Avid DS Nitris 7.5 User guide

Avid DS Nitris 7.5 User guide
Avid® DS Nitris
™
Editing Guide
Version 7.5
m a k e m a n a g e m ove | m e d i a ™
Avid
®
Copyright and Disclaimer
Product specifications are subject to change without notice and do not represent a commitment on the part
of Avid Technology, Inc.
The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement. You can obtain a copy of
that license by visiting Avid's Web site at www.avid.com. The terms of that license are also available in the
product in the same directory as the software. The software may not be reverse assembled and may be
used or copied only in accordance with the terms of the license agreement. It is against the law to copy the
software on any medium except as specifically allowed in the license agreement.
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying and recording, for any purpose without the express written permission
of Avid Technology, Inc.
Copyright © 2004 Avid Technology, Inc. and its licensors. All rights reserved.
The Avid DS Nitris application uses JScript and Visual Basic Scripting Edition from Microsoft Corporation.
Attn. Government User(s). Restricted Rights Legend
U.S. GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED RIGHTS. This Software and its documentation are “commercial
computer software” or “commercial computer software documentation.” In the event that such Software or
documentation is acquired by or on behalf of a unit or agency of the U.S. Government, all rights with
respect to this Software and documentation are subject to the terms of the License Agreement, pursuant to
FAR §12.212(a) and/or DFARS §227.7202-1(a), as applicable.
Trademarks
888 I/O, Adrenaline, AirPlay, AirSPACE, AirSPACE HD, AniMatte, AudioSuite, AudioVision, AutoSync,
Avid, Avid DNA, Avid DNxHD, AVIDdrive, AVIDdrive Towers, Avid Mojo, AvidNet, AvidNetwork,
AVIDstripe, Avid Unity, Avid Xpress, AVoption, AVX, CamCutter, ChromaCurve, ChromaWheel, DAE,
D-Fi, D-fx, Digidesign, Digidesign Audio Engine, Digidesign Intelligent Noise Reduction, DigiDrive,
Digital Nonlinear Accelerator, DigiTranslator, DINR, D-Verb, Equinox, ExpertRender, FieldPak,
Film Composer, FilmScribe, FluidMotion, HIIP, HyperSPACE, HyperSPACE HDCAM, IllusionFX,
Image Independence, Intraframe, iS9, iS18, iS23, iS36, Lo-Fi, Magic Mask, make manage move | media,
Marquee, Matador, Maxim, MCXpress, Media Composer, MediaDock, MediaDock Shuttle, Media Fusion,
Media Illusion, MediaLog, Media Reader, Media Recorder, MEDIArray, MediaShare, Meridien, MetaSync,
NaturalMatch, Nearchive, NetReview, NewsCutter, Nitris, OMF, OMF Interchange, OMM,
Open Media Framework, Open Media Management, ProEncode, Pro Tools, QuietDrive, Recti-Fi,
RetroLoop, rS9, rS18, Sci-Fi, Softimage, Sound Designer II, SPACE, SPACEShift, Symphony, the Avid|DS
logo, Trilligent, UnityRAID, Vari-Fi, Video Slave Driver, VideoSPACE, and Xdeck are either registered
trademarks or trademarks of Avid Technology, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries.
iNEWS, iNEWS ControlAir, and Media Browse are trademarks of iNews, LLC.
Adobe, Acrobat, and Acrobat Reader are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems
Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft, Windows, and Windows XP are
registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. All other trademarks contained herein are the property of
their respective owners.
Footage
Arri — Courtesy of Arri/Fauer — John Fauer, Inc.
Bell South “Anticipation” — Courtesy of Two Headed Monster — Tucker/Wayne Atlanta/GMS.
Canyonlands — Courtesy of the National Park Service/Department of the Interior.
Eco Challenge British Columbia — Courtesy of Eco Challenge Lifestyles, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
Eco Challenge Morocco — Courtesy of Discovery Communications, Inc.
It’s Shuttletime — Courtesy of BCP & Canadian Airlines.
Nestlé Coffee Crisp — Courtesy of MacLaren McCann Canada.
Saturn “Calvin Egg” — Courtesy of Cossette Communications.
“Tigers: Tracking a Legend” — Courtesy of www.wildlifeworlds.com, Carol Amore, Executive Producer.
Windhorse — Courtesy of Paul Wagner Productions.
2
GOT FOOTAGE?
Editors — Filmmakers — Special Effects Artists — Game Developers — Animators — Educators —
Broadcasters — Content creators of every genre — Just finished an incredible project and want to
share it with the world?
Send us your reels and we may use your footage in our show reel or demo!*
For a copy of our release and Avid’s mailing address, go to www.avid.com/footage.
*Note: Avid cannot guarantee the use of materials submitted.
Avid DS Nitris Editing Guide • 0130-05575-01 Rev. B • August 2004
3
4
Contents
Using This Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Symbols and Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Mouse, Pen, and Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Customizing the Pen or Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
If You Need Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Avid DS Customer Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
E-mail Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Web Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Upload Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Avid Community Forum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Accessing the Online Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
How to Order Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Avid Educational Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Chapter 1
Working with Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Starting a Work Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Creating a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Opening an Existing Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Setting User Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Choosing a Scripting Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Setting Up the Command Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Managing Files and Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Working with the Avid Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Using the Avid Explorer Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Using the Shortcuts View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Organizing Your Project Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Creating or Deleting Folders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Moving Files between Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Renaming Project Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Creating a Standard Folder Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Avid DS Nitris Group Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Working with Bins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Changing the Bin View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Changing the Frame in Thumbnail and Script View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Identifying File Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Displaying File Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Customizing the Details and Script Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Saving or Deleting a Bin View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Sorting Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Sifting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Displaying a Sifted or an Unsifted View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Loading and Deleting a Sifted View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Viewing Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Viewing the Avid Event Log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Viewing the Windows Event Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Sorting Columns and Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Chapter 2
Working with Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Workflow: Working with Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Opening Sequences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Creating a New Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Opening an Existing Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Importing Sequences and Master Clips from Another Project. . . . . . . . 66
Setting Sequence Preferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Working with Media of Different Qualities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Understanding Video Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
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About Video Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
About Frame Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
About Pixel Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
About Field Dominance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
About Color Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
About Video Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Understanding Video Quality Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Working with Exact Media Matches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Working with Closest Media Matches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Understanding Audio Quality Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Understanding the Processing Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
About Bit Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Processing in Fields versus Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Understanding the Working Conversion Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Saving Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Creating a Copy of a Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Searching for Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Deleting Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Chapter 3
Working with Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
The Digital Intermediate Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Important Considerations when Working on Film-based Projects . . . . . 98
Film Editing on Avid DS Nitris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Setting up Storage and Media for Film Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Opening a Film-based Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Capturing from DPX Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Working in Film Proxy Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Outputting Film Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Downconverting a Film Sequence to HD or SD Format . . . . . . . . 109
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Chapter 4
Building a Rough Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Workflow: Editing Audio and Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Creating Sequences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Preparing Source Clips for Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Editing Source Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Creating Subclips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Switching Between the Source and Record Timeline. . . . . . . . . . 119
Placing Clips on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Same Track versus Multi-track Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Placing Multiple Clips on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Placing Pre-edited Clips on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Patching Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Placing Video Clips on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Placing Audio Clips on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Placing Clips on the Timeline Using Sync Point Editing . . . . . . . . 130
Working on the Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Selecting Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Adding and Deleting Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Reordering Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Setting the Track Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Scrolling Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Muting Audio and Video Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Setting Tracks to Solo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Changing Track Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Marking In and Out-points on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Using the Mark Buttons to Set In and Out-points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Using Timecode to Set In and Out-points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Displaying Timecodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Displaying Timecodes in the Timecode View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Displaying the Source Timecodes of a Clip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
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Displaying the Sequence Timecodes of a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Moving or Trimming Objects Using the Timecode Boxes . . . . . . . . . . 144
Adjusting the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Changing the Visible Time Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Framing the Timeline to View Selected Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Panning and Zooming the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Using the Zoom Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Panning the Timeline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Changing the Ruler Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Displaying Different Rulers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Viewing a Sequence as a Hieracharical Tree Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Playing Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Varying the Playback Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Moving to Points on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Moving to Edit Points on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Looping Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Viewing Unprocessed Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Using the Position Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Switching Viewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Setting True Video Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Zooming or Panning the Viewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Displaying Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Manipulating Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Selecting Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Moving Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Moving Objects on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Moving Clips on the Same Track. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Moving Single Clips between Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Moving Multiple Clips between Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Renaming and Adding Comments to Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
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Cutting Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Copying Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Deleting Clips from the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Lifting Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Extracting Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Revealing Unused Material on Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Changing the Activeness of Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Activating and Deactivating Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Using Locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Displaying Locator Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Sorting Information in the Locators View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Setting Reference Locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Placing Locators on Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Moving Locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Deleting Locators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Moving to Locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Annotating Locators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Changing the Color of Locators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Finding Frames, Clips, and Bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Matching a Frame in a Master Clip or Subclip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Performing a Reverse Match Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Finding the Bin for a Clip or Subclip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Extracting Parts of a Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Converting a Timeline Region or Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Creating Multiple Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Replacing Timeline Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Grabbing Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Creating a Master Clip from a Snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Creating an Image File from a Snapshot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Rippling Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
10
Setting a Ripple End. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Inserting Clips in Ripple Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Editing Clips in Ripple Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Synchronizing Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Aligning Clips for Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Creating a Sync Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Adding to an Existing Sync Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Combining Two Sync Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Unlocking Synchronized Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Manipulating Synchronized Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Selecting All Clips in a Sync Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Moving Synchronized Clips Independently . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Cutting Synchronized Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Editing Synchronized Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Resyncing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Deleting Synchronized Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Referencing Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Creating Reference Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Converting a Container Clip to a Reference Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Processing Reference Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Chapter 5
Trimming Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Workflow: Trimming Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Understanding Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Methods of Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Understanding Trim Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Entering and Exiting Trim Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Trimming Clips in Trim Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Reviewing a Trim Edit or Transition in Trim Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Selecting and Breaking Edit Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Selecting Trim Sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
11
Breaking and Relinking Edit Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Performing a Basic Trim. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Trimming the Edit Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Trimming with the Trim Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Trimming Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Backtiming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Snapping Edit Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Trimming On-the-Fly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Creating Overlap Edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Trimming Container Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Trimming Transition Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Understanding Slipping or Sliding Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Slipping Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Sliding Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Entering Slip/Slide Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Performing a Slip or Slide Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Reviewing a Slip or Slide Trim. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Maintaining Sync While Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Creating a Gap When Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Chapter 6
Applying Image Transition Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Understanding Image Transition Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Applying a Dissolve Effect to a Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Applying a DVE Effect to a Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Understanding the Morph Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Applying a Morph Transition Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Creating Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Joining Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Creating Barrier Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Warping the Morph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Animating Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
12
Tracking Morphed Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Setting the Rendering Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Applying a Picture-in-Picture Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Applying Wipe Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Chapter 7
Processing Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Understanding Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
When is Processing Needed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Workflow: Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Processing Areas of the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Processing a Single Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Processing a Region of a Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Previewing Effects without Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Setting the Processing Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Processing Media at Different Qualities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Creating Caches at Any Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Using the Cache Bar in the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Understanding Processing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Minimal Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Complete Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Example: Minimal versus Complete Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Case A: Minimal Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Case B: Complete Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Working with Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Playing Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Working with Real-Time Effects in HD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Outputting Real-time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Remote Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Monitoring Remote Processing Jobs with the Avid DMS Broker . . . . . 294
13
Chapter 8
Working with Effects and Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Displaying Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Applying Effects on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Applying Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Cutting to a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Creating One-Sided Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Creating Transitions Between Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Editing Transition Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Aligning Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Removing Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Using the Comparison Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Nesting Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Creating Nested Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Creating a Composite Container Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Creating a Background Container Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Creating an Audio Container Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Navigating within Nested Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Opening Container Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Closing Container Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Deleting Nested Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Displaying Effects in a Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Opening a Floating Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Changing the Image Displayed in a Viewer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Viewing Image Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Processing Sequences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Chapter 9
Working with Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Understanding the Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Applying a 3:2 Contract Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Applying a 3:2 Expand Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Applying a Deinterlace Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
14
Applying an Interlace Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Understanding the Timewarp Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Applying an Audio Timewarp Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Applying Merging Audio Timezone Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Applying a Video Timewarp Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Applying a Constant Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Applying a Variable Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Applying a Variable Speed Based on the Source Clip . . . . . . . . . 337
Changing the Position of Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Freezing Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Giving One Clip the Duration of Another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Chapter 10
Animating Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Workflow: Animating Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Creating Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Setting Keyframes Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Setting Keyframes Manually. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Viewing and Moving Animation Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Understanding the Animation Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Using the Animation Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Navigating the Animation Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Displaying Function Curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Working with the Animation Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Customizing the Animation Graph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Changing the Time Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Zooming the Animation Graph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Panning the Animation Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Editing Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Editing Keyframes Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Editing Animation on the Animation Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Viewing Locators in the Animation Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
15
Selecting Keyframes in the Animation Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Adding, Moving and Deleting Keyframes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Selecting Function Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Manipulating Keyframes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Adding, Moving, and Deleting Keyframes on Multiple Function Curves
368
Synchronizing Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Modifying Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Changing the Slope of a Function Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Changing the Type of Function Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
Making Temporary Copies of Function Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Snapping Keys to Grids and Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Locking Keyframe Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Offsetting Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Copying Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Repeating Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Creating a Basic Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Creating a Relative Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
Freezing a Cycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
Deleting a Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Trimming Animation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Removing Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Removing the Entire Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Removing the Animation of a Single Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Processing Animation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Chapter 11
Mixing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Workflow: Mixing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Working in Audio Container Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Audio Clips and Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Understanding the Mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
16
Changing the Mixer Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Using the Input Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Adding Effects on a Mixer Input Strip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Adjusting the Volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Adjusting the Audio Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Using the Mute and Solo Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Naming a Mixer Input Strip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Reordering the Mixer Input Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Assigning a Mixer Input Strip to an Output Channel . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Using the Output Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Muting the Output Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Using an External Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Mapping External Controls to Avid DS Nitris Commands . . . . . . . . . . 402
Creating a Command Mapping Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Loading a Command Mapping Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Building an Audio Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Creating Audio Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Using the Surround Panner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
Mixing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Creating a Submix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Fine-tuning the Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Adjusting the Mixer Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
Adjusting the Mixer Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Animating the Audio Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Animating the Input Strip Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Bypassing the Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Editing the Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Deleting Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Audio Media Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Converting the Audio Sample Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
17
Converting the Audio Sample Rate Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Converting the Reference Frame Rate of Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Processing the Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Processing Clip-based Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Chapter 12
Working with Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Understanding Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Applying Crossfade Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Applying Dynamics Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Working with Equalizer (EQ) Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Applying the 3 Band Tone Control Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Applying the 4 Band Parametric EQ Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
Applying the 10 Band Graphic EQ Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Applying Fade Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Applying a Gain Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Applying Reverb Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Applying a VST Host Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Chapter 13
Media Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Understanding Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Managing Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Using the Media Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Using Media Tool Icons to Display Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Displaying Associations Between Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Modifying the Media Tool Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Viewing Media Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Defragmenting Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Verifying Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Copying Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Moving Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Deleting Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
18
Purging Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Purging Source Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Purging Caches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Example: Purging versus Deleting Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Archiving Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Creating a Project Archive Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Creating a Device Preset Before Archiving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Creating a Complete Archive for a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Creating a Complete Archive on Multiple Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
Archiving on Other Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
Restoring Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Restoring a Complete Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Restoring Parts of a Project Archive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Restoring a Project Archived on Multiple Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Moving Projects to Another Workstation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Deleting Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Deleting Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Viewing Information about Storage Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
19
20
Using This Guide
Congratulations on your purchase of an Avid DS Nitris system. You can use
your system to create broadcast-quality output incorporating every possible
production element from full-speed, high-resolution footage, to multimedia
artwork and animation, to computer-generated effects and titling.
This guide contains all the task-oriented instructions, conceptual information,
and reference material you need to use the editing features of your system.
This guide is intended for all Avid DS Nitris users, from beginning to
advanced.
n
The documentation describes the features and hardware of all models.
Therefore, your system might not contain certain features and hardware that
are covered in the documentation.
Using This Guide
Symbols and Conventions
Avid documentation uses the following symbols and conventions:
Symbol or Convention
Meaning or Action
n
A note provides important related information,
reminders, recommendations, and strong suggestions.
c
A caution means that a specific action you take could
cause harm to your computer or cause you to lose data.
w
22
A warning describes an action that could cause you
physical harm. Follow the guidelines in this document
or on the unit itself when handling electrical
equipment.
>
This symbol indicates menu commands (and
subcommands) in the order you select them. For
example, File > Import means to open the File menu
and then select the Import command.
t
This symbol indicates a single-step procedure.
Multiple arrows in a list indicate that you perform one
of the actions listed.
Margin tips
In the margin, you will find tips that help you perform
tasks more easily and efficiently.
Italic font
Italic font is used to emphasize certain words and to
indicate variables.
Courier Bold font
Courier Bold font identifies text that you type.
Bold font
Bold indicates a user interaction.
Ctrl+key or mouse action
Press and hold the first key while you press the last
key or perform the mouse action. For example,
Shift+Alt+C or Ctrl+drag.
If You Need Help
Mouse, Pen, and Keyboard
You can use a two-button mouse (with wheel) or a pen and tablet. The left and
right mouse buttons perform different operations. Unless otherwise stated, use
the left mouse button.
The mouse and pen operate slightly differently. All the procedures in this
guide are documented for the mouse. You can, however, easily use a pen or
the keyboard.
Customizing the Pen or Mouse
By customizing the pen, you can adjust the click pressure, switch functions,
and other features. For information on customizing the pen, refer to the
documentation provided with your Avid DS Nitris system.
You can also customize the mouse. For example, you can select left-handed
configuration or change the double-click speed. For information on
customizing the mouse, refer to the Windows online Help.
If You Need Help
If you are having trouble using Avid DS Nitris:
1. Retry the action, carefully following the instructions given for that task in
this guide. It is especially important to check each step of your workflow.
2. Check for the latest information that might have become available after
the documentation was published in one of two locations:
-
If release notes are available, they ship with your application.
-
If ReadMe files are available, they are supplied in your Avid
application folder. ReadMe files are also available from Help.
3. Check the documentation that came with your Avid application or your
hardware for maintenance or hardware-related issues.
4. See “Avid DS Customer Support” on page 24.
5. For Technical Support, please call 800-800-AVID (800-800-2843).
23
Using This Guide
Avid DS Customer Support
The following sections describe various Avid DS Customer Support options.
E-mail Support
The e-mail address for Avid DS Customer Support is: [email protected]
You can use it for sending bug reports, usability questions, and avidds.cab
audit reports for system analysis. All e-mails are logged in the support
database and assigned a case number. Send one support request per e-mail.
n
It is mandatory that you include your SID number in the body of your e-mail
message for verification of your maintenance contract and case logging,
otherwise, response will be delayed.
Web Support
The Avid DS Support Center at http://www.softimage.com/avidds provides
quick access to a wide range of resources from the Avid DS teams and user
community. Downloads, including presets, drivers, and Quick Fix Engineering
(QFE), provide the latest solutions for use with your Avid DS system. Online
documentation, tutorials, and Knowledge Base articles ensure that you get the
most out of your work with Avid DS. It's like having a dedicated Avid DS
Customer Support engineer sitting at your desk!
Upload Utility
For troubleshooting purposes, you can upload your files for Avid DS
Customer Support personnel to examine. You can upload a project's archive,
media files, or other necessary data. Simply zip the files that you need to
upload and use a short name (for easy retrieval), such as archive.zip or
Case274877.zip.
24
Avid DS Customer Support
To upload your files:
1. Go to the Avid web site at http://www.softimage.com/avidds.
2. Select Contact > Upload Tool.
3. Once the file upload is complete, send an e-mail to [email protected]
to inform Avid DS Customer Support as there is no automatic notification
when a file is uploaded on the FTP server. Please provide the complete
and exact file name (case sensitive) to retrieve.
Avid Community Forum
Although the Avid DS community forum is frequently monitored by Avid
employees, it is not part of the official support channels. You are invited to
send your support requests to any of the above channels when required.
If you have an e-mail account, you can join the worldwide network of Avid DS
users exchanging ideas. The mailing list has proven to be quite useful for
users, and there is a constant stream of new subscribers.
To subscribe, send an e-mail to [email protected] with the
following text in the body of your message: subscribe ds. You can get further
information on using the automated list server by e-mailing
[email protected] with “help” as your message.
You can also join other Avid forums on the Avid web site at
http://www.avid.com. Select Support > Forums.
25
Using This Guide
Accessing the Online Library
The Online Library contains all the Avid DS Nitris documentation in PDF
format. If it was installed on your system, you can access it from the Help
menu in Avid DS Nitris.
n
You will need Adobe® Acrobat® Reader® installed to view the documentation
online.
To access the Online Library:
t
In Avid DS Nitris, select Help > Online Library,
or
t
Insert the Software CD into your CD-ROM drive, and select Online
Library from the main menu.
To install Adobe Acrobat Reader:
1. If Acrobat Reader is not installed on your system, insert the Drivers CD
into your CD drive.
2. Under the Various section, select Utilities.
How to Order Documentation
To order additional copies of this documentation from within the
United States, call Avid Sales at 800-949-AVID (800-949-2843). If you are
placing an order from outside the United States, contact your local
Avid representative.
Avid Educational Services
For information on courses/schedules, training centers, certifications,
courseware, and books, please visit www.avid.com/training or call Avid Sales
at 800-949-AVID (800-949-2843).
26
Chapter 1
Working with Projects
This chapter describes how your project files and media are handled in
Avid DS Nitris. Since project organization plays a key part in the editing
process, you will learn how to create projects, and use the Avid Explorer to
organize your media into folders.
The following sections describe how to work with projects and media:
•
Starting a Work Session
•
Managing Files and Folders
•
Working with Bins
•
Viewing Events
Starting a Work Session
When you start Avid DS Nitris, the Open Project dialog box is displayed, so
that you can view and manage all projects anywhere on the network. Each
project has its own associated sequences. When you open a sequence, you
have access to all the master clips and custom presets in the project.
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
Projects contain
master clips,
sequences, and
any special presets
and/or scripts you
create.
Sequence files
contain information
about your edit
decisions, composites,
and any effects you’ve
applied to your clips.
Master clips are
representations of the
digitized media stored
on your storage
device.
Master clips can be
shared between
sequences within the
same project.
By default, all projects created with Avid DS Nitris are stored in their own
folder under the DS Projects folder. It’s important that you keep all the files
related to a project inside the project folder, so that they can be archived,
restored, and/or purged.
n
If you’re running more than one version of Avid DS Nitris on your
workstation, new projects will be classified by version, and will be stored in a
subfolder of the \DS Projects folder.
To filter the list of projects, you can:
•
hide individual projects using the appropriate button.
•
refresh the list of projects by clicking the Refresh button.
•
reveal all hidden projects by pressing Ctrl + Refresh button.
To start Avid DS Nitris, do one of the following:
28
t
Double-click the Avid DS Nitris icon on the Windows desktop.
t
Click Start > Programs > Avid Products > Avid DS Nitris v7.5 >
Avid DS Nitris v7.5.
Starting a Work Session
n
Tip: If you selected the Load Last Sequence at Startup option in the User
Preferences dialog box and want to bypass this option, press Shift and
double-click the Avid DS Nitris shortcut on the desktop. This starts the
application and displays the Open Project dialog box from which you can
select a different project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
You can now create or open an existing project or sequence.
Creating a New Project
When you first start Avid DS Nitris or when you want to start a new project,
you are prompted to name your project, designate a location for it, and set
the project’s preferences. Once you’ve done this, a project folder is created at
the specified location. By default, all sequences associated with this project
are saved in this folder.
To open a new project:
1. Do one of the following:
t
From the Open Project dialog box, click the New Project button.
t
Select File > New > Project.
29
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
Browse button
2. In the New Project dialog box, enter a unique name for your project in the
Project Name text box.
3. In the Location text box, type the path where you would like the project
files to reside. You can also use the browse (...) button to locate the folder
in which you want to save your project.
4. Set the appropriate preferences for your project.
Project preferences define the way your material is captured, processed,
and output by Avid DS Nitris. Once you set the project preferences, they
become the default settings for the sequences that you create in this
project. Most of these preferences can be changed during the course of
your work.
For detailed information on setting these preferences, click the Help
button.
30
Starting a Work Session
5. Click OK to save the project preferences.
The Editing layout is displayed for you to start building your sequence,
and the Avid Explorer displays your project as the favorite.
Opening an Existing Project
Once you’ve created a project, it is available to all other users in your
workgroup. Opening any sequence in the project gives you access to all master
clips and presets used in that project.
n
A project can only be opened by one user at a time.
To open an existing project on your workstation:
1. Select File > Open > Project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
2. From the Select a Project list, select a project name.
3. From the Select a Sequence list, do one of the following:
t
Click New DS Sequence and then click New Sequence.
t
Double-click an existing sequence name.
t
Select a sequence and click Open.
If you created a new sequence, the New Sequence dialog box is displayed
for you to set the sequence preferences—see “Setting Sequence
Preferences” on page 68.
A new or existing sequence is opened.
To open an existing project on another workstation in your workgroup:
1. Select File > Open > Project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
2. Select All Projects on workgroup_name.
3. From the Select a Project box, choose a project under the appropriate
workstation.
4. From the Select a Sequence box, select a New DS Sequence or open an
existing one.
You will be notified if another user has this project opened.
31
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
n
If you need to work on a sequence within that project but it is heavily used by
other users, you should create a project on your own workstation and then
import the sequence into your project. Avid DS will automatically link to the
media. When you have completed the sequence, you can import it back to the
original project—see “Importing Sequences and Master Clips from Another
Project” on page 66.
Setting User Preferences
You can work more efficiently by setting some personal preferences, such as
automatic saves, number of undo levels, animation preferences, and the
number of type of tracks to display when you open a new sequence. You can
also set editing preferences, such as pre-roll and post-roll frames.
After setting the preferences, they become part of your user profile under your
user name. The next time you start Avid DS Nitris, these preferences are used.
c
Do not customize the fonts, windows scheme, or taskbar properties on the
Windows desktop or Avid DS Nitris may not function properly.
To open the User Preferences dialog box:
t
Select File > User Preferences.
For information about the User Preferences options, click the Help button.
32
Starting a Work Session
Choosing a Scripting Language
Avid DS Nitris supports several popular scripting languages. To use a
scripting language with Avid DS Nitris, you must first install the scripting
engine for that language.
Although Avid DS Nitris logs commands in its History pane using VBScript
syntax, you can write and run scripts using any language that is
ActiveX-compliant. ActiveX is a technology for sharing data between
programs. Some ActiveX-compliant scripting languages include:
•
ActivePerl
•
JScript
•
Python ActiveX Scripting
•
VBScript (default)
To set a preferred scripting language:
1. From the User Preferences dialog box, select the Scripting/Logging tab.
2. From the Scripting Language list, select your preferred scripting
language.
n
No matter what language you’ve specified in your preferences, Avid DS Nitris
logs commands using the VBScript syntax.
The Scripting Language list contains the ActiveX scripting languages whose
engines are installed on your workstation. If you just installed an engine and
it’s not listed, restart Avid DS Nitris. If it still isn’t listed, restart your
computer.
Setting Up the Command Log
Avid DS Nitris not only creates a command log in the History pane of the
Script Editor, but can also create a separate log file that is saved to disk for
each Avid DS Nitris session.
You have the option of setting a limit to the number of commands logged in
the History pane. You can also save a log file to disk, containing all
commands used in each Avid DS Nitris session.
33
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
To set the command log size:
1. From the User Preferences dialog box, select the Scripting/Logging
property page.
2. The number of commands kept in the History pane of the Script Editor by
default is 200. To modify this number, click in the Lines text box and type
a new number. To set no limit to the number, select the Unlimited option.
To activate the log file:
1. On the Scripting/Logging property page, select the Log Commands to
File option to create a command log file.
A log file will be created the next time you start Avid DS Nitris.
2. To specify a location for the log file, type a path in the File Name
text box.
n
Avid DS Nitris overwrites the existing command log file each time you start a
new session. If you want to keep the log file, make sure you rename it before
starting Avid DS Nitris.
You can only use the logging and scripting tools to capture media.
Managing Files and Folders
After you start a project, you can organize your project files to suit your
project’s needs. When you work with files, folders, and the windows that
contain them, you are working in the Avid Explorer view.
Working with the Avid Explorer
The Avid Explorer is a view that opens by default when you start a project. By
using the Avid Explorer, you can
34
•
Navigate and view the entire contents of your workstation
•
Organize a project’s clips, sequences, and effects in a tree structure of
folders.
•
Capture from file and import clips from other projects
Managing Files and Folders
Avid Explorer tools
Help button
Panel 1
Panel 2
Bins
Bin
tools
Avid Explorer button
View switcher
Any files or applications that you can open on your Windows desktop you can
also open in the Avid Explorer. For example, imagine that you are working on
a commercial and the producer sends you a Microsoft® Word document that
lists the latest changes. You can open the document within the Avid Explorer
and refer to it while you are editing, without needing to switch back and forth
between application windows. You can also open files associated with your
Web browser through the Avid DS Nitris Web viewer, which you launch by
selecting View Multi-instance Views > Web.
35
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
When you select a folder, the folder’s contents are displayed in a bin. For
more information, see “Working with Bins” on page 45.
n
You can include the Avid Explorer as a single-instance view or a
multi-instance view in any views that you create.
To access the Avid Explorer from another view:
t
From the view switcher, click the Avid Explorer (Main) button.
Using the Avid Explorer Views
The left side of the Avid Explorer includes two panels. Each panel can contain
one of three views: My System, Shortcuts, or Project.
The My System view shows the
contents of your workstation in a
hierarchical tree structure.
The Shortcuts view shows
shortcuts to files, folders, or
applications.
The Project view shows the
folders for the current project.
36
Managing Files and Folders
To show or hide a panel:
t
Click the Show/Hide Panel button.
Show/Hide Panel buttons
The Show/Hide Panel button is highlighted for the panel that is displayed.
To choose a view to display in a panel:
t
Click the pop-up menu next to a Show/Hide Panel button and select
My System, Shortcuts, or Project.
A check mark indicates which view is displayed.
Using the Shortcuts View
The Shortcuts view lets you create and access shortcuts that suit your work
requirements. For example, you can create a shortcut to a folder with your
favorite presets or to a graphics application. Any shortcuts you can create in
Windows can be created in the Shortcuts view.
The Shortcuts view is divided into two tabs: System and Project.
•
Shortcuts that you create on the System tab are available in all projects.
•
Shortcuts that you create on the Project tab are available only when the
project in which you created them is open.
System tab
Project tab
37
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
To switch between tabs:
t
Click the System tab or the Project tab.
To create a shortcut, do one of the following, depending on what is
displayed in a bin:
t
Drag a folder or file from a bin to either tab in the Shortcuts view.
t
Drag the folder icon from a bin’s address bar to either tab in the Shortcuts
view.
t
In either tab of the Shortcuts view, right-click an empty area and select
New Shortcut. The Windows Shortcut Wizard is displayed. Follow the
instructions to create a shortcut in the Shortcuts view.
To delete a shortcut, do one of the following:
t
Right-click the shortcut and select Delete.
t
Select a shortcut and press Delete on the keyboard.
To access the Shortcuts context menus:
n
38
t
Right-click the background. Use this context menu to change the way
shortcuts are displayed (large icons, list, thumbnail) and how they are
sorted and arranged.
t
Right-click a shortcut. Use this context menu to cut, copy, paste, delete,
and other system functions.
The Create Shortcut command, which is displayed when you right-click an
object, does not create a shortcut in the My System view or Project view.
Managing Files and Folders
Organizing Your Project Folder
Before you start capturing material and editing sequences, create subfolders in
your project folder to hold master clips, sequences, and custom presets. You’ll
find that creating subfolders helps organize your project, so that you can locate
files quickly and easily.
Also, when Avid DS Nitris archives a project, it gathers and archives all the
files in the project folder. Therefore, it is important that you keep all the
project files within the project folder.
When you create a new project in Avid DS Nitris, a project folder is
automatically created and displayed in the Avid Explorer. It also creates
subfolders for DSPresets and scripts. This default structure can be customized,
so that all projects you create are already organized. For more information, see
“Creating a Standard Folder Structure” on page 41.
There are ways to set up your folders that make tasks, such as recapturing,
much easier. Here is an example of a simple but effective folder setup:
Show/Hide Panel
Project view
Bin
Project folder
Subfolders
n
When capturing clips, you can select Auto-Source as the capture target. This
automatically creates a folder for your master clips with the same name as the
tape from which you are capturing material.
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Chapter 1 Working with Projects
Creating or Deleting Folders
To create a folder:
1. In the Project view, select your project folder.
The contents of the folder are displayed on the right in a bin.
2. Do one of the following:
t In the bin toolbar, click the New button.
t
Right-click an empty area of the bin and select New > Folder.
The new folder is displayed in the bin with the name New Folder
highlighted.
3. Type in a new name and press Enter.
4. Continue adding as many folders as you need. You can create subfolders
under your new folders. Simply click the new folder in the Project view
and then right-click the bin to add a new folder.
To delete a folder:
t
In the Project view or bin, right-click a folder and select Delete from the
Windows section of the menu.
Moving Files between Folders
You can rearrange the files in your project folders by dragging them to a
new folder.
To move a file to another folder:
t
n
Drag a file from a bin to a folder in the Project view or to another bin.
The No Entry icon changes to a Move icon when you place the pointer
over a folder in the Project view.
You cannot move clips or sequences between projects, but you can import
sequences and master clips into another project. For more information, see
“Importing Sequences and Master Clips from Another Project” on page 66.
To make a copy of a file:
t
40
Select the clip or sequence that you want to copy, press Ctrl and drag the
clip to an empty area in the current folder, or to another folder in the tree.
Managing Files and Folders
Renaming Project Files
You can rename a master clip, sequence, or folder in your project.
n
You cannot change the name of a clip or sequence if it is open or when
previewing it in the Source viewer.
To rename a clip, sequence, or folder:
1. In a bin, click the name of a clip, sequence, or folder.
2. Type in a new name and press Enter.
n
When you rename a clip, sequence, or other Avid DS Nitris file, make sure to
keep the file extension (.Clip, .Segment, and so on). Avid DS Nitris cannot
manage the file properly without the extension.
A file name can contain up to 255 characters and include spaces. It cannot
contain any of the following characters: \ / : * ? " < > |
Creating a Standard Folder Structure
If you want Avid DS Nitris to create a standard folder structure for new
projects, you can create an .ini file that will specify the folders that will appear
in the Avid Explorer when a new project is created. The .ini file must be called
folder.ini and must be stored in the \Preferences\username folder. You can
have different .ini files for each Avid DS Nitris user.
To create a standard folder structure for new projects:
1. Open a text file using a text editor.
2. On the first line of the file, type the following in uppercase letters:
[FOLDERS].
3. Type the names of the folders you want to appear in the Avid Explorer,
one on each line. For example:
Graphics
Master Clips
Sequences
Trash
n
The order of the folders is not important, as they will be sorted in alphabetical
order or according to the sorting method used in the Avid Explorer.
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Chapter 1 Working with Projects
4. Save the file as folder.ini and save it in the following location:
C:\Program Files\Avid\DS_v7.0\Preferences\username
Any new projects that are created will contain the folders specified in
the .ini file.
n
The DSPresets, Scripts, and Views folders are created by default.
Avid DS Nitris Group Folders
As part of a project’s workflow, you might need to work with groups of
sequential files, such as a series of scanned image files or files from a graphics
program. Typically these files share a file name that increments by a single
digit, such as beach001.jpg, beach002.jpg, and so on. The Avid Explorer
automatically combines these files into a special kind of folder, called an
Avid DS Nitris Group folder, or virtual folder. You can then capture and
manage the sequential files more easily.
42
Managing Files and Folders
The following illustration shows a list of Avid DS Nitris Group folders.
The folder is identified with the following syntax:
filename[first..last:#files].extension
For example, a folder that contains 88 files, named CatchFish1.pic through
CatchFish88.pic, is labeled:
CatchFish[1..88:88].pic
To view the individual files:
t
Double-click the Avid DS Nitris Group folder.
If a group does not include a complete series of numbers, a yellow circle and
exclamation point is displayed over the icon. The folder name displays the
total number of files, indicating that one or more files are missing. For
example, if CatchFish30.pic is missing, the folder is labeled:
CatchFish[1..88:87].pic
n
Sequential Avid DS Nitris files (*.Clip, *.Segment, *.Preset) are not grouped
in a folder.
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Chapter 1 Working with Projects
n
When a folder contains a file that does not conform to the pattern of the group,
Avid DS Nitris isolates the file and the part of the group that is affected. To
combine the files into a single folder again, remove or rename the nonconforming file.
Grouping Files as Frames or Fields
By default, Avid DS Nitris groups files as a series of frames. If, however, the
file names of a group include field numbers (Frame01.1.jpg, Frame01.2.jpg,
Frame02.1.jpg, and so on), you should deselect the default option. The folder
name then includes the total number of files followed by the letter F (field).
For example,
Frame[01..06:12;F].jpg
To group files as frames or fields:
1. Select File > User Preferences.
2. Select the Avid Explorer property page.
3. Select or deselect the Group files as frame option.
44
Working with Bins
Working with Bins
A bin is a window that displays the contents of a folder or other object. Bins
appear within the Avid Explorer view. You can minimize, maximize, resize,
and close bins using standard Windows control methods. You can also
cascade and tile bins.
The following illustration shows three bins within the Avid Explorer view.
Each bin displays its contents in a different view.
Details view
Thumbnail view
Storyboard view
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Chapter 1 Working with Projects
To open a bin:
t
Select a folder or other object in the tree.
If a folder in the tree is already selected, double-click it.
To open additional bins, do one of the following:
t
Press Shift and click a folder or other object in the tree.
If a folder in the tree is already selected, press Shift and double-click it.
t
n
Press Shift and double-click a folder in a bin.
You can open one or more Avid Explorer windows that are not docked in the
Avid Explorer view. From the View menu, select Multi-Instance Views > Avid
Explorer. These windows include only bin tools. You can include this Avid
Explorer window as a multi-instance view in any views that you create.
Changing the Bin View
You can display a bin in one of five different views:
46
•
Large icons: Displays files with large icons
•
List: Displays files with small icons in list format
•
Details: Displays files as a list with details, using columns. You can
choose and save which columns to display—see “Customizing the Details
and Script Views” on page 50.
•
Thumbnail: Displays the files as pictorial icons. This view is especially
useful for media files. You can rearrange the thumbnails in any order
within the bin by clicking and dragging.
•
Script: Displays the files as pictorial icons with an area for comments.
Clip information is displayed above the text box.
Working with Bins
To change the bin view:
t
Click a button at the bottom of the bin.
Large Icons
List
Details
Script
Bin view list
Thumbnail
Changing the Frame in Thumbnail and Script View
By default the first frame of a clip is displayed in Thumbnail or Script view.
Avid DS Nitris lets you select a different frame to display.
To change the frame displayed in the Thumbnail or Script view:
1. Open the clip in the Source viewer.
2. Go to the frame you want to display.
3. Click the Update Thumbnail button, located below the Source viewer.
Identifying File Types
Each file in a bin is identified by an icon. Because a bin displays the same files
as your workstation, you see the same icons that appear in your Windows
Explorer.
n
Files that are specific to Avid DS Nitris display a generic icon when viewed in
the Windows Explorer.
47
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
Avid DS Nitris media files have their own icons, which appear on or beside
clips in a bin. When an icon is highlighted in red, it means that Avid DS Nitris
could not find any media associated with a clip. This clip must be recaptured
before you can work with it.
Icon
File Type
Icon
File Type
Audio clip
Background or composite
container clip
Video clip
Sequence
Combined audio and video clip
Still image
Audio container clip
Linked still image
Displaying File Properties
Each master clip or sequence contains information about its location on the
storage device, the name of the project to which it belongs, the start, end, and
duration of the clip, as well as your own comments. In addition, master clips
contain information on the clip type, quality, resolution, dominance, color
space, bit depth, coverage, and location. For a description of these properties,
click the Help button.
To view master clip properties:
1. In a bin, right-click a master clip, and in the Avid DS Nitris section select
Properties.
The Properties dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the Media tab to view information about the media associated with
the master clip.
The Media property page displays information about the selected clip.
Audio and video media files are listed separately.
48
Working with Bins
n
The Media property page displays the types of media associated with the clip
you selected in the Avid Explorer. Purged media is indicated by a red dot on
the icon. It is possible to have one type of media indicated as purged and
another not.
3. Select the General tab to view the file properties.
The location of this file, its in and out times, and duration are displayed.
You cannot edit these properties, but you can add notes for the file in the
Comments text box, unless the clip is displayed in a viewer.
4. Select the File Info tab to view information about how the original file
was captured.
The original file location, resolution, capture settings, and file status are
displayed. This information is read-only and cannot be modified, except
to re-establish a link for a linked file that has been moved from its original
location.
5. Select the Track Patching tab to view information about the audio format
(such as mono or stereo) and the audio input assignment for master clips
that were captured from tape.
You can use this property page to reassign hardware inputs to different
audio channels if necessary when recapturing audio media.
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Chapter 1 Working with Projects
To view sequence properties:
t
In a bin, right-click a sequence, and in the Avid DS Nitris section select
Properties.
The Properties dialog box is displayed. These properties are read-only.
Customizing the Details and Script Views
Avid DS Nitris lets you customize the columns of information in Details and
Scripts views by displaying and hiding file parameters.
You can choose from Avid DS Nitris parameters, parameters from the
Windows operating system, or parameters that have been added to your
Windows system from other applications. You can also rearrange the order of
columns, adjust the size of columns, and save the arrangement.
You can select a preset bin view from the Bin View column at the bottom of
the bin. These bin views display columns that are appropriate to a particular
task and include Editing, Audio Management, Video Management, and
Presets. You can also create and save your own bin view—see “Saving or
Deleting a Bin View” on page 52.
Bin view list
n
To display information specific to media files, such as Video Compression,
you must have media files displayed in the bin. Use the Avid Explorer or
Media Tool to display media files.
To create a more compact display, Avid DS Nitris parameters do not include
the product name in the column heading. Column headings for these
parameters use a darker shading.
50
Working with Bins
To hide or display bin columns:
1. Do one of the following:
t In the bin tools, click the Settings button.
t
Click the Fast Menu button and select Settings > Add/Remove
Columns.
A dialog box is displayed, either within the bin or separately. The
currently displayed column headings are marked by colored bands.
For a description of the bin columns, click the Help button.
2. Do one or more of the following:
t
Select the columns that you want to display.
Selected columns are highlighted by a colored band.
t
Deselect highlighted columns that you do not want to display.
t
Click the All/None button to select all columns.
t
Click the All/None button again to deselect all columns
3. Click the Apply button to apply your changes.
4. Click the Close button to close the dialog box.
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Chapter 1 Working with Projects
To display a preset bin view:
t
Select a preset view from the Bin View list.
To rearrange columns:
1. Click the heading of the column that you want to move.
The entire column is selected.
2. Drag the column to the desired position.
The column is displayed in the new position.
To change the width of a column:
t
Drag the border of a column heading.
Saving or Deleting a Bin View
If you change the bin view by adding columns, changing the order of columns,
or other customization, an asterisk is displayed at the end of the bin view
name. Avid DS Nitris lets you save and display this customized bin view.
To save a bin view:
1. Click the Save Current Column Setting button.
The Save As dialog box is displayed.
2. Accept the current name or type a new one, and click OK.
The Bin View list includes the new bin view.
To display a bin view:
t
From the Bin View list, select the view you want to display.
To delete a bin view:
1. From the Bin View list, select the view you want to delete.
2. With the Bin View list displayed, press the Delete key.
A confirmation box is displayed.
3. Click Yes.
52
Working with Bins
Sorting Files
By default, clips in Details view are sorted by name, in ascending alphabetical
order (from A to Z). You can change the way clips are sorted, using the
information in any column or combination of columns.
You can change the sorting for any files that you view through the Avid
Explorer.
To change the way clips are sorted:
1. In Details view, click the column that you want to act as the primary
sorting criterion.
The clips are sorted according to the information in that column. The
number zero (0) is displayed in the title bar of the column indicating the
primary sorting status. An upward or downward pointing arrow is also
displayed, specifying the direction in which the information is sorted
(ascending or descending).
2. Press Ctrl and click a new column to act as the secondary sorting criterion.
Any clips with the same criterion in the primary sort are now sorted
according to the information in the second column. The number one (1) is
displayed in the title bar of the column, indicating the secondary sorting
status. An upward or downward pointing arrow is also displayed,
specifying the direction in which the information is sorted.
3. Continue pressing Ctrl and clicking the columns to further refine your
column sorting.
n
When performing a single-column sort, click the column a second time to
change the direction in which the column is sorted. Click again to remove the
sorting.
When performing multi-column sort, press Ctrl and click a column a second
time to change the sorting direction. Press Ctrl and click again to remove the
sorting.
Example
In this example, clips are first sorted by channel. Notice that all video clips are
grouped together. Since they are all the same, you can sort them further using
another criterion. In this example, they are sorted further by duration.
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Chapter 1 Working with Projects
Clips sorted by
channel in
alphabetical order.
(primary sort)
Each channel type,
such as Video, is
further sorted
according to
duration (secondary
sort).
Sifting Files
By sifting files, you can customize any window that you view through the
Avid Explorer so that it displays only those files that meet a specific set of
criteria.
For example, in a bin that contains master clips, you can create a custom sift to
display only clips from a particular tape or only clips with a name that
contains the letters CU (for close-up). Sifting is not limited to clips; you can
use it with any files that you view through the Avid Explorer. You can also use
it to modify the files displayed in the Media Tool (see “Using the Media Tool”
on page 438).
The Custom Sift dialog box provides ten types of criteria (such as Equals or
Contains) and lets you set up to six sets of criteria.
54
Working with Bins
n
Tip: To view bin columns, click the D (Details) button in the bottom bar of the
bin. To change the visible bin columns, click the Settings button in the Avid
Explorer toolbar.
To sift clips or sequences:
1. In an open bin, click the Fast Menu button and select Custom Sift.
The Custom Sift dialog box is displayed.
2. From the Column list, select an Avid DS Nitris column heading to which
you want to apply the criterion.
t
To view all column headings on your system, select the Show All
Columns option.
t
To clear the Column entry, select None from the Column list.
3. From the Criterion list, select one of the sifting options.
55
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
4. In the Value text box, and type the text that you want to use as a sift
criterion.
Type the text exactly as it is displayed in the column. For example, to
view clips with a duration of more than 5 seconds, select Greater Than
as the criterion and type 00:00:05:00.
An exception is size. For example, to view clips greater than 54 KB, select
Greater Than as the criterion and type 54000.
5. Repeat these steps to add additional sift criteria (up to six sets).
6. To clear all data, click the Clear button.
7. To preview the results of your selections, click the Apply button.
8. To save your view:
a.
Click the Save button.
The Save As dialog box is displayed.
b.
Type a name for the sifted view and click OK.
9. In the Custom Sift dialog box, click OK.
Only the clips or sequences that meet your criteria are displayed in the
bin.
Displaying a Sifted or an Unsifted View
After you have sifted the clips in a bin, you can switch between the unsifted
view and the currently selected sifted view.
To switch between a sifted and an unsifted view, do one of the following:
56
t
In a bin, click the Fast Menu button and select Show Sifted.
t
In the Avid Explorer toolbar, click the Sifting button.
Viewing Events
Loading and Deleting a Sifted View
You can load or delete a saved set of criteria.
To load a sifted view, do one of the following:
t
In the Custom Sift dialog box, select the view that you want to load from
the Load/Save list, and click Apply or OK.
t
Click the Fast Menu button, select Load Sift, and select the view you
want to load.
To delete a sifted view:
1. Select the view that you want to delete from the Load/Save list.
2. Keep the menu open and press the Delete key on your keyboard.
3. In the dialog box, click Yes.
Viewing Events
While working with Avid DS Nitris, you can track important processes, such
as the start up and shut down of Avid DS Nitris applications, Avid DS Nitris
RP processing messages, or errors when a folder cannot be accessed. This is
done using the event logging service in Avid DS Nitris. The event-logging
service stores events from various sources in a single collection called an
event log. Notifications of events include informative messages, errors, and
warnings.
The event log records important software and hardware events to help you
determine the conditions that caused the error and the context in which it
occurred. By periodically viewing the event log, you may be able to identify
problems before they cause damage.
The event logging service does not replace direct messages that are displayed
when an action is necessary. The event log simply lets you to view the results
of any actions.
A reasonable amount of disk space is reserved for the event log. When the log
is full, older events are erased to make room for new ones.
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Chapter 1 Working with Projects
The following Avid applications log events in the event log:
•
Avid DS Nitris
•
Avid Media Indexer
•
Avid Project Indexer
Viewing the Avid Event Log
The event logging system consists of two parts, the viewer and the event log
file. The Avid Event Log is a list of all previously logged events.
To view the Avid event log,
1. Do one of the following:
t
Select View > Multi-Instance Views > Avid Event Log.
t
In an Avid Explorer panel, select Avid Event Log in the Views folder.
The Avid Event Log view is displayed in a bin, along with a list of
software and hardware events that have occurred. If you open the log from
the Views folder, bin tools are displayed at the top of the bin.
58
Viewing Events
For more information on the Avid Event Log, click the Avid Explorer
Help button.
2. Double-click an event log entry to display additional information.
Viewing the Windows Event Log
If you cannot start Avid DS Nitris due to a fatal error, Windows also has an
Event Viewer so that you can browse through the event logs. In the Windows
Event Viewer, events from all open applications, the operating system, and
other system services are logged.
To view the Windows event log:
1. On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon and select
Manage.
2. Click System Tools > Event Viewer.
An event log is displayed for the different Windows applications.
59
Chapter 1 Working with Projects
3. Double-click the Avid Event Log to view the Avid DS Nitris events.
Sorting Columns and Events
You can reorder the columns and events that are displayed.
To set the column order:
t
Click on a column heading and drag it left or right to a new position.
To sort the list of events:
t
n
Click on the column heading to sort the contents below the column in
ascending or descending order.
You can perform secondary sorts on multiple columns for better grouping of
events. For instance if you want to sort the events by type and then by time,
click the Type column heading, press Ctrl and click the Date - Time heading.
A (0) and a (1) appear in the respective columns.
You can also sort the columns in the reverse order by pressing Ctrl and
clicking the column heading again. An up or down arrow appears in the
column heading to indicate the direction of the sort.
60
Chapter 2
Working with Sequences
This chapter describes how to work with sequences, search for sequences, and
set your video and audio preferences.
•
Workflow: Working with Sequences
•
Opening Sequences
•
Setting Sequence Preferences
•
Working with Media of Different Qualities
•
Saving Sequences
•
Searching for Sequences
•
Deleting Sequences
Workflow: Working with Sequences
Before you open a sequence, you must first select the project to which it
belongs. The following illustration shows a simple editing scenario in
Avid DS Nitris.
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
1
Open project and sequence.
Select project
Select sequence
2
3
Set sequence preferences.
Construct sequence
on timeline.
Sequence preferences can be
changed during the course of a
project so that you can work
with media at different qualities.
62
Opening Sequences
Opening Sequences
You can easily create, open, and manage the sequences in your project using
the Open Project dialog box. A sequence is an arrangement of clips on the
timeline; it contains information about edit decisions, applied graphics and
effects, animation settings, and working preferences.
When you open a sequence in the timeline, you can immediately begin
audio/video editing, compositing, painting, titling, or audio mixing. Because
the Avid DS Nitris environment is nonlinear, these tasks can be performed in
any order, changed at any time, and moved to any location.
Avid DS Nitris also gives you the flexibility to work with different media
qualities within your sequence. For example, working with media at a higher
resolution increases processing time, so initially, you may want to process
your clips at lower resolution to obtain quicker results. When you’re ready to
output the final sequence, you can recapture the media at a higher resolution,
and reprocess the effects.
Sequence
Overview area
Video tracks
Audio track
Sequences always belong to a particular project. To access your sequences,
you must first select the project to which it belongs. To get a quick view of all
the projects on any workstation in your workgroup, use the Open Project
dialog box.
To access the list of projects and sequences:
1. Select File > Open > Project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
Sequences within a selected project
Projects on all
workstations in
workgroup
2. If you want to see all projects and sequences in your workgroup, select All
Projects on workgroup_name.
For detailed information on the Open Project dialog box, click the Help
button.
Creating a New Sequence
You must create sequences from within a project. You can either select a
project from the Open Project dialog box and then create a new sequence, or if
your project is already open, you can create a new sequence directly from the
File menu.
To create a sequence:
1. Select File > Open > Project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
2. From the Select a Project box, select the project to which your sequence
will belong.
The Select a Sequence box opens any other sequences that belong to
this project.
3. From the Select a Sequence box, select New DS Sequence from the list.
4. Click the New Sequence button.
64
Opening Sequences
The New Sequence dialog box displays the sequence preferences.
By default, the sequence preferences are inherited from the settings
established when the project was created. These settings can be changed. For
more information, see “Setting Sequence Preferences” on page 68.
n
Avid DS Nitris requires at least 10% of your system memory (RAM) to be free
at all times. If not, you may not be able to create sequences with custom
formats that have resolutions much greater than the standard video
resolution, such as 2000×1500.
5. Click OK to accept the settings.
A new sequence is opened and the Editing layout is displayed.
To create another sequence within the current project:
1. Select File > New Sequence.
If the sequence you’re currently working on has not been saved, you are
prompted to do so.
2. Click Yes to save the sequence.
A new sequence is opened in your current project with the same
preferences as those of the project.
n
If you want to create a new sequence with preferences that are different from
the project, select File > New > DS Sequence.
For detailed information on these sequence preferences, click the Help button.
Opening an Existing Sequence
You can open a sequence in one of three ways:
•
From the File menu (if you want to open a sequence from the current
project)
•
From the Open Project dialog box (if you want to open a sequence from
another project)
•
By double-clicking the sequence in the Avid Explorer
65
Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
n
Each time you start Avid DS Nitris, you can automatically load the last
sequence on which you were working by selecting the Load Last Sequence at
Startup option in the User Preferences dialog box. For more information, see
“Setting User Preferences” on page 32.
To open a sequence from the File menu:
1. Select File > Open > Sequence.
If the sequence you are currently working on has not been saved, you are
prompted to do so.
2. Click Yes to save the current sequence.
The Load Sequence dialog box is displayed.
3. Browse through the folders and select a sequence. (All sequences are
indicated by the sequence icon.)
4. Click OK or double-click the sequence to open it.
To open a sequence from the Open Project dialog box:
1. Select File > Open > Project.
If the sequence you are currently working on has not been saved, you are
prompted to do so.
2. Click Yes to save the current sequence.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
3. From the Select a Project box, select the project to which your sequence
will belong.
The Select a Sequence box displays all sequences that belong to
this project.
4. From the Select a Sequence box, select a sequence and click the Open
Sequence button.
To open a sequence from the Avid Explorer:
t
Double-click the sequence in the Avid Explorer.
Importing Sequences and Master Clips from Another Project
If you need to use the same sequence or master clips in more than one project,
you can import the sequence and/or master clips from one project to another
(as long as that project is on a workstation in your workgroup).
66
Opening Sequences
You then have the option of linking to the existing media or creating copies of
the media. By creating a link to the media, the media is shared between the
two projects, which saves space on your storage device.
n
If you import a sequence or master clips from a workstation in another Avid
DS workgroup, you cannot link to or copy the media. You will have to
recapture this media once the sequence/clip has been imported to your
project.
Importing of sequences is useful when there are one or more users in the
workgroup that need to work on the same project. A project can only be
opened by one user at a time. Therefore, if you need to work on a sequence
within a project that is heavily used by other users, you should create a project
on your own workstation, and then import the sequence into your project.
Avid DS will automatically link to the media. When you have completed the
sequence, you can import it back to the original project.
n
A shared storage device can be a storage area on your local workstation or
anywhere on the network. The limitation with media sharing is that, unless
you are connected to an Avid Unity™ system, the storage device may not have
sufficient bandwidth to provide real-time access to the media for more than
one user at a time.
If you are not getting real-time playback on effects, you can either reprocess
your effects or copy the media from the shared storage to your local storage.
For more information, see “Copying Media” on page 446.
To import a sequence or master clips from another project:
1. In the Avid Explorer, locate and open the folder that contains the
sequence or master clips you want to import.
2. Right-click the sequence or master clips and select Import to
Current Project.
The Sequence and Master Clip Import dialog box is displayed.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
3. Select an option:
-
Link to original media links the new sequence or master clips to the
original media
-
Make new copies of media creates copies of the media at the
locations you specify for the new video and audio media.
4. Click OK.
A new folder is displayed in the current project folder, entitled “Imported
from project projectname”, containing the sequence and master clip files.
Setting Sequence Preferences
Sequence preferences define the format and quality of the audio and video
clips in your sequence. By default, the sequence preferences are inherited
from the settings you created for the current project.
During the course of building your sequence, you can switch your sequence
preferences to work with video at a lower resolution, or with compression.
Working at a lower resolution is useful when producing a rough cut of your
sequence, because your clips are processed at a much faster rate. Working
with compressed media lets you save storage space on your storage device.
For more information, see “Working with Media of Different Qualities” on
page 72.
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Setting Sequence Preferences
For descriptions of all the options in this dialog box, click the Help button.
To set the sequence preferences:
1. In the Video Settings box, select a video format from the Format list.
When you select a video format other than Custom, Avid DS Nitris
automatically sets the aspect ratio, color space, frame rate, frame size,
field dominance, and pixel ratio based on the format you chose—see
“Understanding Video Settings” on page 75.
c
These settings cannot be changed after you save your sequence
preferences.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
2. Set the Precision at which you want to process the effects in this
sequence—see “About Bit Depth” on page 84.
n
The processing settings apply to all effects in the sequence but can be changed
when you process effects individually.
3. Set the Timecode Start if other than 00:00:00:00.
n
If you select a drop-frame video format, such as NTSC, you have the option of
displaying timecode as either drop frame or non-drop frame. This option only
affects the timecode display and not the sequence frame rate. For more
information, see “About Video Format” on page 75.
4. Set the number of Video, Background, and Audio tracks you will require
in your sequence.
5. In the Storage Settings box, make a selection from the Resolution list.
Setting it at Full resolution results in large, high-quality media and cache
files, while lower resolutions result in smaller, lower-quality media and
cache files—see “About Video Quality” on page 78.
n
n
n
To play your effects in real-time while you’re editing, set your sequence
preferences at a lower resolution. When working with film formats, the
Real-time Proxy resolution is actually HD resolution. This is an
excellent visual quality for editing your sequences, while giving you the
efficiency of using lower resolution media.
For film-based formats (2K or 4K), playback is supported in the Viewer, but
not in the external monitor. In addition, any RT effects will need to be
processed.
For HD formats. On some workstations where the processing power and
bandwidth does not allow you to work with HD media at full resolution, you
can work in quarter resolution mode to play your effects in real-time. On these
workstations, there will be additional options for Quarter Resolution working
mode.
6. Set the Bit Depth to be used when capturing your media.
7. Select one of the following options:
-
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Uncompressed to work with media that is not compressed.
Setting Sequence Preferences
-
n
Compressed to work with compressed media. From the Preferred
Ratio list, select a compression ratio that best suits your needs.
When you are in passthrough mode, all compressions (codecs) may not be
available.
Since Avid DS Nitris supports multiple qualities for your video material,
you can select the version of the captured media that you want to use. For
more information, see “Understanding Video Quality Matching” on
page 79.
8. Select one of the following options:
-
Use the closest media format available if it is not crucial that you
have an exact video media match with your sequence preferences. If
Avid DS Nitris cannot find an exact match, it finds and displays the
closest alternative.
-
Display a “media not available” message if you only want to work
with video media of a specific quality.
Avid DS Nitris uses only the media that matches the selected
resolution and compression settings. If it cannot find an exact match
for both, a “Media Not Available” message is displayed in the viewer
as you playback your clips. This serves as a good indicator when
you’ve captured video that does not conform to your sequence
preferences.
9. Select a Sample Rate for your sequence. The higher the sampling rate,
the more accurate the audio—see “Understanding Audio Quality
Matching” on page 84.
Audio quality defines the sample rate and bit depth at which an audio
signal is captured. You can set the sample rate conversion quality, so that
Avid DS Nitris can convert audio material that has a different sample rate
than the current sequence. The higher the sample rate, the more accurate
the digital representation of the signal. A higher sample rate, however,
does use more disk space.
n
When you place audio clips on the timeline that contain different sampling
rates than the current sequence, you are prompted to convert the clip to match
the current sequence sampling rate. If you do not convert the clip, you will not
have access to the audio media unless you change the sequence preferences.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
10. Select a Bit Depth value from the list. The higher the value, the more
precise the audio will be.
11. Drag the SR Conversion Quality slider in the direction of one of
the following:
-
Fast to convert the sample rate quickly, but at a low quality.
-
High to preserve quality, but this setting takes longer to convert the
sample rates.
12. Select Import audio into separate audio tracks to import a multi-stream
audio file into single-stream files.This is especially important if you are
going to share the audio file with another Avid editing system. For more
information, click the Help button.
13. Click OK to save your settings.
n
When working with sequences of custom formats with resolutions that are
much greater than the standard video resolution, such as 2000×1500, a
minimal amount of system memory (RAM) must be kept available at all times.
Otherwise, you may notice significant slowdown when working on your
system.
Working with Media of Different Qualities
You can work in HD at full, half, or quarter resolution (Avid DS Nitris Editor
only), and with compressed media at different ratios. This multi-quality
feature lets you balance image quality and system performance during the
different phases of your work. The working video settings (compression and
resolution) determine the quality at which your media is displayed in the
viewer, as well as the quality at which it is processed by Avid DS Nitris. You
can change the video settings at any time if you want to display or process
media at a different quality.
n
The video format cannot be changed once you create the sequence.
The quality you choose to work with at any given time depends on the task at
hand. Media can use up large amounts of disk space, and the higher the quality
of the media, the more disk space is consumed.
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Working with Media of Different Qualities
If you want to conserve disk space, you can do your rough cut on material
captured at low resolution or in compressed form. When your sequence is
ready for finishing, you can redigitize a specific clip, so that you can work at
the quality at which you will be outputting.
When you’re ready to output the entire sequence, you only need to recapture
the portions of the master clips actually used in the sequence at full,
uncompressed resolution before you output to tape.
If you’re working with only compressed media, you can mix different
compression ratios within a sequence. If you’re working with both
compressed and uncompressed media, you may encounter circumstances
where both cannot be used at the same time within the same sequence.
To change the sequence preferences:
1. Select File > Sequence Preferences.
The settings that you chose for this sequence are displayed.
For descriptions of all the options in this dialog box, click the Help
button.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
2. In the Processing box, select the Type of processing.
This selection depends on the type of source material that you have—see
“Processing in Fields versus Frames” on page 85.
3. Set the Precision at which you will process the video effects.
4. From the Conversion Mode box, select a mode for Presets and Media.
From now on, when you place clips or sequences on the timeline, they
will be converted using the mode you selected—see “Understanding the
Working Conversion Mode” on page 86.
n
You can still change the conversion mode for an individual clip on the timeline
by right-clicking the clip and selecting Properties.
5. Set the video resolution, bit depth, and compression at which you will be
capturing your media—see “About Video Quality” on page 78.
6. To change the audio settings, select the Audio tab.
7. From the Sample Rate Conversion box, select the Conversion on Drop
option if you want to convert all sample rates imported into your sequence
to the sample rate of the current sequence.
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Working with Media of Different Qualities
8. Drag the SR Conversion Quality slider in the direction of one of
the following:
-
Fast to convert the sample rate quickly, but at a low quality.
-
High to preserve quality, but this setting takes longer to convert the
sample rates.
9. Click OK to save the new settings.
Understanding Video Settings
Although Avid DS Nitris automatically sets the industry-standard video size
and frame settings for the video format you choose, you may want to read
about the various video settings, especially if you intend to work on a custom
format.
About Video Format
Video format refers to the size or aspect ratio of a picture frame. Depending on
your hardware configuration, you can work in a variety of video formats, such
as PAL D1, NTSC D1, 720p, 1080i, 1080p, or other custom formats. When
you select a video format (other than Custom), Avid DS Nitris automatically
sets the industry-standard video size and frame settings.
Drop Frame versus Non-Drop Frame
Some formats such as NTSC (the standard North American video format),
may require a timecode adjustment if you are making a video that has to fill an
exact time slot.
NTSC video runs at 29.97 frames per second, and since timecode counts at 30
frames per second, it means that the timecode will gain on actual time at a rate
of about 3.6 seconds per hour.
Using non-drop timecode (which runs at 30 frames per second), will gradually
differ from actual time. If you use drop frame timecode, however, it will make
slight adjustments by skipping frame numbers periodically to keep the
timecode synchronized with real time. Depending on your purpose, you may
either keep the timecode synced with real time or count the frames exactly. It
is important to understand that no frames in the video are actually dropped
when you choose drop frame. The video is identical in both cases with only
the timecode counter being modified.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
About Frame Size
The frame size is the dimensions of a picture frame in Avid DS Nitris. These
measurements are based on pixels.
720
486
An NTSC D1 4:3 image by default
has a frame size of 720×486
pixels.
A PAL D1 4:3 image, however,
has a default frame size of
720×576 pixels.
A 16:9 HD image can have a
variety of frame sizes, such as
1920×1080 pixels or 1280×720
pixels.
About Pixel Ratio
Aspect ratio is the numerical ratio of picture width to height. The standard
aspect ratio for NTSC and PAL video and television is 4:3. For material shot
on film or HD, 16:9 is the standard aspect ratio. You can also create nonstandard aspect ratios.
Pixel ratio refers to the shape of one pixel. Different video standards have
different pixel ratios. NTSC and PAL pixels have ratios of 0.9 and 1.07
respectively, while computer-generated image, typically have square pixels
with a ratio of 1.0.
Avid DS Nitris can compensate for different pixel ratios so that a captured
image does not appear distorted. When you capture material from file, you
must set the file’s pixel ratio, which tells Avid DS Nitris the original state of
the material. For example, if you are importing a computer-generated image,
set the pixel ratio to 1.0.
About Field Dominance
Video images are displayed half a frame at a time, where each half, referred to
as a field, is comprised of alternate lines of video information (odd and even).
The two fields are combined (interlaced) to form one frame.
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Working with Media of Different Qualities
Even fields
Odd fields
Two fields are
interlaced to form
one frame
Frames
The order in which odd and even fields occur over time is referred to as field
order or field dominance. With even field dominance, even fields come first.
In odd field dominance, odd fields come first. With NTSC, the first field
contains all the odd numbered scan lines and the second field contains all the
even. PAL is the opposite of NTSC in terms of field dominance. That is, field
1 contains all the even-numbered scan lines and field 2 contains all the odd
lines.
NTSC, PAL, and HD video material can either be interlaced or progressive,
such as 1080i or 1080p. Interlaced video contains two fields, which make up
every frame. Progressive video, however, creates full frames by scanning each
line sequentially. As a result, field dominance is not an issue.
When you need to invert your fields, you can deinterlace your material, then
reinterlace and invert the field dominance. You can also deinterlace a clip to
display the odd and even fields as separate frames. This is useful when
retouching clips or creating paint animation and field-based rotoscopy. For
more information, see “Applying a Deinterlace Effect” on page 324 and
“Applying an Interlace Effect” on page 326.
About Color Space
Color space determines how the color components of the video signal are
stored in Avid DS Nitris. There are three pixel formats available in
Avid DS Nitris: YCbCr 4:2:2 (601), YCbCr 4:2:2 (709), and RGBA.
Avid DS Nitris converts all imported material to the color space of the
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
sequence. All material imported in RGBA color space uses 32 bits per pixel,
even if you did not import the alpha channel. YCbCr 4:2:2 uses 16 bits/pixel
and YCbCrA (YCbCr with alpha) 4:2:2 uses 24 bits/pixel.
Cache media, created from processed effects, transitions, or composites, is
treated the same way as source media. Some effects, however, require an
internal conversion to RGBA. As a result, some banding may occur when
you’re working with a YCbCr sequence with these effects. To solve this
problem, you can apply the RGB-YCbCr Dither effect. For more information,
see “Color Space Adjustment Effect” in the Help.
About Video Quality
Video media quality is determined by three factors:
•
Resolution, which is the amount and degree of detail in a video image,
•
Compression, which is a technique used to reduce the amount of space
necessary to store video data, and
•
Bit depth, which is the number of bits per pixel, per channel.
The resolution of an image depends on the number of pixels in the image, and
the bit-depth of each of those pixels. Naturally, the larger your image format,
the higher the clarity of the image, and the larger the number bytes required
for storage.
For example:
Format
Size (in pixels)
SD
720 x 576
720-HD
1280 x 720
1080-HD
1920 x 1080
2K Film
2048 x 1536
The resolution quality that you set in Avid DS Nitris (Full, Proxy, Half or
Quarter), affects the size of the captured or processed media. The higher the
resolution, the larger the media. Setting the resolution to ‘Half’, reduces the
pixels along the width and the height by half. For instance, for 720-HD media,
half resolution would be 640 x 360 pixels.
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Working with Media of Different Qualities
Similarly, the higher the bit depth, the more tones (grayscale or color) that are
available for storage, and more accurate color representation in the digital
image. Higher bit depth also increases file size.
When you’re performing a rough cut, you can increase throughput and limit
storage requirements by working at low resolution. Later on in the editing
process, you can use high-resolution media to obtain better results.
Compression is a technique used to reduce the amount of space necessary to
store video information. Compression keeps the same amount of pixels in the
original image, but uses some form of encoding to lower the byte size of the
media. Compressed data can suffer some loss or degradation from the original
source (depending on whether you choose lossy- or lossless-type
compression).
You can compress material at capture time to reduce the size of the media file.
High compression is useful when you capture media for your initial edit. This
lets you store large amounts of material using the least amount of storage
space. After you’ve done a rough cut, you can purge the compressed media,
and recapture the edited material with less or no compression. For more
information, see “Working with Media of Different Qualities” on page 72.
Understanding Video Quality Matching
When you set your video storage sequence preferences, such as the working
resolution, bit depth, compression, or sample rate, you defined the quality at
which clips are previewed and processed. If a video clip was captured at a
different quality than the option set in your sequence preferences,
Avid DS Nitris can either:
n
•
Display no media, or
•
Use the media which best approximates the resolution, compression ratio,
bit depth, or audio sample rate.
Quality matching is different for audio than it is for video—see
“Understanding Audio Quality Matching” on page 84.
Working with Exact Media Matches
If you choose to display only the media that matches your sequence
preferences, Avid DS Nitris looks for an exact match when the position
indicator passes over the clip on the timeline.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
1. Resolution: Checks if there is media captured or processed at the
specified resolution.
2. Precision: For caches only. Checks if there are caches processed with the
same precision as the sequence settings.
3. Aspect ratio: Checks if the aspect ratio matches that of the current
sequence.
4. Frame rates: Verifies that the frame rates are identical.
n
Linked clips use the frame rate of the sequence.
5. Compression ratio: Checks if there is media captured or processed at the
specified compression. For the purposes of quality matching,
uncompressed media has a compression ratio of 1.0.
6. Field dominance: Checks if the field dominances are compatible. For this
criteria, the match does not have to be exact, since some media files, such
as stills, can be tagged as having a field dominance of None. The
matching criteria works as follows:
Media Quality
Field Dominance
Sequence preference
None
Even
Odd
None
Yes
Yes
Yes
Even
Yes
Yes
No
Odd
Yes
No
Yes
7. Image formats: Verifies if the following are identical:
-
Color space
-
Frame size
-
Pixel ratio
-
Bits per Channel (Number of bits used to encode a channel)
8. Compatible Resolution: Checks if the current hardware settings support
real-time effects in this resolution.
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Working with Media of Different Qualities
9. Compression type and ratio: Checks if there is media captured with the
same cache and at the same ratio than the sequence settings.
10. Only caches generated in Exact match mode are accepted in exact match
(This restriction does not apply to media).
The checks are done sequentially. If it finds video media that meets all the
criteria, then the media is displayed in the viewer. If any one of the criteria
fails, then the “Media Not Available” message is displayed in the viewer.
Working with Closest Media Matches
If you choose to display media that is closest to your sequence preferences,
Avid DS Nitris first verifies that you have media that matches your frame rate.
1. Frame rate: Verifies if the frame rate is identical, except for linked clips.
If, after this search, no candidates are found, the “Media Not Available”
message is displayed in the viewer.
If more than one candidate is found, Avid DS Nitris uses the following criteria
to determine which media file is a closer match and will be displayed:
2. Captured versus linked media: Captured media is considered a closer
match than linked media.
3. Conversion needs: Media with an image format, size, resolution,
compression, bit depth, or field dominance that does not need to be
converted to match the preferences of the current sequence is a closer
match than media that needs to be converted.
4. Compression: If the compression type or ratio of the two qualities are
different, then a quality match will be based on criteria in the following
order:
-
its codec type and ratio exactly matches those of the sequence.
-
its codec type is the same as the sequence but not its ratio.
-
its codec type can be read in real-time by the hardware.
5. Resolution width: If none of the candidates match the resolution width of
the current sequence, then the media with the greater resolution width is
the closest match.
6. Resolution height: If none of the candidates match the resolution height
of the current sequence, then the media with the greater resolution height
is the closest match.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
7. Image format: Uses the exact or closest match.
8. Aspect ratio: Uses the closest match.
-
Width in square pixels: If none of the candidates have the same
width as the current sequence, then the media with the greater width
is determined to be a closer match.
-
Height in square pixels: If none of the candidates have the same
height as the current sequence, then the media with the greater height
is determined to be a closer match.
9. Bit depth: If none of the candidates has the same bit depth as the current
sequence, then the one with the greatest bit depth is the closest match.
10. Processing precision: For caches only. If none of the candidates has the
same precision as the current sequence, then the one with the higher
precision is preferred.
Once it finds the candidate that is the closest match, Avid DS Nitris
determines if it needs to convert the media to fit into the current sequence. The
conversion method is based on the following properties:
1. Image format: If the image format is different than the current sequence,
it will need to be converted.
2. Image size: If the image size is different than the current sequence size, it
will need to be converted.
3. Resolution: If the resolution is different than the current sequence, it will
need to be converted.
4. Field Dominance: If the field dominance is set to None, then no
conversion is needed. Odd and even are incompatible, so a field
conversion is required. The following table shows where conversion is
required:
Media Quality
82
Field Dominance
Sequence preference
None
Even
Odd
None
No
No
No
Even
No
No
Yes
Odd
No
Yes
No
Working with Media of Different Qualities
5. Compression: If the compression type is not hardware real-time playable,
a conversion is needed.
Quality Matching Example
Here’s an example of video quality matching. Your sequence preferences have
been set to:
•
4:3 aspect ratio
•
Half-resolution
•
4:1 compression
•
Use the closest media format available
You have the following media available on disk:
•
Quality 1 – 4:3 aspect ratio, half-resolution, uncompressed
•
Quality 2 – 4:3 aspect ratio, half-resolution, 2:1 compression
•
Quality 3 – 4:3 aspect ratio, half-resolution, 3:1 compression
•
Quality 4 – 16:9 aspect ratio, half-resolution, 3:1 compression
Using the quality matching formula in Avid DS Nitris:
Step
Discards
Reason
Step 1
None
All media segments are at the same resolution.
Step 2
None
No match for compression ratio. Keeps all but notes that
the smallest compression ratio will be the closest.
Step 3
Quality 4
Does not match the aspect ratio.
Between Quality 1, 2 and 3, Quality 1 is chosen because it is the least
compressed of the three.
n
Processed media (caches) are also created based on the video resolution and
compression settings. The same quality matching method is used to select the
quality of the cache during playback.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
Understanding Audio Quality Matching
An audio clip can have media at multiple sample rates, just like a video clip
can have media at multiple resolutions, compression ratios, or aspect ratios.
With audio, Avid DS Nitris first tries to play media that matches the sample
rate set in your audio sequence preferences. If it doesn’t find such media, the
audio tracks turn red and you’re prompted to convert the audio media to the
sample rate of the current sequence.
If an exact audio media match is found, then that audio media is used. If more
than one candidate meets this match, then Avid DS Nitris looks at the
following criteria:
1. Captured versus linked media: Captured media is considered a closer
match than linked media.
2. Bit Depth: If none of the candidates match the bit depth, media with a
greater bit depth is the closest match.
Understanding the Processing Settings
The media resolution, bit depth, compression, or sample rate that you set in
your Sequence preferences define the quality at which clips are captured.
During processing, you can use these same settings, or you can change them to
process the captured media at a different resolution, bit depth, or compression.
This is useful if you want to process your effects at a lower quality for preview
purposes, and save on processing time. When your sequence is ready for
finishing, you can change the settings back to a higher quality and reprocess
the effects.
About Bit Depth
Bit depth is used to describe the number of bits used to store information about
each pixel of an image. The higher the depth, the more colors that are
available for storage and more accurate color representation in the digital
image.
In Avid DS Nitris, this is known as the Storage format bit depth, and is used
when storing captured media and processed media (caches).
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Working with Media of Different Qualities
Avid DS Nitris supports 8 or 10-bit storage bit depth for non-Custom
sequences, and up to 16 and 32-bit for custom sequences.
Setting the Processing Bit Depth
Effects can be processed at 16 or 32-bit depth. This is known as Precision.
Avid DS Nitris supports 8, 10, 16 or 32-bit media and caches. This Precision
can be set for the individual effects that support these levels, or it can be set in
your sequence preferences and applied globally to all effects that support these
levels. For a list of 16 bit/32 bit float effects, see “Effects Supporting 16 or 32
Bits (Float) Processing” in the Help.
c
Although Avid DS Nitris can support higher bit depths during
processing, the storage of the caches (for non-Custom sequences) is still
done at either 8 or 10-bit depth. Note that, using a higher precision bit
depth generates smoother effects during processing, and still produces
better quality output even though some quality is lost when storing the
cache at the lower bit depth.
Processing in Fields versus Frames
When applying effects, you must decide whether to apply the effect to each
frame or each field. This will usually depend on the type of source material
you’re using. Knowing how your source material was created will play a role
in determining how to process your effects. If processed incorrectly, you may
notice unwanted jittering or unusual artifacts.
•
Field to convert the image to fields, which processes each field of your
effects and graphics separately (using different property values if there is
animation), and then reconverts the video information to frames to display
the results. This option is better for animated effects, such as dissolves,
fades, and motion paths.
•
Frame processes the entire frame (both fields together) using the same
property values. Use this option with frame-based source material. Static
graphics images, 30 fps film, and 30 fps CGI (computer-generated
images) are some examples of frame-based material.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
Understanding the Working Conversion Mode
Since Avid DS Nitris is resolution independent, you can work with media and
sequences with different size and resolutions, all within the same sequence.
When dealing with media of different formats, you can specify how
Avid DS Nitris should handle the conversion.
There are different situations in which media is converted:
•
When media is imported
•
When linking to media from within a sequence
•
When using media of different formats than the current sequence
When you digitize or import media, it is digitized according to the video
sequence preferences or capture settings—see “Understanding Video
Settings” on page 75.
Since the scale/pan settings applied to the media are fixed, you cannot change
these settings when you recapture the media.
In the second and third cases, you’re dealing with how clips are converted
when they’re placed on the timeline. The conversion mode you select
determines how clips and sequences of different resolutions are displayed
when they’re placed on the timeline.
You can set the conversion mode in the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
n
The clips that are already on the timeline will not be affected. Only clips
placed on the timeline after the sequence preferences are changed will be
converted.
You can also set the conversion mode for each clip individually using the
conversion mode settings in the Clip Properties property page. This overrides
the conversion mode in the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
As previously explained, when you place a clip on the timeline which has a
different resolution than the current sequence, the image will be converted
using the method you set in the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
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Working with Media of Different Qualities
However, when you place a sequence on the timeline, the conversion becomes
a little more complicated, since you may be dealing with various resolutions
within that sequence. Avid DS Nitris treats the clips within that sequence as a
single unit in order to preserve the relationship between the clips. By doing so,
Avid DS Nitris ensures that the ratio between each clip remains the same.
Once the clips are grouped together, Avid DS Nitris uses the conversion mode
you set in the Sequence Preferences dialog box to convert all the clips as a
single unit.
n
If your clip is converted more than once, it can’t be assigned one of the
defined conversion modes. Instead, a separate conversion mode called
“Multiple Conversions” is used to specify that the clip has been converted
multiple times.
When you insert a sequence within another sequence, you can always override
the current sequence preference conversion mode by modifying each clip’s
conversion mode individually in the Clip Properties property editor. Only the
clip whose conversion mode you modified will be affected. All other clips will
remain as they are.
n
If you use a sequence that has processed effects within another sequence, the
caches will remain valid as long as both sequences have the same settings. If,
however, you change the conversion mode, you must process the effects again.
The following table summarizes how each item is converted in
Avid DS Nitris:
Items
Media conversion treatment
Captured clip
Frame size, at the time of capture, is scaled and panned to the
current sequence size
Linked clip
Image size is scaled and panned to the current sequence size
Sequence
Sequence size is scaled and panned to the current sequence size
Example
The following is an example of how a sequence, which contains linked images
of various resolutions, is converted when inserted into a sequence that has a
different resolution.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
Sequence A is an NTSC D1 sequence at 720 × 486 resolution. It contains the
following images:
Image 1: 1440×972 linked
image set to Scale to Fit.
Image 2: 300×300 linked
image set to Keep Original
Size and Position.
Image 3: 1000×1000 linked
image set to Center, Keep
Original Size.
Sequence B is a custom sequence at 360 × 243 resolution. The conversion
mode in the Sequence Preferences dialog box is set to Center, Keep Original
Size. When you place sequence A into sequence B, the following occurs (the
original frame size of sequence A is outlined in white):
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Working with Media of Different Qualities
The clips are grouped together and
treated as a single unit. Since image
1 was centered in the original
sequence, it will remain centered in
the new sequence. Since sequence
B has a smaller resolution, the image
just fills up more of the viewer. This
clip has been converted in both
sequences, so its conversion mode
will be set to Multiple Conversions.
Image 2 was not centered in
the original sequence, so in this
sequence, the star gets cut out
of the viewer. Since the original
linked clip was set to Keep
Original Size and Position, it
has only been converted once
and its conversion mode will be
set to that of the current
sequence.
Since image 3 was centered in
the original sequence, it
remains centered. Because the
circle is so large, it fills the
entire viewer. This clip has
been converted in both
sequences, so its conversion
mode will be set to Multiple
Conversions.
If you change the conversion mode in the Sequence Preferences dialog box to
Scale to Fit, and place sequence A into sequence B again, the following
occurs:
If you compare these images with the images in the original sequence, they will be exactly the same, except
smaller. Since the images are grouped together as a sequence, the individual images are not scaled to fit the
resolution of the current sequence. Instead, the whole sequence is scaled down to fit the new sequence
resolution, which, in this case, produces a smaller version of the original sequence.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
You can then go into the Clip Properties property page and change the
conversion mode for each clip individually.
When applying a conversion mode to a clip
individually, the original sequence settings
are ignored and Avid DS Nitris refers back to
the original image.
For example, the conversion mode for image 1
was set to Keep Original Size and Position.
Notice how the displayed image is the
1440×972 clip. If Avid DS Nitris had referred
back to the original sequence, then the clip
would have been displayed at 720×486
resolution.
After changing the conversion mode of an individual clip, you can always
change it back to its original setting.
Saving Sequences
When you save a sequence, you are saving the contents of the timeline. Any
clips, container clips, transitions, caches, effects, and edit markers are saved
with the sequence.
It is good practice to save your sequences at regular intervals, or when you
have completed an important part of your work. The first time you save a
sequence, all information related to the sequence is saved. However, the next
time you save the sequence, only the modifications to the sequence are saved,
so it takes less time.
n
You can also create a crash recovery file for your current sequence at regular
intervals. This lets you recover the latest work on your sequence in the event of
a system failure. For more information, see “User Preferences Dialog Box”
in the Help.
To save a sequence for the first time:
1. Select File > Save.
The Save Sequence dialog box is displayed.
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Saving Sequences
2. Use the Avid Explorer tools to navigate to the folder in which you want to
save the sequence.
3. Type in a name for your sequence in the File Name text box and click
OK.
The sequence is saved and a sequence icon with the sequence name is
displayed in the Avid Explorer. You can now continue editing or close the
current sequence, and begin work on a new sequence or project.
To save an existing sequence:
t
Select File > Save.
The existing sequence is overwritten.
The sequence is saved and a sequence icon with the sequence name is
displayed in the Avid Explorer. You can now continue editing or close the
current sequence, and begin work on a new sequence or project.
Creating a Copy of a Sequence
You can save different versions of a sequence in a project folder. If, for
example, you’ve been hired to create a series of spots for a client, you create a
project that is completely contained in a single folder. Inside that folder, you
create a number of subfolders to store elements, such as master clips, presets,
mattes, and backgrounds.
Inside that project, you create a sequence for the first spot by dragging clips to
the timeline, and saving the sequence in your project folder. For the second
spot, make a copy of the sequence calling it “Scene 2 (Take 2)”, and make the
necessary adjustments. Continue to do the same for each of the spots.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
To save a copy of a sequence:
1. Select File > Save As.
2. Type a new name for the sequence.
The sequence is saved. You can now make the necessary edits to
this sequence.
n
92
Another way to create versions of your sequence is by selecting the sequence
in the Avid Explorer, pressing the Ctrl key, and dragging the file to an empty
area of the folder. Copying the sequence in the Avid Explorer takes less time
than creating a copy with the Save As command.
Searching for Sequences
Searching for Sequences
Large projects can contain many sequences and even more master clips.
Although you can use the Avid Explorer to find a particular sequence or clip,
it can be more efficient to search for sequences and master clips using the Clip
Search tool.
The Clip Search tool lets you search for master clips or sequences within your
current project. You can do searches by source, file name, or file properties.
All clips found in the search appear in the clip tray.
To search for sequences or master clips:
1. Select View > Single-Instance Views > Clip Search.
The Clip Search dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the Master Clips and/or Sequences option(s) to search for one, the
other, or both.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
3. To search by:
-
Source: Select a tape source name or file from the Referencing the
Following Source list and click Go.
-
File name: Type the file name in the With Name Containing text box
and click Go.
-
File property: Select an attribute from the list, either Contains or
Equals, type the text you are searching for in the text box, and
click Go.
The clips and/or sequences found in your search are displayed in the
clip tray.
n
You can only perform a clip or sequence search using one filter option at a
time.
For detailed information on the Clip Search dialog box, click Help.
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Deleting Sequences
Deleting Sequences
If you no longer require a sequence, you can create an archive of the project in
which it resides (see “Archiving Projects” on page 454) or delete the sequence
from the project. Be careful when you delete a sequence, because deleting a
sequence can also delete media, depending on the option that you choose.
To delete a sequence:
t
In an Avid Explorer bin, right-click a sequence that is not currently open
and select one of the following:
-
Delete Clip & Unused Media: Deletes the selected sequence and its
associated media if the media is not used by a master clip or another
sequence. This option deletes cache media that is used only by the
sequence.
-
Delete Clip & All Media: Deletes the selected sequence and its
associated media even if the media is used elsewhere. Although this is
a quick way to create more disk space on your drive, it can be risky.
You should only do this when you’re absolutely sure that you no
longer need the sequence’s cache media and master clips.
A dialog box asks you to confirm the deletion. Click Yes.
n
Selecting the Delete option under the Windows section of the menu or pressing
the Delete key deletes the selected sequence but does not delete the associated
media.
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Chapter 2 Working with Sequences
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Chapter 3
Working with Film
This chapter describes how to work with film:
•
The Digital Intermediate Process
•
Film Editing on Avid DS Nitris
The Digital Intermediate Process
The main stages of film production are image capture, intermediate editing,
image output, and distribution.
Traditionally, the intermediate stage is done manually by the film lab. This
involves the cutting and splicing of the film negatives, adding special effects,
and then printing of the final copy for distribution.
Advances in technology now allow the intermediate stage to be handled
digitally. Not only is it a cleaner and more flexible alternative to the traditional
approach, but it also offers an easy and cost-effective way to create masters at
different resolutions and formats such as film, HD, or DVD.
The digital master is the original source material scanned from film into
digital format. The negative is scanned once, and no further manipulation is
required. In Avid DS Nitris, the digital intermediate workflow allows you to
link to your digital master and edit and add effects in real-time. The digital
master resides on a mass storage device. This device must be connected
directly to your workstation, as film-based media is large and requires high
bandwidth and fast disk access. For a complete list of supported storages, refer
to the Avid DS Customer Support site.
The digital intermediate is the state between the original source and the final
distribution form, where the film sequence can be digitally enhanced through
the process of editing, visual effects, and color correction.
Chapter 3 Working with Film
During this process, you have a choice of displaying and processing in full
resolution or real-time proxy resolution. Processing in full resolution has the
advantage of highly accurate processing using 4:4:4 RGB value. When
working in full resolution the results of the processing can only be seen in the
Avid DS Nitris viewer.
On Nitris DNA workstations, you can switch to Real-time Proxy resolution
and make use of HD/SD down conversion formats to view your proxy film
output in the external monitor. The proxy is a lower-sized resolution (actually
HD resolution) that still provides good visual quality for editing and
previewing your sequence.
You can add effects and view the results at the lower, real-time proxy
resolution to quickly review the sequence. If any effects require processing,
the results are also generated in real-time proxy resolution to save disk space.
Also, real-time effects do not need to be processed.
n
If any effects were previously processed in full resolution, then Avid DS Nitris
will use these caches over the proxy 4:2:2 caches.
Important Considerations when Working on Film-based Projects
Before opening your project in Avid DS Nitris, here are some points to
consider when working on a film-quality production.
•
know your original film format (e.g. Full Aperture, Cineon, Academy).
•
know the quality at which your film master was scanned. The most
popular is the 10-bit format and the most frequently used resolution is 2K.
•
know the frame rate (fps) at which your film master was scanned.
•
Decide which look-up tables (LUT) you will use (if any) for decoding and
encoding. Avid DS Nitris provides you with default LUTs and also allows
you to create your own custom LUT.
•
Ensure that you have storage that is large and fast enough for high
throughput. (Typically, 2K data takes up over 1 TB per hour of footage.)
To get realtime playback of your media, the master must reside on your
local storage that is connected directly to your Avid DS Nitris DNA
workstation.
You can place your master on an Unity or other shared storage device,
however, you will not be able to playback in real time until you process
the media in Avid DS Nitris.
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Film Editing on Avid DS Nitris
Film Editing on Avid DS Nitris
Avid DS Nitris integrates elements of both film and video editing, with a
range of tools that extends the possibilities of cinematography.
•
An external video monitor can be used to view your sequence in the
format and resolution closely matching your final distribution format.
•
Your Nitris DNA workstation will instantly let you play back any edits
and effects applied to your sequence.
•
Look-up tables can be applied to simulate the look of projected film.
•
You can perform color correction interactively the same way as with
video.
You can read timecode from, and output timecode to, DPX files. The
timecode tracking display is based on the conventional time-oriented
techniques of video postproduction.
•
Setting up Storage and Media for Film Projects
Ideally, you should place your digital master on your local storage drive as
film-based media is large and requires high bandwidth and fast disk access.
This storage must be configured in Avid DS Nitris. This way you can link to
the master and still get realtime playback in Avid DS Nitris.
n
For a complete list of storages supported for film-based media, refer to the
Avid DS Customer Support site.
You can still place your master on a shared storage, such as Unity, however
you will have to capture the file into Avid DS Nitris—see “Capturing from
DPX Files” on page 101.
1. Copy the digital master onto a fast local storage device connected to your
workstation.
Place the file in an appropriate folder under the \videostorage folder on
the storage device.
For example: D:\videostorage\DPX\Commercial\...
2. Check that your storage device has been configured in
Avid DS Nitris—see “Configuring Storage for your Workstation” of the
Avid DS Nitris Installation and Administration Guide.
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Chapter 3 Working with Film
Opening a Film-based Project
Avid DS Nitris offers 2K/4K digital intermediate capabilities, including a
large number of preset sequence types for various film scanning resolutions
and aspect ratio.
To create a film-based project:
1. When you start Avid DS Nitris, the Open Project dialog box displays.
Click the New Project button.
2. In the New Project dialog box, give your project a name.
3. There are a number of film resolutions and apertures that you can choose
from. Select the film format at which your material was scanned.
When you select the format, the frame details are set automatically.
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Film Editing on Avid DS Nitris
4. Set the Processing Precision to 16-bit.
A higher resolution gives the best quality for your processed effects, even
if the media will later be output at a lower resolution.
5. For the Storage Settings:
-
Set the Resolution for capturing/linking video media to Full.
-
Set the Bit Depth to the format at which the film was scanned
(typically 10-bit).
6. Select Use the closest media available, to allow Avid DS Nitris to
display media of mixed resolutions and frame rates in your sequence.
7. For the Audio Settings, set the Sample Rate and Bit Depth at which you
will output your audio media.
8. Leave the Down Conversion settings at default.
9. Click OK to save project preferences.
Capturing from DPX Files
DPX (Digital Picture eXchange) is an industry-standard, SMPTE file format
that is used to transfer film-originated images to a series of digital files (also
called scanned image files). The Cineon image file format is a subset of the
DPX format.
DPX and Cineon files usually store pixel values using a log representation. To
be able to apply effects or simply visualize these images, a linearization pass
using look-up tables (LUT) is usually preferable. These look up tables can be
applied at capture, or you could apply them later to the clips on the timeline.
You need to determine what LUT should be used. Your film house should
provide you with the appropriate LUT specific to the digital master. You can
import this LUT, or use a standard LUT. If you use a standard LUT, you can
choose either a linear transformation or a log-to-linear transformation. For
more information, see “Linearizing Film-Based Material” in the Help.
n
Instead of capturing the digital master into Avid DS Nitris, you can link
directly to the file on your local storage. Linking to the file also allows you to
mix resolutions and frame rates of different clips on your timeline while
keeping the original pixels.
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Chapter 3 Working with Film
When linked, 10-bit RGB DPX files stored on your local videostorage are
realtime (except for Academy and Cinemascope).
To link or capture from Cineon or DPX files:
1. In the Avid Explorer, navigate to the local storage folder where you have
your digital master.
2. Select the file (s) that you want to link/capture. The scanned image files,
which are consecutively numbered, should be included by default in one
or more Avid DS Nitris Group folders.
-
To select a series of files, click the first file, hold down the Shift key,
and click the last file. To select multiple files, hold down the Ctrl key
and click each file name.
or
-
Right-click on the group folder or file and select Capture Settings.
The Capture Settings dialog box opens.
3. Select the settings that apply to the files to which you want to capture/link,
including the following:
n
-
Input Levels: Graphics
-
Pixel Ratio: Auto
Since linked files are brought into Avid DS Nitris at their original resolutions,
there is no need to convert them to the current sequence’s resolution. As a
result, the Media Conversion modes are not applicable if you link the file.
4. Close the Capture Settings dialog box.
5. Right-click the selected files and select either Link or Capture.
n
If you selected a sequential list of still files of the same type (such as all .jpg or
all .bmp), you are given the choice of combining the files into one master clip
or capturing individual still frames.
The DPX Import dialog box displays.
The first file (first frame of the transfer) is displayed in the viewer.
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Film Editing on Avid DS Nitris
6. Indicate the type of look-up table the capture requires.
-
If you don’t want to apply the LUT now, set the LUT Type to Linear
(to preserve log values) and click the Reset button.
-
If you want to use a standard log-lin LUT, select Log>Lin and set the
appropriate values.
-
If you want to apply a specific LUT, select LUT from file. A dialog
box opens. Select the .lut file, and click Open. The name of the file
appears in the box beneath the LUT from file option. (To change the
file, click the filename.)
7. If you are using a standard look-up table, you can adjust the color values.
a.
By default, R, G, and B values are equivalent, even if you adjust one.
If you want to adjust an individual R, G, or B value, clear the box in
the Lock column for the parameter.
b.
Type the new values or use the sliders. The result of the new values
are shown in the viewer and the histogram display.
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Chapter 3 Working with Film
For a linear LUT, you can adjust only the White Point and the Black
Point. For a log-lin LUT, you can also adjust Gamma, Film Gamma, and
Softclip.
To return to the default values, click the Reset button.
To save your values in a file, click the Export LUT button. A dialog box
opens for you to name and save your file.
n
The inverted LUT is saved as well.
8. You can also choose to Import Timecode if you want to preserve the
timecode from the digital master.
When importing a DPX or Cineon file, 24-fps SMPTE timecode may be
included in the clip information. If you import the timecode, the
information is inserted in the header of each frame, and will be read and
saved for later use in Avid DS Nitris.
9. When you are satisfied with your settings, click OK.
As the material is linked/captured, the clip(s) appear in the target bin that
you specified in the Capture Settings. For linked clips, the clip icons are
underlined in red to indicate that no media has actually been captured.
10. Drag the master clips from the Avid Explorer to the timeline to build your
sequence.
Working in Film Proxy Mode
If you are working with 2K DPX files on an Avid DS Nitris DNA workstation,
you can play and edit your film-based sequences in real-time even when
working at full resolution.
n
In Full resolution, the external monitor is disabled. Also, effects need to be
processed before they can be played back.
On Nitris DNA workstations, you can switch to Real-time Proxy resolution
and make use of HD/SD down conversion formats to view your proxy film
output in the external monitor. The proxy is a lower-sized resolution (actually
HD resolution) that still provides good visual quality for editing and
previewing your sequence.
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Film Editing on Avid DS Nitris
The correct aspect ratio is preserved in the Avid DS viewer as well as in the
external HD monitor. Even an SD monitor can be used when working with
23.97, 29.97 and 25-fps sequences.
Color space is also automatically taken into account by Avid DS Nitris to
make the use of these proxies as transparent as possible.
Avid DNxHD compression ratios are also available to you when you use
proxy mode. For a description of these ratios, see “Avid DNxHD
Compressions” in the Help.
In proxy mode, all real-time effects are available. If any effects require
processing, the results are also generated at the real-time proxy resolution to
save disk space.
n
If any effects were previously processed in full resolution, then Avid DS Nitris
will use these caches over the proxy 4:2:2 caches.
To set your sequence preferences to work in proxy mode:
1. Select File > Sequence Preferences.
2. Set the Resolution to Real-time Proxy so that you can edit and add
effects in real-time.
n
On a non-Avid DS Nitris DNA workstation, you only have the choice of
working in Full resolution. This also gives you real-time playback of your
media in the viewer, but not the external monitor.
3. On Avid DS Nitris DNA workstation, you can change the Compression
to one of the Avid DNxHD compression formats.
This will save you space on your storage device while you are editing
your sequence.
4. Set Down Conversion of HD/SD output to the appropriate setting so that
you can feed your output to an external monitor and view the results as
they would appear in the final presentation.
In the Avid DS Nitris viewer, the real-time proxy mode compensates for
change in aspect ratio. For the external monitor output, you have the
flexibility to either see a cropped version of the frames, or a centered and
padded version. Internally, Avid DS Nitris still holds the entire frame.
5. Click OK to set the preferences.
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Chapter 3 Working with Film
6. Perform the necessary edits, color correction, and addition of effects to
your sequence.
n
If you need to create mattes for any images, switch back to full resolution, so
that you can key your images at better resolution.
7. Any effects that you apply to your sequence will have to be processed in
full resolution.
Outputting Film Sequences
When you’ve finalized all your edits, make sure that:
•
your sequence preferences are set to the quality settings (resolution,
compression, bit-depth) required for output.
•
although the maximum bit depth for output is 10-bit, you should process
your sequence at a resolution higher than 10-bit to get the best quality for
your processed effects.
If you are outputting your file for final print to film, export your file in
DPX/Cineon format. If you would like to use your final master for broadcast
or to create tape copies for distribution, you need to first downconvert your
film sequence to HD or SD—see “Downconverting a Film Sequence to HD or
SD Format” on page 109.
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Film Editing on Avid DS Nitris
To output a sequence to file:
1. Select View > Single-Instance Views > Output Tool.
2. Select the material to output.
3. Click the To File button.
4. Select the file format to which you want to export (DPX or Cineon if it’s
the final for film mastering).
The Still Image Export dialog box opens.
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Chapter 3 Working with Film
5. For DPX or Cineon formats only. If you want to apply an LUT to match
the appropriate film settings, select Linear, Lin>Log or use a specific
LUT file. If you don’t want to apply a LUT, then set the LUT Type to
Linear and click the Reset button.
n
If you are using a specific LUT file, the settings should be the opposite of what
was used when you imported the file into Avid DS Nitris. Use the inverted LUT
file that was automatically created when you originally saved your custom
LUT file. Otherwise, click the Invert LUT button.
6. For DPX or Cineon formats only. Select Export Timecode, and set the
appropriate timecode start time, if you want to save a timecode on each
frame in the file.
7. Click OK to save the settings.
8. Keep the frame size to the default.
9. For the Output Settings, select the appropriate Codec (if applicable).
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Film Editing on Avid DS Nitris
10. Select the Preserve Alpha option if the sequence includes an alpha
channel that you want to keep in the output file.
This is useful if you plan to reuse the matte information in future
compositing or graphics projects. Not all file formats support alpha
channels.
11. Click the Output button to begin the export.
12. Select a folder in which to save your material, enter a name for the file,
and click Save.
The material is processed, if necessary, exported to file, and placed in the
selected folder.
13. Close the Output Tool dialog box.
Downconverting a Film Sequence to HD or SD Format
When working in real-time proxy resolution on Avid Nitris DNA
workstations, the Output Tool lets you downconvert a film sequence into one
of several high-definition (HD) or standard-definition (SD) formats.
To output to tape in SD or HD:
1. Select View > Single-Instance Views > Output Tool.
2. Select all/portions of the timeline that you want to output.
3. Click the To Tape button.
4. Set the appropriate tape and deck settings.
For more information click the Help button.
5. Click the Downconvert button.
6. Select the required output formats.
The options that are available depend on the current video format. For a
list of the available formats, see “Downconverted Output Formats and
Sync Sources” in the Help.
n
You can also specify the Downconvert format in the Sequence Preferences
dialog box.
7. Click the Insert button to begin the output process.
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Chapter 3 Working with Film
110
Chapter 4
Building a Rough Cut
This chapter describes how to perform basic editing tasks, such as preparing
source clips, arranging clips on the timeline, and synchronizing clips to create
a rough cut.
•
Workflow: Editing Audio and Video
•
Creating Sequences
•
Marking In and Out-points on the Timeline
•
Displaying Timecodes
•
Viewing a Sequence as a Hieracharical Tree Structure
•
Playing Sequences
•
Manipulating Clips
•
Using Locators
•
Finding Frames, Clips, and Bins
•
Extracting Parts of a Sequence
•
Grabbing Frames
•
Rippling Clips
•
Synchronizing Clips
•
Referencing Sequences
Chapter 4 Building a Rough Cut
Workflow: Editing Audio and Video
Editing is the process of assembling audio and video clips on the timeline,
creating transitions between these clips, and synchronizing the sound with the
images. Because the timeline is an integral part of the editing process, it is
found in many of the layouts. The tasks in this chapter focus on the timeline
and how to use it with other tools to edit your media.
All editing tasks are based on what you select. Each time you make a selection
on the timeline, the Record viewer, timecode boxes, and tool panels are
updated to give you information on the selected object.
The following illustration shows how you can build and edit a sequence in
Avid DS Nitris.
112
Workflow: Editing Audio and Video
1
Locate and prepare media for editing.
2
Preview and trim your source media in
the Source viewer.
3
Place clips on the timeline.
Create a rough cut of your
sequence by dragging clips to
the timeline.
4
Manipulate clips.
Move, trim, slip, slide, and
nest clips on the timeline.
5
Apply transitions.
Create cuts, wipes, dissolves,
crossfades, and DVE-type
transitions.
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Chapter 4 Building a Rough Cut
6
Synchronize audio with video.
Synchronize video or audio
events by using locators.
7
Process the sequence.
Process all transitions
and container clips in the
sequence to play the
results in real time.
Click Process button.
Creating Sequences
A sequence is an arrangement of clips on the timeline. It contains information
about edit decisions, applied graphics and effects, animation settings, and
working preferences.
Before constructing your sequence, it’s important to realize that the edits you
make to clips are non-destructive. That is, you’re not actually editing the
source media. The clips that you see in the bin and on the timeline are simply
references to the media on the storage device.
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Creating Sequences
Setting up your sequence involves previewing and editing source clips, and
then placing them on the timeline. The quickest way to create your rough cut
is to place clips directly on the timeline. You can, however, preview your
source clips to set new in and out-points before placing them on the timeline.
You may also want to bring in a project from an offline environment into
Avid DS Nitris. You can import an AFE, AAF, Open Media Framework®
(OMF®), or Edit Decision List (EDL) file into the Avid Explorer as logged
clips, or onto the timeline as a sequence. For more information, see
“Conforming AFE Files” and “Conforming OMF, EDL, and ALE Files” in the
Help.
Preparing Source Clips for Editing
Before you place a clip on the timeline, you can prepare it in the Source
viewer. If a single viewer is displayed, and you drag a clip to the viewer, it
changes into a dual viewer that displays the Source and Record viewers. The
Source viewer lets you view and edit source clips.
To move a clip to the Source viewer:
t
Drag a clip from a bin to the Source viewer.
Bin
Source viewer
Clip
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The source clip is displayed in the Source viewer. The Record viewer displays
the frame (if any) at the current location of the position indicator on the
timeline. This lets you compare a source clip with the clip on the timeline
where it will be inserted.
For more information, see “Source and Record Viewers” in the Help.
Source viewer: Frame at position of
position indicator on source clip.
Record viewer: Frame at position of
position indicator on timeline.
Transport controls
Each viewer has its own set of controls for manipulating the source clips,
timeline clips, or material on an external device. The controls under the
Source viewer help you prepare source clips before inserting them on the
timeline. You can continuously cue and mark your source material without
affecting the sequence.
For an overview of all the controls in the Source viewer, see “Transport
Controls” in the Help.
After marking the appropriate in and out-points on the source clip, use the
Record viewer to locate the frame (in your sequence) on which the new clip is
to be inserted. You can also decide whether or not to use all the channels of the
source clip, and on which track you want to place the clip. For more
information, see “Patching Tracks” on page 125.
After the clip has been placed on the timeline, you can continue working in
dual viewer mode or use a single viewer to display only the clips on
the timeline.
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Editing Source Clips
You can place master clips, container clips, or sequences in the Source viewer
for previewing. This lets you cue or mark new in and out-points on the source
clip, and then insert, overwrite, replace, or fit-to-fill clips on the timeline with it.
In-point
Position indicator
Out-point
Position bar
Timecode box
Mark In-point
Play
Mark Out-point
To edit a clip for use in your sequence:
1. Click Play below the Source viewer to play the source clip.
2. Click one of the following:
t Mark In button when the position indicator reaches the desired inpoint.
t Mark Out button at the desired out-point.
t
Type a timecode in the I (in) or O (out) timecode box and click the I
or O button.
An in-point or out-point is displayed in the position bar. If you need to
adjust these points, drag them to a new location.
3. Click Play again to stop playing the clip.
4. You can now place the clip directly on the timeline—see “Placing Preedited Clips on the Timeline” on page 123.
Creating Subclips
Instead of placing the marked clip on the timeline, you can first create a
subclip from it. This leaves the original clip untouched while a copy of the
original clip with new in and out-points is saved in a bin. The Capture Target
option of the Capture Settings dialog box specifies the location for the new
subclip, see “Media Capture Settings” in the Help.
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Unlike master clips, subclips do not directly reference the original media.
Subclips remain linked to the master clips from which they were created, and
the master clips in turn reference the digitized media files located on your
storage drives. As a result, none of the original footage is lost.
To create a subclip:
1. Verify the target location for the subclip, by doing the following:
a. In the Avid Explorer toolbar, click the Capture Settings button.
The Capture Settings dialog box is displayed.
b.
In the Media Capture panel, verify the Capture Target settings and
modify if needed.
2. Load a clip in the Source viewer.
3. On the position bar below the Source viewer, reposition the in and/or outpoints of a clip.
4. Place the position indicator on the frame you want to display in the bin.
5. Click the Create Subclip button.
6. In the Create Subclip dialog box, type a name for the subclip.
n
You can use the default name, which is the parent clip name appended with a
number, such as RealClip - 001.
7. Click OK.
The new clip is created and saved in the target bin.
n
The source clip maintains its original in and out-points.
To change the frame of the subclip displayed in the bin:
1. Open the subclip in the Source viewer.
2. Go to the frame you want to display.
3. Click the Update Thumbnail button to change the thumbnail frame of
the subclip.
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Switching Between the Source and Record Timeline
The Source timeline lets you see the timeline of the clip or sequence that is in
the Source viewer. While viewing the Source timeline, you can place in and
out-points, and zoom, pan and navigate the timeline. You cannot, however, do
any editing on the Source timeline.
To view the Source timeline:
t
With a clip or sequence in the Source viewer, click the Toggle
Source/Record Timeline button on the timeline navigation bar.
The Source timeline is displayed and the Toggle Source/Record Timeline
button turns green, as well as the position indicator.
To return to the Record timeline:
t
Click the Toggle Source/Record Timeline button again.
To automatically switch between the Source and Record timeline:
t
Right-click the Toggle Source/Record Timeline button and select Auto.
Selecting the Source viewer displays the Source timeline. Selecting the
Record viewer displays the Record timeline.
Placing Clips on the Timeline
The timeline is where you place and edit clips to build a sequence. You can
create any number of audio and video tracks on the timeline, and place clips
anywhere on these tracks. While working with multiple tracks, you can use the
Track selector to select, manipulate, delete, ripple, patch, and monitor your
tracks. You can use multiple tracks to layer audio effects and sound, or to
add video titles and other effects.
n
Before editing your clips, you can customize the timeline to suit your work by
changing the settings to show, hide, or minimize some display areas. You can
also change the ruler’s time scale to display other time formats, including
drop frame, non-drop frame, and frame numbers. For more information, see
“Timeline” in the Help.
Dragging and dropping clips onto the timeline overwrites frames of existing
clips. A clip cannot be placed on a track if the clip completely covers, or is
completely covered by, another clip. However, if you activate the Ripple
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mode on the timeline, then clips are inserted at the timecode at which they are
dropped. Existing clips are moved down the timeline to accommodate the
inserted clip.
n
You can only place clips on selected tracks.
When you drag a clip from a bin to the timeline, the move cursor is displayed.
As you drag over the timeline, a shadow is displayed to indicate the section
where the clip will be placed.
The move cursor
Clip shadow
Clips assume activeness when you place them on the timeline. Activeness
refers to the sections of a clip that can be used in the final sequence. These
active frames are indicated by an activeness bar below a clip. Not all active
clips in a sequence are included when you play the final sequence. Whether an
active clip plays in a sequence or not depends on the position of the clip on the
timeline and the track selector settings.
The behavior of clip activeness varies between audio, video, and background
tracks.
•
Background tracks: Only one video clip can be active at any given time.
•
Video tracks: Multiple video clips can be active at the same time. The
clips on the top tracks play on top of clips on the lower tracks. The effects
and video clips with full-screen alpha clips placed on top tracks are
composited over the active clips on the lower tracks.
•
Audio tracks: All active audio clips play back. This lets you play
multiple audio streams at the same time.
For more information, see “Changing the Activeness of Clips” on page 172.
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Activeness bars
Video clips can be placed only on video tracks and background tracks, and
audio clips only on audio tracks. When a clip with synchronized video and
audio components is placed on the timeline, the video and audio are placed as
separate clips on the audio and video or background tracks.
Same Track versus Multi-track Editing
Although you can easily place all your video clips on a single video track,
working on multiple video tracks gives you more flexibility when editing. You
can use video tracks to layer effects. When clips are active, the clips on the top
video tracks play over the clips on the lower tracks. Any effects and video
clips with full-screen alpha clips placed on the top video tracks are composited
over the active clips on the lower tracks.
The active frames and position on the timeline determine the sequence of
events. For example, you can place shots taken with different cameras on
separate tracks. You can then easily switch the view from one camera to
another by activating and deactivating clips. For more information, see
“Cutting to a Clip” on page 298.
The following example shows how the same sequence is produced on one
video track and on multiple video tracks. The activeness bars in both scenarios
indicate which frames are used in the sequence. However, when working with
multiple tracks, the activeness of clips on the top tracks indicate the frames
used. In both scenarios, the same frames on the clips are used.
Same-track editing:
Clip is added to the
same track.
Before
After
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Multi-track editing:
Clip is added to a
new track.
Before
New track
After
Frames not displayed
during playback.
When you place clips on multiple tracks, you can reveal extra frames while
editing. This is especially useful when you want to see how many frames are
available for slipping or sliding. For more information, see “Revealing
Unused Material on Clips” on page 171.
n
When working with audio, placing your audio clips on different tracks lets you
play multiple audio streams simultaneously.
Placing Multiple Clips on the Timeline
You can select multiple clips from a bin and drag them to the timeline or
timeline ribbon for editing. This is a quick way to edit several clips together.
For example, if you previously classified material by scene number, you can
quickly sort clips by scene number and then drag them all to the timeline.
Clips are placed on the timeline in the order in which you selected them. When
you select all the clips in a bin, they appear in the order in which they were
sorted.
To place multiple clips on the timeline:
1. In a bin, do one of the following:
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t
To select clips randomly, hold down the Ctrl key and click any clips
that you want to select.
t
To select clips sequentially, click the first clip and hold down the
Shift key and click the last clip that you want to select.
t
To select multiple clips, drag over a region in the bin.
Creating Sequences
2. Drag the selected clips to the timeline.
Placing Pre-edited Clips on the Timeline
If you’ve previewed and edited your source clip in the Source viewer, there
are different ways to place the clip on the timeline. You can manually drag it
to the timeline, or use the Overwrite, Insert, or Replace buttons.
n
The following instructions apply only when the Ripple button is deactivated on
the tracks. For more information, see “Rippling Clips” on page 191.
To drag a clip to the timeline:
1. Mark an in and/or out-point on the timeline—see “Marking In and Outpoints on the Timeline” on page 137.
2. Click the Source viewer and drag the clip to a track on the timeline,
moving it close to the in-point.
t
To insert the clip, hold down the V key.
t
To overwrite the existing clips, hold down the B key.
The magnetism of the in-point automatically draws the clip to the
marked timecode.
t
n
To align the clip’s source timecode with the source timecode of a clip
on the timeline, hold down the U key.
The Autoswitch command on the Trim Mode menu must be deselected before
you can drag a clip from the Source viewer to the timeline.
When you drag a clip to a video or audio track, the clip becomes active. When
you drag a clip to a background track, the clip becomes active only in areas
where there are no other active clips. The following illustration shows a clip
being dragged to a background track.
Background tracks
Inserted clip
Before
After
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If you want to perform three-point editing, set both an in-point and out-point
on the timeline. As a general rule, the in-point and out-point on the timeline
determine the amount of space inserted into the sequence. For example, if the
clip is longer than the marked region on the timeline, the out-point of the clip
is trimmed to fit the specified duration. If the clip is shorter than the marked
region on the timeline, a gap is added in areas not covered by the inserted clip.
The following illustration shows a clip being placed between marked points
on the timeline.
In-point
Out-point
To insert or overwrite a clip on the timeline:
1. Mark an in-point at the timecode where you want to place your clip.
2. If you want to edit source audio or video onto a track other than the
parallel track displayed in the Track selector, see “Patching Tracks” on
page 125.
3. Click one of the following buttons:
t Overwrite Clip to place the clip at the in-point and overwrite any
existing clips over the section that it covers.
Inserted clip
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t
Insert Clip to place the clip at the in-point and ripple all subsequent
clips on the timeline.
The clip that is inserted on the timeline becomes active regardless of
other active clips on the timeline.
Inserted clip
t
n
Fit to Fill to size the clip to fit perfectly between the marked in and
out-points on the timeline. To use this option, you must also have
specific in and out-points marked on the clip.
If the clip is longer or shorter than the marked region on the timeline, the clip
is placed in a timewarp container clip and stretched or shortened accordingly.
This speeds up or slows down the action in the clip.
To replace a clip on the timeline:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select a clip on the timeline.
3. If you want to edit source audio or video onto a track other than the
parallel track displayed in the Track selector, see “Patching Tracks” on
page 125.
4. Click the Replace Clip button to overwrite the selected clip with the one
that is currently in the Source viewer.
Patching Tracks
When working with multiple tracks, you can encounter a circumstance where
you must edit source audio or video onto a track other than the parallel track
displayed in the Track selector. To edit the source material onto another record
track above or below it, you must patch the source track to the targeted record
track.
You can perform only one patch per edit, but there is no limit on the number of
times you can patch from the same source track. Audio can patch only to audio
tracks, and video only to video or background tracks.
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To perform a patch:
t
In the Track selector, drag from a source track (audio or video) to the
targeted record track (a black line is displayed during the patch).
Patching V1 source track
to V2 record track.
After patching
tracks.
The selected source track moves beside the record track to which it is
patched. The patched track remains selected in preparation for your edit.
Placing Video Clips on the Timeline
A video clip can consist of live action, graphics, animation, or imported
images. You can place video clips on video tracks or background tracks.
Placing clips on the video tracks lets you composite over other clips on the
tracks below it. Active clips on video tracks are composited in the order in
which the video tracks appear on the timeline. For more information, see
“Placing Clips on the Timeline” on page 119.
As you drag video clips to background tracks, the clips detect areas that are
occupied, so that you don’t overwrite clips that have already been positioned
in time.
To place a video clip on the timeline:
1. Mark an in and/or out-point on the timeline—see “Marking In and Outpoints on the Timeline” on page 137.
2. Drag a clip from a bin or Source viewer to the timeline ribbon, video
track, or background track on the timeline, and align it close to the inpoint.
A shadow is displayed on the timeline to indicate the area where your clip
will be placed. The magnetism of the clip is attracted to other objects in
close proximity. This helps you align clips with other clips, in-point, or
out-points.
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Creating Sequences
n
To temporarily deactivate magnetism, hold down the Shift key as you drag an
object.
3. If you’re satisfied with the location, release the clip.
The clip is automatically placed on the timeline and becomes active. If the
video clip is placed on a background track, then the video clip is only
active on areas where there are no other active clips on background tracks.
n
You can also insert or overwrite clips on your tracks and specify the track on
which to place a clip. To do this, right-click a clip and drag it from the bin to
any video track. This opens the Track Router dialog box from which you can
select a video or background track.
When you place a clip on the timeline, the in-point moves to the end of the
clip. The out-point (if any) is deleted.
n
You can display the unused frames of the clip by right-clicking on the
overview area and selecting Display > Display Unused Material before
placing the clip on the timeline.
The following illustration shows the timeline after a video clip is added to a
video track. The inserted clip shows unused material.
Unused frames
Active frames
Inserted clip
Placing Audio Clips on the Timeline
Audio clips are the sound portion of your sequence. They contain material like
sound effects, music, and dialogue.
When you place an audio clip on an empty timeline, an activeness bar is
automatically displayed under the audio clip. Multiple audio clips can be
active at the same time span, as long as they’re on different tracks.
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n
Audio clips that do not have the sample rate specified in the user preferences
can still be placed on the timeline. However, you will not be able to hear the
clips until you recapture the audio material at the proper sampling rate. For
more information, see “Converting the Audio Sample Rate” on page 419.
The following table lists the audio clip types and the channels contained with
each type of audio clip, depending on how many audio channels the audio clip
has.
This type of audio clip...
Contains these audio channels
Mono
A single audio channel
Stereo
Two audio channels: Left and right
Quadraphonic
Four audio channels: Left, right, left rear, and
right rear
LCRS
Four audio channels: Left, right, center, and
surround
4 streams
Four generic audio channels: Output 1, output 2,
output 3, and output 4
5.1
Six audio channels: Left, right, center, LFE, left
surround, and right surround
6.1
Seven audio channels: Left, right, center, LFE,
surround center, side left, and side right
7.1
Eight audio channels: Left, right, center, LFE,
left surround, right surround, left center, and
right center
8 streams
Eight generic audio channels: Output 1 to 8
When you place an audio clip on the timeline, it generates a waveform to
display the audio channels. Each channel has a distinct waveform. For
example, a mono clip has a single waveform, a stereo clip has two waveforms,
and an 8-stream clip has eight. Each waveform has a zero line running through
the middle.
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A mono audio clip
zero line
A stereo audio clip
Like audio clips, audio tracks can also be mono, stereo, quadraphonic, LCRS,
4 streams, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, or 8 streams. You can place any kind of audio clip on
any kind of audio track. For information, see “Track Property Editor” in the
Help.
If the clip and the track are not the same type:
t
The clip is yellow to indicate that the clip and track formats do not match.
t
The clip’s audio channels are assigned to the track’s audio channels, as
much as possible.
For example, if you place a stereo clip on an 8-stream track, the stereo clip’s
two audio channels will be assigned to the first two audio channels in the 8stream track. Conversely, if you place an 8-stream clip on a stereo track, the 8stream clip’s first two audio channels will be assigned to the stereo track’s two
channels, while the other six channels in the 8-stream clip are ignored. You
can adjust the way that a clip’s audio channels occupy a track’s audio channels
in the mixer. For more information, see “Adjusting the Mixer Outputs” on
page 414.
n
You can also mix different audio signals by creating an audio container clip.
Audio container clips let you group several audio clips, mix them together,
and treat them as a single clip on the top or parent timeline. For more
information, see “Creating an Audio Container Clip” on page 310.
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To place an audio clip on the timeline:
1. Optional. Mark an in and/or out-point on the timeline—see “Marking In
and Out-points on the Timeline” on page 137.
2. Drag a clip from a bin or Source viewer to the timeline ribbon or audio
track on the timeline, and align it close to the in-point.
n
If you want to select a specific track on which to place the clip, right-click the
clip and drag it from a bin to any of the audio tracks on the timeline. This
opens the Track Router dialog box from which you can select an audio track.
A shadow is displayed on the timeline to indicate the area where your clip
will be placed. The magnetism of the clip is attracted to other objects in
close proximity. This helps you align clips with other clips, in-points, or
out-points.
n
To temporarily deactivate magnetism, press Shift as you drag an object.
3. If you’re satisfied with the location, release the clip.
The clip is automatically placed on an audio track on the timeline and
becomes active even where there are existing audio clips because you can
play multiple audio tracks simultaneously.
When you place a clip on the timeline, the in-point moves to the end of the
clip. The out-point (if any) is deleted. Audio clips can be active
simultaneously.
Placing Clips on the Timeline Using Sync Point Editing
Sync point editing lets you overwrite or insert material onto your sequence in
such a way that a particular point in the source material is in sync with a
particular point in the sequence. For example, you can sync an action in the
source video with an audio event such as a musical beat in the sequence, and
then edit it so that the action occurs on the beat.
Sync point editing uses the relative location of the position indicator in both
the source and record material as the sync point. Sync point editing determines
the duration of the new edit according to marks that you set. You can apply
these marks across multiple tracks when marking a sequence. This lets you
add overlap cuts.
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Sync point editing requires two pieces of information:
•
Sync points: These are the points where the synchronized relationship
between the source and record material is established.
•
Duration of the relationship: This is determined by the positions of the
head and tail frames (and sometimes by the position indicator). Both
marks can be in one monitor, or one mark can be in one monitor and the
other mark in the other monitor. The duration of the material being edited
into the sequence must be sufficient for the size of the edit.
To perform a sync point edit:
1. Load a clip or sequence into the Source viewer.
2. Load a sequence into the Record viewer.
3. Mark the material, do one of the following:
t
Mark in and out points in either the Source or Record viewer, leaving
the opposite monitor clear of marks.
t
Mark an in or out-point in the Source viewer, or an in or out-point in
the Record viewer. For example, if you marked an in-point in the
Source viewer, mark the out-point in the Record viewer.
4. Move the source position indicator to the sync frame in the clip. This
establishes the source sync point.
5. Move the record position indicator to the sync frame in the sequence.
6. Click the Sync Point Editing button to active sync point editing.
7. Select the source and record tracks for this edit.
8. Do one of the following:
t Click the Overwrite Clip button to overwrite any existing marked
material on the timeline.
t Click the Insert Clip button to place the clip in the sequence an ripple
all subsequent clips on the timeline.
t Click the Replace Clip button to overwrite the selected clip on the
timeline.
The sync point edit is complete.
To turn off sync point editing:
t
Click the Sync Point Editing button.
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Working on the Tracks
There are three types of tracks on the timeline:
•
Audio tracks contain the audio clips and audio container clips of a
sequence.
•
Video tracks contain the video clips and container clips that are
composited over clips on the video and background tracks.
•
Background tracks contain the video clips and background/composite
container clips of a sequence.
While working with multiple tracks, you can use the Track selector to select,
manipulate, delete, ripple, patch, and monitor the tracks. You can use multiple
tracks to layer audio effects and sound, or to add video titles and other effects.
You can change track properties, such as the track name or the level of detail
at which clips are displayed on a track. By default, tracks are numbered
sequentially (V1, V2, A1, A2, and so on) as they are created on the timeline.
You can also scroll and adjust the heights of tracks.
Overview area
Timeline controls
Ruler
Timeline ribbon
Timeline effect
track ripple
Timeline effect track
Video tracks
Track selector
Background track
Audio track
Timeline navigation bar
Position Indicator
Timecode boxes
For more information, see “Track Selector” in the Help.
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To show or hide the Track selector:
t
Right-click the overview area and select Display > Display Control
Area.
Selecting Tracks
You can select one or more tracks at the same time. When you select a track,
you can perform editing operations on the entire track. For example, you can
select two tracks and apply a track-based effect by clicking Video Effect from
the toolbar and choosing an effect from the pop-up menu. This effect will be
applied over all the clips on the selected tracks.
To select a track:
t
Track button
From the Track selector, click the Track button.
The Track button for the selected track is highlighted.
To deselect a track:
t
n
From the Track selector, click the Track button of a selected track.
You can also activate and deactivate tracks by right-clicking a track and
selecting Live Track.
To select a region on multiple tracks:
1. Drag over a section of the track to select a region.
2. Hold down the Ctrl key and click another track.
The region is highlighted on all selected tracks.
Adding and Deleting Tracks
You can add any number of audio, video, or background tracks to the timeline.
Video tracks are added to the top of the timeline, and audio tracks are added to
the bottom of the timeline. Background tracks are inserted between the audio
and video tracks.
You can also delete tracks that are no longer required in the sequence.
To insert a track on the timeline:
t
Right-click the overview area and select Create Audio Track, Create
Video Track, or Create Background Track.
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An empty track is added to the timeline.
n
Tip: You can automatically insert a track when dragging a clip from a bin to
the timeline. Simply drag the clip to the timeline ribbon.
To remove a track from the timeline:
t
Right-click an empty area of the track and select Delete Track.
The selected track and all the clips on it are deleted from the timeline.
Reordering Tracks
You can change the order of the video, audio, and background tracks. You
cannot, however, place a video track below a background track.
To reorder tracks:
Track
button
t
Drag the Track button to a new location.
Setting the Track Height
You can enlarge or reduce the height of the tracks to improve visibility and
display more information within the tracks. You can reduce the track height if
you need more space on the timeline to view other tracks.
n
Reducing the track height may hide any effects you have applied on the
timeline.
To enlarge or reduce the height of tracks:
t
Press Ctrl and drag the line between the Track buttons to change the
height of the track above the line.
Height adjustment
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Creating Sequences
Scrolling Tracks
As you add more tracks, the tracks at the bottom of the timeline scroll off the
desktop. Similarly as you add more clips to a track, they scroll to the right or
left of the desktop.
To scroll tracks vertically:
1. Place the pointer at the far left of the Track selector.
Scroll area
2. When the hand icon is displayed, drag up or down to view additional
tracks.
n
If you hide the Track selector, you can still scroll the tracks vertically by
holding down the X key and dragging the timeline up and down.
To scroll tracks horizontally, do one of the following:
t
Hold down the X key and drag left or right on the timeline.
t
Click the scroll bar on the timeline navigation bar and drag left or right.
The timeline scrolls left or right.
Muting Audio and Video Tracks
If there are several tracks on the timeline and you need to exclude clips from
the preview, you can turn off the audio signal on selected audio tracks or turn
off the video on a selected video track. When the sequence is played, you do
not hear clips on audio tracks that are muted and you do not see video clips in
the viewer for video tracks that are muted.
n
Muted tracks do not contribute to the output sequence.
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Mute
button
To turn off the sound on an audio track:
t
Click the Mute button on an audio track.
The Mute button turns red.
To turn off the video playback on a video track:
t
Click the Mute button on a video track.
The Mute button turns red.
Setting Tracks to Solo
When you solo a track, it plays the contents of that track during the preview.
Both active and inactive video clips are displayed in the viewer. With video,
you can only solo one track at a time. With audio, however, you can solo more
than one track. Any tracks that do not have the Solo button activated are not
viewed or heard.
To solo a track:
t
Solo
button
n
Click the Solo button of the tracks that you want to preview.
The Solo button turns green.
The status of the Solo button on each audio track is saved along with the
sequence.
Changing Track Properties
You can view track information, such as the start and end times, track type,
and number of clips on the track. You can change the properties of any track,
including the track name and level of detail that each clip displays.
To access track properties:
t
Right-click an empty area of the track and select Track Properties.
The Track property editor is displayed.
For information about the Track properties, click the Help button.
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To set the level of detail on a track:
1. In the Track property editor, select the General tab.
2. From the Level of Detail list, select one of the following:
n
-
Low to display clips or waveforms with the least amount of detail.
-
Medium to display the start and end thumbnails of clips.
-
High to display the thumbnails of clips at regular intervals and a
detailed view of the audio waveform. You must increase the height of
the track to see the waveform.
Tip: You can also change the level of detail of each clip by right-clicking and
selecting Properties.
3. From the Effect Size list, select one of the following:
-
Small to display the effect bar with no detail.
-
Large to display the name of the effect.
To rename a track:
1. In the Track property editor, select the General tab.
2. In the Name text box, type a name.
n
Depending on the height of your track, you may not be able to view the full
name. If you place the pointer over the track name, however, a tooltip with the
full name is displayed.
Marking In and Out-points on the Timeline
When you create a new sequence, an in-point is automatically placed at the
beginning of the timeline. If you want to place the clip at a specific timecode,
you can mark the in-point on the timeline where you want to place the clip.
After you place a clip at this in-point, the in-point moves to the last frame of
the clip, ready for you to place the next clip in the sequence.
In-points and out-points let you mark points on the timeline, where you can
insert clips, or replace or overwrite existing clips.
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After the in-point and out-point are set on the timeline, the I (in) or O (out)
timecode boxes display the exact timecodes. You can change the position of
the in-point or out-point by typing a new timecode in the corresponding
timecode box, or by dragging the marker along the timeline ribbon. For more
information, see “Timeline Ribbon” in the Help.
Using the Mark Buttons to Set In and Out-points
The Mark In, Mark Out, and Mark In/Out buttons provide an easy way to set
in-points and out-points on the timeline.
To mark an in-point or out-point on the timeline:
1. Place the position indicator at the location where you want to place the inpoint or out-point.
2. Click the Mark In or Mark Out button below the Record viewer.
An in-point or out-point is displayed on the timeline ribbon and in the
position bar below the viewer.
To place an in-point and out-point on a selected region:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, make sure the Selection Mode button is
selected.
2. On the timeline, select a clip, effect, or activeness bar, or drag to define a
region where you want to set the in-point and out-point.
3. On the timeline controls, click the Mark In/Out button.
An in-point and an out-point are displayed on the timeline ribbon and on
the position bar below the viewer.
Using Timecode to Set In and Out-points
You can set an in-point or out-point at an exact timecode by typing the
timecode in a corresponding timecode box. For example, if you type
12:00:00:22 in the I (in) timecode box and press Enter, an in-point is marked
at that timecode.
You can also use the scratch pad control to set in and out-points to an exact
timecode.
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Marking In and Out-points on the Timeline
To mark an in-point or out-point using the scratch pad control:
1. Click the viewer that is displaying a clip or sequence.
2. Press any number on the keyboard.
A timecode box is displayed in the selected viewer.
3. Type the timecode of the frame you want to mark by using the keyboard,
followed by one of the following:
n
When typing a timecode value you can skip fields by typing a dot (.). For
example, type 12..22 for timecode 12:00:00:22.
t
Press the I key to mark the in-point.
t
Press the O key to mark the out-point.
t
Press the D key to set the duration. Positive timecode changes the outpoint and negative timecode changes the in-point.
If you type in a positive timecode, and the in-point is undefined, it is
treated as negative timecode. If you type in a negative timecode, and
the out-point is undefined, it is treated as positive timecode.
The in-point, out-point, or duration for the clip or sequence is set.
n
You can move the in-point, out-point, or position indicator a set number of
frames. In the timecode box, type the number of frame followed by a + (plus
sign) or - (minus sign). Then press I or O to move the appropriate marker.
To close the timecode box:
t
Press the Esc key.
To place an in-point and out-point on a portion of the sequence:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Mark an in-point on the timeline.
t
Mark an out-point on the timeline.
2. In the D timecode box, type the duration of the area you want to mark.
The other marker (in-point or out-point) is displayed on the timeline to
mark the area.
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Displaying Timecodes
The timecode boxes on the status bar display timecodes for a selected object
on the timeline. You can also use the timecode boxes to enter new values for
the start, end, or duration of a selected object.
The Clip and Timeline options refer to the source and sequence timecodes.
The source timecodes are the actual times taken from the source tape. These
timecodes are displayed when you select a clip that was captured from tape.
The sequence timecodes reflect the current position of clips on the timeline.
These timecodes are used when outputting media.
When you select an object on the timeline, the Start, End, and Duration boxes
display the timecodes of a clip, activeness bar, effect bar, region selection,
transition, or edit point. The In, Out, and Duration boxes display the timecodes
of in and out-points on the timeline ribbon and the duration between them.
You can also use the Timecode view to display the timecodes for a selected
object on the timeline. You can customize the Timecode view to display
various timecodes. For more information, see “Displaying Timecodes in the
Timecode View” on page 140.
For more information, see “Timecode Boxes (Timeline Status Bar)” in the
Help.
Displaying Timecodes in the Timecode View
The Timecode view displays the timecodes for a selected object on the
timeline. You can choose which timecodes to display, show the name and
comments of the clips, and further customize the view. Enlarging the size of
the timecode display allows you to view the timecode from a distance.
n
The Timecode view is essentially a toolbar that you can customize.
You can choose to display the frame counts of various timecodes with the
main timecode being the time base of the timeline. For example, when you are
working with a 24 frame project the timecode frame count is:
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Displaying Timecodes
Timecode a Frames
24
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00
25
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25P
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 00
30
00 01 03 04 05 06 08 09 10 11 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 26 28 29 00
a. The timecodes are listed as 24 for 24 fps, 25 for 25 fps, 25P for 25 (PAL with pulldown), and 30 for 30 fps (the count
skips six frames to fit 30 frames into 24 fps).
In the example above for the 30 timecode, drop and non drop frame
conventions are observed. The 02, 07, 12, 17, 22, and 27 frames are dropped
because it is assumed that 01:00:00:00 is an “A” frame.
When in a 30 timecode project, the main timecode is 30 (drop and non drop
frame conventions observed, and the 24 frame timebase has duplicated
timecodes to represent pulldown.
To open the Timecode view:
t
Select View > Single-Instance Views > Timecode View.
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To add a timecode display to the Timecode view:
1. Right-click an empty area of the Timecode view.
2. Select Add Timecode Display.
To customize the timecode displays:
1. Right-click any of the timecodes in the Timecode view.
2. Select options from the Timecode Display menu—see “Timecode
Display Menu” in the Help.
To customize the Timecode view:
t
Right-click on the Timecode view and use the Toolbar commands—see
“Toolbars” in the Help.
Displaying the Source Timecodes of a Clip
You can display the source timecodes of a selected clip. You can also display
the source timecode of a selected frame.
If you want to display the source timecode of a frame between the start and
end of the clip, you must place a reference locator at that frame.
To display a clip’s start and end source timecodes:
1. On the timeline, select a clip.
2. On the status bar, select the Clip option.
The clip’s start and end source timecodes are displayed on the status bar.
Selected clip
Timecode of clip
Clip option selected
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Displaying Timecodes
To display the source timecode at a specific frame:
1. Place the position indicator on the frame where you want to display the
source timecode.
2. On the timeline, select the corresponding clip and press M.
A reference locator is placed on the clip at the position indicator.
3. Place the pointer over this locator.
A tooltip displays the source timecode at that frame.
Displaying the Sequence Timecodes of a Clip
The sequence timecodes display the current position of an object on the
timeline. You can display the start, end, and duration of a clip, activeness bar,
effect bar, region selection, transition, or edit point.
To display a clip’s timecode in relation to the timeline:
1. On the timeline, select a clip.
2. From the status bar, select the Timeline option.
The clip’s start, end, and duration on the timeline are displayed in the
timecode boxes. If you move the clip on the timeline, the timecode boxes
automatically reflects its new position.
Selected
clip
Timeline timecode of the clip.
Timeline option selected.
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Moving or Trimming Objects Using the Timecode Boxes
Instead of dragging a clip on the timeline or trimming its end times, you can
type values in the timecode boxes to change the start, end, or duration of a
clip.
In addition, you can use relative input methods to change the timecode values.
This lets you offset the current timecode by a given amount.
The following table summarizes the various means of typing values in
timecode boxes, assuming that the current timecode is 01:12:34:00.
You type
NTSC Result
PAL Result
Description
Absolute Input Method
5223
00:00:52:23
00:00:52:23
Replaces the current
timecode
/5223
01:12:52:23
01:12:52:23
Replaces the rightmost
portion of current timecode
.40
00:00:01:10
00:00:01:15
Replaces the current
timecode with this many
frames (direct frame entry)
10:00.40
00:10:01:10
00:10:01:15
Combines timecode value
with direct frame entry
3:::1
03:00:00:01
03:00:00:01
Skip fields by typing colons
Relative Input Method
144
110+
110-
01:12:35:10
01:12:32:20
01:12:35:10
01:12:32:15
Increases or decreases the
current timecode by the
value typed
.110+
.110-
01:12:37:20
01:12:30:10
01:12:38:10
01:12:29:15
Increases or decreases the
current timecode by the
number of frames typed
1.10+
1.10-
1:12:35:10
1:12:33:20
1:12:35:10
1:12:32:15
Displaying Timecodes
You type
NTSC Result
PAL Result
Description
]
or [
01:12:34:01
01:12:33:29
01:12:34:01
01:12:33:24
Nudges the current
timecode up or down by 1
frame
Ctrl-]
or Ctrl-[
01:12:34:01
01:12:33:20
01:12:34:10
01:12:33:15
Nudges the current
timecode up or down by 10
frames
For example, to move a clip 10 frames forward, type 10+ in the Start timecode
box to move the clip forward by 10 frames. If the Ripple button was activated
when you typed the new start timecode, then the edit will ripple across the
timeline. Similarly, to move a clip backwards by 10 frames, type 10- in the
Start timecode box.
Adjusting the Timeline
Framing the media on the timeline lets you make better use of the overview
area. This is particularly useful when media starts at a timecode other than
00:00:00:00. The Avid DS Nitris system considers the start time of the media
and frames it according to the earliest timecode on which material is present,
as opposed to 00:00:00:00.
To trim the timeline to the media:
t
Right-click the overview area of the timeline and select Trim Timeline to
Media.
The overview area adjusts to show the full length of your sequence.
Changing the Visible Time Span
The visible time span represents the section of the sequence that is currently
visible on the timeline. The visible time span is adjustable, so you can display
individual frames in the sequence, another section of the sequence, or the
entire sequence in the timeline.
Any clip bars that are within the visible time span are displayed on the tracks
in the timeline. You can stretch out the visible time span interactively to zoom
in or out on the timeline. You can also use the timeline controls to adjust the
length of the visible time span.
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Visible time span
To move the visible time span:
1. Place the pointer over the visible time span.
A double-headed arrow is displayed.
Pointer in visible time span.
2. Drag the visible time span to the section of the timeline that you want to
view.
The timeline displays the clips within the visible time span.
Framing the Timeline to View Selected Objects
You can zoom the view of the timeline to show more detail of selected objects.
To display selected objects on the timeline:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Click the objects you want to frame, such as clips or effect bars.
3. Click the Frame Selection button.
The timeline zooms in to display the selected objects.
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Displaying Timecodes
n
The Frame Selection button is available from the Customize Toolbars window.
For information about adding buttons to toolbars, see “Customizing
Toolbars” in the Help.
Panning and Zooming the Timeline
To display a specific region on the timeline:
Zoom In button
1. Drag over a section of the timeline to select a region.
2. From the timeline controls, click the Zoom In or Zoom to Frame button.
Zoom to Frame
button
The timeline zooms in to display the selected region, while the visible
time span in the overview area scales to highlight the selection.
Using the Zoom Controls
You can change the magnification of the timeline using the zoom controls.
These controls let you zoom in or out to view more or less clip detail.
The displayed region is always centered on the position indicator. As you
move the position indicator, notice how the visible region adjusts to indicate
the section of the sequence that is currently in view.
To zoom the timeline interactively, do one of the following:
t
Hold down the Z key and drag left or right over the tracks.
t
In the timeline navigation bar, drag the scale bar left or right.
To zoom in on a specific clip on the timeline:
t
In the overview area, press Ctrl+F and click a clip bar.
The track of the selected clip immediately comes into view and the entire
clip is displayed.
To zoom in to display less frames:
t
From the timeline controls, click the Zoom In button.
The timeline displays fewer frames, but in greater detail.
To zoom out to display more frames:
t
From the timeline controls, click the Zoom Out button.
The timeline displays more frames, but at less detail.
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To zoom in to one-frame intervals:
t
From the timeline controls, click the Zoom to Frame button.
The timeline displays one-frame intervals between clip thumbnails. The
position indicator splits to indicate a single frame, a solid blue line is
displayed at the left of the frame, and a dotted blue line is displayed at the
right of the frame. To return to the previous display, click the button
again.
Panning the Timeline
If your sequence has several clips, they may not all be visible on the timeline.
You can pan the timeline to focus on different sections of your sequence.
To pan the timeline, do one of the following:
t
Hold down the X key and drag left or right over the tracks.
t
In the timeline navigation bar, drag the timeline scroll bar left or right.
To zoom in or out using the visible time span:
1. Place the pointer over the left or right edge of the visible time span.
An arrow pointing to the right or left is displayed.
2. Drag the edge of the visible time span left or right to zoom the timeline.
The time span lengthens or shortens to display more or less clip detail in
the timeline.
To display all clips on the timeline:
1. In the overview area, place the pointer over the visible time span.
2. Double-click the visible time span.
The visible time span stretches out over all clips on the timeline, so that
you can see all clips in the sequence.
3. Double-click the visible time span to return to the previous zoom area.
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Displaying Timecodes
Changing the Ruler Display
The ruler in the timeline displays the time scale for your sequence. When
working with video, you can change the time scale to display in frames,
timecode drop frames, timecode non-drop frames, or audio samples. These
options differ between PAL and NTSC formats.
To change the ruler’s time scale:
t
Right-click the ruler and select the appropriate time scale.
The exact timecode at the position of the position indicator is displayed in the
P timecode box on the status bar. Depending on the ruler time scale you select,
the timecode is displayed in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames/audio
samples.
Ruler time scale
Timecode display format
SMPTE NTSC drop frame
23:59:59;29
SMPTE NTSC non-drop frame 23:59:59:29
25 fps (PAL only)
23:59:59:23
Audio samples
23:59:59.47999
Display as Frames
1234567
Displaying Different Rulers
While working in a container clip, you can set the ruler to display the time
scale of the current container clip, its parent container, or the top timeline.
This is useful when you want to verify the location of a clip or effect in
relation to the top timeline.
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n
By default, a container clip’s timeline always starts at 00:00:00. This makes it
easier to determine the duration of the container clip.
To display a different ruler:
t
Right-click the ruler and select a ruler.
Viewing a Sequence as a
Hieracharical Tree Structure
The Sequence view displays the timeline as a hierarcharical tree structure. The
root of the hierarchy is your sequence, which you can expand to show
individual video and audio clips, and container clips. Container clips can be
further expanded to show their contents. Items that you select in the Sequence
view are also selected on the timeline.
There are two viewing modes in the Sequence view: Show All Content and
Show Content at Time. You can select a viewing mode from the drop-down
menu at the top.
Sequence view list
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Playing Sequences
To access the Sequence view, do one of the following:
t
t
Select View > Single-Instance Views > Sequence View.
From the view switcher, click the Sequence view button.
To view all the clips in your timeline:
t
From the Sequence view list, select Show all content.
The Sequence view displays all the clips in your sequence, from the top
timeline on down through all your container clips.
To view all the clips at the current playback position:
t
From the Sequence view list, select Show content at time.
The Sequence view displays all the clips in your sequence at the current
playback position, from the top timeline on down through all your
container clips.
Playing Sequences
You can use various Record viewer buttons, the position indicator, and
keyboard keys to play and shuttle your sequence.
Using the buttons below the Record viewer, you can play back your sequence
in the Record viewer and on the external monitor. When you play the
sequence, only its active frames are displayed in the Record viewer (or heard
on the speakers), allowing you to view the sequence as it will appear in the
final sequence. While previewing, however, you can play selected tracks of
your sequence to isolate some sounds or images. For information, see
“Working on the Tracks” on page 132.
n
You can use variable-speed play controls (J-K-L keys on the keyboard) to
shuttle, step, or pause during playback. For more information, see “Varying
the Playback Speed” on page 154.
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Go to End/Fast Forward
Frame Backward
Go to Start/Rewind
Frame Forward
Play/Stop
Position indicator
Skipped Frame indicator
Position bar
10 Frames Backward 10 Frames Forward
Play From In/Out-point
Loop
For more information, see “Transport Controls” in the Help.
While playing a sequence, you might see one of the following messages
display in the viewer:
Message
Description
Processing Needed
Some clips, on which you’ve placed effects, need to be
processed before you can see the results.
Media not Available
There is no media for this clip at the quality (resolution and
compression) that you have specified in your sequence
preferences—see “Understanding Video Quality
Matching” on page 79.
Media not Found
Avid DS Nitris could not find the media for this clip. The
media may have been deleted or moved to another location,
or the connection to your storage may be faulty. If the
media has been deleted, you will need to recapture it at the
quality specified in your sequence preferences.
To play a sequence:
1. Deselect the Mute button on the Track selector for all tracks.
n
Muted tracks do not play back.
2. Click the Go to Start button below the Record viewer.
The position indicator moves to the start of the sequence.
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Playing Sequences
3. Click the Play button below the Record viewer.
If you’re playing a video sequence, the Record viewer updates
accordingly.
n
When playing your sequence, the Play button may turn amber if any frames
are skipped during playback. Frame skipping may occur when it reaches a
point where a frame cannot be computed before display time. For more
information, see “Playing Real-Time Effects” on page 291.
To stop playing a sequence during playback, do one of the following:
t
Click the Play button below the Record viewer.
t
Click the Record viewer.
t
Click the timeline ruler.
t
Press the space bar.
The position indicator moves to the position you clicked and playback stops.
To skip to a new position on the timeline and keep playing:
t
Press Shift and click the new position on the timeline ruler.
To scrub clips on the timeline:
t
On the timeline ruler, drag right or left to play or rewind the clips at your
own speed, or
t
Drag the position indicator in the position bar below the Record viewer.
To isolate specific tracks when playing the sequence:
Mute
Solo
1. In the Track selector, do one of the following:
t Click the Solo button on the video or audio tracks that you want to
play.
t
Click the Mute button on the audio tracks that you do not want to
play.
2. Click the Play button below the Record viewer.
Only the images or sounds from the selected tracks are played.
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Varying the Playback Speed
The J-K-L keys on the keyboard let you play back, step, and shuttle through
footage at varying speeds. This feature, also referred to as three-button or
variable-speed play, lets you use three fingers to manipulate the speed of
playback for greater control. You can also use the J-K-L keys to perform
smooth audio scrubbing of selected tracks.
To shuttle through the footage using the J-K-L keys on the keyboard:
1. Deselect all objects in the timeline before shuttling through the footage.
2. Use the following keys to shuttle at varying speeds:
t
Press the L key to move forward through the footage at normal speed.
You can increase the speed by pressing the L key a number of times.
Press the L key
To play footage at
NTSC rate
PAL rate
24p rate
2 times
2x normal speed
60 fps
50 fps
48 fps
3 times
3x normal speed
90 fps
75 fps
72 fps
4 times
5x normal speed
150 fps
125 fps
120 fps
5 times
8x normal speed
240 fps
200 fps
192 fps
t
Press the J key to move backward at the same shuttle speed
increments.
t
Press the K and L keys together for slow forward (8 fps for NTSC, 6
fps for PAL, and 6 fps for 24p projects).
t
Press the K and J keys together for slow backward.
t
Hold down the K key and press the L or J key to step through footage
one frame at a time.
3. Press the K key to pause the shuttling.
4. Press the spacebar to stop the shuttling.
To shuttle clips using the position indicator do one of the following:
t
154
Drag the position indicator in the position bar right or left to fast forward
or rewind the clips on the timeline.
Playing Sequences
t
On the timeline ruler, drag the position indicator left or right. The farther
you drag, the faster the playback speed.
Moving to Points on the Timeline
There are several ways to move around on the timeline. You can move the
position indicator manually to any frame in your sequence, use the buttons
below the Record viewer, or type a timecode in a timecode box to quickly
move to marked points on the timeline.
To move the position indicator, do one of the following:
t
Click any point in the Timeline Ruler.
t
t
Click any point in the position bar below the Record viewer.
Deselect the Selection Mode button in the timeline navigation bar, and
then click any point on the timeline.
t
The position indicator moves to this position and the Record viewer
displays the frame at this timecode.
Click the Go to In or Go to Out button if there is an in-point or out-point
in the timeline ribbon.
The position indicator moves to the specified point.
To move the position indicator to a specific timecode do one of the
following:
t
Drag the position indicator left or right while reading the timecode
displayed in the P (position indicator) timecode box.
The exact position of the position indicator is displayed.
n
t
Type a value in the P (position indicator) timecode box.
t
Without selecting any timecode boxes, type a timecode value and press
Enter.
When typing a timecode value you can skip fields by typing a dot (.). For
example, type 12..22 for timecode 12:00:00:22.
t
Select a reference locator from the Locator view.
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Moving to Edit Points on the Timeline
You can move the position indicator to the next or previous edit point in the
sequence.
To move the position indicator to an edit point:
1. Right-click Trim Mode button and deselect Autoswitch.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Press the , (comma) key to move the position indicator to the previous
edit point.
t
Press the . (period) key to move the position indicator to the next edit
point.
The position indicator moves to the specified point.
Looping Clips
You can play back a section of the timeline continuously by marking it with in
and out loop markers. This is useful if you want to view a small section of the
sequence while editing.
To loop a clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Select a clip.
t
Select a region by dragging over a section of the timeline.
The selected area or clip becomes highlighted.
3. Click the Loop button below the Record viewer.
Loop markers are displayed on the timeline ribbon at the beginning and
end of the selected region or clip including pre-roll and post-roll.
n
156
You can also select an effect bar, transition area, or activeness bar
for looping. If no objects are selected on the timeline, then the loop markers
surround the position indicator.
Playing Sequences
4. Adjust the loop markers by dragging them to the appropriate timecodes.
Timeline ribbon
Loop markers
5. Click Play to play the clips within the specified region.
The marked section continues to play until you click Play again.
6. Click the Loop button again to deactivate loop mode.
Viewing Unprocessed Frames
While playing a sequence, the message “Processing Needed” is displayed in
the Record viewer if clip effects in your sequence have not been processed. To
view a clip before processing its effects, you can either play it frame by frame
or preview it. Previewing an effect reduces the quality of the picture during
playback in order to process each frame at an acceptable speed.
To play a clip frame by frame:
1. Press Ctrl and click Play to play your video clip frame by frame.
The playback is slow since each frame needs to be processed. Each
processed frame is stored temporarily as an interactive cache, so the next
time you visit that frame, the results appear instantly in the viewer.
n
In this mode, the video plays but the audio is muted.
2. Click Play again to stop playing the clips.
To preview a clip with an effect:
1. From the effect’s property editor, click the Preview button.
The preview will loop until you stop it. The playback is choppy since
Avid DS Nitris drops frames in order to display the effect.
n
In this mode, the video plays but the audio is muted.
2. Click the Preview button again to stop playing the clip.
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Using the Position Bar
The position bar, below the Source and Record viewers, lets you view the
location of the position indicator, locators, animation keys, and timecode as
well as set an in-point and an out-point.
You can rescale the position bar below the Record viewer to zoom the object
selected in the timeline.
The locators on the position bar correspond to the locators on the timeline
ribbon. However, locators in the position bar cannot be moved, deleted, or
edited. To do so, you’ll have to access them from the timeline ribbon.
The animation keys in the position bar correspond to the animation keys in the
animation editor. You can only view and reposition animation keys in the
position bar. For any other type of editing of the animation keys, you will have
to use the animation editor.
Position indicator
Out-point
Position bar
In-point Locator
Animation key
To move the position indicator and in/out-points:
t
In the position bar, drag the position indicator or in/out-points and move it
to a new location.
To delete in and out-points or animation keys:
t
In the position bar, select the in or out-point or an animation key, and
press Delete.
To show or hide locators, tick marks, animation keys, and timecode:
t
Right-click the position bar and select an option.
To display the animation keys of a clip:
t
Select the clip from the timeline.
To snap the position indicator to an animation key:
t
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Press Ctrl and select the animation key in the position bar.
Playing Sequences
To change the range of the position bar to the selected object:
1. Select an object on the timeline.
2. Right-click the position bar below the Record viewer and select Zoom to
Selection.
For more information, see “Position Bar Menu” in the Help.
Switching Viewers
At times, it is useful to enlarge either the Source or Record viewer, or both, for
a better view of your clips.
To switch between single and dual viewers:
1. Select the Source or Record viewer.
2. In the viewer tools, click the Single/Dual button above the selected
viewer.
The selected viewer and its transport controls are displayed.
To enlarge or reduce both viewers:
t
Press F12 to enlarge or reduce the size of the viewers.
The viewers are displayed full-screen.
Setting True Video Display
Since the ITU-R 601 standard specifies a higher horizontal than vertical
resolution (or a 0.9 ratio), images appear stretched horizontally when
displayed on your computer monitor. To get a more accurate view of your
sequence as it will appear on a video monitor, you can set the viewer to
display non-square pixels.
To display non-square pixels:
t
Right-click the viewer and deselect Square Pixels.
The viewer displays your image in non-square pixels.
Zooming or Panning the Viewers
You can zoom or pan the viewer by using the Viewer menu or the keyboard
shortcuts, which allow you to work interactively with the viewer.
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The Viewer property editor provides settings for various zoom and pan
controls. For example, you can set the options to automatically zoom and pan
when you are using the interactive tools, such as graphics and paint tools,
Shape tool in the Matte and Keyer effects, DVE tool, and Tracker tool. For
more information, see “Viewer Property Editor” in the Help.
n
The keyboard shortcuts for zooming or panning the viewer also work on the
timeline and animation editor.
To zoom in the viewer, do one of the following:
t
Hold down the Z key and drag on the viewer using left mouse button to
select a region to zoom or using right mouse button to zoom interactively.
t
Right-click the viewer, select Zoom > zoom level.
t
Position the pointer on the area of the viewer you want to zoom in on and
press Alt+Q.
t
Press Alt+Z to zoom by steps set in the Viewer Properties property editor.
To zoom out the viewer, do one of the following:
t
Right-click the viewer and select Zoom > zoom level.
t
Interactive zoom (X or Y axis): Hold down the Z key and right-drag on
the viewer.
t
Press Alt+Q again to return to the previous zoom level.
t
Press Alt+X to zoom by steps set in the Viewer Properties property editor.
To incrementally zoom the viewer:
1. Right-click the viewer and select Viewer Properties.
2. On the Display property page, set the following:
-
In the Steps text box, set the level to zoom quickly or slowly with
Alt+Z (zoom in) and Alt+X (zoom out).
-
In the Quick Zoom Level text box, type your preferred zoom level.
3. Position the pointer on the area of the viewer you want to zoom in and
press Alt+Z repeatedly until you reach the desired zoom level.
To pan the viewer:
t
160
Hold down the X key and drag on the viewer.
Playing Sequences
To reset zoom or pan, do one of the following:
t
Hold down the Z key and click the viewer to reset zoom.
t
Hold down the X key and click the viewer, or right-click the viewer and
select Reset Pan & Zoom to reset pan.
t
Hold down the Z+X key and click a viewer to reset zoom and pan.
Displaying Overlays
While working with the viewers, visual indicators for the head, tail, in and
out-points, and locators make editing quicker. A sawtooth pattern indicates the
head and tail of a clip.
Sawtooth
pattern indicates
head of clip.
Locator
To display the viewer overlays:
1. Select File > User Preferences.
2. On the Editing property page, select Show Overlays in Viewer.
The visual indicators for the head, tail, in/out-points, and locators are
displayed in the Source and Record viewers.
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Manipulating Clips
After placing all your clips on the timeline, you can begin arranging them to
create a rough cut of your sequence. You can then adjust the edit points
between clips, as well as move, copy, or delete them.
n
As you rearrange your clips, the impact on other clips and their activeness
depends on what you select and whether or not the Ripple mode is activated.
When the ripple mode is on, any change to the length of a clip propagates
across the timeline to subsequent clips. For more information, see “Rippling
Clips” on page 191.
Selecting Clips
All editing tasks are based on what you select on the timeline. The clips are
associated with tracks, activeness bars, edit points, transition bars, effect bars,
and regions. Selecting and manipulating any of these objects affects the
position and appearance of the clip in the final output. When editing clips, you
typically work on one clip at a time.
Before you can select objects on the timeline you must click the Selection
Mode button on the timeline navigation bar to enter Selection mode.
The following illustration shows the selectable objects on the timeline.
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Manipulating Clips
In-point
Clip
Effect bar
Selected
region
Tracks
Activeness bar
Transition
Edit point
To select clips on the timeline:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Do one of the following:
t
To select a single clip, click a clip.
t
To select multiple clips, click the first clip, press Ctrl, and click any
other clips you want to select.
t
To select multiple clips within the track area, hold down the Shift key
and drag right to left over the clips you want to select.
The selected clip(s) are surrounded by a red border. When a single clip is
selected the timecode boxes on the status bar reflect its start and end
positions. The D (duration) timecode box specifies the length of time
between the two points. You can adjust the in, out, and duration timecodes
by typing values directly in the timecode boxes. This is useful when you
know the exact timecode where you want to move a clip.
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Clip start
Clip end
Clip duration
Moving Clips
You can drag clips along the same track to move them to a different point in
time. You can also drag clips from one track to another.
Synchronized video and audio clips always move together. If you need to
move them independently, you must unlock them first. For more information,
see “Synchronizing Clips” on page 196.
Moving Objects on the Timeline
You can use the J-K-L keys on the keyboard to move objects on the timeline
to the timecode of the position indicator.
To move objects using the JKL keys:
1. Select File > User Preferences.
2. On the Editing property page, select the Selectable Objects (J-K-L keys)
options for the objects you want to move.
3. Select one or more objects on the timeline. These could be either locators,
markers, clips, activeness bars, effect bars, or edit points.
4. Press the J key or the L key to start playing.
5. Press K when you are at the desired frame. The selected object(s) are
automatically moved to this timecode.
Moving Clips on the Same Track
You can drag a clip anywhere along a track. If there are other clips in its path,
it passes directly over these clips if the Ripple mode is activated. If it is not,
then you must move it around these clips.
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Manipulating Clips
To drag a clip horizontally:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Click a clip to select it.
A red border surrounds the clip and the pointer changes to a move cursor.
3. Drag the clip right or left.
To drag multiple clips horizontally:
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Drag one of the clips in the selection right or left.
To move a clip with its activeness:
1. Press Shift and click the clip to select it.
A blue border surrounds the clip and the pointer changes to the Move with
Activeness cursor.
2. Drag the clip right or left.
The clip retains its activeness and changes the activeness of any clips with
which it collides.
To move multiple clips with their activeness on background tracks:
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Press Shift and drag the clips in the selection right or left.
The clips in the selection retain their activeness and change the activeness
of any clips with which they collide.
To move one clip past another on the same track:
1. Drag a clip to the timeline ribbon.
A shadow is displayed on the timeline as you drag the clip.
2. Without releasing the mouse button, drag the clip back to the original
track and drop it at the new location.
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Moving Single Clips between Tracks
When you move clips to a different track, clip shadows appear on the timeline
where the clips will be placed.
To move a clip to a different track:
t
Using the ruler as a guide, drag a clip to a different track.
To move a clip to a different background track with its activeness:
1. Press Shift and click a clip to select it.
2. Using the ruler as a guide, drag the clip to the appropriate track.
To move a clip to a different track and constrain it to the same
timeline location:
1. Select the clip.
2. Press U and drag the clip to another track.
Moving Multiple Clips between Tracks
You can move multiple clips of different types between tracks simultaneously.
The clips that you select do not have to be on the same track.
To move multiple clips to different tracks:
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Using the ruler as a guide, drag a clip to a different track.
The Track Router dialog box is displayed.
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Manipulating Clips
3. Specify the destination track for the material in each selected track, and
click OK.
The selected clips are moved to the specified destination tracks.
To move multiple clips to different tracks with their activeness:
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Drag the clips to a different track.
The Track Router dialog box is displayed.
3. Specify the destination track for the material in each selected track, and
click OK.
The selected clips are moved to the specified destination tracks.
To move multiple clips to different tracks and constrain them to the same
timeline locations:
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Press the U key, and drag a clip to a different track.
The Track Router dialog box is displayed.
3. Specify the destination track for the material in each selected track, and
click OK.
The selected clips are moved to the same timeline locations on the
specified destination tracks.
Renaming and Adding Comments to Clips
You can rename clips in a bin or on the timeline. Since clips on the timeline
are copies of the clips in the bin, renaming a clip on the timeline has no effect
on the name of the source clip in the bin. In the Clip property editor, you can
also add comments to clips as notes or reminders for yourself.
To rename a clip on the timeline:
1. Right-click a clip in the timeline and select Properties.
2. In the Name text box, edit the name of the clip and press Enter.
The new name is displayed on the clip in the timeline.
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To add comments to clips:
1. Right-click a clip in the timeline and select Properties.
2. In the Comments text box, type your notes and press Enter.
When you reopen the clip properties dialog box, the comments are
displayed in the Comments box.
Cutting Clips
Cutting a clip in two lets you manipulate the pieces independently of each
other.
To cut a clip:
1. Place the position indicator at the point where you want to apply the cut.
2. From the toolbar, click Editing > Add Edit.
Although the clips appear to have been cut into two, you can still stretch
them both out to their original size by revealing the extra frames. For
more information, see “Revealing Unused Material on Clips” on
page 171.
n
The Add Edit command duplicates the clip or container clip on the timeline.
Although the duplicated clip or container clip doesn’t appear on the timeline,
it does double the size of the information on the timeline and every element in
the container clip.
Copying Clips
You can easily copy clips on the timeline. When you copy a clip, you do not
duplicate the media stored on disk. Both clips still refer to the original media.
When you make a copy of a clip on the timeline, the new clip’s name is
prefixed by “Copy of...”. For example, if the original name of a clip is Car,
and you copy the clip to a new track, the copied clip is now called Copy of
Car. If you copy the same clip again to another track, the name of the new clip
is Copy 2 of Car. This numbering scheme continues for each copy you create
of the clip.
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Manipulating Clips
To copy a clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select one or more clips to copy.
3. Select Edit > Copy.
4. Place the position indicator at the precise timecode that you want to place
a copy of the clip, and click the Track button.
5. Select Edit > Paste.
A copy of the clip is displayed at the location of the position indicator.
You can stretch this new clip out to reveal the necessary frames. The
name of the copy is prefixed by “Copy of...”.
Deleting Clips from the Timeline
You can delete any clip on the timeline. This removes the clip from the
timeline. The master clip in the bin and its media are not affected.
To delete a clip, do one of the following:
t
Select a clip or group of clips, and press Delete.
t
Right-click a clip or a multiple clip selection, and select Delete Clip.
The clip or selection is removed from the timeline.
n
If you created clips on the timeline from an AFE file, an AAF file, an EDL, or
an OMF file without creating master clips in a bin, the clips on the timeline
are the only instances of these clips. If you remove them from the sequence,
they will no longer exist anywhere in your project. If there was media
associated with these clips it will remain on your storage device, but you will
not have access to it because it is no longer associated with any clip. The
media will remain on your storage device until it is deleted when you purge
unreferenced media.
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Lifting Material
Lifting lets you remove selected material from a track in the sequence and
leaves a gap. You can later move or fill this gap with other footage. When you
lift material, the overall duration of the track (or sequence) remains the same.
Material is placed in
the Clipboard.
Lifted Clip X
Clip W
Clip Y
Blank space
Clip Z
To lift material:
1. Mark in and out-points at the start and end of the material in the sequence
that you want to lift.
2. Select the tracks that contain the material.
Material is lifted from the selected tracks only.
3. Click the Lift button to complete the edit.
Extracting Material
Extracting lets you remove selected material from a track in the sequence and
closes the gap left by its removal. When you extract material, the duration of
the track or sequence is shrunk.
Extracted Clip Y
Before
extract
After
extract
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Clip X
Clip Y
Material is placed in
the Clipboard.
Clip Z
Track is shortened
Clip X
Clip Z
Manipulating Clips
To extract material:
1. Mark in and out-points at the start and end of the material in the sequence
that you want to extract.
2. Select the tracks that contain the material.
Material is extracted from the selected tracks only.
3. Click the Extract button to complete the edit.
n
If the clip is sync-locked with another audio or video clip, the other clip
remains on the timeline. You must delete it independently.
n
If Ripple mode is on, however, all the sync-locked elements are deleted.
Revealing Unused Material on Clips
When editing, you often need to see how much material is available at the
head or tail of a clip. When you display unused material, the selected clip
displays red handles on its top corners. These are the reveal handles; when
stretched out, they show any extra frames in a clip.
Reveal in handle
Reveal out handle
Shows extra frames at
the head of Smell clip.
Shows extra frames at the tail of Smell clip.
Extra frames
Activeness bar indicates
active frames in clips.
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To display unused material:
t
Right-click the overview area and select Display > Display Unused
Material.
To reveal or hide frames of unused material on a clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select a clip.
3. Place the pointer over the reveal handle of a clip.
An arrowhead pointing left or right is displayed.
Reveal handles
Extra material
n
You can view extra material only when there is empty space on the track.
Editing on multiple tracks gives you this flexibility.
4. Drag the reveal handles left or right to show or hide unused material.
-
To reveal more frames on the clip, drag the handle outwards. You can
only reveal as far as the last frame on the source clip.
-
To hide frames on the clip, drag the handle inwards. You can only
hide frames up to the active area of the clip.
Changing the Activeness of Clips
Activeness refers to the sections of a clip that are available for the final
sequence. The timeline uses a bottom-up hierarchy for video tracks when
playing sequences. When active clips on the top tracks overlap active clips on
lower tracks, the clips on top track are viewed on top of the clips on the lower
tracks during playback.
These active frames are indicated by the activeness bar below a clip. When
you play a sequence, you can view and hear the active frames of a clip
depending on the clip’s location on the timeline and the track selector settings.
Inactive frames still appear in the timeline, but are not seen or heard when the
sequence is played.
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Manipulating Clips
Activeness bars indicate active clip frames.
You can adjust the activeness bar to add or remove active frames at the head
or tail of the clip. You can also activate or deactivate the entire length of the
clip using the tools on the NLE Tools toolbar.
Activating and Deactivating Clips
In addition to adjusting the activeness bar to trim the heads or tails of clips,
you can also activate or deactivate all the frames in a clip. This is useful when
you have multiple layers of video effects and need to isolate clips on lower
tracks for viewing. Activating a clip on a video track does not change the
activeness of any other clips that overlap it. However, when you activate a clip
on a background track, the overlapping areas of other clips become inactive.
To activate or deactivate the full length of a clip:
1. Place the position indicator at the point where you want to apply the cut.
Selected clip
Before
2. From the toolbar, click Editing and select one of the following:
-
Activate to make all the currently displayed frames in the selected
clip active.
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Activated clip
Video track
After
Activeness bar is added.
Background track
Activated clip
After
Overlapping areas of other
clips become inactive.
-
Activeness bar is
added.
Deactivate to make all frames on the selected clip inactive.
Deactivating a clip does not change the activeness of any other clips
that overlap it.
To activate or deactivate a region of a clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Drag over a section of a clip.
The selected region is highlighted.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing and select one of the following:
-
Activate to make all the frames in the selected region active.
-
Deactivate to deactivate the selected region.
The activeness bar is removed from the selected region.
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Selected region
Before
After
Deactivated section
n
You can also right-click an activeness bar and select Delete Activeness. This
removes its activeness bar.
Activeness of clips on background tracks is not always recalculated when you
deactivate clips or move them on the timeline. You can activate any section of
a selected clip on a background track where it does not overlap other active
clips on background tracks, by using the Fill Activeness command.
To fill in the activeness of a clip:
t
Right-click the clip that needs to be activated and select Fill Activeness.
The clip becomes active wherever there are no other active clips on
background tracks.
Using Locators
The timeline ribbon displays locators, in-points, out-points, loop markers, and
indicates the portions of your timeline that may require processing.
Locators let you set reference points on the timeline, so that you can easily
move to areas of interest. The locators can also be used to help synchronize
clips. Locators display on the timeline ribbon and in the position bars.
You can add locators to clips in the Source viewer to mark a specific
timecode.
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n
Tip: All locators on the timeline ribbon can also be accessed from the
Locators view in the Avid Explorer. For information, see “Displaying Locator
Information” on page 176.
In-point
Out-point
Global locator
Loop markers
Timeline ribbon
Local locator
Clip locator
Locators and markers have magnetism, which pulls a clip in when it is moved
within close proximity to a locator or marker.
n
Tip: At times, it may be difficult to position a clip because there are too many
locators nearby. You can override magnetism by holding down the Shift key
while dragging the clip.
There are two main types of locators:
•
Clip locators are for marking a reference point on a clip.
•
Reference locators are for marking a reference point on the timeline.
You can use locators to synchronize clips on the timeline. Once you set a
locator, you can drag it to a new location, rename it, or add comments to the
locator.
You can place locators on the timeline ribbon or directly on a clip. A locator
placed on the timeline ribbon remains fixed on the timeline. A locator placed
on a clip is fixed to that point on the clip. When the clip moves, its locator
moves with it.
Displaying Locator Information
The Locators view displays information on all the locators on the timeline,
including the timecode and author comments. Locators are a type of electronic
bookmark, which allow you to find and identify specific frames during
editing.
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Using Locators
Using the Locators view as an outline for a show lets you easily jump to any
position within a longer timeline without having to scroll through the timeline
or zoom out and in.
You can also sort on various criteria in the Locators view headings, such as
position, comment, type (clip/timeline/global), video/audio tracks, review and
approval, created by, time, and version.
To access the Locators view:
t
In the My System panel of the Avid Explorer, double-click Views >
Locators.
The Locators view is displayed in a bin.
Locators
Bin tools
Sorting Information in the Locators View
Depending on how you like to view information, you can sort or reverse sort
the locators.
To sort the locators:
t
Click the column heading of the column that you want to sort.
If the information in the column was in ascending order, then the
information is changed to descending order, and vice versa.
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Name column in ascending order.
Name column in descending order.
Setting Reference Locators
You can place reference locators on the timeline ribbon to mark a specific
timecode at which you want to sync a clip or mark events for reference.
Reference locators can be either global or local. Global locators are visible on
the current timeline and within any container clips. Local locators are visible
only on the current timeline.
To place a local locator on the timeline, do one of the following:
t
Double-click the timeline ribbon where you want to set the locator.
t
Right-click the overview area and select Add Locator at Playback
Position > color.
A numbered locator is set on the timeline ribbon at the specified timecode.
To place a global locator on the timeline:
t
Right-click the overview area and select Add Global Locator at
Playback Position > color.
A numbered locator is set on the timeline ribbon at the specified timecode.
To place a locator on a clip in the Source viewer:
1. Move the position indicator located below the Source viewer, to the point
at which you want the locator to be placed.
2. Click the Locator button on the toolbar.
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Using Locators
n
Tip: To change the name or color of the locator, and add comments, open the
locator’s property editor by right-clicking the locator and selecting Locator
Properties.
Placing Locators on Clips
Locators are useful for synchronizing clips with other clips or specific points
on the timeline. You can set locators at any point on a clip.
n
Clip locators do not move with the edit points. If you change activeness on a
clip, you will have to re-mark the edit points.
To place a locator on a clip:
1. Move the position indicator to the point at which you want the locator to
be placed.
2. Right-click the clip, and select Add Locator > At Playback Position >
color.
A colored locator with a numbered label is set on the selected clip at the
position indicator. Each time you add a locator to the clip, the number on
the locator name increments. The numbering starts at 1 on each clip on
which you place locators.
Clip locator
To set a locator at the start or end of a clip:
1. Right-click a clip, and select Add Locator and one of the following:
-
At Clip Start to add a locator at the in-point.
-
At Clip End to add a locator at the out-point.
2. Select a color for the locator.
To set locators at the edit points:
t
Right-click a clip and select Add Locator > At Edit Points > color.
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Moving Locators
After you have set locators, you can move them to different positions. You can
even move a locator from a clip to the timeline ribbon or vice versa.
Clip locators have magnetism, which forces clips to snap to other timeline
objects when they are in close proximity to each other.
n
If the Locator option is selected in the User Preferences dialog box (Editing
property page), you can use the J-K-L keys to move locators in the timeline.
To move a locator on a clip:
1. On the clip, place the pointer over the triangular portion of a locator.
2. When the double-headed arrow is displayed, drag the locator to a new
location.
Move Locator cursor
To move a locator on the timeline ribbon:
1. On the timeline ribbon, place the pointer over a locator.
2. When the double-headed arrow is displayed, drag the locator to a new
location.
To move a clip with a locator:
1. On the clip, place the pointer over the square portion of a locator.
2. When the crosshair cursor is displayed, drag the locator left or right.
The clip moves with the locator as you drag it to a new location. The
locator keeps its position on the clip.
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Using Locators
Move Clip Locator cursor.
To move a clip locator to the timeline ribbon:
1. On the clip, place the pointer over the triangular portion of a locator.
2. When the double-headed arrow is displayed, drag the locator up to a
position on the timeline ribbon.
The clip locator turns into a reference locator on the timeline ribbon.
To move a clip locator to the timeline ribbon and constrain it to the same
timeline location:
t
Hold down the U key and drag the locator up to a position on the timeline
ribbon.
The clip locator turns into a reference locator on the timeline ribbon in the
same timeline location.
To move a local locator to a clip:
1. On the timeline ribbon, place the pointer over a local locator.
2. Drag the locator to a position on a clip.
The local locator turns into a clip locator.
To move a local locator to a clip and constrain it to the same timeline
location:
t
Hold down the U key and drag the locator to a position on the clip.
The local locator turns into a clip locator at the same timeline location.
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Deleting Locators
When locators are no longer needed, you can delete them through the Locators
view or on the timeline.
To delete locators using the Locators view:
1. In the Locators view, select one or more locators.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Press Delete.
t
Right-click one of the locators and select Delete Locator.
The selected locators are removed.
To delete a locator on the timeline:
t
On the timeline ribbon, right-click a locator and select Delete Locator.
To delete multiple locators on the timeline:
1. On the timeline ribbon, press Ctrl and click the locators that you want to
delete.
The locator(s) are selected.
n
You can only select multiple locators of the same type. That is, clip locators
must be selected separately from other types of locators on the timeline
ribbon.
2. Press the Delete key.
To delete all locators:
t
Right-click the timeline and select Delete All Locators.
Moving to Locators
Once you’ve placed locators on clips or the timeline, you can easily jump to
these reference points. When you jump to a locator and there is an active
frame at that point, it is displayed in the viewer.
To jump to a locator, do one of the following:
182
t
In the Locators view, double-click a locator.
t
In the Locators view, right-click a locator and select Go To Locator.
Using Locators
t
On the timeline ribbon, select a locator.
t
On the timeline ribbon, right-click a locator and select Go to This
Locator.
The position indicator immediately moves to the selected timecode.
t
On the NLE Tools toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Next Locator or Go
to Previous Locator.
To move to an in or out-point:
t
If there are any in-points or out-points on the timeline ribbon, click the Go
to In or Go to Out button on the transport controls to place the position
indicator at the respective points.
The position indicator immediately moves to the selected timecode.
n
In-points and out-points of clips on deactivated tracks are skipped when you
move between edit points on the timeline. For more information, “Selecting
Tracks” on page 133.
Annotating Locators
You can rename or add descriptions to your locators for future reference.
Adding comments to locators is a convenient way of noting any specific
frames that need color correcting, scratch removal, trimming, or review and
approval by the client.
To annotate a locator:
1. On the timeline ribbon, right-click a locator and select Locator
Properties.
2. In the Name text box, type a name for the locator.
This name is displayed next to the locator when you click it.
3. In the Comments text box, type a more detailed description for the
locator.
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Changing the Color of Locators
Identifying specific locators is easier with the use of color. With eight colors
to choose from, you can, for example, use red to mark frames that contain
scratches and blue for frames that need some color correction. Once you
choose a color for a locator, it is used in the Locators view, timeline ribbon,
and position bar.
To change the color of a locator:
1. In the Locators view, right-click a locator and select Color.
2. Select a color from the menu.
The color of the locator is changed in the Locators view, timeline ribbon,
and position bar.
Finding Frames, Clips, and Bins
You can retrieve additional material from a master clip, a subclip, or subclip’s
master clip, as well as locate the bin in which you saved your clip.
When you perform a match frame, the master clip or subclip that corresponds to
the currently selected frame is located, and the source master clip or subclip is
loaded in the Source viewer.
Performing a match bin is the same as performing a match frame, but it also
selects the original clip and displays its location in a bin.
Matching a Frame in a Master Clip or Subclip
You can locate the source clip (a master clip or subclip) for the frame
currently displayed in either the Record viewer or Source viewer. This feature
is useful when you want to relocate and reedit source material, such as
subclips and master clips.
Match framing loads the source clip into the Source viewer for the frame
currently displayed in the active viewer (Source viewer or Record viewer). It
cues to the matching frame in the source clip and marks an in-point. Any
original in-point or out-points are removed from the source clip.
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Finding Frames, Clips, and Bins
You can also use the Match Frame feature to locate clips quickly, based on
media relatives, when you have forgotten their location. For example, you can
matchframe a cut in the sequence to its original subclip, matchframe the
subclip to the original master clip, and then locate the bin in which the master
clip is saved. Match framing stops when you reach the master clip.
n
You can also locate frames in a sequence that match a selected source
frame—see “Performing a Reverse Match Frame” on page 186.
Match framing does not create a permanent sync relationship between clips
but provides a convenient way of locating, marking, and editing matching
material.
You cannot perform a match frame directly on a container clip, unless it is a
timewarp container. You must first open the container clip and select the
desired clip. For sync-locked master clips, select either the audio or video clip,
and Avid DS Nitris will locate the corresponding video and audio components
of the source media.
To locate the source clip of a selected frame:
1. Load a sequence on the timeline or a subclip into the Source viewer.
2. Move the position indicator to the frame you want to match.
3. Do one of the following:
t
If matchframing from a sequence, click the clip to select it.
t
In the Track selector, select the track for the frame that you want to
match—see “Track Selector” in the Help.
4. Click the Match Frame button below the viewer displaying the desired
frame to match.
The clip’s corresponding master or subclip is located and loaded into the
Source viewer, and markers are added to indicate the source in and outpoints of the clip. The position indicator below the Source viewer is
placed at the precise timecode to match the frame you selected for match
framing.
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Length of parent/master clip
Length of clip on timeline
Position bar
In-point
Position indicator
Out-point
5. (Option) Click the Match Frame button below the Source viewer to
locate the next corresponding parent clip.
6. If necessary, you can replace frames at this point—see “Placing Preedited Clips on the Timeline” on page 123.
Performing a Reverse Match Frame
You can locate the frames in a sequence that match the frame selected in the
Source viewer. If the frame exists in more than one place, the sequence cues to
the first location of the match frame and continues through the sequence to
subsequent locations each time you click the Reverse Match Frame button.
You can perform reverse match frames on sequences that contain timewarp
container and container clips. However, you might receive false-positives for
position/speed timewarp container clips. For example, the timewarp is
highlighted as containing the frame, but the frame is not present in the
timewarp container clip.
To perform a reverse match frame:
1. Load a sequence on the timeline.
2. Load the source clip in the Source viewer.
3. In the Track selector, select the tracks you want to search for the matching
frame—see “Track Selector” in the Help.
4. Move the position indicator to the frame that you want to match.
5. Click the Reverse Match Frame button.
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The sequence is cued to the first matching frame.
6. Click the Reverse Match Frame button again to continue locating
matching frames in the sequence.
Finding the Bin for a Clip or Subclip
You can locate the bin for any clip selected on the timeline or displayed in the
Source viewer. You cannot do this directly on a container clip. You must first
open the container clip and select the desired clip. For sync-locked clips, you
can select either the audio or video clip to find the bin containing the selected
clip’s master clip or subclip.
To find the bin containing a clip or subclip:
1. Move the position indicator to the desired frame.
2. Click the Match Bin button below the active viewer.
The bin containing the clip’s corresponding master or subclip is displayed
with the master or subclip selected. The master or subclip is loaded into
the Source viewer and markers are added to indicate the source in and outpoints of the clip on the timeline. The position indicator below the Source
viewer is placed at the precise timecode to match the currently displayed
frame on the timeline.
Extracting Parts of a Sequence
You can extract portions of your sequence to create new master clips. You can
create master clips from selected regions on the timeline, or from selected
objects.
This is useful when you’re satisfied with the effects that you’ve applied to a
clip, and you want to create a new master clip that includes the effects, or
when you want to create a single master clip from the contents of a container
clip. Combining effects or container contents in a single clip can help to
reduce processing time.
You can convert individual clips, multiple clips, or regions of the timeline to
new master clips. If you’ve selected regions of the timeline or multiple
timeline objects, you can create a single new master clip that combines all of
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the selected timeline material, or multiple new master clips; one for each
selected object. You can automatically replace the existing timeline material
with the new master clips.
n
If you create a single master clip from both audio and video material, the
result is a combined audio and video clip.
You can also specify what types of tracks to convert from the timeline, and
configure processing options.
Converted clips will include timeline material in different ways, depending on
how you select material.
If you select...
The new master clip will include...
One clip
The clip and all of its effects.
Multiple clips on one
track
All selected clips, all clip effects, and track effects.
Frames in the new master clip are black for the duration of
unselected material between clips.
Multiple clips on multiple All selected clips, all clip effects, all track effects, and
tracks
timeline effects. Frames in the new master clip are black
for the duration of unselected material between clips.
Time span on one track
All material in the selected time span, including clips, clip
effects, and track effects. Frames in the new master clip
are black for the duration of unselected material between
clips.
Time span on multiple
tracks
All material in the selected time span, including clips, clip
effects, track effects and timeline effects. Frames in the
new master clip are black for the duration of unselected
material between clips.
Time span on the timeline All material in the selected time span.
effect track
Converting a Timeline Region or Object
You can convert a portion of your timeline or an object on the timeline to a
master clip.
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To convert a region of your timeline or a timeline object to a clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Do one of the following:
t
On the timeline effect track, drag to select a region.
t
Select one or more objects on the timeline.
3. From the toolbar, click Generate > Timeline to Clip.
4. In the Timeline to Clip Options dialog box, select the appropriate options.
5. Click OK.
The new clip is processed and saved to the bin you specified.
For detailed information on the Timeline to Clip properties, click the Help
button.
Creating Multiple Clips
You can convert a timeline region or multiple selected clips into multiple
master clips.
To create multiple clips from objects on the timeline:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Do one of the following:
t
On the timeline effect track, drag to select a region.
t
Select one or more objects on the timeline.
3. From the toolbar, click Generate > Timeline to Clip.
4. In the Timeline to Clip Options dialog box, select the appropriate options,
making sure to deselect Create one clip and click OK.
For detailed information on the Timeline to Clip properties, click the Help
button.
The new clips are processed and saved to the bin you specified.
n
You cannot create multiple clips from a selected timeline region. To create
multiple clips, you must multi-select objects on the timeline.
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Replacing Timeline Material
Replacing the timeline material overwrites the Timeline to Clip source
material with the new master clip.
To replace material on the timeline with new master clips:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Do one of the following:
t
On the timeline effect track, drag to select a region.
t
Select one or more objects on the timeline.
3. From the toolbar, click Generate > Timeline to Clip.
4. In the Timeline to Clip Options dialog box, select the appropriate options,
making sure to select Replace Selection.
For detailed information on the Timeline to Clip properties, click Help.
5. Click OK.
The new clip is processed and saved to the bin you specified. The Timeline to
Clip Options dialog box is closed, and you are returned to the timeline. The
new clips appear on the timeline in place of the selection.
n
You cannot replace a region of the timeline with multiple clips, even if the
region spans multiple clips. Instead, clips, or parts of clips in the selected
region, will be replaced with a single clip.
Grabbing Frames
You can create master clips or image files from the frame currently displayed
in the Record viewer.
Creating a Master Clip from a Snapshot
You can create a master clip from the image on which the position indicator is
currently positioned. The master clip is automatically captured (logged and
digitized) under the name and location you specify. The resulting master clip
is identical to other master clips and lets you to recapture it at a different
resolution or compression ratio. You can specify the length of a master clip.
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Rippling Clips
To create a master clip:
1. On the timeline, move the position indicator to the desired frame.
2. From the toolbar, click Generate > Snapshot to Clip.
3. In the Save Snapshot dialog box, specify the bin and file name, and
click OK.
n
The Snapshot to Clip command works best with images that are set to
uncompressed and full D1 resolution.
A master clip is created in the bin you specified.
Creating an Image File from a Snapshot
You can export an image of the frame on which the position indicator is
currently positioned. The image is exported as a bitmap image file in one of
several formats and saved in a bin you specify.
To create an image file:
1. On the timeline, move the position indicator to the desired frame.
2. From the toolbar, click Generate > Snapshot to File.
3. In the Export to File dialog box, specify the bin, file name, and file type
and click OK.
4. Depending on the file type you select, a dialog box might display that lets
you to set options, such as video levels, bit depth, and compression.
The image file is saved in the bin you specified. You can import the file
into Avid DS Nitris or use it in other applications.
Rippling Clips
The Ripple mode lets you preserve the integrity of previous edits as you
continue to perform other edits on the timeline. As you move, trim, insert, or
delete clips on the timeline, you can decide if the clips that follow the edit
point should move to accommodate the change.
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Inserting clips in Ripple mode.
You can ripple all tracks (timeline effect, video, background, and audio)
across the timeline or limit the rippling only to the video tracks or other
selected tracks. For example, if you’ve already edited your video clips, and
now want to work on the audio alone, simply activate the Ripple mode only
for the audio tracks.
n
When you activate the Ripple mode on any background track, it is also
activated on all background tracks. Only the audio and video tracks can be
rippled on a per track basis.
Working in Ripple mode is like working in insert mode. When you insert a
clip anywhere along the timeline, any successive clips are automatically
pushed later in time. Any clips that are sync-locked, such as the audio and
video components of a clip, are rippled in sync. The edits of any preceding
clips are not affected.
When you’re not in Ripple mode, you’re in the default overwrite mode. Any
clip that you place on the timeline occupies the space in which it was placed. It
does not change the position or activeness of the other clips.
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Rippling Clips
To activate or deactivate Ripple mode:
1. From the timeline controls, click the main Ripple button.
The Ripple mode is activated. By default, the Ripple buttons on all the
tracks are also activated and highlighted in blue. This makes all clips in a
sequence ripple across the timeline as you perform your edits.
Activate Ripple mode
Main Ripple button
Activate timeline
effect track ripple
Activate track ripple
2. Deactivate the Ripple button on tracks that you do not want to ripple as
you insert new clips on the timeline.
3. To deactivate the Ripple mode, click the main Ripple button.
The Ripple mode is deactivated for all tracks on the timeline.
Notice that the setting of the Ripple buttons on the tracks is preserved
even after the Ripple mode is deactivated. Although the buttons are not
highlighted in blue, they still appear activated.
Active state is
preserved
This indicates that you’re inserting clips from the Source viewer to the
timeline. The Insert button on the Source and Record viewer temporarily
activates the Ripple mode, allowing you to ripple clips on tracks where
this button is activated. For more information, see “Manipulating Clips”
on page 162.
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Setting a Ripple End
You can select a timecode beyond which you no longer want to work in
Ripple mode. Setting the ripple end at this timecode leaves Ripple mode on for
the preceding time span, and turns it off for the succeeding time span.
When you place clips on the timeline before the ripple end, any successive
clips will be pushed up to, but not beyond the ripple end timecode. Clips
placed after the ripple simply occupy the space where they are placed, without
changing the position or activeness of the other clips.
To set the ripple end:
1. Move the position indicator to the timecode where you want to deactivate
Ripple mode.
2. From the toolbar, click Editing > Set Ripple End.
A light blue bar is displayed on the timeline, indicating the end of the
ripple zone.
To reactivate Ripple mode for the complete timeline:
t
Move the position indicator to the ripple end timecode and click Editing
> Set Ripple End again.
Inserting Clips in Ripple Mode
You can insert clips at a specified point on the timeline by activating the
Ripple mode. When the clip is inserted, all other clips from that point are
pushed forward.
To insert a clip on the timeline:
Main Ripple button
1. From the timeline controls, click the Main Ripple button.
2. Click the Ripple button on the tracks that you want to ripple forward.
3. Drag a clip from a bin or Source viewer to the timeline.
All other clips from that timecode forward are rippled on the tracks where
the Ripple mode was activated. If you inserted the clip in the middle of
another clip, that clip is split into two and the new clip is inserted between
them.
n
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Press the V (insert) or B (overwrite) keys while dragging clips to the timeline
will override the current ripple setting.
Rippling Clips
Inserting clip in Ripple mode.
Before
Insertion point
Ripple mode on
Ripple mode off
Only clips on the tracks in
Ripple mode are moved.
Inserted clip
Remainder of clip is rippled.
After
Clip not rippled.
Editing Clips in Ripple Mode
When moving, trimming, or deleting clips while in Ripple mode, it’s
important to preserve the integrity of edit points on other clips. Any edits that
you perform to one clip affects all successive clips on the timeline.
Instead of rippling all clips on the timeline, you can select the tracks on which
you want clips to ripple. This is useful, for instance, when you do not want the
trimming of video clips to affect the audio clips.
To edit a clip in Ripple mode:
Main Ripple button
1. From the timeline controls, click the main Ripple button.
2. Click the Ripple button on the tracks that you want to ripple.
3. Adjust the clip’s edit points as necessary.
All clips are moved left or right to accommodate the changes on the
selected clip.
If you delete a clip, all succeeding clips are moved together to close the
gap where the clip was active.
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Position of clips before deletion.
Clip to be deleted.
Position of clips after deletion (in Ripple mode).
Clips moved by amount of
deleted clip’s activeness.
Synchronizing Clips
Synchronizing (syncing) clips refers to aligning points on different clips, so
that they occur simultaneously. When you synchronize clips in
Avid DS Nitris, you can sync-lock them together, so that they do not fall out
of alignment. You can break the sync-lock on clips at any time to edit them
independently of each other.
A locked group of synchronized clips is called a sync group. Each sync group
has a master clip and one or more slave clips. The master clip acts as the focal
point for the sync group, and the position of slave clips is always relative to
the master clip’s position.
One of the most common synchronization tasks that you can perform is
syncing audio clips with video clips, so that the sound in the audio clip
matches the action in the video clip.
Aligning Clips for Synchronization
Using locators can help you synchronize video and audio clips. You can place
reference locators on the timeline ribbon and then drag the clip locator to align
it with the reference locators or with other clip locators.
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To align a clip at a specific timecode:
1. Move the position indicator to the timecode at which you want to
synchronize the clips.
2. Right-click the timeline ribbon and select Add Locator at Playback
Position > color.
This places a local locator on the timeline ribbon to define the point at
which to align your clips.
3. Right-click the clip and select Add Locator > location.
A clip locator with a triangular head is displayed on the clip.
Reference locator
Clip locators
4. Place a locator on each of the other clips that are to be aligned.
5. Drag the head of the clip locator left or right to align it with the reference
locator.
The clip turns blue and moves with the locator as you drag it. When you
get close to the reference locator, the magnetism between the locators
helps align the clip.
Audio and video clips
aligned at position of
reference locator.
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6. Align the other clips in the same way.
Creating a Sync Group
Once you’re satisfied with the way the clips are aligned, you can lock them
together in a sync group. When you move one clip, the rest of the group moves
with it. This is especially useful when trimming audio and video clips on
multiple tracks, because the sound and accompanying images are trimmed
in sync.
You can have any number of video or audio clips synchronized together, but
you must select at least two clips to apply a sync-lock. The master clip is the
center of the sync group. If the position of any clip is offset, the offset will
always be displayed as the number of frames from the master clip.
When you create a sync group, the order in which you selected the clips is
maintained. If you delete the master clip in the group, the second clip that you
originally selected becomes the new master clip.
n
When a clip containing both audio and video is placed on the timeline, its
audio and video components fall on separate tracks as individual clips. These
clips remain sync-locked to each other.
To lock clips in sync:
1. Align your clips on the timeline.
2. Do one of the following:
t
Press Ctrl and click at least two clips to lock together.
t
Place the position indicator on the clips you want to lock together.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Sync Lock.
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Synchronizing Clips
The name of the first clip that you selected ends with “Master” while the
names of the other clips end with “Slave”.
Master clip
Slave clip
n
If the selected clips are already synchronized, when you click Editing > Sync
Lock the synchronization is broken. The Sync Lock command can lock clips
and unlock clips, depending on the synchronization status of the clips.
Adding to an Existing Sync Group
As you place clips on the timeline, you can add them to existing sync groups.
If, for example, you have a sync group containing a video track and an audio
track, you can align a second audio track with the sync group, and add it to the
group when you’re satisfied with its position.
To add clips to a sync group:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select a clip from the sync group to which you want to add the clip.
3. Press Ctrl and select the clip that you want to add to the sync group.
4. From the toolbar, click Editing > Sync Lock.
The clip is added to the sync group.
Combining Two Sync Groups
You can combine two or more sync groups to form a single group, containing
all of the clips in the original groups. The clips in the second group that you
select are appended, as slave clips, to the first group that you select.
To combine existing sync groups:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select a clip from the sync group that you want to combine with
another group.
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3. Press Ctrl and select a clip from the group that you want to add.
4. From the toolbar, click Editing > Sync Lock.
The groups are merged into a single sync group. The clips in the added
group are all slaves and the master of the first group remains the master.
Unlocking Synchronized Clips
You can remove individual clips from a sync group without removing them
from the timeline. When a clip is no longer synchronized, you can edit it
independently of the other clips in the group. If you remove the master clip
from a sync group, the next clip that you originally selected becomes the new
master clip.
n
Applying the Timewarp, Interlace/Deinterlace, and 3:2 Expand/3:2 Contract
effects automatically breaks the lock on synchronized clips.
To break a sync-lock:
1. Do one of the following:
t
t
Place the position indicator on the synchronized clips.
On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button, and
select one or more synchronized clips.
2. From the toolbar, click Editing > Sync Lock.
Only the selected clips are removed from the rest of the sync group, and
can now be edited independently.
Manipulating Synchronized Clips
You can select and move synchronized clips the same way that you would
with non-synchronized clips. There are, however, a few differences.
When you select synchronized clips, they are surrounded by a red border.
Other clips in the group are surrounded in yellow to indicate that they’re part
of the same group, but were not directly selected. If you multi-select clips in a
group or select an entire group, the selected clips will share the focus, and be
surrounded in brown.
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Synchronizing Clips
When you move synchronized clips, the entire group moves together. You
can, however, move single clips in a sync group independently of the other
clips in the group. For more information, see “Manipulating Clips” on
page 162.
Selecting All Clips in a Sync Group
You can select all of the clips in a sync group at the same time. This is useful
if, for example, you want to delete an entire sync group.
To select all clips in a sync group:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Click one clip from the group that you want to select.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Select Sync Peers.
All clips in the sync group are selected. Selected clips have red handles
and an orange outline.
Moving Synchronized Clips Independently
When Ripple mode is off, you can move one clip in the sync group
independently of the other clips in the group. Moving synchronized clips
independently creates an offset between the master clip and slave clips. When
an offset occurs, the name of each offset slave clip turns red, and includes the
number of frames by which it is offset from the master clip.
n
If you move a group’s master clip independently, all of the slave clips in the
group will show an offset.
To move a synchronized clip independently:
1. Make sure that the Main Ripple button is deselected.
2. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
3. On the timeline, select the clip that you want to move.
4. Press the W key, drag the clip along the timeline.
The position of the other clips in the sync group will not change. Any
resulting offsets will be displayed next to the names of the slave clips.
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Cutting Synchronized Clips
You can cut one or more clips in a sync group in two. When you cut a single
clip, the part that you cut off remains synchronized as a new clip. If you cut
multiple clips in a group, the two new clips or group of clips become a new
sync group with the same master/slave relationships as the original group. For
more information, see “Cutting Clips” on page 168.
Editing Synchronized Clips
The same rules that apply to editing clips on the timeline apply to all
synchronized clips. That is, you can still move, slide, or trim them.
When you edit synchronized clips, red handles appear on the first selected edit
point. You can use the trim handles to adjust the clip as necessary. If you want
to trim multiple clips in the group simultaneously, you can select the edit
points of all sync group members at the same timecode.
To select all synced edit points at a specific timecode:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select an edit point of a clip in the sync group.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Select Sync Peers.
All of the sync group members’ edit points, at the same timecode, are
selected. The clips can now be edited simultaneously.
n
When working with synced audio and video clips, it may be necessary to trim
an edit point on one clip independently of the others. For example, if you want
a synchronized audio clip to continue for a few seconds past the end of its
video clip peers, you can perform a split edit. For more information, see
“Selecting Trim Sides” on page 215.
Resyncing Clips
Offsets that were created by moving a synchronized clip independently of its
peers can be corrected, partially or even completely, by resyncing the clip.
Resyncing slips the offset clip until the offset is back to zero, or until the offset
clip runs out of unused material. For more information, see “Understanding
Slipping or Sliding Clips” on page 232.
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Synchronizing Clips
To resync an offset clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. On the timeline, select the offset clip.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Resync.
The clip is slipped until the offset is corrected, or no unused material is
left.
Deleting Synchronized Clips
When you delete a sync-locked clip, only the highlighted clip is deleted. The
other clips that were synchronized with it remain synchronized. If you delete
an entire group, none of the clips remain on the timeline.
If you delete a group’s master clip, the second clip that you selected when you
created the group becomes the new master clip. All subsequently selected
clips remain as slave clips.
If the group from which you deleted the clip contained only two clips, the
other clip in the group will remain on the timeline as a single clip (neither
master nor slave).
To delete a synchronized clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. On the timeline, select a clip to delete.
A red border surrounds the selected clip.
3. Press Delete to delete the clip.
The selected clip is removed. If the group contained more than two clips,
the next selected clip in the group becomes the new master clip.
To delete a sync group:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select one clip from the group that you want to delete.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Select Sync Peers.
4. Press Delete to delete the clip.
The selected group is removed.
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Referencing Sequences
Referencing other sequences lets you add placeholders to other sequences on
the timeline in the current sequence. These placeholders are called reference
clips.
A reference clip points to another sequence within the current project. Because
reference clips only point to a sequence, they consume less memory and load
faster than container clips. This improves performance on complex timelines.
Using a reference clip also lets you work on that portion of your sequence
separately. Once it’s updated, the changes are automatically reflected in
sequences that contain this reference clip.
n
Sequences that reference other sequences might not reflect changes if the
referenced sequence contains a reference clip to another sequence. For
example, if sequence C references sequence B, and sequence B references
sequence A; then any changes to sequence A will not appear in sequence C
until you open and save sequence B. The reason for opening and saving
sequence B is to update its information about sequence A, because sequence C
only sees sequence A through sequence B.
Creating Reference Clips
You can create a reference to any sequence that exists within the current
project. A reference clip cannot be placed on a track if it completely covers
another clip. In this case, you must place the reference clip on a different track.
To create a reference to an existing sequence:
1. Select a sequence from the Avid Explorer.
2. Press the Alt key and drag the sequence to the timeline.
The sequence is displayed as a clip on the timeline.
Converting a Container Clip to a Reference Clip
You can lighten the load on your timeline and improve performance by
converting complex container clips to reference clips. This saves the contents
of the container clip to disk as a sequence. In the container clip’s place on the
timeline a reference clip points to the saved sequence.
204
Referencing Sequences
To convert a container clip to a reference clip:
1. Right-click the container clip and select Convert to Reference Clip.
You are prompted to save your current sequence.
2. Click OK to save the current sequence and continue.
The current sequence is saved, and the container clip is saved as a
sequence with the same name as the container clip.
To open a reference clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. Select the reference clip.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Expand Ref Clip.
To close a reference clip:
t
From the toolbar, click Editing > Collapse Ref Clip.
The reference clip is closed and the top timeline is displayed.
Processing Reference Clips
If a reference clip contains any unprocessed material, then the marker ribbon
and/or clip is highlighted in red and a message “Referenced sequence needs
processing” is displayed in the Record viewer during playback.
n
Processing a reference clip from a master sequence using the Process
Reference command does not let you select processing options. The referenced
sequence is processed according to the processing options of that sequence,
except that it will change the mode to Minimal.
To process a single reference clip:
1. Place the position indicator on a reference clip you want to process.
2. From the toolbar, click Processing > Process Reference Clip.
You are prompted to save the current sequence.
3. Click OK to save the current sequence or click Cancel to bypass the save.
Avid DS Nitris closes the current sequence, opens the referenced
sequence, processes it, saves it, and then reloads the original sequence.
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Chapter 4 Building a Rough Cut
To process the entire timeline, including any reference clips:
1. From the toolbar, click Processing > Process Timeline and References.
You are prompted to save the current sequence.
2. Click OK to save the current sequence or click Cancel to bypass the save.
Avid DS Nitris processes the entire timeline, and also opens and
processes any reference clips on the top timeline.
206
Chapter 5
Trimming Clips
This chapter describes how to trim edit points after you create a rough
cut sequence.
•
Workflow: Trimming Clips
•
Understanding Trimming
•
Methods of Trimming
•
Understanding Trim Mode
•
Selecting and Breaking Edit Points
•
Performing a Basic Trim
•
Creating Overlap Edits
•
Trimming Container Clips
•
Trimming Transition Effects
•
Understanding Slipping or Sliding Clips
•
Maintaining Sync While Trimming
Workflow: Trimming Clips
Trimming is the process of fine-tuning the transitions between clips to create
smooth transitions for the final sequence.
The following illustration shows how you can trim edit points.
Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
1
Select either edit handles, trim
handles, or clips.
Trim handles
2
Perform a dual-roll trim or a single-roll trim.
Drag the selected trim object right or
left to trim the edit point.
Clip
Before
<Edit handles
3
Trim with Ripple mode to change
recording timecode.
After
4
Transition area
Main Ripple button
Trim clips using Trim mode.
Enter Trim mode to display the
incoming and outgoing frame for
fine-tuning the trim.
208
Trim transition effects.
Use the tools in Trim mode or drag the
transition’s edit points to trim transition effects.
Set Ripple mode to change the recording
timecode when trimming with trim handles.
5
Trimming to
the left.
6
Slip or slide a clip using Slip/Slide mode.
Enter Slip/Slide mode to display the
head, tail, incoming, and outgoing
frames when slipping or sliding a clip.
Understanding Trimming
Understanding Trimming
Basic editing in the timeline initially produces a rough cut, which can be
loosely defined as a series of straight-cut edits with many rough edges and few
effects. After creating a rough cut, you can fine-tune the transitions between
each clip or between several clips. You can also trim edits as you build a
sequence rather than create a rough cut first.
Trimming lets you fine-tune the incoming or outgoing frames at the edit points
of a clip. Each clip has elements that you can select and edit: the trim handles
and edit points. Edit points are located at the ends of the activeness bar of a
clip, or where it transitions to another clip.
Selected activeness bar.
Edit points
The activeness bar also displays any transition effects that were applied to the
clip, such as a dissolve, wipe, or crossfade. Transition areas have their own
edit points that indicate the beginning and end of the transition. For more
information, see “Applying Transitions” on page 298.
Edit point
Edit point
Transition area
Activeness bar
When you select an edit point, it displays trim handles and edit handles at that
edit point.
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Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
Trim-out handle
Changes the outgoing
frame on clip A.
Trim-in handle
Changes the incoming
frame on clip B.
Base edit handle
Changes edit time without moving clips.
The edit point identifies the time at which the indicated frame will start or end
recording. You can trim clips by adjusting the edit or trim handles at an edit
point.
Trimming the edit handle changes the incoming or outgoing frame and the
recording timecode. Adjusting the trim handle changes the incoming or
outgoing frame, but keeps the recording timecode (unless in Ripple mode).
For more information, see “Rippling Clips” on page 191.
When trimming clips, it’s helpful to know how much material you have
available. You can use the Display Unused Material mode to see how many
extra frames you have available at the head or tail of a clip. For more
information, see “Revealing Unused Material on Clips” on page 171.
Methods of Trimming
There are two methods in which you can trim clips. Both methods have their
advantages:
•
Interactively on the timeline
When you trim clips on the timeline, you immediately see how it affects
the other clips in the sequence. Also, when you select and drag an edit or
trim handle, the frames are updated in the Record viewer, so that you can
search for frames as you trim the clip.
•
Using the Trim mode
This mode provides a set of controls for fine-tuning edits, as well as
viewing the incoming and outgoing frames at the same time. It also
provides more controls for performing trimming tasks.
210
Understanding Trim Mode
For more information, see “Understanding Trim Mode” on page 211.
n
When trimming a clip, you may want to preserve the integrity of edit points on
other clips. To do this, you must deactivate the Ripple mode on the timeline.
Trimming a clip provides different results depending on whether you’re
working in Ripple mode or not. For more information, see “Rippling Clips”
on page 191.
Understanding Trim Mode
The Trim mode provides a close-up view of a clip, so that you can trim the clip
on a frame-by-frame basis. The results are the same as if you were dragging
the clip’s trim handles or edit points on the timeline, except that you are given
more tools to work with in the Trim mode.
The Trim mode lets you precisely trim the incoming and outgoing frames at
the selected edit point of clips on the timeline. You can adjust frames at an edit
point by entering new in and out times or by using the trim buttons to move
the frames incrementally.
The information in the Trim mode is based on what you select on the timeline.
You must first select an edit point or transition between two clips to see the
incoming or outgoing frames in the Trim mode. Use the Previous Edit and
Next Edit buttons in the Trim mode to go to an edit point.
Select the incoming or outgoing frame, and use the trim buttons to change the
position of the edit point in the corresponding clip. If you select both panes, by
clicking between the incoming and outgoing views or by holding the Shift key
and selecting them one at a time, clicking the trim buttons will move the edit
point without changing the position of either clip.
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Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
Outgoing frame
Trim Mode
Incoming frame
Transition buttons
Transport controls
Trim Nudge buttons
Transition Alignment
Frame Offset Counters
Transition Duration Timecode box
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Trim Mode controls.
Entering and Exiting Trim Mode
You can enter Trim mode either manually or automatically when you select an
edit point on the timeline.
To manually access the Trim mode:
1. From the taskbar, click the Editing button.
2. From the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button to
switch to Selection mode.
3. Select an edit point in the timeline.
4. From the timeline navigation bar, click the Trim Mode button.
The Source/Record viewers are replaced with the Trim mode and trim
controls. If you did not select an edit point before entering Trim mode, the
transition nearest the position indicator is selected for trimming.
212
Understanding Trim Mode
To automatically access the Trim mode when you select an edit point:
1. Right-click the Trim Mode button and select Switch for Edit.
2. Right-click the Trim Mode button and select Autoswitch.
When you select an edit point in the timeline, you access Trim mode. Deselect
Switch for Edit to return to manually accessing the Trim mode.
To exit Trim mode, do one of the following:
t
From the timeline navigation bar, click the Trim Mode button.
t
From the timeline navigation bar, click the Source/Record view button.
t
Click a location in the timeline. The position indicator moves to the
location and returns to navigation in Source/Record view if the
Autoswitch command is selected.
Trimming Clips in Trim Mode
You can select the clip to be trimmed by clicking the Incoming or Outgoing
frame in the Trim mode. A red border around the view indicates that it is
active. If you want to trim the edit point between two adjoining clips, select
both the Incoming and Outgoing frames by clicking between the incoming and
outgoing views or by pressing the Shift key and clicking each frame.
There are several ways of trimming clips:
•
Drag the trim-in or trim-out handles left or right to change the incoming
or outgoing frames of a clip. This does not change the recording timecode.
•
Drag the edit handle left or right to change the start or end time at which a
clip is recorded. This also changes the incoming or outgoing frame. When
trimming with the edit handles, it does not matter if Ripple mode is on or
off.
•
Use the Nudge Right 1 Frame (>), Nudge Right 10 Frame (>>), Nudge
Left 1 Frame (<), and Nudge Right 10 Frame (<<) buttons to move the
clip/edit point forward or backward and trim frames at the selected edit
point. As you trim the edit point, the frames of the clip are hidden or
revealed to reflect the new incoming or outgoing frame.
These buttons appear dimmed when there are no more frames available at
the head or tail of the clip.
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Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
•
Enter values in the Frame Offset Counter text box to move the edit point
forward or backward. A positive number moves the edit point forward,
and a negative number moves it backward.
•
Use the J-K-L keys to trim the selected edit point.
As you trim clips in the Trim mode, the timeline updates to reflect the new
edit points.
Reviewing a Trim Edit or Transition in Trim Mode
After you trim an edit point in Trim mode, you can review the trim edit to
verify the trim. You can also play a transition in a loop to view the transition.
There are two procedures for reviewing a trim edit or playing a transition
while in Trim mode.
To review the most recent trim edit or play the selected transition using
the Play Preview button:
t
Click the Play Preview button.
The Avid DS Nitris system enters a playback loop. This loop begins at a
preroll point before the transition and ends at a postroll point, pausing
briefly before beginning playback again.
To review the most recent trim edit or to play the selected transition:
1. Click the Loop button.
The Loop mode is activated and loop markers appear on the timeline
ribbon.
2. Click the Play button.
Avid DS Nitris enters a playback loop. This loop begins at a pre-roll point
before the transition and ends at a post-roll point, pausing briefly before
beginning playback again.
n
To make adjustments to the playback loop for preroll or postroll, see “Editing
Property Page” in the Help.
3. Stop the playback loop by clicking the Play button again.
4. Click the Loop button again to deactivate the Loop mode and remove the
loop markers.
214
Selecting and Breaking Edit Points
Selecting and Breaking Edit Points
Before you can trim a clip, you need to select an edit point. When you select
an edit point on a clip, its trim handles and edit handles are displayed.
Depending on the type of trim you want to perform, you can select and
deselect the various trim handles and edit handles.
When an edit point is selected, all other edit points at that timecode are also
selected. You can break linked edit points to trim the clips independently of
each other.
n
Before you can select edit point and trim handles on the timeline, you must
click the Selection Mode button on the timeline navigation bar to enter the
Selection mode.
Selecting Trim Sides
You can select and deselect the various trim handles and edit handles of a
clips’s edit point. When you select an edit point you are selecting the clip’s in
or out-point.
With video clips, an edit point is shared when one clip intersects with another.
If you adjust this edit point, you perform a dual-roller trim in which both clips
are trimmed simultaneously.
You can perform a single-roller trim by selecting either an in-point or
out-point. You can also select edit points on multiple audio and video clips at
the same timecode. This is useful when editing synchronized audio and video
clips. When an edit point is selected, you can turn it on or off. This is
especially useful if you want to break an edit point, so that you can trim clips
independently of each other (or perform a split edit).
To select an edit point, do one of the following:
t
On the activeness bar, click an edit point.
t
In Trim mode, click the Go to Previous Edit or Go to Next Edit button.
By default, Avid DS Nitris selects the nearest transition in either direction
of selected tracks for trimming.
215
Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
To select edit points on multiple audio and video clips:
t
t
t
Press Shift and drag left to right on the timeline to surround the transitions
you want to trim.
This method is useful when you need to select multiple transitions
staggered across parallel tracks (overlap cuts) for simultaneous trimming.
Press Shift and click an edit point.
All other edit points at the same timecode are selected regardless of the
clip type.
Press Ctrl and click an edit point to select or deselect the edit point or trim
handles for single-roll trimming.
Select an edit
point.
Both edit points
on connected
clips become
selected.
Video clips
Audio clips
Shift-click to select
all edit points at
that timecode.
Ctrl-click to deselect
an edit point.
To deselect all edit points:
t
216
Click another location on the timeline.
Selecting and Breaking Edit Points
To select the sides of a transition to trim, do one of the following:
t
In Trim mode, click the Outgoing (A-side) or Incoming (B-side) frame.
A red border surrounds the incoming and outgoing frames to indicate
which clip will be trimmed.
t
In Trim mode, click between the outgoing (A-side) or incoming (B-side)
frame to select both sides of a transition.
A red border surrounds both the incoming and outgoing frames.
t
Click the trim handles to select or deselect side A, side B, or both.
The selected trim handle turns yellow and a red border surrounds the
incoming and outgoing frames to indicate which clip will be trimmed.
Select a trim handle.
Breaking and Relinking Edit Points
When an edit point is selected, all other edit points at that timecode are also
selected. You can break edit points to independently trim clips. Since
Avid DS Nitris preserves all edit points between clips in a sequence, you
cannot break an edit point by dragging edit points apart. To break edit points,
you must use the Break Links command on the NLE Tools toolbar. Linked
edit points are highlighted in yellow.
217
Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
Dragging an
intersecting edit
point right or left
adjusts both points
at that timecode.
Ctrl-click an edit
point to deselect it.
You can now trim this edit point independently.
To break an edit point:
t
Select the edit points of contiguous clips, and do one of the following:
-
Press Ctrl and deselect the edit point that you do not want to adjust.
The deselected edit point is no longer highlighted.
-
From the toolbar, click Editing > Break Links.
You can now trim the clips independently of each other.
To relink edit points at the same timecode:
1. Select an unlinked edit point.
2. (Optional) Press Ctrl and click another edit point (of the same clip type) at
the same timecode.
Both edit points are highlighted.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Link Edits.
Linked edit points are highlighted with yellow.
218
Performing a Basic Trim
Performing a Basic Trim
With transitions and trim sides selected, you can perform a basic trim by doing
any of the following:
n
•
In the Trim mode, use the Trim buttons to trim forwards or backwards by
one or ten-frame increments—see “Understanding Trim Mode” on
page 211.
•
Use the J-K-L keys to trim forwards or backwards in the sequence—see
“Trimming On-the-Fly” on page 228.
•
Use the keyboard or numeric keypad to:
-
Move the transition a specific number of frames, type a plus sign (+)
or minus sign (–) after you type the number of frames (from 1 to 99)
that you want to move forward or backward. Then, press Enter.
-
If the number of frames is larger than 99, type a period (.) before you
type the number of frames. For example, to enter 100 frames, type
.100 and press Enter. The transition moves 3 seconds and 10 frames.
-
Move the transition to an exact point in the timecode, type a timecode
number larger than 99, including frames. For example, type 102 to
enter 1 second and 2 frames (1:02).
When typing a timecode value, you can skip fields by typing a dot (.). For
example, type 12..22 for timecode 12:00:00:22.
•
In Trim mode, to move the transition a specific number or frames,
type the number of frames in the Frame Offset Counter box.
Select an edit point, a trim-in handle, or a trim-out handle, and adjust the
values in the timecode boxes on the status bar. This edits frames at the
selected point more accurately.
For selected object.
Start
End
Duration
Position indicator
For in/out markers.
In
Out
Duration
219
Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
n
•
Drag the trim-in or trim-out handles left or right to change the incoming
or outgoing frames of a clip. This does not change the recording timecode
(unless in Ripple mode)—see “Trimming with the Trim Handles” on
page 222.
•
Drag the edit handle left or right to change the start or end time at which a
clip is recorded. This also changes the incoming or outgoing frame. When
trimming with the edit handles, it does not matter if Ripple mode is on or
off—see “Trimming the Edit Point” on page 220.
If you want to trim synchronized audio and video clips, you must
simultaneously select multiple edit points. For more information, see
“Selecting Trim Sides” on page 215.
As you trim, all selected transitions in the timeline move in unison. The Frame
Offset counters display the frame count backward or forward for one or both
trim sides, and the Trim viewer displays the new incoming or outgoing
frames.
Trimming the Edit Point
When you move the edit handle at an edit point, you are changing the start or
end recording time for the clip. This also changes the incoming or outgoing
frame.
n
220
When trimming with the edit handles, it does not matter if Ripple mode is on or
off.
Performing a Basic Trim
The following illustration shows the different ways of trimming an edit point:
Before
Trimming edit point to the left.
After
More frames are available at beginning of clip.
Before
Trimming edit point to the right.
After
Frames are hidden
from beginning of clip.
Before
Trimming intersecting edit point to the right.
After
Edit points can only be dragged as far as there is available material on the clip.
To trim an edit point on a clip:
1. Select an edit point on a clip.
The clip’s edit handles are displayed.
2. Drag the edit point left or right.
Depending on the direction in which you drag the clip, more frames are
made available or hidden.
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Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
To trim edit points between clips:
1. Select an edit point between two clips.
The edit handles on both clips are displayed.
2. Drag the edit point left or right.
As you move the edit point, it reveals more frames on one clip and hides
frames on the other.
n
You can also adjust an edit point more precisely by selecting it and entering a
value in the S (start) or E (end) timecode boxes on the status bar.
Adjusting the in-point and out-point on clips
Select one edit point
between contiguous clips.
Both points are
automatically selected.
Drag edit point
right or left.
Both edit points at that timecode
are adjusted.
Trimming with the Trim Handles
The trim handles on a clip are used to change the incoming or outgoing frames
of a clip. This does not change the recording timecode. When you move the
trim-in handle of a clip, you change the incoming frame on a clip. Similarly, if
you move the trim-out handle of a clip, you are changing its outgoing frame.
Trim-in handle
222
Trim-out handle
Performing a Basic Trim
When Ripple mode is activated, trimming clips gives you different results than
when it is deactivated. The following illustrations show how clips are affected
when you trim them with and without the Ripple mode. The first scenario
illustrates what happens when you trim an in-point.
Trimming an in-point
Ripple mode on
Before
Trimming to the left.
After
The following clip(s)
ripple.
Before
Trimming to the right.
After
The following clip(s) ripple
back.
Ripple mode off
Before
Trimming to the left.
After
Edit point remains
fixed on timeline.
Before
Trimming to the right.
After
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Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
Trimming an out-point
Ripple mode on
Before
Trimming to the left.
After
Following clip(s) ripple
back.
Before
Trimming to the right.
After
The following clip(s)
ripple.
Ripple mode off
Before
Trimming to the left.
After
Second clip extends
as long as there is
more material
available.
Before
Trimming to the right.
After
224
End point of
following clip
remains fixed
on timeline.
Performing a Basic Trim
To adjust the trim handles:
1. (Optional) Click the Ripple button in the timeline controls. If necessary,
click the Track Ripple button for the individual tracks on which you
want the clips to ripple.
n
You can only ripple individual audio and video tracks.
2. Select the edit point on the clip that you want to trim.
The clip’s trim handles are displayed just above the edit point.
3. Drag the trim handle to the right or left. The trim handle can only be
moved as far as there is extra material available on the clip.
The following example shows the results of trimming a clip when you’re in
Ripple mode and when you’re not. The clips are placed on multiple tracks, so
that you can see the unused material on the clips.
Trim-in handle when not in Ripple mode.
Before
Trim-in handle to the right.
>>
After: Ripple mode off.
Clip is slipped to the left.
Opposite end’s edit point remains fixed on timeline.
Incoming frame remains the same.
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Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
Trim-in handle in Ripple mode
Trim-in handle to the right.
Before
>>
After: Ripple mode on.
Clip is slipped to the left.
>>
Trim-in handle to the right.
Successive clips are moved the
same amount of trimmed frames.
Trimming Audio Clips
Using the trim handles to trim audio clips lets you hear the clips as you scrub
over them. For example, in the following illustration, if you move the trim-in
handle of the Drums clip, you’ll hear that clip being played. If however, you
move the trim-out handle of the Bass clip, that’s the clip you’ll hear.
226
Performing a Basic Trim
Backtiming
Backtiming is a way of trimming a clip’s out-point without changing its
activeness or position. Instead of overwriting or being overwritten by the
following clip, the selected clip is slipped along its unused material.
n
When trimming backtime edits, it does not matter if Ripple mode is on or off.
Backtime edits are performed as if Ripple mode is off.
To perform a backtime edit on a clip:
Main Ripple button
1. Make sure that the main Ripple button is deselected.
2. Select the out-point that you want to edit.
3. Press E and drag the out-point trim handle right or left.
The clip is slipped along its unused material while maintaining its
activeness and position. The previous and next clips in the sequence are
not affected.
Snapping Edit Points
If you need to quickly fix a bad edit, instead of selecting the previous or next
edit point and dragging it to the position indicator, you can locate the correct
frame and then snap the edit point to that frame. Effects applied to the clip are
also trimmed.
To snap an edit point to the position indicator:
1. Move the position indicator to the desired position.
The P timecode box indicates the timecode of the position indicator.
2. From the toolbar, click Editing and select one of the following:
-
Snap In to move the in-point to the new timecode.
-
Snap Out to move the out-point.
The selected frame becomes the new in or out-point.
n
You can also use the Snap In and Snap Out commands to trim synced clips (for
example clips with audio and video content) as long as the clips are the same
length. You should have enough unused material available to perform this
operation. For more information see “Revealing Unused Material on Clips”
on page 171.
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Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
Trimming On-the-Fly
In Trim mode, you can use the J-K-L keys on the keyboard to play outgoing or
incoming material and mark trim points. For convenience, this method isolates
the trim controls to just three keys.
To trim on-the-fly:
1. Click either the outgoing (A-side) or incoming (B-side) frame to play in
real time during the trim.
2. Select one or more transitions for single-roller or dual-roller trimming.
3. Use the J-K-L keys to step (jog), play, or shuttle through the footage at
varying speeds:
n
-
Hold down the K key while pressing the J or L key to step slowly
backwards or forwards through the footage. When you find the frame
where you want to relocate the transition, release the K key to
complete the trim.
-
Press the J or L key once to play at normal speed, or press more than
once to shuttle at higher speeds. When you see the frame where you
want to relocate the transition, press the K key to complete the
trim—see “Varying the Playback Speed” on page 154.
If you press the spacebar while trimming with the J-K-L keys, the position
indicator moves to the current location. No trim is performed.
The Trim viewers and the timeline are updated to reflect the trim.
n
When trimming with the J-K-L keys, you cannot completely trim away a clip.
The Avid DS Nitris system always leaves one frame. To remove the remaining
frame, see “Performing a Basic Trim” on page 219.
Creating Overlap Edits
You can use an overlap edit to smooth a transition by giving the illusion that
the audio or video is shared between two separate but adjacent clips. Perform a
dual-roller trim to create overlap edits.
228
Trimming Container Clips
Audio overlap example
Before
trimming
V1
A1
A2
Clip A
Clip B
Clip C
After
trimming
V1
A1
A2
Clip A
Clip B
Clip C
Clip B audio is extended.
Clip C audio is trimmed in.
To create an overlap edit:
1. Perform a straight-cut edit between two clips, including audio and
video tracks:
-
If the timing of the video edit is crucial, mark edit points according to
the video.
-
If the timing of the audio transition is crucial, mark edit points
according to the audio.
2. Perform a dual-roller trim (edit point trim) on either the video track or the
audio track, but not on both:
-
If the video transition occurs at the correct place, but you want the
audio from one clip to linger into the other (or the reverse), trim the
audio tracks accordingly.
-
If the audio transition occurs at the correct place, but you want the
video to transition either before or after the audio cut, trim the video
track accordingly.
Trimming Container Clips
You can trim a container clip just as you would trim any other clip on the
timeline. You can drag the in-point out to the start of the material (that is, the
in-point of the first clip in the container clip). The out-point of a container clip
can be dragged to infinity. When you trim a container clip, it does not affect
the length of the clips contained within it. If the clip in the container clip is
longer than the container clip itself, the extra material is not visible in the final
sequence.
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Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
Top timeline
Container clip
timeline
Container clip ends at 00:00:04:22, so this portion
is not visible in final sequence
Trimming Transition Effects
Transitions are displayed as part of the activeness bar. When you select a
transition, it is highlighted in red. You can adjust the properties of the
transition by right-clicking on this area and opening its property editor.
The edit point between two clips indicates a transition from one clip to
another. You can trim this edit point to change the timecodes at which the
transition takes place.
n
230
You can also edit transitions by entering values in the timecode boxes on the
status bar.
Trimming Transition Effects
Transition’s
start point
Selected
transition
Transition’s
end point
To change the duration of a transition effect:
1. Select the edit point of the transition effect.
2. Enter the new length for the transition in one of the following places:
-
The Transition Duration timecode box in Trim mode.
-
The D (duration) timecode box on the status bar.
To change the position of the transition effect:
1. In Trim mode, select the transition effect.
2. Right-click the Transition Alignment button and select one of the
following:
Command
n
Button
Description
Transition Start
Starts the transition at the edit point.
Transition Center
Centers the transition on the edit point.
Transition End
Ends the transition at the edit point.
In the Source and Record view, you can also change the position of a
transition effect by manually moving the edit point.
To trim the transition area, see “Selecting and Breaking Edit Points” on
page 215.
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Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
Understanding Slipping or Sliding Clips
In addition to fine-tuning your edits by trimming clips, you can also slip the
contents of a clip, or slide the clip to a different location in the sequence.
Slipping and sliding clips do not affect the overall duration of the sequence or
the sync relationships between multiple tracks.
The Slip/Slide mode lets you precisely manipulate a clip’s incoming and
outgoing frames on a frame-by-frame basis. This mode also shows the
incoming and/or outgoing frames of the previous and next clip (if any). You
can slip or slide a clip by entering new in and out timecodes, or by using the
trim nudge buttons to move the frames incrementally. After slipping or sliding
a clip in the Slip/Slide mode, you can play the results in the viewer.
Slip/Slide Mode
Outgoing frame
Head frame
Tail frame
Incoming frame
Source
timecodes
Trim Nudge buttons
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Slip/Slide controls.
The Slip/Slide mode shows the frames in the selected clip and any clips to
which it is connected. The Head frame and Tail frame show the start and end
frames of the selected clip. If there are any clips before or after the selected
clip, they’re displayed in the Incoming frame or Outgoing frame.
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Understanding Slipping or Sliding Clips
n
In the special case where the Slip/Slide mode is used for manipulating audio
clips within an audio container, the Trim Nudge buttons (<, <<, >, and >>)
will affect the clip in units of time defined by the ruler's display (milliseconds,
samples, drop frame, or non-drop frame).
Slipping Clips
Slipping refers to moving the contents of a clip while its edit points remain
fixed. Imagine looking through a train window as the landscape slides by. The
size of the window always remains the same, but the view keeps changing.
Slipping a clip does not change the position or duration of the active area of a
clip. You slip a clip when you are sure about the duration of a clip, but need to
change the incoming frame. When you slip a clip, the edit points do not move,
so any transitions that have been applied are maintained. However, the
transition must be reprocessed.
Active area
Before
After
1
2
Slip clip right or left
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
The frames that precede and follow the clip you are slipping are not effected.
Surrounding material
remains fixed
Before
Slip 1 frame to the right
1
2
3
4
4
5
Frames
After
2
3
The active area in the illustration shows the active section of a clip. If you slip
the clip, new frames appear in the active area. Any clips that precede or follow
the slipped clip are not affected.
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Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
n
When slipping clips, the selected clip must have extra material at the head or
tail of the clip.
There are two ways of slipping clips in the Slip/Slide mode:
t
Use the Nudge Right 1 Frame (>), Nudge Right 10 Frame (>>), Nudge
Left 1 Frame (<), and Nudge Right 10 Frame (<<) buttons to move the
selected clip’s content forward or backward. The activeness of the
selected clip does not move, nor are the previous or next clips affected.
These buttons appear dimmed when there are no more frames available
for slipping.
t
n
Enter values in the Offset text box to move the edit point forward or
backward. A positive number moves the clip’s content forward, and a
negative number moves it backward.
As you edit clips in the Slip/Slide mode, the timeline also updates to reflect the
new edit points.
Sliding Clips
Slide refers to moving a clip to change its location on the timeline, while
retaining its duration and active frames. Sliding a clip moves it along the
timeline with its activeness. As you slide a clip, it trims the activeness of the
previous and next clip. You can only slide the clip as far as there is available
material on the adjoining clips.
For example, you would slide a clip when your shot has the correct action
sequence but needs to be synced with its corresponding audio track. To do
this, slide the clip along the timeline until it aligns with its audio clip.
Active area
A1
A2
A3
1
2
3
4
5
B1
B2
B3
3
4
5
B3
Slide clip right or left
If rolled to
the right...
A1
A2
A3
A1
A4
A2
A5
A3
1
2
There are two ways of sliding clips in the Slip/Slide mode.
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Understanding Slipping or Sliding Clips
•
Use the Nudge Right 1 Frame (>), Nudge Right 10 Frame (>>), Nudge
Left 1 Frame (<), and Nudge Right 10 Frame (<<) buttons to move the
selected clip with its activeness forward or backward, and trim frames off
the previous and next clips.
These buttons appear dimmed when there are no more frames available
for sliding.
•
Enter values in the Offset text box to move the edit point forward or
backward. A positive number moves the edit point forward, and a
negative number moves it backward.
Entering Slip/Slide Mode
The Slip/Slide mode is based on clip selection. You must first select a clip on
the timeline to see the incoming and outgoing frames in the Slip/Slide mode.
To manually access the Slip/Slide mode:
1. From the taskbar, click the Editing button.
2. From the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button to
select it.
3. Select a clip from the timeline.
4. From the timeline navigation bar, click the Trim Mode button.
The four-frame Slip/Slide mode replaces the Source/Record viewers.
To automatically access the Slip/Slide mode when you select a clip:
1. From the taskbar, click the Editing button.
2. Right-click the Trim Mode button and select Switch for Clip.
3. Right-click the Trim Mode button again and select Autoswitch.
When you select a clip in the timeline, the Slip/Slide mode is displayed.
Deselect Switch for Clip to access the Slip/Slide mode manually.
To exit Slip/Slide mode:
t
From the timeline navigation bar, click the Source/Record view button.
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Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
Performing a Slip or Slide Trim
In Slip/Slide mode, you can slip the contents of a clip or slide the clip to a
different location in the sequence.
To slip or slide a clip:
1. On the timeline, select the clip that you want to slip or slide.
n
You can slip audio and video clips together by sync-locking them. For more
information, see “Maintaining Sync While Trimming” on page 237.
2. Access Slip/Slide mode—see “Entering Slip/Slide Mode” on page 235.
The four-frame Slip/Slide mode replaces the Source/Record view.
3. Select one of the following options from the Slip/Slide mode:
n
-
Slip to slip the selected clip
-
Slide to slide the selected clip
You cannot perform both slipping and sliding functions simultaneously.
4. Click the Trim Nudge buttons to slip or slide the clip.
Nudge Right/Left 10 frames
Nudge Right/Left 1 frame
n
You can also type the number of frames that you want to slip or slide in the
Offset text boxes. A positive number moves the clip forward and a negative
number moves it backward.
5. Monitor the progress of the trim by using the Slip/Slide modes, the Frame
Offset counters, and the timeline.
When you reach the end of available material while slipping a shot, the
trim stops. Similarly, when you reach the next transition while sliding a
shot along a track, the trim stops. A red bracket at the transition indicates
the limit. After completing the initial slide, you can perform another slide
in the same direction. It’s useful to see how much extra material you have
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Maintaining Sync While Trimming
by displaying the frames past the activeness bar. To do this, you must be
in Display Unused Material mode—see “Revealing Unused Material on
Clips” on page 171.
6. When you’re finished, exit the Slip mode or Slide mode by doing one of
the following:
t Deselect the clip and click the Trim Mode button.
t
Click the Source/Record View button.
Reviewing a Slip or Slide Trim
After you trim an edit point in Slip/Slide mode, you can review the trim edit to
verify the trim.
To review the most recent trim edit:
t
Click the Play Preview button.
The Avid DS Nitris system enters a playback loop. This loop begins at a
pre-roll point before the transition and ends at a post-roll point, pausing
briefly before beginning playback again.
Maintaining Sync While Trimming
Syncing clips is especially useful when trimming audio and video clips on
multiple tracks, because the sound and accompanying images are trimmed in
sync. Because single-roller (A-side or B-side) trims shorten or lengthen the
duration of the track being trimmed, any relationships that exist with other
tracks downstream of the trim will be thrown out of sync.
Single-roller trims allow you to trim one side of an edit point, whereas, a dualroller trim will trim both sides of the edit point.
There are three methods that ensure you do not break sync unintentionally
between two or more video and audio tracks when performing single-roller
trims:
•
Creating a gap on the track while trimming.
•
Sync-locking clips to maintain their relative positions—see
“Synchronizing Clips” on page 196.
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Chapter 5 Trimming Clips
•
n
Rippling tracks to maintain a synchronized relationship—see “Rippling
Clips” on page 191.
Because dual-roller trims do not cause sync breaks, you can only add gaps
while performing single-roller trims.
Creating a Gap When Trimming
You can create a gap on either the A-side or the B-side of a transition while
maintaining the overall duration of the track and sync relationships. When
trimming a clip, a gap fills the duration of trimmed frames.
After you create a gap on a track, you can replace the gap with footage. For
more information, see “Placing Clips on the Timeline” on page 119.
To add a gap while trimming:
1. Select the transition.
2. Hold the Alt key and drag the A-side or B-side trim handle.
A gap fills the duration of the trim without changing the duration
of sequence.
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Chapter 6
Applying Image Transition
Effects
This chapter describes the image transitions effects and how to apply them.
•
Understanding Image Transition Effects
•
Applying a Dissolve Effect to a Transition
•
Applying a DVE Effect to a Transition
•
Understanding the Morph Effect
•
Applying a Picture-in-Picture Effect
•
Applying Wipe Effects
Understanding Image Transition Effects
The image transition effects let you create transitions between clips on the
same track, on different audio and video tracks, but not different background
tracks. You can apply image transition effects on the timeline or to an Effects
Tree. For more information, see “Applying Effects on the Timeline” on
page 297. You can also create transitions between two nodes in an Effects
Tree. For more information, see “Applying an Effects Tree as a Transition” in
the Help.
n
Transitions on the timeline can be created only when there is extra material
available on one of the clips.
Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
Applying a Dissolve Effect to a Transition
The Dissolve effect lets you apply a transition between video clips in which
the image from one clip gradually becomes less distinct as the image from the
other clip replaces it. The Dissolve effect ensures that the alpha channel is
multiplied into color channels before applying the dissolve.
n
You can use the Blend transition effect if you do not want the alpha channel to
affect the color channels, or if you require channel masking services when
dissolving.
You can apply a dissolve at the start, center, or end of the transition. You can
also adjust the amount of the dissolve if you want the frames of one clip to be
more apparent than the other. You can apply a dissolve as an effect for singlesided transitions at the beginning or end of a clip.
The Dissolve effect can only be applied on clips on the timeline or as a node in
an Effects Tree.
Since the Dissolve effect is a real-time effect, you can view the results upon
playback without having to first process the effect.
n
First clip
In some cases, real-time effects may require processing to ensure that no
frames are skipped. For more information, see “Playing Real-Time Effects” on
page 291.
Dissolve at 25%
Dissolve at 50%
Dissolve at 75%
Second clip
To apply a dissolve on the timeline:
1. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you want to work with.
They can be placed on the same or different tracks. Make sure the clips
that receive the dissolve have extra material.
2. Select the intersecting edit point between the two clips on which you want
to apply the dissolve.
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Applying a Dissolve Effect to a Transition
The selected edit point turns red.
3. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > Dissolve/Crossfade.
On the timeline, the transition area is displayed as a gradient on the
activeness bar.
4. On the Dissolve property editor, adjust the amount of the dissolve, and
specify the start point and duration of the transition.
n
The start point and duration options are only available when you apply a
dissolve on the timeline.
For more information, click the Help button.
To apply a dissolve in an Effects Tree:
1. Right-click an empty area of an Effects Tree and select Add Effect.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
2. From the \Image Transitions folder, select Dissolve and click OK.
A Dissolve node is added to the Effects Tree.
3. In the Effects Tree, double-click the Dissolve node.
The Dissolve property editor is displayed.
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Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
4. On the Timing property page, adjust the amount of the dissolve and the
function curve to control the timing and percentage of the mix.
Applying a DVE Effect to a Transition
The DVE effect lets you transform the size, position, and shape of images in
three-dimensional space. Using DVEs, you can create effects such as “pushwipes”, “fly-bys”, or picture-in-picture.
You can apply DVEs to clips, tracks, layers in the Layers view, or Effects
Trees. On the timeline, you can use DVEs for transitions between two clips or
for single-sided transitions at the beginning or end of a clip. For more
information, see “Applying Transitions” on page 298.
To apply a DVE to a transition on the timeline:
1. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you want to work with.
They can be placed on the same or different tracks. Make sure that the
clips to receive the DVE have extra material.
2. Select the intersecting edit point between the two video clips on which
you want to apply the DVE.
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Understanding the Morph Effect
3. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > DVE.
The transition area is displayed as a gradient on the activeness bar.
4. In the DVE property editor, modify the properties of the DVE to achieve
the effect you want.
For more information, click the Help button.
To learn about applying DVEs on layers in a composite, see “Applying a
DVE” in the Help.
Understanding the Morph Effect
The Morph effect lets you transform one image or a sequence of images
into another over a sequence of frames. You can morph between still or
moving images.
You can apply the Morph effect as a transition on the timeline or in an
Effects Tree.
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Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
When morphing a still image, you can, for example, show a change between
two images, such as the progressive aging of a girl into a woman or the
transformation of a woman into a man.
Outgoing image with morph
applied to face.
Morph with 50% shape
interpolation, 50% transparency.
Incoming image with morph
applied to face.
When morphing a moving image, you can show a change between two
sequences of images, such as a walking boy turning into a walking man.
The Morph effect is comprised of a warp effect on an incoming image, a warp
effect on an outgoing image, and a dissolve between them. For more
information, see “Warp Effect” of the Help.
The outgoing image is warped from its original shape to the shape of the
incoming image. The incoming image is warped in the opposite direction,
going from the shape of the outgoing image to its original shape. Manipulating
the transparency value lets you control the dissolve between the two images.
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Understanding the Morph Effect
The Source shape morphs from the original image to a distorted image
resembling the shape of the target.
The target shape morphs in the opposite direction, from distorted image,
resembling the shape of the source to the original target image.
The basic workflow for creating a morph:
1. Select the images to morph together.
2. Create source and target shapes that describe the morph transformation.
3. Join the shapes and adjust the correspondence between them.
4. Track the shapes or adjust the shape positions over time with keyframes,
if necessary.
5. Set the rendering options.
6. Process the morph.
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Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
Applying a Morph Transition Effect
You apply the Morph transition effect in the same way as a simple dissolve or
wipe. In an Effects Tree, you apply it like any other effect between two inputs.
For more information, see “Working with the Effects Tree” in the Help.
To create a morph transition between clips:
1. On the timeline, overlap the clips on which you want to apply the Morph
effect. They can be placed on the same or different tracks. Make sure the
clips that receive the effect have extra material.
2. Select the edit point between the two video clips.
The selected edit point turns red.
3. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > Dissolve/Crossfade or
Wipe.
The Dissolve or Wipe property editor is displayed, and the transition area
is displayed as a gradient on the activeness bar.
4. In the Wipe or Dissolve property editor, click the Load Preset button.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
5. From the \Image Transitions folder, select the Morph effect.
The Morph property page is displayed.
For more information, click the Help button.
Creating Shapes
Shapes are Bézier curves that outline the parts of your image that you want to
morph. The Morph effect uses these shapes as a guide to transition from one to
the other. Shapes can be open-ended or closed. They can stand alone or be
joined to another shape.
The Morph Effect has four shape creation tools, available from the Shapes
property page:
246
Freehand
Ellipse
Polyline
Rectangle
Understanding the Morph Effect
To create a source and destination shape:
1. Double-click the transition area between the two clips to open the Morph
property editor.
2. On the Shapes property page, select the Source option from the
Output box.
The outgoing image is displayed in the viewer.
3. From the Shape Creation box, select a drawing tool to create the source
shape.
4. Create a rough shape around the object that you want to warp.
The source shape is displayed in red.
Source shape drawn with
the Polyline tool on the
outgoing image.
n
You can zoom and pan in the viewer to frame the portion of the image you
want to trace.
5. From the Editing Tools box, click the Edit Shape tool.
Control points along the source shape are displayed.
n
If you copy open shapes from the Morph effect into a keyer or Matte effect, the
shapes will automatically be closed.
6. Drag the control points so that your shape outlines the part of the image
you want to morph.
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Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
Control point
To add an additional control point, hold down the A key and click the line
on which you want the control point to appear.
n
If the source image is moving between frames, you should rotoscope or
animate the source shape over the length of the transition. For more
information, see “Creating Animation” on page 347.
7. From the Output box, select the Destination option.
The incoming image is displayed in the viewer.
8. From the Shape Creation box, select a shape tool to create the target
shape.
n
When you draw the shapes on the destination image, be sure to draw them in
the same direction and order in which you created them on the source image.
For example, if you started drawing the shape on the source image from the
top and to the right, and also draw the shape on the destination image from
the top and to the right. This will avoid unwanted deformations in the morphed
image. However, if you want to create a deformation, you can create the shape
on the destination image differently.
9. Create a shape on the destination image representing the target shape or
the final image into which the source image will morph.
The target shape is displayed in blue.
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Understanding the Morph Effect
Target shape drawn with
the Polyline tool on the
incoming image.
n
To close a shape created with the polyline tool, press Ctrl and click.
10. Use the following tools from the Transformations box to manipulate
your shape:
Select
Rotate
Scale
Skew
11. From the Editing Tools box, click the Edit Shape tool.
Control points along the target shape are displayed.
12. Drag the control points to modify the shape.
n
If the target image is moving between frames, you can track the target shape
over the length of the transition. For more information, see “Tracking
Morphed Shapes” on page 255.
13. On the Shapes property page, select the Apply option.
The Morph effect is applied to the clips.
For more information, click the Help button.
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Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
Joining Shapes
After you have created your shapes, you can join them together to create a
relationship between the beginning shape of the source image and the ending
shape of the target image. The Morph effect automatically interpolates
between the two shapes over the length of the transition.
n
You can only join open-ended shapes with other open-ended shapes and
closed-ended shapes with other closed-ended shapes.
When the two shapes are joined, you can match corresponding features on the
two shapes. Each shape has four correspondence points that describe the
location of key positions on a shape. You can place these points at key
locations on a shape, such as where the Bézier curve changes direction.
Correspondence point
Move a correspondence
point to this location.
Correspondence points have some restrictions:
•
There must be at least four correspondence points per shape.
•
Shapes intended to be joined must have the same number of
correspondence points.
•
Correspondence points on the ends of open-ended shapes cannot be
moved or deleted.
•
Correspondence points cannot cross over each other. There is a limit as to
how close they are allowed.
To join the source and target shapes:
1. From the Output box, select the Mix option.
Both images and shapes appear in the viewer.
2. From the Transformations box, click the Select button and select the
source shape (red line).
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Understanding the Morph Effect
3. From the Editing Tools box, click Join, and drag the source shape
towards the target shape.
A blue line is displayed as you drag the pointer from the source shape to
the target shape. When the pointer touches the target shape, the two
shapes momentarily turn yellow and are joined together by a
correspondence vector.
Source shape joined to target shape
by a correspondence vector.
Source shape in red
Target shape in blue
n
To break the join between two shapes, click Join in the Editing Tools box and
click one of the shapes. A dialog box is displayed asking you if you want to
break the join, click OK.
4. From the Editing Tools box, select the Correspondence option.
The source and target shapes are highlighted in yellow. Each shape
contains four correspondence points. The correspondence points on each
shape are connected with correspondence vectors.
5. Move the correspondence points on the source shape to key locations on
the curve, such as where the curve changes directions.
6. Match the correspondence points of the target shape with those of the
source shape.
When you’re morphing between similar objects, such as between two
faces, you should move the correspondence points to try and match up key
features on the source image with those on the target.
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Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
Move the correspondence points so
that key features on the source
image match those of the target
image. In this case, the features of
the face (eyes, nose, and mouth).
n
To add additional correspondence points, press A and click the shape on
which you want the point to appear. To delete correspondence points, select a
point, and press Delete.
To increase the precision of the shape during processing:
t
Increase the Density value.
The number of correspondent vectors (yellow lines) between correspondence
points increases as the Density value increases.
Correspondence
point
Edge density
Original
shape
Shape with edge density of 5.
During processing, Avid DS Nitris does not use the actual shapes you created,
but uses the edge densities of the shapes to create an approximation of the
shapes. That is, a shape’s edge density defines how closely the form used in
the morphing process matches the shape that is drawn.
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Understanding the Morph Effect
Shapes are subdivided between correspondence points based on the shape’s
edge density. The higher the edge density, the more edges, and the more
closely the shape is depicted by its edges. Thus, the more precise the transition
between shapes.
When you change the edge density, be careful not to use too high a density
setting. There is no exact formula for selecting the best density for any given
shape. Choose one that approximates the shape enough, but not too much.
Setting a shape’s density unnecessarily high slows down processing time.
For more information, click the Help button.
Creating Barrier Shapes
You may find that the area outside your source or target shapes also gets
distorted when your image is morphed. To get rid of this unwanted distortion,
you can create a barrier shape for either the source or target shapes, which
prevents the distortion from spreading to the rest of the image.
To create a barrier shape:
1. Create a third shape encompassing both the source and target shapes.
The barrier shape is displayed in red or blue depending on which option
you choose.
2. From the Editing Tools box, click the Copy and Join button.
A copy of the shape is created directly on top of its original. By doing so,
you are creating a static warp where the source and target shapes are the
same. This static warp acts as a barrier, which prevents the original warp
from spreading to other areas of the image.
Warping the Morph
After you create the morph between the two images, you can also apply a warp
to the output of the morph. For example, you have two faces that morph from
one to the other, and you want to change the length of the nose of both images.
To do so, you can warp the noses from within the Morph effect.
To warp the output of the morph:
1. On the Shapes property page, select the Mix option.
Both the incoming and outgoing images are displayed in the viewer.
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Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
2. Select the Apply option.
3. Draw the source and target shapes, and then join them.
The warp source and target shapes are displayed in green.
4. Draw a barrier shape for the areas you don’t want to affect.
The shape is animated using the same interpolation as the Morph effect. If
you want to use a different interpolation than the Morph effect, you can
apply individual warp effects to each clip before applying the Morph
effect.
For more information, click the Help button.
Animating Shapes
You can animate the interpolation between shapes or the shapes themselves
when the objects are moving over time. For still images, the Morph effect
automatically interpolates between the source and target shapes. You can add
keyframes and modify the way the source morphs into the target. For moving
images, you can animate the shapes frame-by-frame to match the movement in
the clip. For more information, see “Creating Animation” on page 347.
To animate the interpolation between shapes:
1. Double-click the transition area between the clips to open the Morph
property editor.
2. Scrub slowly through the transition on the timeline.
By default, the object moves from the source shape to the target shape in a
linear manner, moving from 0% shape interpolation and 0% transparency
at the beginning of the transition to 100% shape interpolation and 100%
transparency at the end of the transition.
3. Place the position indicator anywhere within the transition area.
4. On the Shapes property page, modify the Shape Interpolation Amount.
The amount of morphing changes as you modify the Shape
Interpolation Amount.
5. Click the Animation Key button.
A keyframe is added at that point in time, changing how the object moves
from source to target shape.
6. Move the position indicator to another area of the clip, modify the Shape
Interpolation Amount, and add another keyframe.
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Understanding the Morph Effect
7. Animate the Transparency value in the same way as the Shape
Interpolation Amount.
8. Select View > Single-Instance Views > Animation Editor.
The animation editor is displayed.
9. Tweak the shape and transparency animation by modifying, adding, and
deleting keyframes to both the Blend Shapes and Opacity function curves.
n
You can also modify the slope of the function curves from Linear to either
Spline or Constant interpolation.
For more information, click the Help button.
Tracking Morphed Shapes
If your image moves or scales, you’ll need to set up trackers to track the
source, destination, and barrier shapes. To correctly track the shapes, you need
to increase the trackers’ target area and search regions, and ensure that the
Always Update option is selected.
To track the shapes:
1. On the Shapes property page, select either Source or Destination in the
Output box, depending on the image you want to track.
2. From the Transformations box, click the Select Shape button.
3. In the viewer, drag around all the shapes to select them.
Since all the shapes, including the source, destination, and two barrier
shapes move and scale, you need to track all the shapes.
4. On the Tracker property page, click Show.
All four trackers are displayed.
5. Use the period (.) or comma (,) keys on the keyboard to cycle through
each tracker and set the following for each tracker:
t
Increase the size of the search and target areas to consider the change
in the size of the area on which the shape is drawn.
t
Click the Always Update button.
Since the area of the image defined by the shapes scale and move, the
tracker targets must be updated in each frame.
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Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
n
This option makes the trackers compare the pixel pattern of the current frame
to that of the previous frame, rather than the first frame at the tracking start
point (or the set target). Use this option when the target area changes in
appearance as the clip is played. This can cause cumulative tracking errors.
When you select this option, the Set Target option becomes deselected and
vice versa.
t
Set the Confidence level.
If you find that the tracker stops frequently, try lowering the confidence
level.
n
If you are tracking field-based material, you can select the Track in Fields
option. A keyframe will be set on each tracked field. The target used is the
contents of the target region in field 1 of the target frame. If you track in fields,
you do not need to first deinterlace, track, and then reinterlace the clip.
6. Click the Track Forward (or Track Backward) button.
7. On the Shapes property page, deselect the Show Shapes option to see the
final result without the drawn shapes and tracker boxes.
8. In the Output box, select Mix to see the resulting morph.
For more information, click the Help button
Setting the Rendering Options
The final look of your morph depends largely on the render settings you
choose. You can go from a quick low resolution test to a high resolution image
for final output by simply changing a few of the settings in the Render
property page.
The render settings let you choose how the edges of your shapes are defined,
how precise the transition is between shapes, how pixels are interpolated, and
how soft or jagged the edges are.
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Understanding the Morph Effect
To set the rendering options:
1. In the Morph property editor, select the Render tab.
2. For the Edge Mode setting, select one of the following options:
-
Fixed to pin the border of the image in place. Be careful when using
this option because it can cause distortion and shearing if your warped
object moves or grows in size.
-
Sliding to move the image’s borders with the rest of the warped
object. This option produces less distortion.
Image before being warped or stretched.
Image stretched upwards and
processed with Edge mode set to
Fixed. Notice how the borders of the
image do not move, resulting in a
distorted image.
Image stretched upwards and
processed with Edge Mode set to
Sliding. Notice how the borders of the
image do not stay in place, but
compensate for the stretched image,
resulting in a less distorted image.
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Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
-
n
Cookie Cutter to keep everything that falls within your closed shapes
and remove everything else. This option is also useful for creating
mattes. You cannot use this option with open-ended shapes.
To close a shape, press Ctrl and click the viewer.
With Edge Mode set to Cookie Cutter,
the area outlined by the closed
shapes is cut out. The rest of the
image is ignored and set to black.
A matte is automatically created
based on the areas that were cut out.
3. For the Warp Precision setting, which affects transition quality, select one
of the following:
258
-
Linear to do a quick test. This option processes the morph at the
lowest quality, but is very fast and uses the least amount of memory.
-
Low or Medium if you need slightly higher quality than the Linear
option. The quality of the images improve with only slightly slower
processing times.
-
High if you need a high-quality image that is processed in a
reasonable amount of time. This option produces professional quality
images.
-
Very High or Super High if you require an extremely smooth
transition between shapes. Both of these options provide extremely
high-quality images, but take considerable amounts of time to
process.
Applying a Picture-in-Picture Effect
4. For the Interpolation setting, which effects pixel quality, select one of the
following:
-
None if you want quick results. This option results in marginal pixel
image quality, but the processing time is very quick.
-
Bilinear if you need reasonable image quality within a reasonable
processing time. This is the default setting.
-
Bicubic if you go from a small source shape to a larger target shape.
This option results in high pixel-quality, which is required when the
morph enlarges parts of the image.
-
Scaling if your target shape is scaled down by more than 50%. This
option results in the least amount of degradation, but also takes the
longest time to process.
5. Select the Antialiasing option if you want the edges of the shapes or
regions to be smooth. If you deselect this option, the edges are jagged.
6. Select the Soften Edges option if you want the pixels around the edges of
the shapes to blend gradually with the pixels of the surrounding image.
7. Process the effect and then play it back on the timeline to view the results.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying a Picture-in-Picture Effect
The Picture-in-Picture effect lets you transform the size and position of an
image in three-dimensional space. You can apply the Picture-in-Picture effect
to clips on the timeline or video tracks, or to an Effects Tree.
On the timeline, you can use the Picture-in-Picture effect for transitions
between two clips or for single-sided transitions at the beginning or end of a
clip. For more information, see “Creating One-Sided Transitions” on
page 300.
Since the Picture-in-Picture effect is a real-time effect, you can view the
results upon playback without having to first process the effect. For more
information, see “Playing Real-Time Effects” on page 291.
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Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
To apply a Picture-in-Picture effect as a transition:
1. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you want to work with.
They can be placed on the same or different tracks. Make sure that the
clips to receive the effect have extra material.
2. Select the intersecting edit point between the two video clips on which
you want to apply the Picture-in-Picture effect.
3. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > Dissolve/Crossfade.
The Dissolve property editor is displayed, and the transition area is
displayed as a gradient on the activeness bar.
4. In the Dissolve property editor, click the Load Preset button.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
5. From the \Image Transitions folder, select the Picture-in-Picture effect
and click OK.
The transition area is displayed as a gradient on the activeness bar.
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Applying a Picture-in-Picture Effect
6. In the Picture-in-Picture effect property editor, modify the properties to
achieve the effect you want.
n
When you apply the Picture-in-Picture effect as a transition or to an Effects
Tree, the Source property page is also displayed, from which you can adjust
the direction in which the Picture-in-Picture effect is applied and the source
image’s opacity level.
For more information, click the Help button.
.
To apply the Picture-in-Picture effect in an Effects Tree:
1. Drag a clip to the timeline and create a composite container clip from
it—see “Creating a Composite Container Clip” on page 308.
2. From the Avid Explorer, drag a second clip into the Effects Tree.
The clip is added to the timeline, but not to a layer.
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Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
3. Add the Picture-in-Picture effect to the tree, and connect the inputs as
shown here:
The Input node that is connected to the Input 1 port of the Picture-inPicture effect, in this case the Racer clip, is used as the picture for
the effect.
To apply the Picture-in-Picture effect on the timeline:
1. Drag the clip to be used as the background clip to the timeline.
2. Add a video track to the timeline, above the track with the background
clip.
3. Drag the clip on which you want to apply the effect to the new video
track.
4. Apply the Picture-in-Picture effect to the clip on the new video track.
5. In the DVE (Picture-in-Picture) effect property editor, modify the
properties of to achieve the effect you want.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying Wipe Effects
The Wipe effect lets you create a transition between two overlapping clips,
such that the second clip is revealed according to a specified pattern. You can
also apply a border between the two clips by specifying the position, color,
and edge softness.
You can apply wipes to clips, tracks, or trees. On the timeline, you can also
use wipes for transitions between two clips, or for single-sided transitions at
the beginning or end of a clip. For more information, see “Creating One-Sided
Transitions” on page 300.
n
262
You can apply a wipe to an Effects Tree in the same way that you apply a
dissolve. For more information, see “Applying a Dissolve Effect to a
Transition” on page 240.
Applying Wipe Effects
Since the Wipe effects are real-time effects, you can view the results upon
playback without having to first process the effect. In some cases, real-time
effects may require processing to ensure that no frames are skipped. For more
information, see “Playing Real-Time Effects” on page 291.
To apply a wipe between two clips:
1. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you want to work with. They can be
placed on the same or different tracks. Make sure that the clips to receive
the wipe have extra material.
2. Select the intersecting edit point between the two video clips on which
you want to apply the wipe.
The selected edit point turns red.
3. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > Wipe.
The transition area is displayed as a gradient on the activeness bar.
4. In the Wipe property editor, adjust the amount of the wipe, and specify the
start point and duration of the transition.
n
The start point and duration options are only available when you apply a
dissolve or wipe on the timeline.
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Chapter 6 Applying Image Transition Effects
For more information, click the Help button.
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Chapter 7
Processing Effects
This chapter describes how your effects are processed in Avid DS Nitris, and
how to work with projects and media:
•
Understanding Processing
•
Workflow: Processing
•
Processing Areas of the Timeline
•
Processing a Single Effect
•
Setting the Processing Options
•
Understanding Processing Modes
•
Working with Real-Time Effects
•
Remote Processing
Understanding Processing
Avid DS Nitris is built upon a powerful combination of the Nitris Digital
Nonlinear Accelerator™ (DNA), which delivers hardware-guaranteed realtime performance, plus a software-based processing architecture, which
computes effects using the processor of your workstation.
Processing is the creation of a final image or sequence of images after a
special effect has been applied. Depending on the power of your workstation,
many effects can be computed in real time, allowing you to view the results
during playback. More complex effects, however, may need to be processed
before the results can be viewed.
Chapter 7 Processing Effects
During processing, Avid DS Nitris steps through each clip frame by frame,
calculating the various paint strokes, compositing layers, transitions, and other
effects that you created, and writes the results to cache files so that your source
media remains unaltered.
Effect applied to a clip in the
timeline generates new
media when processed.
Source media
Source media is the
material that you capture
from tape or file. It is stored
on the storage device.
Cache media
Cache media is also
stored on the storage
device. When
Avid DS Nitris
encounters processed
effects during playback,
it points to the cache
media instead of the
original source media.
When you play your sequence over the processed frames, Avid DS Nitris
points to this cache instead of the clips' source media. This support for nondestructive editing lets you continuously make changes and reprocess your
clips without affecting your source media.
n
You can commit processed results to a master clip and use the cache media as
source material in future sequences using the Timeline to Clip button. For
more information, see “Extracting Parts of a Sequence” on page 187.
When is Processing Needed?
Processing is usually needed for video images and graphics. Some video
effects do not need processing as Avid DS Nitris can compute the effects
during playback. These are known as real-time effects.
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Understanding Processing
When you apply an effect to a clip, the timeline ribbon above it changes color
to indicate the processing requirements. There are three possible color states
on the timeline ribbon—green, yellow or red. Once the effect is processed
(and a cache is created), the color of the timeline ribbon above it is clear.
If you have the Avid DS Nitris DNA workstation, you can have real-time
playback and output of real-time effects. If so, these effects will have a green
color on the timeline ribbon in the area where they are applied.
If you are not using the Nitris DNA hardware, then Avid DS Nitris will
process all effects using the software. If your workstation has sufficient
power, many effects can be computed in real time by the software, allowing
you to view the results during playback without you having to process them.
These real-time effects will be indicated by a yellow color on the timeline
ribbon.
A real-time effect with advanced settings, or a stack of multiple real-time
effects may become too complex for your workstation to process. As a result,
the calculated frame might be delivered to the video output late, so
Avid DS Nitris skips to the next frame to keep in synchronization with
corresponding audio clips. A red dot is displayed on the Play button when a
frame can’t be delivered in time. This means that the real-time effect will
require processing to a cache file before the final output.
Any effects that cannot be processed in real-time by the hardware or the
software will have a red color on the timeline ribbon. When you play back the
areas where these effects are applied, you will see a “Processing Needed”
message displayed in the viewer.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
The illustration below shows the different conditions of effects on the timeline
(refer to this topic in the Help to see this in full color):
Red indicates that the effect
cannot be played in real time and
needs to be processed first.
Yellow indicates that the clip can be played
in real time and processing is optional.
Process button
Green indicates
that the clip is
guaranteed to
play in real time,
and processing
is not required.
Timeline
ribbon
When the red highlighted area is
played back, the viewer does not
show the resulting image.
The Process button also turns red or yellow to indicate that processing may be
needed. During processing, Avid DS Nitris steps through each clip frame by
frame, calculating the various paint strokes, compositing layers, transitions, or
other effects that you created. The results of the computation are written to a
cache file with the new processed media. This guarantees perfect playback and
output of your sequence.
Processing can be demanding on your system resources in terms of both time
and storage space. For more information on processing your effects more
efficiently, see “Understanding Processing Modes” on page 284.
268
Workflow: Processing
Workflow: Processing
1
On the timeline, select a region or
object to process (clip, track, layer,
effect, or transition bar).
or
2
Click the Process button.
or
3
4
Select an applied effect and open its
property editor.
Click the all... button.
Set the processing options.
Process media for
real-time playback.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
Processing Areas of the Timeline
Processing on the timeline is based on selection. You can process a selected
object or region, or all the clips on the current timeline. To work even more
efficiently, you can process your more complex effects at different stages in
your sequence. For example, if you have effects nested within a container clip,
you can open the container and process the individual effect instead of
processing the entire container clip.
n
The Process button turns red, yellow, or green even if the effect is nested within
a container clip.
When a section of the timeline requires processing, the timeline ribbon above
the effect turns red, yellow, or green. Red means that the section must be
processed, while yellow means that processing can be handled by
Avid DS Nitris during playback, but you should still process it before final
output. Green indicates that the clip is guaranteed to play in real time and
processing is not required. You can, however, still process these effects.
Process button
turns red or yellow.
Corresponding red or yellow highlights on timeline
ribbon indicates sections that may require processing.
Objects
Portions of clip that will be processed to generate new media.
270
Processing a Single Effect
To select areas for processing:
Selection
Action
Entire sequence
On the timeline, click the Process button.
Object
Select a clip, effect bar, or transition bar and click the Process
button,
or
•
Double-click the effect or transition bar on the timeline to
open the property editor.
•
Click the All... button.
Timespan
Highlight a region of the timeline, and click the Process button.
Cache bar
Select the cache bar and click the Process button,
or
Right-click the cache bar and select Process.
•
When you click the Process button, the Processing Options dialog box is
displayed—for further instructions, see “Setting the Processing Options”
on page 275.
•
After setting the appropriate options in the Processing Options dialog box,
click OK to begin processing.
After processing is complete, the timeline ribbon is updated to reflect the
new state of the timeline.
Processing a Single Effect
If you are experimenting with an effect, you can process directly from the
property editor as you make changes to the parameters. Even within a property
editor, there are many options available when processing an effect. You can
process the results on a single frame, a subregion of a frame, or all the frames
in the clip on which you applied the effect.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
To process from a property editor:
1. Double-click on the effect or transition bar on the timeline.
n
For time-based and source-generated effects, right-click the clip and select
Properties, and then select the effect from the menu.
The property editor of the effect opens.
Process controls
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Processing a Single Effect
2. Select one of the following:
Use this
To
Process the current frame.
Enable the auto-process mode. Each time you adjust
a property value, the frame is automatically
processed and updated in the viewer.
n
Results may take time to display while
Avid DS Nitris processes the effects.
Process all frames on which this effect was applied.
This option displays the Processing Options dialog
box.
Process the region selected in the viewer.
3. When you click the Process button, the Processing Options dialog box
opens—see “Setting the Processing Options” on page 275 for further
instructions.
4. After you set the processing options, click OK to begin processing.
After processing is complete, you can play and view the results.
You can quickly view the results from an effect’s property editor.
n
When previewing effects from within a property editor, the preview only is
displayed in the viewer and not on the output monitor.
To preview the results of an effect:
t
In the property editor, click the Preview button.
On the timeline, loop markers are placed at the beginning and end of the
effect. They include the number of pre-roll and post-roll frames that were
set in the User Preferences dialog box. The selected area is played
continuously between the marked region until you click the Stop button.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
Processing a Region of a Frame
If you want to apply an effect on part of an image, you can process only the
region of the frame on which the effect was applied. You can also use
subregion processing to test an effect on part of the image before processing
the effect on all the frames.
To process the effect on a region of the current frame:
1. In the property editor, select Subregion.
2. In the viewer, drag diagonally across the image to form a selection box.
3. At the top of the property editor, click the frame button.
The effect is computed for that frame within the selected box.
n
If you are just using the Subregion option for testing, make sure you deselect it
after you’ve seen the results. Otherwise, when you process all the frames, only
the selected region will be processed.
Previewing Effects without Processing
When you place the position indicator at a specific frame, Avid DS Nitris
automatically processes all effects applied at this frame. This may not happen
instantly as the number and complexity of the effects may require additional
computation time. When the computation is complete, however, you can see
the results on one frame before processing all the rest. These results are stored
temporarily on disk and are known as interactive caches or memory caches.
These results are only kept temporarily to improve your interaction time when
viewing the results of effects on a frame-by-frame basis. This way, there is no
need for Avid DS Nitris to recompute an effect when a frame is revisited.
To view an effect on a series of frames:
t
Hold down the Ctrl key and click Play on the transport controls.
Avid DS Nitris steps through each frame, creating interactive caches for
each one.
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Setting the Processing Options
Setting the Processing Options
Depending on the complexity of your effects, it may take time and system
resources to process images. You can reduce processing time significantly by
choosing the options that best suit the task you’re currently performing.
For descriptions of all the options in this dialog box, click the Help button.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
To set the processing options:
1. In the Processing Options dialog box, select one of the following options:
Option
To
Current Timeline
Process a selected region on the timeline.
Duration of Selection
Process a selected region on the timeline.
Selected Object
Process just the objects that you have selected.
Cache List
Process the effects, composites, and/or transitions
that have been added to the cache list.
2. Select Include Real-time Effects to process real-time effects that are too
complex for your hardware to process, and play back in real time without
skipping frames. Processing creates a cache on disk for the processed realtime effects, so that you can view them upon playback— for more
information, see “Working with Real-Time Effects” on page 289.
n
All real-time effects are processed by Avid DS RP regardless of the Include
Real-time Effects setting.
3. To make processing more efficient, select Minimal or Complete,
depending on your particular scenario—for more information, see
“Understanding Processing Modes” on page 284.
4. To optimize the processing quality of your video media, set the Options
for Field or Frame Processing, and Precision—see “Understanding the
Processing Settings” on page 84.
n
These settings can also be set specifically on an applied effect. Settings on the
Option property page of the effect will take precedence—see “Setting the
Processing Bit Depth” on page 85.
5. For the Storage Settings, set the Resolution and Bit-Depth at which you
want to process your media.
To decrease processing time or save on storage space, you may want to
lower the resolution at which the caches are created. The lower the
resolution, the faster the processing times and the less storage space
used—see “Processing Media at Different Qualities” on page 278.
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Setting the Processing Options
6. In the Location box, select Process Remotely if you have one or more
Avid DS RP workstations in your workgroup where you can send your
processing job.
7. Set the storage devices—Process Video To and Process Audio To, where
your processed media will be stored. (These storage devices were
configured when Avid DS Nitris was installed.)
The Time Available indicates the time remaining on the storage devices
for processing and saving video and/or audio caches based on the
processing options you selected.
8. To receive an e-mail notification when processing is complete, select
Send email to and type your e-mail address in the text box.
n
n
Before you can use the e-mail Notification option, you must specify your
SMTP server in the Data Management property page of the User Preferences
dialog box. To receive email from a local process, you need to setup the email
server on your workstation.
To receive e-mail from an RP workstation, you need to setup the e-mail server
on the workstation where the DMS Broker is installed. Refer to the Avid DS
Installation and Administration Guide for details on configuring the DMS
Broker to send email notifications.
9. To hear a sound when video processing is complete, select Play sound
and select an 8-bit or 16-bit .wav file.
10. Select Update Viewer While Processing to display the frames in the
viewer and monitor as they’re processed. This option has no effect on the
processing time.
11. If you have sufficient space on the storage device, click OK to
begin processing.
A progress bar is displayed at the bottom of the desktop to show the status
of the process. The progress bar shows the number of passes, frames, and
the estimated time that Avid DS Nitris will take to process your selection.
These passes are based on the number of container clips and the levels of
processing required within the selected region.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
Here’s the information that is displayed on the progress bar during processing:
Information field
Description
Processing (Minimal)
The type of processing mode that was selected. You have
the option of Minimal or Complete—see “Understanding
Processing Modes” on page 284.
1/2
A running count of the number of passes required to
process the selected area
Frame: 57/139
A running count of the number of frames to be processed
for the current pass
Total: 57/442
A running count of the total number of frames to be
processed
Total time est: 5 min.
The total time (min:secs) required for processing the
selection
After processing is complete, you can play and view the results of the
processed area.
If the processing job was sent to a remote station for processing, the cache bars
turn blue to indicate that they have been sent to a remote machine for
processing. When the area is processed, the caches are automatically imported
into the current project. The cache bar turns green and the red highlights on the
timeline ribbon disappear.
n
If a third-party plug-in effect has not been installed on the RP workstation,
then the effect will not be processed.
Processing Media at Different Qualities
Since Avid DS Nitris is resolution-independent, you can process your clips at
low resolution or in compressed form during the rough cuts of your work, and
then reprocess at full resolution in uncompressed form before outputting to
tape. Working with high-quality media increases processing time, so initially,
you should process your clips at lower resolution to obtain quicker results.
When you’re ready to output the final production, you can switch back to the
higher quality media.
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Setting the Processing Options
When you set your working sequences preferences to a lower resolution, the
clip in the Avid Explorer (or on the timeline) references the high-quality
media on disk, but produces a cache file at lower quality on your workstation.
You can change your working preferences at any time to reprocess the clip at a
better quality. The clip maintains pointers to all these media files, so you can
view the processed media at different qualities. Media and cache files can
sometimes be very large, so once you’ve completed your edits, you can purge
the clip to clear out this redundant media. For more information, see “Purging
Media” on page 448.
Media processed at different
working preferences
Full resolution,
2:1 compression
Source media
Quarter resolution,
2:1 compression
Full resolution,
2:1 compression
Full resolution,
no compression
Each time you change your working qualities (such as switching to a different
resolution), Avid DS Nitris automatically looks for media of that quality on
your disk for you to work with. When you process your effects, a new cache
file is created if no cache file exists at that quality.
n
When you use a lower resolution for processing, your sequence preferences
are automatically set to that resolution, so that you can view the results. To
change the resolution of the sequence back to full, open the Sequence
Preferences dialog box and set the resolution to Full.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
Creating Caches at Any Level
You may want to create your own caches at certain points in your clip effect
stack or effects hierarchy. It is best to add a cache after an effect that has a long
processing time. Once the cache is created, you do not need to reprocess the
entire stack each time a new effect is added on top of it.
You can add a cache bar directly on the timeline or you can add a cache node
in an Effects Tree. The cache bars and cache nodes indicate where caches will
be created.
The cache nodes and bars are displayed in different colors to indicate the
status of the cache:
280
Color
Description
Yellow
The effect needs to be processed. Either no cache
currently exists, or the effect properties were changed thus
requiring the effect to be reprocessed.
Green
A cache exists and the effects can be played.
Blue
The effect is currently being processed on an RP
workstation.
Setting the Processing Options
Some scenarios where adding your own caches might be useful are:
•
To process the results part way up a clip effect stack.
1
Red highlight
indicates processing
is required
Indicates that
processing is
required
•
Insert a cache bar between the generated
clip and a color correction effect.
The cache bar is yellow, indicating that the
generated clip (with a clouds image)
needs processing to be played back in real
time.
2
When you process in Complete mode, the
cache bar turns green and the area on the
timeline ribbon disappears.
3
If you modify the color correction
properties, the red highlight returns in the
timeline ribbon, but the cache bar remains
green. This means that the generated clip
is still real-time playable and that only the
modifications to the color correction effect
need to be processed.
Caching the results at any point in an Effects Tree. You can connect the
cache node to the output of any effect node in the tree, or insert it between
two nodes. After processing in Complete mode, you can view the cache
and play back its output in real time.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
The cache node is added to the Effects Tree and then inserted at the point where you want
to create a cache. The cache node is yellow, which indicates that processing is required.
Once you’ve processed the effect(s) up to the cache node, it turns green. This
indicates that a cache has been created and any effects applied to your clip before
that cache can be viewed in real time.
Using the Cache Bar in the Timeline
If you have a stack of effects in the timeline, you can create caches at any
point by adding a cache bar. Cache bars, like effect bars, can be applied to a
clip, track, or timeline. You can also resize them and move them along the
timeline.
Cache bars have different colors depending on whether caches exist for its
entire time span. They are yellow, if any part of the time span below the cache
bar is unprocessed and they are green if a cache, or playable media, exists for
the entire time span.
n
Cache nodes can also be blue. They turn blue when they are sent to a remote
machine for processing. For more information, see “Remote Processing” on
page 293.
Even though Avid DS Nitris may be able to play back an effect or several
effects in real time, caches bars will still be yellow if the effects have not been
processed. The cache bar remains yellow because complex real-time effects
are not always 100% real-time playable. Once you process your real-time
effects, the cache bar will turn green, ensuring playback without any frames
being skipped.
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Setting the Processing Options
You can process the effects, composites, or transitions below the cache bar,
which creates a separate cache file. You can also purge the contents of the
cache bar or any redundant cache files below the cache bar. For more
information, see “Purging Media” on page 448.
To apply a cache bar:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Select a clip.
t
Select a region on a track.
t
Select a region on the timeline effect track.
2. Right-click the clip or area selected and select Add Cache.
A cache bar is created over the clip or region you selected. The cache bar
is green if the time span covered by the cache bar is playable in real time,
or it’s yellow if processing is required.
Cache bar (indicated in yellow)
added to selected clip
n
You can add a cache bar to a clip, track, or to the timeline effect track. If you
want to add a cache bar to several clips, you can’t multi-select the clips and
then add a cache bar. You must do each one separately. For more
information, see “Creating Caches at Any Level” on page 280.
3. Right-click each cache bar and select Add to Cache List.
Each cache bar is added to the Cache List.
4. Click the Process icon.
The Processing Options dialog box opens.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
5. In the Processing Options dialog box, select the Cache List option to
process all entries in the cache list.
6. Set the necessary options and click OK to begin processing.
To process a cache bar:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Select the cache bar and click the Process icon in the timeline
controls.
t
Right-click the cache bar and select Process.
The Processing Options dialog box opens.
n
You can add a cache bar and process it in one step by right-clicking the
selected clip or track and choosing Add Cache and Process from the menu.
2. In the Process box, select Include Real-time Effects.
If you have real-time effects in the area covered by your cache bars, you
should select this option to ensure real time playback for the entire time
span covered by the cache bar. If you don’t, the cache bar will remain
yellow.
3. Select the appropriate settings for the other options and click OK.
Avid DS Nitris processes the effects below the cache bar, which turns
green to indicate that playable media exists for the entire time span
covered by the cache bar.
n
You can also create a clip in the Avid Explorer from the cache you created.
Simply right-click the cache bar and choose Cache to Clip from the menu.
Understanding Processing Modes
There are two modes of processing in Avid DS Nitris—Minimal and
Complete. In both modes, Avid DS Nitris processes effects down to the
deepest level necessary for playback of the current timeline. It also only
reprocesses the effects properties that have changed since the last time the
clips were processed.
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Understanding Processing Modes
Minimal Processing
The Minimal processing mode is the most efficient when you’re in the initial
stages of editing. Minimal processing is faster since it processes just the
effects, transitions, or layers that are necessary to ensure playback at the
current level. It also creates only one cache which is saved at the level where
the last effect was processed. The only drawback to this option is that if you
make changes at a higher level, you must reprocess all the lower levels to
regenerate the cache.
Complete Processing
The Complete processing mode processes all effects, transitions, or layers that
are necessary for playback at the current level. It generates caches at each
level of the timeline. Although this mode uses more disk space, subsequent
processing is more efficient since it only regenerates caches for the changed
effects or layers.
When processing in Complete mode, caches are created in this order: clip,
track, clips composited on video track, timeline effect track. In cases where
you have nested container clips, the containers are processed starting from the
deepest nested container clip and working upwards.
This is the order in which caches are created on the timeline:
Top timeline
4
Timeline effect track
3
Clips composited on video tracks
2
Composited clip on Video track 1
Composited clip on Video track 2
Video tracks
3
2
Video track 1
1
Video clip + effects
Background/composite container clip
Video track 2
Audio tracks
3
2
Audio track 1
Audio container clip
1
Audio track 2
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
Example: Minimal versus Complete Processing
The following example is a scenario in which a section of the timeline needs
processing. The dissolve to be processed includes part of a container clip that
has two effects. Within the container is a clip that also has an effect on it.
Processing a region of a container clip
Top timeline
Dissolve between clip
and container clip
Container clip with two
effects on top of it
Clip inside container clip with one clip effect
In Case A, we’ll perform Minimal processing, and in Case B, we’ll use
Complete processing.
n
286
During processing, Avid DS Nitris works frame by frame. It starts with the
source image on the first frame, and dynamically computes the effects on that
frame at each level of the timeline. This continues for each frame in the
sequence where an effect is applied.
Understanding Processing Modes
Case A: Minimal Processing
Since the region to be processed includes part of a container clip,
Avid DS Nitris first processes the effect inside the container clip. Next, the
dissolve between the two clips, and then the two track effects. The results of
processing all the effects is saved in one cache at the top timeline level.
Therefore, when you open the container clip and play its contents, you will not
be able to view the results of the effect because the cache was saved at the top
timeline.
Top timeline
Generate one and
only cache for all
effects at this level.
Region to be
processed.
When changes
are made here,
cache must be
added for all
levels.
1
Process effect stack
from bottom to top.
Process transition
inside container clip.
Process clip effect.
Inside the container clip.
Case B: Complete Processing
With the Complete processing mode, Avid DS Nitris creates caches at each
cache level of the timeline where an effect is processed. Avid DS Nitris first
processes the clip effect in the container clip. It generates a cache for this clip
effect. Since there are no additional track or timeline effects applied, the track
and container caches are left empty, but a cache is created for the dissolve.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
The clip effects above the container clip are then processed from the bottom of
the stack to the top and stored as a clip cache.
If you later make changes to the effects on the top timeline, Avid DS Nitris
only needs to reprocess the cache at that level. The effect inside the container
clip below it does not require processing as its cache is still valid.
Top timeline
Region to be
processed.
Use cache #3.
3
Process effect stack
from bottom to top and
generate cache #3.
2
When changes
made here,
cache is simply
added to existing
caches at other
levels (takes
much less time).
Process transition,
cache #2 inside
container.
Process clip effect and
generate cache #1.
1
Inside container clip.
By processing caches at different levels, you can easily purge and reprocess
effects without having to reprocess effects created at other levels. However,
you may wonder why certain effects need to be reprocessed despite the fact
that you processed in Complete mode.
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Working with Real-Time Effects
Working with Real-Time Effects
A real-time effect is an effect that you can apply to your sequence and play
without having to process it first. Depending on the power of your
workstation, many effects can be computed in real time. This means that when
you apply a real-time effect to a clip, track, layer, or Effects Tree, you can play
the results immediately without having to process the effect.
Real-time effects fall into two categories—hardware real-time effects and
software real-time effects. When you apply a real-time effect to a clip, track,
or layer, areas of the timeline ribbon turn green or yellow to indicate that the
results of the effect(s) you applied can be played without processing.
If you have the Avid DS Nitris DNA workstation, you get guaranteed
real-time playback and output of some effects. These effects have a green
color on the timeline ribbon in the area where they are applied.
Green areas on
timeline ribbon
indicate effects
that are
guaranteed to be
played and output
in real time.
n
If you are working in a Custom sequence, real-time effects need to be
processed regardless of whether they are software or hardware-based.
If you are not using the Nitris DNA hardware, then Avid DS Nitris will
attempt to process effects using the software. If your workstation has
sufficient processing power, many effects can be computed in real time by the
software, allowing you to view the results during playback. These effects will
be indicated by a yellow color on the timeline ribbon.
Yellow areas on
timeline ribbon
indicate effects
that can be played
in real time.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
Several effects, including dissolves, wipes, color correction, DVE, blue-green
(chroma) keyer, titles, and audio effects (except Timewarp) can often be
played in real time. Stacking multiple real-time effects or boosting some effect
parameters, however, may require more bandwidth than your workstation can
handle and thus require that you process the effects before final mastering.
The real-time effect is shown in yellow.
Timeline ribbon indicates
sections that may require
processing.
Notice that when a
second effect is applied
over the real-time effect,
that portion of the clip
requires processing.
Red indicates the
region where the
effect definitely needs
to be processed.
In some cases, the calculated frame might be delivered to the video output
late. As a result, Avid DS Nitris skips to the next frame to keep in
synchronization with corresponding audio clips. A red dot is displayed on the
Play button when a frame can’t be delivered in time.
n
If you place the pointer over the Play button when the red dot is displayed, a
tooltip indicates how many frames (audio and/or video) were skipped.
The Play button is reset whenever you restart playing.
For a complete list of real-time effects and the conditions under which these
effects might cease to be real-time playable, see “Effects that are Playable in
Real Time” in the Help.
Examples
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•
A single color correction will play in real time, but five color corrections
require more bandwidth for processing and might skip frames during
playback.
•
A keyer is a real-time effect, but if you choose to “grow” or “shrink” the
matte, you will not be able to play the effect in real time.
Working with Real-Time Effects
These effects can always be processed to cache if required. For more
information, see “Creating Caches at Any Level” on page 280.
Playing Real-Time Effects
Avid DS Nitris will always try to play back effects in real time. When it
reaches a point where a frame cannot be computed before display time, the
system will repeat the previous frame to maintain progression along the
timeline.
Skipped frames will occur when a real-time effect sequence is very close to
surpassing the processing resources of your workstation. A red dot will appear
on the Play button as soon as a frame can’t be delivered in time. This means
that the real-time effect should be processed to a cache file before the final
output.
If you place the pointer over the Play button when the red dot is displayed, it
will indicate how many frames (audio and/or video) were skipped. The normal
state of the Play button is reset whenever you restart playing.
n
Tip: Always use the Play button or press the Enter key for playback, and not
the Up Arrow on the keyboard which is a 100% varispeed that can cause
frames to skip (and hence, any corresponding audio to fall out of sync.)
If you’re satisfied with the sequence preview in the output monitor and
Avid DS Nitris can successfully play effects on the timeline without skipping
frames, then you can output your sequence to tape without processing.
n
For progressive sequences, such as 1080p, and 720p, during play back, the
real-time effects are processed on-the-fly in frames. For interlaced sequences,
such as NTSC, PAL, and 1080i, real-time effects are processed on-the-fly in
fields. When the position indicator is parked on a frame, the real-time effects
are processed in frames.
Before mastering, or at any point in your production, you can process realtime effects to a cache, so Avid DS Nitris can refer to this cache file when
playing back the effects. By creating a cache, normal playback can take place
and guarantee smooth output of your sequence. In general, it is good practice
to process real-time effects before mastering.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
To force processing of your real-time effects, select Include Real-time
Effects in the Processing Options dialog box. Each of the processed effects
will then have a cache created on disk and Avid DS Nitris will no longer have
to process these on-the-fly during playback. For more information see “Setting
the Processing Options” on page 275.
Working with Real-Time Effects in HD
With the Avid Nitris DNA hardware capabilities, you can view real-time
effects with HD media at full resolution. If you are using a non-Nitris DNA
hardware platform, you can get the same real-time effects that are available
with Nitris DNA if you work in quarter resolution mode. This way you can do
all your work with quarter resolution HD media to view the real-time effects,
and then recapture the media at full resolution to add the finishing touches to
your project.
To view real-time effects in quarter working resolution mode:
1. Select File > Sequence Preferences.
The Sequence Preferences dialog box opens.
2. In the Working Video Settings box, set the resolution to Quarter.
3. Under Quarter resolution working mode, select Enable real-time effects.
n
This option is only available when working with an HD sequence on a nonNitris DNA workstation.
4. Recapture your clips at quarter resolution.
5. Play back your sequence to view the effects.
With the real-time effects option enabled, you can only view clips that have
been captured or processed in quarter resolution. You will not be able to play
back full and half resolution media and caches. These clips will indicate that
processing is needed (red highlight will display in the timeline ribbon). To
view these clips, you will need to process them at quarter resolution.
n
292
Avid DS RP does not support the real-time effects option, therefore if you are
sending your processing request to an RP workstation, it won’t recognize that
it has to process full and half resolution media.
Remote Processing
Outputting Real-time Effects
During an output-to-tape operation, Avid DS Nitris requires extra resources
which may result in insufficient bandwidth during playback. When this
happens, the Skipped Frames indicator is displayed on the transport controls.
Avid DS Nitris will attempt to output again, starting immediately before the
skipped frames occurred.
n
If your system is equipped with an Open G/L card, Avid DS Nitris might stop
updating the software viewer to transfer bandwidth resources to the output
monitor and prevent frames from skipping.
If the output-to-tape operation fails after several attempts, you will be
prompted to stop the operation. At that point, you must process that section of
the sequence before restarting the output to tape. This operation is very fast
due to the performance of the system.
c
Be careful with sequences that contain audio. Retrying an output-to- tape
operation does not guarantee that the audio will be perfectly
synchronized. You should process your sequence or output the audio to
tape in a separate pass.
Remote Processing
Instead of waiting while your workstation processes effects, you can send a
processing job to a remote workstation running Avid DS RP, so that you
continue working on your own workstation.
The RP software can be installed on any number of workstations on your
network, and the process requests are automatically dispatched to the first RP
workstation that is available. If the RP workstation is already working on
another job, your job will be added to its processing queue. For more
information on setting up your RP workstation, see the Avid DS Nitris
Installation and Administration Guide.
Before you send a job for remote processing, make sure Avid DS RP is started
on the remote processing workstations.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
To send a job to an RP workstation:
t
Follow the steps in “Setting the Processing Options” on page 275, and
select the Process Remotely option.
The Process Video to box indicates the folder where the processed media
will be placed. You must make sure that the RP workstation(s) have
permissions to write media to this folder.
Once you send a processing job to a remote workstation, a blue cache bar is
displayed above the clip where the effect was applied. The cache bar turns
yellow while the effect is being processed, and eventually turns green when
the processing is complete.
n
If you place your mouse cursor over the cache bar, it will display the
processing status of the effect.
As your effects are processed, the caches are automatically imported back into
your current project. The highlights on the timeline ribbon will disappear as
the process requests are completed.
n
If you abort the processing request, the cache bar turns red.
If you change certain effects or composites in your sequence that were sent to
a remote machine for processing, the caches for those effects or composites
will be invalid when they are imported back into your project. The cache bar
will turn red to indicate that processing is required.
Monitoring Remote Processing Jobs with the Avid DMS Broker
Avid Distributed Media Services (DMS) Broker lets you monitor and manage
your remote processing jobs that have been dispatched to any RP workstation
in your workgroup.
To monitor a remote processing job:
1. Open a view of the Avid DMS by clicking the DMS button in the status
bar in one of the following ways:
294
-
Ctrl-click the DMS button to open a view in the Avid DS Explorer.
This lets you dock the view directly in the Explorer where it can be
easily accessed
-
Click the DMS button to open a view in the Microsoft Internet
Explorer
Remote Processing
-
Ctrl+Shift-click the DMS button to open a view in the DS Web view
2. The DMS view opens and automatically logs you in as the user.
The Jobs page displays the status and other information about jobs that you
have submitted to the DMS Broker. From here you can cancel, delete or retry
jobs, depending on your level of privilege.
For more information on using the DMS Broker, refer to the Avid ProEncode
Setup and User’s Guide.
n
When DMS is installed in an Avid DS workgroup, an Avid DS client functions
as a ProEncode client, and an RP workstation as a ProEncode Provider.
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Chapter 7 Processing Effects
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Chapter 8
Working with Effects and
Transitions
This chapter describes how to apply effects and transitions, and how to nest
clips on the timeline.
•
Displaying Guides
•
Applying Effects on the Timeline
•
Applying Transitions
•
Nesting Clips
•
Displaying Effects in a Viewer
•
Processing Sequences
Displaying Guides
As you work with effects and graphics in the viewer, you can display
horizontal and vertical guidelines to help you align them precisely. For more
information, see “Displaying the Safe/Action Title Guides” in the Help.
n
The guidelines are used for positioning purposes only. They are not visible in
the final sequence.
Applying Effects on the Timeline
Any effects that you apply on the timeline are based on what you have
currently selected. You can apply video and audio effects to the entire
timeline, individual clips or tracks, or to a selected region of a clip or track.
Chapter 8 Working with Effects and Transitions
n
Before you can select anything on the timeline, you must be in Selection mode.
On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
Effects applied to clips are called clip effects and effects applied to a track are
called track effects. Clip effects are effects that are attached to a clip and move
with the clip on the timeline. Clip effects affect only the clips on which you’ve
applied them. Track effects can be placed on audio tracks, video tracks,
background tracks, and the timeline effect track. Track effects modify only the
clips on the track on which the effect is applied. An effect placed on the
timeline effect track affects all the tracks in the timeline.
For more information, see “Applying Effects” in the Help and “Understanding
Image Transition Effects” on page 239. For advanced tasks on compositing
and working with complex effects, see the Avid DS Nitris Compositing and
Graphics Guide.
Applying Transitions
Transitions are changes, like dissolves, wipes, fades, DVEs, or cuts that you
can apply to or between clips on the timeline. You can apply transitions to the
beginning or end of a single clip, or between two clips.
For example, you can use a one-sided transition to fade into a clip at the
beginning of your sequence. You can then apply wipes, cuts, and dissolves
between other clips on the timeline to move smoothly from one clip to the
next.
The type of transition you apply depends on the media you’re working with.
For instance, you can apply a dissolve, wipe, or DVE to video clips, while you
can apply a crossfade, fade-in, or fade-out to audio clips. For more
information, see “Understanding Image Transition Effects” on page 239.
Cutting to a Clip
A cut is a jump or sharp transition between two clips. The cut transfers
activeness from one clip to another. The Cut To transition is especially useful
for multi-camera editing when you need to constantly switch between
different camera shots to create the desired edit. In this case, you must place
each camera take on a separate track. You can then “cut on the fly” by
switching the activeness from one take to another.
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Applying Transitions
n
The behavior of a Cut To is the same for both audio and video clips.
To cut to a clip:
1. Place the clips on different tracks and overlap the clips at the
appropriate timecodes.
Active clip from
camera 1.
Clip on camera 2 that
you want to cut to.
2. Place the position indicator at the point, on the next clip, at which you
want to make a cut.
n
If the clip you are cutting to is inactive or on a lower track, you cannot see its
frames in the viewer. To view that clip’s frames, click the Solo button on the
track on which the clip is located.
3. Select the clip that you want to cut to.
4. From the toolbar, click Editing > Cut To.
The activeness is switched from the first clip to the selected clip at the
position indicator.
Cut between clips.
Clip from camera 1 is active.
5. Continue to cut back and forth between the two cameras by placing the
position indicator at the appropriate frame, selecting the clip you want to
cut to, and then clicking Editing > Cut To from the toolbar.
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Chapter 8 Working with Effects and Transitions
Cut to clip from camera 2.
Creating One-Sided Transitions
You can apply one-sided transitions to clips on the timeline. One-sided
transitions are usually applied to the beginning or end of a single clip to
transition into it or out of it.
To apply a one-sided transition to a clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button to
select it.
2. On the timeline, select a clip’s in-point or out-point.
3. From the toolbar, do one of the following:
-
If you selected a video clip’s in-point or out-point, click Video Effect
> effect.
-
If you selected an audio clip’s in-point or out-point, click Audio
Effect > effect.
The transition’s property editor is displayed, and the transition is
displayed as a gradient on the clip’s activeness bar.
n
You can edit the duration of a one-sided transition the same way you would
edit a transition between clips; simply drag the transition points.
Creating Transitions Between Clips
You can apply a transition between clips on the same track, or on different
audio and background tracks. You can not apply transitions to different video
tracks. Transitions can be created only when there is extra material available
on one of the clips.
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Applying Transitions
To apply a transition between clips:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you need to work with.
These clips can be on the same track, on different audio tracks, or on
different background tracks.
3. Select the edit point between the two clips.
4. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects and select
Dissolve/Crossfade, Wipe, or DVE.
The transition’s property editor is displayed.
The edit point can be set to be the start, end, or center of the transition.
You can also change the type of transition that you’ve applied. All these
options are available in the property editor.
After a transition is applied between two clips, it is automatically shown
as a gradient on the activeness bar.
For more information, click the Help button.
Same-track transition
Transition area
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Chapter 8 Working with Effects and Transitions
A transition between
two clips on different
background tracks.
Before
Edit points
Transition point at beginning of transition.
After
Transition area
Transition point at end
of transition.
Transitions have their own properties with edit points that indicate the
beginning, center, and end of the transition. These edit points become
highlighted when you select them.
Editing Transition Properties
Once you’ve applied a transition between two clips, you can change the
properties of the transition.
To change the properties of a transition:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Right-click the transition edit point and select Properties.
t
Double-click the transition edit point.
2. Change the properties in the transition’s property editor.
For more information, click the Help button.
Aligning Transitions
You can change the alignment of a transition to begin at the start, end, or
center of the edit point.
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Applying Transitions
To change the alignment of a transition:
1. In Trim mode, click the transition’s edit point to select it.
2. Right-click the Transition Alignment button and select one of the
following:
- Transition Start to align the transition to the right of the edit point.
Transition starts at
edit point.
-
Transition Center to align the transition to center around the edit
point.
Transition is centered
at edit point.
-
Transition End to align the transition to the left of the edit point.
Transition ends at
edit point.
The icon on the Transition Alignment button represents your alignment
selection for the transition.
Removing Transitions
You can easily remove a transition and restore the original clips. When you
remove a transition, it becomes a cut from one clip to the next as the edit point
remains the same.
To remove a transition, do one of the following:
t
Select the transition’s edit point and press Delete.
t
Right-click the transition’s activeness bar and select Delete (transition
type).
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Chapter 8 Working with Effects and Transitions
Using the Comparison Buffer
The comparison buffer lets you take a snapshot of a frame in your sequence
and temporarily save it to memory. You can then compare the snapshot to its
source frame or to another frame in the sequence.
The comparison buffer is useful when you want to:
•
See how an effect changes a frame. Take a snapshot and compare it to the
frame in the viewer as you apply an effect to it and adjust its properties.
Ripple effect
applied to
image.
•
Fine-tune an effect. Apply an effect and take a snapshot. Then compare it
to the frame in the viewer as you adjust the effect’s properties.
Ripple
magnitude and
size parameters
are adjusted.
•
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Snapshot of
original image.
Snapshot of image with
a Ripple effect applied
to it.
Compare one frame in your sequence to another. Take a snapshot of a
frame, then move the position indicator to the next frame or different
frame in the sequence.
Applying Transitions
Comparing the
snapshot with a
different frame.
Snapshot
of a frame.
To use the comparison buffer:
1. Right-click the viewer and select Comparison Buffer > Use Compare
Buffer.
2. Right-click the viewer again and select Comparison Buffer > Grab.
A white box is displayed around the viewer to indicate the area that is
currently saved in the buffer.
3. To manipulate the snapshot, do any of the following:
t
Drag the white lines around the snapshot to resize it.
t
Drag the snapshot to reposition it in the viewer. When you drag any
portion of the snapshot outside of the viewer, it is cropped to the
limits of the bounding box.
The size of the snapshot is maintained while the content changes.
t
Press Shift and drag to move the snapshot.
t
Press Ctrl and drag to slide the snapshot inside the bounding box.
t
Press Alt and click the viewer to reset the pan.
t
Press Alt and double-click the viewer to reset the image crop and
position.
4. Turn off the comparison buffer by right-clicking the viewer and selecting
Comparison Buffer > Use Compare Buffer.
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Chapter 8 Working with Effects and Transitions
Nesting Clips
You can break down complicated tasks into more manageable sections by
nesting multiple clips in a container clip. This way, an entire special effects
scene, for example, can be presented as one container clip on the timeline.
Container clips behave just like any other clip on the timeline. The same rules
of activeness, rippling, and other editing functions (trimming, slipping,
sliding) apply.
There are three basic types of container clips that you can use:
•
Composite container clips let you layer several video clips together on
video tracks. The result is treated as a single clip.
•
Background container clips let you edit several video clips together on
background tracks and treat the result as a single clip on the top or
parent timeline.
•
Audio container clips let you group several audio clips, mix them
together, and treat them as a single clip on the top or parent timeline.
In addition, there are image processing utilities (such as Timewarp,
Interlace/Deinterlace, and 3:2 Expand/3:2 Contract) that automatically create
container clips to hold the original clip before the effect is applied.
When you close a container clip, it is displayed as a single clip on the timeline.
You can reopen a container clip at any time to add, modify, or delete
its components.
Creating Nested Clips
When you open a sequence, you are always viewing the top timeline. Container
clips provide you with a new timeline on which you can place clips. This lets
you focus your tasks specifically on clips within the container clip.
By default, the ruler inside the container clip starts at 00:00:00. This lets you
build a subsequence that is independent of the final sequence on the top
timeline.
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Nesting Clips
Create container
from this clip.
A container clip timeline is nested in the top or parent timeline. When you
open a container clip, it displays its contents on this new timeline. When you
close the container clip, however, the clip is displayed relative in time to all
other clips on the parent timeline.
New container clip timeline.
A button is displayed
on the taskbar to
indicate that you’re in
a container clip.
You can add more clips to the container clip and layer or arrange them
sequentially for compositing, audio mixing, or editing subsections of a larger
project. You can even nest other container clips in this container clip.
You can also set the ruler in the container clip to correspond to the one on the
top timeline. This lets you view clips at the exact timecode that they will
appear in the final sequence.
By default, a container clip is named “Composite Container x”, “Background
Container x”, or “Audio Container x”, where x is the next sequential number
for that type of container clip. You can easily rename a container clip with a
more suitable name by using the clip’s property editor. For more information,
see “Renaming and Adding Comments to Clips” on page 167.
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A closed container clip
represented as a single
clip on the top timeline.
Creating a Composite Container Clip
Composite container clips let you layer video clips and apply graphics, color
correction, keyer, and DVE effects to each layer. Clips placed on video tracks
are composited over each other, and when the container is closed, the result is
displayed as a single clip on the top or parent timeline.
n
If you use background tracks within your composite container, they are
combined into a single background container within the composite container.
All video tracks are stacked on top of the background container within the
composite container.
You can also create a composite container clip to draw graphics or add titles to
your clips. A composite container clip can contain a number of video clips,
and is used primarily for compositing clips and treating the result as a single
clip. For more information, see “Using the Effects Tree to Composite” in the
Help.
To create a composite container clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. On the timeline, select the video clips that you want to use in the container
clip. Do one of the following:
n
308
To select more than one clip at a time, press Ctrl while clicking clips.
t
t
From the toolbar, click Containers > Composite Container Clip.
From the taskbar, click the Create Container button and select
Create Composite Container Clip.
Nesting Clips
A container clip timeline is displayed. You can now place additional clips
on the tracks, add effects, and perform other editing tasks on the clips.
Composite
Container Clip
button
Also, a new container clip timeline button is displayed in the taskbar to
indicate that you’re working in a composite container clip.
3. Do one of the following after you have finished editing the clips in this
container clip:
t
t
Container clip button
From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Top Timeline.
From the taskbar, click the Top Timeline button.
The composite container clip is closed and the top timeline is displayed.
All the clips are displayed as one clip on the timeline. You can reopen the
container clip at any time by clicking the button in the title bar of the
container clip.
Creating a Background Container Clip
Background container clips let you edit several video clips together on a
background track, and treat the result as a single clip on the top or parent
timeline. Any editing tasks that can be performed on the top timeline can also
be done in a background container clip.
For example, to perform a double dissolve (commonly known as a bi-pack),
you first dissolve two clips in a container clip. On the top timeline, you then
dissolve the container clip with a third clip.
To create a background container clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. On the timeline, select the video clips that you want to use in the container
clip.
n
To select more than one clip at a time, press Ctrl while clicking on clips. All
these clips will be placed in the same container clip.
3. Do one of the following:
t
t
From the toolbar, click Containers > Background Container.
From the taskbar, click the Create Container button and select
Create Background Container Clip.
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A container clip timeline is displayed. You can now place additional clips
on the background tracks, add effects or transitions, or perform other
editing tasks on the clips.
Also, a new container clip timeline button is displayed in the taskbar to
indicate that you are working in a background container clip.
4. Do one of the following after you finish editing the clips in this container
clip:
Top Timeline
button
Background
Container Clip
button
Container clip button
n
t
From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Top Timeline.
t
From the taskbar, click the Top Timeline button.
The background container clip is closed and the top timeline is displayed.
All the clips are displayed as one clip on the timeline. You can reopen the
container clip at any time by clicking the button in the title bar of the
container clip.
An option lets the container button appear on the clip. For more information,
see “Editing Property Page”“Editing Property Page” in the Help.
Creating an Audio Container Clip
Audio container clips let you group several audio clips, mix them together,
and treat them as a single clip on the top or parent timeline. These audio
container clips can be synchronized with corresponding video clips or mixed
with other audio clips.
You can create submixes by nesting audio container clips in other audio
container clips. For example, you can create a container clip just to create a
submix of all the drum sound tracks, while another container clip can be used
for the guitar submix. These two container clips can then be mixed together to
generate the final recording.
For more information, see “Mixing Audio” on page 387.
To create an audio container clip:
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode button.
2. On the timeline, select the audio clips that you want to use in the container
clip.
n
310
To select more than one clip at a time, press Ctrl while clicking on clips.
Nesting Clips
3. Do one of the following:
t From the toolbar, click Containers > Audio Container.
t
Audio Container
Clip button
From the taskbar, click the Create Container button and select
Create Audio Container Clip.
A container clip timeline is displayed. You can now place additional clips
on the tracks, add effects and transitions, and perform other editing tasks
on the clips. In the audio container clip, you can set your ruler to display
frames or milliseconds for greater accuracy when editing audio clips.
Also, a new container clip timeline button is displayed in the taskbar to
indicate that you are working inside an audio container clip.
4. Do one of the following after you finish editing the clips in this
container clip:
t
t
Container clip button
From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Top Timeline.
From the taskbar, click the Top Timeline button.
The audio container clip is closed and the top timeline is displayed. All
the clips are displayed as one clip on the timeline. You can reopen the
container clip at any time by clicking the button in the title bar of the
container clip.
A closed audio container
clip represented as a
single clip on the timeline.
Navigating within Nested Clips
When you first open a sequence, the top timeline is displayed. The top
timeline is the topmost level of the timeline. This is where you can see all the
clips that comprise your sequence.
A container clip timeline is nested in the top or parent timeline. When you
open a container clip, it displays the contents of the container clip on this
new timeline.
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You can also create container clips in container clips. A container clip that
contains another is called the parent container clip. Each time you create or
open a container clip, a corresponding button is displayed at the bottom of the
taskbar. As you continue to nest container clips, the list of buttons on the
taskbar continues to grow. These buttons provide a quick way of navigating
between container clips. The timeline buttons in the taskbar indicate how deep
the container clip is nested.
Top Timeline
Parent Timeline
Current Timeline
Container clip timelines
that are currently open.
Create new container clip
You can identify container clips by the type of button that is displayed in the
taskbar.
This button
Represents
A composite container clip.
A background container clip.
An audio container clip.
Opening Container Clips
The button at the top of the timeline buttons in the taskbar represents the top
timeline. As you create nested container clips, more timeline buttons appear
on the taskbar. The type of timeline buttons that appear correspond to the
opened container clips.
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Nesting Clips
Container clip button
Step In
To open a container clip, do one of the following:
t
Click the button in the container clip.
t
Double-click the container clip.
t
Select the container clip and click the Step In button on the timeline
navigation bar.
The container clip timeline is displayed. A new container clip button is
displayed in the taskbar, representing the container clip in which you’re
currently working.
Closing Container Clips
After you’ve made changes to the container clip, you can close your current
container clip and go to the top or parent timeline by clicking the respective
navigation button on the taskbar.
When you click the Top Timeline button, it closes all of the container clips
below it and displays the top timeline.
Similarly, when you click a parent container clip button, it closes any nested
container clips within it and displays only the contents of the selected
container clip.
Top Timeline
button
To close a container clip and return to the top timeline, do one of the
following:
Parent Timeline
button
t
From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Top Timeline.
t
From the taskbar, click the Top Timeline button.
This closes all open container clips and returns to the top timeline.
To close a container clip and return to the parent timeline, do one of the
following:
Step Out
t
From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Parent Timeline.
t
In the taskbar, click any container clip button (Parent Timeline button)
above the current container clip button.
On the timeline navigation bar, click the Step Out button.
t
The current container clip is closed and the parent container clip’s
timeline is displayed.
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Deleting Nested Clips
You can delete any container clip on the timeline. Deleting a container clip
removes the container clip and its contents from the timeline.
To delete a container clip and its contents, do one of the following:
t
Select a container clip and press Delete.
t
Right-click a container clip and select Delete Clip.
The container clip is removed from the timeline.
n
If the container clip is sync-locked with another audio or video component, the
other component remains on the timeline. You have to delete it as an
independent clip.
To delete a container clip but preserve its contents:
1. Open a container clip—see “Opening Container Clips” on page 312.
2. Press Ctrl and select all the clips in the container clip.
3. Press Ctrl+C to copy the clips.
4. Close the container clip—see “Closing Container Clips” on page 313.
5. Press Delete to delete the container clip.
6. Place the position indicator at the point on the timeline on which you want
to place the clips you copied.
7. Press Ctrl+V to paste the clips back on the timeline.
Displaying Effects in a Viewer
You can display effects in a viewer, such as a floating viewer.
Opening a Floating Viewer
When working on several different effects simultaneously, you can open a
floating viewer for each effect, as well as tree effects and container clips. This
lets you view the output of individual effects, container clips, and whole
timelines. You can also display the red, green, blue, and/or alpha component
of an image, and use the transport controls to view the rest of your clip. For
more information, see “Viewing Image Components” on page 317.
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Displaying Effects in a Viewer
n
Unlike the transport controls in the Source and Record viewers, you cannot
customize them by adding and removing buttons.
You can also resize and move each floating viewer to a location where it
won’t obstruct other views, and then pin it in place. Once a floating viewer is
pinned, you can freely switch between the different layouts and the floating
viewer will remain in place. When you modify an effect, the result is
displayed in its floating viewer.
A single floating viewer can display several outputs, see “Changing the Image
Displayed in a Viewer” on page 316.
n
Objects cannot be edited or manipulated in a floating viewer.
To open a floating viewer:
t
Right-click one of the following and select Open Viewer:
-
Clip
-
Clip, track, or timeline effect bar
-
Timeline effect track
-
Container clip
-
Layer effect
-
Result area in Layers view
-
Effect Tree node
-
Overview area of the timeline
To pin a floating viewer:
t
n
Click the Pin button in the upper-right corner of a floating viewer.
Tip: You can set the window size and position of floating viewers in the User
Preferences dialog box (General property page).
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Changing the Image Displayed in a Viewer
You can view various outputs in a single viewer. The Reconnect Viewer
button lets you view the output of individual effects, container clips, or the
whole timeline. This is useful when you want to display the full results of a
composite in the Record viewer, and view one element at a time in a another
viewer.
To display the output of selected objects in a viewer:
1. Do one of the following:
t
Open a floating viewer—see “Opening a Floating Viewer” on
page 314.
t
Select a viewer that has a Reconnect Viewer button—see
“Customizing Toolbars” in the Help.
2. Click the Reconnect Viewer button for the selected viewer.
3. Right-click the Reconnect Viewer button and select Current Selection.
4. Click an object on the timeline that you want to display in the viewer.
The Reconnect Viewer button turns red, indicating that there is an
alternate object you can view. Each object you select is displayed in the
viewer when the position indicator moves to it.
5. (Option) If you want to continue displaying the output of the currently
selected object, do the following:
t
Right-click the Reconnect Viewer button and select Lock Selection.
The Reconnect Viewer pop-up menu sets the viewer’s connection points. You
can choose from three preset options or choose a selection mode. Selection
mode displays the output of objects you select on the timeline or in an Effects
Tree.
To set a viewer’s output connection point:
1. Click the Reconnect Viewer button for the selected viewer.
2. Right-click the Reconnect Viewer button and select the desired
connection—see “Reconnect Viewer Menu” in the Help.
You can now click the Reconnect Viewer button to switch between
displaying this object and the current object in the viewer.
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Displaying Effects in a Viewer
Viewing Image Components
The viewer lets you display the red, green, blue, and/or alpha component of an
image. During compositing, it’s particularly useful to display the alpha
component, so that you can monitor the matte of a clip or layer.
Viewer Red
Viewer Green
Viewer Alpha
Viewer Blue
To display the red, green, or blue component, do one of the following:
t
From the viewer tools, click the red, green, or blue button.
t
Right-click the viewer, and select Red, Green, or Blue Component.
To display the alpha channel, do one of the following:
t
From the viewer tools, right-click the Viewer Alpha Channel button,
select a degree of opacity, and click the button to display the alpha
channel.
t
Right-click the viewer and select Alpha Component and a degree of
opacity.
The alpha channel displays the resulting composite, either on the top
timeline or in a composite container clip.
To display the matte, do one of the following:
n
t
Right-click the viewer and select Alpha Component > Matte.
t
From the viewer tools, right-click the Viewer Alpha Channel button and
select Viewer Alpha Full.
t
From a keyer property editor, select the Output Matte option to switch
the keyer output between the RBG and alpha channels. When selected, the
alpha channel (matte) is output as an RGB image. This is useful when a
key is applied on a video track as you don’t have to solo the track before
displaying the alpha channel.
Before processing the effect, deselect the Output Matte option if you don’t
want to output the alpha channel as an RGB image.
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The alpha channel displays the resulting composite, either on the top
timeline or in a composite container clip. You can also view the mattes of
individual layers.
Processing Sequences
If you’ve applied transitions and effects to clips and then nested them in
container clips, you must process them before playing them. Processing is not
performed automatically, since it takes time and system resources to process
your clips. You can process all or part of the timeline. You can also choose
different levels at which to process your clips. For more information, see
“Processing Effects” on page 265.
n
All audio and some video effects and transitions do not need to be processed
as they are computed during real-time playback.
To process a sequence:
1. Do one of the following:
t
From the toolbar, click Processing > Process.
t
In the timeline controls, click the Process button.
Process button
Highlighted timeline
ribbon indicates
unprocessed section
of the sequence.
2. In the Processing Options dialog box, select the appropriate options.
Click Help for detailed information on the processing options or see
“Processing Effects” on page 265.
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Processing Sequences
3. Click OK to begin processing.
A progress indicator is displayed on the bottom of the desktop to show the
status of the process.
4. Click Cancel to stop the process at any time.
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Chapter 9
Working with Time Effects
This chapter describes the time effects and how to apply them to clips:
•
Understanding the Time Effects
•
Applying a 3:2 Contract Effect
•
Applying a 3:2 Expand Effect
•
Applying a Deinterlace Effect
•
Applying an Interlace Effect
•
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
Understanding the Time Effects
The time effects let you process images by rearranging the fields and frames in
a clip. Time effects include 3:2 Contract, 3:2 Expand, Deinterlace, Interlace,
Timewarp, and Freeze. You can apply time effects only to clips.
n
These effects aren’t like other clip effects, in the sense that they create
container clips. You can only apply them from the toolbar.
When you apply a time effect, a container clip is created for holding the entire
source clip, even if you only used part of it. First frame and end frame markers
inside the container clip indicate the portion of the source clip that is actually
used. Only that portion is visible on the top timeline.
Unlike other effects, a time effect is not represented by an effect bar that you
can move, copy, delete, or trim. You can, however, save a time effect as a
preset and apply it to different clips.
Chapter 9 Working with Time Effects
To apply a time effect:
1. From the timeline, select a clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects and select a time effect.
A container clip is created.
To modify a time effect:
t
On the timeline, right-click a container clip, select Properties, and then
select the parameters that you want to modify.
The effect’s property editor is displayed for you to make any adjustments.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying a 3:2 Contract Effect
The 3:2 Contract effect lets you process video fields to recreate the original
film sequence at 24 frames per second. This removes artifacts, so that you can
work on clean frames.
You can apply the 3:2 Contract effect only to video clips.
n
322
Because the 3:2 pulldown technique is not required with PAL video material,
this effect is only used on sequences in NTSC format.
Applying a 3:2 Contract Effect
AA BB BC CD DD EE FF FG GH HH
Clip created from film
transfer using 3:2 pulldown.
Mixed fields that might
contain artifacts.
3:2 Contract
AA BB CC DD EE FF GG HH
3:2 Expand
AA BB BC CD DD EE FF FG GH HH
n
When using these effects inside composite container clips, you should apply
the 3:2 Contract effect inside the composite container clip, complete the
graphics or compositing tasks, and then go to the parent timeline to apply the
3:2 Expand effect.
To contract video fields:
1. From the timeline, select a clip.
2. Frames composed of mixed fields occur in pairs. Place the position
indicator on the first frame in any pair of frames composed of mixed
fields.
AA BB BC CD DD EE FF FG GH HH
Place the position indicator on one of these frames.
3. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > 3:2 Contract.
The clip is contracted to 24 frames per second. A container clip is created.
4. On the timeline, the length of the clip is updated.
For more information, click the Help button.
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Chapter 9 Working with Time Effects
Applying a 3:2 Expand Effect
The 3:2 Expand effect lets you expand the video fields to recreate a
30-frames-per-second clip. Once you’ve added effects to your clips, you need
to expand the video fields.
You can apply the 3:2 Expand effect only to video clips.
n
Because the 3:2 pulldown technique is not required with PAL video material,
this effect is only used on sequences in NTSC format.
To expand video fields:
1. From the timeline, select a 3:2 Contract container clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > 3:2 Expand.
A 3:2 Expand container clip is created and the clip recovers its original
length.
3. On the timeline, the length of the clip is updated.
For more information, click the Help button.
n
During a 3:2 Expand, if a clip starts or ends with a frame composed of mixed
fields, red frames are added at the beginning or end of the clip to ensure a
fully recoverable operation. You can trim the clip to remove these frames. For
more information, see “Understanding Trimming” on page 209.
Applying a Deinterlace Effect
The Deinterlace effect lets you separate each frame of a clip into two fields:
one containing even lines and the other containing odd lines.
In the deinterlaced clip, each field appears as one frame and contains half the
lines of video information of the original frame. For viewing purposes, the inbetween lines are replaced either by duplicates or by interpolation. As a result,
the clip becomes twice as long on the timeline.
You can apply the Deinterlace effect only to clips.
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Applying a Deinterlace Effect
Deinterlacing clips is useful for several tasks, including:
•
Working with clips originally shot with a video camera or field-based
material.
•
Creating a field-based animated matte (rotoscopy) or paint animation: The
camera captures 60 fields per second; when objects are moving very fast,
individual fields might contain slightly different images. If you want your
matte to accurately track the outlines of the moving object, you must
create a different matte for each field. When you deinterlace the clip, each
field is displayed separately. You can then use the graphics tools to create
a matte which accurately tracks the moving object.
•
Retouching images: Artifacts on clips sometimes appear only on one field
of a clip. The way to remove such artifacts is to deinterlace the clip,
expose the corrupt field, retouch it, and then reinterlace the clip.
•
Tracking: Since individual fields can contain different images, you should
deinterlace clips before tracking to more accurately track objects.
After you’ve worked on the fields in a clip, you must recombine (interlace)
them to display the resulting frames and recover the original playback speed.
For more information, see “Applying an Interlace Effect” on page 326.
To use the Deinterlace and Interlace effects in a composite container
clip:
1. Apply the Deinterlace effect to a clip on the top timeline.
2. Apply the composite container clip to the deinterlace container clip.
3. Perform the graphics or compositing tasks inside the composite container
clip.
4. Go to the top timeline to apply the Interlace effect.
To preserve your edits on the top timeline, make sure that the Ripple
mode is activated.
To deinterlace a clip:
1. Apply the Deinterlace effect to a clip.
A container clip is created and the Deinterlace property editor is
displayed.
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Chapter 9 Working with Time Effects
2. From the Interpolation box, select one type of interpolation.
3. Select the Invert Field Dominance option to change the order in which
odd and even fields occur in time.
The duration of the clip is doubled.
n
If you deinterlace a clip that is part of a composite, the clip’s duration is
doubled. To maintain synchronization, make sure that you deinterlace the
other clips in the composite.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying an Interlace Effect
The Interlace effect lets you shorten deinterlaced clips by half because every
two consecutive frames are interleaved into a single frame. This interlaced
frame contains both odd and even fields. You can use the Interlace effect after
you’ve finished making the necessary modifications to a deinterlaced clip.
You can apply the Interlace effect only to clips.
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Understanding the Timewarp Effects
To interlace a clip:
1. From the timeline, select a Deinterlace container clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Interlace.
A container clip is created and the Interlace property editor is displayed.
3. Select the Invert Field Dominance option to change the order in which
odd and even fields occur in time.
The duration of the clip is reduced by half.
For more information, click the Help button.
To use the Deinterlace and Interlace effects in a composite container
clip:
1. Apply the Deinterlace effect to a clip on the top timeline.
2. Apply the composite container clip to the deinterlace container clip.
3. Perform the graphics or compositing tasks inside the composite container
clip.
4. Go to the top timeline to apply the Interlace effect.
To preserve your edits on the top timeline, make sure that the Ripple mode is
activated.
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
The Timewarp effects let you change the speed of clips. You can speed them
up, slow them down, or have them play in reverse.
Applying a Timewarp effect creates a container clip in which frames are
added, removed, or rearranged to create the pacing that you want. Slowing the
action down increases the number of frames, while speeding the action up
decreases it.
The timewarp container clip holds the entire source clip, even if you only used
part of it. First frame and end frame markers inside the container clip indicate
the portion of the source clip that is actually used in the timewarp.
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Applying an Audio Timewarp Effect
The audio Timewarp effect lets you alter the length and speed of an audio clip
without affecting the original pitch. There are two methods of changing the
speed—by specifying a percentage of the original speed or by typing a new
SMPTE duration.
You can also adjust the pitch of any source audio with or without a change in
its duration. This effect lets sounds to be transposed a maximum of
two octaves up or down in pitch with or without altering playback speed. The
audio timewarp has been optimized for human speech.
n
If your Avid DS Nitris system has a Merging Technologies audio card
installed, you can use the audio Timewarp Timezone effect, from Merging
Technologies. For more information, see “Applying Merging Audio Timezone
Effects” on page 330.
To apply the audio Timewarp effect:
1. From the timeline, select an audio clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Timewarp.
A timewarp container clip is created and the Timewarp property editor
is displayed.
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Understanding the Timewarp Effects
3. Do one of the following to define the new speed:
-
In the Speed (%) box, type a new speed as a percentage of the
original speed.
-
In the Duration (SMPTE) box, type a new end timecode for the
container clip.
You can define the speed using either the speed or duration control.
Because these properties are interdependent, when you change one, the
other is updated automatically. For example, if you specify a new end
timecode, the speed is adjusted so that the clip fills the new duration.
4. Adjust the length of the crossfade using the CrossFade control.
5. Adjust the Minimum Pitch control to set the minimum or lowest pitch
used during the timewarp processing.
6. Do the following to adjust the pitch shift:
-
In the Pitch Shift area, click Enable to active the pitch shift options.
-
Adjust the pitch by changing the values of the Coarse and Fine
options. The Coarse option transposes in semitones (half steps) and
the Fine option transposes in cents (hundredths of a semitone).
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Chapter 9 Working with Time Effects
-
Adjust the Pitch Shift Ratio control to set the amount of
transposition (pitch change).
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying Merging Audio Timezone Effects
The audio Timewarp Timezone effect lets you alter the length and speed of an
audio clip without affecting the original pitch. The audio timewarp has been
optimized for human speech.
n
To use the audio Timewarp effect, Timezone from Merging Technologies, you
must have a Merging Technologies audio card installed on your system.
There are two methods of changing the speed: by specifying a percentage of
the original speed or by entering a new SMPTE duration.
To apply the audio Timewarp (timezone) effect:
1. From the timeline, select an audio clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Timewarp.
A timewarp container clip is created and the Timewarp TimeZone
property editor is displayed.
3. Click the Load Preset button and select one of the Merging TimeZone
presets.
4. Do one of the following to define the new speed:
-
In the Speed (%) box, type a new speed as a percentage of the
original speed.
-
In the Duration (SMPTE) box, type a new end timecode for the
container clip.
You can define the speed using either the speed or duration control.
Because these properties are interdependent, when you change one, the
other is updated automatically. For example, if you specify a new end
timecode, the speed is adjusted so that the clip fills the new duration.
5. In the Quality box, specify how you want the processing to be done. The
higher the quality setting, the more processing power, and therefore more
time is required to complete the process. You can, for example, set the
quality to Fast while you experiment with parameters. Once you’ve
decided on your settings, set the quality to High to process the final result.
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Understanding the Timewarp Effects
6. Click the Update Duration button to update the clip displayed on
the timeline.
7. On the Advanced property page, set the following parameters:
-
Blocklength: Specify the size of the audio blocks used to perform the
Timezone processing. As a general rule, percussive sounds, such as
drums, piano, or clicks, should use shorter blocklengths, while
instruments such as strings, wind, and flute, should use longer
blocklengths. For clips that combine both percussive and tonal
sounds, like music, you’ll need to experiment with this parameter for
an optimal setting.
-
Cross Fading: Specify the length of the crossfade applied between
each audio block during the Timezone processing.
-
Energy Detection (dB): Specify the energy threshold for processing
audio blocks. When you select this option, only audio blocks that do
not exceed the specified energy threshold are processed. This is
particularly useful for percussive content or for speech applications.
Do not select this option when an exact processed file size must be
guaranteed.
For more information, see “Timewarp (audio timezone) Property Editor” in
the Help.
Applying a Video Timewarp Effect
The video Timewarp effect lets you speed up or slow down the action in a
video clip. You can also reverse the action in a clip, freeze frames, or match
the duration of two clips.
The Timewarp effect has five modes:
Mode
Description
Constant
Speeds up or slows down the action in a clip by giving it a new
constant speed—see “Applying a Constant Speed” on page 333.
Speed
Applies a variable speed, so that the action speeds up and/or
slows down progressively—see “Applying a Variable Speed” on
page 336.
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Chapter 9 Working with Time Effects
n
Mode
Description
Input Speed
Applies a variable speed based on the source clip in the timewarp
container clip, so that the action speeds up and/or slows
down progressively—see “Applying a Variable Speed Based on
the Source Clip” on page 337.
Position
Rearranges the action completely by changing the position of
frames in time—see “Changing the Position of Frames” on
page 339.
Hold
Freezes frames—see “Freezing Frames” on page 340.
Inside a timewarp container clip, audio and video synchronization are not
valid. Therefore, you cannot play the audio portion of a clip from inside a
video timewarp container clip or from a clip that is a container clip of a
timewarp container clip.
To apply a video timewarp:
1. From the timeline, select a video clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Timewarp.
A timewarp container clip is created and the Timewarp property editor is
displayed.
This portion of
the property
editor varies
according to the
mode.
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Understanding the Timewarp Effects
3. From the Mode list, select one of the following:
n
-
Constant to apply a constant speed to the entire clip.
-
Speed to specify a speed that varies throughout the clip.
-
Input Speed to specify a speed based on the source clip.
-
Position to apply frame mapping.
-
Hold to freezes frames.
To freeze frames in the selected clip, you can also go the frame that you want
to freeze and click Time Effects > Freeze in the toolbar.
4. Select the Interpolate option to create smoother motion.
As frames are added or removed, the timewarp interpolates between
frames (or fields in field processing mode) to create a smoother motion.
5. Select the Invert Fields option to reverse field dominance in a clip—see
“Understanding Video Settings” on page 75.
n
If you selected the Frames option in the Processing Options dialog box, then
the Invert Fields option in the Timewarp property editor will have no effect
when you process the timewarp.
6. Click the Update Duration button to update the clip displayed on the
timeline.
n
If you have problems applying a timewarp to material that has been
transferred from film using a 3:2 pulldown, you should first apply a 3:2
Contract effect, then apply a Timewarp, and then apply a 3:2 Expand effect on
the timewarped results, using the Frames option in the Processing Options
dialog box. For more information, see “Applying a 3:2 Contract Effect” on
page 322 and “Applying a 3:2 Expand Effect” on page 324.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying a Constant Speed
Using the Constant mode, you can assign a new apparent speed to a portion of
a clip. For example, in a scene where a runner is crossing the finish line, you
can set the speed to 50% to slow down the action.
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Chapter 9 Working with Time Effects
You can define the speed using any of the speed or duration controls. Because
these properties are interdependent, when you change one, the others are
updated automatically. For example, if you specify a new duration by
changing the end timecode, the speed is adjusted so that the clip fills the new
duration.
Once you’ve applied a new constant speed to a clip, you can adjust the clip’s
in and out-points and its duration.
To apply a constant speed:
1. From the Timewarp property editor, select Constant from the Mode list.
The Constant mode properties are displayed.
Constant mode
properties
2. To define the new apparent speed, do one of the following:
334
-
Speed (%): Type a new speed as a percentage of the original speed.
-
Speed (Frames per Second): Type a new speed in frames per second
(enter a negative value if you want to reverse the action in the clip).
-
Duration (SMPTE): Type a new duration for the container clip.
-
Duration (Frames): Type a new duration in frames.
Understanding the Timewarp Effects
Frames are added or removed from the clip to change the apparent speed
of action. Speed values are rounded, so that the number of frames is an
integer.
3. Click the Update Duration button to update the container clip’s duration
on the timeline.
n
If the Interpolate option is deselected and the new constant speed is slower
than the original speed, the updated duration of the clip on the timeline may
not match the updated duration in the property editor. This is because slowing
down the clip without interpolation simply duplicates each full frame a fixed
number of times. To remove the extra frames, you can simply trim them in the
timeline.
When Interpolation is selected, extra frames are not generated because some
frames are mixed together.
For more information, click the Help button.
To adjust the clip’s in and out-points on the source clip:
1. Select the timewarped clip that contains the in or out-points you want
to change.
2. Do one of the following:
-
From the top timeline, select the clip’s in or out-point. Hold down the
F key and drag the edit handle to move the in or out-point forward or
backward in time.
-
From inside the timewarp container clip, select the First Frame or End
Frame marker and drag it to the new in or out-point.
The clip now uses more or less material, but its duration on the top
timeline does not change. This will either speed up the action or slow it
down, depending on whether you increased or decreased the number of
frames being used.
To adjust the clip’s duration:
1. Select the timewarped clip whose in or out-points you want to change.
2. From the top timeline, select the clip’s in or out-point.
3. Hold down the G key and drag the edit handle to move the in or out-point
forward or backward in time.
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Chapter 9 Working with Time Effects
The clip’s duration is increased or decreased, but its in and out-points in
the source material do not change.
Applying a Variable Speed
Using the Speed mode, you can assign different speeds to different parts of a
clip without changing the clip’s duration on the timeline.
For example, if you apply a timewarp to a clip in a basketball scene, you can
slow the action down and then speed it up again to make the ball gradually
slow down as it approaches the net, come to a stop above the net, and then fall
through the net at full speed.
Changing the speed changes the portion of the source clip that is used, since
more or less material is needed to maintain the clip’s duration. After each
change, the first frame and end frame markers inside the timewarp container
clip are updated accordingly. A base frame marker is set at the frame where
you originally applied the timewarp.
Animation Key button
Apparent speed at
timecode 00:00:04:07.
Apparent speed
at position
indicator.
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Understanding the Timewarp Effects
To apply a variable speed:
1. From the Timewarp property editor, select Speed from the Mode list.
The Speed function curve is displayed.
2. Change the apparent speed of the clip by doing one of the following:
-
Edit the function curve—see “Working with the Animation Graph”
on page 357.
-
Move the position indicator to a specific timecode and type a value in
the Speed text box.
If the Autokey mode is on, a keyframe is created on the function curve.
If the Autokey mode is off, you can use the Set/Remove Key button in
the Timewarp property editor to add or remove keyframes from the
function curve.
n
You can also edit the function curve in the animation editor by right-clicking
the Animation Key button and selecting Animation Editor.
In the animation editor, you can work on a copy of the function curve and
preserve the original until you’re ready to accept your changes. For more
information, see “Making Temporary Copies of Function Curves” on
page 374.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying a Variable Speed Based on the Source Clip
Using the Input Speed mode, you can assign different speeds to different parts
of a clip, and update the clip’s duration accordingly.
Changing the speed in the Input Speed mode does not affect the portion of the
clip that is used because the changes are based on the source material. Instead,
the clip’s duration is lengthened or shortened, depending on whether you
slowed the clip down or sped it up. However you change it, the final
timewarped clip will retain the first and end frames that you originally
specified.
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Chapter 9 Working with Time Effects
Apparent speed at
timecode 00:00:02:10.
Apparent speed at
position indicator.
To apply a variable speed based on the source clip:
1. From the Timewarp property editor, select Input Speed from the Mode
list.
The Input Speed function curve is displayed.
2. Select the Show Input Frames option.
The Input Speed function curve is updated to represent the source material
for the timewarp container clip.
3. Change the apparent speed of the clip by doing one of the following:
-
Move the position indicator to a specific timecode and type a value in
the Speed text box.
-
Edit the function curve—see “Working with the Animation Graph”
on page 357.
If Autokey mode is activated, a keyframe is created on the function curve.
If Autokey mode is deactivated, you can use the Set/Remove Key button
in the Timewarp property editor to add or remove keyframes from the
function curve.
4. Deselect the Show Input Frames option.
5. Click the Update Duration button to update the duration of the clip on
the top timeline.
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Understanding the Timewarp Effects
For more information, click the Help button.
Changing the Position of Frames
Using the Position mode, you can move frames to different timecodes. For
example, to reverse the action in a clip, you can place the last frame first and
the first frame last.
In Position mode, a position curve maps the frames’ original timecode inside
the container clip (the vertical axis) versus their new timecode (on the
horizontal axis). You can change this mapping by editing the function curve.
In the following example, the clip plays backward slowly from the last frame
to the first, then plays forward fast, from the first frame to the last.
Animation Key button
Original timecode of
the frame at timecode
00:00:00:16.
Original timecode of the
frame at position
indicator.
To change the position of frames:
1. From the Timewarp property editor, select Position from the Mode list.
The Position function curve is displayed.
2. Change the position of frames by doing one of the following:
-
Edit the function curve—see “Working with the Animation Graph”
on page 357.
-
Move the position indicator to a specific timecode.
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Chapter 9 Working with Time Effects
-
In the Position box, type the original timecode of the frame that you
want to move to the current location of the position indicator.
If Autokey mode is activated, a keyframe is created on the function curve.
n
You can also edit the function curve in the animation editor by right-clicking
the Animation Key button and selecting Animation Editor.
In the animation editor, you can work on a copy of the function curve and
preserve the original until you’re ready to accept your changes. For more
information, see “Making Temporary Copies of Function Curves” on
page 374.
To reverse the action in a clip:
1. From the timeline, select a clip.
2. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Timewarp.
A container clip is created and the Timewarp property editor is displayed.
3. Click the Load Preset button.
4. From the Load Preset dialog box, select the Reverse effect.
In the Base Frame box, Last is selected. In the Speed (%) box, the value is
-100, indicating that the clip will play in reverse.
5. Change the negative speed value to make the clip play backwards at a
different speed.
For more information, click the Help button.
Freezing Frames
Using the Hold mode, you can freeze the action of a specified frame by giving
it a speed of zero. Then you can specify whether to freeze a frame or field by
using the Hold On options. Avid DS Nitris replaces frames in a specific part of
the clip by using the frame or field you specified in the Timewarp property
editor. Field-based holds require processing whereas frame-based holds do
not.
To freeze frames:
1. From the timeline, select a clip.
2. Using the transport controls, locate the frame you want to freeze.
3. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Freeze.
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Understanding the Timewarp Effects
A timewarp container clip is created and the Timewarp property editor
is displayed.
n
You can also freeze frames by clicking Timewarp and selecting Hold from the
Mode list in the Timewarp property editor.
Notice that the Fix At text box contains the selected frame’s timecode in
the timewarp container clip, and not on the top timeline. A base frame
marker is set at this timecode on the timeline in the timewarp container
clip.
All subsequent frames in the clip are replaced by the current frame
causing the action to freeze indefinitely. You also have the option of
holding the first or last frame of the container clip.
4. Adjust the base frame by changing the Fix At value.
n
You can also adjust the base frame by moving the base frame marker in the
timewarp container clip.
5. By default, the Hold This Frame Indefinitely option is selected. If you
want the action to slow down gradually, type a value in the Ease In text
box.
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Chapter 9 Working with Time Effects
The action slows down over the specified number of frames.
6. If you want to convert the clip into a still image based on the specified
frame, select the Replace Entire Clip With This Frame option.
7. If you want to freeze a frame and then let the action resume, select the
Hold This Frame for a Fixed Duration option and set the following:
-
Duration: Type the number of frames during which the action is
frozen.
-
Ease In: Type the number of frames during which the action slows
down to a stop.
-
Ease Out: Type the number of frames during which the action
recovers its original speed.
8. If you want to create a strobe effect do the following:
-
Select the Strobe option.
-
In the Frequency text box, type the number of frames that are
repeated and then skipped.
Starting with the first frame in the container clip, a specified number of
frames is repeated and then the same number of frames is skipped.
9. To freeze either a frame or field, select one of the following from the
Hold On boxes:
n
-
Frame: Freezes both fields of the selected frame.
-
Field 1: Freezes the first field of the frame.
-
Field 2: Freezes the second field of the frame.
Freeze frame timewarps do not require processing when you set the Hold On
mode to Frame, and you’ve set the Ease In and Ease Out values to zero.
Freeze frame timewarps do require processing when you set the Hold On
mode to Field 1 or Field 2, or when you’ve specified an Ease In or Ease Out
value.
10. Click Update Duration to update the clip’s duration.
For more information, click the Help button.
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Understanding the Timewarp Effects
Giving One Clip the Duration of Another
You can use the Timewarp effect to give one clip the same number of frames
as a second clip. This is useful when you want to composite a clip that
contains a single-frame image with another clip that contains action.
To give one clip the duration of another:
1. Place two clips on the timeline.
2. Select the first clip (the clip whose duration you want to change).
3. Press Ctrl and click the second clip (the one whose duration you want to
match).
4. From the toolbar, click Time Effects > Timewarp.
A container clip is created over the first clip and the Timewarp property
editor is displayed. On the timeline, the length of the first clip is updated
to match the length of the second clip.
For more information, click the Help button.
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Chapter 9 Working with Time Effects
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Chapter 10
Animating Objects
This chapter describes the different ways you can animate an object’s
properties. You can use the animation tools to create and adjust animation by
setting keyframes and manipulating function curves.
After you master the animation techniques, you can refer to specific chapters
in this guide and the Avid DS Nitris Compositing and Graphics Guide to learn
how to animate transitions, video and audio effects, composited layers, or
graphics.
•
Workflow: Animating Properties
•
Creating Animation
•
Understanding the Animation Editor
•
Editing Animation
•
Processing Animation
Chapter 10 Animating Objects
Workflow: Animating Properties
1
Create animation.
Display effect’s
property editor.
Place position
indicator on a frame.
Keyframing
Process
Adjust parameters.
Set a keyframe
manually
or
automatically
(Autokey mode).
2
Edit animation.
Move between
keyframes, adjust
parameters, and
reset, add, and/or
remove keyframes.
3
Process animation.
In the final sequence, the effect’s properties change over time.
346
or
Display animation editor and
modify the function curve.
Creating Animation
Creating Animation
Animation is the change of an object/image over time. To create animation,
you record changes to an object’s properties. Using a process called
keyframing, you specify the object’s properties at the first and last frame of
each change. Properties are automatically calculated and set for the frames in
between, producing a change in the object. You can add as many keyframes to
an object as you need to create your animation.
n
Adding animation requires system resources that might impact your system’s
performance.
Objects and effects that you can animate include transitions, video and audio
effects, layers, and graphics. For example, you can animate the blur on a video
effect, the order of a layer in a composite, the rotation of a stroke, or the color
of a title.
There are several ways to create animation:
•
Use the Autokey mode to set keyframes automatically, as you adjust the
object’s properties—see “Setting Keyframes Automatically” on page 347.
•
Use the Animation Key button and Animation button to set keyframes
manually each time you adjust the object’s properties–see “Setting
Keyframes Manually” on page 349.
•
Use the animation editor to manipulate the function curves of selected
object properties—see “Understanding the Animation Editor” on
page 352.
•
Create a motion path to animate a DVE.
•
Record audio animation in the mixer.
When you create animation, the corresponding animation keys appear in the
animation editor and in the position bar below the Record viewer.
Setting Keyframes Automatically
When you activate the Autokey mode, keyframes are automatically created
each time you modify an object’s properties. Automatic keyframing only sets
keyframes for the properties that you modify, which is useful when you want
to adjust specific properties without adding or modifying the keyframes of the
other properties.
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Chapter 10 Animating Objects
To set keyframes automatically:
1. When you’re ready to begin animating, do one of the following:
t On the status bar, click the Autokey button.
t
From the File menu, select User Preferences to open the User
Preferences dialog box. From the Animation property page, select the
Set Keys When Changing Values option.
t
Right-click the Animation Key button in the property editor of the
object that you want to animate, and select Autokey.
t
Click the auto button in the property editor.
The Autokey mode is activated and the Animation Key button turns red
whenever a keyframe is set. Keyframes will automatically be set for all
property editors and animatable properties until Autokey is deselected.
2. Move the position indicator to the frame on which you want the animation
to start.
3. Use the property editor to adjust the values of the properties that you want
to animate.
A keyframe is automatically set each time you adjust the properties.
4. Go to another frame and adjust the properties again.
A new keyframe is set at the current timecode and property values are
computed for all frames between the keyframes.
5. If necessary, go to different points in the clip and continue adding
keyframes.
6. If you want to stop adding keyframes automatically, click the Autokey
button again to deactivate the Autokey mode.
7. Do one of the following to view the animation:
t
Process the effect and play the clip—see “Processing Animation” on
page 385.
t
In the property editor, click the Preview button.
t
Press Ctrl and click Play to play the clip frame by frame.
When you play the clip, the keyframed properties change as the clip
advances.
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Creating Animation
n
In the Autokey mode, keyframes are set only for the properties that you
modify. To set a keyframe for all animatable properties, you should use the
Animation Key button. For more information, see “Setting Keyframes
Manually” on page 349.
Setting Keyframes Manually
You can create animation by adjusting properties and manually setting
keyframes at different points in time. Manually setting keyframes lets you to
preview your changes before you actually set any keyframes.
This method is also useful when you want to set keyframes using the controls
in the property editors or views, or interactively in the viewer.
The Animation button at the left of numeric parameters on property editors
lets you to set a keyframe for individual parameters at the current position of
the position indicator.
The animation controls change color depending on the status of the animation
and keyframe. For example, the animation controls turn yellow when you
modify the value of an animation parameter but do not set a keyframe. The
yellow indicates a temporary value for the parameter. If you move the position
indicator to another frame, the temporary value is removed and the curve is
restored. If you want to set a keyframe for the temporary value of the
parameter, click the Animation button for that parameter.
When you click the Animation Key button, keyframes are set for all animation
properties of the effect at the current position of the position indicator.
However, when the Animation Key button is yellow (indicating there are
temporary values) clicking the Animation Key button will set keyframes only
for those properties that have temporary values.
n
When keyframes are set for all properties, clicking the Animation Key button
removes all the keyframes.
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Chapter 10 Animating Objects
The following table describes the animation control status indicator colors.
n
Color
Status description
Gray
No keyframes are set. You can preview adjustments to animation
parameters.
Green
No keyframes are set at the current position of the animation.
Red
Keyframes are set at the current position of the animation.
Yellow
Temporary change to a parameter value at the current position of the
animation.
For the Color Correction and Color Correction Classic effects, clicking the
Animation Key button does not set keyframes if all the parameters are set to
their default settings. For more information, see “Returning to Default
Values” in the Help.
To set keyframes manually:
1. Click the Autokey button to turn off Autokey mode.
2. Open the property editor in which you want to create animation.
3. Move the position indicator to the frame in which you want the animation
to start.
4. Adjust the properties that you want to animate.
5. Set keyframes by doing one the following:
t To set a keyframe for an individual numeric parameter, click the
Animation button beside the parameter.
t To set keyframes for several properties that you modified, click the
Animation Key button.
t
To set a keyframe for all properties in the property editor when there
are temporary values, press Ctrl and click the Animation Key
button.
t
To set a keyframe for all properties in the property editor when there
are no temporary values set, click the Animation Key button.
6. If necessary, go to different points in the clip and continue adding
keyframes.
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Creating Animation
7. To view the animation, do one of the following:
t
Process the effect and play the clip—see “Processing Animation” on
page 385.
t
In the property editor, click the Preview button.
t
Press Ctrl and click Play to play the clip frame by frame.
When you play the clip, the keyframed properties change as the clip
advances.
Viewing and Moving Animation Keys
Once you’ve created animation, each animation key you set is displayed in the
position bar below the Record viewer. Animation keys are represented as red
bars. You can only view and reposition animation keys in the position bar.
Animation key
To view animation keys:
t
Select an effect from the timeline.
If the effect has animation, its animation keys are displayed in the position
bar.
To reposition animation keys:
t
Select an animation key from the position bar and drag it to a new
location.
To show or hide the animation keys:
t
Right-click the position bar and select/deselect Show Animation Keys.
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Chapter 10 Animating Objects
To snap the position indicator to an animation key:
1. Press Ctrl and click an animation key.
2. Reposition the key in the position bar.
The key moves with the position indicator and you can see, in the viewer,
where you're moving it.
Understanding the Animation Editor
The animation editor is where you can display and control the animation of a
selected object. An object’s animation is represented by a function curve on
the animation graph. A function curve is a graphical representation of an
object’s property changes over a period of time. All function curves can be
edited.
n
Some property editors contain animation graphs, where you can view or
manipulate function curves without opening the animation editor.
Animation Editor
Animation graph
Animation tools
Animation menus
Animation tree
To access the animation editor, do one of the following:
352
t
From the view switcher, select the Animation Editor button.
t
Select View > Single-Instance Views > Animation Editor.
t
In a property editor with animation controls, right-click the Animation
Key button and select Animation Editor.
Understanding the Animation Editor
Using the Animation Tree
The animation tree displays a hierarchy of animated objects, such as effects or
layers. You can navigate this tree to locate individual animated properties.
When you select an item in the tree, its function curve is highlighted in the
animation graph. You can also hide individual curves, leaving only the ones
that you want to edit.
Control box
Filter list
Filter control
Pin button
Hidden parameter
Object properties
Visible parameter
Option
Description
Control box
Indicates properties where function curves exist
Filter list
Displays a list of filters for displaying function curves
that meet a specific set of criteria
Filter control
Makes the tree display the contents of the filtered list
Pin button
Marks an object so that it remains in the animation
editor when you select a different object
Hidden parameter
Represents a parameter that is not displayed in the graph
Visible parameter
Represent a parameter that is displayed in the graph.
Object properties
Represents the animated properties of an object
Navigating the Animation Tree
When you select an object, the animation property tree displays its properties.
When you select a property from the tree, it highlights the corresponding
function curve.
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Chapter 10 Animating Objects
You can expand and collapse the tree to show or hide properties. A plus sign
(+) marks each property icon that has additional properties. After you click the
plus sign to expand an item in the tree, it changes to a minus sign (-) to
indicate that it can be collapsed.
To expand or collapse the animation tree:
t
To expand the animation tree, click the plus sign (+) next to an object.
The object’s animatable properties are listed below the expanded object,
and the plus sign changes to a minus sign.
t
To collapse the animation tree, click the minus sign (-) next to an object.
The object’s properties are no longer visible in the animation tree, and the
minus sign changes to a plus sign.
Displaying Function Curves
When editing function curves, it is often useful to display several curves
simultaneously, so that you can synchronize the animation of different
properties. Conversely, it is useful to hide the function curves of properties
that you do not want to animate.
To show or hide a property’s function curve:
t
In the animation tree, click the control box next to the property whose
function curves you want to hide or display.
The control box is light-blue when the function curve is displayed. It is
gray when the function curve is hidden.
To hide or display all the function curves of an object:
t
In the animation tree, click the control box next to the object whose
function curves you want to show or hide.
A plus sign in the control box indicates that all of its function curves are
displayed. The control box is gray when all the function curves are
hidden.
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Understanding the Animation Editor
Displaying Function Curves of Different Objects
You may want to view or edit several function curves simultaneously. For
example, when applying color correction to two clips, you may want to see
their animated properties simultaneously. You can do this by pinning
(marking) the function curves of different objects, so that they can all be
viewed in the animation editor at the same time.
n
If more than one object is selected in the 3D DVE layout, the animation editor
does not display its function curves.
To see the animation curves, select the first graphics object and view the
desired animation parameters in the animation editor. Pin these parameters
by clicking the pin icon to the left of each parameter (e.g. Transform, Surfaces
...) in the animation editor. The pin icon will turn red. Now, select the second
graphics object and view the desired animation parameters in the animation
editor. The animation curves for both objects should be displayed.
To view the function curves of multiple objects:
1. Open the property editor of the first animated object.
2. Right-click the Animation Key button and select Animation Editor.
The animation editor is displayed. In the animation tree, all the animatable
properties are displayed.
3. Click the Pin button of the function curve that you want to keep displayed
in the animation editor.
Pin button
4. Leaving the animation editor open, select another object whose function
curve you want to view.
The animatable properties of the second object are displayed in the
animation editor above the pinned properties.
5. Pin the properties of the new objects that you want to display.
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To unpin a function curve:
t
Click the Pin button to unpin the property.
When you open a different object, the unpinned properties are no longer
displayed in the animation editor.
Filtering Function Curves
By filtering function curves, you can customize the contents displayed in the
animation tree and view only those files that meet a specific set of criteria. For
example, you may want to view or edit only the function curves that begin
with the letter “c” and have the opacity parameter. By displaying only the
function curves that meet these criteria, you can easily locate and edit them.
The animation filter is located at the top of the animation tree. By default, the
animation filter list is displayed; you can hide it you need more room to
display function curves in the animation tree.You can also turn the list on or
off, but only if there is one or more filters present in the list. If there are no
filters, then the entire tree is displayed.
Animation filter list
Filter control
Object properties
To show or hide the animation filter:
t
In the animation editor, select View > Filter.
To turn the animation filter on or off:
t
Select the Filter control beside the filter list to turn it on.
The function curves that meet the criteria of the selected filter are
displayed.
t
Deselect the Filter control to turn it off.
The entire animation tree is displayed.
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Understanding the Animation Editor
To create a filter:
1. In the animation editor, select View > Edit Filter.
The Edit Filter dialog box opens and the last created filter is displayed.
2. Click the Clear button.
3. From the Criterion list, select a filter option.
4. In the Value text box, type the text or portion of text that you want to use
as a filter criterion. For example, to view function curves that contain
opacity, select Contains as the criterion and type “opacity” in the Value
text box.
5. Repeat step 4 to add additional filter criteria.
6. To clear all data, click the Clear button.
7. Click the Save button and type a name for the filter. Click OK.
8. Click the Close button.
The animation filter list is activated and your filter appears as an option in
the list.
To delete a filter:
1. In the Edit Filter dialog box, select a filter from the Filter Name list.
2. Click the Delete button.
Working with the Animation Graph
The animation graph is the area on the animation editor where you can
manipulate the function curve or keyframe values of any animated property.
You can edit the keyframed values by adjusting the key points on a selected
function curve. The horizontal axis (X axis) displays the time scale in frames
or milliseconds. The vertical axis (Y axis) displays the values of the animated
property.
In the animation graph, function curves are highlighted in light-blue over the
duration of the animated effect. In addition, when you select a function curve,
it is displayed in white over the duration of the effect and its keyframes are
displayed in red. When you select a keyframe, its precise coordinates are
reflected on the X and Y scales.
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Value scale
Region of effect
Time scale
Time and value of selected keyframe
Selected keyframe
Customizing the Animation Graph
By customizing the display of the animation graph, you can change the
incremental values of the time and value scales, the spacing between grid
lines, and show or hide other indicators on the graph. For example, the grid in
the animation graph is useful when adding or moving keyframes. You can
display or hide the vertical or horizontal grid lines independently.
To customize the animation graph:
1. From the animation editor, click the Preferences button.
2. In the Animation Editor Preferences property editor, select the Editor tab.
3. To show or hide the grid, do one of the following:
t
In the Grids area, set the Display Grid options.
t
Press G.
4. To display the precise coordinates of a selected keyframe, select the Key
Coordinates option, in the View box.
Small indicators on the animation graph’s axes show the value and time of
the selected keyframe.
Changing the Time Scale
Like the timeline, you can set the time scale on the X axis to display in frames
or milliseconds.
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Understanding the Animation Editor
To change the time scale:
t
In the timeline, right-click the ruler and select Display As.
The time scale on the ruler changes according to your selection.
Zooming the Animation Graph
You can enlarge or reduce the animation graph to view function curves at
close range or view all the function curves in an animation.
To zoom in and out:
1. To activate the zoom mode, do one of the following:
t
t
Press Z.
In the animation editor, click the Zoom button.
2. To zoom in on a specific rectangular area, drag on the animation graph.
When you drag the pointer, a rectangle is displayed. When you release the
mouse button, the display zooms into the rectangular area.
3. To perform a continuous zoom, right-drag on the animation graph.
To reset the zoom:
t
Press Z and click the animation graph.
Panning the Animation Graph
You can scroll over the animation graph to view the full length of the function
curves in an animation.
To pan the animation graph, do one of the following:
t
t
Press X and drag up/down to pan the Y axis, and drag left/right to pan the
X axis.
In the animation editor, click the Pan button to activate the pan mode.
To reset the pan:
t
n
Press X and click the animation graph.
Tip: To reset both the pan and the zoom, press the Z+X keys, and click the
animation graph.
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Editing Animation
Once you’ve animated an object, you can use the animation editor to view and
modify its properties. The animation editor represents the animation as one or
more function curves on the animation graph, where the values of the
animated properties are plotted over time.
Emboss effect
changes
over time
Frame 0
Frame 4
Frame 9
Frame 12
Function curve of the Relief property
Relief property
gradually increases
from frames 0 to 9 and
then decreases rapidly
from frames 9 to 12.
Keyframes at
frames 0,4,9 and 12
You can use the animation editor to manipulate a function curve, or to finetune the animation frame-by-frame. You can also add, move, or delete
function curves or keyframes, and trim, crop, or remove an entire animation.
The animation editor can display function curves for multiple animations
simultaneously. Pinning an animation to the animation editor keeps its
function curves displayed while you work on other function curves.
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Editing Animation
n
Some effects, like fades or transitions, have an animation graph built into one
of their property pages. You can add keyframes on this function curve the
same way you add keyframes to function curves in the animation editor.
When you want to adjust properties using the controls in property editors or
layer controls on other views, you can edit animations with the Animation
Key. For example, if you’re adding a graphics animation to a composite, you
would typically create the graphics in the viewer and record keyframes using
the Animation Key.
Editing Keyframes Manually
You can manually set or delete keyframes on a frame-by-frame basis using the
object’s property editor.
To edit keyframes manually:
1. Open the property editor in which you want to create animation.
2. In the property editor, right-click the Animation Key button and select
First Key.
The position indicator moves to the first keyframe in the animation.
3. If necessary, edit the settings and click the Animation Key button to set
a keyframe.
The new settings at this frame automatically override any previous
settings.
4. Click the Next Key button to move to the next keyframe.
5. If you want to add a keyframe, use the Frame Backward and Frame
Forward buttons on the transport controls to advance your clip to the
appropriate timecode. Change the values and click the Animation Key
button to add a keyframe.
6. Continue to edit keyframes until you reach the end of the animated
sequence.
To remove a keyframe:
1. In a property editor or view, click the Previous Key or Next Key buttons
(located next to the Animation Key button) to go to a timecode where a
keyframe has been set.
The Animation Key button will be red to indicate that a keyframe is set on
the current frame.
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2. Right-click the Animation Key button and select Remove Key.
The current keyframe is removed.
Editing Animation on the Animation Graph
In the animation editor, each animatable property is represented by a different
function curve on the animation graph. You can modify these curves to edit
the animation.
Pinned
function curve
Marked
parameters
Selected
function curve
Keyframes
Selected keyframe
When working in the animation graph, you can display the function curves of
properties that you want to animate, or hide curves to isolate a specific
property. Function curves on the graph appear in blue for the duration of an
effect. When you select them, they’re highlighted in white and their keyframes
are displayed.
As you modify function curves, you can take snapshots that let you compare
the results of a change to a function curve to the original curve. Snapshots
appear in black on the graph.
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Editing Animation
There are several ways of manipulating keyframes to change the result of an
animation. You can add new keyframes, delete existing ones, move a
keyframe to a new value or time, and control all of the keyframes at a specific
timecode.
You can also adjust a keyframe’s tangents to increase or decrease the slope of
the function curve at that keyframe. For example, if you want a property to
change rapidly at a specific time, you can increase the slope of the function
curve at that keyframe.
Once you’ve finished adjusting a curve, you can snap keyframes to the nearest
point on the grid to precisely align keyframes with timecodes.
n
You can undo any operation performed on a function curve. From the Edit
menu, select Undo or press Ctrl+Z.
For more information, see “Animation Graph Menu” in the Help.
Viewing Locators in the Animation Graph
In the animation graph, you can display any locators that you placed on the
timeline to help you align keyframes at specific points in your sequence.
To display locators in the animation graph:
t
From the animation editor, select View > Locators.
Selecting Keyframes in the Animation Graph
Once animation has been created for an object, you can edit the individual
keyframes that have been set. Before you can edit a keyframe, you must select
it.
To select a keyframe:
1. In the animation editor, click the Select button.
2. In the animation graph, click a keyframe.
The selected keyframe is highlighted and its tangent handles are
displayed.
To select multiple keyframes:
t
Press Shift and click a keyframe.
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The selected keyframes are highlighted.
To select a range of consecutive keyframes:
t
Press V and drag over a section of the function curve.
The selected region is highlighted in white.
n
Tip: To change the value of multiple keyframes, press Shift and click to select
the keyframes and enter a new value in the Value text box.
Adding, Moving and Deleting Keyframes
Using the animation tools, you can add, move, and delete keyframes to edit
an animation.
On the animation graph, you can move keyframes to values that are out of a
property’s range. However, the values that are actually processed are the
maximum or minimum values displayed in the property editor.
To add a keyframe:
1. In the animation tree, click a property to select its function curve.
In the animation graph, the function curve is selected and the keyframes
are displayed in red.
2. To add a keyframe, click the Add Key button and click the animation
graph.
The closest selected function curve updates to pass through the
new keyframe.
n
You can use the Select tool to change the value of multiple keyframes. Press
Shift and click keyframes to select them. Now enter a new value in the
animation graph value box.
To move a keyframe:
1. In the animation tree, click a property to select its function curve.
In the animation graph, the function curve is selected, and the keyframes
are displayed in red.
2. To move a keyframe, click the Select button and do one of the following:
t
Drag a keyframe to a new position.
The value and/or frame of the selected keyframe is updated.
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Editing Animation
t
Click a keyframe and in the Frame and Value boxes, enter a new
frame and/or value.
The function curve is updated to pass through the modified keyframe.
To delete a keyframe
1. In the animation tree, click a property to select its function curve.
In the animation graph, the function curve is selected and the keyframes
are displayed in red.
2. To delete a keyframe, click the Remove Key button, and click a
keyframe.
The keyframe is removed and the function curve is updated.
3. To remove all the keyframes on the selected function curve, right-click
the Animation Key button and select Remove Animation.
You will be prompted to confirm before all the keyframes are deleted.
n
Pressing the Delete key only deletes selected keyframes.
Selecting Function Curves
Before you can manipulate a function curve or edit specific keyframes, you
must select it. Before you can cut, copy, or paste function curves, you must
select a region.
You can select individual keyframes, a region of the function curve, the entire
function curve, or several function curves.
To select function curves:
1. In the animation editor, click the Select button and do one of the
following:
t
In the animation tree, click a property and select its function curve.
Press Shift and click additional properties to select multiple function
curves.
Property
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t
Press Shift and click a function curve to select it. Click additional
function curves for multiple selection.
t
Drag the pointer to form a rectangle over the function curve(s) that
you want to select.
Any function curves that pass through the rectangle are selected. Using
this method, you also select the individual keyframes.
In the animation graph, selected function curves are displayed in white
over the duration of the effect, and keyframes are red.
2. Click the Frame button to view the entire selection.
The selected function curve is framed, so that you can see it in full view.
Framing is based on the duration and values of the keyframes on the
function curve.
To select a region of a function curve:
1. Select a function curve.
2. In the animation editor, click the Select Region button or press V to
activate the Select Region mode.
3. In the animation graph, drag over a region to select it.
Using this method, you also select the individual keyframes that are
within the region and on the selected function curve.
Manipulating Keyframes
When you select a function curve, its keyframes are displayed in red. You can
add new keyframes, as well as move or delete existing keyframes. In addition,
you can change the value or frame of a keyframe.
To add a keyframe:
1. From the animation graph, select a function curve.
2. Click the Add Key button or press A.
3. On the animation graph, click to add a keyframe.
The closest selected function curve is updated to pass through the new
keyframe.
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To move a keyframe:
1. From the animation graph, select a function curve.
The function curve is highlighted and the keyframes are displayed in red.
2. Drag a keyframe to move it to a new position.
The value and/or frame of the selected keyframe is updated.
n
On the animation graph, you can move keyframes to values that are out of a
property’s range. However, the values that are actually processed are the
minimum or maximum values displayed in the property editor.
To remove a keyframe:
1. From the animation graph, select a function curve.
The keyframes are displayed in red.
2. Do one of the following:
t Click the Remove Keyframe button.
t
Press D.
3. Click the keyframes that you want to remove.
n
Tip: To remove a keyframe, you can also select it and press Delete.
To remove all the keyframes on a function curve:
1. From the animation graph, select a function curve.
The keyframes are displayed in red.
2. Press the Backspace key.
You are asked to confirm the deletion. Click OK to delete all the
keyframes on the selected curve.
n
Pressing the Delete key only deletes selected keyframes.
To change the value or frame of a keyframe:
1. In the animation graph, select a keyframe.
2. In the Frame and Value text boxes, enter a new frame and/or value.
The function curve is updated to pass through the modified keyframe.
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Chapter 10 Animating Objects
Adding, Moving, and Deleting Keyframes on Multiple Function Curves
The meta curve region is a powerful tool that lets you add, move, and remove
keyframes on every visible function curve in the animation graph.
When you display the meta curve region, red locators appear below the
animation graph at every timecode at which a keyframe is placed on a function
curve. If several function curves have keyframes at the same timecode, all of
those keyframes are represented by a single locator.
n
Though locators in the meta curve region can represent and control multiple
keyframes, those keyframes are not locked together. If you move a keyframe
out of alignment with other keyframes, a new locator will appear in the meta
curve to represent the keyframe’s new location.
Adding keyframes in the meta curve region places a keyframe on every visible
curve, at the current timecode. Moving a locator in the meta curve region
moves all of the keyframes at that timecode. Deleting keyframes from the
meta curve region removes any keyframes on any function curves at the
current timecode.
Corresponding
keyframes
Meta curve
locator
Meta curve region
To display the meta curve region, do one of the following:
t
To display all curves, select View > Meta Curve Region > Display for
all curves.
t
To display selected curves only, select View > Meta Curve Region >
Display for selected curves only.
The meta curve region is displayed below the animation graph.
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To hide the meta curve region:
t
From the animation editor, select View > Meta Curve Region > Hide
Meta Curve Region.
The meta curve region is hidden.
To add a keyframe to all visible function curves:
1. From the animation editor, click the Add Key button.
2. Click anywhere in the meta curve region.
A keyframe is added to every visible function curve in the animation
editor at the current timecode.
To move all keyframes at a specific timecode:
1. From the animation editor, click the Select button.
2. Drag a locator in the meta curve region.
All keyframes represented by the locator are moved to the new timecode.
To delete a keyframe from all visible function curves:
1. From the animation editor, click the Remove Key button.
2. Click a locator in the meta curve region.
All keyframes represented by the locator are deleted.
Synchronizing Animation
You can synchronize keyframes in the animation editor by dragging their
locators in the meta curve region. Moving one locator to the same timecode as
another synchronizes their respective keyframes at the current timecode. This
is useful when, for example, you want to coordinate changes to several of an
object’s properties at the same time.
To synchronize keyframes:
1. In the animation graph, select a function curve and add a keyframe to it.
A locator is displayed in the meta curve region, representing the first
keyframe.
2. Select a different function curve, and add a keyframe to it.
A locator is displayed in the meta curve region, representing the second
keyframe.
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3. In the meta curve region, click the second keyframe’s locator and drag it
on top of the first keyframe’s locator.
The keyframes are now synchronized, and represented by a single locator
in the meta curve region. Moving the locator moves both of the
keyframes.
Modifying Regions
In Avid DS Nitris, you can select and modify a region of the animation graph.
Keyframes in a selected region are automatically selected, and can be moved
simultaneously. You can also stretch or shrink a selected region horizontally
or vertically.
To modify a region of the animation graph:
1. Click the Select Region button, and select the region of the function curve
that you want to copy.
The selected region is highlighted, and edit controls appear along on all
four sides.
2. Drag the edit controls to stretch or compress the region.
Changing the Slope of a Function Curve
The slope of a function curve determines how a property changes between
keyframes. For example, in a scene where an actor moves from artificial
lighting to sunlight, you can animate the color correction, so that it changes at
the same rate as the light changes, as illustrated in the following examples:
•
If the actor is walking through an open door, the color correction should
increase rapidly along a spline curve.
Spline
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•
If the actor steadily approaches the end of a tunnel, the color correction
should increase linearly.
Linear
•
If the actor is suddenly exposed to sunlight, the color correction should be
constant, and then change in one step.
Constant
When you select a keyframe, its tangent handles are displayed, allowing you
to change the slope of the function curve at that keyframe.
To change the slope of a function curve:
1. Select a keyframe.
The tangent handles are displayed.
2. Select a tangent handle and drag it to a new position. If the tangent handle
is close to the key point, press Ctrl to give priority to the tangent handle.
Tangent handles
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Changing the Type of Function Curve
There are three types of function curves: linear, constant, and spline.
•
Linear: A type of curve that consists of straight line segments between
control points. Use this type of curve when you want a property to change
at a constant rate between two keyframes.
•
Constant: A type of curve where a property’s value changes only at
keyframes; between keyframes, the value is constant.
•
Spline: A type of curve that lets you fine-tune the animation by changing
the slope of the curve at each keyframe.
Linear
Constant
Spline
To change the type of curve for selected keys:
1. From the animation editor, select a function curve.
2. Click the Animation Editor Preferences button.
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For detailed information, click the Help button.
3. From the Animation Editor Preferences property editor, select the Keys
tab.
4. From the Interpolation box, select a curve type.
Option
Description
Constant
Creates a curve with constant values that change in steps.
Linear
Creates a curve where keyframes are joined by straight lines.
Spline
Creates a smooth curve whose slope you can modify at
any point.
The function curve is updated between the keys that you selected.
To change the type of curve for selected curves:
1. From the animation graph, select a function curve.
2. Do one of the following:
t
From the animation editor menu, select Curves > Constant
Interpolation, Linear Interpolation, or Spline Interpolation.
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t
Right-click the curve, and select Constant Interpolation, Linear
Interpolation, or Spline Interpolation.
t
From the animation editor, click one of the interpolation buttons.
The function curve is updated according to the option you selected.
To set the tangent slope options:
1. From the animation editor, select a function curve.
2. Click the Animation Editor Preferences button.
3. On the Keys property page, select one of the following options from the
Slope box:
-
Unified to keep the slopes together as they move, keeping a constant
angle between them.
-
Broken to let the slopes move freely as you drag each handle
individually.
Click Help for detailed information on the Animation Editor Preferences.
To change the slope of a spline at a keyframe:
1. On a spline function curve, select a keyframe.
The tangent handles are displayed at the selected keyframe.
2. Click a tangent handle to select it and drag it to a new position.
The slope of the function curve changes at the keyframe.
n
If the tangent handle and the keyframe are close together, hold down the H key
and drag. This lets you manipulate the tangent handle.
Making Temporary Copies of Function Curves
Snapshot curves are temporary copies of function curves that stay in the
animation graph after you edit the original curves. Using the snapshot curves,
you can edit function curves, compare the edited curve to the temporary copy
of the original, and revert to the original if you’re not satisfied with the
change. When you’re ready to accept your changes, you can update the
snapshot curve to reflect the edits that you made.
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To use snapshot curves:
1. From the animation editor, select a function curve.
2. Click the Animation Editor Preferences button.
3. On the Editor property page, select the Snapshot Curve option from the
View box.
A snapshot curve is created and hidden behind the original function curve.
4. Edit the selected function curve.
The snapshot curve is displayed in black.
5. If you want to revert to the snapshot curve, click the Swap button.
The original curve is highlighted and you can edit it.
6. When you’re satisfied with the edits, click the Snap button.
The black snapshot curve is updated to match the white function curve.
For detailed information, click the Help button.
Snapping Keys to Grids and Frames
You can make keyframes snap to the nearest frame on the grid’s X axis or to
the nearest frame on the grid’s X axis. Snapping keyframes to the grid lets you
position them at precise timecodes.
To snap a keyframe to the grid:
t
Select Edit > Snap to Grid.
To snap a keyframe to its nearest frame:
t
Select Edit > Snap to Frame.
Click Help for detailed information on the Edit menu commands.
Locking Keyframe Positions
You can freeze a keyframe’s values, as well as its location in time by locking
the key’s position on the X or Y axis.
If the function curve uses a spline interpolation to transition action to the next
keyframe, you can also freeze the keyframe’s speed of transition and influence
on the function curve by using the animation editor’s tangent handle locking
controls.
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To lock a keyframe’s position on the animation graph:
1. From the animation graph, select a keyframe.
2. Do one or both of the following:
t
Click Keys and select Lock in X (Time) to lock the key’s location in
time on the X axis.
t
Click Keys and select Lock in Y (Value) to lock the key’s value on
the Y axis.
The keyframe is frozen in place on the graph and cannot move until Lock
in X or Lock in Y is deselected. You can still manipulate the keyframe
tangent handles to change the shape of the slope.
Offsetting Animation
You can offset an animation by moving an entire function curve. If, for
example, you’re satisfied with a function curve’s slope, but want the
corresponding change in properties to occur later in the animation, you can
move the entire curve farther down the timeline.
To offset an animation:
1. From the animation editor, select a function curve.
2. Hold down the R key, and drag the curve to reposition it on the timeline.
To offset multiple function curves:
1. Hold down the Shift key, and click each function curve to select it.
2. Hold down the R key, and drag the curve to reposition it on the timeline.
Copying Animation
You can copy the animation of one property to another by copying the
function curve. For example, you can animate the Z position of an object, so
that it appears to move away from the viewer. You can then copy the
animation to a blur effect, so that the blur increases as the objects move away
from the viewer. You can then adjust the blur function curve according to the
scale of the blur parameter.
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Editing Animation
To copy an animation, you simply copy a property’s function curve and paste
it onto the function curve of another property. You can copy the entire curve
or a region of a curve. When pasting the animation, you can do one of the
following:
•
Insert the copy at a selected timecode.
•
Replace a portion of the function curve at a selected timecode.
•
Paste the copy over a selected region.
To copy an entire animation:
1. In the animation tree, click a property.
In the animation graph, the property’s function curve is highlighted.
Copy from
this curve.
2. Press Ctrl+C.
The animation is copied.
3. In the animation tree, click a property to receive the animation.
In the animation graph, its function curve is highlighted.
Copy to this
curve.
4. Press Ctrl+V.
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The animation is pasted. In the animation graph, the function curves for
both properties are identical and appear as only one curve.
Two
identical
curves
appear as
one.
To copy a region of a function curve:
1. In the animation graph, do one of the following to specify the region that
you want to copy:
t
t
Select contiguous keyframes.
The region to be copied is between the first and last selected
keyframes.
Click the Select Region button and select the region of the function
curve that you want to copy.
Region to
be copied.
2. Press Ctrl+C.
The animation is copied.
3. If you want to paste the animation to a different property, select a
function curve.
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4. Specify where to paste the animation by clicking the Select Region button
and doing one of the following:
t
Clicking a timecode.
When the animation is copied, it starts at the specified timecode.
t
Selecting a region.
When the animation is copied, it fits into this region. If you copy an
animation to a region of a different size, the animation is automatically
scaled in time.
n
If you do not specify where to paste the animation, it’s pasted at its original
timecode on the selected curve.
5. Press Ctrl+V.
The animation is pasted, replacing the selected function curve over the
specified region.
Animation pasted to second
curve at selected timecode.
Animation pasted to selected
region of second curve.
To insert a copied region of a function curve:
1. In the animation graph, do one of the following to specify the region that
you want to copy:
t
t
Select contiguous keyframes.
The region to be copied is between the first and last selected
keyframes.
Click the Select Region button and select the region of the function
curve that you want to copy.
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Region to be copied.
2. Press Ctrl+C.
The animation is copied.
3. If you want to paste the animation to a different property, select a
function curve.
4. Click the Animation Editor Preferences button.
5. On Paste Options property page, select the Insert option from the Paste
Options box.
6. To specify where to insert the animation, click the Select Region button,
and click a timecode.
n
If you do not specify where to paste the animation, it’s pasted at its original
timecode on the selected curve.
7. Press Ctrl+V.
The animation is pasted at the selected timecode on the selected curve.
Copied animation inserted
in second curve.
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Editing Animation
Repeating Animation
Cycling animation lets you to repeat a function curve for the duration of an
animation. By applying different types of cycles, you can quickly create
repetitive animations like blurring in and out.
When you create cycles, the repeated information is not added to the function
curve. It’s based on the original keyframes, but does not contain any
keyframes. When you adjust the original keyframes, changes are reflected
throughout the cycle.
Creating a Basic Cycle
A basic cycle repeats the shape and pattern of a function curve, as defined by
the keyframes, for the duration of the animation. For example, you can use a
basic cycle to animate a blur in and out of a clip.
To create a basic cycle:
1. In the animation graph, select the function curve whose shape you want to
repeat.
2. Click Curves and select Cycle.
The pattern is repeated along the X axis of the animation.
Original curve with keyframes.
Curve cycled along X axis
without keyframes.
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Creating a Relative Cycle
A relative cycle repeats the shape and pattern of the function curve by starting
each cycle at the value of the last key in the preceding cycle. The result is a
progressive offset that creates a gradual overall change in the animation while
repeating the basic pattern. For example, you can use a relative cycle to blur in
and out of a clip, while gradually sharpening the overall focus.
To create a relative cycle:
1. In the animation graph, select the function curve whose shape you want
to repeat.
2. Click Curves and select Relative Cycle.
Last point of one
cycle becomes start
point of next cycle.
Freezing a Cycle
Freezing a cycle applies it to the time span between two specified timecodes in
the animation. When the cycle is frozen, the keys in the cycled part of the
function curve are sampled and applied to each cycle in the frozen part of the
curve. You can then edit the function curve. If the cycle is not frozen to the
entire length of the animation, it will be removed from any leading or trailing
frames.
Freezing cycles is useful when you only want to repeat a cycle for part of an
animation, or when you want to make slight modifications to the same basic
curve throughout the animation.
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Editing Animation
To freeze a cycle:
1. In the animation graph, select the function curve whose shape you want
to repeat.
2. Click Curves and select Freeze Cycle.
The Freeze Cycle dialog box is displayed.
3. Enter a start and end timecode.
The cycle is applied between the start and end timecodes, and the repeated
information is added to the function curve.
Original cycled curve.
Cycle removed from
trailing frames.
Cycle removed from
leading frames.
Cycle is frozen to this interval.
Deleting a Cycle
Since the repeated information is not added to the function curve, you can
delete the cycle while preserving the original keyframes.
To delete a cycle:
t
Click Curves and select Constant Extrapolation or Gradient
Extrapolation.
Trimming Animation
When you want to trim animation, you should trim the animated effect by
rescaling the function curves or cropping them.
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To specify how the animation is trimmed:
1. Open the property editor of the effect that you want to trim.
2. In the property editor, do one of the following:
t
Deselect the Crop Curves option to rescale the function curves.
When you trim the effect on the timeline, the function curves are
rescaled in the animation editor.
t
Select the Crop Curves option.
When you trim the effect bar on the timeline, the function curves are
cropped in the animation editor. On the animation graph, the highlighted
area of the function curve shows the new length of the animated effect.
For more information, see “Saving Effects” in the Help.
Rescaled function curve
Cropped function curve
Trimmed effect
Removing Animation
An object’s animation can be composed of more than one function
curve.A separate function curve exists for each animatable property of an
object. When removing animation, you can choose whether you want to
remove the entire animation or just selected animated properties within
the animation.
Removing the Entire Animation
When you remove an animation, you’re deleting the function curves for all the
animated properties of the selected object.
n
384
When you remove animation, locked keys will also be deleted.
Processing Animation
To remove the entire animation:
1. Open the property editor or view for the property whose animation you
want to remove.
2. Right-click the Animation Key button and select Remove Animation.
All keyframes on all functions curves are deleted. The function curves
become straight lines.
Removing the Animation of a Single Property
You can remove the animation of a single property by removing all the
keyframes from the property’s function curve.
To remove all the keyframes on a function curve:
1. Select an animated object.
2. In the animation editor, select View > Animation Editor.
The animation tree is displayed.
3. From the animation tree, click the property whose function curve you
want to remove.
In the animation graph, the corresponding function curve is highlighted.
4. Press the Backspace key.
All keyframes on the function curve are deleted and the function curve
becomes a straight line.
Processing Animation
You can view the evolution of your animation by stepping through the
animation frame by frame. Before you can play the clip, you must first process
the animation.
To process animation:
1. Do one of the following:
t
From the toolbar, click Processing > Process.
t
In the timeline controls, click the Process button.
2. In the Processing Options Dialog Box dialog box, select the appropriate
options.
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3. Click OK to begin processing.
A progress bar is displayed on the bottom of the desktop to show the
status of the process.
4. Click Cancel to stop the process at any time.
For more information, click the Help button or see “Understanding
Processing” on page 265.
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Chapter 11
Mixing Audio
This chapter describes how to mix audio, as well as how to create mixes and
submixes using audio container clips and effects. You will also learn how to
animate your audio mixes.
•
Workflow: Mixing Audio
•
Working in Audio Container Clips
•
Audio Clips and Tracks
•
Understanding the Mixer
•
Using an External Controller
•
Building an Audio Mix
•
Fine-tuning the Mix
•
Animating the Audio Mix
•
Audio Media Conversion
•
Processing the Mix
Workflow: Mixing Audio
Audio mixes are best created in an audio container clip. The following
illustration shows how the audio tracks are created and fed into the mixer.
Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
1
Create an audio container clip.
Create an audio container clip to
hold all the clips that will be mixed.
2
Apply audio effects.
Apply effects on the
timeline tracks.
Left
Right
Apply effects
on the mixer
input strips.
Mixer
3
4
Process the mix.
Close the audio container clip to
automatically process the mix.
388
Fine-tune the mix.
Adjust the volume and balance
of the audio streams.
Working in Audio Container Clips
Working in Audio Container Clips
Audio container clips let you compress multiple audio tracks with up to 64
tracks of audio down to a single audio clip on one track, leaving you with
more audio streams and tracks to work with. You can have any combination of
audio clips and tracks in an audio container clip. The format of the container
clip itself, however, depends on the mixer configuration specified inside the
container clip.
This illustration shows a group of audio clips that have been mixed down to a
single clip on the timeline.
A closed audio container
clip is represented as a
single clip on the timeline.
An open audio
container clip.
Here are other reasons for using audio container clips:
•
Animating (automating) your mix: If you need to boost or lower the
signal at different points in time, it’s more efficient to animate the mix in a
container clip. This way, if you move the container clip, its animation
moves with it.
•
Submixing: You can edit specific sounds more efficiently by creating
submixes of common track types. For example, mix hard sound effects
like creaking floors and footsteps in one container clip, vocal tracks in
another, and instrumentals in yet another container clip. Then, premix all
of the clips in their respective container clips and play them
simultaneously on the parent timeline.
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Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
•
Sample Accurate Editing: Within an audio container clip, you can do
your editing in terms of audio samples as opposed to the video frames
used on the top timeline.
•
Processing: When you close an audio container clip, the tracks and any
effects are automatically processed and represented as a single clip on the
parent timeline.
For more information, see “Creating Nested Clips” on page 306.
Audio Clips and Tracks
Audio clips and tracks can have up to eight channels of audio in any of the
following formats:
Format
Description
Mono
Single channel of audio
Stereo
Two audio channels: Left and right
Quadraphonic
Four audio channels: Left, right, left rear, right rear
LCRS
Four audio channels: Left, center, right, surround
4 Stream
Four audio channels: Output 1 to 4
5.1
Six audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency
Emitter (LFE), left surround, right surround
6.1
Seven audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency
Emitter (LFE), surround center, side left, side right
7.1
Eight audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency
Emitter (LFE), left surround, right surround, left center,
right center
8 Stream
Eight audio channels: Output 1 to 8
Since the clip and track formats are independent of each other, you can place
any kind of audio clip on any audio track. You can also place different format
clips on the same track. For example, you can place a mono and a stereo clip
on the same stereo track.
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Understanding the Mixer
n
You can manipulate audio clips in much the same way as video clips. You can
play them in the viewer, drag and drop them from the Avid Explorer to the
timeline, trim, copy, and delete clips, and add effects to them.
Stereo clip with two
channels of audio.
Mono clip with one
channel of audio.
When you place an audio clip on a track with a different format, it turns
orange. This does not prevent you from playing it back.
Understanding the Mixer
Although you can perform some mixing by applying effects to the audio clips
on the timeline, the mixer gives you greater flexibility and control over your
overall audio mix. The mixer combines the audio signals coming from the
audio tracks and routes them to the output strips.
You can assign the channels of an audio track to a specific output strip.
Depending on your audio hardware configuration, you can have up to eight
audio output channels available. For more information, see “Assigning a
Mixer Input Strip to an Output Channel” on page 399.
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Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
The mixer has two views:
Standard view
The standard view is the default view of the mixer. In this view
you can add audio effects, adjust the volume levels, pan the
signals, and mute or solo the various tracks. You can also
animate most of the controls on the mixer.
Routing view
The Routing view contains the Matrix Routing panel for the
input strips, which lets you assign the input strips to audio
output channels.
Also, in this view, the number of level meters on the input strips
matches the number of audio channels on the track. For
example, 5.1 tracks have six level meters and eight stream
tracks have eight level meters.
n
If you’ve activated the pan on a mono track, the number
of level meters on the input strip matches the number of
output channels. This is because the mono signal has
been split to allow for the positioning of the sound with
the pan control.
To access the mixer:
t
From the view switcher, click the Mixer button.
To access the routing view:
t
Click the Routing View button.
To access the standard view:
t
Click the Standard View button.
For information about the mixer controls, click the Help button.
Changing the Mixer Configuration
You can capture and output up to eight channels of audio in various formats.
For more information, see “Mixer Configuration Formats” in the Help.
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Understanding the Mixer
To change the mixer configuration:
t
Click the Mixer Config list box and select a configuration.
Using the Input Strips
Input strips appear on the mixer as you add audio tracks to the timeline. On
each input strip, you can control the sound of all the clips on its corresponding
audio track. You can use the strip controls to adjust the overall volume, add
effects to the whole track, and pan the signal to the output strips.
The results of the adjustments on the input strips are mixed and passed to the
output strips, which let you adjust the output volume of the audio signals. The
signal from the output strips is then directed to an external device.
An input strip corresponds to an audio track on the timeline. The strip controls
let you add effects and adjust the overall volume and balance of each track.
The signals from all strips are then mixed and routed to the output strips.
For more information, see “Mixer Input Strips” in the Help.
Adding Effects on a Mixer Input Strip
Adding an effect on the mixer strip is equivalent to applying an effect to the
entire audio track. When you apply an effect to a mixer strip, the effect is
displayed in the mixer strip’s effects box. Effects on the mixer strips are
processed from top to bottom. These effects are also applied before you make
any adjustments to the volume and pan controls.
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Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
You can apply an effect to a mixer input strip by selecting one from the Load
Preset dialog box or by dragging an effect preset from a toolbar.
Effects box
Mixer Strip
To add an effect using the Load Preset dialog box:
1. Right-click the effects box and select Add Effect.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
2. Select an effect and click OK.
The effect is applied to the strip and displayed in the effects box.
To add an effect using a toolbar:
t
From a toolbar, drag an audio effect or preset to the effects box.
The effect is applied to the strip and displayed in the effects box.
Adjusting the Volume
The level meter lets you monitor the level of incoming and outgoing audio
signals (in decibels). There are level meters on the input and output strips.
The fader is used to control the volume on the mixer strips. It simulates an
audio taper fader, except the scale is more precise (between +5 and -5 dB).
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Understanding the Mixer
To adjust the volume on the mixer strips:
t
n
Drag the fader up or down to set the volume at the appropriate decibel
level.
The fader levels do not correspond to the level meter. The fader levels range
from 20.0 dB to -inf dB, while the level meter shows the energy level of the
signal from 0 dB to -inf dB.
By default, the level meters on the input strips are post-effects and pre-fader.
This means that they display the energy levels according to the strip effects
that have been applied. When you adjust the volume, the change is only shown
on the output strips. However, it is possible to make the level meters on the
input strips post-fader.
To make the level meters of an input strip post-fader:
t
n
Click the Post button on the mixer input strip.
Tip: Double-clicking the fader returns it to the zero position.
Adjusting the Audio Balance
The pan control lets you adjust the balance of the signal to the output strips.
Dragging the slider left or right determines the percentage distribution.
You can only change the balance of the signal if the mixer is configured as
stereo. If the mixer is configured in one of the surround formats (LCRS,
Quadraphonic, 5.1, 6.1, or 7.1) you must use the Surround Panner.
If you move the pan control all the way to the left or right, then 100% of the
signal is routed either to the left or right output strip. On mono tracks, the pan
control at the center position splits the signal 50/50. For stereo tracks,
however, 70.7% of the signal is routed to each of the output strips when the
pan control is at the center.
The following example illustrates the distribution of the signals on a stereo
track with the pan activated and deactivated.
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Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
Pan is
deactivated.
100% of
signal routed
to the left
output strip;
0% to the
right output.
70.7% of
signal
routed to
both output
strips.
100% of
signal
routed to
both output
strips.
Pan is activated
(center position).
Pan to the left.
To pan the signal on the input strips:
1. Right-click the pan control and select Enable Pan.
The pan control is activated; you can now adjust the balance. A check
mark is displayed beside the selection indicating that pan has been
activated.
2. Drag the pan control to the left or right.
n
Tip: Double-clicking the pan control returns it to the center position
3. To deactivate the pan control, right-click it and select Enable Pan.
c
396
If you leave the pan control enabled at the center position, there will be a
3 dB loss in your signal.
Understanding the Mixer
Using the Mute and Solo Buttons
You can listen to individual audio tracks by isolating their signals or muting
them. The Solo buttons let you monitor track signals and do not affect the
recording. You can also use the Mute buttons on the input strips when
listening to tracks, but it actually prevents the signal from being routed to the
outputs.
To listen to a single track:
t
Click the Solo button of a strip.
You can activate the Solo button on more than one input strip at a time.
Solo the input
strips that you
want to hear
during playback.
Also, you can activate both the Mute and Solo buttons at the same time. In this
case, mute always overrides solo. For example, first solo the strips you want to
hear. During playback, click the Mute button on those same strips to hear the
various combinations of the signals.
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Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
Mute the strips
that you do not
want to hear.
For example, if you are working on background noise effects for a voice
dialogue, solo the voice track and the different background noise tracks. You
can then selectively mute the various background tracks to listen to their
combined effects against the voice track.
To mute a mixer strip:
t
Click the Mute button on the strips that you do not want to hear.
To mute all of the mixer strips:
t
Click the Master mute button on the mixer.
To isolate a mixer strip:
t
Click the Solo button on the strips that you do want to hear.
Naming a Mixer Input Strip
You can change the default name of any mixer input strip. This name is on its
corresponding audio track in the timeline. If you change the audio track name,
the mixer input strip name is updated accordingly.
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Understanding the Mixer
To change the name of an input strip:
t
n
Click in a strip name text box, type a new name, and press Enter.
Tip: Since the strip name corresponds to the track name, you can also change
the name from the Track property editor.
Reordering the Mixer Input Strips
The input strips appear in the order that their corresponding audio tracks
appear on the timeline. Therefore, reordering the tracks changes the order of
the input strips.
To reorder the input strips:
t
From the Track selector, drag the audio Track button to a new location.
The track is moved to the new location and the order of the input strips
changes to match the tracks.
Track button
Move cursor
Cursor indicates
invalid location.
Assigning a Mixer Input Strip to an Output Channel
You can specify which output channels are used by the audio channels of each
input strip during playback and recording using the Matrix Routing panel. The
Matrix Routing panel is available in the Routing view of the mixer and is
located at the top of each input strip.
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Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
Matrix routing
panel
Output channels
Input channels
The Matrix Routing panel has a tabular format where each column represents
an audio channel of the input strip and each row represents one of the output
strips or output channels. Using this panel, you can route each input channel to
one or more output channels.
n
If you’ve enabled the pan on a mono track, the number of input channels on
the input strip matches the number of output channels. This is because the
mono signal has been split to allow for the positioning of the sound with the
pan control.
To assign an input strip to an output channel:
t
For each input channel, click each cell that corresponds to the output
channel to which you want to assign it.
A black dot is displayed in the cell to indicate the assignment. You can
assign an input channel to more than one output channel.
Using the Output Strips
The results of the refinements on all the input strips are mixed and passed to
the output strips. Output strips let you adjust the output volume of the audio
signals. The number of output strips on the mixer depends on the mixer
configuration selected. The signal from the output strips is then directed to an
external device.
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Using an External Controller
n
If you are working within a container clip, the signal is routed to the parent
container clip.
For more information, see “Mixer Output Strips” in the Help.
Muting the Output Strips
The Mute button on the mixer output strip activates or deactivates the sound of
a selected output strip. When mute is activated for a mixer output strip that is
on the top timeline, it prevents the signal from being directed to the output
device.
n
When mute is activated on a mixer output strip in a container clip, it prevents
the signal from being directed to the parent container clip.
To mute an output strip:
t
On an output strip, click the Mute button.
Using an External Controller
An external controller is a hardware device that’s connected to your
Avid DS Nitris workstation. It lets you access commands in the software
through controls on the device. You can, for example, use the fader on a
controller to move the fader in an audio strip or, vice versa, use the position
indicator to move the jog wheel.
The only restriction is that specific control types, such as faders, rotary knobs,
or switches should be assigned to appropriate commands in Avid DS Nitris.
For example, assigning a fader on the external controller to a button in
Avid DS Nitris is not possible.
The External Controller Setup view lets you assign the controls on the external
controller to any of the hundreds of commands available in Avid DS Nitris.
To access the External Controller Setup view:
t
Select View > Single-Instance Views > External Controller Setup.
For more information, see “External Controller Setup View” in the Help.
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Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
Mapping External Controls to Avid DS Nitris Commands
When reassigning a command or control, you should first check for assigned
items.
To view the status of controls and commands:
t
In the Display box of the External Controller Setup view, use the options
to filter the controls and commands.
When both options are selected, all controls and commands are displayed.
Slider01 is assigned to
Gain in Strip 1 (Audio
Functions).
Slider01 is unassigned.
To assign a control to a command:
1. In the External Controller Setup view, select the Unassigned option from
the Display box to display unassigned controls and commands.
n
You can only map unassigned controls to unassigned commands.
2. From the Commands list, select a command and drag it to a control in the
Controls list on the left.
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Using an External Controller
Audio gain on Output1 is assigned to Encoder5
on the external controller.
3. Continue to drag items from the Commands list to items in the
Controls list.
4. When you are satisfied with the new mapping, click the Apply button.
To unassign a control or command:
1. In the External Controller Setup view, click an assigned control or
command in the Controls or Commands list.
The name is highlighted.
2. Click Delete.
The item becomes unassigned. If only the Assigned option is selected, this
item disappears from the list and appears in the unassigned list.
n
Tip: You can undo a mapping operation by choosing Undo from the
Edit menu.
3. When you are satisfied with the mappings, click the Apply button.
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Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
Creating a Command Mapping Set
You can configure the command mapping of the external controller to suit the
type of work you do and your particular work habits.
To create a command mapping preset:
1. In the External Controller Setup view, click the Save button.
The Save Preset dialog box is displayed.
2. Select a folder in which to save the preset, and enter a name in the File
Name text box. You can also add a comment in the Comments text box.
3. Click OK.
Loading a Command Mapping Set
You can load the default command mapping set or one that you created with
your personal preferences.
To load a command mapping set:
1. In the External Controller Setup view, click the Load button.
The Load Preset dialog box is displayed.
2. Select a command mapping preset.
3. Click OK.
Building an Audio Mix
You can use the Editing layout to create mixes and add audio effects to your
clips at different stages. You can start your mixing session by overlapping
audio clips on the timeline, and then fine-tune the signal on the mixer by
adding audio effects, and adjusting the volume and balance of the signal
before output.
Avid DS Nitris supports up to 64 tracks of audio on a timeline. This capability
also depends on the overall throughput of your system. For example, the
number of video tracks, compression settings, disk fragmentation, or audio
effects can all affect the system throughput. Instead of relying solely on the
throughput, you can give yourself more flexibility by creating mixes using
audio container clips.
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Building an Audio Mix
Audio container clips let you compress as many as 64 tracks down to one,
leaving you more audio tracks to work with. Here are some other reasons to
use container clips:
•
Grouping sound tracks: If you want to edit specific sounds more
efficiently, you can group sound tracks and create submixes of common
track types in an audio container clip. For example, you can mix hard
sound effects like creaking floors and footsteps in one container clip,
vocal tracks in another, and instrumentals in yet another container clip.
All of these clips can be premixed in their respective container clips, and
then played simultaneously on the top timeline.
•
Animating (automating) your mixes: If you need to boost or lower the
signal at different points in time, it’s more efficient to animate the
necessary controls in a container clip. This way, if you move the container
clip, its animation moves with it.
•
Sample accurate editing: Inside an audio container, the timeline ruler is
displayed in terms of audio samples, as opposed to video frames. This lets
you have greater control over the placement of your audio clips.
When you close the audio container clip, the tracks are automatically
processed and represented as a single clip on the top timeline. You can now
play the mix in real time.
n
Before doing your mixes, make sure you’ve already edited your sound tracks
(music and dialogue).
Creating Audio Tracks
Whether you’re building a mix in an audio container clip or not, you need to
add audio tracks to the timeline. Audio clips and tracks in Avid DS Nitris can
have up to eight channels of audio in any of the following formats:
Format
Description
Mono
Single channel of audio
Stereo
Two audio channels: Left and right
Quadraphonic
Four audio channels: Left, right, left rear, right rear
LCRS
Four audio channels: Left, center, right, surround
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Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
Format
Description
4 Stream
Four audio channels: Output 1 to 4
5.1
Six audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency Emitter
(LFE), left surround, right surround
6.1
Seven audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency
Emitter (LFE), surround center, Side left, Side right
7.1
Eight audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency
Emitter (LFE), left surround, right surround, left center, right
center
8 Stream
Eight audio channels: Output 1 to 8
To create an audio track, do one of the following:
t
Right-click in the overview area, and select Create Audio Track and
a track format.
t
Drag an audio clip from the Avid Explorer to the timeline ribbon.
Tracks created this way adopt the format of the audio clip.
To determine a clip’s audio format:
t
Right-click a clip on the timeline and select Properties.
The Clip property editor is displayed, and the audio format is shown in the
Type box.
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Building an Audio Mix
To determine a track’s audio format:
t
Right-click a track and select Track Properties.
The Track property editor is displayed, and the audio format is shown in
the Format list box.
To change a track’s audio format:
1. Right-click a track and select Track Properties.
The Track property editor is displayed.
2. In the Format list box, select the format you want.
n
Audio clips appear yellow if their format does not match the audio track
format, such as when a stereo clip is placed on a mono track.
Using the Surround Panner
The Surround Panner lets you specify the positioning and movement of the
sound elements in your sequence. You can, for example, use it to create the
effect of footsteps crossing a room, or simulate the sound of a door closing
behind your listening audience.
You can only use the Surround Panner on mono tracks and if the mixer
configuration is set to one of the surround output configurations, namely
LCRS, Quadrophonic, 5.1, 6.1, or 7.1.
For more information, click the Help button or see “Surround Panner” in the
Help.
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Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
Panning area
Track list
Mute, solo and
animation buttons
Divergence
Pan control
Gain and LFE faders
To access the Surround Panner:
t
Select View > Single-Instance Views > Surround Panner.
To specify the location of a sound:
t
Drag the pan control to the location you want in the panning area.
To specify the size of a sound source:
t
Adjust the Divergence value.
Mixing Clips
There are several ways of mixing audio on the timeline. You can:
•
408
Place audio clips on different tracks on the timeline, but within the same
region. Unlike video clips on background tracks, audio clips do not lose
their activeness when placed at the same timecodes as other audio clips.
This lets you play several clips simultaneously.
Building an Audio Mix
Mixing audio tracks.
Both clips are active.
•
Overlap clips on the timeline to create a crossfade from one audio clip to
another. The two audio clips can be on the same track or different tracks.
For more information, see “Applying Crossfade Effects” on page 428.
Crossfade between two audio clips.
Crossfade transition
•
Create a submix in an audio container clip. Place multiple audio clips in a
container clip and mix them down to a single clip on the top timeline.
Creating a Submix
The mixer can support up to 64 input tracks. If you notice frames skipping
during playback (indicated by a red light on the transport controls), you should
mix your audio tracks in container clips instead.
In a container clip, you can mix 64 tracks of audio down to one, giving you
more tracks to work with. An audio container clip can also contain other
container clips, letting you create many more submixes.
For example, create a container clip to hold different dialogue, foley, and
background music tracks, and mix them down to a single track in preparation
for a scene. When the audio container clip is closed, these tracks appear as a
single clip, which you can mix with other audio clips and/or synchronize with
corresponding video clips.
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Audio container clips also lets you display the timeline ruler in samples,
frames, or milliseconds, giving you greater accuracy when editing audio clips.
The initial format of your audio container clip depends on the clip selected.
That is, if the audio container is created from a stereo clip, then the container
will be stereo. You can, however, change the format of an audio container clip
by changing the mixer configuration within the container. For more
information, see “Changing the Mixer Configuration” on page 392.
To create an audio container clip:
1. Place a clip on the track where the container clip will be created.
2. Right-click the clip and select Create Audio Container Clip.
n
You can select more than one clip on a track by holding down the Ctrl key and
clicking the clips that you want to select. These clips all become part of the
new container clip.
A new timeline is opened, and the selected audio clip is placed on the first
track. You can now insert additional audio tracks on which to place other
audio clips that form the mix.
Audio
container clip
button
Also, notice that a new container clip button is displayed in the taskbar.
This button indicates that you’re working in an audio container clip.
n
Inside an audio container clip, the ruler time scale is set to samples by default.
You can change the time scale by right-clicking on the ruler and choosing a
different time scale.
An open audio container clip.
Stereo audio clip
4 stream
audio clip
Mono audio clip
Taskbar
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Fine-tuning the Mix
3. When you’ve finished editing the clips in this container clip, click the Top
Timeline button in the taskbar to close the audio container clip and return
to the top timeline.
A closed audio container clip is represented as a single clip on the timeline
Taskbar
When you close the container clip, Avid DS Nitris automatically
processes the mix and displays a single clip on the parent audio track.
While processing, a progress bar indicates the status of the process. The
number of passes that Avid DS Nitris processes is based on the number of
nested container clips in the current container clip.
Container clip icon
After processing, you can mix the resulting clip with other audio clips on
the timeline. You can reopen the container clip by clicking the icon on the
container clip.
Fine-tuning the Mix
After you’ve placed and edited your audio clips on the timeline, you can finetune the signal using the mixer. Each input strip in the mixer corresponds to an
audio track on the timeline. The strip controls let you add effects and adjust
the overall volume and balance of each track. The signals from all the strips
are then mixed and routed to the output strips.
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A strip’s volume level is displayed in decibels on the level meter. The level
meters resemble a plasma display, which shows the level of energy for an
audio signal at a specific point in time. Stereo tracks have a dual level meter to
indicate the strengths of each stream. Mono tracks only have a single level
meter.
The signal that results from the adjustments on the input strips are then fed
into the mixer, where all the audio signals are combined into a single
composite signal. The mixed audio signals are then directed to the output
strips. Here, again, you have the option to adjust the volume before outputting
it to a parent container clip or external device. For more information, see
“Understanding the Mixer” on page 391.
Input strips
Output strips
Adjust levels
after the mix
Adjust levels
before all the
strips are mixed.
Adjusting the Mixer Inputs
As you add audio tracks to the timeline, the input strips appear on the mixer,
which always reflects the appearance of the audio tracks on the timeline. If
you reorder the audio tracks on the currently-displayed timeline, the mixer is
updated accordingly.
The quality of an audio mix depends on the volume and pan levels on each
input strip. You should set the levels, so that the mix is well balanced. The
controls on the input strips let you manipulate the signal coming from each
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Fine-tuning the Mix
audio track on the timeline. You can adjust the volume and pan levels of each
strip before the signal is fed into the mixer. You can also use the Mute and
Solo buttons to listen to the signals coming from individual tracks.
n
The Solo buttons are for monitoring purposes only and do not stop the signal
from going into the mixer.
The fader is used to control the volume on the mixer strips. It simulates an
audio taper fader, except that the scale is more precise between the +5 dB and
-5 dB range.
The level meter ranges from 20.0 dB to -∞ dB. On the input strip, the level
meter maintains the energy levels even if the volume is adjusted or the strip is
muted. This lets you view the signal as it comes from the audio tracks. The
volume change is only shown on the output strip level meters.
n
Click Post on the mixer input strip to have the level meter reflect the volume
change.
You can also add effects to the signal before it’s processed in the mixer.
For more information, see “Fine-tuning the Mix” on page 411.
To fine-tune the sound on an input strip:
1. Click the Solo button on the input strip that you want to tune.
Only the sound from this input strip can be heard.
2. Move the position indicator to the beginning of the first audio clip on the
respective track.
3. On the transport controls, click Play.
4. During playback, click the Solo button to hear the effect of the track in
and out of the mix. Click the Solo button again to turn off the effect.
5. As the sequence is played back, drag the fader up or down.
n
Double-clicking the fader button returns it to the 0 dB position.
6. For mono tracks, you can also activate the pan control if you want to
change the routing of the signal. The pan control lets you adjust the
balance among the output strips. Moving the pan control determines the
distribution of the audio signals among the output strips—see “Adjusting
the Audio Balance” on page 395.
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Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
7. After you’ve completed the fine-tuning for this strip, deselect the Solo
button, and repeat this procedure for all the other input strips.
Adjusting the Mixer Outputs
The results of the adjustments on all the input strips are mixed and passed to
the output strips. Output strips let you adjust the output volume of the audio
signals. The number of output strips on the mixer depends on the selected
mixer configuration. The signal from the output strips is then directed to an
external device.
n
If you’re working in an audio container clip, the signals are directed to the
parent container clip.
To adjust the volume on the output strip:
1. On the output strip you want to listen to, click the Solo button.
This lets you focus on the sounds from this strip alone.
2. Move the position indicator to the beginning of the sequence.
3. On the transport controls, click Play.
4. As the sequence is playing, monitor the output levels on the level meter
and drag the fader up or down to adjust the volume of this strip.
5. Repeat this procedure for the other output strip(s).
6. After you’ve fine-tuned each output strip, make sure you deselect any
Solo buttons to listen to the combined results of the output strips.
Animating the Audio Mix
When you want to adjust the volume or balance at different stages of the
sequence, you can use the animation capabilities of the mixer to automate the
volume and balance of your audio signals.
You can animate the fader, mute, and pan controls on the input strips before
the signal is processed in the mixer. You can also choose the strips that you
want to animate.
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Animating the Audio Mix
When you animate the pan control, fader, and mute settings during real-time
playback, the adjustments are graphed as function curves. You can easily
modify these function curves in the animation graph after the recording
is complete.
c
All animation is track-based. Therefore, if you move the audio clips to a
different track, you will lose the associated animation. If you want to keep
the associated animation, then drag and drop the previously saved
sequence on the timeline. New audio tracks will contain the audio
animation.
Animating the Input Strip Controls
The Animation button lets you record any adjustments you make to the pan,
mute, and fader controls on the mixer strip in real time. The Solo button
cannot be animated because it’s a tool that lets you listen to the sounds of the
different tracks.
To activate animation on the strips:
1. On the strip that you want to animate, click the Animation button.
Animation button
By default, all the controls on this strip are animated when you begin the
keyframing process. You can, however, select the controls that you want
to animate.
2. Right-click the Animation button and select a command from the menu.
n
Pan can only be animated if the pan control is activated. Right-click the pan
control and select Enable Pan.
3. Deselect the controls that you do not want to participate in the animation.
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Chapter 11 Mixing Audio
To animate the controls:
1. Click the Animation button on the input strips that will participate in
the animation.
2. On the transport controls, click Play.
3. Adjust the controls on the input strip as the sequence is playing.
Any actions that you perform with the previously activated controls are
automatically recorded.
4. To stop playing the sequence, click Play again.
5. Click the Animation button on the input strip to deactivate it.
n
If you leave the Animation button activated, you can record over the
animation simply by replaying the sequence and redoing the control
movements at the appropriate times. The previous animation’s function curve
is overwritten until you stop the recording.
6. Go to the beginning of the sequence and click Play to see the results of the
recorded animation.
If you open the animation editor, you can see your animated movements
graphed on the function curve.
Function
curve
Keyframes at frames 0,4,9 and 12.
The animation editor displays the function curve that you generated.
n
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You can also use the Animation Key button to manually animate your controls.
For more information, see “Setting Keyframes Manually” on page 349.
Animating the Audio Mix
Animation Key button
Bypassing the Animation
When you play a sequence that’s been animated, all the controls that were
animated will automatically play back. If you want to monitor certain sounds,
you can bypass the animated movements of some or all of the controls. This
lets you fine-tune your audio signal. Any animated controls that are bypassed
are still processed and sent to the outputs.
To bypass the animation during playback:
1. On an input strip, right-click the Animation button and select a command
to bypass from the menu.
A check mark beside the command indicates that it will be bypassed.
2. Select any other items that you want to bypass during playback.
When you replay the sequence, the controls that you selected for bypass
do not participate in the animation.
Editing the Animation
All animated movements can be modified by adjusting the keyframes that
were set for the animated controls.
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To edit the animation:
1. Right-click the Animation Key button and select Animation Editor.
2. In the animation tree, select the name of the strip on which the animation
was created.
3. Click the plus sign (+) to expand the tree, and then select a property or
control whose keyframe, values need to be adjusted.
The corresponding function curve is displayed in the animation graph.
4. Adjust the key points on the function curve at the appropriate timecode
settings.
For more information, see “Editing Animation on the Animation Graph” on
page 362.
Deleting Animation
You can delete all or part of the animation on the mixer input strips.
To delete all animation on the mixer:
t
Right-click the Animation Key button and select Remove Animation
Curves.
The function curves for the pan, gain, and mute of each input strip in
Animation Key button
To delete animation on individual strip controls:
t
Animation button
On an input strip, right-click the Animation button and select one of the
following:
-
Any of the Delete options from the bottom of the menu.
-
Delete All Animation to remove all animation on this input strip.
Audio Media Conversion
You can mix audio clips of different sample rates within a sequence.
However, if an audio clip’s sample rate doesn’t match that of the sequence, or
if it is not supported by your audio hardware, you will not be able to hear it
when you play the sequence. To hear the clip, you need to convert it to the
sample rate of your sequence, and/or a sample rate that is supported by your
hardware.
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Audio Media Conversion
You can also convert audio clips that are already in a sequence to match the
sequence video frame rate. For example, if you want to convert a sequence
from NTSC to PAL. Any audio clips can be converted so that their sample rate
remains the same, except that they will be timed to keep in sync with the
sequence’s new video frame rate.
Converting the Audio Sample Rate
When you place an audio clip on the timeline, its sample rate is converted
according to the settings in the Sequence Preferences dialog box (Audio
property page). You can have the sample rate of a clip automatically converted
when it is dropped into a sequence of a different frame rate. You can also
choose to manually convert it later.
To set up automatic conversion a clip’s sample rate:
1. Select File > Sequence Preferences.
2. In the Sequence Preferences dialog box, select the Audio tab.
3. In the Sample Rate Conversion box, select Conversion on Drop to
automatically convert the sample rate of all audio clips when a sequence
is dropped on the timeline.
4. Use the Conversion Quality controls to specify a conversion quality.
For more information, click the Help button.
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To convert a sequence’s sample rate:
1. Open a new sequence and set the new sample rate that you want to use.
2. From the Explorer, drag the former sequence onto the timeline.
3. You will be asked if you want to convert the sample rate of all the clips to
the new sequence sample rate.
4. Click Yes.
All audio clips will automatically be converted. A new media file is
created for each of these clips.
Converting the Audio Sample Rate Manually
You can place clips on the timeline without having their sample rate
automatically converted to match that of the sequence. However, if an audio
clip’s sample rate doesn’t match that of the sequence, you will not be able to
hear it when you play the sequence. You can change the sampling rate of clips
to conform to the rest of the sequence.
n
When an audio clip’s sample rate does not match the sequence’s sample rate,
the clip appears red on the timeline.
To manually convert the sample rate of a clip:
t
Right-click a clip on the timeline and select Convert to Current Sample
Rate.
To manually convert the sample rate of a track:
t
Right-click an audio track and select Convert to Current Sample Rate.
To convert the sample rate of an audio container clip:
1. Right-click the track holding the audio container clip, and select Convert
to Current Sample Rate.
2. Double-click the container clip to open it.
3. Right-click on each track within the container, and select Convert to
Current Sample Rate.
The red highlight will appear on the timeline ribbon to indicate that the
clips need processing.
4. Process the clips to generate new media at the current sequence frame
rate.
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Audio Media Conversion
Converting the Reference Frame Rate of Audio Clips
If you are changing the frame rate of a sequence, you will need to adjust the
audio clips accordingly, so that they remain in sync with the video. To change
the reference frame rate in the audio clips, you can easily do an audio pull
up/down using the Media Tool. The sample rate of the audio clips will remain
the same but they will now be slightly longer or shorter to remain in sync with
the video.
The audio must already be captured from tape or file, and exist as media in
Avid DS Nitris. The pull up/down can also be performed on .wav or .mxf
files.
To view the clips in the Media Tool:
1. Select Data Management > Media Tool.
2. Drag the audio clip from the Explorer over the Media button in the Media
Tool.
Media button
All media that exists for that clip is displayed in the view.
3. Right-click the view and choose Settings > Add/remove Columns.
4. Select Avid DS Audio Captured at Video fps and Avid DS Audio
Sample Rate.
This adds two columns to let you view the sample rate and frame rate of
the media.
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5. Right-click the media file that you want to convert and choose up/down
convert audio.
The Audio Media Conversion dialog box shows you the frame rate
conversion settings.
6. In the Video Reference box, select Conversion Includes Reference
Change.
Keep the Use Default Reference Conversion Parameters option
selected. Avid DS Nitris will use the most appropriate drop frame
conversion for your media. If you are converting more than one clip (i.e.
batch conversion), you must use the default parameters.
7. Click Yes, or Yes to All (if you are converting more than one clip).
The conversion will take a few seconds to complete.
New media is created for your current sequence frame rate, and displayed
in the Media Tool.
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Processing the Mix
Processing the Mix
Unlike video clips, all audio clip, track, and strip effects (as well as any
animation) are processed in real time, so that no caches need to be created.
The only exception is when you create audio container clips. These container
clips are processed automatically when you close them.
n
You can process clip-based audio effects to reduce your workstation’s
memory usage. For more information, see “Processing Clip-based Audio
Effects” on page 425.
The following illustration shows how audio effects are processed from the
tracks on the timeline to the strips on the mixer.
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Clip effects processed
1
Clip effects are processed
first, in order from bottom
to top.
2 Track effects processed
Track effects are
processed next, also in
order from bottom to top.
Audio signal passed to input strips
Left
3
Right
The signals from the audio tracks are
passed to the corresponding mixer input
strip.
Strip effects processed
5
Mixer
Effects on the mixer input
strip are processed in order
from top to bottom.
Adjust the volume and
balance
4
On the input strips you can
adjust the volume and
balance of the audio signal.
6 Audio signal passed to output
strips
The signals from the input strips
are combined and passed to the
output strips.
Audio clip effects are processed before track effects. If the effects are stacked,
then they’re processed from bottom to top. The signal from the audio track is
then passed to the corresponding mixer input strip, where you can adjust the
volume and balance of the incoming signal. If you’re still not satisfied with the
results, you can add more effects to the strip. These strip effects are processed
from top to bottom.
The signals from all the input strips are then mixed together and distributed to
the output strips based on the pan levels set on the input strips. On the output
strips, you can make the final adjustments to the volume level using the fader.
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Processing the Mix
The resulting signal is recorded on your external device. If you’re currently
working in a container clip, then the resulting signal is sent to the parent
container clip.
When you close an audio container clip, Avid DS Nitris automatically
processes the mix and displays a single clip on the parent audio track. While
processing, it will indicate the progress. The number of passes that
Avid DS Nitris processes are based on the number of nested container clips in
the current container clip.
If you haven’t made any changes to the clips in the container clip, then
processing is not necessary.
Processing Clip-based Audio Effects
All audio clip, track, and strip effects (as well as any animation) are processed
in real time. However, you might want to process clip-based audio effects to
reduce your workstation’s memory usage.
To process a specific audio clip effect on the timeline:
1. Right-click the audio clip and select Clip Cache.
2. Apply an audio effect to the audio clip.
The clip area on the timeline changes to yellow, indicating the effect is
real-time but can also be processed.
3. Click the Process button.
4. In the Processing Options dialog box, select the following options:
n
-
Selected Object
-
Include Real-time Effect to force processing and create a cache on
disk for the real-time effects
You can process several audio clip effects by selecting Current Timeline on
the Processing Options dialog box.
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Chapter 12
Working with Audio Effects
This chapter describes the audio effects and how to apply them:
•
Understanding Audio Effects
•
Applying Crossfade Effects
•
Applying Dynamics Effects
•
Working with Equalizer (EQ) Effects
•
Applying Fade Effects
•
Applying a Gain Effect
•
Applying Reverb Effect
•
Applying a VST Host Effect
Understanding Audio Effects
The audio effects are used to adjust the output signal of your audio clip. You
can apply audio effects to clips, tracks, or mixer input strips. For information,
see “Working with Effects and Transitions” on page 297.
Since all of the audio effects are real-time effects, except for the Timewarp
effect, you can hear the results upon playback without having to first process
the effect. For information about Timewarp effects, see “Applying an Audio
Timewarp Effect” on page 328.
n
In some cases, real-time effects may require processing to ensure that no
frames are skipped. For more information, see “Playing Real-Time Effects”
on page 291.
Chapter 12 Working with Audio Effects
If you are adjusting parameters in an audio property editor during playback,
you may notice a slight time lapse before you hear the results of the change.
This will not affect the quality of the final output to tape or file.
Applying Crossfade Effects
A crossfade is an audio transition between two clips over a specified number
of frames. The sound of the outgoing clip gradually becomes less audible as
the incoming sound increases to the desired volume.
To create a crossfade between two clips:
1. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you want to work with.
They can be placed on the same or different tracks. Make sure that the
clips to receive the crossfade have extra material.
2. Select the edit point between the two audio clips on which you want to
apply the crossfade.
3. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects > Dissolve/Crossfade.
The transition area is displayed as a gradient on the activeness bar.
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Applying Dynamics Effects
4. In the Crossfade property editor, adjust the amount of the crossfade and
specify the start point and duration of the transition.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying Dynamics Effects
The Dynamics effects let you control the dynamic range of the audio signal.
You can apply audio effects to clips or tracks, or on the mixer input strips.
There are five dynamics processes available in the Dynamics property editor:
Gate, Expander, Compressor 1, Compressor 2, and Limiter.
For a list of the Dynamics effects, see “Dynamics Effects” in the Help.
To apply a dynamics effect:
1. Apply a dynamics effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The Dynamics property editor is displayed.
2. On the General property page, set the Attack and Release times.
3. On the Threshold property page, set the ratios.
4. Adjust the thresholds for the required processes.
For more information, click the Help button.
Working with Equalizer (EQ) Effects
The Equalizer (EQ) effects let you boost or cut the output signal at certain
frequencies. You can apply audio effects to clips or tracks, or on the mixer
input strips.
Applying the 3 Band Tone Control Effect
The 3 Band Tone Control effect lets you adjust the decibel level of the bass,
middle, and treble frequencies, and the overall audio signal. You can boost or
cut the signal in a decibel range of -15 dB to +15 dB.
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Chapter 12 Working with Audio Effects
To boost or cut the frequency ranges of the audio signal:
1. Apply the 3 Band Tone Control effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
2. In the 3 Band Tone Control property editor, specify the amount of gain (in
decibels) to be added to or cut from each of the frequency ranges.
To boost or cut the overall gain of the input signal:
t
In the Input Gain text box, specify the amount of gain (in decibels) to be
added to or cut from the whole signal.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying the 4 Band Parametric EQ Effect
The 4 Band Parametric EQ effect lets you boost or cut the audio signal at four
different frequencies. You can boost or cut the signal in a decibel range of -24
dB to +24 dB. You can also boost the overall gain of the audio clip’s input
signal.
To boost or cut the overall gain of the input signal:
1. Apply the 4 Band Parametric EQ effect to a clip, track, or mixer input
strip.
The 4 Band Parametric EQ property editor is displayed.
2. On the Band 1 property page, specify the amount of gain (in decibels) to
be added to or cut from the whole signal.
To boost or cut the frequency ranges of the audio signal:
1. In the Frequency text box, enter the frequency at which you want the
effect to be applied.
2. In the Gain text box, enter the amount of gain (in decibels) to be added to
or cut from the audio signal at the selected frequency.
3. In the Q text box, enter the Q factor (resonance).
4. Specify the curve type: Peaking, LF (low frequency) Shelving, or HF
(high frequency) Shelving.
For more information, click the Help button.
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Applying Fade Effects
Applying the 10 Band Graphic EQ Effect
The 10 Band Graphic EQ effect lets you boost or cut the audio signal at preset
frequencies ranging from 31 Hz to 16 kHz. The bands are separated by exactly
one octave, and each band has a bandwidth of one octave.
You can also boost or cut the overall gain of the audio clip’s input signal.
To boost or cut the overall gain of the input signal:
1. Apply the 10 Band Graphic EQ effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The 10 Band Graphic EQ property editor is displayed.
2. On the Bands 1 - 5 property page, specify the amount of gain (in decibels)
to be added to or cut from the whole signal in the Input Gain text box.
To boost or cut the frequency ranges of the signal:
t
Specify the amount of gain (in decibels) to be added to or cut from each of
the frequency ranges.
For more information, click the Help button or see “10 Band Graphic EQ
Property Editor” in the Help.
Applying Fade Effects
The fade effects let you animate the volume of your audio clip over time. You
can apply audio effects to clips or tracks, or on the mixer input strips.
To apply the Fade effect:
t
Apply a fade effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The Fade property editor is displayed. It consists of a single property page
which contains a function curve to control the volume of your audio clip.
Adjust the curve to set an increase or decrease in volume.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying a Gain Effect
The Gain effect lets you boost or cut the output gain of an audio signal. This is
done by increasing or decreasing the decibel level.
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Chapter 12 Working with Audio Effects
You can apply audio effects to clips or tracks, or on the mixer input strips.
To adjust the output gain of an audio clip:
1. Apply the Gain effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The Gain property editor is displayed.
2. In the Level text box, enter the desired decibel level of the audio clip.
To invert the output signal:
t
Select the Invert phase option.
To reset the decibel level to the default value (0):
t Click Unity.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying Reverb Effect
The Reverb property editor lets you apply a reverberation effect to your clip.
The reverberation effect simulates the many reflections of sound that can
occur within a room and can be used to add depth to a sound.
You can apply audio effects to clips, tracks, or mixer input strips.
To apply the Reverb effect:
t
Apply the Reverb effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The Reverb property editor is displayed.
For more information, click the Help button.
Applying a VST Host Effect
The VST Host effect lets you load and use VST plug-in effects in
Avid DS Nitris. You must have VST plug-in effects installed before you can
use them in Avid DS Nitris.
n
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Avid DS Nitris implements version 1.0 of the VST Host and works with any
VST plug-in effects that support this version of the VST Host.
Applying a VST Host Effect
During the installation of Avid DS Nitris, a \VSTPlugIns folder is created in
the Avid DS Nitris installation folder. In a default installation the full path to
the folder would be: C:\Program Files\Avid\DS_v7.x\VSTPlugins.
Avid DS Nitris recognizes any VST plug-ins installed in the \VSTPlugIns
folder and any of its subfolders or installed with Cubase VST.
You can apply audio effects to clips or tracks, or on the mixer input strips.
n
Consult the vendor’s documentation on how to install and uninstall a VST
plug-in effect.
To apply a VST plug-in effect:
1. Install a VST plug-in effect on your system.
2. Apply the VST Host effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The VST Host property editor is displayed.
3. From the Effect list, select the plug-in effect you want to use.
To use a VST plug-in effect bank or program:
1. Apply the VST Host effect to a clip, track, or mixer input strip.
The VST Host property editor is displayed.
2. From the Effect list, select the plug-in effect you want to use.
3. Click Load and navigate to the folder where the VST effect bank (.fxb
files) or program (.fxp files) are installed.
By default, Avid DS Nitris looks in the folder in which the VST plug-in is
located.
4. Select the file you want and click OK.
5. From the Program list, select the effect preset you want to use.
For more information, click the Help button.
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Chapter 12 Working with Audio Effects
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Chapter 13
Media Management
This chapter describes how to manage your project files and media in
Avid DS Nitris and how to use your disk space efficiently by purging,
deleting, and archiving. This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Understanding Media
•
Managing Media
•
Archiving Projects
•
Restoring Projects
•
Moving Projects to Another Workstation
•
Deleting Projects
•
Deleting Clips
•
Viewing Information about Storage Devices
For details on setting up your storage areas, see “Planning your Storage
Locations” in the Avid DS Nitris Installation and Administration Guide or the
Help.
Understanding Media
Media in Avid DS Nitris exists in one of two forms: source media or caches.
Media is the digitized form of source material after it has been captured or
imported from tape or file into Avid DS Nitris.
A cache is a media file that is generated when you process an effect, transition,
or composite created in your sequence. During playback, Avid DS Nitris
refers to this cache file instead of the source media.
Chapter 13 Media Management
Both source media and cache media are stored on high-performance storage
devices. The following illustration shows the relationship between source and
cache media.
Master clips in the Avid Explorer.
Source media
Effect applied to a clip in the timeline.
Cache media
Cache media is created when
effects and transitions applied to
your clips are processed. It is also
stored on the storage device. When
Avid DS Nitris encounters
processed effects during playback, it
points to the cache media instead of
the original source media.
Source media is the
material that you capture
from tape or file. It is stored
on the storage device and
referenced by master clips.
Storage device
Like captured media, you can process your clips at different resolutions and
compression ratios. Each time you change your working qualities (resolution,
compression ratio, or bit depth), and process your clips, a separate cache file is
created.
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Understanding Media
To keep track of different media qualities and avoid data redundancy, the
time, quality, and channel information is used to store the coordinates of the
media.
•
Time: The source timecode or timeline timecode of your media.
•
Quality: The quality aspects of an image (resolution, compression,
format).
•
Channel: The number of video and/or audio components in the media
file.
To handle caches even more efficiently, the Media Indexer uses information
or metadata to create a unique reference for each cache file. If this same clip
and effect are reused anywhere else in your sequence or project, then the
Media Indexer reuses the same cache. This lets you automatically view the
results of an effect as soon as it is placed on the timeline. For this same reason,
however, you may notice that purging caches does not necessarily free up
storage space. If a cache is used by another part of the sequence or project, it
will not be purged.
Changing the duration of the clip, or its properties, or stacking another effect
on the clip, will require a new cache. However, the Media Indexer still tries to
use any existing caches for the parts of the clip that have not changed.
The Media Indexer also manages the creation of caches at different stages in
your sequence to ease the reprocessing and purging of caches. For more
information, see “Creating Caches at Any Level” on page 280.
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Managing Media
When working on big projects, you can easily accumulate large amounts of
media captured from different sources in different formats, resolutions, and
compression ratios. To organize your work and use disk space efficiently, you
need to find, purge, move, and delete media. When you are working with
projects and sequences that share media, you need to determine how the media
is shared.
Using the Media Tool
The Media Tool lets you view media files and the clips, sequences, or projects
with which they are associated. In addition, it provides a comprehensive way
of looking at your assets (projects, sequences, clips, and media) and how they
relate to each other.
You can use the Media Tool to display your files in a variety of combinations.
For example, you can display the media associated with a single clip or the
media associated with all clips in a project. You can display all media
contained in two projects, display only the media that is shared—and then
display only the media that is not shared.
The Media Tool lets you view more than just media files: you can also view
associations between projects, sequences, and master clips. You can display
all projects in your workgroup, and then all sequences in those projects. Then
select two of these sequences and display all master clips in these sequences.
And you can perform various media management tasks on the objects that are
displayed: recapturing, purging, defragmenting, copying, moving, and
deleting.
You can also edit from the Media Tool by opening clips and sequences in a
viewer or by dragging them to the timeline.
To access the Media Tool, do one of the following:
t
Select Data Management > Media Tool.
The Media Tool opens with two empty panels.
t
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Select one or more clips or sequences, right-click, and select Show
Media.
Managing Media
The Media Tool opens as an Avid Explorer bin view, with the selected
objects in the left panel and the associated files in the right panel.
Master clips
Projects
Media
Sequences
Processor
Panel A
Panel B
Bin tools
Media Tool
tools
The two panels of the Media Tool represent the association between the items
in the panels. For example, if master clips are displayed in the left panel (panel
A), all media files for the clips are displayed in the right panel (panel B).
If you select objects in one panel, the related objects in the other panel are also
selected. For example, if you select a master clip in panel A, the associated
media files are selected in panel B. And if you select a media file in panel B,
the associated master clip is selected in panel A.
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Using Media Tool Icons to Display Files
The Media Tool icons, at the top of the view, give you any easy way to display
project and media files. After the files are displayed, you can rearrange them
to display their associations.
To display project and media files by using the Media Tool icons:
t
Drag an icon from the top part of the Media Tool to either one of the
panels. The results are described in the following table:
Drag this to a panel
To display
Projects icon
All projects defined in your project root.
Sequences icon
All sequences in the current project
Clips icon
All master clips in the current project.
Media icon
All media in the current project.
The Processor icon flashes while the Media Tool is processing the display. To
stop the processing, click the Cancel button in the Media Tool tools.
Displaying Associations Between Files
There are several ways you can display the associations between projects,
sequences, master clips, and media files.
To display associations by dragging to a panel, do one of the following:
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t
Drag one or more project folders, sequences, master clips, or media files
from an open bin to one of the panels.
t
Drag one or more items from one panel to another.
Managing Media
The results of these actions are described in the following table:
Drag this
To
To display
Project
Panel A
All sequences in the project in Panel B.
Sequence
Panel A
All master clips in the sequence in Panel B.
Panel B
All projects using that sequence in Panel A.
Panel A
Media used by the master clip in Panel B.
Panel B
All sequences that use the master clip in Panel A.
Panel B
All master clips that use the media file in
Panel A.
Master clip
Media file
To display associations by dragging within a panel:
t
From a list of items, select one or more items and drag them to an empty
part of the same panel.
For example, if you drop the Media Tool sequence icon to panel A, all
sequences in the current project are displayed. Select a sequence, drag it
to an empty part of panel A, and panel B displays all master clips in the
selected sequence.
To display associations by dragging to a Media Tool icon:
t
Drag an object from one panel to an icon in the top part of the dialog box.
Use this action if you want to “hop” to a different association. For
example, if a sequence is listed in panel A, by default its master clips are
listed in panel B. To view media for the sequence, drag the sequence from
panel A to the Media icon.
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Modifying the Media Tool Display
After you have displayed your choice of objects, you can use the Media Tool
tools to modify the display. Some of these tools let you show additional
associations between project files and media.
To modify the Media Tool display:
t
Click one of the following Media Tool tools:
Click this
To
Union
Display all items contained in the contents of Panel A in
Panel B (default).
Intersection
Display only the items shared by the contents of Panel A in
Panel B
Intersection
Complement
Display only the items not shared by the contents of Panel A.
Include Cache Files
Display cache media as well as source media. After you
click the button, reprocess the sequence to display the media.
Clear All
Remove objects from both panels.
History Back
Show the previous display in the Media Tool history list.
History Forward
Show the next display in the Media Tool history list.
Cancel
Cancel Media Tool processing.
You can also use the standard bin tools and procedures to modify the display:
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•
Bin tools: Click a bin tool button to change the way the files are
displayed—see “Bin Tools (Bottom)” in the Help.
•
Bin views: Select a bin view to change the information displayed in
Details and Script views—see “Saving or Deleting a Bin View” on
page 52. The Video Management and Audio Management views are
designed especially for media files.
Managing Media
You can edit the bin display and create a customized view by clicking the
Fast Menu button and selecting Settings > Add/Remove Columns.
n
•
Sorting: You can sort by using the information in any column or
combination of columns—see “Sorting Files” on page 53. For example, to
sort your media files by storage, click the Location column.
•
Sifting: Select a Custom Sift to display only files that meet specific
criteria—see “Sifting Files” on page 54.
Tip: If you don’t see any files or media in the Media Tool, make sure the
Union button is selected.
Viewing Media Files
You can view media files, like other files, as thumbnails, making it easier to
identify and locate particular media. You can also step through the media files
by changing the frame that is displayed on the thumbnail. This gives you a
basic idea of what is included in each media file.
To change the frame displayed on the thumbnail:
1. In the Media Tool or a bin, click the Thumbnail button.
2. Right-click a media file and select View Frame and one of the following:
-
First Frame to display the first frame of the media file.
-
Middle Frame to display the middle frame of the media file.
-
Last Frame to display the last frame of the media file.
-
Advanced to open a dialog box that lets you enter a particular frame
number to be displayed.
The thumbnail displays the frame number you choose. The setting is used
for all media files in the bin or the Media Tool. This setting does not affect
master clips or sequences.
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Defragmenting Media
The more you capture, delete, and purge media from your system, the more
likely that your media files will become fragmented on your storage device. A
certain level of fragmentation is normal, because files need to be spread across
multiple drives in order to play efficiently. However, excessively fragmented
media may slow down your system or cause playback problems, such as
skipped frames. If playback problems become serious, you can use the
Windows Disk Defragmenter or other defragmenting application. This can be
very lengthy process. In many cases it is more efficient to defragment
individual files.
To defragment media files:
1. In the Media Tool or in a storage folder, select one or more media files
that you think might be fragmented.
If you select Audio Management or Video Management from the Bin
View list, you can view a column headed Fragments.This column lists the
number of fragments into which the media file is divided.
2. Right-click one of the selected files and select Defragment.
A progress bar appears, and the selected media files are defragmented.
The following illustrations show media files before and after
defragmenting.
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Managing Media
Media files before defragmenting
Media files after defragmenting
Verifying Media
If you encounter problems while playing back your sequences, there may be
corrupted media on your storage device.
To verify your media:
1. In the Media Tool or in a bin, select one or more media files.
2. Right-click one of the selected files and select Verify Media.
If you have any corrupted files, you are prompted to delete them. Media
that you delete will have to be recaptured or reprocessed.
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Copying Media
You can copy media from one storage area to another. You can copy one file
at a time, a selection of files, or an entire folder of media files.
n
Do not copy or move media files by dragging and dropping. Use the “Copy to
Storage” and “Move to Storage” commands instead.
To copy a media file:
1. In the Media Tool or in a bin, right-click a media file and select Copy to
Storage.
To copy more than one file, hold down the Ctrl key while selecting files,
and then right-click one of the selected files to select the Copy option.
2. In the Copy Media dialog box, select the video and audio storage area to
which you want to copy your media.
Any projects using this media are automatically linked to your local drive.
This is because, by default, the Media Indexer is configured to look at your
local storage area first. You can verify this by opening the Media Indexer and
verifying that your local storage is the first one in your list. For more
information, see “Maintaining your Storage Locations” in the Avid DS Nitris
Installation and Administration Guide.
Moving Media
If you add or remove a storage device from your system, you may have to
move some media files from one storage area to another. You can move one
file at a time, a selection of files, or an entire folder of media files.
n
Do not copy or move media files by dragging and dropping. Use the “Copy to
Storage” and “Move to Storage” commands instead.
To move a media file:
1. In the Media Tool or in a bin, right-click a media file and select Move to
Storage.
To move more than one file, hold down the Ctrl key and click the
necessary files, and then right-click one of the selected files to display the
menu.
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Managing Media
2. In the Move Media dialog box, select the video and audio storage area to
which you want to move your media.
Deleting Media
If you’re sure that you no longer need certain media files, you can manually
delete them from your storage area. When media is deleted, the clips that refer
to that media are maintained, but indicate that no media is attached to them.
Since the master clips are not deleted, it is possible to recapture this media
later.
n
The Purge dialog box provides additional features that make it easier to
determine which media files to delete. For more information, see “Purging
Media” on page 448.
To delete media files:
1. In the Media Tool or in a bin, right-click a media file and select Delete.
You are prompted to confirm your decision.
2. Click Yes to delete the media.
To delete entire projects and their associated media files, see “Deleting
Projects” on page 470 and “Viewing Information about Storage Devices” on
page 473. See also “Deleting Clips” on page 472.
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Purging Media
Media files often contain large amounts of information that can quickly use up
your system storage space. It is good practice to purge unused media,
especially if you have captured different qualities of media from the same
source.
There are two types of media generated in Avid DS Nitris:
•
Source media is created when you capture or import files.
•
Processed media (cache) is generated when you process effects, graphics,
or composites in your sequence.
You can purge your source media and cache files without losing vital
information about the edits you made. Since a clip is a representation of the
digitized media stored on your storage device, you can delete your media
without deleting the clip and sequence files. This is called purging your
media. You can later use the clip or sequence files to recapture the source
material or reprocess the effects. Purging source media requires you to
recapture the original media, while purging caches requires you to reprocess
the sequence before it can be played back in real time.
When a clip’s source media is deleted, the clip icon in the Avid Explorer turns
red. When caches are purged, the icon does not change color, but areas of the
timeline that rely on this processed media are highlighted in red.
n
To check what type of media is associated with a clip, right-click the clip and
select Properties. For more information, see “Displaying File Properties” on
page 48.
It is possible to purge only the video or audio portion of a clip. In this case, the
icon in the Avid Explorer does not turn red, as there is still media associated
with the clip. You can only purge media from the current project. If you want
to purge media in another project, you must open that project and then purge
the media.
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Managing Media
There are several ways to purge source media or cache files in Avid DS Nitris.
Purge from
To do this
Avid Explorer bin
Delete media of selected clips and sequences.
Cache bar menu
Delete the caches associated with the cache bar, the cache
files below the cache bar, or both.
Toolbar
Delete all cache files from the current sequence, all
interactive memory caches, or a cache file associated with
a particular clip, effect, or area on the timeline.
Purge dialog box
Delete source and cache media of specific clips,
sequences, or projects. This option gives you more
control over what types of media are deleted and from
what source they will be deleted.
Purging Source Media
Source media is the digitized form of source material after it has been captured
and imported from tape or file into Avid DS Nitris. You can select the type of
media you want to delete.
You can purge media at the clip, sequence, or folder level:
•
Purging a clip deletes media that was captured for that clip.
•
Purging a sequence deletes media for all clips in the sequence.
•
Purging a folder deletes media of the master clips contained in that folder.
To purge a file or folder from the Avid Explorer:
1. In the Avid Explorer, right-click a clip, sequence, or folder, and select
Purge Media.
The Purge dialog box is displayed.
The media for your selection will be purged unless you change the option
under the Display Associated Media For list.
n
To purge everything but the clips selected in the Avid Explorer, select the
Except For option in the Display Associated Media list.
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Chapter 13 Media Management
2. Select the other options as necessary.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the options in the Purge
dialog box.
n
To remove the largest number of unused media files and gain storage space,
select the Unreferenced Media option and the Optimize For Maximum
Storage Space Recovery option. Note that this is a time-consuming process.
You should keep media used in other project files unless you are absolutely
sure that they are not required.
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Managing Media
You can delete cache media and reprocess it later. For more information, see
“Purging Caches” on page 451.
3. Click the Refresh Purge List button.
A list of media that meets all the criteria that you selected is displayed in
the Purge list. By default, all the files in the list are selected, but you can
select any number of media files from the list to purge.
4. Click the Purge button to begin deleting the media.
After you purge source media and it is deleted from your storage device, the
clips that reference this media have a red icon beside them in the Avid
Explorer. Clips on the timeline that have no associated media, display the
“Media Not Available” message in the viewer when you play back the
sequence.
Purging Caches
When you process effects, graphics, or a composite in your sequence, a cache
file is generated on your storage device, so that you can play back the newlycreated media.
If you need storage space, you can delete this cache media and reprocess it at a
later time. When you delete a sequence’s caches, the Process button on the
timeline turns red, and the unprocessed regions are highlighted on the timeline
ribbon.
If you’re using cache bars to generate caches, you can purge the caches at the
different levels at which they were created. The cache bar’s color indicates if
playable media exists for the entire region covered by the cache bar. If any
part under the cache bar is unprocessed, the cache bar will be yellow. If the
entire region has been processed and playable media exists, the cache bar is
green. For more information, see “Understanding Processing” on page 265.
To purge the cache of selected objects on the timeline:
1. Select one or more clips, effect bars, container clips, or tracks.
2. From the NLE Tools toolbar, select Purge > Purge Cache.
To purge caches for all objects on the current timeline:
t
From the NLE Tools toolbar, select Purge > Purge All Caches.
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To purge caches generated with cache bars:
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452
Right-click a cache bar and select one of the following:
-
Purge Selected to purge only the cache media associated with the
selected cache bar.
-
Purge Below to purge any unnecessary cache media that lies below
the cache bar, while keeping the cache real time playable. (This
option is useful if you processed using the Complete option and no
longer need the caches at each level anymore.)
-
Purge to purge the cache media associated with the cache bar, as well
as any cache media that lies below it.
Managing Media
Example: Purging versus Deleting Media
Purge master clip from sequence A.
Result: The master clip is never deleted.
Master clip
If the Keep Media Used in Other Sequences option is selected, and
the master clip is used in another sequence, then the media is not
deleted.
If the Keep Media Used in Other Sequences option is not selected,
then the media is deleted.
Sequence
Sequence
Once the media is deleted, when you play back a sequence that
uses this master clip, the “Media Not Available” message is
displayed in the viewer whenever it encounters this clip.
Because the master clip was not removed, it’s easy to recapture the
media from the Avid Explorer or timeline.
Media
Delete Clip and Unused Media for master clip from sequence A.
Master clip
Result: Deletes the master clip in the Avid Explorer.
Avid DS Nitris checks to see if this clips media is used elsewhere. If it
is, then the media is not removed.
Although the master clip is deleted, the clips remain on the timeline in
sequence A and B, and still refer to the original media.
Sequence
Sequence
Media
Delete Clip and All Media for master clip from sequence A.
Result: Deletes the master clip in the Avid Explorer, as well as its
associated media regardless of whether this clip is used in another
sequence.
Master clip
Although the master clip is deleted, the clips on sequence A and B
remain on the timeline. When you play back either of your
sequences, the “Media Not Available” message is displayed in the
viewer whenever it encounters this clip in your sequence.
Sequence
Sequence
General Note
Purge always keeps the master clip; it removes the media
depending on the setting.
Delete always removes the master clip; it removes the media
depending on the command selected.
Media
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Archiving Projects
Archiving is a way to create backups of your project, move a project to
another workstation, or free up space on your local disk. You can restore
archived projects later, if necessary. You might need to archive and restore a
project when you upgrade to a new version of Avid DS Nitris; check the
release notes for more information.
You can archive both the project files and their related media. If you choose to
archive only the project files, you can recapture the media easily once the
project is restored.
Archive all
files related
to project.
Project files
Sequences and
clips refer to
media on disk.
Archived project files and media.
Only media related to
clips and sequences in
project are archived.
Source and cache media
n
454
You can archive or restore media only if its format (frame rate, resolution, or
quality) is compatible with the current sequence format. For example, you
cannot restore an NTSC archive while you are working in a PAL sequence.
Similarly, you cannot restore an HD archive in an NTSC sequence.
Archiving Projects
A complete Avid DS Nitris archive consists of two parts:
n
•
The project archive: a single folder that is created on a disk. This folder
contains complete information about recreating a product (bins, clips,
sequences, presets, and so on). It includes any folders and files are stored
in the project root, such as source images for linked files or documents
with notes about the project. The archive also includes audio media and
audio caches, if you decide to include them (currently, audio media can
only be archived to disk, not to tape).
•
Media archive: a videotape on which video media and video caches are
recorded. You can save video media on a single tape or, if necessary, on
multiple tapes.
A video archive is limited to one tape for video media and one tape for video
caches, unless you are archiving more than one video compression or
resolution. For more information, see “Creating a Complete Archive on
Multiple Tapes” on page 460.
Archiving caches is optional, because you can reprocess them after you restore
the project. Also, you might need to reprocess caches after restoring a project
in an upgraded version of Avid DS Nitris. Check the release notes for the
upgrade.
The following sections describe how to create these parts of an archive.
Creating a Project Archive Only
The following procedure describes how to archive the project information
only. If you need to, you can restore the project and then recapture the media.
To create a project archive:
1. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
2. Select the Archive tab.
3. Select a project to archive by selecting it from the list of displayed
projects.
You can archive projects from anywhere on the network. Click the
Refresh button to get an up-to-date list of the projects you can access.
4. By default, all projects are archived in the \DS Archives folder. You can
select a different destination folder for the project files by doing one of the
following:
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n
t
Type the path in the Project Archive Destination text box.
t
Click the Browse button to search for the appropriate folder.
Avid DS Nitris does not let you archive a project at the root of a drive, such as
F:\. The archive must be within a folder. For example, F:\DS Archives\ is a
valid location for a project archive.
5. Click the Archive button.
c
After you’ve archived your project, make sure that there is an
archivetape.log file in the archive folder. Without this log file, you cannot
restore your media.
Creating a Device Preset Before Archiving
If you are going to archive media to tape, create an external device preset, so
that it is available from the Device list when you start to create the archive.
To create a device preset:
1. Connect the external device to your Avid DS Nitris system.
2. Select View > Multi-Instance Views > Deck Configuration.
3. Set the Edit Mode to Assemble in your preset to avoid having to stripe
the entire tape before archiving your media to tape.
Even when outputting in Assemble mode, you must stripe the first few
seconds of the tape.
For more information on creating an external device preset, see
“Configuring the External Device” in the Help.
n
Tip: Test the external device by outputting a segment of a sequence before
creating an archive.
Creating a Complete Archive for a Project
The following procedure describes how to archive a project and all its media
to a single tape. If your project is too large to fit on a single tape, see “Creating
a Complete Archive on Multiple Tapes” on page 460.
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Archiving Projects
To archive a project:
1. Check the device that you want to use to create the archive—see
“Creating a Device Preset Before Archiving” on page 456.
2. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
3. Select the Archive tab.
Projects
4. Select a project to archive by selecting it from the list of displayed
projects.
You can archive projects from anywhere on the network. Click the
Refresh button to get an up-to-date list of the projects you can access.
5. If you want to archive the media associated with your project, select the
type of media you want to archive from the Media Archive Options box.
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For video media and video cache media, you must specify a compression
rate, resolution, and bit depth for the media you want to archive. For audio
media and audio cache media, you must specify a sample rate.
n
n
If you want to archive cache media, you must also archive the master media.
You cannot archive only cache media.
If you archive a project with media that is shared between projects, the media
will be archived with both projects. When it is restored, Avid DS Nitris checks
to see if the media is still in its original location. If it is, the link is recreated. If
not, the media is restored to its original location.
Video is always archived to tape, and audio is always archived to the
specified media location on disk.
The status area displays the amount of time required on tape to archive
your video media. It also displays the amount of disk space that the
project files, including the audio media (if any) will consume. If the media
archive is longer than the length of your tape, you need to split the media
onto two tapes. For more information, see “Creating a Complete Archive
on Multiple Tapes” on page 460.
6. By default, all projects are archived in the \DS Archives folder. You can
select a different destination folder for the project files by doing one of the
following:
n
t
Type the path in the Project Archive Destination text box.
t
Click the Browse button to search for the appropriate folder.
Avid DS Nitris does not let you archive a project at the root of a drive, such as
F:\. The archive must be within a folder. For example, F:\DS Archives\ is a
valid location for a project archive.
7. Click the Archive button to begin archiving your project.
If your project contains linked clips that are not stored in the project
folder, a message is displayed, warning you that linked clips cannot be
archived as the media does not reside within the current project. You
should back up these files separately.
If you are archiving video media to tape, after the project archive is
created (and the audio is archived), the Creating Media Archive dialog
box opens.
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8. In the Archive Tape Options box, select a device to which you want to
archive the media files.
9. In the Archive Tape Options box, type a value in the In-point timecode
box to set the starting timecode of the archive on the tape. By default, the
in-point timecode is set to 00:00:00:00.
10. Click the Continue button.
Your media files are archived to tape.
Click the Help button for detailed information on the Creating Media Archive
dialog box.
After you’ve archived your project, make sure that there is an archivetape.log
file in the archive folder. Without this log file, you cannot restore your media.
It is also a good idea to compare the timecodes in the archivetape.log file with
those on the archive tape. If they’re the same, you shouldn’t have any
problems restoring your project. If they’re different, however, archive the
project again.
n
The archive.log file contains the Avid DS Nitris version number, so you know
which version you were using when the archive was created.
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Chapter 13 Media Management
Once the archive is complete and you have checked the log file, you can delete
your project to make space on your disk. For more information, see “Deleting
Projects” on page 470.
n
If you want to archive a project with a non-standard video format, you can
create an archive of the project files only (do not include the media), and then
back up the folder that contains the media for your project on another
medium, such as CD-ROM or DLT. When restoring this project, all you have
to do is make sure you copy the folder containing the media files back to its
original location. All the media will be linked back to the original master clips
inside the project. See “Archiving on Other Media” on page 462.
Creating a Complete Archive on Multiple Tapes
If you archive a large project and its media, you may find that one tape is not
enough to hold all your media.
You can create an archive with two tapes, with each one containing different
types of media, such as:
Archive
Contents
Project
Project data, audio media, audio cache
Tape 1
Project data and video media
Tape 2
Project data and video cache
It’s very important that the project data for both archives are identical for you
to be able to restore the project accurately at a later date. It’s also important
that you archive video caches on tape 2. Then when you restore the project,
make sure to restore tape 1 before tape 2, so that the video caches link to the
master clips.
If you want to archive video media at more than one compression or
resolution, you can create additional tapes for the media and its caches.
However, for a single media type, an archive is limited to one tape for video
media and one tape for video caches.
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Archiving Projects
n
Be sure to keep track of which projects were archived using the multiple
archive method as Avid DS Nitris does not remind you when it comes time to
restore the project. It is also important to name your tapes appropriately, so
that you can easily distinguish the media on the tapes.
To create multiple archives of the same project:
1. Check the device that you want to use to create the archive—see
“Creating a Device Preset Before Archiving” on page 456.
2. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
3. From the Project Manager, select the Archive tab.
4. Select a project to archive.
5. Select the following media archive options:
-
Archive video media files to tape
-
Archive audio media files to disk
-
Archive audio cache media to disk
6. For the video media, select a compression rate, resolution, and bit depth of
the media you want archived. For the audio media and audio cache media,
select a sample rate.
7. Type a path in the Project Archive Destination text box where you want
the project archive to reside.
8. Click the Archive button to begin archiving the first part of your project.
The project files and audio media are archived to disk and the Creating
Media Archive dialog box is displayed before it starts to archive any
video media.
9. In the Archive Tape Options box, select the device to which you want to
archive the media files.
10. Type a value in the In point timecode box to set the starting timecode of
the archive on the tape. By default, the in-point timecode is set to
00:00:00:00.
11. Click the Continue button.
Avid DS Nitris archives your video media to tape.
12. Without making any changes to your project folder, select the same
project to archive by selecting it from the list of displayed projects.
13. From the Media Archive Options box, select the Archive video cache
files to tape option.
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Chapter 13 Media Management
14. Select the compression rate, resolution, and bit depth of the media you
want to archive.
15. Click the Archive button to begin archiving the cache media.
The project data is archived to disk again and the Creating Media Archive
dialog box is displayed.
16. From the Archive Tape Options box, select the device to which you want
to archive the media files.
17. Type a value in the In point timecode box to set the starting timecode of
the archive on the tape. By default, the in-point timecode is set to
00:00:00:00.
18. Click the Continue button.
Avid DS Nitris archives your cache media to tape.
After you’ve archived your project, make sure that there is an archivetape.log
file in the archive folder. Without this log file, you cannot restore your media.
It’s also a good idea to compare the timecodes in the archivetape.log file with
those on the archive tape.
Archiving on Other Media
You cannot create archives directly on removable media (aside from
videotape). However, you can back up an archive and its media in the
following ways:
•
Compress a project archive and copy it to another medium. For example,
create a Zip archive and copy it to a CD-ROM, CD-RW, or DLT.
•
Directly copy media files from a media files folder to a folder on another
medium. When restoring this project, make sure you copy the folder
containing the media files back to its original location. All the media will
be linked back to the original master clips inside the project. Refer to the
archive.log file in the archive folder for the alphanumerical folder name
and path in which to restore the project media location.
For information about restoring projects, see the next section.
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Restoring Projects
Restoring Projects
Projects are archived when a job is completed, to create backups of your
project files, or to move a project to another workstation. If you need to work
on the project again, you simply have to restore it. You can restore the project
files, as well as any video and/or audio media that was archived with it.
If you only want to work on a small portion of an archived project, you can
select the parts of the project you want to restore.
Information about archived files can be found in text files in the project’s
archive folder. The archive.log file records the dates of all archive and restore
operations for a selected archive, and the archivetape.log file keeps a list of all
its archived media files. You can use this file to determine the compression
ratios and resolutions at which the media was archived.
Note the following:
•
You can restore media only if its frame rate and video format are
compatible with the current sequence format. For example, you cannot
restore an NTSC archive while you are working in a PAL sequence.
Similarly, you cannot restore an HD archive in an NTSC sequence.
•
Avid DS Nitris restores video media in the first video storage that is
defined in the Installed Media Storages list, and restores audio media in
the first audio storage defined. If there is not enough room on the first
storage, Avid DS Nitris restores the remaining media on the next
appropriate storage (video or audio). If you want the media created in a
particular storage, use the Move Up button to move the storage to the top
of the list. For more information, see “Maintaining your Storage
Locations” in the Help.
•
If you restore a project that contains third-party plug-in effects onto a
machine that does not have the plug-ins installed, the effects will appear
over the clips they were applied to, but they will be empty. They will be
editable after you install the plug-ins.
•
Video and audio cache files cannot be restored from archives created in a
version earlier than Avid|DS 6.0. When restoring this type of archive, a
message is displayed, and the options for restoring cache files are
dimmed.
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Chapter 13 Media Management
•
If you are restoring from an archive in which one or more video
compressions (codecs) are no longer supported, a dialog box is displayed.
Use this dialog box to substitute a supported codec.
•
You can restore an archive only from a drive or device that supports both
read and write operations. For example, you cannot restore an archive
directly from a read-only CD-ROM. To restore from a CD-ROM, copy
the archive to a local drive and clear the read-only option on the main
folder and all subfolders.
•
When restoring a project and opening sequences of that project, missing
Graphics titling fonts are logged in the Avid Event Log. By checking the
log, you’ll see exactly which fonts are missing on your system.
Restoring a Complete Project
From the Project Manager, you can restore the project files and corresponding
media. If you’re restoring a project whose media was archived on more than
one tape, see “Restoring a Project Archived on Multiple Tapes” on page 469.
To restore a complete project:
1. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
2. Select the Restore tab.
464
Restoring Projects
3. In the Archive Folder text box, type the location of the archived project
file that you want to restore, or click the Browse button to search for
the file.
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Chapter 13 Media Management
4. In the Project Name text box, specify the folder in which you want to
place the restored files.
5. If you want to restore the project’s media, select the Select media to
restore option from the Options box.
The Media Options (1/2) dialog box lets you select specific clips or
sequences for which you want the media to be restored.
6. Since you want to restore the complete project, leave this dialog box
inactive and click OK.The Media Options (2/2) dialog box is displayed.
7. Select the type of media you want to restore and its corresponding
compression ratio, resolution, bit depth, or sample rate, and click OK.
If you have video material archived on tape, you will be prompted to
insert the tape into the deck. If you have audio material on disk, it will
automatically be restored from your archive.
8. Click the Restore button.
If you’re restoring material from videotape, Avid DS Nitris controls the
deck, searches for the appropriate footage on the tape, and then captures
it.
n
If you encounter problems restoring material from tape, you should disable
the viewer using the Viewer button in the status bar and try capturing again.
When restoring full resolution HD material at 29.97 and 30 frames per
second, the viewer is automatically disabled.
Avid DS Nitris usually stops the deck, rewinds, and then pre-rolls before
capturing material. With an archive, however, the media should be stored
on tape one right after the other. As a result, the pre-roll is skipped and all
the media is captured in one pass. This feature, known as streaming
capture, greatly reduces the time to restore an archive.
466
Restoring Projects
n
If the restoration is not entirely successful, that is, some clips were not
restored, click Restore to recapture the missing clips.
9. After a project is restored, open the project through the Open Project
dialog box or by selecting File > Open Project.
10. To complete the restore, save the project and its sequences.
Restoring Parts of a Project Archive
At times, you may only want to restore part of a project, some of its clips, or
one particular sequence. Avid DS Nitris lets you select the project files and
associated media files to restore.
To restore parts of a project archive:
1. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
2. Select the Restore tab.
3. In the Archive Folder text box, type the location of the archived project
file that you want to restore, or click the Browse button to search for
the file.
4. In the Project Name text box, specify the folder in which you want to
place the restored files.
5. To restore the media of a selected part of your project archive, click Select
Media to Restore from the Options box.
The Media Options (1/2) dialog box lets you select specific clips or
sequences for which you want the media to be restored.
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Chapter 13 Media Management
6. Select the Only Restore media referenced by the following files option
to activate the selective restore function.
7. Click one of the following:
t
Add Clip to select individual clips for which you want the media to
be restored.
t
Add Sequence to select individual clips for which you want the
media to be restored.
8. In the Avid Explorer, select the clips or sequences for which you want
media to be restored and click OK.
The selected clips or sequences are displayed in the Media Options (1/2)
dialog box.
n
To remove items from the list, select the items and click Delete.
9. When you have all the clips and/or sequences you want, click OK.
The Media Options (2/2) dialog box is displayed.
10. Select the type of media you want to restore and its corresponding
compression ratio, resolution, bit depth, or sample rate, and click OK.
If you have video material archived on tape, you are prompted to insert
the tape into the deck. If you have audio material on disk, it is
automatically restored from your archive.
11. Click Restore.
If you’re restoring material from videotape, Avid DS Nitris controls the
deck, searches for the appropriate footage on the tape, and then digitizes
it.
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Restoring Projects
Restoring a Project Archived on Multiple Tapes
You can restore a project whose media was archived on multiple tapes. As the
project files are archived with each tape, you must be careful not to overwrite
your project files.
n
In order for cache media to be recognized, master clip media must be present.
Thus, to make sure the video caches link properly, restore tape 1 (master clip
media) before you restore tape 2 (video caches). For information about
archiving a project on multiple tapes, see “Creating a Complete Archive on
Multiple Tapes” on page 460.
To restore a project archived on multiple tapes:
1. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
2. Select the Restore tab.
3. In the Archive Folder text box, type the location of the archived project
file that you want to restore, or click Browse to search for the file.
4. In the Project Name text box, specify the folder in which you want to
place the restored files.
5. From the Options box, select the Select media to restore option to restore
the audio media files.
The Media Options (1/2) dialog box is displayed.
6. Since you want to restore the complete project, leave this dialog box
inactive and click OK.
The Media Options (2/2) dialog box is displayed.
7. Select the audio media and audio cache file options, and then click OK.
8. Click the Restore button.
After the project data and audio media files are restored, you can begin
restoring the video and cache files.
9. Repeat steps 2 to 8, but this time restore your video media files. When
Avid DS Nitris asks you if you would like to skip the restoration of the
project information, click Yes.
By choosing Yes, you are only restoring the video media files and not
overwriting the project data.
10. Repeat steps 1 to 7 again, but this time restore the video cache files.
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Chapter 13 Media Management
Your entire project with media and cache files are now restored. You can
open the project from the Project Manager and work with your sequences.
Moving Projects to Another Workstation
You can easily move your project files to another Avid DS Nitris workstation.
Simply archive your files with or without the associated media, copy them to a
folder on the new workstation, configure the media storages so that they match
those of the machine on which the project was archived, and then restore the
project.
You cannot restore a project if it already exists in an Avid DS Nitris
workgroup. You restore the project only on a system that belongs to a different
workgroup or if the original project was deleted after archiving.
n
If you want to move individual media files, see “Moving Media” on page 446.
To move a project to another workstation:
1. Archive your project to a location on the network—see “Archiving
Projects” on page 454.
n
Make a note of your current storage paths, so that you can easily configure the
storages on the new workstation where you will be restoring your project.
2. On the new workstation, make sure that you’ve configured the same
storage areas as the machine on which you archived your project—see the
“Maintaining your Storage Locations” of the Avid DS Nitris Installation
and Administration Guide.
3. Restore your project from the network location—see “Restoring Projects”
on page 463.
Deleting Projects
When you no longer need a project, archive it first and then delete it from
your system. For more information, see “Archiving Projects” on page 454.
When you delete a project, the project folder, project files, and all media
associated with the project are deleted.
470
Deleting Projects
To delete a project:
1. Close the project that you want to delete.
2. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
3. From the Project Manager, select the Delete tab.
4. Select a project to delete by selecting it from the list of displayed projects.
5. Click Delete.
You are prompted to confirm your decision.
6. Click Yes to delete the project and its media.
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Chapter 13 Media Management
Deleting Clips
When you first capture media into Avid DS Nitris, a master clip is created in a
bin in the Avid Explorer to represent the digitized media on your storage
device. If you no longer require the master clip, you can delete the clip from
the project.
Be careful when you delete a master clip, because deleting a clip can also
delete its associated media, depending on the option that you choose.
Since master clips and their media are stored separately, you can delete the
media, but keep the clip so that you can later recapture the media. For more
information, see “Purging Media” on page 448. For a comparison of deleting
and purging, see “Example: Purging versus Deleting Media” on page 453.
You delete subclips the same way you delete master clips.
n
For information on deleting a sequence, see “Deleting Sequences” on
page 95.
To delete a clip from a bin:
1. In an Avid Explorer bin, select the clip or clips that you want to delete.
You cannot delete a clip while it is displayed in the Source viewer
2. Right-click a selected clip, and select one of the following:
t
Delete Clip & Unused Media: Deletes the clip. Also deletes the
media for the clip if the media is not used in a sequence or in another
master clip in the current project. If the media is being used, then only
the clip is deleted and not the media.
t
Delete Clip & All Media: Deletes the clip and associated media even
if this clip or its media is used elsewhere. Although this is a quick
way to create more disk space on your drive, it can be risky. You
should only do this when you’re absolutely sure that you no longer
need the media associated with this clip.
A dialog box asks you to confirm the deletion. Click Yes.
n
472
Selecting the Delete option under the Windows section of the menu or pressing
the Delete key deletes the selected master clips, but does not delete the
associated media.
Viewing Information about Storage Devices
A progress bar is displayed, showing that the delete is in progress. You
can click Cancel to stop the delete process.
n
You can also delete clips by using the Media Tool—see “Using the Media
Tool” on page 438.
Viewing Information about Storage Devices
The Media property page of the Project Manager gives you detailed
information on your storage devices. You can find out the exact location and
size of your storage, the free disk space available, and the percentage that is
full. It provides information on which projects have associated media on the
device and lets you delete media folders.
To view information about storage devices:
1. Select Data Management > Project Manager.
2. From the Project Manager, select the Media tab.
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Chapter 13 Media Management
474
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Index
Numerics
10 Band Graphic EQ effect 431
2K files, importing 101
3 Band Tone Control effect 429
3:2 Contract effect 322
contracting video fields 323
3:2 Expand effect 324
expanding video fields 324
4 Band Parametric EQ effect 430
A
Activate tool 173
activeness
about 120
audio clips 127
clips 172
cutting to another clip 298
filling 175
rolling 234
video clips 126
Add Edit tool 168
alignment
clips 196
locators 196
alpha, displaying 317
animating
audio 389, 405, 414–418
audio bypass 417
input strips 415
mute 415
objects 347
pan 415
relative cycling 382
volume 415
animation
copying 376
copying function curves 374
creating 347–351, 381
customizing animation graph 358
cycles, deleting 383
cycles, freezing 382
cycling 381
editing 360–385, 417
editor 347, 360
freezing position 375
function curves 355, 360, 362, 370, 416
function curves, copying 374
graph 357, 362, 375
keyframes 347–351
keys 351
locking keys 375
manipulating keyframes 366
meta curve region, displaying 369
methods 347
mixer strips, deleting 418
offsetting 376
panning 359
pinning 360
processing 385
removing 384
repeating 381
selecting 415
snapping keys to frame 375
snapping keys to grid 375
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
snapshot curves 374
synchronizing 369
tree 418
trimming 383
unpinning function curves 356
workflow 346
zoom 359
animation editor
accessing 352
changing function curve type 372
changing time scale 358
function curves 352
graph 357
tree 353
using 360
animation graph
changing function curve slope 370
changing function curve type 372
changing time scale 358
customizing 358
displaying timeline locators 363
keyframes, locking 375
keyframes, manipulating 366
keyframes, selecting 363
meta curve region 368
panning 359
regions, modifying 370
regions, selecting 366
selecting function curves 365
selecting keyframes 363
selecting region 366
timeline locators 363
using 357
zooming 359
animation keys 351
animation tree
collapsing 353
displaying function curves 354
displaying function curves, different objects 355
expanding 353
navigating 353
using 353
applying effects
dynamics 429
fade 431
Timewarp, audio 328, 330
476
archive.log file 459, 463
archiving
archive.log file 459, 463
from network 455, 457
large projects 460
linked clips 458
media 457
non-standard projects 460
projects 454
shared media 458
to multiple tapes 460
A-side (outgoing frames), in trims 228
aspect ratio
about 76
HD 76
video format 69
audio
animating 389, 405, 414–418
balance 395
bit depth 71
clip formats 405
clip formats, determining 406
clips 390
container clip icon 410
container clips 310, 387, 389, 410
crossfade 298, 409, 428
editing 112
effects 427
effects, adding 393
effects, processing 425
fade effects 431
formats 390, 405
formats supported 392
Gain effect 431
input strips 393, 393
inverting output signal 432
mixing 387, 404
muting 397
output strips 393, 400
panning 412
processing 390
recording animation 347
Reverb effect 432
routing signals 395
sample accurate editing 405
sample rate 71
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
sample rate conversion 419
samples 390
soloing 136, 397
strip effects 393
submix 310, 389, 409
track formats 405
tracks 129, 132, 390, 405
up/down convert 421
volume 394, 412
VST Host effect 432
waveform 128
workflow 387
audio clips 121
activeness 127
effects, processing 425
frame rate conversion 419, 421
manually converting sample rate 420
mixing 408
sample rate conversion 418, 419
audio container clips 310, 387, 410
audio effects
10 Band Graphic EQ 431
3 Band Tone Control 429
4 Band Parametric EQ 430
about 427
Crossfade 428
Dip 431
Dynamics 429
EQ 429
Equalizer 429
fade 431
Fade In 431
Timewarp 328
Timezone 328
audio formats 392
audio quality matching, sequence preferences 84
audio sample rate
conversion 418, 419
conversion, manual 420
audio timewarp 328
timezone 330
audio track
manually converting sample rate 420
types 129
audio track format
changing 407
Index
determining 407
Autokey mode 347
automation See animation
autosaving sequences 90
auto-source capture target 39
Avid DMS 294
Avid DS Nitris
projects folder 28
Avid Event Log
about 57
viewing 58
viewing Windows Event Log 59
Avid Explorer
about 34
bins 45
creating new folders 40
file properties, displaying 48
folders, creating/deleting 40
My System view 36
panels 37
panels, displaying a view 37
Project view 36
selecting multiple clips 122
Shortcuts view 37
standard folder structure 41
views 36
B
background
container clips 309
tracks 132
backtiming
basic trim 227
edits 139
balance, adjusting on mixer 395
barrier shapes 253
bins
clips, sorting 53
columns, changing width 52
columns, displaying 51
columns, hiding 51
customizing in Details and Script views 50
identifying Avid DS Nitris file types 47
matching 184
477
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
matching clips 187
opening 46
rearranging columns 52
sifting 54
sorting clips 53
views 46
views, saving and deleting 52
working with 45
bi-pack 309
bit depth
audio quality 71
for film 101
for processing 85
quality 79
video 78, 84
video, precision 85
when processing 84
breaking links 218
B-side (incoming frames), in trims 228
building sequences 114
bypassing
audio animation 417
C
Cache List 276, 283
cache management 435
creation order 285
media 435
caches 435
creation order 285
different qualities 278
interactive 274
invalid 294
memory 274
purging 448, 451
turning into master clip 266
Cineon files, importing 101
clip
master, creating from cache 266
clip locators 179
clips
activating 173
activating region 174
adding comments 168
478
adding notes 168
adding to sync groups 199
aligning 196
audio 121, 390
audio, sample rate conversion 418, 419
backtiming 227
breaking synchronization 200
changing active areas 172
changing activeness 173
constrain drag See locators
container See container clips
copying 40, 168
cutting 168
cutting to 298
deactivating 173
deactivating region 174
deinterlacing 325
delete all occurrences 472
delete if media unused 472
deleting 472
deleting from Avid Explorer 472
deleting from timeline 169
deleting synchronized 203
deleting sync-locked 171
displaying unused material 127
dragging and dropping 119
dragging to timeline 123
editing 195
filling activeness 175
four-point editing 125
importing 66
inserting 124
inserting with ripple 192, 194
interlacing 326
locators 176, 196
locators, placing 179
locking 198
looping 156
manipulating 162–175
matching bins 187
moving 40, 164
moving between tracks 166
moving multiple clips with activeness 165
moving on same track 164
moving one past another 165
moving to different track 166
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
moving with activeness 165
naming 167
nesting 306–314
overwriting 124, 192
overwriting subclip 118, 119
placing audio clips on timeline 127
placing on specific tracks 127
placing on timeline 119, 122, 123, 126–130
playing 152
playing at various speeds 154
pre-editing 117
previewing 157
processing 318
properties 167
purging 449
renaming 41, 167
replacing 125
resyncing 202
revealing unused frames 171
reversing action 340
rippling 191
scrubbing 153
searching 93
selecting 162
selecting from Avid Explorer 122
selecting multiple 163
shuttling 154
sifting 54
sliding 234
slipping 233
sorting 53
sorting (example) 53
synchronized 121
synchronizing 179, 196–203
sync-lock 196
trimming 207, 209, 213, 219, 230
video 121, 126
viewing frame-by-frame 157
viewing unprocessed frames 157
color space
about 77
RGB 77
video format 69
YCbCr 77
YUV 77
columns
Index
hiding and displaying in bins 51
rearranging 52
combining
sync groups 199
command map
creating, External Controller Setup 404
loading, External Controller Setup 404
comparison buffer, using 304
Complete mode processing 285
example 287
composite container clip 308
compression 78
quality 79
ratios, mixing 73
working at different quality 72
constant function curve 372
constrain drag 181
See also locators
container clips 306–314
3:2 Expand/Contract 321
audio 306, 310, 387, 389, 410
background 306, 309
closing 313
composite 306, 308
converting to reference clips 204
creating 306–309
deconstructing 314
deleting 314
icons 312
identifying 312
interlace/deinterlace 321
navigating 311
opening 311, 312
timeline 307
trimming 229
types 306
contracting video fields 323
conversion
audio sample rate 418, 419, 420
frame rate 422
frame rate, for audio clips 419, 421
conversion modes
sequence 87
correspondence points
adding 252
Morph effect 250
479
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
crossfade
audio effect 409
transitions 298, 428
Crossfade effects 428
Cubase VST 433
curves
constant 372
linear 372
spline 372
Custom Sift dialog box 55
customizing
bin views 50
cut 298
Cut To 298
cutting synchronized clips 202
cycle
basic, creating 381
deleting 383
freezing 382
relative, creating 382
D
Deactivate tool 174
defragmenting
media 444
Deinterlace effect
deinterlacing clips 325
interpolation types 326
deinterlacing clips 325
Delete all occurrences command 472
Delete if unused command 472
delete versus purge media 453
deleting
clips 472
clips from timeline 169
clips in Avid Explorer 472
cycles 383
files 470
media (Media Tool) 447
media (Purge) 448
projects 470
sequences 95
sync-locked clips 171
Total Delete 95
480
Details view
bin 46
customizing 50
sorting clips 53
dialog boxes
custom sift 55
digital intermediates
considerations 98
film 97
workflow 97
digital master film 97, 99
Dip effect 431
direct frame entry 144
disk
array, making space 448
available storage space 473
displaying
time scale, ruler 149
unused material mode 171
dissolve 309
applying in Effects Trees 241
applying on timeline 240
Dissolve effect 240
DMS 294
DMS Broker
e-mail setup 277
dominance, field 77
down conversion
of film sequences 106, 109
down conversion formats
HD/SD 98, 104
DPX
applying LUT 108
files 104
DPX files 99
applying LUT 108
exporting 106
importing 101
dragging and dropping
clips 119
drives
fragmented 444
drop frame 75
format 70
drop frame conversion
synced clips 422
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
DS Archives folder 455, 458
DS Presets folder 39
dual viewer 115, 116
dual-roller trim 237
DVE
applying as transition 242
fly-bys 242
push-wipes 242
DVE effect 242
Dynamics effect 429
dynamics effects 429
applying 429
E
edit handles 209
edit points 209
backtiming 227
breaking 218
linking 218
on transitions 301
selecting 215
snapping to 227
trimming 220
trimming intersecting 222
editing
audio animation 417
backtiming 139
four-point 125
linking edits 218
multi-camera 298
preparing media 115
ripple activated 195
same track vs. multi-track 121
sample accurate 405
source clips 117
three-point 124
workflow 112
effects
audio 427
box 393
image transition 239–263
previewing 273, 274
processing 289, 318
real-time 266, 289
Index
source-generated 272
time 321
time effects 322
time-based 272
track 298
transition 239–263
e-mail notification
from DMS Broker 277
from local workstation 277
EQ effects
10 Band Graphic EQ 431
3 Band Tone Control 429
4 Band Parametric EQ 430
about 429
equalizer effects See EQ effects
event log 57
events 57
expand/contract fields 321, 322, 324
Explorer
See Avid Explorer
exporting
DPX file 106
external controller 401
External Controller Setup view
accessing 401
creating command map 404
loading command map 404
mapping controls 402
F
fade effects
applying 431
audio 431
fader
adjust volume 394
animating 415
fades
audio effect 431
fade-in 298
fade-out 298
field dominance 69, 75, 76, 77
fields
expand/contract 321, 322, 324
interlacing 76
481
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
order 77
processing 291
file properties, displaying 48
files
displaying properties 48
purging caches 451
showing and hiding parameters 51
types 47
Fill Activeness tool 175
filler, adding during trim 238
film
bit-depth, setting 101
digital intermediate 97
digital master 97, 99
down conversion to HD/SD 106, 109
formats 98
outputting sequence 106
project, creating 100
quality settings 101
quality settings, for output 106
storage 98, 99
working in proxy mode 104
film format
working in proxy resolution 70
film master 98
film-based projects, considerations 98
fit to fill 125
floating viewer
opening 314
pinning 315
fly-by effect 242
folders
Avid DS projects 28
creating new 40
deleting 40
DS Archives 455, 458
folder.ini 41
locating 187
moving files 40
project, organizing files 39
purging contents 449
renaming 41
formats
audio 390
drop frame 70
non-drop frame 70
482
video 75
four-point editing 125
fragmented drives 444
frame
changing in Thumbnail and Script views 47
processing subregion 274
frame rate conversion
for audio clips 419, 421
settings 422
frame rates 69
Frame Selection button 146
frame size
HD 76
NTSC 76
PAL 76
sequence preferences 71
video format 76
video settings 69
frames
active 172
displaying on ruler 149
head 232
incoming 210, 211, 232, 235
interactive processing 274
matching 184
non-drop 149
outgoing 210, 211, 232, 235
processing 291
revealing 171
tail 232
unused 127
framing, media in timeline 145
freezing
cycles 382
keyframe 375
frequency range
boosting 430, 430, 431
cutting 430, 430, 431
function curves 362
animation 360
changing slope 370
changing type 372
constant 371, 372
copying 374
copying region 378
displaying 354, 355
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
editing 357
hiding 354
in animation editor 352
inserting copied region 379
linear 371, 372
making temporary copies 374
manipulating 347
manipulating keyframes 366
panning 359
pinning 355, 360
selecting 365
selecting region 366
selecting, animation graph 365
setting type 372
showing 354
slope of spline, changing 374
slope, changing 370
slopes, tangent settings 374
snapshot curves 374
spline 370, 372
trimming 383
type, setting 372
types 372
unpinning 356
viewing 354
zooming 359
G
gain
adjusting output 432
audio effect 431
boosting input signal 431
cutting input signal 431
input signal, boosting 430
input signal, cutting 430
Gain effect 431
global locators
defined 178
setting 178
graph, animation 375
group folder 42
Index
H
handles
edit 209, 220
reveal 171
trim 209, 222
HD
aspect ratio 76
formats 75
frame size 76
real-time effects 292
resolution, proxy 98, 104
HD/SD down conversion 106
height, setting tracks 134
I
image components, viewing 317
image effects
Picture-in-Picture 259
image files
creating 191
creating from snapshot 191
image transition effects 239–263
Dissolve 240
DVE 242
Morph 243–259
Picture-in-Picture 259
Wipe 262
importing
2K files 101
clips 66
DPX files 101
from another project 66
sequences 66
incoming frames
Slip/Slide mode 232
Trim mode 211
in-points, marking 138
input strips
adjusting audio levels 412
animating 415
deleting animation 418
fine-tuning the sound 413
mixer 393
using 393
483
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
volume 394
insert mode 192
interactive caches 274
Interlace effect 326
interlacing
clips 326
fields 76
inverting output signal, audio 432
J
J-K-L keys
moving locators 180
moving objects 164
playback 154
K
keyframes
adding 364, 368, 368, 369
changing values 367
creating automatically 347
creating manually 347, 349, 361
deleting 361, 364, 368, 369
editing 361
freezing position 375
locking position 375
manipulating 366, 366
moving 364, 367, 368, 368, 369
removing 367, 368
selecting 363
snapping to grids and frames 375
keyframing 347
keys
animation 351
L
Large icons view (bins) 46
L-cut edit (overlap edit) 228
level meter 394
linear function curve 372
linked clips
archiving 458
linking edits 218
484
List view (bin) 46
local locators
defined 178
setting 178
locators
aligning 196
annotating 183
clip 179
constrained dragging 181
deleting 182
for synchronization 196
global 178
local 178
locating 182
moving 180
placing on clips 179
reference 155, 178, 197
setting 178
using 175
viewing in animation graph 363
Locators view
accessing 177
displaying information 176
locking
keyframe positions 375
synchronized clips 198
log events 57
loop markers 156
looping clips 156
LUT (Look-Up Table) 98, 101
apply at output 108
M
magnetism 126, 176
manipulating keyframes 366
markers
adding, moving, deleting 137
loop 156
meta curve region 368
timeline 137, 138
marking, in/out points 137, 138
master clips 28
creating 191
creating from snapshot 190
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
searching 93
sifting 54
match bin 187
matching frames
master clip 184
reverse 186
subclip 184
matching quality example 83
material
retrieving 184
revealing unused 171
matrix routing 399
Matrix Routing panel 399
media 435
checking for corruption 445
copying 446
defragmenting 444
deleting 470
deleting (Media Tool) 447
deleting (Purge) 448
displaying Media Not Available message 71
importing to current project 67
moving 446
moving to another workstation 470
not available 152
not found 152
processed 448
processed qualities 278
processing needed message 152
purging 448
quality, closest match 81
quality, exact match 79
restoring 463
sharing between projects 67
showing for clip or sequence 438
source 448
types 448
use closest available 71
verifying 445
viewing 443
viewing as thumbnails 443
media icons, Avid DS Nitris 47
Media Not Available message 71, 152, 451
Media Not Found message 152
Media Tool
described 438
Index
displaying associations 440
icons 440
opening 438
tools 442
memory
optimizing 72
required for custom sequences 65
memory caches 274
purging 449
messages
Media Not Available 152, 451
Media Not Found 152
Processing Needed 152, 267
Referenced Sequence Needs Processing 205
meta curve region 368–369
displaying 368, 369
hiding 369
marker 368
using 368
metadata 437
Minimal mode processing
about 284
example 286
mixer
about 391
accessing 392
adding audio effects 393
adjusting audio balance 395
adjusting volume 394
assigning output channels 399
container clips 409
input strips 393, 412
input strips, fine-tuning sound 412
muting 397
muting output strips 401
naming input strip 398
output strips 400, 414
output strips, fine-tuning sound 414
reordering input strips 399
routing view 392
soloing 397
mixer input strips
assigning output channels 399
muting 398
naming 398
reordering 399
485
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
soloing 398
using 393
mixer output strips, using 400
mixer view
adding audio effects 393
adjusting audio balance 395
adjusting volume 394
assigning output channels 399
input strips 393
muting 397
muting output strips 401
naming input strip 398
output strips 400
reordering input strips 399
soloing 397
mixing
animating 389
audio 404, 408
fine-tuning 411–414
panning 412
processing 423
processing order 424
sub-mixing 389
volume, adjusting 412
workflow 387
modes
Autokey 347
Complete, processing 284
Constant, Timewarp effect 333
Display Unused Material 171
Hold, Timewarp effect 340
Input Speed, Timewarp effect 337
insert 192
Minimal, processing 284
overwrite 192
Position, Timewarp effect 339
processing 284
Ripple 191
Speed, Timewarp effect 336
mono audio tracks 412
Morph effect 243–259
adding correspondence points 252
barrier shapes 253
correspondence points 250
joining shapes 250
setting rendering options 256
486
shapes, animating 254
shapes, breaking 251
shapes, creating 246
shapes, joining 250
morphing
correspondence points 250
processing 256
rendering 256
shapes, animating 254
shapes, creating 246
shapes, joining 250
motion path
creating 347
moving
keyframes 367
locators in timeline 180
multi-camera
editing 122, 298
multi-track editing 121
Mute button 132, 397
mute, animating 415
muting
audio tracks 135, 153
mixer input strips 397
video tracks 135
My System view, Avid Explorer 36
N
No Entry icon 40
non-drop frame 75
format 70
non-square pixels 159
NTSC
frame size 76
video format 75
O
offset
clips, resyncing 202
one-sided transitions 300
Open Project dialog box 63
opening
existing project 31
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
projects 27
sequences 63
outgoing frames
Slip/Slide mode 232
trimming 211
out-points, marking 138
output
real-time effects 291
without processing 291
output gain, adjusting 432
output routing 399
output strips 393
adjusting audio levels 414
adjusting volume 414
mixer, fine-tuning sound 414
using 400
overlap edits, creating 228
overlay tracks See background tracks
overlays
displaying in viewer 161
sawtooth pattern 161
overwrite mode 192
overwriting clips 192
P
PAL, frame size 76
pan
animating 415
animation graph 359
mixer 412
pan control
adjusting on mixer 395
enabling 396
panels, showing/hiding in Avid Explorer 37
panning
function curves 359
timeline 148
viewer 159
parent timeline 307
patching tracks 125
path, motion
creating 347
performance, real-time 290
Picture-in-Picture effect 259
Index
pinning
floating viewer 315
function curves 355, 360
pixel
ratio 69, 76
pixels 78
non-square 159
playback
problems due to corrupted media 445
slowdown 444
playing
clips 152
clips frame-by-frame 157
real-time effects 291
sequences 151
varying speed 154
position bar 158
position indicator
moving 155
moving to a specific timecode 155
moving to edit point 156
scrubbing 153
position, locking keyframe 375
precision bit depth 85
preferences
project 30
sequence 68
preview modes, switching 159
previewing
clips 157
effects 273
Process button
requires processing 268
processed media, purging 448
processing
animation 385
area, selecting 270
audio 390
audio effects 425
audio mix 423
bit depth 85
cache creation order 285
cache management 435
caches 435
colors on timeline ribbon 267
Complete mode 284, 285
487
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Complete mode, example 287
effects 289
fields 85
frames 85
from property editor 271
in fields 291
in frames 291
interactive 274
media 435
media, different qualities 278
Minimal mode 284, 285
modes 284
on timeline 270
options 275
order, when mixing 424
Process button indication 268
progress bar information 277
property editor 271
real-time 265, 269, 425
reference clips 205
region of frame 274
remotely 293, 294
selecting area 270
sequence preferences 85
sequences 318
setting bit depth (precision) 84
timeline 270, 425
timeline ribbon indication 267
when needed 266
workflow 269
Processing Needed message 152, 267
progress bar information 277
progressive scanning 77
project
for film 100
opening in workgroup 31
project files
master clips 28
renaming 41
sequences 28
Project Manager 471
Project view, Avid Explorer 36
projects
archiving 454
backing up 463
creating 29
488
deleting 470
files, deleting 470
folder structure 41
moving 40, 454
moving to another workstation 470
multiple versions 28
opening 27, 29
opening existing 31
opening within workgroup 31
organizing 39
preferences 30
renaming files 41
restoring 463, 464, 466
restoring from multiple tapes 469
selective restore 467
sharing in workgroup 32, 67
subfolders, creating 39
properties
clip 167
tracks 136
property editors
processing 271
processing frames 271
Timewarp (audio) effect 328
Timezone 328
proxy mode
for film 104
preferences settings 105
purge versus delete media 453
purging
clips 449
files or folders in Avid Explorer 449
folder contents 449
media 448
memory caches 449
methods 449
processed media 448
sequences 449
source media 449
timeline caches 451
push-wipe effect 242
Q
qualities, processing media 278
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
quality
bit depth 79
compression 79
media, closest match 81
media, exact match 79
resolution settings 78
video 78
video format 75
quality matching
audio 84
caches 83
video 79
quality settings
for film output 106
R
Razor tool
See Add Edit tool
real-time effects
Avid DS HD 292
defined 266
hardware-based 289
output to tape 291
performance 290
playing 291
processing 265, 269, 425
software-based 289
real-time proxy
resolution 70, 98, 104
setting 105
using 104
reconnect viewer display 316
recording audio animation 347
reference
locators 155, 197
reference clips
converting from container clips 204
creating 204
processing 205
using 204–206
reference locators, setting 178
Referenced Sequence Needs Processing message
205
region
Index
marking 138
meta curve 369
relative cycle 382
remote processing
about 293
monitoring jobs 294
removing
keyframes 367
renaming tracks 137
resolution
independence 278
proxy 98, 104
quality 78
real-time proxy 70, 98, 104
setting real-time proxy 105
working at different quality 72
restoring
complete projects 464
from multiple tapes 469
media 466
non-standard projects 460
part of project archive 467
projects 463, 466
selective restore 467
resyncing clips 202
retrieving additional material 184
reveal handles 171
revealing
activating reveal mode 172
unused frames 171
Reverb audio effect 432
reverse match frame 186
RGB 77
Ripple mode
about 191
activating 193
editing clips 195
end, setting 194
inserting clips 194
rearranging clips 162
tracks, video 192
trimming frames 223
rotoscopy 325
rough cut 115
routing audio 395
routing view 392
489
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
ruler
changing 149
changing ruler type 149
changing time scale 149
display time scale 149
setting display format 149
S
sample accurate editing 405
sample rate
conversion 418, 419
conversion, manual 420
settings 71
sample rate conversion
audio 419
manual 420
samples, displaying on ruler 149
Save As command 92
saving
sequences 90
subclips 118
sawtooth pattern, viewers 161
scanning, progressive 77
scratch pad control 138
Script Editor
activating the log file 34
setting the command log size 34
setting up the command log 33
Script view
bins 46
changing displayed frame 47
customizing 50
scripting languages
choosing 33
scrubbing 153
searching
master clips 93
sequences 93
sequence conversion mode, multiple 87
sequence preferences
about 68
audio quality matching 84
compression ratio, working 79
converting sample rates 74
490
field dominance 75
frame size 71
processing 85
video format 69
video quality matching 79
sequence timecodes
displaying 140, 143
Sequence view
accessing 151
displaying timeline 150
sequence, outputting film 106
sequences
about 28
autosave 90
building 114, 119
copying 91
creating 64
creating versions 92
creating with different settings 65
custom, memory required 65
deleting 95
importing 66
opening 63, 65
opening from Avid Explorer 66
opening from File menu 66
opening from Open Project dialog box 66
opening in workgroup 63
playing 151
playing at various speeds 154
processing 318
purging 449
renaming 41
Save As command 92
saving 90
scrubbing 153
searching 93
setting preferences 68
setting up 114
sharing in workgroup 32, 67
sifting 54
skip while playing 153
stop playing 153
versioning 92
workflow 61
setting
global locators 178
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
local locators 178
shape tracker 255
shapes
animating 254
barrier 253
copying from Morph effect 247
joining 250
Morph shapes 246
shared media, archiving 458
sharing
media between projects 67
Shortcuts view, Avid Explorer 37
shuttling
clips 154
sifted view
creating 54
loading or deleting 57
switching 56
sifting
clips and sequences 54
switching views 56
Sifting button 56
single-roller trim 237
skipped frames, fragmented media 444
sliding clips 234
Slip/Slide mode 232
accessing automatically 235
accessing manually 235
described 232
reviewing edits 237
sliding clips 234
slipping clips 234
slipping clips 233
slipping/sliding shots, Slip/Slide mode 232
slopes
changing 370
function curve 370
Snap In command 227
Snap Out command 227
snapping
edit points 227
keys 375
snapshot
curves, animation 362, 374
Snapshot to Clip command 191
Snapshot to File 190, 191
Index
Solo button 132, 397
soloing
mixer strips 397
tracks 136, 153
sorting
clips 53
clips (example) 53
source generated effects
processing 272
source media
committing caches to source 266
methods to purge 449
purging 448, 449
source timecodes, displaying 142
Source timeline, viewing 119
spline
changing slope 374
function curves 372
split-edits (overlap clips) 202, 215
split-edits (overlap edits), creating 228
square pixels 159
status bar
timecode boxes 140
stereo tracks 412
storage
for film 98, 99
storage device
viewing information about 473
streaming capture 466
strip effects 393
subclips
creating 117
overwriting 118
sifting 54
updating 118
subfolders, creating 39
submix 310, 409
surround channels 128, 405
Surround Panner view 407
sync
maintaining during trim 237
sync-locked tracks, trimming with 237
sync groups
adding to 199
breaking 200
combining 199
491
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
creating 198
cutting 202
defined 196
manipulating 200
offset 202
selecting all clip 201
synchronized clips
cutting 202
frame rate conversion for audio 419, 421
manipulating 200
moving independently 201
offset 202
synchronizing animation 369
synchronizing clips 179, 196–203
aligning 196
deleting 203
editing 202
using locators 196
sync-lock 196
unlocking 200
T
tangent slopes
broken 374
setting options 374
unified 374
tangents 363
three-button play 154
three-point editing 124
Thumbnail view
changing displayed frame 47
described 46
time effects
3:2 Contract 322
3:2 Expand 324
Deinterlace 324
described 321
Interlace 326
modifying 322
Timewarp 327–330
time scale
animation graph 358
changing, animation graph 358
time-base effects, processing 272
492
timecode
drop frame 75
working with film 99
timecode boxes
setting in and out-points 138
status bar 140
trimming with 144
Timecode view, adding timecode displays 140
timecodes
displaying 140
sequence 140
sequence, displaying 143
source 140
source, displaying 142
timeline
annotating locators 183
building sequences 114
converting to clip 189
creating image file 191
creating master clip 191
creating sequences 115
deleting locators 182
displaying different rulers 149
framing media 145
framing objects 146
in-points 137
locating locators 182
marking in and out-points 137
marking region 138
moving locators 180
moving to edit points 156
moving to marked points 155
of container clip 307
outputs 137
panning 148
parent 307
placing clips 119, 123, 126
placing multiple clips 122
placing pre-edited clips 123
processing 270
purging caches 451
ruler 149
Source 119
switching between Source and Record timelines
119
top 307
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
trimming 145
viewing Source timeline 119
visible time span 145
zooming 147
timeline controls
panning 148
zooming 147
timeline ribbon
annotating locators 183
deleting locators 182
locating locators 182
moving locators 180
placing locators on clips 179
reference locators 178
requires processing 267
yellow highlights 289
Timeline to Clip command
convert to a clip 189
creating multiple clips 189
replacing material 190
Timewarp (audio) property editor
applying effect 328
Timewarp effect 327–330
applying 328, 330, 332
audio 328
audio timezone 330
changing frame position 339
changing speed 336
changing speed based on source clips 337
Constant mode 333
constant speed 333
freezing frames 340
Hold mode 340
Input Speed mode 337
modes 331
Position mode 339
setting duration 343
Speed mode 336
variable speed 336, 337
video 331
Timezone property editor 328
top timeline 307
track controls
muting audio tracks 135
scrolling tracks 135
setting track height 134
Index
setting tracks to solo 136
show or hide 133
track effects 298
Track selector
deselecting tracks 133
muting tracks 135
scrolling tracks 135
selecting tracks 133
setting track height 134
setting tracks to solo 136
show or hide 133
tracking
morphed shapes 255, 255
tracks
adding 133
audio 129, 132, 390, 405
background 132
changing properties 136
deleting 133
deselecting 133
disabling 133
displaying details 136
enabling 133
inserting 133
mono (audio) 412
muting audio 135, 153
muting video 135
naming 137
patching 125
removing 133
reordering 134
scrolling 135
selecting 133
setting height 134
soloing 136, 153
stereo (audio) 412
sync-locked, trimming with 237
video 132
working with 132
transitions 239–263, 298–303
adjusting 230
applying between clips 301
applying one-sided 300
creating between clips 300
creating one-sided 300
Crossfade 298, 428
493
Index
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
cut 298
Dissolve 240
DVE 242
edit points 301
editing properties 302
Fade-in 298
Fade-out 298
Morph 243–259
Picture-in-Picture 259
processing 318
removing 303
selecting additional for trimming 216
trimming 230
Wipe 262
transport controls
position bar 158
trees
animation 353, 418
trim handles 209
Trim mode 210
accessing 212
defined 211
reviewing edits 214
selecting several transitions 216
trimming clips 213
trimming
adding filler 238
adjusting trim handles 225
animation 383
clips 209, 213, 230
container clips 229
edit points 220
function curves 383
intersecting edit points 222
maintaining sync 237, 237
methods 210
on the timeline 219
Ripple mode activated 223
sides, selecting 215, 228
slip and slide procedures 232
split-edits 202
timeline to media 145
transitions 230
two heads or tails 216
using timecode boxes 144
with sync-locked tracks 237
494
with trim handles 222
workflow 207
U
unpinning function curves 356
unused material
hiding 172
revealing 172
up/down convert with synced clips 421
Update Thumbnail button 47
User Preferences dialog box
opening 32
V
variable-speed play 154
verifying, media 445
versioning 28
sequences 92
video
bit depth 78, 84
clips 121, 126
clips, activeness 126
clips, placing on timeline 126
container clips See background
container clips
display 159
editing 112
format, setting 69
quality matching 79
synchronizing 196–203
timewarp 331
tracks 132
tracks, rippling 192
video format
about 75
aspect ratio 76
color space 77
drop frame 75
field dominance 76
frame size 76
non-drop frame 75
pixel ratio 76
sequence 72
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
video quality
about 78
compression 78
resolution 78
viewer
changing objects displayed 316
collapsing 159
displaying channels 317
dual 115, 116
expanding 159
floating 314
panning 159
placing clips 115
switching between single and dual 159
viewing alpha or RGB channels 317
zooming 159
viewers
overlays 161
sawtooth 161
viewing image components 317
views
animation editor 352
Avid Explorer 34
Locators 176
Mixer 391
Sequence 150
Slip/Slide 232
Surround Panner 407
Timecode 140
Trim 211
trimming 210
virtual folder 42
visible time span
changing 145
displaying clips 148
moving 146
zooming 148
volume
adjusting on mixer 394
adjusting on output strips 414
fader 394, 413
mixer 412
VST Host audio effect 432
VST plug-ins
applying 433
effect banks 433
Index
installing 433
programs 433
W
waveforms 128
Windows Event Log, viewing 59
Wipe effect 262
applying 263
workflows
animation 346
audio 387
digital intermediates 97
editing 112
processing 269
sequences 61
trimming 207
workgroups
opening project 31
opening sequences 63
sharing projects 32, 67
Y
YCbCr color space 77
yellow highlights, timeline ribbon 289
YUV color space 77
Z
zooming
animation graph 359
function curves 359
timeline 147
using visible time span 145
viewer 159
495
Index
496
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
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