SonicWALL TZ 180 User manual

SonicWALL TZ 180 User manual
COMPREHENSIVE INTERNET SECURITY
SonicWALL Internet Security Appliances
SonicOS 4.0 Enhanced
Administrator’s Guide
For the SonicWALL TZ 180 and TZ 190
Table of Contents
Table of Contents .........................................................................................iii
Part 1: Introduction
Chapter 1: Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Copyright Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Limited Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
About this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Organization of this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Guide Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
SonicWALL Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
More Information on SonicWALL Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Current Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Chapter 2: Common Criteria Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Common Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Overview of Common Criteria Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Use of GUI Interface for Local Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Related Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Chapter 3: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
What’s New in SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
SonicWALL Management Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
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Part 2: System
Chapter 4: Viewing the SonicWALL Security Dashboard . . . . . . . . . . .
System > Security Dashboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SonicWALL Security Dashboard Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the SonicWALL Security Dashboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
47
47
50
59
Chapter 5: Viewing Status Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System > Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wizards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Latest Alerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
61
61
62
62
63
Security Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Registering Your SonicWALL Security Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Network Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Chapter 6: Managing SonicWALL Licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System > Licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Node License Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security Services Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manage Security Services Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manual Upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manual Upgrade for Closed Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
67
67
68
69
70
70
Chapter 7: Configuring Administration Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System > Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Firewall Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Administrator Name & Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Login Security Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Management Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SSH Management Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advanced Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Download URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
73
73
73
73
74
76
77
78
78
82
Selecting UI Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
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Chapter 8: Managing Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
System > Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Digital Certificates Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Certificates and Certificate Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Certificate Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Importing Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Deleting a Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Certificate Revocation List (CRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Generating a Certificate Signing Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Chapter 9: Configuring Time Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
System > Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
System Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
NTP Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Chapter 10: Setting Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
System > Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Adding a Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Deleting Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Chapter 11: Managing SonicWALL Security Appliance Firmware . . . . .99
System > Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Firmware Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
SafeMode - Rebooting the SonicWALL Security Appliance . . . . . . .103
FIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Chapter 12: Using SonicWALL Packet Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
System > Packet Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Packet Capture Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Using Packet Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Configuring Packet Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Verifying Packet Capture Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
Related Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
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Chapter 13: Using Diagnostic Tools & Restarting the Appliance . . . .
System > Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tech Support Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagnostic Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Active Connections Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPU Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DNS Name Lookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Find Network Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packet Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real-Time Black List Lookup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reverse Name Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trace Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Server Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System > Restart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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125
126
126
127
128
129
129
130
131
132
132
132
133
133
134
Part 3: Network
Chapter 14: Configuring Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network > Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setup Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interface Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interface Traffic Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SonicOS Enhanced Secure Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transparent Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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137
138
138
139
139
140
141
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Configuring Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Configuring the LAN and OPT Interfaces (Static) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Configuring Advanced Settings for the Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Configuring Interfaces in Transparent Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
Configuring Wireless Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Configuring a WAN Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Configuring SonicWALL PortShield Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
Configuring the Wireless WAN Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
Managing WWAN Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Specifying the WAN Connection Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Configuring Basic Wireless WAN Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
Configuring Remotely Triggered Dial-Out on the WWAN . . . . . . . . .156
Configuring the Maximum Allowed WWAN Connections . . . . . . . . .157
Creating a WLAN Subnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
Chapter 15: Configuring PortShield Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
SonicWALL PortShield Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
Security Services with PortShield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
Network > SwitchPorts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160
Using Different Approaches to Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
Creating a PortShield Interface from the Interfaces Area . . . . . . . . .162
Creating a New Zone for the PortShield Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Refining the PortShield Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Creating Transparent Mode PortShield Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Mapping Ports from the Switch Ports Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
PortShield Deployment Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
Deployment Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
Configuring the Hospitality Example Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
Chapter 16: Setting Up WAN Failover and Load Balancing . . . . . . . . .181
Network > WAN Failover & Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
WAN Failover Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
Setting Up WAN Failover and Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
WAN Probe Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
WAN Load Balancing Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
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Chapter 17: Configuring Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network > Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Zones Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Predefined Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allow Interface Trust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling SonicWALL Security Services on Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Zone Settings Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding a New Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the WLAN Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
191
191
192
193
193
194
194
195
196
197
197
Chapter 18: Configuring DNS Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Network > DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Chapter 19: Configuring Address Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network > Address Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Address Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Address Object Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Managing Address Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default Address Objects and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding an Address Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing or Deleting an Address Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Group Address Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Public Server Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Dynamic Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
203
203
203
204
204
206
209
210
211
212
212
Chapter 20: Configuring Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network > Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Route Advertisement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Route Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advanced Routing Services (OSPF and RIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Advanced Routing Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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225
226
227
230
237
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Chapter 21: Configuring NAT Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
Network > NAT Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
NAT Policies Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
NAT Policy Settings Explained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248
NAT Policies Q&A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
NAT Load Balancing Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
Creating NAT Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254
Using NAT Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
Chapter 22: Managing ARP Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
Network > ARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
Static ARP Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
Secondary Subnets with Static ARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
Navigating and Sorting the ARP Cache Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275
Navigating and Sorting the ARP Cache Table Entries . . . . . . . . . . .276
Flushing the ARP Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276
Chapter 23: Setting Up the DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277
Network > DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277
DHCP Server Options Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278
DHCP Server Persistence Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
Enabling the DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
DHCP Server Lease Scopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
Configuring DHCP Server for Dynamic Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281
Configuring Static DHCP Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
Configuring SonicWALL DHCP Server Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
Current DHCP Leases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
DHCP Option Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
Chapter 24: Using IP Helper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
Network > IP Helper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
IP Helper Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
IP Helper Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304
Adding an IP Helper Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304
Editing an IP Helper Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304
Deleting IP Helper Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304
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Chapter 25: Setting Up Web Proxy Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network > Web Proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Automatic Proxy Forwarding (Web Only) . . . . . . . . . .
Bypass Proxy Servers Upon Proxy Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
305
305
305
306
Chapter 26: Configuring Dynamic DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Network > Dynamic DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supported DDNS Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Dynamic DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic DNS Settings Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
307
307
308
311
Part 4: Wireless
Chapter 27: Viewing WLAN Settings, Statistics, and Station Status .
Wireless Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Considerations for Using Wireless Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommendations for Optimal Wireless Performance . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wireless Node Count Enforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MAC Filter List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WiFiSec Enforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wireless > Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WLAN Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WLAN Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WLAN Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Station Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
315
315
316
316
317
317
317
317
318
319
320
320
321
Chapter 28: Configuring Wireless Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wireless > Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wireless Radio Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wireless Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secure Wireless Bridging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring a Secure Wireless Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
323
323
323
324
324
326
Chapter 29: Configuring WEP and WPA Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wireless > WEP/WPA Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Authentication Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WEP Encryption Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WEP Encryption Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WPA Encryption Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WPA/WPA2 Encryption Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
333
333
334
334
335
335
337
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Chapter 30: Configuring Advanced Wireless Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . .339
Wireless > Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339
Beaconing & SSID Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
Wireless Client Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
Configurable Antenna Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
Advanced Radio Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
Chapter 31: Configuring MAC Filter List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
Wireless > MAC Filter List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
Allow or Deny Specific Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
Chapter 32: Configuring Wireless IDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
Wireless > IDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
Wireless Bridge IDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
Access Point IDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
Enable Client Null Probing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
Association Flood Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
Intrusion Detection Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
Discovered Access Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
Scanning for Access Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350
Authorizing Access Points on Your Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350
Chapter 33: Configuring Virtual Access Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .351
Wireless > Virtual Access Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .351
SonicPoint VAP Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352
Virtual AP Configuration Task List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .353
Thinking Critically About VAPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365
Determining Your VAP Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365
A Sample Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365
Determining Security Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366
VAP Configuration Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366
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Part 5: WWAN
Chapter 34: Configuring Wireless WAN (TZ 190 only) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wireless WAN Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wireless WAN Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the WWAN Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Wireless WAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring WWAN Data Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WWAN Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
371
371
371
376
377
377
385
386
Part 6: SonicPoint
Chapter 35: Managing SonicPoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
SonicPoint > SonicPoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Before Managing SonicPoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
SonicPoint Provisioning Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Chapter 36: Viewing Station Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
SonicPoint > Station Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Chapter 37: Using and Configuring IDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
SonicPoint > IDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Wireless Intrusion Detection Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Chapter 38: Configuring RF Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SonicPoint > RF Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RF Monitoring Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling RF Monitoring on SonicPoint(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using The RF Monitoring Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of RF Threat Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Practical RF Monitoring Field Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
409
409
409
411
411
414
415
Part 7: Firewall
Chapter 39: Configuring Access Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Firewall > Access Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stateful Packet Inspection Default Access Rules Overview . . . . . .
Using Bandwidth Management with Access Rules Overview . . . . .
Configuration Task List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
421
421
422
422
423
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Chapter 40: Configuring Advanced Access Rule Settings . . . . . . . . . .433
Firewall > Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
Detection Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
Dynamic Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
Source Routed Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
Access Rule Service Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
IP and UDP Checksum Enforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
UDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
Chapter 41: Configuring TCP Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
Firewall > TCP Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
TCP Traffic Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
TCP Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .438
Working with SYN/RST/FIN Flood Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .439
Chapter 42: Configuring Firewall Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447
Firewall > Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447
Default Services Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448
Custom Services Configuration Task List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448
Chapter 43: Configuring Multicast Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457
Firewall > Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457
Multicast Snooping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .458
Multicast Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .458
IGMP State Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .459
Enabling Multicast on LAN-Dedicated Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
Enabling Multicast Through a VPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
Chapter 44: Monitoring Active Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463
Firewall > Connections Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463
Viewing Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .464
Filtering Connections Viewed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .464
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Chapter 45: Managing Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Firewall > QoS Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
802.1p and DSCP QoS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bandwidth Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outbound Bandwidth Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inbound Bandwidth Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
467
467
467
468
468
469
479
482
486
489
Chapter 46: Configuring SSL Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Firewall > SSL Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Overview of SSL Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SSL Control Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling SSL Control on Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SSL Control Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
493
501
503
504
Part 8: VoIP
Chapter 47: Configuring VoIP Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VoIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VoIP Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SonicWALL’s VoIP Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring SonicWALL VoIP Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VoIP Deployment Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
509
509
509
512
520
531
Part 9: VPN
Chapter 48: Configuring VPN Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VPN > Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VPN Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring VPNs in SonicOS Enhanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring GroupVPN Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Site-to-Site VPN Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Site-to-Site VPN Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
537
537
537
542
552
561
562
VPN Auto-Added Access Rule Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
Chapter 49: Configuring Advanced VPN Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
VPN > Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
Advanced VPN Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
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Chapter 50: Configuring DHCP Over VPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587
VPN > DHCP over VPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587
DHCP Relay Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587
Configuring the Central Gateway for DHCP Over VPN . . . . . . . . . .588
Configuring DHCP over VPN Remote Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .588
Current DHCP over VPN Leases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591
Chapter 51: Configuring L2TP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .593
VPN > L2TP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .593
Configuring the L2TP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .594
Part 10: User Management
Chapter 52: Managing Users and Authentication Settings . . . . . . . . . .599
User Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599
Introduction to User Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599
Viewing Status on Users > Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .613
Configuring Settings on Users > Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .614
Configuring Local Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .618
Configuring Local Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .621
Configuring RADIUS Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
Configuring LDAP Integration in SonicOS Enhanced . . . . . . . . . . . .631
Configuring Single Sign-On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .641
Configuring Multiple Administrator Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .670
Chapter 53: Managing Guest Services and Guest Accounts . . . . . . . .677
Users > Guest Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .677
Global Guest Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .678
Guest Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .678
Users > Guest Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .679
Viewing Guest Account Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .680
Adding Guest Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .680
Enabling Guest Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .682
Enabling Auto-prune for Guest Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .682
Printing Account Details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .683
Users > Guest Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .683
Logging Accounts off the Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .684
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Part 11: Security Services
Chapter 54: Managing SonicWALL Security Services . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SonicWALL Security Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security Services Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Security Services Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security Services Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security Services Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Update Signature Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activating Security Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
687
687
688
690
690
691
691
693
Chapter 55: Configuring SonicWALL Content Filtering Service . . . . . 695
Security Services > Content Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
SonicWALL Content Filtering Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 696
Content Filter Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Content Filter Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restrict Web Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trusted Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CFS Exclusion List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Message to Display when Blocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring SonicWALL Filter Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Custom List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Consent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring N2H2 Internet Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
N2H2 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring SonicWALL Blocking Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Websense Enterprise Content Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . .
Websense Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring SonicWALL Blocking Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
696
697
698
699
699
700
700
700
701
703
703
704
705
705
706
Chapter 56: Activating SonicWALL Client Anti-Virus . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security Services > Anti-Virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activating SonicWALL Client Anti-Virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activating a SonicWALL Client Anti-Virus FREE TRIAL . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Client Anti-Virus Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security Services > E-mail Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
709
709
710
712
712
714
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SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Chapter 57: Managing SonicWALL Gateway Anti-Virus Service . . . . .715
Security Services > Gateway Anti-Virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .715
SonicWALL GAV Multi-Layered Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .716
HTTP File Downloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .718
SonicWALL GAV Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .718
Creating a mySonicWALL.com Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .719
Registering Your SonicWALL Security Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .721
Activating the Gateway Anti-Virus, Anti-Spyware, and IPS License .721
Activating FREE TRIALs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .723
Setting Up SonicWALL Gateway Anti-Virus Protection . . . . . . . . . .723
Enabling SonicWALL GAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .724
Applying SonicWALL GAV Protection on Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . .724
Applying SonicWALL GAV Protection on Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .725
Viewing SonicWALL GAV Status Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .726
Updating SonicWALL GAV Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .727
Specifying Protocol Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .727
Enabling Inbound Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .727
Enabling Outbound SMTP Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .728
Restricting File Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .728
Configuring Gateway AV Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .729
Configuring HTTP Clientless Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .730
Configuring a SonicWALL GAV Exclusion List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .731
Viewing SonicWALL GAV Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .732
Chapter 58: Activating Intrusion Prevention Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . .735
Security Services > Intrusion Prevention Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .735
SonicWALL Deep Packet Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .735
How SonicWALL’s Deep Packet Inspection Works . . . . . . . . . . . . .736
SonicWALL IPS Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .736
SonicWALL Gateway Anti-Virus, Anti-Spyware, and IPS Activation 737
Creating a mySonicWALL.com Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .738
Registering Your SonicWALL Security Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .739
Activating FREE TRIALs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .740
Activating the Gateway Anti-Virus, Anti-Spyware, and IPS License 740
Setting Up SonicWALL Intrusion Prevention Service Protection . . .742
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Chapter 59: Activating Anti-Spyware Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security Services > Anti-Spyware Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SonicWALL Gateway Anti-Virus, Anti-Spyware, and IPS Activation
Creating a mySonicWALL.com Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Registering Your SonicWALL Security Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activating FREE TRIALs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activating the Gateway Anti-Virus, Anti-Spyware, and IPS License
Setting Up SonicWALL Anti-Spyware Service Protection . . . . . . . .
745
745
746
747
748
748
749
750
Chapter 60: Configuring SonicWALL Real-Time Blacklist . . . . . . . . .
SMTP Real-Time Black List Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security Services > RBL Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding RBL Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
753
753
754
754
User-Defined SMTP Server Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 755
Chapter 61: Configuring SonicWALL Global Security Client . . . . . . .
Security Services > Global Security Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Global Security Client Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How SonicWALL Global Security Client Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Global Security Client Licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activating Global Security Client Licenses on Your SonicWALL . .
Configuring Security Policies for Global Security Clients . . . . . . . .
757
757
758
759
760
760
761
Part 12: Log
Chapter 62: Managing Log Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Log > View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Log View Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clear Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-mail Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filtering Log Records Viewed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Log Event Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
765
765
766
766
767
767
767
767
768
Chapter 63: Configuring Log Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Log > Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Log Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Log Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
769
769
770
771
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SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Chapter 64: Configuring Syslog Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .775
Log > Syslog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .775
Syslog Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .776
Syslog Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .777
Chapter 65: Configuring Log Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .779
Log > Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .779
E-mail Log Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .780
Mail Server Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .780
Chapter 66: Configuring Name Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .781
Log > Name Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .781
Selecting Name Resolution Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .781
Specifying the DNS Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .782
Chapter 67: Generating Log Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .783
Log > Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .783
Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .784
View Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .784
Chapter 68: Activating SonicWALL ViewPoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .787
Log > ViewPoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .787
Activating ViewPoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .788
Enabling ViewPoint Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .789
Part 13: Wizards
Chapter 69: Configuring Internet Connectivity Using the Setup Wizard 793
Wizards > Setup Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .793
Using the Setup Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .793
Configuring a Static IP Address with NAT Enabled . . . . . . . . . . . . .795
Configuring DHCP Networking Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800
Configuring NAT Enabled with PPPoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .805
Configuring PPTP Network Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .810
Chapter 70: Using the Registration & License Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . .815
Wizards > Registration & License Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .815
Chapter 71: Configuring a Public Server with the Wizard . . . . . . . . . . .821
Wizards > Public Server Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .821
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
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Chapter 72: Configuring VPN Policies with the VPN Policy Wizard . .
Wizards > VPN Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the VPN Policy Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the Global VPN Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring a Site-to-Site VPN using the VPN Wizard . . . . . . . . . .
827
827
828
831
832
Index .......................................................................................................... 837
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SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
PART 1
Introduction
SONICWALL SONICOS ENHANCED 4.0 ADMINISTRATOR’S GUIDE
21
22
SONICWALL SONICOS ENHANCED 4.0 ADMINISTRATOR’S GUIDE
CHAPTER 1
Chapter 1:
Preface
Preface
Copyright Notice
© 2007 SonicWALL, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Under the copyright laws, this manual or the software described within, can not be copied, in
whole or part, without the written consent of the manufacturer, except in the normal use of the
software to make a backup copy. The same proprietary and copyright notices must be affixed
to any permitted copies as were affixed to the original. This exception does not allow copies to
be made for others, whether or not sold, but all of the material purchased (with all backup
copies) can be sold, given, or loaned to another person. Under the law, copying includes
translating into another language or format.
Specifications and descriptions subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
SonicWALL is a registered trademark of SonicWALL, Inc.
Microsoft Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003,
Internet Explorer, and Active Directory are trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft
Corporation.
eDirectory and NetWare are registered trademarks of Novell, Inc.
Netscape is a registered trademark of Netscape Communications Corporation in the U.S. and
other countries. Netscape Navigator and Netscape Communicator are also trademarks of
Netscape Communications Corporation and may be registered outside the U.S.
Adobe, Acrobat, and Acrobat Reader are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe
Systems Incorporated in the U.S. and/or other countries.
Other product and company names mentioned herein may be trademarks and/or registered
trademarks of their respective companies and are the sole property of their respective
manufacturers.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
23
About this Guide
Limited Warranty
SonicWALL, Inc. warrants that commencing from the delivery date to Customer (but in any case
commencing not more than ninety (90) days after the original shipment by SonicWALL), and
continuing for a period of twelve (12) months, that the product will be free from defects in
materials and workmanship under normal use. This Limited Warranty is not transferable and
applies only to the original end user of the product. SonicWALL and its suppliers' entire liability
and Customer's sole and exclusive remedy under this limited warranty will be shipment of a
replacement product. At SonicWALL's discretion the replacement product may be of equal or
greater functionality and may be of either new or like-new quality. SonicWALL's obligations
under this warranty are contingent upon the return of the defective product according to the
terms of SonicWALL's then-current Support Services policies.
This warranty does not apply if the product has been subjected to abnormal electrical stress,
damaged by accident, abuse, misuse or misapplication, or has been modified without the
written permission of SonicWALL.
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY. EXCEPT AS SPECIFIED IN THIS WARRANTY, ALL
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED CONDITIONS, REPRESENTATIONS, AND WARRANTIES
INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OR CONDITION OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NONINFRINGEMENT,
SATISFACTORY QUALITY OR ARISING FROM A COURSE OF DEALING, LAW, USAGE, OR
TRADE PRACTICE, ARE HEREBY EXCLUDED TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT ALLOWED BY
APPLICABLE LAW. TO THE EXTENT AN IMPLIED WARRANTY CANNOT BE EXCLUDED,
SUCH WARRANTY IS LIMITED IN DURATION TO THE WARRANTY PERIOD. BECAUSE
SOME STATES OR JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW LIMITATIONS ON HOW LONG AN
IMPLIED WARRANTY LASTS, THE ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. THIS
WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, AND YOU MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER
RIGHTS WHICH VARY FROM JURISDICTION TO JURISDICTION. This disclaimer and
exclusion shall apply even if the express warranty set forth above fails of its essential purpose.
DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY. SONICWALL'S SOLE LIABILITY IS THE SHIPMENT OF A
REPLACEMENT PRODUCT AS DESCRIBED IN THE ABOVE LIMITED WARRANTY. IN NO
EVENT SHALL SONICWALL OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES
WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS,
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF INFORMATION, OR OTHER PECUNIARY LOSS
ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PRODUCT, OR FOR SPECIAL,
INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES HOWEVER
CAUSED AND REGARDLESS OF THE THEORY OF LIABILITY ARISING OUT OF THE USE
OF OR INABILITY TO USE HARDWARE OR SOFTWARE EVEN IF SONICWALL OR ITS
SUPPLIERS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. In no event
shall SonicWALL or its suppliers' liability to Customer, whether in contract, tort (including
negligence), or otherwise, exceed the price paid by Customer. The foregoing limitations shall
apply even if the above-stated warranty fails of its essential purpose. BECAUSE SOME
STATES OR JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION OF
CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, THE ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY
TO YOU.
About this Guide
Welcome to the SonicWALL SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator’s Guide. This manual
provides the information you need to successfully activate, configure, and administer SonicOS
Enhanced 4.0 for the SonicWALL PRO 4060, PRO 4100, and PRO 5060 security appliances.
24
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
About this Guide
Note
Always check <http//:www.sonicwall.com/services/documentation.html> for the latest
version of this manual as well as other SonicWALL products and services documentation.
Organization of this Guide
The SonicWALL SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator’s Guide organization is structured into
the following parts that follow the SonicWALL Web Management Interface structure. Within
these parts, individual chapters correspond to SonicWALL security appliance management
interface layout.
Part 1 Introduction
This part provides an overview of new SonicWALL SonicOS Enhanced features, guide
conventions, support information, and an overview of the SonicWALL security appliance
management interface.
Part 2 System
This part covers a variety SonicWALL security appliance controls for managing system status
information, registering the SonicWALL security appliance, activating and managing
SonicWALL Security Services licenses, configuring SonicWALL security appliance local and
remote management options, managing firmware versions and preferences, and using included
diagnostics tools for troubleshooting.
Part 3 Network
This part covers configuring the SonicWALL security appliance for your network environment.
The Network section of the SonicWALL Management Interface includes:
•
Interfaces - configure logical interfaces for connectivity.
•
WAN Failover and Load Balancing - configure one of the user-defined interfaces to act
as a secondary WAN port for backup or load balancing.
•
Zones - configure security zones on your network.
•
DNS - set up DNS servers for name resolution.
•
Address Objects - configure host, network, and address range objects.
•
Routing - view the Route Table, ARP Cache and configure static and dynamic routing by
interface.
•
NAT Policies - create NAT policies including One-to-One NAT, Many-to-One NAT, Manyto-Many NAT, or One-to-Many NAT.
•
ARP - view the ARP settings and clear the ARP cache as well as configure ARP cache time.
•
DHCP Server - configure the SonicWALL as a DHCP Server on your network to
dynamically assign IP addresses to computers on your LAN or DMZ zones.
•
IP Helper - configure the SonicWALL to forward DHCP requests originating from the
interfaces on the SonicWALL to a centralized server on behalf of the requesting client.
•
Web Proxy - configure the SonicWALL to automatically forward all Web proxy requests to
a network proxy server.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
25
About this Guide
•
Dynamic DNS - configure the SonicWALL to dynamically register its WAN IP address with
a DDNS service provider.
Part 4 SonicPoint
The part covers the configuration of the SonicWALL security appliance for provisioning and
managing SonicWALL SonicPoints as part of a SonicWALL Distributed Wireless Solution.
Part 5 Firewall
This part covers tools for managing how the SonicWALL security appliance handles traffic
through the firewall.
Part 6 VoIP
This part provides instructions for configuring the SonicWALL security appliance to support
H.323 or SIP Voice over IP (VoIP) connections.
Part 7 Application Firewall
Application firewall is a set of application-specific policies that gives you granular control over
network traffic on the level of users, email users, schedules, and IP-subnets. The primary
functionality of this application-layer access control feature is to regulate Web browsing, file
transfer, email, and email attachments.
Part 8 VPN
This part covers how to create VPN policies on the SonicWALL security appliance to support
SonicWALL Global VPN Clients as well as creating site-to-site VPN policies for connecting
offices running SonicWALL security appliances.
Part 9 Users
This part covers how to configure the SonicWALL security appliance for user level
authentication as well as manage guest services for managed SonicPoints.
Part 10 Hardware Failover
This part explains how to configure the SonicWALL security appliance for failover to another
SonicWALL security appliance in the event of hardware failure.
Part 11 Security Services
This part includes an overview of available SonicWALL Security Services as well as instructions
for activating the service, including FREE trials. These subscription-based services include
SonicWALL Gateway Anti-Virus, SonicWALL Intrusion Prevention Service, SonicWALL
Content Filtering Service, SonicWALL Client Anti-Virus, and well as other services.
26
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
About this Guide
Part 12 Log
This part covers managing the SonicWALL security appliance’s enhanced logging, alerting, and
reporting features. The SonicWALL security appliance’s logging features provide a
comprehensive set of log categories for monitoring security and network activities.
Part 13 Wizards
This part walks you through using the SonicWALL Configuration Wizards for configuring the
SonicWALL security appliance for LAN to WAN (Internet) connectivity, settings up public
servers for Internet connectivity behind the firewall, and setting GroupVPN and site-to-site VPN
policies for establishing VPN connections for remote SonicWALL Global VPN Client users or
remote offices with a SonicWALL security appliance for LAN to LAN connections.
The SonicWALL Configuration Wizards in SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 include:
•
The Setup Wizard takes you step by step through network configuration for Internet
connectivity. There are four types of network connectivity available: Static IP, DHCP,
PPPoE, and PPTP.
•
The Registration & License Wizard simplifies the process of registering your SonicWALL
security appliance and obtaining licenses for additional security services.
•
The Public Server Wizard takes you step by step through adding a server to your network,
such as a mail server or a web server. The wizard automates much of the configuration you
need to establish security and access for the server.
•
The VPN Policy Wizard steps you through the configuration of Group VPNs and site-tosite VPNs.
Guide Conventions
The following conventions used in this guide are as follows:
Convention
Use
Bold
Highlights items you can select on the SonicWALL
security appliance management interface.
Italic
Highlights a value to enter into a field. For example, “type
192.168.168.168 in the IP Address field.”
Menu Item > Menu Item
Indicates a multiple step Management Interface menu
choice. For example, Security Services > Content Filter
means select Security Services, then select Content
Filter.
Icons Used in this Manual
These special messages refer to noteworthy information, and include a symbol for quick
identification:
Caution
Important information that cautions about features affecting firewall performance, security
features, or causing potential problems with your SonicWALL.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
27
About this Guide
Tip
Useful information about security features and configurations on your SonicWALL.
Note
Important information on a feature that requires callout for special attention.
SonicWALL Technical Support
For timely resolution of technical support questions, visit SonicWALL on the Internet at
http://www.sonicwall.com/us/Support.html. Web-based resources are available to help you
resolve most technical issues or contact SonicWALL Technical Support.
To contact SonicWALL telephone support, see the telephone numbers listed below:
North America Telephone Support
U.S./Canada - 888.777.1476 or +1 408.752.7819
International Telephone Support
Australia - + 1800.35.1642
Austria - + 43(0)820.400.105
EMEA - +31(0)411.617.810
France - + 33(0)1.4933.7414
Germany - + 49(0)1805.0800.22
Hong Kong - + 1.800.93.0997
India - + 8026556828
Italy - +39.02.7541.9803
Japan - + 81(0)3.5460.5356
New Zealand - + 0800.446489
Singapore - + 800.110.1441
Spain - + 34(0)9137.53035
Switzerland - +41.1.308.3.977
UK - +44(0)1344.668.484
More Information on SonicWALL Products
Contact SonicWALL, Inc. for information about SonicWALL products and services at:
Web:http://www.sonicwall.com
E-mail:[email protected]
Phone:(408) 745-9600
Fax:(408) 745-9300
28
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
About this Guide
Current Documentation
Check the SonicWALL documentation Web site for that latest versions of
this manual and all other SonicWALL product documentation.
http://www.sonicwall.com/us/Support.html
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
29
About this Guide
30
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
CHAPTER 2
Chapter 2:
Common Criteria Guide
Common Criteria
The purpose of this chapter is to define the Common Criteria-compliant operation of
SonicWALL Internet Security Appliances.
Common Criteria is an information technology (IT) validation scheme adopted by the National
Information Assurance Partnership (NIAP). NIAP is a collaboration between the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Security Agency (NSA). NIAP
has established the Common Criteria Evaluation Validated Scheme (CCEVS) to validate IT
products. Common Criteria is also referred to as ISO 15408.
Overview of Common Criteria Operation
The Common Criteria evaluated configuration of SonicWALL Internet Security Appliances uses
only the firewall services of the device. The VPN services of the device are not included in the
Common Criteria evaluated configuration. The Common Criteria evaluated configuration
includes all features except those that are explicitly excluded.
The following features are not included in the Common Criteria evaluated configuration:
•
VPN
•
IPsec or L2TP
•
LDAP or RADIUS user authentication
•
Security Services
– Content Filtering Service
– Client Anti-Virus
– E-mail Filter
– Anti-Spyware
– RBL Filter
– Global Security Client
– Intrusion Prevention System
– Gateway Anti-Virus
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
31
Common Criteria
•
GMS Remote Management
•
Syslog Logging
•
SonicPoint
•
Hardware Failover
Before installing the SonicWALL Internet Security Appliance, the device should be examined
for evidence of tampering. Each device includes a tamper-evident seal to prevent access to the
inside of the unit. Verify that the tamper evident seal is intact. If there is a sign of tampering,
contact SonicWALL Support Services by phone at 888.777.1476 or 408.752.7819.
The GUI management interface is used to administer the device. The use of the GUI
management interface is discussed in the “Use of GUI Interface for Local Management” section
below.
The Common Criteria evaluated configuration only supports SonicOS Enhanced 4.0. You can
verify that the device is running SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 from the System -> Status page of the
management GUI under the System Information table, Firmware Version entry.
Use of GUI Interface for Local Management
This section describes the use of the SonicWALL Graphical User Interface (GUI) interface for
local management. Using the red cross-over cable supplied with SonicWALL Internet Security
Appliances and a management PC, the SonicWALL GUI can be used for local configuration.
This provides a secure way of administering the device without the possibility of traffic between
the management PC and device being captured or traced. Following the instructions below will
insure that only the management PC, directly connected to the device, can be used for
management.
Follow the instructions in the SonicOS Getting Started Guide section 2, Connecting the Network
Cables, to connect a management PC to the device.
Follow the instructions in the SonicOS Getting Started Guide section 2, Configuring Your
Management Station and Accessing The Management Interface to access the management
interface of the device
Select an interface to be used as the local management interface. For example, on a PRO
series appliance, select X2 or X3.
Use the Add button on the Network -> Zones page to add a “Local Management” with a
Security Type of Trusted. On the Network -> Interfaces page, configure the local management
interface. Set the Zone to “Local Management”. Set the IP Address to 192.168.1.1. Set the
Subnet Mask to 255.255.255.0. Enable HTTP Management. Log out from the GUI management
interface using the Logout button.
Connect the red cross-over cable to the local interface. Configure the management PC's IP
address to be 192.168.1.2 with a netmask of 255.255.255.0. Use the management PC's
browser to access the device's management interface at http://192.168.1.2.
Use the Configure icon on the Network -> Interfaces page to configure the LAN interface.
Disable HTTP and HTTPS management.
Do not enable HTTP or HTTPS management on any interface other than the local management
interface. HTTP and HTTPS management is disabled on all other interfaces by default.
The management PC can now be used to locally administer the device in a secure manner.
32
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Common Criteria
Related Documents
Several other SonicWALL documents provide information relating to the Common Criteria
evaluated configuration of SonicWALL Internet Security Appliances. Those documents are
described here.
SonicOS Log Events Reference Guide
During the operation of a SonicWALL security appliance, SonicOS software sends log event
messages to the console. Event logging automatically begins when the SonicWALL security
appliance is powered on and configured. SonicOS Enhanced supports a traffic log containing
entries with multiple fields.
Log event messages provide operational informational and debugging information to help you
diagnose problems with communication lines, internal hardware, or your firmware
configuration.
Note
Not all log event messages indicate operational issues with your SonicWALL security
appliance.
The Log > View console display provides log event messages including the following fields for
alert notification:
•
Time—Displays the hour and minute the event occurred.
•
Priority—Displays the level urgency for the event.
•
Category—Displays the event type.
•
Message—Displays a description of the event.
•
Source—Displays the source IP address of incoming IP packet.
•
Destination—Displays the destination IP address of incoming IP packet.
•
Note—Displays displays additional information specific to a particular event occurrence.
•
Rule—Displays the source and destination zones for the access rule. This field provides a
link to the access rule defined in the Firewall > Access Rules page.
The display fields for a log event message provides you with data to verify your configurations,
trouble-shoot your security appliance, and track IP traffic.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
33
Common Criteria
34
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
CHAPTER 3
Chapter 3:
Introduction
Introduction
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 is the most powerful SonicOS operating system designed for the
SonicWALL PRO 4060, and the PRO 5060.
What’s New in SonicOS Enhanced 4.0
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces these new features:
•
Tip
Strong SSL and TLS Encryption - The internal SonicWALL Web server now only supports
SSL version 3.0 and TLS with strong ciphers (128 bits or greater) when negotiating HTTPS
management sessions. SSL implementations prior to version 3.0 and weak ciphers
(symmetric ciphers less than 128 bits) are not supported. This heightened level of HTTPS
security protects against potential SSLv2 roll-back vulnerabilities and ensures compliance
with the Payment Card Industry (PCI) and other security and risk-management standards.
By default, Mozilla Firefox 2.0 and Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0 enable SSL 3.0 and TLS,
and disable SSL 2.0. SonicWALL recommends using these most recent Web browser
releases. If you are using a previous release of these browsers, you should enable SSL 3.0
and TLS and disable SSL 2.0. In Internet Explorer, go to Tools > Internet Options, click on
the Advanced tab, and scroll to the bottom of the Settings menu. In Firefox, go to Tools >
Options, click on the Advanced tab, and then click on the Encryption tab.
•
Single Sign-On User Authentication - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces Single Sign-On
User Authentication, which provides privileged access to multiple network resources with a
single workstation login. Single Sign-On uses the SonicWALL SSO Agent to identify user
activity based on workstation IP addresses. Access to resources is based on policy for the
group to which the user belongs.
•
Stateful Hardware Failover - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces Stateful Hardware
Failover, which provides improved failover performance. With Stateful Hardware Failover,
the primary and backup security appliances are continuously synchronized so that the
backup can seamlessly assume all network responsibilities if the primary appliance fails,
with no interruptions to existing network connections. Once the primary and backup
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
35
Introduction
appliances have been associated as a hardware failover pair on mysonicwall.com, you can
enable this feature by selecting Enable Stateful Synchronization in the Hardware Failover
> Advanced page.
•
Application Firewall - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces Application Firewall, which
provides a way to create application-specific policies to regulate Web browsing, file
transfer, email, and email attachments. Application Firewall enables application layer
bandwidth management, and also allows you to create custom policies for any protocol. It
gives you granular control over network traffic on the level of users, email users, and IP
subnets.
•
HTTPS Filtering - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 uses HTTPS Filtering to allow administrators to
control user access to Web sites when using the encrypted HTTPS protocol. HTTPS
Filtering is based on the ratings of Web sites, such as Gambling, Online Banking, Online
Brokerage and Trading, Shopping, and Hacking/Proxy Avoidance.
Note
HTTPS Filtering is IP-based, so IP addresses must be used rather than domain
names in the Allowed or Forbidden lists. You can use the nslookup command in a
DOS cmd window to convert a domain name to its IP address(es). There may be
more than one IP address associated with a domain, and if so, all must be added to
the Allowed or Forbidden list.
•
SSL Control - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces SSL Control, which is a system that
provides visibility into the handshake of Secure Socket Layer (SSL) sessions, and a method
for configuring policies to control the establishment of SSL sessions.
•
Certificate Blocking - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 provides a way to specify which HTTPS
certificates to block. This feature is closely integrated with SSL Control.
•
Inbound NAT Load Balancing with Server Monitoring - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0
introduces Inbound NAT Load Balancing with Server Monitoring, which detects when a
server is unavailable and stops forwarding requests to it. Inbound NAT Load Balancing
spreads the load across two or more servers. When Stateful High Availability (Stateful
Hardware Failover) is configured, during a failover, SonicOS forwards all requests to the
alternate server(s) until it detects that the offline server is back online. Inbound NAT Load
Balancing also works with SonicWALL SSL-VPN appliances.
•
Security Dashboard Web Page - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 includes the Security Dashboard
page in the user interface, which displays a summary of threats stopped by the SonicWALL
security appliance. The Security Dashboard shows two types of reports:
– A Global Report that displays a summary of threat data received from all SonicWALL
security appliances worldwide.
– An Individual Appliance Report that displays a summary of attacks detected by the local
SonicWALL security appliance.
36
•
Registration & License Wizard - As part of the new Security Dashboard, SonicOS
Enhanced 4.0 provides a License Wizard for both firewall registration and the purchase of
security service licenses. The available security services are the same as those that enable
Global Reports by providing threat data from SonicWALL devices around the world.
•
Multiple SSH Support - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 provides support for multiple concurrent
SSH sessions on the SonicWALL security appliance. When connected over SSH, you can
run command line interface (CLI) commands to monitor and manage the device. The
number of concurrent SSH sessions is determined by device capacity. Note that only one
session at a time can configure the SonicWALL, whether the session is on the GUI or the
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Introduction
CLI (SSH or serial console). For instance, if a CLI session goes to the config level, it will
ask you if you want to preempt an administrator who is at config level in the GUI or an SSH
session.
•
Multiple and Read-only Administrator Login - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces
Multiple Administrator Login, which provides a way for multiple users to be given
administration rights, either full or read-only, for the SonicOS security appliance.
Additionally, SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 allows multiple users to concurrently manage the
appliance, but only one user at a time can be in config mode with the ability to change
configuration settings. This feature applies to both the graphical user interface (GUI) and
the command line interface (CLI).
•
IP-Based Connection Limit - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 provides a way to limit the number
of connections on a per-source or per-destination IP address basis. This feature protects
against worms on the LAN side that initiate large numbers of connections in denial of
service attacks.
•
IKEv2 Secondary Gateway Support - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces IKEv2
Secondary Gateway Support, which provides a way to configure a secondary VPN gateway
to act as an alternative tunnel end-point if the primary gateway becomes unreachable.
While using the secondary gateway, SonicOS can periodically check for availability of the
primary gateway and revert to it, if configured to do so. Configuration for the secondary
VPN gateway is available under VPN > Settings > Add Policy in the management
interface.
•
IKEv2 Dynamic Client Support - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces IKEv2 Dynamic Client
Support, which provides a way to configure the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) attributes
rather than using the default settings. Previously, only the default settings were supported:
Diffie-Hellman (DH) Group 2, the 3DES encryption algorithm, and the SHA1 authentication
method. SonicOS now allows the following IKE Proposal settings:
– DH Group: 1, 2, or 5
– Encryption: DES, 3DES, AES-128, AES-192, AES-256
– Authentication: MD5, SHA1
•
These settings are available by pressing the Configure button in the VPN > Advanced
screen of the management interface. However, if a VPN Policy with IKEv2 exchange mode
and a 0.0.0.0 IPsec gateway is defined, you cannot configure these IKE Proposal settings
on an individual policy basis.
Note
The VPN policy on the remote gateway must also be configured with the same
settings.
•
Wireless IDS Rogue Detection - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 supports wireless intrusion
detection on SonicPoint devices. Wireless IDS Rogue Detection allows you to configure a
set of authorized access points, defined by address object groups. If contact is attempted
from an unauthorized access point, SonicOS generates an alert.
•
RF Management - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces Radio Frequency Management on
SonicPoint devices. RF Management provides detection of eleven types of wireless threats:
– Long duration attack
– Management frame flood
– Null probe request
– Broadcasting de-authentication
– Valid station with invalid SSID
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
37
Introduction
– Ad-Hoc station
– Unassociated station
– Wellenreiter attack
– NetStumbler attack
– EAPOL packet flood
– Weak WEP IV
•
SMTP Authentication - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 supports RFC 2554, which defines an
SMTP service extension that allows the SMTP client to indicate an authentication method
to the server, perform an authentication protocol exchange, and optionally negotiate a
security layer for subsequent protocol interactions. This feature helps prevent viruses that
attack the SMTP server on port 25.
•
Generic DHCP Option Support - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 supports generic DHCP
configuration, which allows vendor-specific DHCP options in DHCP server leases.
•
DHCP Server Lease Cross-Reboot Persistence - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces
DHCP Server Lease Cross-Reboot Persistence, which provides the ability to record and
return to DHCP server lease bindings across power cycles. The SonicWALL security
appliance does not have to depend on dynamic network responses to regain its IP address
after a reboot or power cycle. This feature is supported on all SonicWALL PRO platforms.
It is not supported on SonicWALL TZ platforms.
•
Custom IP Type Service Objects - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces support for Custom
IP Type Service Objects, allowing administrators to augment the pre-defined set of Service
Objects.
•
Dynamic Address Objects - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 supports two changes to Address
Objects:
– MAC - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 will resolve MAC AOs to an IP address by referring to
the ARP cache on the SonicWALL.
– FQDN - Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN), such as ‘www.sonicwall.com’, will be
resolved to their IP address (or IP addresses) using the DNS server configured on the
SonicWALL. Wildcard entries are supported through the gleaning of responses to
queries sent to the sanctioned DNS servers.
•
38
Virtual Access Points - A “Virtual Access Point” (VAP) is a multiplexed instantiation of a
single physical Access Point (AP) so that it presents itself as multiple discrete Access
Points. To wireless LAN clients, each Virtual AP appears to be an independent physical AP,
when there is actually only a single physical AP. Before Virtual AP feature support, wireless
networks were relegated to a one-to-one relationship between physical Access Points and
wireless network security characteristics, such as authentication and encryption. For
example, an Access Point providing WPA-PSK security could not simultaneously offer
Open or WPA-EAP connectivity to clients. If Open or WPA-EAP were required, they would
need to have been provided by a separate, distinctly configured APs. This forced WLAN
network administrators to find a solution to scale their existing wireless LAN infrastructure
to provide differentiated levels of service. With the Virtual APs (VAP) feature, multiple VAPs
can exist within a single physical AP in compliance with the IEEE 802.11 standard for the
media access control (MAC) protocol layer that includes a unique Basic Service Set
Identifier (BSSID) and Service Set Identified (SSID). This allows segmenting wireless
network services within a single radio frequency footprint of a single physical access point
device.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Introduction
In SonicOS Enhanced 4.0, VAPs allow the network administrator to control wireless user
access and security settings by setting up multiple custom configurations on a single
physical interface. Each of these custom configurations acts as a separate (virtual) access
point, and can be grouped and enforced on single or multiple physical SonicPoint access
points simultaneously. You can configure up to eight VAPs per SonicPoint access point.
•
Layer 2 Bridge Mode - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 supports Layer 2 (L2) Bridge Mode, a new
method of unobtrusively integrating a SonicWALL security appliance into any Ethernet
network. L2 Bridge Mode is similar to the SonicOS Enhanced Transparent Mode in that it
enables a SonicWALL security appliance to share a common subnet across two interfaces,
and to perform stateful and deep-packet inspection on all traversing IP traffic, but it is
functionally more versatile.
L2 Bridge Mode employs a secure learning bridge architecture, enabling it to pass and
inspect traffic types that cannot be handled by many other methods of transparent security
appliance integration. Using L2 Bridge Mode, a SonicWALL security appliance can be nondisruptively added to any Ethernet network to provide in-line deep-packet inspection for all
traversing IPv4 TCP and UDP traffic. Unlike other transparent solutions, L2 Bridge Mode
can pass all traffic types, including IEEE 802.1Q VLANs, Spanning Tree Protocol, multicast,
broadcast, and IPv6, ensuring that all network communications will continue uninterrupted.
L2 Bridge Mode provides an ideal solution for networks that already have an existing
firewall, and do not have immediate plans to replace their existing firewall but wish to add
the security of SonicWALL Unified Threat Management (UTM) deep-packet inspection,
such as Intrusion Prevention Services, Gateway Anti-Virus, and Gateway Anti Spyware.
The following feature enhancements are included in SonicOS Enhanced 4.0:
•
Enhanced Packet Capture - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 provides an enhanced version of the
Packet Capture feature. Enhanced Packet Capture contains improvements in both
functionality and flexibility, including the following:
– Capture control mechanism with improved granularity for custom filtering
– Display filter settings independent from capture filter settings
– Packet status indicating dropped, forwarded, generated, or consumed
– Three-window output in the user interface that provides the packet list, decoded output
of selected packet, and hexadecimal dump of selected packet
– Export capabilities that include text, HTML, hex dump, and CAP file format
– Automatic buffer export to FTP server when full
– Bidirectional packet capture based on IP address and port
– Configurable wrap-around of capture buffer when full
•
User Authentication - There are a number of enhancements to user authentication in
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0, including optional case-sensitive user names, optional
enforcement of unique login names, support for MSCHAP version 2, and support for VPN
and L2TP clients changing expired passwords (when that is supported by the back-end
authentication server and protocols used). Note that for this purpose there is a new setting
on the VPN > Advanced page to cause RADIUS to be used in MSCHAP mode when
authenticating VPN client users.
•
IP Helper Scalability - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 provides enhancements to the IP Helper
architecture to support large networks. Improvements include changes to DHCP relay and
Net-BIOS functionality. DHCP relay over VPN is now fully integrated.
•
Diagnostics Page Tool Tips - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 incorporates self-documenting
mouse-over descriptions for diagnostic controls in the graphical user interface.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
39
Introduction
•
BWM Rate Limiting - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 enhances the Bandwidth Management
feature to provide rate limiting functionality. You can now create traffic policies that specify
maximum rates for Layer 2, 3, or 4 network traffic. This enables bandwidth management in
cases where the primary WAN link fails over to a secondary connection that cannot handle
as much traffic.
•
DHCP Client Reboot Behavior Control - In SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 you can configure the
WAN DHCP client to perform a DHCP RENEW or a DHCP DISCOVERY query when
attempting to obtain a lease. The previous behavior was to always perform a RENEW,
which caused lease failures on some networks, particularly certain cable modem service
providers. The new behavior it to perform a DISCOVERY, but it is configurable.
•
A checkbox has been added to the Network > Interfaces > WAN >DHCP Client page:
– Enabled: when the appliance reboots, the DHCP client performs a DHCP RENEW
query.
– Disabled: (Default) when the appliance reboots, the DHCP client performs a DHCP
DISCOVERY query.
•
Dynamic Route Metric Recalculation Based on Interface Availability - To better support
redundant or multiple path Advanced Routing configurations, when a default-route's
interface is unavailable (due to no-link or negative WAN LB probe response), that default
route's metric will be changed to 255, and the route will be instantly disabled. When a
default-route's interface is again determined to be available, its metric will be changed back
to 20, and the route will be non-disruptively enabled.
SonicWALL Management Interface
The SonicWALL security appliance’s Web-based management interface provides a easy-touse graphical interface for configuring your SonicWALL security appliance. The following
provides an overview of the key management interface objects.
40
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Introduction
Navigating the Management Interface
Navigating the SonicWALL management interface includes a hierarchy of menu buttons on the
navigation bar (left side of your browser window). When you click a menu button, related
management functions are displayed as submenu items in the navigation bar.
To navigate to a submenu page, click the link. When you click a menu button, the first submenu
item page is displayed. The first submenu page is automatically displayed when you click the
menu button. For example, when you click the Network button, the Network > Settings page
is displayed.
Status Bar
The Status bar at the bottom of the management interface window displays the status of
actions executed in the SonicWALL management interface.
Applying Changes
Click the Apply button at the top right corner of the SonicWALL management interface to save
any configuration changes you made on the page.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
41
Introduction
If the settings are contained in a secondary window within the management interface, when you
click OK, the settings are automatically applied to the SonicWALL security appliance.
Navigating Tables
Navigate tables in the management interface with large number of entries by using the
navigation buttons located on the upper right top corner of the table.
The table navigation bar includes buttons for moving through table pages.
Common Icons in the Management Interface
The following describe the functions of common icons used in the SonicWALL management
interface:
42
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Introduction
•
Clicking on the edit
icon displays a window for editing the settings.
•
Clicking on the delete
•
Moving the pointer over the comment
icon deletes a table entry
icon displays text from a Comment field entry.
Getting Help
Each SonicWALL security appliance includes Web-based on-line help available from the
management interface.
Clicking the question mark ? button on the top-right corner of every page accesses the
context-sensitive help for the page.
Tip
Accessing the SonicWALL security appliance online help requires an active Internet
connection.
Logging Out
The Logout button at the bottom of the menu bar terminates the management interface session
and displays the authentication page for logging into the SonicWALL security appliance.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
43
Introduction
44
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
PART 2
System
SONICWALL SONICOS ENHANCED 4.0 ADMINISTRATOR’S GUIDE
45
46
SONICWALL SONICOS ENHANCED 4.0 ADMINISTRATOR’S GUIDE
CHAPTER 4
Chapter 4:
Viewing the SonicWALL Security
Dashboard
System > Security Dashboard
This chapter describes how to use the SonicWALL Security Dashboard feature on a
SonicWALL security appliance. This chapter contains the following sections:
•
“SonicWALL Security Dashboard Overview” on page 47
– “What is the Security Dashboard?” on page 48
– “Benefits” on page 49
– “How Does the Security Dashboard Work?” on page 50
– “Platforms” on page 50
•
“Using the SonicWALL Security Dashboard” on page 50
– “Administrator Prerequisites” on page 50
– “Administrator Configuration Tasks” on page 50
•
“Related Features” on page 59
SonicWALL Security Dashboard Overview
This section provides an introduction to the Security Dashboard feature. This section contains
the following subsections:
•
“What is the Security Dashboard?” on page 48
•
“Benefits” on page 49
•
“How Does the Security Dashboard Work?” on page 50
•
“Platforms” on page 50
After reading the Security Dashboard Overview section, you will be familiar with this feature and
its benefits.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
47
System > Security Dashboard
What is the Security Dashboard?
The SonicWALL Security Dashboard provides reports of the latest threat protection data from
a single SonicWALL appliance and aggregated threat protection data from SonicWALL security
appliances deployed globally. The SonicWALL Security Dashboard displays automatically
upon successful authentication to a SonicWALL security appliance, and can be viewed at any
time by navigating to the System > Security Dashboard menu in the left-hand menu.
Reports in the Security Dashboard include:
•
Viruses Blocked by SonicWALL Network
•
Intrusions Prevented by SonicWALL Network
•
Spyware Blocked by SonicWALL Network
•
Multimedia (IM/P2P) Detected/Blocked by SonicWALL Network
Each report includes a graph of threats blocked over time and a table of the top blocked threats.
Reports, which are updated hourly, can be customized to display data for the last 12 hours, 14
days, 21 days, or 6 months. For easier viewing, SonicWALL Security Dashboard reports can
be transformed into a PDF file format with the click of a button.
48
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
System > Security Dashboard
Benefits
The Security Dashboard provides the latest threat protection information to keep you informed
about potential threats being blocked by SonicWALL security appliances. If you subscribe to
SonicWALL’s security services, including Gateway Anti-Virus, Gateway Anti-Spyware,
Intrusion Prevention Service (IPS), and Content Filtering Service, you are automatically
protected from the threats reported by the SonicWALL Security Dashboard. SonicWALL’s
security services include ongoing new signature updates to protect against the latest virus and
spyware attacks. For information about activating SonicWALL security services, refer to the
“Purchasing Security Services” on page 52.
The Security Dashboard provides insight into threats over time, and can be configured to
display data from multiple time periods. The SonicWALL Security Dashboard can be viewed
easily in the System > Security Dashboard page of the SonicWALL appliance management
interface, or as a custom generated PDF file.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
49
System > Security Dashboard
How Does the Security Dashboard Work?
The SonicWALL Security Dashboard provides global and appliance-level threat protection
statistics. At the appliance level, threat protection data from your SonicWALL security
appliance is displayed. At the global level, the SonicWALL Security Dashboard is updated
hourly from the SonicWALL backend server with aggregated threat protection data from
globally-deployed SonicWALL security appliances. Data provided by the SonicWALL backend
server is cached locally for reliable delivery.
Note
The SonicWALL security appliance must have Internet connectivity (including connection to
a DNS server) to receive the latest threat protection statistics from the SonicWALL backend
server, which reports aggregated data from globally deployed SonicWALL security
appliances. If you lose connectivity, cached data from the last update will display, and the
latest data will not be available until connectivity is restored.
Platforms
The Security Dashboard is available on the SonicWALL security appliances running SonicOS
3.5 firmware and higher.
Using the SonicWALL Security Dashboard
This section contains the following subsections:
•
“Administrator Prerequisites” on page 50
•
“Administrator Configuration Tasks” on page 50
Administrator Prerequisites
SonicWALL security appliances running SonicOS 3.5 firmware or later must be set up and
registered on mysonicwall.com. For registration instructions, refer to the SonicWALL Getting
Started Guide for your security appliance, available on the Web at:
http://www.sonicwall.com/us/Support.html.
Note
The SonicWALL security appliance must be configured for Internet connectivity and be
connected to the Internet to display the latest reports.
Administrator Configuration Tasks
This section contains the following subsections:
50
•
“SonicWALL Security Dashboard Configuration Overview” on page 51
•
“Purchasing Security Services” on page 52
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System > Security Dashboard
SonicWALL Security Dashboard Configuration Overview
The SonicWALL Security Dashboard can be configured to display global or appliance-level
statistics, to display statistics for different time periods, and to generate a custom PDF file. For
information about purchasing SonicWALL security services that protect against the threats
reported in the SonicWALL Security Dashboard, refer to “Purchasing Security Services” on
page 52.
The SonicWALL Security Dashboard displays automatically upon successful login to a
SonicWALL security appliance. You can access the SonicWALL Security Dashboard at any
time by navigating to System > Security Dashboard in the left-hand menu. You may see the
introductory screen shown below before the dashboard displays.
This section provides the following subsections:
•
“Switching to Global or Appliance-Level View” on page 51
•
“Selecting Custom Time Interval” on page 52
•
“Generating a Security Dashboard PDF” on page 52
Switching to Global or Appliance-Level View
To view SonicWALL Security Dashboard global reports, select the radio button next to Global
in the top of the System > Security Dashboard screen. To view appliance-level reports, select
the radio button next to the appliance serial number.
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System > Security Dashboard
Selecting Custom Time Interval
The SonicWALL Security Dashboard reports default to a view of reports from the “Last 14
Days,” providing an aggregate view of threats blocked during that time period. You can
configure each report to one of four optional time periods. Each report can be configured to
reflect a different time period. To change a report to reflect a different time period, perform the
following steps:
Step 1
Select the report you want to change:
– Viruses Blocked by SonicWALL Network
– Intrusions Prevented by SonicWALL Network
– Spyware Blocked by SonicWALL Network
– Multimedia (IM/P2P) Detected/Blocked by SonicWALL Network.
Step 2
Next to the title of the selected report, click the pull-down menu and select one of the following
options:
– Last 12 Hours - The selected report will display threat information from the last 12
hours
– Last 14 Days - The selected report will display threat information from the last 14 days
– Last 21 Days - The selected report will display threat information from the last 21 days
– Last 6 Months - The selected report will display threat information from the last 6
months
Generating a Security Dashboard PDF
To create a PDF version of the SonicWALL Security Dashboard, first select the desired view
(global or appliance-level) and the desired time period for each report (the last 12 hours, 14
days, 21 days, or 6 months). Click the
button at the top of the page.
Purchasing Security Services
To be protected from the threats reported in the SonicWALL Security Dashboard, it is
recommended that you purchase SonicWALL security services. This section provides
instructions for using the SonicWALL Registration & License Wizard, accessible from the
SonicWALL appliance management interface, to purchase SonicWALL security services.
SonicWALL security services include the following real-time protection services:
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•
Gateway Anti-Virus - Protects against viruses, worms, Trojans and other threats
•
Gateway Anti-Spyware - Protects against new and existing malicious spyware
•
Intrusion Prevention Service - Protects against application-layer attacks
•
Content Filtering Service - Enhances protection and productivity by limiting access to
objectionable Web content
•
Dynamic Support 8x5 - Provides one year of telephone and Web support, including
software and firmware updates
•
ViewPoint - Provides detailed and comprehensive reporting on network activity
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
System > Security Dashboard
Note
Your SonicWALL security appliance must be configured for Internet connectivity and must
be connected to the Internet to use the Registration & License Wizard.
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System > Security Dashboard
To purchase SonicWALL security services using the SonicWALL Registration & License
Wizard, perform the following steps:
Step 1
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Log in to the SonicWALL appliance management interface.
Step 2
In the left-navigation menu, click Wizards. The Configuration Wizard displays.
Step 3
Select the radio button next to Registration & License Wizard and click Next.
Step 4
The welcome screen displays. Click Next.
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System > Security Dashboard
Step 5
If you have a mysonicwall.com account, enter your username and password in the Username
and Password fields. If you do not have a mysonicwall.com account, select the radio button
next to Create a sonicwall.com account. Click Next.
Step 6
If you selected Create a sonicwall.com account, the User Registration page displays. Provide
the information requested in order to create your account, then click Next.
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System > Security Dashboard
Note
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If you used an existing mysonicwall.com account by providing your username and
password, you will not see this page. Skip to the next step.
Step 7
Select the checkbox next to the service you want to purchase and click Next.
Step 8
A notice displays that a separate browser window will be launched. Click OK.
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System > Security Dashboard
Step 9
The mysonicwall.com page is launched in a separate browser window. Follow the on-screen
instructions to complete the purchase of SonicWALL security services.
Step 10 After you have purchased the security services, return to the wizard window. The License
Synchronization window will synchronize the new security services with the SonicWALL
security appliance. Click Next to complete the synchronization.
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System > Security Dashboard
Step 11 The Congratulations page displays. You have successfully purchased and synchronized your
security services. Click Close to close the wizard.
To verify that the security services are licensed, navigate to Security Services > Summary in
the left-hand menu and verify that the status of the services is Licensed. For information on
advanced configuration for each service, refer to the SonicWALL Administrator’s Guides,
available on the Web at:
http://www.sonicwall.com/us/Support.html.
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System > Security Dashboard
Related Features
SonicWALL Registration & License Wizard - Use the SonicWALL Registration & License
Wizard to purchase SonicWALL security services directly from your SonicWALL security
appliance management interface.
SonicWALL Security Services - SonicWALL provides a comprehensive offering of security
services that protect against the threats reported in the SonicWALL Security Dashboard. For a
full list, visit the SonicWALL website at http://www.sonicwall.com/us/Support.html.
Some of the SonicWALL Security Services include:
•
Gateway Anti-Virus - Protects against viruses, worms, Trojans and other threats
•
Gateway Anti-Spyware - Protects against new and existing malicious spyware
•
Intrusion Prevention Service - Protects against application-layer attacks
•
Content Filtering Service - Enhances protection and productivity by limiting access to
objectionable Web content
•
Dynamic Support 8x5 - Provides one year of telephone and Web support, including
software and firmware updates
•
ViewPoint - Provides detailed and comprehensive reporting on network activity
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System > Security Dashboard
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CHAPTER 5
Chapter 5:
Viewing Status Information
System > Status
The System > Status page provides a comprehensive collection of information and links to
help you manage your SonicWALL security appliance and SonicWALL Security Services
licenses. It includes status information about your SonicWALL security appliance organized into
five sections: System Messages, System Information, Security Services, Latest Alerts,
and Network Interfaces as well as the Wizards button for accessing the SonicWALL
Configuration Wizard.
Wizards
The Wizards button on the System > Status page provides access to the SonicWALL
Configuration Wizard, which allows you to easily configure the SonicWALL security appliance
using the following sub-wizards:
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System > Status
•
Setup Wizard - This wizard helps you quickly configure the SonicWALL security appliance
to secure your Internet (WAN) and LAN connections.
•
Public Server Wizard - This wizard helps you quickly configure the SonicWALL security
appliance to provide public access to an internal server, such as a Web or E-mail server.
•
VPN Wizard - This wizard helps you create a new site-to-site VPN Policy or configure the
WAN GroupVPN to accept VPN connections from SonicWALL Global VPN Clients.
•
Wireless Wizard - (SonicWALL TZ 170 Wireless and SonicWALL TZ 170 SP Wireless
only), this wizard helps you select a wireless deployment mode and configure the radio
settings of the built-in 802.11b/g antennas.
For more information on using the SonicWALL Configuration Wizard, see “Wizards” on
page 791.
System Messages
Any information considered relating to possible problems with configurations on the
SonicWALL security appliance such as password, log messages, as well as notifications of
SonicWALL Security Services offers, new firmware notifications, and upcoming Security
Service s expirations are displayed in the System Messages section.
System Information
The following information is displayed in this section:
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•
Model - type of SonicWALL security appliance product
•
Serial Number - also the MAC address of the SonicWALL security appliance
•
Authentication Code - the alphanumeric code used to authenticate the SonicWALL
security appliance on the registration database at https://www.mysonicwall.com.
•
Firmware Version - the firmware version loaded on the SonicWALL security appliance.
•
ROM Version - indicates the ROM version.
•
CPU - displays the average CPU usage over the last 10 seconds and the type of the
SonicWALL security appliance processor.
•
Total Memory - indicates the amount of RAM and flash memory.
•
System Time - The time registered on the internal clock on the SonicWALL appliance.
•
Up Time - the length of time, in days, hours, and seconds the SonicWALL security
appliance is active.
•
Current Connections - the number of network connections currently existing on the
SonicWALL security appliance.
•
Last Modified By - The IP address of the user who last modified the system and the time
stamp of the last modification.
•
Registration Code - the registration code is generated when your SonicWALL security
appliance is registered at http://www.mysonicwall.com.
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System > Status
Latest Alerts
Any messages relating to system errors or attacks are displayed in this section. Attack
messages include AV Alerts, forbidden e-mail attachments, fraudulent certificates, etc. System
errors include WAN IP changed and encryption errors. Clicking the blue arrow displays the Log
> Log View page.
For more information on SonicWALL security appliance logging, see “Log” on page 763.
Security Services
If your SonicWALL security appliance is not registered at mySonicWALL.com, the following
message is displayed in the Security Services folder: Your SonicWALL security appliance
is not registered. Click here to Register your SonicWALL security appliance. You need a
mySonicWALL.com account to register your SonicWALL security appliance or activate security
services. You can create a mySonicWALL.com account directly from the SonicWALL
management interface.
If your SonicWALL security appliance is registered, a list of available SonicWALL Security
Services are listed in this section with the status of Licensed or Not Licensed. If Licensed,
the Status column displays the number of licenses and the number of licenses in use. Clicking
the Arrow icon displays the System > Licenses page in the SonicWALL Web-based
management interface. SonicWALL Security Services and SonicWALL security appliance
registration is managed by mySonicWALL.com.
Refer to Part 13 Security Services for more information on SonicWALL Security Services and
activating them on the SonicWALL security appliance.
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System > Status
Registering Your SonicWALL Security Appliance
Once you have established your Internet connection, it is recommended you register your
SonicWALL security appliance. Registering your SonicWALL security appliance provides the
following benefits:
•
Try a FREE 30-day trial of SonicWALL Intrusion Prevention Service, SonicWALL Gateway
Anti-Virus, Content Filtering Service, and Client Anti-Virus
•
Activate SonicWALL security services and upgrades
•
Access SonicOS firmware updates
•
Get SonicWALL technical support
Before You Register
If your SonicWALL security appliance is not registered, the following message is displayed in
the Security Services folder on the System > Status page in the SonicWALL management
interface: Your SonicWALL is not registered. Click here to Register your SonicWALL. You
need a mySonicWALL.com account to register the SonicWALL security appliance.
If your SonicWALL security appliance is connected to the Internet, you can create a
mySonicWALL.com account and register your SonicWALL security appliance directly from the
SonicWALL management interface. If you already have a mySonicWALL.com account, you can
register the SonicWALL security appliance directly from the management interface.
Your mySonicWALL.com account is accessible from any Internet connection by pointing your
Web browser to https://www.mysonicwall.com. mySonicWALL.com uses the HTTPS
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) protocol to protect your sensitive information.
Note
Make sure the Time Zone and DNS settings on your SonicWALL security appliance are
correct when you register the device. See SonicWALL Setup Wizard instructions for
instructions on using the Setup Wizard to set the Time Zone and DNS settings.
Note
mySonicWALL.com registration information is not sold or shared with any other company.
You can also register your security appliance at the https://www.mysonicwall.com site by using
the Serial Number and Authentication Code displayed in the Security Services section.
Click the SonicWALL link to access your mySonicWALL.com account. You will be given a
registration code after you have registered your security appliance. Enter the registration code
in the field below the You will be given a registration code, which you should enter below
heading, then click Update.
Creating a mySonicWALL.com Account
Creating a mySonicWALL.com account is fast, simple, and FREE. Simply complete an online
registration form in the SonicWALL management interface.
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System > Status
To create a mySonicWALL.com account from the SonicWALL management interface:
Step 1
In the Security Services section on the System > Status page, click the Register link in Your
SonicWALL is not registered. Click here to Register your SonicWALL.
Step 2
Click the here link in If you do not have a mySonicWALL account, please click here to
create one on the mySonicWALL Login page.
Step 3
In the MySonicWALL Account page, enter in your information in the Account Information,
Personal Information and Preferences fields in the mySonicWALL.com account form. All
fields marked with an * are required fields.
Note
Remember your username and password to access your mySonicWALL.com account.
Step 4
Click Submit after completing the MySonicWALL Account form.
Step 5
When the mySonicWALL.com server has finished processing your account, a page is displayed
confirming your account has been created. Click Continue.
Step 6
Congratulations! Your mySonicWALL.com account is activated. Now you need to log into
mySonicWALL.com from the management appliance to register your SonicWALL security
appliance.
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System > Status
Registering Your SonicWALL Security Appliance
If you already have a mySonicWALL.com account, follow these steps to register your security
appliance:
Step 1
In the Security Services section on the System > Status page, click the Register link in Your
SonicWALL is not registered. Click here to Register your SonicWALL. The
mySonicWALL Login page is displayed.
Step 2
In the mySonicWALL.com Login page, enter your mySonicWALL.com username and
password in the User Name and Password fields and click Submit.
Step 3
The next several pages inform you about free trials available to you for SonicWALL’s Security
Services:
•
Gateway Anti-Virus - protects your entire network from viruses
•
Client Anti-Virus - protects computers on your network from viruses
•
Premium Content Filtering Service - protects your network and improves productivity by
limiting access to unproductive and inappropriate Web sites
•
Intrusion Prevention Service - protects your network from Trojans, worms, and
application layer attacks
Step 4
Click Continue on each page.
Step 5
At the top of the Product Survey page, enter a friendly name for your SonicWALL security
appliance in the Friendly name field, and complete the optional product survey.
Step 6
Click Submit.
Step 7
When the mySonicWALL.com server has finished processing your registration, a page is
displayed confirming your SonicWALL security appliance is registered.
Step 8
Click Continue. The Manage Services Online table on the System > Licenses page
displayed.
Network Interfaces
Network Interfaces displays information about the interfaces for your SonicWALL security
appliance. Clicking the blue arrow displays the Network > Interfaces page for configuring your
Network settings. The available interfaces displayed in the Network Interfaces section depend
on the SonicWALL security appliance model.
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CHAPTER 6
Chapter 6:
Managing SonicWALL Licenses
System > Licenses
The System > Licenses page provides links to activate, upgrade, or renew SonicWALL
Security Services licenses. From this page in the SonicWALL Management Interface, you can
manage all the SonicWALL Security Services licensed for your SonicWALL security appliance.
The information listed in the Security Services Summary table is updated from your
mySonicWALL.com account. The System > Licenses page also includes links to FREE trials
of SonicWALL Security Services.
Node License Status
A node is a computer or other device connected to your LAN with an IP address.
If your SonicWALL security appliance is licensed for unlimited nodes, the Node License Status
section displays the message: The SonicWALL is licensed for unlimited Nodes/Users. No
other settings are displayed.
If your SonicWALL security appliance is not licensed for unlimited nodes, the Node License
Status table lists how many nodes your security appliance is licensed to have connected at any
one time, how many nodes are currently connected, and how many nodes you have in your
Node License Exclusion List.
The Currently Licensed Nodes table lists details on each node connected to your security
appliance.
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System > Licenses
Excluding a Node
When you exclude a node, you block it from connecting to your network through the security
appliance. Excluding a node creates an address object for that IP address and assigns it to the
Node License Exclusion List address group.
To exclude a node:
Step 1
Select the node you want to exclude in the Currently Licensed Nodes table on the
System > Licenses page, and click the
icon in the Exclude column for that node.
Step 2
A warning displays, saying that excluding this node will create an address object for it and place
it in the License Exclusion List address group. Click OK to exclude the node.
You can manage the License Exclusion List group and address objects in the Network >
Address Objects page of the management interface. Click the Node License Exclusion List
link to jump to the Network > Address Objects page. See Chapter 19, Network > Address
Objects for instructions on managing address objects.
Security Services Summary
The Security Services Summary table lists the available and activated security services on
the SonicWALL security appliance.
The Security Service column lists all the available SonicWALL Security Services and
upgrades available for the SonicWALL security appliance. The Status column indicates is the
security service is activated (Licensed), available for activation (Not Licensed), or no longer
active (Expired). The number of nodes/users allowed for the license is displayed in the Count
column. The Expiration column displays the expiration date for any Licensed Security Service.
The information listed in the Security Services Summary table is updated from your
mySonicWALL.com account the next time the SonicWALL security appliance automatically
synchronizes with your mySonicWALL.com account (once a day) or you can click the link in To
synchronize licenses with mySonicWALL.com click here in the Manage Security Services
Online section.
For more information on SonicWALL Security Services, see “Security Services” on page 685.
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System > Licenses
Manage Security Services Online
To activate, upgrade, or renew services, click the link in To Activate, Upgrade, or Renew
services, click here. Click the link in To synchronize licenses with mySonicWALL.com
click here to synchronize your mySonicWALL.com account with the Security Services
Summary table.
You can also get free trial subscriptions to SonicWALL Content Filter Service and Client AntiVirus by clicking the For Free Trials click here link. When you click these links, the
mySonicWALL.com Login page is displayed.
Enter your mySonicWALL.com account username and password in the User Name and
Password fields and click Submit. The Manage Services Online page is displayed with
licensing information from your mySonicWALL.com account.
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System > Licenses
Manual Upgrade
Manual Upgrade allows you to activate your services by typing the service activation key
supplied with the service subscription not activated on mySonicWALL.com. Type the activation
key from the product into the Enter upgrade key field and click Submit.
Manual Upgrade for Closed Environments
If your SonicWALL security appliance is deployed in a high security environment that does not
allow direct Internet connectivity from the SonicWALL security appliance, you can enter the
encrypted license key information from http://www.mysonicwall.com manually on the System
> Licenses page in the SonicWALL Management Interface.
Note
Manual upgrade of the encrypted License Keyset is only for Closed Environments. If your
SonicWALL security appliance is connected to the Internet, it is recommended you use the
automatic registration and Security Services upgrade features of your SonicWALL security
appliance.
From a Computer Connected to the Internet
70
Step 1
Make sure you have an account at http://www.mysonicwall.com and your SonicWALL security
appliance is registered to the account before proceeding.
Step 2
After logging into www.mysonicwall.com, click on your registered SonicWALL security
appliance listed in Registered SonicWALL Products.
Step 3
Click the View License Keyset link. The scrambled text displayed in the text box is the License
Keyset for the selected SonicWALL security appliance and activated Security Services. Copy
the Keyset text for pasting into the System > Licenses page or print the page if you plan to
manually type in the Keyset into the SonicWALL security appliance.
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System > Licenses
From the Management Interface of your SonicWALL Security Appliance
Step 1
Make sure your SonicWALL security appliance is running SonicOS Standard or Enhanced 2.1
(or higher).
Step 2
Paste (or type) the Keyset (from the step 3) into the Keyset field in the Manual Upgrade section
of the System > Licenses page (SonicOS).
Step 3
Click the Submit or the Apply button to update your SonicWALL security appliance. The status
field at the bottom of the page displays The configuration has been updated.
Step 4
You can generate the System > Diagnostics > Tech Support Report to verify the upgrade
details.
Note
Caution
After the manual upgrade, the System > Licenses page does not contain any registration
and upgrade information.
The warning message: SonicWALL Registration Update Needed. Please update your
registration information remains on the System > Status page after you have registered
your SonicWALL security appliance. Ignore this message.
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System > Licenses
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CHAPTER 7
Chapter 7:
Configuring Administration Settings
System > Administration
The System Administration page provides settings for the configuration of SonicWALL security
appliance for secure and remote management. You can manage the SonicWALL using a
variety of methods, including HTTPS, SNMP or SonicWALL Global Management System
(SonicWALL GMS). This chapter contains the following sections:
•
“Firewall Name” on page 73
•
“Administrator Name & Password” on page 73
•
“Login Security Settings” on page 74
•
“Multiple Administrators” on page 76
•
“Web Management Settings” on page 77
•
“SSH Management Settings” on page 78
•
“Advanced Management” on page 78
•
“Download URL” on page 82
•
“Selecting UI Language” on page 83
Firewall Name
The Firewall Name uniquely identifies the SonicWALL security appliance and defaults to the
serial number of the SonicWALL. The serial number is also the MAC address of the unit. To
change the Firewall Name, type a unique alphanumeric name in the Firewall Name field. It
must be at least 8 characters in length.
Administrator Name & Password
The Administrator Name can be changed from the default setting of admin to any word using
alphanumeric characters up to 32 characters in length. To create a new administrator name,
type the new name in the Administrator Name field. Click Apply for the changes to take effect
on the SonicWALL.
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System > Administration
Changing the Administrator Password
To set a new password for SonicWALL Management Interface access, type the old password
in the Old Password field, and the new password in the New Password field. Type the new
password again in the Confirm New Password field and click Apply. Once the SonicWALL
security appliance has been updated, a message confirming the update is displayed at the
bottom of the browser window.
Tip
It’s recommended you change the default password “password” to your own custom
password.
Login Security Settings
The internal SonicWALL web-server now only supports SSL version 3.0 and TLS with strong
ciphers (128 bits or greater) when negotiating HTTPS management sessions. SSL
implementations prior to version 3.0 and weak ciphers (symmetric ciphers less than 128 bits)
are not supported. This heightened level of HTTPS security protects against potential SSLv2
roll-back vulnerabilities and ensures compliance with the Payment Card Industry (PCI) and
other security and risk-management standards.
Tip
By default, Mozilla Firefox 2.0 and Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0 enable SSL 3.0 and TLS,
and disable SSL 2.0. SonicWALL recommends using these most recent web browser
releases. If you are using a previous release of these browsers, you should enable SSL 3.0
and TLS and disable SSL 2.0. In Internet Explorer, go to Tools > Internet Options, click on
the Advanced tab, and scroll to the bottom of the Settings menu. In Firefox, go to Tools >
Options, click on the Advanced tab, and then click on the Encryption tab.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces password constraint enforcement, which can be configured
to ensure that administrators and users are using secure passwords. This password constraint
enforcement can satisfy the confidentiality requirements as defined by current information
security management systems or compliance requirements, such as Common Criteria and the
Payment Card Industry (PCI) standard.
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System > Administration
The Password must be changed every (days) setting requires users to change their
passwords after the designated number of days has elapsed. When a user attempts to login
with an expired password, a pop-up window will prompt the user to enter a new password. The
User Login Status window now includes a Change Password button so that users can change
their passwords at any time.
The Bar repeated passwords for this many changes setting requires users to use unique
passwords for the specified number of password changes.
The Enforce a minimum password length of setting sets the shortest allowed password.
The Enforce password complexity pulldown menu provides the following options:
•
Require both alphabetic and numeric characters
•
Require alphabetic, numeric, and symbolic characters
The Apply these password constraints for checkboxes specify which classes of users the
password constraints are applied to. The administrator checkbox refers to the default
administrator with the username admin.
The Log out the Administrator Inactivity Timeout after inactivity of (minutes) setting
allows you to set the length of inactivity time that elapses before you are automatically logged
out of the Management Interface. By default, the SonicWALL security appliance logs out the
administrator after 5 minutes of inactivity. The inactivity timeout can range from 1 to 99 minutes.
Click Apply, and a message confirming the update is displayed at the bottom of the browser
window.
Tip
If the Administrator Inactivity Timeout is extended beyond 5 minutes, you should end every
management session by clicking Logout to prevent unauthorized access to the SonicWALL
security appliance’s Management Interface.
You can configure the SonicWALL security appliance to lockout an administrator or a user if the
login credentials are incorrect. Select the Enable Administrator/User Lockout on login
failure checkbox to prevent users from attempting to log into the SonicWALL security appliance
without proper authentication credentials. Type the number of failed attempts before the user
is locked out in the Failed login attempts per minute before lockout field. Type the length of
time that must elapse before the user attempts to log into the SonicWALL again in the Lockout
Period (minutes) field.
Caution
If the administrator and a user are logging into the SonicWALL using the same source IP
address, the administrator is also locked out of the SonicWALL. The lockout is based on the
source IP address of the user or administrator.
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System > Administration
Multiple Administrators
SonicOS Enhanced provides the ability for multiple administrators to access the SonicOS
Management Interface simultaneously. For more information on Multiple Administrators, see
the “Multiple Administrator Support Overview” section on page 590. The System >
Administration page contains a number of options to manage multiple administrators.
•
The On preemption by another administrator setting configures what happens when one
administrator preempts another administrator using the Multiple Administrators feature.
The preempted administrator can either be converted to non-config mode or logged out.
– Drop to non-config mode - Select to allow more than one administrator to access the
appliance in non-config mode without disrupting the current administrator.
– Log Out - Select to have the new administrator preempt the current administrator.
•
Allow preemption by a lower priority administrator after inactivity of (minutes) - Enter
the number of minutes of inactivity by the current administrator that will allow a lowerpriority administrator to preempt.
•
Enable inter-administrator messaging - Select to allow administrators to send text
messages through the management interface to other administrators logged into the
appliance. The message will appear in the browser’s status bar.
•
Messaging polling interval - Sets how often the administrator’s browser will check for
inter-administrator messages. If there are likely to be multiple administrators who need to
access the appliance, this should be set to a reasonably short interval to ensure timely
delivery of messages.
Activating Configuration Mode
You can switch between configuration mode and non-config mode by clicking the button in the
Web Management section (directly below the Multiple Administrator section).
When you are in configuration mode, the End. config mode button is displayed. When you are
in configuration mode, the Configuration mode button is displayed. If there is not currently an
administrator in configuration mode, you will automatically be entered into configuration mode.
If another administrator is in configuration mode, the following message displays.
Click the Continue button to enter configuration mode. The current administrator is converted
to read-only mode and you are given full administrator access.
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System > Administration
Web Management Settings
The SonicWALL security appliance can be managed using HTTP or HTTPS and a Web
browser. Both HTTP and HTTPS are enabled by default. The default port for HTTP is port 80,
but you can configure access through another port. Type the number of the desired port in the
Port field, and click Apply. However, if you configure another port for HTTP management, you
must include the port number when you use the IP address to log into the SonicWALL security
appliance. For example, if you configure the port to be 76, then you must type <LAN IP
Address>:76 into the Web browser, i.e. <http://192.168.168.1:76>. The default port for HTTPS
management is 443.
You can add another layer of security for logging into the SonicWALL security appliance by
changing the default port. To configure another port for HTTPS management, type the
preferred port number into the Port field, and click Update. For example, if you configure the
HTTPS Management Port to be 700, then you must log into the SonicWALL using the port
number as well as the IP address, for example, <https://192.168.168.1:700> to access the
SonicWALL.
The Certificate Selection menu allows you to use a self-signed certificate (Use Self-signed
Certificate), which allows you to continue using a certificate without downloading a new one
each time you log into the SonicWALL security appliance. You can also choose Import
Certificate to select an imported certificate from the System > Certificates page to use for
authentication to the management interface.
When the Use System Dashboard View as starting page checkbox is enabled, the System
> Dashboard page will be displayed when you first log into the SonicWALL security appliance.
If this option is disabled, the System > Status page will be displayed.
The Delete Cookies button removes all browser cookies saved by the SonicWALL appliance.
Deleting cookies will cause you to lose any unsaved changes made in the Management
interface.
Changing the Default Size for SonicWALL Management Interface Tables
The SonicWALL Management Interface allows you to control the display of large tables of
information across all tables in the management Interface. You can change the default table
page size in all tables displayed in the SonicWALL Management Interface from the default 50
items per page to any size ranging from 1 to 5,000 items.
To change the default table size:
Step 1
Enter the maximum table size number in the Table Size field.
Step 2
Click Apply.
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System > Administration
SSH Management Settings
If you use SSH to manage the SonicWALL appliance, you can change the SSH port for
additional security. The default SSH port is 22.
Advanced Management
You can manage the SonicWALL security appliance using SNMP or SonicWALL Global
Management System. The following sections explain how to configure the SonicWALL for
management by these two options.
For more information on SonicWALL Global Management System, go to http://
www.sonicwall.com.
Enabling SNMP Management
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a network protocol used over User Datagram
Protocol (UDP) that allows network administrators to monitor the status of the SonicWALL
security appliance and receive notification of critical events as they occur on the network. The
SonicWALL security appliance supports SNMP v1/v2c and all relevant Management
Information Base II (MIB) groups except egp and at. The SonicWALL security appliance replies
to SNMP Get commands for MIBII via any interface and supports a custom SonicWALL MIB for
generating trap messages. The custom SonicWALL MIB is available for download from the
SonicWALL Web site and can be loaded into third-party SNMP management software such as
HP Openview, Tivoli, or SNMPC.
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System > Administration
To enable SNMP on the SonicWALL security appliance, log into the Management interface and
click System, then Administration. Select the Enable SNMP checkbox, and then click
Configure. The Configure SNMP window is displayed.
Step 1
Type the host name of the SonicWALL security appliance in the System Name field.
Step 2
Type the network administrator’s name in the System Contact field.
Step 3
Type an e-mail address, telephone number, or pager number in the System Location field.
Step 4
Type a name for a group or community of administrators who can view SNMP data in the Get
Community Name field.
Step 5
Type a name for a group or community of administrators who can view SNMP traps in the Trap
Community Name field.
Step 6
Type the IP address or host name of the SNMP management system receiving SNMP traps in
the Host 1 through Host 4 fields. You must configure at least one IP address or host name, but
up to four addresses or host names can be used.
Step 7
Click OK.
Configuring Log/Log Settings for SNMP
Trap messages are generated only for the alert message categories normally sent by the
SonicWALL security appliance. For example, attacks, system errors, or blocked Web sites
generate trap messages. If none of the categories are selected on the Log > Settings page,
then no trap messages are generated.
Configuring SNMP as a Service and Adding Rules
By default, SNMP is disabled on the SonicWALL security appliance. To enable SNMP you must
first enable SNMP on the System > Administration page, and then enable it for individual
interfaces. To do this, go to the Network > Interfaces page and click on the Configure button
for the interface you want to enable SNMP on.
For instructions on adding services and rules to the SonicWALL security appliance, see Part 5
Firewall.
If your SNMP management system supports discovery, the SonicWALL security appliance
agent automatically discover the SonicWALL security appliance on the network. Otherwise, you
must add the SonicWALL security appliance to the list of SNMP-managed devices on the
SNMP management system.
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System > Administration
Enable GMS Management
You can configure the SonicWALL security appliance to be managed by SonicWALL Global
Management System (SonicWALL GMS). To configure the SonicWALL security appliance for
GMS management:
Step 1
Select the Enable Management using GMS checkbox, then click Configure. The Configure
GMS Settings window is displayed.
Step 2
Enter the host name or IP address of the GMS Console in the GMS Host Name or IP Address
field.
Step 3
Enter the port in the GMS Syslog Server Port field. The default value is 514.
Step 4
Select Send Heartbeat Status Messages Only to send only heartbeat status instead of log
messages.
Step 5
Select GMS behind NAT Device if the GMS Console is placed behind a device using NAT on
the network. Type the IP address of the NAT device in the NAT Device IP Address field.
Step 6
Select one of the following GMS modes from the Management Mode menu.
•
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IPSEC Management Tunnel - Selecting this option allows the SonicWALL security
appliance to be managed over an IPsec VPN tunnel to the GMS management console. The
default IPsec VPN settings are displayed. Select GMS behind NAT Device if applicable to
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the GMS installation, and enter the IP address in the NAT Device IP Address field. The
default VPN policy settings are displayed at the bottom of the Configure GMS Settings
window.
•
Existing Tunnel - If this option is selected, the GMS server and the SonicWALL security
appliance already have an existing VPN tunnel over the connection. Enter the GMS host
name or IP address in the GMS Host Name or IP Address field. Enter the port number in
the Syslog Server Port field.
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System > Administration
Step 7
•
HTTPS - If this option is selected, HTTPS management is allowed from two IP addresses:
the GMS Primary Agent and the Standby Agent IP address. The SonicWALL security
appliance also sends encrypted syslog packets and SNMP traps using 3DES and the
SonicWALL security appliance administrator’s password. The following configuration
settings for HTTPS management mode are displayed:
•
Send Syslog Messages in Cleartext Format - Sends heartbeat messages as cleartext.
•
Send Syslog Messages to a Distributed GMS Reporting Server - Sends regular
heartbeat messages to both the GMS Primary and Standby Agent IP address. The regular
heartbeat messages are sent to the specified GMS reporting server and the reporting
server port.
•
GMS Reporting Server IP Address - Enter the IP address of the GMS Reporting Server,
if the server is separate from the GMS management server.
•
GMS Reporting Server Port - Enter the port for the GMS Reporting Server. The default
value is 514
Click OK.
Download URL
SonicWALL Global VPN Client (GVC) and SonicWALL Global Security Client (GSC) allow
users to connect securely to your network using the GroupVPN Policy on the port they are
connecting to. GVC or the VPN client portion of GSC is required for a user to connect to the
GroupVPN Policy. Depending on how you have set up your VPN policies, if a user does not
have the latest GVC or GSC software installed, the user will be directed to a URL to download
the latest GVC or GSC software.
The Download URL section provides a field for entering the URL address of a site for
downloading the SonicWALL Global VPN Client application, when a user is prompted to use
the Global VPN Client for access to the network.
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The default URL http://help.mysonicwall.com/applications/vpnclient displays the SonicWALL
Global VPN Client download site. You can point to any URL where you provide the SonicWALL
Global VPN Client application.
Selecting UI Language
If your firmware contains other languages besides English, they can be selected in the
Language Selection pulldown menu.
Note
Changing the language of the SonicOS UI requires that the SonicWALL security appliance
be rebooted.
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CHAPTER 8
Chapter 8:
Managing Certificates
System > Certificates
To implement the use of certificates for VPN policies, you must locate a source for a valid CA
certificate from a third party CA service. Once you have a valid CA certificate, you can import
it into the SonicWALL security appliance to validate your Local Certificates. You import the valid
CA certificate into the SonicWALL security appliance using the System > Certificates page.
Once you import the valid CA certificate, you can use it to validate your local certificates.
Digital Certificates Overview
A digital certificate is an electronic means to verify identity by a trusted third party known as a
Certificate Authority (CA). The X.509 v3 certificate standard is a specification to be used with
cryptographic certificates and allows you to define extensions which you can include with your
certificate. SonicWALL has implemented this standard in its third party certificate support.
You can use a certificate signed and verified by a third party CA to use with an IKE (Internet
Key Exchange) VPN policy. IKE is an important part of IPsec VPN solutions, and it can use
digital certificates to authenticate peer devices before setting up SAs. Without digital
certificates, VPN users must authenticate by manually exchanging shared secrets or symmetric
keys. Devices or clients using digital signatures do not require configuration changes every
time a new device or client is added to the network.
A typical certificate consists of two sections: a data section and a signature section. The data
section typically contains information such as the version of X.509 supported by the certificate,
a certificate serial number, information, information about the user’s public key, the
Distinguished Name (DN), validation period for the certificate, optional information such as the
target use of the certificate. The signature section includes the cryptographic algorithm used by
the issuing CA, and the CA digital signature.
SonicWALL security appliances interoperate with any X.509v3-compliant provider of
Certificates. SonicWALL security appliances have been tested with the following vendors of
Certificate Authority Certificates:
•
Entrust
•
Microsoft
•
OpenCA
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System > Certificates
•
OpenSSL
•
VeriSign
Certificates and Certificate Requests
The Certificate and Certificate Requests section provides all the settings for managing CA
and Local Certificates.
The View Style menu allows you to display your certificates in the Certificates and Certificate
Requests table based on the following criteria:
•
All Certificates - displays all certificates and certificate requests.
•
Imported certificates and requests - displays all imported certificates and generated
certificate requests.
•
Built-in certificates - displays all certificates included with the SonicWALL security
appliance.
•
Include expired and built-in certificates - displays all expired and built-in certificates.
The Certificates and Certificate Requests table displays the following information about your
certificates:
•
Certificate - the name of the certificate.
•
Type - the type of certificate, which can include CA or Local.
•
Validated - the validation information.
•
Expires - the date and time the certificate expires.
•
Details - the details of the certificate. Moving the pointer over the
details of the certificate.
•
Configure - Displays the
entry
edit and delete
icon displays the
icons for editing or deleting a certificate
Also displays the Import icon
to import either certificate revocation lists (for CA
certificates) or signed certificates (for Pending requests).
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Certificate Details
Clicking on the icon in the Details column of the Certificates and Certificate Requests table
lists information about the certificate, which may include the following, depending on the type
of certificate:
•
Certificate Issuer
•
Subject Distinguished Name
•
Certificate Serial Number
•
Valid from
•
Expires On
•
Status (for Pending requests and local certificates)
•
CRL Status (for Certificate Authority certificates)
The details shown in the Details mouseover popup depend on the type of certificate.
Certificate Issuer, Certificate Serial Number, Valid from, and Expires On are not shown for
Pending requests since this information is generated by the Certificate provider. Similarly, CRL
Status information is shown only for CA certificates and varies depending on the CA certificate
configuration.
Importing Certificates
After your CA service has issued a Certificate for your Pending request, or has otherwise
provided a Local Certificate, you can import it for use in VPN or Web Management
authentication. CA Certificates may also be imported to verify local Certificates and peer
Certificates used in IKE negotiation.
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System > Certificates
Importing a Certificate Authority Certificate
To import a certificate from a certificate authority, perform these steps:
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Step 1
Click Import. The Import Certificate window is displayed.
Step 1
Select Import a CA certificate from a PKCS#7 (*.p7b) or DER (.der or .cer) encoded file.
The Import Certificate window settings change.
Step 2
Enter the path to the certificate file in the Please select a file to import field or click Browse
to locate the certificate file, and then click Open to set the directory path to the certificate.
Step 3
Click Import to import the certificate into the SonicWALL security appliance. Once it is
imported, you can view the certificate entry in the Certificates and Certificate Requests table.
Step 4
Moving your pointer to the
information.
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icon in the Details column displays the certificate details
System > Certificates
Importing a Local Certificate
To import a local certificate, perform these steps:
Step 1
Click Import. The Import Certificate window is displayed.
Step 2
Enter a certificate name in the Certificate Name field.
Step 3
Enter the password used by your Certificate Authority to encrypt the PKCS#12 file in the
Certificate Management Password field.
Step 4
Enter the path to the certificate file in the Please select a file to import field or click Browse
to locate the certificate file, and then click Open to set the directory path to the certificate.
Step 5
Click Import to import the certificate into the SonicWALL security appliance. Once it is
imported, you can view the certificate entry in the Certificates and Certificate Requests table.
Step 6
Moving your pointer to
information.
icon in the Details column displays the certificate details
Deleting a Certificate
To delete the certificate, click the delete icon. You can delete a certificate if it has expired or if
you decide not to use third party certificates for VPN authentication.
Certificate Revocation List (CRL)
A Certificate Revocation List (CRL) is a way to check the validity of an existing certificate. A
certificate may be invalid for several reasons:
•
The status of the entity identified by the Certificate has changed in some way (for example,
an employee has left the company).
•
The private key associated with a Certificate was stolen or compromised.
•
A new certificate was issued that takes precedence over the old certificate.
If a certificate is invalid, the CA may publish the certificate on a Certificate Revocation List at
a given interval, or on an online server in a X.509 v3 database using Online Certificate Status
Protocol (OCSP). Consult your CA provider for specific details on locating a CRL file or URL.
Tip
The SonicWALL security appliance supports obtaining the CRL via HTTP or manually
downloading the list.
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System > Certificates
Importing a CRL
You can import the CRL by manually downloading the CRL and then importing it into the
SonicWALL security appliance.
Step 1
Click on the Import certificate revocation list
icon. The Import CRL window is displayed.
Step 2
You can import the CRL from the certificate file by selecting Import CRL directly from a PEM
(.pem) or DER (.der or .cer) encoded file, and entering the path in the Select a CRL file to
import field or click the Browse button to navigate to the file, click Open, then click Import.
Step 3
You can also enter the URL location of the CRL by entering the address in the Enter CRL’s
location (URL) field, and then click Import. The CRL is downloaded automatically at intervals
determined by the CA service. Certificates are checked against the CRL by the SonicWALL
security appliance for validity when they are used.
Step 4
By default, if no CRL is available, a Certificate is presumed to be valid if it passes all other
checks (such as validity dates and signatures). To require that Certificates be checked against
a valid CRL, enable the Invalidate Certificates and Security Associations if CRL import or
processing fails setting.
Generating a Certificate Signing Request
Tip
90
You should create a Certificate Policy to be used in conjunction with local certificates. A
Certificate Policy determines the authentication requirements and the authority limits
required for the validation of a certificate.
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System > Certificates
To generate a local certificate, follow these steps:
Step 1
Click the New Signing Request button. The Certificate Signing Request window is displayed.
Step 2
In the Generate Certificate Signing Request section, enter an alias name for the certificate
in the Certificate Alias field.
Step 3
Select the Request field type from the menu, then enter information for the certificate in the
Request fields. As you enter information in the Request fields, the Distinguished Name (DN) is
created in the Subject Distinguished Name field.
You can also attach an optional Subject Alternative Name to the certificate such as the
Domain Name or E-mail Address.
Step 4
The Subject Key type is preset as an RSA algorithm. RSA is a public key cryptographic
algorithm used for encrypting data.
Step 5
Select a Subject Key size from the Subject Key Size menu.
Note
Not all key sizes are supported by a Certificate Authority, therefore you should check with
your CA for supported key sizes.
Step 6
Click Generate to create a certificate signing request file. Once the Certificate Signing
Request is generated, a message describing the result is displayed.
Step 7
Click Export to download the file to your computer, then click Save to save it to a directory on
your computer. You have generated the Certificate Request that you can send to your
Certificate Authority for validation.
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CHAPTER 9
Chapter 9:
Configuring Time Settings
System > Time
The System > Time page defines the time and date settings to time stamp log events, to
automatically update SonicWALL Security Services, and for other internal purposes.
By default, the SonicWALL security appliance uses an internal list of public NTP servers to
automatically update the time. Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol used to synchronize
computer clock times in a network of computers. NTP uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond, and sometimes to a fraction of a
millisecond.
System Time
To select your time zone and automatically update the time, choose the time zone from the
Time Zone menu. Set time automatically using NTP is activated by default to use NTP
(Network Time Protocol) servers from an internal list to set time automatically. Automatically
adjust clock for daylight saving changes is also activated by default to enable automatic
adjustments for daylight savings time.
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System > Time
If you want to set your time manually, uncheck Set time automatically using NTP. Select the
time in the 24-hour format using the Time (hh:mm:ss) menus and the date from the Date
menus.
Selecting Display UTC in logs (instead of local time) specifies the use universal time (UTC)
rather than local time for log events.
Selecting Display time in International format displays the date in International format, with
the day preceding the month.
After selecting your System Time settings, click Apply.
NTP Settings
Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol used to synchronize computer clock times in a
network of computers. NTP uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer
clock times to a millisecond, and sometimes, to a fraction of a millisecond.
Tip
The SonicWALL security appliance uses an internal list of NTP servers so manually entering
a NTP server is optional.
Select Use NTP to set time automatically if you want to use your local server to set the
SonicWALL security appliance clock. You can also configure Update Interval (minutes) for the
NTP server to update the SonicWALL security appliance. The default value is 60 minutes.
To add an NTP server to the SonicWALL security appliance configuration
Step 1
Click Add. The Add NTP Server window is displayed.
Step 2
Type the IP address of an NTP server in the NTP Server field.
Step 3
Click OK.
Step 4
Click Apply on the System > Time page to update the SonicWALL security appliance.
To delete an NTP server, highlight the IP address and click Delete. Or, click Delete All to delete
all servers.
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CHAPTER 10
Chapter 10:
Setting Schedules
System > Schedules
The System > Schedules page allows you to create and manage schedule objects for
enforcing schedule times for a variety of SonicWALL security appliance features.
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System > Schedules
The Schedules table displays all your predefined and custom schedules. In the Schedules
table, there are three default schedules: Work Hours, After Hours, and Weekend Hours. You
can modify these schedules by clicking on the edit icon in the Configure column to display the
Edit Schedule window.
Note
You cannot delete the default Work Hours, After Hours, or Weekend Hours schedules.
You apply schedule objects for the specific security feature. For example, if you add an access
rule in the Firewall > Access Rules page, the Add Rule window provides a drop down menu
of all the available schedule objects you created in the System > Schedules page.
A schedule can include multiple day and time increments for rule enforcement with a single
schedule. If a schedule includes multiple day and time entries, a + (expand) button appears
next to the schedule name. Clicking the + button expands the schedule to display all the day
and time entries for the schedule.
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Adding a Schedule
To create schedules, click Add. The Add Schedule window is displayed.
Step 1
Enter a name for the schedule in the Name field.
Step 2
Select the days of the week to apply to the schedule or select All.
Step 3
Enter the time of day for the schedule to begin in the Start field. The time must be in 24-hour
format, for example, 17:00 for 5 p.m.
Step 4
Enter the time of day for the schedule to stop in the Stop field. The time must be in 24-hour
format, for example, 17:00 for 5 p.m.
Step 5
Click Add.
Step 6
Click OK to add the schedule to the Schedules table.
Step 7
To delete existing days and times, select the schedule and click Delete. Or, to delete all existing
schedules, click Delete All.
Deleting Schedules
To delete individual schedule objects you created, select the checkbox next to the schedule
entry, the Delete button becomes enabled. Click Delete. To delete all schedule objects you
created, select the checkbox next to Name column header to select all schedules. Click Delete.
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CHAPTER 11
Chapter 11:
Managing SonicWALL Security
Appliance Firmware
System > Settings
This System > Settings page allows you to manage your SonicWALL security appliance’s
SonicOS versions and preferences.
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System > Settings
Settings
Import Settings
To import a previously saved preferences file into the SonicWALL security appliance, follow
these instructions:
Step 1
Click Import Settings to import a previously exported preferences file into the SonicWALL
security appliance. The Import Settings window is displayed.
Step 2
Click Browse to locate the file which has a *.exp file name extension.
Step 3
Select the preferences file.
Step 4
Click Import, and restart the firewall.
Export Settings
To export configuration settings from the SonicWALL security appliance, use the instructions
below:
Step 1
Click Export Settings. The Export Settings window is displayed.
Step 2
Click Export.
Step 3
Click Save, and then select a location to save the file. The file is named “sonicwall.exp” but can
be renamed.
Step 4
Click Save. This process can take up to a minute. The exported preferences file can be
imported into the SonicWALL security appliance if it is necessary to reset the firmware.
Firmware Management
The Firmware Management section provides settings that allow for easy firmware upgrade
and preferences management. The Firmware Management section allows you to:
•
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Upload and download firmware images and system settings.
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System > Settings
Note
•
Boot to your choice of firmware and system settings.
•
Manage system backups.
•
Easily return your SonicWALL security appliance to the previous system state.
SonicWALL security appliance SafeMode, which uses the same settings used Firmware
Management, provides quick recovery from uncertain configuration states.
Automatic Notification of New Firmware
To receive automatic notification of new firmware, select the Notify me when new firmware is
available check box. If you enable this feature, the SonicWALL security appliance sends a
status message to the SonicWALL firmware server daily with the following information:
Caution
•
SonicWALL Serial Number
•
Product Type
•
Current Firmware Version
•
Language
•
Currently Available Memory
•
ROM Version
After the initial 90 days from purchase, firmware updates are available only to registered
users with a valid support contract. You must register your SonicWALL at https://
www.mysonicwall.com.
If a new firmware version becomes available, the message New SonicWALL Firmware
Version is available. Click here for details on this latest release appears in System Messages
on the System > Status page. Clicking the here link displays the Release Notes for the new
firmware.
Firmware Management Table
The Firmware Management table displays the following information:
•
Firmware Image - in this column, four types of firmware images are listed:
– Current Firmware - firmware currently loaded on the SonicWALL security appliance.
– Current Firmware with Factory Default Settings - rebooting using this firmware
image resets the SonicWALL security appliance to its default IP addresses, username,
and password.
– Current Firmware with Backup Settings - a firmware image created by clicking
Create Backup.
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System > Settings
– Uploaded Firmware - the latest uploaded version from mySonicWALL.com.
– Uploaded Firmware with Factory Default Settings - the latest version uploaded with
factory default settings.
– Uploaded Firmware with Backup Settings - a firmware image created by clicking
Create Backup.
•
Version - the firmware version.
•
Date - the day, date, and time of downloading the firmware.
•
Size - the size of the firmware file in Megabytes (MB).
•
Download - clicking the icon saves the firmware file to a new location on your computer or
network. Only uploaded firmware can be saved to a different location.
•
Boot - clicking the icon reboots the SonicWALL security appliance with the firmware
version listed in the same row.
Caution
Clicking Boot next to any firmware image overwrites the existing current firmware image
making it the Current Firmware image.
Caution
When uploading firmware to the SonicWALL security appliance, you must not interrupt the
Web browser by closing the browser, clicking a link, or loading a new page. If the browser
is interrupted, the firmware may become corrupted.
Updating Firmware Manually
Click Upload New Firmware to upload new firmware to the SonicWALL security appliance. The
Upload Firmware window is displayed. Browse to the firmware file located on your local drive.
Click Upload to upload the new firmware to the SonicWALL security appliance.
Creating a Backup Firmware Image
When you click Create Backup, the SonicWALL security appliance takes a “snapshot” of your
current system state, firmware and configuration preferences, and makes it the new System
Backup firmware image. Clicking Create Backup overwrites the existing System Backup
firmware image as necessary.
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System > Settings
SafeMode - Rebooting the SonicWALL Security Appliance
SafeMode allows easy firmware and preferences management as well as quick recovery from
uncertain configuration states. It is no longer necessary to reset the firmware by pressing and
holding the Reset button on the appliance. Pressing the Reset button for one second launches
the SonicWALL security appliance into SafeMode. SafeMode allows you to select the firmware
version to load and reboot the SonicWALL security appliance.
To access the SonicWALL security appliance using SafeMode, press the Reset button for 1
second. After the SonicWALL security appliance reboots, open your Web browser and enter
the current IP address of the SonicWALL security appliance or the default IP address:
192.168.168.168. The SafeMode page is displayed:
SafeMode allows you to do any of the following:
•
Upload and download firmware images to the SonicWALL security appliance.
•
Upload and download system settings to the SonicWALL security appliance.
•
Boot to your choice of firmware options.
•
Create a system backup file.
•
Return your SonicWALL security appliance to a previous system state.
System Information
System Information for the SonicWALL security appliance is retained and displayed in this
section.
Firmware Management
The Firmware Management table in SafeMode has the following columns:
•
Firmware Image - In this column, five types of firmware images are listed:
– Current Firmware, firmware currently loaded on the SonicWALL security appliance
– Current Firmware with Factory Default Settings, rebooting using this firmware
image resets the SonicWALL security appliance to its default IP addresses, user name,
and password
– Current Firmware with Backup Settings - a firmware image created by clicking
Create Backup
– Uploaded Firmware, the last version uploaded from mysonicwall.com
– Uploaded Firmware with Factory Default Settings, rebooting using this firmware
image resets the SonicWALL security appliance to its default IP addresses, user name,
and password
– Uploaded Firmware with Backup Settings - a firmware image created by clicking
Create Backup
•
Version - The firmware version is listed in this column.
•
Date - The day, date, and time of downloading the firmware.
•
Size - The size of the firmware file in Megabytes (MB).
•
Download - Clicking the icon saves the firmware file to a new location on your
computer or network. Only uploaded firmware can be saved to a different location.
•
Boot - Clicking the icon reboots the SonicWALL security appliance with the firmware
version listed in the same row.
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System > Settings
Note
Clicking Boot next to any firmware image overwrites the existing current firmware image
making it the Current Firmware image.
Click Boot in the firmware row of your choice to restart the SonicWALL security appliance.
FIPS
When operating in FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standard) Mode, the SonicWALL
security appliance supports FIPS 140-2 Compliant security. Among the FIPS-compliant
features of the SonicWALL security appliance include PRNG based on SHA-1 and only FIPSapproved algorithms are supported (DES, 3DES, and AES with SHA-1).
Select Enable FIPS Mode to enable the SonicWALL security appliance to comply with FIPS.
When you check this setting, a dialog box is displayed with the following message: Warning!
Modifying the FIPS mode will disconnect all users and restart the device. Click OK to
proceed.
Click OK to reboot the security appliance in FIPS mode. A second warning displays. Click Yes
to continue rebooting. To return to normal operation, uncheck the Enable FIPS Mode check
box and reboot the SonicWALL security appliance into non-FIPS mode.
Caution
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When using the SonicWALL security appliance for FIPS-compliant operation, the tamperevident sticker that is affixed to the SonicWALL security appliance must remain in place and
untouched.
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CHAPTER 12
Chapter 12:
Using SonicWALL Packet Capture
System > Packet Capture
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
“Packet Capture Overview” on page 105
•
“Using Packet Capture” on page 107
•
“Verifying Packet Capture Activity” on page 120
•
“Related Information” on page 122
Packet Capture Overview
This section provides an introduction to the SonicWALL SonicOS Enhanced packet capture
feature. This section contains the following subsections:
•
“What is Packet Capture?” on page 105
•
“Benefits” on page 106
•
“How Does Packet Capture Work?” on page 106
What is Packet Capture?
Packet capture is a mechanism that allows you to capture and examine the contents of
individual data packets that traverse your SonicWALL firewall appliance. The captured packets
contain both data and addressing information. The captured addressing information from the
packet header includes the following:
•
Interface identification
•
MAC addresses
•
Ethernet type
•
Internet Protocol (IP) type
•
Source and destination IP addresses
•
Port numbers
•
L2TP payload details
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•
PPP negotiations details
You can configure the packet capture feature in the SonicOS Enhanced user interface (UI). The
UI provides a way to configure the capture criteria, display settings, and file export settings, and
displays the captured packets.
Benefits
The SonicOS Enhanced packet capture feature provides the functionality and flexibility that you
need to examine network traffic without the use of external utilities, such as Wireshark (formerly
known as Ethereal). SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 and above include the following improvements in
the packet capture tool:
•
Capture control mechanism with improved granularity for custom filtering
•
Display filter settings independent from capture filter settings
•
Packet status indicates if the packet was dropped, forwarded, generated, or consumed by
the firewall
•
Three-window output in the UI:
– List of packets
– Decoded output of selected packet
– Hexadecimal dump of selected packet
•
Export capabilities include text or HTML format with hex dump of packets, plus CAP file
format
•
Automatic export to FTP server when the buffer is full
•
Bidirectional packet capture based on IP address and port
•
Configurable wrap-around of packet capture buffer when full
How Does Packet Capture Work?
As an administrator, you can configure the general settings, capture filter, display filter,
advanced settings, and FTP settings of the packet capture tool. As network packets enter the
packet capture subsystem, the capture filter settings are applied and the resulting packets are
written to the capture buffer. The display filter settings are applied as you view the buffer
contents in the UI. You can log the capture buffer to view in the UI, or you can configure
automatic transfer to the FTP server when the buffer is full.
Default settings are provided so that you can start using packet capture without configuring it
first. The basic functionality is as follows:
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Start:
Click Start to begin capturing all packets except those used for
communication between the SonicWALL appliance and the UI on your
console system.
Stop:
Click Stop to stop the packet capture.
Reset:
Click Reset to clear the status counters that are displayed at the top of the
Packet Capture page.
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Refresh:
Click Refresh to display new buffer data in the Captured Packets window.
You can then click any packet in the window to display its header
information and data in the Packet Detail and Hex Dump windows.
Export As:
Display or save a snapshot of the current buffer in the file format that you
select from the drop-down list. Saved files are placed on your local
management system (where the UI is running). Choose from the following
formats:
•
CAP - Select CAP format if you want to view the data with the
Wireshark (formerly Ethereal) network protocol analyzer. This is also
known as libcap or pcap format. A dialog box allows you to open the
buffer file with Wireshark, or save it to your local hard drive with the
extension .pcap.
•
HTML - Select HTML to view the data with a browser. You can use File
> Save As to save a copy of the buffer to your hard drive.
•
Text - Select Text to view the data in a text editor. A dialog box allows
you to open the buffer file with the registered text editor, or save it to
your local hard drive with the extension .wri.
Refer to the figure below to see a high level view of the packet capture subsystem. This shows
the different filters and how they are applied.
Figure 12:1 High level packet capture on subsystem view
Using Packet Capture
This section contains the following subsections:
•
“Accessing Packet Capture in the UI” on page 108
•
“Starting and stopping packet capture” on page 108
•
“Viewing the captured packets” on page 109
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Accessing Packet Capture in the UI
This section describes how to access the packet capture tool in the SonicOS UI. There are two
ways to access the Packet Capture screen.
Step 1
Log in to the SonicOS UI as admin.
Step 2
To go directly to the Packet Capture screen, in the left pane, under System, click Packet
Capture.
Step 3
Alternatively, to access packet capture from the Diagnostics screen, in the left pane, under
System, click Diagnostics.
Step 4
In the right pane, in the Diagnostic Tool list, click Packet Capture.
Starting and stopping packet capture
The Packet Capture screen has buttons for starting and stopping a packet capture. You can
start a packet capture that uses default settings without configuring specific criteria for packet
capture, display, FTP export, and other settings. If you start a default packet capture, the
SonicWALL appliance will capture all packets except those for internal communication, and will
stop when the buffer is full or when you click Stop.
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Starting packet capture
Step 1
Navigate to the Packet Capture page in the UI. See “Accessing Packet Capture in the UI” on
page 108.
Step 2
Under Packet Capture, optionally click Reset. The Packet Capture page displays several lines
of statistics above the Start and Stop buttons. You can click Reset to set the statistics back to
zero.
Step 3
Under Packet Capture, click Start.
Step 4
To refresh the packet display windows to show new buffer data, click Refresh.
You can view the captured packets in the Captured Packets, Packet Detail, and Hex Dump
sections of the screen. See “Viewing the captured packets” on page 109.
Stopping packet capture
Step 1
Navigate to the Packet Capture page in the UI. See “Accessing Packet Capture in the UI” on
page 108.
Step 2
Under Packet Capture, click Stop.
Viewing the captured packets
The UI provides three windows to display different views of the captured packets. The following
sections describe the viewing windows:
•
“About the Captured Packets Window” on page 109
•
“About the Packet Detail Window” on page 111
•
“About the Hex Dump Window” on page 111
About the Captured Packets Window
The Captured Packets window displays the following statistics about each packet:
•
# - The packet number relative to the start of the capture
•
Time - The date and time that the packet was captured
•
Ingress - The SonicWALL appliance interface on which the packet arrived is marked with
an asterisk (*). The subsystem type abbreviation is shown in parentheses. Subsystem type
abbreviations are defined in the following table.
Abbreviation
Definition
i
Interface
hc
Hardware based encryption or decryption
sc
Software based encryption or decryption
m
Multicast
r
Packet reassembly
s
System stack
ip
IP helper
f
Fragmentation
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•
Egress - The SonicWALL appliance interface on which the packet was captured when sent
out
– The subsystem type abbreviation is shown in parentheses. See the table above for
definitions of subsystem type abbreviations
•
Source IP - The source IP address of the packet
•
Destination IP - The destination IP address of the packet
•
Ether Type - The Ethernet type of the packet from its Ethernet header
•
Packet Type - The type of the packet depending on the Ethernet type; for example:
– For IP packets, the packet type might be TCP, UDP, or another protocol that runs over
IP
– For PPPoE packets, the packet type might be PPPoE Discovery or PPPoE Session
– For ARP packets, the packet type might be Request or Reply
•
Ports [Src,Dst] - The source and destination TCP or UDP ports of the packet
•
Status - The status field for the packet
The status field shows the state of the packet with respect to the firewall. A packet can be
dropped, generated, consumed or forwarded by the SonicWALL appliance. You can
position the mouse pointer over dropped or consumed packets to show the following
information.
Packet status
Displayed value
Definition of displayed value
Dropped
Module-ID = <integer>
Value for the protocol subsystem ID
Drop-code = <integer>
Reason for dropping the packet
Reference-ID: <code>
SonicWALL-specific data
Module-ID = <integer>
Value for the protocol subsystem ID
Consumed
•
Length [Actual] - Length value is the number of bytes captured in the buffer for this packet.
Actual value, in brackets, is the number of bytes transmitted in the packet.
You can configure the number of bytes to capture. See “Configuring General Settings” on
page 112.
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About the Packet Detail Window
When you click on a packet in the Captured Packets window, the packet header fields are
displayed in the Packet Detail window. The display will vary depending on the type of packet
that you select.
About the Hex Dump Window
When you click on a packet in the Captured Packets window, the packet data is displayed in
hexadecimal and ASCII format in the Hex Dump window. The hex format is shown on the left
side of the window, with the corresponding ASCII characters displayed to the right for each line.
When the hex value is zero, the ASCII value is displayed as a dot.
Configuring Packet Capture
You can access the packet capture tool on the System > Packet Capture page of the SonicOS
UI. There are five main areas of configuration for the packet capture tool. The following sections
describe the configuration options, and provide procedures for accessing and configuring
packet capture:
•
“Configuring General Settings” on page 112
•
“Configuring Capture Filter Settings” on page 112
•
“Configuring Display Filter Settings” on page 115
•
“Configuring Logging Settings” on page 117
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•
“Configuring Advanced Settings” on page 119
•
“Restarting FTP logging” on page 120
Configuring General Settings
This section describes how to configure packet capture general settings, including the number
of bytes to capture per packet and the buffer wrap option. You can specify the number of bytes
using either decimal or hexadecimal, with a minimum value of 14. The buffer wrap option
enables the packet capture to continue even when the buffer becomes full, by overwriting the
buffer from the beginning.
Step 1
Navigate to the Packet Capture page in the UI. See “Accessing Packet Capture in the UI” on
page 108.
Step 2
Under Packet Capture, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Packet Capture Configuration window, click the General tab.
Step 4
In the Number of Bytes To Capture (per packet) box, type a number. The minimum value is
14.
Step 5
To continue capturing packets after the buffer fills up, select the Wrap Capture Buffer Once
Full checkbox. Selecting this option will cause packet capture to start writing captured packets
at the beginning of the buffer again after the buffer fills.
Step 6
Click OK.
Configuring Capture Filter Settings
This section describes how to configure packet capture filter settings, including the following:
•
Interface on your SonicWALL appliance
You can specify up to ten interfaces separated by commas. Refer to the Network >
Interfaces screen in the UI for the available interface names. You can use a negative value
to configure all interfaces except the one(s) specified; for example: !X0, or !LAN.For the TZ
190, you could specify WAN, LAN, WWAN, OPT, or !WWAN, !OPT.
•
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Ethernet type of the packets that you want to capture
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You can specify up to ten Ethernet types separated by commas. Currently, the following
Ethernet types are supported: ARP, IP, PPPoE-SES, and PPPoE-DIS. The latter two can
be specified by PPPoE alone. This option is not case-sensitive. For example, to capture all
supported types, you could enter: ARP, IP, PPPOE. You can use one or more negative
values to capture all Ethernet types except those specified; for example: !ARP, !PPPoE.
You can also use hexadecimal values to represent the Ethernet types, or mix hex values
with the standard representations; for example: ARP, 0x800, IP. Normally you would only
use hex values for Ethernet types that are not supported by acronym in SonicOS Enhanced.
See “Supported Packet Types” on page 122.
•
IP type of the packets that you want to capture
You can specify up to ten IP types separated by commas. The following IP types are
supported: TCP, UDP, ICMP, GRE, IGMP, AH, ESP. This option is not case-sensitive. You
can use one or more negative values to capture all IP types except those specified; for
example: !TCP, !UDP. You can also use hexadecimal values to represent the IP types, or
mix hex values with the standard representations; for example: TCP, 0x1, 0x6. See
“Supported Packet Types” on page 122.
•
Source IP addresses from which to capture packets
You can specify up to ten IP addresses separated by commas; for example: 10.1.1.1,
192.2.2.2. You can use one or more negative values to capture packets from all but the
specified addresses; for example: !10.3.3.3, !10.4.4.4.
•
Source port(s) from which to capture packets
You can specify up to ten port numbers separated by commas; for example: 20, 21, 22, 25.
You can use one or more negative values to capture packets from all but the specified
ports; for example: !80, !8080.
•
Destination IP address(es) for which to capture packets
You can specify up to ten IP addresses separated by commas; for example: 10.1.1.1,
192.2.2.2. You can use one or more negative values to capture packets destined for all but
the specified addresses; for example: !10.3.3.3, !10.4.4.4.
•
Destination port(s) for which to capture packets
You can specify up to ten port numbers separated by commas; for example: 20, 21, 22, 25.
You can use one or more negative values to capture packets destined for all but the
specified ports; for example: !80, !8080.
•
Bidirectional address and port mapping
When this option is selected, IP addresses and ports specified here will be matched against
both the source and destination fields in each packet.
Note
If a field is left blank, no filtering is done on that field. Packets are captured without regard
to the value contained in that field of their headers.
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System > Packet Capture
To configure Packet Capture complete the following steps:
Step 1
Navigate to the Packet Capture page in the UI. See “Accessing Packet Capture in the UI” on
page 108.
Step 2
Under Packet Capture, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Packet Capture Configuration window, click the Capture Filter tab.
Step 4
In the Interface Name(s) box, type the SonicWALL appliance interfaces on which to capture
packets, or use the negative format (!X0) to capture packets from all interfaces except those
specified. To capture on all interfaces, leave blank.
Step 5
In the Ether Type(s) box, enter the Ethernet types for which you want to capture packets, or
use the negative format (!ARP) to capture packets from all Ethernet types except those
specified. To capture all Ethernet types, leave blank.
Step 6
In the IP Type(s) box, enter the IP packet types for which you want to capture packets, or use
the negative format (!UDP) to capture packets from all IP types except those specified. To
capture all IP types, leave blank.
Step 7
In the Source IP Address(es) box, type the IP addresses from which you want to capture
packets, or use the negative format (!10.1.2.3) to capture packets from all source addresses
except those specified. To capture packets from all source addresses, leave blank.
Step 8
In the Source Port(s) box, type the port numbers from which you want to capture packets, or
use the negative format (!25) to capture packets from all source ports except those specified.
To capture packets from all source ports, leave blank.
Step 9
In the Destination IP Address(es) box, type the IP addresses for which you want to capture
packets, or use the negative format (!10.1.2.3) to capture packets with all destination addresses
except those specified. To capture packets for all destination addresses, leave blank.
Step 10 In the Destination Port(s) box, type the port numbers for which you want to capture packets,
or use the negative format (!80) to capture packets with all destination ports except those
specified. To capture packets for all destination ports, leave blank.
Step 11 To match the values in the source and destination fields against either the source or destination
information in each packet, select the Enable Bidirectional Address and Port Matching
checkbox.
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Configuring Display Filter Settings
This section describes how to configure packet capture display filter settings. The values that
you provide here are compared to corresponding fields in the captured packets, and only those
packets that match are displayed. Display filter settings include the following:
•
Interface on your SonicWALL appliance
You can specify up to ten interfaces separated by commas. Refer to the Network >
Interfaces screen in the UI for the available interface names. You can use a negative value
to configure all interfaces except the one(s) specified; for example: !X0, or !LAN.For the TZ
190, you could specify WAN, LAN, WWAN, OPT, or !WWAN, !OPT.
•
Ethernet type of the packets that you want to display
You can specify up to ten Ethernet types separated by commas. Currently, the following
Ethernet types are supported: ARP, IP, PPPoE-SES, and PPPoE-DIS. The latter two can
be specified by PPPoE alone. This option is not case-sensitive. For example, to display all
supported types, you could enter: ARP, IP, PPPOE. You can use one or more negative
values to display all Ethernet types except those specified; for example: !ARP, !PPPoE.
You can also use hexadecimal values to represent the Ethernet types, or mix hex values
with the standard representations; for example: ARP, 0x800, IP. Normally you would only
use hex values for Ethernet types that are not supported by acronym in SonicOS Enhanced.
See “Supported Packet Types” on page 122.
•
IP type of the packets that you want to display
You can specify up to ten IP types separated by commas. The following IP types are
supported: TCP, UDP, ICMP, GRE, IGMP, AH, ESP. This option is not case-sensitive. You
can use one or more negative values to display all IP types except those specified; for
example: !TCP, !UDP. You can also use hexadecimal values to represent the IP types, or
mix hex values with the standard representations; for example: TCP, 0x1, 0x6. See
“Supported Packet Types” on page 122.
•
Source IP addresses from which to display packets
You can specify up to ten IP addresses separated by commas; for example: 10.1.1.1,
192.2.2.2. You can use one or more negative values to display packets with all but the
specified source addresses; for example: !10.3.3.3, !10.4.4.4.
•
Source port(s) from which to display packets
You can specify up to ten port numbers separated by commas; for example: 20, 21, 22, 25.
You can use one or more negative values to display packets with all but the specified
source ports; for example: !80, !8080.
•
Destination IP address(es) for which to display packets
You can specify up to ten IP addresses separated by commas; for example: 10.1.1.1,
192.2.2.2. You can use one or more negative values to display packets with all but the
specified destination addresses; for example: !10.3.3.3, !10.4.4.4.
•
Destination port(s) for which to display packets
You can specify up to ten port numbers separated by commas; for example: 20, 21, 22, 25.
You can use one or more negative values to capture packets with all but the specified
destination ports; for example: !80, !8080.
•
Bidirectional address and port mapping
When this option is selected, IP addresses and ports specified in either the source or
destination fields are matched against both the source and destination fields in each
packet.
•
Packet status values
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SonicOS Enhanced adds one of four possible packet status values to each captured
packet: forwarded, generated, consumed, and dropped. You can select one or more of
these status values to match when displaying packets. The status value shows the state of
the packet with respect to the firewall, as follows:
– Forwarded - The packet arrived on one interface and the SonicWALL appliance sent it
out on another interface.
– Generated - The SonicWALL appliance created the packet during the process of
encryption or decryption, fragmentation or reassembly, or as a result of certain
protocols.
– Consumed - The packet was destined for the SonicWALL appliance.
– Dropped - The SonicWALL appliance did nothing further with the packet. The firewall
might have identified the packet as malformed, malicious, on the deny list, or not on the
allow list.
Note
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If a field is left blank, no filtering is done on that field. Packets are displayed without regard
to the value contained in that field of their headers.
Step 1
Navigate to the Packet Capture page in the UI. See “Accessing Packet Capture in the UI” on
page 108.
Step 2
Under Packet Capture, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Packet Capture Configuration window, click the Display Filter tab.
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System > Packet Capture
Step 4
In the Interface Name(s) box, type the SonicWALL appliance interfaces for which to display
packets, or use the negative format (!X0) to display packets captured from all interfaces except
those specified. To display packets captured on all interfaces, leave blank.
Step 5
In the Ether Type(s) box, enter the Ethernet types for which you want to display packets, or
use the negative format (!ARP) to display packets of all Ethernet types except those specified.
To display all Ethernet types, leave blank.
Step 6
In the IP Type(s) box, enter the IP packet types for which you want to display packets, or use
the negative format (!UDP) to display packets of all IP types except those specified. To display
all IP types, leave blank.
Step 7
In the Source IP Address(es) box, type the IP addresses from which you want to display
packets, or use the negative format (!10.1.2.3) to display packets captured from all source
addresses except those specified. To display packets from all source addresses, leave blank.
Step 8
In the Source Port(s) box, type the port numbers from which you want to display packets, or
use the negative format (!25) to display packets captured from all source ports except those
specified. To display packets from all source ports, leave blank.
Step 9
In the Destination IP Address(es) box, type the IP addresses for which you want to display
packets, or use the negative format (!10.1.2.3) to display packets with all destination addresses
except those specified. To display packets for all destination addresses, leave blank.
Step 10 In the Destination Port(s) box, type the port numbers for which you want to display packets,
or use the negative format (!80) to display packets with all destination ports except those
specified. To display packets for all destination ports, leave blank.
Step 11 To match the values in the source and destination fields against either the source or destination
information in each captured packet, select the Enable Bidirectional Address and Port
Matching checkbox.
Step 12 To display captured packets that the SonicWALL appliance forwarded, select the Forwarded
checkbox.
Step 13 To display captured packets that the SonicWALL appliance generated, select the Generated
checkbox.
Step 14 To display captured packets that the SonicWALL appliance consumed, select the Consumed
checkbox.
Step 15 To display captured packets that the SonicWALL appliance dropped, select the Dropped
checkbox.
Configuring Logging Settings
This section describes how to configure packet capture logging settings. These settings provide
a way to configure automatic logging of the capture buffer to an external FTP server. When the
buffer fills up, the packets are transferred to the FTP server. The capture continues without
interruption.
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If you configure automatic logging, this supersedes the setting for wrapping the buffer when full.
With automatic FTP logging, the capture buffer is effectively wrapped when full, but you also
retain all the data rather than overwriting it each time the buffer wraps.
Step 1
Navigate to the Packet Capture page in the UI. See “Accessing Packet Capture in the UI” on
page 108.
Step 2
Under Packet Capture, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Packet Capture Configuration window, click the Logging tab.
Step 4
In the FTP Server IP Address box, type the IP address of the FTP server. For example, type
10.1.2.3.
Note
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Make sure that the FTP server IP address is reachable by the SonicWALL appliance. An IP
address that is reachable only via a VPN tunnel is not supported.
Step 5
In the Login ID box, type the login name that the SonicWALL appliance should use to connect
to the FTP server.
Step 6
In the Password box, type the password that the SonicWALL appliance should use to connect
to the FTP server.
Step 7
In the Directory Path box, type the directory location for the transferred files. The files are
written to this location relative to the default FTP root directory. For libcap format, files are
named “packet-log--<>.cap”, where the <> contains a run number and date including hour,
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month, day, and year. For example, packet-log--3-22-08292006.cap. For HTML format, file
names are in the form: “packet-log_h-<>.html”. An example of an HTML file name is: packetlog_h-3-22-08292006.html.
Step 8
To enable automatic transfer of the capture file to the FTP server when the buffer is full, select
the Log To FTP Server Automatically checkbox. Files are transferred in both libcap and
HTML format.
Step 9
To enable transfer of the file in HTML format as well as libcap format, select the Log HTML File
Along With .cap File (FTP).
Step 10 To test the connection to the FTP server and transfer the capture buffer contents to it, click Log
Now. In this case the file name will contain an ‘F’. For example, packet-log-F-3-2208292006.cap or packet-log_h-F-3-22-08292006.html.
Step 11 To save your settings and exit the screen, click OK.
Configuring Advanced Settings
This section describes how to configure settings for the following:
•
Capturing packets generated by the SonicWALL appliance
•
Capturing intermediate packets generated by the appliance
•
Excluding traffic from SonicWALL Global Management System (GMS)
•
Excluding management traffic
•
Excluding syslog traffic
Step 1
Navigate to the Packet Capture page in the UI. See “Accessing Packet Capture in the UI” on
page 108.
Step 2
Under Packet Capture, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Packet Capture Configuration window, click the Advanced tab.
Step 4
To capture packets generated by the SonicWALL appliance, select the Capture Firewall
Generated Packets checkbox.
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Even when interfaces specified in the capture filters do not match, this option ensures that
packets generated by the SonicWALL appliance are captured. This includes packets
generated by HTTP(S), L2TP, DHCP servers, PPP, PPPOE, and routing protocols.
Captured packets are marked with ‘s’ in the incoming interface area when they are from the
system stack. Otherwise, the incoming interface is not specified.
Step 5
To capture intermediate packets generated by the SonicWALL appliance, select the Capture
Intermediate Packets checkbox.
Intermediate packets include packets generated as a result of fragmentation or
reassembly, intermediate encrypted packets, IP helper generated packets, and replicated
multicast packets.
Step 6
To exclude encrypted management or syslog traffic to or from GMS, select the Exclude
encrypted GMS traffic checkbox.
This setting only affects encrypted traffic within a configured primary or secondary GMS
tunnel. GMS management traffic is not excluded if it is sent via a separate tunnel.
Step 7
To exclude management traffic, select the Exclude Management Traffic checkbox and select
one or more checkboxes for HTTP/HTTPS, SNMP, or SSH. If management traffic is sent via a
tunnel, the packets are not excluded.
Step 8
To exclude syslog traffic to a server, select the Exclude Syslog Traffic to checkbox and select
one or more checkboxes for Syslog Servers or GMS Server. If syslog traffic is sent via a
tunnel, the packets are not excluded.
Restarting FTP logging
If automatic FTP logging is off, either because of a failed connection or simply disabled, you
can restart it in Configure > Logging.
Step 1
Navigate to the Packet Capture page in the UI. See “Accessing Packet Capture in the UI” on
page 108.
Step 2
Under Packet Capture, click Configure.
Step 3
In the Packet Capture Configuration window, click the Logging tab.
Step 4
Verify that the settings are correct for each item on the page. See “Configuring Logging
Settings” on page 117.
Step 5
To change the FTP logging status on the main packet capture page to “active”, select the Log
To FTP Server Automatically checkbox.
Step 6
Click OK.
Verifying Packet Capture Activity
This section describes how to tell if your packet capture is working correctly according to the
configuration. It contains the following sections:
•
“Understanding Status Indicators” on page 120
•
“Resetting the Status Information” on page 122
Understanding Status Indicators
The main Packet Capture screen displays status indicators for packet capture and FTP logging.
The packet capture status indicator shows one of the following three conditions:
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System > Packet Capture
•
Red: Capture is stopped
•
Green: Capture is running and the buffer is not full
•
Orange: Capture is running, but the buffer is full
The UI also displays the buffer size, the number of packets captured, the percentage of buffer
space used, and how much of the buffer has been lost. Lost packets occur when automatic FTP
logging is turned on, but the file transfer is slow for some reason. If the transfer is not finished
by the time the buffer is full again, the data in the newly filled buffer is lost.
Note
Although the buffer wrap option clears the buffer upon wrapping to the beginning, this is not
considered lost data.
The FTP logging status indicator shows one of the following three conditions:
•
Red: Automatic FTP logging is off
•
Green: Automatic FTP logging is on
•
Orange: The last attempt to contact the FTP server failed, and logging is now off
To restart automatic FTP logging, see “Restarting FTP logging” on page 120.
Next to the FTP logging indicator, the UI also displays the number of successful and failed
attempts to transfer the buffer contents to the FTP server, the current state of the FTP process
thread, and the status of the capture buffer.
Under the FTP logging indicator, on the Current Buffer Statistics line, the UI displays the
number of packets dropped, forwarded, consumed, generated, or unknown.
On the Current Configurations line, you can hover your mouse pointer over Filters, General, or
Logging to view the currently configured value for each setting in that category. The Filters
display includes the capture filter and display filter settings. The display for General includes
both the general and advanced settings. The Logging display shows the FTP logging settings.
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System > Packet Capture
Resetting the Status Information
You can reset the displayed statistics for the capture buffer and FTP logging. If a capture is in
progress, it is not interrupted when you reset the statistics display.
Step 1
Navigate to the Packet Capture page in the UI.
Step 2
Under Packet Capture, click Reset.
Related Information
This section contains the following:
•
“Supported Packet Types” on page 122
•
“File Formats for Export As” on page 122
Supported Packet Types
When specifying the Ethernet or IP packet types that you want to capture or display, you can
use either the standard acronym for the type, if supported, or the corresponding hexadecimal
representation. To determine the hex value for a protocol, refer to the RFC for the number
assigned to it by IANA. The protocol acronyms that SonicOS Enhanced currently supports are
as follows:
Supported Ethernet types:
•
ARP
•
IP
•
PPPoE-DIS
•
PPPoE-SES
To specify both PPPoE-DIS and PPPoE-SES, you
can simply use PPPoE.
Supported IP types:
•
TCP
•
UDP
•
ICMP
•
IGMP
•
GRE
•
AH
•
ESP
File Formats for Export As
This section contains the following examples of the file formats available in the Export As
option:
122
•
“HTML Format” on page 123
•
“Text File Format” on page 124
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System > Packet Capture
HTML Format
You can view the HTML format in a browser. The following is an example showing the header
and part of the data for the first packet in the buffer.
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System > Packet Capture
Text File Format
You can view the text format output in a text editor. The following is an example showing the
header and part of the data for the first packet in the buffer.
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CHAPTER 13
Chapter 13:
Using Diagnostic Tools & Restarting the
Appliance
System > Diagnostics
The System > Diagnostics page provides several diagnostic tools which help troubleshoot
network problems as well as Active Connections, CPU and Process Monitors.
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System > Diagnostics
Tech Support Report
The Tech Support Report generates a detailed report of the SonicWALL security appliance
configuration and status, and saves it to the local hard disk using the Download Report button.
This file can then be e-mailed to SonicWALL Technical Support to help assist with a problem.
Tip
You must register your SonicWALL security appliance on mySonicWALL.com to receive
technical support.
Before e-mailing the Tech Support Report to the SonicWALL Technical Support team, complete
a Tech Support Request Form at https://www.mysonicwall.com. After the form is submitted, a
unique case number is returned. Include this case number in all correspondence, as it allows
SonicWALL Technical Support to provide you with better service.
Generating a Tech Support Report
Step 1
In the Tech Support Report section, select any of the following four report options:
•
VPN Keys - saves shared secrets, encryption, and authentication keys to the report.
•
ARP Cache - saves a table relating IP addresses to the corresponding MAC or physical
addresses.
•
DHCP Bindings - saves entries from the SonicWALL security appliance DHCP server.
•
IKE Info - saves current information about active IKE configurations.
Step 2
Click Download Report to save the file to your system. When you click Download Report, a
warning message is displayed.
Step 3
Click OK to save the file. Attach the report to your Tech Support Request e-mail.
Diagnostic Tools
You select the diagnostic tool from the Diagnostic Tools menu in the Diagnostic Tool section
of the System > Diagnostics page. The following diagnostic tools are available:
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•
“Active Connections Monitor” on page 127
•
“CPU Monitor” on page 128
•
“DNS Name Lookup” on page 129
•
“Find Network Path” on page 129
•
“Packet Capture” on page 130
•
“Ping” on page 131
•
“Process Monitor” on page 132
•
“Real-Time Black List Lookup” on page 132
•
“Reverse Name Resolution” on page 132
•
“Trace Route” on page 133
•
“Web Server Monitor” on page 133
Active Connections Monitor
The Active Connections Monitor displays real-time, exportable (plain text or CSV), filterable
views of all connections to and through the SonicWALL security appliance. Click on a column
heading to sort by that column.
Active Connections Monitor Settings
You can filter the results to display only connections matching certain criteria. You can filter by
Source IP, Destination IP, Destination Port, Protocol, Src Interface, and Dst Interface.
Enter your filter criteria in the Active Connections Monitor Settings table.
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System > Diagnostics
The fields you enter values into are combined into a search string with a logical AND. For
example, if you enter values for Source IP and Destination IP, the search string will look for
connections matching:
Source IP AND Destination IP
Check the Group box next to any two or more criteria to combine them with a logical OR. For
example, if you enter values for Source IP, Destination IP, and Protocol, and check Group
next to Source IP and Destination IP, the search string will look for connections matching:
(Source IP OR Destination IP) AND Protocol
Click Apply Filter to apply the filter immediately to the Active Connections Monitor table.
Click Reset Filters to clear the filter and display the unfiltered results again.
You can export the list of active connections to a file. Click Export Results, and select if you
want the results exported to a plain text file, or a Comma Separated Value (CSV) file for
importing to a spreadsheet, reporting tool, or database. If you are prompted to Open or Save
the file, select Save. Then enter a filename and path and click OK.
CPU Monitor
The CPU Monitor diagnostic tool shows real-time CPU utilization in second, minute, hour, and
day intervals (historical data does not persist across reboots).
Note
128
High CPU utilization is normal during Web-management page rendering, and while saving
preferences to flash. Utilization by these tasks is an indication that available resources are
being efficiently used rather than sitting idle. Traffic handling and other critical, performanceoriented and system tasks are always prioritized by the scheduler, and never experience
starvation.
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System > Diagnostics
DNS Name Lookup
The SonicWALL security appliance has a DNS lookup tool that returns the IP address of a
domain name. Or, if you enter an IP address, it returns the domain name for that address.
Step 1
Enter the host name or IP address in the Look up name field. Do not add http to the host name.
Step 2
The SonicWALL security appliance queries the DNS Server and displays the result in the
Result section. It also displays the IP address of the DNS Server used to perform the query.
The DNS Name Lookup section also displays the IP addresses of the DNS Servers configured
on the SonicWALL security appliance. If there is no IP address or IP addresses in the DNS
Server fields, you must configure them on the Network > Settings page.
Find Network Path
Find Network Path indicates if an IP host is located on the LAN or WAN ports. This can
diagnose a network configuration problem on the SonicWALL security appliance. For example,
if the SonicWALL security appliance indicates that a computer on the Internet is located on the
LAN, then the network or Intranet settings may be misconfigured.
Find Network Path can be used to determine if a target device is located behind a network
router and the Ethernet address of the target device. It also displays the gateway the device is
using and helps isolate configuration problems.
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System > Diagnostics
Packet Capture
The Packet Capture tool tracks the status of a communications stream as it moves from source
to destination. This is a useful tool to determine if a communications stream is being stopped
at the SonicWALL security appliance, or is lost on the Internet.
To interpret this tool, it is necessary to understand the three-way handshake that occurs for
every TCP connection. The following displays a typical three-way handshake initiated by a host
on the SonicWALL security appliance LAN to a remote host on the WAN.
Step 1
TCP received on LAN [SYN]
From 192.168.168.158 / 1282 (00:a0:4b:05:96:4a)
To 204.71.200.74 / 80 (02:00:cf:58:d3:6a)
The SonicWALL security appliance receives SYN from LAN client.
Step 2
TCP sent on WAN [SYN]
From 207.88.211.116 / 1937 (00:40:10:0c:01:4e)
To 204.71.200.74 / 80 (02:00:cf:58:d3:6a)
The SonicWALL security appliance forwards SYN from LAN client to remote host.
Step 3
TCP received on WAN [SYN,ACK]
From 204.71.200.74 / 80 (02:00:cf:58:d3:6a)
To 207.88.211.116 / 1937 (00:40:10:0c:01:4e)
The SonicWALL security appliance receives SYN,ACK from remote host.
Step 4
TCP sent on LAN [SYN,ACK]
From 204.71.200.74 / 80 (02:00:cf:58:d3:6a)
To 192.168.168.158 / 1282 (00:a0:4b:05:96:4a)
The SonicWALL security appliance forwards SYN,ACK to LAN client.
Step 5
TCP received on LAN [ACK]
From 192.168.168.158 / 1282 (00:a0:4b:05:96:4a)
To 204.71.200.74 / 80 (02:00:cf:58:d3:6a)
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Client sends a final ACK, and waits for start of data transfer.
Step 6
TCP sent on WAN [ACK]
From 207.88.211.116 / 1937 (00:40:10:0c:01:4e
To 204.71.200.74 / 80 (02:00:cf:58:d3:6a)
The SonicWALL security appliance forwards the client ACK to the remote host and waits for the
data transfer to begin.
When using packet capture to isolate network connectivity problems, look for the location
where the three-way handshake is breaking down. This helps to determine if the problem
resides with the SonicWALL security appliance configuration, or if there is a problem on the
Internet.
Select Packet Capture from the Diagnostic tool menu.
Tip
Packet Capture requires an IP address. The SonicWALL security appliance DNS Name
Lookup tool can be used to find the IP address of a host.
Step 7
Enter the IP address of the remote host in the Trace on IP address field, and click Start. You
must enter an IP address in the Trace on IP address field; do not enter a host name, such as
“www.yahoo.com”. The Trace is off turns from red to green with Trace Active displayed.
Step 8
Contact the remote host using an IP application such as Web, FTP, or Telnet.
Step 9
Click Refresh and the packet capture information is displayed.
Step 10 Click Stop to terminate the packet capture, and Reset to clear the results.
The Captured Packets table displays the packet number and the content of the packet, for
instance, ARP Request send on WAN 42 bytes.
Select a packet in the Captured Packets table to display packet details. Packet details include
the packet number, time, content, source of the IP address, and the IP address destination.
Ping
The Ping test bounces a packet off a machine on the Internet and returns it to the sender. This
test shows if the SonicWALL security appliance is able to contact the remote host. If users on
the LAN are having problems accessing services on the Internet, try pinging the DNS server,
or another machine at the ISP location. If the test is unsuccessful, try pinging devices outside
the ISP. If you can ping devices outside of the ISP, then the problem lies with the ISP
connection.
Step 1
Select Ping from the Diagnostic Tool menu.
Step 2
Enter the IP address or host name of the target device and click Go.
Step 3
If the test is successful, the SonicWALL security appliance returns a message saying the IP
address is alive and the time to return in milliseconds (ms).
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System > Diagnostics
Process Monitor
Process Monitor shows individual system processes, their CPU utilization, and their system
time.
Real-Time Black List Lookup
The Real-Time Black List Lookup tool allows you to test SMTP IP addresses, RBL services,
or DNS servers. Enter an IP address in the IP Address field, a FQDN for the RBL in the RBL
Domain field and DNS server information in the DNS Server field. Click Go.
Reverse Name Resolution
The Reverse Name Resolution tool is similar to the DNS name lookup tool, except that it looks
up a server name, given an IP address.
Enter an IP address in the Reverse Lookup the IP Address field, and it checks all DNS servers
configured for your security appliance to resolve the IP address into a server name.
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System > Diagnostics
Trace Route
Trace Route is a diagnostic utility to assist in diagnosing and troubleshooting router
connections on the Internet. By using Internet Connect Message Protocol (ICMP) echo packets
similar to Ping packets, Trace Route can test interconnectivity with routers and other hosts that
are farther and farther along the network path until the connection fails or until the remote host
responds.
Type the IP address or domain name of the destination host. For example, type yahoo.com and
click Go. A second window is displayed with each hop to the destination host. By following the
route, you can diagnose where the connection fails between the SonicWALL security appliance
and the destination.
Web Server Monitor
The Web Server Monitor tool displays the CPU utilization of the web server over several
periods of time. The time frame of the Web Server Monitor can be changed by selecting one of
the following options in the View Style pulldown menu: last 30 seconds, last 30 minutes, last
24 hours, or last 30 days.
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System > Restart
System > Restart
The SonicWALL security appliance can be restarted from the Web Management interface. Click
System > Restart to display the Restart page.
Click Restart... and then click Yes to confirm the restart.
The SonicWALL security appliance takes approximately 60 seconds to restart, and the yellow
Test light is lit during the restart. During the restart time, Internet access is momentarily
interrupted on the LAN.
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PART 3
Network
SONICWALL SONICOS ENHANCED 4.0 ADMINISTRATOR’S GUIDE
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CHAPTER 14
Chapter 14:
Configuring Interfaces
Network > Interfaces
The Network > Interfaces page includes interface objects that are directly linked to physical
interfaces. The SonicOS Enhanced scheme of interface addressing works in conjunction with
network zones and address objects. Physical interface objects include the LAN, WAN, and
depending on which SonicWALL security appliance you have, OPT, Modem, WLAN, and
WWAN ports in the SonicWALL security appliance.
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Network > Interfaces
Setup Wizard
The Setup Wizard button accesses the Setup Wizard. The Setup Wizard walks you through
the configuration of the SonicWALL security appliance for Internet connectivity. For Setup
Wizard instructions, see “Wizards > Setup Wizard” section on page 793.
Interface Settings
The Interface Settings table lists the following information for each interface:
•
Name - Listed as LAN, WAN, WWAN, WLAN, or OPT depending on your SonicWALL
security appliance model.
•
Zone - LAN, DMZ/OPT, WAN, and WLAN are listed by default. As zones are configured,
the names are listed in this column.
•
IP Address - IP address assigned to the interface.
•
Subnet Mask - the network mask assigned to the subnet.
•
IP Assignment - you can select from the following options:
Š LAN: Static or Transparent
Š WAN: DHCP, Static, PPPoE, PPTP, or L2TP
Š OPT: The selection of IP assignment depends on the zone assigned to the user-defined
port:
•
138
à
LAN, DMZ, or a custom zone of Trusted type: Static or Transparent
à
WAN or a custom zone of Untrusted type: DHCP, Static, PPPoE, PPTP, or L2TP
à
WLAN or a custom Wireless zone: static IPl only (no IP Assignment list)
Š WLAN: static IP only (no IP Assignment list)
Status - The link status and speed.
•
Comment - Any user-defined comments.
•
Configure - Click the Configure icon
to display the Edit Interface window, which
allows you to configure the settings for the specified interface. Click the traschan icon to
delete a WLAN subnet.
•
Add PortShield Interface - Click to create a PortShield interface. See “Configuring
SonicWALL PortShield Interfaces” section on page 150 for more information.
•
Add WLAN Subnet - Click to create a WLAN subnet to be used with a Virtual Access Point.
See “Creating a WLAN Subnet” section on page 157 for more information.
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Network > Interfaces
Caution
You cannot change the Zones in the Edit Interface window for the LAN, WAN, Modem, and
WLAN interfaces.
Interface Traffic Statistics
The Interface Traffic Statistics table lists received and transmitted information for all
configured interfaces.
The following information is displayed for all SonicWALL security appliance interfaces:
•
Rx Unicast Packets - indicates the number of point-to-point communications received by
the interface.
•
Rx Broadcast Packets - indicates the number of multipoint communications received by
the interface.
•
RX Bytes - indicates the volume of data, in bytes, received by the interface.
•
Tx Unicast Packets - indicates the number of point-to-point communications transmitted
by the interface.
•
Tx Broadcast Bytes - indicates the number of mutlipoint communications received by the
interface.
•
Tx Bytes - indicates the volume of data, in bytes, transmitted by the interface.
To clear the current statistics, click the Clear Statistics button at the top right of the Network
> Interfaces page.
Interfaces
Interfaces in SonicOS can be:
•
Physical interfaces: Physical interfaces are bound to a single port
•
Virtual interfaces: Virtual interfaces are assigned as sub-interfaces to a physical interface
and allow the physical interface to carry traffic assigned to multiple interfaces.
•
PortShield interfaces: PortShield interfaces allow for any of the LAN ports to be combined
into single or multiple PortShield interfaces.
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Network > Interfaces
Physical Interfaces
Physical interfaces must be assigned to a Zone to allow for configuration of Access Rules to
govern inbound and outbound traffic. Security zones are bound to each physical interface
where it acts as a conduit for inbound and outbound traffic. If there is no interface, traffic cannot
access the zone or exit the zone.
For more information on zones, see “Network > Zones” on page 191.
The first two interfaces, LAN and WAN are fixed interfaces, permanently bound to the Trusted
and Untrusted Zone types. The TZ 170 series appliances can also have two special interfaces
for Modem and WLAN. The remaining Interfaces can be configured and bound to any Zone
type, depending on your SonicWALL security appliance.
Permanently Assigned Interfaces
•
SonicWALL TZ 170 and 180 series: LAN - The single LAN interface includes all five LAN
ports on the back of the TZ 170 and 180 series appliances.
•
SonicWALL TZ 190 Wireless: Wireless WAN (WWAN).
User-definable Interfaces
•
SonicWALL TZ 170, TZ 170 SP, TZ 180, and TZ 190 security appliances include one user
definable interface, OPT.
SonicOS Enhanced Secure Objects
The SonicOS Enhanced scheme of interface addressing works in conjunction with network
zones and address objects. This structure is based on secure objects, which are utilized by
rules and policies within SonicOS Enhanced. Physical interface objects include the LAN1
through LAN5, WAN, OPT, Modem and WLAN ports. Address objects comprise a host, a
network, a range of addresses, or a MAC address.
Secured objects include interface objects that are directly linked to physical interfaces and
managed in the Network > Interfaces page. Address objects are defined in the Network >
Address Objects page. Service and Scheduling objects are defined in the Firewall section of
the SonicWALL security appliance Management Interface, and User objects are defined in the
Users section of the SonicWALL security appliance Management Interface.
Zones are the hierarchical apex of SonicOS Enhanced’s secure objects architecture. SonicOS
Enhanced includes pre-defined zones as well as allow you to define your own zones.
Predefined zones include LAN, DMZ, WAN, WLAN, and Custom. Zones can include multiple
interfaces, however, the WAN Zone is restricted to a total of two interfaces. Within the WAN
zone, either one or both WAN interfaces can be actively passing traffic depending on the WAN
Failover and Load Balancing configuration on the Network > WAN Failover & LB page.
For more information on WAN Failover and Load Balancing on the SonicWALL security
appliance, see Chapter 10 Setting Up Network WAN Failover and Load Balancing.
At the zone configuration level, the Allow Interface Trust setting for zones automates the
processes involved in creating a permissive intra-zone Access Rule. It creates a
comprehensive Address Object for the entire zone and a inclusively permissive Access Rule
from zone address to zone addresses.
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Configuring Interfaces
Transparent Mode
Transparent Mode in SonicOS Enhanced uses interfaces as the top level of the management
hierarchy. Transparent Mode supports unique addressing and interface routing.
Configuring Interfaces
This section is divided into:
•
“Configuring the LAN and OPT Interfaces (Static)” on page 141
•
“Configuring Advanced Settings for the Interface” on page 142
•
“Configuring Interfaces in Transparent Mode” on page 143
•
“Configuring Wireless Interfaces” on page 145
•
“Configuring a WAN Interface” on page 147
•
“Configuring SonicWALL PortShield Interfaces” on page 150
•
“Creating a WLAN Subnet” section on page 157
Configuring the LAN and OPT Interfaces (Static)
Static means you assign a fixed IP address to the interface.
Step 1
Click on the Configure icon
in the Configure column for the Interface you want to
configure. The Edit Interface window is displayed.
•
You can configure F0, F1, X0 through X9, LAN, or OPT.
•
If you select OPT, select LAN, WAN, DMZ, WLAN, a custom zone, or Create new zone
for Zone.
•
If you want to create a new zone, select Create new zone. The Add Zone window is
displayed. See “Network > Zones” section on page 191 for instructions on adding a zone.
Step 2
Select a Zone to assign to the interface. You can select LAN, WAN, DMZ, WLAN, or a custom
zone.
Step 3
Select Static from the IP Assignment menu.
Step 4
Enter the IP address and subnet mask of the Zone in the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
Note
You cannot enter an IP address that is in the same subnet as another zone.
Step 5
Enter any optional comment text in the Comment field. This text is displayed in the Comment
column of the Interface table.
Step 6
If you want to enable remote management of the SonicWALL security appliance from this
interface, select the supported management protocol(s): HTTP, HTTPS, SSH, Ping, SNMP,
and/or SSH.
Step 7
If you want to allow selected users with limited management rights to log in to the security
appliance, select HTTP and/or HTTPS in User Login.
Step 8
Click OK.
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Configuring Interfaces
Note
The administrator password is required to regenerate encryption keys after changing the
SonicWALL security appliance’s address.
Configuring Advanced Settings for the Interface
If you need to force an Ethernet speed, duplex and/or MAC address, click the Advanced tab.
The Ethernet Settings section allows you to manage the Ethernet settings of links connected
to the SonicWALL. Auto Negotiate is selected by default as the Link Speed because the
Ethernet links automatically negotiate the speed and duplex mode of the Ethernet connection.
If you want to specify the forced Ethernet speed and duplex, select one of the following options
from the Link Speed menu:
•
1000 Mbps - Full Duplex
•
100 Mbps - Full Duplex
•
100 Mbps - Half Duplex
•
10 Mbps - Full Duplex
•
10 Mbps - Half Duplex
You can choose to override the Default MAC Address for the Interface by selecting Override
Default MAC Address and entering the MAC Address in the field.
Check Enable Multicast Support to allow multicast reception on this interface.
Caution
142
If you select a specific Ethernet speed and duplex, you must force the connection speed and
duplex from the Ethernet card to the SonicWALL security appliance as well.
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Configuring Interfaces
Configuring Interfaces in Transparent Mode
Transparent Mode enables the SonicWALL security appliance to bridge the WAN subnet onto
an internal interface. You can configure the following interfaces in Transparent Mode:
Note
•
TZ family and PRO 1260: Lan and Opt
•
PRO family: X0, X2 - X9, F0
You cannot configure the X1 or WAN interface in Transparent mode.
To confiugre an interface for transparent mode, complete the following steps:
Step 1
Click on the Configure icon in the Configure column for Unassigned Interface you want to
configure. The Edit Interface window is displayed.
Step 2
Select an interface.
•
If you select a configurable interface, select LAN or DMZ for Zone.
•
If you want to create a new zone for the configurable interface, select Create a new zone.
The Add Zone window is displayed. See “Network > Zones” section on page 191 for
instructions on adding a zone.
Step 3
Select Transparent Mode from the IP Assignment menu.
Step 4
From the Transparent Range menu, select an address object that contains the range of IP
addresses you want to have access through this interface. The address range must be within
the WAN zone and must not include the WAN interface IP address. If you do not have an
address object configured that meets your needs:
a. In the Transparent Range menu, select Create New Address Object.
b. In the Add Address Object window, enter a name for the address range.
a. For Zone Assignment, select WAN
b. For Type, select:
•
Host if you want only one network device to connect to this interface.
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•
Range to specify a range of IP addresses by entering beginning and ending value
of the range.
•
Network to specify a subnet by entering the beginning value and the subnet mask.
The subnet must be within the WAN address range and cannot include the WAN
interface IP address.
c. Enter the IP address of the host, the beginning and ending address of the range, or the
IP address and subnet mask of the network.
d. Click OK to create the address object and return to the Edit Interface window.
See “Network > Address Objects” section on page 203 for more information.
Step 5
Enter any optional comment text in the Comment field. This text is displayed in the Comment
column of the Interface table.
Step 6
If you want to enable remote management of the SonicWALL security appliance from this
interface, select the supported management protocol(s): HTTP, HTTPS, SSH, Ping, SNMP,
and/or SSH.
Step 7
If you want to allow selected users with limited management rights to log directly into the
security appliance through this interface, select HTTP and/or HTTPS in User Login.
Step 8
Click OK.
Note
The administrator password is required to regenerate encryption keys after changing the
SonicWALL security appliance’s address.
Configuring Advanced Settings for the Interface
If you need to force an Ethernet speed, duplex and/or MAC address, click the Advanced tab.
The Ethernet Settings section allows you to manage the Ethernet settings of links connected
to the SonicWALL. Auto Negotiate is selected by default as the Link Speed because the
Ethernet links automatically negotiate the speed and duplex mode of the Ethernet connection.
If you want to specify the forced Ethernet speed and duplex, select one of the following options
from the Link Speed menu:
•
1000 Mbps - Full Duplex ()
•
100 Mbps - Full Duplex
•
100 Mbps - Half Duplex
•
10 Mbps - Full Duplex
•
10 Mbps - Half Duplex
You can choose to override the Default MAC Address for the Interface by selecting Override
Default MAC Address and entering the MAC Address in the field.
Check Enable Multicast Support to allow multicast reception on this interface.
Caution
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If you select a specific Ethernet speed and duplex, you must force the connection speed and
duplex from the Ethernet card to the SonicWALL security appliance as well.
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Configuring Wireless Interfaces
A Wireless interface is an interface that has been assigned to a Wireless zone and is used to
support SonicWALL SonicPoint secure access points.
Step 1
Click on the Configure icon
in the Configure column for the Interface you want to
configure. The Edit Interface window is displayed. You can configure X2 through X9, Opt, a
VLAN sub-interface or a PortShield interface.
Step 2
In the Zone list, select WLAN or a custom Wireless zone.
Step 3
Enter the IP address and subnet mask of the Zone in the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
Note
The upper limit of the subnet mask is determined by the number of SonicPoints you select
in the SonicPoint Limit field. If you are configuring several interfaces or sub-interfaces as
Wireless interfaces, you may want to use a smaller subnet (higher) to limit the number of
potential DHCP leases available on the interface. Otherwise, if you use a class C subnet
(subnet mask of 255.255.255.0) for each Wireless interface you may exceed the limit of
DHCP leases available on the security appliance.
Step 4
In the SonicPoint Limit field, select the maximum number of SonicPoints allowed on this
interface.
•
This value determines the highest subnet mask you can enter in the Subnet Mask field.
The following table shows the subnet mask limit for each SonicPoint Limit selection and
the number of DHCP leases available on the interface if you enter the maximum allowed
subnet mask.
•
Available Client IPs assumes 1 IP for the SonicWALL gateway interface, in addition to the
presence of the maximum number of SonicPoints allowed on this interface, each
consuming an IP address.
SonicPoints per Interface Maximum Subnet Total Usable
Mask
IPs
Available
Client IPs
No SonicPoints
30bits –
255.255.255.252
2
2
2 SonicPoints
29bits –
255.255.255.248
6
3
4 SonicPoints
29bits –
255.255.255.248
6
1
8 SonicPoints
28bits –
255.255.255.240
14
5
27bits –
16 SonicPoints
(PRO 4060, PRO 4100, and 255.255.255.224
PRO 5060 only)
30
13
32 SonicPoints
(PRO 5060 only)
62
29
26bits –
255.255.255.192
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Note
The above table depicts the maximum subnet mask sizes allowed. You can still use classfull subnetting (class A, class B, or class C) or any variable length subnet mask that you wish
on WLAN interfaces. You are encouraged to use a smaller subnet mask (e.g. 24bit class C
- 255.255.255.0 - 254 total usable IPs), thus allocating more IP addressing space to clients
if you have the need to support larger numbers of wireless clients.
Step 5
Enter any optional comment text in the Comment field. This text is displayed in the Comment
column of the Interface table.
Step 6
If you want to enable remote management of the SonicWALL security appliance from this
interface, select the supported management protocol(s): HTTP, HTTPS, SSH, Ping, SNMP,
and/or SSH.
Step 7
If you want to allow selected users with limited management rights to log in to the security
appliance, select HTTP and/or HTTPS in User Login.
Step 8
Click OK.
Configuring Advanced Settings for the Interface
If you need to force an Ethernet speed, duplex and/or MAC address, click the Advanced tab.
The Ethernet Settings section allows you to manage the Ethernet settings of links connected
to the SonicWALL. Auto Negotiate is selected by default as the Link Speed because the
Ethernet links automatically negotiate the speed and duplex mode of the Ethernet connection.
If you want to specify the forced Ethernet speed and duplex, select one of the following options
from the Link Speed menu:
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•
1000 Mbps - Full Duplex
•
100 Mbps - Full Duplex
•
100 Mbps - Half Duplex
•
10 Mbps - Full Duplex
•
10 Mbps - Half Duplex
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Caution
If you select a specific Ethernet speed and duplex, you must force the connection speed and
duplex from the Ethernet card to the SonicWALL security appliance as well.
You can choose to override the Default MAC Address for the Interface by selecting Override
Default MAC Address and entering the MAC Address in the field.
Check Enable Multicast Support to allow multicast reception on this interface.
Check Enable 802.1p tagging to tag information passing through this interface with 802.1p
priority information for Quality of Service (QoS) management. Packets sent through this
interface are tagged with VLAN id=0 and carry 802.1p priority information. In order to make use
of this priority information, devices connected to this interface should support priority frames.
QoS management is controlled by access rules on the Firewall > Access Rules page. For
information on QoS and bandwidth management, see “Firewall > QoS Mapping” section on
page 467.
Configuring a WAN Interface
Configuring the WAN interface enables Internet connect connectivity. You can configure up to
two WAN interfaces on the SonicWALL security appliance.
Step 1
Click on the Notepad icon in the Configure column for the F1, WAN, X1 or Unassigned
Interface you want to configure. The Edit Interface window is displayed.
Step 2
If you’re configuring an Unassigned Interface, select WAN from the Zone menu. If you selected
the Default WAN Interface, WAN is already selected in the Zone menu.
Step 3
Select one of the following WAN Network Addressing Mode from the IP Assignment menu.
Depending on the option you choose from the IP Assignment menu, complete the
corresponding fields that are displayed after selecting the option.
•
Static - configures the SonicWALL for a network that uses static IP addresses.
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Note
•
DHCP - configures the SonicWALL to request IP settings from a DHCP server on the
Internet. NAT with DHCP Client is a typical network addressing mode for cable and DSL
customers.
•
PPPoE - uses Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) to connect to the Internet. If
desktop software and a username and password is required by your ISP, select NAT with
PPPoE. This protocol is typically found when using a DSL modem.
•
PPTP - uses PPTP (Point to Point Tunneling Protocol) to connect to a remote server. It
supports older Microsoft Windows implementations requiring tunneling connectivity.
•
L2TP - uses IPsec to connect a L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) server and encrypts all
data transmitted from the client to the server. However, it does not encrypt network traffic
to other destinations.
For Windows clients, L2TP is supported by Windows 2000 and Windows XP. If you are
running other versions of Windows, you must use PPTP as your tunneling protocol.
Step 4
If you want to enable remote management of the SonicWALL security appliance from this
interface, select the supported management protocol(s): HTTP, HTTPS, SSH, Ping, SNMP,
and/or SSH. You can also select HTTP for management traffic. However, bear in mind that
HTTP traffic is less secure than HTTPS.
Step 5
If you want to allow selected users with limited management rights to log directly into the
security appliance from this interface, select HTTP and/or HTTPS in User Login.
Step 6
Check Add rule to enable redirect from HTTP to HTTPS, if you want an HTTP connection
automatically redirected to a secure HTTPS connection to the SonicWALL security appliance
management interface.
Step 7
After completing the WAN configuration for your Network Addressing Mode, click OK
Configuring the Advanced Settings for the WAN Interface
The Advanced tab includes settings for forcing an Ethernet speed and duplex, overriding the
Default MAC Address, setting up bandwidth management, and creating a default NAT policy
automatically.
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Ethernet Settings
If you need to force an Ethernet speed, duplex and/or MAC address, click the Advanced tab.
The Ethernet Settings section allows you to manage the Ethernet settings of links connected
to the SonicWALL. Auto Negotiate is selected by default as the Link Speed because the
Ethernet links automatically negotiate the speed and duplex mode of the Ethernet connection.
If you want to specify the forced Ethernet speed and duplex, select one of the following options
from the Link Speed menu:
•
100 Mbps - Full Duplex
•
100 Mbps - Half Duplex
•
10 Mbps - Full Duplex
•
10 Mbps - Half Duplex
You can choose to override the Default MAC Address for the Interface by selecting Override
Default MAC Address and entering the MAC Address in the field.
Caution
If you select a specific Ethernet speed and duplex, you must force the connection speed and
duplex from the Ethernet card to the SonicWALL as well.
Check Enable Multicast Support to allow multicast reception on this interface.
Check Enable 802.1p tagging to tag information passing through this interface with 802.1p
priority information for Quality of Service (QoS) management. Packets sent through this
interface are tagged with VLAN id=0 and carry 802.1p priority information. In order to make use
of this priority information, devices connected to this interface should support priority frames.
QoS management is controlled by access rules on the Firewall > Access Rules page. For
information on QoS and bandwidth management, see “Firewall > QoS Mapping” section on
page 467.
You can also specify any of these additional Ethernet Settings:
•
Interface MTU - Specifies the largest packet size that the interface can forward without
fragmenting the packet.
•
Fragment non-VPN outbound packets larger than this Interface’s MTU - Specifies all
non-VPN outbound packets larger than this Interface’s MTU be fragmented. Specifying the
fragmenting of VPN outbound packets is set in the VPN > Advanced page.
•
Ignore Don’t Fragment (DF) Bit - Overrides DF bits in packets.
•
Do not send ICMP Fragmentation Needed for outbound packets over the Interface
MTU - blocks notification that this interface can receive fragmented packets.
Bandwidth Management
SonicOS Enhanced can apply bandwidth management to both egress (outbound) and ingress
(inbound) traffic on the WAN interface. Outbound bandwidth management is done using Class
Based Queuing. Inbound Bandwidth Management is done by implementing ACK delay
algorithm that uses TCP’s intrinsic behavior to control the traffic.
Class Based Queuing (CBQ) provides guaranteed and maximum bandwidth Quality of Service
(QoS) for the SonicWALL security appliance. Every packet destined to the WAN interface is
queued in the corresponding priority queue. The scheduler then dequeues the packets and
transmits it on the link depending on the guaranteed bandwidth for the flow and the available
link bandwidth.
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Use the Bandwidth Management section of the Edit Interface screen to enable or disable the
ingress and egress bandwidth management. Egress and Ingress available link bandwidth can
be used to configure the upstream and downstream connection speeds.
The Bandwidth Management section allows you to specify the available outbound bandwidth
for this interface in Kbps.
•
Enable Egress Bandwidth Management - Enables outbound bandwidth management.
– Available Interface Egress Bandwidth (Kbps) - Specifies the available bandwidth for
this interface in Kbps.
•
Enable Ingress Bandwidth Management - Enables inbound bandwidth management.
– Available Interface Ingress Bandwidth (Kbps) - Specifies the available bandwidth for
this interface in Kbps.
NAT Policy Settings
Selecting Create default NAT Policy automatically translates the Source Address of packets
from the Default LAN (Primary LAN) to your new WAN Interface.
For more information on NAT Policies, see Chapter 15 Configuring Network NAT Policies.
Configuring SonicWALL PortShield Interfaces
SonicWALL PortShieldTM is a feature of the SonicWALL PRO 1260 security appliance running
SonicOS Enhanced 3.1 or newer and the SonicWALL TZ 180 and TZ 190 running SonicOS
Enhanced 3.6 or newer..
PortShield architecture enables you to configure any or all of the LAN switch ports on the into
separate security zones, providing protection not only from the WAN and DMZ, but between
devices inside your network as well. In effect, each security zone has its own wire-speed switch
ports that enjoy the protection of a dedicated, deep packet inspection firewall.
To add a PortShield interface, perform the following steps:
150
Step 1
In the Network > Interfaces page, click Add PortShield Interface.
Step 2
Configure the following options interface:
•
Zone: The zone assigned to this interface
•
PortShield Interface Name: The name of the interface
•
IP Address: An appropriate IP address that does not conflict with another address range.
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•
Step 3
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 is the default
In the Switch Ports tab, chose which ports to add to the PortShield interface.
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Configuring the Wireless WAN Interface
The SonicWALL TZ 190 security appliance introduces support for 3G (third generation)
Wireless WAN connections that utilize data connections over 3G cellular networks. The
Wireless WAN (WWAN) can be used for:
•
WAN Failover to a connection that is not dependent on wire or cable.
•
Temporary networks where a pre-configured connection may not be available, such as
trade-shows and kiosks.
•
Mobile networks, were the SonicWALL TZ 190 is based in a vehicle.
•
Primary WAN connection where wire-based connections are not available and 3G cellular
is.
Most WWAN settings can be configured on the Network > Interfaces page. To configure
WWAN connection profiles, you must use the WWAN > Connection Profiles page. For more
information, see Chapter 32, Configuring Wireless WAN. This chapter also contains more
information on Wireless WAN in general and the specifics of SonicWALL’s WWAN
implementation.
The following sections describe how to configure the Wireless WAN interface:
•
“Managing WWAN Connections” on page 153
•
“Specifying the WAN Connection Model” on page 153
•
“Configuring Basic Wireless WAN Settings” on page 154
•
“Configuring Remotely Triggered Dial-Out on the WWAN” on page 156
•
“Configuring the Maximum Allowed WWAN Connections” on page 157
On the SonicWALL TZ 190, the WWAN interface is the last listed interface in the interface
Settings section of the Network > Interfaces page.
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Managing WWAN Connections
To initiate a WWAN connection, on the Network > Interfaces page, click on the Manage button
in the WWAN interface line. The WWAN Connection window displays. Click the Connect
button. The SonicWALL TZ 190 attempts to connect to the WWAN service provider.
To disconnect a WWAN connection, click on the Manage button. The WWAN Connection
window displays. Click Disconnect.
Specifying the WAN Connection Model
To configure the WAN connection model, navigate to the Network > Interfaces page and
select one of the following options in the WAN Connection Model pull-down menu:
•
WWAN only - The WAN interface is disabled and the WWAN interface is used exclusively.
•
Ethernet only - The WWAN interface is disabled and the WAN interface is used exclusively.
•
Ethernet with WWAN Failover - The WAN interface is used as the primary interface and the
WWAN interface is disabled. If the WAN connection fails, the WWAN interface is enabled
and a WWAN connection is automatically initiated.
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For a detailed explanation of the behavior of the Ethernet with WWAN Failover setting refer
to “Understanding Wireless WAN Connection Models” on page 274.
Configuring Basic Wireless WAN Settings
To configure basic WWAN interface settings, perform the following steps:
154
Step 1
Click the edit icon
for the WWAN interface. The WWAN Settings window is displayed.
Step 2
To configure the WWAN interface to automatically connect to the WWAN service provider when
the SonicWALL TZ 190 detects specific types of traffic, select the appropriate categories in the
Dial on Data Categories section.
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Note
To configure the SonicWALL TZ 190 for Connect on Data operation, you must select Dial
on Data as the Dial Type for the Connection Profile. See “Configuring WWAN
Connection Profiles” on page 283 in Chapter 32, Configuring Wireless WAN for more
details.
Step 3
Select which protocols can be used for administrators and users to log in to the SonicWALL TZ
190 appliance over the WWAN interface in the Management/User Login section must be
configure to enable remote management of the SonicWALL TZ 190 appliance over the WWAN
interface.
Step 4
Select Add rule to enable redirect from HTTP to HTTPS to allow the SonicWALL to
automatically convert HTTP requests to HTTPS requests for added security. Bear in mind that
HTTP traffic is less secure than HTTPS.
Step 5
Click on the Profiles tab.
Step 6
Select the Primary WWAN connection profile in the Primary Profile pull-down menu.
Optionally, you can select up to two alternate WWAN profiles.
Note
WWAN connection profiles are configured on the WWAN > Connection Profiles page. For
more information, see “Configuring WWAN Connection Profiles” on page 283 in Chapter 32,
Configuring Wireless WAN for more details.
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Configuring Remotely Triggered Dial-Out on the WWAN
Before configuring the Remotely Triggered Dial-Out feature, ensure that your configuration
meets the following prerequisites:
•
The WWAN profile is configured for dial-on-data.
•
The SonicWALL Security Appliance is configured to be managed using HTTPS, so that the
device can be accessed remotely.
•
It is recommended that you enter a value in the Enable Max Connection Time (minutes)
field. This field is located in the WWAN Profile Configuration window on the Parameters
tab. See “Configuring WWAN Connection Profiles” on page 283 in Chapter 32,
Configuring Wireless WAN for more information. If you do not enter a value in this field,
dial-out calls will remain connected indefinitely, and you will have to manually terminate
sessions by clicking the Disconnect button.
To enable remotely triggered dial-out over the WWAN interface, perform the following steps:
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Step 1
Click on the Advanced tab of the WWAN Settings window.
Step 2
To enable network administrators to remotely initiate a WWAN connection from a SonicWALL
TZ 190, select the Enable Remotely Triggered Dial-out checkbox.
Step 3
To require remotely triggered dial-out sessions to be authenticated, select the Requires
Authentication checkbox and enter a password in the Password and Confirm Password
fields.
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Configuring the Maximum Allowed WWAN Connections
To configure the maximum number of nodes allowed to connect to the WWAN interface, enter
the maximum number of nodes in the Max Host field. Entering 0 in the Max Host fields allows
any number of nodes to connect.
Creating a WLAN Subnet
WLAN subnets are used to segment IP address space for use by Virtual Access Points (VAP).
Each VAP must have a separate WLAN subnet, and you must create the WLAN subnet before
creating the VAP. To create a WLAN subnet, complete the following steps.
Step 1
On the Network > Interfaces page, click the Add WLAN Subnet button.
Step 2
Configure the following options:
•
Zone: By default, the zone is set to WLAN. You can select any other wireless zone that you
have created on the Network > Zones page.
•
Subnet Name: The name of the interface.
•
IP Address: The first IP address in the subnet. Make sure that the IP address subnet does
not conflict with another address range.
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 is the default
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•
SonicPoint Limit: The maximum number of allowed SonicPoints is configured
automatically.
•
Comment: Optionally enter a comment about the subnet.
•
Management: Select the appropriate protocols to allow remote mangement of the
SonicWALL security appliance from this subnet.
•
User Login: Select HTTP and/or HTTPS to allow users with limited management rights to
log in to the SonicWALL security appliance.
•
Add rule to enable redirect from HTTP to HTTPS: If you select HTTPS but do not select
HTTP for either Management or User Login, select this option to redirect HTTP users to
HTTPS.
•
Create default DHCP Lease Scope: Select to create a DHCP lease scope for this subnet.
The DHCP lease scope consists of the IP addresses that are reserved for users who
connect to the VAP associated with this WLAN subnet. This option is enabled by default.
To configure additional options for the DHCP lease scope (such as the number of IP
addresses and the lease time), go to the Network > DHCP Server page, locate the lease
scope in the DHCP Server Lease Scope table, and click on the Configure icon. See
“Network > DHCP Server” section on page 277 for more information.
158
Step 3
Optionally, you can enable multicast reception on the subnet by clicking on the Advanced tab
and selecting the Enable multicast support checkbox.
Step 4
Click OK.
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CHAPTER 15
Chapter 15:
Configuring PortShield Interfaces
SonicWALL PortShield Interfaces
SonicWALL PortShield is a feature of the SonicWALL TZ 180 and TZ 190 security appliances
running SonicOS Enhanced 3.8 or newer.
PortShield architecture enables you to configure some or all of the LAN switch ports on the TZ
180 and TZ 190 into separate security contexts, providing protection not only from the WAN
and DMZ, but between devices inside your network as well. In effect, each context has its own
wire-speed switch ports that enjoy the protection of a dedicated, deep packet inspection
firewall. The SonicWALL TZ 180 has five switch ports, and the SonicWALL TZ 190 has eight
switch ports.
Note
Port 1 and the Uplink port are the only ports from which you can establish a SonicOS
management session with the device.
You can assign any combination of ports into a PortShield interface. All ports you do not assign
to a PortShield interface are assigned to the LAN interface. For example, on a SonicWALL TZ
190 if you assign ports 4 through 8 to a PortShield interface, ports 1 through 3 and the uplink
port are all assigned to the LAN interface.
Note
Port 1and the Uplink port can not be assigned to a PortShield interface. They can only be
LAN interface. The OPT and WAN ports can not be assigned to a PortShield interface.
Security Services with PortShield
When you enable SonicWALL Security Services, such as Gateway Anti-Virus (GAV), AntiSpyware, and Intrusion Prevention Service (IPS), the services inspect traffic between different
PortShield interfaces and not traffic between ports within the same PortShield interface.
For example, if ports 2 and 3 are assigned to the SwitchPort1 interface and ports 4 and 5 are
assigned to the SwitchPort2 interface, traffic between port 2 and port 3 will not be inspected by
Security Services. Traffic between port 2 and port 4 will be inspected.
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Network > SwitchPorts
The Network > SwitchPorts page allows you to manage the assignments of ports to
PortShield interfaces.
Overview
A PortShield interface is a virtual interface with a set of ports assigned to it. There are two IP
assignment methods you can deploy to create PortShield interfaces. They are Static and
Transparent modes. The following two sections describe each.
Working in Static Mode
When you create a PortShield interface in Static Mode, you manually create an explicit address
to be applied to the PortShield interface. All ports mapped to the interface are identified by this
address. Static mode is available on interfaces assigned to Trusted, Public, or Wireless zones.
Note
When you create a PortShield interface in Static Mode, make sure the IP address you assign
to the interface is not already in use by another PortShield interface.
Working in Transparent Mode
Transparent Mode addressing allows for the WAN subnetwork to be shared by the current
interface using Address Object assignments. The interface’s IP address is the same as the
WAN interface IP address. Transparent mode is available on interfaces assigned to Trusted
and Public Zones.
Note
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Make sure the IP address you assign to the PortShield interface is within the WAN
subnetwork.
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When you create a PortShield interface in Transparent Mode, you create a range of addresses
to be applied to the PortShield interface. You include these addresses in one entity called an
Address Object. Address Objects allow for entities to be defined one time and to be re-used in
multiple referential instances throughout the SonicOS interface. When you create a PortShield
interface using an address object, all ports mapped to the interface are identified by any of the
addresses specified in the address range.
Note
Each statically addressed PortShield interface must be on a unique subnetwork. You can
not overlap PortShield interfaces across multiple subnetworks.
Using Different Approaches to Configuration
There are four ways to approach configuration of PortShield interface. They are:
•
By going into the Interfaces environment and clicking the Add PortShield Interface button.
•
By going into the Switch Ports environment and clicking on port icons in an interactive
graphic of the SonicWALL TZ 180 or TZ 190 appliance.
•
By going into the Switch Ports environment and clicking on the pen and paper icon in the
Configure column of the switch ports list.
•
By using the PortShield interface wizard and clicking on options presented in the wizard
screens.
To create a PortShield interface using the first method, perform the following tasks:
1.
Log into the SonicWALL TZ 180 or TZ 190 security appliance.
2.
Create and add a PortShield interface to the list of interfaces. The PortShield interface is a
virtual interface that you are adding to segment and control traffic for the 8-port managed
SonicWALL TZ 180 or TZ 190 appliance. After you select a zone, you select a series of
ports that you want to assign to the PortShield interface.
3.
Navigate to the Switch Port environment and perform either per-port or multiple-port extra
configuration.
To create a PortShield interface using the second and third methods, perform the following
tasks:
1.
Log into the SonicWALL TZ 180 or TZ 190 security appliance.
2.
Create and add a PortShield interface to the list of interfaces.
3.
Go to the Switch Port environment and assign ports to the PortShield interface you have
already created.
– For the second method, select ports from the device graphic.
– For third method, click on the pen and paper icon and select ports from the same dialog
boxes you work in the Interface environment.
4.
Perform per-port or multiple-port extra configuration.
To create a PortShield interface using the fourth method, perform the following tasks:
1.
Log into the SonicWALL TZ 180 or TZ 190 security appliance.
2.
Click Wizards environment and select the PortShield Interface Wizard.
3.
Navigate through the wizard screens, selecting and verifying one of the options presented
for switch partitioning which divides the ports up into various amounts.
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Creating a PortShield Interface from the Interfaces Area
Before creating and adding a PortShield interface, think about why you are creating it and what
role it will play in your network. To create and add a PortShield interface to the list of interfaces,
perform the following steps:
162
4.
Click on the Network > Interfaces page.
5.
The interfaces in the list contain the following information:
Column
Description
Name
A string that identifies the interface.
Zone
The zone to which the interface maps.
IP Address
The IP address assigned to the interface.
Subnet Mask
The subnetwork mask value assigned to the IP address to indicate a range of
addresses.
IP Assignment
The method in which the interface obtains its IP address:
•
Static. Manually creating an explicit address to which you will map ports.
•
Transparent. Allows for the WAN subnetwork to be shared by the current
interface using Address Object assignments. The interface’s IP address
will be the same as the WAN interface IP address. Transparent mode is
available on interfaces assigned to Trusted and Public Zones.
Status
Aggregate Ethernet Link port(s) status or Ethernet Link port(s) status
summary, indicating the currently active highest speed and duplex properties.
Comment
A note about the interface.
Configure
Contains two icons. One icon is a grouping of books that displays traffic
statistics when you hover the mouse cursor over it. The other icon is a pen
and paper that enables you to launch an interface configuration session.
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6.
Click the Add PortShield Interface button. The Add Port Shield dialog box displays.
7.
Click the Zone list box and click on a zone type option to which you want to map the
interface. Default zones are:
– LAN
– DMZ
– WLAN
– Unassigned
If you want to create another zone, go to the section “Creating a New Zone for the
PortShield Interface” on page 166.
Note
You can add PortShield interfaces only to Trusted, Public, and Wireless zones.
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8.
After you select a zone option, the management software displays a more expanded
version of the PortShield Interface Settings dialog box.
9.
Type a string in the PortShield Interface Name field.
10. Click on the IP Assignment list box and select either Static or Transparent. Static
indicates the interface obtains its IP address manually. Transparent mode allows for the
WAN subnetwork to be shared by the current interface using Address Object assignments.
The interface’s IP address will be the same as the WAN interface IP address.
11. Type an available IP address in the IP Address field.
12. If you want to specify a range of IP addresses different than the one allowed by the
subnetwork mask 255.255.255.0 (Class C network), type in the desired subnetwork mask
value in the Subnet Mask field.
13. Click on a checkbox in the Management area to indicate the desired management protocol
type. The options are:
– HTTP
– HTTPS
– Ping
– SNMP
14. Click on a checkbox in the User Login area. This is a special feature that enables you to set
up a Web access environment so you can enforce User Level Authentication.
15. Click on the Create Default DHCP Lease Scope in the DHCP Server field to indicate that
the amount of time allowed for an IP address issued by DHCP will be the default.
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Note
This option only appears when creating a PortShield interface, not when editing an existing
PortShield interface. You can make changes to the interface’s DHCP settings after creating
an interface from the DHCP Server environment (Network > DHCP Server).
16. Click on the Switch Ports tab. The management software displays the PortShield Interface
dialog box.
17. In the Available Ports list, click on the port numbers you want to assign to the PortShield
interface and click on the right arrow (>) button to move them into the Assigned Ports list.
18. Click OK. The management software adds the PortShield interface to the interface list.
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Creating a New Zone for the PortShield Interface
You may want to create a zone for a PortShield interface that has different attributes to it than
any of the default zones provide. To create a new zone for a PortShield interface, perform the
following:
1.
In the Add PortShield Interface window, click on the Zone list box and click on the Create
New Zone option. The management software displays the General Settings dialog box.
2.
Type a name in the Name field that will identify the new zone.
3.
Click on the Security Type list box and click on a security type option that will classify the
zone as having a certain level of access. The choices are:
– Trusted - This security type offers the highest level of security, indicating that only
trust, indicating that the least amount of scrutiny is applied to traffic coming from trusted
zones. Trusted security can be thought of as being on the LAN (protected) side of the
device. The LAN zone is always Trusted.
– Public -This security type offers a higher level of security than an Untrusted zone, but
a lower level of trust than a Trusted zone. Public zones can be thought of as being a
secure area between the LAN (protected) side of the device and the WAN (unprotected)
side. The DMZ, for example, is a Public zone because traffic flows from it to both the
LAN and the WAN.
– Wireless - This security type applies to the WLAN zone or any zone where the only
interface to the network consists of SonicWALL SonicPoint devices. You typical use
WiFiSec to secure traffic in a wireless zone.
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4.
After selecting the security level for the PortShield interface, click on one of the following
checkboxes that enables a security service for the zone:
Checkbox
Description
Allow Interface
Trust
Automates the creation of Access Rules to allow traffic to flow between the
interfaces of a zone instance.
Enforce Content
Filtering Service
Enforces protection and productivity policies for organizations to reduce legal
and privacy risks while minimizing administration overhead.
Enforce Client
Anti-Virus
Service
Enables network-level inspection of email, Web traffic, file transfers, various
stream-based protocols, instant messaging, and peer-to-peer applications to
detect and clean malicious code, viruses, and worms.
Enable Gateway Enables gateway-level inspection of email, Web traffic, file transfers, various
Anti-Virus
stream-based protocols, instant messaging, and peer-to-peer applications to
Service
detect and clean malicious code, viruses, and worms.
Enable IPS
Enables Intrusion Prevention Service which provides a configurable, highperformance deep packet inspection architecture using parallel searching
algorithms through the application layer to deliver complete Web and E-Mail
attack prevention.
Enable AntiEnables spyware protection which prevents malicious spyware from infecting
Spyware Service networks by blocking related installations at the gateway and disrupting
background communications from existing spyware programs.
Enforce Global
Security Clients
Enables the application of the SonicWALL Global Security Client that delivers
comprehensive desktop security for remote/mobile workers and corporate
networks.
Create Group
VPNs
Enables group VPN creation.
5.
Click OK.
Refining the PortShield Interface
You can refine a PortShield interface group in the Switch Ports environment. To refine a
PortShield interface group, perform the following steps:
1.
Log in to the security appliance.
2.
Click on the Switch Ports option. The following items are displayed:
– A list of all interfaces including PortShield interfaces. Note the ports you have selected
are parts of the PortShield interface you just created.
– An interactive graphic of the ports on the switch
.
3.
If there are more ports you want to add to the PortShield interface, in the interactive switch
ports graphic, select the ports you want to include in the PortShield interface group.
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4.
Click the Configure button. The management software displays the Edit Multiple Switch
Ports dialog box. You can refine your settings in this dialog box.
The name of the PortShield interface group will be assigned by default.
5.
Click on the Port Enable list box and click on either the Enable or Disable option to either
activate or deactivate the interfaces in the PortShield interface group.
6.
Click on the PortShield interface list box and click on the PortShield interface you created
in the previous procedure.
7.
Click on the Link Speed list box and click on a throughput speed you want to assign the
interface. The choices are:
– Auto negotiate
– 100Mbps Full Duplex
– 100 Mbps Half Duplex
– 10 Mbps Full Duplex
– 10 Mbps Half Duplex
Note
Do not change this setting from the default of Auto negotiate unless your system requires
you to do so. Also, note that for any setting involving the Full Duplex feature to work
properly, be sure to configure Full Duplex on both ends of the link. By not having Full Duplex
configured on both ends, a duplex mismatch occurs, causing throughput loss.
8.
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Click OK. Wait for a few seconds. The system then will incorporate the changes you made
to the PortShield interface Group and add it back to the switch ports list.
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Creating Transparent Mode PortShield Interfaces
You may find it useful to create address objects to bundle addresses into address objects and
reference these objects when creating a PortShield interface. Address objects allow for entities
to be defined one time and to be reused in multiple referential instances throughout SonicOS.
The PortShield interface creation environment provides a convenient way to reference address
objects.
The following example takes a network with a series of addresses in the range 67.115.118.80/
24 and divides it into three PortShield Interfaces, mapping each to the following ports and
address objects:
PortShield Interface Port Numbers Mapped
Address Object Type
Address(es)
portshield1
5
Address Object Host
67.115.118.90/
32
portshield2
6, 7, 8
Address Object Range 67.115.118.10067.115.118.102
portshield3
2, 3
Address Object Host
Group
67.115.118.200,
67.115.118.210,
67.115.118.212,
67.115.118.220,
67,115,118,230
To create these PortShield interfaces, using the prescribed address objects, perform the
following steps:
1.
Log in to the security appliance.
2.
Navigate to Network >Interfaces. The Interfaces Settings page displays.
3.
Click the Add PortShield Interface button. The management software displays the Add
Port Shield dialog box.
4.
Click the Zone list box and click on a zone type option to which you want to map the
interface. For this exercise, click the LAN option. After you select a zone option, the
management software displays a more expanded version of the PortShield Interface
Settings dialog box. Only interfaces assigned to Trusted and Public zones can operate in
Transparent mode.
5.
Type a name in the PortShield Interface Name field.
6.
Click on the IP Assignment list box and click the Transparent Mode option.
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7.
Click on the Transparent Range list box and click on the Create new address object
option. The management software displays the Add Address Object dialog box.
8.
Fill out the fields as detailed in the next three sections to create the three different types of
address objects. The three examples use a subnetwork of 67.115.118.0.
Creating a Transparent Mode PortShield Interface with a Host Address Object
To assign the Host Address Object 67.115.118.90 to portshield1, perform the following steps:
9.
Type the name portshield1 in the Name field to identify the address object.
10. Click the Zone Assignment list box and click the LAN option.
11. Click the Type list box and click the Host option to make the address object apply to a
single IP address. Note the Host option is the default option in the list box.
12. Type your IP address, in this example, 67.115.118.90,in the IP Address field. The
management software assumes a subnetwork mask of 255.255.255.255 (67.115.118.90/
32). Note that because of this assumption, the software does not display a field for a
subnetwork mask. Also, the field does not allow you to type enough a /32 notation as part
of the address.
13. Click OK. The General tab of the Port Shield dialog box is displayed.
14. Click the Switch Ports tab. The Switch Ports tab is displayed.
15. Click on P5 in the Available Ports list and click the right arrow ( > ) button to move the port
into the Assigned Ports list.
16. Click OK. The Interfaces list displays, along with the new PortShield interface in the list. It
displays the name, zone, IP address, subnetwork mask, IP assignment method, status, and
comment, and link type status information about the address object you created
(portshield1).
Note
The IP address is the actual subnetwork address, not the specific address you entered. In
this example, the address is 67.115.118.0 and not 67.115.118.90. This is because in
Transparent mode, the interface appears to users as having the same address as the
gateway. Therefore your explicit address is invisible or transparent to internet users. It lets
you keep assigned IP addresses in the WAN subnet while protecting those hosts with full
SonicWALL firewall protection (including services, etc.).
17. Click on the Switch Ports option in the left navigation pane.
18. In the graphic of the switch, view port number 5 and verify that the port is colored blue.
19. In the switch port list, view the PortShield Interface column for P5 (port 5) and verify that
the interface listed is portshield1.
20. Refine the configuration of the PortShield Interface. For details, refer to the “Refining the
PortShield Interface” on page 167.
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Creating a PortShield Using an Address Object Containing an Address Range
To assign a Range Address Object with addresses extending from 67.115.118.100 to
67.115.118.102 to portshield2, perform the following steps:
1.
Type the name portshield2 in the Name field to identify the address object.
2.
Click the Zone Assignment list box and click the LAN option.
3.
Click the Type list box and click the Range option to make the address object apply to a
range of addresses. The management software displays new fields in the Add Address
Object dialog box.
4.
Note the Starting IP Address and Ending IP Address fields in the dialog box.
5.
Type a starting IP address, in this example, 67.115.118.100, in the Starting IP Address
field to establish this address as the minimum value in the range.
6.
Type an ending IP address, in this example, 67.115.118.102, in the Ending IP Address
field to establish this address as the maximum value in the range.
7.
Click OK. The management software displays the General tab of the Port Shield dialog box.
8.
Click the Switch Ports tab. The management software displays the Switch Ports tab.
9.
Holding down the shift key, click on P6, P7, and P8 in the Available Ports list and click the
right arrow (>) button to move the port into the Assigned Ports list.
10. Click OK. Note it displays the name, zone, IP address, subnetwork mask, IP assignment
method, status, comment, and link type status detail about the address object you created
(portshield2).
11. Click on the Switch Ports option in the left navigation pane.
12. In the graphic of the switch, view port numbers 6, 7, and 8, and verify the port is colored
blue.
13. In the switch port list, view the PortShield Interface column for P6, P7, and P8 and verify
that the interface listed is portshield2.
14. Refine the configuration of the PortShield Interface. For details, refer to the “Refining the
PortShield Interface” on page 167.
Creating a Transparent Mode PortShield Interface with a Group Address Object
To assign a Group Address Object with addresses 67.115.118.200, 67.115.118.210,
67.115.118.212 67.115.118.220, and 67.115.118.230 to portshield3, perform the following
steps:
1.
To add a Group Address Object, navigate to Networks > Address Objects.
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2.
Click on the Add button in the Address Objects list in the window. SonicOS displays the
Add Address Object dialog box as shown in the following figure:
3.
Enter the name portshield3 in the Name field.
4.
Select Network from the Type menu.
5.
Enter 67.115.118.200 in the network IP address and 255.255.255.0 in the Netmask field.
6.
Click on the Zone Assignment list box and click on LAN.
7.
Click OK. The Address Objects window displays the new portshield3 in the address group
list.
8.
Repeat the procedure with the same settings for the following IP addresses:
67.115.118.210, 67.115.118.212 67.115.118.220, and 67.115.118.230. Make sure the
name of the address object for each address is portshield3. When you finish creating these
address objects, you will only see portshield3 displayed in the address group list.
9.
Go back to the Add PortShield Interface dialog box and create an interface called
portshield3 with a LAN zone, using a Transparent Mode address assignment type and
select portshield3 from the Transparent Range list of existing address groups.
.
10. Click on the Switch Port tab and add the ports 2 and 3 to the address object.
11. Click OK. SonicOS displays the group address object portshield3 in the Interfaces list.
12. Note the Network and Netmask fields in the dialog box.
13. In the graphic of the switch, view port numbers 2and 3, and verify that the port is colored
blue.
14. In the switch port list, view the PortShield Interface column for P2 and P3 (ports 2 and 3)
and verify that the interface listed is portshield3.
15. Refine the configuration of the PortShield Interface. For details, refer to the section,
“Refining the PortShield Interface” on page 167.
Mapping Ports from the Switch Ports Window
Another way to create a PortShield interface is to configure the interface in the Interfaces
window and then assign ports to it in the Switch Ports window. Approaching it this way assumes
you created a PortShield interface first and then selected the ports from the device ports
graphic and selected the existing interface. This provides several advantages:
– Enables you to easily visualize the actual locations of ports.
– Separating the task of creating the interface, helps you focus more on how you want to
separate the ports into different domains.
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To select ports and apply them to a previously configured interface, perform the following steps:
1.
Create a PortShield interface following the steps in “Overview” on page 160, but do not map
ports to it by going into the Switch Ports tab.
2.
Click the Networks option in the navigation pane and then click the Switch Ports option.
SonicOS displays the Switch Ports window.
3.
Note the color of the ports. While you can map any port, no matter what its color, to an
interface, you should be aware of whether it has been selected for use in another PortShield
interface.
– From the device graphic, see if any of the ports you want to select appear in black or
another color. If they are black, they are unused by another PortShield interface. If they
are another color, they are in use. Just be cognizant of ones that are being used and
what impact your remapping the port will have on the existing interface.
– From the Switch Ports list, see if any of the ports in the PortShield Interface list have
been selected as a PortShield interface.
Be cognizant of ones that are being used and what impact your remapping the port will have
on the existing interface.
4.
On the appliance graphic, click on ports 3, 4, and 5. The selected port graphics appear as
yellow as shown in the following figure (if you are viewing this document in color).
5.
Click the Configure button. SonicOS displays the Switch Port Settings dialog box as shown
in the following figure.
Note the Name field displays the ports you selected (P3, P4, P5).
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6.
Click on the PortShield Interface list box as shown in the following figure.
Note the list contains called the entry called Accounting. This is the host address object
you created.
7.
Click on the Accounting entry. By selecting this entry, you mapped ports 3, 4, and 5 to the
Accounting entry.
8.
Click OK. Wait a moment. SonicOS displays the Switch Ports dialog box, displaying the
results of your session.
9.
Verify the PortShield interface port mappings.
– In the device graphic, note SonicOS changed the color of ports 3, 4, and 5 from black
to blue, indicating you successfully mapped them to a PortShield interface.
– In the Switch Ports list, view the PortShield Interface column for ports 3, 4, and 5. This
column now displays a blue-colored icon and the accounting string for P3, P4, and P5,
indicating these ports are now mapped to the accounting PortShield interface.
PortShield Deployment Scenario
A SonicWALL TZ 180 or TZ 190 with PortShield can be used in a small hotel or apartment
setting. In this example, a SonicWALL TZ 180 with PortShield is used to provide access to an
apartment complex. Two sonicpoints give wireless access to residents, and a small office LAN
contains two computers and a mail and web server.
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Note
The easiest way to configure this example is to use the PortShield Wizard. Configure it to
have two PortShield interfaces, with three and two ports respectively. For more details on
the PortShield Wizard, see Chapter 23, Configuring PortShield Interfaces Using the
Setup Wizard.
Office
Internet
Deployment Details
This example uses the following zones and PortShield interfaces:
Zones
•
LAN: Default LAN zone configuration.
– Used for Office PortShield Group.
– All SonicWALL Security Services enabled.
•
Residents: A custom zone for the General Users PortShield group. Residents is a Wireless
zone with SonicPoint Enforcement disabled so it can be used like a LAN with mixed wired
and wireless clients.
– Used for the Residents PortShield group.
– Zone Type: Wireless
– All SonicWALL Security Services enabled.
– Only allow traffic generated by a SonicPoint is not checked, disabling SonicPoint
Enforcement. This setting allows the zone to be used for both wired and wireless traffic.
– Enable Wireless Guest Services is checked. With SonicPoint enforcement disabled,
this enables both wired and wireless guest services.
– Enable Dynamic Address Translation (DAT) is checked. With SonicPoint
enforcement disabled, this enables DAT for both wired and wireless guests.
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PortShield Interfaces
The small business example uses two PortShield interfaces.
•
LAN: for office use
– LAN zone
– Ports 1 - 3. These ports are assigned to LAN by not assigning them to another
PortShield interface.
– 2 desktop workstations
– 1 web and mail server.
– No wireless access
•
PortShield Interface 1
– A Resident custom Wireless zones with SonicPoint enforcement disabled
– Ports 3 and 4: one port for each PortShield interface
– Two SonicPoints connected, covering the whole complex and providing seamless
roaming.
– Wireless Guest Services enabled
Configuring the Hospitality Example Deployment
Configuring the hospitality example deployment involves the following procedures:
•
“Configure the SonicPoint Profile” on page 176
•
“Configure the Zones” on page 176
•
“Configure the PortShield Interfaces with the PortShield Wizard” on page 179
Configure the SonicPoint Profile
This example uses two SonicPoints to grant wireless access to users throughout the complex.
Residents can log in with their accounts, and guest users can log in using Wireless Guest
Services. The SonicPoint profile contains the settings that the security appliance automatically
applies to all connected SonicPoints.
Follow the procedures in “SonicPoint > SonicPoints” section on page 391 and configure the
SonicPoint profile. Keep the defaults except where appropriate for your installation. Set the
SSID for both 802.11a and 802.11g radios to a name that identifies the apartment complex or
hotel, for example, “SonicWALL Arms Resident Internet.”
Configure the Zones
This example uses two zones inside its network, LAN and a custom zone, Residents. Residents
is a Wireless zone with SonicPoint Enforcement disabled, thus allowing both wireless and wired
access. Guest services is enabled, allowing both wired and wireless guest users access to the
internet.
For more details on configuring zones, see Chapter 17, Configuring Zones.
LAN: Leave the default configuration for these two zones.
Residents: Configure the Residents zone with the following values:
•
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– Name: Residents
– Security Type: Wireless. Select Wireless so you can use the same context for the both
the individual wired connections and the SonicPoints.
– Allow Interface Trust: Checked
– Enforce Content Filtering Service: Checked
– Enforce Client Anti-Virus Service: Checked
– Enable Gateway Anti-Virus Service: Checked
– Enable IPS: Checked
– Enforce Global Security Clients: Only check if you want to require SonicWALL Global
Security Client for your residents to log into the network
– Create Group VPN: Only Check if you want to enforce WiFiSec security, requiring your
residents to use a VPN client to connect.
•
Wireless tab settings:
– Only allow traffic generated by a SonicPoint: Leave this option unchecked. This
disables SonicPoint enforcement, allowing both wired and wireless connections
through this zone.
– SSL-VPN Enforcement: Only check this option if you want to enforce SSL-VPN
security, requiring your residents to use an SSL-VPN client to connect.
– WiFiSec Enforcement: Only check this option if you want to enforce WiFiSec security,
requiring your residents to use a VPN client to connect.
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– SonicPoint Provisioning Profile: Select the SonicPoint profile you configured. The
settings in this profile will automatically be applied to the SonicPoints you set up for
wireless access.
•
Guest Services tab settings:
– Enable Wireless Guest Services: Check this option to enable access to the internet
for guest users who do not have resident accounts.
– Enable Dynamic Address Translation (DAT): Check this option to enable guest users
to connect without having to change their internet connection settings. See Chapter 17,
Configuring Zones for more information on DAT.
– Custom Authentication Page: Only check this option if you want to create a custom
login page for guest users.
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Configure the PortShield Interfaces with the PortShield Wizard
In this example, two ports are assigned to a Wireless PortShield interface for the SonicPoints
and three ports are assigned to the LAN interface for the Office. The easiest way to configure
this is to use the PortShield Wizard and then modify the configuration. We will use the wizard
to configure 2 PortShield interfaces with 3 and 2 ports respectively.
1.
On the Network > SwitchPorts page, click the PortShield Wizard button to launch the
PortShield Wizard. click Next.
2.
Select 2 PortShield interfaces with 3 and 2 ports resp and click Next.
3.
Select Auto-configure PortShield interfaces to have the wizard assign an IP address to
PortShield Interface 1. Select Configure PortShield interfaces manually if you want to
specify the IP address yourself.
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4.
Uncheck the Enable Interface Trust for new PortShield Interface segments checkbox
to prevent communication between the wireless segment and the office segment. If this
level of security is not necessary, leave the checkbox checked. You can modify these
settings on the Firewall > Access Rules page. Click Next.
5.
Click Apply to create the interfaces.
The SonicWALL TZ 180 is now configured such that ports 1, 2, and 5 are for the office LAN,
and ports 3 and 4 are for wireless access.
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CHAPTER 16
Chapter 16:
Setting Up WAN Failover and Load
Balancing
Network > WAN Failover & Load Balancing
WAN Failover and Load Balancing allows you to designate the one of the user-assigned
interfaces as a Secondary or backup WAN port. The secondary WAN port can be used in a
simple active/passive setup, where traffic is only routed through the secondary WAN port if the
primary WAN port is down and/or unavailable. In this chapter, this feature is referred to as basic
failover. This allows the SonicWALL security appliance to maintain a persistent connection for
WAN port traffic by failing over to the secondary WAN port. The primary and secondary WAN
ports can also be used in a more dynamic active/active setup, where the administrator can
choose a method of dividing outbound traffic flows between the Primary fixed WAN port and the
user-assigned Secondary WAN port. This latter feature is referred to as load balancing.
WAN Failover Caveats
•
WAN Failover and Load Balancing applies to outbound-initiated traffic only; it cannot be
used to perform inbound Load Balancing functions, such as what a content switching or
Load Balancing appliance provides.
•
Make sure that the SonicWALL security appliance has the proper NAT policies for the
Secondary WAN interface an incorrect or missing NAT Policy for the Secondary WAN port
is the most common problem seen when configuring WAN Failover & Load Balancing.
•
The Primary and Secondary WAN ports cannot be on the same IP subnet; each WAN
connection must be on unique IP subnets in order to work properly
•
You cannot use the WAN failover feature if you have configured the SonicWALL security
appliance to use Transparent Mode in the Network > Interfaces page.
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About Source and Destination IP Address Binding
When you establish a connection with a WAN, you can create multiple interfaces, dividing up
the task load over these interfaces. There are both Primary and Secondary WAN interfaces.
This task distribution model maintains high performance, ensuring that one interface does not
become an impasse to the point where it blocks traffic from passing. This process is WAN Load
Balancing.
While WAN Load Balancing addresses performance challenges, it can create other problems,
including losing track of sessions. Session confusion can occur because some applications fail
to adequately track multiple user sessions Load Balanced on multiple interfaces. These
applications treat incoming packets as originating from different users because they use IP
addresses to differentiate user sessions instead of application-layer user identification tags.
To ensure that you have proper connectivity in all applications, SonicWALL provides a feature
called Source and Destination IP Addresses Binding, a solution that maintains a consistent
mapping of traffic flows with a single outbound WAN interface.
Setting Up WAN Failover and Load Balancing
Perform the following steps to configure WAN Failover and Load Balancing on the SonicWALL
security appliance:
1.
“Configuring an Interface as a Secondary WAN Port” on page 182
2.
“Creating a NAT Policy for the Secondary WAN Port” on page 183
3.
“Activating WAN Failover and Selecting the Load Balancing Method” on page 184
4.
“Configuring WAN Interface Monitoring” on page 186
5.
“Configuring WAN Probe Monitoring” on page 187
Configuring an Interface as a Secondary WAN Port
On Network > Interfaces page, configure the chosen port to be in WAN zone, and enter in the
correct address settings provided by the Secondary ISP. In the example, the SonicWALL
security appliance is acquiring its secondary WAN address dynamically from ISP #2, using
DHCP. Any interface added to the WAN zone by default creates a NAT Policy allowing internal
LAN subnets to NAT out this Secondary WAN interface.
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Creating a NAT Policy for the Secondary WAN Port
You need to create a NAT policy on your SonicWALL for WAN Failover. Follow these steps to
create a NAT policy on your SonicWALL using the OPT interface:
Step 1
Select Network > NAT Policies.
Step 2
Click Add. The Add NAT Policy window is displayed.
Step 3
Select Any from the Original Source menu.
Step 4
Select OPT IP from the Translated Source menu.
Step 5
Select Any from the Original Destination menu.
Step 6
Select Original from the Translated Destination menu.
Step 7
Select Any from the Original Service menu.
Step 8
Select Original from the Translated Service menu.
Step 9
Select LAN from the Inbound Interface menu.
Step 10 Select OPT interface from the Outbound Interface menu.
Step 11 Make sure the Enable setting is checked.
Step 12 Click OK.
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Activating WAN Failover and Selecting the Load Balancing Method
To configure the SonicWALL for WAN failover and load balancing, follow the steps below:
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Step 1
On Network > WAN Failover & LB page, select Enable Load Balancing.
Step 2
If there are multiple possible secondary WAN interfaces, select an interface from the
Secondary WAN Interface.
Step 3
Select a load balancing method. By default, the SonicWALL will select Basic Active/Passive
Failover as the method, but there are four load balancing methods available:
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– Basic Active/Passive Failover: When this setting is selected, the SonicWALL security
appliance only sends traffic through the Secondary WAN interface if the Primary WAN
interface has been marked inactive. The SonicWALL security appliance is set to use
this as the default load balancing method. If the Primary WAN fails, then the
SonicWALL security appliance reverts to this method instead of the ones described
below. This mode will automatically return back to using the Primary WAN interface
once it has been restored (preempt mode).
This item has an associated Preempt and fail back to Primary WAN when possible
checkbox. When this checkbox is selected, the SonicWALL security appliance switches
back to sending its traffic across the Primary WAN interface when it resumes
responding to the SonicWALL security appliance’s checks (the WAN’s physical link is
restored, or the logical probe targets on the WAN port resume responding).
– Per Destination Round-Robin: When this setting is selected, the SonicWALL security
appliance Load Balances outgoing traffic on a per-destination basis. This is a simple
load balancing method and, though not very granular, allows you to utilize both links in
a basic fashion (instead of the method above, which does not utilize the capability of
the Secondary WAN until the Primary WAN has failed). The SonicWALL security
appliance needs to examine outbound flows for uniqueness in source IP and
destination IP and make the determination as to which interface to send the traffic out
of and accept it back on. Please note this feature will be overridden by specific static
route entries.
– Spillover-Based: When this settings is selected, the user can specify when the
SonicWALL security appliance starts sending traffic through the Secondary WAN
interface. This method allows you to control when and if the Secondary interface is
used. This method is used if you do not want outbound traffic sent across the
Secondary WAN unless the Primary WAN is overloaded.
Specify the maximum allowed bandwidth on the primary WAN interface in the Send
traffic to Secondary WAN interface when bandwidth exceeds _ Kbps field. The
SonicWALL security appliance has a non-Management Interface exposed hold timer
set to 20 seconds – if the sustained outbound traffic across the Primary WAN interface
exceeds the administrator defined bps, then the SonicWALL security appliance spills
outbound traffic to the Secondary WAN interface (on a per-destination basis). Please
note this feature will be overridden by specific static route entries.
– Percentage-Based: When this setting is selected, you can specify the percentages of
traffic sent through the Primary WAN and Secondary WAN interfaces. This method
allows you to actively utilize both Primary and Secondary WAN interfaces. Only one
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entry box is required (percentage for Primary WAN) The management interface
automatically populates the non-user-editable entry box with the remaining percentage
assigned to the Secondary WAN interface. Please note this feature will be overridden
by specific static route entries.
•
Use Source and Destination IP Address Binding: When you are using
percentage-based load balancing, this checkbox enables you to maintain a
consistent mapping of traffic flows with a single outbound WAN interface,
regardless of the percentage of traffic through that interface. Therefore, the
outbound IP address of the connection remains consistent. However the
percentage of traffic in each WAN interface may not match the percentage you
specify in the Primary WAN Percentage field.
This method uses only the source IP address and the destination IP address to
determine when to bind a connection to a single interface and ignores all other
information, such as source and destination TCP port numbers.
Step 4
Click Apply.
Configuring WAN Interface Monitoring
Under the WAN Interface Monitoring heading, you can customize how the SonicWALL
security appliance monitors the WAN interface:
•
Enter a number between 5 and 300, in the Check Interface Every _ Seconds field. The
default value is 5 seconds.
•
In the Deactivate Interface after _ missed intervals, enter a number between 1 and 10.
The default value is 3, which means the interface is considered inactive after 3 consecutive
unsuccessful attempts.
•
Enter a number between 1 and 10 in the Reactivate Interface after _ successful
intervals. The default value is 3, which means the interface is considered active after 3
consecutive successful attempts.
WAN Probe Monitoring
If Probe Monitoring is not activated, the SonicWALL security appliance performs physical
monitoring only on the Primary and Secondary WAN interfaces, meaning it only marks a WAN
interface as failed if the interface is disconnected or stops receiving an Ethernet-layer signal.
This is not an assured means of link monitoring, because it does not address most failure
scenarios (for example, routing issues with your ISP or an upstream router that is no longer
passing traffic). If the WAN interface is connected to a hub or switch, and the router providing
the connection to the ISP (also connected to this hub or switch) were to fail, the SonicWALL
will continue to believe the WAN link is usable, because the connection to the hub or switch is
good.
Enabling probe monitoring on the Network > WAN Failover & Load Balancing page instructs
the SonicWALL security appliance to perform logical checks of upstream targets to ensure that
the line is indeed usable, eliminating this potential problem, as well as continue to do physical
monitoring. Under the default probe monitoring configuration, the SonicWALL performs an
ICMP ping probe of both WAN ports’ default gateways. Unfortunately, this is also not an
assured means of link monitoring, because service interruption may be occurring farther
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upstream. If your ISP is experiencing problems in its routing infrastructure, a successful ICMP
ping of their router causes the SonicWALL security appliance to believe the line is usable, when
in fact it may not be able to pass traffic to and from the public Internet at all.
To perform reliable link monitoring, you can choose ICMP or TCP as monitoring method, and
can specify up to two targets for each WAN port. TCP is preferred because many devices on
the public Internet now actively drop or block ICMP requests. If you specify two targets for each
WAN interface, you can logically link the two probe targets such that if either one fails the line
will go down, or that both must fail for the line to be considered down. Using the latter method,
you can configure a sort of ‘deep check’ to see if the line is truly usable – for instance, you could
set first probe target of your ISP’s router interface using ICMP (assuming they allow this), and
then do a secondary probe target of a DNS server on the public Internet using TCP Port 53.
With this method, if the ICMP probe of the ISP’s router fails but the farther upstream continues
to respond, the SonicWALL security appliance assumes the link is usable and continue to send
traffic across it.
Configuring WAN Probe Monitoring
To configure WAN probe monitoring, follow these steps:
Step 1
On the Network > WAN Failover & Load Balancing page, under the WAN Interface
Monitoring heading, check the Enable Probe Monitoring box.
Step 2
Check the Respond to Probes box to have the SonicWALL security appliance respond to
SonicwALL TCP probes received on any of its WAN ports. Do not check this box if the
SonicWALL security appliance should not respond to TCP probes.
Step 3
Check the Any TCP-SYN to Port box to instruct the SonicWALL security appliance to respond
to TCP probes to the specified port number without validating them first. The Any TCP-SYN to
Port box should only be checked when receiving TCP probes from SonicWALL security
appliances running SonicOS Standard or older, legacy SonicWALL security appliances.
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Note
If there is a NAT device between the two devices sending and receiving TCP probes, the
Any TCP-SYN to Port box must be checked, and the same port number must be configured
here and in the Configure WAN Probe Monitoring window.
Step 4
Click on the Configure button. The Configure WAN Probe Monitoring window is displayed.
Step 5
In the Primary WAN Probe Settings menu, select one of the following options:
– Probe succeeds when either Main Target or Alternate Target responds
– Probe succeeds when both Main Target and Alternative Target respond
– Probe succeeds when Main Target responds
– Succeeds Always (no probing)
Step 6
Select Ping (ICMP) or TCP from the Probe Target menu.
Step 7
Enter the IP address of the target device in the IP Address field.
Step 8
Enter a port number in the Port field.
Note
Step 9
If there is a NAT device between the two devices sending and receiving TCP probes, the
Any TCP-SYN to Port box must be checked, and the same port number must be configured
here and in the Configure WAN Probe Monitoring window.
Check the SNWL? box if the target device is a SonicWALL security appliance. Do not check
the SNWL? box for third-party devices, as the TCP probes may not work consistently.
Step 10 Configure the Secondary WAN Probe Settings, which provide the same options as the
Primary WAN Probe Settings.
Step 11 Click OK.
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Caution
Note
Before you begin, be sure you have configured a user-defined interface to mirror the WAN
port settings.
If the Probe Target is unable to contact the target device, the interface is deactivated and
traffic is no longer sent to the primary WAN.
WAN Load Balancing Statistics
The WAN Load Balancing Statistics table displays the following WAN Interface statistics for
the SonicWALL:
•
Link Status
•
Load Balancing State
•
Probe Monitoring
•
New Connections
•
Total Connections
•
Rx Unicast Packets
•
Rx Bytes
•
Tx Unicast Packets
•
Tx Bytes
•
Tx Current Percentage
•
Tx Current Throughput (KB/s)
Click the Clear Statistic button on the top right of the Network > WAN Failover & Load
Balancing page to clear information from the WAN Load Balancing Statistics table.
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CHAPTER 17
Chapter 17:
Configuring Zones
Network > Zones
A Zone is a logical grouping of one or more interfaces designed to make management, such as
the definition and application of Access Rules, a simpler and more intuitive process than
following strict physical interface scheme. Zone-based security is a powerful and flexible
method of managing both internal and external network segments, allowing the administrator
to separate and protect critical internal network resources from unapproved access or attack.
A network security zone is simply a logical method of grouping one or more interfaces with
friendly, user-configurable names, and applying security rules as traffic passes from one zone
to another zone. Security zones provide an additional, more flexible, layer of security for the
firewall. With the zone-based security, the administrator can group similar interfaces and apply
the same policies to them, instead of having to write the same policy for each interface.
For more information on configuring interfaces, see the “Network > Interfaces” section on
page 137.
SonicOS Enhanced zones allows you to apply security policies to the inside of the network. This
allows the administrator to do this by organizing network resources to different zones, and
allowing or restricting traffic between those zones. This way, access to critical internal
resources such as payroll servers or engineering code servers can be strictly controlled.
Zones also allow full exposure of the NAT table to allow the administrator control over the traffic
across the interfaces by controlling the source and destination addresses as traffic crosses
from one zone to another. This means that NAT can be applied internally, or across VPN
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tunnels, which is a feature that users have long requested. SonicWALL security appliances can
also drive VPN traffic through the NAT policy and zone policy, since VPNs are now logically
grouped into their own VPN zone.
How Zones Work
An easy way to visualize how security zones work is to imagine a large new building, with
several rooms inside the building, and a group of new employees that do not know their way
around the building. This building has one or more exits, which can be thought of as the WAN
interfaces. The rooms within the building have one or more doors, which can be thought of as
interfaces. These rooms can be thought of as zones inside each room are a number of people.
The people are categorized and assigned to separate rooms within the building. People in each
room going to another room or leaving the building, must talk to a doorperson on the way out
of each room. This doorperson is the inter-zone/intra-zone security policy, and the
doorperson’s job to consult a list and make sure that the person is allowed to go to the other
room, or to leave the building. If the person is allowed (i.e. the security policy lets them), they
can leave the room via the door (the interface).
Upon entering the hallway, the person needs to consult with the hallway monitor to find out
where the room is, or where the door out of the building is located. This hallway monitor
provides the routing process because the monitor knows where all the rooms are located, and
how to get in and out of the building. The monitor also knows the addresses of any of the remote
offices, which can be considered the VPNs. If the building has more than one entrance/exit
(WAN interfaces), the hallway monitor can direct people to use the secondary entrance/exit,
depending upon how they’ve been told to do so (i.e. only in an emergency, or to distribute the
traffic in and out of the entrance/exits). This function can be thought of as WAN Load Balancing.
There are times that the rooms inside the building have more than one door, and times when
there are groups of people in the room who are not familiar with one another. In this example,
one group of people uses only one door, and another group uses the other door, even though
groups are all in the same room. Because they also don’t recognize each other, in order to
speak with someone in another group, the users must ask the doorperson (the security policy)
to point out which person in the other group is the one with whom they wish to speak. The
doorperson has the option to not let one group of people talk to the other groups in the room.
This is an example of when zones have more than one interface bound to them, and when intrazone traffic is not allowed.
Sometimes, people will wish to visit remote offices, and people may arrive from remote offices
to visit people in specific rooms in the building. These are the VPN tunnels. The hallway and
doorway monitors check to see if this is allowed or not, and allow traffic through. The
doorperson can also elect to force people to put on a costume before traveling to another room,
or to exit, or to another remote office. This hides the true identity of the person, masquerading
the person as someone else. This process can be thought of as the NAT policy.
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Predefined Zones
The predefined zones on your the SonicWALL security appliance depend on the device. The
following are all the SonicWALL security appliance’s predefined security zones:
The predefined security zones on the SonicWALL security appliance are not modifiable and are
defined as follows:
Note
•
WAN: This zone can consist of either one or two interfaces. If you’re using the security
appliance’s WAN failover capability, you need to add the second Internet interface to the
WAN zone.
•
LAN: This zone can consist of one to five interfaces, depending on your network design.
Even though each interface will have a different network subnet attached to it, when
grouped together they can be managed as a single entity.
•
DMZ: This zone is normally used for publicly accessible servers. This zone can consist of
one to four interfaces, depending on you network design.
•
VPN: This virtual zone is used for simplifying secure, remote connectivity. It is the only zone
that does not have an assigned physical interface.
•
MULTICAST: This zone provides support for IP multicasting, which is a method for sending
IN packets from a single source simultaneously to multiple hosts.
•
WLAN: This zone provides support to SonicWALL SonicPoints. When assigned to the Opt
port, it enforces SonicPoint Enforcement, automatically dropping all packets received from
non-SonicPoint devices. The WLAN zone supports SonicPoint Discovery Protocol (SDP) to
automatically poll for and identify attached SonicPoints. It also supports SonicWALL Simple
Provisioning Protocol to configure SonicPoints using profiles.
Even though you may group interfaces together into one security zone, this does not
preclude you from addressing a single interface within the Zone.
Security Types
Each zone has a security type, which defines the level of trust given to that zone. There are five
security types:
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•
Trusted: Trusted is a security type that provides the highest level of trust—meaning that
the least amount of scrutiny is applied to traffic coming from trusted zones. Trusted security
can be thought of as being on the LAN (protected) side of the security appliance. The LAN
zone is always Trusted.
•
Encrypted: Encrypted is a security type used exclusively by the VPN Zone. All traffic to and
from an Encrypted zone is encrypted.
•
Wireless: Wireless is a security type applied to the WLAN zone or any zone where the only
interface to the network consists of SonicWALL SonicPoint devices. You typically use
WiFiSec to secure traffic in a Wireless zone. The Wireless security type is designed
specifically for use with SonicPoint devices. Placing an interface in a Wireless Zone
activates SDP (SonicWALL Discovery Protocol) and SSPP (SonicWALL Simple
Provisioning Protocol) on that interface for automatic discovery and provisioning of
SonicPoint devices. Only traffic that passes through a SonicPoint is allowed through a
Wireless zone; all other traffic is dropped.
•
Public: A Public security type offers a higher level of trust than an Untrusted zone, but a
lower level of trust than a Trusted zone. Public zones can be thought of as being a secure
area between the LAN (protected) side of the security appliance and the WAN
(unprotected) side. The DMZ, for example, is a Public zone because traffic flows from it to
both the LAN and the WAN. By default traffic from DMZ to LAN is denied. But traffic from
LAN to ANY is allowed. This means only LAN initiated connections will have traffic between
DMZ and LAN. The DMZ will only have default access to the WAN, not the LAN.
•
Untrusted: The Untrusted security type represents the lowest level of trust. It is used by
both the WAN and the virtual Multicast zone. An Untrusted zone can be thought of as being
on the WAN (unprotected) side of the security appliance.By default, traffic from Untrusted
zones is not permitted to enter any other zone type without explicit rules, but traffic from
every other zone type is permitted to Untrusted zones.
Allow Interface Trust
The Allow Interface Trust setting in the Add Zone window automates the creation of Access
Rules to allow traffic to flow between the interface of a zone instance. For example, if the LAN
Zone has both the LAN and OPT interfaces assigned to it, checking Allow Interface Trust on
the LAN Zone creates the necessary Access Rules to allow hosts on these interfaces to
communicate with each other.
Enabling SonicWALL Security Services on Zones
You can enable SonicWALL Security Services for traffic across zones. For example, you can
enable SonicWALL Intrusion Prevention Service for incoming and outgoing traffic on the WLAN
zone to add more security for internal network traffic. You can enable the following SonicWALL
Security Services on zones:
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•
Enforce Content Filtering Service - Enforces content filtering on multiple interfaces in the
same Trusted, Public and WLAN zones.
•
Enforce Client Anti-Virus Service - Enforces anti-virus protection on multiple interfaces
in the same Trusted, Public or WLAN zones.
•
Enable Gateway Anti-Virus - Enforces gateway anti-virus protection on multiple interfaces
in the same Trusted, Public or WLAN zones.
•
Enable IPS - Enforces intrusion detection and prevention on multiple interfaces in the same
Trusted, Public or WLAN zones.
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•
Enable Anti-Spyware Service - Enforces anti-spyware detection and prevention on
multiple interfaces in the same Trusted, Public or WLAN zones.
•
Enforce Global Security Clients - Enforces security policies for Global Security Clients
on multiple interfaces in the same Trusted, Public or WLAN zones.
•
Create Group VPN - Creates a GroupVPN policy for the Zone, which is displayed in the
VPN Policies table on the VPN > Settings page. You can customize the GroupVPN policy
on the VPN > Settings page. If you uncheck Create Group VPN, the GroupVPN policy is
removed from the VPN > Settings page.
The Zone Settings Table
The Zone Settings table displays a listing of all the SonicWALL security appliance default
predefined zones as well as any zones you create. The table displays the following status
information about each zone configuration:
•
Name: Lists the name of the zone. The predefined LAN, WAN, WLAN, VPN, and
Encrypted zone names cannot be changed.
•
Security Type: Displays the security type: Trusted, Untrusted, Public, Wireless, or
Encrypted.
•
Member Interfaces: Displays the interfaces that are members of the zone. VLAN subinterfaces are denoted by the name of the physical interface and the VLAN tag number, for
example: “X3:V100”.
•
Interface Trust: A check mark indicates the Allow Interface Trust setting is enabled for
the zone.
•
Content Filtering: A check mark indicates SonicWALL Content Filtering Service is enabled
for traffic coming in and going out of the zone.
•
Client Anti-Virus: A check mark indicates SonicWALL Client Anti-Virus is enabled for
traffic coming in and going out of the zone. SonicWALL Client Anti-Virus manages an antivirus client application on all clients on the zone.
•
Gateway Anti-Virus: A check mark indicates SonicWALL Gateway Anti-Virus is enabled
for traffic coming in and going out of the zone. SonicWALL Gateway Anti-Virus manages
the anti-virus service on the SonicWALL appliance.
•
Anti-Spyware Service - A check mark indicates SonicWALL Anti-Spyware detection and
prevention is enabled for traffic through interfaces in the zone.
•
IPS: A check mark indicates SonicWALL Intrusion Prevention Service is enabled for traffic
coming in and going out of the zone.
•
GSC: A check mark indicates SonicWALL Global Security Client is enabled for clients
connecting to the zone.
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•
Configure: Clicking the Notepad icon
displays the Edit Zone window. Clicking the
Trashcan icon
deletes the zone. The Trashcan icon is dimmed for the predefined zones.
You cannot delete these zones.
Adding a New Zone
To add a new Zone, click Add under the Zone Settings table. The Add Zone window is
displayed.
Step 1
Type a name for the new zone in the Name field.
Step 2
Select a security type Trusted, Public or Wireless from the Security Type menu. Use Trusted
for Zones that you want to assign the highest level of trust, such as internal LAN segments. Use
Public for Zones with a lower level of trust requirements, such as a DMZ interface. Use
Wireless for the WLAN interface.
Step 3
If you want to allow intra-zone communications, select Allow Interface Trust. If not, select the
Allow Interface Trust checkbox.
Step 4
Select any of the SonicWALL Security Services you want to enforce on the zone. You can
select:
– SonicWALL Content Filtering Service - Enforces content filtering on multiple
interfaces in the same Trusted, Public and WLAN zones. To apply a Content Filtering
Service (CFS) policy to the zone, select the policy from the CFS Policy pull-down
menu.
– SonicWALL Enforce Client Anti-Virus Service - Enforces Client Anti-Virus protection
on multiple interfaces in the same Trusted, Public or WLAN zones, using the
SonicWALL Client Anti-Virus client on your network hosts.
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– Enable Gateway Anti-Virus Service - Enforces gateway anti-virus protection on your
SonicWALL security appliance for all clients connecting to this zone. SonicWALL
Gateway Anti-Virus manages the anti-virus service on the SonicWALL appliance.
– SonicWALL Intrusion Protection Service (IPS) - Enforces intrusion detection and
prevention on multiple interfaces in the same Trusted, Public or WLAN zones.
– Enable Anti-Spyware Service - Enforces anti-spyware detection and prevention on
multiple interfaces in the same Trusted, Public or WLAN zones.
– Enforce Global Security Clients - Requires clients to use the SonicWALL Global
Security Client (GSC) to secure their local machine. Causes GSC settings to be pushed
from the security appliance to the network hosts.
– Create Group VPN - Automatically creates a SonicWALL GroupVPN Policy for this
zone. You can customize the GroupVPN Policy in the VPN > Settings page.
Caution
Step 5
Unsetting the Create Group VPN checkbox will remove any corresponding GroupVPN
policy.
Click OK. The new zone is now added to the SonicWALL security appliance.
Deleting a Zone
You can delete a user-created zone by clicking the Trashcan icon
in the Configure column.
The Trashcan icon is unavailable for the predefined Zones (LAN, WAN, DMZ, VPN, WLAN, and
MULTICAST). You cannot delete these zones. Any zones that you create can be deleted.
Configuring the WLAN Zone
Step 1
Click the Edit icon
for the WLAN zone. The Edit Zone window is displayed.
Step 2
In the General tab, select the Allow Interface Trust setting to automate the creation of Access
Rules to allow traffic to flow between the interfaces of a zone instance. For example, if the LAN
Zone has both the LAN and OPT interfaces assigned to it, checking Allow Interface Trust on
the LAN Zone creates the necessary Access Rules to allow hosts on these interfaces to
communicate with each other.
Step 3
Select any of the following settings to enable the SonicWALL Security Services on the WLAN
zone:
– Enforce Content Filtering Service - Enforces content filtering on multiple interfaces
in the same Trusted, Public and WLAN zones.
– Enforce Client Anti-Virus Service - Enforces managed anti-virus protection on
multiple interfaces in the same Trusted, Public or WLAN zones. SonicWALL Client AntiVirus manages an anti-virus client application on all clients on the zone.
– Enable Gateway Anti-Virus - Enforces gateway anti-virus protection on multiple
interfaces in the same Trusted, Public or WLAN zones. SonicWALL Gateway Anti-Virus
manages the anti-virus service on the SonicWALL appliance.
– Enable IPS - Enforces intrusion detection and prevention on multiple interfaces in the
same Trusted, Public or WLAN zones.
– Enable Anti-Spyware Service - Enforces anti-spyware detection and prevention on
multiple interfaces in the same Trusted, Public or WLAN zones.
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– Enforce Global Security Clients - Enforces security policies for Global Security
Clients on multiple interfaces in the same Trusted, Public or WLAN zones.
– Create Group VPN - creates a GroupVPN policy for the Zone, which is displayed in the
VPN Policies table on the VPN > Settings page. You can customize the GroupVPN
policy on the VPN > Settings page. If you uncheck Create Group VPN, the GroupVPN
policy is removed from the VPN > Settings page.
Step 4
Click the Wireless tab.
Step 5
In the Wireless Settings section, check Only allow traffic generated by a SonicPoint to
allow only traffic from SonicWALL SonicPoints to enter the WLAN Zone interface. This allows
maximum security of your WLAN. Uncheck this option if you want to allow any traffic on your
WLAN Zone regardless of whether or not it is from a wireless connection.
Tip
Uncheck Only allow traffic generated by a SonicPoint and use the zone on a wired
interface to allow guest services on that interface.
Step 6
Select SSL-VPN Enforcement to require that all traffic that enters into the WLAN Zone be
authenticated through a SonicWALL SSL-VPN appliance. If you select both SSL-VPN
Enforcement, and WiFiSec Enforcement, the Wireless zone will allow traffic authenticated by
either a SSL-VPN or an IPsec VPN.
Step 7
In the SSL-VPN Server list, select an address object to direct traffic to the SonicWALL SSLVPN appliance. You can select:
– Create new address object...
– Default Gateway
– Secondary Default Gateway
– X0 IP
– X1 IP
– X2 IP
– X3 IP
– X4 IP
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– X5 IP
Step 8
In the SSL-VPN Service list, select the service or group of services you want to allow for clients
authenticated through the SSL-VPN.
Step 9
Select WiFiSec Enforcement to require that all traffic that enters into the WLAN Zone interface
be either IPsec traffic, WPA traffic, or both. With WiFiSec Enforcement enabled, all non-guest
wireless clients connected to SonicPoints attached to an interface belonging to a Zone on which
WiFiSec is enforced are required to use the strong security of IPsec. The VPN connection
inherent in WiFiSec terminates at the “WLAN GroupVPN”, which you can configure
independently of “WAN GroupVPN” or other Zone GroupVPN instances. If you select both
WiFiSec Enforcement, and SSL-VPN Enforcement, the Wireless zone will allow traffic
authenticated by either a SSL-VPN or an IPsec VPN.
Step 10 If you have enabled WiFiSec Enforcement, you can specify services that are allowed to
bypass the WiFiSec enforcement by checking WiFiSec Exception Service and then selecting
the service you want to exempt from WiFiSec enforcement.
Step 11 If you have enabled WiFiSec Enforcement, you can select Require WiFiSec for Site-to-Site
VPN Tunnel Traversal to require WiFiSec security for all wireless connections through the
WLAN zone that are part of a site-to-site VPN.
Step 12 Select Trust WPA traffic as WiFiSec to accept WPA as an allowable alternative to IPsec. Both
WPA-PSK (Pre-shared key) and WPA-EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol using an
external 802.1x/EAP capable RADIUS server) will be supported on SonicPoints.
Step 13 Under the SonicPoint Settings heading, select the SonicPoint Provisioning Profile you
want to apply to all SonicPoints connected to this zone. Whenever a SonicPoint connects to
this zone, it will automatically be provisioned by the settings in the SonicPoint Provisioning
Profile, unless you have individually configured it with different settings.
Step 14 Click the Guest Services tab. You can choose from the following configuration options for
Wireless Guest Services:
– Enable Wireless Guest Services - Enables guest services on the WLAN zone.
– Enable inter-guest communication - Allows guests connecting to SonicPoints in this
WLAN Zone to communicate directly and wirelessly with each other.
– Bypass AV Check for Guests - Allows guest traffic to bypass Anti-Virus protection.
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Network > Zones
– Enable Dynamic Address Translation (DAT) - Wireless Guest Services (WGS)
provides spur of the moment “hotspot” access to wireless-capable guests and visitors.
For easy connectivity, WGS allows wireless users to authenticate and associate, obtain
IP settings from the TZ 170 Wireless DHCP services, and authenticate using any webbrowser. Without DAT, if a WGS user is not a DHCP client, but instead has static IP
settings incompatible with the TZ 170 Wireless WLAN network settings, network
connectivity is prevented until the user’s settings change to compatible values.
Dynamic Address Translation (DAT) is a form of Network Address Translation (NAT)
that allows the TZ 170 Wireless to support any IP addressing scheme for WGS users.
For example, the TZ 170 Wireless WLAN interface is configured with its default address
of 172.16.31.1, and one WGS client has a static IP Address of 192.168.0.10 and a
default gateway of 192.168.0.1, while another has a static IP address of 10.1.1.10 and
a gateway of 10.1.1.1, and DAT enables network communication for both of these
clients.
– Enable External Guest Authentication - Requires guests connecting from the device
or network you select to authenticate before gaining access. This feature, based on
Lightweight Hotspot Messaging (LHM) is used for authenticating Hotspot users and
providing them parametrically bound network access.
Note
Refer to the SonicWALL Lightweight Hotspot Messaging Tech Note available at the
SonicWALL documentation Web site http://www.sonicwall.com/us/Support.html for
complete configuration of the Enable External Guest Authentication feature.
– Custom Authentication Page - Redirects users to a custom authentication page when
they first connect to a SonicPoint in the WLAN zone. Click Configure to set up the
custom authentication page. Enter either a URL to an authentication page or a custom
challenge statement in the text field, and click OK.
– Post Authentication Page - Directs users to the page you specify immediately after
successful authentication. Enter a URL for the post-authentication page in the filed.
– Bypass Guest Authentication - Allows a SonicPoint running WGS to integrate into
environments already using some form of user-level authentication. This feature
automates the WGS authentication process, allowing wireless users to reach WGS
resources without requiring authentication. This feature should only be used when
unrestricted WGS access is desired, or when another device upstream of the
SonicPoint is enforcing authentication.
– Redirect SMTP traffic to - Redirects SMTP traffic incoming on this zone to an SMTP
server you specify. Select the address object to redirect traffic to.
– Deny Networks - Blocks traffic from the networks you name. Select the subnet,
address group, or IP address to block traffic from.
– Pass Networks - Automatically allows traffic through the WLAN zone from the
networks you select.
– Max Guests - Specifies the maximum number of guest users allowed to connect to the
WLAN zone. The default is 10.
Step 15 Click OK to apply these settings to the WLAN zone.
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CHAPTER 18
Chapter 18:
Configuring DNS Settings
Network > DNS
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a distributed, hierarchical system that provides a method
for identifying hosts on the Internet using alphanumeric names called fully qualified domain
names (FQDNs) instead of using difficult to remember numeric IP addresses.
The Network > DNS page allows you to manually configure your DNS settings, if necessary.
In the DNS Settings section, select Specify DNS Servers Manually and enter the IP
address(es) into the DNS Server fields. Click Apply to save your changes.
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Network > DNS
To use the DNS Settings configured for the WAN zone, select Inherit DNS Settings
Dynamically from the WAN Zone. Click Apply to save your changes.
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CHAPTER 19
Chapter 19:
Configuring Address Objects
Network > Address Objects
Address Objects are one of four object classes (Address, User, Service, and Schedule) in
SonicOS Enhanced. These Address Objects allow for entities to be defined one time, and to be
re-used in multiple referential instances throughout the SonicOS interface. For example, take
an internal Web-Server with an IP address of 67.115.118.80. Rather than repeatedly typing in
the IP address when constructing Access Rules or NAT Policies, Address Objects allow you to
create a single entity called “My Web Server” as a Host Address Object with an IP address of
67.115.118.80. This Address Object, “My Web Server” can then be easily and efficiently
selected from a drop-down menu in any configuration screen that employs Address Objects as
a defining criterion.
Types of Address Objects
Since there are multiple types of network address expressions, there are currently the following
Address Objects types:
•
Host – Host Address Objects define a single host by its IP address. The netmask for a Host
Address Object will automatically be set to 32 bit (255.255.255.255) to identify it as a single
host. For example, “My Web Server” with an IP address of “67.115.118.110” and a default
netmask of “255.255.255.255”
•
Range – Range Address Objects define a range of contiguous IP addresses. No netmask
is associated with Range Address Objects, but internal logic generally treats each member
of the specified range as a 32 bit-masked Host object. For example “My Public Servers”
with an IP address starting value of “67.115.118.66” and an ending value of
“67.115.118.90”. All 25 individual host addresses in this range would be comprised by this
Range Address Object.
•
Network – Network Address Objects are like Range objects in that they comprise multiple
hosts, but rather than being bound by specified upper and lower range delimiters, the
boundaries are defined by a valid netmask. Network Address Objects must be defined by
the network’s address and a corresponding netmask. For example “My Public Network” with
a Network Value of “67.115.118.64” and a Netmask of “255.255.255.224” would comprise
addresses from 67.115.118.64 through to 67.115.118.95. As a general rule, the first
address in a network (the network address) and the last address in a network (the
broadcast address) are unusable.
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Network > Address Objects
•
MAC Address – MAC Address Objects allow for the identification of a host by its hardware
address or MAC (Media Access Control) address. MAC Addresses are uniquely assigned
to every piece of wired or wireless networking device by their hardware manufacturers, and
are intended to be immutable. MAC addresses are 48 bit values that are expressed in 6
byte hex-notation. For example “My Access Point” with a MAC address of
“00:06:01:AB:02:CD”. MAC Addresses are resolved to an IP address by referring to the
ARP cache on the security appliance MAC Address objects are used by various
components of Wireless configurations throughout SonicOS.
•
FQDN Address – FQDN address objects allow for the identification of a host by its Fully
Qualified Domain Names (FQDN), such as 'www.sonicwall.com'. FQDNs are be resolved
to their IP address (or IP addresses) using the DNS server configured on the security
appliance. Wildcard entries are supported through the gleaning of responses to queries
sent to the sanctioned DNS servers.
Address Object Groups
SonicOS Enhanced has the ability to group Address Objects into Address Object Groups.
Groups of Address Objects can be defined to introduce further referential efficiencies. Groups
can comprise any combination of Host, Range, or Network Address Objects. MAC Address
Objects should be grouped separately, although they can safely be added to Groups of IPbased Address Objects, where they will be ignored when their reference is contextually
irrelevant (e.g. in a NAT Policy). For example “My Public Group” can contain Host Address
Object “My Web Server” and Range Address Object “My Public Servers”, effectively
representing IP Addresses 67.115.118.66 to 67.115.118.90 and IP Address 67.115.118.110.
Creating and Managing Address Objects
The Network > Address Objects page allows you to create and manage your Address
Objects.
You can view Address Objects in the following ways using the View Style menu:
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Network > Address Objects
•
All Address Objects - displays all configured Address Objects.
•
Custom Address Objects - displays Address Objects with custom properties.
•
Default Address Objects - displays Address Objects configured by default on the
SonicWALL security appliance.
Sorting Address Objects allows you to quickly and easily locate Address Objects configured on
the SonicWALL security appliance.
Note
An Address Object must be defined before configuring NAT Policies, Access Rules, and
Services.
Navigating and Sorting the Address Objects and Address Groups Entries
The Address Objects and Address Groups tables provides easy pagination for viewing a large
number of address objects and groups. You can navigate a large number of entries listed in the
Address Objects or Address Groups tables by using the navigation control bar located at the
top right of the tables. Navigation control bar includes four buttons. The far left button displays
the first page of the table. The far right button displays the last page. The inside left and right
arrow buttons moved the previous or next page respectively.
You can enter the policy number (the number listed before the policy name in the # Name
column) in the Items field to move to a specific entry. The default table configuration displays
50 entries per page. You can change this default number of entries for tables on the System >
Administration page.
You can sort the entries in the table by clicking on the column header. The entries are sorted
by ascending or descending order. The arrow to the right of the column entry indicates the
sorting status. A down arrow means ascending order. An up arrow indicates a descending
order.
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Network > Address Objects
Default Address Objects and Groups
The Default Address Objects view displays the default Address Objects and Address
Groups for your SonicWALL security appliance. The Default Address Objects entries cannot
be modified or deleted. Therefore, the Notepad (Edit) and Trashcan (delete) icons are
dimmed.
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Default Address Objects
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•
X0 IP
•
X0 Subnet
•
X1 IP Host
•
X1 Subnet
•
X2 IP
•
X2 Subnet
•
X3 IP
•
X3 Subnet
•
X4 IP
•
X4 Subnet
•
X5 IP
•
X5 Subnet
•
Default Gateway
•
Secondary Default Gateway
•
SonicPoint
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Network > Address Objects
Default Address Groups
•
LAN Subnets
•
Firewalled Subnets
•
LAN Interface IP
•
WAN Subnets
•
WAN Interface IP
•
DMZ Subnets
•
DMZ Interface IP
•
ALL WAN IP
•
All Interface IP
•
All X0 Management IP
•
All X1 Management IP
•
Custom Subnets
•
Custom Interface IP
•
All SonicPoints
•
All Authorized Access Points
•
WLAN Subnets
•
WLAN Interface IP
•
All SonicPoints
•
All Authorized Access Points
•
Node License Exclusion List
•
RBL User White List
•
RBL User Black List
•
Default SonicPoint ACL Allow Group
•
Default SonicPoint ACL Deny Group
•
All X0 Management IP
SonicWALL PRO 4060
Default Address Objects
•
LAN Primary IP
•
LAN Primary Subnet
•
WAN Primary IP
•
WAN Primary Subnet
•
X2 IP
•
X2 Subnet
•
X3 IP
•
X3 Subnet
•
X4 IP
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Network > Address Objects
•
X4 Subnet
•
X5 IP
•
X5 Subnet
•
Default Gateway
•
Secondary Default Gateway
•
WAN Remote Access Networks
•
VPN DHCP Clients
•
LAN Remote Access Networks
•
SonicPoint
Default Address Groups
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•
LAN Subnets
•
Firewalled Subnets
•
WAN Subnets
•
DMZ Subnets
•
ALL WAN IP
•
All Interface IP
•
All X0 Management IP
•
All X1 Management IP
•
All SonicPoints
•
All Authorized Access Points
•
LAN Interface IP
•
WAN Interface IP
•
DMZ Interface IP
•
WLAN Subnets
•
WLAN Interface IP
•
Wireless2 Subnets
•
Wireless2 Interface IP
•
All SonicPoints
•
All Authorized Access Points
•
Node License Exclusion List
•
RBL User White List
•
RBL User Black List
•
Default SonicPoint ACL Allow Group
•
Default SonicPoint ACL Deny Group
•
All X0 Management IP
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Network > Address Objects
Adding an Address Object
To add an Address Object, click Add button under the Address Objects table in the All
Address Objects or Custom Address Objects views to display the Add Address Object
window.
Step 1
Enter a name for the Network Object in the Name field.
Step 2
Select Host, Range, Network, MAC, or FQDN from the Type menu.
– If you select Host, enter the IP address and netmask in the IP Address and Netmask
fields.
– If you selected Range, enter the starting and ending IP addresses in the Starting IP
Address and Ending IP Address fields.
– If you selected Network, enter the network IP address and netmask in the Network and
Netmask fields.
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Network > Address Objects
– If you selected MAC, enter the MAC address and netmask in the Network and MAC
Address field.
– If you selected FQDN, enter the domain name for the individual site or range of sites
(with a wildcard) in the FQDN field.
Step 3
Select the zone to assign to the Address Object from the Zone Assignment menu.
Editing or Deleting an Address Object
To edit an Address Object, click the edit icon
in the Configure column in the Address
Objects table. The Edit Address Object window is displayed, which has the same settings as
the Add Address Object window.
To delete an Address Object, click the Delete icon in the Configure column for the Address
Object you want to delete. A dialog box is displayed asking you to confirm the deletion. Click
OK to delete the Address Object. To delete multiple active Address Objects, select them and
click the Delete button.
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Network > Address Objects
Creating Group Address Objects
As more and more Address Objects are added to the SonicWALL security appliance, you can
simplify managing the addresses and access policies by creating groups of addresses.
Changes made to the group are applied to each address in the group. To add a Group of
Address Objects, click Add Group to display the Add Address Object Group window.
Step 1
Create a name for the group in the Name field.
Step 2
Select the Address Object from the list and click the right arrow. It is added to the group.
Clicking while pressing the Ctrl key allows you to select multiple objects.
Step 3
Click OK.
Tip
To remove an address or subnet from the group, select the IP address or subnet in the right
column and click the left arrow. The selected item moves from the right column to the left
column.
Editing or Deleting Address Groups
To edit a group, click the edit icon
in the Configure column of the Address Groups table.
The Edit Address Object Group window is displayed. Make your changes and then click OK.
To delete a group, click on the Delete icon in the Configure column to delete an individual
Address Group. A dialog box is displayed asking you to confirm the deletion. Click OK to delete
the Address Group. To delete multiple active Address Groups, select them and click the Delete
button.
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Network > Address Objects
Public Server Wizard
SonicOS Enhanced includes the Public Server Wizard to automate the process of configuring
the SonicWALL security appliance for handling public servers. For example, if you have an email and Web server on your network for access from users on the Internet.
The Public Server Wizard allows you to select or define the server type (HTTP, FTP, Mail),
the private (external) address objects, and the public (internal) address objects. Once the
server type, private and public network objects are configured, the wizard creates the correct
NAT Policies and Access Rule entries on the security appliance for the server. You can use the
SonicWALL Management Interface for additional configuration options.
See Part 13, Wizards for more information on configuring the SonicWALL security appliance
using wizards.
Working with Dynamic Addresses
From its inception, SonicOS Enhanced has used Address Objects (AOs) to represent IP
addresses in most areas throughout the user interface. Address Objects come in the following
varieties:
•
Host – An individual IP address, netmask and Zone association.
•
MAC (original) – Media Access Control, or the unique hardware address of an Ethernet
host. MAC AOs were originally introduced in SonicOS 2.5 and were used for:
– Identifying SonicPoints
– Allowing hosts to bypass Wireless Guest Services authentication
– Authorizing the BSSID (Basic Service Set Identifier, or WLAN MAC) of wireless access
points detected during wireless scans.
MAC AOs were originally not allowable targets in other areas of the management
interface, such as Access Rules, so historically they could not be used to control a
host’s access by its hardware address.
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•
Range – A starting and ending IP address, inclusive of all addresses in between.
•
Group – A collection of Address Objects of any assortment of types. Groups may contain
other Groups, Host, MAC, Range, or FQDN Address Objects.
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Network > Address Objects
SonicOS Enhanced 3.5 redefined the operation of MAC AOs, and introduces Fully Qualified
Domain Name (FQDN) AOs:
•
MAC – SonicOS Enhanced 3.5. and higher will resolve MAC AOs to an IP address by
referring to the ARP cache on the SonicWALL.
•
FQDN – Fully Qualified Domain Names, such as ‘www.reallybadwebsite.com’, will be
resolved to their IP address (or IP addresses) using the DNS server configured on the
SonicWALL. Wildcard entries are supported through the gleaning of responses to queries
sent to the sanctioned DNS servers.
While more effort is involved in creating an Address Object than in simply entering an IP
address, AOs were implemented to complement the management scheme of SonicOS
Enhanced, providing the following characteristics:
•
Zone Association – When defined, Host, MAC, and FQDN AOs require an explicit Zone
designation. In most areas of the interface (such as Access Rules) this is only used
referentially. The functional application are the contextually accurate populations of
Address Object drop-down lists, and the area of “VPN Access” definitions assigned to
Users and Groups; when AOs are used to define VPN Access, the Access Rule autocreation process refers to the AO’s Zone to determine the correct intersection of VPN
[Zone] for rule placement. In other words, if the “192.168.168.200 Host” Host AO, belonging
to the LAN Zone was added to “VPN Access” for the “Trusted Users” User Group, the autocreated Access Rule would be assigned to the VPN LAN Zone.
•
Management and Handling – The versatilely typed family of Address Objects can be easily
used throughout the SonicOS Enhanced interface, allowing for handles (e.g. from Access
Rules) to be quickly defined and managed. The ability to simply add or remove members
from Address Object Groups effectively enables modifications of referencing rules and
policies without requiring direct manipulation.
•
Reusability – Objects only need to be defined once, and can then be easily referenced as
many times as needed.
Key Features of Dynamic Address Objects
The term Dynamic Address Object (DAO) describes the underlying framework enabling MAC
and FQDN AOs. By transforming AOs from static to dynamic structures Firewall > Access
Rules can automatically respond to changes in the network.
Note
The initial SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 release will only support Dynamic Address Objects within
Access Rules. Future versions of SonicOS Enhanced might introduce DAO support to other
subsystem, such as NAT, VPN, etc.
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Network > Address Objects
Feature
Benefit
FQDN
wildcard
support
FQDN Address Objects support wildcard entries, such as “*.somedomainname.com”, by first
resolving the base domain name to all its defined host IP addresses, and then by constantly
actively gleaning DNS responses as they pass through the firewall.
For example, creating an FQDN AO for “*.myspace.com” will first use the DNS servers
configured on the firewall to resolve “myspace.com” to 63.208.226.40, 63.208.226.41,
63.208.226.42, and 63.208.226.43 (as can be confirmed by nslookup myspace.com or
equivalent). Since most DNS servers do not allow zone transfers, it is typically not possibly to
automatically enumerate all the hosts in a domain. Instead, the SonicWALL will look for DNS
responses coming from sanctioned DNS servers as they traverse the firewall. So if a host behind
the firewall queries an external DNS server which is also a configured/defined DNS server on
the SonicWALL, the SonicWALL will parse the response to see if it matches the domain of any
wildcard FQDN AOs.
Note
‘Sanctioned’ DNS servers are those DNS servers configured for use by the SonicWALL firewall.
The reason that responses from only sanctioned DNS servers are used in the wildcard learning
process is to protect against the possibility of FQDN AO poisoning through the use of
unsanctioned DNS servers with deliberately incorrect host entries. Future versions of SonicOS
Enhanced might offer the option to support responses from all DNS server. The use of sanctioned
DNS servers can be enforced with the use of Access Rules, as described later in the “Enforcing
the use of sanctioned servers on the network” section.
To illustrate, assume the firewall is configured to use DNS servers 4.2.2.1 and 4.2.2.2, and is
providing these DNS servers to all firewalled client via DHCP. If firewalled client-A performs a
DNS query against 4.2.2.1 or 4.2.2.2 for “vids.myspace.com”, the response will be examined by
the firewall, and will be matched to the defined “*.myspace.com” FQDN AO. The result
(63.208.226.224) will then be added to the resolved values of the “*.myspace.com” DAO.
Note
If the workstation, client-A, in the example above had resolved and cached vids.myspace.com
prior to the creation of the “*.myspace.com” AO, vids.myspace.com would not be resolved by the
firewall because the client would use its resolver’s cache rather than issuing a new DNS request.
As a result, the firewall would not have the chance to learn about vids.myspace.com, unless it was
resolved by another host. On a Microsoft Windows workstation, the local resolver cache can be
cleared using the command ipconfig /flushdns. This will force the client to resolve all FQDNs,
allowing the firewall to learn them as they are accessed.
Wildcard FQDN entries will resolve all hostnames within the context of the domain name, up to
256 entries per AO. For example, “*.sonicwall.com” will resolve www.sonicwall.com,
software.sonicwall.com, licensemanager,sonicwall.com, to their respective IP addresses, but it
will not resolve sslvpn.demo.sonicwall.com because it is in a different context; for
sslvpn.demo.sonicwall.com to be resolved by a wildcard FQDN AO, the entry
“*.demo.sonicwall.com” would be required, and would also resolve
sonicos-enhanced.demo.sonicwall.com, csm.demo.sonicwall.com,
sonicos-standard.demo.sonicwall.com, etc.
Note
214
Wildcards only support full matches, not partial matches. In other words, “*.sonicwall.com” is a
legitimate entry, but “w*.sonicwall.com”, “*w.sonicwall.com”, and “w*w.sonicwall.com” are
not. A wildcard can only be specified once per entry, so “*.*.sonicwall.com”, for example, will
not be functional.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Network > Address Objects
Feature
Benefit
FQDN
resolution
using DNS
FQDN Address Objects are resolved using the DNS servers configured on the SonicWALL in the
Network > DNS page. Since it is common for DNS entries to resolve to multiple IP addresses,
the FQDN DAO resolution process will retrieve all of the addresses to which a host name
resolves, up to 256 entries per AO. In addition to resolving the FQDN to its IPs, the resolution
process will also associate the entry’s TTL (time to live) as configured by the DNS administrator.
TTL will then be honored to ensure the FQDN information does not become stale.
FQDN entry
caching
Resolved FQDN values will be cached in the event of resolution attempt failures subsequent to
initial resolution. In other words, if “www.moosifer.com” resolves to 71.35.249.153 with a TTL of
300, but fails to resolve upon TTL expiry (for example, due to temporary DNS server
unavailability), the 71.35.249.153 will be cached and used as valid until resolution succeeds, or
until manually purged. Newly created FQDN entries that never successfully resolve, or entries
that are purged and then fail to resolve will appear in an unresolved state.
MAC Address
resolution
using live
ARP cache
data
When a node is detected on any of the SonicWALL’s physical segments through the ARP
(Address Resolution Protocol) mechanism, the SonicWALL’s ARP cache is updated with that
node’s MAC and IP address. When this update occurs, if a MAC Address Objects referencing
that node’s MAC is present, it will instantly be updated with the resolved address pairing. When
a node times out of the ARP cache due to disuse (e.g. the host is no longer L2 connected to the
firewall) the MAC AO will transition to an “unresolved” state.
MAC Address
Object
multi-homing
support
MAC AOs can be configured to support multi-homed nodes, where multi-homed refers to nodes
with more than one IP address per physical interface. Up to 256 resolved entries are allowed per
AO. This way, if a single MAC address resolves to multiple IPs, all of the IP will be applicable to
the Access Rules, etc. that refer to the MAC AO.
Automatic
and manual
refresh
processes
MAC AO entries are automatically synchronized to the SonicWALL’s ARP cache, and FQDN AO
entries abide by DNS entry TTL values, ensuring that the resolved values are always fresh. In
addition to these automatic update processes, manual Refresh and Purge capabilities are
provided for individual DAOs, or for all defined DAOs.
FQDN
resolution
using DNS
FQDN Address Objects are resolved using the DNS servers configured on the SonicWALL in the
Network > DNS page. Since it is common for DNS entries to resolve to multiple IP addresses,
the FQDN DAO resolution process will retrieve all of the addresses to which a host name
resolves, up to 256 entries per AO. In addition to resolving the FQDN to its IPs, the resolution
process will also associate the entry’s TTL (time to live) as configured by the DNS administrator.
TTL will then be honored to ensure the FQDN information does not become stale.
Enforcing the use of sanctioned servers on the network
Although not a requirement, it is recommended to enforce the use of authorized or sanctioned
servers on the network. This practice can help to reduce illicit network activity, and will also
serve to ensure the reliability of the FQDN wildcard resolution process.
In general, it is good practice to define the endpoints of known protocol communications when
possible. For example:
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Network > Address Objects
•
Create Address Object Groups of sanctioned servers (e.g. SMTP, DNS, etc.)
•
Create Access Rules in the relevant Zones allowing only authorized SMTP servers on your
network to communicate outbound SMTP; block all other outbound SMTP traffic to prevent
intentional or unintentional outbound spamming.
•
Create Access Rules in the relevant Zones allowing authorized DNS servers on your
network to communicate with all destination hosts using DNS protocols (TCP/UDP 53). Be
sure to have this rule in place if you have DNS servers on your network, and you will be
configuring the restrictive DNS rule that follows.
•
Create Access Rules in the relevant Zones allowing Firewalled Hosts to only communicate
DNS (TCP/UDP 53) with sanctioned DNS servers; block all other DNS access to prevent
communications with unauthorized DNS servers.
•
Unsanctioned access attempts will then be viewable in the logs.
Using MAC and FQDN Dynamic Address Objects
MAC and FQDN DAOs provide extensive Access Rule construction flexibility. MAC and FQDN
AOs are configured in the same fashion as static Address Objects, that is from the Network >
Address Objects page. Once created, their status can be viewed by a mouse-over of their
appearance, and log events will record their addition and deletion.
Dynamic Address Objects lend themselves to many applications. The following are just a few
examples of how they may be used. Future versions of SonicOS Enhanced may expand their
versatility even further.
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Network > Address Objects
Blocking All Protocol Access to a Domain using FQDN DAOs
There might be instances where you wish to block all protocol access to a particular destination
IP because of non-standard ports of operations, unknown protocol use, or intentional traffic
obscuration through encryption, tunneling, or both. An example would be a user who has set
up an HTTPS proxy server (or other method of port-forwarding/tunneling on “trusted” ports like
53, 80, 443, as well as nonstandard ports, like 5734, 23221, and 63466) on his DSL or cable
modem home network for the purpose of obscuring his traffic by tunneling it through his home
network. The lack of port predictability is usually further complicated by the dynamic addressing
of these networks, making the IP address equally unpredictable.
Since these scenarios generally employ dynamic DNS (DDNS) registrations for the purpose of
allowing users to locate the home network, FQDN AOs can be put to aggressive use to block
access to all hosts within a DDNS registrar.
Note
A DDNS target is used in this example for illustration. Non-DDNS target domains can be
used just as well.
Assumptions
•
The SonicWALL firewall is configured to use DNS server 10.50.165.3, 10.50.128.53
•
The SonicWALL is providing DHCP leases to all firewalled users. All hosts on the network
use the configured DNS servers above for resolution.
– DNS communications to unsanctioned DNS servers can optionally be blocked with
Access Rules, as described in the ‘Enforcing the use of sanctioned servers on the
network’ section.
•
The DSL home user is registering the hostname moosifer.dyndns.org with the DDNS
provider DynDNS. For this session, the ISP assigned the DSL connection the address
71.35.249.153.
– A wildcard FQDN AO is used for illustration because other hostnames could easily be
registered for the same IP address. Entries for other DDNS providers could also be
added, as needed.
Step 1 – Create the FQDN Address Object
•
From Network > Address Objects, select Add and create the following Address Object:
•
When first created, this entry will resolve only to the address for dyndns.org, e.g.
63.208.196.110.
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Network > Address Objects
Step 2 – Create the Firewall Access Rule
•
Note
From the Firewall > Access Rules page, LAN->WAN Zone intersection, Add an Access
Rule as follows:
Rather than specifying ‘LAN Subnets’ as the source, a more specific source could be
specified, as appropriate, so that only certain hosts are denied access to the targets.
•
When a host behind the firewall attempts to resolve moosifer.dyndns.org using a
sanctioned DNS server, the IP address(es) returned in the query response will be
dynamically added to the FQDN AO.
•
Any protocol access to target hosts within that FQDN will be blocked, and the access
attempt will be logged:
Using an Internal DNS Server for FQDN-based Access Rules
It is common for dynamically configured (DHCP) network environments to work in combination
with internal DNS servers for the purposes of dynamically registering internal hosts – a common
example of this is Microsoft’s DHCP and DNS services. Hosts on such networks can easily be
configured to dynamically update DNS records on an appropriately configured DNS server (for
example, see the Microsoft Knowledgebase article “How to configure DNS dynamic updates in
Windows Server 2003” at
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/816592/en-us).
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The following illustrates a packet dissection of a typical DNS dynamic update process, showing
the dynamically configured host 10.50.165.249 registering its full hostname
bohuymuth.moosifer.com with the (DHCP provided) DNS server 10.50.165.3:
In such environments, it could prove useful to employ FQDN AOs to control access by
hostname. This would be most applicable in networks where hostnames are known, such as
where hostname lists are maintained, or where a predictable naming convention is used.
Controlling a Dynamic Host’s Network Access by MAC Address
Since DHCP is far more common than static addressing in most networks, it is sometimes
difficult to predict the IP address of dynamically configured hosts, particularly in the absence of
dynamic DNS updates or reliable hostnames. In these situations, it is possible to use MAC
Address Objects to control a host’s access by its relatively immutable MAC (hardware) address.
Like most other methods of access control, this can be employed either inclusively, for
example, to deny access to/for a specific host or group of hosts, or exclusively, where only a
specific host or group of hosts are granted access, and all other are denied. In this example,
we will illustrate the latter.
Assuming you had a set of DHCP-enabled wireless clients running a proprietary operating
system which precluded any type of user-level authentication, and that you wanted to only allow
these clients to access an application-specific server (e.g. 10.50.165.2) on your LAN. The
WLAN segment is using WPA-PSK for security, and this set of clients should only have access
to the 10.50.165.2 server, but to no other LAN resources. All other wireless clients should not
be able to access the 10.50.165.2 server, but should have unrestricted access everywhere
else.
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Network > Address Objects
Step 1 – Create the MAC Address Objects
•
From Network > Address Objects, select Add and create the following Address Object
(multi-homing optional, as needed):
•
Once created, if the hosts were present in the SonicWALL’s ARP cache, they will be
resolved immediately, otherwise they will appear in an unresolved state until they are
activated and are discovered through ARP:
•
Create an Address Object Group comprising the Handheld devices:
Step 2 – Create the Firewall Access Rules
•
Note
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From the Firewall > Access Rules page, WLAN->LAN Zone intersection, add Access
Rules as follows:
The ‘MediaMoose Services’ service is used to represent the specific application used by the
handheld devices. The declaration of a specific service is optional, as needed.
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Bandwidth Managing Access to an Entire Domain
Streaming media is one of the most profligate consumers of network bandwidth. But trying to
control access, or manage bandwidth allotted to these sites is difficult because most sites that
serve streaming media tend to do so off of large server farms. Moreover, these sites frequently
re-encode the media and deliver it over HTTP, making it even more difficult to classify and
isolate. Manual management of lists of servers is a difficult task, but wildcard FQDN Address
Objects can be used to simplify this effort.
Step 1 – Create the FQDN Address Object
•
From Network > Address Objects, select Add and create the following Address Object:
Upon initial creation, youtube.com will resolve to IP addresses 208.65.153.240,
208.65.153.241, 208.65.153.242, but after an internal host begins to resolve hosts for all of the
elements within the youtube.com domain, the learned host entries will be added, such as the
entry for the v87.youtube.com server (208.65.154.84):
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Step 2 – Create the Firewall Access Rule
•
Note
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From the Firewall > Access Rules page, LAN->WAN Zone intersection, add an Access
Rule as follows:
If you do not see the Bandwidth tab, you can enable bandwidth management by declaring
the bandwidth on your WAN interfaces. For more information on BWM, refer to the
Configuring QoS and BWM document at: http://www.sonicwall.com/support/pdfs/
configuring_qos_and_bwm.pdf
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•
The BWM icon will appear within the Access Rule table indicating that BWM is active, and
providing statistics:
•
Access to all *.youtube.com hosts, using any protocol, will now be cumulatively limited to
2% of your total available bandwidth for all user sessions.
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CHAPTER 20
Chapter 20:
Configuring Routes
Network > Routing
If you have routers on your interfaces, you can configure static routes on the SonicWALL
security appliance on the Network > Routing page. You can create static routing policies that
create static routing entries that make decisions based upon source address, source netmask,
destination address, destination netmask, service, interface, gateway and metric. This feature
allows for full control of forwarding based upon a large number of user-defined variables.
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Route Advertisement
The SonicWALL security appliance uses RIPv1 or RIPv2 to advertise its static and dynamic
routes to other routers on the network. Changes in the status of VPN tunnels between the
SonicWALL security appliance and remote VPN gateways are also reflected in the RIPv2
advertisements. Choose between RIPv1 or RIPv2 based on your router’s capabilities or
configuration. RIPv1 is an earlier version of the protocol that has fewer features, and it also
sends packets via broadcast instead of multicast. RIPv2 packets are backwards-compatible
and can be accepted by some RIPv1 implementations that provide an option of listening for
multicast packets. The RIPv2 Enabled (broadcast) selection broadcasts packets instead of
multicasting packets is for heterogeneous networks with a mixture of RIPv1 and RIPv2 routers.
Route Advertisement Configuration
To enable Route Advertisement for an Interface, follow these steps:
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Step 1
Click the Notepad icon in the Configure column for the interface. The Route Advertisement
Configuration window is displayed.
Step 2
Select one of the following types of RIP Advertisements:
•
RIPv1 Enabled - RIPv1 is the first version of Routing Information Protocol.
•
RIPv2 Enabled (multicast) - To send route advertisements using multicasting (a single
data packet to specific notes on the network).
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•
RIPv2 Enabled (broadcast) - To send route advertisements using broadcasting (a single
data packet to all nodes on the network).
Step 3
In the Advertise Default Route menu, select Never, or When WAN is up, or Always.
Step 4
Enable Advertise Static Routes if you have static routes configured on the SonicWALL
security appliance, enable this feature to exclude them from Route Advertisement.
Step 5
Enable Advertise Remote VPN Networks if you want to advertise VPN networks.
Step 6
Enter a value in seconds between advertisements broadcasted over a network in the Route
Change Damp Time (seconds) field. The default value is 30 seconds. A lower value
corresponds with a higher volume of broadcast traffic over the network. The Route Change
Damp Time (seconds) setting defines the delay between the time a VPN tunnel changes state
(up or down) and the time the change is advertised with RIP. The delay, in seconds, prevents
ambiguous route advertisements sent as a result of temporary change in the VPN tunnel status.
Step 7
Enter the number of advertisements that a deleted route broadcasts until it stops in the Deleted
Route Advertisements (0-99) field. The default value is 1.
Step 8
Enter a value from 1 to 15 in the Route Metric (1-15) field. This is the number of times a packet
touches a router from the source IP address to the destination IP address.
Step 9
If RIPv2 is selected from the Route Advertisements menu, you can enter a value for the route
tag in the RIPv2 Route Tag (4 HEX Digits) field. This value is implementation-dependent and
provides a mechanism for routers to classify the originators of RIPv2 advertisements. This field
is optional.
Step 10 If you wan to enable RIPv2 authentication, select one of the following options from the RIPv2
Authentication menu:
•
User defined - Enter 4 hex digits in the Authentication Type (4 hex digits) field. Enter 32
hex digits in the Authentication Data (32 Hex Digits) field.
•
Cleartext Password - Enter a password in the Authentication Password (Max 16 Chars)
field. A maximum of 16 characters can be used to define a password.
•
MD5 Digest - Enter a numerical value from 0-255 in the Authentication Key-Id (0-255) field.
Enter a 32 hex digit value for the Authentication Key (32 hex digits) field, or use the
generated key.
Step 11 Click OK.
Route Policies
SonicOS Enhanced provides Policy Based Routing (PBR) to provide more flexible and granular
traffic handling capabilities.
Policy Based Routing
A simple static routing entry specifies how to handle traffic that matches specific criteria, such
as destination address, destination mask, gateway to forward traffic, the interface that gateway
is located, and the route metric. This method of static routing satisfies most static requirements,
but is limited to forwarding based only on destination addressing.
Policy Based Routing (PBR) allows you to create extended static routes to provide more flexible
and granular traffic handling capabilities. SonicOS Enhanced PBR allows for matching based
upon source address, source netmask, destination address, destination netmask, service,
interface, and metric. This method of routing allows for full control of forwarding based upon a
large number of user defined variables.
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Network > Routing
A metric is a weighted cost assigned to static and dynamic routes. Metrics have a value
between 0 and 255. Lower metrics are considered better and take precedence over higher
costs. SonicOS Enhanced adheres to Cisco defined metric values for directly connected
interfaces, statically encoded routes, and all dynamic IP routing protocols.
Metric Value
Description
1
Static Route
5
EIGRP Summary
20
External BGP
90
EIGRP
100
IGRP
110
OSPF
115
IS-IS
120
RIP
140
EGP
170
External EIGRP
Internal
BGP
Route Policies Table
You can change the view your route policies in the Route Policies table by selecting one of the
view settings in the View Style menu.
All Policies displays all the routing policies including Custom Policies and Default Policies.
Initially, only the Default Policies are displayed in the Route Policies table when you select
All Policies from the View Style menu.
The Route Policies table provides easy pagination for viewing a large number of routing
policies. You can navigate a large number of routing policies listed in the Route Policies table
by using the navigation control bar located at the top right of the Route Policies table.
Navigation control bar includes four buttons. The far left button displays the first page of the
table. The far right button displays the last page. The inside left and right arrow buttons moved
the previous or next page respectively.
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You can enter the policy number (the number listed before the policy name in the # Name
column) in the Items field to move to a specific routing policy. The default table configuration
displays 50 entries per page. You can change this default number of entries for tables on the
System > Administration page.
You can sort the entries in the table by clicking on the column header. The entries are sorted
by ascending or descending order. The arrow to the right of the column entry indicates the
sorting status. A down arrow means ascending order. An up arrow indicates a descending
order.
A Route Policy Example
The following example walks you through creating a route policy for two simultaneously active
WAN interfaces. For this example, a secondary WAN interface needs to be setup on the OPT
interface and configured with the settings from your ISP. Next, configure the security appliance
for load balancing by checking the Enable Load Balancing on the
Network > WAN Failover & LB page. For this example, choose Per Connection RoundRobin as the load balancing method in the Network > WAN Failover & LB page. Click Apply
to save your changes on the Network > WAN Failover & LB page.
Step 1
Click the Add button under the Route Policies table. The Add Route Policy window is
displayed.
Step 2
Create a routing policy that directs all LAN Subnet sources to Any destinations for HTTP
service out of the Default Gateway via the WAN interface by selecting these settings from the
Source, Destination, Service, Gateway and Interface menus respectively. Use the default 1
in the Metric field and enter force http out primary into the Comment field. Click OK.
Step 3
Create a second routing policy that directs all LAN Subnet sources to Any destinations for
Telnet service out of the Secondary Default Gateway via the Opt interface by selecting these
settings from the Source, Destination, Service, Gateway and Interface menus respectively.
Use the default 1 in the Metric field and enter force telnet out backup into the Comment field.
Click OK.
These two policy-based routes force all sources from the LAN subnet to always go out the
primary WAN when using any HTTP-based application, and forces all sources from the LAN
subnet to always go out the backup WAN when using any Telnet-based application.
To test the HTTP policy-based route, from a computer attached to the LAN interface, access
the public Web site http://www.whatismyip.com and http://whatismyip.everdot.org. Both sites
display the primary WAN interface’s IP address and not the secondary WAN interface.
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To test the Telnet policy-based route, telnet to route-server.exodus.net and when logged in,
issue the who command. It displays the IP address (or resolved FQDN) of the WAN IP address
of the secondary WAN interface and not the primary WAN interface.
Advanced Routing Services (OSPF and RIP)
In addition to Policy Based Routing and RIP advertising, SonicOS Enhanced offers the option
of enabling Advanced Routing Services (ARS). Advanced Routing Services provides full
advertising and listening support for the Routing Information Protocol (RIPv1 - RFC1058) and
(RIPv2 - RFC2453), and Open Shortest Path First (OSPFv2 – RFC2328). Advanced Routing
Service should only be enabled by those environments requiring support for either or both of
these dynamic routing protocols.
RIP and OSPF are Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) that are both widely used by networks of
various sizes to automate the process of route distribution. RIP is commonly used within
smaller networks, while OSPF is used by larger networks, although network size should not be
the only factor used to determine the appropriateness of one protocol over the other – network
speed, interoperability requirements, and relative overall complexity, for example, should also
be considered. RIPv1 and RIPv2 are both supported by ARS, the largest differences between
the two being that RIPv2 supports VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Masks), authentication, and
routing updates. The following table illustrates the major differences between RIPv1, RIPv2,
and OSPFv2:
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RIPv1
RIPv2
OSPFv2
Protocol metrics
Distance Vector
Distance Vector
Link State
Maximum Hops
15
15
Unlimited
Routing table
updates
Full table
broadcast
periodically,
slower
convergence
Full table
broadcast or
multicast
periodically,
slower
convergence
Link state
advertisement
multicasts,
triggered by
changes, fast
convergence
Subnet Sizes
Supported
Only class-based
(a/b/c) subnets
support
Class-based only
VLSM
Autonomous
system topology
Indivisible and flat
Indivisible and flat
Area based,
allowing for
segmentation and
aggregation
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•
Protocol Type – Distance Vector protocols such as RIP base routing metrics exclusively on
hop counts, while Link state protocols such as OSPF consider the state of the link when
determining metrics. For example, OSPF determines interface metrics by dividing its
reference bandwidth (100mbits by default) by the interface speed – the faster the link, the
lower the cost and the more preferable the path. Consider the following example network:
In the above sample network, if Host A wanted to reach Host B, with RIP, the lowest cost
route would be from Router A to Router B, across the relatively slow 64kbps link. With
OSPF, the cost from Router A to Router B would be 1562, while the cost from Router A to
Router C to Router D to Router B would be 364 (see the Cost section in OSPF concepts
later), making it the preferred route.
•
Maximum Hops – RIP imposes a hop count of 15 to help prevent routing loops which can
occur when bad (e.g. stale) routing information is broadcast and propagated through a
network either due to misconfiguration, or slow convergence. Consider if the link between
Router D and Router E failed in the diagram above, and there were no safeguards in place:
•
Router A’s routing information states that it can reach Network E through Router B or
Router C with a metric of 3.
•
When the link between Router D and Router E fail, and Router A broadcasts its routing
information, Router B and Router C determine that they can reach Network E through
Router A with a metric of 4.
•
Router B and Router C broadcast this information, and it is received by Router D which then
determines it can reach Network E through Router B or Router C with a metric of 5.
•
This loop continues until the hop count of 16 (infinity) is reached.
Other measures against this sort of situation are also commonly employed by RIP,
including:
•
Split-Horizon – A preventative mechanism where routing information learned through an
interface is not sent back out the same interface. This generally works well on broadcast
links, but not on non-broadcast links such as Frame Relay, where a single link can
commonly be used to reach two separate autonomous systems.
•
Poison reverse – Also known as route poisoning, an extension of split-horizon where a
network is advertised with a metric of 16 (unreachable), helping to ensure that incorrect
alternative routes aren’t propagated.
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OSPF does not have to impose a hop count limit because it does not advertise entire
routing tables, rather it generally only sends link state updates when changes occur.
This is a significant advantage in larger networks in that it converges more quickly,
produces less update traffic, and supports an unlimited number of hops.
•
Routing table updates – As mentioned above, the practice of sending an entire routing table
introduces the problems of slower convergences, higher bandwidth utilization, and
increased potential for stale routing information. RIPv1 broadcasts its entire routing table
at a prescribed interval (usually every 30 seconds), RIPv2 can either broadcast or
multicast, and OSPF multicasts only link state updates whenever a change to the network
fabric occurs. OSPF has a further advantage of using designated routers (DR) in forming
adjacencies in multiple-access networks (more on these concepts later) so that updates
don’t have to be sent to the entire network.
•
Subnet sizes supported – RIPv1 was first implemented when networks were strictly class
A, class B, and class C (and later D and E):
•
Class A – 1.0.0.0 to 126.0.0.0 (0.0.0.0 and 127.0.0.0 are reserved)
– Leftmost bit 0; 7 network bits; 24 host bits
– 0nnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh (8 bit classful netmask)
– 126 Class A networks, 16,777,214 hosts each
•
Class B - 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.0.0
– Leftmost bits 10; 14 network bits; 16 host bits
– 10nnnnnn nnnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh (16 bit classful netmask)
– 16,384 Class B networks, 65,532 hosts each
•
Class C – 192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.0
– Leftmost bits 110; 21 network bits; 8 host bits
– 110nnnnn nnnnnnnn nnnnnnnn hhhhhhhh (24 bit classful netmask)
– 2,097,152 Class Cs networks, 254 hosts each
•
Class D - 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 (multicast)
– Leftmost bits 1110; 28 multicast address bits
– 1110mmmm mmmmmmmm mmmmmmmm mmmmmmmm
•
Class E - 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255 (reserved)
– Leftmost bits 1111; 28 reserved address bits
– 1111rrrr rrrrrrrr rrrrrrrr rrrrrrrr
This method of address allocation proved to be very inefficient because it provided no
flexibility, neither in the way of segmentation (subnetting) or aggregation (supernetting,
or CIDR – classless inter-domain routing) by means of VLSM – variable length subnet
masks.
VLSM, supported by RIPv2 and OSPF, allows for classless representation of networks
to break larger networks into smaller networks:
For example, take the classful 10.0.0.0/8 network, and assign it a /24 netmask. This
subnetting allocates an additional 16 bits from the host range to the network range
(24-8=16). To calculate the number of additional networks this subnetting provides,
raise 2 to the number of additional bits: 2^16=65,536. Thus, rather than having a
single network with 16.7 million hosts (usually more than most LAN’s require) it is
possible to have 65,536 networks, each with 254 usable hosts.
VLSM also allows for route aggregation (CIDR):
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For example, if you had 8 class C networks: 192.168.0.0/24 through 192.168.7.0/
24, rather than having to have a separate route statement to each of them, it would
be possible to provide a single route to 192.168.0.0/21 which would encompass
them all.
This ability, in addition to providing more efficient and flexible allocation of IP address
space, also allows routing tables and routing updates to be kept smaller.
•
Autonomous system topologies – An autonomous system (AS) is a collection of routers that
are under common administrative control, and that share the same routing characteristics.
When a group of autonomous systems share routing information, they are commonly
referred to as a confederation of autonomous systems. (RFC1930 and RFC975 address
these concepts in much greater detail). In simple terms, an AS is a logical distinction that
encompasses physical network elements based on the commonness of their
configurations.
With regard to RIP and OSPF, RIP autonomous systems cannot be segmented, and all
routing information must be advertised (broadcast) through the entire AS. This can become
difficult to manage and can result in excessive routing information traffic. OSPF, on the
other hand, employs the concept of Areas, and allows for logically, manageable
segmentation to control the sharing of information within an AS. OSPF areas begin with the
backbone area (area 0 or 0.0.0.0), and all other areas must connect to this backbone area
(although there are exceptions). This ability to segment the routing AS helps to ensure that
it never becomes too large to manage, or too computationally intensive for the routers to
handle.
OSPF Terms
OSPF is substantially more complicated to configure and maintain than RIP. The following
concepts are critical to understanding an OSPF routing environment:
•
Link state – As it pertains to OSPF, a link is an egress interface on a router, and the state
describes characteristics of that interface, such as its cost. Link states are sent in the form
of Link State Advertisements (LSA) which are contained within Link State Update (LSU)
packets, one of five types of OSPF packets.
•
Cost – A quantification of the overhead required to send a packet along a particular link.
Cost is calculated by dividing a reference bandwidth (usually 100mbit, or 10^8 bit) by an
interface’s speed. The lower the cost, the more preferable the link. Some common path
costs:
Interface
Divided by 10^8 (100mbit) = OSPF Cost
Fast Ethernet
1
Ethernet
10
T1 (1.544mbit)
64
DSL (1mbit)
100
DSL (512kbps) 200
64kbps
1562
56kbps
1785
•
Area – The network comprising the group of OSPF routers intended to share a common
Link State Database. OSPF networks are built around the backbone area (area 0, or
0.0.0.0) and all other areas must connect to the backbone area (unless virtual links are
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used, which is generally discouraged). Area assignment is interface specific on an OSPF
router; in other words, a router with multiple interfaces can have those interfaces configured
for the same or different areas.
•
Neighbors – OSPF routers on a common network segment have the potential to become
neighbors by means of sending Hello packets. Hello packets act as a form of advertisement
and identification, and if two OSPF routers share a common set of certain characteristics,
they will become neighbors upon seeing their own router ID in the other router’s Hello
packet. Hello packets are also used in the DR (Designated Router) and BDR (Backup
Designated Router) election process. For two routers to become neighbors, the
characteristics that they must have in common are:
– Area-ID – An area ID identifies an OSPF area with a 32 bit value, and is generally
represented in an IP address format. OSPF requires at a minimum the backbone area,
area 0 (or 0.0.0.0) for operation.
– Authentication – Authentication types can generally be set to none, simple text, or MD5.
When using simple text, it should only be used for identification purposes, since it is
sent in the clear. For security, MD5 should be used.
– Timer intervals – ‘Hello’ and ‘Dead’ intervals must be the same. The Hello interval
specifies the number of seconds between Hello packets (as a Keepalive function), and
the Dead interval specifies the number of seconds after which a router will be
considered unavailable if a Hello is not received.
– Stub area flag – A Stub area is an area that only requires a single point of egress, and
therefore does not require a full list of external link advertisements. The stub area flag
on two potential neighbors must be the same to avoid inappropriate link state
exchanges. Another factor that affects neighboring is the kind of network. OSPF
recognizes three network types:
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•
Broadcast – For example, Ethernet. In broadcast networks, neighboring can be
established with all other routers in the broadcast domain.
•
Point to Point – For example, serial links. In point to point (or point to multipoint)
networks, neighboring can be established with the router at the other end of the link.
•
NBMA (non-broadcast multiple access) – For example, frame relay. In NBMA
networks, neighbors must be explicitly declared.
•
Link State Database – The Link State Database is composed of the LSA’s sent and
received by neighboring OSPF routers that have created adjacencies within an area. The
database, once complete, will contain all the link state information for a given area, at which
time the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm will be applied to determine the optimal route
to all connected networks based on cost. The SPF algorithm employs the Dijkstra
pathfinding algorithm, which essentially regards all routers as vertices in a graph, and
computes the cost between each vertex.
•
Adjacencies – OSPF routers exchange LSA’s with adjacent routers to create the LSDB.
Adjacencies are created in different fashions depending on the network type (see
Neighbors section above). Generally, the network type is broadcast (e.g. Ethernet) so
adjacencies are formed by the exchanging OSPF packets in a handshake-like fashion (see
OSPF Packet types below). To minimize the amount of information exchanged between
adjacent routers, segments (broadcast domains) with multiple OSPF routers elect a
Designated Router (DR) and a Backup Designated Router (BDR) using Hello packets.
•
DR (Designated Router) – On multi-access segments, OSPF routers elect a DR and a BDR,
and all other routers on the segment create adjacencies with the DR and the BDR. DR
election is based on a router’s OSPF Priority, which is a configurable value from 0 (not
eligible for DR) to 255. The router with the highest priority becomes the DR. In the event of
a priority tie, the router with the highest Router ID (based on interface addressing) wins.
Once a router is the DR, its role is uncontested, until it becomes unavailable.
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LSA’s are then exchanged within LSU’s across these adjacencies rather than between
each possible pairing combination of routers on the segment. Link state updates are sent
by non-DR routers to the multicast address 224.0.0.6, the RFC1583 assigned ‘OSPFIGP
Designated Routers’ address. They are also flooded by DR routers to the multicast address
224.0.0.5 ‘OSPFIGP All Routers’ for all routers to receives the LSA’s.
•
OSPF Packet types – The five types of OSPF packets are:
– Hello (OSPF type 1) – Sent at a certain interval to establish and maintain relationships
with neighboring OSPF routers, and elect Designated Routers. (Sent during the
initialization and the 2-WAY phases on LSDB synchronization).
– Database Description (OSPF type 2) – Sent between OSPF routers during the creation
of an adjacency. During the Exstart phase of LSDB synchronization, DD packets
establish an ISN (initial sequence number) used to track LSA’s, and they establish a
master/slave relationship between neighboring OSPF routers. In the Exchange phase
of LSDB synchronization, they contain short versions of Link State Advertisements.
Because DD exchanges can span multiple packets, they are exchanged in a poll
(master) and response (slave) fashion to ensure completeness.
– Link State Request (OSPF type 3) – During the Loading phase of LSDB
synchronization, LSR packets are sent to request database updates from a neighbor.
This is the final step in the establishment of an adjacency.
– Link State Update (OSPF type 4) – Sent in response to Link State Requests, LSU
packets flood adjacencies with Link State Advertisements to achieve LSDB
synchronization.
– Link State Acknowledgement (OSPF type 5) – To ensure reliability of LSA flooding, all
updates are acknowledged.
•
Link State Advertisements (LSA) – There are 7 types of LSA’s:
– Type 1 (Router Link Advertisements) - Sent by an OSPF router to describe the links to
each area to which it belongs. Type 1 LSA’s are only flooded into a router’s area.
– Type 2 (Network Links Advertisements) – Sent by the DR for an area describing the set
of routers within the network. Type 2 LSA’s are only flooded into a router’s area.
– Type 3 (Summary Link Advertisements) – Sent across areas by ABR’s (Area Border
Routers) to describe the networks within an area. Type 3 LSA’s are also used for route
aggregation purposes, and are not sent to Totally Stubby Areas.
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– Type 4 (AS Summary Link Advertisements) – Sent across areas by ABR’s to describe
networks within a different AS. Type 4 LSA’s are not sent to Stub Areas.
– Type 5 (AS External Link Advertisements) – Sent by ASBR (Autonomous System
Boundary Routers) to describe routes to networks in a different AS. Type 5 LSA’s are
net sent to Stub Areas. There are two types of External Link Advertisements:
•
External Type 1 - Type 1 packets add the internal link cost to the external link cost
when calculating a link’s metric. A Type 1 route is always preferred over a Type 2
route to the same destination.
•
External Type 2 - Type 2 packets only use the external link cost to determine the
metric. Type 2 is generally used when there is only one path to an external AS.
– Type 6 (Multicast OSPF) - Spooky. See RFC1584.
– Type 7 (NSSA AS External Link Advertisements) – Sent by ASBR’s that are part of an
NSSA (see ‘Stub Area’).
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•
Stub Area – A stub area is an area that only requires one path, rather than an optimal path.
This can be an area with only a single point of egress, or it can be an area where SPF
optimization is not necessary. All routers in a stub area must be configured as stub routers,
and rather than receiving the full state database, and computing the SPF tree, they will
receive only a summary link information. There are different type of stub area:
•
Stub area – The standard stub area receives all LSA’s except for LSA type 5 (AS External
Link advertisement). This helps to keep the LSDB smaller, and reduces the computational
overhead on the router.
•
Totally Stubby Area – A special type of stub area into which LSA types 3 (Summary Links),
4 (AS Summary Links) and 5 are not passed. Only intra-area routes, and a default route are
advertised into totally stubby areas.
•
NSSA (Not So Stubby Area) – Described by RFC3101, NSSA is a hybrid stub area that
allows external routes to be flooded within the NSSA area using type 7 LSA’s (NSSA AS
External Routes), but does not accept type 5 LSA’s from other areas. NSSA’s are useful
when connecting a remote site running a different IGP (such as RIP) to an OSPF site,
where the remote site’s routes do not need to be distributed back to the main OSPF site.
An NSSA ABR (Area Border Router) also has the ability to translate type 7 to type 5 LSA’s
(this is possible only from the SonicOS Enhanced CLI).
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•
Router Types – OSPF recognizes 4 types of routers, based on their roles:
•
IR (Internal Router) - A router whose interfaces are all contained within the same area. An
internal router’s LSDB only contains information about its own area.
•
ABR (Area Border Router) – A router with interfaces in multiple areas. An ABR maintains
LSDB’s for each area to which it is connected, one of which is typically the backbone.
•
Backbone Router – A router with an interface connected to area 0, the backbone.
•
ASBR (Autonomous System Boundary Router) – A router with an interface connected to a
non-OSPF AS (such as a RIP network) which advertises external routing information from
that AS into the OSPF AS.
Configuring Advanced Routing Services
Note
ARS is a fully featured multi-protocol routing suite. The sheer number of configurable
options and parameters provided is incongruous with the simplicity of a graphical user
interface. Rather than limiting the functionality of ARS, an abbreviated representation of its
capabilities has been rendered in the GUI, providing control over the most germane routing
features, while the full command suite is available via the CLI. The ARS CLI can be
accessed from an authenticated CLI session, and contains 3 modules:
•
route ars-nsm – The Advanced Routing Services Network Services Module. This
component provides control over core router functionality, such as interface bindings and
redistributable routes.
•
route ars-rip – The RIP module. Provides control over the RIP router.
•
route ars-ospf – The OSPF module. Provides control over the OSPF router.
In general, all of the functionality needed to integrate the SonicWALL into most RIP and
OSPF environments is available through the web-based GUI. The additional capabilities of
the CLI will make more advanced configurations possible. Please refer to the appendix for
the full set of ARS CLI commands.
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By default, Advanced Routing Services are disabled, and must be enabled to be made
available. At the top of the Network > Routing page, is a checkbox Use Advanced Routing.
Toggling the state of this checkbox will require a reboot for the changes to take effect. When
the SonicWALL is running in Advanced Routing mode, the top of the Network > Routing page
will look as follows:
The operation of the RIP and OSPF routing protocols is interface dependent. Each interface
and virtual sub-interface can have RIP and OSPF settings configured separately, and each
interface can run both RIP and OSPF routers.
Configure RIP and OSPF for default routes received from Advanced Routing protocols as
follows:
Configuring RIP
To configure RIP routing on an interface, select the
(Configure) icon in the interface’s row
under the “Configure RIP” column. This will launch the RIP Configuration window.
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RIP Modes
•
Disabled – RIP is disabled on this interface
•
Send and Receive – The RIP router on this interface will send updates and process
received updates.
•
Send Only – The RIP router on this interface will only send updates, and will not process
received updates. This is similar to the basic routing implementation.
•
Receive Only – The RIP router on this interface will only process received updates.
•
Passive – The RIP router on this interface will not process received updates, and will only
send updates to neighboring RIP routers specified with the CLI ‘neighbor’ command. This
mode should only be used when configuring advanced RIP options from the ars-rip CLI.
Receive (Available in ‘Send and Receive’ and ‘Receive Only’ modes)
Note
•
RIPv1 – Receive only broadcast RIPv1 packets.
•
RIPv2 – Receive only multicast RIPv2 packets. RIPv2 packets are sent by multicast,
although some implementations of RIP routers (including basic routing on SonicWALL
devices) have the ability to send RIPv2 in either broadcast or multicast formats.
Be sure the device sending RIPv2 updates uses multicast mode, or the updates will not be
processed by the ars-rip router.
Send (Available in ‘Send and Receive’ and ‘Send Only’ modes)
•
RIPv1 – Send broadcast RIPv1 packets.
•
RIPv2 - v1 compatible – Send multicast RIPv2 packets that are compatible with RIPv1.
•
RIPv2 – Send multicast RIPv2 packets.
Split Horizon – Enabling Split Horizon will suppress the inclusion of routes sent in updates to
routers from which they were learned. This is a common RIP mechanism for preventing routing
loops. See the ‘maximum hops’ entry at the start of Advanced Routing Services section.
Poisoned Reverse – Poison reverse is an optional mode of Split Horizon operation. Rather than
suppressing the inclusion of learned routes, the routes are sent with a metric of infinity (16) thus
indicating that they are unreachable. See the ‘maximum hops’ entry at the start of Advanced
Routing Services section.
Use Password – Enables the use of a plain-text password on this interface, up to 16 alphanumeric characters long, for identification.
Default Metric – Used to specify the metric that will be used when redistributing routes from
other (Default, Static, Connected, OSPF, or VPN) routing information sources. The default
value (undefined) is 1 and the maximum is 15.
Administrative Distance – The administrative distance value is used by routers in selecting a
path when there is more than one route to a destination, with the smaller distance being
preferred. The default value is 120, minimum is 1, and maximum is 255.
Originate Default Route – This checkbox enables or disables the advertising of the
SonicWALL’s default route into the RIP system.
Redistribute Static Routes – Enables or disables the advertising of static (Policy Based
Routing) routes into the RIP system. The metric can be explicitly set for this redistribution, or it
can use the value (default) specified in the ‘Default Metric’ setting.
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Redistribute Connected Networks - Enables or disables the advertising of locally connected
networks into the RIP system. The metric can be explicitly set for this redistribution, or it can
use the value (default) specified in the ‘Default Metric’ setting.
Redistribute OSPF Routes - Enables or disables the advertising of routes learned via OSPF
into the RIP system. The metric can be explicitly set for this redistribution, or it can use the value
(default) specified in the ‘Default Metric’ setting.
Redistribute Remote VPN Networks - Enables or disables the advertising of static (Policy
Based Routing) routes into the RIP system. The metric can be explicitly set for this
redistribution, or it can use the value (default) specified in the ‘Default Metric’ setting.
Routes learned via RIP will appear in the Route Policies table as ‘OSPR or RIP routes’:
Configuring OSPF
Note
OSPF design concepts are beyond the scope of this document. The following section
describes how to configure a SonicWALL to integrate into an OSPF network, be it existing
or newly implemented, but it does not offer design guidelines. For terms used throughout
this section, refer to the ‘OSPF Terms’ section above.
Consider the following simple example network:
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The diagram illustrates an OSPF network where the backbone (area 0.0.0.0) comprises the X0
interface on the SonicWALL and the int1 interface on Router A. Two additional areas, 0.0.0.1
and 100.100.100.100 are connected, respectively, to the backbone via interface int2 on ABR
Router A, and via the X4:100 VLAN sub-interface on the SonicWALL.
To configure OSPF routing on the X0 and the X4:100 interfaces, select the
(Configure) icon
in the interface’s row under the “Configure OSPF” column. This will launch the following
window:
OSPFv2 Setting
•
Disabled – OSPF Router is disabled on this interface
•
Enabled – OSPF Router is enabled on this interface
•
Passive – The OSPF router is enabled on this interface, but only advertises connected
networks using type 1 LSA’s (Router Link Advertisements) into the local area. This is
different from the ‘Redistribute Connected Networks’ options, which would cause the OSPF
router to behave as an ASBR, and to use type 5 LSA’s (AS External Link Advertisement) to
flood the advertisements into all non-stub areas. See the ‘OSPF Terms’ section for more
information.
Dead Interval – The period after with an entry in the LSDB is removed if not Hello is received.
The default is 40 seconds, with a minimum of 1 and a maximum on 65,535. Be sure this value
agrees with the other OSPF routers on the segment for successful neighbor establishment.
Hello Interval – The period of time between Hello packets. The default is 10 seconds, with a
minimum of 1 and a maximum on 65,535. Be sure this value agrees with the other OSPF routers
on the segment for successful neighbor establishment.
Authentication - Be sure this setting agrees with the other OSPF routers on the segment for
successful neighbor establishment.
•
Disabled – No authentication is used on this interface.
•
Simple Password – A plain-text password is used for identification purposes by the OSPF
router on this interface.
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•
Message Digest – An MD5 hash is used to securely identify the OSPF router on this
interface.
OSPF Area – The OSPF Area can be represented in either IP or decimal notation. For example,
you may represent the area connected to X4:100 as either 100.100.100.100 or 1684300900.
OSPFv2 Area Type – See the ‘OSPF Terms’ section above for a more detailed description of
these settings.
•
Normal – Receives and sends all applicable LSA types.
•
Stub Area – Does not receive type 5 LSA’s (AS External Link Advertisements)
•
Totally Stubby Area – Does not receive LSA types 3, 4, or 5.
•
Not So Stubby Area – Receives type 7 LSA’s (NSSA AS External Routes).
Interface Cost – Specifies the overhead of sending packets across this interface. The default
value is 10, generally used to indicate an Ethernet interface. The minimum value is 1 (e.g. Fast
Ethernet) and the maximum value is 65,535 (e.g. pudding).
Router Priority – The router priority value is used in determining the Designated Router (DR)
for a segment. The higher the value, the higher the priority. In the event of a priority tie, the
Router ID will act as the tie-breaker. Setting a value of 0 makes the OSPF router on this
interface ineligible for DR status. The default value is 1, and the maximum value is 255.
OSPF Router ID – The Router ID can be any value, represented in IP address notation. It is
unrelated to the any of the IP addresses on the SonicWALL, and can be set to any unique value
within your OSPF network.
ABR Type – Allows for the specification of the topology with which this OSPF router will be
participating, for the sake of compatibility. The options are:
•
Standard – Full RFC2328 compliant ABR OSPF operation.
•
Cisco – For interoperating with Cisco’s ABR behavior, which expects the backbone to be
configured and active before setting the ABR flag.
•
IBM – For interoperating with IBM’s ABR behavior, which expects the backbone to be
configured before settings the ABR flag.
•
Shortcut – A ‘shortcut area’ enables traffic to go through the non-backbone area with a
lower metric whether or not the ABR router is attached to area 0.
Default Metric – Used to specify the metric that will be used when redistributing routes from
other (Default, Static, Connected, RIP, or VPN) routing information sources. The default value
(undefined) is 1 and the maximum is 16,777,214.
Originate Default Route – Controls the advertising of the SonicWALL security appliance’s
default route into the OSPF system on this interface. The options are:
Note
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•
Never – Disables advertisement of the default route into the OSPF system.
•
When WAN is up – Advertises the default route into the OSPF system when the WAN is
online. The default route is always advertised as an External Type 2 using LSA Type 5.
•
Always – Enables advertisement of the default route into the OSPF system. The default
route is always advertised as an External Type 2 using LSA Type 5.
The following applies to all Redistributed routes: The metric can be explicitly set for this
redistribution, or it can use the value (default) specified in the ‘Default Metric’ setting. An
optional route tag value can be added to help other routers identify this redistributed route
(the default tag value is 0). The redistributed route advertisement will be an LSA Type 5, and
the type may be selected as either Type 1 (adds the internal link cost) or Type 2 (only uses
the external link cost).
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Redistribute Static Routes – Enables or disables the advertising of static (Policy Based
Routing) routes into the OSPF system.
Redistribute Connected Networks - Enables or disables the advertising of locally connected
networks into the OSPF system.
Redistribute RIP Routes - Enables or disables the advertising of routes learned via RIP into the
OSPF system.
Redistribute Remote VPN Networks - Enables or disables the advertising of static (Policy
Based Routing) routes into the RIP system.
The Routing Protocols section will show the status of all active OSPF routers by interface:
The
and
Status LED’s indicate whether or not there are active neighbors, and can be
clicked on for more detail:
The Routing Policies section will show routes learned by OSPF as ‘OSPF or RIP Routes’:
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CHAPTER 21
Chapter 21:
Configuring NAT Policies
Network > NAT Policies
•
“NAT Policies Table” on page 246
•
“NAT Policy Settings Explained” on page 248
•
“NAT Policies Q&A” on page 249
The Network Address Translation (NAT) engine in SonicOS Enhanced allows users to define
granular NAT polices for their incoming and outgoing traffic. By default, the SonicWALL security
appliance has a preconfigured NAT policy to allow all systems connected to the LAN interface
to perform
many-to-one NAT using the IP address of the WAN interface, and a policy to not perform NAT
when traffic crosses between the other interfaces. This chapter explains how to set up the most
common NAT policies.
Understanding how to use NAT policies starts with an the construction of an IP packet. Every
packet contains addressing information that allows the packet to get to its destination, and for
the destination to respond to the original requester. The packet contains (among other things)
the requester’s IP address, the protocol information of the requestor, and the destination’s IP
address. The NAT Policies engine in SonicOS Enhanced can inspect the relevant portions of
the packet and can dynamically rewrite the information in specified fields for incoming, as well
as outgoing traffic.
You can add up to 512 NAT Policies on a SonicWALL security appliance running SonicOS
Enhanced, and they can be as granular as you need. It’s also possible to create multiple NAT
policies for the same object – for instance, you can specify that an internal server use one IP
address when accessing Telnet servers, and to use a totally different IP address for all other
protocols. Because the NAT engine in SonicOS Enhanced supports inbound port forwarding, it
is possible to hide multiple internal servers off the WAN IP address of the SonicWALL security
appliance. The more granular the NAT Policy, the more precedence it takes.
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NAT Policies Table
The NAT Policies table allows you to view your NAT Policies by Custom Policies, Default
Policies, or All Policies.
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Tip
Before configuring NAT Policies, be sure to create all Address Objects associated with the
policy. For instance, if you are creating a One-to-One NAT policy, be sure you have Address
Objects for your public and private IP addresses.
Tip
By default, LAN to WAN has a NAT policy predefined on the SonicWALL.
Navigating and Sorting NAT Policy Entries
You can change the view your route policies in the NAT Policies table by selecting one of the
view settings in the View Style menu. All Policies displays all the routing policies including
Custom Policies and Default Policies. Initially, only the Default Policies are displayed in the
Route Policies table when you select All Policies from the View Style menu.
The NAT Policies table provides easy pagination for viewing a large number of VPN policies.
You can navigate a large number of VPN policies listed in the Route Policies table by using
the navigation control bar located at the top right of the Route Policies table. Navigation control
bar includes four buttons. The far left button displays the first page of the table. The far right
button displays the last page. The inside left and right arrow buttons moved the previous or next
page respectively.
You can enter the policy number (the number listed in the # column) in the Items field to move
to a specific VPN policy. The default table configuration displays 50 entries per page. You can
change this default number of entries for tables on the System > Administration page.
You can sort the entries in the table by clicking on the column header. The entries are sorted
by ascending or descending order. The arrow to the right of the column entry indicates the
sorting status. A down arrow means ascending order. An up arrow indicates a descending
order.
Moving your pointer over the Comment icon in the Configure column of NAT Policies table
displays the comments entered in the Comments field of the Add NAT Policy window.
Moving your pointer over the Statistics icon in the Configure column of NAT Policies table
displays traffic statistics for the NAT policy.
Clicking the Delete icon (trashcan) deletes the NAT Policy entry. If the icon is dimmed, the NAT
Policy is a default entry and you cannot delete it.
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NAT Policy Settings Explained
The following explains the settings used to create a NAT policy entry in the Add NAT Policy
or Edit NAT Policy windows.
Click the Add button in the Network > NAT Policies page to display the Add NAT Policy
window to create a new NAT policy or click the Edit icon in the Configure column for the NAT
policy you want to edit to display the Edit NAT Policy window.
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•
Original Source: This drop-down menu setting is used to identify the Source IP
address(es) in the packet crossing the SonicWALL security appliance, whether it’s across
interfaces, or into/out-of VPN tunnels. You can use the default Address Objects in SonicOS
Enhanced, or you can create your own Address Objects. These entries can be single host
entries, address ranges, or IP subnets.
•
Translated Source: This drop-down menu setting is what the SonicWALL security
appliance translates the specified Original Source to as it exits the SonicWALL security
appliance, whether it’s to another interface, or into/out-of VPN tunnels. You can use the
default Address Objects in SonicOS Enhanced, or you can create your own Address
Objects entries. These entries can be single host entries, address ranges, or IP subnets.
•
Original Destination: This drop-down menu setting is used to identify the Destination IP
address(es) in the packet crossing the SonicWALL security appliance, whether it be across
interfaces, or into/out-of VPN tunnels. When creating outbound NAT polices, this entry is
usually set to Any since the destination of the packet is not being changed, but the source
is being changed. However, these Address Object entries can be single host entries,
address ranges, or IP subnets.
•
Translated Destination: This drop-down menu setting is what the SonicWALL translates
the specified Original Destination to as it exits the SonicWALL security appliance,
whether it’s to another interface, or into/out-of VPN tunnels. When creating outbound NAT
polices, this entry is usually set to Original, since the destination of the packet is not being
changed, but the source is being changed. However, these Address Objects entries can be
single host entries, address ranges, or IP subnets.
•
Original Service: This drop-down menu setting is used to identify the IP service in the
packet crossing the SonicWALL security appliance, whether it’s across interfaces, or into/
out-of VPN tunnels. You can use the default services on the SonicWALL, or you can create
your own entries. For many NAT policies, this field is set to Any, as the policy is only
altering source or destination IP addresses.
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•
Translated Service: This drop-down menu setting is what the SonicWALL security
appliance translates the Original Service to as it exits the SonicWALL security appliance,
whether it be to another interface, or into/out-of VPN tunnels. You can use the default
services in the SonicWALL security appliance, or you can create your own entries. For
many NAT Policies, this field is set to Original, as the policy is only altering source or
destination IP addresses.
•
Inbound Interface: This drop-down menu setting is used to specify the entry interface of
the packet. When dealing with VPNs, this is usually set to Any, since VPN tunnels aren’t
really interfaces.
•
Outbound Interface: This drop-down is used to specify the exit interface of the packet
once the NAT policy has been applied. This field is mainly used for specifying which WAN
interface to apply the translation to. Of all fields in NAT policy, this one has the most
potential for confusion. When dealing with VPNs, this is usually set to Any, since VPN
tunnels aren’t really interfaces. Also, as noted in the Quick Q&A’ section of this chapter,
when creating inbound 1-2-1 NAT Policies where the destination is being remapped from a
public IP address to a private IP address, this field must be set to Any.
•
Comment: This field can be used to describe your NAT policy entry. The field has a 32character limit, and once saved, can be viewed in the main Network > NAT Policies page
by running the mouse over the text balloon next to the NAT policy entry. Your comment
appears in a pop-up window as long as the mouse is over the text balloon.
•
Enable NAT Policy: By default, this box is checked, meaning the new NAT policy is
activated the moment it is saved. To create a NAT policy entry but not activate it
immediately, uncheck this box.
•
Create a reflective policy: When you check this box, a mirror outbound or inbound NAT
policy for the NAT policy you defined in the Add NAT Policy window is automatically
created.
NAT Policies Q&A
Why is it necessary to specify ‘Any’ as the destination interface for inbound 1-2-1
NAT policies?
It may seem counter-intuitive to do this, given that other types of NAT policies require you to
specify the destination interface, but for this type of NAT policy, this is what is necessary. The
SonicWALL security appliance uses this field during the NAT Policy lookup and validates it
against the packet that it receives, but if this is set to some internal interface such as LAN, the
lookup fails because at that point, the SonicWALL security appliance does not know that the
packet is going to LAN. It’s not until after the SonicWALL security appliance performs the NAT
Policy lookup that it knows that the packet is going to LAN. At the precise time that the
SonicWALL security appliance does the NAT Policy lookup, the packet looks like it is going from
WAN -> WAN (or whatever interface it is coming in on), since doing a route lookup on the NAT
Public address returns the Public interface.
Can I manually order the NAT Polices?
No, the SonicWALL security appliance automatically orders them, depending on the granularity
of the rule. This means that you can create NAT policy entries for the same objects, if each
policy has more granularity than the existing policy. For example, you can create a NAT policy
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to translate all LAN systems to the WAN IP Address, then create a policy saying that a specific
system on that LAN use a different IP address, and additionally, create a policy saying that
specific use another IP address when using HTTP.
Can I have multiple NAT policies for the same objects?
Yes – please read the section above.
What are the NAT ‘System Polices’?
On the Network > NAT Policies page, notice a radio button labeled System Polices. If you
choose this radio button, the NAT Polices page displays all of the default, auto-created NAT
policies for the SonicWALL security appliance. These policies are default settings for the
SonicWALL security appliance to operate properly, and cannot be deleted. For this reason, they
are listed in their own section, in order to make the user-created NAT policies easier to browse.
If you wish to see user-created NAT policies along with the default NAT policies, simply check
the radio button next to ‘All Policies’.
Can I write NAT policies for VPN traffic?
Yes, this is possible if both sides of the VPN tunnel are SonicWALL security policies running
SonicOS Enhanced firmware. Please refer to the technote SonicOS Enhanced NAT VPN
Overlap for instructions on how to perform NAT on traffic entering and exiting VPN tunnels.
Available at
http://www.sonicwall.com/us/Support.html.
Why do I have to write two policies for 1-2-1 traffic?
With the new NAT engine, it’s necessary to write two policies – one to allow incoming requests
to the destination public IP address to reach the destination private IP address (uninitiated
inbound), and one to allow the source private IP address to be remapped to the source public
IP address (initiated outbound). It takes a bit more work, but it’s a lot more flexible.
NAT Load Balancing Overview
This section provides an introduction to the NAT Load Balancing feature. It contains the
following subsections:
•
“NAT LB Mechanisms” on page 251
•
“Which NAT LB Method Should I Use?” on page 252
•
“Caveats” on page 252
•
“Details of Load Balancing Algorithms” on page 253
Network Address Translation (NAT) & Load Balancing (LB) provides the ability to balance
incoming traffic across multiple, similar network resources. Do not confuse this with the WAN
ISP & LB feature on the SonicWALL appliance. While both features can be used in conjunction,
WAN ISP & LB is used to balance outgoing traffic across two ISP connections, and NAT LB is
primarily used to balance incoming traffic.
Load Balancing distributes traffic among similar network resources so that no single server
becomes overwhelmed, allowing for reliability and redundancy. If one server becomes
unavailable, traffic is routed to available resources, providing maximum uptime.
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This document details how to configure the necessary NAT, load balancing, health check,
logging, and firewall rules to allow systems from the public Internet to access a Virtual IP (VIP)
that maps to one or more internal systems, such as Web servers, FTP servers, or SonicWALL
SSL-VPN appliances. This Virtual IP may be independent of the SonicWALL appliance or it may
be shared, assuming the SonicWALL appliance itself is not using the port(s) in question.
The examples in this document use two SonicWALL PRO 4100 appliances in high-availability
mode, two generic Web servers, and two SonicWALL SSL-VPN 2000 appliances. Please note
that it is not necessary to have two appliances to perform NAT/LB – it is just another layer of
protection that can be easily added to your environment to assure uptime to critical internal
resources that have high uptime requirements (typically a driving factor in load balancing
systems in the first place).
Please note that the load balancing capability in SonicOS Enhanced 4.0, while fairly basic, will
satisfy the requirements for many customer network deployments. Customers with
environments needing more granular load balancing, persistence, and health-check
mechanisms are advised to use a dedicated third-party load balancing appliance (prices run
from US$4,000 to US$25,000 per device).
NAT LB Mechanisms
NAT load balancing is configured on the Advanced tab of a NAT policy.
Note
This tab can only be activated when a group is specified in one of the drop-down fields on
the General tab of a NAT Policy. Otherwise, the NAT policy defaults to Sticky IP as the NAT
method.
SonicOS offers the following NAT methods:
•
Sticky IP – Source IP always connects to the same Destination IP (assuming it is alive).
This method is best for publicly hosted sites requiring connection persistence, such as Web
applications, Web forms, or shopping cart applications. This is the default mechanism, and
is recommended for most deployments.
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•
Round Robin – Source IP cycles through each live load-balanced resource for each
connection. This method is best for equal load distribution when persistence is not required.
•
Block Remap/Symmetrical Remap – These two methods are useful when you know the
source IP addresses/networks (e.g. when you want to precisely control how traffic from one
subnet is translated to another).
•
Random Distribution – Source IP connects to Destination IP randomly. This method is
useful when you wish to randomly spread traffic across internal resources.
•
NAT Method – This drop-down allows the user to specify one of five load balancing
methods: Sticky IP, Round Robin, Block Remap, Symmetric Remap, or Random
Distribution. For most purposes, Sticky IP is preferred.
•
Enable Probing – When checked, the SonicWALL will use one of two methods to probe
the addresses in the load-balancing group, using either a simple ICMP ping query to
determine if the resource is alive, or a TCP socket open query to determine if the resource
is alive. Per the configurable intervals, the SonicWALL can direct traffic away from a nonresponding resource, and return traffic to the resource once it has begun to respond again.
Which NAT LB Method Should I Use?
Requirement
Deployment Example
NAT LB Method
Distribute load on server equally External/ Internal servers (i.e. Web, FTP,
without need for persistence
etc.)
Round Robin
Indiscriminate load balancing
without need for persistence
External/ Internal servers (i.e. Web, FTP,
etc.)
Random
Distribution
Requires persistence of client
connection
E-commerce site, Email Security, SSL-VPN Sticky IP
appliance
(Any publicly accessible servers requiring
persistence)
Precise control of remap of source LAN to DMZ Servers
network to a destination range
E-mail Security, SSL-VPN
Block Remap
Precise control of remap of source Internal Servers (i.e. Intranets or Extranets) Symmetrical
network and destination network
Remap
Caveats
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•
The NAT Load Balancing Feature is only available in SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 and newer.
•
Only two health-check mechanisms at present (ICMP ping and TCP socket open).
•
No higher-layer persistence mechanisms at present (Sticky IP only).
•
No “sorry-server” mechanism at present if all servers in group are not responding.
•
No “round robin with persistence” mechanism at present.
•
No “weighted round robin” mechanism at present.
•
No method for detecting if resource is strained, at present.
•
While there is no limit to the number of internal resources the SonicWALL appliance can
load-balance to, and there no limit to the number of hosts it can monitor, abnormally large
load-balancing groups (25+resources) may impact performance.
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Details of Load Balancing Algorithms
This appendix describes how the SonicWALL security appliance applies the load balancing
algorithms:
•
Round Robin - Source IP connects to Destination IP alternately
•
Random Distribution - Source IP connects to Destination IP randomly
•
Sticky IP - Source IP connects to same Destination IP
•
Block Remap - Source network is divided by size of the Destination pool to create logical
segments
•
Symmetrical Remap - Source IP maps to Destination IP (for example, 10.1.1.10 ->
192.168.60.10.)
Sticky IP Algorithm
Source IP is modulo with the size of the server cluster to determine the server to remap it to.
The following two examples show how the Sticky IP algorithm works.
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Creating NAT Policies
NAT policies allow you the flexibility to control Network Address Translation based on matching
combinations of Source IP address, Destination IP address, and Destination Services. Policybased NAT allows you to deploy different types of NAT simultaneously. This section contains
the following subsections:
•
“Creating a Many-to-One NAT Policy” on page 254
•
“Creating a Many-to-Many NAT Policy” on page 255
•
“Creating a One-to-One NAT Policy for Outbound Traffic” on page 256
•
“Creating a One-to-One NAT Policy for Inbound Traffic (Reflective)” on page 257
•
“Configuring One-to-Many NAT Load Balancing” on page 257
•
“Inbound Port Address Translation via One-to-One NAT Policy” on page 259
•
“Inbound Port Address Translation via WAN IP Address” on page 260
•
“Using NAT Load Balancing” on page 263
For this chapter, the examples use the following IP addresses as examples to demonstrate the
NAT policy creation and activation. You can use these examples to create NAT policies for your
network, substituting your IP addresses for the examples shown here:
•
192.168.10.0/24 IP subnet on interface LAN
•
67.115.118.64/27 IP subnet on interface WAN
•
192.168.30.0/24 IP subnet on interface Opt
•
LAN IP address is 192.168.10.1
•
WAN IP address is 67.115.118.68
•
Opt ‘Sales’ IP address is 192.168.30.1
•
Webserver’s “private” address at 192.168.30.200
•
Webserver’s “public” address at 67.115.118.70
•
Public IP range addresses of 67.115.118.71 – 67.115.118.74
Creating a Many-to-One NAT Policy
Many-to-One is the most common NAT policy on a SonicWALL security appliance, and allows
you to translate a group of addresses into a single address. Most of the time, this means that
you’re taking an internal “private” IP subnet and translating all outgoing requests into the IP
address of the SonicWALL security appliance WAN port, such that the destination sees the
request as coming from the IP address of the SonicWALL security appliance WAN port, and not
from the internal private IP address.
This policy is easy to set up and activate. From the Management Interface, go to the Network
> NAT Policies page and click on the Add button. The Add NAT Policy window is displayed
for adding the policy. To create a NAT policy to allow all systems on the Opt interface to initiate
traffic using the SonicWALL security appliance’s WAN IP address, choose the following from
the drop-down boxes:
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•
Original Source: Opt Subnet
•
Translated Source: WAN Primary IP
•
Original Destination: Any
•
Translated Destination: Original
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•
Original Service: Any
•
Translated Service: Original
•
Inbound Interface: Opt
•
Outbound Interface: WAN
•
Comment: Enter a short description
•
Enable NAT Policy: Checked
•
Create a reflective policy: Unchecked
When done, click on the OK button to add and activate the NAT Policy. This policy can be
duplicated for subnets behind the other interfaces of the SonicWALL security appliance – just
replace the Original Source with the subnet behind that interface, adjust the source interface,
and add another NAT policy.
Creating a Many-to-Many NAT Policy
The Many-to-Many NAT policy allows you to translate a group of addresses into a group of
different addresses. This allows the SonicWALL security appliance to utilize several addresses
to perform the dynamic translation. Thus allowing a much higher number of concurrent the
SonicWALL security appliance to perform up to a half-million concurrent connections across
the interfaces.
This policy is easy to set up and activate. You first need to go to the Network > Address
Objects and click on the Add button at the bottom of the screen. When the Add Address
Object window appears, enter in a description for the range in the Name field, choose Range
from the drop-down menu, enter the range of addresses (usually public IP addresses supplied
by your ISP) in the Starting IP Address and Ending IP Address fields, and select WAN as
the zone from the Zone Assignment menu. When done, click on the OK button to create the
range object.
Select Network > NAT Policies and click on the Add button. The Add NAT Policy window is
displayed. To create a NAT policy to allow the systems on the LAN interface to initiate traffic
using the public range addresses, choose the following from the drop-down menus:
•
Original Source: LAN Primary Subnet
•
Translated Source: public_range
•
Original Destination: Any
•
Translated Destination: Original
•
Original Service: Any
•
Translated Service: Original
•
Inbound Interface: LAN
•
Outbound Interface: WAN
•
Comment: Enter a short description
•
Enable NAT Policy: Checked
•
Create a reflective policy: Unchecked
When done, click on the OK button to add and activate the NAT Policy. With this policy in place,
the SonicWALL security appliance dynamically maps outgoing traffic using the four available
IP addresses in the range we created.
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You can test the dynamic mapping by installing several systems on the LAN interface at a
spread-out range of addresses (for example, 192.168.10.10, 192.168.10.100, and
192.168.10.200) and accessing the public website http://www.whatismyip.com from each
system. Each system should display a different IP address from the range we created and
attached to the NAT policy.
Creating a One-to-One NAT Policy for Outbound Traffic
One-to-One NAT for outbound traffic is another common NAT policy on a SonicWALL security
appliance for translating an internal IP address into a unique IP address. This is useful when
you need specific systems, such as servers, to use a specific IP address when they initiate
traffic to other destinations. Most of the time, a NAT policy such as this one-to-one NAT policy
for outbound traffic is used to map a server’s private IP address to a public IP address, and it’s
paired with a reflective (mirror) policy that allows any system from the public Internet to access
the server, along with a matching firewall access rule that permits this. Reflective NAT policies
are covered in the next section.
This policy is easy to set up and activate. Select Network > Address Objects and click on the
Add button at the bottom of the screen. In the Add Address Object window, enter a description
for server’s private IP address in the Name field. Choose Host from the Type menu, enter the
server’s private IP address in the IP Address field, and select the zone that the server assigned
from the Zone Assignment menu. Click OK. Then, create another object in the Add Address
Object window for the server’s public IP address and with the correct values, and select WAN
from Zone Assignment menu. When done, click on the OK button to create the range object.
Next, select Network > NAT Policies and click on the Add button to display the Add NAT
Policy window. To create a NAT policy to allow the webserver to initiate traffic to the public
Internet using its mapped public IP address, choose the following from the drop-down menus:
•
Original Source: webserver_private_ip
•
Translated Source: webserver_public_ip
•
Original Destination: Any
•
Translated Destination: Original
•
Original Service: Any
•
Translated Service: Original
•
Inbound Interface: Opt
•
Outbound Interface: WAN
•
Comment: Enter a short description
•
Enable NAT Policy: Checked
•
Create a reflective policy: Checked
When done, click on the OK button to add and activate the NAT Policy. With this policy in place,
the SonicWALL security appliance translates the server’s private IP address to the public IP
address when it initiates traffic out the WAN interface.
You can test the one-to-one mapping by opening up a web browser on the server and accessing
the public website http://www.whatismyip.com. The website should display the public IP
address we attached to the private IP address in the NAT policy we just created.
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Creating a One-to-One NAT Policy for Inbound Traffic (Reflective)
This is the mirror policy for the one created in the previous section when you check Create a
reflective policy. It allows you to translate an external public IP addresses into an internal
private IP address. This NAT policy, when paired with a ‘permit’ access policy, allows any
source to connect to the internal server using the public IP address; the SonicWALL security
appliance handles the translation between the private and public address. With this policy in
place, the SonicWALL security appliance translates the server’s public IP address to the private
IP address when connection requests arrive via the WAN interface.
Below, you create the entry as well as the rule to allow HTTP access to the server. You need
to create the access policy that allows anyone to make HTTP connections to the webserver via
the webserver’s public IP address.
Note
With previous versions of firmware, it was necessary to write rules to the private IP address.
This has been changed as of SonicOS Enhanced. If you write a rule to the private IP
address, the rule does not work.
Go to the Firewall > Access Rules page and choose the policy for the ‘WAN’ to ‘Sales’ zone
intersection (or, whatever zone you put your server in). Click on the ‘Add…’ button to bring up
the pop-up access policy screen. When the pop-up appears, enter in the following values:
•
Action: Allow
•
Service: HTTP
•
Source: Any
•
Destination: Webserver_public_ip
•
Users Allowed: All
•
Schedule: Always on
•
Logging: Checked
•
Comment: (Enter a short description)
When you are done, attempt to access the webserver’s public IP address using a system
located on the public Internet. You should be able to successfully connect. If not, review this
section, and the section before, and ensure that you have entered in all required settings
correctly.
Configuring One-to-Many NAT Load Balancing
One-to-Many NAT policies can be used to persistently load balance the translated destination
using the original source IP address as the key to persistence. For example, SonicWALL
security appliances can load balance multiple SonicWALL SSL-VPN appliances, while still
maintaining session persistence by always balancing clients to the correct destination SSLVPN. Figure 18.1 shows a sample topology and configuration.
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Figure 21:1 One-to-Many NAT Load Balancing Topology and Configuration
To configure One-to-Many NAT load balancing, first go to the Firewall > Access Rules page
and choose the policy for WAN to LAN. Click on the Add… button to bring up the pop-up
access policy screen. When the pop-up appears, enter in the following values:
•
Action: Allow
•
Service: HTTPS
•
Source: Any
•
Destination: WAN Primary IP
•
Users Allowed: All
•
Schedule: Always on
•
Comment: Descriptive text, such as SSLVPN LB
•
Logging: Checked
•
Allow Fragmented Packets: Unchecked
Next, create the following NAT policy by selecting Network > NAT Policies and clicking on the
Add... button:
•
Original Source: Any
•
Translated Source: Original
•
Original Destination: WAN Primary IP
•
Translated Destination: Select Create new address object... to bring up the Add
Address Object screen.
– Name: A descriptive name, such as mySSLVPN
– Zone assignment: LAN
– Type: Host
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– IP Address: The network IP address for the devices to be load balanced (in the
topology shown in Figure 18.1, this is 192.168.200.1)
•
Original Service: HTTPS
•
Translated Service: HTTPS
•
Inbound Interface: Any
•
Outbound Interface: Any
•
Comment: Descriptive text, such as SSLVPN LB
•
Enable NAT Policy: Checked
•
Create a reflective policy: Unchecked
Inbound Port Address Translation via One-to-One NAT Policy
This type of NAT policy is useful when you want to conceal an internal server’s real listening
port, but provide public access to the server on a different port. In the example below, you
modify the NAT policy and rule created in the previous section to allow public users to connect
to the private webserver on its public IP address, but via a different port (TCP 9000), instead
of the standard HTTP port (TCP 80).
Step 1
Create a custom service for the different port. Go to the Firewall > Custom Services page and
select the Add button. When the pop-up screen appears, give your custom service a name such
as webserver_public_port, enter in 9000 as the starting and ending port, and choose TCP(6)
as the protocol. When done, click on the OK button to save the custom service.
Step 2
Modify the NAT policy created in the previous section that allowed any public user to connect
to the webserver on its public IP address. Go to the Network > NAT Policies menu and click
on the Edit button next to this NAT policy. The Edit NAT Policy window is displayed for editing
the policy. Edit the NAT policy so that it includes the following from the drop-down menus:
•
Original Source: Any
•
Translated Source: Original
•
Original Destination: webserver_public_ip
•
Translated Destination: webserver_private_ip
•
Original Service: webserver_public_port (or whatever you named it above)
•
Translated Service: HTTP
•
Inbound Interface: WAN
•
Outbound Interface: Any
•
Comment: Enter a short description
•
Enable NAT Policy: Checked
•
Create a reflective policy: Unchecked
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Note
Step 3
Make sure you chose Any as the destination interface, and not the interface that the server
is on. This may seem counter-intuitive, but it’s actually the correct thing to do (if you try to
specify the interface, you get an error).
When finished, click on the OK button to add and activate the NAT Policy. With this policy in
place, the SonicWALL security appliance translates the server’s public IP address to the private
IP address when connection requests arrive from the WAN interface, and translates the
requested protocol (TCP 9000) to the server’s actual listening port (TCP 80).
Finally, you’re going to modify the firewall access rule created in the previous section to allow
any public user to connect to the webserver on the new port (TCP 9000) instead of the server’s
actual listening port (TCP 80).
Note
With previous versions of firmware, it was necessary to write rules to the private IP address.
This has been changed as of SonicOS Enhanced. If you write a rule to the private IP
address, the rule does not work.
Go to the Firewall > Access Rules section and choose the policy for the WAN to Sales zone
intersection (or, whatever zone you put your server in). Click on the Configure button to bring
up the previously created policy. When the pop-up appears, edit in the following values:
•
Action: Allow
•
Service: webserver_public_port (or whatever you named it above)
•
Source: Any
•
Destination: webserver_public_ip
•
Users Allowed: All
•
Schedule: Always on
•
Logging: checked
•
Comment: (enter a short description)
When you’re done, attempt to access the webserver’s public IP address using a system located
on the public Internet on the new custom port (example: http://67.115.118.70:9000). You
should be able to successfully connect. If not, review this section, and the section before, and
ensure that you have entered in all required settings correctly.
Inbound Port Address Translation via WAN IP Address
This is one of the more complex NAT policies you can create on a SonicWALL security
appliance running SonicOS Enhanced – it allows you to use the WAN IP address of the
SonicWALL security appliance to provide access to multiple internal servers. This is most
useful in situations where your ISP has only provided a single public IP address, and that IP
address has to be used by the SonicWALL security appliance’s WAN interface.
Below, you create the programming to provide public access to two internal webservers via the
SonicWALL security appliances WAN IP address; each is tied to a unique custom port. In the
following examples, you set up two, but it’s possible to create more than these as long as the
ports are all unique.
In this section, we have five tasks to complete:
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1.
Create two custom service objects for the unique public ports the servers respond on.
2.
Create two address objects for the servers’ private IP addresses.
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3.
Create two NAT entries to allow the two servers to initiate traffic to the public Internet.
4.
Create two NAT entries to map the custom ports to the actual listening ports, and to map
the private IP addresses to the SonicWALL’s WAN IP address.
5.
Create two access rule entries to allow any public user to connect to both servers via the
SonicWALL’s WAN IP address and the servers’ respective unique custom ports.
Step 1
Create a custom service for the different port. Go to the Firewall > Custom Services page and
click on the Add button. When the pop-up screen appears, give your custom services names
such as servone_public_port and servtwo_public_port, enter in 9100 and 9200 as the
starting and ending port, and choose TCP(6) as the protocol. When done, click on the OK
button to save the custom services.
Step 2
Go to the Network > Address Objects and click on the Add button at the bottom of the page.
In the Add Address Objects window, enter in a description for server’s private IP addresses,
choose Host from the drop-down box, enter the server’s private IP addresses, and select the
zone that the servers are in. When done, click on the OK button to create the range object.
Step 3
Go to the Network > NAT Policies menu and click on the Add button. The Add NAT Policy
window is displayed. To create a NAT policy to allow the two servers to initiate traffic to the
public Internet using the SonicWALL security appliance’s WAN IP address, choose the
following from the drop-down boxes:
•
Original Source: servone_private_ip
•
Translated Source: WAN Primary IP
•
Original Destination: Any
•
Translated Destination: Original
•
Original Service: Any
•
Translated Service: Original
•
Inbound Interface: Opt
•
Outbound Interface: WAN
•
Comment: Enter a short description
•
Enable NAT Policy: Checked
•
Create a reflective policy: Unchecked
And:
•
Original Source: servtwo_private_ip
•
Translated Source: WAN Primary IP
•
Original Destination: Any
•
Translated Destination: Original
•
Original Service: Any
•
Translated Service: Original
•
Inbound Interface: Opt
•
Outbound Interface: WAN
•
Comment: Enter a short description
•
Enable NAT Policy: Checked
•
Create a reflective policy: Unchecked
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When finished, click on the OK button to add and activate the NAT policies. With these policies
in place, the SonicWALL security appliance translates the servers’ private IP addresses to the
public IP address when it initiates traffic out the WAN interface.
Step 4
Go to the Network > NAT Policies menu and click on the Add button. The Add NAT Policy
window is displayed. To create the NAT policies to map the custom ports to the servers’ real
listening ports and to map the SonicWALL’s WAN IP address to the servers’ private addresses,
choose the following from the drop-down boxes:
•
Original Source: Any
•
Translated Source: Original
•
Original Destination: WAN Primary IP
•
Translated Destination: servone_private_ip
•
Original Service: servone_public_port
•
Translated Service: HTTP
•
Inbound Interface: WAN
•
Outbound Interface: Any
•
Comment: Enter a short description
•
Enable NAT Policy: Checked
•
Create a reflective policy: Unchecked
And:
•
Original Source: Any
•
Translated Source: Original
•
Original Destination: WAN Primary IP
•
Translated Destination: servtwo_private_ip
•
Original Service: servtwo_public_port
•
Translated Service: HTTP
•
Source Interface: WAN
•
Destination Interface: Any
•
Comment: Enter a short description
•
Enable NAT Policy: Checked
•
Create a reflective policy: Unchecked
Note
Make sure you choose ‘Any’ as the destination interface, and not the interface that
the server is on. This may seem counter-intuitive, but it’s actually the correct thing to
do (if you try to specify the interface, you get an error).
When finished, click on the ‘OK’ button to add and activate the NAT policies. With these policies
in place, the SonicWALL security appliance translates the server’s public IP address to the
private IP address when connection requests arrive from the WAN interface.
Step 5
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Create the access rules that allows anyone from the public Internet to access the two
webservers using the custom ports and the SonicWALL security appliance’s WAN IP address.
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Note
With previous versions of firmware, it was necessary to write rules to the private IP
address. This has been changed as of SonicOS 2.0 Enhanced. If you write a rule to
the private IP address, the rule does not work.
Go to the Firewall > Access Rules page and choose the policy for the ‘WAN’ to ‘Sales’ zone
intersection (or, whatever zone you put your serves in). Click on the ‘Add…’ button to bring up
the pop-up window to create the policies. When the pop-up appears, enter the following values:
•
Action: Allow
•
Service: servone_public_port (or whatever you named it above)
•
Source: Any
•
Destination: WAN IP Address
•
Users Allowed: All
•
Schedule: Always on
•
Logging: checked
•
Comment: (enter a short description)
And:
•
Action: Allow
•
Service: servtwo_public_port (or whatever you named it above)
•
Source: Any
•
Destination: WAN IP Address
•
Users Allowed: All
•
Schedule: Always on
•
Logging: checked
•
Comment: (enter a short description)
When you’re finished, attempt to access the webservers via the SonicWALL’s WAN IP address
using a system located on the public Internet on the new custom port (example: http://
67.115.118.70:9100 and http://67.115.118.70:9200). You should be able to successfully
connect. If not, review this section, and the section before, and ensure that you have entered
in all required settings correctly.
Using NAT Load Balancing
This section contains the following subsections:
•
“NAT Load Balancing Topology” on page 263
•
“Prerequisites” on page 264
•
“Configuring NAT Load Balancing” on page 265
•
“Troubleshooting NAT Load Balancing” on page 269
NAT Load Balancing Topology
Figure 1 shows the topology for the NAT load balancing network.
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Figure 1
NAT Load Balancing Topology
Prerequisites
The examples shown in the Tasklist section on the next few pages utilize IP addressing
information from a demo setup – please make sure and replace any IP addressing information
shown in the examples with the correct addressing information for your setup. Also note that
the interface names may be different.
Note
It is strongly advised that you enable logging for all categories, and enable name resolution
for logging.
To enable logging and alerting, log into the SonicWALL’s Management GUI, go to Log >
Categories, choose Debug from the drop-down next to Logging Level, chose All Categories
from the drop-down next to View Style, check the boxes in the title bar next to Log and Alerts
to capture all categories, and click on the Apply button in the upper right hand corner to save
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and activate the changes. For an example, see the screenshot below. Debug logs should only
be used for initial configuration and troubleshooting, and it is advised that once setup is
complete, you set the logging level to a more appropriate level for your network environment.
To enable log name resolution, go to Log > Name Resolution, choose DNS then NetBios from
the Name Resolution Menu drop-down list, and click on the Apply button in the upper right
hand corner to save and activate the changes.
Configuring NAT Load Balancing
To configure NAT load balancing, you must complete the following tasks:
1.
Create address objects.
2.
Create address group.
3.
Create inbound NAT LB Policy.
4.
Create outbound NAT LB Policy.
5.
Create Firewall Rule.
6.
Verify and troubleshoot the network if necessary.
To complete this configuration, perform the following steps:
Step 1
Create Network Objects -- Go to the Network > Address Objects page in the Management
GUI and create the network objects for both of the internal Web servers, and the Virtual IP (VIP)
on which external users will access the servers.
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Step 2
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Create Address Group -- Now create an address group named www_group and add the two
internal server address objects you just created.
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Step 3
Note
Step 4
Create Inbound NAT Rule for Group -- Now create a NAT rule to allow anyone attempting to
access the VIP to get translated to the address group you just created, using Sticky IP as the
NAT method. For an example see the screenshot below.
Do not save the NAT rule just yet.
Set LB Type and Server Liveliness Method -- On the Advanced tab of the NAT policy
configuration control, you can specify that the object (or group of objects, or group of groups)
be monitored via ICMP ping or by checking for TCP sockets opened. For this example, we are
going to check to see if the server is up and responding by monitoring TCP port 80 (which is
good, since that is what people are trying to access). You can now click on the OK button to
save and activate the changes.
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Network > NAT Policies
Note
Step 5
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Before you go any further, check the logs and the status page to see if the resources have
been detected and have been logged as online. If you do not see the two messages below
(with your IP addresses), check the steps above.
Create Outbound NAT Rule for LB Group -- Write a NAT rule to allow the internal servers to
get translated to the VIP when accessing resources out the WAN interface.
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Step 6
Create Firewall Rule for VIP -- Write a firewall rule to allow traffic from the outside to access
the internal Web servers via the VIP.
Step 7
Test Your Work – From a laptop outside the WAN, connect via HTTP to the VIP using a Web
browser.
Note
If you wish to load balance one or more SSL-VPN Appliances, repeat steps 1-7, using
HTTPS instead as the allowed service.
Troubleshooting NAT Load Balancing
If the Web servers do not seem to be accessible, go to the Firewall > Access Rules page and
mouse-over the Statistics icon.
If the rule is configured incorrectly you will not see any Rx or TX Bytes; if it is working, you will
see these increment with each successful external access of the load balanced resources.
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Network > NAT Policies
You can also check the Firewall > NAT Policies page and mouse-over the Statistics icon. If
the policy is configured incorrectly you will not see any Rx or TX Bytes; if it is working, you will
see these increment with each successful external access of the load balanced resources.
Finally, check the logs and the status page to see if there are any alerts (noted in yellow) about
the Network Monitor noting hosts that are offline; it may be that all of your load balancing
resources are not reachable by the SonicWALL appliance and that the probing mechanism has
marked them offline and out of service. Check the load balancing resources to ensure that they
are functional and check the networking connections between them and the SonicWALL
appliance.
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CHAPTER 22
Chapter 22:
Managing ARP Traffic
Network > ARP
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Network > ARP
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) maps layer 3 (IP addresses) to layer 2 (physical or MAC
addresses) to enable communications between hosts residing on the same subnet. ARP is a
broadcast protocol that can create excessive amounts of network traffic on your network. To
minimize the broadcast traffic, an ARP cache is maintained to store and reuse previously
learned ARP information.
Static ARP Entries
The Static ARP feature allows for static mappings to be created between layer 2 MAC
addresses and layer 3 IP addresses, but also provides the following capabilities:
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•
Publish Entry - Enabling the Publish Entry option in the Add Static ARP window causes
the SonicWALL device to respond to ARP queries for the specified IP address with the
specified MAC address. This can be used, for example, to have the SonicWALL device
reply for a secondary IP address on a particular interface by adding the MAC address of
the SonicWALL. See the Secondary Subnet section that follows.
•
Bind MAC Address - Enabling the Bind MAC Address option in the Add Static ARP
window binds the MAC address specified to the designated IP address and interface. This
can be used to ensure that a particular workstation (as recognized by the network card's
unique MAC address) can only the used on a specified interface on the SonicWALL. Once
the MAC address is bound to an interface, the SonicWALL will not respond to that MAC
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address on any other interface. It will also remove any dynamically cached references to
that MAC address that might have been present, and it will prohibit additional (non-unique)
static mappings of that MAC address.
•
Update IP Address Dynamically - The Update IP Address Dynamically setting in the
Add Static ARP window is a sub-feature of the Bind MAC Address option. This allows for
a MAC address to be bound to an interface when DHCP is being used to dynamically
allocate IP addressing. Enabling this option will blur the IP Address field, and will populate
the ARP Cache with the IP Address allocated by the SonicWALL's internal DHCP server,
or by the external DHCP server if IP Helper is in use.
Secondary Subnets with Static ARP
The Static ARP feature allows for secondary subnets to be added on other interfaces, and
without the addition of automatic NAT rules.
Adding a Secondary Subnet using the Static ARP Method
Step 1
Add a 'published' static ARP entry for the gateway address that will be used for the secondary
subnet, assigning it the MAC address of the SonicWALL interface to which it will be connected.
Step 2
Add a static route for that subnet, so that the SonicWALL regards it as valid traffic, and knows
to which interface to route that subnet's traffic.
Step 3
Add Access Rules to allow traffic destined for that subnet to traverse the correct network
interface.
Step 4
Optional: Add a static route on upstream device(s) so that they know which gateway IP to use
to reach the secondary subnet.
Consider the following network example:
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Network > ARP
To support the above configuration, first create a published static ARP entry for 192.168.50.1,
the address which will serve as the gateway for the secondary subnet, and associate it with the
DMZ/OPT interface. From the Network > ARP page, select the Add button in the Static ARP
Entries section, and add the following entry:
The entry will appear in the table as follows:
Navigate to the Network > Routing page, and add a static route for the 192.168.50.0/24
network as follows:
The entry will appear in the table as follows:
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Network > ARP
To allow the traffic to reach the 192.168.50.0/24 subnet, and to allow the 192.168.50.0/24
subnet to reach the hosts on the LAN, navigate to the Firewall > Access Rules page, and add
the following Access Rule:
Navigating and Sorting the ARP Cache Table
The ARP Cache table provides easy pagination for viewing a large number of ARP entries. You
can navigate a large number of ARP entries listed in the ARP Cache table by using the
navigation control bar located at the top right of the ARP Cache table.
The navigation control bar includes four buttons. The far left button displays the first page of
the table. The far right button displays the last page. The inside left and right arrow buttons
moved the previous or next page respectively.
You can enter the policy number (the number listed before the policy name in the # Name
column) in the Items field to move to a specific ARP entry. The default table configuration
displays 50 entries per page. You can change this default number of entries for tables on the
System > Administration page.
You can sort the entries in the table by clicking on the column header. The entries are sorted
by ascending or descending order. The arrow to the right of the column entry indicates the
sorting status. A down arrow means ascending order. An up arrow indicates a descending
order.
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Network > ARP
Navigating and Sorting the ARP Cache Table Entries
The ARP Cache table provides easy pagination for viewing a large number of ARP entries. You
can navigate a large number of ARP entries listed in the ARP Cache table by using the
navigation control bar located at the top right of the ARP Cache table. Navigation control bar
includes four buttons. The far left button displays the first page of the table. The far right button
displays the last page. The inside left and right arrow buttons moved the previous or next page
respectively.
You can enter the policy number (the number listed before the policy name in the # Name
column) in the Items field to move to a specific ARP entry. The default table configuration
displays 50 entries per page. You can change this default number of entries for tables on the
System > Administration page.
You can sort the entries in the table by clicking on the column header. The entries are sorted
by ascending or descending order. The arrow to the right of the column entry indicates the
sorting status. A down arrow means ascending order. An up arrow indicates a descending
order.
Flushing the ARP Cache
It is sometimes necessary to flush the ARP cache if the IP address has changed for a device
on the network. Since the IP address is linked to a physical address, the IP address can change
but still be associated with the physical address in the ARP Cache. Flushing the ARP Cache
allows new information to be gathered and stored in the ARP Cache. Click Flush ARP Cache
to clear the information.
To configure a specific length of time for the entry to time out, enter a value in minutes in the
ARP Cache entry time out (minutes) field.
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CHAPTER 23
Chapter 23:
Setting Up the DHCP Server
Network > DHCP Server
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
“DHCP Server Options Overview” on page 278
•
“DHCP Server Persistence Overview” on page 279
•
“Enabling the DHCP Server” on page 280
•
“DHCP Server Lease Scopes” on page 280
•
“Configuring DHCP Server for Dynamic Ranges” on page 281
•
“Configuring Static DHCP Entries” on page 283
•
“Configuring SonicWALL DHCP Server Options” on page 285
•
“Current DHCP Leases” on page 294
•
“DHCP Option Numbers” on page 294
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Network > DHCP Server
The SonicWALL security appliance includes a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
server to distribute IP addresses, subnet masks, gateway addresses, and DNS server
addresses to your network clients. The Network > DHCP Server page includes settings for
configuring the SonicWALL security appliance’s DHCP server.
You can use the SonicWALL security appliance’s DHCP server or use existing DHCP servers
on your network. If your network uses its own DHCP servers, make sure the Enable DHCP
Server checkbox is unchecked.
The number of address ranges and IP addresses the SonicWALL DHCP server can assign
depends on the model, operating system, and licenses of the SonicWALL security appliance.
For example, on a SonicWALL TZ 170 SP Wireless running SonicOS Enhanced, the
SonicWALL DHCP Server can assign a total of 64 address ranges with 64 IP addresses each
or a total of 4,096 IP addresses.
DHCP Server Options Overview
This section provides an introduction to DHCP server options feature. This section contains the
following subsections:
•
“What Is the SonicWALL DHCP Server Options Feature?” on page 278
•
“Benefits” on page 279
•
“How Does the SonicWALL DHCP Server Options Feature Work?” on page 279
•
“Supported Standards” on page 279
What Is the SonicWALL DHCP Server Options Feature?
The SonicWALL DHCP server options feature provides support for DHCP options, also known
as vendor extensions, as defined primarily in RFCs 2131 and 2132. DHCP options allow users
to specify additional DHCP parameters in the form of pre-defined, vendor-specific information
that is stored in the options field of a DHCP message. When the DHCP message is sent to
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clients on the network, it provides vendor-specific configuration and service information. The
“DHCP Option Numbers” on page 294 provides a list of DHCP options by RFC-assigned option
number.
Benefits
The SonicWALL DHCP server options feature provides a simple interface for selecting DHCP
options by number or name, making the DHCP configuration process quick, easy, and
compliant with RFC-defined DHCP standards.
How Does the SonicWALL DHCP Server Options Feature Work?
The SonicWALL DHCP server options feature allows definition of DHCP options using a dropdown menu based on RFC-defined option numbers, allowing administrators to easily create
DHCP objects and object groups, and configure DHCP generic options for dynamic and static
DHCP lease scopes. Once defined, the DHCP option is included in the options field of the
DHCP message, which is then passed to DHCP clients on the network, describing the network
configuration and service(s) available.
Supported Standards
The SonicWALL DHCP server options feature supports the following standards:
•
RFC 2131 - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
•
RFC 2132 - DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor Extensions
DHCP Server Persistence Overview
•
“What is DHCP Server Persistence?” on page 279
•
“Benefits” on page 279
•
“How Does DHCP Server Persistence Work?” on page 280
What is DHCP Server Persistence?
DHCP server persistence is the ability of the firewall save DHCP lease information and to
provide the client with a predictable IP address that does not conflict with another use on the
network, even after a client reboot.
Benefits
DHCP server persistence provides a seamless experience when a user reboots a workstation.
The DHCP lease information is saved, and the user retains the same workstation IP address.
When a firewall is restarted, usually due to maintenance or an upgrade, DHCP server
persistence provides the following benefits:
•
IP address uniqueness: Lease information is stored in flash memory, so the risk of
assigning the same IP address to multiple users is nullified.
•
Ease of use: By saving the lease information in the flash memory, the user’s connections
are automatically restored.
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How Does DHCP Server Persistence Work?
DHCP server persistence works by storing DHCP lease information periodically to flash
memory. This ensures that users have predicable IP addresses and minimizes the risk of IP
addressing conflicts after a reboot.
Enabling the DHCP Server
If you want to use the SonicWALL security appliance’s DHCP server, select Enable DHCP
Server on the Network > DHCP Server page.
Select Enable Conflict Detection to turn on automatic DHCP scope conflict detection on each
zone.
DHCP Server Lease Scopes
The DHCP Server Lease Scopes table displays the currently configured DHCP IP ranges. The
table shows:
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•
Type: Dynamic or Static
•
Lease Scope: The IP address range, for example 172.16.31.2 - 172.16.31.254
•
Interface: The Interface the range is assigned to--LAN, OPT, or WLAN
•
Details: Detailed information about the lease, displayed as a tool tip when you hover the
mouse pointer over the Details icon
•
Enable: Check the box in the Enable column to enable the DHCP range. Uncheck it to
disable the range
•
Configure: Click the configure icon
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to configure the DHCP range
Network > DHCP Server
Configuring DHCP Server for Dynamic Ranges
To configure DHCP server for dynamic IP address ranges, follow these instructions:
Step 1
In the Network > DHCP Server page, at the bottom of the DHCP Server Lease Scopes table,
click Add Dynamic. The Dynamic Ranges Configuration window is displayed.
General Settings
Step 2
In the General page, make sure the Enable this DHCP Range is checked, if you want to
enable this range.
Step 3
Select the interface from the Interface menu. The IP addresses are in the same private subnet
as the selected interface.
Note
To select an interface from the Interface menu, it must first be fully configured and it must
be of the Zone type, LAN, WLAN, or DMZ.
Step 4
Use the default IP address range entries for the interface in the Range Start and Range End
fields or type in your own IP address range.
Step 5
Type the number of minutes an IP address is used before it is issued another IP address in the
Lease Time (minutes) field. 1440 minutes (24 hours) is the default value.
Step 6
Select the gateway from the Gateway Preferences menu. The interface IP address is the
default value, but you can select Other and type a different IP address for the gateway.
Step 7
If you select the interface IP address from the Gateway Preferences menu, the Default
Gateway and Subnet Mask fields are unavailable. If you select Other, the fields are available
for you to type the Default Gateway and Subnet Mask information into the fields.
Step 8
Select Allow BOOTP Clients to use Range if you have BOOTP Clients on your network.
BOOTP stands for bootstrap protocol, which is a TCP/IP protocol and service that allows
diskless workstations to obtain their IP address, other TCP/IP configuration information, and
their boot image file from a BOOTP server.
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Network > DHCP Server
DNS/WINS Settings
Step 9
Click the DNS/WINS tab to continue configuring the DHCP Server feature.
Step 10 If you have a domain name for the DNS server, type it in the Domain Name field.
Step 11 Inherit DNS Settings Dynamically using SonicWALL’s DNS Settings automatically
populates the DNS and WINS settings with the settings in the Network > DNS page. This option
is selected by default.
Step 12 If you do not want to use the SonicWALL security appliance network settings, select Specify
Manually, and type the IP address of your DNS Server in the DNS Server 1 field. You can
specify two additional DNS servers.
Step 13 If you have WINS running on your network, type the WINS server IP address(es) in the WINS
Server 1 field. You can add an additional WINS server.
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VoIP Settings
Step 14 Click on the VoIP Settings tab. The VoIP Settings tab allows you to configure the SonicWALL
DHCP server to send Cisco Call Manager information to VoIP clients on the network.
Step 15 Enter the IP address or FQDN of your VoIP Call Manager in the Call Manager 1 field. You can
add two additional VoIP Call Manager addresses.
Step 16 Click OK to add the settings to the SonicWALL security appliance.
Step 17 Click Apply for the settings to take effect on the SonicWALL security appliance.
For more information on VoIP support features on the SonicWALL security appliance, see
Chapter 28 Configuring VoIP Support.
Configuring Static DHCP Entries
Static entries are IP addresses assigned to servers requiring permanent IP settings. To
configure static entries, follow these steps:
Step 1
In the Network > DHCP Server page, at the bottom of the DHCP Server Lease Scopes table,
click Add Static. The Static Entry Configuration window is displayed.
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General Settings
Step 2
In the General tab, make sure the Enable this DHCP Entry is checked, if you want to enable
this range.
Step 3
Select the interface from the Interface menu. The IP addresses are in the same private subnet
as the selected interface.
Step 4
Enter a name for the static DNS entry in the Entry Name field.
Step 5
Type the device IP address in the Static IP Address field.
Step 6
Type the device Ethernet (MAC) address in the Ethernet Address field.
Step 7
Type the number of minutes an IP address is used before it is issued another IP address in the
Lease Time (minutes) field. 1440 minutes (24 hours) is the default value.
Step 8
Select the gateway from the Gateway Preferences menu. The interface IP address is the
default value, but you can select Other and type a different IP address for the gateway.
Step 9
If you select the SonicWALL security appliance LAN IP address from the Gateway
Preferences menu, the Default Gateway and Subnet Mask fields are unavailable. If you
select Other, the fields are available for you to type the Default Gateway and information into
the fields.
DNS/WINS Settings
Step 10 Click the DNS/WINS tab to continue configuring the DHCP Server feature.
Step 11 If you have a domain name for the DNS Server, type it in the Domain Name field.
Step 12 Inherit DNS Settings Dynamically from the SonicWALL’s DNS settings is selected by
default. When selected, the DNS Server IP fields are unavailable.
Step 13 If you do not want to use the SonicWALL security appliance network settings, select Specify
Manually, and type the IP address of your DNS Server in the DNS Server 1 field. You can
specify two additional DNS servers.
Step 14 If you have WINS running on your network, type the WINS server IP address(es) in the WINS
Server 1 field. You can specify an additional WINS server.
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Network > DHCP Server
VoIP Settings
Step 15 Click on the VoIP Settings tab. The VoIP Settings tab allows you to configure the SonicWALL
DHCP server to send Cisco Call Manager information to VoIP clients on the network.
Step 16 Enter the IP address or FQDN of your VoIP Call Manager in the Call Manager 1 field. You can
add two additional VoIP Call Manager addresses.
Step 17 Click OK to add the settings to the SonicWALL.
Step 18 Click Apply for the settings to take effect on the SonicWALL.
For more information on VoIP support features on the SonicWALL security appliance, see
Chapter 28 Configuring VoIP Support.
Configuring SonicWALL DHCP Server Options
This section provides configuration tasks for DHCP option objects, DHCP option groups, and
DHCP generic options for lease scopes. This section contains the following subsections:
•
“Configuring DHCP Option Objects” on page 286
•
“Configuring DHCP Option Groups” on page 290
•
“Configuring DHCP Generic Options for DHCP Lease Scopes” on page 292
The “DHCP Option Numbers” on page 294 provides a list of DHCP options by RFC-assigned
option number.
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Network > DHCP Server
Configuring DHCP Option Objects
To configure DHCP option objects, perform the following steps:
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Step 1
In the left-hand navigation panel, navigate to Network > DHCP Server.
Step 2
Under DHCP Server Lease Scopes, click the Option Objects button. The Option Objects page
displays.
Step 3
Click the Add Option button. The Add DHCP Option Objects page displays.
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Step 4
Type a name for the option in the Option Name field.
Step 5
From the Option Number drop-down list, select the option number that corresponds to your
DHCP option. For a list of option numbers and names, refer to “DHCP Option Numbers” on
page 294.
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Step 6
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Optionally check the Option Array box to allow entry of multiple option values in the Option
Value field.
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Step 7
The option type displays in the Option Type drop-down menu. If only one option type is
available, for example, for Option Number 2 (Time Offset), the drop-down menu will be greyed
out. If there are multiple option types available, for example, for Option Number 77 (User Class
Information), the drop-down menu will be functional.
Step 8
Type the option value, for example, an IP address, in the Option Value field. If Option Array
is checked, multiple values may be entered, separated by a semi-colon (;).
Step 9
Click OK. The object will display in the Option Objects list.
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Network > DHCP Server
Configuring DHCP Option Groups
To configure DHCP option groups, perform the following steps:
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Step 1
In the left-hand navigation panel, navigate to Network > DHCP Server.
Step 2
Under DHCP Server Lease Scopes, click Option Groups. The Option Groups page displays.
Step 3
Click the Add Group button. The Add DHCP Option Group page displays.
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Step 4
Enter a name for the group in the Name field.
Step 5
Select an option object from the left column and click the -> button to add it to the group. To
select multiple option objects at the same time, hold the Ctrl key while selecting the option
objects.
Step 6
Click OK. The group displays in the Option Groups list.
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Network > DHCP Server
Configuring DHCP Generic Options for DHCP Lease Scopes
Note
Before generic options for a DHCP lease scope can be configured, a static or dynamic
DHCP server lease scope must be created.
To configure DHCP generic options for DHCP server lease scopes, perform the following tasks:
Step 1
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If modifying an existing DHCP lease scope, locate the lease scope under DHCP Server Lease
Scopes on the Network > DHCP Server page and click the configure icon, then click the
Advanced tab. If creating a new DHCP lease scope, click the Advanced tab.
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Step 2
Select a DHCP option or option group in the DHCP Generic Option Group drop-down menu.
Step 3
To always use DHCP options for this DHCP server lease scope, check the box next to Send
Generic options always.
Step 4
Click OK.
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Network > DHCP Server
Current DHCP Leases
The current DHCP lease information is displayed in the Current DHCP Leases table. Each
binding entry displays the IP Address, the Ethernet Address, and the Type of binding
(Dynamic, Dynamic BOOTP, or Static BOOTP).
To delete a binding, which frees the IP address on the DHCP server, click the Delete icon
next to the entry. For example, use the Delete icon
to remove a host when it has been
removed from the network, and you need to reuse its IP address.
DHCP Option Numbers
This section provides a list of RFC-defined DHCP option numbers and descriptions:
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Option
Number Name
Description
2
Time Offset
Time offset in seconds from UTC
3
Router
N/4 router addresses
4
Time Servers
N/4 time server addresses
5
Name Servers
N/4 IEN-116 server addresses
6
DNS Servers
N/4 DNS server addresses
7
Log Servers
N/4 logging server addresses
8
Cookie Servers
N/4 quote server addresses
9
LPR Servers
N/4 printer server addresses
10
Impress Servers
N/4 impress server addresses
11
RLP Servers
N/4 RLP server addresses
12
Host Name
Hostname string
13
Boot File Size
Size of boot file in 512 byte chunks
14
Merit Dump File
Client to dump and name of file to dump to
15
Domain Name
The DNS domain name of the client
16
Swap Server
Swap server addresses
17
Root Path
Path name for root disk
18
Extension File
Patch name for more BOOTP info
19
IP Layer Forwarding
Enable or disable IP forwarding
20
Src route enabler
Enable or disable source routing
21
Policy Filter
Routing policy filters
22
Maximum DG
Reassembly Size
Maximum datagram reassembly size
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Option
Number Name
Description
23
Default IP TTL
Default IP time-to-live
24
Path MTU Aging
Timeout
Path MTU aging timeout
25
MTU Plateau
Path MTU plateau table
26
Interface MTU Size
Interface MTU size
27
All Subnets Are Local
All subnets are local
28
Broadcast Address
Broadcast address
29
Perform Mask
Discovery
Perform mask discovery
30
Provide Mask to Others Provide mask to others
31
Perform Router
Discovery
Perform router discovery
32
Router Solicitation
Address
Router solicitation address
33
Static Routing Table
Static routing table
34
Trailer Encapsulation
Trailer encapsulation
35
ARP Cache Timeout
ARP cache timeout
36
Ethernet Encapsulation
Ethernet encapsulation
37
Default TCP Time to
Live
Default TCP time to live
38
TCP Keepalive Interval
TCP keepalive interval
39
TCP Keepalive Garbage TCP keepalive garbage
40
NIS Domain Name
NIS domain name
41
NIS Server Addresses
NIS server addresses
42
NTP Servers Addresses NTP servers addresses
43
Vendor Specific
Information
Vendor specific information
44
NetBIOS Name Server
NetBIOS name server
45
NetBIOS Datagram
Distribution
NetBIOS datagram distribution
46
NetBIOS Node Type
NetBIOS node type
47
NetBIOS Scope
NetBIOS scope
48
X Window Font Server
X window font server
49
X Window Display
Manager
X window display manager
50
Requested IP address
Requested IP address
51
IP Address Lease Time
IP address lease time
52
Option Overload
Overload “sname” or “file”
53
DHCP Message Type
DHCP message type
54
DHCP Server
Identification
DHCP server identification
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Option
Number Name
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Description
55
Parameter Request List Parameter request list
56
Message
DHCP error message
57
DHCP Maximum
Message Size
DHCP maximum message size
58
Renew Time Value
DHCP renewal (T1) time
59
Rebinding Time Value
DHCP rebinding (T2) time
60
Client Identifier
Client identifier
61
Client Identifier
Client identifier
62
Netware/IP Domain
Name
Netware/IP domain name
63
Netware/IP sub Options Netware/IP sub options
64
NIS+ V3 Client Domain
Name
65
NIS+ V3 Server Address NIS+ V3 server address
66
TFTP Server Name
TFTP server name
67
Boot File Name
Boot file name
68
Home Agent Addresses Home agent addresses
69
Simple Mail Server
Addresses
Simple mail server addresses
70
Post Office Server
Addresses
Post office server addresses
71
Network News Server
Addresses
Network news server addresses
72
WWW Server
Addresses
WWW server addresses
73
Finger Server
Addresses
Finger server addresses
74
Chat Server Addresses
Chat server addresses
75
StreetTalk Server
Addresses
StreetTalk server addresses
76
StreetTalk Directory
Assistance Addresses
StreetTalk directory assistance addresses
77
User Class Information
User class information
78
SLP Directory Agent
Directory agent information
79
SLP Service Scope
Service location agent scope
80
Rapid Commit
Rapid commit
81
FQDN, Fully Qualified
Domain Name
Fully qualified domain name
82
Relay Agent Information Relay agent information
83
Internet Storage Name
Service
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Internet storage name service
Network > DHCP Server
Option
Number Name
Description
84
Undefined
N/A
85
Novell Directory Servers Novell Directory Services servers
86
Novell Directory Server
Tree Name
Novell Directory Services server tree name
87
Novell Directory Server
Context
Novell Directory Services server context
88
BCMCS Controller
Domain Name List
CMCS controller domain name list
89
BCMCS Controller IPv4
Address List
BCMCS controller IPv4 address list
90
Authentication
Authentication
91
Undefined
N/A
92
Undefined
N/A
93
Client System
Client system architecture
94
Client Network Device
Interface
Client network device interface
95
LDAP Use
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
96
Undefined
N/A
97
UUID/GUID Based
Client Identifier
UUID/GUID-based client identifier
98
Open Group’s User
Authentication
Open group’s user authentication
99
Undefined
N/A
100
Undefined
N/A
101
Undefined
N/A
102
Undefined
N/A
103
Undefined
N/A
104
Undefined
N/A
105
Undefined
N/A
106
Undefined
N/A
107
Undefined
N/A
108
Undefined
N/A
109
Autonomous System
Number
Autonomous system number
110
Undefined
111
Undefined
112
NetInfo Parent Server
Address
NetInfo parent server address
113
NetInfo Parent Server
Tag
NetInfo parent server tag
114
URL:
URL
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298
Option
Number Name
Description
115
Undefined
N/A
116
Auto Configure
DHCP auto-configuration
117
Name Service Search
Name service search
118
Subnet Collection
Subnet selection
119
DNS Domain Search
List
DNS domain search list
120
SIP Servers DHCP
Option
SIP servers DHCP option
121
Classless Static Route
Option
Classless static route option
122
CCC, CableLabs Client
Configuration
CableLabs client configuration
123
GeoConf
GeoConf
124
Vendor-Identifying
Vendor Class
Vendor-identifying vendor class
125
Vendor Identifying
Vendor Specific
Vendor-identifying vendor specific
126
Undefined
N/A
127
Undefined
N/A
128
TFTP Server IP Address TFTP server IP address for IP phone software load
129
Call Server IP Address
Call server IP address
130
Discrimination String
Discrimination string to identify vendor
131
Remote Statistics
Server IP Address
Remote statistics server IP address
132
802.1Q VLAN ID
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN ID
133
802.1Q L2 Priority
IEEE 802.1Q layer 2 priority
134
Diffserv Code Point
Diffserv code point for VoIP signalling and media
streams
135
HTTP Proxy For Phone
Applications
HTTP proxy for phone-specific applications
136
Undefined
N/A
137
Undefined
N/A
138
Undefined
N/A
139
Undefined
N/A
140
Undefined
N/A
141
Undefined
N/A
142
Undefined
N/A
143
Undefined
N/A
144
Undefined
N/A
145
Undefined
N/A
146
Undefined
N/A
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Option
Number Name
Description
147
Undefined
N/A
148
Undefined
N/A
149
Undefined
N/A
150
TFTP Server Address,
Etherboot, GRUB
Config
TFTP server address, Etherboot, GRUB
configuration
151
Undefined
152
Undefined
N/A
153
Undefined
N/A
154
Undefined
N/A
155
Undefined
N/A
156
Undefined
N/A
157
Undefined
N/A
158
Undefined
N/A
159
Undefined
N/A
160
Undefined
N/A
161
Undefined
N/A
162
Undefined
N/A
163
Undefined
N/A
164
Undefined
N/A
165
Undefined
N/A
166
Undefined
N/A
167
Undefined
N/A
168
Undefined
N/A
169
Undefined
N/A
170
Undefined
N/A
171
Undefined
N/A
172
Undefined
N/A
173
Undefined
N/A
174
Undefined
N/A
175
Ether Boot
Ether Boot
176
IP Telephone
IP telephone
177
Ether Boot PacketCable Ether Boot PacketCable and CableHome
and CableHome
178
Undefined
N/A
179
Undefined
N/A
180
Undefined
N/A
181
Undefined
N/A
182
Undefined
N/A
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300
Option
Number Name
Description
183
Undefined
N/A
184
Undefined
N/A
185
Undefined
N/A
186
Undefined
N/A
187
Undefined
N/A
188
Undefined
N/A
189
Undefined
N/A
190
Undefined
N/A
191
Undefined
N/A
192
Undefined
N/A
193
Undefined
N/A
194
Undefined
N/A
195
Undefined
N/A
196
Undefined
N/A
197
Undefined
N/A
198
Undefined
N/A
199
Undefined
N/A
200
Undefined
N/A
201
Undefined
N/A
202
Undefined
N/A
203
Undefined
N/A
204
Undefined
N/A
205
Undefined
N/A
206
Undefined
N/A
207
Undefined
N/A
208
pxelinux.magic (string)
= 241.0.116.126
pxelinux.magic (string) = 241.0.116.126
209
pxelinux.configfile (text) pxelinux.configfile (text)
210
pxelinux.pathprefix
(text)
pxelinux.pathprefix (text)
211
pxelinux.reboottime
pxelinux.reboottime
212
Undefined
N/A
213
Undefined
N/A
214
Undefined
N/A
215
Undefined
N/A
216
Undefined
N/A
217
Undefined
N/A
218
Undefined
N/A
219
Undefined
N/A
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Option
Number Name
Description
220
Subnet Allocation
Subnet allocation
221
Virtual Subnet
Allocation
Virtual subnet selection
222
Undefined
N/A
223
Undefined
N/A
224
Private Use
Private use
225
Private Use
Private use
226
Private Use
Private use
227
Private Use
Private use
228
Private Use
Private use
229
Private Use
Private use
230
Private Use
Private use
231
Private Use
Private use
232
Private Use
Private use
233
Private Use
Private use
234
Private Use
Private use
235
Private Use
Private use
236
Private Use
Private use
237
Private Use
Private use
238
Private Use
Private use
239
Private Use
Private use
240
Private Use
Private use
241
Private Use
Private use
242
Private Use
Private use
243
Private Use
Private use
244
Private Use
Private use
245
Private Use
Private use
246
Private Use
Private use
247
Private Use
Private use
248
Private Use
Private use
249
Private Use
Private use
250
Private Use
Private use
251
Private Use
Private use
252
Private Use
Private use
253
Private Use
Private use
254
Private Use
Private use
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CHAPTER 24
Chapter 24:
Using IP Helper
Network > IP Helper
The IP Helper allows the SonicWALL security appliance to forward DHCP requests originating
from the interfaces on a SonicWALL security appliance to a centralized DHCP server on the
behalf of the requesting client. IP Helper is used extensively in routed VLAN environments
where a DHCP server is not available for each interface, or where the layer 3 routing
mechanism is not capable of acting as a DHCP server itself. The IP Helper also allows NetBIOS
broadcasts to be forwarded with DHCP client requests. For more information on IP Helper, refer
to the IP Helper technote at:
http://www.sonicwall.com/us/support/2134_3424.html
IP Helper Settings
Caution
•
Enable IP Helper - enables IP Helper features.
•
Enable DHCP Support - enables DHCP forwarding from the SonicWALL security
appliance to your central DHCP server. If the DHCP server has been enabled, the message
“DHCP Server has been enabled. To edit this setting, click here.” is displayed. Clicking
the link displays the Network > DHCP Server page.
The SonicWALL DHCP Server feature must be disabled before you can enable DHCP
Support on the IP Helper. The Enable DHCP Support checkbox is greyed out until the
DHCP Server setting is disabled.
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Network > IP Helper
•
Enable NetBIOS Support - enables NetBIOS broadcast forwarding with the DHCP
requests. NetBIOS is required to allow Windows operating systems to browse for resources
on a network.
IP Helper Policies
IP Helper Policies allow you to forward DHCP and NetBIOS broadcasts from one interface to
another interface.
Adding an IP Helper Policy
Step 1
Click the Add button under the IP Helper Policies table. The Add IP Helper Policy window is
displayed.
Step 2
The policy is enabled by default. To configure the policy without enabling it, clear the Enabled
check box.
Step 3
Select DHCP or NetBIOS from the Protocol menu.
Step 4
Select a source Interface or Zone from the From menu.
Step 5
Select a destination IP address or subnet from the To menu or select Create a new network
to create a new Address Object.
Step 6
Enter an optional comment in the Comment field.
Step 7
Click OK to add the policy to the IP Helper Policies table.
Editing an IP Helper Policy
Click the Notepad icon in the Configure column of the IP Helper Policies table to display the
Edit IP Helper window, which includes the same settings as the Add IP Helper Policy window.
Deleting IP Helper Policies
Click the Trashcan icon to delete the individual IP Helper policy entry.
Click the Delete button to delete all the selected IP Helper policies in the IP Helper Policies
table.
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CHAPTER 25
Chapter 25:
Setting Up Web Proxy Forwarding
Network > Web Proxy
A Web proxy server intercepts HTTP requests and determines if it has stored copies of the
requested Web pages. If it does not, the proxy completes the request to the server on the
Internet, returning the requested information to the user and also saving it locally for future
requests. Setting up a Web proxy server on a network can be cumbersome, because each
computer on the network must be configured to direct Web requests to the server.
If you have a proxy server on your network, instead of configuring each computer’s Web
browser to point to the proxy server, you can move the server to the WAN and enable Web
Proxy Forwarding using the settings on the Network > Web Proxy page. The SonicWALL
security appliance automatically forwards all Web proxy requests to the proxy server without
requiring all the computers on the network to be configured.
Configuring Automatic Proxy Forwarding (Web Only)
Note
The proxy server must be located on the WAN; it can not be located on the LAN.
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Network > Web Proxy
To configure a Proxy Web sever, select the Network > Web Proxy page.
Step 1
Connect your Web proxy server to a hub, and connect the hub to the SonicWALL security
appliance WAN port.
Step 2
Type the name or IP address of the proxy server in the Proxy Web Server (name or IP
address) field.
Step 3
Type the proxy IP port in the Proxy Web Server Port field.
Step 4
To bypass the Proxy Servers if a failure occurs, select the Bypass Proxy Servers Upon Proxy
Server Failure check box.
Step 5
Select Forward DMZ Client Requests to Proxy Server if you have clients configured on the
DMZ.
Step 6
Click Apply. Once the SonicWALL security appliance has been updated, a message confirming
the update is displayed at the bottom of the browser window.
Bypass Proxy Servers Upon Proxy Failure
If a Web proxy server is specified on the Firewall > Web Proxy page, selecting the Bypass
Proxy Servers Upon Proxy Server Failure check box allows clients behind the SonicWALL
security appliance to bypass the Web proxy server in the event it becomes unavailable. Instead,
the client’s browser accesses the Internet directly as if a Web proxy server is not specified.
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CHAPTER 26
Chapter 26:
Configuring Dynamic DNS
Network > Dynamic DNS
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) is a service provided by various companies and organizations that
allows for dynamic changing IP addresses to automatically update DNS records without manual
intervention. This service allows for network access using domain names rather than IP
addresses, even when the target’s IP addresses change. For example, is a user has a DSL
connection with a dynamically assigned IP address from the ISP, the user can use DDNS to
register the IP address, and any subsequent address changes, with a DDNS service provider
so that external hosts can reach it using an unchanging domain name.
Dynamic DNS implementations change from one service provider to another. There is no strict
standard for the method of communication, for the types of records that can be registered, or
for the types of services that can be offered. Some providers offer premium versions of their
services, as well, for a fee. As such, supporting a particular DDNS provider requires explicit
interoperability with that provider's specific implementation.
Most providers strongly prefer that DDNS records only be updated when IP address changes
occur. Frequent updates, particularly when the registered IP address is unchanged, may be
considered abuse by providers, and could result in your DDNS account getting locked out.
Please refer to the use policies posted on the provider's pages, and abide by the guidelines.
SonicWALL does not provide technical support for DDNS providers - the providers themselves
must be contacted.
Supported DDNS Providers
Not all services and features from all providers are supported, and the list of supported
providers is subject to change. SonicOS currently supports the following services from four
Dynamic DNS providers:
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Network > Dynamic DNS
•
Dyndns.org http://www.dyndns.org - SonicOS requires a username, password, Mail
Exchanger, and Backup MX to configure DDNS from Dyndns.org.
•
Changeip.com http://www.changeip.com - A single, traditional Dynamic DNS service
requiring only username, password, and domain name for SonicOS configuration.
•
No-ip.com http://www.no-ip.com - Dynamic DNS service requiring only username,
password, and domain name for SonicOS configuration. Also supports hostname grouping.
•
Yi.org http://www.yi.org - Dynamic DNS service requiring only username, password, and
domain name for SonicOS configuration. Requires that an RR record be created on the
yi.org administrative page for dynamic updates to occur properly.
Additional Services offered by Dynamic DNS Providers
Some common additional services offered by Dynamic DNS providers include:
•
Wildcards - allows for wildcard references to sub-domains. For example, if you register
yourdomain.dyndns.org, your site would be reachable at *.yourdomain.dyndyn.org, e.g.
server.yourdomain.dyndyn.org, www.yourdomain.dyndyn.org, ftp.yourdomain.dyndyn.org,
etc.
•
Mail Exchangers - Creates MX record entries for your domain so that SMTP servers can
locate it via DNS and send mail. Note: inbound SMTP is frequently blocked by ISPs - please
check with your provider before attempting to host a mail server.
•
Backup MX (offered by dyndns.org, yi.org) - Allows for the specification of an alternative
IP address for the MX record in the event that the primary IP address is inactive.
•
Groups - Allows for the grouping of hosts so that an update can be performed once at the
group level, rather than multiple times for each member.
•
Off-Line IP Address - Allows for the specification of an alternative address for your
registered hostnames in the event that the primary registered IP is offline.
Configuring Dynamic DNS
Using any Dynamic DNS service begins with settings up an account with the DDNS service
provider (or providers) of your choice. It is possible to use multiple providers simultaneously.
Refer to the links for the various providers listed above. The registration process normally
involves a confirmation email from the provider, with a final acknowledgment performed by
visiting a unique URL embedded in the confirmation email. After logging in to the selected
provider's page, you should visit the administrative link (typically 'add' or 'manage'), and create
your host entries. This must be performed prior to attempting to use the dynamic DNS client on
SonicOS. The Network > Dynamic DNS page provides the settings for configuring the
SonicWALL security appliance to use your DDNS service.
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Network > Dynamic DNS
To configure Dynamic DNS on the SonicWALL security appliance, perform these steps:
Step 1
From the Network > Dynamic DNS page, click the Add button. The Add DDNS Profile window
is displayed.
Step 2
If Enable this DDNS Profile is checked, the profile is administratively enabled, and the
SonicWALL security appliance takes the actions defined in the Online Settings section on the
Advanced tab.
Step 3
If Use Online Settings is checked, the profile is administratively online.
Step 4
Enter a name to assign to the DDNS entry in the Profile Name field. This can be any value
used to identify the entry in the Dynamic DNS Settings table.
Step 5
In the Profile page, select the Provider from the drop-down list at the top of the page.
DynDNS.org and changeip.com use HTTPS, while yi.org and no-ip.com use HTTP. This
example uses DynDNS.org. Dyndns.org requires the selection of a service. This example
assumes you have created a dynamic service record with dyndns.org.
Step 6
Enter your dyndns.org username and password in the User Name and Password fields.
Step 7
Enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the hostname you registered with dyndns.org.
Make sure you provide the same hostname and domain as you configured.
Step 8
When using DynDNS.org, select the Service Type from the drop-down list that corresponds to
your type of service through DynDNS.org. The options are:
– Dynamic - A free Dynamic DNS service.
– Custom - A managed primary DNS solution that provides a unified primary/secondary
DNS service and a web-based interface. Supports both dynamic and static IP
addresses.
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Network > Dynamic DNS
– Static - A free DNS service for static IP addresses.
Step 9
When using DynDNS.org, you may optionally select Enable Wildcard and/or configure an MX
entry in the Mail Exchanger field. Check Backup MX if this is the backup mail exchanger.
Step 10 Click the Advanced tab. You can typically leave the default settings on this page.
Step 11 The On-line Settings section provides control over what address is registered with the
dynamic DNS provider. The options are:
– Let the server detect IP Address - The dynamic DNS provider determines the IP
address based upon the source address of the connection. This is the most common
setting.
– Automatically set IP Address to the Primary WAN Interface IP Address - This will
cause the SonicWALL device to assert its WAN IP address as the registered IP
address, overriding auto-detection by the dynamic DNS server. Useful if detection is not
working correctly.
– Specify IP Address manually - Allows for the IP address to be registered to be
manually specified and asserted.
Step 12 The Off-line Settings section controls what IP Address is registered with the dynamic DNS
service provider if the dynamic DNS entry is taken off-line locally (disabled) on the SonicWALL.
The options are:
– Do nothing - the default setting. This allows the previously registered address to
remain current with the dynamic DNS provider.
– Use the Off-Line IP Address previously configured at Providers site - If your provider
supports manual configuration of Off-Line Settings, you can select this option to use
those settings when this profile is taken administratively offline.
Step 13 Click OK.
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Network > Dynamic DNS
Dynamic DNS Settings Table
The Dynamic DNS Settings table provides a table view of configured DDNS profiles.
Dynamic DNS Settings table includes the following columns:
•
Profile Name - The name assigned to the DDNS entry during its creation. This can be any
value, and is used only for identification.
•
Domain - The fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the DDNS entry.
•
Provider - The DDNS provider with whom the entry is registered.
•
Status - The last reported/current status of the DDNS entry. Possible states are:
– Online - The DDNS entry is administratively online. The current IP setting for this entry
is shown with a timestamp.
– Taken Offline Locally - The DDNS entry is administratively offline. If the entry is
Enabled, the action configured in the Offline Settings section of the Advanced tab is
taken.
– Abuse - The DDNS provider has considered the type or frequency of updates to be
abusive. Please check with the DDNS provider's guidelines to determine what is
considered abuse.
– No IP change - abuse possible - A forced update without an IP address change is
considered by some DDNS providers to be abusive. Automatic updates will only occur
when address or state changes occur. Manual or forced should only be made when
absolutely necessary, such as when registered information is incorrect.
– Disabled - The account has been disabled because of a configuration error or a policy
violation. Check the profile's settings, and verify the DDNS account status with the
provider.
– Invalid Account - The account information provided is not valid. Check the profile's
settings, and verify the DDNS account status with the provider.
– Network Error - Unable to communicate with the DDNS provider due to a suspected
network error. Verify that the provider is reachable and online. Try the action again
later.
– Provider Error - The DDNS provider is unable to perform the requested action at this
time. Check the profile's settings, and verify the DDNS account status with the provider.
Try the action again later.
– Not Donator Account - Certain functions provided from certain provider, such as
offline address settings, are only available to paying or donating subscribers. Please
check with the provider for more details on which services may require payment or
donation.
•
Enabled - When selected, this profile is administratively enabled, and the SonicWALL will
take the Online Settings action that is configured on the Advanced tab. This setting can
also be controlled using the Enable this DDNS Profile checkbox in the entry's Profile tab.
Deselecting this checkbox will disable the profile, and no communications with the DDNS
provider will occur for this profile until the profile is again enabled.
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Network > Dynamic DNS
312
•
Online - When selected, this profile is administratively online. The setting can also be
controlled using the Use Online Settings checkbox on the entry's Profile tab. Deselecting
this checkbox while the profile is enabled will take the profile offline, and the SonicWALL
will take the
Offline Settings action that is configured on the Advanced tab.
•
Configure - Includes the edit
icon for configuring the DDNS profile settings, and the
delete
icon for deleting the DDNS profile entry.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
PART 4
Wireless
•
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CHAPTER 27
Chapter 27:
Viewing WLAN Settings, Statistics, and
Station Status
Wireless Overview
The SonicWALL Wireless security appliances support two wireless protocols called IEEE
802.11b and 802.11g, commonly known as Wi-Fi, and send data via radio transmissions. The
SonicWALL wireless security appliance combines three networking components to offer a fully
secure wireless firewall: an Access Point, a secure wireless gateway, and a stateful firewall with
flexible NAT and VPN termination and initiation capabilities. With this combination, the wireless
security appliance offers the flexibility of wireless without compromising network security.
Typically, the wireless security appliance is the access point for your wireless LAN and serves
as the central access point for computers on your LAN. In addition, it shares a single broadband
connection with the computers on your network. Since the wireless security appliance also
provides firewall protection, intruders from the Internet cannot access the computers or files on
your network. This is especially important for an “always-on” connection such as a DSL or T1
line that is shared by computers on a network.
However, wireless LANs are vulnerable to “eavesdropping” by other wireless networks which
means you should establish a wireless security policy for your wireless LAN. On the wireless
security appliance, wireless clients connect to the Access Point layer of the firewall. Instead of
bridging the connection directly to the wired network, wireless traffic is first passed to the
Secure Wireless Gateway layer where the client is required to be authenticated via User Level
Authentication. Wireless access to Guest Services and MAC Filter Lists are managed by the
wireless security appliance. It is also at this layer that the wireless security appliance has the
capability of enforcing WiFiSec, an IPsec-based VPN overlay for wireless networking. As
wireless network traffic successfully passes through these layers, it is then passed to the VPNNAT-Stateful firewall layer where WiFiSec termination, address translation, and access rules
are applied. If all of the security criteria is met, then wireless network traffic can then pass via
one of the following Distribution Systems (DS):
•
LAN
•
WAN
•
Wireless Client on the WLAN
•
DMZ or other zone on Opt port
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Wireless Overview
•
VPN tunnel
Considerations for Using Wireless Connections
•
Mobility - if the majority of your network is laptop computers, wireless is more portable than
wired connections.
•
Convenience - wireless networks do not require cabling of individual computers or
opening computer cases to install network cards.
•
Speed - if network speed is important to you, you may want to consider using Ethernet
connections rather than wireless connections.
•
Range and Coverage - if your network environment contains numerous physical barriers
or interference factors, wireless networking may not be suitable for your network.
•
Security - wireless networks have inherent security issues due to the unrestricted nature
of the wireless transmissions. However, the wireless security appliance is a firewall and has
NAT capabilities which provides security, and you can use WiFiSec to secure data
transmissions.
Recommendations for Optimal Wireless Performance
316
•
Place the wireless security appliance near the center of your intended network. This can
also reduce the possibility of eavesdropping by neighboring wireless networks.
•
Minimize the number of walls or ceilings between the wireless security appliance and the
receiving points such as PCs or laptops.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Wireless Overview
•
Try to place the wireless security appliance in a direct line with other wireless components.
Best performance is achieved when wireless components are in direct line of sight with
each other.
•
Building construction can make a difference on wireless performance. Avoid placing the
wireless security appliance near walls, fireplaces, or other large solid objects. Placing the
wireless security appliance near metal objects such as computer cases, monitors, and
appliances can affect performance of the unit.
•
Metal framing, UV window film, concrete or masonry walls, and metallic paint can reduce
signal strength if the wireless security appliance is installed near these types of materials.
•
Installing the wireless security appliance in a high place can help avoid obstacles and
improve performance for upper stories of a building.
•
Neighboring wireless networks and devices can affect signal strength, speed, and range of
the wireless security appliance. Also, devices such as cordless phones, radios, microwave
ovens, and televisions may cause interference on the wireless security appliance.
Adjusting the Antennas
The antennas on the wireless security appliance can be adjusted for the best radio reception.
Begin with the antennas pointing straight up, and then adjust as necessary. Note that certain
areas, such as the area directly below the wireless security appliance, get relatively poor
reception. Pointing the antenna directly at another wireless device does not improve reception.
Do not place the antennas next to metal doors or walls as this can cause interference.
Wireless Node Count Enforcement
Users connecting to the WLAN or connecting through the SonicWALL GroupVPN are not
counted towards the node enforcement on the SonicWALL. Only users on the LAN and nonWireless zones on the Opt port are counted towards the node limit.
The Station Status table lists all the wireless nodes connected.
MAC Filter List
The SonicWALL wireless security appliance networking protocol provides native MAC address
filtering capabilities. When MAC address filtering is enabled, filtering occurs at the 802.11 layer,
wireless clients are prevented from authenticating and associating with the wireless access
point. Since data communications cannot occur without authentication and association, access
to the network cannot be granted until the client has given the network administrator the MAC
address of their wireless network card.
WiFiSec Enforcement
Enabling WiFiSec Enforcement on the wireless security appliance enforces the use of IPsecbased VPN for access from the WLAN to the WAN or LAN, and provides access from the WLAN
to the WAN independent of WGS. Access from one wireless client to another is configured on
the Wireless > Advanced page where you can disable or enable access between wireless
clients.
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Wireless > Status
WiFiSec uses the easy provisioning capabilities of the SonicWALL Global VPN client making it
easy for experienced and inexperienced administrators to implement on the network. The level
of interaction between the Global VPN Client and the user depends on the WiFiSec options
selected by the administrator. WiFiSec IPsec terminates on the WLAN/LAN port, and is
configured using the Group VPN Security Policy including noneditable parameters specifically
for wireless access.
Wireless > Status
The Wireless > Status page provides status information for wireless network, including WLAN
Settings, WLAN Statistics, WLAN Activities and Station Status.
The Wireless > Status page has four tables:
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•
“WLAN Settings” on page 319
•
“WLAN Statistics” on page 320
•
“WLAN Activities” on page 320
•
“Station Status” on page 321
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Wireless > Status
WLAN Settings
The WLAN Settings table lists the configuration information for the built-in radio. All
configurable settings in the WLAN Settings table are hyperlinks to their respective pages for
configuration. Enabled features are displayed in green, and disabled features are displayed in
red. Click on a setting to go the page in the Management Interface where you can configure
that setting.
b
WLAN Settings
Value
WLAN
Enabled or Disabled
WiFiSec Enforcement
Enabled or Disabled
SSID
Wireless network identification information
MAC Address (BSSID)
Serial Number of the wireless security appliance
WLAN IP Address
IP address of the WLAN port
WLAN Subnet Mask
Subnet information
Regulatory Domain
FCC - North America for domestic appliances ETSI - Europe for
international appliances
Channel
Channel Number selected for transmitting wireless signal
Radio Tx Rate
Network speed in Mbps
Radio Tx Power
Current power level of the radio signal transmission
Authentication Type
Encryption settings for the radio, or Disabled--see the Wireless >
WEP/WPA Encryption page
MAC Filter List
Enabled or Disabled
Wireless Guest
Services
Enabled or Disabled
Intrusion Detection
Enabled or Disabled
Wireless Firmware
Firmware version on the radio card
Associated Stations
Number of clients associated with the wireless security appliance
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WLAN Settings
Value
Radio Mode
Current power level of the radio signal transmission
WLAN Statistics
The WLAN Statistics table lists all of the traffic sent and received through the WLAN. The
Wireless Statistics column lists the kinds of traffic recorded, the Rx column lists received
traffic, and the Tx column lists transmitted traffic.
Wireless Statistics
Rx/TX
Good Packets
Number of allowed packets received and transmitted.
Bad Packets
Number of packets that were dropped that were received and
transmitted.
Good Bytes
Total number of bytes in the good packets.
Management Packets
Number of management packets received and transmitted.
Control Packets
Number of control packets received and transmitted.
Data Packets
Number of data packets received and transmitted.
Duplicate Frames
Number or duplicate frames received.
WLAN Activities
The WLAN Activities table describes the history of wireless clients connecting to the
SonicWALL wireless security appliance.
Wireless Activities Value
Associations
Number of wireless clients that have connected to the wireless security appliance.
Disassociations
Number of wireless clients that have disconnected to the wireless security
appliance.
Reassociations
Number of wireless clients that were previously connected that have reconnected.
Authentications
Number of wireless clients that have been authenticated.
Deauthentications
Number of authenticated clients that have disconnected.
Discards Packets
Number of discarded packets.
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Station Status
The Station Status table displays information about wireless connections associated with the
wireless security appliance.
•
Station - the name of the connection used by the MAC address
•
MAC Address - the wireless network card MAC address
•
Authenticated - status of 802.11b authentication
•
Associated - status of 802.11b association
•
AID - Association ID, assigned by the security appliance
•
Signal - strength of the radio signal
•
Timeout - number of seconds left on the session
•
Configure
Š
- configure power management on the wireless network card of this station, if enabled.
Š
- block the station from the security appliance and add it to the Deny MAC Filter List.
Š
- dissociate the station from the security appliance.
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CHAPTER 28
Chapter 28:
Configuring Wireless Settings
Wireless > Settings
The Wireless > Settings page allows you to configure your wireless settings.
On the Wireless>Settings page, you can enable or disable the WLAN port by selecting or
clearing the Enable WLAN checkbox.
Wireless Radio Mode
Select either Access Point to configure the SonicWALL as the default gateway on your
network or select Wireless Bridge from the Radio Role menu to configure the SonicWALL to
act as an intermediary wireless device.
Note
WPA support is only available in Access Point Mode. WPA support is not available in
Wireless Bridge Mode.
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Wireless > Settings
Wireless Settings
Enable WLAN Radio: Check this checkbox to turn the radio on, and enable wireless
networking. Click Apply in the top right corner of the management interface to have this setting
take effect.
Schedule: The schedule determines when the radio is on to send and receive data. The default
value is Always on. The Schedule list displays the schedule objects you create and manage
in the System > Schedule page. The default choices are:
•
Always on
•
Work Hours or M-T-W-TH-F 08:00-17:00 (these two options are the same schedules)
•
M-T-W-TH-F 00:00-08:00
•
After Hours or M-T-W-TH-F 17:00-24:00 (these two options are the same schedules)
•
Weekend Hours or SA-SU 00:00-24:00 (these two options are the same schedules)
SSID: The default value, sonicwall, for the SSID can be changed to any alphanumeric value
with a maximum of 32 characters.
Radio Mode: Select your preferred radio mode from the Radio Mode menu. The wireless
security appliance supports the following modes:
•
2.4GHz 802.11b/g Mixed - Supports 802.11b and 802.11g clients simultaneously. If your
wireless network comprises both types of clients, select this mode.
•
802.11g Only - If your wireless network consists only of 802.11g clients, you may select
this mode for increased 802.11g performance. You may also select this mode if you wish
to prevent 802.11b clients from associating.
•
802.11b Only - Select this mode if only 802.11b clients access your wireless network.
Channel: Select the channel for transmitting the wireless signal from the Channel menu. An
AutoChannel setting allows the wireless security appliance to automatically detect and set the
optimal channel for wireless operation based upon signal strength and integrity. AutoChannel
is the default channel setting, and it displays the selected channel of operation to the right.
Alternatively, an operating channel within the range of your regulatory domain can be explicitly
defined.
Secure Wireless Bridging
Wireless Bridging is a feature that allows two or more physically separated networks to be
joined over a wireless connection. The wireless security appliance provides this capability by
shifting the radio mode at remote networks from Access Point mode to Wireless Bridge
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Wireless > Settings
mode. Operating in Wireless Bridge mode, the wireless security appliance connects to another
wireless security appliance acting as an access point, and allows communications between the
connected networks via the wireless bridge.
Secure Wireless Bridging employs a WiFiSec VPN policy, providing security to all
communications between the wireless networks. Previous bridging solutions offered no
encryption, or at best, WEP encryption.
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Wireless > Settings
Configuring a Secure Wireless Bridge
When switching from Access Point mode to Wireless Bridge mode, all clients are
disconnected, and the navigation panel on the left changes to reflect the new mode of
operation.
To configure a secure wireless bridge, follow these steps:
Step 1
Click Wireless, then Settings.
Step 2
In the Wireless Radio Mode section, select Wireless Bridge from the Radio Role menu. The
wireless security appliance updates the interface. The left-navigation menu changes to reflect
the choices that apply to configuring a secure wireless bridge.
Wireless Menu
Access Point Mode
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Wireless Menu
Wireless Bridge Mode
Step 3
In the left-navigation menu, click Status under Wireless. Any available access point is
displayed at the bottom of the Status page. Click the Connect icon
to establish a wireless
bridge to another wireless security appliance.
Step 4
In the left-navigation menu, click Settings under Wireless. Configure the WLAN settings for
the wireless connection as follows:
a.
Configure the SSID on all wireless security appliance to the SSID of the Access Point.
b.
Configure the WLAN for all wireless security appliance must be on the same subnet.
c.
LAN IP address for all wireless security appliance must be on different subnets.
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Wireless > Settings
For example, in the previous network diagram, the wireless security appliance are configured
as follows:
•
SSID on all three wireless security appliance are set to “myWLAN”.
•
WLAN addressing for all the wireless security appliance's connected via Wireless Bridge
must place the WLAN interfaces on the same subnet: 172.16.31.1 for TZ 170 Wireless1,
172.16.31.2 for TZ 170 Wireless2, and 172.16.31.3 for TZ 170 Wireless3.
•
TZ 170 Wireless4 must have a different subnet on the WLAN, such as 172.16.32.X/24.
•
LAN addressing for all TZ 170 Wireless connected via Wireless Bridge must place the LAN
interfaces on different subnets: 10.10.10.x/24 for TZ 170 Wireless1, 10.20.20.x/24 for TZ
170 Wireless2, and 10.30.30.x/24 for TZ 170 Wireless3.
•
LAN addressing for TZ 170 Wireless4 must be the same as TZ 170 Wireless3.
•
To facilitate Virtual Adapter addressing, the TZ 170 Wireless4 can be set to forward DHCP
requests to TZ 170 Wireless3.
•
When a TZ 170 Wireless is in Wireless Bridge mode, the channel cannot be configured. TZ
170 Wireless2 and TZ 170 Wireless3 operate on the channel of the connecting Access
Point TZ 170 Wireless. For example, TZ 170 Wireless1 is on channel 1.
•
A Bridge Mode TZ 170 Wireless cannot simultaneously support wireless client connections.
Access Point services at Remote Site B are provided by a second TZ 170 Wireless (4). The
channel of operation is set 5 apart from the channel inherited by the TZ 170 Wireless3. For
example, Access Point TZ 170 Wireless1 is set to channel 1, then Bridge Mode TZ 170
Wireless3 inherits channel 1. Access Point TZ 170 Wireless4 should be set to channel 6.
Network Settings for the Example Network
Device
Mode
SSID
Channel
LAN IP Address
WLAN IP Address
TZ 170 Wireless1
Access Point
myWLAN
1
10.10.10.254/24
172.16.31.1/24
TZ 170 Wireless2
Wireless
Bridge
myWLAN
1 (auto)
10.20.20.254/24
172.16.31.2/24
TZ 170 Wireless3
Wireless
Bridge
myWLAN
1 (auto)
10.30.30.254/24
172.16.31.3/24
TZ 170 Wireless4
Access Point
otherWLAN
6
10.30.30.253/24
172.16.31.1/24
Wireless Bridging (without WiFiSec)
To provide compatibility with other non-WiFiSec wireless access points, the wireless security
appliance supports a non-secure form of wireless bridging, but insecure wireless
communications should only be employed when data is non-sensitive. By default, WiFiSec
Enforcement is enabled on Wireless Settings for Wireless Bridge Mode. To connect to a
non-WiFiSec access point, this checkbox must be disabled. Since VPN tunnels are not
established in non-secure Wireless Bridging deployments, traffic routes must be clearly defined
for both the Access Point and the Bridge Mode sites:
•
The default route on the Bridge Mode wireless security appliance must from the WLAN
interface to the WLAN interface of the connecting Access Point wireless security appliance.
Referring to the example above, the default route on TZ 170 Wireless2 and TZ 170
Wireless3 is set via their WLAN interfaces to 172.16.31.1.
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Wireless > Settings
•
Static routes must be entered on the Access Point TZ 170 Wireless to route back to the
LAN subnets of the Bridge Mode TZ 170 Wireless.
Referring to the example network, TZ 170 Wireless1 must have static routes to 10.20.20.x/24
via 172.16.31.2 and to 10.30.30.x/24 via 172.16.31.3
Configuring VPN Policies for the Access Point and Wireless Bridge
Access Point Configuration
After Wireless Settings are defined, the WiFiSec connections (VPN Policies) must be
configured. The VPN Policies are defined as would any other site-to-site VPN policy, typically
with the following in mind:
•
The Access Point wireless security appliance must specify the destination networks of the
remote sites.
•
The Access Point wireless security appliance must specify its LAN management IP address
as the Default LAN Gateway under the Advanced tab.
•
The Wireless Bridge Mode wireless security appliance must be configured to use the tunnel
as the default route for all internet traffic.
Referring to the example network, the Access Point wireless security appliance has the
following two VPN Policies defined:
•
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One policy to the Site_A address object at 10.20.20.0:
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•
One policy to the Site_B address object at 10.30.30.0:
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Wireless > Settings
Configuration for VPN Policies
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Step 1
Click Network.
Step 2
Under Local Networks, select Choose local network from list and select LAN Interface IP.
Step 3
Under Destination Networks, select Choose destination network from list and select or
create an address object for the destination (Site_A - 10.20.20.0 or Site_B - 10.30.30.0 in the
example).
Step 4
Click Advanced.
Step 5
Select Enable Keep Alive.
Step 6
Select Enable Windows Networking (NetBIOS) Broadcast.
Step 7
Click OK to close the window, and then click Apply for the settings to take effect on the
SonicWALL.
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Wireless > Settings
Wireless Bridge VPN Policy Configuration
The Wireless Bridge VPN Policy is configured as follows:
Step 1
Click VPN, then Configure.
Step 2
Select IKE using Preshared Secret from the IPsec Keying Mode menu.
Step 3
Enter a name for the SA in the Name field.
Step 4
Type the IP address of the Access Point in the IPsec Gateway field. In our example network,
the IP address is 172.16.31.1.
Step 5
Select Use this VPN Tunnel as default route for all Internet traffic from the Destination
Networks section.
Click OK to close the window, and then click Apply for the settings to take effect on the security
appliance.
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CHAPTER 29
Chapter 29:
Configuring WEP and WPA Security
Wireless > WEP/WPA Security
Note
When the SonicWALL wireless security appliance is configured in Access Point mode, this
page is called Security. When the appliance is configured in Wireless Bridge mode, this
page is called WEP Encryption.
Wired Equivalent Protocol (WEP) can be used to protect data as it is transmitted over the
wireless network, but it provides no protection past the SonicWALL. It is designed to provide a
minimal level of protection for transmitted data, and is not recommended for network
deployments requiring a high degree of security. WiFiSec should be enabled in addition to WEP
for added security on the wireless network.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2) provides much greater security than WEP, but
requires a separate authentication protocol, such as RADIUS, be used to authenticate all users.
WPA uses a dynamic key that constantly changes, as opposed to the static key that WEP uses.
The SonicWALL Secure Anti-Virus Router provides a number of permutations of WEP and
WPA encryption.
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Wireless > WEP/WPA Security
Authentication Overview
Below is a list of available authentication types with descriptive features and uses for each:
WEP
•
Lower security
•
For use with older legacy devices, PDAs, wireless printers
WPA
•
Good security (uses TKIP)
•
For use with trusted corporate wireless clients
•
Transparent authentication with Windows log-in
•
No client software needed in most cases
WPA2
•
Best security (uses AES)
•
For use with trusted corporate wireless clients
•
Transparent authentication with Windows log-in
•
Client software install may be necessary in some cases
•
Supports 802.11i “Fast Roaming” feature
•
No backend authentication needed after first log-in (allows for faster roaming)
WPA2-AUTO
•
Tries to connect using WPA2 security.
•
If the client is not WPA2 capable, the connection will default to WPA.
WEP Encryption Settings
Open-system authentication is the only method required by 802.11b. In open-system
authentication, the SonicWALL allows the wireless client access without verifying its identity.
Shared-key authentication uses WEP and requires a shared key to be distributed to wireless
clients before authentication is allowed.
The Secure Anti-Virus Router 80 Wireless provides the option of using Open System, Shared
Key, or both when WEP is used to encrypt data.
If Both (Open System & Shared Key) is selected, the Default Key assignments are not
important as long as the identical keys are used in each field. If Shared Key is selected, then
the key assignment is important.
To configure WEP on the SonicWALL, log into the SonicWALL and click Wireless, then WEP
Encryption.
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Step 1
Select the authentication type from the Authentication Type list. Both (Open System &
Shared Key) is selected by default.
Step 2
Select 64-bit or 128-bit from the WEP Key Mode. 128-bit is considered more secure than 64bit. This value is applied to all keys.
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Wireless > WEP/WPA Security
WEP Encryption Keys
Step 1
Select the key number, 1,2,3, or 4, from the Default Key menu.
Step 2
Select the key type to be either Alphanumeric or Hexadecimal.
WEP - 64-bit
WEP - 128-bit
Alphanumeric - 5 characters (0-9, A-Z)
Alphanumeric - 13 characters (0-9, A-Z)
Hexadecimal - 10 characters (0-9, A-F)
Hexadecimal - 26 characters (0-9, A-F)
Step 3
Type your keys into each field.
Step 4
Click Apply.
WPA Encryption Settings
Both WPA and WPA2 support two protocols for storing and generating keys:
•
Pre-Shared Key (PSK): PSK allows WPA to generate keys from a pre-shared passphrase
that you configure. The keys are updated periodically based on time or number of packets.
Use PSK in smaller deployments where you do not have a RADIUS server.
•
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP): EAP allows WPA to synchronize keys with an
external RADIUS server. The keys are updated periodically based on time or number of
packets. Use EAP in larger, enterprise-like deployments where you have an existing
RADIUS framework.
WPA2 also supports EAP and PSK protocols, but adds an optional AUTO mode for each
protocol. WPA2 EAP AUTO and WPA2 PSK AUTO try to connect using WPA2 security, but will
default back to WPA if the client is not WPA2 capable.
Note
WPA support is only available in Access Point Mode. WPA support is not available in Bridge
Mode.
WPA-PSK Settings
Encryption Mode: In the Authentication Type field, select WPA-PSK.
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Wireless > WEP/WPA Security
WPA Settings
•
Cypher Type: select TKIP. Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) is a protocol for
enforcing key integrity on a per-packet basis.
•
Group Key Update: Specifies when the SonicWALL Secure Anti-Virus Router 80 Wireless
updates the key. Select By Timeout to generate a new group key after an interval specified
in seconds. Select By Packet to generate a new group key after a specific number of
packets. Select Disabled to use a static key.
•
Interval: If you selected By Timeout, enter the number of seconds before WPA
automatically generates a new group key.
Preshared Key Settings (PSK)
•
Passphrase: Enter the passphrase from which the key is generated.
Click Apply in the top right corner to apply your WPA settings.
WPA-EAP Settings
Encryption Mode: In the Authentication Type field, select WPA-EAP.
WPA Settings
•
Cypher Type: Select TKIP. Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) is a protocol for
enforcing key integrity on a per-packet basis.
•
Group Key Update: Specifies when the SonicWALL Secure Anti-Virus Router 80 Wireless
updates the key. Select By Timeout to generate a new group key after an interval specified
in seconds. Select By Packet to generate a new group key after a specific number of
packets. Select Disabled to use a static key.
•
Interval: If you selected By Timeout, enter the number of seconds before WPA
automatically generates a new group key.
•
Packet Threshold: If you selected By Packet, select the number (x 1000) of packets to
pass before generating a new group key.
Extensible Authentication Protocol Settings (EAP)
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•
Radius Server 1 IP and Port: Enter the IP address and port number for your primary
RADIUS server.
•
Radius Server 1 Secret: Enter the password for access to Radius Server
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Wireless > WEP/WPA Security
•
Radius Server 2 IP and Port: Enter the IP address and port number for your secondary
RADIUS server, if you have one.
•
Radius Server 2 Secret: Enter the password for access to Radius Server
Click Apply in the top right corner to apply your WPA settings.
WPA/WPA2 Encryption Settings
Like WPA, WPA2 supports two protocols for storing and generating keys:
Note
•
Pre-Shared Key (PSK): PSK allows WPA2 to generate keys from a pre-shared passphrase
that you configure. The keys are updated periodically based on time or number of packets.
Use PSK in smaller deployments where you do not have a RADIUS server.
•
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP): EAP allows WPA to synchronize keys with an
external RADIUS server. The keys are updated periodically based on time or number of
packets. Use EAP in larger, enterprise-like deployments where you have an existing
RADIUS framework.
•
WPA2 PSK / WPA2 EAP: There are optional AUTO modes for each WPA2 protocol. WPA2
EAP AUTO and WPA2 PSK AUTO try to connect using WPA2 security, and will default back
to WPA if the client is not WPA2 capable.
WPA2 support is only available in Access Point Mode. WPA support is not available in
Bridge Mode.
WPA2-PSK Settings
Encryption Mode: In the Authentication Type field, select WPA2-PSK.
WPA Settings:
•
Cypher Type: select AES. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is an advanced block
cipher protocol for enforcing key integrity.
•
Group Key Update: Specifies when the SonicWALL Secure Anti-Virus Router 80 Wireless
updates the key. Select By Timeout to generate a new group key after an interval specified
in seconds. Select By Packet to generate a new group key after a specific number of
packets. Select Disabled to use a static key.
•
Interval: If you selected By Timeout, enter the number of seconds before WPA2
automatically generates a new group key.
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Wireless > WEP/WPA Security
Preshared Key Settings (PSK)
•
Passphrase: Enter the passphrase from which the key is generated.
Click Apply in the top right corner to apply your WPA2 settings.
WPA2-EAP Settings
Encryption Mode: In the Authentication Type field, select WPA-EAP.
WPA Settings
•
Cypher Type: select AES. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is an advanced block
cipher protocol for enforcing key integrity.
•
Group Key Update: Specifies when the SonicWALL Secure Anti-Virus Router 80 Wireless
updates the key. Select By Timeout to generate a new group key after an interval specified
in seconds. Select By Packet to generate a new group key after a specific number of
packets. Select Disabled to use a static key.
•
Interval: If you selected By Timeout, enter the number of seconds before WPA2
automatically generates a new group key.
•
Packet Threshold: If you selected By Packet, select the number (x 1000) of packets to
pass before generating a new group key.
Extensible Authentication Protocol Settings (EAS)
•
Radius Server 1 IP and Port: Enter the IP address and port number for your primary
RADIUS server.
•
Radius Server 1 Secret: Enter the password for access to Radius Server
•
Radius Server 2 IP and Port: Enter the IP address and port number for your secondary
RADIUS server, if you have one.
•
Radius Server 2 Secret: Enter the password for access to Radius Server
Click Apply in the top right corner to apply your WPA2 settings.
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CHAPTER 30
Chapter 30:
Configuring Advanced Wireless
Settings
Wireless > Advanced
To access Advanced configuration settings for the SonicWALL wireless security appliance, log
into the SonicWALL, click Wireless, and then Advanced. The Wireless > Advanced page is
only available when the SonicWALL is acting as an access point.
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Wireless > Advanced
Beaconing & SSID Controls
1.
Select Hide SSID in Beacon. Suppresses broadcasting of the SSID name and disables
responses to probe requests. Checking this option helps prevent your wireless SSID from
being seen by unauthorized wireless clients.
2.
Type a value in milliseconds for the Beacon Interval. Decreasing the interval time makes
passive scanning more reliable and faster because Beacon frames announce the network
to the wireless connection more frequently.
Wireless Client Communications
1.
Enter the number of clients to associate with the SonicWALL wireless security appliance in
the Maximum Client Associations field. The default value is 32 which means 32 users can
access the WLAN at the same time. However, an unlimited number of wireless clients can
access the WLAN because node licensing does not apply to the WLAN.
2.
If you do not want wireless clients communicating to each other, select Disabled from the
Interclient Communications menu. If you want wireless clients communicating with each
other, select Enabled. Enabling and disabling Interclient communications changes the
associated network access rule on the Firewall > Access Rules page.
3.
Guests on the wireless network can download the SonicWALL Global VPN Client to install
on their computer or laptop. Type the URL location for the software in the VPN Client
Download URL http field. This field can contain up to 128 characters.
Configurable Antenna Diversity
The TZ 170 Wireless, TZ 180 Wireless, and TZ 190 Wireless employ dual 5 dBi antennas
running in diversity mode. The default implementation of diversity mode means that one
antenna acts as a transmitting, and both antennas act as potential receiving antenna. As radio
signals arrive at both antennas on the secure wireless appliance, the strength and integrity of
the signals are evaluated, and the best received signal is used. The selection process between
the two antennas is constant during operation to always provide the best possible signal. To
allow for external (higher gain uni-directional) antennas to be used, antenna diversity can be
disabled.
The Antenna Diversity setting determines which antenna the wireless security appliance uses
to send and receive data. You can select:
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•
Best: This is the default setting. When Best is selected, the wireless security appliance
automatically selects the antenna with the strongest, clearest signal. In most cases, Best
is the optimal setting.
•
1: Select 1 to restrict the wireless security appliance to use antenna 1 only. Facing the rear
of the SonicPoint, antenna 1 is on the left, closest to the console port. You can disconnect
antenna 2 when using only antenna 1.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Wireless > Advanced
•
2: Select 2 to restrict the wireless security appliance to use antenna 2 only. Facing the rear
of the SonicPoint, antenna 2 is on the right, closest to the power supply. You can disconnect
antenna 1 when using only antenna 2.
Antenna 1
Antenna 2
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Wireless > Advanced
Advanced Radio Settings
The following other advanced settings can be configured.
Step 1
Enable Short Slot Time: Select Enable Short Slot Time to increase performance if you only
expect 802.11g traffic. 802.11b is not compatible with short slot time.
Step 2
Select High from the Transmit Power menu to send the strongest signal on the WLAN. For
example, select High if the signal is going from building-to-building. Medium is recommended
for office-to-office within a building, and Low or Lowest is recommended for shorter distance
communications.
Step 3
Select Short or Long from the Preamble Length menu. Short is recommended for efficiency
and improved throughput on the wireless network.
Step 4
The Fragmentation Threshold (bytes) is 2346 by default. Increasing the value means that
frames are delivered with less overhead but a lost or damaged frame must be discarded and
retransmitted.
Step 5
The RTS Threshold (bytes) is 2432 by default. If network throughput is slow or a large number
of frame retransmissions is occurring, decrease the RTS threshold to enable RTS clearing.
Step 6
The default value for the DTIM Interval is 3. Increasing the DTIM Interval value allows you to
conserve power more effectively.
Step 7
The Association Timeout (seconds) is 300 seconds by default. If your network is very busy,
you can increase the timeout by increasing the number of seconds in the Association Timeout
(seconds) field.
Step 8
Set the Maximum Client Associations to limit the number of stations that can connect
wirelessly at one time. The default is 32.
Step 9
Data Rate: Select the speed at which the data is transmitted and received. Best automatically
selects the best rate available in your area given interference and other factors. You can select:
Best, 6 Mbps, 9 Mbps, 12 Mbps, 18 Mbps, 24 Mbps, 36 Mbps, 48 Mbps, or 54 Mbps.
Step 10 Protection Mode: Protection can decrease collisions, particularly where you have two
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overlapping SonicPoints. However, it can slow down performance. Auto is probably the best
setting, as it will engage only in the case of overlapping SonicPoints.
Step 11 Protection Rate: The protection rate determines the data rate when protection is on. The
slowest rate offers the greatest degree of protection but the slowest data transmission rate.
Choose 1 Mbps, 2 Mbps, 5 Mbps, or 11 Mbps.
Step 12 Protection Type: Select the type of handshake used to establish a wireless connection: CTS-
only or RTS-CTS. 802.11b traffic is only compatible with CTS.
Step 13 CCK OFDM Power Delta: This setting determines the difference in transmission power
between 802.11b (CCK mode) and 802.11g (OFDM mode). When both 802.11g and 802.11b
are used simultaneously, 802.11g covers a smaller physical area than 802.11b. Increasing the
CCK OFDM Power Delta lowers the transmission power for 802.11b, so the two radio modes
will cover the same area. Choose 0 dBm, 1 dBm, or 2 dBm.
Step 14 Click Apply in the top right corner of the page to apply your changes to the security appliance.
Click Restore Default Settings to return the radio settings to the default settings.
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CHAPTER 31
Chapter 31:
Configuring MAC Filter List
Wireless > MAC Filter List
Wireless networking provides native MAC filtering capabilities which prevents wireless clients
from authenticating and associating with the wireless security appliance. If you enforce MAC
filtering on the WLAN, wireless clients must provide you with the MAC address of their wireless
networking card.
To set up your MAC Filter List, log into the SonicWALL, and click Wireless, then MAC Filter
List.
Allow or Deny Specific Resources
The MAC Allow List contains groups of address objects for network resources that the security
appliance allows to connect via the WLAN, regardless of the selections in the deny list.
The MAC Deny List contains groups of address objects for network resources that the security
appliance denies to connect via the WLAN, regardless of the selections in the deny list.
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Wireless > MAC Filter List
The items in the list are address object groups, defined groups of objects that represent specific
IP addresses or ranges of addresses that can be used throughout the management interface
to specify network resources. An address object group can contain other address object
groups.
The Allow List and Deny List are also address object groups.
You can create individual objects in the Wireless > Mac Filter List page:
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Step 1
In the Allow List or Deny List box, select Create New MAC Address Object Group.
Step 2
In the Add Address Object Group field, enter a name for the new group
Step 3
In the left column, select the groups or individual address objects you want to allow or deny.
You can use Ctrl-click select more than one item.
Step 4
Click the > button to add the items to the group.
Step 5
Click OK to create the group and add it to the Allow List or Deny List.
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CHAPTER 32
Chapter 32:
Configuring Wireless IDS
Wireless > IDS
Wireless Intrusion Detection Services (IDS) greatly increase the security capabilities of the
SonicWALL wireless security appliances by enabling them to recognize and even take
countermeasures against the most common types of illicit wireless activity. WIDS consists of
three types of services, namely, Sequence Number Analysis, Association Flood Detection, and
Rogue Access Point Detection. Wireless IDS logging and notification can be enabled under
Log > Categories by selecting the WLAN IDS checkbox under Log Categories and Alerts.
Wireless Bridge IDS
When the Radio Role of the wireless security appliance is set to a Wireless Bridge mode,
Rogue Access Point Detection defaults to active mode (actively scanning for other Access
Points using probes on all channels).
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Wireless > IDS
Access Point IDS
When the Radio Role of the wireless security appliance is set to Access Point mode, all three
types of WIDS services are available, but Rogue Access Point detection, by default, acts in a
passive mode (passively listening to other Access Point Beacon frames only on the selected
channel of operation). Selecting Scan Now momentarily changes the Radio Role to allow the
wireless security appliance to perform an active scan, and may cause a brief loss of
connectivity for associated wireless clients. While in Access Point mode, the Scan Now
function should only be used if no clients are actively associated, or if the possibility of client
interruption is acceptable.
Enable Client Null Probing
Enabling this setting allows the wireless security appliance to detect and log Null Probes, such
as those used by Netstumbler and other similar tools.
Association Flood Detection
Association Flood is a type of Wireless Denial of Service attack intended to interrupt wireless
services by depleting the resources of a wireless Access Point. An attacker can employ a
variety of tools to establish associations, and consequently association IDs, with an access
point until it reaches its association limit (generally set to 255). Once association saturation
occurs, the access point discards further association attempts until existing associations are
terminated.
Association Flood Detection allows thresholds to be set limiting the number of association
attempts a client makes in a given span of time before its activities are considered hostile.
Association attempts default to a value of 5 (minimum value is 1, maximum value is 100) within
and the time period defaults to a value of 5 seconds (minimum value is 1 second, maximum
value is 999 seconds). If association attempts exceed the set thresholds, an event is logged
according to log settings.
If the Block station's MAC address in response to an association flood option is selected
and MAC Filtering is enabled, then in addition to logging actions, the wireless security
appliance takes the countermeasure of dynamically adding the MAC address to the MAC filter
list. Any future Denial of Service attempts by the attacker are then blocked.
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Enable Association Flood Detection is selected by default. The Association Flood
Threshold is set to 5 Association attempts within 5 seconds by default.
Intrusion Detection Settings
Rogue Access Points have emerged as one of the most serious and insidious threats to
wireless security. In general terms, an access point is considered rogue when it has not been
authorized for use on a network. The convenience, affordability and availability of non-secure
access points, and the ease with which they can be added to a network creates a easy
environment for introducing rogue access points. Specifically, the real threat emerges in a
number of different ways, including unintentional and unwitting connections to the rogue
device, transmission of sensitive data over non-secure channels, and unwanted access to LAN
resources. So while this doesn't represent a deficiency in the security of a specific wireless
device, it is a weakness to the overall security of wireless networks.
The security appliance can alleviate this weakness by recognizing rogue access points
potentially attempting to gain access to your network. It accomplishes this in two ways: active
scanning for access points on all 802.11a and 802.11g channels, and passive scanning (while
in Access Point mode) for beaconing access points on a single channel of operation.
Enable Rouge Access Point Detection is enabled by default. The Authorized Access
Points menu allows you to specify All Authorized Access Points, Create new MAC Address
Object Group, or Select an Address Object Group.
The Authorized Access Points menu allows you to specify which access points the
SonicWALL security appliance will considered authorized when it performs a scan. You can
select All Authorized Access Points to allow all SonicPoints, or you can select Create new
MAC Address Object Group to create an address object group containing a group of MAC
address to limit the list to only those SonicPoints whose MAC addresses are contained in the
address object group.
Select Create Address Object Group to add a new group of MAC address objects to the list.
Discovered Access Points
The Discovered Access Points table displays information on every access point that can be
detected by all your SonicPoints or on a individual SonicPoint basis:
•
MAC Address (BSSID): The MAC address of the radio interface of the detected access
point.
•
SSID: The radio SSID of the access point.
•
Channel: The radio channel used by the access point.
•
Manufacturer: The manufacturer of the access point. SonicPoints will show a
manufacturer of either SonicWALL or Senao.
•
Signal Strength: The strength of the detected radio signal
•
Max Rate: The fastest allowable data rate for the access point radio, typically 54 Mbps.
•
Authorize: Click the icon
in the Authorize column to add the access point to the address
object group of authorized access points.
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Wireless > IDS
Scanning for Access Points
Active scanning occurs when the wireless security appliance starts up, and at any time Scan
Now is clicked at the bottom of the Discovered Access Points table. When the wireless
security appliance is operating in a Bridge Mode, the Scan Now feature does not cause any
interruption to the bridged connectivity. When the wireless security appliance is operating in
Access Point Mode, however, a temporary interruption of wireless clients occurs for no more
than a few seconds. This interruption manifests itself as follows:
Caution
•
Non-persistent, stateless protocols (such as HTTP) should not exhibit any ill-effects.
•
Persistent connections (protocols such as FTP) are impaired or severed.
•
WiFiSec connections should automatically re-establish and resume with no noticeable
interruption to the client.
The Scan Now feature causes a brief disruption in service. If this is a concern, wait and use
the Scan Now feature at a time when no clients are active, or the potential for disruption
becomes acceptable.
Authorizing Access Points on Your Network
Access Points detected by the wireless security appliance are regarded as rogues until they
are identified to the wireless security appliance as authorized for operation. To authorize an
access point, select it in the list of access points discovered by the wireless security appliance
scanning feature, and add it clicking the Authorize icon .
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CHAPTER 33
Chapter 33:
Configuring Virtual Access Points
Wireless > Virtual Access Point
This chapter describes the Virtual Access Point feature and includes the following sections:
•
“SonicPoint VAP Overview” section on page 352
– “What Is a Virtual Access Point?” section on page 352
– “What Is an SSID?” section on page 352
– “Wireless Roaming with ESSID” section on page 353
– “What Is a BSSID?” section on page 353
– “Benefits of Using Virtual APs” section on page 353
•
“Virtual AP Configuration Task List” section on page 353
– “VAP Configuration Overview” section on page 354
– “Network Zones” section on page 354
– “WLAN Subnets” section on page 359
– “DHCP Server Scope” section on page 360
– “Virtual Access Points Profiles” section on page 361
– “Virtual Access Points” section on page 363
– “Virtual Access Point Groups” section on page 364
•
“Thinking Critically About VAPs” section on page 365
– “Determining Your VAP Needs” section on page 365
– “A Sample Network” section on page 365
– “Determining Security Configurations” section on page 366
– “VAP Configuration Worksheet” section on page 366
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Wireless > Virtual Access Point
SonicPoint VAP Overview
This section provides an introduction to the Virtual Access Point feature. This section contains
the following subsections:
•
“What Is a Virtual Access Point?” section on page 352
•
“What Is an SSID?” section on page 352
•
“Wireless Roaming with ESSID” section on page 353
•
“What Is a BSSID?” section on page 353
•
“Benefits of Using Virtual APs” section on page 353
What Is a Virtual Access Point?
A Virtual Access Point is a multiplexed instantiation of a single physical Access Point (AP) so
that it presents itself as multiple discrete Access Points. To wireless LAN clients, each Virtual
AP appears to be an independent physical AP, when in actuality there is only a single physical
AP. Before the evolution of the Virtual AP feature support, wireless networks were relegated to
a one-to-one relationship between physical Access Points and wireless network security
characteristics, such as authentication and encryption. In other words, an Access Point
providing WPA-PSK security could not simultaneously offer Open or WPA-EAP connectivity to
clients, and if the latter were required, they would had to have been provided by a separate,
distinctly configured Access Points. This forced WLAN network administrators to find a solution
to scale their existing wireless LAN infrastructure to provide differentiated levels of service.
With the Virtual APs (VAP) feature, multiple VAPs can exist within a single physical AP in
compliance with the IEEE 802.11 standard for the media access control (MAC) protocol layer
that includes a unique Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) and Service Set Identified (SSID).
This allows for segmenting wireless network services within a single radio frequency footprint
of a single physical access point device.
VAPs allow the network administrator to control wireless user access and security settings by
setting up multiple custom configurations on a single physical interface. Each of these custom
configurations acts as a separate (virtual) access point, and can be grouped and enforced on
single or multiple physical SonicPoint access points simultaneously.
What Is an SSID?
A Service Set IDentifier (SSID) is the name assigned to a wireless network. Wireless clients
must use this same, case-sensitive SSID to communicate to the SonicPoint. The SSID consists
of a text string up to 32 bytes long. Multiple SonicPoints on a network can use the same SSIDs.
You can configure up to 8 unique SSIDs on SonicPoints and assign different configuration
settings to each SSID.
SonicPoints broadcast a beacon (announcements of availability of a wireless network) for every
SSID configured. By default, the SSID is included within the beacon so that wireless clients can
see the wireless networks. The option to suppress the SSID within the beacon is provided on
a per-SSID (e.g. per-VAP or per-AP) basis to help conceal the presence of a wireless network,
while still allowing clients to connect by manually specifying the SSID.
The following settings can be assigned to each VAP:
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Authentication method
•
Maximum number of client associations using the SSID
•
SSID Suppression
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Wireless Roaming with ESSID
An ESSID (Extended Service Set IDentifier) is a collection of Access Points (or Virtual Access
Points) sharing the same SSID. A typical wireless network comprises more than one AP for the
purpose of covering geographic areas larger than can be serviced by a single AP. As clients
move through the wireless network, the strength of their wireless connection decreases as they
move away from one Access Point (AP1) and increases as they move toward another (AP2).
Providing AP1 and AP2 are on the same ESSID (for example, ‘sonicwall’) and that the (V)APs
share the same SSID and security configurations, the client will be able to roam from one to the
other. This roaming process is controlled by the wireless client hardware and driver, so roaming
behavior can differ from one client to the next, but it is generally dependent upon the signal
strength of each AP within an ESSID.
What Is a BSSID?
A BSSID (Basic Service Set IDentifier) is the wireless equivalent of a MAC (Media Access
Control) address, or a unique hardware address of an AP or VAP for the purposes of
identification. Continuing the example of the roaming wireless client from the ESSID section
above, as the client on the ‘sonicwall’ ESSID moves away from AP1 and toward AP2, the
strength of the signal from the former will decrease while the latter increases. The client’s
wireless card and driver constantly monitors these levels, differentiating between the (V)APs
by their BSSID. When the card/driver’s criteria for roaming are met, the client will detach from
the BSSID of AP1 and attach to the BSSID or AP2, all the while remaining connected the
‘sonicwall’ ESSID.
Benefits of Using Virtual APs
This section includes a list of benefits in using the Virtual AP feature:
•
Radio Channel Conservation—Prevents building overlapped infrastructures by allowing
a single Physical Access Point to be used for multiple purposes to avoid channel collision
problem. Channel conservation. Multiple providers are becoming the norm within public
spaces such as airports. Within an airport, it might be necessary to support an FAA
network, one or more airline networks, and perhaps one or more Wireless ISPs. However,
in the US and Europe, 802.11b networks can only support three usable (non-overlapping)
channels, and in France and Japan only one channel is available. Once the channels are
utilized by existing APs, additional APs will interfere with each other and reduce
performance. By allowing a single network to be used for multiple purposes, Virtual APs
conserve channels.
Virtual AP Configuration Task List
A VAP deployment requires several steps to configure. The following section provides first a
brief overview of the steps involved, and then a more in-depth examination of the parts that
make up a successful VAP deployment. This subsequent sections describe VAP deployment
requirements and provides an administrator configuration task list:
•
“VAP Configuration Overview” section on page 354
•
“Network Zones” section on page 354
•
“WLAN Subnets” section on page 359
•
“DHCP Server Scope” section on page 360
•
“Virtual Access Points Profiles” section on page 361
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•
“Virtual Access Points” section on page 363
•
“Virtual Access Point Groups” section on page 364
VAP Configuration Overview
The following are required areas of configuration for VAP deployment. This sequence of steps
is designed specifically to honor dependencies, provide configuration task efficiency, and
minimize the total number of required steps for VAP configuration.
1.
Zone - The Zone is the backbone of your VAP configuration. Each Zone you create will
have its own security and access control settings and you can create and apply multiple
zones to a single physical interface by way of wireless sub-interfaces.
2.
Wireless Subnet - The Wireless subnet represents the IP address segment that will be
used for the VAP. Each VAP must have its own WLAN subnet, and the WLAN subnet must
be created before the VAP is created.
3.
NSA DHCP Server - The DHCP server assigns leased IP addresses to users within
specified ranges, known as “Scopes”. It is important to note here that the default ranges for
DHCP scopes are often excessive for the needs of most NSA wireless appliance
deployments. For instance, a scope of 200 addresses for a sub-interface that only supports
30 users is rather excessive. Be aware of this during your setup and take care to ensure
the available DHCP lease scope for your NSA is not exhausted.
4.
Virtual Access Points - The Virtual Access Points section allows for setup of general VAP
settings including SSID, wireless subnet association and authentication settings.
5.
VAP Groups - The VAP Group feature allows for grouping of multiple Virtual Access Points
into one object to be provisioned to the wireless radio.
6.
Assign WEP Key (optional for WEP encryption) - Up to 4 keys can be defined per-NSA
wireless appliance, and WEP-enabled VAPs can use these 4 keys independently. WEP
keys are configured on Wireless > Security page.
7.
Assign Virtual Access Points to Wireless Radio - This feature allows you to choose
which VAP group to assign to the radio. Only a single VAP Group can be assigned to a
wireless radio, so ensure that all of the VAPs you wish to make available are assigned to
this group.
Network Zones
This section contains the following sub-sections:
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•
“The Wireless Zone” section on page 355
•
“Custom Wireless Zone Settings” section on page 355
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Wireless > Virtual Access Point
A network security zone is a logical method of grouping one or more interfaces with friendly,
user-configurable names, and applying security rules as traffic passes from one zone to
another zone. With the zone-based security, the administrator can group similar interfaces and
apply the same policies to them, instead of having to write the same policy for each interface.
Network Zones are configured from the Network > Zones page
For detailed information on configuring zones, see “Network > Zones” section on page 191.
The Wireless Zone
The Wireless Zone type, of which the “WLAN Zone” is the default instance, provides support to
SonicWALL NSA wireless appliances. Each interface or sub-interface is assigned to a Wireless
Zone, and that zone dictates security settings above the 802.11 layer, including WiFiSec
Enforcement, SSL-VPN redirection, Wireless Guest Services, Lightweight Hotspot Messaging
and all licensed Deep Packet Inspection security services.
Custom Wireless Zone Settings
Although SonicWALL provides the pre-configured Wireless Zone, administrators also have the
ability to create their own custom wireless zones. When using VAPs, a new wireless zone is
created before each corresponding wireless sub-interface or Virtual Access Point. The
following three sections describe settings for custom wireless zones:
•
“General” section on page 356
•
“Wireless” section on page 357
•
“Guest Services” section on page 358
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General
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Feature
Description
Name
Create a name for your custom Zone
Security Type
Select Wireless in order to enable and access wireless security
options.
Allow Interface Trust
Select this option to automatically create access rules to allow
traffic to flow between the interfaces of a zone. This will effectively
allow users on a wireless zone to communicate with each other.
This option is often disabled when setting up Wireless Guest
Services (WGS).
SonicWALL Security
Services
Select the security services you wish to enforce on this zone. This
allows you to extend your SonicWALL UTM security services to
your SonicPoints.
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Wireless
Feature
Description
Only allow traffic generated
by a SonicPoint
Restricts traffic on this zone to SonicPoint-generated traffic
only.
SSL-VPN Enforcement
Redirects all traffic entering the Wireless Zone to a defined
SonicWALL SSL-VPN appliance. This allows all wireless traffic
to be authenticated and encrypted by the SSL-VPN, using, for
example, NetExtender to tunnel all traffic. Note: Wireless traffic
that is tunneled through an SSL-VPN will appear to originate
from the SSL-VPN rather than from the Wireless Zone.
SSL-VPN Server - Select the Address Object representing the
SSL-VPN appliance to which you wish to redirect wireless
traffic.
WiFiSec Enforcement
Requires all traffic be either IPsec or WPA. With this option
checked, all non-guest connections must be IPsec enforced.
WiFiSec Exception Service - Select the service(s) you wish to
be exempt from WiFiSec Enforcement.
Require WiFiSec for Site-to- For use with WiFiSec enforcement, requires WiFiSec security
site VPN Tunnel Traversal
on all site-to-site VPN connections through this zone.
Trust WPA/WPA2 traffic as
WiFiSec
Allows WPA or WPA2 to be used as an alternative to WiFiSec.
SonicPoint Provisioning
Profile
Select a pre-defined SonicPoint Provisioning Profile to be
applied to all current and future SonicPoints on this zone.
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Guest Services
The Enable Wireless Guest Services option allows the following guest services to be applied
to a zone:
Feature
Description
Enable inter-guest
communication
Allows guests connecting to SonicPoints in this Wireless Zone to
communicate directly and wirelessly with each other.
Bypass AV Check for
Guests
Allows guest traffic to bypass Anti-Virus protection
Enable Dynamic Address
Translation (DAT)
Dynamic Address Translation (DAT) allows the zone to support
any IP addressing scheme for WGS users.
If this option is disabled (un-checked), wireless guest users must
either have DHCP enabled, or an IP addressing scheme
compatible with the SonicPoint’s network settings.
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Enable External Guest
Authentication
Requires guests connecting from the device or network you
select to authenticate before gaining access. This feature, based
on Lightweight Hotspot Messaging (LHM) is used for
authenticating Hotspot users and providing them parametrically
bound network access.
Custom Authentication
Page
Redirects users to a custom authentication page when they first
connect to the Wireless Zone. Click Configure to set up the
custom authentication page. Enter either a URL to an
authentication page or a custom challenge statement in the text
field, and click OK.
Post Authentication Page
Directs users to the page you specify immediately after
successful authentication. Enter a URL for the postauthentication page in the filed.
Bypass Guest
Authentication
Allows WGS to integrate into environments already using some
form of user-level authentication. This feature automates the
WGS authentication process, allowing wireless users to reach
WGS resources without requiring authentication. This feature
should only be used when unrestricted WGS access is desired,
or when another upstream device is enforcing authentication.
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Feature
Description
Redirect SMTP traffic to
Redirects SMTP traffic incoming on this zone to an SMTP server
you specify. Select the address object to redirect traffic to.
Deny Networks
Blocks traffic from the networks you specify. Select the subnet,
address group, or IP address to block traffic from.
Pass Networks
Automatically allows traffic through the Wireless Zone from the
networks you select.
Max Guests
Specifies the maximum number of guest users allowed to
connect to the Wireless Zone. The default is 10.
WLAN Subnets
WLAN subnets are used to segment IP address space for use by Virtual Access Points (VAP).
Each VAP must have a separate WLAN subnet, and you must create the WLAN subnet before
creating the VAP. To create a WLAN subnet, complete the following steps.
Step 1
Navigate to the Network > Interfaces page.
Step 2
Click the Add WLAN Subnet button.
Step 3
Configure the following options:
•
Zone: By default, the zone is set to WLAN. You can select any other wireless zone that you
have created on the Network > Zones page.
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•
Subnet Name: The name of the interface.
•
IP Address: The first IP address in the subnet. Make sure that the IP address subnet does
not conflict with another address range.
•
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0 is the default
•
SonicPoint Limit: The maximum number of allowed SonicPoints is configured automatically.
•
Comment: Optionally enter a comment about the subnet.
•
Management: Select the appropriate protocols to allow remote management of the
SonicWALL security appliance from this subnet.
•
User Login: Select HTTP and/or HTTPS to allow users with limited management rights to
log in to the SonicWALL security appliance.
•
Add rule to enable redirect from HTTP to HTTPS: If you select HTTPS but do not select
HTTP for either Management or User Login, select this option to redirect HTTP users to
HTTPS.
•
Create default DHCP Lease Scope: Select to create a DHCP lease scope for this subnet.
The DHCP lease scope consists of the IP addresses that are reserved for users who
connect to the VAP associated with this WLAN subnet. This option is enabled by default.
To configure additional options for the DHCP lease scope (such as the number of IP
addresses and the lease time), go to the Network > DHCP Server page, locate the lease
scope in the DHCP Server Lease Scope table, and click on the Configure icon. See
“Network > DHCP Server” section on page 277 for more information.
Step 4
Optionally, you can enable multicast reception on the subnet by clicking on the Advanced tab
and selecting the Enable multicast support checkbox.
Step 5
Click OK.
DHCP Server Scope
The DHCP server assigns leased IP addresses to users within specified ranges, known as
“Scopes”. The default ranges for DHCP scopes are often excessive for the needs of most
SonicPoint deployments, for instance, a scope of 200 addresses for an interface that will only
use 30. Because of this, DHCP ranges must be set carefully in order to ensure the available
lease scope is not exhausted.
The DHCP scope should be resized as each interface/sub-interface is defined to ensure that
adequate DHCP space remains for all subsequently defined interfaces. Failure to do so may
cause the auto-creation of subsequent DHCP scopes to fail, requiring manual creation after
performing the requisite scope resizing. DHCP Server Scope is set from the Network > DHCP
Server page.
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Virtual Access Points Profiles
A Virtual Access Point Profile allows the administrator to pre-configure and save access point
settings in a profile. VAP Profiles allows settings to be easily applied to new Virtual Access
Points. Virtual Access Point Profiles are created by clicking the Add... button in the Virtual
Access Point Profiles section of the Wireless > Virtual Access Point page.
Virtual Access Point Profile Settings
The table below lists configuration parameters and descriptions for Virtual Access Point Profile
Settings:
Feature
Description
Radio Type
Set to Wireless-Internal-Radio by default. This is currently the
only supported radio type.
Name
Choose a friendly name for this VAP Profile. Choose
something descriptive and easy to remember as you will later
apply this profile to new VAPs.
Authentication Type
Below is a list available authentication types with descriptive
features and uses for each:
WPA
•
Good security (uses TKIP)
•
For use with trusted corporate wireless clients
•
Transparent authentication with Windows log-in
•
No client software needed in most cases
WPA2
•
Best security (uses AES)
•
For use with trusted corporate wireless clients
•
Transparent authentication with Windows log-in
•
Client software install may be necessary in some cases
•
Supports 802.11i “Fast Roaming” feature
•
No backend authentication needed after first log-in (allows
for faster roaming)
WPA2-AUTO
•
Unicast Cipher
Tries to connect using WPA2 security, if the client is not
WPA2 capable, the connection will default to WPA.
The unicast cipher will be automatically chosen based on the
authentication type.
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Feature
Description
Multicast Cipher
The multicast cipher will be automatically chosen based on the
authentication type.
Maximum Clients
Choose the maximum number of concurrent client connections
permissible for this virtual access point.
WPA-PSK / WPA2-PSK Encryption Settings
Pre-Shared Key (PSK) is available when using WPA or WPA2. This solution utilizes a shared
key.
Feature
Description
Pass Phrase
The shared passphrase users will enter when connecting with PSKbased authentication.
Group Key Interval
The time period (in seconds) during which the WPA/WPA2 group key is
enforced to be updated.
WPA-EAP / WPA2-EAP Encryption Settings
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is available when using WPA or WPA2. This solution
utilizes an external 802.1x/EAP capable RADIUS server for key generation.
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Feature
Description
Radius Server 1
The name/location of your Radius authentication server
Radius Server 1 Port
The port on which your Radius authentication server communicates with
clients and network devices.
Radius Server 1
Secret
The secret passcode for your Radius authentication server
Radius Server 2
The name/location of your backup Radius authentication server
Radius Server 2 Port
The port on which your backup Radius authentication server
communicates with clients and network devices.
Radius Server 2
Secret
The secret passcode for your backup Radius authentication server
Group Key Interval
The time period (in seconds) during which the WPA/WPA2 group key is
enforced to be updated.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Wireless > Virtual Access Point
Virtual Access Points
Virtual Access Points are configured from the Wireless > Virtual Access Point page by
clicking the Add... button in the Virtual Access Points section.
General VAP Settings
Feature
Description
SSID
Create a friendly name for your VAP.
Subnet name
Select the WLAN subnet that will be used for this VAP. The WLAN subnet
must be created on the Network > Interfaces page before you can
create the VAP.
Enable Virtual
Access Point
Enables this VAP.
Enable SSID
Suppress
Suppresses broadcasting of the SSID name and disables responses to
probe requests. Check this option if you do not wish for your SSID to be
seen by
unauthorized wireless clients.
Advanced VAP Settings
Advanced settings allows the administrator to configure authentication and encryption settings
for this connection. Choose a Profile Name to inherit these settings from a user created profile.
See “Virtual Access Points Profiles” section on page 361 for complete authentication and
encryption configuration information.
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Wireless > Virtual Access Point
Virtual Access Point Groups
The VAP Group feature allows for grouping of multiple VAP objects to be simultaneously
applied to the integrated wireless radio of the SonicWALL security appliance. Virtual Access
Point Groups are configured from the Wireless > Virtual Access Point page.
After you have created your VAPs, you must add them to the VAP group.
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Step 1
Click the Configure icon next to the Virtual Access Point group, which is named Internal AP
Group by default. The Edit Virtual Access Point Group window displays.
Step 2
Optionally, you can change the Virtual AP Group Name.
Step 3
Select the desired VAPs from the list and click the ->
button to add them to the group.
Optionally, click the Add All button to add all VAPs to a single group.
Step 4
Press the OK button to save changes and create the group.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Thinking Critically About VAPs
Thinking Critically About VAPs
This section provides content to help determine what your VAP requirements are and how to
apply these requirements to a useful VAP configuration. This section contains the following
sub-sections:
•
“Determining Your VAP Needs” section on page 365
•
“A Sample Network” section on page 365
•
“Determining Security Configurations” section on page 366
•
“VAP Configuration Worksheet” section on page 366
Determining Your VAP Needs
When deciding how to configure your VAPs, begin by considering your communication needs,
particularly:
•
How many different classes of wireless users do I need to support?
•
How do I want to secure these different classes of wireless users?
– Do my wireless client have the required hardware and drivers to support the chosen
security settings?
•
What network resources do my wireless users need to communicate with?
– Do any of these wireless users need to communicate with other wireless users?
•
What security services do I wish to apply to each of these classes or wireless users?
A Sample Network
The following is a sample VAP network configuration, describing four separate VAPs:
•
VAP #1, Corporate Wireless Users – A set of users who are commonly in the office, and
to whom should be given full access to all network resources, providing that the connection
is authenticated and secure. These users already belong to the network’s Directory
Service, Microsoft Active Directory, which provides an EAP interface through IAS – Internet
Authentication Services
•
VAP #2, Visiting Partners – Business partners, clients, and affiliated who frequently visit
the office, and who need access to a limited set of trusted network resources, as well as
the Internet. These users are not located in the company’s Directory Services.
•
VAP #3, Guest Users – Visiting clients to whom you wish to provide access only to
untrusted (e.g. Internet) network resources. Some guest users will be provided a simple,
temporary username and password for access.
•
VAP #4, Frequent Guest Users – Same as Guest Users, however, these users will have
more permanent guest accounts through a back-end database.
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Thinking Critically About VAPs
Determining Security Configurations
Understanding these requirements, you can then define the Zones (and interfaces) and VAPs
that will provide wireless services to these users:
•
Corp Wireless – Highly trusted wireless Zone. Employs WPA2-AUTO-EAP security.
WiFiSec (WPA) Enforced.
•
WEP & PSK – Moderate trust wireless Zone. Comprises two virtual APs and sub-interfaces,
one for legacy WEP devices (e.g. wireless printers, older handheld devices) and one for
visiting clients who will use WPA-PSK security.
•
WGS – Wireless Guest Services Zone, using the internal WGS user database.
•
LHM – Lightweight Hotspot Messaging enabled Zone, configured to use external LHM
authentication-back-end server.
VAP Configuration Worksheet
The worksheet on the following page provides some common VAP setup questions and
solutions along with a space for you to record your own configurations.
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Thinking Critically About VAPs
Questions
How many different types of
users will I need to support?
How many users will each VAP
need to support?
Examples
Corporate wireless, guest access,
visiting partners, wireless devices
are all common user types, each
requiring their own VAP
Your Configurations:
Solutions
Plan out the number of different
VAPs needed. Configure a Zone
and WLAN subnet for each VAP
needed
A corporate campus has 100
employees, all of whom have
wireless capabilities
A corporate campus often has a few
dozen wireless capable visitors
The DHCP scope for the visitor
Zone is set to provide at least 100
addresses
The DHCP scope for the visitor
Zone is set to provide at least 25
addresses
Your Configurations:
How do I want to secure different A corporate user who has access to
wireless users?
corporate LAN resources.
A guest user who is restricted to
only internet access
A legacy wireless printer on the
corporate LAN
Your Configurations:
Configure WPA2-EAP
What network resources do my
users need to communicate
with?
Enable Interface Trust on your
corporate zone.
A corporate user who needs access
to the corporate LAN and all internal
LAN resources, including other
WLAN users.
A wireless guest who needs to
access internet and should not be
allowed to communicate with other
WLAN users.
Your Configurations:
Enable WGS but configure no
security settings
Configure WEP and enable MAC
address filtering
Disable Interface Trust on your
guest zone.
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Thinking Critically About VAPs
Questions
What security services to I wish
to apply to my users?
368
Examples
Corporate users who you want
protected by the full SonicWALL
security suite.
Guest users who have no LAN
access.
Your Configurations:
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Solutions
Enable all SonicWALL security
services.
Disable all SonicWALL security
services.
PART 5
WWAN
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CHAPTER 34
Chapter34:
Configuring Wireless WAN (TZ 190 only)
WWAN
This chapter describes how to configure the Wireless WAN interface on the SonicWALL TZ 190
appliance. It contains the following sections:
•
“Wireless WAN Overview” on page 371
•
“Wireless WAN Prerequisites” on page 376
•
“Viewing the WWAN Status” on page 377
•
“Configuring Wireless WAN” on page 377
•
“Monitoring WWAN Data Usage” on page 385
•
“WWAN Glossary” on page 386
Wireless WAN Overview
This section provides an overview of WWAN. It contains the following sections:
•
“What is WWAN?” on page 371
•
“Understanding Wireless WAN Connection Models” on page 372
•
“Understanding WWAN Failover” on page 373
•
“Wireless WAN PC Card Support” on page 376
•
“3G Wireless WAN Service Provider Support” on page 376
What is WWAN?
The SonicWALL TZ 190 security appliance introduces support for 3G (Third Generation)
Wireless WAN connections that utilize data connections over 3G Cellular networks. The
Wireless WAN (WWAN) can be used for:
•
WAN Failover to a connection that is not dependent on wire or cable.
•
Temporary networks where a pre-configured connection may not be available, such as
trade-shows and kiosks.
•
Mobile networks, were the SonicWALL TZ 190 is based in a vehicle.
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•
Primary WAN connection where wire-based connections are not available and 3G Cellular
is.
Wireless Wide Area Networks provide untethered remote network access through the use of
mobile or cellular data networks. While legacy cellular networks, such as GSM, were only able
to provide data rates of about 14 Kbps, today's emerging WWAN technologies (such as UMTS
and HSDPA) provide theoretical data rates of up to 10 Mbps, rivaling many wired technologies.
The cellular networks powering Wireless Wide Area Networking have been evolving very
quickly, and as a result comprise many different implementations. Fundamentally, they fall into
two protocols:
•
GSM - Global System for Mobile Communication - The most widely used protocol
outside of the Americas. GSM is often regarded as less susceptible to signal degradation
indoors. Although GSM is used both in the Americas and the rest of the world, the American
implementation operates on a different frequency, and interoperability is not guaranteed
unless explicitly supported by the equipment.
•
CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access - The most widely used protocol in the Americas.
CDMA has capacity advantages over GSM, but congestion tends to reduce its operating
range.
Understanding Wireless WAN Connection Models
The TZ190 provides flexible control over WAN connectivity with the WAN Connection Model
setting. Accessible from the Network > Interfaces page of the management interface, the
WAN Connection Model settings allows the administrator to precisely control the behavior of
the WWAN connection. The three settings are as follows:
•
WWAN Only – For use when the WWAN is the only WAN connection in use on the TZ190.
•
Ethernet Only – For use when the WWAN is to be disabled. The Ethernet WAN (the WAN
port, OPT port, or both) is the only WAN connection in use on the TZ190.
•
Ethernet with WWAN Failover – For use when both the WWAN and the Ethernet WAN
(the WAN port, OPT port, or both) are to serve as WAN connections on the TZ190.
In addition to the WAN Connection Model setting, the following changes were also introduced
in SonicOS Enhanced 3.6 (and later versions) to optimize the operation of the WWAN interface:
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•
To more accurately reflect the operation of WAN load balancing and Failover sub-system,
the WAN Failover & LB page has been renamed to Ethernet LB.
•
Failover between the Ethernet WAN (the WAN port, OPT port, or both) and the WWAN is
supported through the WAN Connection Model setting, but Load-balancing is currently
only supported on Ethernet WAN interfaces. WWAN interface traffic statistics will continue
to be displayed in the WAN Load Balancing Statistics table on the Network > Ethernet LB
page.
•
The WAN Load-balancing and Failover sub-system is now permanently enabled for more
transparent support of the WAN Connection Model setting. This was previously controlled
by the Enable Load Balancing setting on the WAN Failover & LB page.
•
WWAN interface probe monitoring appears on the WWAN > Settings page under the
WWAN Probe Settings heading. (Ethernet WAN interface probe settings is unchanged on
the Network > Ethernet LB page under the WAN Interfaces Monitoring section.)
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
WWAN
Understanding WWAN Failover
When the WAN Connection Model is set to Ethernet with WWAN Failover, the WAN
(Ethernet) interface is the primary connection. If the WAN interface fails, the SonicWALL TZ
190 fails over to the WWAN interface.
Note
It is important to note that the WAN-to-WWAN failover process is different for the three
different WWAN Connection Profile dial types: Persistent, Dial on Data, and Manual Dial.
The following sections describe the three different methods of WAN-to-WWAN failover:
•
“Persistent Connection WWAN Failover” on page 373
•
“Dial on Data WWAN Failover” on page 374
•
“Manual Dial WWAN Failover” on page 375
Persistent Connection WWAN Failover
The following diagram depicts the sequence of events that occur when the WAN ethernet
connection fails and the WWAN Connection Profile is configured for Persistent Connection.
1.
Primary Ethernet connection available – The Ethernet WAN interface is connected and
used as the primary connection. WWAN is never connected while the Ethernet WAN
interface is available (unless an explicit route has been configured which specifies WWAN
as the destination interface).
2.
Primary Ethernet connection fails – The WWAN connection is initiated and remains in an
“always-on” state while the Ethernet WAN connection is down.
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WWAN
If a secondary Ethernet WAN (the OPT port) is configured, the TZ190 will first failover to
the secondary Ethernet WAN before failing over to the WWAN. In this situation, WWAN
failover will only occur when both the WAN and OPT paths are unavailable.
3.
Caution
Reestablishing Primary Ethernet Connectivity After Failover – When the Ethernet
WAN connection (either the WAN port or the OPT port, if so configured) becomes available
again, all LAN-to-WAN traffic is automatically routed back to the available Ethernet WAN
connection. This includes active connections and VPN connections. The WWAN
connection is closed.
It is not recommended to configure a policy-based route that uses the WWAN connection
when the WAN Connection Model is set for Ethernet with WWAN Failover. If a policybased route is configured to use the WWAN connection, the connection will remain up until
the Maximum Connection Time (if configured) is reached.
Dial on Data WWAN Failover
The following diagram depicts the sequence of events that occur when the WAN ethernet
connection fails and the WWAN Connection Profile is configured for Dial on Data.
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1.
Primary Ethernet connection available – The Ethernet WAN interface is connected and
used as the primary connection. WWAN is never connected while the Ethernet WAN
interface is available (unless an explicit route has been configured which specifies WWAN
as the destination interface).
2.
Primary Ethernet Connection Fails – The WWAN connection is not established until
qualifying outbound data attempts to pass through the SonicWALL TZ 190 appliance.
3.
WWAN Connection Established – The WWAN connection is established when the device
or a network node attempts to transfer qualifying data to the Internet. The WWAN
connection stays enabled until the Maximum Connection Time (if configured) is reached.
4.
Reestablishing WAN Ethernet Connectivity After Failover – When an Ethernet WAN
connection becomes available again, all LAN-to-WAN traffic is automatically routed back to
the available Ethernet WAN connection. The WWAN connection is closed.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
WWAN
Caution
It is not recommended to configure a policy-based route that uses the WWAN connection
when the WAN Connection Model is set for Ethernet with WWAN Failover. If a policybased route is configured to use the WWAN connection, the connection will remain up until
the Maximum Connection Time (if configured) is reached.
Manual Dial WWAN Failover
The following diagram depicts the sequence of events that occur when the WAN ethernet
connection fails and the WWAN Connection Profile is configured for Manual Dial.
Caution
It is not recommended to use a Manual Dial WWAN Connection Profile when the WAN
Connection Model is set for Ethernet with WWAN Failover. The Manual Dial WWAN
Connection Profile is only intended to be used when the device's WAN Connection Model is
set to WWAN Only in the Network > Interfaces page.
1.
Primary Ethernet Connection Available - The Ethernet WAN is connected and used as
the primary connection. WWAN is never connected while the Ethernet WAN connection is
available.
2.
Primary Ethernet Connection Fails - The WWAN connection is not established until the
administrator manually enables the connection.
3.
WWAN Connection Established – A WWAN connection is established when the
administrator manually enables the connection on the SonicWALL TZ 190. The WWAN
connection stays enabled until the administrator manually disables the connection.
4.
Reestablishing WAN Ethernet Connectivity After Failover – Regardless of whether the
an Ethernet connection becomes available again, all LAN-to-WAN traffic will still use the
manually enabled WWAN connection until the connection is manually disabled by the
administrator. After a manual disconnect, the available Ethernet connection will be used.
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WWAN
Wireless WAN PC Card Support
To use the wireless WAN interface you must have a wireless WAN PC card and a contract with
a wireless service provider. Because both GSM and CDMA provide virtually the same
performance, a WWAN service provider should be selected based primarily on the availability
of supported hardware. SonicOS Enhanced 3.6 (and later versions) and the SonicWALL TZ 190
support the following wireless WAN PC cards (this list subject to change):
•
Option Globe Trotter GTmax World (GPRS/EDGE/UMTS/HSDPA)
•
Option Globe Trotter HSDPA (GPRS/EDGE/UMTS/HSDPA)
•
Sierra Wireless Aircard 860 (GPRS/EDGE/UMTS/HSDPA)
•
Sprint Novatel Merlin S620 (CDMA/EVDO)
•
Sprint Novatel Merlin S720 (CDMA/EVDO)
•
Verizon Wireless V620 (CDMA/EVDO)
3G Wireless WAN Service Provider Support
SonicOS Enhanced 3.6 (and later versions) and the SonicWALL TZ 190 support the following
3G Wireless network providers (this list is subject to change):
•
Cingular Wireless
•
H3G
•
Sprint PCS Wireless
•
Verizon Wireless
•
Vodafone
•
Telecom Italia Mobile
•
Telefonica
•
T-Mobile
•
TDC Song
•
Orange
Wireless WAN Prerequisites
Before configuring the Wireless WAN interface on the SonicWALL TZ 190, you must complete
the following prerequisites:
•
Purchase a wireless WAN service plan from a supported third-party wireless provider
•
Configure and activate your wireless WAN PC card
•
Insert the Wireless WAN PC card into the SonicWALL TZ 190
For information on configuring these prerequisites, see the SonicWALL TZ 190 Getting Started
Guide.
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Viewing the WWAN Status
The WWAN > Status page displays the current status of WWAN on the SonicWALL TZ190. It
indicates the status of the WWAN connection, the current active WAN interface, or the current
backup WAN interface. It also displays IP address information, DNS server addresses, the
current active dial up profile, and the current signal strength.
Configuring Wireless WAN
To configure the Wireless WAN interface on the SonicWALL TZ 190 appliance, complete the
following tasks:
•
“Configuring WWAN Basic Settings” on page 377
•
“Configuring WWAN Advanced Settings” on page 380
•
“Configuring WWAN Connection Profiles” on page 381
•
“Configuring the Maximum Allowed WWAN Connections” on page 384
•
“Managing WWAN Connections” on page 384
•
“Specifying the WAN Connection Model” on page 385
Most of the WWAN settings can also be configured on the Network > Interfaces page. WWAN
Connection Profiles can only be configured on the WWAN > Connection Profiles page. The
maximum number of hosts allowed to connect to the WWAN interface can only be configured
on the Network > Interfaces page. See “Configuring the Wireless WAN Interface” on page 152
for more information.
Configuring WWAN Basic Settings
On the WWAN > Settings page, you can configure the following three settings:
•
“Connect on Data” on page 378
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•
“Management/User Login” on page 379
•
“WWAN Probe Settings” on page 379
Connect on Data
The Connect on Data Categories settings allow you to configure the WWAN interface to
automatically connect to the WWAN service provider when the SonicWALL TZ 190 detects
specific types of traffic.
The Connect on Data Categories include:
•
NTP packets
•
GMS Heartbeats
•
System log e-mails
•
AV Profile Updates
•
SNMP Traps
•
Licensed Updates
•
Firmware Update requests
•
Syslog traffic
To configure the SonicWALL TZ 190 for Connect on Data operation, you must select Dial on
Data as the Dial Type for the Connection Profile. See “Configuring WWAN Connection
Profiles” on page 381 for more details.
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Management/User Login
The Management/User Login section must be configure to enable remote management of the
SonicWALL TZ 190 appliance over the WWAN interface.
You can select any of the supported management protocol(s): HTTPS, Ping, and/or SNMP.
You can also select HTTP for management traffic. However, bear in mind that HTTP traffic is
less secure than HTTPS.
Select Add rule to enable redirect from HTTP to HTTPS to have the SonicWALL
automatically convert HTTP requests to HTTPS requests for added security. This option is only
available
WWAN Probe Settings
The WWAN Probe Settings section enables administrators to configure the WWAN interface
to monitor the connection to the service provider and automatically disable the WWAN interface
if the WWAN connection fails.
Note
If the Probe Target is unable to contact the target device, the WWAN interface is deactivated
and traffic is no longer sent to the WWAN.
5.
In the WWAN Probe Settings menu, select one of the following options:
Š Probe succeeds when either Main Target or Alternate Target responds
Š Probe succeeds when both Main Target and Alternative Target respond
Š Probe succeeds when Main Target responds
6.
Š Succeeds Always (no probing)
For both the Main Target and, when applicable, the Alternate Target configure the
following:
a Select Ping (ICMP) or TCP from the Probe Target menu.
b Enter the IP address of the main target device in the IP Address field.
Tip
To have the SonicWALL security appliance send WWAN probes to the default gateway
received during WWAN negotiation, leave the IP address field as 0.0.0.0.
c If the probe target is using TCP, enter a port number in the Port field.
d Check the SNWL? box if the target device is a SonicWALL security appliance. Do not check
the SNWL? box for third-party devices, as the TCP probes may not work consistently.
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Configuring WWAN Advanced Settings
The WWAN > Advanced page is used to configure the Remotely Triggered Dial-Out feature on
the SonicWALL TZ 190. The Remotely Triggered Dial-Out feature enables network
administrators to remotely initiate a WWAN connection from a SonicWALL TZ 190.
Configuring Remotely Triggered Dial-Out
Before configuring the Remotely Triggered Dial-Out feature, ensure that your configuration
meets the following prerequisites:
•
The WWAN profile is configured for dial-on-data.
•
The SonicWALL Security Appliance is configured to be managed using HTTPS, so that the
device can be accessed remotely.
•
It is recommended that you enter a value in the Enable Max Connection Time (minutes)
field. This field is located in the WWAN Profile Configuration window on the Parameters
tab. See “Configuring WWAN Connection Profiles” on page 381 for more information. If you
do not enter a value in this field, dial-out calls will remain connected indefinitely, and you
will have to manually terminate sessions by clicking the Disconnect button.
To configure Remotely Triggered Dial-Out, go the WWAN > Advanced screen.
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7.
Check the Enable Remotely Triggered Dial-Out checkbox.
8.
(Optional) To authenticate the remote call, check the Requires authentication checkbox
and enter the password in the Password: and Confirm Password: fields.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
WWAN
Configuring WWAN Connection Profiles
Use the WWAN > Connection Profiles to configure WWAN connection profiles and set the
primary and alternate profiles.
Select the Primary WWAN connection profile in the Primary Profile pulldown menu. Optionally,
you can select up to two alternate WWAN profiles.
To create a WWAN connection profile, perform the following steps:
1.
On the WWAN > Connection Profiles page, click on the Add button. The WWAN Profile
Configuration window displays.
2.
Select the Country where the SonicWALL TZ 190 appliance is deployed.
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3.
Select the Service Provider that you have created an account with. Note that only service
providers supported in the country you selected are displayed.
4.
In the Plan Type window, select the WWAN plan you have subscribed to with the service
provider. If your specific plan type is listed in the pulldown menu, the rest of the fields in the
General tab are automatically provisioned. Verify that these fields are correct and click on
the Parameters tab.
5.
If your Plan Type is not listed in the pulldown menu, select Other.
6.
Enter a name for the WWAN profile in the Profile Name field.
7.
Verify that the appropriate Connection Type is selected. Note that this field is
automatically provisioned for most service providers.
8.
Verify that the Dialed Number is correct. Note that the dialed number is *99# for most
Service Providers.
9.
Enter your username and password in the User Name, User Password, and Confirm User
Password fields, respectively.
10. Enter the Access Point Name in the APN field. APNs are required only by GPRS devices
and will be provided by the service provider.
11. Click on the Parameters tab.
12. In the Dial Type pulldown menu, select whether the connection profile is a Persistent
Connection, Dial on Data, or Manual Dial.
For a detailed explanation of how the different Dial Types operate when the WAN
Connection Types is set for Ethernet with WWAN Failover see “Understanding WWAN
Failover” on page 373.
Note
382
To configure the SonicWALL TZ 190 for remotely triggered dial-out, the Dial Type must be
Dial on Data. See “Configuring WWAN Advanced Settings” on page 380 for more
information.
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WWAN
13. Select the Enable Inactivity Disconnect (minutes) checkbox and enter a number in the
field to have the WWAN connection disconnected after the specified number of minutes of
inactivity. Note that this option is not available if the Dial Type is Persistent Connection.
14. Select the Enable Max Connection Time (minutes) checkbox and enter a number in the
field to have the WWAN connection disconnected after the specified number of minutes,
regardless if the session is inactive or not. Enter a value in the Delay Before Reconnect
(minutes) to have the SonicWALL TZ 190 automatically reconnect after the specified
number of minutes.
15. Select the Dial Retries per Phone Number checkbox and enter a number in the field to
specify the number of times the SonicWALL TZ 190 is to attempt to reconnect.
16. Select the Delay Between Retries (seconds) checkbox and enter a number in the field to
specify the number of seconds between retry attempts.
17. Select the Disable VPN when Dialed checkbox to disable VPN connections over the
WWAN interface.
18. Click on the IP Addresses tab.
By default, WWAN connection profiles are configured to obtain IP addresses and DNS
server addresses automatically. To specify a static IP address, select the Use the
following IP Address radio box and enter the IP address in the field.
To manually enter DNS server addresses, select the Use the following IP Address radio
box and enter the IP addresses of the primary and secondary DNS servers in the fields.
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19. Click on the Data Limiting tab.
Tip
If your WWAN account has a monthly data or time limit, it is strongly recommended that you
enable Data Usage Limiting.
20. Select the Enable Data Usage Limiting checkbox to have the WWAN interface become
automatically disabled when the specified data or time limit has been reached for the
month.
21. Select the day of the month to start tracking the monthly data or time usage in the Billing
Cycle Start Date pulldown menu.
22. Enter a value in the Limit field and select the appropriate limiting factor: either GB, MB,
KB, or minutes.
23. Click OK.
Configuring the Maximum Allowed WWAN Connections
To configure the maximum number of nodes allowed to connect to the WWAN interface,
navigate to the Network > Interfaces page, click on the Configure icon for the WWAN
interface. The WWAN Settings window is displayed. Click on the Advanced tab and enter the
maximum number of nodes in the Max Host field. Entering 0 in the Max Host fields allows any
number of nodes to connect.
See “Configuring the Wireless WAN Interface” on page 152 for more information.
Managing WWAN Connections
To initiate a WWAN connection, perform the following steps, click on the Manage button in the
WWAN interface line on the Network > Interfaces page. The WWAN Connection window
displays. Click the Connect button. The SonicWALL TZ 190 attempts to conceit to the WWAN
service provider.
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To disconnect a WWAN connection, click on the Manage button. The WWAN Connection
window displays. Click Disconnect.
See “Configuring the Wireless WAN Interface” on page 152 for more information.
Specifying the WAN Connection Model
To configure the WAN connection model, navigate to the Network > Interfaces page and
select one of the following options in the WAN Connection Model pulldown menu:
•
WWAN only - The WAN interface is disabled and the WWAN interface is used exclusively.
•
Ethernet only - The WWAN interface is disabled and the WAN interface is used exclusively.
•
Ethernet with WWAN Failover - The WAN interface is used as the primary interface and the
WWAN interface is disabled. If the WAN connection fails, the WWAN interface is enabled
and a WWAN connection is automatically initiated.
See “Configuring the Wireless WAN Interface” on page 152 for more information.
Monitoring WWAN Data Usage
On the WWAN > Data Usage page, you can monitor the amount of data transferred over the
WWAN interface in the Data Usage table and view details of WWAN sessions in the Session
History table.
The Data Usage table displays the current data usage and online time for the current Year,
Month, Week, Day, and Billing Cycle. Billing cycle usage is only calculated if the Enable Data
Usage Limiting option is enabled on the WWAN Connection Profile.
Click the appropriate Reset button to reset any of the data usage categories.
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Note
The Data Usage table is only estimate of the current usage and should not be used to
calculate actual charges. Contact your Service Provider for accurate billing information.
The Session History table displays a summary of information about WWAN sessions. To view
additional details about a specific session, place your mouse cursor over the Properties
balloon.
WWAN Glossary
•
1xRTT - Single Carrier Radio Transmission Technology - The second generation of the
CDMA protocol, permitting many radios to simultaneously share the same frequency.
1xRTT was mostly deployed in the Americas, but is now undergoing an evolution to 1xEVDO by many operators.
•
1xEV-DO - Single Carrier Evolution Data Optimized (Also EV-DO) - The evolution of the
1xRTT protocol, EV-DO provides true 3G speeds, competing with UMTS, but remains most
widely used in the Americas. There are currently two revisions of EV-DO available: Rev. 0,
which provides data rates up to 2.4 Mbps, and Rev. A, with data rates up to 3.1 Mbps.
•
APN - Access Point Name - Designated the external connection point (access point) for
devices on a GPRS network. APN designation is only required by GPRS devices, and will
be provided by the network operator. APN uses a notation such as "general.t-mobile.uk",
"btmobile.bt.com" and "wap.cingular".
•
DMA - Code Division Multiple Access - A multiplexing technique that allows for multiple
concurrent accesses to a channel through the use of unique data encoding rather than time
or frequency based division of access. CDMA has capacity advantages over GSM, but
congestion tends to reduce its operating range. Also refers to Qualcomm's family of
protocols.
•
EDGE - Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution - Also known an Enhanced GRPS.
EDGE is an adaptive GPRS implementation employed by many GSM networks. It improves
upon GPRS by using up to 8 time-slots (as opposed to a maximum of 5) with a denser
modulation scheme for higher data rates. EDGE is regarded as a cost-saving interim GSM
protocol until more widespread adoption of UMTS is seen, and it is currently broadly
available in all worldwide geographies.
•
ESN - Electronic Serial Number - A 32 bit number used to uniquely identify stations on a
CDMA network. ESNs are the effective equivalent of GSM's IMEI scheme.
•
Generation - WWAN protocols are divided by generation, such as 2G, 2.5G, and 3G, where
1G would be the original analog cellular networks. Generations advanced is usually
characterized by improvements in speed and capacity. Although 3G is most commonly
used to describe Wireless Wide Area Networking, 3G only refers to a single set of available
protocols. A list of popular protocols by generation:
Š 1G - Analog
Š 2G - GSM
Š 2.5G - GPRS
Š 2.75G - EDGE, 1xRTT
Š 3G - UMTS, 1xEV-DO
•
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Š 3.5G - HSDPA
GPRS - General Packet Radio Service - An evolution of the GSM network that achieves
speed improvements through the use of unused TDMA channels. GPRS is divided by
incrementing classes, which define the number of time-slots and the data-rate per time-slot.
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GPRS has an additional advantage over GSM in that it is a packet-switched technology,
meaning that stations only send data when there is data to send (rather than reserving the
entire channel as occurs in GSM's circuit-switched networks) thus making more efficient
use of available bandwidth. The process of connecting to a GPRS network generally
involves attachment to the network, followed by the construction and activation of a PDP
context, as performed by a series of AT commands. This process is largely automated by
SonicOS through the use of profiles, but also allows for manual PDP context construction.
•
GSM - Global System for Mobile Communication - TDMA based protocol that uses
digital channels for both signaling and speech, making it a well suited platform for data
communications, although at very low data rates. GSM competes as a protocol with
Qualcomm's CDMA, but remains the most popular worldwide protocol. GSM
implementations are often regarded as less susceptible to signal degradation indoors.
Although GSM is used both in the Americas and the rest of the world, the American
implementation operates on a different frequency, and interoperability is not guaranteed
unless explicitly supported by the equipment.
•
HSDPA - High Speed Downlink Packet Access - An evolution of UMTS (and thus of
GSM) based on W-CDMA technology. HSDPA can achieve very high data rates, with
subsequent phases targeting rates of up to 50 Mbps, but it is not currently very widely
adopted despite announcements of future support from many operators.
•
IMEI - International Mobile Equipment Identity - A unique 15 digit number assigned to
every GSM/UMTS device for the purposes of identifying the device (not the subscriber) on
the network. The subscriber on these networks is identified by the IMSI number, which is
stored on the SIM card.
•
IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - A unique 15 (or 14) digit number that
identifies subscribers on GSM/UMTS networks. The IMSI is stored on the subscriber's SIM,
and comprises a country code (as defined by ITU E.212), a network code (the network
operator), and a unique subscriber number.
•
PDP Context - Packet Data Protocol Context - A data structure representing the logical
association of a station on a GPRS network. The data structure comprises a CID (context
identifier), a PDP_Type (the protocol being used, e.g. IP), an APN (Access Point Name),
and optional a PDP_Addr (PDP Address) to identify the usable address space for the
connection. After a PDP Context is constructed, it must be activated.
•
SIM - Subscriber Identity Module - USIM (Universal SIM) in UMTS. A SIM, also known as
a Smart Card, stores unique subscriber information, including subscription and service
parameters as well as preferences and settings. SIMs are used by all GSM devices, and
allow for a subscriber's identity to move from one GSM device to another. Many operators
lock their devices to prevent the use of other operator's SIM cards, but operators will
sometimes unlock their devices if certain conditions are met.
•
TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access - TDMA is used by most currently available GSM
networks. It allows multiple concurrent access to a frequency by dividing it into time-slots,
where each station takes turns transmitting. Since TDMA based technologies switch their
transmitters on and off rapidly (native TDMA switches at 50 Hz, GSM switches at 217 Hz),
radio frequency (RF) pollution is created. When the power output is high enough (such as
right before a call is received), these RF signals (particularly GSM's 217 Hz signal, which
is in the audible spectrum, even on really cheap computer speakers) can be picked up by
nearby amplification circuitry, producing a buzzing sound. So don't put your GSM equipped
TZ 190 on top of a stereo, and don't balance it on your head if you wear hearing aids.
•
UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunication System - Employing W-CDMA
technology, UMTS is considered the evolution of GSM, and is sometimes referred to a
3GSM. UMTS is in fairly wide deployment worldwide, with the exception of the Americas,
where EDGE is favored, and where UMTS will likely be leapfrogged as GSM's successor
by HSDPA.
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•
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W-CDMA - Wideband Code Division Multiple Access - The technology underlying
UMTS, W-CDMA is an evolution of the GSM protocol. Referred to a Wideband because its
carrier channels are four times wider than then original CDMA standard (5 MHz versus 1.25
MHz).
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CHAPTER 35
Chapter 35:
Managing SonicPoints
SonicPoint > SonicPoints
SonicWALL SonicPoints are wireless access points specially engineered to work with
SonicWALL security appliances to provide wireless access throughout your enterprise.
The SonicPoint section of the Management Interface lets you manage the SonicPoints
connected to your system.
Before Managing SonicPoints
Before you can manage SonicPoints in the Management Interface, you must first:
•
Verify that the SonicPoint image is downloaded to your SonicWALL security appliance
See “Updating SonicPoint Firmware” on page 398.
•
Configure your SonicPoint Provisioning Profiles
•
Configure a Wireless zone.
•
Assign profiles to wireless zones. This step is optional. If you do not assign a default profile
for a zone, SonicPoints in that zone will use the first profile in the list.
•
Assign an interface to the Wireless zone.
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•
Attach the SonicPoints to the interfaces in the Wireless zone.
•
Test SonicPoints
SonicPoint Provisioning Profiles
SonicPoint Provisioning Profiles provide a scalable and highly automated method of
configuring and provisioning multiple SonicPoints across a Distributed Wireless Architecture.
SonicPoint Profile definitions include all of the settings that can be configured on a SonicPoint,
such as radio settings for the 2.4GHz and 5GHz radios, SSID’s, and channels of operation.
Once you have defined a SonicPoint profile, you can apply it to a Wireless zone. Each Wireless
zone can be configured with one SonicPoint profile. Any profile can apply to any number of
zones. Then, when a SonicPoint is connected to a zone, it is automatically provisioned with the
profile assigned to that zone.
SonicOS includes a default SonicPoint profile, named SonicPoint. You can modify this profile
or create a new one.
The default SonicPoint profile has the following settings:
802.11a Radio
802.11g Radio
Enable 802.11a
Radio
Yes - Always on
Enable 802.11g
Radio
Yes - Always on
SSID
SonicWALL
SSID
SonicWALL
Radio Mode
54Mbps - 802.11a
Radio Mode
2.4 GHz 54Mbps - 802.11g
Channel
AutoChannel
Channel
AutoChannel
ACL Enforcement Disabled
ACL Enforcement Disabled
Authentication
Type
WEP - Both
Open System & Shared
Key
Authentication
Type
WEP - Both
Open System & Shared
Key
Schedule IDS
Scan
Disabled
Schedule IDS
Scan
Disabled
Data Rate
Best
Data Rate
Best
Antenna Diversity Best
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Configuring a SonicPoint Profile
You can add any number of SonicPoint profiles. To configure a SonicPoint provisioning profile:
Step 1
To add a new profile click Add below the list of SonicPoint provisioning profiles. To edit an
existing profile, select the profile and click the edit icon
in the same line as the profile you
are editing.
Step 2
In the General tab of the Add Profile window, specify:
– Enable SonicPoint: Check this to automatically enable each SonicPoint when it is
provisioned with this profile.
– Name Prefix: Enter a prefix for the names of all SonicPoints connected to this zone.
When each SonicPoint is provisioned it is given a name that consists of the name prefix
and a unique number, for example: “SonicPoint 126008.”
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– Country Code: Select the country where you are operating the SonicPoints. The
country code determines which regulatory domain the radio operation falls under.
Step 3
In the 802.11g tab, Configure the radio settings for the 802.11g (2.4GHz band) radio:
– Enable 802.11g Radio: Check this to automatically enable the 802.11g radio bands on
all SonicPoints provisioned with this profile.
– Select a schedule to determine when the radio is enabled. The default is Always on.
you can create and manage Schedule objects in the System > Schedules page of the
management interface.
– SSID: Enter a recognizable string for the SSID of each SonicPoint using this profile.
This is the name that will appear in clients’ lists of available wireless connections.
Note
If all SonicPoints in your organization share the same SSID, it is easier for users to maintain
their wireless connection when roaming from one SonicPoint to another.
– Radio Mode: Select the speed of the wireless connection. You can choose 11Mbps -
802.11b, 54 Mbps - 802.11g, or 108 Mbps - Turbo G mode. If you choose Turbo mode,
all users in your company must use wireless access cards from the same manufacturer.
– Channel: Select the channel the radio will operate on. The default is AutoChannel,
which automatically selects the channel with the least interference. Use AutoChannel
unless you have a specific reason to use or avoid specific channels.
– ACL Enforcement: Select this to enforce Access Control by allowing or denying traffic
from specific devices. Select a MAC address group from the Allow List to automatically
allow traffic from all devices with MAC address in the group. Select a MAC address
group from the Deny List to automatically deny traffic from all devices with MAC
address in the group. The deny list is enforced before the Allow list.
– Authentication Type: Select the method of authentication for your wireless network.
You can select WEP - Both (Open System & Shared Key), WEP - Open System,
WEP - Shared Key, WPA - PSK, or WPA - EAP.
– WEP Key Mode: Select the size of the encryption key.
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– Default Key: Select which key in the list below is the default key, which will be tried first
when trying to authenticate a user.
– Key Entry: Select whether the key is alphanumeric or hexadecimal.
– Key 1 - Key 4: Enter the encryptions keys for WEP encryption. Enter the most likely to
be used in the field you selected as the default key.
Step 4
In the 802.11g Advanced tab, configure the performance settings for the 802.11g radio. For
most 802.11g advanced options, the default settings give optimum performance.
– Hide SSID in Beacon: Check this option to have the SSID broadcast as part of the
wireless beacon, rather than as a separate broadcast.
– Schedule IDS Scan: Select a time when there are fewer demands on the wireless
network to schedule an Intrusion Detection Service (IDS) scan to minimize the
inconvenience of dropped wireless connections.
– Data Rate: Select the speed at which the data is transmitted and received. Best
automatically selects the best rate available in your area given interference and other
factors. You can select: Best, 6 Mbps, 9 Mbps, 12 Mbps, 18 Mbps, 24 Mbps, 36
Mbps, 48 Mbps, or 54 Mbps.
– Transmit Power: Select the transmission power. Transmission power effects the range
of the SonicPoint. You can select: Full Power, Half (-3 dB), Quarter (-6 dB), Eighth
(-9 dB), or Minimum.
– Antenna Diversity: The Antenna Diversity setting determines which antenna the
SonicPoint uses to send and receive data. You can select:
•
Best: This is the default setting. When Best is selected, the SonicPoint
automatically selects the antenna with the strongest, clearest signal. In most cases,
Best is the optimal setting.
•
1: Select 1 to restrict the SonicPoint to use antenna 1 only. Facing the rear of the
SonicPoint, antenna 1 is on the left, closest to the power supply.
•
2: Select 2 to restrict the SonicPoint to use antenna 2 only. Facing the rear of the
SonicPoint, antenna 2 is on the right, closest to the console port.
– Beacon Interval (milliseconds): Enter the number of milliseconds between sending
out a wireless beacon.
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– DTIM Interval: Enter the interval in milliseconds.
– Fragmentation Threshold (bytes): Enter the number of bytes of fragmented data you
want the network to allow.
– RTS Threshold (bytes): Enter the number of bytes.
– Maximum Client Associations: Enter the maximum number of clients you want the
SonicPoint to support on this radio at one time.
– Preamble Length: Select the length of the preamble--the initial wireless
communication send when associating with a wireless host. You can select Long or
Short.
– Protection Mode: Select the CTS or RTS protection. Select None, Always, or Auto.
None is the default.
– Protection Rate: Select the speed for the CTS or RTS protection, 1 Mbps, 2 Mbps, 5
Mbps, or 11 Mbps.
– Protection Type: Select the type of protection, CTS-only or RTS-CTS.
– CCK OFDM Power Delta: Select the difference in radio transmit power you will allow
between the 802.11b and 802.11g modes: 0 dBm, 1 dBm, or 2 dBm.
– Enable Short Slot Time: Allow clients to disassociate and reassociate more quickly.
– Allow Only 802.11g Clients to Connect: Use this if you are using Turbo G mode and
therefore are not allowing 802.11b clients to connect.
Step 5
Configure the settings in the 802.11a Radio and 802.11a Advanced tabs. These settings affect
the operation of the 802.11a radio bands. The SonicPoint has two separate radios built in.
Therefore, it can send and receive on both the 802.11a and 802.11g bands at the same time.
The settings in the 802.11a Radio and 802.11a Advanced tabs are similar to the settings
in the 802.11g Radio and 802.11g Advanced tabs. Follow the instructions in step 3 and
step 4 in this procedure to configure the 802.11a radio.
When a SonicPoint unit is first connected and powered up, it will have a factory default
configuration (IP Address 192.168.1.20, username: admin, password: password). Upon
initializing, it will attempt to find a SonicOS device with which to peer. If it is unable to find a
peer SonicOS device, it will enter into a stand-alone mode of operation with a separate standalone configuration allowing it to operate as a standard Access Point.
If the SonicPoint does locate, or is located by a peer SonicOS device, via the SonicWALL
Discovery Protocol, an encrypted exchange between the two units will ensue wherein the
profile assigned to the relevant Wireless Zone will be used to automatically configure
(provision) the newly added SonicPoint unit.
As part of the provisioning process, SonicOS will assign the discovered SonicPoint device a
unique name, and it will record its MAC address and the interface and Zone on which it was
discovered. It can also automatically assign the SonicPoint an IP address, if so configured, so
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that the SonicPoint can communicate with an authentication server for WPA-EAP support.
SonicOS will then use the profile associated with the relevant Zone to configure the 2.4GHz
and 5GHz radio settings.
Modifications to profiles will not affect units that have already been provisioned and are in an
operational state. Configuration changes to operational SonicPoint devices can occur in two
ways:
•
Via manual configuration changes – Appropriate when a single, or a small set of changes
are to be affected, particularly when that individual SonicPoint requires settings that are
different from the profile assigned to its Zone.
•
Via un-provisioning – Deleting a SonicPoint unit effectively un-provisions the unit, or clears
its configuration and places it into a state where it will automatically engage the provisioning
process anew with its peer SonicOS device. This technique is useful when the profile for a
Zone is updated or changed, and the change is set for propagation. It can be used to update
firmware on SonicPoints, or to simply and automatically update multiple SonicPoint units in
a controlled fashion, rather than changing all peered SonicPoints at once, which can cause
service disruptions.
Updating SonicPoint Settings
You can change the settings of any individual SonicPoint list on the Sonicpoint > SonicPoints
page.
Edit SonicPoint settings
To edit the settings of an individual SonicPoint:
Step 1
Under SonicPoint Settings, click the Edit icon
to edit.
in the same line as the SonicPoint you want
Step 2
In Edit SonicPoint screen, make the changes you want. The Edit SonicPoint screen has the
following tabs:
– General
– 802.11a Radio
– 802.11a Advanced
– 802.11g Radio
– 802.11g Advanced
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The options on these tabs are the same as the Add SonicPoint Profile screen.
See Configuring a SonicPoint Profile for instructions on configuring these settings.
Step 3
Click OK to apply these settings.
Synchronize SonicPoints
Click Synchronize SonicPoints at the top of the SonicPoint > SonicPoints page to update
the settings for each SonicPoint reported on the page. When you click Synchronize
SonicPoints, SonicOS polls all connected SonicPoints and displays updated settings on the
page.
Enable and Disable Individual SonicPoints
You can enable or disable individual SonicPoints on the SonicPoint > SonicPoints page:
Step 1
Check the box under Enable to enable the SonicPoint, uncheck the box to disable it.
Step 2
Click Apply at the top of the SonicPoint > SonicPoints page to apply this setting to the
SonicPoint.
Updating SonicPoint Firmware
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 does not contain an image of the SonicPoint firmware.
If your SonicWALL appliance has Internet connectivity, it will automatically download the
correct version of the SonicPoint image from the SonicWALL server when you connect a
SonicPoint device.
If your SonicWALL appliance does not have Internet access, or has access only through a
proxy server, you must perform the following steps:
Step 1
Download the SonicPoint image from http://www.mysonicwall.com to a local system with
Internet access.
You can download the SonicPoint image from one of the following locations:
– On the same page where you can download the SonicOS Enhanced firmware
– On the Download Center page, by selecting SonicPoint in the Type drop-down menu
Step 2
Load the SonicPoint image onto a local Web server that is reachable by your SonicWALL
appliance.
You can change the file name of the SonicPoint image, but you should keep the .bin
extension.
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Step 3
In the SonicOS user interface on your SonicWALL appliance, in the navigation pane, click
System and then click Administration.
Step 4
In the System > Administration screen, under Download URL, click the Manually specify
SonicPoint image URL checkbox to enable it.
Step 5
In the text box, type the URL for the SonicPoint image file on your local Web server.
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Step 6
Caution
Click Apply.
It is imperative that you download the corresponding SonicPoint image for the SonicOS
firmware version that is running on your SonicWALL. The mysonicwall.com Web site
provides information about the corresponding versions. When upgrading your SonicOS
firmware, be sure to upgrade to the correct SonicPoint image.
Automatic Provisioning (SDP & SSPP)
The SonicWALL Discovery Protocol (SDP) is a layer 2 protocol employed by SonicPoints and
devices running SonicOS Enhanced. SDP is the foundation for the automatic provisioning of
SonicPoint units via the following messages:
•
Advertisement – SonicPoint devices without a peer will periodically and on startup
announce or advertise themselves via a broadcast. The advertisement will include
information that will be used by the receiving SonicOS device to ascertain the state of the
SonicPoint. The SonicOS device will then report the state of all peered SonicPoints, and
will take configuration actions as needed.
•
Discovery – SonicOS devices will periodically send discovery request broadcasts to elicit
responses from L2 connected SonicPoint units.
•
Configure Directive – A unicast message from a SonicOS device to a specific SonicPoint
unit to establish encryption keys for provisioning, and to set the parameters for and to
engage configuration mode.
•
Configure Acknowledgement – A unicast message from a SonicPoint to its peered
SonicOS device acknowledging a Configure Directive.
•
Keepalive – A unicast message from a SonicPoint to its peered SonicOS device used to
validate the state of the SonicPoint.
If via the SDP exchange the SonicOS device ascertains that the SonicPoint requires
provisioning or a configuration update (e.g. on calculating a checksum mismatch, or when a
firmware update is available), the Configure directive will engage a 3DES encrypted, reliable
TCP based SonicWALL Simple Provisioning Protocol (SSPP) channel. The SonicOS device will
then send the update to the SonicPoint via this channel, and the SonicPoint will restart with the
updated configuration. State information will be provided by the SonicPoint, and will be
viewable on the SonicOS device throughout the entire discovery and provisioning process.
SonicPoint States
SonicPoint devices can function in and report the following states:
•
Initializing – The state when a SonicPoint starts up and advertises itself via SDP prior to
it entering into an operational or stand-alone mode.
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•
Operational – Once the SonicPoint has peered with a SonicOS device and has its
configuration validated, it will enter into a operational state, and will be ready for clients.
•
Provisioning – If the SonicPoint configuration requires an update, the SonicOS device will
engage an SSPP channel to update the SonicPoint. During this brief process it will enter
the provisioning state.
•
Safemode – Safemode can be engaged by depressing the reset button, or from the
SonicOS peer device. Placing a SonicPoint into Safemode returns its configuration to
defaults, disables the radios, and disables SDP. The SonicPoint must then be rebooted to
enter either a stand-alone, or some other functional state.
•
Non-Responsive – If a SonicOS device loses communications with a previously peered
SonicPoint, it will report its state as non-responsive. It will remain in this state until either
communications are restored, or the SonicPoint is deleted from the SonicOS device’s table.
•
Updating Firmware – If the SonicOS device detects that it has a firmware update available
for a SonicPoint, it will use SSPP to update the SonicPoint’s firmware.
•
Over-Limit – By default, up to 2 SonicPoint devices can be attached to the Wireless Zone
interface on a SonicWALL TZ 170. If more than 2 units are detected, the over-limit devices
will report an over-limit state, and will not enter an operational mode. The number can be
reduced from 2 as needed.
•
Rebooting – After a firmware or configuration update, the SonicPoint will announce that it
is about to reboot, and will then do so.
•
Firmware failed – If a firmware update fails, the SonicPoint will report the failure, and will
then reboot.
•
Provision failed – In the unlikely event that a provision attempt from a SonicOS device
fails, the SonicPoint will report the failure. So as not to enter into an endless loop, it can
then be manually rebooted, manually reconfigured, or deleted and re-provisioned.
•
Stand-alone Mode (not reported) – If a SonicPoint device cannot find or be found by a
SonicOS device to peer with, it will enter a stand-alone mode of operation. This will engage
the SonicPoint’s internal GUI (which is otherwise disabled) and will allow it to be configured
as a conventional Access Point. If at any time it is placed on the same layer 2 segment as
a SonicOS device that is sending Discovery packets, it will leave stand-alone mode, and
will enter into a managed mode. The stand-alone configuration will be retained.
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Chapter 36:
Viewing Station Status
SonicPoint > Station Status
The SonicPoint > Station Status page reports on the statistics of each SonicPoint.
The table lists entries for each wireless client connected to each SonicPoint. The sections of
the table are divided by SonicPoint. Under each SonicPoint, is the list of all clients currently
connected to it.
Click the Refresh button in the top right corner to refresh the list.
By default, the page displays the first 50 entries found. Click the First Page , Previous Page
, Next Page , and Last Page icons to navigate if you need to view more than 50 entries.
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Click on the Statistics icon to see a detailed report for an individual station. Each SonicPoint
device reports for both radios, and for each station, the following information to its SonicOS
peer:
•
MAC Address – The client’s (Station’s) hardware address.
•
Station State – The state of the station. States can include:
– None – No state information yet exists for the station.
– Authenticated – The station has successfully authenticated.
– Associated – The station is associated.
– Joined – The station has joined the ESSID.
– Connected – The station is connected (joined, authenticated or associated).
– Up – An Access Point state, indicating that the Access Point is up and running.
– Down – An Access Point state, indicating that the Access Point is not running.
•
Associations – Total number of Associations since power up.
•
Dis-Associations – Total number of Dis-Associations.
•
Re-Associations – Total number of Re-Associations.
•
Authentications – Number of Authentications.
•
De-Authentications – Number of De-Authentications.
•
Good Frames Received – Total number of good frames received.
•
Good Frames Transmitted – Total number of good frames transmitted.
•
Error in Receive Frames – Total number of error frames received.
•
Error in Transmit Frames – Total number of error frames transmitted.
•
Discarded Frames – Total number of frames discarded. Discarded frames are generally a
sign of network congestion.
•
Total Bytes received – Total number of bytes received.
•
Total Bytes Transmitted – Total number of bytes transmitted.
•
Management Frames Received – Total number of Management frames received.
Management Frames include:
– Association request
– Association response
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– Re-association request
– Re-association response
– Probe request
– Probe response
– Beacon frame
– ATIM message
– Disassociation
– Authentication
– De-authentication
•
Management Frames Transmitted – Total number of Management frames transmitted.
•
Control Frames Received – Total number of Control frames received. Control frames
include:
– RTS – Request to Send
– CTS – Clear to Send
– ACK – Positive Acknowledgement
•
Control Frames Transmitted – Total number of Control frames transmitted.
•
Data Frames Received – Total number of Data frames received.
•
Data Frames Transmitted – Total number of Data frames transmitted.
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CHAPTER 37
Chapter 37:
Using and Configuring IDS
SonicPoint > IDS
You can have many wireless access points within reach of the signal of the SonicPoints on your
network. The SonicPoint > IDS page reports on all access points the SonicWALL security
appliance can find by scanning the 802.11a and 802.11g radio bands.
Wireless Intrusion Detection Services
Intrusion Detection Services (IDS) greatly increase the security capabilities of the SonicWALL
security appliance with SonicOS Enhanced by enabling it to recognize and even take
countermeasures against the most common types of illicit wireless activity. IDS consists of
three types of services, namely, Sequence Number Analysis, Association Flood Detection, and
Rogue Access Point Detection. IDS logging and notification can be enabled under Log >
Categories by selecting the IDS checkbox under Log Categories and Alerts.
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SonicPoint > IDS
Intrusion Detection Settings
Rogue Access Points have emerged as one of the most serious and insidious threats to
wireless security. In general terms, an access point is considered rogue when it has not been
authorized for use on a network. The convenience, affordability and availability of non-secure
access points, and the ease with which they can be added to a network creates a easy
environment for introducing rogue access points. Specifically, the real threat emerges in a
number of different ways, including unintentional and unwitting connections to the rogue
device, transmission of sensitive data over non-secure channels, and unwanted access to LAN
resources. So while this doesn't represent a deficiency in the security of a specific wireless
device, it is a weakness to the overall security of wireless networks.
The security appliance can alleviate this weakness by recognizing rogue access points
potentially attempting to gain access to your network. It accomplishes this in two ways: active
scanning for access points on all 802.11a and 802.11g channels, and passive scanning (while
in Access Point mode) for beaconing access points on a single channel of operation.
Check Enable Rogue Access Point Detection to enable the security appliance to search for
rogue access points.
The Authorized Access Points list determines which access points the security appliance will
considered authorized when it performs a scan. You can select All Authorized Access Points
to allow all SonicPoints, or you can select an address object group containing a group of MAC
address to limit the list to only those SonicPoints whose MAC addresses are contained in the
address object group.
Select Create Address Object Group to add a new group of MAC address objects to the list.
Note
See “Network > Address Objects” section on page 203 for instructions on creating
address objects and address object groups.
Scanning for Access Points
Active scanning occurs when the security appliance starts up, and at any time Scan All is
clicked on the SonicPoint > IDS page. When the security appliance performs a scan, a
temporary interruption of wireless clients occurs for no more than a few seconds. This
interruption manifests itself as follows:
Caution
•
Non-persistent, stateless protocols (such as HTTP) should not exhibit any ill-effects.
•
Persistent connections (protocols such as FTP) are impaired or severed.
•
WiFiSec connections should automatically re-establish and resume with no noticeable
interruption to the client.
If service disruption is a concern, it is recommended that the Scan Now feature not be used
while the SonicWALL security appliance is in Access Point mode until such a time that no
clients are active, or the potential for disruption becomes acceptable.
You can also scan on a SonicPoint by SonicPoint basis by choosing from the following options
in the Perform SonicWALL Scan menu on the header for the individual SonicPoint:
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Scan Both Radios
•
Scan 802.11a Radio (5GHz)
•
Scan 802.11g Radio (2.4GHZ)
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SonicPoint > IDS
Discovered Access Points
The Discovered Access points displays information on every access point that can be detected
by the SonicPoint radio:
•
SonicPoint: The SonicPoint that detected the access point.
•
MAC Address (BSSID): The MAC address of the radio interface of the detected access
point.
•
SSID: The radio SSID of the access point.
•
Type: The range of radio bands used by the access point, 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz.
•
Channel: The radio channel used by the access point.
•
Manufacturer: The manufacturer of the access point. SonicPoints will show a
manufacturer of either SonicWALL or Senao.
•
Signal Strength: The strength of the detected radio signal
•
Max Rate: The fastest allowable data rate for the access point radio, typically 54 Mbps.
•
Authorize: Click the Authorize icon to add the access point to the address object group of
authorized access points.
View Style
If you have more than one SonicPoint, you can select an individual device from the SonicPoint
list to limit the Discovered Access Points table to display only scan results from that
SonicPoint. Select All SonicPoints to display scan results from all SonicPoints.
Authorizing Access Points on Your Network
Access Points detected by the security appliance are regarded as rogues until they are
identified to the security appliance as authorized for operation. To authorize an access point, it
can be manually added to the Authorized Access Points list by clicking edit icon in the
Authorize column and specifying its MAC address (BSSID) along with an optional comment.
Alternatively, if an access point is discovered by the security appliance scanning feature, it can
be added to the list by clicking the Authorize icon.
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CHAPTER 38
Chapter 38:
Configuring RF Monitoring
SonicPoint > RF Monitoring
This chapter describes how to plan, design, implement, and maintain the RF Monitoring feature
in SonicWALL SonicOS 4.0 Enhanced. This chapter contains the following sections:
•
“RF Monitoring Overview” section on page 409
– “Why RF Monitoring?” section on page 410
– “Benefits” section on page 410
•
“Enabling RF Monitoring on SonicPoint(s)” section on page 411
•
“Using The RF Monitoring Interface” section on page 411
– “Selecting RF Signature Types” section on page 412
– “Viewing Discovered RF Threat Stations” section on page 413
– “Adding a Threat Station to the Watch List” section on page 413
•
“Types of RF Threat Detection” section on page 414
•
“Practical RF Monitoring Field Applications” section on page 415
– “Before Reading this Section” section on page 415
– “Using Sensor ID to Determine RF Threat Location” section on page 415
– “Using RSSI to Determine RF Threat Proximity” section on page 417
RF Monitoring Overview
The following section provides a brief overview of the RF Monitoring feature found on
SonicWALL security appliances running SonicOS 4.0 or higher. This section contains the
following subsections:
•
“Why RF Monitoring?” section on page 410
•
“Benefits” section on page 410
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SonicPoint > RF Monitoring
Why RF Monitoring?
Radio Frequency (RF) technology used in today’s 802.11-based wireless networking devices
poses an attractive target for intruders. If left un-managed, RF devices can leave your wireless
(and wired) network open to a variety of outside threats, from Denial of Service (DoS) to
network security breaches.
In order to help secure your SonicPoint Wireless Access Point (AP) stations, SonicWALL takes
a closer look at these threats. By using direct RF Monitoring, SonicWALL helps detect threats
without interrupting the current operation of your wireless or wired network.
Benefits
SonicWALL RF Monitoring provides real-time threat monitoring and management of SonicPoint
radio frequency traffic. In addition to its real-time threat management capabilities, SonicWALL
RF Monitoring provides network administrators a system for centralized collection of RF threats
and traffic statistics; offering a way to easily manage RF capabilities directly from the
SonicWALL security appliance gateway
SonicWALL RF Monitoring is:
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•
Real-Time - View logged information as it happens
•
Transparent - No need to halt legitimate network traffic when managing threats
•
Comprehensive - Provides detection of many types of RF threats. For complete
descriptions of the above types of RF Threat Detection, see the “Types of RF Threat
Detection” section on page 414.
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SonicPoint > RF Monitoring
Enabling RF Monitoring on SonicPoint(s)
In order for RF Monitoring to be enforced, you must enable the RF Monitoring option on all
available SonicPoint devices. The following section provides instructions to re-provision all
available SonicPoints with RF Monitoring enabled.
Step 1
Navigate to SonicPoint > SonicPoints in the SonicWALL security appliance management
interface.
Step 2
Click the Configure button corresponding to the desired SonicPoint Provisioning Profile.
Step 3
In the General tab, click the Enable RF Monitoring checkbox.
Next, to ensure all SonicPoints are updated with the RF Monitoring feature enabled, it is
necessary to delete all current SonicPoints from the SonicPoint table and re-synchronize these
SonicPoints using the profile you just created.
Step 4
Click the
Step 5
Click the
button at the bottom right corner of the SonicPoints table.
button at the top of the page.
Your SonicPoints will now reboot with the RF Monitoring feature enabled. Be patient as the
reboot process may take several minutes.
Using The RF Monitoring Interface
The RF Monitoring interface (SonicPoint > RF Monitoring) provides a central location for
selecting RF signature types, viewing discovered RF threat stations, and adding discovered
threat stations to a watch list. This section provides an overview of usage and features for the
following RF Monitoring operations:
•
“RF Monitoring Interface Overview” section on page 412
•
“Set the Measurement Interval” section on page 412
•
“Selecting RF Signature Types” section on page 412
•
“Viewing Discovered RF Threat Stations” section on page 413
•
“Adding a Threat Station to the Watch List” section on page 413
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SonicPoint > RF Monitoring
RF Monitoring Interface Overview
The top portion of the RF Monitoring interface allows you to:
•
View the number of threats logged for each group/signature
•
Select which RF signature types your SonicWALL looks for
The bottom (Discovered RF Threat Stations) portion of the interface allows you to:
•
View a detailed log of the most current threats
•
Configure a watch list for discovered stations
Set the Measurement Interval
In the RF Monitoring Summary section, the Measurement Interval field specifies how often the
SonicWALL security appliance searches for RF threats. The default is 300 seconds (5 hours).
Selecting RF Signature Types
The RF Monitoring interface allows you to select which types of RF threats your SonicWALL
monitors and logs.
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Step 1
Navigate to SonicPoint > RF Monitoring in the SonicWALL security appliance management
interface. RF threat types are displayed, with a checkbox next to each.
Step 2
Click the checkbox next to the RF threat to enable/disable management of that threat. By
default, all RF threats are checked as managed.
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SonicPoint > RF Monitoring
Tip
For a complete list of RF Threat types and their descriptions, see the “Types of RF Threat
Detection” section on page 414 of this document.
Viewing Discovered RF Threat Stations
The RF Monitoring Discovered Threat Stations list allows you to view, sort and manage a list
of the most recent threats to your wireless network.
Each logged threat contains (and can be sorted by) the following information:
Tip
Log Data
Description
MAC Address
Physical address of the RF threat station.
Type
Type of wireless signal received from the threat station.
Vendor
Manufacturer of the threat station (determined by MAC address).
Rssi
Received signal strength as reported by the SonicPoint. This entry,
along with the “sensor” entry, can be helpful in triangulating the actual
physical position of the RF threat device.
Rate
Transfer rate (Mbps) of the threat station.
Encrypt
Wireless signal encryption on the threat station, “None” or
“Encrypted”.
RF Threat
RF Threat type. For a complete list with descriptions, see the “Types
of RF Threat Detection” section on page 414.
Update Time
Time this log record was created/updated.
Sensor
ID of the SonicPoint which recorded this threat. This entry, along with
the “Rssi” entry, can be helpful in triangulating the actual physical
position of the RF threat device.
Did you know? It is possible to find approximate locations of RF Threat devices by using
logged threat statistics. For more practical tips and information on using the RF Monitoring
threat statistics, see the “Practical RF Monitoring Field Applications” section on page 415
Adding a Threat Station to the Watch List
The RF Monitoring Discovered Threat Stations “Watch List” feature allows you to create a
watch list of threats to your wireless network. The watch list is used to filter results in the
Discovered RF Threat Stations list.
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SonicPoint > RF Monitoring
To add a station to the watch list:
Step 1
In the SonicPoint > RF Monitoring page, navigate to the Discovered RF threat stations
section.
Step 2
Click the
Step 3
A confirmation screen will appear. Click OK to add the station to the watch list.
Step 4
If you have accidentally added a station to the watch list, or would otherwise like a station
removed from the list, click the
icon that corresponds to the threat station you wish to
remove.
Tip
Once you have added one or more stations to the watch list, you can filter results to see only
these stations in the real-time log by choosing “Only Stations in Watch List Group” from the
View Type drop-down list.
icon that corresponds to the threat station you wish to add to the watch list.
Types of RF Threat Detection
The following is a partial list containing descriptions for the most prominent types of RF
signatures detected by SonicWALL RF Monitoring:
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•
Long Duration Attacks - Wireless devices share airwaves by dividing the RF spectrum into
14 staggered channels. Each device reserves a channel for a specified (short) duration and
during the time that any one device has a channel reserved, other devices know not to
broadcast on this channel. Long Duration attacks exploit this process by reserving many
RF channels for very long durations, effectively stopping legitimate wireless traffic from
finding an open broadcast channel.
•
Management Frame Flood - This variation on the DoS attack attempts to flood wireless
access points with management frames (such as association or authentication requests)
filling the management table with bogus requests.
•
Null Probe Response - When a wireless client sends out a probe request, the attacker
sends back a response with a Null SSID. This response causes many popular wireless
cards and devices to stop responding.
•
Broadcasting De-Authentication - This DoS variation sends a flood of spoofed deauthentication frames to wireless clients, forcing them to constantly de-authenticate and
subsequently re-authenticate with an access point.
•
Valid Station with Invalid (B)SSID - In this attack, a rouge access point attempts to
broadcast a trusted station ID (ESSID). Although the BSSID is often invalid, the station can
still appear to clients as though it is a trusted access point. The goal of this attack is often
to gain authentication information from a trusted client.
•
Wellenreiter/NetStumbler Detection - Wellenreiter and NetStumbler are two popular
software applications used by attackers to retrieve information from surrounding wireless
networks.
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SonicPoint > RF Monitoring
•
Ad-Hoc Station Detection - Ad-Hoc stations are nodes which provide access to wireless
clients by acting as a bridge between the actual access point and the user. Wireless users
are often tricked into connecting to an Ad-Hoc station instead of the actual access point, as
they may have the same SSID. This allows the Ad-Hoc station to intercept any wireless
traffic that connected clients send to or receive from the access point.
•
Unassociated Station - Because a wireless station attempts to authenticate prior to
associating with an access point, the unassociated station can create a DoS by sending a
flood of authentication requests to the access point while still unassociated.
•
EAPOL Packet Flood - Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL) packets are
used in WPA and WPA2 authentication mechanisms. Since these packets, like other
authentication request packets, are received openly by wireless access points, a flood of
these packets can result in DoS to your wireless network.
•
Weak WEP IV - WEP security mechanism uses your WEP key along with a randomly
chosen 24-bit number known as an Initialization Vector (IV) to encrypt data. Network
attackers often target this type of encryption because some of the random IV numbers are
weaker than others, making it easier to decrypt your WEP key.
Practical RF Monitoring Field Applications
This section provides an overview of practical uses for collected RF Monitoring data in
detecting Wi-Fi threat sources. Practical RF Monitoring Field Applications are provided as
general common-sense suggestions for using RF Monitoring data.
This section contains the following sub-sections:
– “Before Reading this Section” section on page 415
– “Using Sensor ID to Determine RF Threat Location” section on page 415
– “Using RSSI to Determine RF Threat Proximity” section on page 417
Before Reading this Section
When using RF data to locate threats, keep in mind that wireless signals are affected by many
factors. Before continuing, take note of the following:
•
Signal strength is not always a good indicator of distance - Obstructions such as walls,
wireless interference, device power output, and even ambient humidity and temperature
can affect the signal strength of a wireless device.
•
A MAC Address is not always permanent - While a MAC address is generally a good
indicator of device type and manufacturer, this address is susceptible to change and can
be spoofed. Likewise, originators of RF threats may have more than one hardware device
at their disposal.
Using Sensor ID to Determine RF Threat Location
In the Discovered RF Threat Stations list, the Sensor field indicates which Sonic Point is
detecting the particular threat. Using the sensor ID and MAC address of the SonicPoint allows
you to easily determine the location of the SonicPoint that is detecting the threat.
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SonicPoint > RF Monitoring
Timesaver
For this section in particular (and as a good habit in general), you may find it helpful to keep
a record of the locations and MAC addresses of your SonicPoint devices.
Step 1
Navigate to the SonicPoint > RF Monitoring page in the SonicWALL Management Interface.
Step 2
In the Discovered RF Threat Stations table, locate the Sensor for the SonicPoint that is
detecting the targeted RF threat and record the number.
Step 3
Navigate to SonicPoint > SonicPoints.
Step 4
In the SonicPoints table, locate the SonicPoint that matches the Sensor number you recorded
in Step 2.
Step 5
Record the MAC address for this SonicPoint and use it to find the physical location of the
SonicPoint.
The RF threat is likely to be in the location that is served by this SonicPoint.
PRO 3060
SonicPoint
Sensor - Identifies which
individual SonicPoint(s)
are detecting the RF threat.
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SonicPoint > RF Monitoring
Using RSSI to Determine RF Threat Proximity
This section builds on what was learned in the “Using Sensor ID to Determine RF Threat
Location” section on page 415. In the Discovered RF Threat Stations list, the Rssi field
indicates the signal strength at which a particular Sonic Point is detecting an RF threat.
The Rssi field allows you to easily determine the proximity of an RF threat to the SonicPoint
that is detecting that threat. A higher Rssi number generally means the threat is closer to the
SonicPoint.
Tip
It is important to remember that walls serve as barriers for wireless signals. While a very
weak Rssi signal may mean the RF threat is located very far from the SonicPoint, it may also
indicate a threat located near, but outside the room or building.
Step 1
Navigate to the SonicPoint > RF Monitoring page in the SonicWALL Management Interface.
Step 2
In the Discovered RF Threat Stations table, locate the Sensor and Rssi for the SonicPoint
that is detecting the targeted RF threat and record these numbers.
Step 3
Navigate to the SonicPoint > SonicPoints page.
Step 4
In the SonicPoints table, locate the SonicPoint that matches the Sensor number you recorded
in Step 2.
Step 5
Record the MAC address for this SonicPoint and use it to find the physical location of the
SonicPoint.
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SonicPoint > RF Monitoring
A high Rssi usually indicates an RF threat that is closer to the SonicPoint. A low Rssi can
indicate obstructions or a more distant RF threat.
20
SonicWALL PRO 5060
with RF Management enabled
PRO 3060
rssi - Identifies signal strength
of the RF threat, allowing for
approximate distance gauging.
SonicPoint
Strong signal
rssi: 33
Weak signal
rssi: 12
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CHAPTER 39
Chapter 39:
Configuring Access Rules
Firewall > Access Rules
This chapter provides an overview on your SonicWALL security appliance stateful packet
inspection default access rules and configuration examples to customize your access rules to
meet your business requirements.
Access rules are network management tools that allow you to define inbound and outbound
access policy, configure user authentication, and enable remote management of the
SonicWALL security appliance.
The SonicOS Firewall > Access Rules page provides a sortable access rule management
interface. The subsequent sections provide high-level overviews on configuring access rules
by zones and configuring bandwidth management using access rules.
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Firewall > Access Rules
Stateful Packet Inspection Default Access Rules Overview
By default, the SonicWALL security appliance’s stateful packet inspection allows all
communication from the LAN to the Internet, and blocks all traffic to the LAN from the Internet.
The following behaviors are defined by the “Default” stateful inspection packet access rule
enabled in the SonicWALL security appliance:
•
Allow all sessions originating from the LAN, WLAN to the WAN, DMZ, or OPT.
•
Allow all sessions originating from the DMZ or OPT to the WAN.
•
Deny all sessions originating from the WAN to the DMZ or OPT.
•
Deny all sessions originating from the WAN and DMZ or OPT to the LAN or WLAN.
Additional network access rules can be defined to extend or override the default access rules.
For example, access rules can be created that block certain types of traffic such as IRC from
the LAN to the WAN, or allow certain types of traffic, such as Lotus Notes database
synchronization, from specific hosts on the Internet to specific hosts on the LAN, or restrict use
of certain protocols such as Telnet to authorized users on the LAN.
Custom access rules evaluate network traffic source IP addresses, destination IP addresses,
IP protocol types, and compare the information to access rules created on the SonicWALL
security appliance. Network access rules take precedence, and can override the SonicWALL
security appliance’s stateful packet inspection. For example, an access rule that blocks IRC
traffic takes precedence over the SonicWALL security appliance default setting of allowing this
type of traffic.
Caution
The ability to define network access rules is a very powerful tool. Using custom access rules
can disable firewall protection or block all access to the Internet. Use caution when creating
or deleting network access rules.
Using Bandwidth Management with Access Rules Overview
Bandwidth management allows you to assign guaranteed and maximum bandwidth to services
and prioritize traffic on all WAN zones. Using access rules, bandwidth management can be
enabled on a per-interface basis. Packets belonging to a bandwidth management enabled
policy will be queued in the corresponding priority queue before being sent on the bandwidth
management-enabled WAN interface. All other packets will be queued in the default queue and
will be sent in a First In and First Out (FIFO) manner (a storage method that retrieves the item
stored for the longest time).
Example Scenario
If you create an access rule for outbound mail traffic (such as SMTP) and enable bandwidth
management with the following parameters:
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•
Guaranteed bandwidth of 20 percent
•
Maximum bandwidth of 40 percent
•
Priority of 0 (zero)
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
Firewall > Access Rules
The outbound SMTP traffic is guaranteed 20 percent of available bandwidth available to it and
can get as much as 40 percent of available bandwidth. If this is the only access rule using
bandwidth management, it has priority over all other access rules on the SonicWALL security
appliance. Other access rules use the remaining bandwidth (minus 20 percent of bandwidth, or
greater than minus 20 percent and less than minus 40 percent of bandwidth).
Note
Note: Access rules using bandwidth management have a higher priority than access rules
not using bandwidth management. Access rules without bandwidth management are given
lowest priority.
Tip
You must select Bandwidth Management on the WAN > Ethernet page. Click Network, then
Configure in the WAN line of the Interfaces table, and type your available bandwidth in the
Available WAN Bandwidth (Kbps) field.
Configuration Task List
This section provides a list of the following configuration tasks:
•
“Displaying Access Rules with View Styles” section on page 423
•
“Configuring Access Rules for a Zone” section on page 424
•
“Adding Access Rules” section on page 426
•
“Editing an Access Rule” section on page 429
•
“Deleting an Access Rule” section on page 429
•
“Enabling and Disabling an Access Rule” section on page 429
•
“Restoring Access Rules to Default Zone Settings” section on page 429
•
“Displaying Access Rule Traffic Statistics” section on page 429
•
“Connection Limiting Overview” section on page 429
•
“Access Rule Configuration Examples” section on page 430
Displaying Access Rules with View Styles
Access rules can be displayed in multiple views using SonicOS Enhanced. You can select the
type of view from the selections in the View Style section. The following View Styles are
available:
•
All Rules - Select All Rules to display all access rules configured on the SonicWALL
security appliance.
•
Matrix - Displays as From/To with LAN, WAN, VPN, or other interface in the From row,
and LAN, WAN, VPN, or other interface in the To column. Select the Edit icon
in the
table cell to view the access rules.
•
Drop-down Boxes - Displays two pull-down menus: From Zone and To Zone. Select an
interface from the From Zone menu and select an interface from the To Zone menu. Click
OK and access rules defined for the two interfaces are displayed.
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Firewall > Access Rules
Tip
You can also view access rules by Zones. Use the Option checkboxes in the From Zone
and To Zone column. Select LAN, WAN, VPN, ALL from the From Zone column. And then
select LAN, WAN, VPN, ALL from the To Zone column. Click OK to display the access rules.
Each view displays a table of defined network access rules. For example, selecting All Rules
displays all the network access rules for all zones.
Configuring Access Rules for a Zone
To display the Access Rules for a specific zone, select a zone from the Matrix, Drop-down
Boxes, or All Rules view.
The access rules are sorted from the most specific at the top, to less specific at the bottom of
the table. At the bottom of the table is the Any rule. The default access rule is all IP services
except those listed in the Access Rules page. Access rules can be created to override the
behavior of the Any rule; for example, the Any rule allows users on the LAN to access all
Internet services, including NNTP News.
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Firewall > Access Rules
You can change the priority ranking of an access rule by clicking the Arrows icon in the Priority
column. The Change Priority window is displayed. Enter the new priority number (1-10) in the
Priority field, and click OK.
Tip
If the Trashcan or Notepad icons are dimmed (unavailable), the access rule cannot be
changed or deleted from the list.
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Firewall > Access Rules
Adding Access Rules
To add access rules to the SonicWALL security appliance, perform the following steps:
Step 1
Click Add at the bottom of the Access Rules table. The Add Rule window is displayed.
Step 2
In the General tab, select Allow | Deny | Discard from the Action list to permit or block IP
traffic.
Step 3
Select the from and to zones from the From Zone and To Zone menus.
Step 4
Select the service or group of services affected by the access rule from the Service list. The
Default service encompasses all IP services.
If the service is not listed, you must define the service in the Add Service window. Select
Create New Service or Create New Group to display the Add Service window or Add Service
Group window.
Step 5
Select the source of the traffic affected by the access rule from the Source list. Selecting
Create New Network displays the Add Address Object window.
Step 6
If you want to define the source IP addresses that are affected by the access rule, such as
restricting certain users from accessing the Internet, type the starting IP addresses of the
address range in the Address Range Begin field and the ending IP address in the Address
Range End field. To include all IP addresses, type * in the Address Range Begin field.
Step 7
Select the destination of the traffic affected by the access rule from the Source list. Selecting
Create New Network displays the Add Address Object window.
Step 8
From the Users Allowed menu, add the user or user group affected by the access rule.
Step 9
Select a schedule from the Schedule menu. The default schedule is Always on.
Step 10 Enter any comments to help identify the access rule in the Comments field.
Step 11 Do not select the Allow Fragmented Packets check box. Large IP packets are often divided
into fragments before they are routed over the Internet and then reassembled at a destination
host. Because hackers exploit IP fragmentation in Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, the
SonicWALL security appliance blocks fragmented packets by default. You can override the
default configuration to allow fragmented packets over PPTP or IPsec.
Step 12 Click on the Advanced tab.
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Step 13 If you would like for the access rule to timeout after a period of TCP inactivity, set the amount
of time, in minutes, in the TCP Connection Inactivity Timeout (minutes) field. The default
value is 5 minutes.
Step 14 If you would like for the access rule to timeout after a period of UDP inactivity, set the amount
of time, in minutes, in the UDP Connection Inactivity Timeout (minutes) field. The default
value is 30 minutes.
Step 15 Specify the number of connections allowed as a percent of maximum number of connections
allowed by the SonicWALL security appliance in the Number of connections allowed (% of
maximum connections) field. Refer to “Connection Limiting Overview” on page 429 for more
information on connection limiting.
Step 16 Select Create a reflexive rule if you want to create a matching access rule to this one in the
opposite direction--from your destination zone or address object to your source zone or
address object.
Step 17 Click on the QoS tab if you want to apply DSCP or 802.1p Quality of Service management to
traffic governed by this rule. See “Firewall > QoS Mapping” section on page 467 for more
information on managing QoS marking in access rules.
Step 18 Under DSCP Marking Settings select the DSCP Marking Action. You can select None,
Preserve, Explicit, or Map. Preserve is the default.
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– None: DSCP values in packets are reset to 0.
– Preserve: DSCP values in packets will remain unaltered.
– Explicit: Set the DSCP value to the value you select in the Explicit DSCP Value field.
This is a numeric value between 0 and 63. Some of the standard values are:
•
0 - Best effort/Default (default)
•
8 - Class 1
•
10 - Class 1, Gold (AF11)
•
12 - Class 1, Silver (AF12)
•
14 - Class 1, Bronze (AF13)
•
16 - Class 2
•
18 - Class 2, Gold (AF21)
•
20 - Class 2, Silver (AF22)
•
22 - Class 2, Bronze (AF23)
•
24 - Class 3
•
26 - Class 3, Gold (AF31)
•
27 - Class 3, Silver (AF32)
•
30 - Class 3, Bronze (AF33)
•
32 - Class 4
•
34 - Class 4, Gold (AF41)
•
36 - Class 4, Silver (AF42)
•
38 - Class 4, Bronze (AF43)
•
40 - Express Forwarding
•
46 - Expedited Forwarding (EF)
•
48 - Control
•
56 - Control
– Map: The QoS mapping settings on the Firewall > QoS Mapping page will be used.
See “Firewall > QoS Mapping” section on page 467 for instructions on configuring the
QoS Mapping. If you select Map, you can select Allow 802.1p Marking to override
DSCP values.
Step 19 Under 802.1p Marking Settings select the 802.1p Marking Action. You can select None,
Preserve, Explicit, or Map. None is the default.
– None: No 802.1p tagging is added to the packets.
– Preserve: 802.1p values in packets will remain unaltered.
– Explicit: Set the 802.1p value to the value you select in the Explicit 802.1p Value field.
This is a numeric value between 0 and 7. The standard values are:
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•
0 - Best effort (default)
•
1 - Background
•
2 - Spare
•
3 - Excellent effort
•
4 - Controlled load
•
5 - Video (<100ms latency)
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6 - Voice (<10ms latency)
•
7 - Network control
– Map: The QoS mapping settings on the Firewall > QoS Mapping page will be used.
See “Firewall > QoS Mapping” section on page 467 for instructions on configuring the
QoS Mapping.
Step 20 Click OK to add the rule.
Tip
Although custom access rules can be created that allow inbound IP traffic, the SonicWALL
security appliance does not disable protection from DoS attacks, such as the SYN Flood and
Ping of Death attacks.
Editing an Access Rule
To display the Edit Rule window (includes the same settings as the Add Rule window), click
the Notepad icon.
Deleting an Access Rule
To delete the individual access rule, click on the Trashcan icon. To delete all the checkbox
selected access rules, click the Delete button.
Enabling and Disabling an Access Rule
To enable or disable an access rule, click the Enable checkbox.
Restoring Access Rules to Default Zone Settings
To remove all end-user configured access rules for a zone, click the Default button. This will
restore the access rules for the selected zone to the default access rules initially setup on the
SonicWALL security appliance.
Displaying Access Rule Traffic Statistics
Move your mouse pointer over the Graph icon to display the following access rule receive (Rx)
and transmit (Tx) traffic statistics:
•
Rx Bytes
•
Rx Packets
•
Tx Bytes
•
Tx Packets
Connection Limiting Overview
The Connection Limiting feature is intended to offer an additional layer of security and control
when coupled with such SonicOS features as SYN Cookies and Intrusion Prevention Services
(IPS). Connection limiting provides a means of throttling connections through the SonicWALL
using Access Rules as a classifier, and declaring the maximum percentage of the total available
connection cache that can be allocated to that class of traffic.
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Coupled with IPS, this can be used to mitigate the spread of a certain class of malware as
exemplified by Sasser, Blaster, and Nimda. These worms propagate by initiating connections
to random addresses at atypically high rates. For example, each host infected with Nimda
attempted 300 to 400 connections per second, Blaster sent 850 packets per second, and
Sasser was capable of 5,120 attempts per second. Typical, non-malicious network traffic
generally does not establish anywhere near these numbers, particularly when it is Trusted >Untrusted traffic (i.e. LAN->WAN). Malicious activity of this sort can consume all available
connection-cache resources in a matter of seconds, particularly on smaller appliances.
The following table delineates the connection-cache size of currently available SonicWALL
devices running SonicOS Enhanced (numbers are subject to change):
SonicWALL Security
Appliance
Connection Cache
Maximum
PRO 4060
524,288
PRO 5060
750,000
In addition to mitigating the propagation of worms and viruses, Connection limiting can be used
to alleviate other types of connection-cache resource consumption issues, such as those posed
by uncompromised internal hosts running peer-to-peer software (assuming IPS is configured to
allow these services), or internal or external hosts using packet generators or scanning tools.
Finally, connection limiting can be used to protect publicly available servers (e.g. web-servers)
by limiting the number of legitimate inbound connections permitted to the server (i.e. to protect
the server against the Slashdot-effect). This is different from SYN flood protection which
attempts to detect and prevent partially-open or spoofed TCP connection. This will be most
applicable for Untrusted traffic, but it can be applied to any Zone traffic as needed.
Connection limiting is applied by defining a percentage of the total maximum allowable
connections that may be allocated to a particular type of traffic. The above figures show the
default LAN ->WAN setting, where all available resources may be allocated to LAN->WAN (any
source, any destination, any service) traffic.
More specific rules can be constructed; for example, to limit the percentage of connections that
can be consumed by a certain type of traffic (e.g. FTP traffic to any destination on the WAN),
or to prioritize important traffic (e.g. HTTPS traffic to a critical server) by allowing 100% to that
class of traffic, and limiting general traffic to a smaller percentage (minimum allowable value is
1%).
Note
It is not possible to use IPS signatures as a connection limiting classifier; only Access Rules
(i.e. Address Objects and Service Objects) are permissible.
Access Rule Configuration Examples
This section provides configuration examples on adding network access rules:
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•
“Enabling Ping” section on page 431
•
“Blocking LAN Access for Specific Services” section on page 431
•
“Enabling Bandwidth Management on an Access Rule” section on page 431
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Enabling Ping
This sections provides a configuration example for an access rule to allow devices on the DMZ
to send ping requests and receive ping responses from devices on the LAN. By default your
SonicWALL security appliance does not allow traffic initiated from the DMZ to reach the LAN.
Once you have placed one of your interfaces into the DMZ zone, then from the Firewall >
Access Rules window, perform the following steps to configure an access rule that allow
devices in the DMZ to send ping requests and receive ping responses from devices in the LAN.
Step 1
Click Add to launch the Add Rule window.
Step 2
Select the Allow radio button.
Step 3
From the Service menu, select Ping.
Step 4
From the Source menu, select DMZ Subnets.
Step 5
From the Destination menu, select LAN Subnets.
Step 6
Click OK.
Blocking LAN Access for Specific Services
This section provides a configuration example for an access rule blocking LAN access to NNTP
servers on the Internet during business hours.
Perform the following steps to configure an access rule blocking LAN access to NNTP servers
based on a schedule:
Step 1
Click Add to launch the Add window.
Step 2
Select Deny from the Action settings.
Step 3
Select NNTP from the Service menu. If the service is not listed in the list, you must to add it in
the Add Service window.
Step 4
Select Any from the Source menu.
Step 5
Select WAN from the Destination menu.
Step 6
Select the schedule from the Schedule menu.
Step 7
Enter any comments in the Comment field.
Step 8
Click OK.
Enabling Bandwidth Management on an Access Rule
Bandwidth management can be applied on both ingress and egress traffic using access rules.
Access rules displaying the Funnel icon are configured for bandwidth management.
Tip
Tip: Do not configure bandwidth management on multiple interfaces on a zone, where the
configured guaranteed bandwidth for the zone is greater than the available bandwidth for
the bound interface.
For more information on Bandwidth Management see “Bandwidth Management” on page 479.
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CHAPTER 40
Chapter 40:
Configuring Advanced Access Rule
Settings
Firewall > Advanced
To configure advanced access rule options, select Firewall > Advanced under Firewall. The
Advanced Rule Options page is displayed.
The Advanced Rule Options includes the following firewall configuration option groups:
•
Detection Prevention
•
Dynamic Ports
•
Source Routed Packets
•
Connections
•
Access Rule Service Options
•
IP and UDP Checksum Enforcement
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•
UDP
Detection Prevention
•
Enable Stealth Mode - By default, the security appliance responds to incoming connection
requests as either “blocked” or “open.” If you enable Stealth Mode, your security appliance
does not respond to blocked inbound connection requests. Stealth Mode makes your
security appliance essentially invisible to hackers.
•
Randomize IP ID - Select Randomize IP ID to prevent hackers using various detection
tools from detecting the presence of a security appliance. IP packets are given random IP
IDs, which makes it more difficult for hackers to “fingerprint” the security appliance.
•
Decrement IP TTL for forwarded traffic - Time-to-live (TTL) is a value in an IP packet that
tells a network router whether or not the packet has been in the network too long and should
be discarded. Select this option to decrease the TTL value for packets that have been
forwarded and therefore have already been in the network for some time.
•
Never generate ICMP Time-Exceeded packets - The SonicWALL appliance generates
Time-Exceeded packets to report when it has dropped a packet because its TTL value has
decreased to zero. Select this option if you don’t want the SonicWALL appliance to
generate these reporting packets.
Dynamic Ports
•
Enable support for Oracle (SQLNet) - Select if you have Oracle applications on your
network.
•
Enable support for Windows Messenger - Select this option to support special SIP
messaging used in Windows Messenger on the Windows XP.
•
Enable RTSP Transformations - Select this option to support on-demand delivery of realtime data, such as audio and video. RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol) is an
application-level protocol for control over delivery of data with real-time properties.
Source Routed Packets
Drop Source Routed Packets is selected by default. Clear the check box if you are testing
traffic between two specific hosts and you are using source routing.
Connections
Check Disable Anti-Spyware, Gateway AV and IPS Engine (increases maximum SPI
connections) if you want to enable more connections at the expense of the Gateway Anti-Virus
and Intrusion Prevention services.
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Access Rule Service Options
Force inbound and outbound FTP data connections to use default port 20 - The default
configuration allows FTP connections from port 20 but remaps outbound traffic to a port such
as 1024. If the check box is selected, any FTP data connection through the security appliance
must come from port 20 or the connection is dropped. The event is then logged as a log event
on the security appliance.
IP and UDP Checksum Enforcement
•
Enable IP header checksum enforcement - Select this to enforce IP header checksums.
•
Enable UDP checksum enforcement - Select this to enforce IP header checksums.
UDP
Enter the number of seconds of idle time you want to allow before UDP connections time out in
the Default UDP Connection Timeout (seconds) field. This value is overridden by the UDP
Connection timeout you set for individual rules.
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CHAPTER 41
Chapter 41:
Configuring TCP Settings
Firewall > TCP Settings
The TCP Settings lets you view statistics on TCP Traffic through the security appliance and
manage TCP traffic settings. The page is divided into three sections
•
TCP Traffic Statistics
•
TCP Settings
•
SYN/RST/FIN Flood Protection
TCP Traffic Statistics
The TCP Traffic Statistics table provides statistics on the following:
•
Connections Opened – Incremented when a TCP connection initiator sends a SYN, or a
TCP connection responder receives a SYN.
•
Connections Closed – Incremented when a TCP connection is closed when both the
initiator and the responder have sent a FIN and received an ACK.
•
Connections Refused – Incremented when a RST is encountered, and the responder is in
a SYN_RCVD state.
•
Connections Aborted – Incremented when a RST is encountered, and the responder is in
some state other than SYN_RCVD.
•
Total TCP Packets – Incremented with every processed TCP packet.
•
Validated Packets Passed – Incremented under the following conditions:
– When a TCP packet passes checksum validation (while TCP checksum validation is
enabled).
– When a valid SYN packet is encountered (while SYN Flood protection is enabled).
– When a SYN Cookie is successfully validated on a packet with the ACK flag set (while
SYN Flood protection is enabled).
•
Corrupted Packets Dropped - Incremented under the following conditions:
– When TCP checksum fails validation (while TCP checksum validation is enabled).
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– When the TCP SACK Permitted (Selective Acknowledgement, see RFC1072) option is
encountered, but the calculated option length is incorrect.
– When the TCP MSS (Maximum Segment Size) option is encountered, but the
calculated option length is incorrect.
– When the TCP SACK option data is calculated to be either less than the minimum of 6
bytes, or modulo incongruent to the block size of 4 bytes.
– When the TCP option length is determined to be invalid.
– When the TCP header length is calculated to be less than the minimum of 20 bytes.
– When the TCP header length is calculated to be greater than the packet’s data length.
•
Invalid Flag Packets Dropped - Incremented under the following conditions:
– When a non-SYN packet is received that cannot be located in the connection-cache
(while SYN Flood protection is disabled).
– When a packet with flags other than SYN, RST+ACK or SYN+ACK is received during
session establishment (while SYN Flood protection is enabled).
•
TCP XMAS Scan will be logged if the packet has FIN, URG, and PSH flags set.
•
TCP FIN Scan will be logged if the packet has the FIN flag set.
•
TCP Null Scan will be logged if the packet has no flags set.
– When a new TCP connection initiation is attempted with something other than just the
SYN flag set.
– When a packet with the SYN flag set is received within an established TCP session.
– When a packet without the ACK flag set is received within an established TCP session.
•
Invalid Sequence Packets Dropped – Incremented under the following conditions:
– When a packet within an established connection is received where the sequence
number is less than the connection’s oldest unacknowledged sequence.
– When a packet within an established connection is received where the sequence
number is greater than the connection’s oldest unacknowledged sequence + the
connection’s last advertised window size.
•
Invalid Acknowledgement Packets Dropped - Incremented under the following
conditions:
– When a packet is received with the ACK flag set, and with neither the RST or SYN flags
set, but the SYN Cookie is determined to be invalid (while SYN Flood protection is
enabled).
– When a packet’s ACK value (adjusted by the sequence number randomization offset)
is less than the connection’s oldest unacknowledged sequence number.
– When a packet’s ACK value (adjusted by the sequence number randomization offset)
is greater than the connection’s next expected sequence number.
TCP Settings
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The TCP Settings section allows you to:
•
Enable TCP Stateful Inspection – Enabling TCP stateful inspection requires that all TCP
connections rigidly adhere to the following TCP setup requirements:
– TCP session establishment involves a three-way handshake between two hosts and
consists of the following:
•
Initiator --> SYN --> Responder
•
Initiator <-- SYN/ACK <-- Responder
•
Initiator --> ACK --> Responder
•
(Session established)
After the initial SYN, it is permissible for a Client to send a RST or a SYN, or for the Server
to send a SYN-ACK or a RST. Any other kind of TCP flags are generally considered invalid,
or potentially malicious. The 'Enable TCP Stateful Inspection' option enforces these
guidelines, and drops any traffic that violates them.
Note
Some legitimate TCP/IP stack implementations do not abide by these rules, and require that
'Enable TCP Stateful Inspection' be disabled. For the sake of compatibility with these
implementations, the 'Enable TCP Stateful Inspection' option is disabled by default, but can
be enabled to heighten security, or if there is no concern of potential incompatibilities.
•
Enable TCP Checksum Validation – If an invalid TCP checksum is calculated, the packet
will be dropped.
•
Default TCP Connection Timeout – The default time assigned to Access Rules for TCP
traffic. If a TCP session is active for a period in excess of this setting, the TCP connection
will be cleared by the SonicWALL. The default value is 5 minutes, the minimum value is 1
minute, and the maximum value is 999 minutes. Note: Setting excessively long connection
time-outs will slow the reclamation of stale resources, and in extreme cases could lead to
exhaustion of the connection cache.
•
Maximum Segment Lifetime (seconds) – Determines the number of seconds that any
TCP packet is valid before it expires. This setting is also used to determine the amount of
time (calculated as twice the Maximum Segment Lifetime, or 2MSL) that an actively closed
TCP connection remains in the TIME_WAIT state to ensure that the proper FIN / ACK
exchange has occurred to cleanly close the TCP connection.
– Default value: 8 seconds
– Minimum value: 1 second
– Maximum value: 60 seconds
Working with SYN/RST/FIN Flood Protection
SYN/RST/FIN Flood protection helps to protect hosts behind the SonicWALL from Denial of
Service (DoS) or Distributed DoS attacks that attempt to consume the host’s available
resources by creating one of the following attack mechanisms:
•
Sending TCP SYN packets, RST packets, or FIN packets with invalid or spoofed IP
addresses.
•
Creating excessive numbers of half-opened TCP connections.
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A SYN Flood attack is considered to be in progress if the number of unanswered SYN/ACK
packets sent by the SonicWALL (half-opened TCP connections) exceeds the threshold set in
the “Flood rate until attack logged (unanswered SYN/ACK packets per second)” field. The
default value for the field is 20, the minimum is 5, and the maximum is 999,999.
Understanding a TCP Handshake
A typical TCP handshake (simplified) begins with an initiator sending a TCP SYN packet with
a 32-bit sequence (SEQi) number. The responder then sends a SYN/ACK packet
acknowledging the received sequence by sending an ACK equal to SEQi+1 and a random, 32bit sequence number (SEQr). The responder also maintains state awaiting an ACK from the
initiator. The initiator’s ACK packet should contain the next sequence (SEQi+1) along with an
acknowledgment of the sequence it received from the responder (by sending an ACK equal to
SEQr+1). The exchange looks as follows:
1.
Initiator -> SYN (SEQi=0001234567, ACKi=0) -> Responder
2.
Initiator <- SYN/ACK (SEQr=3987654321, ACKr=0001234568) <- Responder
3.
Initiator -> ACK (SEQi=0001234568, ACKi=3987654322) -> Responder
Because the responder has to maintain state on all half-opened TCP connections, it is possible
for memory depletion to occur if SYNs come in faster than they can be processed or cleared by
the responder. A half-opened TCP connection did not transition to an established state through
the completion of the three-way handshake. When the SonicWALL is between the initiator and
the responder, it effectively becomes the responder, brokering, or proxying, the TCP
connection to the actual responder (private host) it is protecting.
SYN Flood Protection Methods
The following sections detail some SYN Flood protection methods.
SYN Flood Protection Using Stateless Cookies
The method of SYN flood protection employed starting with SonicOS Enhanced uses stateless
SYN Cookies, which increase reliability of SYN Flood detection, and also improves overall
resource utilization on the SonicWALL. With stateless SYN Cookies, the SonicWALL does not
have to maintain state on half-opened connections. Instead, it uses a cryptographic calculation
(rather than randomness) to arrive at SEQr.
Layer-Specific SYN Flood Protection Methods
SonicOS Enhanced provides several protections against SYN Floods generated from two
different environments: trusted (internal) or untrusted (external) networks. Attacks from
untrusted WAN networks usually occur on one or more servers protected by the firewall.
Attacks from the trusted LAN networks occur as a result of a virus infection inside one or more
of the trusted networks, generating attacks on one or more local or remote hosts.
To provide a firewall defense to both attack scenarios, SonicOS Enhanced provides two
separate SYN Flood protection mechanisms on two different layers. Each gathers and displays
SYN Flood statistics and generates log messages for significant SYN Flood events.
•
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SYN Proxy (Layer 3) – This mechanism shields servers inside the trusted network from
WAN-based SYN flood attacks, using a SYN Proxy implementation to verify the WAN
clients before forwarding their connection requests to the protected server. You can enable
SYN Proxy only on WAN interfaces.
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SYN Blacklisting (Layer 2) – This mechanism blocks specific devices from generating or
forwarding SYN flood attacks. You can enable SYN Blacklisting on any interface.
Understanding SYN Watchlists
The internal architecture of both SYN Flood protection mechanisms is based on a single list of
Ethernet addresses that are the most active devices sending initial SYN packets to the firewall.
This list is called a SYN watchlist. Because this list contains Ethernet addresses, the device
tracks all SYN traffic based on the address of the device forwarding the SYN packet, without
considering the IP source or destination address.
Each watchlist entry contains a value called a hit count. The hit count value increments when
the device receives the an initial SYN packet from a corresponding device. The hit count
decrements when the TCP three-way handshake completes. The hit count for any particular
device generally equals the number of half-open connections pending since the last time the
device reset the hit count. The device default for resetting a hit count is once a second.
The thresholds for logging, SYN Proxy, and SYN Blacklisting are all compared to the hit count
values when determining if a log message or state change is necessary. When a SYN Flood
attack occurs, the number of pending half-open connections from the device forwarding the
attacking packets increases substantially because of the spoofed connection attempts. When
you set the attack thresholds correctly, normal traffic flow produces few attack warnings, but
the same thresholds detect and deflect attacks before they result in serious network
degradation.
Working with SYN Flood Protection Features
To configure SYN Flood Protection features, go to the Layer 3 SYN Flood Protection - SYN
Proxy portion of the Firewall > TCP Settings window that appears as shown in the following
figure.
SYN Flood
Protection
Mode
SYN Proxy
Threshold
Region
SYN Attack
Threshold
Region
SYN/RST/
FIN
Blacklisting
Note that this region contains four regions:
•
SYN Flood Protection Mode
•
SYN Attack Threshold
•
SYN Proxy Options
•
SYN/RST/FIN Blacklisting
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Each contains various types of SYN Flood Protection. The following sections describe these
features.
Working with SYN Flood Protection Modes
A SYN Flood Protection mode is the level of protection that you can select to defend against
half-opened TCP sessions and high-frequency SYN packet transmissions. This feature enables
you to set three different levels of SYN Flood Protection:
Watch and Report Possible SYN Floods – This option enables the device to monitor SYN
traffic on all interfaces on the device and to log suspected SYN flood activity that exceeds a
packet count threshold. The feature does not turn on the SYN Proxy on the device so the device
forwards the TCP three-way handshake without modification. This is the least invasive level of
SYN Flood protection. Select this option if your network is not in a high risk environment.
Proxy WAN Client Connections When Attack is Suspected – This option enables the device
to enable the SYN Proxy feature on WAN interfaces when the number of incomplete connection
attempts per second surpasses a specified threshold. This method ensures the device
continues to process valid traffic during the attack and that performance does not degrade.
Proxy mode remains enabled until all WAN SYN flood attacks stop occurring or until the device
blacklists all of them using the SYN Blacklisting feature. This is the intermediate level of SYN
Flood protection. Select this option if your network experiences SYN Flood attacks from internal
or external sources.
Always Proxy WAN Client Connections – This option sets the device to always use SYN
Proxy. This method blocks all spoofed SYN packets from passing through the device. Note that
this is an extreme security measure and directs the device to respond to port scans on all TCP
ports because the SYN Proxy feature forces the device to respond to all TCP SYN connection
attempts. This can degrade performance and can generate a false positive. Select this option
only if your network is in a high risk environment.
Working with SYN Attack Threshold
The SYN Attack Threshold region of the SYN Flood Protection region, provides limits for SYN
Flood activity before the device drops packets. The device gathers statistics on WAN TCP
connections, keeping track of the maximum and average maximum and incomplete WAN
connections per second. Out of these statistics, the device suggests a value for the SYN flood
threshold.
Note the two options in the section:
Use the 300 Value Calculated from Gathered Statistics – Sets the threshold for the number
of incomplete connection attempts per second before the device drops packets at the default
value of 300.
Attack Threshold (Incomplete Connection Attempts/Second) – Enables you to set the
threshold for the number of incomplete connection attempts per second before the device drops
packets at any value between 5 and 999,999.
Working with SYN Proxy Options
When the device applies a SYN Proxy to a TCP connection, it responds to the initial SYN packet
with a manufactured SYN/ACK reply, waiting for the ACK in response before forwarding the
connection request to the server. Devices attacking with SYN Flood packets do not respond to
the SYN/ACK reply. The firewall identifies them by their lack of this type of response and blocks
their spoofed connection attempts. SYN Proxy forces the firewall to manufacture a SYN/ACK
response without knowing how the server will respond to the TCP options normally provided on
SYN/ACK packets.
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To provide more control over the options sent to WAN clients when in SYN Proxy mode, you
can configure the following two objects:
SACK (Selective Acknowledgment) – This parameter controls whether or not Selective ACK is
enabled. With SACK enabled, a packet or series of packets can be dropped, and the received
informs the sender which data has been received and where holes may exist in the data.
MSS (Minimum Segment Size) – This sets the threshold for the size of TCP segments,
preventing a segment that is too large to be sent to the targeted server. For example, if the
server is an IPsec gateway, it may need to limit the MSS it received to provide space for IPsec
headers when tunneling traffic. The firewall cannot predict the MSS value sent to the server
when it responds to the SYN manufactured packet during the proxy sequence. Being able to
control the size of a segment, enables you to control the manufactured MSS value sent to WAN
clients.
The SYN Proxy Threshold region contains the following options:
All LAN/DMZ servers support the TCP SACK option – This checkbox enables Selective ACK
where a packet can be dropped and the receiving device indicates which packets it received.
Enable this checkbox only when you know that all servers covered by the firewall accessed
from the WAN support the SACK option.
Limit MSS sent to WAN clients (when connections are proxied) – Enables you to enter the
maximum Minimum Segment Size value. If you specify an override value for the default of 1460,
this indicates that a segment of that size or smaller will be sent to the client in the SYN/ACK
cookie. Setting this value too low can decrease performance when the SYN Proxy is always
enabled. Setting this value too high can break connections if the server responds with a smaller
MSS value.
Maximum TCP MSS sent to WAN clients. The value of the MSS. The default is 1460.
Note
When using Proxy WAN client connections, remember to set these options conservatively
since they only affect connections when a SYN Flood takes place. This ensures that
legitimate connections can proceed during an attack.
Working with SYN/RST/FIN Blacklisting
The SYN/RST/FIN Blacklisting feature is a list that contains devices that exceeded the SYN,
RST, and FIN Blacklist attack threshold. The firewall device drops packets sent from blacklisted
devices early in the packet evaluation process, enabling the firewall to handle greater amounts
of these packets, providing a defense against attacks originating on local networks while also
providing second-tier protection for WAN networks.
Devices cannot occur on the SYN/RST/FIN Blacklist and watchlist simultaneously. With
blacklisting enabled, the firewall removes devices exceeding the blacklist threshold from the
watchlist and places them on the blacklist. Conversely, when the firewall removes a device from
the blacklist, it places it back on the watchlist. Any device whose MAC address has been placed
on the blacklist will be removed from it approximately three seconds after the flood emanating
from that device has ended.
The SYN/RST/FIN Blacklisting region contains the following options:
Threshold for SYN/RST/FIN flood blacklisting (SYNs / Sec) – The maximum number of SYN,
RST, and FIN packets allowed per second. The default is 1,000. This value should be larger
than the SYN Proxy threshold value because blacklisting attempts to thwart more vigorous local
attacks or severe attacks from a WAN network.
Enable SYN/RST/FIN flood blacklisting on all interfaces – This checkbox enables the
blacklisting feature on all interfaces on the firewall.
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Never blacklist WAN machines – This checkbox ensures that systems on the WAN are never
added to the SYN Blacklist. This option is recommended as leaving it unchecked may interrupt
traffic to and from the firewall’s WAN ports.
Always allow SonicWALL management traffic – This checkbox causes IP traffic from a
blacklisted device targeting the firewall’s WAN IP addresses to not be filtered. This allows
management traffic, and routing protocols to maintain connectivity through a blacklisted device.
SYN, RST, and FIN Flood Statistics
You can view SYN, RST and FIN Flood statistics in the lower half of the TCP Traffic Statistics
list as shown in the following figure.
SYN, RST, and FIN Flood
Related Statistics
(Bottom seventeen)
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The following are SYN Flood statistics.
Column
Description
Max Incomplete
WAN
Connections /
sec
The maximum number of pending embryonic half-open connections recorded
since the firewall has been up (or since the last time the TCP statistics were
cleared).
The average number of pending embryonic half-open connections, based on
Average
Incomplete WAN the total number of samples since bootup (or the last TCP statistics reset).
Connections /
sec
SYN Floods in
Progress
The number of individual forwarding devices that are currently exceeding
either SYN Flood threshold.
RST Floods in
Progress
The number of individual forwarding devices that are currently exceeding the
SYN/RST/FIN flood blacklisting threshold.
FIN Floods in
Progress
The number of individual forwarding devices that are currently exceeding the
SYN/RST/FIN flood blacklisting threshold.
Total SYN, RST, The total number of events in which a forwarding device has exceeded the
lower of either the SYN attack threshold or the SYN/RST/FIN flood blacklisting
or FIN Floods
threshold.
Detected
TCP Connection Indicates whether or not Proxy-Mode is currently on the WAN interfaces.
SYN-Proxy State
(WAN only)
Current SYNBlacklisted
Machines
The number of devices currently on the SYN blacklist.
Current RSTBlacklisted
Machines
The number of devices currently on the RST blacklist.
Current FINBlacklisted
Machines
The number of devices currently on the FIN blacklist.
Total SYNBlacklisting
Events
The total number of instances any device has been placed on the SYN
blacklist.
Total RSTBlacklisting
Events
The total number of instances any device has been placed on the RST
blacklist.
Total FINBlacklisting
Events
The total number of instances any device has been placed on the FIN
blacklist.
Total SYN
The total number of packets dropped because of the SYN blacklist.
Blacklist Packets
Rejected
Total RST
The total number of packets dropped because of the RST blacklist.
Blacklist Packets
Rejected
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Column
Description
Total FIN
The total number of packets dropped because of the FIN blacklist.
Blacklist Packets
Rejected
Invalid SYN
Flood Cookies
Received
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The total number of invalid SYN flood cookies received.
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CHAPTER 42
Chapter 42:
Configuring Firewall Services
Firewall > Services
SonicOS Enhanced supports an expanded IP protocol support to allow users to create services
and access rules based on these protocols. See “Supported Protocols” on page 449 for a
complete listing of support IP protocols.
Services are used by the SonicWALL security appliance to configure network access rules for
allowing or denying traffic to the network. The SonicWALL security appliance includes Default
Services. Default Services are predefined services that are not editable. And you can also
create Custom Services to configure firewall services to meet your specific business
requirements.
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Firewall > Services
Selecting All Services from View Style displays both Custom Services and Default
Services.
Default Services Overview
The Default Services view displays the SonicWALL security appliance default services in the
Services table and Service Groups table. The Service Groups table displays clusters of
multiple default services as a single service object. You cannot delete or edit these predefined
services. The Services table displays the following attributes of the services:
•
Name—The name of the service.
•
Protocol—The protocol of the service.
•
Port Start—The starting port number for the service.
•
Port End—The ending port number for the service.
•
Configure—Displays the unavailable Notepad and Trashcan icon (default services cannot
be edited or deleted, you will need to add a new service for the Notepad and Trashcan icons
to become available).
Services that apply to common applications are grouped as Default Service Groups. These
groups cannot be changed or deleted. Clicking on the + to the left of the Default Service Groups
entry, displays all the individual Default Services included in the group. For example, the DNS
(Name Service) entry has two services labelled DNS (Name Service) TCP for port 53 and DNS
(Name Service) UDP for port 53. These multiple entries with the same name are grouped
together, and are treated as a single service. Default Services Groups cannot be edited or
deleted.
Custom Services Configuration Task List
The following list provides configuration tasks for Custom Services:
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•
Adding Custom Services
•
Editing Custom Services
•
Deleting Custom Services
•
Editing Custom Services Groups
•
Deleting Custom Services Groups
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Supported Protocols
The following IP protocols are available for custom services:
•
ICMP (1)—(Internet Control Message Protocol) A TCP/IP protocol used to send error and
control messages.
•
IGMP (2)—(Internet Group Management Protocol) The protocol that governs the
management of multicast groups in a TCP/IP network.
•
TCP (6)—(Transmission Control Protocol) The TCP part of TCP/IP. TCP is a transport
protocol in TCP/IP. TCP ensures that a message is sent accurately and in its entirety.
•
UDP (17)—(User Datagram Protocol) A protocol within the TCP/IP protocol suite that is
used in place of TCP when a reliable delivery is not required.
•
GRE (47)—(Generic Routing Encapsulation) A tunneling protocol used to encapsulate a
wide variety of protocol packet types inside IP tunnels, creating a virtual point-to-point link
to firewalls or routing devices over an IP internetwork.
•
ESP (50)—(Encapsulated Security Payload) A method of encapsulating an IP datagram
inside of another datagram employed as a flexible method of data transportation by IPsec.
•
AH (51)—(Authentication Header) A security protocol that provides data authentication and
optional anti-relay services. AH is embedded in the data to be protected (a full IP
datagram).
•
EIGRP (88)—(Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) Advanced version of IGRP.
Provides superior convergence properties and operating efficiency, and combines the
advantages of link state protocols with those of distance vector protocols.
•
OSPF (89)—(Open Shortest Path First) A routing protocol that determines the best path for
routing IP traffic over a TCP/IP network based on distance between nodes and several
quality parameters. OSPF is an interior gateway protocol (IGP), which is designed to work
within an autonomous system. It is also a link state protocol that provides less router to
router update traffic than the RIP protocol (distance vector protocol) that it was designed to
replace.
•
PIMSM (103)—(Protocol Independent Multicast Sparse Mode) One of two PIM operational
modes (dense and sparse). PIM sparse mode tries to constrain data distribution so that a
minimal number of routers in the network receive it. Packets are sent only if they are
explicitly requested at the RP (rendezvous point). In sparse mode, receivers are widely
distributed, and the assumption is that downstream networks will not necessarily use the
datagrams that are sent to them. The cost of using sparse mode is its reliance on the
periodic refreshing of explicit join messages and its need for RPs.
•
L2TP (115)—(Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) A protocol that allows a PPP session to run over
the Internet. L2TP does not include encryption, but defaults to using IPsec in order to
provide virtual private network (VPN) connections from remote users to the corporate LAN.
Adding Custom Services for Predefined Service Types
You can add a custom service for any of the predefined service types:
Protocol
IP Number
ICMP
1
TCP
6
UDP
17
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GRE
47
IPsec ESP
50
IPsec AH
51
IGMP
2
EIGRP
88
OSPF
89
PIM SM
103
L2T2
115
All custom services you create are listed in the Custom Services table. You can group custom
services by creating a Custom Services Group for easy policy enforcement. If a protocol is
not listed in the Default Services table, you can add it to the Custom Services table by clicking
Add.
Step 1
Enter the name of the service in the Name field.
Step 2
Select the type of IP protocol from the Protocol pull-down menu.
Step 3
Enter the Port Range or IP protocol Sub Type depending on your IP protocol selection:
– For TCP and UDP protocols, specify the Port Range. You will not need to specify a Sub
Type.
– For ICMP, IGMP, OSPF and PIMSM protocols, select from the Sub Type pull-down
menu for sub types.
– For the remaining protocols, you will not need to specify a Port Range or Sub Type.
Step 4
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Click OK. The service appears in the Custom Services table.
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Click the Enable Logging checkbox to disable or enable the logging of the service activities.
Adding Custom IP Type Services
Using only the predefined IP types, if the security appliance encounters traffic of any other IP
Protocol type it drops it as unrecognized. However, there exists a large and expanding list of
other registered IP types, as governed by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority): http://
www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers, so while the rigid practice of dropping lesscommon (unrecognized) IP Type traffic is secure, it was functionally restrictive.
SonicOS Enhanced 3.5 and newer, with its support for Custom IP Type Service Objects, allows
an administrator to construct Service Objects representing any IP type, allowing Firewall
Access Rules to then be written to recognize and control IPv4 traffic of any type.
Note
The generic service Any will not handle Custom IP Type Service Objects. In other words,
simply defining a Custom IP Type Service Object for IP Type 126 will not allow IP Type 126
traffic to pass through the default LAN > WAN Allow rule:
It will be necessary to create an Access Rules specifically containing the Custom IP Type
Service Object to provide for its recognition and handling, as illustrated below.
Example
Assume an administrator needed to allow RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol - IP Type 46)
and SRP (Spectralink™ Radio Protocol – IP type 119) from all clients on the WLAN Zone
(WLAN Subnets) to a server on the LAN Zone (for example, 10.50.165.26), the administrator
would be able to define Custom IP Type Service Objects to handle these two services:
Step 1
From the Firewall > Service Objects page, Services section, select Add.
Step 2
Name the Service Objects accordingly.
Step 3
Select Custom IP Type from the Protocol drop-down list.
Step 4
Enter the protocol number for the Custom IP Type. Port ranges are not definable for or
applicable to Custom IP types.
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Note
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Attempts to define a Custom IP Type Service Object for a pre-defined IP type will not be
permitted, and will result in an error message.
Step 5
Click OK
Step 6
From the Firewall > Service Objects page, Service Group section, select Add Group.
Step 7
Add a Service Group composed of the Custom IP Types Services.
Step 8
From Firewall > Access Rules > WLAN > LAN, select Add.
Step 9
Define an Access Rules allowing myServices from WLAN Subnets to the 10.50.165.26
Address Object.
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Firewall > Services
Note
Select your Zones, Services and Address Objects accordingly. It may be necessary to
create an Access Rule for bidirectional traffic; for example, an additional Access Rule from
the LAN > WLAN allowing myServices from 10.50.165.26 to WLAN Subnets.
Step 10 Click OK
IP protocol 46 and 119 traffic will now be recognized, and will be allowed to pass from WLAN
Subnets to 10.50.165.26.
Editing Custom Services
Click the Edit icon
under Configure to edit the service in the Edit Service window, which
includes the same configuration settings as the Add Service window.
Deleting Custom Services
Click the Trashcan icon
to delete an individual custom service. You can delete all custom
services by clicking the Delete button.
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Firewall > Services
Adding a Custom Services Group
You can add custom services and then create groups of services, including default services, to
apply the same policies to them. For instance, you can allow SMTP and POP3 traffic only during
certain hours or days of the week by adding the two services as a Custom Service Group. To
create a Custom Services Group, click Add Group.
Step 1
Enter a name for the custom group in the name field.
Step 2
Select individual services from the list in the left column. You can also select multiple services
by pressing the Ctrl key and clicking on the services.
Step 3
Click - > to add the services to the group.
Step 4
To remove services from the group, select individual services from the list in right column. You
can also select multiple services by pressing the Ctrl key on your keyboard and clicking on the
services.
Step 5
Click < - to remove the services.
Step 6
When you are finished, click OK to add the group to Custom Services Groups.
Clicking + on the left of a Custom Service Group name, expands the display to show all the
individual Custom Services, Default Services, and Custom Services Groups included in the
Custom Service Group entry.
Editing Custom Services Groups
Click the Edit icon
under Configure to edit the custom service group in the Edit Service
Group window, which includes the same configuration settings as the Add Service Group
window.
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Deleting Custom Services Groups
Click the Trashcan icon
to delete the individual custom service group entry. You can delete
all custom service groups by clicking the Delete button.
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CHAPTER 43
Chapter 43:
Configuring Multicast Settings
Firewall > Multicast
Multicasting, also called IP multicasting, is a method for sending one Internet Protocol (IP)
packet simultaneously to multiple hosts. Multicast is suited to the rapidly growing segment of
Internet traffic - multimedia presentations and video conferencing. For example, a single host
transmitting an audio or video stream and ten hosts that want to receive this stream. In
mutlicasting, the sending host transmits a single IP packet with a specific multicast address,
and the 10 hosts simply need to be configured to listen for packets targeted to that address to
receive the transmission. Multicasting is a point-to-multipoint IP communication mechanism
that operates in a connectionless mode - hosts receive multicast transmissions by “tuning in”
to them, a process similar to tuning in to a radio.
The Firewall > Multicast page allows you to manage multicast traffic on the SonicWALL
security appliance.
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Firewall > Multicast
Multicast Snooping
This section provides configuration tasks for Multicast Snooping.
•
Enable Multicast - This checkbox is disabled by default. Select this checkbox to support
multicast traffic.
•
Require IGMP Membership reports for multicast data forwarding - This checkbox is
enabled by default. Select this checkbox to improve performance by regulating multicast
data to be forwarded to only interfaces joined into a multicast group address using IGMP.
•
Multicast state table entry timeout (minutes) - This field has a default of 5. The value
range for this field is 5 to 60 (minutes). Update the default timer value of 5 in the following
conditions:
– You suspect membership queries or reports are being lost on the network.
– You want to reduce the IGMP traffic on the network and currently have a large number
of multicast groups or clients. This is a condition where you do not have a router to route
traffic.
– You want to synchronize the timing with an IGMP router.
Multicast Policies
This section provides configuration tasks for Multicast Policies.
Note
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•
Enable reception of all multicast addresses - This radio button is not enabled by default.
Select this radio button to receive all (class D) multicast addresses. Receiving all multicast
addresses may cause your network to experience performance degradation.
•
Enable reception for the following multicast addresses - This radio button is enabled
by default. In the pull-down menu, select Create a new multicast object or Create new
multicast group.
Only address objects and groups associated with the MULTICAST zone are available to
select. Only addresses from 224.0.0.1 to 239.255.255.255 can be bound to the MULTICAST
zone.
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Firewall > Multicast
To create a multicast address object:
Step 1
In the Enable reception for the following multicast addresses list, select Create new
multicast object.
Step 2
In the Add Address Object window, configure:
– Name: The name of the address object.
– Zone Assignment: Select MULTICAST.
– Type: Select Host, Range, Network, or MAC.
– IP Address: If you selected Host or Network, the IP address of the host or network. The
IP address must be in the range for multicast, 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255.
– Netmask: If you selected Network, the netmask for the network.
– Starting IP Address and Ending IP Address: If you selected Range, the starting and
ending IP address for the address range. The IP addresses must be in the range for
multicast, 224.0.0.1 to 239.255.255.255.
IGMP State Table
This section provides descriptions of the fields in the IGMP State table.
•
Multicast Group Address—Provides the multicast group address the interface is joined to.
•
Interface / VPN Tunnel—Provides the interface (such as LAN) for the VPN policy.
•
IGMP Version—Provides the IGMP version (such as V2 or V3).
•
Time Remaining—Provides the amount of time left before the IGMP entry will be flushed.
This is calculated by subtracting the “Multicast state table entry timeout (minutes)”
value, which has the default value of 5 minutes, and the elapsed time since the multicast
address was added.
•
Flush and Flush All buttons—To flush a specific entry immediately, check the box to the
left of the entry and click Flush. Click Flush All to immediately flush all entries.
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Enabling Multicast on LAN-Dedicated Interfaces
Perform the following steps to enable multicast support on LAN-dedicated interfaces.
Step 1
Enable multicast support on your SonicWALL security appliance. In the Firewall > Multicast
setting, click on the Enable Multicast checkbox. And in the Multicast Policy section, select the
Enable the reception of all multicast addresses.
Step 2
Enable multicast support on LAN interfaces. In the Network > Interfaces setting, click on the
‘Configure’ icon for the LAN interface. In the Edit Interface - LAN page, click on the Enable
Multicast Support checkbox.
Perform the following steps to enable multicast support for address objects over a VPN tunnel.
Step 1
Enable multicast support on your SonicWALL security appliance. In the Firewall > Multicast
setting, click on the Enable Multicast checkbox. And in the Multicast Policy section, select the
Enable the reception for the following multicast addresses and select from the pull-down
menu, Create new multicast address object....
Step 2
Create a multicast address object. In the Add Address Object window, enter the following
information for your address object:
– Name
– Zone Assignment: <LAN, WAN, DMZ, VPN, MULTICAST, WLAN, or a custom zone>
– Type: <Host, Range, Network>
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•
If you select Host, you will need to enter an IP address.
•
If you select Range, you will need to enter a Starting IP Address and an Ending
IP Address.
•
If you select Network, you will need to enter a description of the Network and a
Netmask.
•
If you select MAC, you will need to enter a MAC Address.
Step 3
Enable multicast support on the VPN policy for your GroupVPN. In the VPN > Settings
firmware setting, click on the “Configure’ icon to edit your GroupVPN’s VPN policy.
Step 4
In the VPN Policy window, select the Advanced tab. At the Advanced tab, select the Enable
Multicast checkbox.
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Firewall > Multicast
Enabling Multicast Through a VPN
To enable multicast across the WAN through a VPN, follow:
Step 1
Enable multicast globally. On the Firewall > Multicast page, check the Enable Multicast
checkbox, and click the Apply button for each security appliance.
Step 2
Enable multicast support on each individual interface that will be participating in the multicast
network. On the Network > Interfaces page for each interface on all security appliances
participating, go to the Edit Interface: Advanced tab, and select the Enable Multicast
Support checkbox.
Step 3
Enable multicast on the VPN policies between the security appliances. From the VPN >
Settings page, Advanced tab for each policy, select the Enable Multicast checkbox.
Step 4
The resulting Access Rules should look as follows:
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Note
Step 5
Notice that the default WLAN'MULTICAST access rule for IGMP traffic is set to 'DENY'. This
will need to be changed to 'ALLOW' on all participating appliances to enable multicast, if
they have multicast clients on their WLAN zones.
Make sure the tunnels are active between the sites, and start the multicast server application
and client applications. As multicast data is sent from the multicast server to the multicast group
(224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.255), the SonicWALL security appliance will query its IGMP
state table for that group to determine where to deliver that data. Similarly, when the appliance
receives that data at the VPN Zone, it will query its IGMP State Table to determine where it
should deliver the data.
The IGMP State Tables (upon updating) should provide information similar to the following:
This indicates that there is a multicast client on the OPT interface, and across the
vpnMcastServer tunnel for the 224.15.16.17 group.
Note
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By selecting “Enable reception of all multicast addresses”, you might see entries other than
those you are expecting to see when viewing your IGMP State Tabled. These are caused
by other multicast applications that might be running on your hosts.
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CHAPTER 44
Chapter 44:
Monitoring Active Connections
Firewall > Connections Monitor
The Firewall > Connections Monitor page displays details on all active connections to the
security appliance.
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Firewall > Connections Monitor
Viewing Connections
The connections are listed in the Active Connections Monitor table.
The table lists:
•
Source IP
•
Source Port
•
Destination IP
•
Destination Port
•
Protocol
•
Src Interface
•
Dst Interface
•
Tx Bytes
•
Rx Bytes
Click on a column heading to sort by that column.
Filtering Connections Viewed
You can filter the results to display only connections matching certain criteria. You can filter by
Source IP, Destination IP, Destination Port, Src Interface, Dst Interface, and Protocol.
Enter your filter criteria in the Active Connections Monitor Settings table.
The fields you enter values into are combined into a search string with a logical AND. For
example, if you enter values for Source IP and Destination IP, the search string will look for
connections matching:
Source IP AND Destination IP
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Check the Group box next to any two or more criteria to combine them with a logical OR. For
example, if you enter values for Source IP, Destination IP, and Protocol, and check Group
next to Source IP and Destination IP, the search string will look for connections matching:
(Source IP OR Destination IP) AND Protocol
Click Apply Filter to apply the filter immediately to the Active Connections table. Click Reset
to clear the filter and display the unfiltered results again.
You can export the list of active connections to a file. Click Export Results, and select if you
want the results exported to a plain text file, or a Comma Separated Value (CSV) file for
importing to a spreadsheet, reporting tool, or database. If you are prompted to Open or Save
the file, select Save. Then enter a filename and path and click OK.
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CHAPTER 45
Chapter 45:
Managing Quality of Service
Firewall > QoS Mapping
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to a diversity of methods intended to provide predictable
network behavior and performance. This sort of predictability is vital to certain types of
applications, such as Voice over IP (VoIP), multimedia content, or business-critical applications
such as order or credit-card processing. No amount of bandwidth can provide this sort of
predictability, because any amount of bandwidth will ultimately be used to its capacity at some
point in a network. Only QoS, when configured and implemented correctly, can properly
manage traffic, and guarantee the desired levels of network service.
This section contains the following subsections:
•
“Classification” section on page 467
•
“Marking” section on page 468
•
“Conditioning” section on page 468
Classification
Classification is necessary as a first step so that traffic in need of management can be
identified. SonicOS Enhanced uses Access Rules as the interface to classification of traffic.
This provides fine controls using combinations of Address Object, Service Object, and
Schedule Object elements, allowing for classification criteria as general as all HTTP traffic and
as specific as SSH traffic from hostA to serverB on Wednesdays at 2:12am.
SonicOS Enhanced has the ability to recognize, map, modify, and generate the industrystandard external CoS designators, DSCP and 802.1p (refer to the “802.1p and DSCP QoS”
section on page 469).
Once identified, or classified, it can be managed. Management can be performed internally by
SonicOS’ BWM, which is perfectly effective as long as the network is a fully contained
autonomous system. Once external or intermediate elements are introduced, such as foreign
network infrastructures with unknown configurations, or other hosts contending for bandwidth
(e.g. the Internet) the ability to offer guarantees and predictability are diminished. In other
words, as long as the endpoints of the network and everything in between are within your
management, BWM will work exactly as configured. Once external entities are introduced, the
precision and efficacy of BWM configurations can begin to degrade.
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But all is not lost. Once SonicOS Enhanced classifies the traffic, it can tag the traffic to
communicate this classification to certain external systems that are capable of abiding by CoS
tags; thus they too can participate in providing QoS.
Note
Many service providers do not support CoS tags such as 802.1p or DSCP. Also, most
network equipment with standard configurations will not be able to recognize 802.1p tags,
and could drop tagged traffic.
Although DSCP will not cause compatibility issues, many service providers will simply strip
or ignore the DSCP tags, disregarding the code points.
If you wish to use 802.1p or DSCP marking on your network or your service provider’s
network, you must first establish that these methods are supported. Verify that your
internal network equipment can support CoS priority marking, and that it is correctly
configured to do so. Check with your service provider – some offer fee-based support
for QoS using these CoS methods.
Marking
Once the traffic has been classified, if it is to be handled by QoS capable external systems (e.g.
CoS aware switches or routers as might be available on a premium service provider’s
infrastructure, or on a private WAN), it must be tagged so that the external systems can make
use of the classification, and provide the correct handling and Per Hop Behaviors (PHB).
Originally, this was attempted at the IP layer (layer 3) with RFC791’s three Precedence bits and
RFC1394 ToS (type of service) field, but this was used by a grand total of 17 people throughout
history. Its successor, RFC2474 introduced the much more practical and widely used DSCP
(Differentiated Services Code Point) which offered up to 64 classifications, as well as userdefinable classes. DSCP was further enhanced by RFC2598 (Expedited Forwarding, intended
to provide leased-line behaviors) and RFC2697 (Assured Forwarding levels within classes, also
known as Gold, Silver, and Bronze levels).
DSCP is a safe marking method for traffic that traverses public networks because there is no
risk of incompatibility. At the very worst, a hop along the path might disregard or strip the DSCP
tag, but it will rarely mistreat or discard the packet.
The other prevalent method of CoS marking is IEEE 802.1p. 802.1p occurs at the MAC layer
(layer 2) and is closely related to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN marking, sharing the same 16bit field,
although it is actually defined in the IEEE 802.1D standard. Unlike DSCP, 802.1p will only work
with 802.1p capable equipment, and is not universally interoperable. Additionally, 802.1p,
because of its different packet structure, can rarely traverse wide-area networks, even private
WANs. Nonetheless, 802.1p is gaining wide support among Voice and Video over IP vendors,
so a solution for supporting 802.1p across network boundaries (i.e. WAN links) was introduced
in the form of 802.1p to DSCP mapping.
802.1p to DSCP mapping allows 802.1p tags from one LAN to be mapped to DSCP values by
SonicOS Enhanced, allowing the packets to safely traverse WAN links. When the packets
arrive on the other side of the WAN or VPN, the receiving SonicOS Enhanced appliance can
then map the DSCP tags back to 802.1p tags for use on that LAN. Refer to the “802.1p and
DSCP QoS” section on page 469 for more information.
Conditioning
Finally, the traffic can be conditioned (or managed) using any of the many policing, queuing,
and shaping methods available. SonicOS provides internal conditioning capabilities with its
Egress and Ingress Bandwidth Management (BWM), detailed in the “Bandwidth Management”
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section on page 479. SonicOS’s BWM is a perfectly effective solution for fully autonomous
private networks with sufficient bandwidth, but can become somewhat less effective as more
unknown external network elements and bandwidth contention are introduced. Refer to the
Example Scenario in the “Example Scenario” section on page 472 for a description of contention
issues.
To provide end-to-end QoS, business-class service providers are increasingly offering traffic
conditioning services on their IP networks. These services typically depend on the customer
premise equipment to classify and tag the traffic, generally using a standard marking method
such as DSCP. SonicOS Enhanced has the ability to DSCP mark traffic after classification, as
well as the ability to map 802.1p tags to DSCP tags for external network traversal and CoS
preservation. For VPN traffic, SonicOS can DSCP mark not only the internal (payload) packets,
but the external (encapsulating) packets as well so that QoS capable service providers can offer
QoS even on encrypted VPN traffic.
The actual conditioning method employed by service providers varies from one to the next, but
it generally involves a class-based queuing method such as Weighted Fair Queuing for
prioritizing traffic, as well a congestion avoidance method, such as tail-drop or Random Early
Detection.
802.1p and DSCP QoS
The following sections detail the 802.1p standard and DSCP QoS.
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Enabling 802.1p
SonicOS Enhanced supports layer 2 and layer 3 CoS methods for broad interoperability with
external systems participating in QoS enabled environments. The layer 2 method is the IEEE
802.1p standard wherein 3 bits of an additional 16 bits inserted into the header of the Ethernet
frame can be used to designate the priority of the frame, as illustrated in the following figure:
.
•
TPID: Tag Protocol Identifier begins at byte 12 (after the 6 byte destination and source
fields), is 2 bytes long, and has an Ethertype of 0x8100 for tagged traffic.
•
802.1p: The first three bits of the TCI (Tag Control Information – beginning at byte 14, and
spanning 2 bytes) define user priority, giving eight (2^3) priority levels. IEEE 802.1p defines
the operation for these 3 user priority bits.
•
CFI: Canonical Format Indicator is a single-bit flag, always set to zero for Ethernet
switches. CFI is used for compatibility reasons between Ethernet networks and Token Ring
networks. If a frame received at an Ethernet port has a CFI set to 1, then that frame should
not be forwarded as it is to an untagged port.
•
VLAN ID: VLAN ID (starts at bit 5 of byte 14) is the identification of the VLAN. It has 12 bits
and allows for the identification of 4,096 (2^12) unique VLAN ID’s. Of the 4,096 possible
IDs, an ID of 0 is used to identify priority frames, and an ID of 4,095 (FFF) is reserved, so
the maximum possible VLAN configurations are 4,094.
802.1p support begins by enabling 802.1p marking on the interfaces which you wish to have
process 802.1p tags. 802.1p can be enabled on any Ethernet interface on any SonicWALL
appliance including the TZ 170 Series, PRO 2040, PRO 3060, PRO 4060, and PRO 5060.
Note
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Although Enable 802.1p tagging does not appear as an option on VLAN sub-interfaces on the
PRO 4060 and PRO 5060, the 802.1p field is already present within the 802.1q tags of VLAN
sub-interfaces. The behavior of the 802.1p field within these tags can be controlled by Access
Rules. The default 802.1p Access Rule action of None will reset existing 802.1p tags to 0,
unless otherwise configured (see “Managing QoS Marking” section on page 476 for details).
Enabling 802.1p marking will allow the target interface to recognize incoming 802.1p tags
generated by 802.1p capable network devices, and will also allow the target interface to
generate 802.1p tags, as controlled by Access Rules. Frames that have 802.1p tags inserted
by SonicOS will bear VLAN ID 0.
802.1p tags will only be inserted according to Access Rules, so enabling 802.1p marking on an
interface will not, at its default setting, disrupt communications with 802.1p-incapable devices.
802.1p requires the specific support by the networking devices with which you wish to use this
method of prioritization. Many voice and video over IP devices provide support for 802.1p, but
the feature must be enabled. Check your equipment’s documentation for information on 802.1p
support if you are unsure. Similarly, many server and host network cards (NICs) have the ability
to support 802.1p, but the feature is usually disabled by default. On Win32 operating systems,
you can check for and configure 802.1p settings on the Advanced tab of the Properties page
of your network card. If your card supports 802.1p, it will list it as 802.1p QoS, 802.1p Support,
QoS Packet Tagging or something similar:
To process 802.1p tags, the feature must be present and enabled on the network interface. The
network interface will then be able to generate packets with 802.1p tags, as governed by QoS
capable applications. By default, general network communications will not have tags inserted
so as to maintain compatibility with 802.1p-incapable devices.
Note
If your network interface does not support 802.1p, it will not be able to process 802.1p
tagged traffic, and will ignore it. Make certain when defining Access Rules to enable 802.1p
marking that the target devices are 802.1p capable.
It should also be noted that when performing a packet capture (for example, with the
diagnostic tool Ethereal) on 802.1p capable devices, some 802.1p capable devices will not
show the 802.1q header in the packet capture. Conversely, a packet capture performed on
an 802.1p-incapable device will almost invariably show the header, but the host will be
unable to process the packet.
Before moving on to “Managing QoS Marking” section on page 476, it is important to introduce
‘DSCP Marking’ because of the potential interdependency between the two marking methods,
as well as to explain why the interdependency exists.
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Example Scenario
In the scenario above, we have Remote Site 1 connected to ‘Main Site’ by an IPsec VPN. The
company uses an internal 802.1p/DSCP capable VoIP phone system, with a private VoIP
signaling server hosted at the Main Site. The Main Site has a mixed gigabit and Fast-Ethernet
infrastructure, while Remote Site 1 is all Fast Ethernet. Both sites employ 802.1p capable
switches for prioritization of internal traffic.
1.
PC-1 at Remote Site 1 is transferring a 23 terabyte PowerPoint™ presentation to File
Server 1, and the 100mbit link between the workgroup switch and the upstream switch is
completely saturated.
2.
At the Main Site, a caller on the 802.1p/DSCP capable VoIP Phone 10.50.165.200 initiates
a call to the person at VoIP phone 192.168.168.200. The calling VoIP phone 802.1p tags
the traffic with priority tag 6 (voice), and DSCP tags the traffic with a tag of 48.
a. If the link between the Core Switch and the firewall is a VLAN, some switches will
include the received 802.1p priority tag, in addition to the DSCP tag, in the packet sent
to the firewall; this behavior varies from switch to switch, and is often configurable.
b. If the link between the Core Switch and the firewall is not a VLAN, there is no way for
the switch to include the 802.1p priority tag. The 802.1p priority is removed, and the
packet (including only the DSCP tag) is forwarded to the firewall.
When the firewall sent the packet across the VPN/WAN link, it could include the DSCP tag
in the packet, but it is not possible to include the 802.1p tag. This would have the effect of
losing all prioritization information for the VoIP traffic, because when the packet arrived at
the Remote Site, the switch would have no 802.1p MAC layer information with which to
prioritize the traffic. The Remote Site switch would treat the VoIP traffic the same as the
lower-priority file transfer because of the link saturation, introducing delay—maybe even
dropped packets—to the VoIP flow, resulting in call quality degradation.
So how can critical 802.1p priority information from the Main Site LAN persist across the
VPN/WAN link to Remote Site LAN? Through the use of QoS Mapping.
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QoS Mapping is a feature which converts layer 2 802.1p tags to layer 3 DSCP tags so that
they can safely traverse (in mapped form) 802.1p-incapable links; when the packet arrives
for delivery to the next 802.1p-capable segment, QoS Mapping converts from DSCP back
to 802.1p tags so that layer 2 QoS can be honored.
In our above scenario, the firewall at the Main Site assigns a DSCP tag (e.g. value 48) to
the VoIP packets, as well as to the encapsulating ESP packets, allowing layer 3 QoS to be
applied across the WAN. This assignment can occur either by preserving the existing DSCP
tag, or by mapping the value from an 802.1p tag, if present. When the VoIP packets arrive
at the other side of the link, the mapping process is reversed by the receiving SonicWALL,
mapping the DSCP tag back to an 802.1p tag.
3.
The receiving SonicWALL at the Remote Site is configured to map the DSCP tag range 4855 to 802.1p tag 6. When the packet exits the SonicWALL, it will bear 802.1p tag 6. The
Switch will recognize it as voice traffic, and will prioritize it over the file-transfer,
guaranteeing QoS even in the event of link saturation.
DSCP Marking
DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point) marking uses 6 bits of the 8 bit ToS field in the IP
Header to provide up to 64 classes (or code points) for traffic. Since DSCP is a layer 3 marking
method, there is no concern about compatibility as there is with 802.1p marking. Devices that
do not support DSCP will simply ignore the tags, or at worst, they will reset the tag value to 0.
The above diagram depicts an IP packet, with a close-up on the ToS portion of the header. The
ToS bits were originally used for Precedence and ToS (delay, throughput, reliability, and cost)
settings, but were later repurposed by RFC2474 for the more versatile DSCP settings.
The following table shows the commonly used code points, as well as their mapping to the
legacy Precedence and ToS settings.
DSCP
0
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
DSCP Description
Best effort
Class 1
Class 1, gold (AF11)
Class 1, silver (AF12)
Class 1, bronze (AF13)
Class 2
Class 2, gold (AF21)
Class 2, silver (AF22)
Class 2, bronze (AF23)
Class 3
Legacy IP Precedence
0 (Routine – 000)
1 (Priority – 001)
1 (Priority – 001)
1 (Priority – 001)
1 (Priority – 001)
2 (Immediate – 010)
2 (Immediate – 010)
2 (Immediate – 010)
2 (Immediate – 010)
3 (Flash – 011)
Legacy IP ToS (D, T, R)
T
D
D, T
T
D
D, T
-
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DSCP
26
27
30
32
34
36
38
40
46
48
56
DSCP Description
Class 3, gold (AF31)
Class 3, silver (AF32)
Class 3, bronze (AF33)
Class 4
Class 4, gold (AF41)
Class 4, silver (AF42)
Class 4, bronze (AF43)
Express forwarding
Expedited forwarding (EF)
Control
Control
Legacy IP Precedence
3 (Flash – 011)
3 (Flash – 011)
3 (Flash – 011)
4 (Flash Override – 100)
4 (Flash Override – 100)
4 (Flash Override – 100)
4 (Flash Override – 100)
5 (CRITIC/ECP – 101)
5 (CRITIC/ECP – 101)
6 (Internet Control – 110)
7 (Network Control – 111)
Legacy IP ToS (D, T, R)
T
D
D, T
T
D
D, T
D, T
-
DSCP marking can be performed on traffic to/from any interface and to/from any zone type,
without exception. DSCP marking is controlled by Access Rules, from the QoS tab, and can be
used in conjunction with 802.1p marking, as well as with SonicOS’ internal bandwidth
management.
DSCP Marking and Mixed VPN Traffic
Among their many security measures and characteristics, IPsec VPNs employ anti-replay
mechanisms based upon monotonically incrementing sequence numbers added to the ESP
header. Packets with duplicate sequence numbers are dropped, as are packets that do not
adhere to sequence criteria. One such criterion governs the handling of out-of-order packets.
SonicOS Enhanced provides a replay window of 64 packets, i.e. if an ESP packet for a Security
Association (SA) is delayed by more than 64 packets, the packet will be dropped.
This should be considered when using DSCP marking to provide layer 3 QoS to traffic
traversing a VPN. If you have a VPN tunnel that is transporting a diversity of traffic, some that
is being DSCP tagged high priority (e.g. VoIP), and some that is DSCP tagged low-priority, or
untagged/best-effort (e.g. FTP), your service provider will prioritize the handling and delivery of
the high-priority ESP packets over the best-effort ESP packets. Under certain traffic conditions,
this can result in the best-effort packets being delayed for more than 64 packets, causing them
to be dropped by the receiving SonicWALL’s anti-replay defenses.
If symptoms of such a scenario emerge (e.g. excessive retransmissions of low-priority traffic),
it is recommended that you create a separate VPN policy for the high-priority and low-priority
classes of traffic. This is most easily accomplished by placing the high-priority hosts (e.g. the
VoIP network) on their own subnet.
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Configure for 802.1p CoS 4 – Controlled load
If you want to change the inbound mapping of DSCP tag 15 from its default 802.1p mapping of
1 to an 802.1p mapping of 2, it would have to be done in two steps because mapping ranges
cannot overlap. Attempting to assign an overlapping mapping will give the error DSCP range
already exists or overlaps with another range. First, you will have to remove 15 from its
current end-range mapping to 802.1p CoS 1 (changing the end-range mapping of 802.1p CoS
1 to DSCP 14), then you can assign DSCP 15 to the start-range mapping on 802.1p CoS 2.
QoS Mapping
The primary objective of QoS Mapping is to allow 802.1p tags to persist across non-802.1p
compliant links (e.g. WAN links) by mapping them to corresponding DSCP tags before sending
across the WAN link, and then mapping from DSCP back to 802.1p upon arriving at the other
side:
Note
Mapping will not occur until you assign Map as an action of the QoS tab of an Access Rule.
The mapping table only defines the correspondence that will be employed by an Access
Rule’s Map action.
For example, according to the default table, an 802.1p tag with a value of 2 will be outbound
mapped to a DSCP value of 16, while a DSCP tag of 43 will be inbound mapped to an 802.1
value of 5.
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Each of these mappings can be reconfigured. If you wanted to change the outbound mapping
of 802.1p tag 4 from its default DSCP value of 32 to a DSCP value of 43, you can click the
Configure icon for 4 – Controlled load and select the new To DSCP value from the drop-down
box:
802.1p CoS 1 end-range remap
802.1p CoS 2 start-range remap
You can restore the default mappings by clicking the Reset QoS Settings button.
Managing QoS Marking
QoS marking is configured from the QoS tab of Access Rules under the Firewall > Access
Rules page of the management interface. Both 802.1p and DSCP marking as managed by
SonicOS Enhanced Access Rules provide 4 actions: None, Preserve, Explicit, and Map. The
default action for DSCP is Preserve and the default action for 802.1p is None.
The following table describes the behavior of each action on both methods of marking:
Action
802.1p (layer 2 CoS) DSCP (layer 3)
Notes
None
The DSCP tag is explicitly set (or
When packets
matching this class of reset) to 0.
traffic (as defined by
the Access Rule) are
sent out the egress
interface, no 802.1p
tag will be added.
If the target interface for this class
of traffic is a VLAN sub-interface,
the 802.1p portion of the 802.1q
tag will be explicitly set to 0. If this
class of traffic is destined for a
VLAN and is using 802.1p for
prioritization, a specific Access
Rule using the Preserve,
Explicit, or Map action should be
defined for this class of traffic.
Preserve Existing 802.1p tag
will be preserved.
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Existing DSCP tag value will be
preserved.
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Action
802.1p (layer 2 CoS) DSCP (layer 3)
Notes
Explicit
An explicit 802.1p tag An explicit DSCP tag value can be
assigned (0-63) from a drop-down
value can be
assigned (0-7) from a menu that will be presented.
drop-down menu that
will be presented.
If either the 802.1p or the DSCP
action is set to Explicit while the
other is set to Map, the explicit
assignment occurs first, and then
the other is mapped according to
that assignment.
Map
The mapping setting
defined in the
Firewall > QoS
Mapping page will
be used to map from
a DSCP tag to an
802.1p tag.
The mapping setting defined in the
Firewall > QoS Mapping page will
be used to map from an 802.1 tag to
a DSCP tag. An additional checkbox
will be presented to Allow 802.1p
Marking to override DSCP values.
Selecting this checkbox will assert
the mapped 802.1p value over any
DSCP value that might have been set
by the client. This is useful to override
clients setting their own DSCP CoS
values.
If Map is set as the action on both
DSCP and 802.1p, mapping will
only occur in one direction: if the
packet is from a VLAN and arrives
with an 802.1p tag, then DSCP
will be mapped to the 802.1p tag;
if the packet is destined to a
VLAN, then 802.1p will be
mapped to the DSCP tag.
For example, refer to the following figure which provides a bi-directional DSCP tag action.
HTTP access from a web-browser on 192.168.168.100 to the web-server on 10.50.165.2 will
result in the tagging of the inner (payload) packet and the outer (encapsulating ESP) packets
with a DSCP value of 8. When the packets emerge from the other end of the tunnel, and are
delivered to 10.50.165.2, they will bear a DSCP tag of 8. When 10.50.165.2 sends response
packets back across the tunnel to 192.168.168.100 (beginning with the very first SYN/ACK
packet) the Access Rule will tag the response packets delivered to 192.168.168.100 with a
DSCP value of 8.
This behavior applies to all four QoS action settings for both DSCP and 802.1p marking.
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One practical application for this behavior would be configuring an 802.1p marking rule for
traffic destined for the VPN Zone. Although 802.1p tags cannot be sent across the VPN, reply
packets coming back across the VPN can be 802.1p tagged on egress from the tunnel. This
requires that 802.1p tagging is active of the physical egress interface, and that the [Zone] >
VPN Access Rule has an 802.1p marking action other than None.
After ensuring 802.1p compatibility with your relevant network devices, and enabling 802.1p
marking on applicable SonicWALL interfaces, you can begin configuring Access Rules to
manage 802.1p tags.
Referring to the following figure, the Remote Site 1 network could have two Access Rules
configured as follows:
The first Access Rule (governing LAN>VPN) would have the following effects:
•
VoIP traffic (as defined by the Service Group) from LAN Primary Subnet destined to be
sent across the VPN to Main Site Subnets would be evaluated for both DSCP and 802.1p
tags.
– The combination of setting both DSCP and 802.1p marking actions to Map is described
in the table earlier in the “Managing QoS Marking” section on page 476.
– Sent traffic containing only an 802.1p tag (e.g. CoS = 6) would have the VPN-bound
inner (payload) packet DSCP tagged with a value of 48. The outer (ESP) packet would
also be tagged with a value of 48.
– Assuming returned traffic has been DSCP tagged (CoS = 48) by the SonicWALL at the
Main Site, the return traffic will be 802.1p tagged with CoS = 6 on egress.
– Sent traffic containing only a DSCP tag (e.g. CoS = 48) would have the DSCP value
preserved on both inner and outer packets.
– Assuming returned traffic has been DSCP tagged (CoS = 48) by the SonicWALL at the
Main Site, the return traffic will be 802.1p tagged with CoS = 6 on egress.
– Sent traffic containing only both an 802.1p tag (e.g. CoS = 6) and a DSCP tag (e.g. CoS
= 63) would give precedence to the 802.1p tag, and would be mapped accordingly. The
VPN-bound inner (payload) packet DSCP tagged with a value of 48. The outer (ESP)
packet would also be tagged with a value of 48.
Assuming returned traffic has been DSCP tagged (CoS = 48) by the SonicWALL at the Main
Site, the return traffic will be 802.1p tagged with CoS = 6 on egress.
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To examine the effects of the second Access Rule (VPN>LAN), we’ll look at the Access Rules
configured at the Main Site:
VoIP traffic (as defined by the Service Group) arriving from Remote Site 1 Subnets across the
VPN destined to LAN Subnets on the LAN zone at the Main Site would hit the Access Rule for
inbound VoIP calls. Traffic arriving at the VPN zone will not have any 802.1p tags, only DSCP
tags.
– Traffic exiting the tunnel containing a DSCP tag (e.g. CoS = 48) would have the DSCP
value preserved. Before the packet is delivered to the destination on the LAN, it will also
be 802.1p tagged according to the QoS Mapping settings (e.g. CoS = 6) by the
SonicWALL at the Main Site.
– Assuming returned traffic has been 802.1p tagged (e.g. CoS = 6) by the VoIP phone
receiving the call at the Main Site, the return traffic will be DSCP tagged according to
the conversion map (CoS = 48) on both the inner and outer packet sent back across
the VPN.
– Assuming returned traffic has been DSCP tagged (e.g. CoS = 48) by the VoIP phone
receiving the call at the Main Site, the return traffic will have the DSCP tag preserved
on both the inner and outer packet sent back across the VPN.
– Assuming returned traffic has been both 802.1p tagged (e.g. CoS = 6) and DSCP
tagged (e.g. CoS = 14) by the VoIP phone receiving the call at the Main Site, the return
traffic will be DSCP tagged according to the conversion map (CoS = 48) on both the
inner and outer packet sent back across the VPN.
Bandwidth Management
SonicOS Enhanced offers an integrated traffic shaping mechanism through its Egress
(outbound) and Ingress (inbound) bandwidth management (BWM) interfaces. Outbound BWM
can be applied to traffic sourced from Trusted and Public Zones (e.g. LAN and DMZ) destined
to Untrusted and Encrypted Zones (e.g. WAN and VPN). Inbound BWM can be applied to traffic
sourced from Untrusted and Encrypted Zones destined to Trusted and Public Zones.
Note
Although BWM is a fully integrated QoS system, wherein classification and shaping is
performed on the single SonicWALL appliance, effectively eliminating the dependency on
external systems and thus obviating the need for marking, it is possible to concurrently
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configure BWM and QoS (i.e. layer 2 and/or layer 3 marking) settings on a single Access
Rule. This allows those external systems to benefit from the classification performed on the
SonicWALL even after it has already shaped the traffic.
BWM configurations begin by enabling BWM on the relevant WAN interface, and declaring the
interface’s available bandwidth in Kbps (Kilobits per second). This is performed from the
Network > Interfaces page by selecting the Configure icon for the WAN interface, and
navigating to the Advanced tab:
Egress and Ingress BWM can be enabled jointly or separately on WAN interfaces. Different
bandwidth values may be entered for outbound and inbound bandwidth to support asymmetric
links. Link rates up to 100,000 Kbps (100Mbit) may be declared on Fast Ethernet interface,
while Gigabit Ethernet interfaces will support link rates up to 1,000,000 (Gigabit). The speed
declared should reflect the actual bandwidth available for the link. Oversubscribing the link (i.e.
declaring a value greater than the available bandwidth) is not recommended.
Note
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Once BWM has been enabled on an interface, and a link speed has been defined, traffic
traversing that link will be throttled—both inbound and outbound—to the declared values,
even if no Access Rules are configured with BWM settings.
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Once one or both BWM settings are enabled on the WAN interface and the available bandwidth
has been declared, a Ethernet BWM tab will appear on Access Rules. The Bandwidth tab will
present either Inbound settings, Outbound settings, or both, depending on what was enabled
on the WAN interface:
The configuration on the General tab will classify the traffic. In the above example, which
assumes no other configured BWM rules, traffic from the LAN (Trusted) Zone’s LAN Subnets
destined to the VPN (Encrypted) Zone’s 10.50.165.0 remote subnet, consisting of Service
Group VOIP will be guaranteed 30% of the declared bandwidth (30% of 1500Kbps = 450Kbps),
but it will not be permitted to exceed 80% (80% of 1500Kbps = 1200Kbps), leaving 300Kbps for
other traffic.
Declaration Limits
Bandwidth Management rules each consume memory for packet queuing, so the number of
allowed queued packets and rules on SonicOS Enhanced is limited by platform (values are
subject to change):
Platform
PRO 4060
PRO 5060
RAM
256MB
512MB
Max Queued
Packets
2080
6240
Max
Outbound
BWM Rules
100
100
Max Inbound
BWM Rules
100
100
Total
BWM Rules
200
200
Consider the following about bandwidth management:
•
The grand total of all declared Guaranteed Bandwidth percentages across all BWM rules
cannot exceed 100%, since it is not possible to guarantee greater than 100% of the
available bandwidth.
•
The grand total of all Maximum Bandwidth values must be equal to or greater than the total
Guaranteed Bandwidth.
•
The grand total of all Maximum Bandwidth values may exceed 100% (e.g. every BWM rule
may specify 100% Maximum Bandwidth, if no explicit throttling is required).
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Outbound Bandwidth Management
Bandwidth Management as employed by SonicOS Enhanced is based on an amalgamation of
queue management and congestion avoidance techniques, but in empirical practice it most
closely resembles Class Base Queuing (CBQ), as defined by Sally Floyd and Van Jacobson in
Link-sharing and Resource Management Models for Packet Networks, while incorporating
elements of RFC2309 Recommendations on Queue Management and Congestion
Avoidance in the Internet and various credit-based flow control theory. The overarching goals
of the SonicOS BWM scheme are:
•
Simplicity – The processing overhead must be consistently and appreciably less than
average packet transmission times.
•
Robustness – The scheduler must perform well under predictable and unpredictable traffic
conditions, and must not introduce undesirable side effects such as traffic bursts or
synchronization issues.
•
Fairness – The sharing of available bandwidth should be commensurate with the defined
management scheme, particularly in the presence of poorly behaving or greedy traffic.
The available bandwidth on a WAN link is tracked by means of adjusting a link credit (token)
pool for each packet sent. Providing that the link hasn’t reached a point of saturation, the
prioritized queues are deemed eligible for processing.
Like CBQ, SonicOS BWM is based on a class structure, where traffic queues are classified
according to Access Rules—for example SSH, Telnet, or HTTP—and then scheduled
according to their prescribed priority. Each participating Access Rule is assigned three values:
Guaranteed bandwidth, Maximum bandwidth, and Bandwidth priority. Scheduling prioritization
is achieved by assignment to one of eight priority rings, starting at 0 (zero) for the highest
priority, and descending to 7 (seven) for the lowest priority. The resulting queuing hierarchy can
be best thought of as a node tree structure that is always one level deep, where all nodes are
leaf nodes, containing no children.
Queue processing utilizes a time division scheme of approximately 1/256th of a second per
time-slice. Within a time-slice, evaluation begins with priority 0 queues, and on a packet-bypacket basis transmission eligibility is determined by measuring the packet’s length against the
queue credit pool. If sufficient credit is available, the packet is transmitted and the queue and
link credit pools are decremented accordingly. As long as packets remain in the queue, and as
long as Guaranteed link and queue credits are available, packets from that queue will continue
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to be processed. When Guaranteed queue credits are depleted, the next queue in that priority
ring is processed. The same process is repeated for the remaining priority rings, and upon
completing priority ring 7 begins again with priority ring 0.
The scheduling for excess bandwidth is strict priority, with per-packet round-robin within each
priority. In other words, if there is excess bandwidth for a given time-slice all the queues within
that priority ring would take turns sending packets until the excess was depleted, and then
processing would move to the next priority ring.
This credit-based method obviates the need for CBQ’s concept of overlimit, and addresses
one of the largest problems of traditional CBQ, namely, bursty behavior (which can easily flood
downstream devices and links). This more prudent approach spares SonicOS the wasted CPU
cycles that would normally be incurred by the need for re-transmission due to the saturation of
downstream devices, as well as avoiding other congestive and degrading behaviors such as
TCP slow-start (see Sally Floyd’s Limited Slow-Start for TCP with Large Congestion Windows),
and Global Synchronization (as described in RFC 2884):
Queue management algorithms traditionally manage the length of packet queues in the router
by dropping packets only when the buffer overflows. A maximum length for each queue is
configured. The router will accept packets till this maximum size is exceeded, at which point it
will drop incoming packets. New packets are accepted when buffer space allows. This
technique is known as Tail Drop. This method has served the Internet well for years, but has
the several drawbacks. Since all arriving packets (from all flows) are dropped when the buffer
overflows, this interacts badly with the congestion control mechanism of TCP. A cycle is formed
with a burst of drops after the maximum queue size is exceeded, followed by a period of
underutilization at the router as end systems back off. End systems then increase their windows
simultaneously up to a point where a burst of drops happens again. This phenomenon is called
Global Synchronization. It leads to poor link utilization and lower overall throughput. Another
problem with Tail Drop is that a single connection or a few flows could monopolize the queue
space, in some circumstances. This results in a lock out phenomenon leading to
synchronization or other timing effects. Lastly, one of the major drawbacks of Tail Drop is that
queues remain full for long periods of time. One of the major goals of queue management is to
reduce the steady state queue size.
Algorithm for Outbound Bandwidth Management
Each packet through the SonicWALL is initially classified as either a Real Time or a Firewall
packet. Firewall packets are user-generated packets that always pass through the BWM
module. Real time packets are usually firewall generated packets that are not processed by the
BWM module, and are implicitly given the highest priority. Real Time (firewall generated)
packets include:
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WAN Load Balancing Probe
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ISAKMP
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Web CFS
•
PPTP and L2TP control packets
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DHCP
•
ARP Packets
•
Web Sense
•
Syslog
•
NTP
•
Security Services (AV, signature updates, license manager)
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Outbound BWM Packet Processing Path
a. Determine that the packet is bound for the WAN Zone.
b. Determine that the packet is classifiable as a Firewall packet.
c. Match the packet to an Access Rule to determine BWM setting.
d. Queue the packet in the appropriate rule queue.
Guaranteed Bandwidth Processing
This algorithm depicts how all the policies use up the GBW.
a. Start with a link credit equal to available link BW.
b. Initialize the class credit with configured GBW for the rule.
c. If that packet length is less than or equal to the class credit, transmit the packet and
deduct the length from class credit and link credit.
d. Choose the next packet from queue and repeat step c until class credit is lesser or rule
queue is empty.
e. Choose the next rule queue and repeat steps b through d.
Maximum Bandwidth Processing
This algorithm depicts how the unutilized link BW is used up by the policies. We start with the
highest priority ring and transmit packets from all the rule queues in a round robin fashion until
link credit is exhausted or all queues are empty. Then we move on to the next lowest priority
ring and repeat the same.
a. Start with the link credit equal to the left over link BW after GBW utilization.
b. Choose the highest priority ring.
c. Initialize class credit to (MBW - GBW).
d. Check if the length of a packet from the rule queue is below class credit as well as link
credit.
e. If yes, transmit the packet and deduct the length from class credit and link credit.
f. Choose the next rule queue and repeat steps c through f until link credit gets exhausted
or this priority ring has all its queues empty.
g. Choose the next lowest priority ring and repeat steps c through f.
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Example of Outbound BWM
The above diagram shows 4 policies are configured for OBWM with a link capacity of 100 Kbps.
This means that the link capacity is 12800 Bytes/sec. Below table gives the BWM values for
each rule in Bytes per second.
BWM values FTP
GBW
1280
MBW
2560
H323
2560
5120
Yahoo Messenger
640
1920
VNC
2560
3200
a. For GBW processing, we start with the first queue in the rule queue list which is FTP.
Link credit is 12800 and class credit is 1280. Pkt1 of 400B is sent out on the WAN link
and link credit becomes 12400 and class credit becomes 880. Pkt2 is not sent out
because there is not enough class credit to send 1500 Bytes. The remaining class
credit is carried over to the next time slice.
b. We move on to the next rule queue in this list which is for H323. Pkt1 of 1500B is sent
out and link credit becomes 10900 and class credit for H323 becomes 1060. Pkt2 is
also sent from queue hence link credit = 10200 and class credit = 360. Pkt3 is not sent
since there is not enough class credit. The remaining class credit is carried over to the
next time slice.
c. Now we move onto Yahoo Messenger queue. Since Pkt1 cannot be accommodated
with its class credit of 640 Bytes, no packets are processed from this queue. However,
its class credit is carried over to the next time slice.
d. From VNC queue, Pkt1 and Pkt2 are sent out leaving link credit = 8000 and class credit
= 360. Class credit is carried over.
e. Since all the queues have been processed for GBW we now move onto use up the left
over link credit of 8000.
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f. Start off with the highest priority ring 0 and process all queues in this priority in a round
robin fashion. H323 has Pkt3 of 500B which is sent since it can use up to max = 2560
(MBW-GBW). Now Link credit = 7500 and max = 2060.
g. Move to the next queue in this priority ring which is VNC queue. Pkt3 of 500B is sent
out leaving link credit = 7000B and class max = 140 (MBW-GBW - 500).
h. Move to the next queue in this priority ring. Since H323 queue is empty already we
move to the next queue which is VNC again.
i. From VNC queue Pkt4 of 40B is sent out leaving link credit = 6960 and class max =
100. Pkt5 of 500B is not sent since class max is not enough.
j. Now we move onto next lower priority queue. Since priority rings 1 through 3 are empty
we choose priority ring 4 which has the rule queue for FTP. Pkt2 of 1000B is sent which
leaves with link credit = 6000 and class max = 280. Since there are no other queues in
this priority, FTP queue is processed again. But since class max is not enough for Pkt3
of 1500B it is not sent.
k. Move to the next lower priority ring which is 7 for Yahoo Messenger. Pkt1 of 1200B is
sent leaving link credit = 4800 and class max = 80. Since no other queues exist in this
priority, this queue is processed again. Pkt2 of 1500B is not sent since it cannot be
accommodated with max = 80.
l. At this point, all the queues under all priority rings are processed for the current time
slice.
Inbound Bandwidth Management
Inbound BWM can be used to shape inbound TCP and UDP traffic. TCP’s intrinsic flow control
behavior is used to manage ingress bandwidth. To manage inbound UDP traffic, CBQ is used
by the ingress module to queue the incoming packets. TCP rate is inherently controlled by the
rate of receipt of ACKs; i.e. TCP sends out packets out on the network at the same rate as it
receives ACKs. For IBWM, the sending rate of a TCP source will be reduced by controlling the
rate of ACKs to the source. By delaying an ACK to the source, round-trip time (RTT) for the flow
is increased, thus reducing the source’s sending rate.
An ingress module monitors and records the ingress rate for each traffic class. It also monitors
the egress ACKs and queues them if the ingress rate has to be reduced. According to ingress
BW availability and average rate, the ACKs will be released.
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Algorithm for Inbound Bandwidth Management
IBWM maintains eight priority rings, where each priority ring has one queue for a rule that has
IBWM enabled. The IBWM pool is processed from the highest to lowest priority ring further
shaping the traffic. IBWM employs three key algorithms:
Ingress Rate Update
This algorithm processes each packet from the WAN and updates the ingress rate of the class
to which it belongs. It also marks the traffic class if it has over utilized the link.
a. Determine that the packet is from the WAN zone and is a firewall packet.
b. Add the packet length to the sum of packet lengths received so far in the current time
slice. Deduct the minimum of (GBW, packet length) from link’s credit.
c. If the sum is greater than the class’s credit, mark the class to be over utilizing the link.
d. If the packet length is greater than the link’s credit, mark the link as well as the class to
be over utilized.
Egress ACK monitor
This algorithm depicts how the egress ACKs are monitored and processed.
a. Determine that the packet is to the WAN zone and is a TCP ACK.
b. If class or interface is marked as over utilizing, queue the packet in the appropriate
ingress rule queue.
Process ACKs
This algorithm is used to update the BW parameters per class according to the amount of BW
usage in the previous time slice. Amount of BW usage is given by the total number of bytes
received for the class in the previous time slice. The algorithm is also used to process the
packets from the ingress module queues according to the available credit for the class.
Credit-Based Processing
A class will be in debt when its BW usage is more than the GBW for a particular time slice. All
the egress ACKs for the class are then queued until the debt is reduced to zero. At each
successive time slice, debt is deducted by GBW and if link BW is left, (MBW – GBW) is also
deducted.
Compute BW usage in the previous time slice:
a. Compute average ingress rate using the amount of BW usage by the class.
b. If the BW usage is more than the class credit, record the difference as debt. If link BW
is left over, deduct (MBW - GBW) from debt.
c. Compute the class and link credit for the current time slice:
•
If the class is in debt, deduct GBW from debt and also from link’s credit, indicating
that the class has already used up its GBW for the current time slice.
•
If class is not in debt and there are packets arriving for this class, accumulate link
credit; i.e. add GBW to credit at each time slice.
•
Class is marked as over utilizing if debt is nonzero.
d. Process packets from ingress pool from highest priority ring to lowest priority ring.
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e. Record class credit as remaining credit.
f. If remaining credit is greater than or equal to average rate, process the ACK packet and
deduct average rate from remaining credit.
g. Repeat g until remaining credit is not enough or the ingress ACK queue is empty.
h. Repeat steps f through h for the next rule queue in the ring.
i. Repeat steps f through i for the next lowest priority ring.
Example of Inbound Bandwidth Management
Consider a class with GBW = 5 Kbps, MBW = 10 Kbps and Link BW = 100 Kbps. In terms of
bytes per second we have GBW=640, excess BW = (MBW - GBW) = 640 and link BW = 12800.
No.
1.
2.
2a.
3.
4.
Ingress
0
1300
0
0
0
Egress
0
0
40
0
0
Credit
640
620
620
1260
1900
Debt
0
0
0
0
0
Rate
0
1300
1300
1300
1300
Link BW
12800
12780
12780
12800
12800
#Acks
0
0
1
1
0
a. Class credit starts with 640. In row 2, 1300 bytes are received for this class in the
previous time slice. Since it is more than the class credit, debt = 20 (1300-GBW-excess
BW). For the current time slice class credit = 620 (GBW - debt), debt = 0 and link BW
= 12780 since 20 bytes of debt is already used up from GBW for the class.
b. Row 2a shows an egress ACK for the class. Since class credit is less than the rate this
packet is queued in the appropriate ingress queue. And it will not be processed until
class credit is at least equal to the rate.
c. In the following time slices, class credit gets accumulated until it matches the rate.
Hence, after two time slices class credit becomes 1900 (620 + 640 + 640). The queued
ACK packet is process from the ingress pool at this point.
In row 2a, an ACK packet is received that needs to be sent to the TCP source on the WAN zone.
Sending this ACK immediately would have caused the TCP source to send more packets
immediately. By queuing the ACK and sending it only after the class credit reaches the average
rate, we have reduced the TCP’s sending rate; i.e. by doing this we have slowed down the
ingress rate.
BWM with WAN load balancing
BWM with WAN load balancing works in the following manner:
a. If two interfaces are configured as WAN and load balancing is NOT enabled, BWM is
only applied to the primary WAN interface.
b. If two interfaces are configured as WAN and load balancing is enabled:
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•
For Active/Passive Failover, BWM is done only on the active WAN interface.
•
For Round Robin and Ratio options, link capacity is the sum of available BW for
primary and secondary WAN interface and BWM is done on both interfaces.
•
For Spill Over option, link capacity is Primary’s available BW and BWM is done on
primary interface before the spill over occurs. And after the spill over occurs, the
secondary interface’s capacity is used and BWM is done on the secondary WAN
interface.
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Glossary
•
802.1p – IEEE 802.1p is a Layer 2 (MAC layer) Class of Service mechanism that tags
packets by using 3 priority bits (for a total of 8 priority levels) within the additional 16 bits of
an 802.1q header. 802.1p processing requires compatible equipment for tag generation,
recognition and processing, and should only be employed on compatible networks.
•
Bandwidth Management (BWM) – Refers to any of a variety of algorithms or methods
used to shape traffic or police traffic. Shaping often refers to the management of outbound
traffic, while policing often refers to the management of inbound traffic (also known as
admission control). There are many different methods of bandwidth management, including
various queuing and discarding techniques, each with their own design strengths.
SonicWALL employs a Token Based Class Based Queuing method for inbound and
outbound BWM, as well as a discard mechanism for certain types of inbound traffic.
•
Class of Service (CoS) – A designator or identifier, such as a layer 2 or layer 3 tag, that
is applied to traffic after classification. CoS information will be used by the Quality of
Service (QoS) system to differentiate between the classes of traffic on the network, and to
provide special handling (e.g. prioritized queuing, low latency, etc.) as defined by the QoS
system administrator.
•
Classification – The act of identifying (or differentiating) certain types (or classes) of
traffic. Within the context of QoS, this is performed for the sake of providing customized
handling, typically prioritization or de-prioritization, based on the traffic’s sensitivity to
delay, latency, or packet loss. Classification within SonicOS Enhanced uses Access Rules,
and can occur based on any or all of the following elements: source zone, destination zone,
source address object, destination address object, service object, schedule object.
•
Code Point – A value that is marked (or tagged) into the DSCP portion of an IP packet by
a host or by an intermediate network device. There are currently 64 Code Points available,
from 0 to 63, used to define the ascending prioritized class of the tagged traffic.
•
Conditioning – A broad term used to describe a plurality of methods of providing Quality
of Service to network traffic, including but not limited to discarding, queuing, policing, and
shaping.
•
DiffServ – Differentiated Services. A standard for differentiating between different types or
classes of traffic on an IP network for the purpose of providing tailored handling to the traffic
based on its requirements. DiffServ primarily depends upon Code Point values marked in
the ToS header of an IP packet to differentiate between different classes of traffic. DiffServ
service levels are executed on a Per Hop Basis at each router (or other DiffServ enabled
network device) through which the marked traffic passes. DiffServ Service levels currently
include at a minimum Default, Assured Forwarding, and Expedited Forwarding. Refer
to the “DSCP Marking” section on page 473 for more information.
•
Discarding – A congestion avoidance mechanism that is employed by QoS systems in an
attempt to predict when congestion might occur on a network, and to prevent the
congestion by dropping over-limit traffic. Discarding can also be thought of as a queue
management algorithm, since it attempts to avoid situations of full queues. Advanced
discard mechanisms will abide by CoS markings so as to avoid dropping sensitive traffic.
Common methods are:
– Tail Drop – An indiscriminate method of dealing with a full queue wherein the last
packets into the queue are dropped, regardless of their CoS marking.
– Random Early Detection (RED) – RED monitors the status of queues to try to
anticipate when a queue is about to become full. It then randomly discards packets in
a staggered fashion to help minimize the potential of Global Synchronization. Basic
implementations of RED, like Tail Drop, do not consider CoS markings.
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– Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) – An implementation of RED that factors
DSCP markings into its discard decision process.
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•
DSCP – (Differentiate Services Code Points) – The repurposing of the ToS field of an IP
header as described by RFC2747. DSCP uses 64 Code Point values to enable DiffServ
(Differentiated Services). By marking traffic according to its class, each packet can be
treated appropriately at every hop along the network.
•
Global Synchronization – A potential side effect of discarding, the congestion avoidance
method designed to deal with full queues. Global Synchronization occurs when multiple
TCP flows through a congested link are dropped at the same time (as can occur in Tail
Drop). When the native TCP slow-start mechanism commences with near simultaneity for
each of these flows, the flows will again flood the link. This leads to cyclical waves of
congestion and under-utilization.
•
Guaranteed Bandwidth – A declared percentage of the total available bandwidth on an
interface which will always be granted to a certain class of traffic. Applicable to both
inbound and outbound BWM. The total Guaranteed Bandwidth across all BWM rules cannot
exceed 100% of the total available bandwidth. SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 enhances the
Bandwidth Management feature to provide rate limiting functionality. You can now create
traffic policies that specify maximum rates for Layer 2, 3, or 4 network traffic. This enables
bandwidth management in cases where the primary WAN link fails over to a secondary
connection that cannot handle as much traffic. The Guaranteed Bandwidth can also be set
to 0%.
•
Inbound (Ingress or IBWM) – The ability to shape the rate at which traffic enters a
particular interface. For TCP traffic, actual shaping can occur where the rate of the ingress
flow can be adjusted by delaying egress acknowledgements (ACKs) causing the sender to
slow its rate. For UDP traffic, a discard mechanism is used since UDP has no native
feedback controls.
•
IntServ – Integrated Services, as defined by RFC1633. An alternative CoS system to
DiffServ, IntServ differs fundamentally from DiffServ in that it has each device request (or
reserve) its network requirements before it sends its traffic. This requires that each hop on
the network be IntServ aware, and it also requires each hop to maintain state information
for every flow. IntServ is not supported by SonicOS. The most common implementation of
IntServ is RSVP.
•
Maximum Bandwidth – A declared percentage of the total available bandwidth on an
interface defining the maximum bandwidth to be allowed to a certain class of traffic.
Applicable to both inbound and outbound BWM. Used as a throttling mechanism to specify
a bandwidth rate limit. SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 enhances the Bandwidth Management
feature to provide rate limiting functionality. You can now create traffic policies that specify
maximum rates for Layer 2, 3, or 4 network traffic. This enables bandwidth management in
cases where the primary WAN link fails over to a secondary connection that cannot handle
as much traffic.The Maxmimum Bandwidth can be set to 0%, which will prevent all traffic.
•
Outbound (Egress or OBWM) – Conditioning the rate at which traffic is sent out an
interface. Outbound BWM uses a credit (or token) based queuing system with 8 priority
rings to service different types of traffic, as classified by Access Rules.
•
Priority – An additional dimension used in the classification of traffic. SonicOS uses 8
priority rings (0 = highest, 7 = lowest) to comprise the queue structure used for BWM.
Queues are serviced in the order of their priority ring.
•
Mapping – Mapping, with regard to SonicOS’ implementation of QoS, is the practice of
converting layer 2 CoS tags (802.1p) to layer 3 CoS tags (DSCP) and back again for the
purpose as preserving the 802.1p tags across network links that do not support 802.1p
tagging. The map correspondence is fully user-definable, and the act of mapping is
controlled by Access Rules.
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•
Marking – Also known as tagging or coloring – The act of applying layer 2 (802.1p) or
layer 3 (DSCP) information to a packet for the purpose of differentiation, so that it can be
properly classified (recognized) and prioritized by network devices along the path to its
destination.
•
MPLS - Multi Protocol Label Switching. A term that comes up frequently in the area of QoS,
but which is natively unsupported by most customer premise IP networking devices,
including SonicWALL appliances. MPLS is a carrier-class network service that attempts to
enhance the IP network experience by adding the concept connection-oriented paths
(Label Switch Paths – LSPs) along the network. When a packet leaves a customer premise
network, it is tagged by a Label Edge Router (LER) so that the label can be used to
determine the LSP. The MPLS tag itself resides between layer 2 and layer 3, imparting
upon MPLS characteristics of both network layers. MPLS is becoming quite popular for
VPNs, offering both layer 2 and layer 3 VPN services, but remains interoperable with
existing IPsec VPN implementation. MPLS is also very well known for its QoS capabilities,
and interoperates well with conventional DSCP marking.
•
Per Hop Behavior (PHB) – The handling that will be applied to a packet by each DiffServ
capable router it traverses, based upon the DSCP classification of the packet. The behavior
can be among such actions as discard, re-mark (re-classify), best-effort, assured
forwarding, or expedited forwarding.
•
Policing – A facility of traffic conditioning that attempts to control the rate of traffic into or
out of a network link. Policing methods range from indiscriminate packet discarding to
algorithmic shaping, to various queuing disciplines.
•
Queuing – To effectively make use of a link’s available bandwidth, queues are commonly
employed to sort and separately manage traffic after it has been classified. Queues are
then managed using a variety of methods and algorithms to ensure that the higher priority
queues always have room to receive more traffic, and that they can be serviced (de-queued
or processed) before lower priority queues. Some common queue disciplines include:
– FIFO – First In First Out. A very simple, undiscriminating queue where the first packet
in is the first packet to be processed.
– Class Based Queuing (CBQ) – A queuing discipline that takes into account the CoS
of a packet, ensuring that higher priority traffic is treated preferentially.
– Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) – A discipline that attempts to service queues using a
simple formula based upon the packets’ IP precedence and the total number of flows.
WFQ has a tendency to become imbalanced when there is a disproportionately large
number of high-priority flows to be serviced, often having the opposite of the desired
effect.
– Token Based CBQ – An enhancement to CBQ that employs a token, or a credit-based
system that helps to smooth or normalize link utilization, avoiding burstiness as well as
under-utilization. Employed by SonicOS’ BWM.
•
RSVP – Resource Reservation Protocol. An IntServ signaling protocol employed by some
applications where the anticipated need for network behavior (e.g. delay and bandwidth) is
requested so that it can be reserved along the network path. Setting up this Reservation
Path requires that each hop along the way be RSVP capable, and that each agrees to
reserve the requested resources. This system of QoS is comparatively resource intensive,
since it requires each hop to maintain state on existing flows. Although IntServ’s RSVP is
quite different from DiffServ’s DSCP, the two can interoperate. RSVP is not supported by
SonicOS.
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•
Shaping – An attempt by a QoS system to modify the rate of traffic flow, usually by
employing some feedback mechanism to the sender. The most common example of this is
TCP rate manipulation, where acknowledgements (ACKs) sent back to a TCP sender are
queued and delayed so as to increase the calculated round-trip time (RTT), leveraging the
inherent behavior of TCP to force the sender to slow the rate at which it sends data.
•
Type of Service (ToS) – A field within the IP header wherein CoS information can be
specified. Historically used, albeit somewhat rarely, in conjunction with IP precedence bits
to define CoS. The ToS field is now rather commonly used by DiffServ’s code point values.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Administrator Guide
CHAPTER 46
Chapter 46:
Configuring SSL Control
Firewall > SSL Control
This chapter describes how to plan, design, implement, and maintain the SSL Control feature.
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
“Overview of SSL Control” section on page 493
– “Key Features of SSL Control” section on page 495
– “Key Concepts to SSL Control” section on page 496
– “Caveats and Advisories” section on page 500
•
“SSL Control Configuration” section on page 501
•
“Enabling SSL Control on Zones” section on page 503
•
“SSL Control Events” section on page 504
Overview of SSL Control
This section provides an overview of SSL Control. It contains the following subsections:
•
“Key Features of SSL Control” section on page 495
•
“Key Concepts to SSL Control” section on page 496
•
“Caveats and Advisories” section on page 500
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces SSL Control, a system for providing visibility into the
handshake of SSL sessions, and a method for constructing policies to control the establishment
of SSL connections. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is the dominant standard for the encryption
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of TCP based network communications, with its most common and well-known application
being HTTPS (HTTP over SSL). SSL provides digital certificate-based endpoint identification,
and cryptographic and digest-based confidentiality to network communications.
An effect of the security provided by SSL is the obscuration of all payload, including the URL
(Uniform Resource Locator, for example, https://www.mysonicwall.com) being requested by a
client when establishing an HTTPS session. This is due to the fact that HTTP is transported
within the encrypted SSL tunnel when using HTTPS. It is not until the SSL session is
established (step 14, figure 1) that the actual target resource (www.mysonicwall.com) is
requested by the client, but since the SSL session is already established, no inspection of the
session data by the firewall or any other intermediate device is possible. As a result, URL based
content filtering systems cannot consider the request to determine permissibility in any way
other than by IP address.
While IP address based filtering does not work well for unencrypted HTTP because of the
efficiency and popularity of Host-header based virtual hosting (defined in Key Concepts below),
IP filtering can work effectively for HTTPS due to the rarity of Host-header based HTTPS sites.
But this trust relies on the integrity of the HTTPS server operator, and assumes that SSL is not
being used for deceptive purposes.
For the most part, SSL is employed legitimately, being used to secure sensitive
communications, such as online shopping or banking, or any session where there is an
exchange of personal or valuable information. The ever decreasing cost and complexity of SSL,
however, has also spurred the growth of more dubious applications of SSL, designed primarily
for the purposes of obfuscation or concealment rather than security.
An increasingly common camouflage is the use of SSL encrypted web-based proxy servers for
the purpose of hiding browsing details, and bypassing content filters. While it is simple to block
well known HTTPS proxy services of this sort by their IP address, it is virtually impossible to
block the thousands of privately-hosted proxy servers that are readily available through a
simple web-search. The challenge is not the ever-increasing number of such services, but
rather their unpredictable nature. Since these services are often hosted on home networks
using dynamically addressed DSL and cable modem connections, the targets are constantly
moving. Trying to block an unknown SSL target would require blocking all SSL traffic, which is
practically infeasible.
SSL Control provides a number of methods to address this challenge by arming the security
administrator with the ability to dissect and apply policy based controls to SSL session
establishment. While the current implementation does not decode the SSL application data, it
does allow for gateway-based identification and disallowance of suspicious SSL traffic.
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Key Features of SSL Control
Feature
Benefit
Common-Name based
White and Black Lists
The administrator can define lists of explicitly allowed or denied
certificate subject common names (described in Key Concepts).
Entries will be matched on substrings, for example, a blacklist
entry for “prox” will match “www.megaproxy.com”,
“www.proxify.com” and “proxify.net”. This allows the administrator
to easily block all SSL exchanges employing certificates issued to
subjects with potentially objectionable names. Inversely, the
administrator can easily authorize all certificates within an
organization by whitelisting a common substring for the
organization. Each list can contain up to 1,024 entries.
Since the evaluation is performed on the subject common-name
embedded in the certificate, even if the client attempts to conceal
access to these sites by using an alternative hostname or even an
IP address, the subject will always be detected in the certificate,
and policy will be applied.
Self-Signed Certificate
Control
It is common practice for legitimate sites secured by SSL to use
certificates issued by well-known certificate authorities, as this is
the foundation of trust within SSL. It is almost equally common for
network appliances secured by SSL (such as SonicWALL security
appliances) to use self-signed certificates for their default method
of security. So while self-signed certificates in closedenvironments are not suspicious, the use of self-signed certificates
by publicly or commercially available sites is. A public site using a
self-signed certificate is often an indication that SSL is being used
strictly for encryption rather than for trust and identification. While
not absolutely incriminating, this sometimes suggests that
concealment is the goal, as is commonly the case for SSL
encrypted proxy sites.
The ability to set a policy to block self-signed certificates allows
security administrators to protect against this potential exposure.
To prevent discontinuity of communications to known/trusted SSL
sites using self-signed certificates, the whitelist feature can be
used for explicit allowance.
Untrusted Certificate
Authority Control
Like the use of self-signed certificates, encountering a certificate
issued by an untrusted CA isn’t an absolute indication of
disreputable obscuration, but it does suggest questionable trust.
SSL Control can compare the issuer of the certificate in SSL
exchanges against the certificates in the SonicWALL’s certificate
store. The certificate store contains approximately 100 well-known
CA certificates, exactly like today’s web-browsers. If SSL Control
encounters a certificate that was issued by a CA not in its
certificate store, it can disallow the SSL connection.
For organizations running their own private certificate authorities,
the private CA certificate can easily be imported into the
SonicWALL’s certificate store to recognize the private CA as
trusted. The store can hold up to 256 certificates.
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Feature
Benefit
SSL version, Cipher
SSL Control provides additional management of SSL sessions
Strength, and Certificate based on characteristics of the negotiation, including the ability to
Validity Control
disallow the potentially exploitable SSLv2, the ability to disallow
weak encryption (ciphers less than 64 bits), and the ability to
disallow SSL negotiations where a certificate’s date ranges are
invalid. This enables the administrator to create a rigidly secure
environment for network users, eliminating exposure to risk
through unseen cryptographic weaknesses, or through disregard
for or misunderstanding of security warnings.
Zone-Based Application
SSL Control is applied at the zone level, allowing the administrator
to enforce SSL policy on the network. When SSL Control is
enabled on the zone, the SonicWALL looks for Client Hellos sent
from clients on that zone through the SonicWALL will trigger
inspection. The SonicWALL then looks for the Server Hello and
Certificate that is sent in response for evaluation against the
configured policy. Enabling SSL Control on the LAN Zone, for
example, will inspect all SSL traffic initiated by clients on the LAN
to any destination zone.
Configurable Actions
and Event Notifications
When SSL Control detects a policy violation, it can log the event
and block the connection, or it can simply log the event while
allowing the connection to proceed.
Key Concepts to SSL Control
•
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SSL- Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a network security mechanism introduced by
Netscape in 1995. SSL was designed “to provide privacy between two communicating
applications (a client and a server) and also to authenticate the server, and optionally the
client.” SSL’s most popular application is HTTPS, designated by a URL beginning with
https:// rather than simply http://, and it is recognized as the standard method of encrypting
web traffic on the Internet. An SSL HTTP transfer typically uses TCP port 443, whereas a
regular HTTP transfer uses TCP port 80. Although HTTPS is what SSL is best known for,
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SSL is not limited to securing HTTP, but can also be used to secure other TCP protocols
such as SMTP, POP3, IMAP, and LDAP. For more information, see http://wp.netscape.com/
eng/security/SSL_2.html. SSL session establishment occurs as follows:
•
SSLv2 – The earliest version of SSL still in common use. SSLv2 was found to have a
number of weaknesses, limitations, and theoretical deficiencies (comparatively noted in the
SSLv3 entry), and is looked upon with scorn, disdain, and righteous indignation by security
purists.
•
SSLv3 – SSLv3 was designed to maintain backward compatibility with SSLv2, while adding
the following enhancements:
– Alternate key exchange methods, including Diffie-Hellman.
– Hardware token support for both key exchange and bulk encryption.
– SHA, DSS, and Fortezza support.
– Out-of-Band data transfer.
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– TLS – Transport Layer Security (version 1.0), also known as SSLv3.1, is very similar to
SSLv3, but improves upon SSLv3 in the following ways:
SSL
TLS
Uses a preliminary HMAC algorithm
Uses HMAC as described in RFC 2104
Does not apply MAC to version info
Applies MAC to version info
Does not specify a padding value
Initializes padding to a specific value
Limited set of alerts and warning
Detailed Alert and Warning messages
•
MAC – A MAC (Message Authentication Code) is calculated by applying an algorithm (such
as MD5 or SHA1) to data. The MAC is a message digest, or a one-way hash code that is
fairly easy to compute, but which is virtually irreversible. In other words, with the MAC
alone, it would be theoretically impossible to determine the message upon which the digest
was based. It is equally difficult to find two different messages that would result in the same
MAC. If the receiver’s MAC calculation matches the sender’s MAC calculation on a given
piece of data, the receiver is assured that the data has not been altered in transit.
•
Client Hello – The first message sent by the client to the server following TCP session
establishment. This message starts the SSL session, and consists of the following
components:
– Version – The version of SSL that the client wishes to use in communications. This is
usually the most recent version of SSL supported by the client.
– Random – A 32-bit timestamp coupled with a 28 byte random structure.
– Session ID – This can either be empty if no Session ID data exists (essentially
requesting a new session) or can reference a previously issued Session ID.
– Cipher Suites – A list of the cryptographic algorithms, in preferential order, supported
by the clients.
– Compression Methods – A list of the compression methods supported by the client
(typically null).
•
Server Hello – The SSL server’s response to the Client Hello. It is this portion of the SSL
exchange that SSL Control inspects. The Server Hello contains the version of SSL
negotiated in the session, along with cipher, session ID and certificate information. The
actual X.509 server certificate itself, although a separate step of the SSL exchange, usually
begins (and often ends) in the same packet as the Server Hello.
•
Certificates - X.509 certificates are unalterable digital stamps of approval for electronic
security. There are four main characteristics of certificates:
– Identify the subject of a certificate by a common name or distinguished name (CN or
DN).
– Contain the public key that can be used to encrypt and decrypt messages between
parties
– Provide a digital signature from the trusted organization (Certificate Authority) that
issued the certificate.
– Indicate the valid date range of the certificate
•
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Subject – The grantee of a certificate identified by a common name (CN). When a client
browses to an SSL site, such as https://www.mysonicwall.com, the server sends its
certificate which is then evaluated by the client. The client checks that the certificate’s dates
are valid, that is was issued by a trusted CA, and that the subject CN matches the
requested host name (i.e. they are both “www.mysonicwall.com”). Although a subject CN
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mismatch elicits a browser alert, it is not always a sure sign of deception. For example, if a
client browses to https://mysonicwall.com, which resolves to the same IP address as
www.mysonicwall.com, the server will present its certificate bearing the subject CN of
www.mysonicwall.com. An alert will be presented to the client, despite the total legitimacy
of the connection.
•
Certificate Authority (CA) - A Certificate Authority (CA) is a trusted entity that has the
ability to sign certificates intended, primarily, to validate the identity of the certificate’s
subject. Well-known certificate authorities include VeriSign, Thawte, Equifax, and Digital
Signature Trust. In general, for a CA to be trusted within the SSL framework, its certificate
must be stored within a trusted store, such as that employed by most web-browsers,
operating systems and run-time environments. The SonicOS trusted store is accessible
from the System > Certificates page. The CA model is built on associative trust, where the
client rusts a CA (by having the CA's certificate in its trusted store), the CA trusts a subject
(by having issued the subject a certificate), and therefore the client can trust the subject.
•
Untrusted CA – An untrusted CA is a CA that is not contained in the trusted store of the
client. In the case of SSL Control, an untrusted CA is any CA whose certificate is not
present in System > Certificates.
•
Self-Signed Certificates – Any certificate where the issuer’s common-name and the
subject’s common-name are the same, indicating that the certificate was self-signed.
•
Virtual Hosting – A method employed by web-servers to host more than one web-site on
a single server. A common implementation of virtual hosting is name-based (Host-header)
virtual hosting, which allows for a single IP address to host multiple web-sites. With Hostheader virtual hosting, the server determines the requested site by evaluating the “Host:”
header sent by the client. For example, both www.website1.com and www.website2.com
might resolve to 64.41.140.173. If the client sends a “GET /” along with “Host:
www.website1.com”, the server can return content corresponding to that site.
•
Host-header virtual hosting is generally not employed in HTTPS because the host header
cannot be read until the SSL connection is established, but the SSL connection cannot be
established until the server sends its Certificate. Since the server cannot determine which
site the client will request (all that is known during the SSL handshake is the IP address) it
cannot determine the appropriate certificate to send. While sending any certificate might
allow the SSL handshake to commence, a certificate name (subject) mismatch will trigger
a browser alert.
•
Weak Ciphers – Relatively weak symmetric cryptography ciphers. Ciphers are classified
as weak when they are less than 64 bits. For the most part, export ciphers are weak ciphers.
The following is a list of common weak ciphers:
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Caveats and Advisories
1.
Self-signed and Untrusted CA enforcement – If enforcing either of these two options, it is
strongly advised that you add the common names of any SSL secured network appliances
within your organization to the whitelist to ensure that connectivity to these devices is not
interrupted. For example, the default subject name of SonicWALL UTM appliances is
“192.168.168.168”, and the default common name of SonicWALL SSL-VPN appliances is
“192.168.200.1”.
2.
If your organization employs its own private Certificate Authority (CA), it is strongly advised
that you import your private CA’s certificate into the System > Certificates store,
particularly if you will be enforcing blocking of certificates issued by untrusted CAs. Refer
to the System > Certificates section of the SonicOS Enhanced Administrator’s Guide for
more information on this process.
3.
SSL Control inspection is currently only performed on TCP port 443 traffic. SSL
negotiations occurring on non-standard ports will not be inspected at this time.
4.
Server Hello fragmentation – In some rare instances, an SSL server will fragment the
Server Hello. If this occurs, the current implementation of SSL Control will not decode the
Server Hello. SSL Control policies will not be applied to the SSL session, and the SSL
session will be allowed.
5.
Session termination handling – When SSL Control detects a policy violation and
terminates an SSL session, it will simply terminate the session at the TCP layer. Because
the SSL session is in an embryonic state at this point, it is not currently possible to redirect
the client, or to provide any kind of informational notification of termination to the client.
6.
Whitelist precedence – The whitelist takes precedence over all other SSL Control
elements. Any SSL server certificate which matches an entry in the whitelist will allow the
SSL session to proceed, even if other elements of the SSL session are in violation of the
configured policy. This is by design.
7.
SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 increased the number of pre-installed (well-known) CA certificates
from 8 to 93. The resulting repository is very similar to what can be found in most webbrowsers. Other certificate related changes:
a. The maximum number of CA certificates was raised from 6 to 256.
b. The maximum size of an individual certificate was raised from 2,048 to 4,096.
c. The maximum number of entries in the whitelist and blacklist is 1,024 each.
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SSL Control Configuration
SSL Control is located on Firewall panel, under the SSL Control Folder. SSL Control has a
global setting, as well as a per-zone setting. By default, SSL Control is not enabled at the global
or zone level. The individual page controls are as follows (refer the Key Concepts for SSL
Control section for more information on terms used below).
•
Enable SSL Control – The global setting for SSL Control. This must be enabled for SSL
Control applied to zones to be effective.
•
Log the event – If an SSL policy violation, as defined within the Configuration section
below, is detected, the event will be logged, but the SSL connection will be allowed to
continue.
•
Block the connection and log the event – In the event of a policy violation, the connection
will be blocked and the event will be logged.
•
Enable Blacklist – Controls detection of the entries in the blacklist, as configured in the
Configure Lists section below.
•
Enable Whitelist – Controls detection of the entries in the whitelist, as configured in the
Configure Lists section below. Whitelisted entries will take precedence over all other SSL
control settings.
•
Detect Expired Certificates – Controls detection of certificates whose start date is before
the current system time, or whose end date is beyond the current system time. Date
validation depends on the SonicWALL’s System Time. Make sure your System Time is set
correctly, preferably synchronized with NTP, on the System > Time page.
•
Detect SSLv2 – Controls detection of SSLv2 exchanges. SSLv2 is known to be susceptible
to cipher downgrade attacks because it does not perform integrity checking on the
handshake. Best practices recommend using SSLv3 or TLS in its place.
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•
Detect Self-signed certificates – Controls the detection of certificates where both the
issuer and the subject have the same common name.
•
Detect Certificates signed by an Untrusted CA – Controls the detection of certificates
where the issuer’s certificate is not in the SonicWALL’s System > Certificates trusted
store.
•
Detect Weak Ciphers (<64 bits) – Controls the detection of SSL sessions negotiated with
symmetric ciphers less than 64 bits, commonly indicating export cipher usage.
•
Configure Blacklist and Whitelist – Allows the administrator to define strings for matching
common names in SSL certificates. Entries are case-insensitive, and will be used in
pattern-matching fashion, for example:
Entry
Will Match
Will Not Match
sonicwall.com
https://www.sonicwall.com,
https://
csm.demo.sonicwall.com,
https://mysonicwall.com,
https://
supersonicwall.computers.or
g, https://67.115.118.87 a
https://www.sonicwall.de
prox
https://proxify.org, https://
www.proxify.org, https://
megaproxy.com, https://
1070652204 b
https://www.freeproxy.ru c
a.67.115.118.67 is currently the IP address to which sslvpn.demo.sonicwall.com resolves, and that site uses a certificate issued to
sslvpn.demo.sonicwall.com. This will result in a match to “sonicwall.com” since matching occurs based on the common name
in the certificate.
b.This is the decimal notation for the IP address 63.208.219.44, whose certificate is issued to www.megaproxy.com.
c.www.freeproxy.ru will not match “prox” since the common name on the certificate that is currently presented by this site is a
self-signed certificate issued to “-“. This can, however, easily be blocked by enabling control of self-signed or Untrusted CA
certificates.
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To configure the Whitelist and Blacklist, click the Configure button to bring up the following
window.
Entries can be added, edited and deleted with the buttons beneath each list window.
Note
List matching will be based on the subject common name in the certificate presented in the
SSL exchange, not in the URL (resource) requested by the client.
Changes to any of the SSL Control settings will not affect currently established connections;
only new SSL exchanges that occur following the change commit will be inspected and
affected.
Enabling SSL Control on Zones
Once SSL Control has been globally enabled, and the desired options have been configured,
SSL Control must be enabled on one or more zones. When SSL Control is enabled on the zone,
the SonicWALL looks for Client Hellos sent from clients on that zone through the SonicWALL
will trigger inspection. The SonicWALL then looks for the Server Hello and Certificate that is
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sent in response for evaluation against the configured policy. Enabling SSL Control on the LAN
Zone, for example, will inspect all SSL traffic initiated by clients on the LAN to any destination
zone.
Note
If you are activating SSL Control on a zone (for example, the LAN zone) where there are
clients who will be accessing an SSL server on another zone connected to the SonicWALL
(for example, the DMZ zone) it is recommended that you add the subject common name of
the that server’s certificate to the whitelist to ensure continuous trusted access.
To enable SSL Control on a zone, browse to the Network > Zones page, and select the
configure icon for the desired zone. In the Edit Zone window, select the Enable SSL Control
checkbox, and click OK. All new SSL connections initiated from that zone will now be subject
to inspection.
SSL Control Events
The following log entries illustrate and describe the possible SSL Control events:
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Log events will include the client’s username in the notes section (not shown) if the user logged
in manually, or was identified through CIA/Single Sign On. If the user’s identity is not available,
the note will indicate that the user is Unidentified.
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PART 8
VoIP
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CHAPTER 47
Chapter 47:
Configuring VoIP Support
VoIP
This chapter contains the following sections:
•
“VoIP Overview” on page 509
•
“SonicWALL’s VoIP Capabilities” on page 512
•
“Configuring SonicWALL VoIP Features” on page 520
•
“VoIP Deployment Scenarios” on page 531
VoIP Overview
This section provides an overview of VoIP. It contains the following sections:
•
“What is VoIP?” on page 509
•
“VoIP Security” on page 510
•
“VoIP Protocols” on page 511
What is VoIP?
Voice over IP (VoIP) is an umbrella term for a set of technologies that allow voice traffic to be
carried over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. VoIP transfers the voice streams of audio calls into
data packets as opposed to traditional, analog circuit-switched voice communications used by
the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
VoIP is the major driving force behind the convergence of networking and telecommunications
by combining voice telephony and data into a single integrated IP network system. VoIP is all
about saving cost for companies through eliminating costly redundant infrastructures and
telecommunication usage charges while also delivering enhanced management features and
calling services features.
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VoIP Security
Companies implementing VoIP technologies in an effort to cut communication costs and extend
corporate voice services to a distributed workforce face security risks associated with the
convergence of voice and data networks. VoIP security and network integrity are an essential
part of any VoIP deployment.
The same security threats that plague data networks today are inherited by VoIP but the
addition of VoIP as an application on the network makes those threats even more dangerous.
By adding VoIP components to your network, you’re also adding new security requirements.
VoIP encompasses a number of complex standards that leave the door open for bugs and
vulnerabilities within the software implementation. The same types of bugs and vulnerabilities
that hamper every operating system and application available today also apply to VoIP
equipment. Many of today's VoIP call servers and gateway devices are built on vulnerable
Windows and Linux operating systems.
Firewall Requirements for VoIP
VoIP is more complicated than standard TCP/UDP-based applications. Because of the
complexities of VoIP signaling and protocols, as well as inconsistencies that are introduced
when a firewall modifies source address and source port information with Network Address
Translation (NAT), it is difficult for VoIP to effectively traverse a standard firewall. Here are a
few of the reasons why.
•
VoIP operates using two separate protocols - A signaling protocol (between the client
and VoIP Server) and a media protocol (between the clients). Port/IP address pairs used
by the media protocols (RTP/RTCP) for each session are negotiated dynamically by the
signaling protocols. Firewalls need to dynamically track and maintain this information,
securely opening selected ports for the sessions and closing them at the appropriate time.
•
Multiple media ports are dynamically negotiated through the signaling session negotiations of the media ports are contained in the payload of the signaling protocols (IP
address and port information). Firewalls need to perform deep packet inspection on each
packet to acquire the information and dynamically maintain the sessions, thus demanding
extra firewall processing.
•
Source and destination IP addresses are embedded within the VoIP signaling
packets - A firewall supporting NAT translates IP addresses and ports at the IP header
level for packets. Fully symmetric NAT firewalls adjust their NAT bindings frequently, and
may arbitrarily close the pinholes that allow inbound packets to pass into the network they
protect, eliminating the service provider's ability to send inbound calls to the customer. To
effectively support VoIP it is necessary for a NAT firewall to perform deep packet inspection
and transformation of embedded IP addresses and port information as the packets traverse
the firewall.
•
Firewalls need to process the signaling protocol suites consisting of different
message formats used by different VoIP systems - Just because two vendors use the
same protocol suite does not necessarily mean they will interoperate.
To overcome many of the hurdles introduced by the complexities of VoIP and NAT, vendors are
offering Session Border Controllers (SBCs). An SBC sits on the Internet side of a firewall and
attempts to control the border of a VoIP network by terminating and re-originating all VoIP
media and signalling traffic. In essence, SBCs act as a proxy for VoIP traffic for non-VoIP
enabled firewalls. SonicWALL security appliances are VoIP enabled firewalls that eliminate the
need for an SBC on your network.
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VoIP Protocols
VoIP technologies are built on two primary protocols, H.323 and SIP.
H.323
H.323 is a standard developed by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). It’s a
comprehensive suite of protocols for voice, video, and data communications between
computers, terminals, network devices, and network services. H.323 is designed to enable
users to make point-to-point multimedia phone calls over connectionless packet-switching
networks such as private IP networks and the Internet. H.323 is widely supported by
manufacturers of video conferencing equipment, VoIP equipment and Internet telephony
software and devices.
H.323 uses a combination of TCP and UDP for signaling and ASN.1 for message encoding.
H.323v1 was released in 1996 and H.323v5 was released in 2003. As the older standard, H.323
was embraced by many early VoIP players.
An H.323 network consists of four different types of entities:
•
Terminals - Client end points for multimedia communications. An example would be an
H.323 enabled Internet phone or PC.
•
Gatekeepers - Performs services for call setup and tear down, and registering H.323
terminals for communications. Includes:
– Address translation.
– Registration, admission control, and status (RAS).
– Internet Locator Service (ILS) also falls into this category (although it is not part of
H.323). ILS uses LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) rather than H.323
messages.
•
Multipoint control units (MCUs) - Conference control and data distribution for multipoint
communications between terminals.
•
Gateways - Interoperation between H.323 networks and other communications services,
such as the circuit-switched Packet Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).
SIP
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) standard was developed by the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF). RFC 2543 was released in March 1999. RFC 3261 was released in June 2002.
SIP is a signaling protocol for initiating, managing and terminating sessions. SIP supports
‘presence’ and mobility and can run over User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Transmission
Control Protocol (TCP).
Using SIP, a VoIP client can initiate and terminate call sessions, invite members into a
conferencing session, and perform other telephony tasks. SIP also enables Private Branch
Exchanges (PBXs), VoIP gateways, and other communications devices to communicate in
standardized collaboration. SIP was also designed to avoid the heavy overhead of H.323.
A SIP network is composed of the following logical entities:
•
User Agent (UA) - Initiates, receives and terminates calls.
•
Proxy Server - Acts on behalf of UA in forwarding or responding to requests. A Proxy
Server can fork requests to multiple servers. A back-to-back user agent (B2BUA) is a type
of Proxy Server that treats each leg of a call passing through it as two distinct SIP call
sessions: one between it and the calling phone and the other between it and the called
phone. Other Proxy Servers treat all legs of the same call as a single SIP call session.
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•
Redirect Server - Responds to request but does not forward requests.
•
Registration Server - Handles UA authentication and registration.
SonicWALL’s VoIP Capabilities
The following sections describe SonicWALL’s integrated VoIP service:
•
“VoIP Security” on page 512
•
“VoIP Network” on page 513
•
“VoIP Network Interoperability” on page 513
•
“Supported VoIP Protocols” on page 514
•
“How SonicOS Handles VoIP Calls” on page 517
•
Traffic legitimacy - Stateful inspection of every VoIP signaling and media packet
traversing the firewall ensures all traffic is legitimate. Packets that exploit implementation
flaws, causing effects such as buffer overflows in the target device, are the weapons of
choice for many attackers. SonicWALL security appliances detect and discard malformed
and invalid packets before they reach their intended target.
•
Application-layer protection for VoIP protocols - Full protection from application-level
VoIP exploits through SonicWALL Intrusion Prevention Service (IPS). IPS integrates a
configurable, high performance scanning engine with a dynamically updated and
provisioned database of attack and vulnerability signatures to protect networks against
sophisticated Trojans and polymorphic threats. SonicWALL extends its IPS signature
database with a family of VoIP-specific signatures designed to prevent malicious traffic
from reaching protected VoIP phones and servers.
•
DoS and DDoS attack protection - Prevention of DoS and DDoS attacks, such as the SYN
Flood, Ping of Death, and LAND (IP) attack, which are designed to disable a network or
service.
VoIP Security
– Validating packet sequence for VoIP signaling packets using TCP to disallow out of
sequence and retransmitted packets beyond window.
– Using randomized TCP sequence numbers (generated by a cryptographic random
number generator during connection setup) and validating the flow of data within each
TCP session to prevent replay and data insertion attacks.
– Ensures that attackers cannot overwhelm a server by attempting to open many TCP/IP
connections (which are never fully established-usually due to a spoofed source
address) by using SYN Flood protection.
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•
Stateful monitoring - Stateful monitoring ensures that packets, even though appearing
valid in themselves, are appropriate for the current state of their associated VoIP
connection.
•
Encrypted VoIP Device Support - SonicWALL supports VoIP devices capable of using
encryption to protect the media exchange within a VoIP conversation or secure VoIP
devices that do not support encrypted media using IPsec VPNs to protect VoIP calls.
•
Application-Layer Protection - SonicWALL delivers full protection from application-level
VoIP exploits through SonicWALL Intrusion Prevention Service (IPS). SonicWALL IPS is
built on a configurable, high performance Deep Packet Inspection engine that provides
extended protection of key network services including VoIP, Windows services, and DNS.
The extensible signature language used in SonicWALL’s Deep Packet Inspection engine
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VoIP
also provides proactive defense against newly discovered application and protocol
vulnerabilities. Signature granularity allows SonicWALL IPS to detect and prevent attacks
based on a global, attack group, or per-signature basis to provide maximum flexibility and
control false positives.
VoIP Network
•
Note
VoIP over Wireless LAN (WLAN) - SonicWALL extends complete VoIP security to
attached wireless networks with its Distributed Wireless Solution. All of the security
features provided to VoIP devices attached to a wired network behind a SonicWALL are
also provided to VoIP devices using a wireless network.
SonicWALL’s Secure Wireless Solution includes the network enablers to extend secure
VoIP communications over wireless networks. Refer to the SonicWALL Secure Wireless
Network Integrated Solutions Guide available on the SonicWALL Web site http://
www.sonicwall.com for complete information.
•
Bandwidth Management (BWM) and Quality-of-Service (QoS) - Bandwidth
management (both ingress and egress) can be used to ensure that bandwidth remains
available for time-sensitive VoIP traffic. BWM is integrated into SonicWALL Quality of
Service (QoS) features to provide predictability that is vital for certain types of applications.
•
WAN redundancy and load balancing - WAN redundancy and load balancing allows for
an interface to act as a secondary or backup WAN port. This secondary WAN port can be
used in a simple active/passive setup, where traffic is only routed through it if the primary
WAN port is down or unavailable. Load balancing can be performed by splitting the routing
of traffic based on destination.
•
High availability - High availability is provided by SonicOS hardware failover, which
ensures reliable, continuous connectivity in the event of a system failure.
VoIP Network Interoperability
•
Plug-and-protect support for VoIP devices - With SonicOS, VoIP device adds, changes,
and removals are handled automatically, ensuring that no VoIP device is left unprotected.
Using advanced monitoring and tracking technology, a VoIP device is automatically
protected as soon as it is plugged into the network behind a SonicWALL security appliance.
•
Full syntax validation of all VoIP signaling packets - Received signaling packets are
fully parsed within SonicOS to ensure they comply with the syntax defined within their
associated standard. By performing syntax validation, the firewall can ensure that
malformed packets are not permitted to pass through and adversely affect their intended
target.
•
Support for dynamic setup and tracking of media streams - SonicOS tracks each VoIP
call from the first signaling packet requesting a call setup, to the point where the call ends.
Only based on the successful call progress are additional ports opened (for additional
signaling and media exchange) between the calling and called party.
Media ports that are negotiated as part of the call setup are dynamically assigned by the
firewall. Subsequent calls, even between the same parties, will use different ports,
thwarting an attacker who may be monitoring specific ports. Required media ports are only
opened when the call is fully connected, and are shut down upon call termination. Traffic
that tries to use the ports outside of the call is dropped, providing added protection to the
VoIP devices behind the firewall.
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•
Validation of headers for all media packets - SonicOS examines and monitors the
headers within media packets to allow detection and discarding of out-of-sequence and
retransmitted packets (beyond window). Also, by ensuring that a valid header exists, invalid
media packets are detected and discarded. By tracking the media streams as well as the
signaling, SonicWALL provides protection for the entire VoIP session.
•
Configurable inactivity timeouts for signaling and media - In order to ensure that
dropped VoIP connections do not stay open indefinitely, SonicOS monitors the usage of
signaling and media streams associated with a VoIP session. Streams that are idle for more
than the configured timeout are shut down to prevent potential security holes.
•
SonicOS allows the administrator to control incoming calls - By requiring that all
incoming calls are authorized and authenticated by the H.323 Gatekeeper or SIP Proxy,
SonicOS can block unauthorized and spam calls. This allows the administrator to be sure
that the VoIP network is being used only for those calls authorized by the company.
•
Comprehensive monitoring and reporting - For all supported VoIP protocols, SonicOS
offers extensive monitoring and troubleshooting tools:
– Dynamic live reporting of active VoIP calls, indicating the caller and called parties, and
bandwidth used.
– Audit logs of all VoIP calls, indicating caller and called parties, call duration, and total
bandwidth used. Logging of abnormal packets seen (such as a bad response) with
details of the parties involved and condition seen.
– Detailed syslog reports and ViewPoint reports for VoIP signaling and media streams.
SonicWALL ViewPoint is a Web-based graphical reporting tool that provides detailed
and comprehensive reports of your security and network activities based on syslog data
streams received from the firewall. Reports can be generated about virtually any aspect
of firewall activity, including individual user or group usage patterns and events on
specific firewalls or groups of firewalls, types and times of attacks, resource
consumption and constraints, etc.
Supported VoIP Protocols
SonicWALL security appliances support transformations for the following protocols.
H.323
SonicOS provides the following support for H.323:
•
VoIP devices running all versions of H.323 (currently 1 through to 5) are supported
•
Microsoft's LDAP-based Internet Locator Service (ILS)
•
Discovery of the Gatekeeper by LAN H.323 terminals using multicast
•
Stateful monitoring and processing of Gatekeeper registration, admission, and status
(RAS) messages
•
Support for H.323 terminals that use encryption for the media streams
•
DHCP Option 150. The SonicWALL DHCP Server can be configured to return the address
of a VoIP specific TFTP server to DHCP clients
•
In addition to H.323 support, SonicOS supports VoIP devices using the following additional
ITU standards:
– T.120 for application sharing, electronic white-boarding, file exchange, and chat
– H.239 to allow multiple channels for delivering audio, video and data
– H.281 for Far End Camera Control (FECC)
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SIP
SonicOS provides the following support for SIP:
– Base SIP standard (both RFC 2543 and RFC 3261)
– SIP INFO method (RFC 2976)
– Reliability of provisional responses in SIP (RFC 3262)
– SIP specific event notification (RFC 3265)
– SIP UPDATE method (RFC 3311)
– DHCP option for SIP servers (RFC 3361)
– SIP extension for instant messaging (RFC 3428)
– SIP REFER method (RFC 3515)
– Extension to SIP for symmetric response routing (RFC 3581)
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SonicWALL VoIP Vendor Interoperability
The following is a partial list of devices from leading manufacturers with which SonicWALL VoIP
interoperates.
H.323
SIP
Soft-Phones:
Soft-Phones:
Avaya
Apple iChat
Microsoft NetMeeting
Avaya
OpenPhone
Microsoft MSN Messenger
PolyCom
Nortel Multimedia PC Client
SJLabs SJ Phone
PingTel Instant Xpressa
PolyCom
Telephones/VideoPhones:
Siemens SCS Client SJLabs
Avaya
SJPhone
Cisco
XTen X-Lite
D-Link
Ubiquity SIP User Agent
PolyCom
Sony
Telephones/ATAs:
Avaya
Gatekeepers:
Cisco
Cisco
Grandstream BudgetOne
OpenH323 Gatekeeper
Mitel
Packet8 ATA
Gateway:
PingTel Xpressa PolyCom
Cisco
PolyCom
Pulver Innovations WiSIP
SoundPoint
SIP Proxies/Services:
Cisco SIP Proxy Server
Brekeke Software OnDo SIP Proxy
Packet8
Siemens SCS SIP Proxy
Vonage
CODECs
SonicOS supports media streams from any CODEC - Media streams carry audio and video
signals that have been processed by a hardware/software CODEC (COder/DECoder) within the
VoIP device. CODECs use coding and compression techniques to reduce the amount of data
required to represent audio/video signals. Some examples of CODECs are:
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H.264, H.263, and H.261 for video
•
MPEG4, G.711, G.722, G.723, G.728, G.729 for audio
VoIP Protocols that SonicOS Does Not Perform Deep Packet Inspection on
SonicWALL security appliances do not currently support deep packet inspection for the
following protocols; therefore, these protocols should only be used in non-NAT environments.
•
Proprietary extensions to H.323 or SIP
•
MGCP
•
Megaco/H.248
•
Cisco Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP)
•
IP-QSIG
•
Proprietary protocols (Mitel’s MiNET, 3Com NBX, etc.)
How SonicOS Handles VoIP Calls
SonicOS provides an efficient and secure solution for all VoIP call scenarios. The following are
examples of how SonicOS handles VoIP call flows.
Incoming Calls
The following figure shows the sequence of events that occurs during an incoming call.
Figure 47:1 Incoming VoIP Call Flow
The following describes the sequence of events shown in Figure 42.1:
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1.
Phone B registers with VoIP server - The SonicWALL security appliance builds a
database of the accessible IP phones behind it by monitoring the outgoing VoIP registration
requests. SonicOS translates between phone B’s private IP address and the firewall’s
public IP address used in registration messages. The VoIP server is unaware that phone B
is behind a firewall and has a private IP address—it associates phone B with the firewall’s
public IP address.
2.
Phone A initiates a call to phone B - Phone A initiates a call to phone B using a phone
number or alias. When sending this information to the VoIP server, it also provides details
about the media types and formats it can support as well as the corresponding IP
addresses and ports.
3.
VoIP Server validates the call request and sends the request to phone B - The VoIP
server sends the call request to the firewall’s public IP address. When it reaches the
firewall, SonicOS validates the source and content of the request. The firewall then
determines phone B’s private IP address.
4.
Phone B rings and is answered - When phone B is answered, it returns information to the
VoIP server for the media types and formats it supports as well as the corresponding IP
addresses and ports. SonicOS translates this private IP information to use the firewall’s
public IP address for messages to the VoIP server.
5.
VoIP server returns phone B media IP information to phone A - Phone A now has
enough information to begin exchanging media with Phone B. Phone A does not know that
Phone B is behind a firewall, as it was given the public address of the firewall by the VoIP
Server.
6.
Phone A and phone B exchange audio/video/data through the VoIP server - Using the
internal database, SonicOS ensures that media comes from only Phone A and is only using
the specific media streams permitted by Phone B.
Local Calls
The following figure shows the sequence of events that occurs during a local VoIP call.
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Figure 47:2 Local VoIP Call Flow
The following describes the sequence of events shown in Figure 42.2:
1.
Phones A and B register with VoIP server - The SonicWALL security appliance builds a
database of the accessible IP phones behind it by monitoring the outgoing VoIP registration
requests. SonicOS translates between the phones’ private IP addresses and the firewall’s
public IP address. The VoIP server is unaware that the phones are behind a firewall. It
associates the same IP address for both phones, but different port numbers.
2.
Phone A initiates a call to phone B by sending a request to the VoIP server - Even
though they are behind the same firewall, phone A does not know Phone B’s IP address.
Phone A initiates a call to phone B using a phone number or alias.
3.
VoIP Server validates the call request and sends the request to phone B - The VoIP
server sends the call request to the firewall’s public IP address.The firewall then determines
phone B’s private IP address.
4.
Phone B rings and is answered - When phone B is answered, the firewall translate its
private IP information to use the firewall’s public IP address for messages to the VoIP
server.
5.
VoIP Server returns phone B media IP information to phone A - Both the called and
calling party information within the messages are translated by SonicOS back to the private
addresses and ports for phone A and phone B.
6.
Phone A and phone B directly exchange audio/video/data - The SonicWALL security
appliance routes traffic directly between the two phones over the LAN. Directly connecting
the two phones reduces the bandwidth requirements for transmitting data to the VoIP server
and eliminates the need for the SonicWALL security appliance to perform address
translation.
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Configuring SonicWALL VoIP Features
Configuring the SonicWALL security appliance for VoIP deployments builds on your basic
network configuration in the SonicWALL management interface. This chapter assumes the
SonicWALL security appliance is configured for your network environment.
Supported Interfaces
VoIP devices are supported on the following SonicOS Zones:
•
Trusted zones (LAN, VPN)
•
Untrusted zones (WAN)
•
Public zones (DMZ)
•
Wireless zones (WLAN)
Configuration Tasks
•
“General VoIP Configuration” on page 521
– “Configuring Consistent Network Address Translation (NAT)” on page 521
– “Configuring SIP Settings” on page 522
– “Configuring H.323 Transformations” on page 523
•
“Configuring BWM and QoS” on page 523
– “Bandwidth Management” on page 524
– “Quality of Service” on page 524
– “Configuring Bandwidth on the WAN Interface” on page 525
– “Configuring VoIP Access Rules” on page 525
– “Using the Public Server Wizard” on page 528
•
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General VoIP Configuration
SonicOS includes the VoIP configuration settings on the VoIP > Settings page. This page is
divided into three configuration settings sections: General Settings, SIP Settings, and H.323
Settings.
Configuring Consistent Network Address Translation (NAT)
Consistent NAT enhances standard NAT policy to provide greater compatibility with peer-topeer applications that require a consistent IP address to connect to, such as VoIP. Consistent
NAT uses an MD5 hashing method to consistently assign the same mapped public IP address
and UDP Port pair to each internal private IP address and port pair.
For example, NAT could translate the private (LAN) IP address and port pairs, 192.116.168.10/
50650 and 192.116.168.20/50655 into public (WAN) IP/port pairs as follows:
Private IP/Port
Translated Public IP/
Port
192.116.168.10/
50650
64.41.140.167/40004
192.116.168.20/
50655
64.41.140.167/40745
With Consistent NAT enabled, all subsequent requests from either host 192.116.168.10 or
192.116.168.20 using the same ports illustrated in the previous result in using the same
translated address and port pairs. Without Consistent NAT, the port and possibly the IP address
change with every request.
To enable Consistent NAT, select the Enable Consistent NAT setting and click Apply. This
checkbox is disabled by default.
Note
Enabling Consistent NAT causes a slight decrease in overall security, because of the
increased predictability of the address and port pairs. Most UDP-based applications are
compatible with traditional NAT. Therefore, do not enable Consistent NAT unless your
network uses applications that require it.
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Configuring SIP Settings
By default, SIP clients use their private IP address in the SIP Session Definition Protocol (SDP)
messages that are sent to the SIP proxy. If your SIP proxy is located on the public (WAN) side
of the SonicWALL security appliance and SIP clients are on the private (LAN) side behind the
firewall, the SDP messages are not translated and the SIP proxy cannot reach the SIP clients.
Selecting Enable SIP Transformations transforms SIP messages between LAN (trusted) and
WAN/DMZ (untrusted). You need to check this setting when you want the SonicWALL security
appliance to do the SIP transformation. If your SIP proxy is located on the public (WAN) side
of the SonicWALL and SIP clients are on the LAN side, the SIP clients by default embed/use
their private IP address in the SIP/Session Definition Protocol (SDP) messages that are sent to
the SIP proxy, hence these messages are not changed and the SIP proxy does not know how
to get back to the client behind the SonicWALL. Selecting Enable SIP Transformations
enables the SonicWALL to go through each SIP message and change the private IP address
and assigned port. Enable SIP Transformation also controls and opens up the RTP/RTCP
ports that need to be opened for the SIP session calls to happen. NAT translates Layer 3
addresses but not the Layer 7 SIP/SDP addresses, which is why you need to select Enable SIP
Transformations to transform the SIP messages.
Tip
In general, you should check the Enable SIP Transformations box unless there is another
NAT traversal solution that requires this feature to be turned off. SIP Transformations works
in bi-directional mode, meaning messages are transformed going from LAN to WAN and
vice versa.
Selecting Permit non-SIP packets on signaling port enables applications such as Apple
iChat and MSN Messenger, which use the SIP signaling port for additional proprietary
messages. Enabling this checkbox may open your network to malicious attacks caused by
malformed or invalid SIP traffic. This checkbox is disabled by default.
The Enable SIP Back-to-Back User Agent (B2BUA) support setting should be enabled when
the SonicWALL security appliance can see both legs of a voice call (for example, when a phone
on the LAN calls another phone on the LAN). This setting should only be enabled when the SIP
Proxy Server is being used as a B2BUA.
Tip
If there is not the possibility of the SonicWALL security appliance seeing both legs of voice
calls (for example, when calls will only be made to and received from phones on the WAN),
the Enable SIP Back-to-Back User Agent (B2BUA) support setting should be disabled to
avoid unnecessary CPU usage.
SIP Signaling inactivity time out (seconds) and SIP Media inactivity time out (seconds)
define the amount of time a call can be idle (no traffic exchanged) before the SonicWALL
security appliance denying further traffic. A call goes idle when placed on hold. The default time
value for SIP Signaling inactivity time out is 1800 seconds (30 minutes). The default time
value for SIP Media inactivity time out is 120 seconds (2 minutes).
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The Additional SIP signaling port (UDP) for transformations setting allows you to specify a
non-standard UDP port used to carry SIP signaling traffic. Normally, SIP signaling traffic is
carried on UDP port 5060. However, a number of commercial VOIP services use different ports,
such as 1560. Using this setting, the security appliance performs SIP transformation on these
non-standard ports.
Tip
Vonage’s VoIP service uses UDP port 5061.
Configuring H.323 Transformations
Select Enable H.323 Transformation in the H.323 Settings section and click Apply to allow
stateful H.323 protocol-aware packet content inspection and modification by the SonicWALL
security appliance. The SonicWALL security appliance performs any dynamic IP address and
transport port mapping within the H.323 packets, which is necessary for communication
between H.323 parties in trusted and untrusted networks/zones. Disable the Enable H.323
Transformation to bypass the H.323 specific processing performed by the SonicWALL
security appliance.
Select Only accept incoming calls from Gatekeeper to ensure all incoming calls go through
the Gatekeeper for authentication. The Gatekeeper will refuse calls that fail authentication.
Select Enable LDAP ILS Support to enable Microsoft NetMeeting users to locate and connect
to users for conferencing and collaboration over the Internet.
The H.323 Signaling/Media inactivity time out (seconds) field specifies the amount of time
a call can be idle before the SonicWALL security appliance denying further traffic. A call goes
idle when placed on hold. The default time value for H.323 Signaling/Media inactivity time
out is 300 seconds (5 minutes).
The Default WAN/DMZ Gatekeeper IP Address field has a default value of 0.0.0.0. Enter the
default H.323 Gatekeeper IP address in this field to allow LAN-based H.323 devices to discover
the Gatekeeper using the multicast address 224.0.1.41. If you do not enter an IP address,
multicast discovery messages from LAN-based H.323 devices will go through the configured
multicast handling.
Configuring BWM and QoS
One of the greatest challenges for VoIP is ensuring high speech quality over an IP network. IP
was designed primarily for asynchronous data traffic, which can tolerate delay. VoIP, however,
is very sensitive to delay and packet loss. Managing access and prioritizing traffic are important
requirements for ensuring high-quality, real-time VoIP communications.
SonicWALL’s integrated Bandwidth Management (BWM) and Quality of Service (QoS) features
provide the tools for managing the reliability and quality of your VoIP communications.
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Bandwidth Management
SonicOS offers an integrated traffic shaping mechanism through its Egress (outbound) and
Ingress (inbound) management interfaces. Outbound BWM can be applied to traffic sourced
from Trusted and Public Zones (such as LAN and DMZ) destined to Untrusted and Encrypted
Zones (such as WAN and VPN). Inbound bandwidth management can be applied to traffic
sourced from Untrusted and Encrypted Zones destined to Trusted and Public Zones.
Enabling bandwidth management allows you to assign guaranteed and maximum bandwidth to
services and prioritize traffic on all WAN zones. Using access rules, bandwidth management
can be enabled on a per-interface basis. Packets belonging to a bandwidth management
enabled policy will be queued in the corresponding priority queue before being sent on the
bandwidth management-enabled WAN interface. Access rules using bandwidth management
have a higher priority than access rules not using bandwidth management. Access rules
without bandwidth management are given lowest priority.
Quality of Service
QoS encompasses a number of methods intended to provide predictable network behavior and
performance. Network predictability is vital to VoIP and other mission critical applications. No
amount of bandwidth can provide this sort of predictability, because any amount of bandwidth
will ultimately be used to its capacity at some point in a network. Only QoS, when configured
and implemented correctly, can properly manage traffic, and guarantee the desired levels of
network service.
SonicOS includes QoS features that adds the ability to recognize, map, modify and generate
the industry-standard 802.1p and Differentiated Services Code Points (DSCP) Class of Service
(CoS) designators.
Note
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For more information on QoS and BWM, see “Firewall > QoS Mapping” section on page 467.
Refer to the Configuring QoS and BWM Feature Module for complete BWM and QoS
configuration instructions. Available on the SonicWALL Web site <www.sonicwall.com/
support/documentation.html>
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Configuring Bandwidth on the WAN Interface
BWM configurations begin by enabling BWM on the relevant WAN interface, and specifying the
interface’s available bandwidth in Kbps. This is performed from the Network > Interfaces page
by selecting the Configure icon for the WAN interface, and navigating to the Advanced tab:
Egress and Ingress BWM can be enabled jointly or separately on WAN interfaces. Different
bandwidth values may be entered for outbound and inbound bandwidth to support asymmetric
links. Link rates up to 100,000 Kbps (100Mbit) may be declared on Fast Ethernet interface,
while Gigabit Ethernet interfaces will support link rates up to 1,000,000 (Gigabit). The
bandwidth specified should reflect the actual bandwidth available for the link. Oversubscribing
the link (i.e. declaring a value greater than the available bandwidth) is not recommended.
Once one or both BWM settings are enabled on the WAN interface and the available bandwidth
has been declared, a Bandwidth tab will appear on Access Rules. See the following
“Configuring VoIP Access Rules” section for more information.
To configure Bandwidth Management on the SonicWALL security appliance:
Step 1
Select Network > Interfaces.
Step 2
Click the Edit icon in the Configure column in the WAN (X1) line of the Interfaces table. The
Edit Interface window is displayed.
Step 3
Click the Advanced tab.
Step 4
Check Enable Egress (Outbound) Bandwidth Management and enter the total available WAN
bandwidth in the Available Interface Egress Bandwidth Management field.
Step 5
Check Enable Ingress (Inbound) Bandwidth Management and enter the total available WAN
bandwidth in the Available Interface Ingress Bandwidth Management field.
Step 6
Click OK.
Configuring VoIP Access Rules
By default, the SonicWALL security appliance’s stateful packet inspection allows all
communication from the LAN to the Internet and blocks all traffic to the LAN from the Internet.
Additional network access rules can be defined to extend or override the default access rules.
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If you are defining VoIP access for client to use a VoIP service provider from the WAN, you
configure network access rules between source and destination interface or zones to enable
clients behind the firewall to send and receive VoIP calls.
If your SIP Proxy or H.323 Gateway is located behind the firewall, you can use the SonicWALL
Public Server Wizard to automatically configure access rules.
Tip
Although custom rules can be created that allow inbound IP traffic, the SonicWALL security
appliance does not disable protection from Denial of Service attacks, such as the SYN Flood
and Ping of Death attacks.
Note
You must select Bandwidth Management on the Network > Interfaces page for the WAN
interface before you can configure bandwidth management for network access rules.
Step 1
To add access rules for VoIP traffic on the SonicWALL security appliance:
Go to the Firewall > Access Rules page, and under View Style click All Rules.
Step 2
Click Add at the bottom of the Access Rules table. The Add Rule window is displayed.
Step 3
In the General tab, select Allow from the Action list to permit traffic.
Step 4
Select the from and to zones from the From Zone and To Zone menus.
Step 5
Select the service or group of services affected by the access rule from the Service list.
•
For H.323, select one of the following or select Create New Group and add the following
services to the group:
– H.323 Call Signaling
– H.323 Gatekeeper Discovery
– H.323 Gatekeeper RAS
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•
For SIP, select SIP
Step 6
Select the source of the traffic affected by the access rule from the Source list. Selecting
Create New Network displays the Add Address Object window.
Step 7
If you want to define the source IP addresses that are affected by the access rule, such as
restricting certain users from accessing the Internet, select Range in the Type: pulldown menu.
The enter the lowest and highest IP addresses in the range in the Starting IP Address: and
Ending IP Address fields.
Step 8
Select the destination of the traffic affected by the access rule from the Destination list.
Selecting Create New Network displays the Add Address Object window.
Step 9
From the Users Allowed menu, add the user or user group affected by the access rule.
Step 10 Select a schedule from the Schedule menu if you want to allow VoIP access only during
specified times. The default schedule is Always on. You can specify schedule objects on the
system > Schedules page.
Step 11 Enter any comments to help identify the access rule in the Comments field.
Step 12 Click the Bandwidth tab.
Step 13 Select Bandwidth Management, and enter the Guaranteed Bandwidth in Kbps.
Step 14 Enter the maximum amount of bandwidth available to the Rule at any time in the Maximum
Bandwidth field.
Step 15 Assign a priority from 0 (highest) to 7 (lowest) in the Bandwidth Priority list. For higher VoIP
call quality, ensure VoIP traffic receives HIGH priority.
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Tip
Rules using Bandwidth Management take priority over rules without bandwidth
management.
Using the Public Server Wizard
The SonicWALL Public Server Wizard provides an easy method for configuring firewall access
rules for a SIP Proxy or H.323 Gatekeeper running on your network behind the firewall. Using
this wizard performs all the configuration settings you need for VoIP clients to access your VoIP
servers.
Step 1
Click Wizards on the SonicOS navigation bar.
Step 2
Select Public Server Wizard and click Next.
Step 3
Select Other from the Server Type list.
Step 4
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•
Select SIP from the Services menu if you’re configuring network access for a SIP proxy
server from the WAN.
•
Select Gatekeeper RAS if you’re configuring network access for a H.323 Gatekeeper from
the WAN.
•
Select H.323 Call Signaling for enabling Point-to-Point VoIP calls from the WAN to the
LAN.
Click Next.
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Note
SonicWALL recommends NOT selecting VoIP from the Services menu. Selecting this
option opens up more TCP/UDP ports than is required, potentially opening up unnecessary
security vulnerabilities.
Step 5
Enter the name of the server in the Server Name field.
Step 6
Enter the private IP address of the server. Specify an IP address in the range of addresses
assigned to the zone where the server is located. The Public Server Wizard will automatically
assign the server to the zone in which its IP address belongs. You can enter optional descriptive
text in the Server Comment field.
Step 7
Click Next.
Step 8
Enter the public IP address of the server. The default is the WAN public IP address. If you enter
a different IP, the Public Server Wizard will create an address object for that IP address and
bind the address object to the WAN zone.
Step 9
Click Next.
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Step 10 The Summary page displays a summary of all the configuration you have performed in the
wizard. It should show:
•
Server Address Objects - The wizard creates the address object for the new server.
Because the IP address of the server added in the example is in the IP address range
assigned to the LAN zone, the wizard binds the address object to the LAN zone.
•
Server Service Group Object - The wizard creates a service group object for the services
used by the new server.
•
Server NAT Policies - The wizard creates a NAT policy to translate the destination
addresses of all incoming packets with one of the services in the new service group and
addressed to the WAN address to the address of the new server. The wizard also creates
a Loopback NAT policy
•
Server Access Rules - The wizard creates an access policy allowing all traffic to the WAN
Primary IP for the new service.
Step 11 Click Apply in the Public Server Configuration Summary page to complete the wizard and apply
the configuration to your SonicWALL.
Tip
The new IP address used to access the new server, both internally and externally, is
displayed in the URL field of the Congratulations window.
Step 12 Click Close to close the wizard.
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Configuring VoIP Logging
You can enable the logging of VoIP events in the SonicWALL security appliance log in the Log
> Categories page. Log entries are displayed on the Log > View page. To enable logging:
Step 1
Select Log > Categories.
Step 2
Select Expanded Categories from the View Style menu in the Log Categories section.
Step 3
Locate the VoIP (VOIP H.323/RAS, H.323/H.225, H.323/H.245 activity) entry in the table.
Step 4
Select Log to enable the display of VoIP log events in on the Log > View page.
Step 5
Select Alerts to enable the sending of alerts for the category.
Step 6
Select Syslog to enable the capture of the log events into the SonicWALL security appliance
Syslog.
Step 7
Click Apply.
VoIP Deployment Scenarios
SonicWALL security appliances can be deployed VoIP devices can be deployed in a variety of
network configurations. This section describes the following deployment scenarios:
•
“Generic Deployment Scenario” on page 531
•
“Deployment Scenario 1: Point-to-Point VoIP Service” on page 531
•
“Deployment Scenario 2: Public VoIP Service” on page 532
•
“Deployment Scenario 3: Trusted VoIP Service” on page 533
Generic Deployment Scenario
All three of the follow deployment scenarios begin with the following basic configuration
procedure:
Step 1
Enable bandwidth management on the WAN interface on Network > Interfaces.
Step 2
Configure SIP or H.323 transformations and inactivity settings on VoIP > Settings.
Step 3
Configure the DHCP Server on the Network > DHCP Server page with static private IP address
assignments to VoIP clients.
Step 4
Enable SonicWALL Intrusion Prevention Service to provided application-layer protection for
VoIP communications on the Security Services > Intrusion Prevention page.
Step 5
Connect VoIP Clients to network.
Deployment Scenario 1: Point-to-Point VoIP Service
The point-to-point VoiP service deployment is common for remote locations or small office
environments that use a VoIP end point device connected to the network behind the firewall to
receive calls directly from the WAN. The VoIP end point device on the Internet connects to VoIP
client device on LAN behind the firewall using the SonicWALL security appliance’s Public IP
address. The following figure shows a point-to-point VoIP service topology
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VoIP
Figure 47:3 Point-to-Point VoIP Service Topology
This deployment does not require a VoIP server. The Public IP address of the SonicWALL
security appliance is used as the main VoIP number for hosts on the network. This requires a
static Public IP address or the use of a Dynamic DNS service to make the public address
available to callers from the WAN. Incoming call requests are routed through the SonicWALL
security appliance using NAT, DHCP Server, and network access rules.
To make multiple devices behind the SonicWALL security appliance accessible from the public
side, configure one-to-one NAT. If many-to-one NAT is configured, only one SIP and one NAT
device will be accessible from the public side. See “ “Network > NAT Policies” section on
page 245” for more information on NAT.
See the “Using the Public Server Wizard” section for information on configuring this deployment.
Deployment Scenario 2: Public VoIP Service
The Public VoIP Service deployment uses a VoIP service provider, which maintains the VoIP
server (either a SIP Proxy Server or H.323 Gatekeeper). The SonicWALL security appliance
public IP address provides the connection from the SIP Proxy Server or H.323 Gatekeeper
operated by the VoIP service provider. The following figure shows a public VoIP service
topology
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Figure 47:4 Public VoIP Service Topology
For VoIP clients that register with a server from the WAN, the SonicWALL security appliance
automatically manages NAT policies and access rules. The SonicWALL security appliance
performs stateful monitoring of registration and permits incoming calls for clients while they
remain registered. No configuration of clients is required. See the “Using the Public Server
Wizard” section for information on configuring this deployment.
Deployment Scenario 3: Trusted VoIP Service
The organization deploys its own VoIP server on a DMZ or LAN to provide in-house VoIP
services that are accessible to VoIP clients on the Internet or from local network users behind
the security gateway. The following figure shows a trusted VoIP service topology.
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VoIP
Figure 47:5 Trusted VoIP Service Topology
For VoIP clients that register with a server on the DMZ or LAN, the SonicWALL security
appliance automatically manages NAT policies and access rules. The SonicWALL security
appliance performs stateful monitoring of registration and permits incoming calls for clients
while they remain registered. No configuration on the VoIP clients is required.
To make a server on the LAN accessible to clients on the WAN:
7.
Define a Host address object with the zone and IP address of the server.
8.
Define a NAT policy, mapping traffic coming to the SonicWALL security appliance’s public
(WAN) IP address and VoIP service (SIP or H.323 Gatekeeper) to the server.
9.
Define access rules allowing VoIP service to pass through the firewall.
10. See the “Using
the Public Server Wizard” section for information on configuring this
deployment.
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VPN
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CHAPTER 48
Chapter 48:
Configuring VPN Policies
VPN > Settings
The VPN > Settings page provides the SonicWALL features for configuring your VPN policies.
You configure site-to-site VPN policies and GroupVPN policies from this page.
VPN Overview
A Virtual Private Network (VPN) provides a secure connection between two or more computers
or protected networks over the public internet. It provides authentication to ensure that the
information is going to and from the correct parties. It provides security to protect the
information from viewing or tampering en route.
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Prior to the invention of Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) and Secure Socket Layer (SSL),
secure connections between remote computers or networks required a dedicated line or
satellite link. This was both inflexible and expensive.
A VPN creates a connection with similar reliability and security by establishing a secure tunnel
through the internet. Because this tunnel is not a physical connection, it is more flexible--you
can change it at any time to add more nodes, change the nodes, or remove it altogether. It is
also far less costly, because it uses the existing internet infrastructure.
VPN Types
There are two main types of VPN in popular use today:
•
IPsec VPN: IPsec is a set of protocols for security at the packet processing layer of network
communication. An advantage of IPsec is that security arrangements can be handled
without requiring changes to individual user computers. SonicOS supports the creation and
management of IPsec VPNs.
IPsec provides two choices of security service: Authentication Header (AH), which
essentially allows authentication of the sender of data, and Encapsulating Security Payload
(ESP), which supports both authentication of the sender and encryption of data as well. The
specific information associated with each of these services is inserted into the packet in a
header that follows the IP packet header.
•
538
SSL VPN: Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is a protocol for managing the security of a message
transmission on the Internet, usually by HTTPS. SSL uses a program layer located between
the Internet's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Transport Control Protocol (TCP)
layers. SSL uses the public-and-private key encryption system from RSA, which also
includes the use of a digital certificate. An SSL VPN uses SSL to secure the VPN tunnel.
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VPN > Settings
One advantage of SSL VPN is that SSL is built into most Web Browsers. No special VPN
client software or hardware is required.
Note
SonicWALL makes SSL-VPN devices that you can use in concert with or independently of
a SonicWALL UTM appliance running SonicOS. For information on SonicWALL SSL-VPN
devices, see the SonicWALL Website :http://www.sonicwall.com/us/
Secure_Remote_Access.html
VPN Security
IPsec VPN traffic is secured in two stages:
•
Authentication: The first phase establishes the authenticity of the sender and receiver of
the traffic using an exchange of the public key portion of a public-private key pair. This
phase must be successful before the VPN tunnel can be established.
•
Encryption: The traffic in the VPN tunnel is encrypted, using an encryption algorithm such
as AES or 3DES.
Unless you use a manual key (which must be typed identically into each node in the VPN) The
exchange of information to authenticate the members of the VPN and encrypt/decrypt the data
uses the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol for exchanging authentication information (keys)
and establishing the VPN tunnel. SonicOS Enhanced supports two versions of IKE, version 1
and version 2.
IKE version 1
IKE version 1 uses a two phase process to secure the VPN tunnel.
•
IKE Phase 1 is the authentication phase. The nodes or gateways on either end of the tunnel
authenticate with each other, exchange encryption/decryption keys, and establish the
secure tunnel.
•
IKE Phase 2 is the negotiation phase. Once authenticated, the two nodes or gateways
negotiate the methods of encryption and data verification (using a hash function) to be used
on the data passed through the VPN and negotiate the number of secure associations
(SAs) in the tunnel and their lifetime before requiring renegotiation of the encryption/
decryption keys.
IKE Phase 1
In IKE v1, there are two modes of exchanging authentication information: Main Mode and
Aggressive Mode.
Main Mode: The node or gateway initiating the VPN queries the node or gateway on the
receiving end, and they exchange authentication methods, public keys, and identity
information. This usually requires six messages back and forth. The order of authentication
messages in Main Mode is:
1.
The initiator sends a list of cryptographic algorithms the initiator supports.
2.
The responder replies with a list of supported cryptographic algorithms.
3.
The initiator send a public key (part of a Diffie-Hellman public/private key pair) for the first
mutually supported cryptographic algorithm.
4.
The responder replies with the public key for the same cryptographic algorithm.
5.
The initiator sends identity information (usually a certificate).
6.
The responder replies with identity information.
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Aggressive Mode: To reduce the number of messages exchanged during authentication by
half, the negotiation of which cryptographic algorithm to use is eliminated. The initiator
proposes one algorithm and the responder replies if it supports that algorithm:
1.
The initiator proposes a cryptographic algorithms to use and sends its public key.
2.
The responder replies with a public key and identity proof.
3.
The initiator sends an identification proof. After authenticating, the VPN tunnel is
established with two SAs, one from each node to the other.
IKE Phase 2
In IKE phase 2, the two parties negotiate the type of security to use, which encryption methods
to use for the traffic through the tunnel (if needed), and negotiate the lifetime of the tunnel
before re-keying is needed.
The two types of security for individual packets are:
•
Encryption Secured Payload (ESP), in which the data portion of each packet is encrypted
using a protocol negotiated between the parties.
•
Authentication Header (AH), in which the header of each packet contains authentication
information to ensure the information is authentic and has not been tampered with. No
encryption is used for the data with AH.
SonicOS supports the following encryption methods for Traffic through the VPN.
Note
•
DES
•
3DES
•
AES-128
•
AES-192
•
AES-256
You can find more information about IKE v1 in the three specifications that define initially
define IKE, RFC 2407, RFC 2408, and RFC 2409, available on the web at:
http://rfc.net/rfc2407.html
http://rfc.net/rfc2408.html
http://rfc.net/rfc2409.html
IKEv2
IKE version 2 is a new protocol for negotiating and establishing SAs. IKE v2 features improved
security, a simplified architecture, and enhanced support for remote users. In addition, IKE v2
supports IP address allocation and EAP to enable different authentication methods and remote
access scenarios. Using IKE V2 greatly reduces the number of message exchanges needed to
establish an SA over IKE v1 Main Mode, while being more secure and flexible than IKE v1
Aggressive Mode. This reduces the delays during re-keying. As VPNS grow to include more
and more tunnels between multiple nodes or gateways, IKE v2 reduces the number of SAs
required per tunnel, thus reducing required bandwidth and housekeeping overhead.
IKE v2 is not compatible with IKE v1. If using IKE v2, all nodes in the VPN must use IKE v2 to
establish the tunnels.
SAs in IKE v2 are called Child SAs and can be created, modified, and deleted independently
at any time during the life of the VPN tunnel.
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Note
There is no restriction on nesting IKE v1 tunnels within an IKE v2 tunnel and visa-versa. For
example, if you are connecting to a wireless device using WiFiSec, which uses an IKE v1
tunnel, you can then connect over the internet to a corporate network using a site-to-site
VPN tunnel established with IKE v2.
Initialization and Authentication in IKE v2
IKE v2 initializes a VPN tunnel with a pair of message exchanges (two message/response
pairs).
•
Initialize communication: The first pair of messages (IKE_SA_INIT) negotiate cryptographic
algorithms, exchange nonces (random values generated and sent to guard against
repeated messages), and perform a public key exchange.
a. Initiator sends a list of supported cryptographic algorithms, public keys, and a nonce.
b. Responder sends the selected cryptographic algorithm, the public key, a nonce, and an
authentication request.
•
Authenticate: The second pair of messages (IKE_AUTH) authenticate the previous
messages, exchange identities and certificates, and establish the first CHILD_SA. Parts of
these messages are encrypted and integrity protected with keys established through the
IKE_SA_INIT exchange, so the identities are hidden from eavesdroppers and all fields in
all the messages are authenticated.
a. Initiator identity proof, such as a shared secret or a certificate, and a request to
establish a child SA.
b. Responder sends the matching identity proof and completes negotiation of a child SA.
Negotiating SAs in IKE v2
This exchange consists of a single request/response pair, and was referred to as a phase 2
exchange in IKE v1. It may be initiated by either end of the SA after the initial exchanges are
completed.
All messages following the initial exchange are cryptographically protected using the
cryptographic algorithms and keys negotiated in the first two messages of the IKE exchange.
Either endpoint may initiate a CREATE_CHILD_SA exchange, so in this section the term
“initiator” refers to the endpoint initiating this exchange.
Note
1.
Initiator sends a child SA offer and, if the data is to be encrypted, the encryption method
and the public key.
2.
Responder sends the accepted child SA offer and, if encryption information was included,
a public key.
You can find more information about IKE v2 in the specification, RFC 4306, available on the
web at:
http://rfc.net/rfc4306.html
For information on configuring VPNs in SonicOS Enhanced, see:
•
“Configuring VPNs in SonicOS Enhanced” section on page 542
•
“Configuring GroupVPN Policies” section on page 552
•
“Site-to-Site VPN Configurations” section on page 561
•
“Creating Site-to-Site VPN Policies” section on page 562
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•
“VPN Auto-Added Access Rule Control” section on page 578
Configuring VPNs in SonicOS Enhanced
SonicWALL VPN, based on the industry-standard IPsec VPN implementation, provides a easyto-setup, secure solution for connecting mobile users, telecommuters, remote offices and
partners via the Internet. Mobile users, telecommuters, and other remote users with broadband
(DSL or cable) or dialup Internet access can securely and easily access your network resources
with the SonicWALL Global VPN Client or Global Security Client and SonicWALL GroupVPN
on your SonicWALL. Remote office networks can securely connect to your network using siteto-site VPN connections that enable network-to- network VPN connections.
Note
For more information on the SonicWALL Global VPN Client, see the SonicWALL Global
VPN Client Administrator’s Guide. For more information on the SonicWALL Global
Security Client, see the SonicWALL Global Security Client Administrator’s Guide.
SonicWALL’s GroupVPN provides automatic VPN policy provisioning for SonicWALL Global
VPN Clients. The GroupVPN feature on the SonicWALL security appliance and the SonicWALL
Global VPN Client (part of the Global security Client) dramatically streamline VPN deployment
and management. Using SonicWALL’s Client Policy Provisioning technology, you define the
VPN policies for Global VPN Client users. This policy information automatically downloads from
the SonicWALL security appliance (VPN Gateway) to Global VPN Clients, saving remote users
the burden of provisioning VPN connections.
You can easily and quickly create a site-to-site VPN policy or a GroupVPN policy for
SonicWALL Global Security Clients using the VPN Policy Wizard. You can also configure
GroupVPN or
site-to-site VPN tunnels using the Management Interface. You can define up to four GroupVPN
policies, one for each Zone. You can also create multiple site-to-site VPN. The maximum
number of policies you can add depends on your SonicWALL model.
Planning Your VPN
Before creating or activating a VPN tunnel, gather the following information. You can print these
pages and to use as a planning checklist:
GroupVPN Policy Planning Checklist
On the SonicWALL security appliance:
•
Authentication Method:
IKE using Preshared Secret
IKE using 3rd Party Certificates.
•
Shared Secret if using preshared secret.
•
Gateway Certificate if using 3rd part certificates. This is a certificate file you have
uploaded to your SonicWALL security appliance and plan to distribute to your VPN Clients.
•
Peer ID Type if using 3rd party certificates: Choose
Distinguished Name
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E-Mail ID
Domain name.
•
Peer ID Filter if using 3rd party certificates.
•
IKE (Phase 1) Proposal:
– DH Group:
Note
–
Group 1
–
Group 2
–
Group 5
The Windows 2000 L2TP client and Windows XP L2TP client can only work with DH Group
2. They are incompatible with DH Groups 1 and 5.
– Encryption:
–
DES
–
3DES
–
AES-128
–
AES-256
– Authentication:
–
MD5
–
SHA1
– Life Time (seconds):
•
(default 28800)
Ipsec (Phase 2) Proposal:
– Protocol: (ESP only)
– Encryption:
–
DES
–
3DES
–
AES-128
–
AES-192
–
AES-256
– Authentication:
–
MD5
–
SHA1
–
Enable Perfect Forward Secrecy
– DH Group (if perfect forward secrecy is enabled):
–
Group 1
–
Group 2
–
Group 5
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VPN > Settings
Note
The Windows 2000 L2TP client and Windows XP L2TP client can only work with DH Group
2. They are incompatible with DH Groups 1 and 5.
– Life Time (seconds):
•
Enable Windows Networking (NetBIOS) Broadcast
•
Enable Multicast
•
(default 28800)
Management via this SA:
HTTP
HTTPS
•
•
Default Gateway:
Enable OCSP Checking
– OCSP Responder URL:
•
Require Authentication of VPN Clients via XAUTH
•
User Group for XAUTH users (the user group that will have access to this VPN if XAUTH
is selected):
•
Allow Unauthenticated VPN Client Access (the network or subnet you will allow to have
access to this VPN without authentication if XAUTH is not selected):
•
Cache XAUTH User Name and Password on Client (will the client be able to store the
user name and password):
Never
Single Session
Always
•
Virtual Adapter settings:
None
DHCP Lease
DHCP Lease or Manual Configuration
•
Allow Connections to:
This Gateway Only
All Secured Gateways
Split Tunnels
•
Set Default Route as this Gateway
•
Require Global Security Client for this Connection
•
Use Default Key for Simple Client Provisioning
(this allows easier client setup, but is less secure)
On the client
•
IP address or Web address of VPN Gateway
•
VPN Client:
GVC or GSC
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GSC only (Require Global Security Client checked on security appliance)
•
Shared secret, if selected on security appliance:
•
Certificate, if selected on security appliance:
•
User’s user name and password if XAUTH is required on the security appliance.
Site-to-Site VPN Planning Checklist
On the Initiator
Typically, the request for an IKE VPN SA is made from the remote site.
•
Authentication Method:
Manual Key
IKE using Preshared Secret
IKE using 3rd Party Certificates (not used with IKEv2)
•
Name of this VPN:
•
IPsec Primary Gateway Name or Address:
•
IPsec Secondary Gateway Name or Address:
(not used with manual key, not used with IKEv2)
•
IKE Authentication for IKE using Preshared Secret:
– Shared Secret:
– Local IKE ID:
–
IP Address
–
Domain Name
–
Email Address
–
SonicWALL Identifier
– Peer IKE ID:
•
–
IP Address
–
Domain Name
–
Email Address
–
SonicWALL Identifier
IKE Authentication for IKE using 3rd Party Certificate (not used with IKEv2):
– Local Certificate:
– Peer IKE ID Type:
–
Distinguished name
–
E-Mail ID
–
Domain name
– Peer IKE ID:
•
Local Networks
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Choose local network from list (select an address object):
Local network obtains IP addresses using DHCP through this VPN Tunnel
(not used with IKEv2)
Any address
•
Destination Networks
Use this VPN Tunnel as default route for all Internet traffic
Destination network obtains IP addresses using DHCP through this VPN Tunnel
Choose destination network from list (select an address object):
•
IKE (Phase 1) Proposal:
– Exchange:
–
Main Mode
–
Aggressive Mode
–
IKEv2 Mode
– DH Group:
Note
–
Group 1
–
Group 2
–
Group 5
The Windows 2000 L2TP client and Windows XP L2TP client can only work with DH Group
2. They are incompatible with DH Groups 1 and 5.
– Encryption:
–
DES
–
3DES
–
AES-128
–
AES-192
–
AES-256
– Authentication:
–
MD5
–
SHA1
– Life Time (seconds):
•
Ipsec (Phase 2) Proposal
– Protocol:
–
ESP
–
AH
– Encryption:
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–
DES
–
3DES
–
AES-128
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(default 28800)
VPN > Settings
–
AES-192
–
AES-256
– Authentication:
–
MD5
–
SHA1
–
Enable Perfect Forward Secrecy
– DH Group (if perfect forward secrecy is enabled):
Note
–
Group 1
–
Group 2
–
Group 5
The Windows 2000 L2TP client and Windows XP L2TP client can only work with DH Group
2. They are incompatible with DH Groups 1 and 5.
– Life Time (seconds):
(default 28800)
•
Enable Keep Alive
•
Suppress automatic Access Rules creation for VPN Policy
•
Require authentication of VPN clients by XAUTH (not with IKEv2)
– User Group for XAUTH users (the user group that will have access to this VPN if
XAUTH is selected):
•
Enable Windows Networking (NetBIOS) Broadcast
•
Enable Multicast
•
Apply NAT Policies
– Translated Local Network:
– Translated Remote Network:
•
Enable OCSP Checking (IKE with 3rd Party Certificate only)
– OCSP Responder URL: (IKE with 3rd Party Certificate only)
•
Management via this SA:
HTTP
HTTPS
•
User login via this SA:
HTTP
HTTPS
•
•
Default LAN Gateway (optional):
VPN Policy bound to:
Zone WAN
•
Do not send trigger packet during IKE SA negotiation (IKEv2 only)
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On the Responder
The settings on the responder must be the same as on the initiator except:
•
Name of this VPN:
•
IPsec Primary Gateway Name or Address: not required on the responder
•
IPsec Secondary Gateway Name or Address: not required on the responder
•
IKE Authentication for IKE using Preshared Secret:
– Local IKE ID: (must match Peer IKE ID on initiator)
–
IP Address
–
Domain Name
–
Email Address
–
SonicWALL Identifier
– Peer IKE ID: (must match Local IKE ID on initiator)
•
–
IP Address
–
Domain Name
–
Email Address
–
SonicWALL Identifier
IKE Authentication for IKE using 3rd Party Certificate (not used with IKEv2):
– Local Certificate:
– Peer IKE ID Type:
–
Distinguished name
–
E-Mail ID
–
Domain name
– Peer IKE ID:
•
Local Networks (must match Destination Networks on initiator)
Choose local network from list (select an address object):
Local network obtains IP addresses using DHCP through this VPN Tunnel
(not used with IKEv2)
Any address
•
Destination Networks (must match Local Networks on initiator)
Use this VPN Tunnel as default route for all Internet traffic
Destination network obtains IP addresses using DHCP through this VPN Tunnel
Choose destination network from list (select an address object):
•
Apply NAT Policies
– Translated Local Network: (must match Translated Remote Network on initiator)
– Translated Remote Network (must match Translated Local Network on initiator)
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VPN Policy Wizard
The VPN Policy Wizard walks you step-by-step through the configuration of GroupVPN or siteto-site VPN policies on the SonicWALL security appliance. After completing the configuration,
the wizard creates the necessary VPN settings for the selected policy. You can use the
SonicWALL Management Interface for optional advanced configuration options.
Note
For step-by-step instructions on using the VPN Policy Wizard, see Chapter 50 Configuring
VPNs with the VPN Policy Wizard.
VPN Global Settings
The Global VPN Settings section of the VPN > Settings page displays the following
information:
•
Enable VPN must be selected to allow VPN policies through the SonicWALL security
policies.
•
Unique Firewall Identifier - the default value is the serial number of the SonicWALL. You
can change the Identifier, and use it for configuring VPN tunnels.
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VPN > Settings
VPN Policies
All existing VPN policies are displayed in the VPN Policies table. Each entry displays the
following information:
•
Name: Displays the default name or user-defined VPN policy name.
•
Gateway: Displays the IP address of the remote SonicWALL. If 0.0.0.0 is used, no Gateway
is displayed.
•
Destinations: Displays the IP addresses of the destination networks.
•
Crypto Suite: Displays the type of encryption used for the VPN policy.
•
Enable: Selecting the check box enables the VPN Policy. Clearing the check box disables
it.
•
Configure: Clicking the Edit icon allows you to edit the VPN policy. Clicking the Trashcan
allows you to delete the VPN policy. The predefined GroupVPN policies cannot be deleted,
so the Trashcan icons are dimmed. GroupVPN policies also have a Disk icon for exporting
the VPN policy configuration as a file for local installation by SonicWALL Global VPN
Clients.
The number of VPN policies defined, policies enabled, and the maximum number of Policies
allowed is displayed below the table. You can define up to 4 GroupVPN policies, one for each
Zone. These GroupVPN policies are listed by default in the VPN Policies table as WAN
GroupVPN, LAN GroupVPN, DMZ GroupVPN, and WLAN GroupVPN. Clicking on the edit
icon in the Configure column for the GroupVPN displays the VPN Policy window for configuring
the GroupVPN policy.
Below the VPN Policies table are the following buttons:
•
Add - Accesses the VPN Policy window to configure site-to-site VPN policies.
•
Delete - Deletes the selected (checked box before the VPN policy name in the Name
column. You cannot delete the GroupVPN policies.
•
Delete All - Deletes all VPN policies in the VPN Policies table except the default GroupVPN
policies.
Navigating and Sorting the VPN Policies Entries
The VPN Policies table provides easy pagination for viewing a large number of VPN policies.
You can navigate a large number of VPN policies listed in the VPN Policies table by using the
navigation control bar located at the top right of the VPN Policies table. Navigation control bar
includes four buttons. The far left button displays the first page of the table. The far right button
displays the last page. The inside left and right arrow buttons moved the previous or next page
respectively.
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You can enter the policy number (the number listed before the policy name in the # Name
column) in the Items field to move to a specific VPN policy. The default table configuration
displays 50 entries per page. You can change this default number of entries for tables on the
System > Administration page.
You can sort the entries in the table by clicking on the column header. The entries are sorted
by ascending or descending order. The arrow to the right of the column entry indicates the
sorting status. A down arrow means ascending order. An up arrow indicates a descending
order.
Currently Active VPN Tunnels
A list of currently active VPN tunnels is displayed in this section. The table lists the name of the
VPN Policy, the local LAN IP addresses, and the remote destination network IP addresses as
well as the peer gateway IP address.
Click the Renegotiate button to force the VPN Client to renegotiate the VPN tunnel.
Viewing VPN Tunnel Statistics
In the Currently Active VPN Tunnels table, click on the Statistics icon
in the row for a tunnel
to view the statistics on that tunnel. The VPN Tunnel Statistics icon displays:
•
Create Time: The date and time the tunnel came into existence.
•
Tunnel valid until: The time when the tunnel expires and is force to renegotiate.
•
Packets In: The number of packets received from this tunnel.
•
Packets Out: The number of packets sent out from this tunnel.
•
Bytes In: The number of bytes received from this tunnel.
•
Bytes Out: The number of bytes sent out from this tunnel.
•
Fragmented Packets In: The number of fragmented packets received from this tunnel.
•
Fragmented Packets Out: The number of fragmented packets sent out from this tunnel.
For detailed information on configuring VPNs in SonicOS Enhanced, see:
•
“Configuring GroupVPN Policies” section on page 552
•
“Site-to-Site VPN Configurations” section on page 561
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•
“Creating Site-to-Site VPN Policies” section on page 562
•
“VPN Auto-Added Access Rule Control” section on page 578
Configuring GroupVPN Policies
SonicWALL GroupVPN facilitates the set up and deployment of multiple SonicWALL Global
VPN Clients by the SonicWALL security appliance administrator. GroupVPN is only available
for SonicWALL Global VPN Clients and it is recommended you use XAUTH/RADIUS or third
party certificates in conjunction with the Group VPNfor added security.
For more information on the SonicWALL Global VPN Client, see the SonicWALL Global VPN
Client Administrator’s Guide. For more information on the SonicWALL Global Security Client,
see the SonicWALL Global Security Client Administrator’s Guide.
The default GroupVPN configuration allows you to support SonicWALL Global VPN Clients
without any further editing of the VPN policy, except to check the Enable box for GroupVPN in
the VPN Policies table.
SonicWALL supports four GroupVPN policies. You can create GroupVPN policies for the DMZ,
LAN, WAN, and WLAN zones. These GroupVPN policies are listed in the VPN policies tables
as WAN Group VPN, LAN GroupVPN, DMZ GroupVPN, and WLAN GroupVPN. For these
GroupVPN policies, you can choose from IKE using Preshared Secret or IKE using 3rd Party
Certificates for your IPsec Keying Mode.
Tip
You can easily create GroupVPN policies using the VPN Policy Wizard. For complete stepby-step instructions on using the VPN Policy Wizard, see Chapter 51 Configuring VPNs with
the SonicWALL VPN Policy Wizard.
Note
See the GroupVPN Setup in SonicOS Enhanced technote on the SonicWALL
documentation Web site http://www.sonicwall.com for more GroupVPN configuration
information.
SonicOS supports the creation and management of IPsec VPNs.
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Configuring GroupVPN with IKE using Preshared Secret on the WAN Zone
To configure the WAN GroupVPN, follow these steps:
Step 1
Click the edit icon for the WAN GroupVPN entry. The VPN Policy window is displayed.
Step 2
In the General tab, IKE using Preshared Secret is the default setting for Authentication
Method. A Shared Secret is automatically generated by the SonicWALL security appliance in
the Shared Secret field, or you can generate your own shared secret. Shared Secrets must
be minimum of four characters. You cannot change the name of any GroupVPN policy.
Step 3
Click the Proposals tab to continue the configuration process.
Step 4
In the IKE (Phase 1) Proposal section, use the following settings:
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– Select the DH Group from the DH Group menu.
Note
The Windows 2000 L2TP client and Windows XP L2TP client can only work with
DH Group 2. They are incompatible with DH Groups 1 and 5.
– Select 3DES, AES-128, or AES-256 from the Encryption menu.
– Select the desired authentication method from the Authentication menu.
– Enter a value in the Life Time (seconds) field. The default setting of 28800 forces the
tunnel to renegotiate and exchange keys every 8 hours.
Step 5
In the IPsec (Phase 2) Proposal section, select the following settings:
– Select the desired protocol from the Protocol menu.
– Select 3DES, AES-128, or AES-256 from the Encryption menu.
– Select the desired authentication method from the Authentication menu.
– Select Enable Perfect Forward Secrecy if you want an additional Diffie-Hellman key
exchange as an added layer of security. Select Group 2 from the DH Group menu.
Note
The Windows 2000 L2TP client and Windows XP L2TP client can only work with DH
Group 2. They are incompatible with DH Groups 1 and 5.
– Enter a value in the Life Time (seconds) field. The default setting of 28800 forces the
tunnel to renegotiate and exchange keys every 8 hours.
Step 6
Click the Advanced tab.
Step 7
Select any of the following optional settings you want to apply to your GroupVPN policy:
– Enable Windows Networking (NetBIOS) broadcast - Allows access to remote
network resources by browsing the Windows® Network Neighborhood.
– Enable Multicast - Enables IP multicasting traffic, such as streaming audio (including
VoIP) and video applications, to pass through the VPN tunnel.
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– Management via this SA: - If using the VPN policy to manage the SonicWALL security
appliance, select the management method, either HTTP or HTTPS.
– Default Gateway - Allows the network administrator to specify the IP address of the
default network route for incoming IPsec packets for this VPN policy. Incoming packets
are decoded by the SonicWALL and compared to static routes configured in the
SonicWALL security appliance. Since packets can have any IP address destination, it
is impossible to configure enough static routes to handle the traffic. For packets
received via an IPsec tunnel, the SonicWALL looks up a route. If no route is found, the
security appliance checks for a Default Gateway. If a Default Gateway is detected, the
packet is routed through the gateway. Otherwise, the packet is dropped.
– Require Authentication of VPN Clients via XAUTH - Requires that all inbound traffic
on this VPN tunnel is from an authenticated user. Unauthenticated traffic is not allowed
on the VPN tunnel. he Trusted users group is selected by default. You can select
another user group or Everyone from User Group for XAUTH users.
– Allow Unauthenticated VPN Client Access - Allows you to enable unauthenticated
VPN client access. If you uncheck Require Authentication of VPN Clients via
XAUTH, the Allow Unauthenticated VPN Client Access menu is activated. Select an
Address Object or Address Group from menu of predefined options, or select Create
new address object or Create new address group to create a new one.
Step 8
Click the Client tab, select any of the following settings you want to apply to your GroupVPN
policy.
– Cache XAUTH User Name and Password on Client - Allows the Global VPN Client
to cache the user name and password.
•
Never - Global VPN Client is not allowed to cache the username and password. The user will
be prompted for a username and password when the connection is enabled, and also every time
there is an IKE Phase 1 rekey.
•
Single Session - Global VPN Client user prompted for username and password each time the
connection is enabled and will be valid until the connection is disabled. The username and
password is used through IKE Phase 1 rekey.
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•
Always - Global VPN Client user prompted for username and password only once when
connection is enabled. When prompted, the user will be given the option of caching the
username and password.
– Virtual Adapter Settings - The use of the Virtual Adapter by the Global VPN Client
(GVC) is dependent upon a DHCP server, either the internal SonicOS or a specified
external DHCP server, to allocate addresses to the Virtual Adapter. In instances where
predictable addressing was a requirement, it’s necessary to obtain the MAC address of
the Virtual Adapter, and to create a DHCP lease reservation. To reduce the
administrative burden of providing predictable Virtual Adapter addressing, you can
configure the GroupVPN to accept static addressing of the Virtual Adapter's IP
configuration. This feature requires the use of GVC version 3.0 or later.
•
None - A Virtual Adapter will not be used by this GroupVPN connection.
•
DHCP Lease - The Virtual Adapter will obtain its IP configuration from the DHCP Server only,
as configure in the VPN > DHCP over VPN page.
•
DHCP Lease or Manual Configuration - When the GVC connects to the SonicWALL, the
policy from the SonicWALL instructs the GVC to use a Virtual Adapter, but the DHCP
messages are suppressed if the Virtual Adapter has been manually configured. The configured
value is recorded by the SonicWALL so that it can proxy ARP for the manually assigned IP
address. By design, there are currently no limitations on IP address assignments for the Virtual
Adapter. Only duplicate static addresses are not permitted.
– Allow Connections to - Client network traffic matching destination networks of each
gateway is sent through the VPN tunnel of that specific gateway.
•
This Gateway Only - Allows a single connection to be enabled at a time. Traffic that matches
the destination networks as specified in the policy of the gateway is sent through the VPN
tunnel. If this option is selected along with Set Default Route as this Gateway, then the Internet
traffic is also sent through the VPN tunnel. If this option is selected without selecting Set
Default Route as this Gateway, then the Internet traffic is blocked.
•
All Secured Gateways - Allows one or more connections to be enabled at the same time.
Traffic matching the destination networks of each gateway is sent through the VPN tunnel of
that specific gateway. If this option is selected along with Set Default Route as this Gateway,
then Internet traffic is also sent through the VPN tunnel. If this option is selected without Set
Default Route as this Gateway, then the Internet traffic is blocked. Only one of the multiple
gateways can have Set Default Route as this Gateway enabled.
•
Split Tunnels - Allows the VPN user to have both local Internet connectivity and VPN
connectivity.
– Set Default Route as this Gateway - Enable this check box if all remote VPN
connections access the Internet through this VPN tunnel. You can only configure one
VPN policy to use this setting.
– Require Global Security Client for this Connection - Only allows a VPN connection
from a remote computer running the SonicWALL Global Security Client, which provides
policy enforced firewall protection before allowing a Global VPN Client connection.
Note
For more information on the SonicWALL Global Security Client, see the SonicWALL Global
Security Client Administrator’s Guide.
– Use Default Key for Simple Client Provisioning - uses Aggressive mode for the initial
exchange with the gateway and VPN clients uses a default Preshared Key for
authentication.
Step 9
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Click OK.
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Configuring GroupVPN with IKE using 3rd Party Certificates
To configure GroupVPN with IKE using 3rd Party Certificates, follow these steps:
Caution
Before configuring GroupVPN with IKE using 3rd Party Certificates, your certificates must
be installed on the SonicWALL.
Step 1
In the VPN > Settings page click the edit icon under Configure. The VPN Policy window is
displayed.
Step 2
In the Security Policy section, select IKE using 3rd Party Certificates from the
Authentication Method menu. The VPN policy name is GroupVPN by default and cannot be
changed.
Step 3
Select a certificate for the SonicWALL from the Gateway Certificate menu.
Step 4
Select one of the following Peer ID types from the Peer ID Type menu:
– E-Mail ID and Domain Name - The Email ID and Domain Name types are based on
the certificate's Subject Alternative Name field, which is not contained in all certificates
by default. If the certificate does not contain a Subject Alternative Name field, this filter
will not work. The E-Mail ID and Domain Name filters can contain a string or partial
string identifying the acceptable range required. The strings entered are not case
sensitive and can contain the wild card characters * (for more than 1 character) and ?
(for a single character). For example, the string *@sonicwall.com when E-Mail ID is
selected, would allow anyone with an email address that ended in sonicwall.com to
have access; the string *sv.us.sonicwall.com when Domain Name is selected, would
allow anyone with a domain name that ended in sv.us.sonicwall.com to have access.
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– Distinguished Name - based on the certificates Subject Distinguished Name field,
which is contained in all certificates by default. Valid entries for this field are based on
country (c=), organization (o=), organization unit (ou=), and /or commonName (cn=).
Up to three organizational units can be specified. The usage is
c=*;o=*;ou=*;ou=*;ou=*;cn=*. The final entry does not need to contain a semi-colon.
You must enter at least one entry, i.e. c=us.
Step 5
Enter the Peer ID filter in the Peer ID Filter field.
Step 6
Check Allow Only Peer Certificates Signed by Gateway Issuer to specify that peer
certificates must be signed by the issuer specified in the Gateway Certificate menu.
Step 7
Click on the Proposals tab.
Step 8
In the IKE (Phase 1) Proposal section, select the following settings:
– Select the DH Group from the DH Group menu.
Note
The Windows 2000 L2TP client and Windows XP L2TP client can only work with DH
Group 2. They are incompatible with DH Groups 1 and 5.
– Select 3DES, AES-128, or AES-256 from the Encryption menu.
– Select the desired authentication method from the Authentication menu.
– Enter a value in the Life Time (seconds) field. The default setting of 28800 forces the
tunnel to renegotiate and exchange keys every 8 hours.
Step 9
In the IPsec (Phase 2) Proposal section, select the following settings:
– Select the desired protocol from the Protocol menu.
– Select 3DES, AES-128, or AES-256 from the Encryption menu.
– Select the desired authentication method from the Authentication menu.
– Select Enable Perfect Forward Secrecy if you want an additional Diffie-Hellman key
exchange as an added layer of security. Select Group 2 from the DH Group menu.
Note
The Windows 2000 L2TP client and Windows XP L2TP client can only work with DH
Group 2. They are incompatible with DH Groups 1 and 5.
– Enter a value in the Life Time (seconds) field. The default setting of 28800 forces the
tunnel to renegotiate and exchange keys every 8 hours.
Step 10 Click on the Advanced tab and select any of the following optional settings that you want to
apply to your GroupVPN Policy:
– Enable Windows Networking (NetBIOS) broadcast - Allows access to remote
network resources by browsing the Windows Network Neighborhood.
– Enable Multicast - Enables IP multicasting traffic, such as streaming audio (including
VoIP) and video applications, to pass through the VPN tunnel.
– Management via this SA - If using the VPN policy to manage the SonicWALL security
appliance, select the management method, either HTTP or HTTPS.
– Default Gateway - Used at a central site in conjunction with a remote site using the
Route all Internet traffic through this SA check box. Default LAN Gateway allows the
network administrator to specify the IP address of the default LAN route for incoming
IPsec packets for this SA. Incoming packets are decoded by the SonicWALL and
compared to static routes configured in the SonicWALL. Since packets can have any
IP address destination, it is impossible to configure enough static routes to handle the
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traffic. For packets received via an IPsec tunnel, the SonicWALL looks up a route for
the LAN. If no route is found, the SonicWALL checks for a Default LAN Gateway. If a
Default LAN Gateway is detected, the packet is routed through the gateway. Otherwise,
the packet is dropped.
– Enable OCSP Checking and OCSP Responder URL - Enables use of Online
Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) to check VPN certificate status and specifies the
URL where to check certificate status. See the “Using OCSP with SonicWALL Security
Appliances” section in the “VPN > Settings” section on page 537.
– Require Authentication of VPN Clients via XAUTH - Requires that all inbound traffic
on this VPN policy is from an authenticated user. Unauthenticated traffic is not allowed
on the VPN tunnel.
– User group for XAUTH users - Allows you to select a defined user group for
authentication.
– All Unauthenticated VPN Client Access - Allows you to specify network segments for
unauthenticated Global VPN Client access.
Step 11 Click on the Client tab and select any of the following boxes that you want to apply to Global
VPN Client provisioning:
– Cache XAUTH User Name and Password - Allows the Global VPN Client to cache the
user name and password. Select from:
•
Never - Global VPN Client is not allowed to cache username and password. The user will be
prompted for a username and password when the connection is enabled and also every time
there is an IKE phase 1 rekey.
•
Single Session - The user will be prompted for username and password each time the
connection is enabled and will be valid until the connection is disabled. This username and
password is used through IKE phase 1 rekey.
•
Always - The user will be prompted for username and password only once when connection is
enabled. When prompted, the user will be given the option of caching the username and
password.
– Virtual Adapter Settings - The use of the Virtual Adapter by the Global VPN Client
(GVC) is dependent upon a DHCP server, either the internal SonicOS or a specified
external DHCP server, to allocate addresses to the Virtual Adapter. In instances where
predictable addressing was a requirement, it’s necessary to obtain the MAC address of
the Virtual Adapter, and to create a DHCP lease reservation. To reduce the
administrative burden of providing predictable Virtual Adapter addressing, you can
configure the GroupVPN to accept static addressing of the Virtual Adapter's IP
configuration. This feature requires the use of GVC version 3.0 or later.
•
None - A Virtual Adapter will not be used by this GroupVPN connection.
•
DHCP Lease - The Virtual Adapter will obtain its IP configuration from the DHCP Server only,
as configure in the VPN > DHCP over VPN page.
•
DHCP Lease or Manual Configuration - When the GVC connects to the SonicWALL, the
policy from the SonicWALL instructs the GVC to use a Virtual Adapter, but the DHCP
messages are suppressed if the Virtual Adapter has been manually configured. The configured
value is recorded by the SonicWALL so that it can proxy ARP for the manually assigned IP
address. By design, there are currently no limitations on IP address assignments for the Virtual
Adapter. Only duplicate static addresses are not permitted.
– Allow Connections to - Client network traffic matching destination networks of each
gateway is sent through the VPN tunnel of that specific gateway.
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•
This Gateway Only - Allows a single connection to be enabled at a time. Traffic that matches
the destination networks as specified in the policy of the gateway is sent through the VPN
tunnel. If this option is selected along with Set Default Route as this Gateway, then the Internet
traffic is also sent through the VPN tunnel. If this option is selected without selecting Set
Default Route as this Gateway, then the Internet traffic is blocked.
•
All Secured Gateways - Allows one or more connections to be enabled at the same time.
Traffic matching the destination networks of each gateway is sent through the VPN tunnel of
that specific gateway. If this option is selected along with Set Default Route as this Gateway,
then Internet traffic is also sent through the VPN tunnel. If this option is selected without Set
Default Route as this Gateway, then the Internet traffic is blocked. Only one of the multiple
gateways can have Set Default Route as this Gateway enabled.
•
Split Tunnels - Allows the VPN user to have both local Internet connectivity and VPN
connectivity.
– Set Default Route as this Gateway - Enable this check box if all remote VPN
connections access the Internet through this SA. You can only configure one SA to use
this setting.
– Require Global Security Client for this Connection - Only allows a VPN connection
from a remote computer running the SonicWALL Global Security Client, which provides
policy enforced firewall protection before allowing a Global VPN Client connection.
Note
For more information on the SonicWALL Global Security Client and Distributed Security
Client, see the SonicWALL Global Security Client Administrator’s Guide.
– Use Default Key for Simple Client Provisioning - Uses Aggressive mode for the
initial exchange with the gateway and VPN clients uses a default Preshared Key for
authentication.
Step 12 Click OK.
Exporting a VPN Client Policy
If you want to export the Global VPN Client configuration settings to a file for users to import
into their Global VPN Clients, follow these instructions:
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Caution
The GroupVPN SA must be enabled on the SonicWALL to export a configuration file.
Step 1
Click the Disk icon in the Configure column for the GroupVPN entry in the VPN Policies table.
The Export VPN Client Policy window appears.
Step 2
rcf format is required for SonicWALL Global VPN Clients is selected by default. Files saved
in the rcf format can be password encrypted. The SonicWALL provides a default file name for
the configuration file, which you can change.
Step 3
Click Yes. The VPN Policy Export window appears.
Step 4
Type a password in the Password field and reenter it in the Confirm Password field, if you
want to encrypt the exported file. If you choose not to enter a password, the exported file is not
encrypted.
Step 5
Click Submit. If you did not enter a password, a message appears confirming your choice.
Step 6
Click OK. You can change the configuration file before saving.
Step 7
Save the file.
Step 8
Click Close.
The file can be saved to a floppy disk or sent electronically to remote users to configure their
Global VPN Clients.
Site-to-Site VPN Configurations
When designing VPN connections, be sure to document all pertinent IP Addressing information
and create a network diagram to use as a reference. A sample planning sheet is provided on
the next page. The SonicWALL must have a routable WAN IP Address whether it is dynamic or
static. In a VPN network with dynamic and static IP addresses, the VPN gateway with the
dynamic address must initiate the VPN connection.
Site-to-Site VPN configurations can include the following options:
•
Branch Office (Gateway to Gateway) - A SonicWALL is configured to connect to another
SonicWALL via a VPN tunnel. Or, a SonicWALL is configured to connect via IPsec to
another manufacturer’s firewall.
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•
Hub and Spoke Design - All SonicWALL VPN gateways are configured to connect to a
central SonicWALL (hub), such as a corporate SonicWALL. The hub must have a static IP
address, but the spokes can have dynamic IP addresses. If the spokes are dynamic, the
hub must be a SonicWALL.
•
Mesh Design - All sites connect to all other sites. All sites must have static IP addresses.
See “Planning Your VPN” on page 542 for a planning sheet to help you set up your VPN.
Creating Site-to-Site VPN Policies
Tip
You can easily create site-to-site VPN policies using the VPN Policy Wizard. For complete
step-by-step instructions on using the VPN Policy Wizard, see Chapter 51 Configuring VPNs
with the SonicWALL VPN Policy Wizard.
You can create or modify existing VPN policies using the VPN Policy window. Clicking the Add
button under the VPN Policies table displays the VPN Policy window for configuring the
following IPsec Keying mode VPN policies:
562
•
IKE using Preshared Key
•
Manual Key
•
IKE using 3rd Party Certificates
Tip
Use the VPN Planning Sheet for Site-to-Site VPN Policies to record your settings. These
settings are necessary to configure the remote SonicWALL and create a successful VPN
connection.
Note
For configuring VPN policies between SonicWALL security appliances running SonicOS
Enhanced and SonicWALL security appliances running SonicWALL Firmware version 6.5
(or higher), see the technote: Creating IKE IPsec VPN Tunnels between SonicWALL
Firmware 6.5 and SonicOS Enhanced, available at the SonicWALL documentation Web site
http://www.sonicwall.com/us/Support.html.
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Configuring a VPN Policy with IKE using Preshared Secret
To configure a VPN Policy using Internet Key Exchange (IKE), follow the steps below:
Step 1
Click Add on the VPN > Settings page. The VPN Policy window is displayed.
Step 2
In the General tab, select IKE using Preshared Secret from the Authentication Method
menu.
Step 3
Enter a name for the policy in the Name field.
Step 4
Enter the host name or IP address of the remote connection in the IPsec Primary Gateway
Name or Address field.
Step 5
If the Remote VPN device supports more than one endpoint, you may optionally enter a second
host name or IP address of the remote connection in the IPsec Secondary Gateway Name or
Address field.
Note
Step 6
Secondary gateways are not supported with IKEv2.
Enter a Shared Secret password to be used to setup the Security Association the Shared
Secret and Confirm Shared Secret fields. The Shared Secret must be at least 4 characters
long, and should comprise both numbers and letters.
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Optionally, specify a Local IKE ID (optional) and Peer IKE ID (optional) for this Policy. By
default, the IP Address (ID_IPv4_ADDR) is used for Main Mode negotiations, and the
SonicWALL Identifier (ID_USER_FQDN) is used for Aggressive Mode.
Step 7
Click the Network tab.
Step 8
Under Local Networks, select a local network from Choose local network from list if a
specific local network can access the VPN tunnel. If hosts on this side of the VPN connection
will be obtaining their addressing from a DHCP server on the remote side of the tunnel, select
Local network obtains IP addresses using DHCP through this VPN tunnel. If traffic can
originate from any local network, select Any Address. Use this option if a peer has Use this
VPN tunnel as default route for all Internet traffic selected.
Note
Step 9
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DHCP over VPN is not supported with IKEv2.
Under Destination Networks, select Use this VPN Tunnel as default route for all Internet
traffic if traffic from any local user cannot leave the SonicWALL security appliance unless it is
encrypted. You can only configure one SA to use this setting. If the remote side of this VPN
connection is be obtaining its addressing from a DHCP server on this side of the tunnel, select
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Destination network obtains IP addresses using DHCP server through this tunnel.
Alternatively, select Choose Destination network from list, and select the address object or
group.
Step 10 Click Proposals.
Step 11 Under IKE (Phase 1) Proposal, select either Main Mode, Aggressive Mode, or IKEv2 from
the Exchange menu. Aggressive Mode is generally used when WAN addressing is
dynamically assigned. IKEv2 causes all the negotiation to happen via IKE v2 protocols, rather
than using IKE Phase 1 and Phase 2. If you use IKE v2, both ends of the VPN tunnel must use
IKE v2.
Step 12 Under IKE (Phase 1) Proposal, the default values for DH Group, Encryption,
Authentication, and Life Time are acceptable for most VPN configurations. Be sure the Phase
1 values on the opposite side of the tunnel are configured to match. You can also choose AES128, AES-192, or AES-256 from the Authentication menu instead of 3DES for enhanced
authentication security.
Note
The Windows 2000 L2TP client and Windows XP L2TP client can only work with DH Group
2. They are incompatible with DH Groups 1 and 5.
Step 13 Under IPsec (Phase 2) Proposal, the default values for Protocol, Encryption,
Authentication, Enable Perfect Forward Secrecy, DH Group, and Lifetime are acceptable
for most VPN SA configurations. Be sure the Phase 2 values on the opposite side of the tunnel
are configured to match.
Step 14 Click the Advanced tab and select any of the following optional settings you want to apply to
your VPN policy:
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– If you selected Main Mode or Aggressive Mode in the Proposals tab:
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•
Select Enable Keep Alive to use heartbeat messages between peers on this VPN tunnel. If one
end of the tunnel fails, using Keepalives will allow for the automatic renegotiation of the tunnel
once both sides become available again without having to wait for the proposed Life Time to
expire.
•
The Suppress automatic Access Rules creation for VPN Policy setting is not enabled by
default to allow the VPN traffic to traverse the appropriate zones.
•
To require XAUTH authentication by users prior to allowing traffic to traverse this tunnel,
select Require authentication of VPN client by XAUTH, and select a User group to specify
allowed users from the User group for XAUTH.
•
Select Enable Windows Networking (NetBIOS) Broadcast to allow access to remote network
resources by browsing the Windows® Network Neighborhood.
•
Select Enable Multicast to allow IP multicasting traffic, such as streaming audio (including
VoIP) and video applications, to pass through the VPN tunnel.
•
Select Apply NAT Policies if you want the SonicWALL to translate the Local, Remote or both
networks communicating via this VPN tunnel. To perform Network Address Translation on the
Local Network, select or create an Address Object in the Translated Local Network menu. To
translate the Remote Network, select or create an Address Object in the Translated Remote
Network menu. Generally, if NAT is required on a tunnel, either Local or Remote should be
translated, but not both. Apply NAT Policies is particularly useful in cases where both sides of
a tunnel use either the same or overlapping subnets.
•
To manage the local SonicWALL through the VPN tunnel, select HTTP, HTTPS, or both from
Management via this SA. Select HTTP, HTTPS, or both in the User login via this SA to allow
users to login using the SA.
•
If you wish to use a router on the LAN for traffic entering this tunnel destined for an unknown
subnet, for example, if you configured the other side to Use this VPN Tunnel as default route
for all Internet traffic, you should enter the IP address of your router into the Default LAN
Gateway (optional) field.
•
Select an interface or Zone from the VPN Policy bound to menu. A Zone WAN is the preferred
selection if you are using WAN Load Balancing and you wish to allow the VPN to use either
WAN interface.
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– If you selected IKEv2 in the Proposals tab:
•
Select Enable Keep Alive to use heartbeat messages between peers on this VPN tunnel. If one
end of the tunnel fails, using Keepalives will allow for the automatic renegotiation of the tunnel
once both sides become available again without having to wait for the proposed Life Time to
expire.
•
Select Suppress automatic Access Rules creation for VPN Policy to turn off the automatic
access rules created between the LAN and VPN zones for this VPN policy.
•
Select Enable Windows Networking (NetBIOS) Broadcast to allow access to remote network
resources by browsing the Windows® Network Neighborhood.
•
Select Enable Multicast to allow IP multicasting traffic, such as streaming audio (including
VoIP) and video applications, to pass through the VPN tunnel.
•
Select Apply NAT Policies if you want the SonicWALL to translate the Local, Remote or both
networks communicating via this VPN tunnel. To perform Network Address Translation on the
Local Network, select or create an Address Object in the Translated Local Network menu. To
translate the Remote Network, select or create an Address Object in the Translated Remote
Network menu. Generally, if NAT is required on a tunnel, either Local or Remote should be
translated, but not both. Apply NAT Policies is particularly useful in cases where both sides of
a tunnel use either the same or overlapping subnets.
•
To manage the local SonicWALL through the VPN tunnel, select HTTP, HTTPS, or both from
Management via this SA. Select HTTP, HTTPS, or both in the User login via this SA to allow
users to login using the SA.
•
Enter the Default LAN Gateway if you have more than one gateway and you want this one
always to be used first.
•
Select an interface or Zone from the VPN Policy bound to menu. A Zone WAN is the preferred
selection if you are using WAN Load Balancing and you wish to allow the VPN to use either
WAN interface.
•
Under IKEv2 Settings (visible only if you selected IKEv2 for Exchange on the Proposals tab),
The Do not send trigger packet during IKE SA negotiation checkbox is cleared by default
and should only be selected when required for interoperability.
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The term Trigger Packet refers to the use of initial Traffic Selector payloads populated
with the IP addresses from the packet that caused SA negotiation to begin. It is
recommended practice to include Trigger Packets to assist the IKEv2 Responder in
selecting the correct protected IP address ranges from its Security Policy Database.
Not all implementations support this feature, so it may be appropriate to disable the
inclusion of Trigger Packets to some IKE peers.
Step 15 Click OK.
Configuring a VPN Policy using Manual Key
To manually configure a VPN policy between two SonicWALL appliances using Manual Key,
follow the steps below:
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Configuring the Local SonicWALL Security Appliance
Step 1
Click Add on the VPN > Settings page. The VPN Policy window is displayed.
Step 2
In the General tab of the VPN Policy window, select Manual Key from the IPsec Keying Mode
menu. The VPN Policy window displays the manual key options.
Step 3
Enter a name for the policy in the Name field.
Step 4
Enter the host name or IP address of the remote connection in the IPsec Gateway Name or
Address field.
Step 5
Click the Network tab.
Step 6
Select a local network from Choose local network from list if a specific local network can
access the VPN tunnel. If traffic can originate from any local network, select Any Address. Use
this option is a peer has Use this VPN Tunnel as default route for all Internet traffic
selected. You can only configure one SA to use this setting. Alternatively, select Choose
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Destination network from list, and select the address object or group.
Step 7
Click on the Proposals tab.
Step 8
Define an Incoming SPI and an Outgoing SPI. The SPIs are hexadecimal
(0123456789abcedf) and can range from 3 to 8 characters in length.
Caution
Each Security Association must have unique SPIs; no two Security Associations can share
the same SPIs. However, each Security Association Incoming SPI can be the same as the
Outgoing SPI.
Step 9
The default values for Protocol, Phase 2 Encryption, and Phase 2 Authentication are
acceptable for most VPN SA configurations.
Note
The values for Protocol, Phase 2 Encryption, and Phase 2 Authentication must match
the values on the remote SonicWALL.
Step 10 Enter a 16 character hexadecimal encryption key in the Encryption Key field or use the default
value. This encryption key is used to configure the remote SonicWALL encryption key,
therefore, write it down to use when configuring the SonicWALL.
Step 11 Enter a 32 character hexadecimal authentication key in the Authentication Key field or use
the default value. Write down the key to use while configuring the SonicWALL settings.
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Tip
Valid hexadecimal characters include 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, a, b, c, d, e, and f.
1234567890abcdef is an example of a valid DES or ARCFour encryption key. If you enter
an incorrect encryption key, an error message is displayed at the bottom of the browser
window.
Step 12 Click the Advanced tab and select any of the following optional settings you want to apply to
your VPN policy.
– The Suppress automatic Access Rules creation for VPN Policy setting is not
enabled by default to allow the VPN traffic to traverse the appropriate zones.
– Select Enable Windows Networking (NetBIOS) broadcast to allow access to remote
network resources by browsing the Windows® Network Neighborhood.
– Select Apply NAT Policies if your want the SonicWALL to translate the Local, Remote
or both networks communicating via this VPN tunnel. To perform Network Address
Translation on the Local Network, select or create an Address Object in the Translated
Local Network drop-down box. To translate the Remote Network, select or create an
Address Object in the Translated Remote Network drop-down box. Generally, if NAT
is required on a tunnel, either Local or Remote should be translated, but not both.
Apply NAT Policies is particularly useful in cases where both sides of a tunnel use
either the same or overlapping subnets.
– To manage the local SonicWALL through the VPN tunnel, select HTTP, HTTPS, or both
from Management via this SA.
– Select HTTP, HTTPS, or both in the User login via this SA to allow users to login using
the SA.
– If you have an IP address for a gateway, enter it into the Default LAN Gateway
(optional) field.
– Select an interface from the VPN Policy bound to menu.
Step 13 Click OK.
Step 14 Click Apply on the VPN > Settings page to update the VPN Policies.
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VPN > Settings
Configuring the Remote SonicWALL Security Appliance
Step 1
Click Add on the VPN > Settings page. The VPN Policy window is displayed.
Step 2
In the General tab, select Manual Key from the IPsec Keying Mode menu.
Step 3
Enter a name for the SA in the Name field.
Step 4
Enter the host name or IP address of the local connection in the IPsec Gateway Name or
Address field.
Step 5
Click the Network tab.
Step 6
Select a local network from Choose local network from list if a specific local network can
access the VPN tunnel. If traffic can originate from any local network, select Any Address.
Select Use this VPN Tunnel as default route for all Internet traffic if traffic from any local
user cannot leave the SonicWALL security appliance unless it is encrypted. You can only
configure one SA to use this setting. Alternatively, select Choose Destination network from
list, and select the address object or group.
Step 7
Click the Proposals tab.
Step 8
Define an Incoming SPI and an Outgoing SPI. The SPIs are hexadecimal
(0123456789abcedf) and can range from 3 to 8 characters in length.
Warning
Each Security Association must have unique SPIs; no two Security Associations can
share the same SPIs. However, each Security Association Incoming SPI can be the
same as the Outgoing SPI.
Step 9
The default values for Protocol, Phase 2 Encryption, and Phase 2 Authentication are
acceptable for most VPN SA configurations.
Note
The values for Protocol, Phase 2 Encryption, and Phase 2 Authentication must match
the values on the remote SonicWALL.
Step 10 Enter a 16 character hexadecimal encryption key in the Encryption Key field or use the default
value. This encryption key is used to configure the remote SonicWALL encryption key,
therefore, write it down to use when configuring the remote SonicWALL.
Step 11 Enter a 32 character hexadecimal authentication key in the Authentication Key field or use
the default value. Write down the key to use while configuring the remote SonicWALL settings.
Tip
Valid hexadecimal characters include 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, a, b, c, d, e, and f.
1234567890abcdef is an example of a valid DES or ARCFour encryption key. If you enter
an incorrect encryption key, an error message is displayed at the bottom of the browser
window.
Step 12 Click the Advanced tab and select any of the following optional settings you want to apply to
your VPN policy:
– The Suppress automatic Access Rules creation for VPN Policy setting is not
enabled by default to allow the VPN traffic to traverse the appropriate zones.
– Select Enable Windows Networking (NetBIOS) broadcast to allow access to remote
network resources by browsing the Windows® Network Neighborhood.
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– Select Apply NAT Policies if you want the SonicWALL to translate the Local, Remote
or both networks communicating via this VPN tunnel. To perform Network Address
Translation on the Local Network, select or create an Address Object in the Translated
Local Network drop-down box. To translate the Remote Network, select or create an
Address Object in the Translated Remote Network drop-down box. Generally, if NAT
is required on a tunnel, either Local or Remote should be translated, but not both.
Apply NAT Policies is particularly useful in cases where both sides of a tunnel use
either the same or overlapping subnets.
Warning
You cannot use this feature if you have selected Use this VPN Tunnel as the default
route for all Internet traffic on the Network tab.
– To manage the remote SonicWALL through the VPN tunnel, select HTTP, HTTPS, or
both from Management via this SA.
– Select HTTP, HTTPS, or both in the User login via this SA to allow users to login using
the SA.
– If you have an IP address for a gateway, enter it into the Default LAN Gateway
(optional) field.
– Select an interface from the VPN Policy bound to menu.
Step 13 Click OK.
Step 14 Click Apply on the VPN > Settings page to update the VPN Policies.
Tip
Since Window Networking (NetBIOS) has been enabled, users can view remote computers
in their Windows Network Neighborhood. Users can also access resources on the remote
LAN by entering servers’ or workstations’ remote IP addresses.
Configuring a VPN Policy with IKE using a Third Party Certificate
Warning
You must have a valid certificate from a third party Certificate Authority installed on
your SonicWALL before you can configure your VPN policy with IKE using a third
party certificate.
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VPN > Settings
To create a VPN SA using IKE and third party certificates, follow these steps:
Step 1
In the VPN > Settings page, click Add. The VPN Policy window is displayed.
Step 2
In the Authentication Method list in the General tab, select IKE using 3rd Party
Certificates.The VPN Policy window displays the 3rd party certificate options.
Step 3
Type a Name for the Security Association in the Name field.
Step 4
Type the IP address or Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) of the primary remote SonicWALL
in the IPsec Primary Gateway Name or Address field. If you have a secondary remote
SonicWALL, enter the IP address or Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) in the IPsec
Secondary Gateway Name or Address field.
Step 5
Under IKE Authentication, select a third party certificate from the Local Certificate list. You
must have imported local certificates before selecting this option.
Step 6
Select one of the following Peer ID types from the Peer IKE ID Type menu:
– E-Mail ID and Domain Name - The Email ID and Domain Name types are based on
the certificate's Subject Alternative Name field, which is not contained in all certificates
by default. If the certificate does not contain a Subject Alternative Name field, this filter
will not work. The E-Mail ID and Domain Name filters can contain a string or partial
string identifying the acceptable range required. The strings entered are not case
sensitive and can contain the wild card characters * (for more than 1 character) and ?
(for a single character). For example, the string *@sonicwall.com when E-Mail ID is
selected, would allow anyone with an email address that ended in sonicwall.com to
have access; the string *sv.us.sonicwall.com when Domain Name is selected, would
allow anyone with a domain name that ended in sv.us.sonicwall.com to have access.
– Distinguished Name - Based on the certificates Subject Distinguished Name field,
which is contained in all certificates by default. Valid entries for this field are based on
country (c=), organization (o=), organization unit (ou=), and /or commonName (cn=).
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Up to three organizational units can be specified. The usage is
c=*;o=*;ou=*;ou=*;ou=*;cn=*. The final entry does not need to contain a semi-colon.
You must enter at least one entry, i.e. c=us.
Step 7
Type an ID string in the Peer IKE ID field.
Step 8
Click on the Network tab.
Step 9
Under Local Networks, select a local network from Choose local network from list if a
specific local network can access the VPN tunnel. If hosts on this side of the VPN connection
will be obtaining their addressing from a DHCP server on the remote side of the tunnel, select
Local network obtains IP addresses using DHCP through this VPN tunnel. If traffic can
originate from any local network, select Any Address.
Step 10 Under Destination Networks, select Use this VPN Tunnel as default route for all Internet
traffic if traffic from any local user cannot leave the SonicWALL security appliance unless it is
encrypted. You can only configure one SA to use this setting. If the remote side of this VPN
connection is be obtaining its addressing from a DHCP server on this side of the tunnel, select
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Destination network obtains IP addresses using DHCP server through this tunnel.
Alternatively, select Choose Destination network from list, and select the address object or
group.
Step 11 Click the Proposals tab.
Step 12 In the IKE (Phase 1) Proposal section, select the following settings:
– Select Main Mode or Aggressive Mode from the Exchange menu.
– Select the desired DH Group from the DH Group menu.
Note
The Windows 2000 L2TP client and Windows XP L2TP client can only work with DH
Group 2. They are incompatible with DH Groups 1 and 5.
– Select 3DES, AES-128, AES-192, or AES-256 from the Encryption menu.
– Select the desired authentication method from the Authentication menu.
– Enter a value in the Life Time (seconds) field. The default setting of 28800 forces the
tunnel to renegotiate and exchange keys every 8 hours.
Step 13 In the IPsec (Phase 2) Proposal section, select the following settings:
– Select the desired protocol from the Protocol menu.
– Select 3DES, AES-128, AES-192, or AES-256 from the Encryption menu.
– Select the desired authentication method from the Authentication menu.
– Select Enable Perfect Forward Secrecy if you want an additional Diffie-Hellman key
exchange as an added layer of security. Select Group 2 from the DH Group menu.
Note
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The Windows 2000 L2TP client and Windows XP L2TP client can only work with DH
Group 2. They are incompatible with DH Groups 1 and 5.
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– Enter a value in the Life Time (seconds) field. The default setting of 28800 forces the
tunnel to renegotiate and exchange keys every 8 hours.
Step 14 Click the Advanced tab. Select any optional configuration options you want to apply to your
VPN policy:
– Select Enable Keep Alive to use heartbeat messages between peers on this VPN
tunnel. If one end of the tunnel fails, using Keepalives will allow for the automatic
renegotiation of the tunnel once both sides become available again without having to
wait for the proposed Life Time to expire.
– The Suppress automatic Access Rules creation for VPN Policy setting is not
enabled by default to allow the VPN traffic to traverse the appropriate zones.
– To require XAUTH authentication by users prior to allowing traffic to traverse this
tunnel, select Require authentication of VPN client by XAUTH, and select a User
group to specify allowed users from the User group for XAUTH.
– Select Enable Windows Networking (NetBIOS) Broadcast to allow access to remote
network resources by browsing the Windows® Network Neighborhood.
– Select Enable Multicast to allow multicast traffic through the VPN tunnel.
– Select Apply NAT Policies if you want the SonicWALL to translate the Local, Remote
or both networks communicating via this VPN tunnel. To perform Network Address
Translation on the Local Network, select or create an Address Object in the Translated
Local Network menu. To translate the Remote Network, select or create an Address
Object in the Translated Remote Network menu. Generally, if NAT is required on a
tunnel, either Local or Remote should be translated, but not both. Apply NAT Policies
is particularly useful in cases where both sides of a tunnel use either the same or
overlapping subnets.
– Select Enable OCSP Checking to check VPN certificate status and specify the URL
where to check certificate status. See the “Using OCSP with SonicWALL Security
Appliances” section in the “VPN > Settings” section on page 537.
– To manage the remote SonicWALL through the VPN tunnel, select HTTP, HTTPS, or
both from Management via this SA. Select HTTP, HTTPS, or both in the User login
via this SA to allow users to login using the SA.
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VPN > Settings
– If you wish to use a router on the LAN for traffic entering this tunnel destined for an
unknown subnet, for example, if you configured the other side to Use this VPN Tunnel
as default route for all Internet traffic, you should enter the IP address of your router
into the Default LAN Gateway (optional) field.
– Select an interface or Zone from the VPN Policy bound to menu. A Zone is the
preferred selection if you are using WAN Load Balancing and you wish to allow the VPN
to use either WAN interface.
Step 15 Click OK.
VPN Auto-Added Access Rule Control
When adding VPN Policies, SonicOS Enhanced auto-creates non-editable Access Rules to
allow the traffic to traverse the appropriate Zones. Consider the following VPN Policy, where
the Local Network is set to Firewalled Subnets (in this case comprising the LAN and DMZ) and
the Destination Network is set to Subnet 192.168.169.0. The VPN Policy appears as follows:
And the following Access Rules are added for inbound and outbound traffic:
While this is generally a tremendous convenience, there are some instances where is might be
preferable to suppress the auto-creation of Access Rules in support of a VPN Policy. One such
instance would be the case of a large hub-and-spoke VPN deployment where all the spoke site
are addresses using address spaces that can easily be supernetted. For example, assume we
wanted to provide access to/from the LAN and DMZ at the hub site to one subnet at each of
2,000 remote sites, addressed as follows:
remoteSubnet0=Network 10.0.0.0/24 (mask 255.255.255.0, range 10.0.0.0-10.0.0.255)
remoteSubnet1=Network 10.0.1.0/24 (mask 255.255.255.0, range 10.0.1.0-10.0.1.255)
remoteSubnet2=Network 10.0.2.0/24 (mask 255.255.255.0, range 10.0.2.0-10.0.2.255)
remoteSubnet2000=10.7.207.0/24 (mask 255.255.255.0, range 10.7.207.0-10.7.207.255)
Creating VPN Policies for each of these remote sites would result in the requisite 2,000 VPN
Policies, but would also create 8,000 Access Rules (LAN -> VPN, DMZ -> VPN, VPN -> LAN,
and VPN -> DMZ for each site). However, all of these Access Rules could easily be handled
with just 4 Access Rules to a supernetted or address range representation of the remote sites
(More specific allow or deny Access Rules could be added as needed):
remoteSubnetAll=Network 10.0.0.0/13 (mask 255.248.0.0, range 10.0.0.0-10.7.255.255)
or
remoteRangeAll=Range 10.0.0.0-10.7.207.255
To enable this level of aggregation, the Advanced tab of the VPN Policy window page offers
the option to Auto-Add Access Rules for VPN Policy setting. By default, the checkbox is
selected, meaning the accompanying Access Rules will be automatically created, as they've
always been. By deselecting the checkbox upon creating the VPN Policy, the administrator will
have the ability and need to create custom Access Rules for VPN traffic.
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CHAPTER 49
Chapter 49:
Configuring Advanced VPN Settings
VPN > Advanced
The VPN > Advanced page includes optional settings that affect all VPN policies.
Advanced VPN Settings
•
Enable IKE Dead Peer Detection - Select if you want inactive VPN tunnels to be dropped
by the SonicWALL.
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– Dead Peer Detection Interval - Enter the number of seconds between “heartbeats.”
The default value is 60 seconds.
– Failure Trigger Level (missed heartbeats) - Enter the number of missed heartbeats.
The default value is 3. If the trigger level is reached, the VPN connection is dropped by
the SonicWALL security appliance. The SonicWALL security appliance uses a UDP
packet protected by Phase 1 Encryption as the heartbeat.
– Enable Dead Peer Detection for Idle VPN Sessions - Select this setting if you want
idle VPN connections to be dropped by the SonicWALL security appliance after the time
value defined in the Dead Peer Detection Interval for Idle VPN Sessions (seconds)
field. The default value is 600 seconds (10 minutes).
•
Enable Fragmented Packet Handling - If the VPN log report shows the log message
“Fragmented IPsec packet dropped”, select this feature. Do not select it until the VPN
tunnel is established and in operation.
Ignore DF (Don't Fragment) Bit - When you select Enable Fragmented Packet
Handling, the Ignore DF (Don't Fragment) Bit setting becomes active.
•
Enable NAT Traversal - Select this setting is a NAT device is located between your VPN
endpoints. IPsec VPNs protect traffic exchanged between authenticated endpoints, but
authenticated endpoints cannot be dynamically re-mapped mid-session for NAT traversal
to work. Therefore, to preserve a dynamic NAT binding for the life of an IPsec session, a 1byte UDP is designated as a “NAT Traversal keepalive” and acts as a “heartbeat” sent by
the VPN device behind the NAT or NAPT device. The “keepalive” is silently discarded by
the IPsec peer.
•
Clean up Active Tunnels when Peer Gateway DNS names resolves to a different IP
address - Breaks down SAs associated with old IP addresses and reconnects to the peer
gateway.
•
Preserve IKE Port for Pass-Through Connections - Preserves UDP 500/4500 source
port and IP address information for pass-through VPN connections.
•
Enable OCSP Checking and OCSP Responder URL - Enables use of Online Certificate
Status Protocol (OCSP) to check VPN certificate status and specifies the URL where to
check certificate status. See Using OCSP with SonicWALL Security Appliances.
•
Send IKEv2 Cookie Notify - Sends cookies to IKEv2 peers as an authentication tool.
•
Use RADIUS in - When using RADUIS to authenticate VPN client users, RADIUS will be
used in its MSCHAP (or MSCHAPv2) mode. The primary reason for choosing to do this
would be so that VPN client users can make use of the MSCHAP feature to allow them to
change expired passwords at login time.
Also if this is set and LDAP is selected as the Authentication method for login on the
Users > Settings page, but LDAP is not configured in a way that will allow password
updates, then password updates for VPN client users will be done using MSCHAP-mode
RADIUS after using LDAP to authenticate the user.
Note
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Password updates can only be done by LDAP when using Active Directory with TLS
and binding to it using an administrative account, or when using Novell eDirectory.
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VPN > Advanced
•
IKEv2 Dynamic Client Proposal - SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 introduces IKEv2 Dynamic
Client Support, which provides a way to configure the Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
attributes rather than using the default settings. Clicking the Configure button launches the
Configure IKEv2 Dynamic Client Proposal window.
Previously, only the default settings were supported: Diffie-Hellman (DH) Group 2, the
3DES encryption algorithm, and the SHA1 authentication method. SonicOS now allows the
following IKE Proposal settings:
– DH Group: 1, 2, or 5
– Encryption: DES, 3DES, AES-128, AES-192, AES-256
– Authentication: MD5, SHA1
However, if a VPN Policy with IKEv2 exchange mode and a 0.0.0.0 IPSec gateway is
defined, you cannot configure these IKE Proposal settings on an individual policy basis.
Note
The VPN policy on the remote gateway must also be configured with the same
settings.
Using OCSP with SonicWALL Security Appliances
Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) allows you to check VPN certificate status without
CRLs. This allows timely updates regarding the status of the certificates used on your
SonicWALL.
About OCSP
OCSP is designed to augment or replace Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) in your Public Key
Infrastructure (PKI) or digital certificate system. The CRL is used to validate the digital
certificates comprised by the PKI. This allows the Certificate Authority (CA) to revoke
certificates before their scheduled expiration date and is useful in protecting the PKI system
against stolen or invalid certificates.
Certificate Revocation Lists main disadvantage is the need for frequent updates to keep the
CRL of every client current. These frequent updates greatly increase network traffic when the
complete CRL is downloaded by every client. Depending on the frequency of the CRL updates,
a period of time can exist when a certificate is revoked by the CRL but the client has not
received the CRL update and permits the certificate to be used.
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Online Certificate Status Protocol determines the current status of a digital certificate without
using a CRL. OCSP enables the client or application to directly determine the status of an
identified digital certificate. This provides more timely information about the certificate than is
possible with CRLs. In addition, each client typically only checks a few certificates and does not
incur the overhead of downloading an entire CRL for only a few entries. This greatly reduces
the network traffic associated with certificate validation.
OCSP transports messages over HTTP for maximum compatibility with existing networks. This
requires careful configuration of any caching servers in the network to avoid receiving a cached
copy of an OCSP response that might be out of date.
The OCSP client communicates with an OCSP responder. The OCSP responder can be a CA
server or another server that communicates with the CA server to determine the certificate
status. The OCSP client issues a status request to an OCSP responder and suspends the
acceptance of the certificate until the responder provides a response. The client request
includes data such as protocol version, service request, target certificate identification and
optional extensions. These optional extensions may or may not be acknowledged by the OCSP
responder.
The OCSP responder receives the request from the client and checks that the message is
properly formed and if the responder is able to respond to the service request. Then it checks
if the request contains the correct information needed for the service desired. If all conditions
are satisfied, the responder returns a definitive response to the OCSP client. The OCSP
responder is required to provide a basic response of GOOD, REVOKED, or UNKNOWN. If both
the OCSP client and responder support the optional extensions, other responses are possible.
The GOOD state is the desired response as it indicates the certificate has not been revoked.
The REVOKED state indicates that the certificate has been revoked. The UNKNOWN state
indicates the responder does not have information about the certificate in question.
OCSP servers typically work with a CA server in push or pull setup. The CA server can be
configured to push a CRL list (revocation list) to the OCSP server. Additionally the OCSP server
can be configured to periodically download (pull) the CRL from the CA server. The OCSP server
must also be configured with an OCSP response signing certificate issued by the CA server.
The signing certificate must be properly formatted or the OCSP client will not accept the
response from the OSCP server.
OpenCA OCSP Responder
Using OCSP requires the OpenCA (OpenSource Certificate Authority) OpenCA OCSP
Responder as it is the only supported OCSP responder. OpenCA OCSP Responder is available
at http://www.openca.org/ocspd/. The OpenCA OCSP Responder is an rfc2560 compliant
OCSP responder that runs on a default port of 2560 in homage to being based on rfc2560.
Loading Certificates to use with OCSP
For SonicOS to act as an OCSP client to a responder, the CA certificate must be loaded onto
the SonicWALL.
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Step 1
On the System -> Certificates page, click on the Import button. This will bring up the Import
Certificate page.
Step 2
Select the Import a CA certificate from a PKCS#7 (.p7b), PEM (.pem) or DER (.der or .cer)
encoded file option and specify the location of the certificate.
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Using OCSP with VPN Policies
The SonicWALL OCSP settings can be configured on a policy level or globally. To configure
OCSP checking for individual VPN policies, use the Advanced tab of the VPN Policy
configuration page.
Step 1
Select the radio button next to Enable OCSP Checking.
Step 2
Specify the OCSP Responder URL of the OCSP server, for example http://
192.168.168.220:2560 where 192.168.168.220 is the IP address of your OCSP server and
2560 is the default port of operation for the OpenCA OCSP responder service.
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CHAPTER 50
Chapter 50:
Configuring DHCP Over VPN
VPN > DHCP over VPN
The VPN > DHCP over VPN page allows you to configure a SonicWALL security appliance to
obtain an IP address lease from a DHCP server at the other end of a VPN tunnel. In some
network deployments, it is desirable to have all VPN networks on one logical IP subnet, and
create the appearance of all VPN networks residing in one IP subnet address space. This
facilitates IP address administration for the networks using VPN tunnels.
DHCP Relay Mode
The SonicWALL security appliance at the remote and central site are configured for VPN
tunnels for initial DHCP traffic as well as subsequent IP traffic between the sites. The
SonicWALL security appliance at the remote site (Remote Gateway) passes DHCP broadcast
packets through its VPN tunnel. The SonicWALL security appliance at the central site (Central
Gateway) relays DHCP packets from the client on the remote network to the DHCP server on
the central site.
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VPN > DHCP over VPN
Configuring the Central Gateway for DHCP Over VPN
To configure DHCP over VPN for the Central Gateway, use the following steps:
1.
Select VPN > DHCP over VPN.
2.
Select Central Gateway from the DHCP Relay Mode menu.
3.
Click Configure. The DHCP over VPN Configuration window is displayed.
4.
Select Use Internal DHCP Server to enable the SonicWALL Global VPN Client or a remote
firewall or both to use an internal DHCP server to obtain IP addressing information. Check
the For Global VPN Client checkbox to use the DHCP Server for Global VPN Clients and
check the For Remote Firewall checkbox for the SonicWALL Global Security Client’s
firewall.
5.
If you want to send DHCP requests to specific servers, select Send DHCP requests to the
server addresses listed below.
6.
Click Add. The Add DHCP Server window is displayed.
7.
Type the IP addresses of DHCP servers in the IP Address field, and click OK. The
SonicWALL security appliance now directs DHCP requests to the specified servers.
8.
Type the IP address of a relay server in the Relay IP Address (Optional) field.
To edit an entry in the IP Address table, click Edit. To delete a DHCP Server, highlight the
entry in the IP Address table, and click Delete. Click Delete All to delete all entries.
Configuring DHCP over VPN Remote Gateway
1.
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Select Remote Gateway from the DHCP Relay Mode menu.
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Note
2.
Click Configure. The DHCP over VPN Configuration window is displayed.
3.
In the General tab, the VPN policy name is automatically displayed in the Relay DHCP
through this VPN Tunnel filed if the VPN policy has the setting Local network obtains IP
addresses using DHCP through this VPN Tunnel enabled.
Only VPN policies using IKE can be used as VPN tunnels for DHCP.
4.
Select the interface the DHCP lease is bound from the DHCP lease bound to menu.
5.
If you enter an IP address in the Relay IP address field, this IP address is used as the
DHCP Relay Agent IP address in place of the Central Gateway’s address, and must be
reserved in the DHCP scope on the DHCP server. This address can also be used to
manage this SonicWALL security appliance remotely through the VPN tunnel from behind
the Central Gateway.
6.
If you enter an IP address in the Remote Management IP Address field, this IP address
is used to manage the SonicWALL security appliance from behind the Central Gateway,
and must be reserved in the DHCP scope on the DHCP server.
7.
If you enable Block traffic through tunnel when IP spoof detected, the SonicWALL
security appliance blocks any traffic across the VPN tunnel that is spoofing an
authenticated user’s IP address. If you have any static devices, however, you must ensure
that the correct Ethernet address is typed for the device. The Ethernet address is used as
part of the identification process, and an incorrect Ethernet address can cause the
SonicWALL security appliance to respond to IP spoofs.
8.
If the VPN tunnel is disrupted, temporary DHCP leases can be obtained from the local
DHCP server. Once the tunnel is again active, the local DHCP server stops issuing leases.
Enable the Obtain temporary lease from local DHCP server if tunnel is down check
box. By enabling this check box, you have a failover option in case the tunnel ceases to
function. If you want to allow temporary leases for a certain time period, type the number
of minutes for the temporary lease in the Temporary Lease Time box. The default value is
2 minutes.
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VPN > DHCP over VPN
Devices
9.
To configure devices on your LAN, click the Devices tab.
10. To configure Static Devices on the LAN, click Add to display the Add LAN Device Entry
window, and type the IP address of the device in the IP Address field and then type the
Ethernet address of the device in the Ethernet Address field.
An example of a static device is a printer as it cannot obtain an IP lease dynamically. If you
do not have Block traffic through tunnel when IP spoof detected enabled, it is not
necessary to type the Ethernet address of a device. You must exclude the Static IP
addresses from the pool of available IP addresses on the DHCP server so that the DHCP
server does not assign these addresses to DHCP clients. You should also exclude the IP
address used as the Relay IP Address. It is recommended to reserve a block of IP address
to use as Relay IP addresses. Click OK.
11. To exclude devices on your LAN, click Add to display the Add Excluded LAN Entry
window. Enter the MAC address of the device in the Ethernet Address field. Click OK.
12. Click OK to exit the DHCP over VPN Configuration window.
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Note
You must configure the local DHCP server on the remote SonicWALL security appliance to
assign IP leases to these computers.
Note
If a remote site has trouble connecting to a central gateway and obtaining a lease, verify that
Deterministic Network Enhancer (DNE) is not enabled on the remote computer.
Tip
If a static LAN IP address is outside of the DHCP scope, routing is possible to this IP, i.e.
two LANs.
Current DHCP over VPN Leases
The scrolling window shows the details on the current bindings: IP and Ethernet address of the
bindings, along with the Lease Time, and Tunnel Name.
To delete a binding, which frees the IP address in the DHCP server, select the binding from the
list, and then click the Trash icon. The operation takes a few seconds to complete. Once
completed, a message confirming the update is displayed at the bottom of the Web browser
window.
Click Delete All to delete all VPN leases.
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CHAPTER 51
Chapter 51:
Configuring L2TP Server
VPN > L2TP Server
The SonicWALL security appliance can terminate L2TP-over-IPsec connections from incoming
Microsoft Windows 2000 and Windows XP clients. In situations where running the SonicWALL
Global VPN Client is not possible, you can use the SonicWALL L2TP Server to provide secure
access to resources behind the SonicWALL security appliances.
You can use Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) to create VPN over public networks such as
the Internet. L2TP provides interoperability between different VPN vendors that protocols such
as PPTP and L2F do not, although L2TP combines the best of both protocols and is an
extension of them. L2TP is supported on Microsoft Windows 2000 Operating System.
L2TP supports several of the authentication options supported by PPP, including Password
Authentication Protocol (PAP), Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), and
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP). You can use L2TP to
authenticate the endpoints of a VPN tunnel to provide additional security, and you can
implement it with IPsec to provide a secure, encrypted VPN solution.
Note
For more complete information on configuring the L2TP Server, see the technote
Configuring the L2TP Server in SonicOS located on the SonicWALL documentation site:
http://www.sonicwall.com/us/Support.html.
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VPN > L2TP Server
Configuring the L2TP Server
The VPN > L2TP Server page provides the settings for configuring the SonicWALL security
appliance as a LT2P Server.
To configure the L2TP Server, follow these steps:
594
1.
To enable L2TP Server functionality on the SonicWALL security appliance, select Enable
L2TP Server. Then click Configure to display the L2TP Server Configuration window.
2.
Enter the number of seconds in the Keep alive time (secs) field to send special packets to
keep the connection open. The default is 60 seconds.
3.
Enter the IP address of your first DNS server in the DNS Server 1 field. If you have a
second DNS server, type the IP address in the DNS Server 2 field.
4.
Enter the IP address of your first WINS server in the WINS Server 1 field. If you have a
second WINS server, type the IP address in the WINS Server 2 field.
5.
Select IP address provided by RADIUS Server if a RADIUS Server provides IP
addressing information to the L2TP clients.
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VPN > L2TP Server
6.
If the L2TP Server provides IP addresses, select Use the Local L2TP IP pool. Enter the
range of private IP addresses in the Start IP and End IP fields. The private IP addresses
should be a range of IP addresses on the LAN.
7.
If you have configured a specific user group defined for using L2TP, select it from the User
Group for L2TP users menu or use Everyone.
8.
Click OK.
Currently Active L2TP Sessions
•
User Name - The user name assigned in the local user database or the RADIUS user
database.
•
PPP IP - The source IP address of the connection.
•
Zone - The zone used by the LT2P client.
•
Interface - The type of interface used to access the L2TP Server, whether it’s a VPN client
or another SonicWALL security appliance.
•
Authentication - Type of authentication used by the L2TP client.
•
Host Name - The name of the network connecting to the L2TP Server.
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PART 10
User Management
SONICWALL SONICOS ENHANCED 4.0 ADMINISTRATOR’S GUIDE
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CHAPTER 52
Chapter 52:
Managing Users and Authentication
Settings
User Management
This chapter describes the user management capabilities of your SonicWALL security
appliance for locally and remotely authenticated users. This chapter contains the following
sections:
•
“Introduction to User Management” on page 599
•
“Viewing Status on Users > Status” on page 613
•
“Configuring Settings on Users > Settings” on page 614
•
“Configuring Local Users” on page 618
•
“Configuring Local Groups” on page 621
•
“Configuring RADIUS Authentication” on page 625
•
“Configuring LDAP Integration in SonicOS Enhanced” on page 631
•
“Configuring Single Sign-On” on page 641
•
“Configuring Multiple Administrator Support” on page 670
Introduction to User Management
See the following sections for more information:
•
“Using Local Users and Groups for Authentication” on page 600
•
“Using RADIUS for Authentication” on page 602
•
“Using LDAP / Active Directory / eDirectory Authentication” on page 602
•
“Single Sign-On Overview” on page 605
•
“Multiple Administrator Support Overview” on page 610
SonicWALL security appliances provide a mechanism for user level authentication that gives
users access to the LAN from remote locations on the Internet as well as a means to enforce
or bypass content filtering policies for LAN users attempting to access the Internet. You can
also permit only authenticated users to access VPN tunnels and send data across the
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encrypted connection. The SonicWALL authenticates all users as soon as they attempt to
access network resources in a different zone (such as WAN, VPN, WLAN, etc), which causes
the network traffic to pass through the SonicWALL. Users who log into a computer on the LAN,
but perform only local tasks are not authenticated by the SonicWALL.User level authentication
can be performed using a local user database, LDAP, RADIUS, or a combination of a local
database with either LDAP or RADIUS. SonicOS also provides Single Sign-On (SSO)
capability. SSO can be used in conjunction with LDAP. The local database on the SonicWALL
can support up to 1000 users. If you have more than 1000 users, you must use LDAP or
RADIUS for authentication.
Figure 52:1 User Management Flow Diagram
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Using Local Users and Groups for Authentication
The SonicWALL security appliance provides a local database for storing user and group
information. You can configure the SonicWALL to use this local database to authenticate users
and control their access to the network. The local database is a good choice over LDAP or
RADIUS for this purpose when the number of users accessing the network is relatively small.
Creating entries for dozens of users and groups takes time, although once the entries are in
place they are not difficult to maintain. For networks with larger numbers of users, user
authentication using LDAP or RADIUS servers can be more efficient.
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Figure 52:2 Local Groups Authentication Flow Diagram
,QWHUQHW
02/
5SER
7ORKSTATION
5SERATTEMPTSTOACCESSTHEWEB
3.7,REQUIRESAUTHENTICATIONOFTHE5SER
REDIRECTSWORKSTATIONTOAUTHENTICATE
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3.7,,OCAL$ATABASEAUTHORIZESORDENIESACCESSBASEDON5SERPRIVILEGES
To apply Content Filtering Service (CFS) policies to users, the users must be members of local
groups and the CFS policies are then applied to the groups. To use CFS, you cannot use LDAP
or RADIUS without combining that method with local authentication. When using the combined
authentication method in order to use CFS policies, the local group names must be an exact
match with the LDAP or RADIUS group names. When using the LDAP + Local Users
authentication method, you can import the groups from the LDAP server into the local database
on the SonicWALL. This greatly simplifies the creation of matching groups, to which CFS
policies can then be applied.
The SonicOS user interface provides a way to create local user and group accounts. You can
add users and edit the configuration for any user, including settings for the following:
•
Group membership - Users can belong to one or more local groups. By default, all users
belong to the groups Everyone and Trusted Users. You can remove these group
memberships for a user, and can add memberships in other groups.
•
VPN access - You can configure the networks that are accessible to a VPN client started
by this user. When configuring VPN access settings, you can select from a list of networks.
The networks are designated by their Address Group or Address Object names.
You can also add or edit local groups. The configurable settings for groups include the
following:
•
Group members - Groups have members that can be local users or other local groups.
•
VPN access - VPN access for groups is configured in the same way as VPN access for
users. You can configure the networks that are accessible to a VPN client started by a
member of this group. When configuring VPN access settings, you can select from a list of
networks. The networks are designated by their Address Group or Address Object
names.
•
CFS policy - You can apply a content filtering (CFS) policy to group members. The CFS
policy setting is only available if the SonicWALL is currently licensed for Premium Content
Filtering Service.
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Using RADIUS for Authentication
Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is a protocol used by SonicWALL
security appliances to authenticate users who are attempting to access the network. The
RADIUS server contains a database with user information, and checks a user’s credentials
using authentication schemes such as Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), Challengehandshake authentication protocol (CHAP), Microsoft CHAP (MSCHAP), or MSCHAPv2.
Figure 52:3 RADIUS User Group Authentication Flow Diagram
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While RADIUS is very different from LDAP, it does provide a long list of attributes for each
entry, including the user name, password, and domain. RADIUS can store information for
thousands of users, and is a good choice for user authentication purposes when many users
need access to the network.
Using LDAP / Active Directory / eDirectory Authentication
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) defines a directory services structure for storing
and managing information about elements in your network, such as user accounts, user
groups, hosts, and servers. Several different standards exist that use LDAP to manage user
account, group, and permissions. Some are proprietary systems like Microsoft Active Directory
which you can manage using LDAP. Some are open standards SAMBA, which are
implementations of the LDAP standards. Some are proprietary systems like Novell eDirectory
which provide an LDAP API for managing the user repository information.
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Figure 52:4 LDAP User Group Authentication Flow Diagram
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3.7,REQUIRESAUTHENTICATIONOFTHE5SER
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In addition to RADIUS and the local user database, SonicOS Enhanced supports LDAP,
Microsoft Active Directory (AD), and Novell eDirectory directory services for user
authentication.
Microsoft Active Directory works with SonicWALL Single Sign-On and the SonicWALL SSO
Agent. For more information, see “Single Sign-On Overview” on page 605.
LDAP Directory Services Supported in SonicOS Enhanced
In order to integrate with the most common directory services used in company networks,
SonicOS Enhanced supports integration with the following LDAP schemas:
•
Microsoft Active Directory
•
RFC2798 InetOrgPerson
•
RFC2307 Network Information Service
•
Samba SMB
•
Novell eDirectory
•
User-defined schemas
SonicOS Enhanced provides support for directory servers running the following protocols:
•
LDAPv2 (RFC3494)
•
LDAPv3 (RFC2251-2256, RFC3377)
•
LDAPv3 over TLS (RFC2830)
•
LDAPv3 with STARTTLS (RFC2830)
•
LDAP Referrals (RFC2251)
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LDAP Terms
The following terms are useful when working with LDAP and its variants:
•
Schema – The schema is the set of rules or the structure that defines the types of data that
can be stored in a directory, and how that data can be stored. Data is stored in the form of
‘entries’.
•
Active Directory (AD) – The Microsoft directory service, commonly used with Windowsbased networking. Microsoft Active Directory is compatible with LDAP.
•
eDirectory – The Novell directory service, used for Novell NetWare-based networking.
Novell eDirectory has an LDAP gateway that can be used for management.
•
Entry – The data that is stored in the LDAP directory. Entries are stored in ‘attribute’/value
(or name/value) pairs, where the attributes are defined by ‘object classes’. A sample entry
would be ‘cn=john’ where ‘cn’ (common name) is the attribute, and ‘john’ is the value.
•
Object class – Object classes define the type of entries that an LDAP directory may contain.
A sample object class, as used by AD, would be ‘user’ or ‘group’.
Microsoft Active Directory’s Classes can be browsed at http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/
default.asp?url=/library/en-us/adschema/adschema/classes_all.asp
•
Object - In LDAP terminology, the entries in a directory are referred to as objects. For the
purposes of the SonicOS implementation of the LDAP client, the critical objects are ‘User’
and ‘Group’ objects. Different implementations of LDAP can refer to these object classes
in different fashions, for example, Active Directory refers to the user object as ‘user’ and
the group object as ‘group’, while RFC2798 refers to the user object as ‘inetOrgPerson’ and
the group object as ‘groupOfNames’.
•
Attribute - A data item stored in an object in an LDAP directory. Object can have required
attributes or allowed attributes. For example, the ‘dc’ attribute is a required attribute of the
‘dcObject’ (domain component) object.
•
dn - A ‘distinguished name’, which is a globally unique name for a user or other object. It is
made up of a number of components, usually starting with a common name (cn) component
and ending with a domain specified as two or more domain components (dc). For example,
‘cn=john,cn=users,dc=domain,dc=com’
•
cn – The ‘common name’ attribute is a required component of many object classes
throughout LDAP.
•
ou – The ‘organizational unit’ attribute is a required component of most LDAP schema
implementations.
•
dc – The ‘domain component’ attribute is commonly found at the root of a distinguished
name, and is commonly a required attribute.
•
TLS – Transport Layer Security is the IETF standardized version of SSL (Secure Sockets
Layer). TLS 1.0 is the successor to SSL 3.0.
Further Information on LDAP Schemas
604
•
Microsoft Active Directory: Schema information is available at http://msdn.microsoft.com/
library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/adschema/adschema/active_directory_schema.asp
and http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/ldap/ldap/
ldap_reference.asp
•
RFC2798 InetOrgPerson: Schema definition and development information is available at
http://rfc.net/rfc2798.html
•
RFC2307 Network Information Service: Schema definition and development information
is available at http://rfc.net/rfc2307.html
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•
Samba SMB: Development information is available at http://us5.samba.org/samba/
•
Novell eDirectory: LDAP integration information is available at http://www.novell.com/
documentation/edir873/index.html?page=/documentation/edir873/edir873/data/
h0000007.html
•
User-defined schemas: See the documentation for your LDAP installation. You can also
see general information on LDAP at http://rfc.net/rfc1777.html
Single Sign-On Overview
This section provides an introduction to the SonicWALL SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 Single SignOn feature. This section contains the following subsections:
•
“What Is Single Sign-On?” section on page 605
•
“Benefits” section on page 606
•
“How Does Single Sign-On Work?” section on page 607
•
“Platforms” section on page 606
What Is Single Sign-On?
Single Sign-On (SSO) is a transparent user authentication mechanism that provides privileged
access to multiple network resources with a single workstation login. SonicWALL PRO and TZ
series security appliances (SonicWALL security appliances) running SonicOS Enhanced 4.0
provide SSO functionality using the SonicWALL Single Sign-On Agent (SSO Agent) to identify
user activity based on workstation IP address. SSO is configured in the Users > Settings page
of the SonicOS management interface. SSO is separate from the Authentication method for
login settings, which can be used at the same time for authentication of VPN/L2TP client users
or administrative users.
SonicWALL SSO Agent identifies users by IP address using a SonicWALL ADConnectorcompatible protocol and automatically determines when a user has logged out to prevent
unauthorized access. Based on data from SonicWALL SSO Agent, the SonicWALL security
appliance queries LDAP or the local database to determine group membership. Memberships
are matched against policy, and based on user privileges, access is granted or denied. The
configured inactivity and session limit timers apply with SSO, though users who are logged out
are automatically and transparently logged back in when they send further traffic.
Users logged into a workstation directly but not logged into the domain will not be
authenticated. For users that are not logged into the domain, the following screen will display,
indicating that a manual login will be required for further authentication.
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Users that are identified but lack the group memberships required by the configured policy rules
are redirected to the Access Barred page.
Benefits
SonicWALL SSO is a reliable and time-saving feature that utilizes a single login to provide
access to multiple network resources based on administrator-configured group memberships
and policy matching. SonicWALL SSO is transparent to end users and requires minimal
administrator configuration.
By automatically determining when users have logged in or out based on workstation IP
address traffic, SonicWALL SSO is secure and hands-free. SSO authentication is designed to
operate with any external agent that can return the identity of a user at a specific IP address
using a SonicWALL ADConnector-compatible protocol.
SonicWALL SSO works for any service on the SonicWALL security appliances that uses userlevel authentication, including Content Filtering Service (CFS), Firewall Access Rules, group
membership and inheritance, and security services (IPS, GAV, SPY and Application Firewall)
inclusion/exclusion lists.
Other benefits of SonicWALL SSO include:
•
Ease of use — Users only need to sign in once to gain automatic access to multiple
resources.
•
Improved user experience — Windows domain credentials can be used to authenticate a
user for any traffic type without logging in using a Web browser.
•
Transparency to users — Users are not required to re-enter user name and password for
authentication.
•
Secure communication — Shared key encryption for data transmission protection.
•
SonicWALL SSO Agent can be installed on any workstation on the LAN.
•
Login mechanism works with any protocol, not just HTTP.
Platforms
SSO is available on SonicWALL security appliances running SonicOS 4.0 Enhanced.
Supported Standards
The SonicOS Enhanced 4.0 SSO feature supports LDAP and local database protocols.
To use SonicWALL SSO, it is required that the SonicWALL SSO Agent be installed on the
workstations within your Windows domain that can reach clients directly using a static IP or
through a VPN path. The following requirements must be met in order to run the SSO Agent:
606
•
Port 2258 must be open; the firewall uses UDP port 2258 by default to communicate with
SonicWALL SSO Agent
•
Windows 32 or XP, with latest service pack
•
.NET Framework 2.0
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•
Net API or WMI
How Does Single Sign-On Work?
SonicWALL SSO requires minimal administrator configuration and is a transparent to the user.
There are six steps involved in SonicWALL SSO authentication, as illustrated in Figure 52:5.
Figure 52:5 SonicWALL Single Sign-On Process
The SonicWALL SSO authentication process is initiated when user traffic passes through a
SonicWALL security appliance, for example, when a user accesses the Internet. The sent
packets are temporarily blocked and saved while the SonicWALL security appliance sends a
“User Name” request and workstation IP address to the authorization agent running the SSO
Agent.
The authorization agent running the SSO Agent provides the SonicWALL security appliance
with the username currently logged into the workstation. A User IP Table entry is created for
the logged in user, similar to RADIUS and LDAP.
Once a user has been identified, the SonicWALL security appliance queries LDAP or a local
database (based on administrator configuration) to find user group memberships, match the
memberships against policy, and grant or restrict access to the user accordingly. Upon
successful completion of the login sequence, the saved packets are sent on. If packets are
received from the same source address before the sequence is completed, only the most recent
packet will be saved.
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User names are returned from the authorization agent running the SSO Agent in the format
<domain>/<user-name>. For locally configured user groups, the user name can be configured
to be the full name returned from the authorization agent running the SSO Agent (configuring
the names in the SonicWALL security appliance local user database to match) or a simple user
name with the domain component stripped off (default).
For the LDAP protocol, the <domain>/<user-name> format is converted to an LDAP
distinguished name by creating an LDAP search for an object of class “domain” with a “dc”
(domain component) attribute that matches the domain name. If one is found, then its
distinguished name will be used as the directory sub-tree to search for the user’s object. For
example, if the user name is returned as “SV/bob” then a search for an object with
“objectClass=domain” and “dc=SV” will be performed. If that returns an object with
distinguished name “dc=sv,dc=us,dc=sonicwall,dc=com,” then a search under that directory
sub-tree will be created for (in the Active Directory case) an object with “objectClass=user” and
“sAMAccountName=bob”. If no domain object is found, then the search for the user object will
be made from the top of the directory tree.
Once a domain object has been found, the information is saved to avoid searching for the same
object. If an attempt to locate a user in a saved domain fails, the saved domain information will
be deleted and another search for the domain object will be made.
The SonicWALL security appliance polls the authorization agent running the SSO Agent at a
configurable rate to determine when a user has logged out. Configurable user session limits,
inactivity timers, and user name request polls are other methods to determine user logout
status. Upon user logout, the authentication agent running the SSO Agent sends a User Logged
Out response to the SonicWALL security appliance, confirming the user has been logged out
and terminating the SSO session.
How Does SonicWALL SSO Agent Work?
The SonicWALL SSO Agent can be installed on any workstation with a Windows domain that
can communicate with clients and the SonicWALL security appliance directly using the IP
address or using a path, such as VPN. For installation instructions for the SonicWALL SSO
Agent, refer to the“Installing the SonicWALL SSO Agent” section on page 643. The SonicWALL
SSO Agent only communicates with clients and the SonicWALL security appliance. SonicWALL
SSO Agent uses a shared key for encryption of messages between the SSO Agent and the
SonicWALL security appliance. The shared key is generated in the SSO Agent and the key
entered in the SonicWALL security appliance during SSO configuration must match the SSO
Agent-generated key exactly.
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Figure 52:6 SonicWALL SSO Agent Process
The SonicWALL security appliance queries the SonicWALL SSO Agent over the default port
2258. The SSO Agent then communicates between the client and the SonicWALL security
appliance to determine the client’s user ID. The SonicWALL SSO Agent is polled, at a rate that
is configurable by the administrator, by the SonicWALL security appliance to continually
confirm a user’s login status.
Logging
The SonicWALL SSO Agent sends log event messages to the Windows Event Log based on
administrator-selected logging levels.
The SonicWALL security appliance also logs SSO Agent-specific events in its event log. The
following is a list of SSO Agent-specific log event messages from the SonicWALL security
appliance:
•
User login denied - not allowed by policy rule: The user has been identified and does
not belong to any user groups allowed by the policy blocking the user’s traffic.
•
User login denied - not found locally: The user has not been found locally, and Allow only
users listed locally is selected in the SonicWALL security appliance.
•
User login denied - SSO Agent agent timeout: Attempts to contact the SonicWALL SSO
Agent have timed out.
•
User login denied - SSO Agent configuration error: The SSO Agent is not properly
configured to allow access for this user.
•
User login denied - SSO Agent communication problem: There is a problem communicating
with the workstation running the SonicWALL SSO Agent.
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Note
•
User login denied - SSO Agent agent name resolution failed: The SonicWALL SSO Agent
is unable to resolve the user name.
•
SSO Agent returned user name too long: The user name is too long.
•
SSO Agent returned domain name too long: The domain name is too long.
The notes field of log messages specific to the SSO Agent will contain the text
<domain/user-name>, authentication by SSO Agent.
Multiple Administrator Support Overview
This section provides an introduction to the Multiple Administrators feature. This section
contains the following subsections:
•
“What is Multiple Administrators Support?” section on page 610
•
“Benefits” section on page 610
•
“How Does Multiple Administrators Support Work?” section on page 610
What is Multiple Administrators Support?
The original version of SonicOS Enhanced supported only a single administrator to log on to a
SonicWALL security appliance with full administrative privileges. Additional users can be
granted “limited administrator” access, but only one administrator can have full access to
modify all areas of the SonicOS GUI at one time.
SonicOS Enhanced release 4.0 introduces support for multiple concurrent administrators. This
feature allows for multiple users to log-in with full administrator privileges. In addition to using
the default admin user name, additional administrator usernames can be created.
Because of the potential for conflicts caused by multiple administrators making configuration
changes at the same time, only one administrator is allowed to make configuration changes.
The additional administrators are given full access to the GUI, but they cannot make
configuration changes.
A number of options can be configured to manage multiple administrators on the System >
Administration page. See the “Multiple Administrators” section on page 76 for more
information.
Benefits
Multiple Administrators Support provides the following benefits:
•
Improved productivity - Allowing multiple administrators to access a SonicWALL security
appliance simultaneously eliminates “auto logout,” a situation that occurs when two
administrators require access to the appliance at the same time and one is automatically
forced out of the system.
•
Reduced configuration risk – The new read-only mode allows users to view the current
configuration and status of a SonicWALL security appliance without the risk of making
unintentional changes to the configuration.
How Does Multiple Administrators Support Work?
The following sections describe how the Multiple Administrators Support feature works:
•
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“Configuration Modes” section on page 611
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•
“User Groups” section on page 612
•
“Priority for Preempting Administrators” section on page 612
•
“GMS and Multiple Administrator Support” section on page 613
Configuration Modes
In order to allow multiple concurrent administrators, while also preventing potential conflicts
caused by multiple administrators making configuration changes at the same time, the following
configuration modes have been defined:
•
Note
Configuration mode - Administrator has full privileges to edit the configuration. If no
administrator is already logged into the appliance, this is the default behavior for
administrators with full and limited administrator privileges (but not read-only
administrators).
Administrators with full configuration privilege can also log in using the Command Line
Interface (CLI).
•
Read-only mode - Administrator cannot make any changes to the configuration, but can
view the browse the entire management UI and perform monitoring actions.
Only administrators that are members of the SonicWALL Read-Only Admins user group
are given read-only access, and it is the only configuration mode they can access.
•
Non-configuration mode - Administrator can view the same information as members of
the read-only group and they can also initiate management actions that do not have the
potential to cause configuration conflicts.
Only administrators that are members of the SonicWALL Administrators user group can
access non-configuration mode. This mode can be entered when another administrator is
already in configuration mode and the new administrator chooses not to preempt the
existing administrator. By default, when an administrator is preempted out of configuration
mode, he or she is converted to non-configuration mode. On the System > Administration
page, this behavior can be modified so that the original administrator is logged out.
The following table provides a summary of the access rights available to the configuration
modes. Access rights for limited administrators are included also, but note that this table does
not include all functions available to limited administrators.
Function
Full admin
Full admin in
Read-only
Limited
in config mode non-config mode administrator administrator
Import certificates
X
Generate certificate
signing requests
X
Export certificates
X
Export appliance
settings
X
X
X
Download TSR
X
X
X
Use other diagnostics X
X
Configure network
X
Flush ARP cache
X
Setup DHCP Server
X
X
X
X
X
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Function
Full admin
Full admin in
Read-only
Limited
in config mode non-config mode administrator administrator
Renegotiate VPN
tunnels
X
X
Log users off
X
X
Unlock locked-out
users
X
X
Clear log
X
X
Filter logs
X
X
X
X
Export log
X
X
X
X
Email log
X
X
X
Configure log
categories
X
X
X
X
guest users
only
X
Configure log settings X
X
Generate log reports
X
X
Browse the full UI
X
X
Generate log reports
X
X
X
X
X
User Groups
The Multiple Administrators Support feature introduces two new default user groups:
•
SonicWALL Administrators - Members of this group have full administrator access to edit
the configuration.
•
SonicWALL Read-Only Admins - Members of this group have read-only access to view
the full management interface, but they cannot edit the configuration and they cannot
switch to full configuration mode.
It is not recommended to include users in more than one of these user groups. However, if you
do so, the following behavior applies:
•
If members of the SonicWALL Administrators user group are also included in the Limited
Administrators or SonicWALL Read-Only Admins user groups, the members will have
full administrator rights.
•
If members of the Limited Administrators user group are included in the SonicWALL
Read-Only Admins user group, the members will have limited administrator rights.
Priority for Preempting Administrators
The following rules govern the priority levels that the various classes of administrators have for
preempting administrators that are already logged into the appliance:
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1.
The admin user and SonicWALL Global Management System (GMS) both have the highest
priority and can preempt any users.
2.
A user that is a member of the SonicWALL Administrators user group can preempt any
users except for the admin and SonicWALL GMS.
3.
A user that is a member of the Limited Administrators user group can only preempt other
members of the Limited Administrators group.
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GMS and Multiple Administrator Support
When using SonicWALL GMS to manage a SonicWALL security appliance, GMS frequently
logs in to the appliance (for such activities as ensuring that GMS management IPSec tunnels
have been created correctly). These frequent GMS log-ins can make local administration of the
appliance difficult because the local administrator can be preempted by GMS.
Viewing Status on Users > Status
The Users > Status page displays Active User Sessions on the SonicWALL. The table lists
User Name, IP Address, Session Time, Time Remaining, Inactivity Remaining, Settings,
and Logout. To log a user out, click the Trashcan icon next to the user’s entry.
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Configuring Settings on Users > Settings
On this page, you can configure the authentication method required, global user settings, and
an acceptable user policy that is displayed to users when logging onto your network.
Configuration instructions for the settings on this page are provided in the following sections:
614
•
“User Login Settings” on page 615
•
“User Session Settings” on page 616
•
“Other Global User Settings” on page 617
•
“Acceptable Use Policy” on page 617
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User Login Settings
In the Authentication method for login drop-down list, select the type of user account
management your network uses:
•
Select Local Users to configure users in the local database in the SonicWALL appliance
using the Users > Local Users and Users > Local Groups pages.
For information about using the local database for authentication, see “Using Local Users
and Groups for Authentication” on page 600.
For detailed configuration instructions, see the following sections:
– “Configuring Local Users” on page 618
– “Configuring Local Groups” on page 621
•
Select RADIUS if you have more than 1,000 users or want to add an extra layer of security
for authenticating the user to the SonicWALL. If you select RADIUS for user authentication,
users must log into the SonicWALL using HTTPS in order to encrypt the password sent to
the SonicWALL. If a user attempts to log into the SonicWALL using HTTP, the browser is
automatically redirected to HTTPS.
For information about using the local database for authentication, see “Using RADIUS for
Authentication” on page 602.
For detailed configuration instructions, see “Configuring RADIUS Authentication” on
page 625
•
Select RADIUS + Local Users if you want to use both RADIUS and the SonicWALL local
user database for authentication.
•
Select LDAP if you use a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server, Microsoft
Active Directory (AD) server, or Novell eDirectory to maintain all your user account data.
For information about using the local database for authentication, see “Using LDAP / Active
Directory / eDirectory Authentication” on page 602.
For detailed configuration instructions, see “Configuring LDAP Integration in SonicOS
Enhanced” on page 631
•
Select LDAP + Local Users if you want to use both LDAP and the SonicWALL local user
database for authentication.
In the Single-sign-on method drop-down list, select SonicWALL SSO Agent if you are using
Active Directory for authentication and the SonicWALL SSO Agent is installed on a computer
in the same domain. Otherwise, select None. For detailed SSO configuration instructions, see
“Configuring Single Sign-On” on page 641.
In the Show user authentication page for field, enter the number of minutes that a user has
to log in before the login page times out. If it times out, a message displays saying they must
click before attempting to log in again.
Select Case-sensitive user names to enable matching based on capitalization of user account
names.
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Select Enforce login uniqueness to prevent the same user name from being used to log into
the network from more than one location at a time. This setting applies to both local users and
RADIUS/LDAP users. However the login uniqueness setting does not apply to the default
administrator with the username admin.
Select Redirect users from HTTPS to HTTP on completion of login if you want users to be
connected to the network through your SonicWALL appliance via HTTP after logging in via
HTTPS. If you have a large number of users logging in via HTTPS, you may want to redirect
them to HTTP, because HTTPS consumes more system resources than HTTP. If you deselect
this option, you will see a warning dialog.
User Session Settings
The settings listed below apply to all users when authenticated through the SonicWALL.
•
Inactivity timeout (minutes): users can be logged out of the SonicWALL after a
preconfigured inactivity time. Enter the number of minutes in this field. The default value is
5 minutes.
•
Enable login session limit: you can limit the time a user is logged into the SonicWALL by
selecting the check box and typing the amount of time, in minutes, in the Login session
limit (minutes) field. The default value is 30 minutes.
•
Show user login status window: causes a status window to display with a Log Out button
during the user’s session. The user can click the Log Out button to log out of their session.
The User Login Status window displays the number of minutes the user has left in the login
session. The user can set the remaining time to a smaller number of minutes by entering
the number and clicking the Update button.
If the user is a member of the Limited Administrators user group, the User Login Status
window has a Manage button the user can click to automatically log into the SonicWALL
appliance’s management interface. See “Configuring Local Groups” on page 621 for
information on the Limited Administrators group.
•
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User's login status window sends heartbeat every (seconds): Sets the frequency of the
heartbeat signal used to detect whether the user still has a valid connection
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•
Enable disconnected user detection: Causes the SonicWALL to detect when a user’s
connection is no longer valid and end the session.
•
Timeout on heartbeat from user's login status window (minutes): Sets the time needed
without a reply from the heartbeat before ending the user session.
Other Global User Settings
•
Allow these HTTP URLs to bypass users authentication access rules: Define a list of
URLs users can connect to without authenticating. To add a URL to the list:
Step 1
Click Add below the URL list.
Step 2
In the Enter URL window, enter the top level URL you are adding, for example,
www.sonicwall.com. All sub directories of that URL are included, such as www.sonicwall.com/us/
Support.html. Click on OK to add the URL to the list.
Acceptable Use Policy
An acceptable use policy (AUP) is a policy that users must agree to follow in order to access a
network or the Internet. It is common practice for many businesses and educational facilities to
require that employees or students agree to an acceptable use policy before accessing the
network or Internet through the SonicWALL.
The Acceptable Use Policy section allows you to create the AUP message window for users.
You can use HTML formatting in the body of your message. Clicking the Example Template
button creates a preformatted HTML template for your AUP window.
•
Display on login from - Select the network interface(s) you want to display the Acceptable
Use Policy page when users login. You can choose Trusted Zones, WAN Zone, Public
Zones, Wireless Zones, and VPN Zone in any combination.
•
Window size (pixels) - Allows you to specify the size of the AUP window defined in pixels.
Checking the Enable scroll bars on the window allows the user to scroll through the AUP
window contents.
•
Enable scroll bars on window - Turns on the scroll bars if your content will exceed the
display size of the window.
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Acceptable use policy page content - Enter your Acceptable Use Policy text in the text box.
You can include HTML formatting. The page that is displayed to the user includes an I Accept
button or Cancel button for user confirmation.
Click the Example Template button to populate the content with the default AUP template,
which you can modify:
<font face=arial size=3>
<center><b><i>Welcome to the SonicWALL</center></b></i>
<font size=2>
<table width="100%" border="1">
<tr><td>
<font size=2>
<br><br><br>
<center>Enter your usage policy terms here.
<br><br><br>
</td></tr>
</table>
Click "I Accept" only if you wish to accept these terms and continue,
or otherwise select "Cancel".
Click the Preview button to display your AUP message as it will appear for the user.
Configuring Local Users
Local Users are users stored and managed on the security appliance’s local database. In the
Users > Local Users page, you can view and manage all local users, add new local users, and
edit existing local users.
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See the following sections for configuration instructions:
•
“Viewing, Editing and Deleting Local Users” on page 619
•
“Adding Local Users” on page 620
•
“Editing Local Users” on page 621
Viewing, Editing and Deleting Local Users
You can view all the groups to which a user belongs on the Users > Local Users page. Click
on the expand icon next to a user to view the group memberships for that user.
The three columns to the right of the user’s name list the privileges that the user has. In the
expanded view, it displays which group the user gets each privilege from.
•
Hover the mouse pointer over the comment icon
in the VPN Access column to view the
network resources to which the user has VPN access.
•
In the expanded view, click the remove icon
group.
•
Click the edit icon
•
Click the delete icon
under Configure to remove the user from a
under Configure to edit the user.
under Configure to delete the user or group in that row.
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Adding Local Users
You can add local users to the internal database on the SonicWALL security appliance from the
Users > Local Users page. To add local users to the database:
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Step 1
Click Add User. The Add User configuration window displays.
Step 2
On the Settings tab, type the user name into the Name field.
Step 3
In the Password field, type a password for the user. Passwords are case-sensitive and should
consist of a combination of letters and numbers rather than names of family, friends, or pets.
Step 4
Confirm the password by retyping it in the Confirm Password field.
Step 5
Optionally, select the User must change password checkbox to force users to change their
passwords the first time they login.
Step 6
Optionally enter a comment in the Comment field.
Step 7
On the Groups tab, under User Groups, select one or more groups to which the user will
belong, and click the arrow button -> to move the group name(s) into the Member of list. The
user will be a member of the selected groups. To remove the user from a group, select the
group from the Member of list, and click the left arrow button <-.
Step 8
On the VPN Access tab, to allow users to access networks using a VPN tunnel, select one or
more networks from the Networks list and click the arrow button -> to move them to the Access
List. To remove the user’s access to a network, select the network from the Access List, and
click the left arrow button <-.
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Step 9
Click OK to complete the user configuration.
Editing Local Users
You can edit local users from the Users > Local Users screen. To edit a local user:
Step 1
In the list of users, click the edit icon in same line as the user you want to edit.
Step 2
Configure the Settings, Groups, and VPN Access exactly as when adding a new user. See
“Adding Local Users” on page 620.
Configuring Local Groups
Local groups are displayed in the Local Groups table. The table lists Name, CFS Policy,
Guest Services, Admin (access type), VPN Access, and Configure.
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A default group, Everyone, is listed in the first row of the table. Click the Notepad icon in the
Configure column to review or change the settings for Everyone.
See the following sections for configuration instructions:
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•
“Creating a Local Group” on page 623
•
“Importing Local Groups from LDAP” on page 624
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Creating a Local Group
Step 1
Click the Add Group button to display the Add Group window.
Step 2
On the Settings tab, type a user name into the Name field.
Step 3
On the Members tab, to add users and other groups to this group, select the user or group from
the Non-Members Users and Groups list and click the right arrow button ->.
Step 4
On the VPN Access tab, to allow users in this group to access networks using a VPN tunnel,
select the networks from the Networks list and click the right arrow button -> to move them to
the Access List.
Step 5
On the CFS Policy tab, to enforce a custom Content Filtering Service policy for this group,
select the CFS policy from the Policy drop-down list.
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Note
Step 6
You can create custom Content Filtering Service policies in the Security Services >
Content Filter page. See “Security Services > Content Filter” section on page 695.
Click OK.
Importing Local Groups from LDAP
You can configure local user groups on the SonicWALL by retrieving the user group names
from your LDAP server. The Import from LDAP... button launches a dialog box containing the
list of user group names available for import to the SonicWALL.
Having user groups on the SonicWALL with the same name as existing LDAP/AD user groups
allows SonicWALL group memberships and privileges to be granted upon successful LDAP
authentication.
To import groups from the LDAP server:
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Step 1
In the Users > Local Groups page, click Import from LDAP....
Step 2
In the LDAP Import User Groups dialog box, select the checkbox for each group that you want
to import into the SonicWALL, and then click Save.
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Configuring RADIUS Authentication
If you selected RADIUS or RADIUS + Local Users from the Authentication method for login
drop-down list, the Configure button becomes available.
Step 1
Click Configure to set up your RADIUS server settings on the SonicWALL. The RADIUS
Configuration window is displayed.
Step 2
Under Global RADIUS Settings, type in a value for the RADIUS Server Timeout (seconds).
The allowable range is 1-60 seconds with a default value of 5.
Step 3
In the Retries field, enter the number of times the SonicWALL will attempt to contact the
RADIUS server. If the RADIUS server does not respond within the specified number of retries,
the connection is dropped. This field can range between 0 and 10, with a recommended setting
of 3 RADIUS server retries.
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RADIUS Servers
In the RADIUS Servers section, you can designate the primary and optionally, the secondary
RADIUS server. An optional secondary RADIUS server can be defined if a backup RADIUS
server exists on the network.
Step 4
In the Primary Server section, type the host name or IP address of the RADIUS server in the
Name or IP Address field.
Step 5
Type the RADIUS server administrative password or “shared secret” in the Shared Secret field.
The alphanumeric Shared Secret can range from 1 to 31 characters in length. The shared
secret is case sensitive.
Step 6
Type the Port Number for the RADIUS server to use for communication with the SonicWALL.
The default is 1812.
Step 7
In the Secondary Server section, optionally type the host name or IP address of the secondary
RADIUS server in the Name or IP Address field.
Step 8
Type the RADIUS server administrative password or “shared secret” in the Shared Secret field.
The alphanumeric Shared Secret can range from 1 to 31 characters in length. The shared
secret is case sensitive.
Step 9
Type the Port Number for the secondary RADIUS server to use for communication with the
SonicWALL. The default is 1812.
RADIUS Users
On the RADIUS Users tab you can specify what types of local or LDAP information to use in
combination with RADIUS authentication. You can also define the default user group for
RADIUS users.
.
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RADIUS Users Settings
To configure the RADIUS user settings:
Step 10 On the RADIUS Users tab, select Allow only users listed locally if only the users listed in the
SonicWALL database are authenticated using RADIUS.
Step 11 Select the mechanism used for setting user group memberships for RADIUS users from the
following choices:
•
Select Use SonicWALL vendor-specific attribute on RADIUS server to apply a
configured vendor-specific attribute from the RADIUS server. The attribute must provide
the user group to which the user belongs.
•
Select Use RADIUS Filter-ID attribute on RADIUS server to apply a configured Filter-ID
attribute from the RADIUS server. The attribute must provide the user group to which the
user belongs.
•
Select Use LDAP to retrieve user group information to obtain the user group from the
LDAP server. You can click the Configure button to set up LDAP if you have not already
configured it or if you need to make a change. For information about configuring LDAP, see
“Configuring the SonicWALL Appliance for LDAP” on page 633.
•
If you do not plan to retrieve user group information from RADIUS or LDAP, select Local
configuration only.
•
For a shortcut for managing RADIUS user groups, check Memberships can be set locally
by duplicating RADIUS user names. When you create users with the same name locally
on the security appliance and manage their group memberships, the memberships in the
RADIUS database will automatically change to mirror your local changes.
Step 12 If you have previously configured User Groups on the SonicWALL, select the group from the
Default user group to which all RADIUS users belong drop-down list.
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Creating a New User Group for RADIUS Users
In the RADIUS User Settings screen, you can create a new group by choosing Create a new
user group... from the Default user group to which all RADIUS users belong drop-down list:
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Step 1
Select Create a new user group... The Add Group window displays.
Step 2
In the Settings tab, enter a name for the group. You may enter a descriptive comment as well.
Step 3
In the Members tab, select the members of the group. Select the users or groups you want to
add in the left column and click the -> button. Click Add All to add all users and groups.
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Note
You can add any group as a member of another group except Everybody and All RADIUS
Users. Be aware of the membership of the groups you add as members of another group.
Step 4
In the VPN Access tab, select the network resources to which this group will have VPN Access
by default.
Step 5
If you have Content Filtering Service (CFS) on your security appliance, you can configure the
content filtering policy for this group on the CFS Policy tab. See “Security Services > Content
Filter” section on page 695 for instructions on registering for and managing the SonicWALL
Content Filtering Service.
RADIUS with LDAP for user groups
When RADIUS is used for user authentication, there is an option on the RADIUS Users page
in the RADIUS configuration to allow LDAP to be selected as the mechanism for setting user
group memberships for RADIUS users:
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When Use LDAP to retrieve user group information is selected, after authenticating a user
via RADIUS, his/her user group membership information will be looked up via LDAP in the
directory on the LDAP/AD server.
Clicking the Configure button launches the LDAP configuration window.
Note that in this case LDAP is not dealing with user passwords and the information that it reads
from the directory is normally unrestricted, so operation without TLS could be selected, ignoring
the warnings, if TLS is not available (e.g. if certificate services are not installed with Active
Directory). However, it must be ensured that security is not compromised by the SonicWALL
doing a clear-text login to the LDAP server – e.g. create a user account with read-only access
to the directory dedicated for the SonicWALL’s use. Do not use the administrator account in this
case.
RADIUS Client Test
In the RADIUS Configuration dialog box, you can test your RADIUS Client user name,
password and other settings by typing in a valid user name and password and selecting one of
the authentication choices for Test. Performing the test will apply any changes that you have
made.
To test your RADIUS settings:
630
Step 6
In the User field, type a valid RADIUS login name.
Step 7
In the Password field, type the password.
Step 8
For Test, select one of the following:
•
Password authentication: Select this to use the password for authentication.
•
CHAP: Select this to use the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. After initial
verification, CHAP periodically verifies the identity of the client by using a three-way
handshake.
•
MSCHAP: Select this to use the Microsoft implementation of CHAP. MSCHAP works for all
Windows versions before Windows Vista.
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•
Step 9
MSCHAPv2: Select this to use the Microsoft version 2 implementation of CHAP.
MSCHAPv2 works for Windows 2000 and later versions of Windows.
Click the Test button. If the validation is successful, the Status messages changes to Success.
If the validation fails, the Status message changes to Failure.
To complete the RADIUS configuration, click OK.
Once the SonicWALL has been configured, a VPN Security Association requiring RADIUS
authentication prompts incoming VPN clients to type a User Name and Password into a dialog
box.
Configuring LDAP Integration in SonicOS Enhanced
Integrating your SonicWALL appliance with an LDAP directory service requires configuring your
LDAP server for certificate management, installing the correct certificate on your SonicWALL
appliance, and configuring the SonicWALL appliance to use the information from the LDAP
Server.
See the following sections:
•
“Preparing Your LDAP Server for Integration” on