79 GHz UWB automotive short range radar – Spectrum allocation

79 GHz UWB automotive short range radar – Spectrum allocation
Adv. Radio Sci., 7, 61–65, 2009
www.adv-radio-sci.net/7/61/2009/
© Author(s) 2009. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Advances in
Radio Science
79 GHz UWB automotive short range radar – Spectrum allocation
and technology trends
H.-L. Bloecher1 , A. Sailer2 , G. Rollmann3 , and J. Dickmann1
1 Daimler
AG, Group Research and Advanced Engineering, 89081 Ulm, Germany
of Ulm, Institute of Microwave Techniques, 89081 Ulm, Germany
3 GR-Consulting/SARA, 71732 Tamm, Germany
2 University
Abstract. Automotive UWB (Ultra-Wideband) short range
radar (SSR) is on the market as a key technology for novel
comfort and safety systems. SiGe based 79 GHz UWB SRR
will be a definite candidate for the long term substitution of
the 24 GHz UWB SRR. This paper will give an overview of
the finished BMBF joint project KOKON and the recently
started successing project RoCC, which concentrate on the
development of this technology and sensor demonstrators.
In both projects, the responsibilities of Daimler AG deal
with application based sensor specification, test and evaluation of realized sensor demonstrators. Recent UWB SRR
frequency regulation approaches and activitites will be introduced. Furthermore, some first results of Daimler activities
within RoCC will be presented, dealing with the packaging
and operation of these sensors within the complex car environment.
1
Introduction
Automotive radar facilitates various functions which increase
the drivers safety and convenience. Exact measurement of
distance and relative speed of objects in front, beside, or behind the car allows the realization of systems which improve
the drivers ability to perceive objects during bad optical visibility or objects hidden in the blind spot during parking or
changing lanes. Radar technology has proved its ability for
automotive applications for several years. When compared
to its optical counterpart video (with image processing) or
lidar, the advantages of radar are obvious:
– direct distance and speed measurement
– robust against weather influences and pollution
Correspondence to: H.-L. Bloecher
([email protected])
– unaffected by light
– measurement of stationary and moving objects on and
in the vicinity of the road
– invisible integration behind electromagnetically transparent materials (e.g. bumpers).
Meanwhile, many car manufacturers use 77 GHz radar for
autonomous cruise control (ACC) or recently even for precrash or collision mitigation. It was first introduced to the
market in the Mercedes-Benz S-class under the name “Distronic”. In addition, UWB short range radar operating at
24 GHz has been developed and introduced (Mercedes-Benz
S-class, Distronic Plus, 2005) and is a key enabling technology for actual and novel driver assistance and safety systems.
Figure 1 gives an overview on possible (UWB) SRR based
vehicle applications.
The need for a UWB bandwith is given by the application. E.g. the prediction of a possible collision needs a reliable object tracking capability. Thus, SRR has to have sufficiently high range resolution in the centimeter range to detect
smaller objects and vulnerable road users such as motor cyclists and children.
2
UWB SRR frequency allocation in europe
In 2004 and 2005, the EC and the ECC (Electronic Communications Committee of the CEPT) adopted decisions that
regulate the temporary introduction of vehicular UWB SRR
using 24 GHz spectrum in Europe until 1 July 2013 and the
unlimited allocation at 79 GHz (see Fig. 2). This regulation
was the basis for the worldwide first market introduction of
UWB SRR in the Mercedes-Benz S-class in 2005.
The EC added a fundamental review of its regulation, to
be carried out by 31 December 2009, at the latest, to verify
the continuing relevance of the initial assumptions concerning the operation of vehicular SRR and development progress
Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the URSI Landesausschuss in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e.V.
EUROPE
LRR available (frequency range 76 - 8
• decreased dimensions and weight
In
ECC
B, SiGe62
H.-L. Bloecher•et al.:increased
79 GHz UWBdoppler
automotive sensitivity
short range radar
(Electronic Communications Committee of the • higher angular resolution with
CEPT) adopted decisions
[1,
2] that regulate the
antenna aperture dimensions possible.
Parking aid
Blind spot
detection
temporary introduction of vehicular
UWB SRR
Backup parking
unctions
aid
using 24 GHzPrecrash
spectrum in Europe until July 1,
Due to this, and as a consequence o
enience.
Stop & Go
Rear
crash
collision
the unlimited allocationwarning
at 79 GHz (see regulation, the BMBF joint project KOKO
ve 2013
speed and
for ACC
Collision
r allows
Fig. 2). Thiswarning
regulation was the Lane
basis
for the 2004-2007) was launched to develop
change
ove the
Blind spot
assist
worldwide first market
introduction
of UWB SRR technologies of 79 GHz UWB SRR and o
Collision
detection
ing bad
mitigation
the Mercedes-Benz S-class in 2005.
indinspot
advanced LRR. SiGe technology was c
Fig.
SRR based
applications.
Fig.1. 1.
SRRassistance
basedand safety
assistance
and safety
achieve the required cost reduction and to
lity for applications.
the basis for highly integrated and comp
s. When
o (with
The need for a UWB bandwith is given by the
front-ends.
of radar application. E.g. the prediction of a possible
KOKON was a very successful pro
2013
collision needs a reliable object tracking capability.
feasibility of 79 GHz UWB SiGe based te
Thus, SRR has to have sufficiently high range
Fig. 3. 79 and
GHz UWBcomponents
SRR demonstrator basedwas
on SiGe technology
resolution in the centimeter range to detect smaller
clearly dem
(source: Continental AG).
ollution
objects and vulnerable road users such as motor
Continental realized UWB SRR dem
cyclists and children.
(Fig. 3) and Bosch decided to use
objects
– higher angular resolution with moderate antenna aperture technology
dimensions possible.
in the new LRR3 ACC-radar (
ration of
and novel driver assistance and safety systems.
Fig. 1 gives an overview on possible (UWB) SRR
2004
and applications.
2005, the EC and the
based vehicle
Due to this, and as a consequence of the EU regulation,
the BMBF joint project KOKON (2004–2007) was launched
to develop the basis technologies of 79 GHz UWB SRR and
of 77 GHz advanced LRR. SiGe technology was chosen to
achieve the required cost reduction and to establish the basis
for highly integrated and compact radar front-ends. KOKON
Fig. 2. European 2-phase-solution for 24 GHz UWB SRR frewas a very successful project. The feasibility of 79 GHz
quency allocation.
UWB SiGe based technology and components was clearly
demonstrated. Continental realized UWB SRR demonstraFig. 2. European 2-phase-solution for 24 GHz
tors (Fig. 3) and Bosch decided to use the SiGe technology
in the 79 GHz range technology. Automotive manufacturers
UWB base
SRR
frequency allocation.
in the new LRR3 ACC-radar (Fig. 4).
product lines on long lead times and assured access to
technology. Meanwhile, there seem to be indications that 79
SRR products are probably not mature enough
TheGHz
ECUWBadded
a fundamental review of 4itsKOKON successing project RoCC
in time for car lines being launched in the years 2010/2011
regulation,
to bebeyond
carried
December
31, 2009,
and produced
2013. out
Thus,by
the EC
recently mandated
Within the recently launched BMBF joint project RoCC
the
CEPT
to
review
the
present
24
GHz
UWB
SRR
regula(“Radar-on-Chip
for Cars”, 2008–2011), the SiGe technolat the tion
latest
to
verify
the
continuing
relevance
of
and to consider flexible regulatory approaches to avoid a
ogy developed in KOKON shall be refined for production
the initial
assumptions
concerning
the operation
of
technology
gap until availability
of 79 GHz UWB
SRR senand application in sensor products. The RoCC consortium
sors.
partners are BMW, Daimler, Bosch, Continental, and Infivehicular SRR and development progress in the
neon (Fig. 5). Main goals of RoCC are:
Fig. 3. 79 GHz UWB SRR demonstrator
79 GHz range technology.
3 BMBF joint project KOKON
and road safety
for everyone
SiGevehicle
technology
(source:
Continental AG
Automotive manufacturers base product lines on– affordable
– strengthening of technological leadership in automotive
In comparison
to 24 GHz,
the frequency
around
long lead
times and
assured
access range
to technology.
high frequency products and processes
77 GHz to 81 GHz offers different advantages, e.g.:
Meanwhile, there seem to be indications that
based sensor specifications, test and evaluacommon technology platform for SRR and LRR
79 GHz– one
UWB
SRR products are probably not– application
tion of realized 79 GHz SiGe UWB SRR sensors
available (frequency range 76–81 GHz)
mature enough in time for car lines being launched– investigation and optimization of conditions of covered
– decreased dimensions and weight
in the years 2010/2011 and produced beyond 2013. sensor packaging and sensor operation in the vehicular
– increased doppler sensitivity
Thus, the
EC recently mandated the CEPT to environment
reviewAdv.
theRadio
present
24 GHz UWB SRR regulation
Sci., 7, 61–65, 2009
www.adv-radio-sci.net/7/61/2009/
and to consider flexible regulatory approaches to
avoid a technology gap until availability of 79 GHz
H.-L. Bloecher et al.: 79 GHz UWB automotive short range radar
63
IV. KOKON SUCCESSING PROJECT ROCC
Project Structure of RoCC
Within the recently launched BMBF joint project
RoCC (“Radar-on-Chip for Cars”, 2008-2011), the
SiGe technology developed in KOKON shall be
refined for production and application in sensor
products. The RoCC consortium partners are
BMW, Daimler, Bosch, Continental, and Infineon
(Fig. 5). Main goals of RoCC are:
System Specification
Evaluation
Sensor Concepts
affordable vehicle and road safety for everyone
strengthening of technological leadership in
automotive high frequency products and
processes
• application based sensor specifications, test and
Fig. 4. evaluation
Bosch 76.5 GHz
ACC demonstrator
KOKON:
of realized
79 GHzrealized
SiGe in
UWB
SRR
RF board of the LRR2 sensor using SiGe-MMICs instead of split
sensors
block components (source: Robert Bosch GmbH).
• investigation and optimization of conditions of
covered sensor packaging and sensor operation
– further
of sensor performance and reliain theenhancement
vehicular environment
bility
(e.g.
noise
reduction,
• further enhancement ofangular
sensorresolution)
performance and
reliabilityof a(e.g.
noise reduction,
angular
– development
cost-competitive
radar sensor technolresolution)
ogy
in the 76 to 81 GHz range with special emphasis to
GHz SRR and of
evaluation
beyond 100 GHz
• 79development
a cost-competitive
radar sensor
technology
in
the
76
to
81
GHz
with
– foundation of a sound technology base forrange
migration
special
to SRR
79 GHz SRR and
from
24 GHzemphasis
SRR to 79 GHz
evaluation beyond 100 GHz
universally applicable
•– development
foundationof highly
of a integrated
sound technology
base for
radar MMIC demonstrators (RoCC: “Radar-on-Chip for
migration
from
24
GHz
SRR
to
79
GHz
SRR
Cars”)
• development of highly integrated universally
– improvement
energy
efficiency
of SiGe-MMICs
applicableofradar
MMIC
demonstrators
(RoCC:
“Radar-on-Chip
for
Cars”)
– demonstration of radar sensors with superior signal to
• noise
improvement
ratio (S/N) of energy efficiency of SiGeMMICs
– adaptive (smart) sensors from short range to long range
• demonstration of radar sensors with superior
(multi-mode, multi-range)
signal to noise ratio (S/N)
–
pave
way to SMD-Package
for SiGe-MMICs
the fre-to
• adaptive
(smart) sensors
from shortinrange
quency
range
of
76
to
81
GHz
long range (multi-mode, multi-range)
•– benchmarking
pave way toversus
SMD-Package
for SiGe-MMICs in
24 GHz solutions
the frequency range of 76 to 81 GHz
of feasibility of 500 GHz SiGe technol•– demonstration
benchmarking
versus 24 GHz solutions
ogy for automotive radar applications
• demonstration of feasibility of 500 GHz SiGe
– extended
self-test,
and calibration
features.
technology
fordiagnosis
automotive
radar applications
• extended self-test, diagnosis and –calibration
As an OEM, Daimler is active in the fields of sensor specfeatures.
ification,
test and evaluation. Further responsibilities include
System Integration
•
•
frequency regulation, standardization and the evaluation of
As an OEM,
Daimler
is future
activeSRR/LRR
in the fields
frequencies
above 100
GHz for
applica-of
sensor
specification,
test
and
evaluation.
Further
tions.
responsibilities include frequency regulation,
standardization and the evaluation of frequencies
www.adv-radio-sci.net/7/61/2009/
above 100 GHz for future SRR/LRR applications.
U Bochum
U Bremen
U Ulm
UoAS Ulm
Technology / MMICs
U Erlangen
TU Munich
U Stuttgart
Fig.
structurestructure
of BMBF of
jointBMBF
project RoCC,
Fig.5. 5.Organizational
Organizational
joint
project partners and work packages.
project RoCC, project partners and work packages.
V. CURRENT ACTIVITIES OF DAIMLER AG IN
ROCC
A. Sensor integration and packaging aspects
SRR sensors are typically mounted invisibly
behind painted bumpers or other layered
Fig. 6. FrontAny
bumper
of current
S-class.
components.
cover
of an Mercedes
antenna of
a radar
Fig. 6. Front bumper of current Mercedes S-class.
sensor has to be carefully designed in order to
avoid performance degradation due to transmission
5loss,
Current
activities
of Daimler
AG in Even
RoCC more than
reflections,
and
edge effects.
for lower operating frequencies, this is a crucial
A. Sensor integration and packaging aspects
issue concerning sensor systems working in the
frequency
from 76
GHz invisibly
to 81 GHz.
Bumpers
SRR
sensors range
are typically
mounted
behind
painted
bumpers
or other
layered
cover of an
and other
kinds
of components.
componentsAny
mounted
onan-a
tenna
of
a
radar
sensor
has
to
be
carefully
designed
in
order
vehicle’s front- or rear-end have to be considered
as
to
avoid
performance
degradation
due
to
transmission
loss,
radome structures (Fig. 6 and 7). For the desired
reflections, and edge effects. Even more than for lower opfrequency range, their thickness is commonly in the
erating frequencies, this is a crucial issue concerning senorder of not more than a couple of wavelengths.
sor systems working in the frequency range from 76 GHz to
among
the kinds
project
partners, Daimler
81The
GHz.OEMs
Bumpers
and other
of components
mounted
anda BMW,
a wide
of sensor
on
vehicles have
front-toorconsider
rear-end have
to range
be considered
as
packaging
aspects
Special
attention
has
radome
structures
(Figs.in6 RoCC.
and 7). For
the desired
frequency
7.turned
Transmission
measurement
LRR
radome
range,
thickness
commonly
order
ofnecessary
not
more
to Fig.
betheir
on is the
impactin the
of of
the
structure
with
vectorial,
polarimetric,
quasioptical
than
a
couple
of
wavelengths.
The
OEMs
among
the
project
frequency bandwidth around 79 GHz:
Fig. 8.
coeffixie
multi-lay
f = 79 G
setup.Daimler and BMW, have to consider a wide range
partners,
of sensor packaging aspects in RoCC. Special attention has
• electromagnetic
characteristics
of even
bulk metallic
material
KOKON,
it
was
that
to beWithin
turned on
the impact
of theshown
necessary
frequency
bandand
painting
(permittivity
and
loss
tangent)
paintings
with
width
around 79
GHz:very large permittivity will not
• influence
manufacturing
the radartolerances
operation inordinately, if certain
electromagnetic
bulkfocus
material
and
• –design
multiple
especially
repair
paintings
rulespaintings,
are characteristics
applied.
The ofmain
of the
painting
(permittivity
and
loss
tangent)
investigations
towards
optimizing
• former
covering
of radomes aimed
with water,
snow,
ice, dust
metallic
paint in terms of reduced loss and
or salt etc.
Radio Sci.,
61–65, 2009
permittivity. Still, it isAdv.
necessary
to 7,
optimize
the
transmittive multi-layered radome structure for very
low reflection. Varying the substrate thickness, it is
possible to find a setup with a reflection coefficient
Fig. 9.
coefficie
Fig. 8 w
mm.
Either s
accompl
64
Fig. 6. Front bumper of current Mercedes S-class.
coeffixient for variation of substrate thickness in a
multi-layer radome (εr,substrate = 2.4, εr,paint = 80 and
f
79 GHz).
H.-L.=Bloecher
et al.: 79 GHz UWB automotive short range radar
Fig. 8. Simulated transmission and reflection
coeffixient for variation of substrate thickness in a
multi-layer radome (εr,substrate = 2.4, εr,paint = 80 and
f = 79 GHz).
Fig. 7. Transmission measurement of LRR radome
structure with vectorial, polarimetric, quasioptical
setup.
Within KOKON, it was shown that even metallic
paintings with very large permittivity will not
influence
the radar operation
inordinately,
if certain
Fig.
measurement
of LRR radome
structure
with
Fig.7.7.Transmission
Transmission
measurement
of LRR
radome
vectorial,
quasioptical
design
rulespolarimetric,
are applied.
Thesetup.
main focus of the
structure with vectorial, polarimetric, quasioptical
former
investigations aimed towards optimizing
setup.
metallic paint in terms of reduced loss and
permittivity.
it isitnecessary
optimize
the
Within Still,
KOKON,
was showntothat
even metallic
transmittive
multi-layered
radome
structure
for
very
paintings with very large permittivity will not
low reflection.
Varying
the substrate
thickness,
it is
influence the
radar operation
inordinately,
if certain
possible
to find
with a reflection
design
rulesa setup
are applied.
The main coefficient
focus of the
former
investigations
aimed
towards
optimizing
of less than -20 dB in a very broad frequency
band
in terms ofas reduced
and
even metallic
for paint paint
with permittivity
high as εloss
r > 80
permittivity.
Still,
it
is
necessary
to
optimize
the
(Fig. 8 and 9).
Fig. 9. Simulated transmission and reflection
Fig. 9. Simulated transmission and reflection coefficient of the
coefficient
of the multi-layered radome shown in
multi-layered radome shown in Fig. 8 with optimized substrate
Fig.
8 with
optimized
substrate thickness d = 3.44
thickness
d=3.44
mm.
mm.
a reflection coefficient of less than −20 dB in a very broad
frequencysingle
band even
for paintor
withsensor
permittivity
as high ascan
Either
sensors
networks
ε
>80
(Figs.
8
and
9).
r
accomplish
environment
perception and
around
the car.
Fig. 9. Simulated
transmission
reflection
coefficient
of
the
multi-layered
radome
shown
important
parameter with
severe
B.One
Investigation
of interdependence
of radar
andinfluence
objectin
Fig.
optimized
substrate
thickness dfrequency
= 3.44
tracking
in
singleand multi-sensor
on
the8 with
functionality
is
the systems
operating
mm.
bandwidth.
areapplicanarrow
The request forThe
drivercompeting
assistance andsystems
active safety
UWBsignificantly.
radar sensors.
Because
tions isand
increasing
The functions
shownofin the
transmittive multi-layered radome structure for very band
Either
single
sensors
or
sensor
networks
can
Fig. 1 requirethat
varying
Various
is sensor
used,output
bothperformance.
systems will
show
low reflection. Varying the substrate thickness, it is bandwidth
accomplish
environment
perception
around
the
car.
of interdependence of radar and
suppliers
and research
groups offer
and report
sensors
based
ass. B. Investigation
possible to find a setup with a reflection coefficient different
behavior
concerning
range
resolution.
One important
parameter
severe
influence
on various
principles and
with very with
individual
performance.
object tracking in single- and multi-sensor systems
of less than -20 dB in a very broad frequency band Still,
from
thesensors
point or
ofsensor
view
ofoperating
a safety
application,
single
can accomplish
onEither
the
functionality
is
thenetworks
frequency
even for paint with permittivity as high as εr > 80 this
environment
perception
around the factor.
car.
OneThe
important
pa- has
is not the
onlycompeting
important
bandwidth.
The
systems
aresensor
narrow
The request
for 9).
driver assistance and active safety
(Fig. 8 and
rameter
with
severe
influence
on
the
functionality
is
the
operalways
to beUWB
considered
in its interaction
with
bandfrequency
and
radarThesensors.
of
thean
Fig. 8. 8.
Simulated
and reflection
coeffixient
variaapplications
is transmission
increasing
significantly.
The
ating
bandwidth.
competingBecause
systems are
narFig.
Simulated
transmission
and for
reflection
object
tracker.
tion of substrate thickness in a multi-layer radome (εr,substrate =2.4,
bandwidth
that radar
is used,
both
systems
will show
band
and UWB
sensors.
Because
of the bandwidth
functions
shownforinvariation
Fig.
1 require
varying
sensor
coeffixient
of substrate
in a row
Investigation
of interdependence
ofthickness
radar
and
εB.
r,paint =80 and f =79 GHz).
both
systems
will show
con- the
Asis used,
a starting
point,
the different
focus
lay
on
different
behavior
concerning
rangebehavior
resolution.
output
performance.
suppliers
research
multi-layer
radome
(εr,substrate
= 2.4,and
εr,paint
= 80 and that
object
tracking
inVarious
singleand
multi-sensor
systems
cerning
rangethe
resolution.
Still,
from
the
pointin
of
view
of a
Still,
from
point
of
view
of
a
safety
application,
application
of
SRR
systems
pre-crash
f = 79
GHz).
groups
offer
and report sensors based on various
safety application, this is not the only important factor. The
this is not the
only10).
important
factor.
The sensor
has
(Fig.
An ideal
trajectory
a an
point
– manufacturing
tolerances
The
request
forvery
driver
assistance
and active safety applications
sensor has always
to be considered
in its
interaction of
with
principles
and with
individual
performance.
dome
ptical
tallic
l not
ertain
f the
applications
is increasing
significantly.
The
– multiple paintings,
especially repair
paintings
functions shown in Fig. 1 require varying sensor
– covering of radomes with water, snow, ice, dust or salt
output
performance. Various suppliers and research
etc.
groups offer and report sensors based on various
principles
and with
veryshown
individual
performance.
Within KOKON,
it was
that even
metallic paintings with very large permittivity will not influence the radar
operation inordinately, if certain design rules are applied.
The main focus of the former investigations aimed towards
optimizing metallic paint in terms of reduced loss and permittivity. Still, it is necessary to optimize the transmittive
multi-layered radome structure for very low reflection. Varying the substrate thickness, it is possible to find a setup with
Adv. Radio Sci., 7, 61–65, 2009
Fig. 9. Simulated transmission and reflection
coefficient of the multi-layered radome shown in
always
to beAsconsidered
in its
object
tracker.
a starting point,
theinteraction
focus lay on with
the ap-an
object tracker.
plication
of SRR systems in pre-crash applications (Fig. 10).
An As
ideal atrajectory
of a point
corrupted
starting
point,target
thewasfocus
laywithonnoise
the
to
simulate
the
inaccuracy
of
a
real
sensor
(two
curves
application of SRR systems inupper
pre-crash
in Fig. 11). Then, the surroundings of the sensor were disapplications (Fig. 10). An ideal trajectory of a point
cretized, and the detected obstacle was matched to a range
cell (third curve in Fig. 11). This was done for two different
antenna concepts. In the case of a beamforming antenna, one
can consider angular and range cells, whereas in the case of
a monopulse system, only range cells can be assigned. The
cell that has been assigned is the input data of a tracker, a
Kalman filter or extended Kalman filter, respectively. Varying parameters such as update rate, field of view, maximum
www.adv-radio-sci.net/7/61/2009/
H.-L. Bloecher et al.: 79 GHz UWB automotive short range radar
Quantization
Noise
Noise
Variance
Accuracy Noise
Process
Model
Noise
Variance
Measurement
Model
65
Measurement
Data
Ground Truth
Data
Tracker
(Kalman
Filter)
(point target)
Gaussian noise
corresponding to
the accuracies of
radar
25
20
15
10
5
−25
30
−20
−15
−10
−5
ground thruth data
white noise added
white and quantization noise added
Kalman estimation
25
5
10
15
20
25
•Trajectories
•Error in Position
20
y in m
0
15
10
•Errors in Velocity
5
−25
−20
−15
−10
−5
0
x in m
5
10
15
20
25
Fig. 10. Radar and tracking model for the investigation of sensor concepts in single- and multi-target Fig. 11. Investigation of the influence of tracking on target detection in range and angle (edges of the
scenarios (switched beam radar modeled using antenna coverage diagram and addition of Gaussian noise).
Fig. 11. Investigation of the influence of tracking on target detection
Fig. 10. Radar and tracking model for the investigation of sensor
target was corrupted with noise to simulate the resolution, which is of particular importance for the
concepts
singleandupper
multi-target
scenarios
(switched
beam
radar
inaccuracy
of in
a real
sensor (two
curves in time
critical safety
functions, e.g.
pre-crash.
The
Fig.
11). Then,using
the surroundings
of the
sensor were diagram
European and
frequency
regulation
for UWB
modeled
antenna
coverage
addition
of Gaussian
discretized, and the detected obstacle was matched automotive SRR requires the shift from 24 GHz to
noise).
to
a range cell (third curve in Fig. 11). This was the 79 GHz band in 2013. Beneath this, the 79 GHz
done for two different antenna concepts.
frequency range offers application of the same
In the case of a beamforming antenna, one can technology platform for LRR and UWB SRR.
consider angular and range cells, whereas in the Furthermore, frequency dependent parameters as
case of a monopulse system, only range cells can be angular and velocity resolution, are improved
assigned. The cell that has been assigned is the significantly. SiGe technology has been chosen to
input data of a tracker, a Kalman filter or extended realize low-cost sensors. Within the BMBF public
Kalman filter, respectively. Varying parameters funded joint project KOKON, the feasibility of
such as update rate, field of view, maximum range, SiGe based SRR/LRR has been shown
sensor resolution and accuracy allow to verify successfully. The successing project RoCC has
proposed sensor concepts and to create a been started recently to commercialize the
knowledge base for the RoCC work packages technology developed within KOKON and to
sensor specification and sensor evaluation. Further support the availability of cost efficient and reliable
work will be done by implementing typical multi- 79 GHz UWB SRR products after 2013.
target scenarios for both beamforming and
monopulse systems.
VII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
range, sensor resolution and accuracy allows to verify proposed sensor concepts and to create a knowledge base for the
RoCC work packages sensor specification and sensor evaluation. Further work will be done by implementing typical
multi-target scenarios for both beamforming and monopulse
systems.
6
VI. CONCLUSION
Conclusions
Automotive short range radar is an important
sensor technology for present and future
automotive active safety and comfort functions.
The UWB approach provides a real-time high range
The authors wish to thank the German Federal
Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) for
the funding of the KOKON and RoCC joint
projects.
Automotive short range radar is an important sensor technology for present and future automotive active safety and comfort functions. The UWB approach provides a real-time high
range resolution, which is of particular importance for the
time critical safety functions, e.g. pre-crash. The European
frequency regulation for UWB automotive SRR requires the
shift from 24 GHz to the 79 GHz band in 2013. Beneath
this, offers the application of the same the 79 GHz frequency
range offers application of the same technology platform for
LRR and UWB SRR. Furthermore, frequency dependent parameters as angular and velocity resolution, are improved
significantly. SiGe technology has been chosen to realize
low-cost sensors. Within the BMBF public funded joint
project KOKON, the feasibility of SiGe based SRR/LRR has
been shown successfully. The successing project RoCC has
been started recently to commercialize the technology developed within KOKON and to support the availability of cost
efficient and reliable 79 GHz UWB SRR products after 2013.
www.adv-radio-sci.net/7/61/2009/
vehicle at x = +/- 80 cm). Point target position is corrupted (white noise), assigned to an angular and range
cell (quantization
and estimated
with of
a Kalman
filter.
in range noise)
and angle
(edges
the vehicle
at x=+/−80 cm). Point
target position is corrupted (white noise), assigned to an angular
and range cell (quantization noise) and estimated with a Kalman
filter. VIII. REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
The ECC Decisions ECC/DEC(04)10 (24 GHz SRR) and
ECC/DEC(04)03 (79 GHz SRR) are available in the Internet:
ERO-Homepage (http://www.ero.dk/deliverables/decisions)
The EC Decisions 2005-50-EC (24 GHz SRR) and 2004-545EC (79 GHz SRR) are available in the Internet: EC-Homepage:
(http://www.europa.eu.int/eur-lex)
Proceedings of the BMBF joint project KOKON final meeting
(Workshop WSW5 of the EuMW 2007), Munich, October, 2007.
Final reports of the KOKON project partners, German
National Library of Science and Technology (online ressource);
http://tiborder.gbv.de/psi/DB=2.63/LNG=DU/SID=1ea59db23b/CMD?ACT=SRCHA&IKT=1016&SRT=YOP&TRM=kokon
Acknowledgements. The authors wish to thank the German Federal
Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) for the funding of the
KOKON and RoCC joint projects.
References
The ECC Decisions ECC/DEC/(04)10 (24 GHz SRR) and
ECC/DEC/(04)03 (79 GHz SRR) are available in the Internet:
ERO-Homepage (http://www.erodocdb.dk/doks/
doccategoryECC.aspx?doccatid=1), 2004.
The EC Decisions 2005-50-EC (24 GHz SRR) and 2004-545-EC
(79 GHz SRR) are available in the Internet: EC-Homepage:
(http://www.europa.eu.int/eur-lex), 2005.
Proceedings of the BMBF joint project KOKON final meeting
(Workshop WSW5 of the EuMW 2007), Munich, October, 2007.
Final reports of the KOKON project partners, German National
Library of Science and Technology (online ressource); http:
//tiborder.gbv.de/psi/DB=2.63/LNG=DU/SID=1ea59db2-3b/
CMD?ACT=SRCHA&IKT=1016&SRT=YOP&TRM=kokon,
2008.
Adv. Radio Sci., 7, 61–65, 2009
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