806 CPU
8085 CPU
8155
8212
8214
8216
8224
8226
8228
8251
8253
8255
8257
8259
8279
8748
8755
LED'S
64
75
52
56
1
0045220E
C1345260E
14045
3341APC
3342PC
3347PC
59
72
64
1
2.95
6.95
7.45
SHIFT REGISTERS
5e
CD41088F
CD45108ff
265
UART's
1
CM OS
C
MHz 2285
7 5 MHz 22.45
4 0 MHz 27.85
2e0 -510/0
Sybex
Tab Books Inc.
Texas Instruments
1
EPROM'S
C1702A2KluS
MICROPROCESSOR
CHIP SETS
C2708 1K x 8 450 ras
5.65
Zilog
Precision Monolithic Inc.
Silicon General
6.95
ACT NOW WHILE QUANTITIES LAST
COMPUTER SUPPORT CENTER
ctive stocks books by the following manufacturersAdvanced Micro Devices
Fairchild
General Semiconductor Ind.
Hitachi
Howard W. Sams Co. Ltd.
Monolithic Memories
Nippon Electric Co.
Osborne
1981 IC MASTER
ias
11115209
2.22
111X2240
SPECIAL FUNCTIONS
Mue. unc,oninlegraled C.r, uns
Pulse
81800
iatr
181'100
ai Serva
Grcur.
110
ai SerroGuo,ri
Dua,OperawM ,anscoreuc,arceerre
Hamme, Dure
12
1
STANDARD, SCHOTTKY AND LOW POWER SCHOTTKY
741975
74198N
74199N
74221N
74246N
74247N
74251N
74259N
72
1.50
74S05N
74S08N
1.55
.68
1.44
1.29
.79
1.89
74273N
2.39
4.95 74276N 1.19
2.38
.79 74278N
.59
.66 74279N
1.10
.58 74283N
.77 74293N
-89
84
1.17 74298N
1.35 74351N
2.20
.75 74365AN .69
.69
.52 74366N
2.39 74367AN .58
2.36 74368AN .58
.96
.68 74390N
1.29
.68 74393N
745095
1.52
.48
.64
.64
.64
.64
-64
.68
1.96
.72
.72
.55
.79
74SOON
74S02N
74$03N
74SO4N
.44
.48
.72
.69
74S10N
74S11N
74S15N
74S20N
74S30N
74S32N
74S37N
74S38N
74S40N
74$51N
74ß74N
74$85N
.69
.48
.86
.48
.59
.69
.48
.49
.89
.99
1.17
.44
.69
.66
2.19
745865
.78
7451125 .78
7451145 1.96
7451245
7451325
7451335
7451345
7451355
7451385
7451395
2.69
1.24
.98
.72
1.56
.96
1.10
74S140N .89
746151N 1.10
1.10
1.10
1.16
4.74
3.70
3.54
4.74
5,39
1.06
1.06
3.95
2.10
4.95
1.68
1.79
5.99
5.99
74S153N
74S157N
74S158N
745161N
74S162N
745163N
74S 16ÁN
74$169N
7401745
74S175N
74S1Á1N
7451825
74S189N
74S194N
7451955
74S201N
7452255
745240N
74S241N
74ß244N
74S251N
7452535
7452575
74S258N
74S260N
745274N
745275N
2.95
2.95
3.49
1.49
2.29
1.42
1.09
1.89
17.99
16.77
74S280N 2.29
7452835 3.39
74S299N 6.54
745373N 2.98
7453745 2.98
7453815 5.95
7454125 2.98
74S471N 6.45
7454725 8.45
74S474N 9.65
74S476N 5.95
74LSOON .19
74LS01N .22
7415025
7415035
7415045
7415055
7415085
7415095
74LS10N
741St IN
7415125
7415135
7415145
74LS2ON
74LS21N
.22
.22
.22
-22
.22
.28
-22
.28
.24
.29
.39
.22
.28
.39
.29
.18
.29
.29
.29
.44
.68
.99
.24
.24
.24
.32
.32
.36
.42
.32
.89
.84
.38
.39
.89
.48
.39
.48
7415 1095
74LS96N .58
74L51075 .42
74LS165N
74LS166N
74LS26N
7415275
74LS30N
7415325
74LS37N
7415385
74LS42N
7415475
7415485
741551N
7415545
7415555
7415735
74LS74N
7415755
7415765
7415785
7415835
7415855
7415865
7415905
74LS91N
7415925
7415935
7415955
.52
MAIL ORDERS SHOULD BE SENT TO:
133 Flanders Road. Westboro. Massachusetts. 01581
Telephone orders 8 inquiries (617) 366 -0500
CANADAS FOREIGN 237 Hymus Blvd.. Pointe- Claire. (Mtl ). Quebec. Canada H9R -5C7
Foreign customers please remit payment on an international bank drall or international postal money order payable in U S dollars
Prices are in US dollars Minimum order 510 00
Add 53.00 to cover postage & handling
VISA AND MASTERCARD ACCEPTED
U S A
CIRCLE NO.63 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
.36
74151125
.36
74151225
.48
74151235
.59
74151255
.44
74151265
.44
74151325
.54
74151335 1.68
74151365
.42
74151385
.48
74151395
.48
74LS145N 1.09
74LS147N 1.96
74LS148N 1.43
.42
74LS151N
.42
74LS 153N
.87
74LS155N
74151565
74L5157N
74LS158N
7415160N
74LS161N
74L5162N
74151635
74151645
99
as
.48
.69
64
1.10
.58
58
89
1.64
74151705
74151735
74151745
74151755
74151815
74151895
74151905
74151915
74151925
74LS193N
74LS194N
74151965
74LS f97N
74152215
741.52405
74LS241N
74152425
74152435
1.59
.59
.44
.44
1.99
4.45
.72
.72
.64
.64
64
-60
.88
.89
.89
89
1.10
1.10
1.10
741524419
74152455 1.65
.84
74152475
74152485 1.09
74152495 1.10
74LS251N .54
.54
74152535
74LS257N .89
74LS258N
56
74LS259N
74L5260N
74152665
1.29
1.25
.36
1.19
74LS273N
74LS275N 4.691
74LS279N
,48
74L5280N 1.96
74152835
74152905
74L5293N
74LS298N
.78
.72
.44
64
.
74LS299N 2.50
74LS320N 2.75
74LS321N 3.95
74LS322N
74L5323N
74153245 3.25 1
74LS348N 2'45
74LS352N
74LS353N 44551
74LS362N 9.95 I
5441
I
74153655
74153665
74153675
74153685
.57
I
.ß2I
52I
I
I
74LS373N 1.25
74LS374N 1.25
64
74LS375/.
74LS377N 1.25
-99
74LS376N
74L5379N 1.09
.98
74LS390N
74L5393N .96
74L53955 1.19
.37
74LS447N
7415490N 1.89
74LS630N 85.00
.84
7415669N
74LS670N 1.64
TTL DATA
BOOK WITH
SUPPLEMENT
"The Compplete
Book on 7TL
Including
L5r H, S,
L.
and
ALS versions.
No.
Lcc4Pan
112/4163
$8.50
NI7 (1119
SN71o0N
SN7401N
SN7102N
SN7403N
SN7/04N
SN7405N
5N7406N
SN7407N
SN7108N
SN7409N
SN74I0N
SN7/11N
SN7412N
SN7413N
.20
.20
.25
.25
.25
.29
.3%
.35
.29
.29
.25
.29
.35
.40
SN741/N
.69
SN7/I6N
.29
.29
.25
.29
SN7/17N
SN7420N
SN7421N
SN7422N
SN7423N
SN7/25N
SN7426N
SN7427N
SN7428N
SN7430N
SN7432N
5N7431N
SN7438N
SN7439N
SN7440N
SN7411N
SN74/2N
SN7443N
SN74/4N
SN74/5N
SN7446N
SN7447N
SN7448N
SN7450N
SN7/S1N
SN7453N
SN7454N
5N7459A
SN7160N
SN7/70N
74LS00
71LS01
71L502
74LS03
74LS01
74LSg6
74LS08
7/L509
74LSIO
71LS11
74L5I2
74L513
11LS14
7L520
74L521
74L522
74L53
74L527
74L53
71L530
71L532
74L533
7/L537
7/L538
74L540
74LS42
74LS47
11LS48
74LS49
74LS51
74L554
7/LS55
71L573
74LS71
74LSß
71L576
74L578
74L59
71LS%
74L586
71LS%
.45
.29
.29
.29
.9
.25
.29
.3
.40
.25
.20
.9
.59
1.10
1.10
.89
.79
.69
.79
.20
.20
.20
.20
.25
.20
.29
.29
.29
.29
.29
.35
.35
.35
.35
.9
.35
.59
.99
.35
.35
.35
.35
.35
.35
.35
.35
.59
.45
.39
.36
.89
.89
1.15
1.15
.É
.4455
.45
.59
.45
.49
.89
1.25
.49
.69
SN7472N
SN7473N
SN7474N
SN7/75N
SN7476N
SN7479N
SN7480N
SN7482N
SN7483N
SN7485N
SN7450N
SN7489N
SN74%N
SN7491N
SN7492N
SN7493N
SN7491N
SN7495N
SN7496N
SN7497N
SN71100N
SN74104N
SN74105N
SN74107N
SN7419N
SN7/116N
SN74121N
SN7/122N
SN74123N
SN74125N
SN7/I26N
SN74132N
SN74136N
SN74141N
5N74142N
SN74143N
SN74144N
SN74145N
SN74147N
SN74148N
SN7/150N
SNI/151N
SN74152N
SN74153N
SN74154N
SN74155N
.29
.35
.35
.49
.35
74L5%
74LS%
7+L5107
74LS19
74LS112
74LS113
74LS114
74LSI22
74L5123
74L5125
71LS13
74LS132
74L5133
74L5136
7/L5138
741.5139
74LS151
74L519
14LS154
74LSI55
71LS156
74LS157
74L5158
74L519
74L5161
74L5162
74L5163
74L0164
74L5165
71L519
74L519
74LS170
74 L5173
14L5174
74L5175
74L5181
&1.51%
741.5191
SN74156N
SN74157N
SN74160N
.69
.69
.69
SN74162N
SN71163N
SN74164N
SN74165N
SN74166N
SN74167N
SN74170N
SN74172N
SN14173N
SN74174N
SN71175N
SN74176N
SN74177N
SN74179N
SN74180N
.79
.69
.89
.89
.89
.89
.89
.89
1.25
2.79
1.95
1.95
1.39
.99
.89
.79
.19
1.49
.79
3.00
SN741aIN
2.3
1.49
.89
.89
.35
SN74182N
SN74181N
SN74150N
SN74190N
SN74191N
.79
2.49
2.49
5.00
.50
.99
.69
.89
.35
1.75
.49
.59
.45
.45
.35
1.96
.39
.55
.59
.49
.49
.75
.75
.99
3.25
3.49
3.49
.79
1.95
1.29
1.3
.69
.69
.79
1.3
.79
74LS
7/L592
("hoao Anas)
Tffft
7400
i)1
.75
.99
1.15
.45
.45
.45
.49
.49
.89
1.3
.9
.59
.99
.89
.49
.89
.89
.89
.89
1.75
.89
.89
.89
.89
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.19
1.19
1.95
.99
.99
.99
2.95
1.26
1.3
SN7416IN
SN7419N
SN74193N
SN71I94N
SN74195N
SN74196N
SN71197N
SN74198N
SN74199N
SN74221N
SN74251N
SN74276N
SN74279N
SN74283N
SN74264N
5N71285N
SN74365N
SN74366N
SN74367N
SN74368N
SN74390N
SN14393N
74L5192
74LS193
74LS194
14LS195
74L0197
74L5221
74LS240
71L524I
74LS242
74LS243
74LS244
74LS245
71L5241
14L5248
14L5249
74L531
74L5253
74LS37
74LS29
NLS260
7/LS36
74L5273
74L5219
74L52a3
7/LS2%
741_5293
74L5298
74LS352
74L5353
7/L5385
74L5356
74L5367
74L5368
74LS373
74L5374
71L5375
74LS3%
74L5393
74LS399
74L5670
81LS%
BIL597
1.3
1.25
.89
.89
.89
.69
.89
.89
1.49
1.49
1.25
.99
1.95
.79
1.49
3.95
3.95
.69
.69
.69
.69
1.49
1.49
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.15
1.19
1.19
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
2.45
1.19
1.19
1.19
.99
.99
a9
699
.69
.69
1.95
.89
.89
.99
.99
1.25
1.29
1.29
.69
.69
.69
.69
1.95
1.95
.89
44
.45
.45
74502
74503
74504
74505
74508
74510
.45
.55
.55
.50
.50
.45
745124
745133
745134
745135
7451%
745131
74511
74515
.45
.45
745139
745140
74520
.45
745151
7459
745153
74522
745243
74S
Hsppy01 haruh
Colonel Bogey
7/5244
3.95
.55
.69
1.19
1.75
1.35
1.35
.79
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
74530
.45
745157
14532
74538
.55
1.25
745158
74540
74551
74564
74565
.50
.45
.50
745174
745175
745188
745194
74574
74586
745112
.75
.79
.79
745195
745196
745240
1.%
745113
745114
.79
.79
745241
745242
2.95
3.25
CA3010H
CA3013H
CA3023H
CA3035H
CA3039H
CA3046N
CA3059N
.9
2.15
3.25
2.49
1.35
1.30
3.25
CD4000
39
39
C134001
CD4002
C040%
1
C 04007
25
49
49
39
C04009
C 04010
C 04011
C04012
CD/013
C 04014
C04015
3
49
139
1 19
C D4016
C04017
CD1018
C04019
C04020
C 04021
C D4022
39
19
59
1
1.95
1.95
2.%
CA- LINEAR
CA3%ON
CA3g9H
CA3%IN
CA3082N
CA3083N
CA30%N
3.25
1.25
2.00
2.00
1.60
.85
CD-CMOS
C 04011
C 04012
C 04043
C04044
C 04046
C 04047
C 04048
C D4049
C 04050
C DI051
C D1052
1.49
.99
.89
.9
1.79
2.50
1.35
.49
.59
1.19
59
C D4053
49
C04056
D409
9.%
139
C04050
1.49
19
29
C 04066
C D409
79
C04069
23
C 04070
CD1071
C 04072
C 04073
1
1
19
C0403
2%
C D4034
C 04035
C 04090
2.95
1.59
1.59
2.95
1.19
1.19
2.95
19
C 04023
C 04024
C D4025
C04027
C04028
CD/029
C04030
74519
1
49
49
3
49
1
99
49
C
C04075
C 04076
C 04078
C 04081
C 04082
C 0493
.
:
.45
.49
.39
.39
1.39
.55
.39
.39
.99
745251
745253
745257
745258
745260
745280
74537
745288
745373
745374
745387
745471
745472
745473
745174
745475
745570
745571
745572
745513
145940
745941
CA309N
CA3096N
CA3130H
CA3I40H
CA319H
CA3401N
CA3600N
CD 40%
C De5g6
C D4507
C 04508
C04510
C04511
CD4512
C04514
C04515
C 04516
C 04518
C 04519
C 04520
C04526
C 00528
C 04529
C04543
C04552
C04566
C04583
C 04584
C04723
C 01724
MC14409
MC14410
MC14411
MC14412
MC14419
MC11433
MC14538
MC14541
Eyes of Texas
Jingle Beyllla
Auld
Saldlere Choyrus
Sailor's Hornpipe
-
PT030 Phone Tunes
AD30 AC Adapter
$49.95
$8.95
xC556R .200" 100
XC556G .200" green
XC556v .200" yellow
xC556C .200" clear
XC22R .200" red
XC22G .200" green
XC22V .200" yellow
MV108 .170" red
C.A.
D.D.
Type
MAN 1
MAN 2
MAN 3
MAN 62
MAN 54
MAN 71
MAN 72
MAN 74
MAN 82
MAN M
MAN 3620
MAN 3630
MAN 3640
MAN 1610
MAN 6610
MAN 6630
MAN 6640
MAN 6650
MAN 6660
MAN 6710
MAN 6740
MAN 6750
DL0304
DLO307
OLG500
200(TISA) Red/Green
4/$1
4/$1
4/$1
5/$1
4/Sí
4/51
4/$í
Ht
5x7 D.M. -red
.270
.300
2.95
4.95
.13
.3
.9
C.A.-red
C.C. -retl
C.A. -green
C.A. -red
C.C.-red
C.A.yellow
C.A. -orange
G.G. -green
C.C.-red
C.A.-red
C.A.-red
C.C.-red
C.A.-orange
C.C.-orange
C.C.-red
C.C.21
C.C.
C.C. (FND503)
FND507
C.A. (F N0510)
C.A.-reo
HDSP-3401
HDSP-3403
HOSP-3106
C.C.red
2.49
.75
.99
3.95
1.39
1.29
1.49
3.95
2.95
1.49
1.79
.89
1.29
1.79
1.79
1.95
2.79
11.%
2.79
2.49
.75
1.95
1.95
17.95
18.95
15.95
1.25
1.25
1.3
1.49
1.3
1.49
1.49
1.49
1.49
.35
.99
.75
I
72161P1
7209IPA
72151PG
/Kit
7215EV
7216AIJ1
7216CIJ1
12160199
72171JI
7218C 1J
WVUC
650
150
250
1260
1,505
25
PRICE
4N28
LIT-1
MOC3010
19
18.850
18.950
11.050
11.050
EU
9
3
!.
.95
1.500
2.005
2,2M
33
15
55
60
13.005
6
13
2.95
14.000
14.000
295
1e005
f f0
395
20.000
25
2.000
9
2 49
23.000
23.005
3
4
20
55
15
Or0ER vALUES AVMLAOLE
OVER 250
, 2.500
pin LP
14 pin LP
16 pin LP
18 pin LP
20 pin LP
22 pin LP
24 pin LP
28 pin LP
36 Pln LP
40 pin LP
8
3-49
-24
.15
.19
3
.28
.34
.37
.38
.45
.60
.63
.32
.36
.37
.14
.59
.62
.18
.20
.27
.30
.35
.36
.43
14
16
18
24
28
36
40
25-49
.39
.49
.54
.59
.35
.45
1.10
1.65
5G
1.75
5
e15
Iea004
,o
pin
pin
pin
pin
pin
pin
pin
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
-24
10
1
5ee.
27
50-100
14
.31
.41
.44
.48
.69
.50
1.26
16
.27
.30
.35
.49
.99
1.39
ST
ST
ASST. 2
Sea.
180
68
470
ASST. 3
5ea.
IfPf
pin WW
pin WW
pin WW
pin WW
Pin WW
20
22
pin
pin
pin
pin
Pin
pin
28
35
40
Ohm 15
Ohm 39
Ohm 100
Ohm 270
Ohm 640
1
.3
.24
.3
.30
.42
.81
1.15
1.30
3.49
-24
.59
.69
.85
.99
1.19
1.49
1.39
1.69
2.19
2.29
WW
WW
50-100
.49
.58
.67
.70
.54
.63
.73
.77
.90
1.08
1.35
1.26
1.53
1.99
2.09
.A
WW
WW
WW
WW
Ohm 180hm
Ohm 47 Ohm
Ohm 120 Ohm
Ohm 330 Ohm
Ohm 820 Ohm
81
.99
1.23
1.14
1.38
1.79
1.9
4.7K
5.6K
6.8K
10K
12K
15K
18K
27K
68K
33K
82K
33K
47K
180K
470K
220K
1.2M
3.3M
1.5M
3.9M
1.8K
5aa.
3.3K
8.2K
3.9K
ASST. 5
Sea.
22K
56K
ASST.
B
See.
ASST. 7
5aa.
390K
IM
2.7M
560K
-5%
-
$10.00 Min. Order U.S. Funds Only
Calif. Residents Add 8% Sales Tax
Postage -Add 5% plus $1.50 Insurance
6.85
4.50
4.75
4.95
LMIOCLH
LMIICLH
LH0070OH
TLW1CP
1.00
1.95
1.25
1.75
.90
LM3O9K
LM310CN
LM3II/CN
LM312H
LM317MP
LM317T
LM317K
LM318CN
LM319N
50pcs.
$1.95
$10.95 ea.
(350 pcs.)
-
Spec Sheets
254
Sand 884 Postage for
1.3
LM320T-12
LM320T-15
LM323K
LM324N
1.25
1.25
5.95
LM32902
LM33IN
.65
LM334Z
LM335Z
LM3362
LM337T
LM337MP
LM338K
LM339N
LM340Kó
LM310K-12
LM310K-15
your
PHONE
ORDERS
WELCOME
(415) 592 -8097
- WORLDWIDE
PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE
14.95
LM348N
LM39K
LF3IN
LF353N
LF355N
LF356N
LM358N
LM39N
LM370N
LM373N
LM377N
LM380N
LM3a1N
LM382N
LM384N
LM386N-3
LM387N
LM389N
LM392N
LF3%N
LM399H
TL494CN
TL496CP
NE510A
NE529A
NE53IH
.9
1.30
1.40
1.75
1.95
1.15
.99
1.35
1.35
1.35
80C96
2.49
2.59
.69
.69
10.95
10.95
1.69
10.95
5.49
5.75
7.50
7.50
.79
BOC97
.79
2.3
74C37/
74C901
74C903
71C911
74C912
74C915
74C917
74C922
14C923
74C93
74C93
LM702H
LM703CN
LM7o9N
LM710N
LM711N
LM723N
LM733N
LM739N
3.3
LMI556V
LMI80oN
LMI871N
2.95
LM1872N
.79
.89
.29
.79
.79
.69
1.00
1.19
.35
3.00
.79
.59
2.75
1.95
.59
1.25
1.25
1.95
1.75
2.95
5.49
5.49
1.3
LMI877N9
3.3
1.95
1.79
1.95
1.29
1.45
1.35
.69
LM1889N
4.00
5.00
4.49
LM3900N
3.20
1.75
1.49
2.05
2.25
2.25
2.95
.69
1.25
1.15
1.75
LM3914N
LM3915N
LM3316N
RC/136N
1.3
1.25
1.25
.75
.75
.76
.69
.69
.69
1.25
5.75
.60
1.00
1.10
1.10
1.00
1.79
4.49
LM74ICN
MC17415CG
LM747N
LM74aN
LMI014N
LMI310N
LMI155CN
LM119N
LMI49N
LM1496N
LM18%N
LM2002T
LM377P
LM2878P
LM2896P-1
LM319N
LM39%CN
LM399N
4.%
3.%
6.00
6.00
4.95
NESMN
NE560A
NE555V
LM556N
NE564N
LM565N
LM566CN
LM567V
NE570N
6.95
1.95
2.25
71C373
6.00
NE536H
NE540H
3.%
2.95
2.95
74C221
74C240
74C241
3.%
3.95
3.95
1.25
3.95
6.95
5.49
3.25
4.95
RCIISINB
RC4I94TK
RC41%TK
LM4500A
1.30
.39
.99
3.95
1.25
1.95
ICL8038B
LMI3050N
1.25
4,%
1.3
LM1390N
1.49
75138N
75650N
1.%
.89
75451CN
9
75492
89
CAPACITOR CORNER
50 VOLT CERAMIC DISC CAPACITORS
Value
Value
19 109 1000
19 1049 1000
.08
.06
.05
.08
.05
10 pf
.06
.0014F
.O8
.%
22 pr
.%
00 55 >%
of
pf
.W
.08
.08
.%
.%
.06
.05
.05
.05
.022uF
047 F
.10F
9
.9
.07
.2.6
.07
.06
.15
.12
.10
.
100 VOLT MYLAR FILM CAPACITORS
.0022105
.12
.12
.12
.12
.10
.10
.10
.10
.01
.07
.07
.07
.022mí
.047mf
.13
.9
.9
.29
1.5/35V
2.2/35V
3.3/25V
4.7/25V
6.8/25V
.11
.17
.23
.27
.08
.13
.41
.37
.51
.53
.63
.79
1.39
1.
.45
.47
.56
.69
.29
.34
.37
.45
.55
.95
.55
.21
.27
.Sot
.17
.33
.22
.22mt
41mf
020% DIPPED TANTALUMS (Solid) CAPACITORS
I/35V
.IS /35V
22/35V
.33/35V
.47
/ %V
.64/35V
.39
.39
.39
.39
.39
.34
.34
.34
.34
.29
.29
.29
.29
.29
15/3V
1
.25
MINI. ALUMINUM ELECTROLYTICCAPACITORS
Axial
FREE 1982 JAMECO CATALOG
LM342P-12
LM342P-15
3.95
LM320Ti
1.19
1.69
1.69
1.59
LM34IP-12
LM341P-IS
LM342P3
1.15
1.75
1.95
1.95
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.69
1.60
1.49
1.69
1.59
1.39
LM341Pi
2.49
LM320K-12
LM320K-15
LM320K9
2.8
LM340T-6
LM310T-12
LM340T-I5
LHO031CD 36.80
.9
LM300H
LM301CN
.35
LM302H
1.95
1.96
LM304H
LM305H
.99
.45
LM307CN
LM39H
3.%
LINEAR
.79
1.39
LM3%CN
1.59
1.89
2.95
7401%
TL071CN
2.49
LH0082CD 36.80
TL062CP
1.19
TLOMCN
2.19
.0047mí
1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002
12/81
LH0002CN
$1.95
2.2M
5.6M
MAIL ORDER ELECTRONICS
7.95
15.95
2.49
6.95
1.29
1.29
.001mí
$1.95
ELECTRONICS
74C89
74C90
74C93
109 pI
$1.95
lameco
1.95
74C%
220
470
Sopa.
-7
.79
74Cä
$1.95
Sopes.
1
.39
.39
.75
.39
.39
1.39
1.95
.79
74C73
74C74
$1.95
120K
74C95
74C107
74C151
74C154
740157
74C160
14C161
74C162
74C163
140164
74C173
71C174
74C175
74C192
74C193
.39
Sepa.
50p
74C
.39
.39
74C06
74C10
74C14
74C20
Pria
Stopwatch Chlp, XTL
24.95
346 01915 A/D (LCD Drive)
16.95
IC, Circuit Board, Display
34.95
314 Digit A/O (LED Driva)
15.95
IC, Circuit Board, Display
29.95
Mt Digit A/D LCD Dls. SILO.
18.95
34r Digit A/D LED Dis. HLO.
17.95
Low Battery Volt Indicator
2.3
CMOS LED Stopwatch/Timer
12.95
Stopwatch Chip. XTL
19.95
Tone Generator
5.15
Tone Generator Chip, XTL
12.95
Oscillator Controller
6.50
13.95
Freud. Counter Chip, XTL
17.95
Seven Decade Counter
Clock Generator
3.95
4 Func. CMOS Stopwatch CKT
13.95
4 Func. Stopwatch Chip, XTL
19.95
8 -Digit Univ. Counter C.A.
32.00
8 -13I91t Freq. Counter C.A.
26.95
00101í Freq. Counter C.C.
21.95
4 -Digit LED Up/Down Counter
12.95
8-Digit Univ. LED Drive
10.95
11.25
LCD 41/2 Digit UP Counter DRI
8 -0igit Unly. Counter
31.95
5 Function Counter Chip. XTL
74.95
4.%
CMOS Bln Prou. Timer /Counter
CMOS Divide-by -256 RC Timer
2.05
6.00
CMOS BCD Prog. Timer/Counter
5.25
CMOS BCD Prog. Timer /Counter
Timer
(8
CMOS 565
1.45
pin)
CMOS 556 Timer (14 pin)
2.20
CMOS Op Amp Comparator SMV 2.8
CMOS Op Amp Ext. Cater.
5MV 2.95
CMOS Dual Op Amp Comp. SMV 3.95
10MV 5.35
CMOS TII Op Amp Comp.
CMOS Goad
Amp Comp. IOMV 7.50
Amp Comp. IOMV 7.50
CMOS Quad
Voltage Concerter
2.95
4.95
Wageform Generator
Monolithic Logarithm c Amp
21.60
50ppm Band -GAP Voit Ref. Diode 2.50
Volt Ref/Indicator
Volt Ref /indicator
8211CPA
8212CPA
74C00
74CO2
Sopa.
330K
820K
CIM
809CCQ
$1.95
100K
1.6M
7642CCPD
7660CPA
8038CCP0
8048CCPE
Sopen.
270K
686K
Includes Resistor Assts.
ASST. 8R
56
1K
2.7K
1.5K
150K
Ohm
Ohm
160 Ohm
390 Ohm
22
2.2K
1.2K
ASST. 4
es
50100
.27
.32
.45
.90
1.26
1.45
1.9
18
24
1.45
Ohm 12
Ohm 33
Ohm 82
Ohm 220
Ohm 560
e
3.49
1/4 WATT RESISTOR ASSORTMENTS
ASST.
7.50
7.96
9.96
10
WIRE WRAP SOCKETS
(GOLD) LEVEL #3
8
1.40
1.59
59
05
605
6a050
].96
.61
.49
.53
.75
1.00
.9
1.05
s.50
5.50
7.50
5.50
5.05
OR WRITE FOR YOUR REOUIREMEar
.9
10
1.24
SG
SG
SG
SG
SG
SG
SG
000
65.050
1
STANDARD
pin
14 pin
16 pin
18 pin
24 pin
28 pin
36 pin
40 pin
2.16
0
15
5190
50-100
.16
SOLDERTAIL (GOLD)
8
2.50
SOLDERTAIL
STANDARD (TIN)
.17
.20
.22
.21
PRICE
2f
f2:0á0
LOW PROFILE
(TIN) SOCKETS
762IBCPA
763ICCPE
764ICCPD
74030
1.25
22.00
22.00
22.50
0.000
43.000
9
7611BCPA
76I2BCPA
74C48
1.3
10
ID
27.000
19
7
0
20
- CALL
i3.005
0
21.050
55
72501JE
72601JE
75651PA
75561PD
TLO72CP
WVOC
FARD
2.50
3.05
4.50
5.49
5.96
2.96
2.96
3.96
5.05
2.05
5.95
3.95
55
10
1.95
40
50
25
40
PRICE
16
16
19
11.000
i.55
2.300
2,596
3,000
3,600
4.500
VNDC
/Kit
72421JÁ
.9
4x7Numerlc(LHD).600
4x7 Hxdcl. (09/AF) .600
Photo Xsistor Opto -Isol. .9
Photo Xslstor Opto-I5ol. .69
Optically Isol.Tr lac Driver 1.25
5082 -7340
MFD
7226A1JL
7236AEV
.99
1.50
1.50
1.50
COMPUTER GRADE CAPACITORS
MFD
1M
15.%
1.%
Pria
/x7 Numeric( RH 0),800
5082-7300
5082.7302
3
3.75
3.95
1.39
1.25
1.25
.59
3.50
1
C.C. red
C.A.,R.H.D.reo
C.C..R.H.D.red
50607751
50807760
Decimal
.500
.300
.300
.500
.600
.600
.600
.800
.800
.110
.367
.357
.500
.500
.800
.800
.800
.430
.430
C.A. -reo
DL747
DL750
DLO847
DLO850
OL33B
FND358
FND357
FND500
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
1.25
1.25
1.25
.560
.560
.560
.300
.300
.500
1
.69
Ht
C.C. -red
DL73
L7II
.9
1
Polarity
C.A -green
DL701
DL707
.99
1
C.A.- retl -DD
C.C.-red-DO
C.C. -red 3
C.C.- orange
.79
RL.2 ..5.39ea.or 3/S1.00
DLG507
.99
.75
.75
1.25
.49
.99
.49
.99
C.C.-yellow
C.A. -orange
C.A. -orange t
C.C. -orange
.300
C.A.-orange
.400
C.A. -orange -OD .560
C.A. -orange 2
.560
C.C. -orange -DO .560
.59
C.C. -orange 2
.560
C.A. -orange
1
X05491
Type
Pries
.300
.300
.300
.300
.300
.300
.300
.300
.300
C.C. -green
C.A. -red
Diffused Bi -Color LED
Part No.
1 -99
1000
DISPLAY LEDS RHO- CRlght Hand
Polarity
1.95
3.15
/Kit
/Kit
/Kit
IS35EV
7206CJPE
7206CEV
I207A PD
7207AEV
724QIJE
.085" red
6/$1
XC29R .125" red
5/51
XC290 .125" green 4 /S1
XC209V .125" yellow 4/S1
XC526R .19" red
5/SI
XC526G .185" green
4/S1
XC526v .185" yellow 4/S1
XC526C .19" clear
4/S1
MV50
5/SI
-- Common
Anode
Double Digit
1.%
12.%
12.%
5.95
5.95
9.95
9.95
3.15
72051PG
72241PL
DISCRETE LEDS
2.49
2.49
2.49
49
3.49
2.95
10.95
10.95
10.95
CMOS Precision Timer
/Kit
/Kit
/Kit
71I7CPL
1201100
Star Spangled Banner
Lemons
Wilhelmusnd
La Marseillaise
Mosan Sonata
God Save the 01,æn
Charge!
FEATURES
connecta to
standard
building or outside.IFCC approved. Can be
alon1pgside regular phone orerepiace
used on any telephone system
worldwide. Use a different lune to Identity extension phones.
Microprocessor controlled. Adjustable volume control and variable tune speed control. Operates on two
9-volt batteries or AC Adapter (not Included).
Wealminleler Chimes
Mexican
winkle, Twinkle Little Star
Deurschlandlled
[Id
Function
70451PI
II06CPL
Pomp d Circumstance
William Tell Overture
Bach Toccata In D Minor
Shave and Haircut
Waltz
Beethoven's 5th
Lorelei
W
Well Jack
PT030
Each golf will play any of th* following tunas:
Close Encounteers
Greensleeves
C
.69
3.25
3.25
1.45
1.45
1.35
1.35
.79
2.95
3.25
2.75
elephone
0
Part No.
7045EV
7106CPL
7106EV
7107CPL
7107EV
11901111
Rule Brlttanla
1
74500
As Ssen on "Gand Morning Amenas"
Replaces the Telephone Ringer Bell
a Selection of 30 Familiar Tunes
with
199 100-499 500+
Radial
199 100x9 500+
.15
.16
.15
.16
.17
.15
.16
.17
.15
.16
.17
.25
.16
.19
.17
.18
.18
.19
.19
.24
.25
.29
.28
.41
.14
.16
.15
.15
.15
.16
.16
.20
.10
.12
.11
.11
.11
.12
.12
.18
.47/25V
473OV
1.0/16V
.21
.19
10
í6V
.25
.24
.37
.23
.22
.34
10/tá V
10/50V
47
V
.49
.54
.79
.
S
.49
.69
.41
.45
.61
100/255V
1O0/SOV
1000 /16V
2203/16V
.89
.79
.69
17/50V
1.0/S0V
3.3/50V
4.7/25V
10/50V
22/25V
22/50V
1;/;4205Z4/
103/25V
100/SOV
2207500V
4í0125V
í.0/25V
1.0/50V
4.7/16V
4.7/25V
4.7190V
220/I6V
470/25V
.3
.37
.25
.35
.13
.14
.13
.14
.15
.13
.14
.15
.13
.14
.15
.21
.23
.34
.12
.13
.12
.13
.14
.12
.13
.14
.12
.13
.14
.19
.21
.21
.31
.19
.31
27
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
108
www.americanradiohistory.com
Nati-nani
e
,,
..` -
-
duCtorClock Modules MICROPROCESSOR COMPONENTS
12VDC
'
, .L
.
- -__-
it
LLL
_I
, s' .
i+
e
AUTOMOTIVE/
INSTRUMENT
CLOCK
APPLICATIONS:
In -dash autoclockB
After -market auto/
RV clocks
Aircraft-mertne clks.
76106A.
OPI112
powered Instrumnts.
Features:Bright 0.3" green display. Internal crystal timebase. t 0.5 sec, /day occur. Auto. display brightness control
logic. Display color filterable to blue, blue-green, green &
yellow. Complete -just add switches and lens.
CLOCK MODULES
8.95
MA1023 .7" Red Digital LED Clock Module
MA1026 .7" Dig. LED Alarm Clock/Thermometer 18.96
6.95
MA5036 .3" Red Digital LED Clock/Timer
9.95
MA1002 ,5" Red Digital LEO Clock & Xformer
7.95
MA1010 ,8" Red Digital LED Clock
17.95
MA1032 CBA .5' Digital LCD Clock
8.95
MA1043 .7" Green Digital LED Clock
TRANSFORMERS
102 -P20 Xformer for MA1023, 1043& 5036 Mods. 3.49
3.49
102 -P22 Xtormer for MA1026 Clock Module
3.49
102 -P24 Xformer for MA1010 Clock Modules
Sun Power Your Electronics!
SOLAR CELL PANEL KIT
Features:
Output: 10V1)C, to 100mA In Sods.
l.
5VDC, to 200mA lin Para1111
Penal may he easily connected for
Series or Parallel out
square Inches of satire cell
0C
rtt
L
t
Voltaga line lep S 0.50 Increments
Aovlslon for charging belted.
°ve all panel sloe:
4A "L K 41/2"H it Yl "D
The JE305 Solar Cell Panel Kit contains 20 each solar cella. On the
panel board are power line tapo which allow the user to select voltages
(one voltage at a time) Iront 0.5VDC to 10VDC. The applications of each
panel can beafuydher eexpandel by
additional panels in swim
móreng
for
most por.
s olar lcells provide the current necessary for the operation
table transistor radios, small battery powered cassette tape players
and unlimited experimental solar projette.
of
JE305
$39.95
EPROM Erasing Lamp
1.93
Edit Input /Output
Priority Interrupt Control
B I.Dlrectlonal Bus Driver
Clock beneotor /Drier
125
5.%
Bus Driver
149
1 %
595
OAC101LCN
9.91
9.
oontrol
car Controller
nrd
Frog
a
-
Pelt B1.DINCtlonal Receiver
a P
Receiver
OBn BI
Octal
Octal
hral
Latch. Peripheral
MC666
with CM and RAM
11.6 Static RAM
ha al Inter. Adapt (MC600)
Priority Interrupt Controller
1026tEBlt ROM (MC61A2a)
Asynchronous Comm, Adaptor
synchronous Serial Data Adapts
044006 019116 MODEM
Moors Modulator
06.3-State 164 Tan41MCaT61
MC6111
Mc616
MC66IO1e
MC61
MC6152
MC6160
MC61s1
MCOMA
zM (MC)
MA
CPU IM031451 (2M02)
CPU (MK011004)1647.181
2650
MPU
17611
CDPII02
9,%
11112
2111113/1)
Nov 0/01030 I160
'cosecs
1
CPU (606 BVNs RAM)
CPt3-64 Bytes RAM
IN5107374
/Banc Micro
Tape
CPU
CPU
TM56160930,
WL
MPU 6611
2111.1
10164 Static 12ns
6.95
l0.%
12.%
za
TMSIDa
MM.3H
2701
T115216
600 EPROM
a-%
atOinte1(61MT1
27LInteI T1
16K
19.%
11.%
7,95
9.%
24.95
14,%
Octal WW1
9%
Oct(
9,91
6.2110
141- COPI622
1424.130
1.91
60.62
Dynamic
Ha RBI[ Stetlt
Dual 1613Ií Static
512.81 Oynanc
1.95
253V
253v
IoM -BI'
Dynamic
1 Static
Oval 2556161 Static
9.60
446
Stabs
Al...
User Manual
User Manual
User Manual
5.00
2,96
Duel MOS Clock Orlver DMZ')
Dual MO5 Clock Driver 1562')
Floppy Din Controller
2.%
INS248IN
460
614511630
4.00
MMHINN
Communication Chip
19.91
MIcroprocassor Real Time Clock
1.91
sor compete.* Clock
11,%
Mlcroconttrrohor
nt
with M -Deit RAM
6.6
M LED Drive
Me ocontroller withal os RAM 7,0
a Direct LED Drive 0/54 Buss Int.
32- 69.VAC Fluor, Driver(ppin 049.1 13
COMM
COPOMN
DATA ACQUISITION
COPAN
S.%
19
%
19.60
Av9910
Av3923
1.15
1a
10
1491
74003
MM57109N
9VaOeraiiw
gn
r
vw
4.95
11.%
5.439
5.a
7.95
4 6V
re
bp
a
rt
40K
121
36.49
N.95
6495
JE608 PROGRAMMER
2704)2708 EPROM PROGRAMMER
Video Controller in case
GENERAL APPLICATIONS:
To program EPROMS 2704 snd 2708.
Developmental system for microcomputer circuits
To
ALLIGATOR CLIP TEST LEADS
To
nad ter content. of
pre.progr.mmed EPROM
comp*, EPROM,/ for contant difference.
.
mulala a programmed EPROM
To .ton program In RAMS for sllertlons
Three
Olepyl Re9l.ler.: B LED's for Mn
key nines, 10 LED'. (23' for Addr..a R.glsl.r and
To
.past.
13
,.
15
LaNC LEADS
LED'. for Date Memory Resister. The Date MOMOry
Register display the content of the RAM from the EPROM Chip. Development of mlcroprocee.or syl.m by
means of ribbon cab(. from the prooramm.r panel test socket to th. EPROM social on the microprocessor
board. Rapid chocking verification 01 programmed data changes. User may move date Iront . m.tar to RAM's
or writ. Into RAM's with kiyboard.ntrl.s. Allows manu' stopping manipulation (up and down) et any.edres.
location. Stand.ion. EPROM Programmer conalaInyy
A &k y H.xad. Imal Keyboard numbly, Program.
mar
with a po
supplies and LEM..t Sock.t Penal Board ns.mbly, TM Test Socket I.
ro BOin Ìn W n5115 typo.
Pow
reculr.manls: 115VAC, arms, eve, Comp.ct d.sk.top enclnur.: Coln.
I
coordinated designers cam with light tan panel. and molded end pws.. In mocha brown. Bite: 3'/ "H x 11"W
x elu
Weight: s lb..
nei JE909 EPROM Programmer no comP0utyaM- contained unn which u Indepeneent of computer control and requires no
eddltronal systems for is Operetiom. TM EPROM can be programmed horn Me H.saeclmai 0.100.0 or from a pre
regremmed EPROM. The JE908 Programmer can emulate a programmed EPROM by the um of ft. Intern. RAM circuit.
Pop
to system, prior to programming a chip, Any change. in theproarem can
he entered din., into M. memory circule with Me Hexadedrtel Keyboard n Net revering the entire program will not be
neoeeun. TM JE008 Programmer contains a Programmer/Board w /26 IC's e include. power supplies of: .8V,
1:
alligator clip on each end. 15"
Heave tluty lean, color codas.
long. Two each block, rod. blue, while and yellow.
Insulated
#ALCP
(10 per pack)
$2.95/pkg.
JE215 Adjustable
Dual Power Supply
Description: The JE215 is a Dual Power
Supply with independent adjustable positive and negative output voltages. A separate adjustment for each
of the supplies providesthe user unlimited applications
for IC current voltage requirements. The supply can
also be used as a general all- purpose variable power
supply.
FEATURES:
Adjustable regulated power supplias,
pos. and nee. 1.2VDC to 15VDC.
Power Output (each supply):
5VDC 50 500mA, 10 V DC 61 750mA.
12VDC 49 500mA, end
General
15VDC0175mA.
Two, 3- terminal adj. IC regulators
with thermal overload protection.
Heat sink regulator cooling
LED "on" indicator
Printed Board Construction
120VAC input
Sloe: 3,1/2 "w o 5.1116 "L It 2 "1-1
JE215 Adj. Dual Power Supply Kit (as shown) . . $24.95
Picture not shown but similar in construction to .boue)
JE200 Reg. Power Supply Kit (5VDC, 1 amp)
$14.95
JE205 Adapter Brd. to JE200) 05,59 & 512V. $12.95
JE210 Var. Pwr. Sply. Kit, 5.15VDC, tol.5amp. $19.95
+SV,
12V and
1
026V. TM Hexadecimal Keyboard and LED /Test Socket Pape) board are separate assernSM within the
JE808K Klt
JE808A Assembled and Tested
$399.95
$499.95
JE808.18K ADAPTER BOARD
GENERAL DESCRIPTION:
(22/44 Piel
BNC Plug
BNC Jack
UHF Adapter
UHF Panel Recp
UHF Adapter
UHF Plug
BNC Plug
BNC Bulkhead Recp.
P L258
PL259
UG260 /U
UG1094 /U
S .49
$1.29
$1.60
$1.60
51.79
$1.29
TRS -80
Kit
16K Conversion
Expand your 4K TRS -80 System to 16K.
Kit comes complete with;
*8 a.. MM5290 IUPD416/4116) 16K Dyn. Rams (NSI
Documentation for Conversion
TRS -16K2 15ONS
$29.95
TRS -16 K3 200NS
$24.95
TRS -16K4 250NS
$19.95
*
JE610 ASCII
Encoded Keyboard Kit
The JE610 ASCII Keyboard Kit can be Interfaced Into
most any computer system. The kit comes complete
with an Industrial grade keyboard switch aleembly
162-keys), IC's, sockets, connector, electronic components end a double.Slded printed wiring board. The
keyboard numbly requires +5V @ 150mA and -12V
0 10 mA for operation. Features: 60 keys generate the
126 character., upper and lower case ASCII set. Fully
buff wad. Two user-define keys provided for custom
applications Caps lock for uppercase-only alpha characters. Utilizes s 2376 (40-pin) encoder read -only memory
chip. Output. directly compatible with TTL /DTL or
16 -pin dip or
MOS logic arrays. Easy interfacing with
18 -pin edge connector. Size: 315"H x 1415 "W x 865 "D
JE610 /DTE -AK úplkëu edatb%) ,,.$124.95
JE610 Kit A Comb ^sat 40ÌG ósB.ird.'..$ 79.95
K62 62Key Keyboard (Keyboard only) ...$ 34.95
DTE -AK (case o^ly- 3wHx11 "Wx87A"D)$ 49.95
JE212
-
Negative 12VDC Adapter Board Kit
for JE610 ASCII KEYBOARD KIT
Provides -12V DC from incoming 5VDC
.
.
$9.95
JE600
Hexadecimal Encoder Kit
FULL 8 -BIT
LATCHED OUTPUT
19 -KEY KEYBOARD
FOR 271812758 EPROMS
JEe81so Adopter Board allow. 64 .10803 Programmer to be modified for ter ad000n.l programming or me Pte and
271 EEPyROMS. TM doper provide. for adding Odra. switch for IM2' bat and e00 for netting ter paper poswr and
The
be applied
Mn
11024161
and
sri
6uwaollrha ninlrg
Adapter Board Klt
ROM
of
JE808.18K
JE808. Upgrade
BI(0R
the
M capacity In
1144(1
JBEB1
separately
EPROM is
-
U.S. Funds Only
$10.00 Min. Order
Calif. Residents Add 6% Sales Tax
Postage -Add 5% plus $1.50 Insurance
$29.95
-
25!
Spec Sheets
Send 866 Postage for
ELECTRONICS
MAIL ORDER ELECTRONICS
your
-
PHONE
ORDERS
WELCOME
(415) 592.8097
WORLDWIDE
1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002
12/81
$99.95
5599.95
FREE 1982 JAMECO CATALOG
lameco
.
u ncM1
Programmera
(Send assembled JE808 to factory for adapter Installation
of the JE808-16K Adapter Board KS)
JE608A16K Mod. Assembled JE608 w /Adapter 1.1E60018K) Installed
(
DECEMBER 1981
P.C. Edge
060,
OIiMelaKemlcnanrebwnmusad
it
3
JS.100K
JVC-40
Cover for DB25P /S
DB51226
22/44SE
UG88/U
UG89/U
UG175/U
S0239
s,%
i
$5.25
$4.95
$4.95
2/$.99
$1.75
$2.95
$1.79
$3.79
N27MNtor49MkI.alMdsum9ln
anr
er
cne Rf OciIlilkllrMS0mn1.r M OM
aseNlan
M1e7211 analog 2 dg mown Iron 41 Se arils Oynal conigIN
eRx1504 45426002CrysIMILM1ar3N1
5001505
.11110002Cryata11LM1a7131
JVC40
$2.95
$3.50
D.Subminiature Plug
D- Subminiature Socket
Screw Lode Hdwr. (2) D826S/P
1320418 -2
R.OGrcodelRransmate CMp
ercOV ndflF tranimill
0
:M1112w R.C.RnelsexbnodercOM
..
compeRRr rKawrlO6cOn psnaienM27 19or7tMN2
4
VDC 500mA
Hams.
1.141117114
mmer
5K Linear Taper Pots
100K Linear Taper Pots
95
55.95
$3.95
$3,25
$3.95
RADIO CONTROL CIRCUITS
Neat fe use lep toy.. hobby cana. ,oboe. hein., burglar elem. is (01.62, remote slide
01.6 for canna, consumer remote data 116e. energy..nlre remotely .witched IMMIrq
10 ÓOOUV mmr al J salers
oICntePCNnNIdp
JS-5K
9
$4
0.91
En...
7,093
2.a
-
smton TeMphom Dialer
Repertory Disler
CMOS Clock Oemrator
er IN keys')
Keyboard Enco05113 0.00
Keyboard
(16 k.051
Keyboard Encod.r (2 Wysl
Pu3 Button Pulm Dlatar
96/I6E0W serial K.ydnrd Enwdm
1-100161-5
5.60
L%
Push
Av.P2a
195
3.50
6.46
TELEPHONE /KEYBOARD CHIPS
A V.59500
110
/C
7.50
7.50
DSOBCN
DSMBCN
IN5177641
6.%
JFET Input Op Amp
Sample Si told Amplifiers
LF36N
T9mp.COm0. Prim
LMMH
Rpm
ADC0104LCN bait A/O Converter (111%
020...61.14 EBIt D/A Converter (0.76 LP.)
11,2
SPECIAL FUNCTION
1%
Universal Active Filter 1511
Touch Tone Low Band Filter
High
6107
Super Gain OP
t Current Source
Temperature Transducer
13.50
13.50
13x947 Math Symbol 0 Pictures
Control Char. Glen,
O
9,%
Welt static
Filo (Dual Ml
UVS-11E
1695
MICROPROCESSOR MANUALS
L91
not
Blau
LEN.
3,95
-
NMOS READ ONLY MEMORIES
12667 ASCII Snlll. w/0 reek
600/640420)
163012
l4,%
MCMB710P
1116533674
LMIOCH
LM3a2
PROM 1O6n Collettori
character Oanerator 1Ú44.r Casa)
character 017.4.[04 (Lower Case)
/451511.116
$3.95
1.95
0.95
-
Jpo
117V /60Hz
120V /60Hz
Price
4.55
9.95
DB25S
MCM66750P
AFIa -ICJ
5.95
(4V, 45V,
DB25P
61313601)
117V/60Hz
Output
12 VAC 250mA
12 VAC 500mA
12 VAC 1 imp
9 VAC 1,7 amp
9 VDC 200mA
CONNECTORS
3,96
1.%
AFpn -ICJ
9,91
14.95
Dynamk /Accumulator
500065) Dynamic
Folt
ol
cas
260 PROM
CMMtIOP
Dua
3,49
117V /60Hz
117V /60Hz
117V /60Hz
AC1000
AC1700
DV 9200
DC 900
521
1,91
1527V
14.95
Input
Part Ng.
AC 250
AC 500
27640
61312101
11
63V
1.
ROM'S
)pa'
1055201'
,0
4,95
3,91
9.96
4096 Blpoler PROM
12510
12512304561)
361 Tri -State Bipolar PROM
10 PROM
42516
Over 33 More PROMS Listed In Our Catalog
9,95
MM5011N
MM50011
.%
17.5
7.0
1241
AC m
epPl;celion.
7,95
EPROM 1SIn91e v5V)
52K EPROM
10 EPROM (Bons) (Smote SV)
OK EPROM (Hitachi 014462764)
12521174509)
H.%
Dual
51.0
Dual Walt Accumulator
276-B1t Dynamic
2K
wppi.tleo
ucoMKtysal
7,95
1K EPROM
2761
2.%
Interpreter
MM6KH
607461.
MMIOSN
Mal !or
sanes. p
6.95
1.91
0.91
UV Erasable PROM
I702A
19.%
Dun 2Sn Dynamic
Dynamic
001
MM5(01.1
4,%
PROMS /EPROMS
Il%
Transformers
13
10246 Static
11.%
97.60
3.69
0yn,20ns(lower N of 5640611)
16K (21(xe1 501660ns
052
N Bit RAM (1660.)
604027 IK Dynamic Amin
TMSMsalNL 4K Stetlt
6.91
44.16
Intel Perlpherel Design Handbook
Full dato sleets, app1 notes for Intel peripheral device
componenti 1644 pages)
AC and DC Wall
115
.
61524-3A
Km611.
SHIFT REGISTERS
AF100-1CN
$79.95
JOYSTICKS
1066 Static pan.
10246 Static Bons Low Power
Stallc 1IOns Low Power
24K Static
.6
411664 (UPd161 160 Dynamic ]CM (66624)
416463
NK Dynamic tons
1421117
109641 Fan 7Ons
512
2364 Static
64645261
10061 Dynamic Fully Decooeo
166162
206 Dynamic
40161 Dynamic
146530/1107
/4523062 14116) 160 Dynamic 150ns (UP0416C -1)
4.%
CPU- 361ohlp HBll(Mbytes RAM)
54620534
INSp70N
MOS
2101
1,16
x50-
microproc., peripherals B indAt. /mal, produco 11323 ogni
1%
L
MI5
1366
x6 S
Static
66tatic
30001
30006
1.96
11141
M.%
Bytes Memory)
16540153
SMUG
1( 60x1
30081
LA
5
11(
1.0
u.%
MPU-4-510 (6M41)
INSM16N9
3311PC
-
01 Static
2113
(,%
614121IADC CPU-4.84 511c (Cons, Temp. Dream
2329V
55016
Maintains constant exposure distance of one inch.
Special conductive foam liner eliminates static bu ild-up.
Built -in safety lock to prevent UV exposure.
only 7 -5/8" x 2 -7/8" x 2"
Compact
Complete with holding tray for 4 chips.
$16.95
UVS -11EL Replacement Bulb .
2(15610
2101
0101)
MICROPROCESSOR CHIPS
V
25211V
Erases 2708, 2716, 1702A, 52030, 52040, etc.
Erases up to 4 chips within 20 minutes.
.%
196
9.95
7,%
PU
M C6N2CP
MCtl 10AP1
1.0
I0Nx1 Dynamic
2666 static
RAM'S
Sa
MPU
1661661c
IW
5b
Driver
Driver
1101
1101
191
8800/8800 SUPPORT DEVICES
Áv3.1013
16.96
(624 ppn17400,LS,L,H,S, and DM8000 Series
119,96/104
30005 Buy ahoy. l3)300013.6.aut
1.96
30009 Intone Data Book 11074 Mimi
110.00
010400 Intel Component Dab Catalog
Fute data Meets for Intel'. products Irti. memory devices,
s%
695
6.%
S.S.
Comp. 0.06%)I13
IEBII D/A Cony. Micro, Comp. (0.2041 6.8
1.0
05140/A Converter (006% Lln,)
5.91
I411t O/A Converter (0.6% Lin.)
996
680 O/A Converter 10.2% Lin.)
1.19
6-Channel Munlptexer
BK BAUD UART
635
96
20.95
It 46
053800, D675000, Inc,
National Linear Data Book
11376 paggenl LM, LF, ADC, DAC, LH Series
NadonISerIS
Board Leval Computes 1224peges1
National TTL Logic Data Book
1706 pages( DP, 0&6000,
10.96
pelt O/Aconv.micro.
ACIIIJLCre
095
lnlerteu
5.6
OAC%OOLCN
CMOS.
6.91
System Tlminy Element
EBIt el, pooch *Ml Receiver
A/D Convener 14Cn. Multi,(
6811 A/O Converter (16-Cn. Mult'J
- Inn
-
14811
DACIVOLCN
3.96
ICONTINUED)-
N.tionI
AOCOIWCCN
A000117CCN
DAG...I-Chi
3.0
Syeem Controller
I/O Expanoer for tl Series
Asynchronous Comm. Element
Roy. Comm, No (USARTI
Pro. interval Timer
Roy, Peripheral
IPPII
DMA Control
Prot'.
opt
Portable/battery
MA1003 Module I3.05LxL75 "Hx.990) . $16.95
CPU
System ConlroMr/Bus Driver
12VDC oper. Instru,
e
DATA ACQUISITION
8080A /8080A SUPPORT DEVICES
BOOKS
National Semiconductor
Intenll
CMOS Dab Book
1640 oagesl 74C, CD4000, and A/D Conveners
30002 National Interface Data Book
30001
PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE
CIRCLE NO. 23 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
The JE600 Encoder Keyboard Klt provides two separate
hexadecimal digits produced from 16quentil key entries
to allow direct programming for 8 -bit microprocessor
or 8 -bit memory circuits. Three additional keys are provided for pear operations with one having
bl.table
output available. The outputs are latched and monitored
with 9 LED readouts. Also Included Ise key entry strobe.
Feature.: Full 8-bit latched output for microprocessor
es. Three u.r- define keys with one being bistabie
operation. Debounce circuit provided for all 19 keys.
9 LED readouts to verify entries. Easy Interfacing with
standard 16-Pin IC connector. Only +5VDC required
for operation. Size: 315"H x BX "W 8% "0
JE600/DTE -HK cs pf ctutéé aabolvá) .... $99.95
JE600 Kit sPCBoardLCmaet2..(noca..)..$59.95
K19 19-Key KybOard (Keyboard only) .... $14.95
DTE -HK (se only - 344 "HZRO "WMP "D) $44.95
DIGU-'KEY 800-346-5144
C O R P O R A T
VISA
I
O N
CnpacitorsRenl-Time ClocklCalender EFJohnson Termin
AP Products BatteriesZNR'sBooksZenier DiodesBr adlx
belosuresResi tors & Resistor NetworksH.rdwareowe
EMlectrol
tic
Ce
In Mn.,
"
-
2
For
1
Clock Sale
Ak.. Hi. Call 218 -681.6674
" ctifi -Leo r eSa
B oksDiem nd ToolsPenavice
;fl'ng AidsSoldering SuooliesEdKe ConnectorsIC Socket
airs eptoel7tronicsI,em MulttmelerLED'saData Books
-
In,
c :
barge
StorePotenti0metersC.r
The Digi-Key volume discount and handling 110195$ ore simple to apply. Most items sold by 0191 -Key may be combined for o volume
DIGI -KEY GUARANTEE:
ear
www.americanradiohistory.com
VOLUME DISCOUNT
HANDLING CHARGES
dncaun. Items thot are not discountable are identified by the
ffir -ND following the port number. After wrihrlg your order, total all of the discountable items and apply the appropnote discount. To this subtotal, add the non.discaontoble items. Then odds
0.00-5 9,99
the 100411nlg chorge. We pay all shipping and insurance to addresses in the U.S.A., Canada and Mexico when check or money order a companies order.
S
10.00.525.00
WHEN ORDERING IT PNONE, CALL, 1.000.3405144 (M.., M., NI, o 1 210 -0010674) Iy well semi yew
N: MGI.RET, Nihon 32 SINN, TIM Rinr rails, MN 56701
5 25.00 -549.99
You moy pay by check. money order, Master Charge, VISA or C.O.D.
S
50.00499.99
Any ports or products purchased from Digi.Key that prove to be defective will be
replaced or refunded if returned within 90 days from receipt with o copy of Tor invoice.
$100.00 6 Up
Prices sub's'. to change without °route.
s
Add $2.00
Add 50.75
Add 50.50
Add $0.25
No Charge
s
s
5
S
S
0.00 -s 99.99
100.00.5249.99....
NOI
Less 109.
250.00- 5499.99.... Less 15/.
500.005999.99.... Less
1000.00 Si Up
2014
Less 25%
Memory
16K
r
ALL MERCHANDISE 100% GUARANTEED!
r 82001
LS SERIES
741500
741501
741502
741503
741504
741505
741508
741509
25
25
25
25
25
25
35
25
25
35
35
45
741.510
741511
741_512
741.513
741514
741515
741520
1.00
35
15
741521
.35
741522
741S26
25
35
35
741.527
741528
741530
74LS32
741533
741537
741538
741540
741542
741547
.35
.25
.35
741_548
75
75
25
55
55
.35
25
.55
,75
741549
741551
741.554
74LS55
.35
.35
741_583
1.25
741573
741574
741575
741576
741S78
741583
741585
.50
.40
40
45
50
75
1.15
40
741_586
741590
741591
741592
741593
741595
741598
7415107
7415109
7415112
7415113
741S114
7415122
741S123
7415124
7415125
7415126
7415132
7415136
7415137
7415138
7415139
7415145
7415147
7415148
7415151
7415153
7415154
7415155
7415156
7415157
7415158
7415160
7415181
7415162
.65
.89
.70
65
85
95
40
40
45
.45
50
45
95
219
.95
85
75
55
99
75
75
1.20
249
35
75
1
.75
2,35
1.15
95
75
75
90
.95
95
95
ILS163
7415164
7415165
7415166
741S168
7415169
7415170
7415173
7415174
7415175
95
.95
2.40
1.75
75
75
.80
1
1
.95
.95
7415181
2.15
9.95
1.00
1.00
7415189
7415190
7415191
7415192
7415193
7415194
741S195
7415196
7415197
7415221
1
85
95
00
.95
.85
.85
7415241
7415242
7415243
7415244
74LS245
1.20
1.85
1.85
1.85
1.85
1.75
2.85
741.5247
.76
7415248
7415249
7415251
7415253
7415257
7415258
7415259
7415280
7415286
7415273
7415275
74LS279
7415280
7415283
7415290
741S293
7415295
7415298
7415324
7415352
7415353
7415363
7415364
7415365
7415366
7415367
1.25
741_5240
99
1.30
.85
.85
.85
,
8202
8205
8212
8214
8216
8224
8226
8228
8237
8238
8243
8250
8251
8253
8253.5
8255
8255 -5
8257
8259
8272
8275
8279
8279.5
8282
8283
8284
8288
8287
8288
8289
3
1.95
3.90
1.85
2.50
1.85
4.95
19.95
1995
3.95
12.95
99.95
3995
11.95
11.95
29.95
39.95
39.95
Z80
6.50
8.60
Z80-CTC
2804-CTC
J
8.50
8.85
Z80-OART
280A-DART
280-OMA
15.25
280A-DMA
Z80-510/0
27.50
23.95
Z80A-SI0/0
28.95
23.95
28.95
23.95
28.95
17.95
22.95
.65
55
Z80AS10/2
.55
1.98
6800
1.00
1.25
1.85
1.05
1.20
1.75
1.55
1.55
1.35
1.95
.95
.95
70
70
1.85
1.80
1.45
1.18
35
1.90
65
1.90
1.90
6800
6802
6809
6810
6820
6871
8875
8880
18.75
17.50
Z80.510/9
ZB0A SIO/9
DM8131
.99
.99
.99
.99
99
TR1602
IM6402
99
UP0765
1771
1791
1793
8272
74C923
2.95
9.95
L14411
10/
PN2222
253904
253906
253055
-00
10/00
10/' .00
.79
1N4148
T.V.
MC1330
MC1350
MC1358
LM380
44.95
29.95
15.95
4.75
5.75
10.95
1.95
25.95
6.95
1.89
1.29
1.79
1.29
1.50
.99
LM386
LM565
LM741
LM1310
1M1800
1
8502
100/8 99
100/8.99
100/8.99
10/6.99
25/1.00
8504
8505
6520
6522
8532
.29
249
8551
69
1
1.89
2.20
9.65
3.20
2.30
2.40
2.40
240
74S00 SER ES
SHOTTKEY
74C00 SER ES
CMOS
4000
SER ES
CMOS
4500
SER ES
CMOS
82S
SERIES
PROMS
LCALL
I
(California residents)
r
E
PROM S
DIP SWITCHES
8pcs
1702
2708
2758
TMS2516
2716
2716-1
TMS2716
TMS2532
2732
256
1024
x
1024
2048
2048
x8
x8
x8
x8
x8
x8
88
2048
2048
4096
4096
x
8
8
(lus)
(45ons)
4.95
(450ns)(5v)
3.95
9.95
7.95
5.95
3.50
8.95
6.95
5.50
(350n05v)
1295
1195
(450ns)
(450n05v)
9.95
19.95
(450n050
16.50
8.95
17.95
15.95
(460nsN5v)
(450nsN5v)
position
position
position
7 position
8 position
r LEDS
.85
90
90
95
95
4
4.50
5
6
Junbo Red 10/1.00
Junbo Green 6 /1.00
Jtmbo Yellow 6 /1.00
50E12.7760.43'CC .79
RS232 MALE
RS232 FEMALE
3.25
3.75
RS232 HOOD
1.25
S -100ST
3.95
4.95
LM301V
LM308V
LM309K
LM311
LM3177
LM317K
LM318
LM323K
LM324
LM337K
1M339
1M377
LM380
LM388V
LM555V
1M556
1M565
1M566V
1M567V
LM723
1M733
34
98
1.49
64
1.95
395
149
495
59
395
99
2.29
129
1.50
.39
69
99
149
129
f 7=70 -220
49
98
21 L02-1
LM741V
LM747
1M748V
LM1310
MC1330M
MC1350V
MC1358
LM1414
LM1458V
LM1488
LM1489
1M1900
1M1889
LM3900
LM3909V
1M3914
LM3915
LM3916
2111
79
2112
2114
189
1
29
1.79
1.59
69
99
99
2.99
249
.39
39
39
K
2114L-2
21141-3
2114L-4
TM S4044-4
TMS4044-3
TMM2016
HM6116
59
98
395
395
395
75451V
75452V
75453V
V =8 PIN
29
.59
2.90
=70
256 x 4
1024 x 1
1024 x 1
256 x4
256 x4
1024 x4
1024 x 4
1024 x 4
1024 x4
4096 x 1
4096 x 1
2048 x8
204888
(450ns)
(450ns)
(450ns)(LP)
(450ns)
(450ns)
(450ns)
S -100 WW
(200nsXLP)
(300nS(LP)
(460,1 0LP)
(450ns)
(300ns)
(200ns)
(20ons)
1.95
1
r
85
.89
.85
1.29
115
2.99
2.99
8/17.95
8/22.95
8/21.95
2.49
8/18.95
2.25
3.25
3.75
3.49
3.99
2.79
2.10
2.45
2 45
CALL
CALL
DYNAMIC RAMS
t0opcs
4027
4116-150
4116 -200
4116 -300
4164
L
4096
x 1
16.384
1
(250ns)
(15Ons)
1
(200ns)
x
16.384 x
16.384 x
65.536 x
(300ns)
1
(200ns)
LP =LOW POWER
1
2.50
2.00
8/19.95
8/17.50
8/16.95
CALL
235
1
1
95
85
VOLTAGE REG'S
78057
78087
78121
78151
78247
89
.99
.89
99
99
79051
7805K
7812K
7815K
1.39
1.39
7905K
7912K
79105
78105
78112
78115
69
89
69
LM309K
LM3177
1_39
1.49
1.95
79127
79157
79241
79112
79115
1100 100pcs
8E,CST
99
99
1
19
119
149
149
79
79
79
LM317K
3.95
LM323K
LM337K
4.95
T=70-220 K=70-3 L=7O-92
395
pin
6 pin
8 pin
70 pin
72 pin
74 pin
78 pin
40 oin
4
.13
.11
51
15
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
ST
.17
.20
.29
.30
.30
.40
.12
.13
.18
.27
.27
.27
.32
.39
49
ST = SOLDERTAIL
8 Din WW
.59
.49
4 Din WW
69
.52
,6 Sin WW
.69
WW
WW
WW
74
in WW
Din
WW
28
70 Din WW
1.09
1.39
1.49
1.69
18 Din
90 in
22 Sin
99
199
.58
.90
.98
1.28
1.35
1.49
1.80
LNW =
IDR MICRODEVICES, IN(..
J7>'
1
IC
SOCKETS
/) Sf
Y
.99
L
100pcs
2101
2102-1
9
MAN74.3.CC
MAN72.3'CA
CONNECTORS
STATIC RAMS
LINEAR
I
US FOR PRICING
800 -538-5000
800-662-6279
1
1.65
1.70
.37
1.95
TTL
SER ES
CALL JDR BEFORE YCU BUY!
WE WILL BEAT ANY COMFETITORS PRICES.
6.95
12.95
6.95
8.95
4.95
9.95
14.95
14.95
65024
2.90
2.99
I
7400
10/1.00,A
r 65021
CIRCUITS
16.95
14.95
42.95
WE HAVE
5.95J
1,174004
4.60
4.95
4.95
9.95
9.95
3.95
4.95
7.95
24.95
36.95
49.95
39.95
39.95
r TRANSISTORS 1
11.95
37.95
29
3242
AV5-1013
1.69
2.49
1488
1489
8.95
8821
6828
6834
6840
6843
6844
6845
6847
6850
6852
6860
6862
8726
8128
8795
8796
8T97
8798
19.95
280A-PI0
25.00
49.95
r-
MISC.
8.95
9.95
Z80
Z80A
2808
Z80-P10
6.65
5.80
6.65
8.65
BAY AREA RESIDENTS
STOP BY 1224 BASCOM AVE.
69.95
4995
L8755
r
JDR MICRODEVICES, INC IS PROUD TO
ANNOUNCE THE OPENING OF OUR
NEW RETAIL SHOWROOM
.
Z80.510/1
Z80A-510/1
Z80-510/2
1.65
3.35
74LS373
7415374
7415377
7415378
7415379
7415385
7415388
7415390
7415393
7415395
7415399
7415447
7415490
7415668
7415669
7415670
7415674
7415682
7415683
7415884
7415885
7415688
7415689
1695
8039
8080A
8085
8086
8088
8155
8156
8185
8185.2
8748
29.95
10.50
10.50
6.65
L
8035
8741
3995
2.85
741_5368
5Ò
4.95
4.50
14.95
5.50
9.85
9.85
5.25
5.25
9.00
7.00
CALL US FOR VOLUME QL OTES
rMPU'Sl
45.00
8/17.50
4116 200ns
-JO
1224 Bascom Ave.
San Jose, Ca. 95128
800 -538 -5000
800-662- 6279(Calìf)
408- 995 -5430
TERMS For shipprq include $2 00 for UPS Ormond $3 00 fo,
UPS Blue Lebel Au 510 00 minimum ode, 6 1 Ares Resident.
add 6'n'v sales ta, Calif Residents add
sa,s u. We reserve
the right tohm,t Quenottes and substitute menvractu,er Prices
subject to change without notice Send :ASE for complete list
CIRCLE NO. 24 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
DECEMBER 1981
113
www.americanradiohistory.com
Builders! Start Your Holiday
project At The Shack Near You
Radio
Shad(
DC Circuits Books and Audio
ourse
D
to A Converter
A to D Converter
259
449
8 -Pin
NEW!
16-Pin
Semiconductor
R - ference
Guide
299
Both
Books for
Save
1088
$302
Developed for Radio Shack by
Texas instruments Learning Center
A
DC
Circuits Volume
I.
Introduction to electricity, voltage, Ohm's
NEW!
law, parallel circuits and more. Fully illustrated. 460 pages.
62-2019
6 95
E DC Circuits Volume II. Voltage dividers, capacitors, inductors and
more. Illustrated. 508 pages. 62 -2020
6 95
© DC Circuits Audio Learning Package. Six standard cassettes for
use with Volumes and II above. 62- 2401
29.95
NEW!
With Data
DAC801. Produces varying output
voltages up to 20V p -p with 8 -bit input.
Works with all logic families.
276-1791
4 49
1982 Edition. Complete data on
Shack! ICs and discrete devices,
plus over 82,000 substitution listings.
276-4005
2 99
With Data
11.507. Converts analog processes to
digital signals
to 1000 operations
per second. 12L technology.
276-1789
2 59
-up
VtoF,FtoVIC
14 -Pin
With Data
NEW!
Ideal for Modems
And Tone Decoders
349
9400. Converts input voltage to proportional frequency or vice versa. Lin earity: 0.05%. Works up to 100 kHz.
Single or dual supply.
276-1790
3 49
I
SPST Switch With
LED Indicator
Rated
Magnet Wire
Set of
3
Spools
Wiring Aids
449
a'/t
Heavy -duty toggle requires
mounting hole. 12VDC use only.
275 -680
299
100k-SZ Joystick
1
199
Set of 2
A Spiral
Ideal for coils and chokes. 40 ft. of
22- gauge, 75 ft. of 26-ga., 200 ft.
of 30 -ga.
278 -1345
3-Spool Set/4.49
Micro Test Clips
Set of 10
Wrap. Neatly bundles
wiring. 5 ft. clear, 5 ft. black.
Set, 2.19
278-1638
Universal Cable Clip Accepts
wire up to 1/2" dia. Self adhesive.
278 -1639
Set of 10, 1.69
e
Fits 16 -Pin
Tarir
Two linear taper controls with one
removable 1"-long shaft.
4 95
271 -1705
"Designer" Box
NEW!
Direct -Etch
% Transfers
249
Set
Slots Inside for Two
43/4x2" PC Boards
795
Modern two-tone styling, easy-towork end panels. 2'/4x5x5'/4"
eetiol n
7 oc
With instructions
Just rub circles, strips, and pads
onto PC board and you're ready to
etch! Set of four sheets.
276-1577
Set, 2.49
Retail prices may vary at individual stores and dealers
Season's Greetings to All of You
Fr m All of Us at Radio Shack!
114
SFE10.7MA5-A. For updating FM Ifs,
CB to 10 -meter FM conversions,
more. In/out Z: 330 ohms. Bandwidth:
280 KHz at 3 dB down points.
Pkg. 2/1.99
272-1301
With
Leads
169
of 2
Spring- action, 11/2' -long. Ideal for
testing on high -density boards.
One red, one black.
270-370
Set, 1.49
.>
Pkg. of 2
199
--2
149
NEW!
Full -Spec Device!
SPST DIP Switch Mini 12VDC Buzzer
DIP Socket
For Video Games,
RC Vehicles and
Microcomputers
NEW!
169
219
5 Amps!
LED in Handle
Glows When "On"
ideal for Use
In Vehicles
10.7 MHz IF Filter
8- Position. For digital or lows orant ileac 97S -1301
1.99
Small enough to hide, loud
enough to get attention! 11/,e" mtg.
1 69
centers. 273-055
Quiet AC Fan
oTri -Color
1
595
LED
139
Diecast
Venturi
Delivers Up
Ideal Status
To 70 CFM
Glows red on DC, green
on reverse DC, yellow
on AC! T-1 3/4 size. 2.2V
at 25 milliamps.
1 39
276-035
Ideal for power supplies, computers, Ham rigs. 42/3x42/3x'2'
273 -241
15.95
Indicator!
ftadue IhaeK
A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION
FORT WORTH, TEXAS 76102
OVER 8000 LOCATIONS IN 53 COUNTRIES
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
Computer Mart
RATE: Ads are 2" by 3 ". 1 insertion: $550.00. 6 insertions: $525.00 ea. 12 insertions, $500.00 ea. Closing
date: 1st of the 2nd mo. preceding cover date. Send order and remittance to Computer Mart. POPULAR ELECTRONICS,
Park Ave., N.Y., N.Y. 10016. Direct inquiries to (212) 725-3485.
1
Boutique
Software
OVER J3, 000
COMPUTER
EQUIPMENT
& SOFTWARE
BARGAINS
TM
DIFF1iRENT
1
EVERY MONTH 14--.17-7BUY, SELL OR TRADE ALL TYPES OF
COMPUTER EQUIPMENT AND SOFTWARE (pre -owned and new) among
20,000 readers nationwide it BIG
(11x14 ") pages. Classified ads are
only 10` per word and are indexed for
easy and fast location. Subscription:
$10 a year 112 issues.
Get our
for ATARI APPLE PET
HEWLETT PACKARD
and others
for brochure write or call
31
CIRCLE NO. 112 01 FREE MFORMATION CARD
CIRCLE NO. 113 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
\3
nn
1982 subscr,berswin
receive the spec .,
MATH7 package or
PC programs. You
qualify
receive
this valuable free
gift of you check
her boo 2
r 3
either
NEWSLETTER
Send to:
DlgiByte Systems Corp
480 Lexington Avenue
(American Brands Bldg.,
Madison & Park Ave.)
between 46th 8 47th St.)
New York, N.Y.
New York, N.Y.
in N.Y. Call (212) 889 -8130
Outside N.Y. Call Toll Free (800) 221 -3144
POCKET COMPUTER
indicate computer you own or
East 31st Street
(between
(305) 269 -3211
MasterCard or VISA subscription orders only.
call TOLL FREE 1 -800- 327 -9920
FREE PREMIUM,
-please
plan to buy. Enclose 50C for shipping /handling.
COMPUTER CENTER
CDmau eR SHOPP2R
Our 2nd
NEW catalog and receive a FREE sample
address
TRS -80
guarantee. Sample copy, $1.50.
Titusville, FL 32780
Business -Utilities -Games
Unusual and Rare
The Obscure -The
copy of the next Software Review. Send name and
Money back
P.O. Box F -130
CPM- Northstar-TRSSO -Apple
SOFTWARE
PROGRAMS
IM STOCK
CIRCLE NO. 114 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES
BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY
below! Don't delay'
Get started learnin.,
how to enjoy you'
pocket computer to.
day. Use this han,lr
subscription card
704 Solano Ave., Albany, CA 94706
14151 527-8717
ajoa
t©
a
Q°Q
model Ill 16K
I
$839
F
I
ttal.
MCIV ISA Phone Subscriptions 12031888 194G
$20.00 1.. u ..
$30.00 elsewhere
- 201. $40.00
1981/82 Charter Subscriber Ilssues
U S. IU. S. $48.00 to Canada LI S 560.00 elsewhere.)
1981 Charter Subscriber
delivery. IU
1
S.
I
Issues
1
-
$24.00 to Canada.
101
U S
Color
AP101
AP102
1
201 83000
1982 Regular Subscriber (Issues 11
IU S. $36.00 to Canada. U.S $45 00 elsewhere.)
Sample issue. $3 00 in U.S.
IU
S
computer 4K
Orders must be accompanied by payment ,n lull We du r','
issue invoices for the POCKET COMPUTER NEWSLETTER
Thank you for your remittance.
$310
Vus
call TOLL FREE
Suing
add'
CO,
Stale
MC 'VISA
L'l,
Write for your
free catalog.
Expires
CIRCLE NO. 115 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
OHIO SCIENTIFIC
MICRO- COMPUTERS
INVENTORY ADJUSTMENT SALE
SUPERBOARD
II
C1P -I
C4P -I
C4P -MF II
C8P -DF
RS201
MEZONI
RS202
RS204
RS205
AT301
P401
P402
1-800-343-8124
!fir
C
245A Great Rood
Littleton, MA 01460
617
486
P403
P404
CC90
3193
Radio Shack Color Compute,
Atari Computer 8 Accessories
Paper Tiger 440 445 460
Centronics 730 737 Line Printer
Epson MX70 or MX80
Epson MX100
Matching Attache Case
II IV
asknr
CIRCLE NO. 117 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
DISCOUNT PRICES
HOLIDAY SUPER SALE
APPLE II PLUS 48K
Save On
-80íM
84
129
89
109
99
89
89
99
75
TRS -80 Model Ill
computer case company
CIRCLE NO. 116 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
TRS
$109
119
129
139
99
109
Computers
$1,099.00
$750 00
(SALE $549.00)
REG. $1.799.00
(SALE $1,349.00)
REG. $1,995.00
(SALE $1,499.00)
REG $3,495.00
(SALE $2,499.00)
RF MODULATORS
SUP'R'MOD
'J
Apple II with Single Disk Drive
Apple II with Double Disk Drives
Apple II. 9 inch Monitor 8 Double Drives
Apple /H.. two additional Drives 8 Silentype
12 inch monitor plus accessories
TRS -80 Model I. Expansion Unit 8 Drives
TRS -80 Monitor or TV set
REG $329.00
(SALE $199.00)
REG. $379.00
(SALE $279.00)
REG
C4P -MF
)t
,n
$400 elsewhere
AP103
AP104
AP105
REG. $34.95
(SALE $27.95)
VISA -MASTERCARD
FREE SHIPMENT -CONTINENTAL U.S.A
A.A. OFFICE EQUIPMENT COMPANY
2140 AMERICAN AVENUE
HAYWARD, CALIFORNIA 94545
(415) 782 -6110
CIRCLE NO. 118 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
NPAMIP_ Irl
_..
Fo the best deals on TRS -80 Computers
we have SPECIAL DISCOUNTS, FREE SHIP
PING and
a
<!
TOLL FREE ORDER NUMBER
ai
Pan American
Electronics
Jr
1117 Conway
Mission. TX 78572
Telex Number 767339
Toll Free Order Number 80015314466
Texas & Principal Number 5121581.2766
TM
Trademark of Tandy Corporation
Dept 63
,_ea
_.
_.
-
>I
computer
FREDERICK COMPUTER
PRODUCTS
5726 Industry Lane, Frederick, Maryland 21701
CALL (301) 694 -8884
-
1
CIRCLE NO. 119 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
CIRCLE NO. 120 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
\
Electronics Classified
CLASSIFIED RATES: Per Word, 15 Word Minimum. COMMERCIAL: $3.50. EXPAND -AD': $5.25. DISPLAY: 1" x 21/4', $425.00. 2" x 2/4 ", $850.00. 3" x 21/4',
$1,275.00. GENERAL INFORMATION: Frequency rates and prepayment discounts available. Payment must accompany order except credit card -Am. Ex., Diners,
MC, VISA (include exp. date)
accredited ad agency insertions. Copy subject to publisher's approval; must be typewritten or printed. First word set in caps. Advertisers using P.O. Boxes MUST supply permanent address and telephone number. Orders not acknowledged. They will appear in next available issue atter receipt.
Closing date: 1st of the 2nd month preceding cover date (e.g., Mar. issue closes Jan. 1). Send order & remittance to:.Classified Advertising, Popular Electronics
Magazine, 1 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Direct inquiries to Rose Lynch, (212) 725-7686.
-or
SATELLITE TELEVISION
FOR SALE
Telephone Listening Device
FREE DISCOUNT ELECTRONICS CATALOG. Over 41/2 million satisfied customers. Low, low prices on I.C.'s LED read-
outs, computer peripherals, audio components, solar products and much, much more. Poly Paks, Box 942 PEC, Lynn field, Mass. 01940.
GOVERNMENT and industrial surplus receivers, transmitters,
snooperscopes, electronic parts, Picture Catalog 25 cents.
Meshna, Nahant, Mass. 01908.
ELECTRONIC PARTS, semiconductors, kits. FREE FLYER.
Large catalog $1.00 deposit. BIGELOW ELECTRONICS.
Bluffton, Ohio 45817.
-49
RADIO -T.V. Tubes
cents each. Send for free catalog.
Cornell, 4213 University, San Diego, Calif. 92105.
SAVE UP TO 50% on name brand test equipment. Free catalog and price list. Salen Electronics, Box 82, Skokie, IL 60077.
TELETYPE EQUIPMENT: Copy Military, Press, Weather,
ecord telephone conversations in your
office or home. Connects between any
cassette or tape recorder and your
telephone or telephone LINE. Starts
automatically when phone is answered.
Records both sides of phone conversation.
Stops recorder when phone is hung up.
This device is not an answering service.
Each
$18.95
ay (Mc Avail
Super Powerful
Wireless Mic
times more powerful than other mics.
'A mile to any FM radio.
sue 2-.3-..'
Easy to assemble kit 15V battery (not incl.)
Call (305) 725 -1000 or send $18.95 v 91.00 shipping per
Morn to USI Corp, P.O. Box PE -2052, Mebolane, FL 32901.
COD's accept. For catalog of transmitters. voice scramblers
and other specialty items. enclose $2.00 to USI Corl.
10
Transmits up to
SUBSCRIPTION TELEVISION EDUCATION MANUAL!
WEATHER -MAP RECORDERS: Copy Satellite Photographs,
National -Local Weather Maps. Learn How! $1.00. Atlantic
Two scrambling decoding systems, theory, circuits.
BUILD AND SAVE. TV EARTH STATION. DETECTIVE
ELECTRONICS. TV De- Scramblers. Video Recorders, Color
Cameras, advanced Telephone Projects. BROADCAST Electronics. 50 page color catalog of unusual electronic projects
AIR MAILED $3.00: with 3 hour audio cassette dramatization
of our catalog $5.00. Don Britton Enterprises, PO Drawer G,
Waikiki, Hawaii 96815.
POLICE /FIRE SCANNERS, crystals, antennas, CBs, Radar
Detectors. HPR, Box 19224, Denver, CO 80219.
PRINTED CIRCUIT supplies, chemicals, tools, artwork, plating solutions. Major credit cards. Catalog $2.00, refundable.
CIRCOLEX, Box 198, Marcy, NY 13403.
RECONDITIONED TEST EQUIPMENT $1.00 for catalog.
WALTER'S TEST EQUIPMENT, 2697 Nickel, San Pablo, CA
94806, (415) 758 -1050.
NEW ELECTRONIC PARTS. Continuously stocked. Stamp
brings catalog. Daytapro Electronics, 3029 N. Wilshire Ln., Arlington Hts -, IL 60004.
ELECTRONIC CATALOG. Over 4,500 items. Parts, & components. Everything needed by the hobbyist or technician. $2.00
postage & handling (United States Only), refundable with
first $15.00 order. T & M Electronics, 472 East Main St.,
Patchogue, NY 11772. (516) 289 -2520.
SPEAKERS SAVE 50 %. Build your own speaker system.
Write: McGee Radio Electronics, 1901 McGee Street, Kansas
City, Missouri 64108.
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS, your artwork. Quick delivery.
Reasonable. Atlas Circuits, Box 892, Lincolnton, NC 28092.
(704) 735 -3943.
CABLE TV DESCRAMBLERS AND CONVERTERS.
Plans and parts. Build or buy. For information send
$2.00.
49428.
C &D
Company, P.O. Box 21, Denison, MI
SCRAMBLED TELEVISION -Encoding /Decoding. New publication. Complete theory, circuits. $9.95. Workshop, Box
393PEN, Bethpage, NY 11714-
CHEMICALS, Apparatus, Project Books, Wide Selection,
Catalog send $1.00 to Pioneer Corp., 14e Hughey Street,
Nashua, NH 03060.
TEST EQUIPMENT. new and used. Catalog $1.00. PTI, Box
8756; White Bear Lake, MN 55110.
QUALITY AUDIO COMPONENTS, Multi -Track Equipment,
Programmable Calculators, Accessories Competitive Pricing!
Prompt Delivery! Knowledgeable staff! Service Facility! Credit
Cards accepted. FREE catalog. SOUND IDEAS, Dept. SR,
PO Box 340, Cary, N.C. 27511. 1 -800-334 -2483 (N.C. 919467- 8462).
Decoder dealers listed. $14.95. Microwave Televi-
FREE catalog. Phone (402) 987 -3771. Dealers welcomed.
AP/ RESEARCH, 13 -P Broadway, Dakota City, NE 68731.
-
MICROWAVE DOWNCONVERTERS BUILT
IN preamp highest gain. Downconverter board, plans - $15.00. Power
Supply Board, Plans - $5.00. Antenna Cookbook - $5.00. All
three for $20.00. MICRO ENGINEERING, P.O. Box 17231,
Minneapolis, MN 55417.
MICROWAVE TV SYSTEM
Precision 25" Parabolic Antenna
Prebuilt Converter and Preamp
Assembled Power Supply
Low -loss Coaxial Cables
One Year Warranty
Completely Built and Tested
SYSTEM 20
DATA SERVICE CO.
s2N.15
+
3110 Evelyn Street
Roseville, MN 55113
612- 636 -9469
SAO shipping
sion Manual: $16.25. Kits available. Information
package: $2.00. ABEX, P.O. Box 26601 -P12, San
Francisco, CA 94126.
POLICE SCANNERS WHOLESALE PRICES. VISA /MC
Phone orders accepted. (415) 573-1624, Free catalog. Scanners Unlimited, 1199A Laurel Street, San Carlos, CA 94070.
LOWEST PRICES ELECTRONIC PARTS, confidential catalog free. KNAPP, 4750 96th St. N.. St. Petersburg, FL 33708.
Satellite TV
FOR THE HOME
Sick of Network TV?
SAVE
Send 60C For Big Bargain Catalog
1000'. of $orge in.; Surplus. E..... Inrn,ory,
!brand Nam. New Equipmnr
COMPRESSORS
MI
NORU
NwCNO
*MOERS
TARPS
NT011UMCS
OUR MOTORS
POWER
SMITING INSTRUMENTS
fuEIAUrOUr uMS
RANTS
ELECTRONICS
PAINT OOHS
MNCUEARS
TOOT 110113
AM TOOLS
Sex 11220e -PE
PUMPS
l
incoln, Nebraska
Zip Code 68501
-
From offshore oil rigs,
data links to hotels
/
°SPACECOASTRESEARCH CORPORATION
P.O. Box 442 -A, Altamonte Spgs, FL 32701
ROBOT KITS, PARTS, MATERIALS BOOKS. Send $3 for
subscription to catalog and newsletter. ROBOT MART, 19
West 34th St., New York, NY 10001.
SUBSCRIPTION TV DECODER KIT $39.00. Includes parts,
manual, and etched board. Manual only $4.60. MICROWAVE
TV DOWNCONVERTER KIT $169.00. Assembled $220.00.
Catalog $2.00. J &W Electronics, P.O. Box 61, Cumberland,
RI 02864.
-
Buy
Gov't
Surplus
Build or buy
SATELLITE TELEVISION INFORMATION
your own Earth Station. US. $4.00. Satellite Television, RD 3,
Oxford, NY 13830.
and backyard installations, we wrote the
book. Constantly upHardware!
dated, our 94 Page
technical information book and catalog gives you all
pthe facts. Inexpensive dishes, feeds, telemetry software, kits and more. Recommended reading by NASA, The Office
of Consumer Affairs and quality corn,..
panies like Rockwell /Collins. Send
$7.95 today!
CALL
24-hrs. C.O.D. Hotline
Á:.ßf '
(305) 339-7600
',Al.:.
RF POWER TRANSISTOR
ANY PAY TV SYSTEM can be broken easily and inexpensively. Order advanced code breaking methods for design engineers Technicians: $12.95. GAM Engineering, 1232 Tall madge, Brinfield, Ohio 44240.
SURPLUS CENTER
We don't just
sell information!
We Manufacture
1
4
ATARI SPACE INVADERS OWNERS! Shoot Rapid Fire.
Easy instruction. Instant safe application- $3.98; Concepts
PERF -1, Box 522, Brooklyn, NY 11215.
To
85'1.
Our receiver lets you get
over 75 channels of television directly from earth orbiting cable TV satellites!: HBO, Showtime, super stations, sports and
movies worldwide.
'1'`-
HOWARD /COLEMAN
RF MODULATORS! Special versions for SATELLITE TELEVISION, COMPUTERS, CCTV. Also Monitors, Cameras, Kits.
Amateur, Commercial Transmissions. Catalog $1.00.
Sales, 3730 Nautilus Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11224. Phone: (212)
372 -0349.
...
boards to build your own receiver. For more information write ... ROBERT COLEMAN, Rt. 3, Box 58APE, Travelers Rest, S.C. 29690.
TUBE CATALOG FREE.
$14.00: MRF454 /SRF2072/
FREE CATALOG 99 cent kits. Parts. Bargains Galore! ALL KIT, 434 West 4th St., West Islip, New York 11795.
FREE KIT CATALOG contains test equipment. Phone 415447 -3433. DAGE SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, Box 1054P,
Livermore, CA 94550.
ALL PURPOSE SHEAR
Cuts metal up to .040" thick,
12" wide; printed circuit laminates up to .093" thick.
Precision fabricated in cast
aluminum and hardened tool
steel. Accessories available for hole
8295.
punching, notching, bending and
F.O.B.
drilling. A versatile tool!
Kepro plant
VISA, MasterCard, American Express cards accepted.
Call toll -free 1- 800 -325 -3878
(except in Missouri: 1- 314- 343 -1630)
KEPRO CIRCUIT SYSTEMS, INC.
630 Axminster Dr., Fenton (St. Louis), Mo. 63026
-
MRF453 /MRF455A'SK1451 MRF2769
$17.00: MRF245'MRF247 - $27.00; 2N4048 $6.20: Exclusive Repair Center for PALOMAR PRIDE, etc.
Westcom, 1320 Grand, San Marcos, CA 92069. (714) 7440728.
RECEIVE MICROWAVE SIGNALS In the Amateur Radio - TV
band with your own Amateur Microwave Down Converter and
Antenna. Complete plans fully guaranteed or full refund. Send
$9.95 to: Phillips -Tech Electronics, Dept. 12, P.O. Box 33205,
Phoenix, Arizona 85067.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
116
www.americanradiohistory.com
TELEVISION DOWNCONVERTERS and decoders $99.95
up, assembled. Details for Stamp, GW Electronics, POB 688,
Greenwood, IN 46142.
UNSCRA
SCANNER ACCESSORIES
FREE LITERATURE
501 -623 -6027
DNE, INC., RT. 7, BX 610
HOT SPRINGS, ARK. 71901
SATELLITE T.V. Books, parts, low noise microwave transistors. Specs and catalog $2.00. Elite Electronics, RR1 St.
George, Ontario. Canada NOEINO.
END ADJACENT channel interference on your TV set.
Unique device enables your ordinary set to separate all channels completely. Makes new programs available. Complete
plans - $5.00 (charge accepted). Reltron, 323 Franklin, Suite
804/Dept. R -131 P, Chicago, IL 60606.
POLICE
TOP QUALITY SPEAKERS AND KITS. Send $2.00. Speaker
Warehouse, 809 North Route 441, Hollywood, FL 33021.
LOW COST MATV /CATV needles, antennas, cables. Batteries, free catalog. 212/897 -0509. D & W. 66 -19 Booth. Flushing, NY 11374.
MICROWAVE RECEIVER SYSTEM. Write: "DEALERS
WANTED," Dept. PE, POB 440668, Aurora, Colorado 80044.
(303) 620 -9736.
DECODE Morse, RTTY, and ASCII
Latest mrcrostnp model of the original
flialRAYE IV
$IKTEM KIT
LT -13 Down Converter with Preamp
16 dBi Slotted Antenna
Deluxe Power Supply Kit
All Coaxial Cables Included
2000 2600 MHz Tuning Range
signals from air-
waves with new CODE *STAR. LED readout or con-
'16495
nect your computer /printer. Keyboard, other items
also available. Kits or assembled. MICROCRAFT,
shipping
xqa
.
O
Box 513R, Thiensville, WI 53092. (414) 241 -8144.
HANG UP WAHL cordless Soldering Iron. Metal wall bracket
fits 7700-7800. $5.00 postpaid. Shoberg Corp.. 1420 N. 33rd
St, Milwaukee, WI 53208.
31/2 digit. 1 pf to 19,990 uf, $99.95.
Fully assembled. Moneyback guarantee. TML Engineering,
5139 Lapeer Road, Port Huron. MI 48060.
CAPACITANCE meter,
SHORTWAVE LISTENERS! Free catalog. High quality SWL
equipment! Radio West, 2015 S. Escondido Blvd, Escondido,
CA 92025. (714) 741 -2891. The Only all SWL store in the
Known World.
UNSCRAMBLERS, seven models available to decode police,
ambulance, and fire coded transmissions. Other scanner devices. Tone encoders decoders. Telephone accessories, etc.
Free Catalog. KRYSTAL KITS, Box 445, Bentonville, AR
SCRAMBLED TELEVISION TUNERS. Wideband UHF tuner
converts all UHF to VHF channels, $28.00 plus $1.50 postage. Money order only. Quest, Box 1722. Costa Mesa, CA
92627.
SCRAMBLED T.V. DECODER CIRCUIT DESIGNS. Parts,
Suppliers. Theory, Technical Advice. $10.00 Money Order
Only. Quest, Box 1722, Costa Mesa. CA 92627.
Best seller rod -type is just $155.00 (reg. $210.00).
Long range dish -type is $169.00 only (reg.
60 HZ CONVERTER MODULE 10 -I -.I HZ $14.95 plus $1.00
for postage. ME. residents add 5% sales tax. ORE, P.O. Box
8411, Portland. ME 04104.
.
SUNLITE SOLAR CELLS 4" dia. rated 45 volt 2 amp. Each
$6.00. ten for $55.00. E.J. Sales, P.O. Box Z3084, Centerline,
MI 48015.
INTERCOM! -Your pushbutton telephones can double as an
intercom for under $20.00 in parts! Plans and instructions,
$5.00. dB Enterprises, Box 453, Westwood, NJ 07675.
COMPUTER EQUIPMENT
SURPLUS COMPUTER PERIPHERALS: "Selectric" I/O
typewriter bargains. World's largest selection. Send 250 for
bargain -packed flyer. CFR, Box 144, Newton, NH 03858.
LOOKING FOR THE BEST BUYS in transistors, IC's, diodes.
Call 800- 458 -6053, in PA (814) 837 -6820. MCNISA honored.
Saving, service, quality, as only B&D can do. B & D Enterprises. P.O. Box 305, Kane, PA 16735.
C.B. EQUIPMENT
GET MORE CB CHANNELS AND RANGE! Frequency Expanders, boosters. speech processors, how-to- books, plans,
modifications. Catalog $2. CB CITY, Box 31500PE, Phoenix,
AZ 85046.
ALARMS
BURGLAR, FIRE, CAR! Finest equipment! Save! Free Catalog. AAS, 186A Oxmoor Road, B'ham, AL 35209.
INSTALL HOME ALARMS. Easy do it yourself instructions.
$4.00. ADVANCED, P.O. Box 478, STA -B, Howard Beach,
NY 11414.
PLANS AND KITS
PRINTED CIRCUIT Boards from sketch or artwork. Kit projects. Free details. DANOCINTHS Inc., Dept. PE, Box 261,
Westland, MI 48185.
LASERS HANDBOOK with buming, cutting, Ruby Reds, CO's
complete plans, books, and parts. Send $4.00 to: Famco,
Dept. PE, Box 1902, Rochester, NH 03867.
GIANT SCREEN TV projection system converts any television into 7 -foot picture. Lens & instructions $14.95. (Dealers
welcome). Bell Video, 4616 Belair Rd., Baltimore, MD 21206.
PROFESSIONAL GIANT SCREEN PROJECTION TV ..
Don't be fooled by cheap imitations... Build the best!... SimFREE information!
ple Construction!
168E Dunmore St., Throop, PA. 18512.
...
POLI -VISION,
UNIQUE TV DECODER plugs between UHF and VHF tuners
on tube or solid -state sets. Plans $3.95; DECODER ANTENNA receives multi-polarized signals. Plans $3.95; Antenna Kit
$19.95. Helico, P.O. Box 304, Bridgewater, MA 02324.
FM STEREO TRANSMITTER KIT. Range up to 1/3 mile,
broadcast quality, 30 db separation, 300 my audio input sensitivity. Tunes 88 -108 Mhz, highly stable, 50 ohm out. Requires
+ -15V. Complete kit 89.95. Commercial quality AM TRANSMITTERS also available. Free info. STELLATRON, 4942
Whitsett -205, N. Hollywood, CA 91607. 213/506 -0415.
SPACE GUN SOUND SYNTHESIZER. Plans $5; Board $5..
Kit $25. Great gift. Cosmic Enterprises. Box 9045, Stockton,
CA 95208 -1045.
Powerful. Compact (2x1x
3/4 ") exceptional audio. Transmit to FM radio (88108 MHz) only $13.95. Assembled $19.95. Add
$1.55 S &H ea. S.E. CORP, P.O. Box 16969 -P, TemFM WIRELESS MIC KIT.
ple Terrace, FL 33687.
PROFESSIONAL LIMITER -COMPRESSOR- EXPANDER
KITS. Pro specs and features, balanced input, adjustable
SAVE 90% Build Your own Minicomputer. Free Details. Digatek, 2723 West Butler Dr., Suite 20C, Phoenix, AZ 85021.
threshold, slope (1:1 to 100:1). attack and release. Models
from $79 and up. Rack mounting available, Free Info. STELLATRON, 4942, Whitsett-205, N. Hollywood, CA 91607.
USED COMPUTER TERMINALS. Printers. Modom, Surplus
Electronic parts. Catalog $1.00. RONDURE COMPANY, THE
COMPUTER ROOM, 2522 Butler St., Dallas. TX 75235. (214)
630 -4621.
MICROWAVE TELEVISION "DOWNCONVERTERS" under
$50.00. High quality, easily assembled. Catalogue: $2.00 (refundable). NDS, Box 12652 -E, Dallas, TX 75225.
COMMODORE COMPUTERS. Disk drives, printers. Call for
low prices on latest models. 802 -658 -6908.
MINI TONE SEQUENCER KIT. Can drive synthesizer. Ten
notes. $24.95 plus $2.00 shipping. Free catalog. Waveform, 7
Bradford Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15205.
TRS -80 Model II word processing program. Most Comprehensive available. Many extra features. $325.00. "MICRO ", 9523
Pinehill Dr., Battle Creek, Michigan 49017.
CABLE TV
BUILD INEXPENSIVE LOGIC ANALIZER eight channels with
tremendous fitchers. Stored, converted to T.V. signals and
connected to B&W/color antenna terminals for display. For information send $1.00: CONCORD INSTRUMENTS, P.O.B.
1044, Melville, NY 11747.
SUBSCRIPTION TELEVISION
AMATEUR MICROWAVE T.V. ANTENNAS. Receive uninterrupted movies, fully guaranteed. Also in kit form. For information and plans send $8.00 to: MDS Specialist, P.O. Box 67,
Southaven, MS 38671.
SONAR distance ranging in air. LED display or simple microprocessor interface -great for robotics! Detailed plans $5.95.
Sensystems, P.O. Box 1497, Cupertino, CA 95015.
NO SALES TAX IN MONTANA. This montri s special SWL receivers: Yaesu FRG -7700 - $469.00. Kenwood R -1000 $419.00. Catalog $1.00. Conley Radio, 318 -P N. 16th. Billings, MT 59101. (406) 259 -9554.
.
MICROWAVE ANTENNAS AT LOWEST PRICES EVER!
PICTURE TUBE REBUILDING equipment new and used.
ATOLL TELEVISION, 6425 Irving Park, Chicago, Illinois
60634.
LEVITATION
RADIO AMATEUR CALLBOOKS: 1982 Directories of Radio
Amateurs around the world. U.S. Callbook $22.00; Foreign
Callbook $21.00, shipping included. See your dealer or write
for FREE catalog. Radio Amateur Callbook, Dept. PE, 925
Sherwood Dr., Lake Bluff, IL 60044.
1
CABLE TV DESCRAMBLERS, CONVERTERS, AMPLIFIERS and COUPLERS. Microwave, satellite and security TV
systems. Catalog $2.00. G and G Electronic Supplies, P.O.
Box 188, Sidman, PA. 15955.
SATELLITE TV ANTENNA AIMING. Lock on all visible satellites with polar mount. Accurate alignment now possible with
our unique SUN COMPASS tables. Optimum pole axis,
mount declination, satellite azimuth and altitudes, and one
month SUN COMPASS table computed for your position...
$12.00. Verschieden Corporation, Box 12178. Boulder, CO
80303.
ELECTRONIC -2911916
RESISTORS. V4W, W5 %C.F. 3cea., 1% Metal films. NO
MINIMUMS. Quantity Discounts. Details from: JR INDUSTRIES, 5834 -E, Swancreek, Toledo, OH 43614.
PAY-TV DECODERS. Parts, plans, kits and factory built units
are available. Complete information and price lists $2.00 refundable on first order. Lee -Tronics. P.O. Box 253, Taylor, MI
48180.
VARIETY ELECTRONIC SURPLUS parts and pieces. Monthly picture flyer. Send $2.00 for 6 issues. Star -Tronics, P.O.
Box 683, McMinnville, OR 97128.
GRAVITY
MODELS. Plans, schematics, diagrams, performance charts 8 more In
PRIMER VOL. 105 pgs 8 x 10 mimeo $20 ppd. GUARANTEED! VISA.
MC add $5. FOREIGN ADD $10. SAUCER TECHNOLOGY, Boa
132 -M, Eureka Springs, Ark. 72632
PCB 15z sq -in FREE DRILLING SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. International Enterprise, 6452 Hazel Circle, Simi Valley, CA 93063.
MICROWAVE MOVIE ANTENNAS - Largest distributor on
the East coast. Wholesale call: Microtronics, (212) 479 -5592.
ANTI
No moving parts, magnets, gases or exotic fuels. BUILD FLYING
72712. (501) 273 -5340.
PAY -TV UNSCRAMBLER: plans $12.95, board $14.95 +
$1.50 postage. SASE for information. Demex, Box 2704(211),
Huntington Beach, California 92647.
Rogers. MN 55374
612 -429 -4226
SATELLITE RECEIVERS, SAT -TEC R2BR $795.00. Also
Avantek 120° LNA's $650.00. Call: Dick Suba (315) 3573481.
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS etched from any artwork in this
issue, single or double sided. Send $14.98 each with your order to: Merrimac Eng., 10 South Island Ave., Batavia, IL
60510.
$239.00). Shipping and handling included! Offer
expires shortly! ORDER TODAY! TCE, Box 343,
Brooklyn, NY 11230.
LAB - TRONICS, INC.
P 0 Box 171
AMATEUR RADIO
I!-w rt
ORDER
r
I
Noo..
30 CHANNEL
CABLE TV
CONVERTER
198AE047
ROUTE 9N,
FREEpGE
UNUSUAL
N
PLATTSBURGH, N.V. 12901
Tel.. 15181 561 -8700.
PARTS
IDEAS CANAL°
Elf.,
SYSTEMS.
SINEWAVE
DECODER; 2300 MHZ MICROWAVE DOWNCON-
available; no internal connections to TV! Plans $10.00 each; both $15.00.
PARTS, KITS AVAILABLE; MCNISA accepted on parts
purchases. Send SASE for parts pricing and more
information on these and other unique plans. COL -
VERTER. Best systems
LINS ELECTRONICS, Box 6424, San Bernadino, CA
92412.
117
DECEMBER 1981
www.americanradiohistory.com
GADGETS GALORE! Lasers and more. Catalog $1.95. Laser
plan $15. Information Plus, Box 1735, Bloomfield, NJ 07003.
PLANS - Monophonic Organ Synthesizer $9.50. Kits available
upon request. For information, SASE Mad 13, P.Q. Box 6742,
Concord, California 94524.
Burglar -Fire Protection
Protect Your Life, Nome, Business, Auto, etc.
Our catalog shows how. Install your own
alarm systems and devices and save SSSS. We
offer FREE write -in engineering service.
FREE
Burden
S
curity
CATALOG
Co.
`°",,;,=
DEGREES BY MAIL! Bachelors, Masters, Ph.D.'s. Free revealing details. Counseling,
Box 317 -PE12, Tustin, California 92680.
LEARN WHILE ASLEEP! HYPNOTIZE! Astonishing details,
strange catalog free! Autosuggestion, Box 24 -ZD, Olympia,
Washington 98507.
LEARN ELECTRONIC ORGAN SERVICING at home. Completely revised course covers latest models including digital,
LSI's, synthesizers, etc. NILES BRYANT SCHOOL, PO Box
20153, Sacramento, CA 95820.
MEDICAL ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY, home study.
Troubleshoot medical instruments. WTI, P.O. Box 124, Pine -
Lincoln, Ne. 68501
Box 82802- PE
UNIVERSITY
BURGLAR ALARM SYSTEM - Build easy, economical burglar alarm from schematic and pictorial. Details $4.00. P.O.
Box 21045, Philadelphia, PA 19114.
SAVE HUNDREDS! New wireless security system for home.
Install in minutes. Free catalog. Davis, Box 3363, Simi, CA
93063.
dale, CA 93650.
COLLEGE DEGREES BY SPECIAL EVALUATION of EXISTING Credentials & Job Experience. Fast, Inexpensive, (614)
863 -1791. Guidance, Box 13151 -Al2, Columbus, Ohio
43213.
YOU CAN NOW EARN A Bachelor, Master, or Doctoral Degree without leaving home. Courses are under faculty guidance. Kensington University, (P.O. Box 2036 -M), 512 E. Wilson, Glendale, CA 91209.
HIGH FIDELITY
COLLEGE DEGREES
DIAMOND NEEDLES and Stereo Cartridges at Discount
prices for Shure, Pickering, Stanton, Empire, Grado, Audio
Technica, Ortofon, Acutex and ADC. Write for free catalog.
LYLE CARTRIDGES, Dept. P, Box 69, Brooklyn, New York
11218. For fast COD services Toll Free 800-221-0906 9AM
8PM except Sunday.
READ BLUEPRINTS like a pro. Easy manual shows how. $5
ppd. check or m.o. AJEMA, Box 82 -2, Kenwood, CA 95452.
WANTED
GOLD, Silver, Platinum, Mercury, Tantalum wanted. Highest
prices paid by refinery. Ores assayed. Free circular. Mercury
Terminal, Norwood, MA 02062.
WANTED someone with excellent short-wave reception to record programs and send me the tapes. Aldis, 282 Camino Al
Lago, Atherton, CA 94025.
TUBES
-49
RADIO & T.V. Tubes
cents each. Send for free Catalog.
Cornell, 4213 University, San Diego, Calif. 92105.
TUBES: "Oldies ", Latest. Supplies, components, schematics.
Catalog Free (stamp appreciated). Steinmetz, 7519 -PE Maplewood, Hammond, Ind. 46324.
TUBES -RECEIVING, Industrial and Semiconductors Factory
Boxed. Free price sheet including TV, Radio and audio parts
list. Transleteronic, Inc., 1365 39th St., Brooklyn, New York
11218. Telephone: (212) 633-2800. Toll free: 800- 221 -5802.
HUGE INVENTORY! Thousands of types. Wholesale prices.
FREE CATALOG! ETCO Electronics, DEPT. 290, Plattsburgh, NY 12901.
GOVERNMENT SURPLUS
- COURSES - AND DIPLOMAS by
mail. Learn how to get an accredited College degree without
leaving home. Inquire: Educom Service, 10315-PE, Woodley
Ave., #111, Granada Hills, CA 91344.
NONRESIDENTIAL UNIVERSITY DEGREES. Recognized.
Write or send resume. American National University, 3500 N.
Central, Suite 333, Phoenix, Arizona 85012. (602) 265 -8657.
ELECTRONICS HOME STUDY offers a three course electronics program beginning with electrical circuits - ending with
microprocessors. $35.50 each. Free Brochure, Box 1974B,
Fargo, North Dakota 58107.
LANGUAGE STUDENTS! New device facilitates vocabulary
learning. Free details. Bergenboxo, Box 398, Bergenfield, NJ
07621 -0398.
NON -RESIDENTIAL UNIVERSITY DEGREES. Recognized.
Write or send resume. American National University, 3500 N.
Central, Suite 333, Phoenix, Arizona 85012. (602) 265 -8657.
-
-
JEEPS -$58.00!!- CARS
$35.00!!- 700,000 ITEMS!!
GOVERNMENT SURPLUS!!- Most COMPREHENSIVE DIRECTORY AVAILABLE tells how, where to buy!!
YOUR
AREA
MONEYBACK GUARANTEE!! "Surplus Information Services ", Department 0E -28, Box 99249, San
Francisco, California 94109.
- -
-$3.-
BUY DIRECT FROM GOVERNMENT! 500,000 items (including Jeeps) ... low as 2c on dallar! Directory - $2.00. Disposal,
Box 19107 -HL, Washington, DC 20036.
MAILORDER OPPORTUNITY! Start profitable home business without experience or capital. Write for free book, case
histories, plus complete details. No obligation. Mail Order Associates, Dept 602, Montvale, NJ 07645.
Investment /exinformation. "Broadcasting", Box 130 -Al2, Paradise, CA 95969.
WANT YOUR OWN RADIO STATION?
perience unnecessary.
Free
SPARE TIME FORTUNE in.Vinyl Repair. Huge demand creates exceptional profits. We supply everything. Details free.
VIP, 2012'Montrose, Chicago, IL 60618.
MECHANICALLY INCLINED INDIVIDUALS
Assemble electronic devices in your home.
Knowledge, or experience not necessary. Get started in spare time. Turn your spare or full time into
cash. No investment-Write for free details.
ELECTRONIC DEVELOPMENT LAB
Box 1560PE, Pinellas Park, FL 33565
$700 PER MONTH EARNINGS possible filling out income tax
forms at home or tax office during tax season. We show you
how. Simple, quickly learned. Details mailed free. No salesmen. Hurry. Big demand. Federated Tax, 2012 Montrose,
Chicago, IL 60618.
T.V. MEN - Hi- PROFITS - ONE MAN FACTORY. Rebuild
CRTs for $3.00. Purchase Patented equipment. Original manufacturers. New/used. Free training. C.R.T., 4071 Elston, Chicago 60618. (312) 583-6565.
START YOUR OWN BUSINESS. Send $1.50 for info. To:
Timm Enterprizes, P.O. Box 2813, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83401.
BORROW $30,000 without interest! All eligible. Repay anytime. Free details. Infohouse, Box 1004 -PE12, New York, NY
10003.
Be
a
MAKE FRIENDS WORLDWIDE through international corre-
LO
CKS°T
opportunities. Big
Earn quickly.
Full or part time. Learn
at home, it's easy. Do
EARN WHILE
YOU LEARN
-Materials Supplied.
spondence, illustrated brochure free. Hermes -Verlag, Box
110660/Z, D -1000 Berlin 11, W. Germany.
CORRESPONDENCE FOR FRIENDSHIP IN PHILIPPINES,
MALAYSIA. Free information. AACC -(PE), Box 1542, Canoga
Park, Calif. 91304.
-
-
USA, through correspondence. Send age, interests. Free reply. Harmony, Box 89PE,
Brooklyn, New York, 11235.
PENFRIENDS
ENGLAND
CORRESPONDENCE for friendship! Mexico, Philippines, Europe, USA. Free information. International, Box 1716 -EL,
Chula Vista, CA 92012.
Send for
BREE BOOK
real
Locksmithing Institute, Dept 473 -121
Dry. Technical Home Study Schools.
jobs:
All
Tools
-
Lic. State of NJ
Appd. for Veterans. Send
Name and address for
FREE book.
Little Falls,
N. J. 07424
MAKE DURABLE BUILDING plastic easily. Waterproof, Fireproof, Economical. Bays Laboratory, 2086-2075 Drive, Cedaredge, CO 81413.
BORROW BY MAIL! $500.00 - $50,000.00. No collateral, bad
credit no problem!!! Write: Gelco Financial Services, Box
34293-CD, Indpls., IN 46234.
-
PATENT AND DEVELOP your invention. Registered Patent
Agent and Licensed Professional Engineer, Send for FREE
PATENT INFORMATION every inventor should have. Richard L. Miller, P.E., 3612 -E Woolworth Building, New York, NY
10007. (212) 267-5252.
MANUFACTURER SEEKING Patented, Unpatented Inventions. Generous royalties. Advantek International, 1100 17th
NW, Washington, DC 20036.
INVENTIONS WANTED
FREE CONSULTATION
Big
profits.
ERASE DEBTS with little-known law- create wealth!! Details
FREE
Blueprints, No. EE12, LaGrangeville, NY 12540.
NO
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
ELECTRONICS /AVIONICS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES. Report on jobs now open. Details FREE. Aviation Employment Information Service, Box 240E, Northport, New
York 11768.
JOBS OVERSEAS - Big money fast. $20,000 to $50,000 plus
per year. Call 716-842-6200, ext. 1740.
IDEA TOO SMALL
Disclosure registration. Potential cash or royalties tram manufacturers
seeking new
REPAIRS & SERVICES
ideas. For free information on how to register your ideas. Call or write.
INSTRUCTION
AMERICAN INVENTORS CORP.
fixes to common
problems. 21 page guide. $3.75. Sandalwood
House, Dept L12, Box C -5525, So. Burlington, VT
CALCULATOR REPAIRS! Learn
05401.
59 Interstate Dr. Dept PE
West Springfield, MA 01089 (413) 737 -5376
A Fee Based Servo Company
ELECTRONICS MANUFACTURER Seeking new devices or
circuits for production. Shoal Engineering, P.O. Box 868,
Be an FCC LICENSED
>n
REAL ESTATE
... FREE SPRING CATALOG! Over 2,800 top values coast to coast! UNITED FARM AGENCY, 612 -EP West
47th, Kansas City, MO 64112.
BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
.
Electronic Technician
aADIaTÉI-[fAÓfl É
Earn up to $600 a Week & Morel
-
No costly school
The Original FCC Tests.
Answers exam manual that prepares you at
home for FCC General Radiotelephone License.
Newly revised multiple. choice exams cover all
areas tested on the actual FCC Govt exam!
No previous experience required. 512.95 post-
"HAVING PROBLEMS WITH YOUR DESIGN? We specialize
in providing you with professional technical assistance -by
mail! Send $2.00 for details. Omnitek, Box 50546, Tucson, Ar.
BIG NEW
Clemmons, N.C. 27012.
paid. Moneyback Guarantee.
De t. P
P.O. Box 26348
FREE BOOK "2042 Unique Proven Enterprises." Fabulous
"unknowns." second inflation income. Haylings -M. Carlsbad,
CA 92008.
PERSONALS
FOR INVENTORS
MANUALS for Govt Surplus radios, test sets, scopes. List
$1.00 (cash). Books, 7218 Roanne Drive, Washington, D.C.
20021.
BORROW $25,000 "OVERNIGHT." Any purpose. Keep indefinitely! Free Report! Success Research, Box 29070 -GL,
Indianapolis, IN 46229.
.
r:O11E1WIDa
PRODUCTIONS
San Francisco CA 94128
FREE CATALOGS. Repair air conditioning, refrigeration.
Tools, supplies, full instructions. Doolin, 2016 Canton, Dallas.
Texas 75201.
-
MECHANICALLY INCLINED individuals desiring ownership
without inof Small Electronics Manufacturing Business
vestment. Write: BUSINESSES. 92 -K11 Brighton 11th,
Brooklyn, New York 11235.
RUBBER STAMPS
RUBBER STAMPS, BUSINESS CARDS. Many new products. Catalog. Jackson's, E -100, Brownsville Rd., Mt. Vernon,
III. 62864.
500 BUSINESS CARDS $9.95, samples $1.00. PLEASE
PRINT. UNIQUE, 296 N.E. 71st Street, Miami, Florida 33138.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
118
www.americanradiohistory.com
Popular Electronics
BOOKS AND MAGAZINES
LOTTERIES make some people millionaires. so can microcomputers. New publication shows how. $5.00. NEO PUBLISHING, P.O. Box 1368, L.I.C.. NY 11101.
ADVERTISERS INDEX
ADVERTISER
6
64
BSR (USA) Ltd.
5
4
popular movies available. Write for complete details. Bill's Video Rentals, P.O. Box 7221, Baytown,
Texas 77522 -7227.
86, 67
106
89
Cover 2,
1
104
2
Classified Advertising
58
DO -IT- YOURSELF
9
10
DAK
DBX
Digi -Key Corp.
54
Digital Research
Boards with running water!
Technological breakthrough. Precise reproduction.
Ideal for beginners. Free info. COVAL, Dept. PE12.
2106 Kirby, Champaign IL 61820.
HYPNOTISM
17
Firestik
Fordham Radio Supply
62
MISCELLANEOUS
20
MPG INCREASED! Bypass Pollution Devices easily. REVERSIBLY!! Free details- Pasco GEE12, LaGrangeville, NY
12540.
22
0. Box 4430C
P.
MN
:
'4510N
'43.5134
5Á1
5i á
31
2024
13110099001/109
PROM
45
65
7102AN
21044.4
21079.4
495
375
2111.1
3 75
2112.2
! 50
10
775659on
650
0271 5 MA 015
27Ó1671
i;i.2
i
$ÌÌ4
21141 30005
4 25
$74$
-415339
35
36
35
60
-41.53111
50
MM5767
'43.57421
45
MM525
3
74157501
66
MM5320
9 95
'43.5209
-4152271
-4L57111
43.5309
19 75
2572
21141 450Ars 400
41115 20004
2 95
5414 20004 19 40
43
00
1400
55 00
55 00
555
555
674$5
57554
#12527
i15
95
ú55765
75
4 95
1
N
MM535
741.5939
75
P04111).3
4
500
P04110
4$
500
895
2
90
' 15112N
15
45
661013.
2008
9125'36
N12637
DMIs77
6 75
7415999
7,151o7N
9 95
8223
]
50
7415909
.43.5113N
'41513214
S
4
94
5
é2525
911024
2
90
N
1
50
50
1100565 5
6 95
73
79
4145715
450
741.55559
G3453635.1
9 95
74151579
110
9 95
741.556214
110
61CM64751 A
,366
741516:4
I 50
4100
74L513641
741515114
74151749
7415i9014
1
'
416
3
50
105
165
75
741522'N
74152561,
74153674
Linear CMOS and 7400
complete lines In stock.
Send for catalog.
/441911252513
0
4
95
6 75
6507
0 95
9504
6522
6100
6402
6120
6450
60109
1015
240
9
55
55
609
609
8109
0710
8115
0121
8125
8124
0125
0726
6,25
619:
65
65
95
14
24
Ú
95
4 95
5 95
3 95
16
16
29
42
11
27
36
51
20
29
9 95
1, 95
1
90
95
4
95
2
9
2
12,4
6216
1224
6229
1251
5
9
310
3
3
50
20
on
w
57
20
ti
A
1
55
4
6'
3
24
$Ó
93
C041902C0
0,0119020
2195
co859634
37
14,1r
7
15
WÓ [wi494
1
25
5'.
o31
19 994 025
'00 4411n4 015
150 94 994 012
ON
3
v!
5
3
2
39
300
500
50
CC CA
CC CO
357
500
500
CC CA
100
epl W494
'
v
'
'
'
11;
69
444910
444646
CA
cc
5
6e
..
50
Nee 4 -.
5515 46
55.
+'
'44111011 IN 94541 1M 14n 14
41
474,1411411191114141
.e<4
,1e4
x6 '5
e19:,
1e
II
431 49
1564 4n.
N91ry
191114119144441911
44M94 761419644951444
341 smooch 44Mnt4r 951320
4494 1145 00
Modem Kit $60.00
Video Modulator Kit
State of the art. orig answer. No tuning necessary. 103 compatible 300 baud. Inexpensive
Convert TV set into a high quality monitor w o
affecting usage Comp kit w'full instruc
.
acoustic coupler plans included. Bd. Only
517.00. Article in June Radio Electronics.
Z80 Microcomputer
10,
2 MHz clock, 21( RAM. ROM Breadboard space Excellent for control Bare Board
Full
Kit $99.00. Monitor $20.00. Power
$28.50.
Supply Kit $35.00. Tiny Basic $30.00
16 bit
110
41
Quest Electronics
119
42
R & K
55
RCE
24, 25, 76
Cover 3
96
100
101
83
4, 5
Tams
102
TDK
Trio -Kenwood
88
90
49
Video Magician
95
Wabash Tape
60, 61 Westland
Winegard
53
Wisconsin Discount Stereo
84
104
27
78
58
51
101
88
_
102
_
The Quest Super Elf is the right choice for
the person who has a need to learn more
about computers, from an understanding
of the hardware and how it goes together
to beginning programming with machine
language on up through basic.
Tremendous Value
The Super Elf is a tremendous value as it
combines video, digital displays. LED displays. and music, all on a single board for
$106.95. Its unique ability for single step
debugging, display of state and mode of
the computer and display of addressing as
an inexpensive option gives it an "easy to
use capability not available anywhere at
$9.95
L_
II
includes cassette interface. additional
memory, color video. Basic. ASCII keyboard. printer. floppy. 5 -100 bus. RS232.
etc.
software. including a series of lessons to
help get you started and a music program
and graphics target game. Many schools
and universities are using the Super Elf as
a course of study. OEM's use it for training
and R&D. A monthly newsletter, Questdata is devoted exclusively to software for
the Super Elf and there are many software
books available at low cost. You can do a
tremendous amount with the software
available and there is more coming every
day. Of course, you can do your own
programming which is fun and very
rewarding.
Strong Software Support
Free 14 Page Brochure
The Super Elf comes complete with power
supply and detailed 127 page instruction
manual which includes over 40 pages of
Send or call for a free brochure on all
details and pricing of the Super Elf and its
expansion We will get it right out to you'
Inexpensive Expansion
Multi -volt Computer Power Supply
c 18v 5 amp 5v
5 amp.
5 amp. - 5v
12v option
amp. 12v 5 amp
5v. -12v
are regulated Basic Kit 535.95. Kit with chassis
and all hardware $51.95. Add $4 00 shipping. Kit
of hardware $16.00. Woodgrain case $10.00.
51 50 shipping
8v
5
1
60 Hz Crystal Time Base Kit $4.40
Elf II Adapter Kit $24.95
Converts digital clocks from AC line frequency
to crystal time base Outstanding accuracy
PROM Eraser
Rockwell AIM 65 Computer
assembled 25 PROM capacity $37.50
with timer $69.50) 6 PROM capacity OSHA
UL version $78.50 with timer $108.50)
1K $41 9.00
4K
$48500
TERMS: $5.00 min. order U.S. Funds. Calif residents add 6% tax.
$10 00 min. BankAmericard and Master Charge accepted. $1.00 insurance optional.
Postage: Add 5 %. COD. $10 00 min. order.
DECEMBER 1981
20
57, 114
46
59
47
88
101
22
Sabtronics
Scientific Systems
Shure Bros.
Simple Simon Kits
Sinclair Research
44
45
100
102
33
Supply
Radio Shack
The Super Elf expansion capability is
virtually unlimited and you can do it inexpensively one step at a time. Expansion
#5
s
5
29
85, 87
16 -19
Ltd
33
Cover 4
38
the price
66
117aDA9D5
.
6437 1155
5795 Moe
0500 Moo
2 097152
2 4576 Mot
7101 4411
.l
w46640
'
2
1110503510
f110400 407
4A94M0
4194710
4494740
95
5
xM
»
m48411,0
44r
4411r
950
35
170
A43N0
-
13 95
C9
1.A CA
01701
cc
54
01707 357019
05727 771
CA CC
01717 71
CA CC
11.0359
CC
n1pI444
1o95
pm
15205 pot
1915
71
i35»Cw"
..i1u1o1w,
3
C1191191.9
75
LIDS
A111
4A471
190500507
M ME WRAP
s 00
6255
1257
40
1
6 95
Ina
25
5 50
445
3
ÿ11U1
M Or
15
II95
29
tml4rnr1
501
eel
6 95
4 50
3
trlr
11
i1102336
MTINPA01
6095
9096
Will calls: 2322 Walsh Ave.
TWX 910- 338 -2139
988 -1640
Same days Mpment. First line parts only Factory tested
Guaranteed money back. Quality IC's and other components at factory prices.
29
36
& D
RCA Cosmac 1802 Super Elf Computer Kit $106.95
Santa Clara. CA 95054
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Netronics, R
NRI Schools
102
100
Illinois Audio
International Electronics
21
NEC America
50
PAIA Electronics
Poly Paks
73
86
77
Heath Co.
Hewlett- Packard
Hustler
98
40
39
40
Global Specialties
Grantham College of Engineering
18
19
51
105
13
Electra Corp.
Epson
Etronix
10
99
93
Olympic Sales
Omega Sales Corp.
Omnisonix Ltd
93
2,
21. 30.
62
38
98
115
83
14
15
16
FREE Hypnotism. Self- Hypnosis. Sleep Learning Catalog!
Dawer H400, Ruidoso, New Mexico 88345.
53-55
27, 43 Magnavox
48
Maxell
MFJ Enterprises
30
Micro Ace
29
McIntosh Laboratory, Inc
Micro Management Systems
31
Micro Mint
32
37
Micro Soft
34 -37
7, 9, 11
11, 12 Discwesher
13
D. J Systems
PRINTED CIRCUIT
ELECTRONICS (408)
118-119
81
Cleveland Consumer
Cleveland Institute of
Electronics. Inc.
1, 2, 3 Communications Electronics
7
Components Express
Computer Mart
8
Computique
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS' HOT LINE! Incredible prices:
Amps, PA gear. All instruments. Huge selection. Sam Ash,
established 1924. 800.645 -3518. NYS: (212) 347.7757.
MOS M6M091
95
107
35
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
35
25
35
a3
55
15
PAGE no.
RENT VIDEO TAPES - V.H.S. and Beta. Hundreds of
74150441
-4150311
',15f1614
113
72
Library of Computer Sciences
Active Electronics
Albia Electronics
All Electronics Corp.
AP Products
Apple Computer
Audio -Technica
63
56
57
VIDEOTAPES 8MM 16MM MOVIES. TWO 72 page catalogs $1.00. Both $1 50. Reelimages, Box 137-PE. Monroe.
Connecticut 06468.
:1
108.109
Kloss Video
26
RS no.
MOTION PICTURE /VIDEO
1,1xN R1
Jameco Electronics
JDR Microdevices
J&R Music World
JS & A National Sales
23
24
25
CIRCLE NO. 41 ON FREE INFORMATION CARO
www.americanradiohistory.com
Send for your copy of our NEW 1981
OUEST CATALOG. Include 481 stamp.
FREE
119
ELECTRONICSi
WORLDPersonaI
Electronics News
ACCESS TO COMPUSERVE DATA NETWORK will be available to owners of Sorcerer computers
when they buy an Exidy Systems Terminal Pac cartridge. Through a marketing agreement
between Exidy and Compuserve, the purchaser will receive one free hour of connect time
between 6:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m. weekdays and 24 hours on weekends. The Terminal Paz
contains software to configure the Sorcerer as a standard ASCII terminal so that it can receive
data from the network's offerings of news, home economics, entertainment, and personal
computing services. The Exidy ( Sunnyvale, CA 94086) terminal sells for $99.
has been asked by the National Association of Broadcasters to clarify and modify two
provisions of its new radio operator licensing requirements. NAB favors delegating some of
the duties of a chief operator to subordinates acting under the chief operator's supervision. It
also asked the FCC to clarify whether AM directional stations must continue to have First Class
duty operators. For example, if an operator's license is renewed as a General Radiotelephone
License, will this be adequate for the holder to be considered the operator on duty? Ifso, would
the station continue to be exempt from the proof of performance requirements?
THE FCC
WEATHER PICTURES FROM SATELLITES can be received on
a display system developed by University of Minnesota
scientists and marketed by SynSat Communications Inc.
( Minneapolis, MN 55436 ). Selling for under $7000 and
including a two -meter dish antenna, the radio receiving and
video display system will store satellite pictures on audio
cassettes and has a 2X zoom feature to allow the user to
examine satellite images closely. It can also display
standard weather facsimile information from land -line
sources.
has been announced by Electrosound Systems, Inc.,
Phoenix, AZ. ( 914- 347 -3707 ). Called the Data Loop Exchange, it brings data terminals, word processing work stations or personal computers, or a combination of these devices together
into a local area network. Range is a half-mile radius, which can be increased with loop
extenders. The network interconnects or communicates with a common computer without
requiring more software. Installation is simple, using twisted-pair loop wiring, thus eliminating the cost of modems and telephone lines. No protocol, line discipline, or mixing of data
rates is necessary with the network. Designed for small systems, with an RS232C interface, the
company's DLX 10 System uses time -division multiplexing.
LOCAL NETWORK WITHOUT MODEMS
VCR MOVIE RENTAL from a local store will start in the spring of'82 when Warner Home Video
launches new outlets to market its cassettes. Surveys made by WHV have shown that, for every
video cassette sold in recent months, there were at least 12 rentals. So it plans to offer over 150
films, including Superman II, The Shining, and Excalibur, for rental. WHV will license the
cassettes to the rental outlets ( including supermarkets, drug chains, and other mass
merchar-disers ).
information on "Trends
in the Communications and Electronics Industry" will be sponsored by the Long Island, NY,
chapter of IEEE and the Long Island Mobile Amateur Radio Club ( LIMARC ). Topics will include
direct broadcast satellites, satellite earth stations, cable TV, electronic warfare and countermeasures spread spectrum communication, and more. The net will operate at a frequency of
147375 MHz, and reception should be possible throughout most of Long Island and southern
Connecticut. Target date for start -up is Wednesday, Nov. 11, at 8:30 p.m. Thereafter, the net will
operate on the second Wednesday of each month. For more information contact Ed Piller at
516- 349 -2484.
AN EXPERIMENTAL RADIO NET whose mission will be to disseminate
.
PE IS A CONVERSATION STARTER, according to a story in the New York Times. One young
lady carried a copy cf the magazine into a singles bar with her and soon became the center of
male attention, said the story. It did not give any details on what happened thereafter nor did it
attempt
W draw a moral
therefrom.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS
120
www.americanradiohistory.com
Introducing the new HP-11C.
The whole is greater
than the sum of its parts.
Leave it to Hewlett- Packard to assemble
an ingenious combination of features
and functions -in one calculator.
;-`i2,2
tat
SST
FIVE
aro
Eli
ASE
OM
I
E
NSW
I,
I
SIN
CM
TM
.1111
MI MI
-.R(3MXIWRIR'i
PREFIX'
Computer-like programming.
f,1
1
n
FIX
SCI
ENG
XSY
R
X:I
OSE
ISG
X+Y
4
5
MN,
NM
UNI
On Mil
6
X
RAN
PY.X
M.MS
RnO
sY
EEX
The HP -11C offers over 200 lines of
program memory, insert /delete editing,
subroutines, indirect addressing, flags
all these powerful programming tools,
plus an extensive set of built -in
scientific/engineering functions.
-
Fits easily in your pocket.
The HP -11C's rugged slim -line case fits
easily in your pocket. And its horizontal
design with LCD display makes it easy to
read even in bright sunlight.
Extensive rcgramming capas
Continuous memory.
The HP-11C's Continuous Memory
2,3-f5.51-
;sEP
LEE
MYP
XIIII
III
I
R
remembers your programs and data even
when your calculator is turned off. The
calculator is powered by standard,
disposable long -life batteries, making it
both portable and convenient to operate.
11
XSI
OSF
ISO
XsY
Only from Hewlett- Packard.
Sure, other calculators may offer you
some of these features. But Hewlett Packard gives you all of them in a
beautiful slim line design. The new
HP -11C is built to the exacting standards
of quality and reliability that you've
come to expect from Hewlett -Packard.
To see the HP -11C in action, visit your
nearest Hewlett- Packard dealer. For the
address of the dealer in your area, call
toll free: 800 -547-3400, Dept. 254D
except Hawaii & Alaska. In Oregon, call
758-1010. Or write Hewlett -Packard,
Corvallis, OR 97330, Dept. 254D.
Suggested retail price, $135, excluding applicable state and local
taxes Continental U.S.A., Alaska, and Hawaii. 611/09
-
ch,A1HEWLETT
PACKARD
CIRCLE NO.
www.americanradiohistory.com
19 ON FREE
INFORMATION CARD
-
IN LESS
THAN 30
SECONDS...
CLEAN RECORDS,
CLEAR SOUND.
Safe record care is easy with the D4,, System.
In less than 30 seconds, you can remove
harmful microdust and other debris that can
The Discwasher D4 Record Care System. It's
worth the little time it takes ... and it doesn't
take long to discover it works.
cause permanent damage to your favorite
recordings. Studies prove it.
But if scientific studies mean nothing to you,
let the sound prove that D4 works. It's dirt
free and static free sound ... clearly better
sound.
iscwash er°
PRODUCTS TO CARE FOR YOUR MUSIC
1407 North Providence Road, Columbia, MO 65201
an ESMAFIX Company
A DIVISION OF JENSEN
CIRCLE NO. 12 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
USA
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement