Table of contents
Table of contents
Introduction
Congratulations
Safety and environment protection
Symbol glossary
Vehicle inspection guide
Instrumentation
Warning and control lights
Gauges
Climate controls
Heater only
Manual heating and air conditioning
Entertainment systems
AM/FM
AM/FM
AM/FM
AM/FM
stereo
stereo cassette
stereo cassette with CD
stereo with CD
Lights
Headlamps
Turn signal control
Interior lamps
Bulb replacement
Driver controls
Windshield wiper/washer control
Steering wheel adjustment
Power windows
Mirrors
Speed control
4
4
4
8
8
20
20
25
29
29
30
32
32
34
37
41
47
47
48
49
49
52
52
53
55
56
58
1
Table of contents
Locks and security
62
Keys
Locks
Anti-theft system
62
62
62
Seating and safety restraints
Seating
Safety restraints
Child restraints
Driving
66
71
80
88
Starting
Vehicle loading
Brakes
Air suspension
Transmission operation
88
94
95
114
117
Roadside emergencies
136
Hazard flasher switch
Fuses and relays
Jump starting
Wrecker towing
137
137
143
146
Customer assistance
150
The dispute settlement board
Utilizing the mediation/arbitration
Getting assistance outside the U.S. and Canada
Ordering additional owner’s literature
Reporting safety defects (U.S. only)
Cleaning
Cleaning your vehicle
Repairing paint chips
Underbody preservation
2
66
152
155
156
157
158
159
159
159
162
Table of contents
Maintenance and specifications
Hood
Engine oil
Battery
Air filter(s)
Fuel information
Lubricant specifications
Refill capacities
163
170
171
180
188
190
212
223
General maintenance information
229
Index
265
All rights reserved. Reproduction by any means, electronic or mechanical
including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval
system or translation in whole or part is not permitted without written
authorization from Ford Motor Company. Ford may change the contents without
notice and without incurring obligation.
Copyright © 2002 Ford Motor Company
3
Introduction
CALIFORNIA Proposition 65 Warning
WARNING: Engine exhaust, some of its constituents, and
certain vehicle components contain or emit chemicals known to
the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other
reproductive harm. In addition, certain fluids contained in vehicles and
certain products of component wear contain or emit chemicals known
to the State of California to cause cancer and birth defects or other
reproductive harm.
CONGRATULATIONS
Congratulations on acquiring your new vehicle. Please take the time to
get well acquainted with your vehicle by reading this handbook. The
more you know and understand about your vehicle the greater the safety
and pleasure you will derive from driving it.
Additional owner information is given in separate publications.
This Owner’s Guide describes every option and model variant available
and therefore some of the items covered may not apply to your
particular vehicle. Furthermore, due to printing cycles it may describe
options before they are generally available.
Remember to pass on the Owner’s Guide when reselling the vehicle. It is
an integral part of the vehicle.
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION
Warning symbols in this guide
How can you reduce the risk of personal injury and prevent possible
damage to others, your vehicle and its equipment? In this guide, answers
to such questions are contained in comments highlighted by the warning
triangle symbol. These comments should be read and observed.
Warning symbols on your vehicle
When you see this symbol, it is
imperative that you consult the
relevant section of this guide before
touching or attempting adjustment
of any kind.
4
Introduction
Protecting the environment
We must all play our part in
protecting the environment. Correct
vehicle usage and the authorized
disposal of waste cleaning and
lubrication materials are significant
steps towards this aim. Information in this respect is highlighted in this
guide with the tree symbol.
SPECIAL NOTICES
Emission warranty
The New Vehicle Limited Warranty includes Bumper-to-Bumper
Coverage, Safety Restraint Coverage, Corrosion Coverage, and 6.0L
Power Stroke Diesel Engine Coverage. In addition, your vehicle is eligible
for Emissions Defect and Emissions Performance Warranties. For a
detailed description of what is covered and what is not covered, refer to
the Warranty Guide that is provided to you along with your Owner’s
Guide.
Special instructions
For your added safety, your vehicle is fitted with sophisticated electronic
controls.
By operating other electronic equipment (e.g. mobile telephone
without exterior aerial) electromagnetic fields can occur which
can cause malfunctions of the vehicle electronics. Therefore you should
observe the instructions of the equipment manufacturers
5
Introduction
These are some of the symbols you may see on your vehicle.
Safety Alert
See Owner’s Guide
Fasten Safety Belt
Air Bag-Front
Air Bag-Side
Child Seat
Child Seat Installation
Warning
Child Seat Lower
Anchor
Child Seat Tether
Anchor
Brake System
Anti-Lock Brake System
Brake Fluid Non-Petroleum Based
Traction Control
AdvanceTrac
Master Lighting Switch
Hazard Warning Flasher
Fog Lamps-Front
Fuse Compartment
Fuel Pump Reset
Windshield Wash/Wipe
Windshield
Defrost/Demist
Rear Window
Defrost/Demist
Power Windows
Front/Rear
Power Window Lockout
6
Introduction
Child Safety Door
Lock/Unlock
Interior Luggage
Compartment Release
Symbol
Panic Alarm
Engine Oil
Engine Coolant
Engine Coolant
Temperature
Do Not Open When Hot
Battery
Avoid Smoking, Flames,
or Sparks
Battery Acid
Explosive Gas
Fan Warning
Power Steering Fluid
Maintain Correct Fluid
Level
Emission System
Engine Air Filter
Passenger Compartment
Air Filter
Jack
Check fuel cap
Low tire warning
MAX
MIN
7
Vehicle inspection guide
FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION REGULATION
Regulations such as those issued by the Federal Highway Administration
or issued pursuant to the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA),
and/or state and local laws and regulations may require additional
equipment for the way you intend to use the vehicle. It is the
responsibility of the registered owner to determine the applicability of
such laws and regulations to your intended use for the vehicle, and to
arrange for the installation of required equipment. Your dealer has
information about the availability of equipment which may be ordered for
your vehicle.
ENTERING, EXITING AND/OR CLIMBING ON THIS VEHICLE
You must be careful and deliberate to minimize the possibility of personal
injury from a slip and fall when entering, exiting and/or climbing on this
vehicle. Always use the steps and assist handles before climbing. Do not
skip any steps or assist handles. Use three point contact at all times with
at least two feet and one hand or two hands and one foot firmly placed
during all phases of entering, exiting and/or climbing. Always keep your
shoe soles and hands clean. Keep the steps and assist handles free of
snow, ice, oil, grease, substances or debris. Be sure to use extra care in
bad weather. Avoid wearing thick gloves. Always perform trailer hook-up
while standing on the ground.
Do not carry items while entering, exiting, and/or climbing. Make
sure you keep a firm grip. Always FACE the VEHICLE STEP and
HANDLE SYSTEM while climbing up and down. Do not climb behind
the cab unless you have three point contact with a step and handle
system at all times.
To be sure your vehicle is ready to operate, conduct a pre-trip inspection
at the beginning of each work period. Follow the steps listed in this
section to assure a proper vehicle inspection procedure. The pages in
this section may be produced locally and used on a regular basis.
Note: Always make sure the parking brake is applied before starting the
engine.
8
Vehicle inspection guide
Engine compartment (with engine stopped)
Engine oil level:
Use the engine oil dipstick to verify that the
engine oil level is between the FULL and ADD
marks.
Engine coolant
Look through the plastic reservoir and make
level:
sure the fluid is within the minimum and
maximum fluid level range as marked on the
reservoir. Do not remove pressure cap until
the coolant has cooled.
Power steering fluid: Verify that the fluid level is between the full
and refill marks.
Brake fluid (master Remove the master cylinder caps and inspect
cylinder):
the fluid level. The full mark is at the bottom
of the opening of the port ring.
Hydraulic clutch
Check for adequate amount of hydraulic clutch
fluid:
fluid. Fluid level should be at the step of the
reservoir; refer to Clutch fluid/linkage
adjustments in the Maintenance and
specifications chapter.
Fan, alternator,
Press belt to test that it is snug. Check for
water pump/drive
frays, cracks, loose fibers or visible signs of
belt:
wear. If it deflects more than 1.25 cm–2 cm
(1/2–3/4 inch), slippage is probably excessive.
Air compressor:
Check belts (if equipped). Same for water
pump.
Refrigerant
Check belts (if equipped). Same for water
compressor:
pump.
Any leaks:
Check for signs of fluid puddles, dripping fluid
on the ground under the engine or the
underside of the engine.
HVAC air inlet:
Check for debris, leaves, etc. that may have
collected on the HVAC air inlet grille or inside
the exterior module as this may cause reduced
system performance.
9
Vehicle inspection guide
Engine compartment (with engine stopped)
HVAC fresh air filter Periodically check the HVAC fresh air filter for
(if equipped):
cleanliness.
Exercise great caution when working on vehicle equipped with
an automatic fan clutch. The fan starts in motion only after the
engine coolant reaches a predetermined temperature or the refrigerant
pressure (if equipped with air conditioning) reaches a predetermined
setting. The fan will start at these point with no advance warning.
Never reach near, or permit objects to protrude into, the fan blade
radius while the engine is running as this could result in vehicle
damage, personal injury or death.
Engine starting (with parking brake applied)
Safety/Emergency
Prior to entering the cab, verify that the
equipment:
vehicle is equipped with spare electrical fuses
(if used), three red reflective triangles, a
properly charged and rated fire extinguisher
and wheel chocks. Walk around the vehicle
and check that all steps and grab handles,
inside and out as well as behind, are tight and
clean. Use extreme caution and a three-point
stance at all times. Check door latches for
positive closing, latching and locking.
Clutch/Gearshift:
Depress the clutch (if equipped with a manual
transmission) and verify the transmission is in
neutral before turning on the starter. Keep the
pedal depressed until the engine reaches idling
speed.
Oil pressure builds: Make sure engine oil pressure is building to
normal operating range.
10
Vehicle inspection guide
Engine starting (with parking brake applied)
Air chime sounds (if The low air pressure warning chime should
equipped with air
sound immediately after the engine starts but
compressor):
before the compressor has built up some
pressure. The low air pressure warning chime
should stop when the air pressure reaches 483
kPa (70 psi) (or more). Let the air pressure
build to governed cut-out pressure, which
should occur between 793–896 kPa (115–130
psi).
Accelerator:
Depress the accelerator and verify that it
operates smoothly without any binding or
irregular feel. Remove your foot from the
pedal and make sure the engine returns to idle
speed immediately.
Ammeter/Voltmeter: Check the gauge to see if the alternator is
charging.
Steering linkage
Check for excessive free play in the steering
free play:
linkages. The steering wheel should have less
than 5 cm (2 inches) of free play at rim of
steering wheel.
Hydraulic brake
Pump the brake pedal three times, then apply
check:
firm pressure to the pedal and hold it for five
seconds. The pedal should not move; if it does,
there may be a leak or another problem. Do
not drive the vehicle until the problem is
fixed.
Parking brake:
Check that the parking brake will hold the
vehicle by gently trying to pull forward with
the parking brake applied.
11
Vehicle inspection guide
Engine starting (with parking brake applied)
Air brake check:
Check the air brakes in the following manner
(Chock the wheels, if necessary. Push in the
parking brake and on tractors, also push in the
tractor protection valve knob):
1. Check the air compressor or governor
cut-out pressure (approximately 305 kPa [120
psi]).
2. Cut-off the engine and turn the key back to
ON, without starting the engine.
3. Without the brake pedal applied, note the
air pressure drop for one minute. It should be
less than 5 kPa (2 psi) for single vehicle and 8
kPa (3 psi) for combination vehicles.
4. Depress and hold the brake pedal with 621
kPa (90 psi) or more and make sure there is
no more than a 8 kPa (3 psi) per minute leak.
For combination vehicles, no more than 10
kPa (4 psi) per minute.
5. Step on and off the brake pedal and check
for the warning light and chime to activate
between 163-193 kPa (64–76 psi).
6. Step on and off the brake pedal and make
sure the tractor protection and parking brake
knobs pop out between 138–310 kPa (20–45
psi)
7. Restart the engine, shift to a lower gear and
gently pull against the service and parking
brakes separately to make sure they hold.
12
Vehicle inspection guide
Engine starting (with parking brake applied)
Automatic
With the engine idling (at normal operating
transmission fluid:
temperature) and the parking brake applied,
check the automatic transmission fluid. If fluid
needs to be added, place the transmission in
the appropriate gear as specified in the
transmission operator’s manual and refer to
Transmission fluid in the Maintenance and
specifications chapter.
Lights:
Steering gear:
Steering linkage:
Tow hooks:
Front of vehicle
Make sure all lights illuminate and are clean.
Make sure headlights function on both high
and low beams. Make sure reflectors are clean
and unbroken and of proper color (red on
rear, amber elsewhere). Make sure the running
lights are also clean and unbroken. Rear
running lights must be checked separately
from signal, flasher and brake lights.
Look for: missing or loose fasteners, power
steering fluid leaks and damage to power
steering hoses.
Make sure connecting links, arms and rods are
not worn or cracked; joints, sockets and boot
seals are not worn or loose and that there are
no loose or missing cotter keys, nuts or bolts.
Front and rear tow hooks should be inspected
for damage or loose mounting. This is
particularly important on vehicles where tow
hooks are frequently used.
13
Vehicle inspection guide
Spring:
Spring mount:
Shock absorber:
Front suspension
Check for missing, broken or shifted leaves or
leaves that are in contact, or nearly contacting
a tire, rim, brake drum, frame or body
components.
Check/Inspect spring hangers, bolts, bushings,
axle mounting bolts and nuts for cranks,
breaks, wear, damage, tightness and correct
component quality.
Check for cracks, leaks and missing or broken
bolts or bushings.
Note: Never apply grease to spring pads.
Do not operate the vehicle if any suspension conditions listed in
the Front suspension chart are evident. Loss of steering or
suspension could result in property damage, personal injury or death.
Hoses:
Chambers:
Slack adjuster:
Drum:
14
Front brakes
Checked for cracked, worn or frayed hoses.
Make sure all couplings are secured.
Make sure brake chambers are not cracked or
dented and that they are securely mounted.
Check for broken, loose or missing parts; the
angle between the push rod and adjuster arm
should be approximately 90 degrees when the
brakes are applied. When pulled by hand, the
push rod should not move more than
approximately 2.5 cm (one inch).
Make sure there are no cracks, dents or holes
and no loose or missing bolts. Make sure brake
linings are not worn or dangerously thin or
contaminated by lubricant.
Vehicle inspection guide
Rims:
Lug nuts:
Hub oil seal:
Oil-lubricated front
wheel bearing:
Front wheels
Check for damaged or bent rims. Rims should
not have welding repairs and no rust trails that
indicate it is loose on the wheel.
Make sure all lug nuts are present and not
loose (look for rust trails around the lug nuts).
There should be no cracks radiating from the
lug bolt holes or distortion of the bolt holes.
Check wheel hub oil seal for leaks, and if sight
glass if present, check to see that the oil level
is adequate.
If the hubcap has a transparent window, check
for proper lubrication level. If the hubcap does
not have a transparent window, remove the
rubber fill-plug and check for proper level.
If a wheel must be changed, obtain expert tire service help.
Mounting and un-mounting of tires should only be performed by
a qualified technician using necessary safety procedures and
equipment, otherwise the result could be property damage, personal
injury or death.
Fuel tank:
Leaks:
Driver/Fuel area
Make sure the fuel tank and caps are secure.
Make sure there is no damage to the tank.
Check for any leaks from the fuel tanks.
Underbody of vehicle (rear of tractor)
Driveshaft:
Make sure that the driveshaft is not bent or
cracked. Ensure all driveshaft couplings are
secure.
Exhaust system:
Make sure the outside visible parts are
securely mounted. Make sure there are no
cracks, holes or severe dents.
15
Vehicle inspection guide
Frame:
Underbody of vehicle (rear of tractor)
Check for cracks or bends in longitudinal
frame members. Make sure there are no loose,
cracked, bent, broken or missing
crossmembers or crossmember fasteners.
Maintain adequate clearance between all parts of the exhaust
system and all hoses, wires and lines for engine cooling, brake
system, fuel system, power steering system and electrical system, Heat
damage to hoses, wires or lines may cause vehicle malfunction that
could result in property damage, personal injury or death.
Air/Electric lines:
Deck plate:
Lights, reflectors:
16
Truck/Tractor
Make sure that air hoses are not cut, cracked,
chafed or worn (steel braid should not show
through). Listen for audible air leaks, Make
sure air and electrical lines are not tangled,
crimped or pinched or being dragged against
any truck/tractor parts. Electrical line
insulation should not be cut, cracked, chafed
or worn. None of the air or electrical line
should be spliced or taped. Check for
corrosion on pins and in electrical sockets to
ensure continuity and reduced heat build-up
potential.
Make sure deck plate is clean, securely bolted
to the tractor frame and clear of loose objects.
Make sure reflectors are clean and none are
missing or broken. Check for proper color (red
on rear, amber elsewhere). All running lights
should be clean, not broken and proper color.
All running lights must be check separately
from signal, flasher and brake lights.
Vehicle inspection guide
Mounting bolts:
Platform:
Safety latch:
Release arm:
Kingpin/Apron:
Springs:
Spring mounts:
Torsion, shocks:
Hoses:
Chambers:
Tractor - coupling system
Check for loose or missing mounting brackets,
clamps, bolts or nuts. Both fifth wheel and
slide mounting must be solidly attached.
Check for cracks or breaks in the platform
structure.
Make sure safety latch is engaged.
Make sure safety latch is in the engaged
position and that any safety latch is in place.
Make sure kingpin is not bent or worn. Also
make sure that the apron lies flat on the fifth
wheel skid plate and that the visible part of
the apron is not bent, worn, cracked or
broken.
Rear springs
Check for broken or shifted leaves or leaves
that are in contact, or nearly contacting a tire,
rim, brake drum, frame or body components.
Check for missing or broken leaves in the leaf
spring.
Check for cracked or broken spring hangers,
broken, missing or loose bolts, missing or
damaged bushings, broken, loose or missing
axle mounting parts.
Make sure torsion arm is not cracked, broken
or missing. Check the shock absorber for
cracks or leaks; there should be no missing or
broken mounting bolts or worn bushings.
Rear brakes
Checked for cracked, worn or frayed hoses.
Make sure all couplings are secured.
Make sure brake chambers are not cracked or
dented and that they are securely mounted.
17
Vehicle inspection guide
Slack adjuster:
Drum:
Spacers:
Rims:
Lug nuts:
Signal/Brake lights:
Lights, reflectors:
18
Rear brakes
Check for broken, loose or missing parts; the
angle between the push rod and adjuster arm
should be approximately 90 degrees when the
brakes are applied. When pulled by hand, the
push rod should not move more than
approximately 2.5 cm (one inch).
Make sure there are no cracks, dents or holes
and no loose or missing bolts. Make sure brake
linings are not worn or dangerously thin or
contaminated by lubricant.
Rear wheels
Make sure dual wheels are evenly separated
and that tires are not touching one another.
Check for damaged or bent rims. Rims should
not have welding repairs and no rust trails that
indicate it is loose on the wheel.
Make sure all lug nuts are present and not
loose (look for rust trails around the lug nuts).
There should be no cracks radiating from the
lug bolt holes or distortion of the bolt holes.
Rear of vehicle
Make sure both brake lights illuminate when
the brake pedal is applied. Also, make sure
each signal flashes. Make sure that four-way
flashers work properly.
Make sure all lights illuminate and are clean.
Make sure headlights function on both high
and low beams. Make sure reflectors are clean
and unbroken and of proper color (red on
rear, amber elsewhere). Make sure the running
lights are also clean and unbroken. Rear
running lights must be checked separately
from signal, flasher and brake lights.
Vehicle inspection guide
TRAILER
If you are operating a tractor with a trailer attached, an inspection of the
trailer similar to that of the tractor should be done. Such an inspection
should follow trailer manufacturer recommendation and should include at
a minimum: general condition, landing gear, doors, sides, light, reflectors,
suspension, brakes, tires and wheels.
TRANSMISSION
If your vehicle is equipped with an automatic transmission, have a
qualified technician regularly check the transmission’s neutral start
switch.
If the unit starts in gear and/or the neutral start switch is
defective, the vehicle may inadvertently move which could result
in property damage, personal injury or death.
Check the transmission fluid level and shift linkage for proper operation.
19
Instrumentation
WARNING LIGHTS AND CHIMES
Warning lights and gauges can alert you to a vehicle condition that may
become serious enough to cause expensive repairs. A warning light may
illuminate when a problem exists with one of your vehicle’s functions.
Many lights will illuminate when you start your vehicle to make sure the
bulb works. If any light remains on after starting the vehicle, have the
respective system inspected immediately.
Service engine soon: If this light
SERVICE
illuminates while driving, it is a
ENGINE
possible indication that one of the
SOON
engine’s emission control systems
has failed.
Check suspension (if equipped):
Illuminates when there is a fault in
the electronic subsystem of the air
suspension.
Stop engine (if equipped): This
STOP
light is used in conjunction with the
ENGINE
electronic engine control.
Refer to the Engine Operator’s Manual for specific information regarding
this feature.
If the engine shuts down, it can be restarted and operated for 30
seconds at a time or until the problem is corrected. Refer to Engine
shutdown system in the Driving chapter.
Drivers of electronically controlled engines should know the
extent of warning engine shutdown system before operating the
vehicle. This information can be obtained from your dealer.
20
Instrumentation
Brake reserve system warning
(if equipped): Illuminates to
indicate normal Hydromax booster
reserve system activation when the
engine is OFF and the service brake
pedal is applied.
BRAKE
This light may also illuminate momentarily if the engine is running and
the driver turns the steering wheel fully in one direction while braking.
If the light remains on while the engine is running, this indicates
inadequate hydraulic booster pressure or reserve pump system failure.
Stop the vehicle safely as soon as possible and seek service immediately.
Brake system warning light: To
confirm the brake system warning
light is functional, it will
momentarily illuminate when the
ignition is turned to the ON position when the engine is not running, or
in a position between ON and START, or by applying the parking brake
when the ignition is turned to the ON position. If the brake system
warning light does not illuminate at this time, seek service immediately
from your dealership. Illumination after releasing the parking brake
indicates low brake fluid level and the brake system should be inspected
immediately by your servicing dealership.
Driving a vehicle with the brake system warning light on is
dangerous. A significant decrease in braking performance may
occur. It will take you longer to stop the vehicle. Have the vehicle
checked by your dealer immediately.
Anti-lock brake system: If the
ABS light stays illuminated or
ABS
continues to flash, a malfunction has
been detected, have the system
serviced immediately. Normal
braking is still functional unless the brake warning light also is
illuminated.
21
Instrumentation
Trailer ABS brake system (if
equipped): Illuminates briefly when
the engine is powered-up and only
when a PLC trailer or a PLC
diagnostic tool is connected. If the
light remains on after the vehicle is started, continues to flash or fails to
illuminate, have the system serviced immediately.
Parking brake warning
BRAKE
(Hydraulic brakes only):
Momentarily illuminates when the
ignition is turned to the ON position
and the engine is off. Also
illuminates when the parking brake
is engaged. If the brake warning
lamp does not illuminate at these times, seek service immediately.
Safety belt: Reminds you to fasten
your safety belt. A chime will also
sound to remind you to fasten your
safety belt.
P
Check trans (Allison automatic
CHECK
transmission): The lamp will
TRANS
illuminate for several seconds after
the ignition is turned to the ON
position. Illumination of this light indicates that a problem has been
detected and shifting may be restricted. Depending upon the severity of
the problem, the read-out digit on the shifter display may be blank.
Operation may continue in order to reach service assistance. The ECU
may not respond to shift selector requests, since operating limitations
are being placed on the transmission, i.e. upshifts and downshifts may be
restricted. Direction changes will not occur.
Refer to the Transmission Operator’s Manual for more information.
22
Instrumentation
Range inhibit: Illuminates when
RANGE
the transmission is not engaged in
INHIBIT
the selected gear. The warning light
will go off when the gearshift lever
is adjusted in to the appropriate gear.
Refer to the Transmission Operator’s Manual for more information.
Charging system: Illuminates when
the battery is not charging properly.
Wait to start: Indicates the air
intake heater is in operation and
special starting procedures are
required. Refer to the Driving
chapter.
WAIT
TO
START
If equipped with an air intake heater, DO NOT use ether or any
other starting fluids. The use of starting fluids (ether) in an
engine equipped with an air intake heater could result in damage
and/or personal injury.
Water in fuel (if equipped):
WATER
During refueling it is possible for
IN
water-contaminated diesel fuel to be
FUEL
pumped into your fuel tank. Your
vehicle fuel system is equipped with
a fuel filter/water separator to remove water from the fuel. The indicator
light illuminates when the fuel filter/water separator has a significant
quantity of water, or when the ignition key is switched to the START
position. If the light illuminates when the engine is running, stop the
vehicle as soon as safely possible, shut off the engine and drain the filter
bowl. Allowing water to stay in the system could result in extensive
damage to, or failure of, the fuel injection system.
To drain the fuel filter/water separator (refer to Maintenance and
Specifications chapter for procedure). Rotate the valve at the bottom of
the filter assembly allowing water to drain from the system. Close the
valve upon completion.
Do not drain water separator while engine is running. Fuel may
ignite if separator is drained while engine is running or vehicle is
moving.
23
Instrumentation
Traction control (if equipped):
Illuminates when the traction control system is turned off.
Differential lock (if equipped):
Illuminates when the main
differential is locked (engaged).
Turn signal: Illuminates when the
left or right turn signal or the
hazard lights are turned on. If the
indicators stay on or flash faster, check for a burned out bulb.
High beams: Illuminates when the
high beam headlamps are turned on.
Key-in-ignition warning chime: Sounds when the key is left in the
ignition in the OFF/LOCK or ACC position and the driver’s door is
opened.
Headlamps on warning chime: Sounds when the headlamps or parking
lamps are on, the ignition is off (and the key is not in the ignition) and
the driver’s door is opened.
24
Instrumentation
GAUGES
Speedometer: Indicates the
current vehicle speed.
Engine coolant temperature
gauge: Indicates engine coolant
temperature. At normal operating
temperature, the needle will be in
the normal range (between “H” and
“C”). If it enters the red section,
the engine is overheating. Stop
the vehicle as soon as safely
possible, switch off the engine
and let the engine cool.
H
C
Never remove the coolant reservoir cap while the engine is
running or hot.
25
Instrumentation
Odometer: Registers the total
kilometers (miles) of the vehicle.
Trip odometer: Registers the
kilometers (miles) of individual
journeys. To reset, depress the
control.
Tachometer: Indicates the engine
speed in revolutions per minute.
Driving with your tachometer
pointer continuously at the top of
the scale may damage the engine.
2
1
DIESEL FUEL ONLY
0
Battery voltage gauge: Indicates
the battery voltage when the
ignition is in the ON position. If the
pointer moves and stays outside the
normal operating range (as
indicated by arrows), have the
vehicle’s electrical system checked
as soon as possible.
26
3
4
RPM X 1000
18
8
Instrumentation
Engine oil pressure gauge:
Indicates engine oil pressure. The
needle should stay in the normal
operating range (between “L” and
“H”). If the needle falls below the
normal range, stop the vehicle, turn
off the engine and check the engine
oil level. Add oil if needed. If the oil
level is correct, have your vehicle
checked at your dealership or by a
qualified technician.
Air filter restriction gauge:
Measures the vacuum inside the air
cleaner. The more the air cleaner is
restricted (dirty, clogged), the
higher the vacuum reading. Change
the air filter when the gauge reads
25 inches. After installation of the
new filter element, reset the gauge
to 0.
H
L
Fuel gauge: Indicates
approximately how much fuel is left
in the fuel tank (when the ignition
is in the ON position).
27
Instrumentation
Air pressure gauge and warning
buzzer (if equipped): Indicates
60
90
the amount of air pressure in the
brake system (green=primary,
PSI
red=secondary) in pounds per
120
30
square inch. When the pressure is
too low for normal brake operation
(less than 414 kPa [60 psi]) and the
0 AIR 150
ignition is turned to ON:
PRESSURE
• a warning buzzer sounds
• the warning light illuminates
All vehicles have a dual-pointer air pressure gauge to indicate the
pressure in both brake circuits.
Vehicles equipped with rear air suspension also have a dual-pointer air
pressure gauge.
Do not drive the vehicle when the low air pressure buzzer is
sounding or the warning light is lit. These warnings indicate
there is not enough air pressure for the brake or suspension system to
operate properly.
28
Climate controls
HEATER ONLY SYSTEM
1. Fan speed adjustment: Controls
the volume of air circulated in the
vehicle.
2. Air flow selections: Controls the direction of the airflow in the
vehicle. See the following for a brief description on each control.
: Distributes outside air through the instrument panel vents.
OFF
O (OFF): Outside air is shut out and the fan will not operate.
: Distributes outside air through the instrument panel vents and the
floor vents.
: Distributes outside air through the floor vents.
: Distributes outside air through the windshield defroster vents and
floor vents.
: Distributes outside air through the windshield defroster vents.
3. Temperature selection: Controls the temperature of the airflow in
the vehicle.
OPERATING TIPS
• To reduce fog build up on the windshield during humid weather, place
position.
the air flow selector in the
• To reduce humidity build up inside the vehicle during cold or warm
weather, do not drive with the air flow selector in the OFF position.
• Under normal weather conditions, do not leave the air flow selector in
OFF when the vehicle is parked. This allows the vehicle to “breathe”
using the outside air inlet vents.
• Do not put objects under the front seats that will interfere with the air
flow to the back seats.
• Remove any snow, ice or leaves from the air intake area at the base of
the windshield.
To aid in side window defogging/demisting in cold weather:
1. Select
2. Set the temperature control to full heat
3. Set the fan speed to HI
4. Direct the outer instrument panel vents towards the side windows
29
Climate controls
To increase airflow to the outer instrument panel vents, close the vents
located in the middle of the instrument panel.
Do not place objects on top of the instrument panel as these
objects may become projectiles in a collision or sudden stop.
MANUAL HEATING AND AIR
CONDITIONING SYSTEM
1. Fan speed adjustment: Controls
the volume of air circulated in the
vehicle.
2. Temperature selection: Controls the temperature of the airflow in
the vehicle.
3. Air flow selections: Controls the direction of the airflow in the
vehicle. See the following for a brief description on each control.
MAX A/C (if equipped): Uses recirculated air to cool the vehicle. Air
flows from the instrument panel vents only.
A/C (if equipped): Uses outside air to cool the vehicle. Air flows from
the instrument panel vents only.
OFF
A/C
MAX
A/C
: Distributes outside air through the instrument panel vents.
O (OFF): Outside air is shut out and the fan will not operate.
: Distributes outside air through the instrument panel vents and the
floor vents.
: Distributes outside air through the floor vents.
: Distributes outside air through the windshield defroster vents and
floor vents.
: Distributes outside air through the windshield defroster vents.
OPERATING TIPS
• To reduce fog build up on the windshield during humid weather, place
position.
the air flow selector in the
• To reduce humidity build up inside the vehicle: do not drive with the
air flow selector in the OFF or MAX A/C position.
• Under normal weather conditions, do not leave the air flow selector in
MAX A/C or OFF when the vehicle is parked. This allows the vehicle
to “breathe” using the outside air inlet vents.
30
Climate controls
• Do not put objects under the front seats that will interfere with the
airflow to the back seats.
• Remove any snow, ice or leaves from the air intake area at the base of
the windshield.
To aid in side window defogging/demisting in cold weather:
1. Select
2. Select A/C
3. Modulate the temperature control to maintain comfort.
4. Set the fan speed to HI
5. Direct the outer instrument panel vents towards the side windows
To increase airflow to the outer instrument panel vents, close the vents
located in the middle of the instrument panel.
Do not place objects on top of the instrument panel as these
objects may become projectiles in a collision or sudden stop.
31
Entertainment systems
AM/FM STEREO (IF EQUIPPED)
6
5
7
1
2
VOL
PUSH
ON
TONE
TONE VOL
ST
SEEK
DX
FM
12
TUNE
CLK
1
2
3
4
AM/FM
3
4
/
to find the
1. Seek: Press
next strong station down/up the
frequency band.
/
to manually
2. Tune: Press
change radio frequency down/up.
3. AM/FM: Press to choose a
frequency band in radio mode.
4. Memory preset buttons: To set
a station: Select frequency band
AM/FM; tune to a station, press and
hold a preset button until sound returns.
32
AM/FM
1
2
3
4
Entertainment systems
5. Power/volume: Press to turn
ON/OFF; turn to increase or
decrease volume levels.
6. Tone: Press TONE until the
desired level — Bass, Treble, Fade
appears on the display. Turn the
volume control to raise/lower the
levels, or to move the audio sound
from the right to left or the front to
back (if equipped).
7. CLK (Clock): To set the hour,
press and hold CLK until CLOCK
SET appears in the display. Press
or
SEEK to decrease
increase
the hours.
VOL
PUSH
ON
TONE
CLK
TONE
CLK
To set the minute, press and hold CLK until CLOCK set appears in the
or increase
the minutes.
display. Press TUNE to decrease
33
Entertainment systems
AM/FM STEREO CASSETTE (IF EQUIPPED)
12
13
14 15 16 17
1
2
3
4
VOL - PUSH ON
AM
CLK
ST
FM1
BASS
TREB
BAL
FADE
FM
TAPE
AMS
11
SEEK
10
SCAN
SIDE
REW
EJ
TUNE
1-2
FF
9
1
2
3
4
8
5
6
6
7
1. Balance: Press to shift sound to
the left/right speakers.
2. Fade: Press to shift sound to the
rear/front speakers.
3. CLK: To set the hour, press and
hold CLK. Then press SEEK to
or increase
the
decrease
hours.
CLK
To set the minute, press and hold CLK and press TUNE to decrease
the minutes.
or increase
34
5
Entertainment systems
TAPE
4. Tape AMS: In tape mode, press
AMS
and hold to activate Automatic
Music Search (allows you to quickly
locate the beginning of the tape selection being played or to skip to the
next selection). Then, press REW (for the beginning of the current
selection) or FF (to advance to the next selection). The tape MUST have
a blank section of at least four seconds duration between programs.
5. Side 1–2: Press to change tape
SIDE 1 - 2
direction.
6. REW (rewind): Press to rewind
the tape.
FF (fast forward): Press to
advance the tape.
REW
FF
7. Memory preset buttons: To set
a station: Select frequency band
AM/FM1/FM2; tune to a station,
press and hold a preset button until sound returns.
Dolby威 noise reduction: Works in tape mode only. Reduces tape
8.
noise and hiss; press to activate/deactivate.
9. Scan: Press SCAN to hear a brief
sampling of all listenable radio
stations or all tape selections. Press
again to stop.
10. Tune: Works in radio mode only.
/
to change
Press TUNE
frequency down/up
11. Seek: Press and
/
for previous/next
release
strong station, selection or track.
35
Entertainment systems
12. Power/volume: Press to turn
ON/OFF; turn to increase or
decrease volume levels.
13. AM/FM: Press to choose a
frequency band in radio mode.
/
to
14. Bass: Press
decrease/increase the bass output.
/
to
15. Treble: Press
decrease/increase the treble output.
16. EJ (Eject): Press to eject a
tape.
EJ
17. Cassette door: Insert a cassette into the cassette door.
36
Entertainment systems
PREMIUM AM/FM STEREO/CASSETTE/SINGLE CD (IF EQUIPPED)
1. Power/volume: Press to turn
ON/OFF; turn to increase/decrease
volume.
2. Scan: Press to hear a brief
sampling of all listenable stations,
tape selections or CD tracks. Press
again to stop.
3. CD Door: Insert a CD with the
label side up.
SCAN
37
Entertainment systems
4. Cassette door: Insert the
cassette with the opening to the
right.
5. Eject: Press to eject the
cassette/CD. The radio will resume
playing.
6. Tape: Press to start tape play.
Press to stop tape during
rewind/fast forward.
CD: Press to start CD play. With the
dual media audio, press CD to
toggle between single CD and CD
changer play (if equipped).
7. Mute: Press to MUTE playing
media; press again return to playing
media.
8. Auto: Press to set first six
strongest stations (if available) into
AM, FM1 or FM2 memory buttons;
press again to return to normal
stations.
9. Clock: Press and hold to set the
SEEK to
clock. Press the
decrease hours or SEEK
to
TUNE
increase hours. Press the
to decrease minutes or TUNE
to
increase minutes. If your vehicle has a stand alone clock this control will
not function.
38
Entertainment systems
10. Balance: Press BAL; then press
/
to shift sound to the
SEL
left/right speakers.
Fade: Press FADE; then press
/
to shift sound to the
SEL
rear/front speakers.
11. Memory preset buttons: To
set a station: Select frequency band
AM/FM, tune to a station, press and
hold a preset button until sound returns.
12. Shuffle (CD): Press to play
tracks in random order.
13. Compression (CD): Press to
bring soft and loud passages
together for a more consistent
listening level.
Dolby威 noise reduction:
14.
Works in tape mode only. Reduces
tape noise and hiss; press to
activate/deactivate.
15. Side 1–2: Works in tape mode
only. Press to play reverse side of
the tape.
16. Fast Forward (FF): Press for
a slow advance, press and hold for a
fast advance.
17. Rewind (REW): Press for a
slow rewind, press and hold for a
fast rewind.
FF
2
REW
1
39
Entertainment systems
18. Select (SEL): Use with Bass,
Treble, Balance and Fade controls.
SEL
19. Bass: Press BASS; then press
/
to decrease/increase
SEL
the bass output.
Treble: Press TREB; then press
/
to decrease/increase
SEL
the treble output.
20. Tune: Works in radio mode only.
/
to change
Press TUNE
frequency down/up.
21. Seek: Press and release
/
for previous/next
SEEK
strong station, selection or track.
SEEK
TUNE
SEEK
TUNE
22. AM/FM: Press to select
AM/FM1/FM2 frequency band.
40
Entertainment systems
PREMIUM IN-DASH SIX CD SOUND SYSTEM (IF EQUIPPED)
15 16
17
1
SHUF
DISC
TUNE
SEEK
SCAN
2
REW
FF
3
4
COMP
MUTE
5
EJ
LOAD
14
6
BASS
13
BAL
7
SEL
TREB
FADE
PUSH ON
8
AM
FM
12
CD
1
2
11
3
4
10
5
6
MENU
9
1. Seek: Press and release
/
for previous/next
SEEK
strong station, selection or track.
2. Rewind: In CD mode, press until
desired selection is reached.
Fast forward: In CD mode, press
until desired selection is reached.
3. COMP (Compression): The compression feature operates in CD mode
and brings soft and loud CD passages together for a more consistent
listening level. Press the COMP control until COMP ON is displayed.
DSP (Digital Signal Processing): Press to enter DSP mode – allows you
to engage/disengage DSP status, and choose signal modes of JAZZ CLUB,
HALL, CHURCH, STADIUM. You may also change the occupancy mode to
optimize sound for ALL SEATS, DRIVER SEAT or REAR SEAT.
41
Entertainment systems
4. Mute: Press to MUTE playing
media; press again return to playing
media
5. Eject: Press to eject a CD. Press
and hold to eject all loaded discs.
6. Bass: Press BASS; then press
/
to decrease/increase
SEL
the bass output.
Treble: Press TREB; then press
/
to decrease/increase
SEL
the treble output.
7. Select: Use with Bass, Treble,
Balance and Fade controls to adjust
levels.
8. Balance: Press BAL; then press
/
to shift sound to the
SEL
left/right speakers.
Fade: Press FADE; then press
/
to shift sound to the
SEL
rear/front speakers.
42
Entertainment systems
9. Menu: Press MENU and SEL to
access clock mode, RDS on/off,
Traffic announcement mode and
Program type mode. On Audiophile
audios, press MENU to access the compression feature. Press SEL to
turn the feature ON or OFF.
Traffic: Allows you to hear traffic broadcasts. With the feature ON, press
SEEK or SCAN to find a station broadcasting a traffic report (if it is
broadcasting RDS data).Traffic information is not available in most
U.S. markets.
FIND Program type: Allows you to search RDS-equipped stations for a
certain category of music format: Classic, Country, Info, Jazz, Oldies,
R&B, Religious, Rock, Soft, Top 40.
Show TYPE: Displays the station’s call letters and format.
Compression: Brings soft and loud CD passages together for a more
consistent listening level.
Setting the clock: Press MENU until SELECT HOUR or SELECT
) or decrease
MINUTE is displayed. Use SEL to manually increase (
) the hours/minutes. Press MENU again to disengage clock mode.
(
10. Memory presets: To set a
station: Select frequency band
AM/FM; tune to a station, press and
hold a preset button until sound
returns.
11. CD: Press to select CD mode.
12. AM/FM: Press to select AM/FM
frequency band.
Autostore: Allows you to set the
strongest local radio stations without losing your original manually set
preset stations for AM/FM1/FM2 . Press and momentarily hold AM/FM.
AUTOSTORE will flash on the display. When the six strongest stations
are filled, the station stored in preset 1 will begin playing. If there are
less than six strong stations, the system will store the last one in the
remaining presets. Press again to disengage.
43
Entertainment systems
13. Power/volume: Press to turn
ON/OFF; turn to increase or
decrease volume levels.
Automatic Volume Control (if equipped): Changes the volume
automatically and slightly with vehicle speed to compensate for road and
wind noise. The recommended level is 1–3. Level 0 turns the speed
sensitive volume off and level 7 is the maximum setting.
Press and hold the volume control for five seconds. Then, press the SEL
control to increase or decrease volume levels. The selected level will
appear in the display.
14. Load: Press to load a CD. Press
and hold to load up to six discs.
15. Shuffle: Press to play tracks in
random order.
16. Scan: Press for a brief sampling
of radio stations or CD tracks. Press
again to stop.
17. Disc tune: Radio: Press
or
to manually tune down or up
the radio frequency band.
to select the previous track or
CD: Press
on the CD.
to select the next track
RADIO FREQUENCIES
AM and FM frequencies are established by the Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) and the Canadian Radio and Telecommunications
Commission (CRTC). Those frequencies are:
AM - 530, 540–1700, 1710 kHz
FM- 87.7, 87.9–107.7, 107.9 MHz
44
Entertainment systems
RADIO RECEPTION FACTORS
There are three factors that can effect radio reception:
• Distance/strength: The further you travel from an FM station, the
weaker the signal and the weaker the reception.
• Terrain: Hills, mountains, tall buildings, power lines, electric fences,
traffic lights and thunderstorms can interfere with your reception.
• Station overload: When you pass a broadcast tower, a stronger signal
may overtake a weaker one and play while the weak station frequency
is displayed.
CASSETTE/PLAYER CARE
Do:
• Use only cassettes that are 90 minutes long or less.
• Tighten very loose tapes by inserting a finger or pencil into the hole
and turning the hub.
• Remove loose labels before inserting tapes.
• Allow tapes which have been subjected to extreme heat, humidity or
cold to reach a moderate temperature before playing.
• Clean the cassette player head with a cassette cleaning cartridge after
10–12 hours of play to maintain good sound/operation.
Don’t:
• Expose tapes to direct sunlight, extreme humidity, heat or cold.
• Leave tapes in the cassette player for a long time when not being
played.
CD/CD PLAYER CARE
Do:
• Handle discs by their edges only. Never touch the playing surface.
• Inspect discs before playing. Clean only with an approved CD cleaner
and wipe from the center out.
Don’t:
• Expose discs to direct sunlight or heat sources for extended periods
of time.
• Insert more than one disc into each slot of the CD changer magazine.
• Clean using a circular motion.
45
Entertainment systems
CD units are designed to play commercially pressed 12 cm (4.75
in) audio compact discs only. Due to technical incompatibility,
certain recordable and re-recordable compact discs may not
function correctly when used in Ford CD players. Irregular
shaped CDs, CDs with a scratch protection film attached, and CDs
with homemade paper (adhesive) labels should not be inserted
into the CD player. The label may peel and cause the CD to
become jammed. It is recommended that homemade CDs be
identified with permanent felt tip marker rather than adhesive
labels. Ball point pens may damage CDs. Please contact your
dealer for further information.
AUDIO SYSTEM WARRANTY AND SERVICE
Refer to the Warranty Guide for audio system warranty information. If
service is necessary, see your dealer or qualified technician.
46
Lights
HEADLAMP CONTROL
Turns the lamps off.
Turns on the parking lamps,
instrument panel lamps, license
plate lamps and tail lamps.
Turns the headlamps on.
High beams
Push the lever toward the
instrument panel to activate. Pull
the lever towards you to deactivate.
Flash-to-pass
Pull toward you slightly to activate
and release to deactivate.
Daytime Running Lamps (DRL) (if equipped)
Turns the headlamps on with a reduced output.
To activate:
• the ignition must be in the ON position and
• the headlamp control is in the OFF, parking lamp or autolamp position.
47
Lights
Always remember to turn on your headlamps at dusk or during
inclement weather. The Daytime Running Lamp (DRL) system
does not activate with your tail lamps and generally may not provide
adequate lighting during these conditions. Failure to activate your
headlamps under these conditions may result in a collision.
PANEL DIMMER CONTROL
Use to adjust the brightness of the
instrument panel and all applicable
switches in the vehicle during
headlamp and parklamp operation.
Move the control to the full upright
position, past detent, to turn on the
interior lamps.
Move the control to the full down
position, past detent, to prevent the
interior lights from illuminating when the doors are opened.
AIMING THE HEADLAMPS
The headlamps on your vehicle are properly aimed at the assembly plant.
If your vehicle has been in an accident the alignment of your headlamps
should be checked by a qualified service technician.
TURN SIGNAL CONTROL
• Push down to activate the left
turn signal.
• Push up to activate the right turn
signal.
48
Lights
INTERIOR LAMPS
Map lamps (if equipped)
To turn on the map lamps, press the
control next to each lamp.
EXTERIOR BULBS
Checking operation of lamps, safety equipment and warning
signals
It is a good safety practice to check operation of headlamps, parking
lamps, turn signals, clearance and marker lamps, instrument panel and
control lamps each day.
Using the right bulbs
Function
Number of
bulbs
2
2
2 (amber)
4
Trade number
2
5
1156
168
1
your dealer
105
Headlamps
Front turn signal lamps
Front sidemarker/Park lamps
Brake/Tail/Stop/Rear turn
signal/License lamps
Back-up lamps
Front clearance and identification
lamps
Dome lamp
To replace all instrument panel lights - see
4652
1157
194
2057
49
Lights
Replacing headlamp bulbs
To remove the headlamp bulbs:
1. Make sure headlamp switch is in OFF position.
2. Remove four screws and move
the parking lamp assembly away
from the headlamp bulb.
3. Remove four screws and the
retaining bracket from the headlamp
bulb.
4. Pull headlamp bulb out of the
housing, disconnect the electrical
connector and remove the headlamp
bulb.
5. To complete installation, follow
the removal procedure in reverse
order.
Replacing front parking lamp/turn signal/side marker bulbs
To remove the parking lamp/turn signal bulbs:
1. Make sure the headlamp control is in the OFF position.
50
Lights
2. Remove four screws from the
lamp assembly.
3. Carefully lower lamp assembly
and pull the bulb socket straight out
of the lamp assembly.
4. Carefully pull the bulb straight
out of the socket and push in the
new bulb.
5. To complete installation, follow
the removal procedure in reverse order.
Replacing front clearance and identification lamp bulbs
To change the cab marker bulbs:
1. Make sure the headlamp switch is
in the OFF position and then
remove the screw and lens from the
lamp assembly.
2. Carefully pull the bulb straight
out of the socket and push in the
new bulb.
3. Install lens on lamp assembly with
screw.
Replacing brake/tail/rear turn signal/back-up/license plate lamp
bulbs
The brake/tail/rear turn
signal/back-up/license plate lamp
bulbs are located in the same
portion of the tail lamp assembly.
Follow the same steps to replace
any of these bulbs:
1. Make sure the headlamp switch is
in the OFF position and then
remove the four screws and the
lamp lens from lamp assembly.
2. Carefully pull the bulb straight out of the socket and push in the new
bulb.
3. Install the lens on the lamp assembly with the four screws.
51
Driver controls
WINDSHIELD WIPER/WASHER CONTROLS
Rotate the windshield wiper control
to the desired interval, low or high
speed position.
The bars of varying length are for
intermittent wipers. When in this
position rotate the control upward
for fast intervals and downward for
slow intervals.
Push the control on the end of the
stalk to activate washer. Push and
hold for a longer wash cycle. The
washer will automatically shut off
after ten seconds of continuous use.
Windshield wiper blades
Check the wiper blades for wear at least twice a year or when they seem
less effective. Substances such as tree sap and some hot wax treatments
used by commercial car washes reduce the effectiveness of wiper blades.
Checking the wiper blades
If the wiper blades do not wipe properly, clean both the windshield and
wiper blades using undiluted windshield wiper solution or a mild
detergent. Rinse thoroughly with clean water. To avoid damaging the
blades, do not use fuel, kerosene, paint thinner or other solvents.
52
Driver controls
Changing the wiper blades
To replace the wiper blades:
1. Pull the wiper arm away from the
windshield and lock into the service
position.
2. Turn the blade at an angle from
the wiper arm. Push the lock pin
manually to release the blade and
pull the wiper blade down toward
the windshield to remove it from the
arm.
3. Attach the new wiper to the
wiper arm and press it into place
until a click is heard.
TILT STEERING
Pull the tilt steering control toward
you to move the steering wheel up
or down. Hold the control while
adjusting the wheel to the desired
position, then release the control to
lock the steering wheel in position.
53
Driver controls
Never adjust the steering wheel when the vehicle is moving.
AUXILIARY POWER POINT
Power points are designed for
accessory plugs only. Do not
POWER POINT
hang any type of accessory or
accessory bracket from the plug.
Improper use of the power point
can cause damage not covered
by your warranty.
The auxiliary power point is located
on the instrument panel.
Do not plug optional electrical accessories into the cigarette
lighter. Use the power point.
CELL PHONE USE
The use of Mobile Communications Equipment has become increasingly
important in the conduct of business and personal affairs. However,
drivers must not compromise their own or others’ safety when using
such equipment. Mobile Communications can enhance personal safety
and security when appropriately used, particularly in emergency
situations. Safety must be paramount when using mobile communications
equipment to avoid negating these benefits.
Mobile Communication Equipment includes, but is not limited to cellular
phones, pagers, portable email devices, in vehicle communications
systems, telematics devices and portable two-way radios.
A driver’s first responsibility is the safe operation of the vehicle.
The most important thing you can do to prevent a crash is to
avoid distractions and pay attention to the road. Wait until it is safe to
operate Mobile Communications Equipment.
54
Driver controls
POWER WINDOWS (IF EQUIPPED)
Press and hold the rocker switches to open and close windows.
• Press the top portion of the
rocker switch to close.
AUTO
• Press the bottom portion of the
rocker switch to open.
AUTO
One touch down
• Press AUTO completely down and
release quickly. The driver’s
window will open fully. Depress
again to stop window operation.
AUTO
55
Driver controls
Window lock (if equipped)
The window lock feature allows only
the driver to operate the power
windows.
To lock out all the window controls
except for the driver’s press the left
side of the control. Press the right side to restore the window controls.
MIRRORS
With the doors closed and the seat
adjusted for proper comfort, move
the mirrors to maximize rear
viewing area by adjusting the
western mirrors left or right as
required.
Adjust the auxiliary convex mirrors.
Convex mirrors are a ball-stud
design for precise adjustment to maximize viewing area.
Power side view mirrors (if equipped)
The ignition can be in any position to adjust the power side view mirrors.
To adjust your mirrors:
1. Select L to adjust the left mirror
or R to adjust the right mirror.
56
MIRRORS
L
R
Driver controls
2. Move the control in the direction
you wish to tilt the mirror.
MIRRORS
L
R
3. Return to the center position to lock mirrors in place.
4. Adjust spotter mirrors (if equipped) manually.
Fold-away mirrors
The mirrors can be manually folded forward or backwards for narrow
spaces like driving through an automatic car wash or backing out of a
garage with the trailer tow mirror.
The telescoping feature (if equipped) allows the mirror to extend
approximately 76 mm (3 inches). This feature is especially useful to the
driver when towing a trailer.
Heated outside mirrors (if equipped)
Both main mirrors are heated automatically to remove ice, mist and fog.
The mirrors are automatically activated when the vehicle is started.
Note: The mirrors may be hot to the touch but will not burn. This is a
normal condition.
57
Driver controls
The mirror heating elements are designed to operate regardless of the
geographic location of the vehicle. There is no switch to turn on, or
other operator involvement required other than to start the vehicle.
The spotter mirror, below the main mirror, is not heated and must be
adjusted manually.
Do not remove ice from the mirrors with a scraper or attempt to
readjust the mirror glass if it is frozen in place. These actions
could cause damage to the glass and mirrors.
SPEED CONTROL
To turn speed control on
Press CRUISE RPM. If the vehicle is
moving, speed control will be
enabled; if the vehicle is stationary,
engine RPM can be controlled.
Do not use the speed
control in heavy traffic or
on roads that are winding,
slippery, or unpaved.
To turn speed control off
• Press OFF or
• Turn off the vehicle ignition.
Once speed control is switched off,
the previously programmed engine
RPM will be erased.
Do not use the speed
control in heavy traffic or
on roads that are winding,
slippery, or unpaved.
58
CRUISE
RPM
OFF
CRUISE
RPM
OFF
Driver controls
To set a speed
Press SET +. If the vehicles is
moving, this will set the vehicle
speed. If the vehicle is stationary,
this will set the vehicle idle RPM.
SET
RESUME
If you drive up or down a steep hill, your vehicle speed may vary
momentarily slower or faster than the set speed. This is normal.
Speed control cannot reduce the vehicle speed if it increases above the
set speed on a downhill. If your vehicle speed is faster than the set
speed while driving on a downhill, you may want to shift to the next
lower gear or apply the brakes to reduce your vehicle speed.
If the vehicle speed falls below 48 km/h (30 mph) or engine RPM falls
below 1,000 RPM, your speed control will disengage. This is normal.
Pressing RESUME - will re-engage it.
Do not use the speed control in heavy traffic or on roads that
are winding, slippery, or unpaved.
To set a higher set speed
Press and hold SET +. If the vehicle
is moving, this will increase vehicle
SET
speed; if the vehicle is stationary,
this will increase engine RPM.
Release the control when the
RESUME
desired vehicle speed/engine RPM is
reached.
Press and release SET + to operate
the tap-up function. Each press will increase the set speed by 1.6 km/h
(1 mph) or engine RPM in idle mode.
59
Driver controls
To set a lower set speed
Press and hold RESUME -. If the
vehicle is moving, this will decrease
vehicle speed by 1.6 km/h (1 mph)
increments; if the vehicle is
stationary, this will decrease engine
RPM. Release the control when the
desired vehicle speed/engine RPM is
reached.
SET
RESUME
Press and release RESUME - to operate the tap-down function. Each
press will decrease the set speed by 1.6 km/h (1 mph) or engine RPM in
idle mode.
To disengage speed control
• Depress the brake pedal or
• Depress the clutch pedal (if
equipped).
Disengaging the speed control will
not erase the previously
programmed set speed or engine
RPM.
60
Driver controls
Pressing OFF will erase the
previously programmed engine RPM.
CRUISE
RPM
OFF
To return to a previously set speed
Press RESUME -. For RESUME - to
operate, the vehicle speed must be
above 48 km/h (30 mph) or engine
speed must be above 1,000 RPM.
SET
RESUME
61
Locks and security
KEYS
The key operates all locks on your vehicle. In case of loss, replacement
keys are available from your dealer.
You should always carry a second key with you in a safe place in case
you require it in an emergency.
POWER DOOR LOCKS (IF EQUIPPED)
Press U to unlock all doors and L to
lock all doors.
L
U
REMOTE ENTRY SYSTEM (IF EQUIPPED)
This device complies with part 15 of the FCC rules and with RS-210 of
Industry Canada. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) This device
must accept any interference received, including interference that may
cause undesired operation.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party
responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to
operate the equipment.
The remote entry system allows you to lock or unlock all vehicle doors
without a key.
The remote entry features only operate with the ignition in the LOCK
position.
If there is any potential remote keyless entry problem with your vehicle,
ensure ALL remote entry transmitters are brought to the dealership,
to aid in troubleshooting.
62
Locks and security
Unlocking the doors
Press this control to unlock the
driver’s door. The interior lamps will
illuminate.
Press the control a second time
within five seconds to unlock all
doors.
Locking the doors
Press this control to lock all doors.
To confirm all doors are closed and
locked, press the control a second
time within five seconds. The doors
will lock again, the horn will chirp
and the lamps will flash.
If any of the doors are ajar, the horn
will make two quick chirps,
reminding you to properly close all
doors.
Sounding a panic alarm
Press both controls to activate the
alarm. The horn will sound and the
lights will flash.
To deactivate the alarm, press both
controls again or turn the ignition to
ACC or ON.
63
Locks and security
Replacing the battery
The remote transmitter is powered by one coin type three-volt lithium
battery CR2032 or equivalent. Typical operating range will allow you to
be up to 10 meters (33 feet) away from your vehicle. A decrease in
operating range can be caused by the following factors:
• Weather conditions
• Nearby radio towers
• Structures around the vehicle
• Other vehicles parked next to the vehicle
To replace the battery:
1. Twist a thin coin between the two
halves of the transmitter near the
key ring. DO NOT TAKE THE
FRONT PART OF THE
TRANSMITTER APART.
2. Place the positive (+) side of new
battery in the same orientation.
Refer to the diagram inside the
transmitter unit.
3. Snap the two halves back
together.
Replacement of the battery will not cause the remote transmitter to
become deprogrammed from your vehicle. The remote transmitter should
operate normally after battery replacement.
Replacing lost transmitters
If a remote transmitter has been lost
and you would like to remove it
from the vehicle’s memory, or you
would like to purchase additional
remote transmitters and have them
programmed to your vehicle:
• Take all your vehicle’s
transmitters to your dealer for
programming, or
• Perform the programming
procedure yourself
64
Locks and security
Programming remote transmitters
It is necessary to have all (maximum of four — original and/or new) of
your remote transmitters available prior to beginning this procedure.
To program the transmitters yourself:
• Place the key in the ignition and
turn from 2 (LOCK) to 3 (OFF)
4
and cycle between 3 (OFF) and 4
3
(ON) eight times in rapid
5
succession (within 10 seconds)
with the eighth turn ending in the
2
4 (ON) position. The doors will
lock/unlock to confirm that
programming mode has been
1
entered.
• Within 20 seconds, program a
remote transmitter by pressing any button on a transmitter. The doors
will lock/unlock to confirm that the remote transmitter has been
programmed. (If more than 20 seconds pass before pressing a remote
transmitter button, the programming mode will exit and the procedure
will have to be repeated.)
• Repeat the previous step to program additional remote transmitters.
The doors will lock/unlock to confirm that each remote transmitter has
been programmed.
• When you have completed programming the remote transmitters, turn
the ignition to 3 (OFF) or wait 20 seconds. Again the doors will
lock/unlock to confirm programming has been completed.
Illuminated entry
The illuminated entry system will turn on the interior lights when the
remote transmitter unlock control is pressed.
The illuminated entry system will turn off the interior lights if the
ignition is turned to the ON position, or if the remote transmitter lock
control is pressed, or after 25 seconds of illumination.
The inside lights will not turn off if:
• they have been turned on with the dimmer control, or
• any door is open.
The battery save feature will turn off the interior lights 45 minutes after
the last door is closed, even if the dimmer control is on.
65
Seating and safety restraints
SEATING
Notes:
Reclining the seatback can cause an occupant to slide under the
seat’s safety belt, resulting in severe personal injuries in the
event of a collision.
Do not pile cargo higher than the seatbacks to reduce the risk of
injury in a collision or sudden stop.
Recline seat (if equipped)
Move handle to the left to move seat
forward or backward.
Rotate control to adjust seatback.
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Seating and safety restraints
Easy-Aire seat (if equipped)
Move handle to the left to move seat
forward or backward.
Rotate control to adjust seatback.
Pump handle to raise seat height.
Push handle full down to lower.
Always adjust the seat height
before fastening seatbelt.
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Seating and safety restraints
Air-Ride seat (if equipped)
Push up on the switch to raise the
seat height.
Press down on the switch to lower
the seat height.
Always adjust the seat height before fastening seatbelt.
Press up on the switch to increase
the firmness of the seatback.
Press down on the switch to reduce
the firmness of the seatback.
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Seating and safety restraints
40/20/40 split bench seat (if equipped)
• Lift the track release bar to move
the seat forward or backward.
Ensure the seat is relatched into
place.
• Pull the handle on the side of the
seat up to recline the seat.
• Push down the lever located at
the bottom of the seatback to
quickly fold the seatback forward.
Adjusting the front power seat (if equipped)
The control is located on the outboard side of the seat cushion.
Press to raise or lower the front
portion of the seat cushion.
Press to raise or lower the rear
portion of the seat cushion.
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Seating and safety restraints
Press the control to move the seat
forward, backward, up or down.
Heated seats (if equipped)
To operate the heated seats:
• Push control to activate.
• Push again to deactivate.
REAR FLIP-UP SEAT (IF EQUIPPED)
Flipping-up the seat
The rear seatback has a split 60/40
seat. Each seat cushion can be
flipped-up into the seatback
position.
1. Pull the control to release the
seat cushion.
2. Rotate the seat cushion up until it
locks into the vertical storage
position.
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Seating and safety restraints
Returning the seat to horizontal position
Always latch the vehicle seat to the floor, whether the seat is
occupied or empty. If not latched, the seat may cause injury
during a sudden stop.
Make sure the safety belts are accessible and not trapped behind
the seat when the seat is returned to its horizontal position.
1. Pull the control on the side of the seat to release the seat cushion
from its storage position.
2. Push the seat cushion down until it locks into the horizontal position.
SAFETY RESTRAINTS
Safety restraints precautions
Always drive and ride with your seatback upright and the lap
belt snug and low across the hips.
To reduce the risk of injury, make sure children sit where they
can be properly restrained.
All occupants of the vehicle, including the driver, should always
properly wear their safety belts.
Never let a passenger hold a child on his or her lap while the
vehicle is moving. The passenger cannot protect the child from
injury in a collision.
It is extremely dangerous to ride in a cargo area, inside or
outside of a vehicle. In a collision, people riding in these areas
are more likely to be seriously injured or killed. Do not allow people to
ride in any area of your vehicle that is not equipped with seats and
safety belts. Be sure everyone in your vehicle is in a seat and using a
safety belt properly.
71
Seating and safety restraints
In a rollover crash, an unbelted person is significantly more likely
to die than a person wearing a safety belt.
Each seating position in your vehicle has a specific safety belt
assembly which is made up of one buckle and one tongue that
are designed to be used as a pair. 1) Use the shoulder belt on the
outside shoulder only. Never wear the shoulder belt under the arm.
2) Never swing the safety belt around your neck over the inside
shoulder. 3) Never use a single belt for more than one person.
Combination lap and shoulder belts
1. Insert the belt tongue into the
proper buckle (the buckle closest to
the direction the tongue is coming
from) until you hear a snap and feel
it latch. Make sure the tongue is
securely fastened in the buckle.
2. To unfasten, push the release
button and remove the tongue from
the buckle.
The front and rear outboard safety restraints in the vehicle are
combination lap and shoulder belts. The front and rear seat passenger
outboard safety belts have vehicle sensitive emergency locking retractors.
72
Seating and safety restraints
Vehicle sensitive retractor
The vehicle sensitive retractor allows free shoulder belt length
adjustment to your movements and locks in response to vehicle
movement. For example, if the driver brakes suddenly or turns a corner
sharply, or the vehicle receives an impact of approximately 8 km/h
(5 mph) or more, the combination safety belts will lock to help reduce
forward movement of the driver and passengers.
Front safety belt height adjustment
SuperCab and CrewCab vehicle has safety belt height adjustments for
the driver and front passenger. Adjust the height of the shoulder belt so
the belt rests across the middle of your shoulder.
• 4–door SuperCab
73
Seating and safety restraints
• 4–door CrewCab
To lower the shoulder belt height, push the button and slide the height
adjuster down. To raise the height of the shoulder belt, slide the height
adjuster up. Pull down on the height adjuster to make sure it is locked in
place.
Position the safety belt height adjusters so that the belt rests
across the middle of your shoulder. Failure to adjust the safety
belt properly could reduce the effectiveness of the seat belt and
increase the risk of injury in a collision.
Lap belts
The front center and rear center lap belts do not adjust automatically.
The lap belt should fit snugly and as low as possible around the
hips, not across the waist.
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Seating and safety restraints
Insert the tongue into the correct
buckle (the buckle closest to the
direction the tongue is coming
from). To lengthen the belt, turn the
tongue at a right angle to the belt
and pull across your lap until it
reaches the buckle. To tighten the
belt, pull the loose end of the belt
through the tongue until it fits snugly across the hips.
Shorten and fasten the belt when
not in use.
Safety belt warning light and indicator chime
The safety belt warning light illuminates in the instrument cluster and a
chime sounds to remind the occupants to fasten their safety belts.
Conditions of operation
If...
The driver’s safety belt is not
buckled before the ignition
switch is turned to the ON
position...
The driver’s safety belt is
buckled while the indicator
light is illuminated and the
warning chime is sounding...
The driver’s safety belt is
buckled before the ignition
switch is turned to the ON
position...
Then...
The safety belt warning light
illuminates 1-2 minutes and the
warning chime sounds 4-8 seconds.
The safety belt warning light and
warning chime turn off.
The safety belt warning light and
indicator chime remain off.
75
Seating and safety restraints
BeltMinder
The BeltMinder feature is a supplemental warning to the safety belt
warning function. This feature provides additional reminders to the
driver that the driver’s safety belt is unbuckled by intermittently
sounding a chime and illuminating the safety belt warning lamp in the
instrument cluster.
If...
The driver’s safety belt is not
buckled before the vehicle has
reached at least 5 km/h (3
mph) and 1-2 minutes have
elapsed since the ignition
switch has been turned to
ON...
The driver’s safety belt is
buckled while the safety belt
indicator light is illuminated
and the safety belt warning
chime is sounding...
The driver’s safety belt is
buckled before the ignition
switch is turned to the ON
position...
Then...
The BeltMinder feature is activated the safety belt warning light
illuminates and the warning chime
sounds for 6 seconds every 30
seconds, repeating for approximately
5 minutes or until safety belt is
buckled.
The BeltMinder feature will not
activate.
The BeltMinder feature will not
activate.
The following are reasons most often given for not wearing safety belts:
(All statistics based on U.S. data)
Reasons given...
“Crashes are rare events”
“I’m not going far”
76
Consider...
36700 crashes occur every day. The
more we drive, the more we are
exposed to “rare” events, even for
good drivers. 1 in 4 of us will be
seriously injured in a crash during
our lifetime.
3 of 4 fatal crashes occur within 25
miles of home.
Seating and safety restraints
Reasons given...
“Belts are uncomfortable”
“I was in a hurry”
“Seat belts don’t work”
“Traffic is light”
“Belts wrinkle my clothes”
“The people I’m with don’t
wear belts”
“I have an air bag”
“I’d rather be thrown clear”
Consider...
We design our safety belts to enhance
comfort. If you are uncomfortable try different positions for the safety
belt upper anchorage and seatback
which should be as upright as
possible; this can improve comfort.
Prime time for an accident.
BeltMinder reminds us to take a few
seconds to buckle up.
Safety belts, when used properly,
reduce risk of death to front seat
occupants by 45% in cars, and by
60% in light trucks.
Nearly 1 of 2 deaths occur in
single-vehicle crashes, many when
no other vehicles are around.
Possibly, but a serious crash can do
much more than wrinkle your clothes,
particularly if you are unbelted.
Set the example, teen deaths occur 4
times more often in vehicles with
TWO or MORE people. Children and
younger brothers/sisters imitate
behavior they see.
Air bags offer greater protection when
used with safety belts. Frontal airbags
are not designed to inflate in rear and
side crashes or rollovers.
Not a good idea. People who are
ejected are 40 times more likely
to DIE. Safety belts help prevent
ejection, WE CAN’T “PICK OUR
CRASH”.
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Seating and safety restraints
Do not sit on top of a buckled safety belt to avoid the Belt
Minder chime. Sitting on the safety belt will increase the risk of
injury in an accident. To disable (one-time) or deactivate the Belt
Minder feature please follow the directions stated below.
One-time disable
Any time the safety belt is buckled and then unbuckled during an
ignition ON cycle, BeltMinder will be disabled for that ignition cycle only.
Deactivating/Activating the BeltMinder feature
Read steps 1 - 9 thoroughly before proceeding with the
deactivation/activation programming procedure.
The BeltMinder feature can be deactivated/activated by performing the
following procedure:
Before following the procedure, make sure that:
• The parking brake is set.
• The gearshift is in P (Park) (automatic transmission) or the neutral
position (manual transmission).
• The ignition switch is in the OFF position.
• All vehicle doors are closed.
• The driver’s safety belt is unbuckled.
• The parklamps/headlamps are in OFF position (If vehicle is equipped
with Autolamps, this will not affect the procedure).
To reduce the risk of injury, do not deactivate/activate the Belt
Minder feature while driving the vehicle.
BeltMinder activation and deactivation procedure
1. Turn the ignition switch to the RUN (or ON) position. (DO NOT
START THE ENGINE.)
2. Wait until the safety belt warning light turns off. (Approximately 1–2
minutes.)
• Steps 3–5 must be completed within 60 seconds or the procedure will
have to be repeated.
3. Buckle then unbuckle the safety belt three times, ending with the
safety belt unbuckled. This can be done before or during BeltMinder
warning activation.
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Seating and safety restraints
4. Turn on the parklamps/headlamps, turn off the parklamps/headlamps.
5. Buckle then unbuckle the safety belt three times, ending with the
safety belt unbuckled.
• After step 5 the safety belt warning light will be turned on for three
seconds.
6. Within seven seconds of the safety belt warning light turning off,
buckle then unbuckle the safety belt.
• This will disable BeltMinder if it is currently enabled, or enable
BeltMinder if it is currently disabled.
7. Confirmation of disabling BeltMinder is provided by the safety belt
warning light flashing four times per second for three seconds.
8. Confirmation of enabling BeltMinder is provided by:
• The safety belt warning light flashing four times per second for three
seconds.
• Followed by three seconds with the safety belt warning light off.
• Once again, the safety belt warning light will flash four times per
second for three seconds.
9. After receiving confirmation, the deactivation/activation procedure is
complete.
Safety belt extension assembly
If the safety belt is too short when fully extended, there is a 20 cm (8
inch) safety belt extension assembly that can be added (part number
611C22). This assembly can be obtained from your dealer at no cost.
Use only extensions manufactured by the same supplier as the safety
belt. Manufacturer identification is located at the end of the webbing on
the label. Also, use the safety belt extension only if the safety belt is too
short for you when fully extended.
Do not use extensions to change the fit of the shoulder belt
across the torso.
Safety belt maintenance
Inspect the safety belt systems periodically to make sure they work
properly and are not damaged. Inspect the safety belts to make sure
there are no nicks, tears or cuts. Replace if necessary. All safety belt
assemblies, including retractors, buckles, front seat belt buckle
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Seating and safety restraints
assemblies, buckle support assemblies (slide bar-if equipped), shoulder
belt height adjusters (if equipped), shoulder belt guide on seatback (if
equipped), child safety seat tether anchors, and attaching hardware,
should be inspected after a collision.
Ford Motor Company recommends that all safety belt assemblies
used in vehicles involved in a collision be inspected for proper
function and replaced, if necessary. Safety belt assemblies not in use
during a collision should also be inspected and replaced if either
damage or improper operation is noted.
Failure to inspect and if necessary replace the safety belt
assembly under the above conditions could result in severe
personal injuries in the event of a collision.
Refer to Interior in the Cleaning chapter.
SAFETY RESTRAINTS FOR CHILDREN
Important child restraint precautions
You are required by law to use safety restraints for children in the U.S.
and Canada. If small children (generally children who are four years old
or younger and who weigh 18 kg [40 lbs] or less) ride in your vehicle,
you must put them in safety seats made especially for children. Check
your local and state or provincial laws for specific requirements
regarding the safety of children in your vehicle. When possible, always
place children under age 12 in the rear seat of your vehicle. Accident
statistics suggest that children are safer when properly restrained in the
rear seating positions than in the front seating position.
Never let a passenger hold a child on his or her lap while the
vehicle is moving. The passenger cannot protect the child from
injury in a collision.
Always follow the instructions and warnings that come with any infant or
child restraint you might use.
Children and safety belts
If the child is the proper size, restrain the child in a safety seat.
Children who are too large for child safety seats (as specified by your
child safety seat manufacturer) should always wear safety belts.
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Seating and safety restraints
Follow all the important safety restraint precautions that apply to adult
passengers in your vehicle.
If the shoulder belt portion of a combination lap and shoulder belt can
be positioned so it does not cross or rest in front of the child’s face or
neck, the child should wear the lap and shoulder belt. Moving the child
closer to the center of the vehicle may help provide a good shoulder belt
fit.
Do not leave children, unreliable adults, or pets unattended in
your vehicle.
Safety belts and seats can become hot in a vehicle that has been
closed up in sunny weather; they could burn a small child. Check
seat covers and buckles before you place a child anywhere near them.
Child booster seats
Children outgrow a typical convertible or toddler seat when they weigh
40 pounds and are around 4 years of age. Although the lap/shoulder belt
will provide some protection, these children are still too small for
lap/shoulder belts to fit properly, which could increase the risk of serious
injury.
To improve the fit of both the lap and shoulder belt on children who
have outgrown child safety seats, Ford Motor Company recommends use
of a belt-positioning booster.
Booster seats position a child so that safety belts fit better. They lift the
child up so that the lap belt rests low across the hips and the knees
bend comfortably. Booster seats also make the shoulder belt fit better
and more comfortably for growing children.
When children should use booster seats
Children need to use booster seats from the time they outgrow the
toddler seat until they are big enough for the vehicle seat and
lap/shoulder belt to fit properly. Generally this is when they weigh about
80 lbs (about 8 to 12 years old).
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Seating and safety restraints
Booster seats should be used until you can answer YES to ALL of these
questions:
• Can the child sit all the way back
against the vehicle seat back with
knees bent comfortably at the
edge of the seat without
slouching?
• Does the lap belt rest low across the hips?
• Is the shoulder belt centered on the shoulder and chest?
• Can the child stay seated like this for the whole trip?
Types of booster seats
There are two types of belt-positioning booster seats:
• Those that are backless.
If your backless booster seat has a
removable shield, remove the
shield and use the lap/shoulder
belt. If a seating position has a
low seat back and no head
restraint, a backless booster seat
may place your child’s head (top
of ear level) above the top of the
seat. In this case, move the
backless booster to another
seating position with a higher seat back and lap/shoulder belts.
• Those with a high back.
If, with a backless booster seat,
you cannot find a seating position
that adequately supports your
child’s head, a high back booster
seat would be a better choice.
Both can be used in any vehicle in a seating position equipped with
lap/shoulder belts if your child is over 40 lbs.
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Seating and safety restraints
The shoulder belt should cross the chest, resting snugly on the center of
the shoulder. The lap belt should rest low and snug across the hips,
never up high across the stomach.
If the booster seat slides on the vehicle seat, placing a rubberized mesh
sold as shelf or carpet liner under the booster seat may improve this
condition.
The importance of shoulder belts
Using a booster without a shoulder belt increases the risk of a child’s
head hitting a hard surface in a collision. For this reason, you should
never use a booster seat with a lap belt only. It is best to use a booster
seat with lap/shoulder belts in the back seat- the safest place for children
to ride.
Follow all instructions provided by the manufacturer of the
booster seat.
Never put the shoulder belt under a child’s arm or behind the
back because it eliminates the protection for the upper part of
the body and may increase the risk of injury or death in a collision.
Never use pillows, books, or towels to boost a child. They can
slide around and increase the likelihood of injury or death in a
collision.
SAFETY SEATS FOR CHILDREN
Child and infant or child safety seats
Use a safety seat that is recommended for the size and weight of the
child. Carefully follow all of the manufacturer’s instructions with the
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Seating and safety restraints
safety seat you put in your vehicle. If you do not install and use the
safety seat properly, the child may be injured in a sudden stop or
collision.
When installing a child safety seat:
• Use the correct safety belt buckle
for that seating position.
• Insert the belt tongue into the
proper buckle until you hear a
snap and feel it latch. Make sure
the tongue is securely fastened in
the buckle.
• Keep the buckle release button
pointing up and away from the
safety seat, with the tongue
between the child seat and the
release button, to prevent
accidental unbuckling.
• Place seat back in upright position.
Ford recommends the use of a child safety seat having a top tether
strap. Install the child safety seat in a seating position which is capable
of providing a tether anchorage. For more information on top tether
straps, refer to Attaching safety seats with tether straps.
Carefully follow all of the manufacturer’s instructions included
with the safety seat you put in your vehicle. If you do not install
and use the safety seat properly, the child may be injured in a sudden
stop or collision.
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Seating and safety restraints
Installing child safety seats with combination lap and shoulder
belts
1. Position the child safety seat in a
seat with a combination lap and
shoulder belt.
Children under 12 are safer when properly restrained in the rear
seat, to the extent this is possible.
2. While holding the shoulder and
lap belt portions together, route the
tongue through the child seat
according to the child seat
manufacturer’s instructions. Be sure
the belt webbing is not twisted.
85
Seating and safety restraints
3. Buckle the seat belt. Push down
on the childseat and pull on the
shoulder portion of the belt to snug
the lap belt. Hold the lap and
shoulder belts next to the tongue
and unbuckle the belt.
4. Install a locking clip over both lap
and shoulder belt portions next to
the sliding tongue. Rebuckle the
belt. Obtain the locking clip kit (part
number FO3Z-5461248–A) at no
charge from an authorized Ford or
Lincoln-Mercury dealer.
5. Before placing the child in the seat, forcibly tilt the seat forward and
back to make sure the seat is securely held in place. To check this, grab
the seat at the belt path and attempt to move it side to side and forward
and back. There should be no more than one inch of movement for
proper installation.
6. If the child seat is not tight enough, unbuckle the seat belt, move the
tongue and locking clip to shorten the lap portion and push down hard
on the childseat while you rebuckle the belt.
7. Check to make sure the child seat is properly secured before each
use.
86
Seating and safety restraints
Attaching safety seats with tether straps
Most forward-facing child safety seats include a tether strap which goes
over the back of the set and hooks to an anchoring point. Tether straps
are available as an accessory for many older safety seats. Contact the
manufacturer of your child safety seat for information about ordering a
tether strap.
Tether anchorage hardware
A tethered seat can be installed in the front seat. Put the tether strap
over the seatback and attach it to an anchor bracket.
An anchor bracket can be installed to the inside of the back panel of
your vehicle.
The anchor bracket must be installed using the instructions provided
with the tether anchorage hardware kit.
Tether anchorage hardware kits (part number 613D74) including
instructions, may be obtained at no charge from any Ford or
Lincoln/Mercury dealer.
If you have a Super Cab or Crew Cab, Ford recommends you attach
tether safety seats in the rear seating position (if possible) with the
tether strap attached to the tether anchorage bracket as shown in the
instructions provided with the tether anchor kit.
Tighten the anchor according to specifications. Otherwise, the
safety seat may not be properly secured and the child may be
injured in a sudden stop or collision.
87
Driving
STARTING PROCEDURES
Operating precautions
• Always shift to a lower gear at high altitudes to prevent engine
smoking.
• Avoid extended and unnecessary idling.
Diesel engine vapors are combustible. Do not operate the engine
in an enclosed area. These vapors can be sucked through the air
intake system and cause an explosion which may result in severe
bodily injury and extensive property damage.
Starting the engine
1. Ensure headlamps and all accessories are turned off, the parking
brake is applied and the transmission is in the neutral position (or P
[Park] for Allison 2400 transmissions).
If your vehicle is equipped with an
WAIT
air intake heater, the heater will
TO
activate in cooler weather. If the
START
Wait to start light illuminates, do
not crank the engine until the light
goes off.
If equipped with an air intake heater, DO NOT use ether or any
other starting fluids. The use of starting fluids (ether) in an
engine equipped with an air intake heater could cause an explosion
and result in property damage and/or personal injury.
2. Do not depress the accelerator during starting the engine.
3. Start the engine.
If the engine does not start after 30 seconds of cranking, allow two
minutes for the starter to cool before trying again. Excessive cranking
may damage the starter.
88
Driving
After the engine starts:
• On some engines, the Wait to
WAIT
start light should illuminate after
TO
the engine starts. Allow the
START
engine to idle about three
minutes or until the engine
coolant temperature gauge begins to rise. Maintain idle speed until the
Wait to start light cycles off to indicate the air intake heater has shut
off (approximately six minutes). Operating the engine at higher
speeds will reduce the effectiveness of the air inlet heater.
• Do not increase engine speed
until the oil pressure gauge
indicates normal pressure.
H
• Ensure engine oil pressure is
indicated on the gauge within 15
seconds after starting.
• Idle the engine for three to five
L
minutes before operating with a
full load.
• Try to limit engine idle to 10 minutes. Excessive idling reduces fuel
economy.
• When starting a cold engine, increase the engine speed (RPM) slowly
to make sure adequate lubrication is available to the bearings.
Restarting after running out of fuel
The fuel system may need to be purged of air, refer to Running out of
fuel in the Maintenance and specifications chapter.
Cold weather operation
Do not use volatile starting aids such as ether, propane or
gasoline in the engine air intake system. Glow plugs may ignite
vapors which can cause engine damage or personal injury.
In order to operate the engine in temperatures of 0°C (32°F) or lower,
read the following instructions:
• Make sure that the batteries are of sufficient size and are fully
charged. Check other electrical components to make sure they’re in
optimum condition.
• Use a permanent-type engine coolant solution to protect the engine
against damage from freezing.
89
Driving
• If your vehicle is equipped with a water-fuel separator, drain it daily.
Fill the fuel tank at the end of daily operation to prevent condensation
in the fuel system.
• Make sure you use proper cold weather engine oil and that it is at its
proper level.
• At temperatures of –20°C (–4°F) or below, it is recommended that you
use a crankcase-mounted coolant heater to improve cold engine
starting.
• If operating in arctic temperatures of –29°C (-20°F) or lower, consult
your truck dealer for information about special cold weather
equipment and precautions.
Note: Idling in cold weather will not heat the engine to its normal
operating temperature. Long periods of idling in cold weather can cause
a buildup of heavy deposits of carbon and rust on valve stems causing
them to stick which, in turn, can cause valvetrain damage.
The following cold weather idling guidelines must be followed:
• Avoid idling the engine for more than 10 minutes at a time.
• Use a minimum of 45 Cetane Diesel fuel or use Cetane Index
improvers from a reputable manufacturer.
• Maintain a minimum idle of 1250 RPM by using the hand throttle.
Always make sure that the parking brake is applied and the
transmission is in neutral before applying the hand throttle.
• Maintain the engine cooling system properly.
• Do not shut the engine down after an extensive idling period (10
minutes or more). Drive the vehicle under load for several miles at
normal operating temperatures to burn off any accumulated carbon
and varnish.
• Consider using and engine block heater, approved winter fronts and/or
radiator shutters where conditions warrant.
Winter fronts
The use of winter fronts, or other air-restrictive devices mounted in front
of the radiator on vehicles with chassis-mounted charge air coolers, are
not recommended unless extremely cold weather conditions exist. Air
flow restriction can cause high exhaust temperatures, power loss,
excessive fan usage and a reduction in fuel economy. If you insist on
using a winter front, the device should have a permanent opening of at
least 774 sq. cm (120 sq in.) directly in line with the fan hub.
90
Driving
Hot weather operation
• Keep the engine cooling system filled with a clean, permanent coolant
solution to protect against damage from overheating.
• Fill the fuel tank at the end of daily operation to prevent condensation
in the fuel system.
• Keep external surfaces of the engine, radiator, charge air cooler, A/C
condenser and accessories clean to avoid dirt build-up.
Above normal coolant temperatures could be experienced while driving
in a transmission gear ratio which lugs the engine. To correct this
problem, engine speed should be increased by downshifting in to the
next lower gear to increase engine RPM.
Starting a turbocharged engine with the vehicle on a steep grade
When starting a naturally aspirated Diesel engine when the loaded
vehicle is on a grade, the engine RPM will start to fall slightly when the
clutch is engaged, but quickly recovers as the vehicle begins moving.
Turbocharged Diesel engines act differently; once the clutch is engaged,
the engine RPM will fall significantly. When the engine RPM first falls, do
not disengage the clutch and try to increase engine RPM as this may
damage driveline components. After the initial drop in engine RPM, the
engine will recover by itself and accelerate in a normal manner.
Engine shutdown
Allow the engine to idle for three to five minutes before shutting it
down. The larger the engine, the greater the need for this idling period.
Engine automatic shutdown warning light or chime
Your vehicle may be equipped with an automatic shutdown feature that
stops the engine in the event of high coolant temperature, low engine oil
pressure or low engine coolant level. A warning light in the instrument
cluster and a warning chime will indicate high engine coolant
temperature or low engine oil pressure. If the temperature and/or
pressure becomes too high or too low, the engine will automatically shut
down.
91
Driving
Vehicles are equipped with an
override feature that allows the
operator to restart the engine so the
vehicle can be moved; the engine
should not be operated any longer
than necessary. A decal located in
front of the operator provides
instructions on how the override
should be operated.
SHDN
OVRD
Do not attempt to use this restarting feature to drive the vehicle very far
as serious engine damage could result.
In the event of engine shutdown, make sure the vehicle is safely
off the road and the problem is remedied prior to returning to
the road. Failure to remove the vehicle from the road could result in
an accident, causing serious injury or death.
GENERAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
• Start the vehicle in motion by using the highest gear gear speed in the
transmission that will let the engine easily start the load without
slipping the clutch.
• Accelerate smoothly and evenly; rapid acceleration increases fuel
consumption without increasing engine performance.
• When approaching a hill, depress the accelerator smoothly to start the
incline at full power, then shift down as needed to maintain vehicle
speed.
• When going down a hill, or long steep grades, prevent over-speeding
of the engine. The engine governor has no control over engine speed
when it is being pushed by a loaded vehicle.
• Operate in a gear that will permit an engine speed not in excess of the
maximum governed speed or high-idle RPM (no load).
All vehicles have blind spots. To reduce the risk of severe injury
or property damage, never move your vehicle to the side or rear
or change lanes without being sure your way is clear on both sides and
to your rear.
92
Driving
Backing up
To reduce the risk of the possibility of personal injury while
backing the vehicle, always be sure your vehicle’s path is clear.
Before backing your vehicle, be sure you can do so safely. If anything
behind the cab limits your view, do not rely on mirrors alone to assure
that your intended path is clear. If other people are in the vicinity, have
someone standing well behind your vehicle and outside of your intended
path (visible through an exterior mirror) guide you as you back up.
Although OSHA or some governmental regulations may require the use
of an electrical or mechanical back-up alarm to warn bystanders, such an
alarm does not assure that the intended path is clear.
If an electrical back-up alarm is installed, it should be connected to the
back-up lamp circuit.
Parking your vehicle
Always use the parking brake. When parking on a grade, block the
wheels and turn the front wheels to one side.
When parking your vehicle, do not leave the transmission in
gear; if the key is in the ON position and the vehicle rolls, then
engine could start. Failure to follow these instructions could result in
an unattended vehicle moving, possibly causing personal injury or
property damage.
Driving through water
If driving through deep or standing water is unavoidable, proceed very
slowly especially if the depth is not known. Never drive through water
that is higher than the bottom of the hubs (for trucks) or the bottom of
the wheel rims (for cars). Traction or brake capability may be limited
and your vehicle may stall. Water may also enter your engine’s air intake
and severely damage your engine.
Once through the water, always dry the brakes by moving your vehicle
slowly while applying light pressure on the brake pedal. Wet brakes do
not stop the vehicle as quickly as dry brakes. Driving through deep
water where the transmission vent tube is submerged may allow
water into the transmission and cause internal transmission
damage.
93
Driving
Maximum vehicle loading
Every vehicle manufactured by Ford Motor Company is supplied with
information on the Vehicle Rating Decal listing the maximum loading for
the vehicle (GVWR), and its axle systems (GAWR) at the tire to ground
interface.
• U.S.
• Canada
94
Driving
Under no circumstances should your vehicle be loaded in excess of the
GVWR or GAWR. It is the operator’s responsibility to assure that neither
the axle capacities, spring capacities, tire capacities nor the vehicle rated
GVWR is exceeded. For tire capacities, refer to Maintenance and
specifications chapter.
Unloaded or lightly loaded vehicles
The braking system has been designed to safely stop your vehicle when
fully loaded to its GVWR.
When operating empty or lightly loaded, sudden or hard braking
may induce wheel lockup with loss of vehicle control and the
possibility of accident and serious injury, especially on wet or slippery
road surfaces.
HYDRAULIC BRAKES (IF EQUIPPED)
Your service brakes are self-adjusting. Refer to the General
Maintenance Information for scheduled maintenance.
Occasional brake noise is normal and often does not indicate a performance
concern with the vehicle’s brake system. In normal operation, automotive
brake systems may emit occasional or intermittent squeal or groan noises
when the brakes are applied. Such noises are usually heard during the first
few brake applications in the morning; however, they may be heard at any
time while braking and can be aggravated by environmental conditions
such as cold, heat, moisture, road dust, salt or mud. If a “metal-to-metal,”
“continuous grinding” or “continuous squeal” sound is present while
braking, the brake linings may be worn-out and should be inspected by a
qualified service technician.
If you are driving down a long or steep hill, shift to a lower gear.
Do not apply your brakes continuously, as they may overheat
and become less effective.
IF BRAKES DO NOT GRIP WELL
• If you have been driving through deep water, gently apply the brakes
several times while the vehicle is moving slowly.
• Let the brakes cool if you have been using them excessively, as in
mountain driving or after several fast, high speed stops.
• Check brake adjustment.
• Check brake linings for excessive wear.
95
Driving
Hydraulic brake booster system (Hydromax)
The Hydromax systems receive fluid pressure from the power steering
pump to provide power assist during braking.
The Hydromax booster receives backup pressure from the reserve
system electric pump whenever the fluid in the power steering system is
not flowing. When the engine is OFF, the pump will turn on if the brake
pedal is applied, or if the ignition is turned to the ON position.
The sound of the pump operating may be heard by the driver, but this is
a normal characteristic of the system.
The reserve system provides reduced braking power, so the vehicle
should be operated under these conditions with caution, and only to seek
service repair and remove the vehicle from the roadway.
For Hydromax, under normal operating conditions noise of the fluid
flowing through the booster may be heard whenever the brake is applied.
This condition is normal. Vehicle service is not required.
If braking performance or pedal response becomes very poor, even when
the pedal is strongly applied, this may indicate the presence of air in the
hydraulic system or fluid leakage. Stop the vehicle safely as soon as
possible and seek service immediately.
If the red BRAKE warning lamp in
the instrument cluster remains
illuminated after engine start up,
this indicates a system failure in the
master cylinder of the brake system. Stop the vehicle safely as soon as
possible and seek service immediately.
If the yellow BRAKE RESERVE
BRAKE
(E-motor) warning light remains on
while the engine is running, this
indicates inadequate hydraulic
booster pressure or reserve pump
system failure. Stop the vehicle safely as soon as possible and seek
service immediately.
96
Driving
Parking brake
Apply the parking brake whenever
the vehicle is parked. To set the
parking brake, pull handle up until it
snaps into the locked position.
When the parking brake is out of
adjustment, seek service
immediately.
The parking BRAKE warning lamp
in the instrument cluster illuminates
and remains illuminated (when the
ignition is turned ON) until the
parking brake is released.
BRAKE
P
Do not use the gearshift selector in place of the parking brake.
Always set the parking brake fully AND make sure the gearshift
selector is in R (Reverse) for vehicles equipped with manual
transmission, P (Park) (if equipped) or N (Neutral) for vehicles with
automatic transmission. Use of wheel chocks is also recommended in
hilly or off-road usage.
Unexpected and possible sudden vehicle movement may occur if
these precautions are not taken.
97
Driving
The parking brake is not recommended to stop a moving vehicle.
However, if the normal brakes fail, the parking brake can be used to stop
your vehicle in an emergency. Since the parking brake only applies
retardation to the rear wheels, the vehicle’s stopping distance will
increase greatly and the handling of your vehicle will be adversely
affected.
Push the palm release lever on the
parking brake handle and push
down as far as possible to release
the brake. Driving with the parking
brake on will cause the brakes to
wear out quickly and reduce fuel
economy.
Burnish procedure
For optimal performance of a new parking brake system/new linings
perform the following procedure:
1. While driving the vehicle at 16 km/h (10 mph) apply the parking brake
(with applicable force to set to approximately 18 kg [40 lbs]). Allow the
vehicle to come to a complete stop.
2. Release the parking brake, drive 16.8 km (1.5 miles) to cool the
brakes.
3. Repeat steps 1 through 2 ten times.
98
Driving
AIR BRAKES (IF EQUIPPED)
Foot service brakes
Air brakes are operated by a
standard dash-mounted foot pedal.
All standard equipment brakes are
designed to be self-adjusting.
Automatic adjustment, when
required, occurs whenever the
brakes are applied and released
during forward or reverse operation.
Know the required stopping
distances for all driving conditions
that may be encountered. For longer brake lining life, take full advantage
of engine braking power when coming to a stop.
Before descending a long or steep hill, shift to a lower gear and avoid
continuous application of the brakes.
Do not drive with your foot resting on the brake pedal. This will
result in abnormally high brake temperatures, excessive lining
wear and increased stopping distances.
Continuous application of the brakes will cause the brakes to
overheat, resulting in a temporary loss of braking.
Occasional or intermittent brake squeal may result from environmental
conditions such as cold, hot, wet, snow, salt, mud, etc. This condition will
not affect braking effectiveness. The brakes should be checked only if
squeal occurs continuously with every application.
If brakes do not grip well
• If you have been driving through deep water, gently apply the brakes
several times while the vehicle is moving slowly.
• Let the brakes cool if you have been using them excessively, as in
mountain driving or after several fast, high speed stops.
• Check brake adjustment.
• Check brake linings for excessive wear.
• Check system air pressure.
99
Driving
Air brake reservoir draining
Failure to drain air brake reservoirs can result in a reduction or
loss of braking ability due to fluid accumulation in the reservoir
and/or possible freeze-up during cold weather.
Drain all the air brake reservoirs
daily, completely to 0 kPa/psi, by
opening the draincock at the ends
of the tanks (where accessible.
Pull-chains are used when the
drains are undercab or otherwise
inaccessible). Close draincock after
complete draining. Air tanks
equipped with automatic moisture
ejector valves may also be drained
manually as required to maintain a
dry air system. Contact your dealer if you are unsure of the air reservoir
locations or the draining procedure.
Air brakes
After starting the engine, give the air compressor time to build up the air
pressure to 414 kPa (60 psi) before moving the vehicle.
Do not drive or continue to drive if the low air pressure buzzer
is sounding or the brake warning light is lit. These warnings
indicate that air pressure is not to normal operating level. Continued
use of the vehicle could result in loss of braking ability.
Avoid repeated light application of the brake pedal. This will
deplete air pressure faster and could result in loss of braking
capability.
100
Driving
Periodically check the air pressure
gauge while driving. Pressure should
range between approximately 724 to
930 kPa (105-135 psi). The air
compressor governor cut-in and
cut-out pressure settings are preset
at the factory and are not
adjustable.
60
90
PSI
30
120
0
150
AIR
PRESSURE
When air pressure is insufficient
(below 414 kPa [60 psi]), a warning
light illuminates and a buzzer
sounds when the ignition is in the
ON position.
This condition may be caused by excessive brake applications depleting
the system air pressure. If this condition occurs, stop driving the vehicle
until the compressor has fully recharged the air system.
Do not move the vehicle in this condition because the brake
system may be inoperative.
Select a gear ratio to help slow your vehicle before descending grades.
Supplement with brakes as required to safely slow the vehicle and avoid
overspeeding the engine.
Air chamber stroke indication
Air chamber push rods have orange stroke indicator stripes that alert the
operator when the braking system requires adjustment or repair. The
orange stripe is painted on the air chamber push rod at the slack
adjuster readjustment stroke dimension.
Air brake inspection and adjustment should be performed by a qualified
service technician in accordance with the instructions in the service
manual.
101
Driving
Cam brakes - automatic slack adjusters
Standard air brakes (cam) are
equipped with automatic brake
adjusters. Automatic adjustment
occurs during brake applications.
Inspect brakes for proper
adjustment at the intervals listed in
the vehicle Service Maintenance
Guide.
Emergency air brake
All vehicles are equipped with a dual brake system. In the unlikely event
of a failure of one system, the second system will function for emergency
stopping. These systems are all controlled by the brake pedal in the
same manner as for normal stops.
Do not continue to operate the vehicle with a failure of one of
the systems. Take the vehicle to your dealer for service
immediately.
Parking brake
Do not use the gearshift selector in place of the parking brake.
Always set the parking brake fully AND make sure the gearshift
selector is in R (Reverse) for vehicles equipped with manual
transmission or N (Neutral) for vehicles with automatic transmission.
Unexpected and possible sudden vehicle movement may occur if
these precautions are not taken.
If the service brakes should fail to operate while the vehicle is in motion,
you can make an emergency stop with the parking brake. The stopping
distance, however, will be much greater than normal. Repairs should be
made immediately to an inoperative air brake system circuit.
102
LL
PU
PARKING
RE
TO
LE
AS
E
BRAKE
SH
PU
This control is used for
parking only. Do not leave
the vehicle unattended after
setting the parking brake without
placing the transmission in R
(Reverse) for manual transmission
or N (Neutral) for automatic
transmission. Use of wheel chocks
is also recommended in hilly or
off-road usage.
Y
PL
AP
Parking brake control (knob)
Pull the yellow parking brake knob
out to apply the parking brake. Push
the knob in to release the parking
brake.
TO
Driving
Parking brake control (lever)
To engage the parking brake, depress the brake pedal, squeeze the
parking brake handle, then pull the park brake handle up.
Note: The parking brake handle should not be allowed to snap up to the
released position. The operator should always maintain manual control of
the handle.
To release the parking brake, place the transmission in neutral (with the
engine running to ensure hydraulic park brake assist), then depress the
brake pedal, squeeze the parking brake handle, then push the park brake
handle down.
Note: Rapid release of the handle, or forced release of the handle can
cause the parking brake cable to kink at the handle. This may result in
early cable failure.
A failed parking brake cable can result in vehicle rollaway which
can cause property damage, personal injury and/or death.
Note: Should the handle not travel to the fully released position, don’t
force it; this condition indicates that there is an obstruction at the brake
end or a restriction within the cable housing. Check for any corrosion,
ice, snow or cable damage in the cable housing which may prevent full
release of the parking brake shoes. Any restriction in the parking brake
cable must be removed to prevent cable damage.
103
Driving
If the parking brake does not hold the vehicle stationary, a linkage
adjustment and/or the internal park brake adjustment must be
performed. These procedures should only be done by a qualified
technician.
Releasing spring brake with air pressure
The air system in all vehicles with spring-actuated rear wheel parking
brakes is equipped with a tank valve located on the supply or service air
tank for connection to an outside air supply. The valve permits the
system to be recharged with air from an outside source, releasing the
spring-actuated parking brakes. The vehicle may then be towed in an
emergency.
An outside air source can be used only if the protected system is in
operating condition. If air pressure cannot be restored in the protected
air system, the spring-actuated brakes must be released manually.
Releasing spring brake manually
Do not attempt to disassemble the parking brake chamber under
any circumstances. The high spring load may cause serious
injury if the chamber clamps are removed.
If air pressure is released from the spring brake chamber the power
spring applies the brake and, unless air pressure can be re-established,
the spring brake must be released as follows in order to move the
vehicle.
Block the wheels to prevent the vehicle from moving.
Unexpected and possibly sudden vehicle movement may occur if
these precautions are not taken.
Impact wrenches should not be used as they may damage the piston and
prevent proper caging of the spring. Do not apply more than 68 Nm (50
lb-ft) torque to the release bolt nut.
104
Driving
1. Remove the stud tool and nut
from the carrying pocket on the
brake chamber assembly.
2. Remove the access plug from the
end of the spring chamber.
3. Insert the release stud through
the opening in the chamber and into
the spring pressure plate.
4. Turn the release stud one-quarter
turn to engage the stud tangs with
the slot in the pressure plate. Keep
the stud engaged and install the nut
on the release stud.
5. Tighten the nut until the spring is
fully caged and the brakes are
released. Do not loosen or remove
the release stud and nut unless the brake chamber is completely
assembled and is securely clamped.
6. When the air pressure is restored, unscrew and remove the release
stud and install in the carrying pocket. Install the access plug.
Exhaust brake (if equipped)
An exhaust brake is an optional
auxiliary braking system that assists,
but does not replace, the primary
service brake system. An on-off
switch on the instrument panel, in
combination with the accelerator
and clutch pedal switches, allows
the operator to make maximum use
of the exhaust brake in the
following conditions:
• off-highway driving
• mountain driving
• heavy traffic
• high speed highway driving
It is not available with automatic transmissions.
105
Driving
The exhaust brake is a butterfly
type valve mounted in the exhaust
pipe. When the operator’s foot is not
on the accelerator pedal and the
exhaust brake switch is in the ON
position, an air cylinder shuts the
butterfly valve, restricting the flow
of exhaust gases and retarding the
engine. This retarding action is
carried through the engine and drivetrain, slowing the vehicle and
reducing the need for frequent service brake applications.
Exhaust brakes are not intended for use as the primary braking system
during vehicle operation.
Operation
Push the rocker switch up to turn
the exhaust brake on. The switch
will illuminate in the ON position.
Push the switch down to turn the
brake off.
Starting engine
Before starting the engine, make sure that the exhaust brake switch is in
the OFF position. Do not turn the exhaust brake on until the engine has
reached normal operating temperatures.
Driving downhill
While approaching a steep grade, make sure that the exhaust brake
switch is in the ON position. The exhaust brake actuates as soon as you
remove your foot from the accelerator pedal. While going down the
grade, use a low enough gear to descend safely with a minimum
application of the service brakes. As a general guideline, use the same
gear as you would to ascend the hill.
Before descending a hill or steep grade always select the proper gear. If
the transmission is taken out of gear while descending it is possible that
you will not be able to select another gear because of maximum RPM
being governed.
106
Driving
Make sure the engine speed does not exceed the maximum allowable
engine RPM. Exceeding the maximum allowable engine RPM will result
in damage to the engine. Apply the service brakes to reduce the engine
RPM or make a slower descent by using a lower gear.
The exhaust brake is not recommended for use on slippery or
low traction road surfaces. Under these conditions a loss of
vehicle control could occur.
Exhaust brake operating characteristics
When you remove your feet from both the accelerator and clutch pedals
and the exhaust brake switch is in the ON position, the exhaust brake is
activated. The following conditions should exist if the brake is operating
properly:
• A slight change in the sound of the engine when the exhaust brake is
activated.
• Exhaust smoke appears normal.
• Engine temperature remains in the normal operating range.
• Road speed usually decreases when the exhaust brake is applied
during a descent, except when the vehicle is carrying a heavy load or
the grade is extremely steep. In these instances, you may need to
apply the service brakes occasionally.
• During a descent, the tachometer usually shows a drop in RPM
depending on the grade and the vehicle load.
• Do not expect a retarding effect similar to sudden hard application of
the service brakes. The exhaust brake retards the vehicle with a
smooth braking effect.
• Depending on the grade and vehicle load, you may or may not feel the
retarding force acting against your body when the brake is applied.
The brake’s retarding force is actually preventing the vehicle from
going much faster.
Make sure the exhaust brake is turned off before shutting off the engine.
Note: Installing an exhaust or auxiliary brake should never allow the
engine to exceed maximum governed speeds under any conditions.
107
Driving
Trailer brake hand control
The hand control, located on the
right-hand side of the instrument
panel, is used to apply the trailer
service brakes which are
independent of the tractor service
brakes.
The hand control should never be used to apply the brakes when
the tractor and trailer are parked unattended. Air may leak from
the system and the vehicle could possibly move, resulting in possible
property damage, personal injury or death.
The hand control operates a valve that provides gradual control of air
pressure applied; when the valve is only partially applied, the trailer
brakes can be overridden by pressing fully on the brake pedal.
To apply the trailer brakes using the hand control, move the lever
downward. The further the lever is pushed downward, the greater the air
pressure is applied to the brakes. The lever will remain in place until
manually moved.
To release the trailer brakes, move the lever upward completely.
Trailer air supply and parking brake modular controls
PU
LL
TO
EV
AC
UA
TE
TRAILER
AIR SUPPLY
PP
TO
SU
SH
LY
NOT FOR PARKING
PU
The trailer air supply valve delivers air to the trailer supply and will
automatically pop out, shutting off the trailer supply if pressure is
decreased to approximately 249 kPa (35 psi).
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Driving
The parking brake controls the spring brakes on the tractor. When the
knob is pulled out it causes the trailer supply valve to pop out, applying
both the tractor and trailer parking brakes. The trailer brakes may be
independently released by pushing only the trailer air supply valve in.
1
1
2
2
Initial charge
1
2
With the air system completely discharged, both knobs (1 and 2) will be
out. When the air pressure reaches 483 kPa (70 psi) the trailer air
supply (1 – red knob) may be pushed in and should stay in charging the
trailer air system and releasing the trailer brakes.
The parking brake (2–yellow knob) can now be pushed in and supply air
to the tractor spring brakes, releasing them.
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Driving
1
2
Normal driving position
With both knobs pushed in, air is then supplied to both trailer and
tractor spring brakes, and all brakes are released.
2
1
2
1
1
2
System park
With both knobs pushed in (normal driving position), the parking brakes
for both the tractor and trailer can be applied by pulling the parking
brake knob (2) out, exhausting air from the tractor spring brakes,
simultaneously causing the trailer air supply valve to pop out, applying
the trailer brakes.
110
Driving
1
1
2
2
Trailer charge
If both knobs are out, and you want to recharge the trailer while leaving
the tractor spring brakes applied, the trailer air supply (1) can be
pushed in the recharge the trailer air supply line. This mode may also be
used to park a combination vehicle with tractor spring brakes.
1
2
Automatic application
If both knobs are pushed in and the brake system air pressure is reduced
to approximately 249 kPa (35 psi), the trailer air supply (1) knob will
automatically pop out applying the emergency or parking brakes on the
trailer. If the trailer air supply (1) knob is manually held in and the air
pressure is reduced to approximately 207 kPa (30 psi), a tripper piston
within the valve will move, exhausting the trailer air supply, applying the
trailer brakes. Further reduction of air pressure, while holding the trailer
air supply knob in, will cause the parking brake knob to pop out at 172
kPa (25 psi).
111
Driving
1
2
Actuation of trailer park (emergency) or tractor bobtail position
To actuate the trailer brakes only, pull out the trailer air supply knob (1).
The trailer brakes are now applied whether emergency or spring brakes
are used on the trailer.
This mode is also used when the tractor is used during bobtail operation.
ANTI-LOCK BRAKE SYSTEM (ABS)
Four-wheel anti-lock brake system (ABS)
A noise from the hydraulic pump motor and pulsation in the pedal may
be observed during ABS braking events. Pedal pulsation coupled with
noise while braking under panic conditions or on loose gravel, bumps,
wet or snowy roads is normal and indicates proper functioning of the
vehicle’s ABS. If the vehicle has continuous vibration or shudder in the
steering wheel while braking, the vehicle should be inspected by a
qualified service technician.
The ABS operates by detecting the
onset of wheel lockup during brake
applications and compensating for
this tendency. The wheels are
prevented from locking even when
the brakes are firmly applied. The
accompanying illustration depicts
the advantage of an ABS equipped
vehicle (on bottom) to a non-ABS
equipped vehicle (on top) during hard braking with loss of front braking
traction.
ABS warning lamp
The ABS warning lamp in the instrument cluster momentarily illuminates
when the ignition is turned on and the engine is off. If the light does not
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Driving
illuminate momentarily at start up, remains on after the vehicle reaches
10 to 15 km/h (5 to 10 mph), or continues to flash, the ABS needs to be
serviced.
With the ABS light on, the anti-lock brake system is disabled and normal
braking is still effective unless the brake warning light also remains
illuminated. (If your parking brake warning lamp illuminates, have your
vehicle serviced immediately).
Using ABS
• In an emergency or when maximum efficiency from the ABS is
required, apply continuous full force on the brake. The ABS will be
activated immediately, thus allowing you to retain full steering control
of your vehicle and, providing there is sufficient space, will enable you
to avoid obstacles and bring the vehicle to a controlled stop.
• The ABS does not decrease the time necessary to apply the brakes or
always reduce stopping distance. Always leave enough room between
your vehicle and the vehicle in front of you to stop.
• We recommend that you familiarize yourself with this braking
technique. However, avoid taking any unnecessary risks.
TRACTION CONTROL姟
Your vehicle may be equipped with a Traction Control娂 system. This
system helps you maintain the stability and steerability of your vehicle,
especially on slippery road surfaces such as snow- or ice-covered roads
and gravel roads, by reducing engine power and/or selectively applying
the rear brakes. The system will allow your vehicle to make better use of
available traction in these conditions.
Note: The traction control system will not apply the brakes when the
vehicle speed is above 40 km/h (25 mph).
During Traction Control娂 operation,
the traction control light in the
instrument cluster will flash and the
engine will not “rev-up” when you
push further on the accelerator. This
is normal system behavior and should be no reason for concern. If the
traction control light does not flash or stays illuminated, the system is
not functioning.
When the Traction Control娂 switch, located on the instrument panel, is
in the off position, the traction control light will be illuminated.
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Driving
If you should become stuck in snow or ice or on a very slippery road
surface, try switching the Traction Control娂 system off. This may allow
excess wheel spin to “dig” the vehicle out and enable a successful
“rocking” maneuver.
Aggressive driving in any road conditions can cause you to lose
control of your vehicle increasing the risk of severe personal
injury or property damage. The occurrence of a Traction Control娂
event is an indication that at least some of the tires have exceeded
their ability to grip the road; this may lead to an increased risk of loss
of vehicle control, vehicle rollover, personal injury and death. If you
experience a severe road event, SLOW DOWN.
AIR SUSPENSION (IF EQUIPPED)
Note: The vehicle must not be operated without air in the suspension
springs. Operating the vehicle without air in the air suspension springs
will damage the suspension, degrade ride performance and may cause
property damage.
The suspension system that automatically adjusts to different loads to
maintain a constant frame height. The system allows for ease of vehicle
loading and provides improved vehicle ride and increased driver comfort.
The system is controlled by a switch
located on the instrument panel.
The switch will operate only when
the ignition is in the ACC
(Accessory) or IGNITION positions
and the air tanks have sufficient
pressure to fill the air springs. When
the ignition is turned off, the
suspension will remain in whatever
state it was last set.
Note: The suspension will dump air when the ignition is in the ACC or
IGNITION position, but will only fill when the ignition is in the IGNITION
position.
When the lower portion of the switch is pressed and the vehicle speed is
below 8 km/h (5 mph), air supplied to the air spring is exhausted,
lowering the frame for loading. Pressing the upper portion of the switch
causes air to fill the air springs so the vehicle will regain normal ride
height.
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Driving
Tractor-trailer connections
To reduce the risk of personal injury, use extreme caution when
making brake and light connections. Inclement weather and
accumulated road contamination deposits on handhold and stepping
surfaces require extra care to avoid slip and falls. Provide adequate
lighting of working areas.
Do not climb on the back of the tractor unless it has been
provided with a deck plate and handholds. Use a three-point
stance when climbing up and down from a deck plate. Do not jump
from the vehicle. Whenever possible, make all connections while
standing on the ground.
Connecting and disconnecting a trailer with air suspension
When connecting to a trailer:
• Press the lower portion of the switch and air will exhaust from the air
suspension system.
• After making the connection to the trailer, press the upper portion of
the switch, then raise the landing gear.
When disconnecting the trailer:
• Lower the landing gear, then press the lower portion of the switch.
• Disconnect the brake hoses, trailer-side and rear light connectors,
then pull the release lever on the fifth wheel.
The upper portion of the switch must be pressd before operating with a
trailer or operating in the bobtail mode.
Suspension conversions
It is not recommended, or approved, that suspension conversions be
performed. However, it is understood that, on occasion, aftermarket
add-on suspensions are installed by others on the truck chassis which
allow operator control for weight transfer from other axles (i.e., air lift
axles).
When operating a loaded vehicle, the driver must keep all
adjustable axles on the ground at all times, supporting their
share of the vehicle’s load. Failure to do so can overload other axles,
tires, wheels, springs, steering components, brakes and frames,
resulting in early component failure, loss of vehicle control, possible
property damage and personal injury.
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Driving
FIFTH WHEEL OPERATION
Failure to follow the fifth wheel manufacturer’s instructions for
hooking and unhooking as well as sliding the fifth wheel could
result in an accident, personal injury or death.
When the tractor and trailer are parked unattended, the trailer
brake hand control should never be used to apply the brake,
since air may leak from the system, allowing vehicle movement,
resulting in possible property damage, personal injury or death.
Hook-up
1. Fifth wheel jaws must be fully opened.
2. Tilt the fifth wheel back to prevent body damage when the tractor is
backed under a trailer.
3. Block the trailer wheels and be sure the trailer spring brakes are
adjusted and applied. Never chase a trailer.
4. Make sure the brake hoses and light cords are clear of the fifth wheel.
5. Back the trailer squarely under the tractor, engaging the fifth wheel
jaws on the kingpin. Always back-up slowly, making sure the trailer is
neither too high nor too low. Avoid backing under the trailer from an
angle.
6. Connect the service and emergency brake hoses and trailer light
connector. Refer to Tractor-trailer connection in this chapter, adhering
to the warning and using the three-point stance while connecting and
disconnecting the trailer.
7. Inspect the jaws of the fifth wheel to be sure they have fully closed on
the trailer kingpin and the trailer plate is resting securely on the fifth
wheel.
8. Be sure the coupler release lever is in the locked position.
9. Charge the trailer brake system. Set the trailer brakes, either with the
hand valve or tractor protection valve. Pull against the trailer for an
additional check of proper hook-up. Do not pull hard enough to damage
or strain the equipment.
10. Set the tractor parking brakes and fully raise the trailer landing gear.
Refer to Brakes in this chapter for proper operation of the parking brake
and trailer brakes.
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Driving
11. Check the operation of all trailer lights and correct and lights that
may be faulty.
Un-hook
1. Try to keep the tractor and trailer in a straight line.
2. Apply the parking brakes.
3. Lower the trailer landing gear, making sure it is on solid, level ground.
The weight of the trailer is to be on the landing gear.
4. Block the trailer wheels.
5. Disconnect the brake hoses and light cords. Be sure hoses and cords
are clear.
6. Pull coupler release lever to disengage the fifth wheel jaws.
7. Release the tractor parking brakes.
8. Pull out from the trailer slowly, allowing the landing gear to take the
load gradually.
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION OPERATION (IF EQUIPPED)
Main transmission, auxiliary transmission, transfer case and power
take-off (PTO) control shift patterns can be found on a placard or decal
on the driver’s visor door, on the instrument panel or on the shift control
itself.
The main transmission control is used to select the various gear ratios or
speeds of the transmission. Selecting D (Direct Drive), does not change
the transmission gear ratio, but is used where the gear ratios in the main
transmission are adequate to handle the vehicle operation.
Hold the brake pedal down while you move the gearshift lever
between positions. If you don’t hold the brake pedal down, your
vehicle may move unexpectedly and cause property damage, personal
injury or death.
Allison 2000 automatic transmission
This transmission is available with a column-mounted gearshift lever. The
gear positions are displayed on the RNDL in the instrument cluster.
Allison 2400 automatic transmission with park pawl feature
Note: For Allison automatic transmission-equipped vehicles, also refer to
the separate Allison Transmission Operator’s Manual.
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Driving
The Allison 2400 automatic transmission features a park pawl which, by
grounding the output shaft, prevents the driveline from moving. If the
vehicle is stationary, selecting P (Park) places the transmission in neutral
and engages the park pawl. Always use the parking brake.
Note: If the transmission is shifted into P (Park) while the vehicle is in
motion (2 km/h [1 mph] or higher), the park pawl mechanism will
ratchet, and not hold the vehicle.
Always fully set the parking brake. Do not use the gearshift lever
instead of the parking brake.
To avoid sudden, unwanted vehicle movement and possible
personal injury or death, always bring the vehicle to a complete
stop and put the transmission gearshift lever in P (Park) [Allison 2400],
PB (Park Brake) [Auto-Apply Park Brake] or N (Neutral). (If equipped
with the Allison 2400, slowly lift your foot off the brake pedal to
engage the park pawl.) Fully apply the parking brake. (If equipped
with the Allison 2400, do not rely only on the P (Park) position of the
transmission.) (For the Auto-Apply Park Brake, make sure the PB
(Park-Brake) selection has applied the parking brake and that it is held
properly.) Turn off the engine if you’re leaving the vehicle. NEVER
LEAVE THE VEHICLE UNATTENDED WITH THE ENGINE RUNNING.
Releasing the parking brake - vehicle equipped with Allison 2400
automatic transmission
Perform the appropriate following procedure to release the parking
brake:
Manual parking brake
1. Start the engine, then place your foot firmly on the brake pedal.
2. Push and hold the shift selector button while moving the gearshift
lever to the desired position.
3. Push manual parking brake lever down to release it, then release the
brake pedal.
Air-operated parking brake
1. Start the engine, then place your foot firmly on the brake pedal.
2. Push and hold the shift selector button while moving the gearshift
lever to the desired position.
3. Push the parking brake knob in to release the air-operated parking
brake, then release the brake pedal.
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Driving
Optional P (Park) or PB (Park-Brake) position
1. Start the engine, then place your foot firmly on the brake pedal.
2. Push and hold the shift selector button and move the gearshift lever
from P (Park) or PB (Park-Brake) to the desired position.
3. Push parking brake knob in to release the parking brake or, for PB
(Park-Brake)-equipped vehicles, verify the knob is pushed in. Release
the brake pedal.
Allison MD (Medium Duty) electronic World Transmission (WT)
Two modes are available for the Allison MD-WT: Performance and
Economy. Performance mode will give you the best all-around
transmission operation; Economy provides operation at lower engine
RPM while maintaining adequate performance. The transmission will
automatically default to Performance mode when you start the engine.
Pressing MODE on the shifter will activate the Economy mode; this will
also illuminate the Mode ON lamp.
If the engine speed is above idle when a gear is selected using the
shifter, the vehicle will not move. To move the vehicle, the shifter must
be moved to re-select a gear after the engine speed returns to idle.
Note: For more information regarding the Allison MD-WT, refer to the
separate Allison MD-WT Operator’s Manual.
Torque lock
If your vehicle is parked on an incline and P (Park) is not properly
engaged (The parking brake is not applied before the transmission is
shifted into P [Park]), the weight of the vehicle may generate an
excessive amount of torque of the park pawl. In this situation, it may be
difficult to shift the transmission out of P (Park). To drive the vehicle
out of the torque lock, push the vehicle uphill a small amount to relieve
the pressure on the park pawl and permit the shift out of P (Park), then
depress the brake pedal. Hold the brake pedal down while shifting out of
P (Park), then release the parking brake.
Park lock position
The transmission gearshift is equipped with a P (Park) position interlock.
To shift from P (Park), the key must be in the ON position and the brake
pedal depressed before the gearshift lever can be moved.
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Driving
Allison MD (Medium Duty) push-button shifter
To shift the transmission into R
(Reverse) or D (Drive), depress the
brake pedal, then press R or D, then
release the brake pedal. To select a
lower range when in D (Drive),
press the down-arrow button. To
select a higher range when in D
(Drive), press the up-arrow button.
To place the transmission in N
(Neutral), press N.
Automatic transmission operating temperatures
• Allison 2000/2400 – The sump/fluid reservoir temperatures should not
exceed 120°C (250°F). The converter temperature should not exceed
144°C (300°F).
• Allison MD (with retarder) - Converter temperature should not exceed
158°C (330°F).
Your vehicle may be equipped with a warning light or gauge that will
indicate high transmission fluid temperatures.
Power take-off (PTO) operation with an Allison automatic
transmission (except MD applications and vehicles equipped with
a Caterpillar 3126E engine)
The power take-off can be operated while the vehicle is standing or
moving.
To engage the PTO, apply the brakes and shift to any gear other than N
(Neutral) - this stops the rotation of the PTO drive gear in the
transmission - then engage the PTO.
If engagement is prevented by the gear teeth not meshing properly,
release the brakes and allow the vehicle to creep slightly - or shift the
selector to N (Neutral) and then back in gear. The PTO should never be
engaged by clashing the gear teeth. This may damage the PTO unit and
the transmission PTO drive gear teeth. This could result in further
damage to the transmission and PTO.
PTO operation with vehicle stationary
To operate the power take-off, stop the vehicle, idle the engine and set
the parking brake. Make sure the gear selector is in any forward drive
range, then engage the PTO. After the PTO is engaged for stationary
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Driving
vehicle operation, move the range selector to N (Neutral). Increase the
engine speed until the desired power take-off operation speed is
obtained. To disengage the PTO after operation with the vehicle
standing, release the throttle, allow the drive equipment to come to a
stop, and then disengage the PTO.
When the PTO is operated with the vehicle stationary, the
transmission must be placed in N (Neutral) with the parking
brake set. If the transmission is not in N (Neutral) and is equipped
with a remote throttle control, an increase in engine speed can
overpower the parking brake and cause the vehicle to move, possibly
resulting in personal and/or property damage.
PTO operation while vehicle is moving
After the PTO is engaged for driven vehicle operation, shift to the
desired range and drive the vehicle. The speed of the PTO, during this
period of operation, will always maintain direct relation to vehicle speed.
PTO speed will decrease in relation to vehicle (transmission output)
speed as shifts to a higher gear occur. When operating the PTO while the
vehicle is moving, the PTO may be disengaged whenever it is no longer
required. When there is no load on the PTO gear, it can be pulled out of
engagement.
Power take-off (PTO) operation on vehicles equipped with a
Caterpillar 3126E engine
If your vehicle is equipped with a Caterpillar 3126E engine, the PTO will
only operate if the vehicle is in Neutral. This feature can be overriden by
a special service tool; see your dealer or service representative for more
information.
Power take-off (PTO) operation with an Allison automatic
transmission (MD applications)
The PTO drive gear is engine driven and provides direct engine power.
The PTO can be operated when the vehicle is either stationary or
moving.
The PTO gear is in constant mesh with the drive gear in the torque
converter housing. A friction clutch or constant drive is used to transmit
power to the PTO.
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Driving
CLUTCH
Properly maintain the clutch to prolong it’s life. Do not ride or slip the
clutch as this will cause unnecessary heat and wear.
Clutch precautions
Maintain specified clutch adjustment; regularly inspect the clutch control
linkage for tightness.
When adjustment of the clutch is necessary, it is very important that the
work be performed properly or early clutch failure may result and a
costly clutch overhaul may become necessary. Clutch work should only
be performed by a qualified technician.
Engaging the clutch
• Always start in the proper gear. An empty vehicle can start in a
higher gear than a fully loaded vehicle. Starting in too high a gear can
cause clutch slippage and excessive heat and wear on the clutch. A
gear that will start the vehicle moving at idle speed is the correct gear.
If the engine has to be revved to get the vehicle going, the gear
selection is too high.
• Do not shift until the vehicle has reached the proper speed.
Upshifting before the vehicle has reached the proper speed can cause
clutch slippage and excessive heat and wear on the clutch.
• Never hold a vehicle on a grade with the clutch. This will cause
the clutch to slip and can actually burn up the clutch.
• Never coast with the clutch disengaged. The high RPM
(sometimes over 10,000), can actually burst the facing material of the
clutch.
• Never engage the clutch while coasting. Re-engaging the clutch
after coasting may not only cause a great shock to the clutch, but the
whole drivetrain. Internal engine damage and/or clutch and flywheel
failure can result from this.
If your vehicle’s transmission is equipped with a ceramic clutch, you
must start the vehicle moving in first gear and engage the clutch before
pressing the accelerator at idle. Also, don’t try to slip the clutch by
raising engine RPM and riding or feathering the clutch pedal since the
vehicle will experience erratic engagement. Erratic engagement can
cause the engine stalling and potential serious damage to the vehicle’s
driveline components.
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Driving
Clutch brake (vehicles equipped with a non-synchronized
transmission) - Vehicle stationary
A clutch brake is used to stop the transmission input shaft rotation so
that the initial 1 (First) or R (Reverse) gear selection can be
accomplished when the vehicle is stationary and the engine is running at
idle speed. Clutch brake application occurs in the last 25 mm (one inch)
of clutch pedal travel.
When using the clutch brake, fully depress the clutch pedal and shift the
transmission into 1 (First) or R (Reverse). If the transmission won’t go
into one of these gears, slowly release the clutch pedal while applying
light pressure on the transmission shift lever until it shifts into gear.
Note: After engagement of 1 (First) gear, do not use the clutch brake
for upshifting or downshifting. If you do, clutch brake life will shorten
and gear selection shift efforts may increase.
Double-clutch procedures - vehicles equipped with a
non-synchronized transmission
In order to properly upshift or downshift, perform the following steps:
1. Depress the clutch pedal to disengage the clutch.
2. Shift the transmission in to neutral.
3. Release the clutch pedal.
If upshifting, wait until the engine speed matches the transmission
speed of the gear you are selecting.
If downshifting, accelerate the engine until the engine speed matches
the input speed of the gear you are selecting. Depress the clutch pedal
immediately and shift into the desired gear, then release the clutch
pedal.
MANUAL TRANSMISSION OPERATION (IF EQUIPPED)
Continued use of a damaged or worn clutch, prolonged clutch
slippage or downshifting at excessive speeds can result in a
failure of the engine, transmission or clutch components.
To avoid premature clutch wear and failure, do not drive with
your foot resting on the clutch pedal or use it to hold the vehicle
at a standstill on an upgrade as when waiting for a traffic light.
123
Driving
Manual transmission shift patterns
are displayed on either the shift
lever knob or the sun visor.
R
1
3
5
2
4
6
Study this information carefully before you drive the vehicle even though
you may be familiar with similar units. Do not attempt to drive the
vehicle without knowing the exact shift pattern of the transmission.
Consult your authorized dealer if any questions exist as to the shifting
instructions posted in your vehicle.
Do not coast the vehicle with the clutch pedal depressed or with
the transmission in neutral. This practice could result in loss of
vehicle control.
Always use a gear ratio low enough to allow the engine to operate above
the minimum engine operation speed range. Do not lug the engine. When
more power is required, shift to a lower gear and accelerate the engine
near the governed speed.
Driving hints
The following driving hints are provided as a brief, general guide in
operating the different manual transmissions used in your vehicle.
• Always use the lowest gear to start the vehicle.
• Do not slam or jerk the gearshift lever into gear.
• When shifting into 1 (First) or R (Reverse) with vehicle standing still,
quickly release and depress the clutch pedal (if necessary to complete
gear engagement).
Shifting with a synchronized transmission
With the clutch pedal depressed, use 2 (Second) gear synchronizer to
stop the clutch disc rotation; this allows smooth engagement of 1 (First)
or R (Reverse) To complete the gear engagement, it may be necessary to
apply light pressure to the gearshift lever during initial engagement of
the clutch. It takes a second or two to match gear speeds; steady
pressure on the gearshift lever will help the synchronizer perform its job
more quickly. If the gearshift lever is forced into position, this action
defeats the purpose of the synchronizer by causing gear clash.
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Driving
Shifting with a non-synchronized transmission
Refer to Clutch brake and Double clutch procedures in the Clutch
section of this chapter.
Operating the Eaton FS-4205A and FS-5205A 5–speed
transmissions
The 5-speed transmission is
equipped with five forward gears
R
2
4
and one reverse. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th
and 5th gears are synchronized. The
shift pattern is embossed on the
1
3
5
gear shift knob.
Do not shift the transmission into R (Reverse) while the vehicle is
moving as this could damage the transmission.
To go forward
With the engine idling, depress the clutch pedal and shift into 1 (First).
Engage the clutch while pressing the accelerator to start forward.
Operate the clutch and upshift as required by driving conditions.
To go backward
Reverse is obtained by putting the gearshift lever in R (Reverse) and
engaging the clutch while pressing lightly on the accelerator.
Operating the Eaton FS–5406A, FS–5406N, FS–6406A and
FS–6406N 6-speed transmissions
These 6-speed transmissions are
equipped with six forward gears and
one reverse. All the forward gears
R
1
3
5
are synchronized. The shift pattern
is embossed on the gear shift knob.
2
4
6
Do not shift the transmission into 1 (First) or R (Reverse) while the
vehicle is moving as this could damage the transmission.
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Driving
To go forward
With the engine idling, depress the clutch pedal and shift into 1 (First).
Engage the clutch while pressing the accelerator to start forward.
Operate the clutch and upshift as required by driving conditions.
To go backward
Reverse is obtained by putting the gearshift lever in R (Reverse) and
engaging the clutch while pressing lightly on the accelerator.
Operating the Spicer ES56-7B and ES066-7B 7-speed
transmissions
These 7-speed transmissions are
equipped with seven forward gears
and one reverse. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th,
R
2
4
5th, 6th and 7th gears are
synchronized. The shift pattern is
embossed on the gear shift knob.
1
3
5
6
7
Do not shift the transmission into 1 (First) or R (Reverse) while the
vehicle is moving as this could damage the transmission.
To go forward
With the engine idling, depress the clutch pedal and shift into 1 (First).
Engage the clutch while pressing the accelerator to start forward.
Operate the clutch and upshift as required by driving conditions.
To go backward
Reverse is obtained by putting the gearshift lever in R (Reverse) and
engaging the clutch while pressing lightly on the accelerator.
126
Driving
Removing key from ignition
• Turn the ignition key to OFF.
• Push the release lever forward
and rotate the key towards you to
remove it.
Operating the Eaton 8908LL 10-speed transmission
These transmissions have five
2 R R 15
forward speeds in the LO range, and
four forward speeds in the HI range.
1
R
These transmissions employ a Deep
Reduction Valve and control to allow
Neutral
for a LO-LO gear operation for
adverse conditions. Study the
6
LO
instruction plate on the sun visor
thoroughly and learn the shift
LO-LO
2
pattern of your transmission.
7
3
8
4
To go forward
With the engine idling, depress the clutch pedal and move the gearshift
lever to the neutral position.
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Driving
Place the range selector in the LO
range and the Deep Reduction
Button in the OUT/REARWARD
position or,
place the Deep Reduction in the
IN/FORWARD position if you want
to start in LO-LO under adverse
conditions.
R
R
R
5
7
1
3
Neutral
LO
6
8
LO-LO
2
4
R
R
R
5
7
1
3
Neutral
LO
6
8
LO-LO
2
4
To start forward, place the gearshift lever in LO gear and disengage the
clutch while slightly depressing the accelerator. Operate the clutch and
upshift through the shift pattern (up to 4th) as required by driving
conditions. To shift into the HI range from 4th gear (LO range), place
the range control button in the HI range, then shift to 5th gear. Upshift
through 8th. When downshifting, shift 8-7-6-5, depress the range control
button to LO, then move the gearshift lever to 4-3-2-1-LO as necessary.
Never move the gearshift lever to the LO position when the transmission
is in the HI range.
Use LO-LO only for adverse conditions by changing the Deep Reduction
Button to the IN/FORWARD position, while the range selector is in the
LO range and the gearshift lever is in the LO position. Do not pre-select
Deep Reduction.
128
Driving
To upshift from LO-LO to LO in the
same gearshift lever position, move
the Deep Reduction Button to the
OUT/REARWARD position and
immediately release the accelerator,
depress the clutch pedal once to
break torque, and re-engage clutch.
The transmission will shift from Deep Reduction to low range when
synchronous is reached, then accelerate.
To go backward
Reverse is obtained by putting the
gearshift lever in R (Reverse) and
the range control button in LO or HI
(Deep Reduction Button should be
in the OUT/REARWARD position).
2
R R
R
15
7
1
3
Neutral
LO
6
8
LO-LO
2
4
129
Driving
Removing key from ignition
• Turn the ignition key to OFF.
• Push the release lever forward
and rotate the key towards you to
remove it.
Operating the Eaton 9210B 10–speed transmissions
These transmission have five
7
forward speeds in both the LO and
R
HI ranges, and two reverse speeds.
2
Study the instruction plate on the
sun visor and learn the shift pattern
Neutral
of your transmission.
9
4
6
8
10
1
3
5
To go forward
With the engine idling, depress the clutch pedal and push the range
control button to the LO range position. Shift into the LO gear position
and engage the clutch while pressing on the accelerator to start forward.
Operate the clutch and upshift through the pattern as required by
driving conditions. To shift into the HI range from 5th gear (LO range),
place the range control in the HI range position, then shift into 6th gear.
When downshifting from HI to LO, place the range control into the LO
range, then downshift from 6th gear to 5th gear (below 1,500 engine
RPM).
130
Driving
To go backward
Reverse is obtained by putting the
gearshift lever in R (Reverse) and
the range control button in LO or
HI.
R
7
9
2
4
Neutral
6
8
10
1
3
5
Power-take off operation (PTO) with a manual transmission
Transmission-mounted power take-off units are available for local
installation on your vehicle. See your Body Builder’s Layout Book for
restrictions on use and installation of power take-off units.
To engage the PTO unit, stop the vehicle and place the transmission
control in neutral. Depress the clutch and allow the gears to stop
rotating, then engage the PTO unit. The PTO can also be selected with
the transmission in gear as long as the clutch is depressed.
When operating the PTO unit with the vehicle stationary, first set the
parking brake (chock the wheels if the vehicle is on a hill or other
unlevel surface).
REAR AXLE INFORMATION
Axle operating temperature normally will not exceed 38°C (100°F). If
the operating temperature exceeds 110°C (230°F), the rate of axle
lubrication oxidation will increase and shorten the life of the lubricant
and seals, requiring axle lubrication changes to become more frequent to
preserve the axle. Extreme Pressure (EP) lubricants should not be run
consistently above 110°C (230°F).
Gross axle weight
Your truck has gross axle weight, gross vehicle weight and gross
combination weight ratings. Do not exceed these ratings.
Exceeding these ratings by overloading can cause component
failure resulting in property damage, personal injury or death.
131
Driving
Rear axles with locking or limited-slip differentials
If your vehicle is equipped with a locking or limited-slip differential, note
the following:
• Power will be transmitted to the opposite wheel should one of the
wheels begin to slip.
• Both wheels must be raised free of the ground should it be necessary
to operate one wheel with the vehicle stationary.
If both wheels are not raised free of the ground, the one wheel
that is not raised may pull the vehicle off its support, possibly
resulting in personal injury
Driver-controlled differential lock
To prevent the vehicle from moving when servicing the wheels, tires or
brakes, turn the engine off and raise all drive wheels of the locker
differential axle. Axles equipped with NoSPIN Detroit Locker differentials
deliver power to both wheels even when only one wheel is on the
ground.
Failure to raise all drive wheels with this type of differential
could cause the vehicle to move unexpectedly, resulting in
property damage, personal injury or death.
Care should be taken to avoid sudden accelerations when both drive
wheels are on a slippery surface.
Sudden accelerations on slippery surfaces could cause the
wheels to spin, the vehicle to turn sideways on a crowned road
surface or in a turn, possibly resulting in loss of vehicle control and
personal injury.
Some Dana/Spicer drive axles have a driver-controlled differential lock.
The differential lock can lock or unlock the differential when the vehicle
is moving or stopped. When extra traction is required, the differential
lock will provide full power to both axles.
The differential can be locked or unlocked when the vehicle is moving at
a constant speed of less than 40 km/h (25 mph) and while the wheels
are not slipping. If the differential is locked and vehicle speed exceeds
40 km/h (25 mph), the differential will automatically unlock. Also, the
differential must not be locked when the vehicle is traveling down steep
grades and traction is minimal.
132
Driving
When the differential is locked, the vehicle’s turning radius will increase
(vehicle will “under-steer”)
Axle conversions
It is not recommended, or approved, for axle conversions to be
performed. However, it is understood that, on occasion, aftermarket
add-on axles are installed by others on the truck chassis which allow
operator control for weight transfer from other axles (i.e., air lift axles).
When operating a loaded vehicle, the driver must keep all
adjustable axles on the ground at all times, supporting their
share of the vehicle’s load. Failure to do so can overload other axles,
tires, wheels, springs, steering components, brakes and frames,
resulting in early component failure, loss of vehicle control, possible
property damage and personal injury.
TWO-SPEED REAR AXLE
A two-speed rear axle allows the driver to select a LO range for greater
pulling power and a HI range for greater road speed and fuel economy.
These ranges can also be used to provide additional steps between
transmission shifts when driving on steep grades and/or fuel economy
may be factors.
Note: Do not shift between ranges when the speed control is on.
Never shift a two-speed axle when descending a steep grade as
this may cause loss of vehicle control and result in personal
injury.
Axle shifting
Manual transmissions:
• To downshift, select the next lower gear, release and depress the
accelerator pedal rapidly, or while holding the accelerator pedal down,
release and engage the clutch rapidly. Note: The clutch method is
recommended when driving at slower speeds.
• To upshift, keep the accelerator pedal down, select the next higher
gear, release the accelerator and pause until the axle upshifts. Note:
De-clutch for smoother axle upshifts when driving at slower speeds.
133
Driving
Automatic transmissions:
• Use LO range for when you drive
a fully loaded vehicle on a severe
grade or in congested traffic. To
activate LO range, press the
upper portion of the switch.
• Use HI range for all normal
driving conditions with a lightly
loaded or partially loaded vehicle.
To activate HI range, press the
lower portion of the switch.
2SPD
LOW
Note: You cannot split-shift with an automatic transmission. Also,
downshifting above 64 km/h (40 mph) may result in transmission or axle
damage.
Shifting the axle from LO to HI range - vehicle stopped
Place the transmission in N (Neutral), the press the lower part of the
switch.
Shifting the axle from LO to HI range - vehicle moving
Accelerate to approximately 56 km/h (35 mph), press the lower part of
the switch while the transmission is in N (Neutral), then release and
apply the accelerator.
Shifting the axle from HI to LO range - vehicle stopped
Place the transmission in N (Neutral), then press the upper part of the
switch.
Note: Do not shift the axle to LO range with the vehicle in motion.
Split-shifting (combined axle and transmission shift - manual
transmissions only)
Ratio
combination
Transmission
gear
Axle range
134
1
2
Split-shift sequence
3
4
5
6
7
1st
1st
2nd 2nd 3rd 3rd 4th 4th 5th 6th 6th
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
8
HI
9
LO
10
LO
11
HI
Driving
To downshift the axle to a slower ratio and shift the transmission, shift
the transmission and move the control switch to the lower ratio before
the clutch is re-engaged.
To upshift the axle and shift the transmission, move the control switch
to a faster ratio and make the transmission shift in the usual manner.
Ratio extender use
Low End
A two-speed axle can be used as a ratio-extender when split shifting is
not necessary. For low end use, just shift the axle into the LO to start
out, and shift to HI when the extra torque is no longer needed.
Transmission (5-speed)
Two-speed Axle
1st
1st
Axle
Low
2nd
3rd 4th
Axle High
5th
6th
High End
To use the two-speed axle as a high end ratio-extender, stay in the LO
range for normal upshifts and only shift the axle to HI on the freeway for
greater road speed.
Transmission (5-speed)
Two-Speed Axle
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
Low for Gradeability
5th
6th
Speed
Axle
High
135
Roadside emergencies
GETTING ROADSIDE ASSISTANCE
To fully assist you should you have a vehicle concern, Ford offers a
complimentary roadside assistance program. This program is separate
from the New Vehicle Limited Warranty and is not applicable to vehicles
sold in Canada. The service is available:
• 24–hours, seven days a week
• for the New Vehicle Limited Warranty period (U.S.) of two years
(unlimited miles)
Roadside assistance will cover:
• jump-starts.
• lock-out assistance.
• towing to the nearest Ford Motor Company dealership, or towing to
your selling dealership if within 56 km (35 miles). Even non-warranty
related tows, like accidents or getting stuck in the mud or snow, are
covered (some exclusions apply, such as impound towing or
repossession).
Using roadside assistance
Complete the roadside assistance identification card and place it in your
wallet for quick reference. This card is found in the Owner Guide
portfolio in the glove compartment.
To receive roadside assistance in the United States, call 1-800-241-3673.
If you need to arrange roadside assistance for yourself, Ford will
reimburse a reasonable amount. To obtain information about
reimbursement, call 1-800-241-3673.
136
Roadside emergencies
HAZARD FLASHER
The hazard flasher control is located
on the steering column, just behind
the steering wheel. The hazard
flashers will operate when the
ignition is off.
Push in the flasher control and all
front and rear direction signals will
flash. Press the flasher control again
to turn them off. Use it when your
vehicle is disabled and is creating a
safety hazard for other motorists.
Note: With extended use, the flasher may run down your battery.
FUSING
If electrical components in the vehicle are not working, a fuse may have
blown. Blown fuses are identified by a broken wire within the fuse.
Check the appropriate fuses before replacing any electrical components.
Note: Always replace a fuse with one that has the specified amperage
rating. Using a fuse with a higher amperage rating can cause severe wire
damage and could start a fire.
137
Roadside emergencies
Fuse block - battery junction box
Fuse/Relay Fuse Amp
Location
Rating
F1
15A*
F2
—
F3
—
F4
15A*
F5
15A*
F6
—
F7
15A*
F8
25A*
F9
—
F10
15A*
F11
—
F12
—
138
Fuse Description
Main light switch
Not used
Not used
Washer pump relay, Washer pump motor
Exhaust brake (Caterpillar engine)
Not used
Stoplamp switches
Fuel heater relay (Caterpillar engine)
Not used
Heated drain valve
Not used
Not used
Roadside emergencies
Fuse/Relay Fuse Amp
Location
Rating
F13
—
F14
—
F15
7.5A*
F16
5A*
F17
—
F18
10A*
F19
—
F20
10A*
F21
F22
F23
F24
F101
F102
F103
10A*
10A*
—
—
30A**
20A**
50A**
F104
F105
F106
20A**
20A**
30A**
F107
F108
F109
F110
F111
F112
F113
F114
F115
F116
50A**
—
40A**
30A**
30A**
40A**
30A**
25A**
40A**
30A**
Fuse Description
Not used
Not used
Body builder - trailer adapter stoplamps
WABCO hydraulic ABS
Not used
Fuel transfer pump
Not used
Engine ECM power relay (Navistar V8
engine)
Control for Hydro-max motor
V8 engine IDM2 logic power
Not used
Not used
Air ABS relay, Hydraulic modulator relay
Ignition switch to customer access
Ignition switch, Central Junction Box (CJB)
fuses 8, 9, 10, 11, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30,
31
Power point
Door lock switches
Main light switch, Multifunction switch, CJB
fuses 16, 26 and 28, Headlamps, DRL relays
CJB fuses 1, 2, 3, 4, 12, 13, 14, 15
Not used
Power window relay
Motorized seat - driver’s side
Park lamps relay, Park lamps
Blower motor relay, Blower motor
Heated seats
Hydraulic ABS ECU power
Ignition switch, CJB fuse 21
Turn relays and back-up lamp relay
139
Roadside emergencies
Fuse/Relay Fuse Amp
Location
Rating
F117
20A**
F118
30A**
F119/F120
60A**
F121/F122
60A**
R1–201
R2–202
R3–203
R4–204
R5–207
R6–205
R7–206
R8–208
R9–209
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
FIR1–301
—
FIR2–302
—
FIR3–303
—
FIR4–304
—
* Mini fuse **Maxi fuse
140
Fuse Description
Stoplamp relay (Caterpillar engine)
Motorized seat - passenger’s side
Air brake, Trailer tow fuse block
Air brake, Trailer tow fuse block, Hydraulic
brake, ABS
Washer pump relay
Wiper speed relay
Wiper run-park relay
Crank inhibit relay (Navistar V8 engine)
Drain valve heater relay
RH stop/turn relay
LH stop/turn relay
Back-up lamps relay
ECM ISO relay (Navistar V8 engine) or
Stoplamp relay (Caterpillar engine)
Fuel heater, Fuel heater-fuel transfer pump
Park lamp relay
Blower motor relay
Air ABS relay, Hydraulic modulator relay
Roadside emergencies
Fuse block - central junction box
Fuse/Relay Fuse Amp
Location
Rating
1
20A
2
15A
3
20A
4
10A
5
15A
6
7
8
9
—
—
5A
5A
10
15A
Fuse Description
Horn relay
Hazard flasher
Cigar lighter
Diagnostics
Blend door actuator, Back-up lamps, DRL
signal, Heated seats
Horn switch
Not used
Radio, GEM ACC
Headlamp switch LED, Window switch LED
and relay
Heated and lighted mirrors
141
Roadside emergencies
Fuse/Relay Fuse Amp
Location
Rating
11
30A
12
10A
13
20A
14
10A
15
10A
16
15A
17
—
18
5A
19
15A
20
21
22
15A
10A
15A
23
24
10A
15A
25
26
27
28
29
10A
10A
—
10A
10A
30
31
Relay
Relay
Relay
Relay
Relay
142
1
2
3
4
5
—
15A
1/2 ISO
1/2 ISO
Full ISO
Full ISO
Full ISO
Fuse Description
Wiper motor, Washer pump relay
Spare
Cluster, Radio
Interior lamp relay
Interior lamp relay
Headlamp high beam, High beam indicator
Not used
Headlamp switch interior lighting
Engine control (all engines), Accelerator
pedal (Navistar V8 engine)
Starting system
DRL resistor
Speed control feed (Navistar V8 engine), Air
solenoid, Fuel transfer pump
Hazard flasher (Run)
ABS, Air dryer, Vacuum pump, Fuel heater
relay
Function selector switch
RH headlamp low beam
Not used
LH headlamp low beam
Cluster warning lamps, Gauges GEM,
Hydraulic brake ABS
Not used
Allison transmission or ABS event
Interior lamp relay
Not used
Horn relay
One-touch window down relay
Not used
Roadside emergencies
JUMP STARTING YOUR VEHICLE
The gases around the battery can explode if exposed to flames,
sparks, or lit cigarettes. An explosion could result in injury or
vehicle damage.
Batteries contain sulfuric acid which can burn skin, eyes and
clothing, if contacted.
Do not attempt to push-start your vehicle. Automatic
transmissions do not have push-start capability; also, the
catalytic converter may become damaged.
Jump starting your vehicle
The gases around the battery can explode if exposed to flames,
sparks, or lit cigarettes. An explosion could result in injury or
vehicle damage.
Connecting the jumper cables
+
+
–
–
1. Connect the positive (+) booster cable to the positive (+) terminal of
the discharged battery.
Note: In the illustrations, lightning bolts are used to designate the
assisting (boosting) battery.
143
Roadside emergencies
+
+
–
–
2. Connect the other end of the positive (+) cable to the positive (+)
terminal of the assisting battery.
+
+
–
–
3. Connect the negative (-) cable to the negative (-) terminal of the
assisting battery.
+
+
–
–
4. Make the final connection of the negative (-) cable to an exposed
metal part of the stalled vehicle’s engine, away from the battery and the
carburetor/fuel injection system. Do not use fuel lines, engine rocker
covers or the intake manifold as grounding points.
Do not connect the end of the second cable to the negative (-)
terminal of the battery to be jumped. A spark may cause an
explosion of the gases that surround the battery.
5. Ensure that the cables are clear of fan blades, belts, moving parts of
both engines, or any fuel delivery system parts.
144
Roadside emergencies
Jump starting
1. Start the engine of the booster vehicle and run the engine at
moderately increased speed.
2. Start the engine of the disabled vehicle.
3. Once the disabled vehicle has been started, run both engines for an
additional three minutes before disconnecting the jumper cables.
Removing the jumper cables
+
+
–
–
Remove the jumper cables in the reverse order that they were
connected.
1. Remove the jumper cable from the ground metal surface.
Note: In the illustrations, lightning bolts are used to designate the
assisting (boosting) battery.
+
+
–
–
2. Remove the jumper cable on the negative (-) connection of the
booster vehicle’s battery.
145
Roadside emergencies
+
+
–
–
3. Remove the jumper cable from the positive (+) terminal of the booster
vehicle’s battery.
+
+
–
–
4. Remove the jumper cable from the positive (+) terminal of the
disabled vehicle’s battery.
After the disabled vehicle has been started and the jumper cables
removed, allow it to idle for several minutes so the engine computer can
relearn its idle conditions.
WRECKER TOWING INSTRUCTIONS
Before moving the towed vehicle, check for adequate road clearance of
vehicle components. It is recommended the towed vehicle be unloaded
prior to being towed to reduce any abnormal load to the vehicle
components resulting from the towing procedures. Before towing, be
sure to fully release the parking brake. The spring-actuated type parking
brake can be reset by recharging the air system with at least 441 kPa (64
psi) of air. If the brake system will not retain air pressure, then the
spring brakes must be released manually. Refer to Parking brake in the
Driving chapter
Note: For towing, make sure the vehicle is securely connected to the
tow vehicle and the tow vehicle parking brakes are applied before
releasing the disabled vehicle’s spring brakes.
146
Roadside emergencies
To reduce the risk of personal injury or property damage when
manually releasing the spring brakes, be sure to block the wheels
so the vehicle cannot move once the brakes are released.
Towing the vehicle with the front wheels suspended
When it is necessary to tow a vehicle with the front wheels suspended,
extra precautions must be taken to avoid transmission or differential
damage. Proceed as follows:
• Remove the axle shafts from the axle assembly to prevent the wheels
from driving the differential and the transmission.
• The wheel hub ends must be covered to prevent loss of axle lubricant
and entrance of other contaminants. If the axle shafts are not
removed, removal of the propeller shafts is required.
Note: To avoid transmission damage, vehicles should not be towed even
a short distance without suspending rear wheels or removing the axle
shaft or propeller shaft.
Note: In the event the chassis is equipped with a tandem axle and the
vehicle is to be towed from the front, the forward rear axle may be
raised to clear the road surface and secured to the frame by chains or
U-bolts, allowing only the rear rear axle to contact the road surface. Axle
shafts must be removed from the rear rear axle assembly. The wheel hub
ends must be covered to prevent loss of axle lubricant and entrance of
contaminants. Use extreme care in securing the chains or U-bolts to
avoid possible damage to the brake lines, hoses or other components.
Towing vehicles equipped with a driver-controlled differential lock
Note: If the vehicle must be towed to a service facility with the drive
axle wheels on the ground, it is necessary to remove the axle shafts
before the vehicle is towed.
147
Roadside emergencies
1. Shift collar in the locked position
2. Actuator assembly and shift fork
3. Axle shaft
4. Interference between the shift
collar and housing
5. Shift collar in the unlocked
position
6. Outer splines - axle shaft to collar
7. Shift collar and differential case
splines
8. Inner splines - axle shaft to side
gear
9. Side gear
10. Differential (plain) case half
Removing axle shafts before towing
1. Shift the main differential to the unlocked (disengaged) position. The
differential lock light will turn off.
2. Remove the capscrews and washers or stud nuts and washers from
flanges of both axle shafts.
3. Loosen the tapered dowels in the flanges of both axle shafts by
holding a 11⁄2 inch diameter brass drift or hammer against the axle shaft
center and hitting it with a five or six pound hammer. Note: Do not use
a chisel or wedge to loosen the axle shafts and dowels. Use of a chisel or
wedge can damage the hub, axle shafts and oil seals.
4. Remove the tapered dowels and both axle shafts from the axle
assembly.
5. Assemble a cover over openings of both wheels ends to prevent loss of
lubricant and keep dirt away from the wheel bearing cavities.
Note: One of the axle shafts has two sets of splines. One set to engage
with the differential side gear and one set to engage with the shift collar
for the differential lock. It may be necessary to rotate the shaft slightly
to align the gear spline teeth with the shift collar teeth in order to
remove the axle shaft.
148
Roadside emergencies
Installing the axle shafts
1. Remove the covers from the wheel ends
2. Shift the differential lock to the unlocked position (disengaged)
position.
3. Install the axle shafts
• Place the gaskets on the wheel hub studs.
• Push the right-hand axle shaft and gasket in to the wheel end and
housing until the shaft stops against the differential shift collar.
• Push down and in on the axle shaft flange and rotate the shaft until
the splines of the shaft and shift collar are engaged.
• Push the axle shaft further into the housing until the shaft stops
against the differential side gear.
• Push down on the axle shaft flange and rotate the shaft until the
splines of the shaft and side gear are engaged.
• Push the axle shaft completely into the housing until the axle shaft
flange and the gasket are flush against the wheel hub.
• Install the left-hand axle shaft and gasket into the wheel end.
4. If tapered dowels are required, install them at each stud and into the
flange of the axle shaft. Use a punch or drift and hammer, if needed.
5. Install the fasteners and tighten to correct torque value. Refer to the
Service Manual section.
Towing the vehicle with the rear wheels suspended
Note: To avoid damage to the cab roof or air deflector when towing the
vehicle backward (rear wheels suspended) the air deflector must be
removed.
Whenever possible, it is preferable to tow a disabled vehicle fro the rear
by raising the rear of the chassis. When towing a vehicle with the rear of
the chassis suspended the front wheels must be locked in the
straight-ahead position.
Vehicles equipped with a manual-shift transmission must have at least
one (1) pint of transmission fluid drained from the case. This will
prevent the transmission fluid from entering the clutch housing and fluid
saturating the clutch discs. Make sure that the transmission fluid is
replaced before the vehicle is returned to service.
149
Customer assistance
GETTING THE SERVICES YOU NEED
At home
Ford Motor Company and Ford of Canada have authorized dealerships to
service your vehicle. It is preferred that you return to the authorized
dealer where your vehicle was purchased when warranty repairs are
needed. However, you may also take your vehicle to another Ford Motor
Company or Ford of Canada dealership authorized for warranty repairs.
Certain warranty repairs require special training though, so not all
dealers are authorized to perform all warranty repairs. That means that
depending on the warranty repair needed, the vehicle may need to be
taken to another dealer. If a particular dealership cannot assist you, then
contact the Customer Relationship Center.
If you have questions or concerns, or are unsatisfied with the service you
are receiving, follow these steps:
1. Contact your Sales Representative or Service Advisor at your
selling/servicing dealership.
2. If your inquiry or concern remains unresolved, contact the Sales
Manager or Service Manager at the dealership.
3. If the inquiry or concern cannot be resolved at the dealership level,
please contact the Ford Customer Relationship Center.
Away from home
If you own a Ford or Mercury vehicle and are away from home when
your vehicle needs service, or if you need more help than the dealership
could provide, after following the steps described above, contact the
Ford Customer Relationship Center to find an authorized dealership to
help you.
In the United States:
Ford Motor Company
Customer Relationship Center
16800 Executive Plaza Drive
P.O. Box 6248
Dearborn, Michigan 48121
1-800-392-3673 (FORD)
(TDD for the hearing impaired: 1-800-232-5952)
www.ford.com
150
Customer assistance
In Canada:
Customer Relationship Centre
Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited
P.O. Box 2000
Oakville, Ontario L6J 5E4
1-800-565-3673 (FORD)
www.ford.ca
If you own a Lincoln vehicle and are away from home when your vehicle
needs service, or if you need more help than the dealership could
provide, after following the steps described above, contact the Ford
Customer Relationship Center to find an authorized dealership to help
you.
In the United States:
Ford Motor Company
Customer Relationship Center
16800 Executive Plaza Drive
P.O. Box 6248
Dearborn, Michigan 48121
1-800-521-4140
(TDD for the hearing impaired: 1-800-232-5952)
www.ford.com
In Canada:
Customer Relationship Centre
Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited
P.O. Box 2000
Oakville, Ontario L6J 5E4
1-800-565-3673 (FORD)
www.ford.ca
In order to help you service your Ford or Lincoln Mercury vehicle, please
have the following information available when contacting a Customer
Relationship Center:
• Your telephone number (home and business)
• The name of the dealer and the city where the dealership is located
• The year and make of your vehicle
• The date of vehicle purchase
• The current odometer reading
• The vehicle identification number (VIN)
If you still have a complaint involving a warranty dispute, you may wish
to contact the Dispute Settlement Board (U.S.).
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In some states (in the U.S.) you must directly notify Ford in writing
before pursuing remedies under your state’s warranty laws. Ford is also
allowed a final repair attempt in some states.
In the United States, a warranty dispute must be submitted to the
Dispute Settlement Board before taking action under the Magnuson-Moss
Warranty Act, or to the extent allowed by state law, before pursuing
replacement or repurchase remedies provided by certain state laws. This
dispute handling procedure is not required prior to enforcing state
created rights or other rights which are independent of the
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act or state replacement or repurchase laws.
THE DISPUTE SETTLEMENT BOARD (U.S. ONLY)
The Dispute Settlement Board is:
• an independent, third-party arbitration program for warranty disputes.
• available free to owners and lessees of qualifying Ford Motor Company
vehicles.
The Dispute Settlement Board may not be available in all states. Ford
Motor Company reserves the right to change eligibility limitations, modify
procedures and/or to discontinue this service without notice and without
incurring obligations per applicable state law.
What kinds of cases does the Board review?
Unresolved warranty repair concerns or vehicle performance concerns as
on Ford and Lincoln Mercury cars and Ford and Lincoln Mercury light
trucks which are within the terms of any applicable written new vehicle
warranty are eligible for review, except those involving:
• a non-Ford product
• a non-Ford dealership
• sales disputes between customer and dealer except those associated
with warranty repairs or concerns with the vehicle’s performance as
designed
• a request for reimbursement of consequential expenses unless a
service or product concern is being reviewed
• items not covered by the New Vehicle Limited Warranty (including
maintenance and wear items)
• alleged personal injury/property damage claims
• cases currently in litigation
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• vehicles not used primarily for family, personal or household purposes
(except in states where the Dispute Settlement Board is required to
review commercial vehicles)
• vehicles with non-U.S. warranties
Concerns are ineligible for review if the New Vehicle Limited Warranty
has expired at receipt of your application and, in certain states eligibility
is dependent upon the customer’s possession of the vehicle.
Eligibility may differ according to state law. For example, see the unique
brochures for California, West Virginia, Georgia and Wisconsin
purchasers/lessees.
Board membership
The Board consists of:
• Three consumer representatives
• A Ford or Lincoln Mercury dealership representative
Consumer candidates for Board membership are recruited and trained by
an independent consulting firm. The dealership Board member is chosen
from Ford and Lincoln Mercury dealership management, recognized for
their business leadership qualities.
What the Board needs
To have your case reviewed you must complete the application in the
DSB brochure and mail it to the address provided on the application
form. Some states will require you to use certified mail, with return
receipt requested.
Your application is reviewed and, if it is determined to be eligible, you
will receive an acknowledgment indicating:
• The file number assigned to your application.
• The toll-free phone number of the DSB’s independent administrator.
Your dealership and a Ford Motor Company representative will then be
asked to submit statements.
To properly review your case, the Board needs the following information:
• Legible copies of all documents and maintenance or repair orders
relevant to the case.
• The year, make, model, and Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) listed
on your vehicle ownership license.
• The date of repair(s) and mileage at the time of occurrence(s).
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Customer assistance
•
•
•
•
The current mileage.
The name of the dealer(s) who sold or serviced the vehicle.
A brief description of your unresolved concern.
A brief summary of the action taken by the dealer(s) and Ford Motor
Company.
• The names (if known) of all the people you contacted at the
dealership(s).
• A description of the action you expect to resolve your concern.
You will receive a letter of explanation if your application does not
qualify for Board review.
Oral presentations
If you would like to make an oral presentation, indicate YES to question
6 on the application. While it is your right to make an oral presentation
before the Board, this is not a requirement and the Board will decide the
case whether or not an oral presentation is made. An oral presentation
may be requested by the Board as well.
Making a decision
Board members review all available information related to each
complaint, including oral presentations, and arrive at a fair and impartial
decision. Board review may be terminated at any time by either party.
Every effort is made to decide the case within 40 days of the date that
all requested information is received by the Board. Since the Board
generally meets once a month, it may take longer for the Board to
consider some cases.
After a case is reviewed, the Board mails you a decision letter and a
form on which to accept or reject the Board’s decision. The decisions of
the Board are binding on Ford (and, in some cases, on the dealer) but
not on consumers who are free to pursue other remedies available to
them under state or federal law.
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Customer assistance
To request a DSB Brochure/Application
For a brochure/application, speak to your dealer or write/call to the
Board at the following address/phone number:
Dispute Settlement Board
P.O. Box 5120
Southfield, MI 48086–5120
1–800–428–3718
You may also contact the North American Customer Relationship Center
at 1-800-392-3673 (Ford), TDD for the hearing impaired: 1-800-232-5952
or by writing to the Center at the following address:
Ford Motor Company
Customer Relationship Center
16800 Executive Plaza Drive
P.O. Box 6248
Dearborn, Michigan 48121
UTILIZING THE MEDIATION/ARBITRATION PROGRAM (CANADA
ONLY)
In those cases where you continue to feel that the efforts by Ford and
the dealer to resolve a factory-related vehicle service concern have been
unsatisfactory, Ford of Canada participates in an impartial third party
mediation/arbitration program administered by the Canadian Motor
Vehicle Arbitration Plan (CAMVAP).
The CAMVAP program is a straight-forward and relatively speedy
alternative to resolve a disagreement when all other efforts to produce a
settlement have failed. This procedure is without cost to you and is
designed to eliminate the need for lengthy and expensive legal
proceedings.
In the CAMVAP program, impartial third-party arbitrators conduct
hearings at mutually convenient times and places in an informal
environment. These impartial arbitrators review the positions of the
parties, make decisions and, when appropriate, render awards to resolve
disputes. CAMVAP decisions are fast, fair, and final; the arbitrator’s
award is binding both to you and Ford of Canada.
CAMVAP services are available in all territories and provinces. For more
information, without charge or obligation, call your CAMVAP Provincial
Administrator directly at 1-800-207-0685.
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GETTING ASSISTANCE OUTSIDE THE U.S AND CANADA
Before exporting your vehicle to a foreign country, contact the
appropriate foreign embassy or consulate. These officials can inform you
of local vehicle registration regulations and where to find unleaded fuel.
If you cannot find unleaded fuel or can only get fuel with an anti-knock
index lower than is recommended for your vehicle, contact a district or
owner relations/customer relationship office.
The use of leaded fuel in your vehicle without proper conversion may
damage the effectiveness of your emission control system and may cause
engine knocking or serious engine damage. Ford Motor Company/Ford of
Canada is not responsible for any damage caused by use of improper
fuel.
In the United States, using leaded fuel may also result in difficulty
importing your vehicle back into the U.S.
If your vehicle must be serviced while you are traveling or living in
Central or South America, the Caribbean, or the Middle East, contact the
nearest Ford dealership. If the dealership cannot help you, write or call:
FORD MOTOR COMPANY
WORLDWIDE DIRECT MARKET OPERATIONS
1555 Fairlane Drive
Fairlane Business Park #3
Allen Park, Michigan 48101
U.S.A.
Telephone: (313) 594-4857
FAX: (313) 390-0804
If you are in another foreign country, contact the nearest Ford
dealership. If the dealership employees cannot help you, they can direct
you to the nearest Ford affiliate office.
If you buy your vehicle in North America and then relocate outside of
the U.S. or Canada, register your vehicle identification number (VIN) and
new address with Ford Motor Company Worldwide Direct Market
Operations.
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Customer assistance
ORDERING ADDITIONAL OWNER’S LITERATURE
To order the publications in this portfolio, contact Helm, Incorporated at:
HELM, INCORPORATED
P.O. Box 07150
Detroit, Michigan 48207
Or call:
For a free publication catalog, order toll free: 1-800-782-4356
Monday-Friday 8:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m. EST
Helm, Incorporated can also be reached by their website:
www.helminc.com.
(Items in this catalog may be purchased by credit card, check or
money order.)
Obtaining a French owner’s guide
French Owner’s Guides can be obtained from your dealer or by writing to
Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited, Service Publications, P.O. Box
1580, Station B, Mississauga, Ontario L4Y 4G3.
IN CALIFORNIA (U.S. ONLY)
California Civil Code Section 1793.2(d) requires that, if a manufacturer
or its representative is unable to repair a motor vehicle to conform to the
vehicle’s applicable express warranty after a reasonable number of
attempts, the manufacturer shall be required to either replace the
vehicle with one substantially identical or repurchase the vehicle and
reimburse the buyer in an amount equal to the actual price paid or
payable by the consumer (less a reasonable allowance for consumer
use). The consumer has the right to choose whether to receive a refund
or replacement vehicle.
California Civil Code Section 1793.22(b) presumes that the manufacturer
has had a reasonable number of attempts to conform the vehicle to its
applicable express warranties if, within the first 18 months of ownership
of a new vehicle or the first 29,000 km (18,000 miles), whichever occurs
first:
1. Two or more repair attempts are made on the same nonconformity
likely to cause death or serious bodily injury OR
2. Four or more repair attempts are made on the same nonconformity (a
defect or condition that substantially impairs the use, value or safety of
the vehicle) OR
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Customer assistance
3. The vehicle is out of service for repair of nonconformities for a total of
more than 30 calendar days (not necessarily all at one time)
In the case of 1 or 2 above, the consumer must also notify the
manufacturer of the need for the repair of the nonconformity at the
following address:
Ford Motor Company
16800 Executive Plaza Drive
Mail Drop 3NE-B
Dearborn, MI 48126
REPORTING SAFETY DEFECTS (U.S. ONLY)
If you believe that your vehicle has
a defect which could cause a crash
or could cause injury or death, you
should immediately inform the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) in addition to notifying Ford Motor Company.
If NHTSA receives similar complaints, it may open an investigation, and
if it finds that a safety defect exists in a group of vehicles, it may order a
recall and remedy campaign. However, NHTSA cannot become involved
in individual problems between you, your dealer, or Ford Motor
Company.
To contact NHTSA, you may either call the Auto Safety Hotline toll-free
at 1–800–424–9393 (or 366–0123 in the Washington D.C. area) or write
to:
NHTSA
U.S. Department of Transportation
Washington, D.C. 20590
You can also obtain other information about motor vehicle safety from
the Hotline.
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Cleaning
WASHING THE EXTERIOR
Wash your vehicle regularly with cool or lukewarm water and a neutral
Ph shampoo, such as Motorcraft Detail Wash (ZC-3–A), which is available
from your dealer.
• Never use strong household detergents or soap, such as dish washing
or laundry liquid. These products can discolor and spot painted
surfaces.
• Never wash a vehicle that is “hot to the touch” or during exposure to
strong, direct sunlight.
• Always use a clean sponge or carwash mitt with plenty of water for
best results.
• Dry the vehicle with a chamois or soft terry cloth towel in order to
eliminate water spotting.
• It is especially important to wash the vehicle regularly during the
winter months, as dirt and road salt are difficult to remove and cause
damage to the vehicle.
• Immediately remove items such as gasoline, diesel fuel, bird droppings
and insect deposits because they can cause damage to the vehicle’s
paintwork and trim over time.
• Remove any exterior accessories, such as antennas, before entering a
car wash.
• Suntan lotions and insect repellents can damage any painted
surface; if these substances come in contact with your vehicle,
wash off as soon as possible.
WAXING
Applying a polymer paint sealant to your vehicle every six months will
assist in reducing minor scratches and paint damage.
• Wash the vehicle first.
• Do not use waxes that contain abrasives.
• Do not allow paint sealant to come in contact with any non-body
(low-gloss black) colored trim, such as grained door handles, roof
racks, bumpers, side moldings, mirror housings or the windshield cowl
area. The paint sealant will “gray” or stain the parts over time.
PAINT CHIPS
Your dealer has touch-up paint and sprays to match your vehicle’s color.
Take your color code (printed on a sticker in the driver’s door jam) to
your dealer to ensure you get the correct color.
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Cleaning
• Remove particles such as bird droppings, tree sap, insect deposits, tar
spots, road salt and industrial fallout before repairing paint chips.
• Always read the instructions before using the products.
ALUMINUM WHEELS AND COVERS
Aluminum wheel rims or covers are coated with a clearcoat paint finish.
In order to maintain their shine:
• Clean with Motorcraft Wheel and Tire Cleaner (ZC-37–A), which is
available from your dealer.
• Never apply any cleaning chemical to hot or warm wheel rims or
covers.
• Some automatic car washes may cause damage to the finish on your
wheel rims or covers. Chemical-strength cleaners, or cleaning
chemicals, in combination with brush agitation to remove brake dust
and dirt, could wear away the clearcoat finish over time.
• Do not use hydrofluoric acid-based or high caustic-based wheel
cleaners, steel wool, fuels or strong household detergent.
• To remove tar and grease, use Ford Extra Strength Tar and Road Oil
Removal (B7A-19520–AA), available from your dealer.
ENGINE
Engines are more efficient when they are clean because grease and dirt
buildup keep the engine warmer than normal. When washing:
• Take care when using a power washer to clean the engine. The
high-pressure fluid could penetrate the sealed parts and cause
damage.
• Do not spray a hot engine with cold water to avoid cracking the
engine block or other engine components.
• Spray Motorcraft Engine Shampoo and Degreaser (ZC-20) on all parts
that require cleaning and pressure rinse clean.
• Never wash or rinse the engine while it is running; water in the
running engine may cause internal damage.
PLASTIC (NON-PAINTED) EXTERIOR PARTS
Use only approved products to clean plastic parts. These products are
available from your dealer.
• For routine cleaning, use Motorcraft Detail Wash (ZC-3–A).
• If tar or grease spots are present, use Ford Extra Strength Tar and
Road Oil Removal (B7A-19520–AA).
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Cleaning
INSTRUMENT PANEL AND CLUSTER LENS
Clean the instrument panel with a damp cloth, then dry with a dry cloth.
• Avoid cleaners or polish that increase the gloss of the upper portion of
the instrument panel. The dull finish in this area helps protect the
driver from undesirable windshield reflection.
• Be certain to wash or wipe your hands clean if you have been in
contact with certain products such as insect repellent and suntan
lotion in order to avoid possible damage to the painted surfaces.
INTERIOR TRIM
• Clean the interior trim areas with a damp cloth, then dry by wiping
with a dry, soft, clean cloth.
• Do not use household or glass cleaners as these may damage the
finish.
INTERIOR
For fabric, carpets, cloth seats and safety belts:
• Remove dust and loose dirt with a vacuum cleaner.
• Remove light stains and soil with Ford Extra Strength Upholstery
Cleaner (E8AZ-19523–AA).
• If grease or tar is present on the material, spot-clean the area first
with Motorcraft Spot and Stain Remover (ZC-14).
• Never saturate the seat covers with cleaning solution.
• Do not use household cleaning products or glass cleaners, which can
stain and discolor the fabric and affect the flame retardant abilities of
the seat materials.
Do not use cleaning solvents, bleach or dye on the vehicle’s
seatbelts, as these actions may weaken the belt webbing.
LEATHER SEATS (IF EQUIPPED)
Your leather seating surfaces have a clear, protective coating over the
leather.
• To clean, use a soft cloth with Motorcraft Deluxe Leather and Vinyl
Cleaner (ZC-11–A). Dry the area with a soft cloth.
• To help maintain its resiliency and color, use the Motorcraft Deluxe
Leather Care Kit (ZC-11–D), available from your authorized dealer.
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Cleaning
• Do not use household cleaning products, alcohol solutions, solvents or
cleaners intended for rubber, vinyl and plastics, or oil/petroleum-based
leather conditioners. These products may cause premature wearing of
the clear, protective coating.
UNDERBODY
Flush the complete underside of your vehicle frequently. Keep body and
door drain holes free from packed dirt.
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GENERAL SERVICING GUIDELINES AND PRECAUTIONS
As with any machine, care should be taken to avoid being injured when
performing maintenance, repairs or system checks. Improper or
incomplete service could result in the vehicle not working properly
which, in turn, may result in personal injury or damage to the vehicle or
equipment. It is the operator’s responsibility to see that the vehicle
receives proper care and maintenance. If you have any questions about
performing some service, have the service done by a qualified technician.
Servicing guidelines
When servicing your vehicle, always:
• turn off the ignition unless the particular procedure call for the engine
to be running.
• set the parking brake or chock the wheels.
• use support stands, not a jack, whenever you must be under a raised
vehicle.
• do not smoke.
• wear safety glasses for eye protection.
• operate the engine in a well-ventilated area
• do not work on the brakes or the clutch unless the proper precautions
are taken to avoid inhaling friction material dust.
• do not wear loose-fitting clothing, hanging jewelry, watches or rings.
• avoid contact with hot metal parts. Allow the hot components to cool
before working with, or around them.
Quality service parts are available through your dealer. If dealer parts are
not used, the owner must make sure that the parts that are being used
are equivalent quality to dealer parts.
The use of inferior parts can adversely affect the quality and
reliability of your vehicle which, in turn, can result in property
damage, personal injury or death.
Note: To avoid damage to the vehicle’s electrical components, disconnect
the positive (+) and negative (-) battery cables prior to electric welding.
Attach the welder ground cable as close as possible to the part being
welded. If it is necessary to weld close to an electrical component, it is
recommended that the electronic component be temporarily removed.
Follow the periodic lubrication procedures and regular inspection
intervals as outlined. Have your dealer or service center inspect your
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vehicle at least once a year. Remember that regular maintenance and
replacement of worn components will usually prevent serious problems
from developing later.
Making modifications to various parts, components and systems
of the vehicle, such as brake and steering systems can adversely
affect the quality, reliability and operation of your vehicle and could
result in property damage, personal injury or death. Such modifications
must be avoided.
The lubrication intervals present a good opportunity to inspect the
vehicle. It is suggested that the various points listed herein be checked
at the lubrication or other recommended intervals.
Failure to properly perform maintenance and servicing
procedures could result in vehicle damage, personal injury or
death.
If the owner/operator of the vehicle is a skilled technician and intends on
performing the vehicle maintenance and service, he is strongly urged to
purchase a service manual.
Take care when performing any maintenance, system check or
service on your vehicle. Some of the materials may also be
hazardous if used, serviced or handled improperly and could result in
property damage, personal injury or death.
Air conditioning system checks
Have your air conditioning system checked each spring. The refrigerant
charge, cleanliness of the condenser-evaporator cores and belt condition
is essential to air conditioning performance.
When the air conditioning system is being used daily, remove the fresh
air filter (if equipped) once each season and check for dirt, lint, etc.
Replace the filter if necessary. Vehicles operating in unusually dusty
conditions may require inspecting and replacing the fresh air filter more
often.
Front axle - general service information
Maintaining the front axle alignment to specifications is very important
and should only be performed by a qualified technician. Toe-in
adjustment is particularly important with radial tires.
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Maintenance and specifications
Check to make sure that the axle mounting U-bolt nuts, attaching or
mounting bolts and nuts are securely tightened. Regularly check front
axle for damage, binding, worn parts and adequate lubrication.
At regular intervals, or during other scheduled maintenance, (tire
rotation/service, wheel bearing service, alignment, etc.) the kingpins
should be checked for excessive wear. Refer to the service manual for
proper procedures.
Toe-in setting - general inspection
Inspecting steer axle tires in the first 4,800–16,000 service km
(3,000–10,000 service miles) will generally show if tires are wearing
normally.
Rapid outside shoulder wear on both tires indicates too much toe-in.
Rapid inside shoulder wear on both tires indicates too much toe-out. In
P&D-type service, which includes school buses, left-to-right steer tire
tread life differentials up to 40% can be observed depending on routes
and other variables.
Follow the tire manufacturer’s recommended cold inflation pressure for
the tire size, load range (ply rating) and steer axle loading typical for
their operation (each steer axle tire will equal 1⁄2 steer axle loading).
Special applications may warrant a setting based on past experience with
the type of tire operating loads and conditions. Radial tires are more
sensitive to toe-in setting than bias ply tires. While not insensitive to
vehicle alignment, fine tuning school bus alignment to line-haul truck
standards will not drastically improve tire tread life.
It is essential that correct toe-in and tire pressure be maintained for
optimum tire wear.
Rear axle - general inspection
Check to make sure that the axle mounting U-bolts, attaching or
mounting bolts and nuts are securely tightened. Refer to U-bolt nut
torque chart in this chapter. Regularly check the rear axle for damaged,
binding or worn parts.
NoSpin Detroit Locker positive locking differential
Vehicle equipped with this type differential have the operator’s manual
supplied with the vehicle. Refer to this manual for maintenance checks.
Brake system - general inspection
Your vehicle is equipped with non-asbestos brake linings. However,
exposure to excessive amounts of brake material (whether asbestos or
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Maintenance and specifications
non-asbestos, fiberglass, mineral wool, aramid or carbon) may be a
potentially serious health hazard.
Avoid breathing brake lining fiber dust as it may be extremely
hazardous to your health. Always use of respirator during brake
maintenance.
Note: Persons handling brake linings should follow all precautions listed
below:
1. Always wear a respirator approved by the National Institute of
Occupational Studies of Health (NIOSH) or Mine Safety and Appliance
(MSA) during all brake service procedures. Wear the respirator from
removal of the wheels through assembly.
2. Never use compressed air or dry brushing to clean brake parts or
assemblies.
3. Clean brake parts and assemblies in open air. During assembly,
carefully place all parts on the floor to avoid getting dust in the air. Use
an industrial vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter system to clean dust
from the brake drums, backing plates and other brake parts. After using
the vacuum, remove any remaining dust with a rag soaked in water and
wrung until nearly dry.
4. Never use compressed air or dry sweeping to clean the work area.
Use an industrial vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter system and rags
soaked in water until wrung until nearly dry. Dispose of used rags with
care to avoid getting dust in the air. Use an approved respirator when
emptying vacuum cleaners and handling used rags.
5. Worker clean-up: Wash your hands before eating, drinking or
smoking. Vacuum your work clothes after use and then launder them
separately, without shaking them, to prevent fiber dust getting into the
air.
Air brakes - inspection and adjustment
A regular schedule for periodic cleaning, lubrication, adjustment and
inspection should be established based on the type of vehicle operation.
It is difficult to predetermine an exact maintenance interval (time or
mileage), since vehicles will be used in a wide variety of applications and
conditions. If you are uncertain of the proper schedule and procedures
for your vehicle, contact your dealer.
Periodic checking of push rod travel or brake adjustment is essential for
effective braking. Push rod travel should be checked every service
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Maintenance and specifications
interval to determine if adjustment is necessary. Brake chamber push
rods on original equipment chambers now incorporate a stroke indicator
to aid in adjustment checks; an orange paint marker near the base of the
push rod. If the push rod is clean and the brakes require adjustment, the
orange marker can be seen protruding from the chamber when the
brakes are applied.
Slack adjusters should also be checked to ensure proper operation of the
adjuster mechanism at the six-month interval. Push rod travel should be
kept at a minimum without the brakes dragging.
Inspect the brake lining every maintenance interval. When brake lining or
blocks are worn to within 1.6 mm (1/16 in.) of rivets, brake lining must
be replaced. This inspection or adjustment should only be performed by
a qualified technician and must be in accordance with instructions
provided by the service manual.
Do not back off or disconnect the front brake so that they are less
effective, letting the rear brakes do all the stopping of the vehicle. Do
not overlook the brakes on the trailer, either. Brake condition on the
trailer is just as important as the tractor. Proper brake balance on trucks
and tractor-trailers is essential for effective braking.
Once a year, the entire brake system must be inspected. Check the
following:
• Any rubber as it may deteriorate whenever used. Rubber brake
components should be inspected by a qualified technician and
replaced as necessary. Replacement intervals vary according to the
severity and length of vehicle service.
• Condition of brake drums, brake chambers and slack adjusters.
• System for air leaks.
• Hose or pipes for rust, damage and deterioration.
• Operation of service and parking brakes.
Some parts such as air brake chamber diaphragm, air compressor and air
cleaner should be inspected periodically and replaced if considered
unserviceable.
Air brakes - air dryer
Performance of desiccant or after-cooler type air dryers is dependent on
climatic conditions in which your vehicle is operating. Maintenance
schedules must be establishes for each specific operation.
The sue of an air dryer on a vehicle does not eliminate the need to
periodically drain the air reservoirs.
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Maintenance and specifications
Air brakes - desiccant air dryer
Inspect for moisture in the air system by opening reservoirs, drain cocks
or valves and checking for presence of water. The presence of small
amounts of water is due to condensation is normal and should not be
considered as an indication that the dryer is not functioning properly.
The desiccant cartridge should be replaced or rebuilt when it has been
determined that the desiccant is contaminated and does not have
adequate water absorption capacity. The desiccant change interval may
vary; it is generally recommended that the desiccant be replaced every
12 months (yearly). If experience has shown that extended or shortened
life has resulted for a particular installation, then the yearly interval can
be increased or decreased accordingly.
Hydraulic brakes - general inspection and adjustment
A regular schedule for periodic cleaning, lubrication, adjustment and
inspection should be established based on the type of vehicle operation.
It is difficult to predetermine an exact maintenance interval (time or
mileage), since vehicles will be used in a wide variety of applications and
conditions. If you are uncertain of the proper schedule and procedures
for your vehicle, contact your dealer.
Inspect the brake lining every maintenance interval. Establish inspection
intervals that provide for lining replacement before damage to the disc
occurs. Excessive lining wear may expose the backing plate to the disc
causing scoring of the disc faces.
This inspection should be performed by a qualified technician and must
be in accordance with instructions provided by the service manual.
Note: Hydraulic brake system are power assisted. Braking capabilities
will be greatly reduced without engine assist.
Hydraulic brakes - fluid level
Fluid level should be at the bottom edge of the ring on each reservoir fill
port. Do not fill the master cylinder to the top of the reservoir.
Note: If brake fluid requires attention to maintain a proper master
cylinder level, this is an indication of either severe operation (pad wear)
or fluid system leakage. A more frequent and thorough brake inspection
will be required.
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Maintenance and specifications
Hydraulic brakes - fluid precautions
The Hydro-Max brake system consists of two completely separate
hydraulic systems operating with two different and incompatible fluids;
power steering fluid and hydraulic brake fluid. Failure to observe
precautions preventing the contamination of either system with fluid
from the other will result in swelling and deterioration of rubber parts
leading to reduced brake performance and eventual brake failure.
To avoid fluid contamination, the following should always be observed:
1. Use only fluids specified (or equivalent) and properly identified.
2. Add fluids only to the following locations:
• Power steering fluid to the power steering fluid pump reservoir
• Brake fluid to the brake master cylinder
Hydraulic brakes - brake lines, hoses and fittings
Inspect these components every 6,000 km (4,000 miles).
• Check lines for kinks, dents, corrosion or rupture.
• Check hoses for abrasions, kinks, soft spots or rupture, collapse,
cracks, twists or loose frame supports. When replacing a hose, be sure
there is adequate clearance to the hose to avoid an abrasion to the
new hose.
• Examine all connections for leaks.
• Repair or replace brake line tubes, hoses or fittings as required.
Driveline parking brake
Parking brake adjustment should only be performed by a qualified
technician, and in accordance with the instructions in the service
manual.
Use wheel chocks and exercise caution when inspecting under
the vehicle. A vehicle roll-away could result in property damage,
personal injury or death.
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Maintenance and specifications
OPENING THE HOOD
The hood and fenders are held in position by a latch located on each
fender.
The parking brake must be fully set before opening the hood or
possible personal injury may occur.
If you must leave the engine running while checking under the
hood, do not allow any loose clothing, jewelry, hair or other
items to get near moving engine components or possible personal
injury may occur.
To open the hood:
1. Set the parking brake, shift into N (Neutral) (automatic transmission)
or 1 (First) (manual transmission) and turn the engine off.
2. Lift upward on the bottom of
each latch.
3. Pull the bottom of each latch
away from the fender.
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Maintenance and specifications
4. Tilt the hood forward until
stopped by the retaining cables.
To lower the hood:
1. Push the hood rearward at the top center of the hood above the grille
until closed.
2. Engage the latch on each fender.
3. Push down on the bottom of each latch until locked.
To reduce the risk of the possibility of personal injury, never
stand beneath the hood when it is being raised or lowered.
ENGINE OIL
Checking engine oil level—Cummins B and Caterpillar 3126 B
engines
Refer to the appropriate engine operator’s manual for information on the
engine oil.
Checking engine oil level—6.0L Power Stroke engine
Refer to the general maintenance information section for the appropriate
intervals for checking the engine oil.
Check the engine oil level consistently and accurately. The following
procedure is recommended:
1. Start the engine and let it run until it reaches normal operating
temperature (the engine coolant temperature gauge indicator will be
near the center of the normal area between H and C).
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Maintenance and specifications
2. Park the vehicle on level ground.
3. Set the parking brake and shift into N (Neutral) (automatic
transmission) or 1 (First) (manual transmission).
4. Turn off the engine and wait a few minutes for the oil to drain
completely into the oil pan.
5. Open the hood. Protect yourself from engine heat.
6. Locate and carefully remove the
engine oil level indicator (dipstick).
7. Wipe the indicator clean. Insert the indicator fully, then remove it
again.
• If the oil level is between FULL and OPERATING RANGE, the oil
level is acceptable. DO NOT ADD OIL.
• Maintain the oil level between ADD and OPERATING RANGE on the
dipstick by adding oil as required.
• The distance from ADD to OPERATING RANGE on the dipstick
represents 1.9L (2 quarts).
• Oil levels above OPERATING RANGE may cause engine damage. Some
oil must be removed from the engine by a qualified service technician.
8. Put the indicator back into the engine and ensure it is fully seated.
Engine oil and filter recommendations—Cummins B and Caterpillar
3126 B engines
Refer to the appropriate engine operator’s manual for information on the
engine oil.
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Maintenance and specifications
Engine oil and filter recommendations—6.0L Power Stroke engine
To help achieve proper engine performance and durability, it is important
that you:
• Use only engine lubricating oils and oil filters of the proper quality.
• Change the engine oil and filter no later than the recommended
service interval. Refer to the general maintenance information section
for the appropriate intervals for changing the engine oil and filter.
• Change your engine oil and filter more frequently if your vehicle
operation includes extended periods of idling or low-speed operation,
driving for a long time in cold temperatures or short driving distances.
Diesel engines require specially formulated oil to resist contamination.
Proper quality oils also provide maximum efficiency of the crankcase
ventilation system which reduces air pollution.
For normal or severe service, use Motorcraft oil or an equivalent oil
conforming to Ford Specification WSS-M2C171–C or API Service
categories CI-4 or CI-4/SL. If CI-4 oil is not available, CH-4 is acceptable.
Diesel engine oils with improved fuel economy properties (energy
conserving) are currently available. If you use an energy conserving oil,
be sure it meets Ford specification WSS-M2C171–D or API service
category designation CI-4/SL and is of the proper viscosity grade for the
temperature range in which you expect to operate your vehicle. Some
energy conserving oils do not meet the requirements necessary for your
diesel engine.
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Maintenance and specifications
SAE VISCOSITY GRADES
*
Preferred
15W-40 Preferred
10W-30
5W-30
0W-30
F˚
-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
C˚
-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
EXPECTED TEMPERATURE RANGE
* Heavy duty trailer towing with ambient temperatures above 10°C
(50°F) requires 15W-40 engine oil.
Using the chart, determine which SAE viscosity grade best suits the
temperature range in which you expect to operate your vehicle. The use
of the correct oil viscosity grade for diesel engines is important for
satisfactory engine operation.
A symbol has been developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API)
to help you select the proper engine oil. The symbol will be included on
the oil container you purchase.
The top section of the symbol shows
the API service category
designation. This should be CI-4/SL.
The center section of the API
symbol shows the SAE viscosity
grade.
The lower section of the API symbol will state energy conserving if the
engine oil has been proven to have fuel savings capabilities.
Use a Ford engine oil filter, part number FL-1995 or equivalent. This
filter protects your engine by filtering harmful, abrasive or sludge
particles.
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Maintenance and specifications
ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM
Inspect cooling system daily
Note: The de-aeration tank requires air space for expansion volume. The
proper fill level is identified on the reservoir; do not overfill the reservoir.
To reduce the risk of personal injury or death, use only the
following procedure to remove the pressure-type cap from the
radiator or expansion tank.
1. Always allow the engine to cool first.
2. Wrap a thick, heavy cloth around the cap.
3. Loosen the cap slowly, then pause a moment. This will reduce the risk
of possible scalding by hot water or steam.
4. Continue to unscrew the cap and remove only after pressure in the
radiator is fully released.
Note: If the coolant should get extremely low and the engine very hot,
let the engine cool for approximately 15 minutes before adding coolant.
After the engine has cooled, start the engine and add coolant slowly.
Adding coolant to a hot engine may crack the cylinder head or
crankcase. Never use only water to fill the cooling system.
Adding engine coolant - 6.0L Powerstroke
When adding coolant, make sure it is a 50/50 mixture of engine coolant
and distilled water. Add the mixture to the coolant reservoir, when the
engine is cool, until the appropriate fill level is obtained.
For vehicles with overflow coolant systems with a non-pressurized cap
on the coolant recovery system, add coolant to the coolant recovery
reservoir when the engine is cool. Add the proper mixture of coolant and
water to the “cold full” level. For all other vehicles, which have a coolant
degas system with a pressurized cap, or if it is necessary to remove the
coolant pressure relief cap on the radiator of a vehicle with an overflow
system, follow these steps to add engine coolant.
To reduce the risk of personal injury, make sure the engine is
cool before unscrewing the coolant pressure relief cap. The
cooling system is under pressure; steam and hot liquid can come out
forcefully when the cap is loosened slightly.
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Maintenance and specifications
Do not add engine coolant when the engine is hot. Steam and
scalding liquids released from a hot cooling system can burn you
badly. Also, you can be burned if you spill coolant on hot engine parts.
Do not put engine coolant in the windshield washer fluid
container. If sprayed on the windshield, engine coolant could
make it difficult to see through the windshield.
1. Before you begin, turn the engine off and let it cool.
2. When the engine is cool, wrap a thick cloth around the coolant
pressure relief cap on the coolant reservoir (an opaque plastic bottle).
Slowly turn cap counterclockwise (left) until pressure begins to release.
3. Step back while the pressure releases.
4. When you are sure that all the pressure has been released, use the
cloth to turn it counterclockwise and remove the cap.
5. Fill the coolant reservoir slowly with the proper coolant mixture (see
above), to within the “cold fill range” or the “cold full” level on the
reservoir. If you removed the radiator cap in an overflow system, fill the
radiator until the coolant is visible and radiator is almost full.
6. Replace the cap. Turn until tightly installed. (Cap must be tightly
installed to prevent coolant loss.)
After any coolant has been added, check the coolant concentration see
Checking Engine Coolant section). If the concentration is not 50/50
(protection to –34° F/–36° C), drain some coolant and adjust the
concentration. It may take several drains and additions to obtain a 50/50
coolant concentration.
Whenever coolant has been added, the coolant level in the coolant
reservoir should be checked the next few times you drive the vehicle. If
necessary, add enough 50/50 concentration of engine coolant and
distilled water to bring the liquid level to the proper level.
If you have to add more than 1.0 liter (1.0 quart) of engine coolant per
month, have your dealer check the engine cooling system. Your cooling
system may have a leak. Operating an engine with a low level of coolant
can result in engine overheating and possible engine damage.
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Maintenance and specifications
Extended life engine coolant
The cooling system in your vehicle is filled with yellow-colored
Motorcraft Premium Gold Engine Coolant meeting Ford Specification
WSS-M97B51–A1.
• Add Motorcraft Premium Gold Engine Coolant
(yellow-colored), VC-7–A (VC-7–B in Oregon).
Note: Use of Motorcraft Cooling System Stop Leak Pellets, VC-6, may
darken the color of Motorcraft Premium Gold Engine Coolant from
yellow to golden tan.
• Do not add/mix extended life coolants such as Motorcraft
Speciality Orange Engine Coolant, VC-2 (U.S.) or CXC-209
(Canada), meeting Ford specification WSS-M97B44–D, with the
factory-fill coolant, Motorcraft Premium Gold Coolant meeting
Ford Specification WSS-M97B51–A. Mixing Motorcraft Speciality
Orange Engine Coolant or any equivalent extended life engine coolant
with this factory-fill coolant can result in degraded corrosion
protection.
• A large amount of water without engine coolant may be added, in case
of emergency, to reach a vehicle service location. In this instance, the
cooling system must be drained and refilled with a 50/50 mixture of
engine coolant and distilled water as soon as possible. Water alone
(without engine coolant) can cause engine damage from corrosion,
overheating or freezing.
• Do not use alcohol, methanol or brine or any engine coolants
mixed with alcohol or methanol antifreeze (coolant). Alcohol
and other liquids can cause engine damage from overheating or
freezing.
• Do not add extra inhibitors or additives to the coolant. These
can be harmful and compromise the corrosion protection of the engine
coolant.
• Do not mix with recycled coolant unless from a Ford-approved
recycling process (see Use of Recycled Engine Coolant section).
Coolant condition inspection
Engine cooling systems should be checked twice a year to assure proper
glycol/water concentrations. a 50/50 mixture is recommended and
provides freeze protection in weather conditions as low as –36°C (-34°F)
as well as optimum corrosion protection. For vehicle operating in
extremely cold climate, a concentration of 60% ethylene glycol will
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Maintenance and specifications
provide freeze protection in weather conditions as low as –51°C (-59°F).
Concentrations greater than 60% glycol are not recommended.
Engine coolant capacities and part numbers
For cooling system capacities, refer to Refill capacities in this chapter.
For coolant part numbers, refer to Lubricant specifications in this
chapter.
Severe climates
If you drive in extremely cold climates (less than –36° C [–34° F]):
• It may be necessary to increase the coolant concentration
above 50%.
• NEVER increase the coolant concentration above 60%.
• Engine coolant concentrations above 60% will decrease the
overheat protection characteristics of the engine coolant and
may cause engine damage.
• If available, refer to the chart on the coolant container to
ensure the coolant concentration in your vehicle will provide
adequate freeze protection at the temperatures in which you
drive in the winter months.
If you drive in extremely hot climates:
• It is still necessary to maintain the coolant concentration
above 40%.
• NEVER decrease the coolant concentration below 40%.
• Engine coolant concentrations below 40% will decrease the
corrosion protection characteristics of the engine coolant and
may cause engine damage.
• Engine coolant concentrations below 40% will decrease the
freeze protection characteristics of the engine coolant and may
cause engine damage.
• If available, refer to the chart on the coolant container to
ensure the coolant concentration in your vehicle will provide
adequate protection at the temperatures in which you drive.
Vehicles driven year-round in non-extreme climates should use a 50/50
mixture of engine coolant and distilled water for optimum cooling system
and engine protection.
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Maintenance and specifications
Fan clutches
Your vehicle’s cooling system is equipped with a viscous fan clutch.
• The fan clutch helps control cooling, increase performance, improve
fuel economy and reduce noise.
• The fan clutch is controlled by bimetallic spring sensors. Do not
tamper with these sensors as this may change their calibration or keep
the fan clutch from operating at all.
Stay clear of the fan/fan area while the engine is running or
possible personal injury may occur.
WINDSHIELD WASHER FLUID
Inspect the solution level in the
washer reservoir when insufficient
solution is sprayed.
Use 3.8L (4.0 quarts) of Ultra-Clear
Windshield Washer Concentrate or a
washer fluid that meets the Ford
specification listed. Refer to
Lubricant specifications in this
chapter.
State or local regulations on volatile
organic compounds may restrict the use of methanol, a common
windshield washer antifreeze additive. Washer fluids containing
non-methanol antifreeze agents should be used only if they provide cold
weather protection without damaging the vehicle’s paint finish, wiper
blades or washer system.
Do not put engine coolant in the washer fluid reservoir. Engine
coolant can severely reduce visibility if sprayed on the
windshield.
179
Maintenance and specifications
BRAKE FLUID
Check and refill the Hydromax
brake fluid reservoir using the
following procedure. Refer to the
general maintenance information
section for the service interval.
1. Clean the reservoir caps before
removal to prevent dirt or water
from entering the reservoir.
2. Visually inspect the fluid level.
3. If necessary, add brake fluid from
a clean un-opened container until
the level reaches MAX. Do not fill
above this line.
4. Use only a DOT 3 brake fluid
certified to meet manufacturer specifications. Refer to Lubricant
specifications in this chapter.
Brake fluid is toxic. If brake fluid contacts the eyes, flush eyes
with running water for 15 minutes. Seek medical attention if
irritation persists. If taken internally, drink water and induce vomiting.
Seek medical attention immediately.
If you use a brake fluid that is not DOT 3, you will cause
permanent damage to your brakes.
Do not let the reservoir for the master cylinder run dry. This
may cause the brakes to fail.
BATTERY
Your vehicle is equipped with two maintenance-free batteries which are
mounted in a covered tray and located on the left frame rail. The
covered battery tray, depending upon application, may also have one or
two steps attached.
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Maintenance and specifications
• Covered battery tray shown.
Battery tray with steps similar.
The two rubber straps on top of
the cover must be pulled up and
moved to the side of the battery
in order to remove the lid.
• Battery tray with cover removed.
Maintenance-free batteries do not normally require adding additional
water. However, for severe usage or in high temperature climates, check
the battery electrolyte levels. Refer to the general maintenance
information section for the service interval schedules.
Keep the electrolyte level in each cell up to the “level indicator”.
Do not overfill the battery cells.
If the electrolyte level in the battery is low, you can add plain tap water
to the battery, as long as you do not use hard water (water with a high
mineral or alkali content). If possible, however, try to only fill the battery
cells with distilled water. If the battery needs water often, have the
charging system checked.
Make sure the battery cover/shield is reinstalled after the battery
has been cleaned or replaced.
For longer, trouble-free operation, keep the top of the batteries clean
and dry. Also, make certain the battery cables are always tightly fastened
to the battery terminals.
If you see any corrosion on the battery or terminals, remove the cables
from the terminals and clean with a wire brush. You can neutralize the
acid with a solution of baking soda and water.
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Maintenance and specifications
Batteries normally produce explosive gases which can cause
personal injury. Therefore, do not allow flames, sparks or lighted
substances to come near the battery. When working near the battery,
always shield your face and protect your eyes. Always provide proper
ventilation.
When lifting a plastic-cased battery, excessive pressure on the
end walls could cause acid to flow through the vent caps,
resulting in personal injury and/or damage to the vehicle or battery.
Lift the battery with a battery carrier or with your hands on opposite
corners.
Keep batteries out of reach of children. Batteries contain sulfuric
acid. Avoid contact with skin, eyes or clothing. Shield your eyes
when working near the battery to protect against possible splashing of
acid solution. In case of acid contact with skin or eyes, flush
immediately with water for a minimum of 15 minutes and get prompt
medical attention. If acid is swallowed, call a physician immediately.
Battery posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead and
lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
RN
LE
TU
AD
RE
Always dispose of automatice
batteries in a respnsible manner.
Follow your local authorized
standards for disposal. Call your
local authorized recycling center to
find out more about recycling
automative batteries.
RECYCLE
Alternator
Before connecting a fast-charger, booster battery or installing a new
battery, make sure the ground polarities of the fast-charger, booster
battery or alternator (when installing a battery) are matched to the
ground polarity of the vehicle battery. Improper usage of the
fast-charger, hook-up of booster battery or installation of a new battery
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Maintenance and specifications
can cause damage to the electrical system or to the alternator. Do not
attempt to polarize the alternator.
STEERING - GENERAL INSPECTION
• Ask your service technician to examine the steering mechanism. Only
minor adjustments may be necessary.
• Check tie rod, drag link end clamp bolts and ball joints. They must be
tight.
• Check for installation and spread of cotter pins and tightness of nuts
at both ends of the tie rod and drag link.
• Check the pitman arm (steering arm at steering gear) mounting is
tight and locked. Check system for leaks or hose chafing. Repair at
once.
• Maintain proper steering gear and power steering pump lubricant
levels.
• Regularly inspect steering column joint bolts and steering linkage,
particularly for body-to-chassis clearance.
Note: Have any steering problems corrected at once by a qualified
service technician.
Failure to maintain the steering system in proper condition can
cause reduced steering ability resulting in property damage,
personal injury or death.
Tightening steering column joint bolts
As a good maintenance practice, it is recommended that steering column
joint bolts be checked for tightness every 96,000 km (60,000 miles) or
annually, whichever occurs first. DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN.
Power steering
Whenever the hydraulic (power steering) system has been drained and
refilled for any reason, air must be bled from the system before returning
the vehicle to service. Failure to properly bleed the hydraulic system can
result in degradation of power system performance.
Consult your dealer who is aware of the proper procedures for filling and
bleeding the system.
POWER STEERING FLUID
Check the power steering fluid level using the following procedure. Refer
to the general maintenance information section for the recommended
service intervals. If adding fluid is necessary, use only MERCON威 ATF.
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Maintenance and specifications
1. Set the parking brake, shift into N (Neutral) (automatic transmission)
or 1 (First) (manual transmission) and turn the engine off.
2. Open the hood.
3. Clean the top of the power steering fluid reservoir.
4. Remove the dipstick from the reservoir and wipe the dipstick clean.
5. Reinstall the dipstick. Remove it again and check the fluid level.
• If the fluid temperature is at
approximately 20°C - 49°C (68°F
- 120°F) (fluid cool or warm to
the touch), check the COLD side ADD FULL MAX. COLD
of the dipstick. The fluid level
should be within the FULL range
• If the fluid level is below the ADD
line, add fluid in small amounts,
continuously checking the level until it reaches the proper level.
• If the fluid temperature is at
approximately 80°C - 110°C
(176°F - 230°F) (fluid too hot
to touch), check the HOT side of ADD FULL MAX. HOT
the dipstick. The fluid level
should be within the FULL range.
• If the fluid level is below the ADD
line, add fluid in small amounts,
continuously checking the level until it reaches the proper level.
A low fluid level may indicate a leak in the power steering system.
Inspect the power steering system and repair the leak. If necessary, see
your dealer or a qualified service technician.
To avoid damage to the power steering system, do not operate the
vehicle with a low power steering fluid level.
Whenever the dipstick is installed, make sure it is properly seated and
tightened securely.
CLUTCH FLUID/LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS
Clutch fluid (if equipped)
Check the clutch fluid level. Refer to the general maintenance
information section for the service interval schedules.
During normal operation, the fluid level in the clutch reservoir should
remain constant. If the fluid level drops, maintain the fluid level at the
step in the reservoir.
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Maintenance and specifications
Use only a DOT 3 brake fluid designed to meet manufacturer
specifications. Refer to Lubricant specifications in this chapter.
1. Set the parking brake, shift into 1
(First) and turn the engine off.
2. Open the hood.
3. Clean the reservoir cap before
removal to prevent dirt and water
from entering the reservoir.
4. Remove cap and rubber
diaphragm from reservoir.
5. Add fluid until the level reaches
the step in the reservoir.
6. Reinstall rubber diaphragm and cap onto reservoir.
Clutch linkage (if equipped)
Lubricate the clutch linkage using the following procedure. Refer to the
general maintenance information section for the service interval schedules.
Use a grease which meets manufacturer specifications. Refer to
Lubricant specifications in this chapter.
1. Set the parking brake, shift into 1 (First) and turn the engine off.
2. Remove the inspection cover from the clutch housing.
• Transmission and clutch
removed for clarity.
3. With a grease gun, lubricate the clutch release bearing (at one
location) and the clutch release shaft (at two locations) using the grease
fittings provided.
4. Lubricate clutch release wear pads at the two locations where they
contact the clutch release bearing using a brush or similar tool.
5. Install the inspection cover onto the clutch housing.
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Maintenance and specifications
TRANSMISSION FLUID
Always dispose of used automotive fluids in a responsible manner.
Follow your community’s standards for disposing of these types of fluids.
Call your recycling center to find out about recycling automotive fluids.
Automatic transmission fluid
Refer to your Allison Automatic Transmission Operator’s Manual for
scheduled intervals for transmission fluid checks and changes. Your
transmission does not consume fluid. However, the fluid level should be
checked if the transmission is not working properly, i.e., if the
transmission slips or shifts slowly or if you notice some sign of fluid
leakage.
Transmission fluid level should be checked by your dealer or a qualified
service technician.
If you must add transmission fluid, make sure the correct type of fluid is
being used. The type of fluid used is indicated in your Allison Automatic
Transmission Operator’s Manual.
Use of a non-approved automatic transmission fluid may cause
internal transmission component damage.
Manual transmission fluid
Refer to your general maintenance information section for transmission
fluid level checks and fluid change intervals.
Your manual transmission may be filled with an optional synthetic fluid
which allows the use of extended service intervals. A tag on the filler
plug will identify the use of the synthetic fluid.
Use only fluid that meets manufacturer specifications (refer to
Lubricant specifications in this chapter.
Use of a non-approved transmission fluid may cause internal
transmission component damage.
Check your transmission fluid level using the following procedure:
1. Park the vehicle on level ground.
2. Set the parking brake and shift into 1 (First) and turn the engine off.
3. Clean any dirt from around the filler plug.
4. Remove the filler plug and inspect the fluid level.
5. The fluid level should be up to the bottom of the filler plug opening.
6. If necessary, add enough fluid through the filler plug opening so that
the fluid level is at the bottom of the opening.
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Maintenance and specifications
7. Clean and install the filler plug securely.
Drain and refill your transmission fluid using the following procedure:
1. Drain the transmission while the fluid is warm.
2. Park the vehicle on level ground.
3. Set the parking brake and shift into 1 (First) and turn the engine off.
4. Clean any dirt from around the filler and drain plugs.
5. Remove the filler and drain plugs and drain the fluid into a suitable
container. Dispose all used automotive fluids in a responsible manner
following your local authorized standards.
6. Clean and install the drain plug securely.
7. Add enough fluid through the filler plug opening so that the fluid level
is up to the bottom of the opening.
8. Clean and install the filler plug securely.
ENGINE AND SUBSYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Note: Information in this section pertains to the 6.0L Powertsoke engine
only. For information pertaining to other engines, see the respective
engine operator manual.
Note: To prevent damage to the engine control module, never
spray-wash it directly. Never spray any connector.
For effective emissions control and low operating cost, it is important
that maintenance operations listed in this section be performed at the
specified periods or mileage intervals indicated (kilometers, miles, hours,
or months, whichever comes first).
Service intervals are based upon average operating conditions. Where
dusty, frequent start and stop or heavily laden operations are
encountered, more frequent servicing will be required.
As the vehicle (engine) owner, you are responsible for the performance
of all scheduled maintenance. The required maintenance operations may
be performed by the owner at a service establishment of the owner’s
choosing. Any replacement parts used for required maintenance services
or repairs should be genuine manufacturer service parts or equivalent in
quality and performance to genuine manufacturer service parts. Use of
inferior parts hinders operations of the engine and emissions controls
and can reduce engine life and/or jeopardize the warranty.
Receipts covering the performance of regular maintenance should be
retained in the event questions arise concerning maintenance. The
receipts should be transferred to each subsequent owner of the vehicle
(engine).
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Maintenance and specifications
Catalytic converter
If your Diesel engine is equipped with a catalytic converter, it is
important to review the maintenance schedule to insure proper
functioning of the catalytic converter. Also, take precautions not to
damage the catalytic converter when servicing your engine or storing
your vehicle.
Note: If your vehicle is equipped with a catalytic converter/muffler, do
not blend waste oil with Diesel fuel. Operate only on low sulfur (less
than 500 parts per million sulfur) Diesel fuel with a cetane value of 45 or
higher.
Note: If your vehicle is equipped with a vertical exhaust pipe, it is very
important to have and maintain a rain cap on the exhaust pipe to
prevent water from entering the exhaust system and catalytic converter.
Any water entering the catalytic converter may damage the catalyst and
affect the function of the converter.
Air induction system
Once each year, perform a complete inspection of the air induction
system. In areas where road salt is used, the inspection consists of
disassembling the joints of each aluminum component and inspecting for
salt build-up, presence of chlorine that can cause aluminum particles to
flake off and enter the engine combustion chambers.
If evidence of corrosion is found (usually at the pipe connections), use a
wire brush to clean the inside of the pipes and inside the rubber hoses.
If the intake pipes are pitted at the joint ends, use RTV silicone to seal
the joints. Be certain that no excess material is on the inside of the pipes
that can be pulled into the engine. If the service condition of the pipes,
hoses or clamps is questionable, replace the defective part(s).
To reduce the risk of personal injury or death when performing
maintenance to any turbocharges engine with engine air inlet
piping disconnected, a turbocharger compressor air inlet protective
shield should be installed over the turbocharger air inlet.
Dual element air cleaner (if equipped) - 6.0L Powerstroke
The dual element air cleaner provides a large primary (outer) filter
element and small secondary (inner) filter element. The dual element
should be used in dusty environments such as sump and mixer
applications.
Your vehicle is equipped with an air filter restriction gauge to determine
when to replce the air cleaner element. It is not possible to determine
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Maintenance and specifications
the need for service by visually inspecting the air filter. When the yellow
indicator on the gauge reaches the red line, the air cleaner should be
replaced. Each time the air cleaner is replaced, reset the gauge by
pressing the red button.
The dual element air cleaner assembly restriction indicator is located
between the primary and secondary elements, in the bottom of the air
cleaner housing. This arrangement allows only the primary element to be
sensed by the restriction indicator or dash-mounted vacuum gauge. The
restriction indicator for the secondary element is separate, and has two
possible locations, depending on the element manufacturer. One type has
a rectangular wing nut with a built-in indicator and the other uses an
indicator located on the secondary element end cap. The secondary
element is to be replaced when all the green disappears on the wing nut
type or the green dot disappears form the indicator built into the
element end cap. The following provides procedures for servicing the
secondary element.
1. Remove the hold down nut. Remove the secondary filter element
carefully and slowly, then discard the old element. Note: Be careful not
to bump the filter while it’s still in the housing; this can raise a cloud of
dust that can enter the clean piping to the turbocharger.
2. Wipe the inside of the air cleaner housing with a damp cloth. Be sure
to clean the gasket sealing surface. Note: Do not use compressed air for
this cleaning! Prevent dust from entering the turbocharger inlet piping
during the wiping and element replacement process.
3. Visually inspect the air cleaner housing for damage or distortion which
could allow unfiltered air into the engine. Inspect to be sure that the
rubber dust unloader valve at the bottom of the housing is in place and
not cracked. Make corrections as required.
4. Inspect the new filter element for a damaged or non-resilient rubber
gasket. Inspect the filter’s body element for dents or excessive pleat
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Maintenance and specifications
bunching. If any of the mentioned condition exist, obtain a new service
element (consult your dealer). If the new element is not defective, install
it.
5. Install the retaining nut (with seal washer, if applicable) and torque to
6.7–8.5 N.m (60–75 in. lbs.)
6. Reassemble the air cleaner end cover to the air cleaner housing,
making sure that the cover seats squarely on the housing and the clamp
is neither too loose nor too tight. A loose condition is the result of an
element that is too short; a tight or “no clamp” condition is the result of
the element being too long. Obtain an outer service element that meets
quality specifications.
7. Check all clean air ducts between the air cleaner and turbocharger. All
connection must be tight, without any leaks.
8. When servicing is completed, reset the air restriction gauge by
pushing the reset button and releasing it. The yellow indicator will drop
below the gauges window.
Note: After starting the engine, the indicator may be seen in the lower
part of the gauge’s window. This is normal and should not be mistaken as
a signal for element service.
Cummins B and Caterpillar engines
Refer to the respective engine operator manual for air filter replacement
procedure.
FUEL INFORMATION
Important safety precautions
Do not overfill the fuel tank. The pressure in an overfilled tank
may cause leakage and lead to fuel spray and fire.
The fuel system may be under pressure. If the fuel cap is venting
vapor or if you hear a hissing sound, wait until it stops before
completely removing the cap.
Automotive fuels can cause serious injury or death if misused or
mishandled.
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Maintenance and specifications
Observe the following guidelines when handling fuel:
• Extinguish all smoking materials
and any open flames before
fueling your vehicle.
• Always turn off the vehicle before
fueling.
• Automotive fuels can be harmful
or fatal if swallowed. If fuel is swallowed, call a physician immediately,
even if no symptoms are immediately apparent. The toxic effects of
fuel may not be visible for hours.
• Avoid inhaling fuel vapors. Inhaling too much fuel vapor of any kind
can lead to eye and respiratory tract irritation. In severe cases,
excessive or prolonged breathing of fuel vapor can cause serious
illness and permanent injury.
• Avoid getting fuel liquid in your eyes. If fuel is splashed in the eyes,
remove contact lenses (if worn), flush with water for 15 minutes and
seek medical attention. Failure to seek proper medical attention could
lead to permanent injury.
• Fuels can also be harmful if absorbed through the skin. If fuel is
splashed on the skin and/or clothing, promptly remove contaminated
clothing and wash skin thoroughly with soap and water. Repeated or
prolonged skin contact with fuel liquid or vapor causes skin irritation.
If you must replace the fuel filler cap, replace it with a genuine
Ford or Motorcraft part. The customer warranty may be void for
any damage to the fuel tank or fuel system if a genuine Ford or
Motorcraft fuel filler cap is not used.
If you do not use the proper fuel filler cap, excessive pressure or
vacuum in the fuel tank may damage the fuel system or cause
the fuel system to work improperly in a collision, which may result in
possible personal injury.
Choosing the right fuel
At operating temperatures below 0°C (32°F), use a blend of No. 1D and
No. 2D Diesel fuels, also known as winterized No. 2D.
Do not use diesel fuel blended with waste oil in engines equipped with a
catalytic converter-muffler. Blending waste oil in with the fuel will plug
the catalytic converter-muffler, resulting in a significant loss of engine
power. Your emissions warranty will be voided if blending waste oil with
diesel fuel is practiced.
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Maintenance and specifications
Use low sulfur (less than 0.05% by weight) fuel as required by the EPA
for emission compliance.
Do not mix diesel fuel with gasoline, gasohol or alcohol. This
could cause an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Do not use starting fluid such as ether or gasoline. Such fluids
can cause immediate explosive damage to the engine and
possible personal injury.
Running out of fuel
Avoid running out of fuel as this will allow air to enter the fuel system,
which will make restarting the vehicle difficult.
If you have run out of fuel:
• If your vehicle is equipped with dual fuel tanks, add at least
15–19 liters (4–5 gallons) of fuel to each tank before attempting to
restart the engine.
• If your vehicle is equipped with the Caterpillar 3126 B engine,
the fuel system must be primed before attempting to restart the
engine. Refer to the engine operator’s manual for instructions on
priming the engine.
• Use caution not to overheat and damage the starter by cranking
the engine for an excessive period of time. You may need to crank the
engine for a longer time than normal. If the engine fails to start in 30
seconds, turn the ignition to the OFF position and wait for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
• Any remaining trapped air will self-purge from the fuel system once
the engine starts running.
• The engine may run rough and produce white smoke while air is in
the fuel system. This is normal and should stop after a short period of
time.
Fuel and lubricant additives
It should not be necessary to add any aftermarket fuel or lubricant
additives to your fuel tank if you use a properly formulated Diesel fuel
that meets the ASTM D 975 industry specification. Malfunctions
attributed to the use of such additives or failure to follow recommended
fuel or lubricant recommendations may not be covered under your
warranty.
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Maintenance and specifications
Fuel filter/water separator
Do not drain water separator while engine is running. Fuel may
ignite if separator is drained while engine is running or vehicle is
moving.
The fuel filter/water separator removes any contaminated particles
and/or water from the fuel before the fuel enters the engine.
The fuel filter/water separator should be drained as recommended in the
general maintenance information section.
Draining the fuel filter/water separator - Caterpillar 3126E engine
1. With the engine off, open the
drain valve located at the bottom of
the fuel filter/water separator by
turning it counterclockwise.
2. Drain the filter until clear fuel is visible.
3. Turn the drain valve clockwise to close the valve. Do not overtighten
the drain valve as this could cause damage to the fuel filter/water
separator.
Draining the fuel filter/water separator – 6.0L Power Stoke engine
The vehicle is equipped with a module located on the frame-rail under
the driver-side floorboard near the transmission.
Water should be drained from the
module assembly whenever the
warning light comes on or every
8,000 km (5,000 miles). The WATER
IN FUEL light will come on when approximately 100 cc (0.2 pints) of
water accumulates in the module.
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Maintenance and specifications
Replace the fuel filter with Motorcraft Part No. F81Z-9N184–AA
(FD-4596).
1. Stop the vehicle and shut off the engine.
The vehicle must be stopped with the engine off when draining
the HFCM. Fuel may ignite if separator is drained while the
engine is running or vehicle is moving.
2. Locate the module and place an
appropriate container under the
drain plug (see illustration).
3. Remove the drain plug by turning it counterclockwise. Allow to drain
for approximately 25 seconds or until clean fuel is observed. Install the
drain plug by turning it clockwise until it is firmly seated.
4. Verify that the drain plug is closed and sealed, then remove the
container from under the vehicle.
5. Restart the engine and check WATER IN FUEL indicator light; it
should be illuminated. If it continues to illuminate, have the fuel system
checked and repaired.
Draining the fuel filter/water separator - Cummins B engine
Refer to your engine operator’s manual for service procedures.
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Maintenance and specifications
Fuel filter replacement - Caterpillar 3126E engine
The fuel filter/water separator is
located on the left side of the
engine. Replace the fuel filter/water
separator as recommended in the
general maintenance information
section, or sooner if it becomes
plugged. Vehicles operated on fuel
with more than average impurities
may require replacement of the fuel
filter more frequently. The spin-on
filter has a water drain valve built
into the bottom of the filter canister.
Removal
1. Using an oil filter wrench, remove the filter.
2. Carefully clean the mating surfaces.
Installation
1. Fill the filter with clean, fresh diesel fuel.
2. Coat the filter seal with clean, fresh diesel fuel.
3. Hand-tighten the filter until it seats firmly against the mount, then
tighten (by hand) an additional 1⁄3 to 1⁄2 turn.
4. Start the engine and check for fuel leaks.
Fuel filter replacement - 6.0L Power Stroke engine
Your vehicle is equipped with two fuel filters; one mounted on top of the
engine and the other is mounted inside the frame rail under the
driver-side floorboard near the transmission. Both filters should be
replaced at the same time.
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Maintenance and specifications
Removal - Engine-mounted fuel filter
1. Remove the fuel filter cap by
turning counterclockwise.
2. Remove and discard the old fuel
filter element.
3. Carefully clean the mating
surfaces.
Removal - in-line fuel filter
1. Remove the fuel filter cap by
turning counterclockwise.
2. Remove and discard the old fuel
filter element.
3. Carefully clean the mating
surfaces.
Installation-both
The engine will not run properly if the fuel filter is not installed
in housing.
1. Install new fuel filter into the fuel filter housing.
2. Tighten cap onto fuel filter housing slowly, allowing fuel to soak into
the fuel filter element. Tighten cap until it contacts the housing.
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Maintenance and specifications
After replacing the fuel filter, the engine will purge the trapped
air as it runs. The engine may run roughly and smoke until the air
is completely eliminated.
Using a fuel which has more than average impurities may require
the fuel filter to be replaced more frequently than the service
interval specifies.
Fuel filter replacement - Cummins B engine
Refer to your engine operator’s manual for service intervals and
procedures.
FUEL CONSUMPTION IMPROVEMENT MEASURES
There are two important factors you can control to improve fuel
economy: the mechanical condition of your vehicle and how you drive it.
A properly maintained vehicle will deliver better performance than a
neglected vehicle. Always follow your maintenance schedule to keep your
vehicle in top operating condition.
Also, your driving habits have a significant influence on use of fuel. By
following these suggestions, you can stretch your fuel use:
• Avoid changes in speed as much as possible.
• Anticipate changing traffic conditions. Sudden stops and fast
acceleration waste fuel.
• Avoid extensive idling.
• Do not drive with your foot resting on the brake pedal.
Essentials of good fuel economy
Measuring techniques
Your best source of information about actual fuel economy is you, the
driver. You must gather information as accurately and consistently as
possible. Fuel expense, frequency of fillups or fuel gauge readings are
NOT accurate as a measure of fuel economy. We do not recommend
taking fuel economy measurements during the first 1,600 km (1,000
miles) of driving (engine break-in period). You will get a more accurate
measurement after 3,000 km–5,000 km (2,000 miles-3,000 miles).
The advertised fuel capacity of the fuel tank(s) on your vehicle is equal
to the rated refill capacity of the fuel tank(s) as listed in Fuel tanks in
this chapter. The advertised capacity is the amount of the Indicated
Capacity and the Empty Reserve combined. Indicated Capacity is the
difference in the amount of fuel in a full tank and a tank when the fuel
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Maintenance and specifications
gauge indicates empty. Empty Reserve is the small amount of usable fuel
remaining in the fuel tank after the fuel gauge indicates empty.
The amount of Empty Reserve varies and should not be relied
upon to increase driving range. When refueling your vehicle after
the fuel gauge indicates empty, you might not be able to refuel
the full amount of the advertised capacity of the fuel tank due to
the empty reserve still present in the tank.
Filling the tank
For consistent results:
• Use the same fill rate setting (low — medium — high) each time
during filling.
• Allow three automatic click-offs when filling.
• Always use fuel of a known quality, preferably a national brand.
• Have the vehicle loading and distribution the same every time.
• When refueling a vehicle equipped with dual fuel tanks, if the two
tanks are not filled equally, the fuel gauge reading may fluctuate
slightly until the fuel level between the two tanks balance out and
become equal.
Your results will be most accurate if your filling method is consistent.
Note: For vehicles equipped with dual fuel tanks, engine performance
may degrade if fuel is not added to both tanks when refueling.
Calculating fuel economy
1. Fill the fuel tank(s) completely and record the initial odometer
reading (in kilometers or miles).
2. Each time you fill the tank(s), record the amount of fuel added (in
liters or gallons).
3. After at least three to five tank fill-ups, fill the fuel tank(s) and record
the current odometer reading.
4. Subtract your initial odometer reading from the current odometer
reading.
5. Follow one of the simple calculations in order to determine fuel
economy:
• Multiply liters used by 100, then divide by total kilometers traveled.
• Divide total miles traveled by total gallons used.
Keep a record for at least one month and record the type of driving (city
or highway). This will provide an accurate estimate of the vehicle’s fuel
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Maintenance and specifications
economy under current driving conditions. Additionally, keeping records
during summer and winter will show how temperature impacts fuel
economy. In general, lower temperatures give lower fuel economy.
Driving style — good driving and fuel economy habits
Give consideration to the lists that follow and you may be able to change
a number of variables and improve your fuel economy.
Habits
• Smooth, moderate operation can yield up to 10% savings in fuel.
• Steady speeds without stopping will usually give the best fuel
economy.
• Anticipate stopping; slowing down may eliminate the need to stop.
• Sudden or hard accelerations may reduce fuel economy.
• Slow down gradually.
• Driving at reasonable speeds (traveling at 88 km/h [55 mph] uses 15%
less fuel than traveling at 105 km/h [65 mph]).
• Using the air conditioner or defroster may reduce fuel economy.
• Resting your foot on the brake pedal while driving may reduce fuel
economy.
Conditions
• Carrying unnecessary weight may reduce fuel economy.
• Fuel economy may decrease with lower temperatures during the first
12–16 km (8–10 miles) of driving.
• Flat terrain driving improves fuel economy over hilly roads.
• Transmissions give their best fuel economy when operated in the top
cruise gear and with steady pressure on the accelerator.
• Close windows for highway driving.
NOISE EMISSIONS – EXTERIOR
In order to comply with the federal exterior noise regulations, your
vehicle may be equipped with noise emission items. Depending on the
vehicle configuration, it may have all or some of the following items:
Air Intake System
• Air Cleaner: should be inspected and its location should not be
altered. Do not alter inlet and outlet piping.
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Maintenance and specifications
Body
• Wheel Well: splash shields, cab shields and under-hood insulation
should be inspected for deterioration, dislocation, and orientation.
Cooling System
• Check the fan for damage to blades; replace, if damaged, with the
recommended parts. Inspect for fan to shroud interference, and any
damage to shroud such as cracks and holes.
• The fan ratio should not be changed and the fan spacer dimensions
and positions should not be altered.
• Inspect the fan clutch for proper operation, make sure that the fan is
disengaged when cooling of the engine is not required.
• Check for proper operation of radiator shutters, if equipped. The
shutters should be open during normal operating temperatures.
Engine and Driveline System
• Transmission Enclosure: inspect for cracks, holes, and tears. Clean
any deposits such as oil, dirt, and stones.
• Engine valve covers and block covers are made to damp out engine
mechanical noise and, if needed, should be replaced with
recommended parts. Check for mechanical isolations.
Exhaust System
• Inspect the exhaust system for leaks at various joint connections and
tighten the clamps.
• Do a visual inspection for cracks or holes in the muffler and tail pipe.
• Always use the recommended parts when items need to be replaced.
• The tail pipe elbow or offset tail pipe orientation must not be changed
from the standard position as originally received.
• To avoid abnormal changes in vehicle sound levels, it is necessary for
the owner to perform inspections and necessary maintenance at the
intervals shown in the General Maintenance Information section.
CHASSIS-MOUNTED CHARGE AIR COOLER
Inspect charge air cooler daily
With the engine off, visually inspect the charge air cooler core assembly
for debris and clogging of external fins. Prior to engine operation,
remove any debris blocking the core.
• Turbocharger-to-charge air cooler
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Maintenance and specifications
• Charge air cooler-to-intake manifold pipe
• Mounting bracket
• Chassis-mounted charge air cooler core
Inspect air intake piping
• Check for accumulation of salt deposits (where applicable). If present,
disassemble and clean the complete air intake piping system. If the
intake piping is pitted, use RTV silicone to seal joints against leakage.
• Check for loose hoses and clamps.
• Check for ruptured or collapsed hoses.
• Check air cleaner housing for cracks.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM INSPECTIONS
Periodically inspect electrical connector and on the outside of the cab,
on the engine and frame for corrosion and tightness. Exposed terminals
such as the fuel sender, cranking motor, alternator and feed-through
studs should be cleaned and re-coated with a lubricant sealing grease
such as Motorcraft XG-3, or equivalent. This should include the ground
cable connector for batteries, engine and cab as well as the jump starting
stud.
Accessory feed connections
Vehicle electrical systems are complex and often include electronic
components such as engine and transmission controls, instrument panels,
ABS, etc. While most systems operate on battery voltage (12 volts),
some systems can be as high as 90 volts or as low as five volts. Refer to
the Electrical Circuit Diagram Manuals, available from your vehicle’s
manufacturer, to assure that any additional body lights and accessories
are connected to circuits that are both appropriate and not overloaded.
No modification should be made to any vehicle control system without
first contacting your dealer.
SUSPENSION INSPECTION
Note: Do not adjust air suspension height to any setting other than the
specified setting. Altering the height setting will change the driveline
angle and may result in unwarrantable component damage, such as
transmission component damage.
Verify drive axle air suspension height and height control valve
performance at engine lube oil change intervals.
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Maintenance and specifications
Periodically:
• Check condition of spring leaves for evidence of fatigue, bending or
breakage.
• Check condition of suspension mounting brackets and bushings.
• Check that torque rod mounting fasteners are tight.
• Check to be sure the suspension alignment is maintained at all time.
• Check U-bolts after the chassis has been operating under load for
1,600 km (1,000 miles) or six months, whichever comes first, the
U-Bolt nuts must be re-torqued. The U-Bolt nuts thereafter must be
re-torqued every 58,000 km (36,000 miles). The U-Bolt and nut
threads and seats should be cleaned and lubricated to assure a “like
new” condition when re-torquing.
Note: See the U-Bolt Nut Torque chart later in this section.
Supporting your vehicle for service
When performing service repairs on your vehicle, first prepare the
vehicle by doing the following:
1. Park the vehicle on a level concrete floor.
2. Set the parking brake and block the wheels to prevent the vehicle
from moving.
3. Select a jack (floor jack preferred) with a rated capacity sufficient to
lift and hold up the vehicle.
4. Raise the vehicle with the jack applied to the axle(s). DO NOT use the
bumper as a lifting point.
5. Support the vehicle with floor stands under the axle(s). If the axle or
the suspension are being serviced, support the vehicle with floor stands
under the frame side-members, preferably between the axles.
Do not use a jack when working under a vehicle. It may give
way, causing the vehicle to fall and result in property damage,
personal injury or death. Always use floor stands to support the
vehicle.
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Maintenance and specifications
FRAME AND TOW HOOKS
Your vehicles chassis is manufactured with frame rails of either mild
carbon steel, or HSLA steel. Each must be handled in a specific manner
to assure maximum service life. Before attempting frame repair or
modification, consult the service manual or your dealer.
It is important, particularly on vehicles where the tow hooks are used
frequently to inspect the front and rear tow hooks for damage or a loose
mounting.
U-BOLT NUT TORQUE
U-bolt diameter (nominal)
3/4 inch flanged lock nut
7/8 inch hex head with washer
(Air suspension axles; except with
14ACC, 14ADN and 14ADP axles)
7/8 inch hex head with washer
(including air suspension axles
14ACC, 14ADN and 14ADP axles)
1 inch hex head with washer
U-bolt diameter (nominal)
N.m
Ft. lbs.
353–407
260–300
543–610
400–450
353–407
260–300
441–543
325–400
Air suspension U-bolt checks and re-torquing procedures
1. Inspect the threads of the U-bolt and nut for rust and debris. Clean
the threads if contaminated.
2. Using a torque wrench, determine if any nuts can be turned with a
force below the specified torque.
3. Using the lowest discovered torqued nut as a starting point, retighten
the nuts using the sequence listed under Air suspension U-bolt and
U-bolt nut installation.
Air suspension U-bolt and U-bolt nut installation
1. Inspect the threads of the U-bolt and nut for rust and debris. Clean
the threads if contaminated.
2. Install the U-bolts and nuts and torque the nuts to 20 N.m. (15 ft.
lbs.), using a diagonal pattern.
3. Re-torque the nuts to 136 N.m. (100 ft. lbs.), using a diagonal pattern.
4. Re-torque the nuts to 271 N.m. (200 ft. lbs.), using a diagonal pattern.
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Maintenance and specifications
5. Re-torque the nuts to 542 (400 ft. lbs.), using a diagonal pattern. (For
vehicles equipped with 14ACC, 14 ADN and 14ADP axles, do not use
Step 6.)
6. Re-torque the nuts to 576 N.m. (425 ft. lbs.), using a diagonal pattern.
(For vehicles equipped with 14ACC, 14 ADN and 14ADP axles.)
7. Use the same diagonal pattern with each U-bolt nut re-torque.
Spring U-bolt checks
Check U-bolt nuts and re-torque every 58,000 km (36,000 miles) after
initial 1,600 km (1,000 mile) re-torque. The U-bolt and nut threads and
seats should be cleaned and lubricated to assure peak condition when
re-torqued.
PROPELLER SHAFT
At the regular lubrication interval, check the universal joints for any
evidence of wear or looseness. Should propeller shaft vibrations occur,
stop the vehicle immediately to avoid possible hazardous consequences
or damage to other components.
REAR AXLE LUBRICANT
Refer to your general maintenance information section for rear axle
lubricant level checks and lubricant change intervals.
Your rear axle may be filled with an optional synthetic lubricant which
allows the use of extended service intervals. A tag on the filler plug will
identify the use of the synthetic lubricant.
Use only a lubricant that meets manufacturer specifications (refer to
Lubricant specifications in this chapter).
Use of a non-approved rear axle lubricant may cause internal axle
component damage.
Check your rear axle lubricant level using the following procedure:
1. Park the vehicle on level ground.
2. Set the parking brake and shift into N (Neutral) (automatic
transmission) or 1 (First) (manual transmission) and turn the engine off.
3. Clean any dirt from around the rear axle filler plug.
4. Remove the filler plug and inspect the lubricant level.
5. The lubricant level should be up to the bottom of the filler plug opening.
6. If necessary, add enough lubricant through the filler plug opening so
that the lubricant level is at the bottom of the opening.
7. Clean and install the filler plug securely.
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Maintenance and specifications
Drain and refill your rear axle lubricant using the following procedure:
1. Drain the rear axle while the lubricant is warm.
2. Park the vehicle on level ground.
3. Set the parking brake and shift into N (Neutral) (automatic
transmission) or 1 (First) (manual transmission) and turn the engine off.
4. Clean any dirt from around the rear axle filler and drain plugs.
5. Remove the filler and drain plugs and drain the lubricant into a
suitable container. Dispose all used automotive fluids in a responsible
manner following your local authorized standards.
6. Clean and install the drain plug securely.
7. Add enough lubricant through the filler plug opening so that the
lubricant level is up to the bottom of the opening.
8. Clean and install the filler plug securely.
WHEELS
General
Wheel bearings should be inspected, lubricated and adjusted at regular
intervals. This is especially important if operating in deep sand, mud, or
water. Refer to Lubricant specifications in this chapter.
The tires equipped on this vehicle are appropriate for the maximum speed
rating of the vehicle as set by the manufacturer for this application. This
maximum vehicle speed should not be modified, nor should any
modifications be made to the vehicle in an attempt to increase the maximum
vehicle speed. Please see your dealer if additional details are needed.
Oil lubricated front wheel bearings
During normal vehicle duty cycle, the lube and air inside the hub/wheel
cavity expands and if not vented, causes pressure build-up that could
cause accelerated seal wear.
There are two venting methods:
• a slit or small hole in the rubber check vent or
• the window
You can use either of these methods to prevent pressure build-up.
Normal maintenance
Over a period of time, if not routinely cleaned, a slight film of oil can
collect dirt around the rubber fill plug and face, which could appear to be a
leak. Routine cleaning ensures that the lube level can be easily observed
through the clear window as intended. In situations where the window is
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Maintenance and specifications
clean on the outside but discolored on the inside, the lube level may be
checked by inserting a finger through the rubber check vent hole.
The specified lube level for a clear window type hubcaps is from the
minimum line to + 5/16 inch above the minimum line.
If the lube level should suddenly drop dramatically below the minimum
level, see the Service Manual for diagnostic procedure.
Installation, tightening and alignment
8–lug wheel
10–lug wheel
When installing wheels, be certain that the threads on studs and nuts are
clean to permit correct torquing of nuts. The mounting surfaces of rims,
wheels, spacer rings and clamps must be free of dirt, rust, lubricants or
damage.
Use a wire brush to clean the mounting contact surfaces. Do not use
lubricant on threads.
After the rim or wheel has been properly tightened, it should be checked
for alignment. Rotate the wheel with a piece of chalk attached to a steady,
firm surface, and placed to just barely clear the outside surface of the tire
bead seat. This procedure will point out the high spot. A high spot does
not necessarily mean that the lug nuts have been unevenly tightened. This
condition or misalignment could be caused by a bent wheel.
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Maintenance and specifications
Checking the alignment of the wheel/rim installation is more important
on cast spoke rims since the rims can be drawn out of alignment when
improperly tightened. Use the following installation procedures.
Disc wheel with flange nuts (hub-piloted)
Front wheel mounting of flange nut
system
1. Flange nut
2. Wheel(s)
3. Brake drum
4. Wheel stud (22 mm)
5. Wheel hub
Rear wheel mounting of flange nut
system
1. Flange nut
2. Wheel(s)
3. Brake drum
4. Wheel stud (22 mm)
5. Wheel hub
1. Slide inner rear or front tire and wheel in position over studs and push
it back as far as possible. Use care so that the threads on studs are not
damaged.
2. Position the outer rear tire and wheel in place over the studs and
push it back as far as possible. Use care so that the threads on studs are
not damaged.
3. Run the nuts on the studs until they contact the wheel(s). Rotate the
wheel assembly a half-turn to permit the parts to seat.
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Maintenance and specifications
4. Draw up the nuts alternately following the crisscross sequence
illustrated under Installation, tightening and alignment. Do not fully
tighten the nuts. This will allow uniform seating of the nuts and assure
even face-to-face contact of the wheel and hub.
5. Continue tightening the nuts to the torque specifications in the torque
chart using the same crisscross sequence shown.
6. After operating the vehicle approximatey 80 km (50 miles), check the
nuts for tightness. Some natural seating of parts may be encountered
and the torque on the nuts will srop. Retighten all nuts to specifications.
Once a week, inspect and retighten the wheel stud nuts.
Aluminum rear disc wheel with flange nuts (hub-piloted)
2
3
1
4
5
6
1. Flange nut
2. Wheel(s)
3. Brake drum
4. Wheel stud (22 mm)
5. Wheel hub
6. Wheel locator pad
Prior to re-installing rear aluminum hub-piloted wheels, clean each wheel
locator pad on the hub from all dirt, rust and foreign material. Apply a
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Maintenance and specifications
light coat of chassis grease, never-seize or disc brake corrosion control
grease, only to the wheel locator pad.
When installing the tire and rim assembly on disc-brake equipped axles,
make sure the tire valve stem clears the brake caliper. The use of a tire
manufacturer’s stem forming tool is the only acceptable method of
obtaining clearance when necessary.
Note: Always observe the following instructions:
• Always loosen rim clamps before complete removal of nut from stud
(cast spoke wheels). With loosened nuts on stud, strike clamps with a
heavy hammer and be sure each clamp is loose.
• Always deflate tires completely before removing locks or side rings.
• Always inflate tires in a safety cage.
• Never mix rim side rings or lock rings of different types,
manufacturers or sizes.
• Never use cracked, bent or badly rusted parts.
• Never re-inflate flat tires on-vehicle; use the spare tire.
• Never add air until each side ring or lock ring is fully seated.
• Never hammer side ring or lock ring on a partially- or fully-inflated
tire.
Failure to follow these instructions could result in property
damage, personal injury or death
Proper torque
It is important to tighten and maintain wheel and rim mounting nuts to
the proper torque. Loose nuts or over-tightened nuts can lead to
premature wear and possible failure of the wheel and/or mounting
hardware.
Changing wheel types
Consult your dealer or wheel/rim distributor before attempting any wheel
or fastener changes.
Use only the same type and style wheels and mounting hardware
to replace original parts. Failure to do so may result in an
assembly that looks fine, but does not fit together properly. This could
possibly cause wheel or fastener failures which could result in property
damage, personal injury or death.
209
Maintenance and specifications
Do not attempt to mix stud-piloted wheels or fasteners with
hub-piloted wheels or fasteners.
Do not change from aluminum wheels to steel wheels or
vice-versa without changing the mounting hardware required or,
with flange-nut mounting systems, changing the hub and stud
assembly.
WHEEL NUT TORQUE
Size
22 mm
Nut mounting
Flange
Torque
N.m.
610–678
ft. lbs.
450–500
Note: Do not use lubrication on dry threads. Where excessive corrosion
exists, a light coat of lubricant on the first three threads of the stud bolt
is permitted. Keep lubricant away from:
• Hex nut and rim clamp contact surfaces.
• Cap nut ball face and ball seat on the disc wheel.
• Flange nut washer surface and flat on the disc wheel.
TIRE/WHEEL RIM SELECTION AND INFLATION PRESSURES
Tire Size, Load Wheel Width
Range (PR)
(in.) and Type
Tubeless Type Radial Ply
10R22.5 F (12) 7.50 10H
(I.S.O.)
10R22.5 G (14) 7.50 10H
(I.S.O.)
11R22.5 G (14) 8.25 10H
(I.S.O.)
245/70R19.5
6.75 8H (I.S.O.)
210
Single Rear Axle: Max. Tire
and Wheel Capacity kg. (lb.)/
kPa @ (psi) (cold) by Axle
Front
Rear
4,671 (10,300)/ 8,745 (19,280)/
698 (100)
698 (100)
4,671 (10,300)/ 9,525 (21,000)/
698 (100)
711 (115)
5,478 (12,080)/ 10,213 (22,520)/
703 (105)
703 (105)
4,671 (10,300)/ 8,745 (19,280)/
698 (100)
698 (100)
Maintenance and specifications
LUBRICATION AND MAINTENANCE INTERVALS
New vehicles are lubricated at the factory. After the vehicle is placed in
operation, regular lubrication intervals, based on the type of service and
road conditions, should be established. Thorough lubrication at the
specified intervals will insure outstanding life cycle value and will reduce
overall expense.
The lubrication intervals specified should be performed at whatever
interval occurs first, whether it is months, kilometer (miles) or hours.
Only lubricants of superior quality, such as Motorcraft lubricants, should
be used. The use of inferior products will reduce the service life of the
vehicle or result in failure of its components.
Unless otherwise specified, never add lubricant unless it is the same
grade as that which is already being used. If the grade is not known or
not available, drain, flush and refill with new lubricant.
The interval between lubrication periods, oil changes, etc. depends
entirely upon operating conditions. The loads carried, speeds, road and
weather conditions all contribute to the frequency of lubrication periods.
In some types of operation, and where operating conditions are
extremely severe (such as in deep water, mud or unusually dusty
conditions), the vehicle may require lubrication after every 24 hours of
operation.
Maintenance intervals
Maintenance intervals are provided for three types of general vehicle
environments: On-Highway, City and Severe Service. In all applications,
the actual intervals is determined by monitoring kilometers (miles) and
time and when the engine is due for an oil change. When the engine oil
change is required prior to the truck lubrication interval, it is
recommended that the lubrication be performed at the same time in
order to reduce your vehicle’s time out of service.
• On-Highway: 96,000 km (60,000 miles) or more annually.
• City: 95,000 km (59,000 miles) or less annually.
• Severe Service: 32,000 km (20,000 miles) or less annually on/off
road in dirty conditions.
211
Maintenance and specifications
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Component /
Component
vendor
Eaton-Spicer axle
(generic) - front
axle wheel bearing
oil
Lubrication type
Vendor recommendations: Viscosity /
Ambient temperature / Notes
Non-driving front axle
Multipurpose EP
SAE 75W: –40°C to
gear lube of API
–26°C (–40°F to
GL-5 quality meet- –15°F)
ing MIL-PRF-2105E
specifications including synthetic*
SAE 75W-80: –40°C
lubricants. (* Do
to 27°C (–40°F to
not mix conven80°F)
tional and synthetic
lubricants.)
SAE 75W-90: –40°C
to 38°C (–40°F to
100°F)
SAE 75W-140: –40°C
and above (–40°F
and above)
SAE 80W-90: –26°C
to –38°C (–15°F to
100°F)
SAE 80W-140: –26°C
and above (–15°F
and above)
SAE 85W-140: –12°C
and above (10°F and
above)
212
Equivalent Ford
part name / number
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Premium
4x4 Front Axle Lubricant / XY75W90–TQL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Premium
4x4 Front Axle Lubricant / XY75W90–TQL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Premium
4x4 Front Axle Lubricant / XY75W90–TQL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140–QL
Motorcraft SAE
80W-90 Premium
Rear Axle Lubricant
/ XY-80W90–QL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140–QL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140–QL
Maintenance and specifications
Component /
Component
vendor
Lubrication type
Vendor recommendations: Viscosity /
Ambient temperature / Notes
SAE 75W: –40°C to
0°C (–40°F to 32°F)
International /
Spicer axle - front
axle wheel bearing
oil
Multipurpose EP
gear lube of API
GL-5 quality meeting MIL-PRF-2105E
specifications including synthetic*
SAE 75W-90: –40°C
lubricants. (* Do
to 38°C (–40°F to
not mix conven100°F)
tional and synthetic lubricants.)
SAE 75W-140: –40°C
and above (–40°F
and above)
SAE 80W: –26°C to
21°C (–15°F to
70°F)
SAE 80W-140: –26°C
and above (–15°F
and above)
SAE 90W: –12°C to
38°C (10°F to
100°F)
SAE 85W-140: –12°C
and above (10°F and
above)
SAE 140W: 4°C and
above (40°F and
above)
Equivalent Ford
part name / number
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Premium
4x4 Front Axle Lubricant / XY75W90–TQL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Premium
4x4 Front Axle Lubricant / XY75W90–TQL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140–QL
Motorcraft SAE
80W-90 Premium
Rear Axle Lubricant
/ XY-80W90–QL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140–QL
SAE 90 Hypoid
Gear Oil / C6AZ19580–E
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140–QL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140–QL
213
Maintenance and specifications
Component /
Component
vendor
Lubrication type
Meritor - front axle
wheel bearing oil
Fill at the factory
with Synthetic SAE
75W-90, will have a
tag attached to fill
plug that reads as
follows: “Filled with
synthetic lube. Do
not mix.”
Multipurpose EP
gear lube of API
GL-5 quality meeting MIL-PRF-2105E
specifications including synthetic*
lubricants. (* Do
not mix conventional and synthetic
lubricants.)
Rockwell - front
axle wheel bearing
oil
214
Vendor recommendations: Viscosity /
Ambient temperature / Notes
SAE 75W-90
Equivalent Ford
part name / number
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Synthetic
Rear Axle Lubricant
/ XY-75W90–GLS
SAE 85W-140: –12°C
Motorcraft SAE
and above (10°F and 75W-140 High Perabove)
formance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140–QL
SAE 85W-90: –26°C
Motorcraft SAE
and above (–15°F
80W-90 Premium
and above)
Rear Axle Lubricant
/ XY-80W90–QL
SAE 75W-90: –40°C
Motorcraft SAE
and above (–40°F
75W-90 Premium
and above)
4x4 Front Axle Lubricant / XY75W90–TQL
SAE 75W: –40°C to
Motorcraft SAE
2°C (–40°F to 36°F)
75W-90 Premium
4x4 Front Axle Lubricant / XY75W90–TQL
Heavy duty engine SAE 40 or 50: –12°C
—
oil: MIL-L-2104B, C, and above (10°F and
D or E (API-CD,
above)
CE, SF or SG)
Heavy duty engine SAE 30: –26°C and
Motorcraft SAE 30
oil: MIL-L-2104B, C, above (–15°F and
Super Duty Motor
D or E (API-CD,
above)
Oil / XO-30-QSD
CE, SF or SG)
Maintenance and specifications
Component /
Component
vendor
Lubrication type
Vendor recommen- Equivalent Ford
dations: Viscosity / part name / numAmbient temperaber
ture / Notes
Eaton-Spicer axle, EP2 Lithium
Note: Eaton-Spicer Motorcraft Premium
International-Spicer complex-based
and Meritor Easy
Long Life Grease /
axle - Front axle
moly grease (or
Steer axles: With
XG-1-C
wheel bearing
equivalent) GC/LB chassis load on axle,
grease, tie rod
NLGI #2 multiforce grease through
ends, drag link,
purpose lithium
thrust bearings; then
kingpin and bushing complex grease
with axle lifted clear
of the floor, force
grease between
kingpin and bushing
surfaces.
Steering
Power steering fluid MERCON威
—
Motorcraft Mercon
change
Multi-Purpose
(ATF) Transmission
Fluid / XT-2-QDX
Steering gear Ross GC/LB NLGI #2
—
Motorcraft Premium
TAS-Output Seal
lithium complexLong Life Grease /
based moly grease
XG-1-C
or multi-purpose
lithium complex
grease
Steering column
Light engine oil
—
Motorcraft SAE
U-joints / slip joint
5W-30 Super Premium Motor Oil /
XO-5W30-QSP
Propeller shaft
U-joint
GC/LB NLGI #2
—
Motorcraft Premium
lithium complexLong Life Grease /
based moly grease
XG-1-C
or multi-purpose
lithium complex
grease
215
Maintenance and specifications
Component /
Component
vendor
Lubrication type
Vendor recommen- Equivalent Ford
dations: Viscosity / part name / numAmbient temperaber
ture / Notes
Clutch
Release bearing /
GC/LB NLGI #2
—
Motorcraft Premium
shafts / fork
lithium complexLong Life Grease /
based moly grease
XG-1-C
or multi-purpose
lithium complex
grease
Cooling system
Coolant - 6.0L Pow- WSS-M97B51-A1
—
Motorcraft Premium
erstroke engine
Gold Engine Coolant / VC-7-A
Coolant - Cummins Refer to engine operator manual
B and Caterpillar
engines
Windshield washer
Washer fluid
WSB-M8B16-A2
—
Motorcraft Premium
Windshield Washer
Concentrate / ZC32-A
Transmission
Eaton-Fuller
Petroleum oil: En- SAE 50: –12°C
—
gine oil API-SL or
(above 10°F)
API-CF (MIL-LSAE 40: –12°C (be—
2104E or MIL-Llow 10°F)
46152E)
Mineral gear oil:
SAE 80W–90: –12°C
API-GL-1 (rust and (above 10°F)
oxidation inhibited) SAE 75W: –12°C
(below 10°F)
Synthetic oil:
CD SAE 50: All temEaton威,
peratures
Roadranger威 synthetic CD-50 transmission fluid
216
—
—
—
Maintenance and specifications
Component /
Component
vendor
Lubrication type
International-Spicer
(non-synchronized)
(lubricants are
listed in order of
preference)
Petroleum oil: Engine oil API-SL or
API-CF (MIL-L2104E or MIL-L46152E)
Mineral gear oil:
API-GL-1 (rust and
oxidation inhibited)
(EP gear oils are
not acceptable)
Synthetic oil: Synthetic Engine Oil
meeting MIL-L2104E or MIL-L46152E, API-SL or
API-CF
International-Spicer Petroleum oil: En(synchronized) (lu- gine oil API-SL or
bricants are listed
API-CF (MIL-Lin order of prefer2104E or MIL-Lence)
46152E)
Mineral gear oil:
API-GL-1 (rust and
oxidation inhibited)
International-Spicer Synthetic oil: Syn(synchronized)
thetic Engine Oil
(cont’d)
meeting MIL-L2104E or MIL-L46152E, API-SL or
API-CF
Vendor recommendations: Viscosity /
Ambient temperature / Notes
SAE 50: –18°C
(above 0°F)
Equivalent Ford
part name / number
SAE 40: –18°C (below 0°F)
—
SAE 90: –18°C
(above 0°F)
—
SAE 80: –18°C (below 0°F)
—
CD SAE 50: All temperatures
—
SAE 50: –12°C
(above 10°F)
—
SAE 40: –12°C (below 10°F)
—
SAE 90: –12°C
(above 10°F)
SAE 80W: –12°C
(below 10°F)
SAE 50: All temperatures
—
—
—
—
217
Maintenance and specifications
Component /
Component
vendor
Meritor
Lubrication type
Vendor recommendations: Viscosity /
Ambient temperature / Notes
SAE 50: –12°C
(above 10°F)
SAE 40: –12°C
(above 10°F)
SAE 30: –12°C (below 10°F)
SAE 90: –12°C
(above 10°F)
Petroleum oil:
Heavy Duty Engine
Oil MIL-L-2104E or
API-SL or API-CF
(previous API designations acceptable)
Mineral gear oil
with rust and oxidation inhibitor
API-GL-1* (* Do
not use multiweight and GL-5 EP SAE 80: –12°C (begear oils; they may low 10°F)
cause transmission
failure or damage.)
Synthetic oil: MIL- SAE 50: All temL-2104E or MIL-L- peratures
46152D (* Do not
use multi-weight
and GL-5 EP gear
oils; they may cause
transmission failure
or damage.) —
Allison
Refer to transmis—
sion manual
Rear axle
Eaton-Spicer - two- RHEOLUBE 362 (or
—
speed axles
equivalent) (Eaton
part number
113741)
218
Equivalent Ford
part name / number
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Maintenance and specifications
Component /
Component
vendor
Lubrication type
Eaton - singlespeed axles
Generic lubricant
Vendor recommendations: Viscosity /
Ambient temperature / Notes
SAE 75W: –40°C to
–26°C (–40°F to
–15°F)
SAE 75W-80: –40°C
to 27°C (–40°F to
80°F)
SAE 75W-90: –40°C
to 38°C (–40°F to
100°F)
SAE 75W-140: –40°C
and above (–40°F
and above)
SAE 80W-90: –26°C
to 38°C (–15°F to
100°F)
SAE 80W-140: –26°C
and above (–15°F
and above)
SAE 85W-140: –12°C
and above (10°F and
above)
Equivalent Ford
part name / number
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Fuel Efficient High Performance Axle Lubricant / XY-75W90FEHP
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Fuel Efficient High Performance Axle Lubricant / XY-75W90FEHP
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Fuel Efficient High Performance Axle Lubricant / XY-75W90FEHP
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140-QL
Motorcraft SAE
80W-90 Premium
Rear Axle Lubricant
/ XY-80W90-QL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140-QL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140-QL
219
Maintenance and specifications
Component /
Component
vendor
Lubrication type
Vendor recommendations: Viscosity /
Ambient temperature / Notes
SAE 75W: –40°C to
0°C (–40°F to 32°F)
International-Spicer Multipurpose EP
- single-speed
gear lube of API
GL-5 quality meeting MIL-PRF-2105E
sepcifications including synthetic
lubricants
SAE 75W-90: –40°C
to 38°C (–40°F to
100°F)
SAE 75W-140: –40°C
and above (–40°F
and above)
SAE 80W: –26°C to
21°C (–15°F to
70°F)
SAE 80W-140: –26°C
and above (–15°F
and above)
SAE 90W: –12°C to
38°C (10°F to
100°F)
SAE 85W-140: –12°C
and above (10°F and
above)
SAE 140W: 4°C and
above (40°F and
above)
220
Equivalent Ford
part name / number
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Fuel Efficient High Performance Axle Lubricant / XY-75W90FEHP
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Fuel Efficient High Performance Axle Lubricant / XY-75W90FEHP
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140-QL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Fuel Efficient High Performance Axle Lubricant / XY-75W90FEHP
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140-QL
SAE 90 Hypoid
Gear Oil / C6AZ19580-E
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140-QL
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140-QL
Maintenance and specifications
Component /
Component
vendor
Lubrication type
Meritor - singleFill at the factory
speed axle (cont’d) with Synthetic SAE
75W-90, will have a
tag attached to fill
plug that reads as
follows: “Filled with
synthetic lube. Do
not mix.”
Multipurpose EP
gear lube of API
GL-5 quality meeting MIL-PRF-2105E
specifications including synthetic*
lubricants. (* Do
not mix conventional and synthetic
lubricants.)
Vendor recommendations: Viscosity /
Ambient temperature / Notes
—
Equivalent Ford
part name / number
Motorcraft SAE
75W-90 Synthetic
Rear Axle Lubricant
/ XY-75W90-GLS
SAE 85W-140: –12°C
(above 10°F)
Motorcraft SAE
75W-140 High Performance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140-QL
SAE 85W-140:
Motorcraft SAE
–26.1°C (above
75W-140 High Per–15°F)
formance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140-QL
SAE 80W-90:
Motorcraft SAE
–26.1°C (above
80W-90 Premium
–15°F)
Rear Axle Lubricant
/ XY-80W90-QL
SAE 75W maximum
Motorcraft SAE
outside temperature
75W-90 Fuel Effi1.6°C (35°F); Above cient High Perfor–40°C (–40°F)
mance Axle Lubricant / XY-75W90FEHP
SAE 75W-140:
Motorcraft SAE
Above –40°C (above 75W-140 High Per–40°F)
formance Rear Axle
Lubricant / XY75W140-QL
Cab components
Hydraulic lift pump Dexron III
—
Motorcraft Mercon
fluid
Multi-Purpose
(ATF) Transmission
Fluid / XT-2-QDX
221
Maintenance and specifications
Component /
Component
vendor
Vendor recommen- Equivalent Ford
dations: Viscosity / part name / numAmbient temperaber
ture / Notes
Cab latch and lock Mobile SHC 32 Low
—
—
livers
Temperature Lubricant (or equivalent)
Cab latch pivots;
GC/LB NLGI #2
—
Motorcraft Premium
Door check, hinges, lithium complexLong Life Grease /
latches and strikers; based moly grease
XG-1-C
Seat adjuster slides (or equivalent) or
multi-purpose
lithium complex
grease
Cab latch pivot pins Light engine oil
—
Motorcraft SAE
5W-30 Super Premium Motor Oil /
XO-5W30-QSP
Door lock cylinders Lock oil
—
Motorcraft Penetrating and Lock
Lubricant / XL-1
Door window regu- NGLI #2 multipur—
Motorcraft Multilators
pose lithium comPurpose Grease
plez grease
Spray / XL-5 or Motorcraft MultiPurpose Grease /
XG-4
Weatherstripping
Silicone lubricant
—
Motorcraft Silicone
Spray / XL-6
Engine oil
6.0L Powerstroke
API CI-4 / SL
SAE 15W–40 above
Motorcraft SAE
engine
–12°C (10°F)
15W-40 Super Duty
Motor Oil / XO15W40-QSD
SAE 10W-30 –23°C
Motorcraft SAE
to 32°C (–10°F to
10W-30 Super Duty
90°F)
Motor Oil / XO10W30-QSD
SAE 0W–30 below
Motorcraft SAE
–18°C (0°F)
0W-30 Super All
Season Motor Oil /
XO-0W30-LAS
222
Lubrication type
Maintenance and specifications
Component /
Component
vendor
Cummins B and
Caterpillar 3126E
engines
All vehicles
Lubrication type
Vendor recommendations: Viscosity /
Ambient temperature / Notes
Refer to engine operator manual
Brake fluid
DOT 3, ESAM6C25–A
—
Equivalent Ford
part name / number
Motorcraft High
Performance Motor
Vehicle Brake Fluid
/ PM-1
REFILL CAPACITIES
Rear axle
S135–S
Weight
capacity - kg
(lbs.)
6123 (13500)
4S150–S
7031 (15500)
17060S
7938 (17500)
19055T
7938 (17500)
M190–T
8618 (19000)
19060S
8618 (19000)
21060S
9525 (21000)
21060D
9525 (21000)
M210T
9525 (21000)
Axle code
Description
Single rear axle,
single reduction
Single rear axle,
single reduction
Single rear axle,
single reduction
Single rear axle,
two-speed
Single rear axle,
two-speed
Single rear axle,
single reduction
Single rear axle,
single reduction
Single rear axle,
single reduction
Single rear axle,
two-speed
Fluid capacity
- liters
(pints)1,2
11.6 (24.5)
11.6 (24.5)
13.3 (28.0)
13.3 (28.0)
17.0 (35.0)
13.2 (28.0)
13.2 (28.0)
13.2 (28.0)
16.0 (33.0)
223
Maintenance and specifications
23090S
Weight
capacity - kg
(lbs.)
10432 (23000)
23090D
10432 (23000)
23082T
10432 (23000)
Axle code
Description
Single rear axle,
single reduction
Single rear axle,
single reduction
with
driver-controlled
locking
differential
Single rear axle,
two-speed
Fluid capacity
- liters
(pints)1,2
18.5 (39.0)
18.5 (39.0)
17.5 (37.0)
1
Quantities listed are approximate. Fill axle until the lubricant level is at
the bottom of the filler hole, with the vehicle on level ground.
2
If hubs are removed, add an additional 0.75 liter (1.6 pints) of axle
lubricant. Add lubricant through the axle vent.
Engine coolant and oil
Engine type
6.0L Powerstroke
Caterpillar 3126E
Cummins B
1
Engine coolant
(approximate
capacity)
25.7L (54.4
pints)
28.4 (60.0)
23.1 (24.4)
Engine oil
(approximate
capacity)
18.0L (19
quarts)
1
1
Refer to the engine operator manual for engine oil refill capacities.
Power steering system
Steering gear
TAS40 steering gear
TAS65 steering gear
224
Power steering fluid volume
(cubic inches/liters/pints)
V8 engine
506/8.3/17.6
533/8.7/18.4
Maintenance and specifications
Transmission
Description
MD-3060P 5–speed automatic
MD-3560P 5–speed automatic
MD-3060P 6–speed automatic
FS-4205A 5–speed manual
MD-3066P 6–speed automatic
FS-5406A 6–speed manual
FS-5406N 6–speed manual
MD-3560P 6–speed automatic
2000P Series 5–speed automatic
2400 Series 5–speed automatic
FS-5205A 5–speed manual
FS-6406N 6–speed manual
FS-6406A 6–speed manual
ES066–7B 7–speed manual
ES56–7B 7–speed manual
FR-9210B 10–speed manual
RT–8908LL 10–speed manual
Liters
27.4
27.4
27.4
5.4
27.4
9.2
9.2
27.4
18.0
18.0
5.9
9.2
9.2
9.9
9.9
11.1
13.2
Pints
1
58.0
58.01
58.01
11.5
58.01
19.5
19.5
58.01
38.01
38.01
12.5
19.5
19.5
20.9
20.9
23.5
28.0
1
Total fluid capacity (dry transmission and torque converter).
Air conditioner refrigerant - r134a
Kg. (lbs.)
.85 (1.87)
Oz.
30
Note: This system uses PAG-type refrigerant oil.
Refrigerant fitting torque
Captured washer nut: 19–21 N.m. (170–190 inch lbs.)
Note: This system uses mineral based refrigerant oil to lubricate o-rings
and fittings.
225
Maintenance and specifications
Fuel tanks
Standard tanks are listed as such; all other tanks available for your
vehicle are optional equipment.
Vehicle
F-650 Low Profile
(standard), F-650
Dock Height
F-650 Low
Profile, F-650
Dock Height
(standard), F-750
Pick-up and
Delivery
(standard), F-750
Severe Service
(standard)
F-650 Dock
Height, F-750
Pick-up and
Delivery, F-750
Severe Service
F-650–Low
Profile, F-650
Dock Height,
F-750 Pick-up
and Delivery,
F-750 Severe
Service
F-650 Dock
Height, F-750
Pick-up and
Delivery, F-750
Severe Service
226
Tank type
Single, steel
rectangular
Liters
132
Gallons
35
Single, steel
rectangular
170
45
Single, steel
rectangular
189
50
Single, steel
rectangular
246
65
Single, steel
D-style
246
65
Maintenance and specifications
Vehicle
F-650 Dock
Height, F-750
Pick-up and
Delivery, F-750
Severe Service
F-650 Low
Profile, F-650
Dock Height,
F-750 Pick-up
and Delivery,
F-750 Severe
Service
F-650 Low
Profile, F-650
Dock Height
F-650 Low
Profile, F-650
Dock Height,
F-750 Pick-up
and Delivery,
F-750 Severe
Service
F-650 Dock
Height, F-750
Pick-up and
Delivery, F-750
Severe Service
F-650 Low
Profile, F-650
Dock Height,
F-750 Pick-up
and Delivery,
F-750 Severe
Service
Tank type
Single, steel
D-style
Liters
302
Gallons
80
Dual, steel
rectangular
114 (LH)/170
(RH)
30 (LH)/45
(RH)
Dual, steel
rectangular
132 (RH)/170
(LH)
35 (RH)/45
(LH)
Dual, steel
rectangular
170/170
45/45
Dual, steel
D-style
189/189
50/50
Dual, steel
rectangular
170 (RH)/246
(LH)
45 (RH)/65
(LH)
227
Maintenance and specifications
Vehicle
F-650 Low
Profile, F-650
Dock Height,
F-750 Pick-up
and Delivery,
F-750 Severe
Service
F-650 Low
Profile, F-650
Dock Height,
F-750 Pick-up
and Delivery,
F-750 Severe
Service
F-650 Dock
Height, F-750
Pick-up and
Delivery, F-750
Severe Service
F-650 Dock
Height, F-750
Pick-up and
Delivery, F-750
Severe Service
F-650 Dock
Height, F-750
Pick-up and
Delivery, F-750
Severe Service
Tank type
Dual, steel
rectangular
Liters
170 (LH)/246
(RH)
Gallons
45 (LH)/65
(RH)
Dual, steel
rectangular
246/246
65/65
Dual, steel
D-style
246/246
65/65
Dual, steel
D-style
246 (LH)/302
(RH)
65 (LH)/80
(RH)
Dual, steel
D-style
302/302
80/80
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN)
The VIN is printed on the Vehicle Rating Decal attached to the vehicle.
The VIN also serves as the warranty number. If you ever find it
necessary to communicate with Ford Motor Company about your vehicle,
always include the VIN in your communication.
228
General maintenance information
GENERAL MAINTENANCE INFORMATION
The Scheduled Maintenance Services listed in this section are required
because they are considered essential to the life and performance of
your vehicle.
Ford Motor Company recommends you perform the Owner Maintenance
Services listed in this section. These services are matters of day-to-day
care that are important to the proper operation of your vehicle. In
addition to the conditions described in the Owner Maintenance Checklist,
be alert for any unusual noise, vibration or other indication that your
vehicle may need service and attend to it promptly.
Use only recommended fuels, lubricants, fluids and service parts
conforming to Ford specifications. Motorcraft parts are designed and
built for best performance in your vehicle. Using these parts for
replacement is your assurance that Ford-Built quality stays in your
vehicle.
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE
The maintenance or replacement of the emission control devices (or
systems) in your new Ford Motor Company vehicle (or engine) may be
performed at your expense. These services may be performed by any
automotive repair establishment or individual using automotive parts
equivalent to those with which your vehicle or engine was originally
equipped. If any parts other than Ford, Motorcraft, or Ford authorized,
remanufactured parts are used for maintenance replacements (or for the
service) of components effecting the emission control, the owner should
be assured that such parts are warranted by their manufacturer to be
equivalent to genuine Ford Motor Company Parts in performance and
durability. Please consult your warranty information booklet for complete
warranty information.
Authorized dealer maintenance
Your authorized dealer specializes in knowing all about Ford Motor
Company vehicles rather than knowing a little about all makes.
There are Ford or Ford of Canada dealer service shops ready to serve
you wherever you drive in the U.S. or Canada. They stock Ford and
Motorcraft parts, and Ford Chemicals and lubricants. You can be
confident that these meet the same exacting design and quality
standards as those used to build the vehicle originally. Dealer Service
Technicians have available training in the latest product developments
and service techniques.
229
General maintenance information
OWNER MAINTENANCE
You can do much of the maintenance your vehicle requires yourself, if
you have the time and a reasonable amount of mechanical ability. If you
prefer to have this work done professionally, your authorized dealer
stands ready to help you.
All mechanical components and attachments are important in that they
could affect the performance of vital components and systems. If
replacement becomes necessary, they must be replaced with parts having
the same part number or with equivalent parts. Torque values of the
attaching parts must be used as specified during any reassembly
procedure to assure proper retention.
EMISSIONS CONTROL SYSTEM
To assure the emissions control systems operate effectively, you should
have the services listed in the maintenance schedule performed at the
specified time and km/mileage intervals. You should avoid running out of
fuel or turning off the ignition while the vehicle is in motion, especially
at high speeds.
Because of high engine compartment and exhaust system
temperatures resulting from emissions equipment, do not park,
idle or operate your vehicle in dry grass or other dry ground cover
where the possibility of ground fire exists.
Do not make unauthorized modifications to the engine or vehicle.
Modifications causing increased amounts of unburned fuel to reach the
exhaust system can significantly increase the temperature of the engine
compartment and/or the exhaust system.
Avoid driving your vehicle if it does not operate properly. If the engine
diesels (more than five seconds of engine run-on after shut-off), misfires,
surges, stalls or backfires, see your dealer. Be alert for fluid leakage,
odor, smoke, loss of oil pressure, or charge indicator or over temperature
warning.
Do NOT use diesel fuel blended with waste oil in engines equipped with
a catalytic converter-muffler. Waste lube oil blending in fuel will plug the
catalytic converter-muffler, resulting in a significant loss of engine power.
Emissions control system(s) laws
Federal law prohibits vehicle manufacturers, dealers and other persons
engaged in the business of repairing, servicing, selling, leasing or trading
230
General maintenance information
motor vehicles, as well as fleet operators from knowingly removing or
rendering an emissions control device or system inoperative. Further,
modifications of the emissions control system(s) could create liability on
the part of individual owners under the laws of some states. In Canada,
modification of the emissions control system could create liability under
applicable Federal or Provincial laws.
NOISE EMISSIONS WARRANTY, PROHIBITED TAMPERING ACTS
AND MAINTENANCE
On January 1, 1978, Federal regulations became effective governing the
noise emissions on trucks over 4,536 kgs. (10,000 lbs.) GVWR. The
following statements concerning prohibited tampering acts and
maintenance and the noise warranty are found in the Warranty Guide,
and are applicable to completed trucks.
Tampering with noise control system prohibited
Federal law prohibits the following acts or the causing thereof: (1) The
removal or rendering inoperative, by any person other than for purposes
of maintenance, repair or replacement, of any device or element of
design incorporated into any new vehicle for the purpose of noise control
prior to its sale or delivery to the ultimate purchaser or while it is in use,
or (2) the use of the vehicle after such device or element of design has
been removed or rendered inoperative by any person.
Among those acts presumed to constitute tampering are the following
acts listed:
Vehicle System
Acoustical Shielding
Engine
Acts
Removal of noise shields, hood
blanket, tunnel liner or acoustical
absorptive material.
Removal or rendering inoperative
the engine speed governor so as to
allow engine speed to exceed
manufacturer specifications.
Removal of engine mounted noise
shield or oil pan enclosure.
231
General maintenance information
Vehicle System
Engine Air Induction System
Exhaust System
Engine Cooling System
Acts
Removal of the air duct, silencer,
air cleaner, and/or air cleaner
element and baffle in air cleaner;
re-indexing of air cleaner.
Removal or rendering inoperative
exhaust system components
including the catalytic converter muffler assembly, inlet pipe, outlet
pipe, resonator and flexpipe.
Rotation of horizontal exhaust
system directional outlet pipe to
cause the exhaust to be emitted in
a direction other than downward.
Removal or rendering inoperative
the fan clutch. Removal or
modification of the fan shroud.
Replacing a fixed fan with a fan of
increased diameter, different
number of blades or different pitch
width.
MAINTENANCE
Instructions for maintenance and service of the noise control system
have been included in the Required Maintenance Services and in the
General Maintenance Checklist. To further help minimize noise emissions
degradation throughout the life of the vehicle, Ford Motor Company
recommends that this vehicle should be operated in the manner
described within the Owner Guide. Caution should be exercised by the
owner when installing replacement parts to be sure that a tampering act
(as outlined above) is not committed. Note any inspection and service
performed in the Maintenance Record.
EMISSIONS INFORMATION LABEL
Emissions information appears on the Important Engine Information
Decal located on or near the engine.
232
General maintenance information
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE SERVICES
Maintenance service adjustments must conform to specifications
contained in this manual, and those shown on the Important Engine
Information Decal. The following services are to be performed at
scheduled intervals because they are considered essential to the life and
performance of your vehicle. Ford recommends that you perform
maintenance on all designated items to achieve best vehicle operation.
Scheduled maintenance beyond 161,000 km (100,000 miles) should be
continued as before 161,000 km (100,000 miles).
SPECIAL OPERATING CONDITIONS
If your driving habits frequently include one or more the following
conditions:
• Short trips of less than 16 km (ten miles) when outside temperatures
remain below freezing.
• Operating during hot weather in stop-and-go “rush hour” traffic.
• Operating in severe dust conditions.
• Extensive idling, or low speed operation such as door-to-door delivery
service.
• High speed operation with a fully loaded vehicle (max. GVW).
• Snowplowing.
Perform the following:
• Change engine oil and oil filter every three months, 8,000 km (5,000
miles) or 125 hours of engine service.
• If operating in severe dust conditions, replace the air cleaner filter
more often than regular intervals as determined by the air filter
restriction indicator. Make sure that the air filter restriction indicator
is in good working order.
• Lube the manual transmission and the rear axle every 48,279 km
(30,000 miles) or 6 months, whichever comes first.
• See the Allison, Cummins and Caterpillar Operator’s Manual.
233
General maintenance information
AIR BRAKE ADJUSTMENT
Failure to maintain proper air brake adjustment can result in
reduction or loss of braking ability.
Air brake inspection and adjustment should be performed by a qualified
service technician in accordance with the instructions in the Ford Truck
Service Manual.
Cam brakes - automatic slack adjusters
Inspect standard air brakes equipped with automatic slack adjusters for
proper brake adjustment every four months or 32,000 km (20,000 miles)
whichever occurs first.
However, more frequent inspection is required if your vehicle’s brakes
are subjected to heavy use or adverse operating conditions such as:
• Frequent brake applications while fully loaded.
• Operation on hilly or mountainous terrain.
• Frequent operation on dirt, gravel or mud.
Some aftermarket brake linings also require more frequent inspections.
234
IMPORTANT — This document should remain with the vehicle at all times.
Warranty
Start Date ______________________________________ Engine Displacement ______________________________________
Vehicle
Identification
Number _________________________________________ Owner Name ___________________________________________
Maintenance Record
The maintenance record form which follows is for your convenience. In addition to recording the services performed, you should
retain copies of your receipts for the services. You also should keep records of any emission control systems maintenance
services performed on your vehicle.
MAINTENANCE SERVICES AND RECORD RETENTION
General maintenance information
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE GUIDE
235
General maintenance information
Daily Owner
Checks
236
Engine system
Check the air filter restriction indicator
Check the engine oil
Inspect the coolant level - for Powerstroke engine (for Caterpillar
and Cummins engines, refer to the Owner’s Manual)
Brake system
Drain the air brake system reservoir - manual valve
Check the air brake system reservoir automatic drain valve
operation
Transmission system
Visually check the automatic transmission for fluid leakage
Steering system
Check the power steering pump fluid level and check the system
for leaks
Check the entire vehicle for evidence of fluid leaks
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway
Administration requirements (ensure that the entire system
is functioning properly)
Check the service brakes
Check the parking brake
Check the steering mechanism
Check the lighting devices and reflectors
Check the tires
Check the horn
Check the windshield wipers
Check the rear vision mirrors
Check the wheels and rims
Check the emergency equipment
General maintenance information
Check every oil
change Oil change
intervals are as
follows:
Powerstroke 10,000 ; Caterpillar
- 15,000 ; Cummins
- 15,000 (refer to
the Caterpillar and
Cummins service
manuals for further
instructions and
information)
Engine system
Check the engine cooling system - hoses, clamps and protection
Inspect the drive belts
Exhaust system
Inspect the entire exhaust system (including the inlet pipe(s),
muffler(s), outlet pipe(s), clamps and fasteners) for holes, leakage,
breakage, corrosive damage and separation from other components.
Adjust, service or replace with the same or the equivalent part.
(Also a noise emission control service)
Suspension system
Lubricate the front and rear spring pins
Tighten the front and rear spring U-bolts to the specified torque
Driveline and rear axle system
Lubricate the U-joints and the slip yoke
Brake system
Lube the air brake foot control valve, hinge and roller
Inspect the drum brake linings through the inspection holes
Lubricate the brake camshafts (air brakes)
Lubricate the brake slack adjuster (air brakes)
Lubricate rear caliper slide rails
Inspect the disc brake pads and the piston boots (hydraulic brakes)
Clutch system
Lubricate the clutch release cross shaft and all linkages
Check the clutch fluid
Fuel system
Drain the accumulated water or sediment from the fuel tank(s)
Steering system
Lubricate the steering shaft(s), U-joints and splines when equipped
with grease fittings
Lubricate the front axle spindle pins
Lubricate the steering linkage when equipped with grease fittings
Grease the power steering gear output shaft
* Coolant protection checks should be made just prior to the onset of freezing weather,
where applicable. If coolant is dirty or rusty in appearance, the system should be drained,
flushed and refilled with the prescribed solution of cooling system fluid and water. Use only
permanent type coolant that meets Ford specifications WSS-M97B51-A1. See the engine
manufacturer’s operating guide for supplimental corrosion inhibitor specifications.
237
238
Check windshield washer fluid level. Add fluid if required.
Lubricate body lock cylinders, door and hood hinges.
Check headlamp alignment.
Maintenance Operation
Clean body/door drain holes.
Clean windshield wiper blades.
Replace windshield wiper blades.
Frequency — Observation
At least twice annually.
As required.
If wiping the blades with a clean cloth and mild detergent
and washing the windshield with a cleaner does not restore
a clean wipe.
Difficult to operate or noisy.
Lamp beams in wrong position when vehicle operating
loaded.
If washers do not spray fluid when operated.
GENERAL MAINTENANCE SERVICES
Listed below are vehicle checks that should be made periodically either by the owner or a qualified technician. It is recommended
that deficiencies be brought to the attention of your dealer or another qualified service outlet as soon as possible in order that
advice regarding the need for service or replacement can be obtained.
General maintenance information
In addition to the items to be performed daily or at each oil change, the
following need to be completed as specified:
General maintenance information
Maintenance Operation
Inspect the automatic slack
adjuster function
Check the operation of the
brakes, the clutch, and the
steering (*a,b)
Inspect the vehicle for missing,
damaged, or mislocated noise
shields
Check the engine performance
and the engine governor
Inspect the fan, the fan shroud,
and the fan clutch
Check for operation of ABS
warning lamp
Inspect the entire exhaust
system (including inlet pipe,
muffler, outlet pipe and all
exhaust clamps and fasteners)
for holes, leakage, breakage,
looseness and corrosive
damage
Inspect the engine air
induction system (including the
air ducts, the air cleaner, and
the air cleaner element) for
loose fitting, damaged or
missing components
Inspect the tires and check the
air pressure (*c)
Balance the wheels and the
tires
Check the front end alignment
(*c)
Frequency - Observation
Insufficient power shown in loaded
practice stop
Vehicle handling qualities not up to
par
Excessive noise emanates from under
the cab or engine compartment
Excessive engine noise
Engine overheats, fans runs at high
speed constantly, excessive fan noise,
or fan wobble due to worn bearings
At each engine start up
Excessive noise or the smell of fumes
is experienced
Excessive noise emanates from the
engine compartment
Poor steering, wandering or excessive
tire wear
Vibration or abnormal tire wear
indicates imbalance
Poor steering, wandering or excessive
tire wear
239
General maintenance information
Maintenance Operation
Check the transmission and
engine mountings (*b)
Check and adjust transmission
controls (*b)
Check fuel pump pressure
Clean radiator cap seal. Clean
and inspect the cap surface on
the radiator
Check the battery terminals for
corrosion
Tighten the wheel mounting
nuts to the specified torque.
Refer to Servicing your
wheels and tires
Frequency - Observation
Hard shifting or excessive vibration
High effort to shift or noisy
transmission
Insufficient full-throttle power or
backfiring
When the cap does not hold pressure
Whenever electrical power supply has
diminished
Required initially at 800 and 1,600 km
(500 and 1,000 miles). Perform again
at 800 and 1,600 km (500 and 1,000
mile) intervals after each tire
removal/replacement.
*a During maintenance and repair, protect the fuel tube and the hose
assemblies, the power steering lines, and the brake lines from the
external heat, the acids and the abrasion that could damage the lines.
*b Check for (free) linkage action and ensure that (return) spring
force is adequate to maintain pedal free play.
*c Adjust, repair or replace as required with the same or equivalent
parts.
240
3
Months
30
6
48
45
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
60
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
12
96
75
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
15
120
90
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
18
144
105
•
•
•
•
•
21
168
120
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
24
192
•
•
•
•
•
Five years or 800,000 km (500,000 miles)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
9
72
•
Non-driving front axle
15
24
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Wheel bearing - oil type - check level
Wheel bearing - oil type - change oil
Wheel bearing - grease type - repack
Tie rod ends - lubricate
Drag link - lubricate
King pin and bushing - lubricate
Brake system - hydraulic
Master cylinder - check level
Park brake relay relay lever / linkage - lubricate
Steering
Power steering fluid - check level
Power steering fluid - change fluid
Power steering filter - replacement
Steering gear sheppard - input bearing - lubricate
Steering gear Ross TAS - output shaft - lubricate
Steering column u-joints / slip joint - lubricate
Propeller shaft SPL
U-joint - lubricate
Component
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
27
216
135
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - ON HIGHWAY
(On Highway: 60,000 Miles or more Annually) - Miles, Kilometers or Months - Whichever Occurs First
150
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
30
240
General maintenance information
241
242
15
24
3
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Months
30
6
48
45
9
72
60
12
96
75
15
120
90
18
144
105
21
168
120
24
192
135
27
216
150
30
240
Propeller shaft non-SPL
U-joint and slip joint - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Brake system - air
Slack adjusters - lubricate
•
•
S-cam - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clutch
Release bearing / shafts / forks - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cooling system
Coolant - check level
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Coolant - check freeze protection
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extended life coolant - add extender
See engine manufacturer’s recommendation
Extended life coolant - replace
See engine manufacturer’s recommendation
Engine - Refer to engine manual for Caterpillar and Cummins. 6.0L Powerstroke - see 6.0L Engine section at
end of chart
Transmission
Automatic and Ahto-shift transmissions
Refer to transmission operator’s manual
Manual transmission - check fluid level
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Eaton-Fuller manual transmission - petroleum oil change
•
•
Eaton-Fuller manual transmission - synthetic oil
Factory fill w/synthetic at 800,000 km (500,000 miles);
change
Converted to synthetic at 400,000 km (250,000 miles)
Component
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - ON HIGHWAY (Continued)
(On Highway: 60,000 Miles or more Annually) - Miles, Kilometers or Months - Whichever Occurs First
General maintenance information
Cab components
Door hinges / Latches / Strikers - lubricate, check link
Door lock cylinders - lubricate
Seat adjuster slides - lubricate
30
•
6
48
45
•
9
72
60
12
96
75
15
120
90
18
144
105
21
168
120
24
192
135
27
216
150
30
240
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Factory fill w/synthetic at 800,000 km (500,000 miles);
Converted to synthetic at 400,000 km (250,000 miles) or three
years
3
Months
•
15
24
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Rear axle
Fluid level - check
Eaton / Dana / Spicer petroleum oil - change
Eaton / Dana / Spicer synthetic oil - change
Component
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - ON HIGHWAY (Continued)
(On Highway: 60,000 Miles or more Annually) - Miles, Kilometers or Months - Whichever Occurs First
General maintenance information
243
244
33
Months
180
36
288
•
•
•
•
•
•
195
•
•
•
•
•
39
312
•
210
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
45
•
•
225
360
•
42
336
•
240
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
48
384
•
255
•
•
•
•
•
51
408
•
270
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
54
432
•
285
•
•
•
•
•
57
456
•
•
•
•
•
Five years or 800,000 km (500,000 miles)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Non-driving front axle
165
264
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Wheel bearing - oil type - check level
Wheel bearing - oil type - change oil
Wheel bearing - grease type - repack
Tie rod ends - lubricate
Drag link - lubricate
King pin and bushing - lubricate
Brake system - hydraulic
Master cylinder - check fluid level
Park brake relay level / linkage - lubricate
Steering
Power steering fluid - check level
Power steering fluid - change level
Power steering filter - replacement
Steering gear sheppard - input bearing - lubricate
Steering gear Ross TAS - output seal - lubricate
Steering column u-joints / slip joint - lubricate
Propeller shaft SPL
U-joint - lubricate
Component
•
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - ON HIGHWAY
(On Highway: 60,000 Miles or more Annually) - Miles, Kilometers or Months - Whichever Occurs First
300
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
60
480
General maintenance information
165
264
33
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Months
180
36
288
195
39
312
210
42
336
225
45
360
240
48
384
255
51
408
270
54
432
285
57
456
300
60
480
Propeller shaft non-SPL
U-joint and slip joint - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Brake system - air
Slack adjusters - lubricate
•
•
•
S-cam - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clutch
Release bearing / shafts / fork - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cooling system
Coolant - check level
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Coolant - check freeze protection
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extended life coolant - add extender
See engine manufacturer’s recommendation
Extended life coolant - replace
See engine manufacturer’s recommendation
Engine - Refer to engine manual for Caterpillar and Cummins. 6.0L Powerstroke - see 6.0L Engine section at
end of chart
Transmission
Automatic transmission and Auto-shift transmissions
Refer to transmission operator’s manual
Manual transmission - check fluid level
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Eaton Fuller manual transmission - petroleum oil change
•
•
•
Eaton Fuller manual transmission - synthetic oil
Factory fill w/synthetic at 800,000 km (500,000 miles);
change
Converted to synthetic at 400,000 km (250,000 miles)
Component
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - ON HIGHWAY (Continued)
(On Highway: 60,000 Miles or more Annually) - Miles, Kilometers or Months - Whichever Occurs First
General maintenance information
245
246
Cab components
Door hinges / Latches / Strikers - lubricate, check link
Door lock cylinders - lubricate
Seat adjuster slides - lubricate
180
36
288
195
39
312
210
42
336
225
45
360
240
48
384
255
51
408
270
54
432
285
57
456
300
60
480
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Factory fill w/synthetic at 800,000 km (500,000 miles);
Converted to synthetic at 400,000 km (250,000 miles) or three
years
33
Months
•
165
264
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Rear axle
Fluid level - check
Eaton / Dana / Spicer petroleum oil - change
Eaton / Dana / Spicer synthetic oil - change
Component
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - ON HIGHWAY (Continued)
(On Highway: 60,000 Miles or more Annually) - Miles, Kilometers or Months - Whichever Occurs First
General maintenance information
3
Months
20
6
32
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
30
•
•
•
•
•
•
9
48
•
40
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
12
64
•
50
•
•
•
•
•
15
80
•
60
•
•
•
•
•
•
18
96
•
70
•
•
•
•
•
21
112
•
80
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
24
128
•
•
•
•
•
Five years or 80,000 km (50,000 miles)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Non-driving front axle
10
16
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Wheel bearing - oil type - check level
Wheel bearing - oil type - change oil
Wheel bearing - grease type - repack
Tie rod ends - lubricate
Drag link - lubricate
King pin and bushing - lubricate
Brake system - hydraulic
Master cylinder - check fluid level
Park brake relay lever / linkage - lubricate
Steering
Power steering fluid - check level
Power steering fluid - change fluid
Power steering filter - replacement
Steering gear sheppard - input bearing - lubricate
Steering gear Ross TAS - output seal - lubricate
Steering column u-joints / slip joint - lubricate
Propeller shaft SPL
U-joint - lubricate
Component
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
27
144
90
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - CITY
City - 59,000 Miles or Less Annually - Miles, Kilometers or Months - Whichever Occurs First
•
100
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
30
160
General maintenance information
247
248
10
16
3
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Months
20
6
32
30
9
48
40
12
64
50
15
80
60
18
96
70
21
112
80
24
128
90
27
144
100
30
160
Propeller shaft non-SPL
U-joint and slip joint - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Brake system - air
Slack adjusters - lubricate
•
•
S-cam - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clutch
Release bearing / shafts / fork - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cooling system
Coolant - check level
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Coolant - check freeze protection
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extended life coolant - add extender
See engine manufacturer’s recommendation
Extended life coolant - replace
See engine manufacturer’s recommendation
Engine - refer to engine manual for Caterpillar and Cummins. 6.0L Powerstroke, see 6.0L engine section at
end of charts
Transmission
Automatic and Auto-shift transmissions
Refer to transmission operator’s manual
Manual transmission - check fluid level
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Eaton Fuller manual transmission - petroleum oil
•
•
change
Component
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - CITY (Continued)
City - 59,000 Miles or Less Annually - Miles, Kilometers or Months - Whichever Occurs First
General maintenance information
•
•
6
3
Months
20
32
10
16
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Rear axle
Fluid level - check
Eaton / Dana / Spicer petroleum oil - change
Cab components
Door hinges / latches / strikers - lubricate, check link
Door lock cylinders - lubricate
Seat adjuster slides - lubricate
Component
•
•
•
•
9
48
30
•
12
64
40
•
•
15
80
50
•
•
•
•
18
96
60
•
21
112
70
•
24
128
80
•
•
•
•
27
144
90
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - CITY (Continued)
City - 59,000 Miles or Less Annually - Miles, Kilometers or Months - Whichever Occurs First
100
•
•
30
160
General maintenance information
249
250
33
Months
120
36
192
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
130
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
39
208
140
•
•
•
•
•
•
42
224
150
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
45
240
160
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
48
256
170
•
•
•
•
•
51
272
180
•
•
•
•
•
•
54
288
•
•
•
•
•
Five years or 80,000 km (50,000 miles)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Non-driving front axle
110
176
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Wheel bearing - oil type - check level
Wheel bearing - oil type - change oil
Wheel bearing - grease type - repack
Tie rode ends - lubricate
Drag link - lubricate
King pin and bushing - lubricate
Brake system - hydraulic
Master cylinder - check fluid level
Park brake relay lever / linkage - lubricate
Steering
Power steering fluid - check level
Power steering fluid - change fluid
Power steering filter - replacement
Steering gear sheppard - input bearing - lubricate
Steering gear Ross TAS - output seal - lubricate
Steering column u-joints / slip joint - lubricate
Propeller shaft SPL
U-joint - lubricate
Component
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
57
304
190
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - CITY
City - 59,000 Miles or Less Annually - Miles, Kilometers or Months - Whichever Occurs First
200
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
60
320
General maintenance information
110
176
33
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Months
120
36
192
130
39
208
140
42
224
150
45
240
160
48
256
170
51
272
180
54
288
190
57
304
200
60
320
Propeller shaft non-SPL
U-joint and slip joint - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Brake system - air
Slack adjusters - lubricate
•
•
•
S-cam - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clutch
Release bearing / shafts / fork - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cooling system
Coolant - check level
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Coolant - check freeze protection
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extended life coolant - add extender
See engine manufacturer’s recommendation
Extended life coolant - replace
See engine manufacturer’s recommendation
Engine - refer to engine manual for Caterpillar and Cummins. 6.0L Powerstroke, see 6.0L engine section at
end of charts
Transmission
Automatic and Auto-shift transmission
Refer to transmission operator’s manual
Manual transmission - check fluid level
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Eaton Fuller manual transmission - petroleum oil change
•
•
Eaton Fuller manual transmission - synthetic oil
•
change
Component
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - CITY (Continued)
City - 59,000 Miles or Less Annually - Miles, Kilometers or Months - Whichever Occurs First
General maintenance information
251
252
•
•
•
•
•
•
36
33
Months
120
192
110
176
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Rear axle
Fluid level - check
Eaton / Dana / Spicer petroleum oil - change
Eaton / Dana / Spicer synthetic oil - change
Cab components
Door hinges / latches / strikers - lubricate, check link
Door lock cylinders - lubricate
Seat adjuster slides - lubricate
Component
•
39
208
130
•
42
224
140
•
•
•
•
•
45
240
150
•
48
256
160
•
51
272
170
•
•
•
•
54
288
180
•
57
304
190
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - CITY (Continued)
City - 59,000 Miles or Less Annually - Miles, Kilometers or Months - Whichever Occurs First
200
•
•
60
320
General maintenance information
3
Months
10
6
16
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Non-driving front axle
5
8
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Wheel bearing - oil type - check level
Wheel bearing - oil type - change oil
Wheel bearing - grease type - repack
Tie rod ends - lubricate
Drag link - lubricate
King pin and bushing - lubricate
Brake system - hydraulic
Master cylinder - check fluid level
Park brake relay lever / linkage - lubricate
Steering
Power steering fluid - check fluid level
Power steering fluid - change fluid
Steering gear sheppard - input bearing - lubricate
Steering gear Ross TAS - output seal - lubricate
Steering column u-joints / slip joints - lubricate
Propeller shaft - SPL
Slip joint - inspect boot
U-joint - lubricate
Component
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
9
24
15
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
12
32
20
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
15
40
25
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
18
48
30
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
21
56
35
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
24
64
40
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
27
72
45
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
30
80
50
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - SEVERE SERVICE
Severe Service - On/Off Road in Dirty Conditions, 20,000 Miles or Less Annually - Miles, Km or Months Whichever Occurs First
General maintenance information
253
254
5
8
3
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Months
10
6
16
15
9
24
20
12
32
25
15
40
30
18
48
35
21
56
40
24
64
45
27
72
50
30
80
Propeller shaft - non-SPL
U-joint and slip joint - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Brake system - air
Slack adjusters - lubricate
•
•
S-cam - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clutch
Release bearing / shafts / forks
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cooling system
Coolant - check level
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Coolant - check freeze protection
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extended life coolant - add extender
See engine manufacturer’s recommendation
Extended life coolant - replace
See engine manufacturer’s recommendation
Engine - refer to engine manual for Caterpillar and Cummins. 6.0L Powerstroke see 6.0L engine section at
end of charts
Transmission
Automatic and Auto-shift transmissions
Refer to transmission operator’s manual
Manual transmission - check fluid level
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Eaton Fuller manual transmission - petroleum oil
•
•
change
Component
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - SEVERE SERVICE (Continued)
Severe Service - On/Off Road in Dirty Conditions, 20,000 Miles or Less Annually - Miles, Km or Months Whichever Occurs First
General maintenance information
•
•
6
Months
3
10
16
5
8
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Rear axle
Fluid level - check
Eaton / Dana / Spicer - petroleum oil change
Eaton / Dana / Spicer - synthetic oil change
Cab components
Door hinges / latches / strikers - lubricate, check link
Door lock cylinders - lubricate
Seat adjuster slides - lubricate
Component
•
9
24
15
•
•
•
•
•
•
12
32
20
•
15
40
25
•
18
48
30
•
21
56
35
•
•
•
•
•
•
24
64
40
•
27
72
45
•
•
30
80
50
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - SEVERE SERVICE (Continued)
Severe Service - On/Off Road in Dirty Conditions, 20,000 Miles or Less Annually - Miles, Km or Months Whichever Occurs First
General maintenance information
255
256
33
Months
60
36
96
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Non-driving front axle
55
88
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Wheel bearing - oil type - check level
Wheel bearing - oil type - change oil
Wheel bearing - grease type - repack
Tie rod ends - lubricate
Drag link - lubricate
King pin and bushing - lubricate
Brake system - hydraulic
Master cylinder - check fluid level
Park brake relay lever / linkage - lubricate
Steering
Power steering fluid - check level
Power steering fluid - change fluid
Power steering filter - replacement
Steering gear sheppard - input bearing - lubricate
Steering gear Ross TAS - output seal - lubricate
Steering column u-joints / slip joint - lubricate
Propeller shaft SPL
Slip joint - inspect boot
Component
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
39
104
65
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
42
112
70
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
45
120
75
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
48
128
80
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
51
136
85
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
54
144
90
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
57
152
95
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
60
160
100
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - SEVERE SERVICE
Severe Service - On/Off Road in Dirty Conditions, 20,000 Miles or Less Annually - Miles, Km or Months Whichever Occurs First
General maintenance information
55
88
33
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Months
60
36
96
65
39
104
70
42
112
75
45
120
80
48
128
85
51
136
90
54
144
95
57
152
100
60
160
U-joint - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Propeller shaft non-SPL
U-joint and slip joint - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Brake system - air
Slack adjusters - lubricate
•
•
•
S-cam - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clutch
Release bearing / shafts / fork - lubricate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cooling system
Coolant - check level
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Coolant - check freeze protection
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extended life coolant - add extender
See engine manufacturer’s recommendation
Extended life coolant - replace
See engine manufacturer’s recommendation
Engine - refer to engine manual for Caterpillar and Cummins. 6.0L Powerstroke see 6.0L engine section at
end of charts
Transmission
Automatic and Auto-shift transmissions
Refer to transmission operator’s manual
Manual transmission - check fluid level
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Eaton Fuller manual transmission - petroleum oil
•
•
•
change
Component
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - SEVERE SERVICE (Continued)
Severe Service - On/Off Road in Dirty Conditions, 20,000 Miles or Less Annually - Miles, Km or Months Whichever Occurs First
General maintenance information
257
258
Check oil level
Check coolant level1
Drain water separator for fuel system
Inspect for external leakage all systems
Inspect air restriction indicator3
•
•
•
•
•
•
65
•
39
104
Daily inspections
•
•
36
Months
33
60
96
55
88
Miles (000)
Kilometers (000)
Eaton Fuller manual transmission - synthetic oil
change
Rear axle
Fluid level - check
Eaton / Dana / Spicer petroleum oil - change
Eaton / Dana / Spicer synthetic oil - change
Cab components
Door hinges / latches / strikers - lubricate, check link
Door lock cylinders - lubricate
Seat adjuster slides - lubricate
Component
•
42
112
70
•
45
120
75
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
48
128
80
•
51
136
85
•
54
144
90
•
57
152
95
•
•
•
•
•
60
160
100
LUBRICATION MAINTENANCE LEVEL CHART - SEVERE SERVICE (Continued)
Severe Service - On/Off Road in Dirty Conditions, 20,000 Miles or Less Annually - Miles, Km or Months Whichever Occurs First
General maintenance information
12
•
•
•
•
•
16
6
•
•
•
Kilometers (000)
Months
Change engine oil and filter2
Inspect belt
Clean fuel filter pre-strainer1
Change fuel filter1,5
Measure air intake restriction3,4
Service the cooling system
Inspect electrical system (A) (Every 12
months, 160,000 km [100,000 miles] or 3,800
hours)
Pressurize air induction system (every 12
months)
Component
20
30
40
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
24
64
1400
•
•
•
•
18
48
1050
•
32
700
350
Hours
6.0 Powerstroke Engine
10
Miles (000)
50
•
•
•
30
80
1750
60
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
36
96
2100
70
•
•
•
42
112
2450
80
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
48
128
2800
90
•
•
•
54
144
3150
100
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• (A)
60
160
3500
110
•
•
•
66
176
3850
120
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
72
192
4200
General maintenance information
259
260
•
•
•
•
•
78
•
•
•
Months
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
96
256
•
•
•
•
•
90
240
160
5600
•
224
150
5250
170
•
•
•
102
272
5950
180
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
108
288
6300
190
•
•
•
114
304
6650
200
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
120
320
7000
210
•
•
•
126
336
7350
220
•
• (A)
•
•
•
•
•
132
352
7700
230
•
•
•
138
368
8050
250
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
144
384
8400
2
If refueling source is prone to water contamination, also clean the fuel filter pre-strainer.
If fuel is more than 0.5% but less than 1.0% sulfur, change oil at 75% of regular interval. If 1.0%
or higher, change oil at 50% of scheduled interval.
3
Service air cleaner element as required.
4
Refer to PCED manual for specification.
5
Change according to transfer pump minimum specifications.
1
84
208
Kilometers (000)
Change engine oil and filter2
Inspect belt
Clean fuel filter pre-strainer1
Change fuel filter1,5
Measure air intake restriction3,4
Service the cooling system
Inspect electrical system (A) (Every 12
months, 160,000 km [100,000 miles] or 3,800
hours)
Pressurize air induction system (every 12
months)
Component
140
4900
4550
Hours
6.0 Powerstroke Engine
130
Miles (000)
General maintenance information
Maintenance Intervals/
Service Performed
Maintenance Record
Date
Service
Performed
Mileage
Service Shop
Name and Address
General maintenance information
261
262
Maintenance Intervals/
Service Performed
Maintenance Record
Date
Service
Performed
Mileage
Service Shop
Name and Address
General maintenance information
Maintenance Intervals/
Service Performed
Maintenance Record
Date
Service
Performed
Mileage
Service Shop
Name and Address
General maintenance information
263
264
Maintenance Intervals/
Service Performed
Maintenance Record
Date
Service
Performed
Mileage
Service Shop
Name and Address
General maintenance information
Index
A
Bulbs ............................................49
Air cleaner filter .......................188
Air conditioning ..........................30
manual heating and air
conditioning system .................30
Air suspension ...........................114
Anti-lock brake system
(see Brakes) ..............................112
Audio system
(see Radio) ................32, 34, 37, 41
Automatic transmission ............117
fluid, adding ............................186
fluid, checking ........................186
fluid, refill capacities ..............225
fluid, specification ..................212
Auxiliary power point .................54
Axle ............................131, 165, 204
lubricant specifications ..........212
refill capacities ........................223
C
B
Battery .......................................180
charging system warning
light ............................................20
jumping a disabled battery ....143
voltage gauge ............................25
BeltMinder ...................................76
Brakes ......................95–96, 99, 165
adjustment ..............................168
anti-lock ...........................112–113
anti-lock brake system (ABS)
warning light .....................20, 112
brake warning light ..................20
fluid, checking and
adding ..............................168, 180
fluid, specifications .................212
parking ................97–98, 102, 169
Cassette tape player ...................41
Catalytic converter
(see Emission control) .............188
CD-single premium .........32, 34, 37
Cell phone use ............................54
Child safety restraints ................80
child safety belts ......................80
Child safety seats ........................83
attaching with tether straps ....87
in front seat ..............................85
in rear seat ................................85
tether anchorage hardware .....87
Child safety seats - booster
seats .............................................81
Cleaning your vehicle
chrome and aluminum
parts .........................................160
engine compartment ..............160
exterior ....................................162
instrument panel ....................161
interior .....................................161
interior trim ............................161
plastic parts ............................160
washing ....................................159
waxing .....................................159
wheels ......................................160
Climate control (see Air
conditioning or Heating) ......29–30
Clutch ................................122, 184
adjusting ..................................185
fluid ..........................................184
operation while driving ..........122
specifications ..........................212
Controls
power seat .................................69
265
Index
Coolant ......................................175
checking and adding ..............175
refill capacities ........................224
specifications ..........................212
temperature gauge ...................25
Cruise control
(see Speed control) ....................58
Customer Assistance ........136, 150
Getting assistance outside the
U.S. and Canada .............150, 156
Getting roadside assistance ...136
Getting the service you
need .........................................150
Ordering additional owner’s
literature .................................157
The Dispute Settlement
Board .......................................152
Utilizing the
Mediation/Arbitration
Program ...................................155
D
Daytime running lamps
(see Lamps) ................................47
Defects, reporting .....................158
Defrost ...................................29–30
windshield ...........................29–30
with heating and air
conditioning system .................30
with standard heating
system .......................................29
Doors
lubricant specifications ..........212
266
Driving under special
conditions
through water ...........................93
E
Emergencies, roadside
jump-starting ..........................143
Emission control system ..199, 230
catalytic converter ..................188
Engine
cleaning ...................................160
lubrication specifications .......212
Engine fan .................................179
Engine oil ..................................171
checking and adding ..............171
oil pressure gauge ....................25
recommendations ...................172
refill capacities ........................224
specifications ..........................212
F
Flashers, hazard ........................137
Fuel ............................................190
calculating fuel economy .......197
capacity ...................................226
choosing the right fuel ...........191
filling your vehicle with fuel ..190
filter, specifications ........193, 195
gauge .........................................25
improving fuel economy ........197
running out of fuel ...........89, 192
safety information relating to
automotive fuels .....................190
Fuses ..........................................137
Index
lighting up panel and
interior .......................................48
G
Gas mileage
(see Fuel economy) .................197
Gauges .........................................25
battery voltage gauge ...............25
engine coolant temperature
gauge .........................................25
engine oil pressure gauge ........25
fuel gauge ..................................25
odometer ...................................25
speedometer .............................25
tachometer ................................25
trip odometer ............................25
H
Hazard flashers .........................137
Headlamps ...................................47
aiming ........................................48
daytime running lights .............47
flash to pass ..............................47
high beam .................................47
warning chime ..........................20
Heating ..................................29–30
heater only system ...................29
manual heating and air
conditioning system .................30
Hood ..........................................170
I
Ignition
chime .........................................20
removing the key ............127, 130
Infant seats (see Safety seats) ..83
Instrument panel
cleaning ...................................161
J
Jump-starting your vehicle ......143
K
Keys
key in ignition chime ...............20
removing from the
ignition ............................127, 130
L
Lamps
bulb replacement
specifications chart ..................49
cargo lamps ...............................48
daytime running light ...............47
headlamps .................................47
headlamps, flash to pass ..........47
high beams ................................47
instrument panel, dimming .....48
interior lamps ...........................49
replacing bulbs ...................49–51
Lane change indicator
(see Turn signal) ........................48
Lights, warning and indicator ....20
air suspension ...........................20
anti-lock brakes (ABS) ....20, 112
brake ..........................................20
charging system ........................20
safety belt .................................20
service engine soon ..................20
traction control off ...................20
turn signal indicator .................20
Lubricant specifications ...........212
267
Index
M
Maintenance and Care ..............233
Manual transmission .................123
lubricant specifications ..........212
Mirrors .........................................56
fold away ...................................57
heated ........................................57
side view mirrors (power) .......56
O
Odometer .....................................25
P
Paint chips, repairing ...............159
Panic alarm feature, remote
entry system ................................63
Parking brake ................97–98, 102
warning light .............................20
Power door locks ........................62
Power mirrors .............................56
Power point .................................54
Power steering ..........................183
fluid, checking and adding ....183
fluid, refill capacity ................224
fluid, specifications .................212
Power Windows ...........................55
R
Radio ..........................32, 34, 37, 41
Relays ........................................141
Remote entry system ...........62–63
illuminated entry ......................65
locking/unlocking doors .....62–63
268
panic alarm ...............................63
replacement/additional
transmitters ...............................64
replacing the batteries .............64
Roadside assistance ..................136
S
Safety belts (see Safety
restraints) ..............................71–73
Safety defects, reporting ..........158
Safety restraints ....................71–73
belt minder ...............................76
cleaning the safety belts ..........79
extension assembly ..................79
for adults .............................72–73
for children ...............................80
lap belt ......................................74
warning light and chime ....20, 75
Safety seats for children ............83
Seat belts
(see Safety restraints) ...............71
Seats ............................................66
child safety seats ......................83
heated ........................................70
Servicing your vehicle ..............233
Special notice ................................5
Specification chart,
lubricants ...................................212
Speed control ..............................58
Speedometer ...............................25
Starting your vehicle ..................88
jump starting ..........................143
preparing to start your
vehicle .......................................88
Steering .....................................183
Index
Steering wheel
controls ................................53, 58
tilting .........................................53
Suspension ........................114, 201
Voltmeter (see Battery voltage
gauge) ..........................................25
T
Warning chimes ...........................20
Warning lights (see Lights) .......20
Warranty coverage ........................5
Washer fluid ..............................179
Tachometer .................................25
Temperature control
(see Climate control) ...........29–30
Tires
checking the pressure ............210
Towing
wrecker ....................................146
Traction control
off light ......................................20
Transmission .....................117, 123
automatic operation ...............117
fluid, checking and adding
(automatic) .............................186
fluid, checking and adding
(manual) .................................186
fluid, refill capacities ..............225
lubricant specifications ..........212
manual operation ....................123
Turn signal ..................................48
V
Vehicle loading ......................94–95
W
Washing your vehicle ................159
Water, Driving through ...............93
Waxing your vehicle .................159
Wheels .......................................205
Windows
power .........................................55
Windshield
defrosting ............................29–30
Windshield washer fluid and
wipers ..........................................52
checking and cleaning ..............52
operation ...................................52
replacing wiper blades .............53
Wrecker towing .........................146
269
270
271
272
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