DET DRAFT course and unit specifications. 02/05/96

DET DRAFT course and unit specifications. 02/05/96
MUSIC
Advanced Higher
Second edition – July 2000
NOTE OF CHANGES TO ADVANCED HIGHER ARRANGEMENTS
SECOND EDITION PUBLISHED JULY 2000
COURSE TITLE:
Music (Advanced Higher)
COURSE NUMBER:
C065 13
National Course Specification
Course Details:
Major changes
National Unit Specification
All Units:
Music: Advanced Higher Course
Major changes
1
National Course Specification
MUSIC (ADVANCED HIGHER)
COURSE NUMBER
C065 13
COURSE STRUCTURE
This course has one mandatory and one optional unit, as follows:
Mandatory unit
D349 13
Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening (AH)
Optional units – choose one from:
D355 13
Music: Accompanying (AH)
D350 13
Music: Inventing – Extension (AH)
D351 13
Music: Listening – Extension (AH)
D352 13
Music: MIDI Sequencing (AH)
D2KB 13
Music: Performing – Extension 1 (AH)
D2KC 13
Music: Performing – Extension 2 (AH)
D354 13
Music: Sound Engineering & Production (AH)
D358 13
Music: Training and Directing (AH)
2 credits (80 hours)
1 credit (40 hours)
1 credit (40 hours)
1 credit (40 hours)
1 credit (40 hours)
1 credit (40 hours)
1 credit (40 hours)
1 credit (40 hours)
1 credit (40 hours)
The Advanced Higher course in music provides opportunities for sustained, progressive learning
across 160 hours of work. Where appropriate, teachers/lecturers may wish to use it along with the
course at Higher to form a continuous, two-year programme. The course at Advanced Higher may
also be taken as a free-standing one-year course. It comprises two units, one mandatory and the other
elected from a list of options.
In common with all courses, this course includes 40 hours over and above the 120 hours for the
component units. This is for induction, extending the range of learning and teaching approaches,
support, consolidation, integration of learning and preparation for external assessment. This time is
an important element of the course and advice on its use is included in the course details.
Administrative Information
Publication date:
July 2000
Source:
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Version:
02
© Scottish Qualifications Authority 2000
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit is derived from
reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged.
Additional copies of this course specification (including unit specifications) can be purchased from the Scottish Qualifications
Authority for £7.50. Note: Unit specifications can be purchased individually for £2.50 (minimum order £5).
2
National Course Specification: general information (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
RECOMMENDED ENTRY
While entry is at the discretion of the centre, candidates will normally be expected to have attained
one of the following:
•
•
an award in Music at Higher
or equivalent
CORE SKILLS
This course gives automatic certification of the following:
Either
if the optional unit D352 13, Music: MIDI Sequencing is chosen
Complete core skills for the course
IT
H
Additional core skills components for the course
Critical Thinking
Planning and Organising
Int 2
H
Or
if any other optional unit is chosen
Complete core skills for the course
None
Core skills components for the course
Critical Thinking
Planning and Organising
Int 2
H
For information about the automatic certification of core skills for any individual unit in this course,
please refer to the general information section at the beginning of the unit.
Music: Advanced Higher Course
3
National Course Specification: course details
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
RATIONALE
The Advanced Higher course in music sets out to provide candidates with opportunities to develop
interests which contribute to personal development, enhance quality of life and provide the skills and
knowledge required for further study and enjoyment of music. It is, therefore, designed to serve the
needs of candidates who:
•
•
•
wish to study the subject as part of a general education
wish to pursue an interest in music
intend to follow a career in music
The course provides opportunities to develop musical versatility and particular areas of interest.
Candidates can gain understanding of music as a powerful medium of communication with a strong
influence throughout the modern world. Flexibility within the overall structure allows each candidate
to select a stimulating course, well matched to their individual interests and needs.
Emphasis is placed on the study of music through practical activities which expose candidates to a
variety of cultures and encourage them towards:
•
•
•
active participation in solo and/or group performing
the acquisition and application of conceptual understanding and exploration of feelings and
ideas through inventing
the acquisition of conceptual understanding, relevant terminology and the development of
critical awareness and evaluative and investigative skills through listening
Learning and teaching experiences will foster candidates' understanding of music by harnessing
relationships among the elements of performing, inventing and listening.
Skills, techniques, knowledge, understanding and evaluating form the basis of the Advanced Higher
course. The elements of the course evolve naturally from Standard Grade, the former Higher and
CSYS Music, and continue to give support to the integrated whole musician approach. This
integrated approach is provided for within the mandatory unit, while the optional units allow for the
opportunity to broaden and deepen skills. Study in depth is provided by optional units (extension)
which enable candidates to extend their skills in any one of the three main elements. To allow
candidates to expand and apply their skills in new areas four additional optional units are offered.
These are:
•
•
•
•
Music: Accompanying
Music: MIDI Sequencing
Music: Sound Engineering and Production
Music: Training and Directing
Accompanying, hitherto, has not been a feature of established provision as a formal course of study,
and yet candidates have often acquired useful experience of it as part of common practice in many
centres. Its inclusion will allow the possibility of gaining recognition for this essential musicianship
skill, and it will provide a valuable tool for the aspiring professional musician.
Music: Advanced Higher Course
4
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
The rationale for including MIDI sequencing at this level is twofold: it has a wide range of
applications for the practical musician and it seeks to prepare candidates for developments in the
music industry.
Music: Sound Engineering and Production will help prepare candidates for opportunities in the
music industry. For those who have already experienced established modules in Music Production
and Sound Engineering it provides scope for further study.
Music: Training and Directing offers scope for applying a wide range of musical skills gained
through other aspects of music making. It will also be an ideal preparation for those wishing to
continue their studies in music. Many candidates in the past have had opportunities to exercise their
musical initiative through training and directing groups, often on an informal basis. Others have
gained formal recognition through Music Making in the Community.
Throughout the course, the study of music will provide increasingly sophisticated development of
musical skills through a wide range of challenging experiences. This will entail the use of a variety of
study techniques which promote skills in independent and co-operative learning, and the ability to
communicate clearly and confidently. These techniques will be developed progressively through the
course at Advanced Higher to provide candidates with a sound base from which to pursue further
studies.
In addition, the course offers broad scope within mandatory and optional units for the use, now well
established in most centres, of technology across the music curriculum. Utilisation of these resources
should support the learning of musical skills, and be both expressive and technological. Such support
should help candidates to realise fully their creative potential.
The Advanced Higher Music course aims to:
•
•
•
•
•
enrich the lives of candidates, and to contribute to their personal, intellectual, social and
cultural growth
develop in candidates an informed interest in music
develop in candidates the skills and insights which are an intrinsic part of the full enjoyment of
music
encourage candidates with a range of specialist interests to realise their musical potential
develop in candidates a knowledge and understanding of the social, historical and
environmental contexts of music, including the indigenous music of Scotland
Emphasis will be given to developing skills in creating, interpreting and communicating music, and
developing perceptive listening over a wide variety of musical styles. Aural literacy and reading skills
will be developed in accordance with candidates’ specialised interests. General aspects of personal
musicianship and the interpersonal skills which are needed to enable sharing musical experience with
others will be natural course ingredients, and the technological advances of recent years will become
ever more firmly embedded in learning experiences.
Music: Advanced Higher Course
5
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Throughout, the course attainment of the requisite standard in practical, creative musicianship and
knowledge will entail the use of a range of study techniques. These include: making informed
choices; planning, target setting and initiating independent study; monitoring and evaluating personal
performance and progress; using aesthetic judgement in a range of activities; co-operating with and
leading others; and researching, compiling, synthesising and presenting information. The
development of these skills is important to every individual regardless of vocation, and will be of
considerable value to candidates in their personal and professional lives.
COURSE CONTENT
The need to develop breadth in musicianship is ensured by the inclusion of an 80-hour unit which
requires candidates to meet performance outcomes in Performing, Inventing and Listening. Choice is
served by selecting one of eight free-standing 40-hour optional units which allow individuals to
broaden their programmes of study, to pursue aspects in greater depth and to select the pathways
along which they wish to continue to follow their specialised interests at more advanced levels. A
further 40 hours of course time is provided for induction, extending the range of learning and
teaching approaches, additional support, consolidation, integration and preparation for external
assessment. The mandatory unit contributes to 75% of the overall course assessment (with 25% given
to each outcome) and the optional unit contributes the remaining 25%.
Extension units in Performing, Inventing and Listening are available in free-standing form.
CONCEPTS
At Advanced Higher level the position of concepts is as follows: All of the concepts identified
within the framework are those stated at all previous levels.
Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening (AH) (Mandatory 80-hour unit)
Performing
Candidates will have opportunities in class to select and perform music solo and/or in a group from a
wide range of styles and periods. Candidates will develop musical awareness and an understanding of
compositional and performing techniques, to be applied where appropriate in their own creative
work. Ability to demonstrate sensitivity and the ability to deliver musical ideas expressively will
form another requirement. Relevant technical skills on the chosen instrument(s) or voice must be
practised and demonstrated, such as good bowing or tonguing, appropriate style and control in
singing, and musical phrasing and accurate intonation. Candidates should learn to respond sensitively
to the playing or singing of others. Out of the extended repertoire to be experienced during the
course, for external assessment requirements, candidates will prepare a recital of music in more than
one style, solo and/or group in one instrument equivalent to AB Grade V or similar (See Appendix 1
Categories of Instruments for Performing Units). For moderation purposes, tapes of selected
performances of pieces should be compiled and retained by the centre. Centres should also retain
taped evidence to back up the documented assessments. The taped evidence need not be for all prices
contributing to the recital. It is recommended that a minimum of one performed piece for each
candidate be taped.
Music: Advanced Higher Course
6
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Inventing
Candidates will have opportunities to develop the ability to create a well-structured composition or
compositions with evidence of originality, creativity, planning and good use of compositional
techniques. Process and product will require the deployment of selected concepts, and may include
arranging and improvising where appropriate. Candidates will select appropriate concepts from the
list in Appendix 2 and use them creatively in their own compositions. The list subsumes concepts
from all previous levels. Those chosen need not be limited to the list. The way in which they are used
and developed should be more advanced than at previous levels. Many of these concepts will have
been learnt through the performing or listening aspects of the unit. Candidates will compile an audio
folio of compositions; they will identify the concepts and how they were used by compiling a
programme note which will describe the compositional process and techniques used in each
composition. A score or overall performance plan for each composition will also be required.
Listening
Candidates will have opportunity through coursework, to demonstrate discriminatory awareness of
relevant concepts (Appendix 2 refers) as they occur in music of different periods and styles. The
relevant concepts will provide a framework for the discussion and evaluation of music played,
invented and heard. Two or more related or contrasting works of the candidate’s own choice will be
selected for special study in greater depth. As part of their research candidates will identify musical
concepts and their development within the chosen works. This will provide the context and focus for
a commentary of 1500 words, which should provide evidence of perceptive listening in a different
context to the listening examination which will be taken at the end of the course.
In that context, candidates will be required to identify concepts in contexts where only a particularly
detailed understanding of how concepts are used in different circumstances will allow accurate
choices to be made. Candidates will also compile a course log with details of music and concepts
studied.
Optional Units
The levels required in Performing are clearly benchmarked against well-established standards. In
Inventing and Listening, the levels of musical awareness required derive naturally from the wellestablished list of concepts up to Higher. As candidates progress to Advanced Higher this musical
awareness will be demonstrated in greater depth over a broader range of contexts. Consequently, the
differentiation between mandatory and extension units and the progression from previous courses can
be clearly seen.
Music: Accompanying (AH)
This unit offers opportunities for candidates to use appropriate instruments to develop skills in
accompanying, sight playing, harmonisation, transposition and score reading. It is available to those
who play acoustic or electronic keyboard instruments, guitar, clarsach, concert harp or accordion.
Candidates will develop the skills through regular practice throughout the course, using an
appropriately broad range of music. Good opportunities for the development of accompanying skills
may well be found within shared class activities such as performing. Candidates will compile a tape
demonstrating progress in each aspect throughout the course.
Music: Advanced Higher Course
7
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Music: Inventing – Extension (AH)
This unit calls for greater breadth and depth of ability in the creative use of the techniques for
composing than in the 80-hour mandatory unit. Candidates will compile an audio folio of
composition(s) throughout the course. They will select appropriate concepts from the list in Appendix
2 and compile a programme note which will describe the compositional process and techniques used
in each composition. A score or overall performance plan for each composition will also be required.
Music: Listening – Extension (AH)
At this level, it will be expected that concepts will be identified in more specialised fields of study.
Candidates will compile related reports on five or more pieces of their own choice, sung, played or
listened to during the course. As part of their research, candidates will identify appropriate musical
concepts and comment on their development with perception. These reports may provide the context
and focus for a dissertation of 3–4000 words required for external assessment. A course log will play
a significant part in the initial preparation of reports and dissertation.
Music: MIDI Sequencing (AH)
Candidates who select this optional unit will set up and use a MIDI and digital audio sequencer and
synthesiser(s) to invent, record, edit and mix music. They will be able to demonstrate the creative use
of a MIDI and digital audio sequencer through musical applications of technical skills, and be able to
produce evidence on stereo master and computer file of musical inventions. Candidates will be
required to demonstrate their ability to apply their knowledge and skills to resolve problems
creatively in a practical test.
Music: Performing – Extension 1 (AH) and Extension 2 (AH)
Each of these units will be taken on a different instrument or on voice, to that professed in the
mandatory unit (Appendix 1 of the Higher Arrangements). They will pursue the aims and content of
Performing as in the 80-hour mandatory unit but will provide both depth in enabling the candidate to
concentrate on the development of performance skills, and breadth by developing skills on another
instrument. Out of the extended repertoire to be experienced in class, candidates opting for the
Extension 1 unit will be required to prepare a recital of music in a solo and/or group situation
equivalent in task level to AB Grade VI or similar. Candidates whose skills in performing have
developed beyond that required for Music: Performing – Extension 1, may opt to study Music:
Performing – Extension 2, which will be equivalent to AB Grade VII or similar. In this case, the
candidate’s course award at Advanced Higher will reflect the added value of attaining a unit in
Music: Performing – Extension 2.
Music: Sound Engineering and Production (AH)
This unit offers candidates opportunities to use either stereo recording techniques or multi-track
recording techniques, with production skills and digital editing techniques to produce high quality
stereo master recordings.
When recording candidates will develop creative production skills relevant to the recording
techniques deployed. Candidates will apply musical judgement and aural discrimination to evaluate
the recordings with regard to the musical performance and sound quality before editing.
Takes or sections of the recordings will be digitally edited and compiled (and, in the case of multitrack recording techniques, mixed down) to produce a stereo master recording.
Music: Advanced Higher Course
8
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Candidates will maintain a session log, a take/edit sheet and an annotated musical score/performance
plan for each piece recorded. For external assessment there will also be a listening test of aural
discrimination and conceptual awareness.
Music: Training and Directing (AH)
This unit will offer candidates opportunities to apply skills acquired through earlier experiences in
Performing, Listening and Inventing, and to develop skills of a different order by taking
responsibility for the training and directing of a music group of their choice. Through earlier work,
candidates would have experienced a variety of instrumental and/or vocal ensembles in a wide variety
of musical periods and styles. Appropriate critical, evaluative and interpretative understanding should
have been gleaned from these experiences. This understanding will have created a foundation on
which the specialised musical and technical skills in this unit can be built. Training/directing need not
be confined or even related to a candidate’s principal study, but it may be that candidates would opt
to work with a medium with which they are familiar and confident. Candidates could take
responsibility for existing groups or be encouraged to form those of their own choosing.
It should be emphasised that decisions regarding the selection of a group for training will require to
take account of the practicalities involved for each centre. Care will be required to ensure that those
involved as performers are not disadvantaged through any inappropriate pressures in terms of
rehearsal schedules.
Candidates might take responsibility for existing groups within a centre by means of a role-reversal
situation with the tutor/director, thereby facilitating timetabling considerations and avoiding
additional workload issues for staff. For others, it may be that the training of a group within the
classroom ensemble situation may be advantageous both to the trainer/director and to the performers
through helping to advance their skills in group performing.
These might include:
•
an ensemble of at least three performers in which the candidate may participate, for example, a
piano trio/string quartet
•
a string group/orchestra
•
a wind group/band
•
a brass group/band
or a combination of any or all of these
•
folk/Scottish/jazz groups
•
a rock band
•
a choral group
•
a class group performance
The repertoire selected for performance will require to be appropriate to the ensemble, and could be
published material and/or music composed and/or arranged by the candidate or peers. In any event,
sound decisions regarding repertoire would be expected. Candidates will compile a video tape
illustrating the development which has taken place throughout the course. A rehearsal log (see
Appendix 4) containing planning and evaluative information will also be required. This will form the
basis of a viva voce for external assessment. Candidates will also be required to demonstrate
evidence of aural perception in a listening test.
Music: Advanced Higher Course
9
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
ASSESSMENT
To gain the award of the course, the candidate must achieve all the component units of the course as
well as the external assessment. External assessment will provide the basis for grading attainment in
the course award. The mandatory unit contributes 75% of the overall course assessment, and the
optional unit the remaining 25%.
When units are taken as component parts of a course, candidates will have the opportunity to achieve
at levels beyond that required to attain each of the unit outcomes. This attainment may, where
appropriate, be recorded and used to contribute towards course estimates, and to provide evidence for
appeals. Additional details are provided, where appropriate, with the exemplar assessment materials.
Further information on the key principles of assessment are provided in the paper, Assessment,
(published by HSDU in May 1996), and in Managing Assessment (HSDU 1998).
Reference is made in some units to the need for centres to retain taped evidence of candidates’
attainments. Where candidates undertake course certification, external assessment of such units will
be carried out by a visiting examiner or centrally by SQA (an examination timetable will be issued in
due course). Centres are, therefore, encouraged, but not required to tape record all evidence to be
presented by candidates. Sufficient recording should be retained to demonstrate that internal
assessment of all learning outcomes is in line with the grade descriptions for a Grade C (pass).
Further information on the requirement for taped evidence will be published in due course by SQA.
The following section outlines the skills to be assessed in each element and unit, the instruments of
assessment to be deployed, and the grade descriptions against which performance will be measured.
In many cases, the assessment instruments may serve both internal and external assessment purposes.
The grade descriptions for Grade C (pass) will serve the requirements of the centre when assessing
candidates’ performance in unit outcomes. Details of the internal assessment requirements for
candidates not taking the course but who take individual units on a free-standing basis are to be found
in the Unit Specifications. Teachers/lecturers should refer to unit descriptors for detailed information
on generating evidence for internal assessment.
Music: Advanced Higher Course
10
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
It should be noted that while grade descriptions provide information on standards, particularly that
required to achieve unit outcomes, it is NOT appropriate to grade individual outcomes/units. Only the
course award is graded.
MUSIC: PERFORMING, INVENTING AND LISTENING (AH)
(80-HOUR MANDATORY UNIT)
PERFORMING
Details of the instruments for external assessment
All candidates will be required to develop and demonstrate the performing skills already identified as
appropriate for this level.
Evidence for external assessment:
•
perform a live recital of a solo and/or group performance of contrasting pieces lasting 12–15
minutes in total to a visiting examiner
Evidence to be retained by the centre:
•
taped evidence to back up the assessment. This should consist of a minimum of one piece per
candidate
Grade descriptions
The standard of attainment required will be equivalent to Grade V of the Associated Board (AB) or
similar (to be exemplified).
Grade C
The candidate can perform a musical and satisfying recital, which demonstrates:
•
•
•
•
•
mainly secure technique
overall success in conveying the composer’s intentions with regard to tempo, phrasing and
dynamics
that, if they occur, any small lapses in intonation are quickly remedied
notes and rhythm satisfactorily communicating the sense of the music
musical flow, fluency and some sense of style
Grade A
The candidate can perform an artistic and very satisfying recital which shows
depth of musical understanding, and is:
•
•
•
•
•
played with technical assurance and a good sense of style
musically sensitive
secure in intonation (where appropriate)
accurate in pitch and rhythm
fluent
Music: Advanced Higher Course
11
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
INVENTING
Details of the instruments for external assessment
All candidates will be required to develop and demonstrate the inventing skills already identified as
appropriate for the level.
Evidence for external assessment:
•
•
an audio folio of composition or compositions of 5–12 minutes’ duration with programme note
detailing the stimulus, compositional process and techniques deployed
a score or overall performance plan for each piece
Evidence to be retained by the centre:
•
•
a minimum of one taped composition and programme note per candidate
a score or overall performance plan for each taped piece
Where an extended work is offered (in excess of 12 minutes), the candidate would be expected to
draw attention to an appropriate passage for external assessment, and show through the programme
note and score/performance plan how the selected passage related to the work as a whole. The audio
folio should demonstrate appropriate developments of melody, rhythm, harmony and style, and be
arranged appropriately for performance purposes.
Where candidates choose to take a stimulus from another composer’s work to produce an
arrangement, a copy of the original will be required. In such cases, candidates will be expected to
demonstrate a range of compositional skills through a substantial melodic, harmonic, rhythmic and
structural development of the borrowed musical ideas.
Any exceptional difficulties which prevent a centre taping a composition should be subject to
correspondence with the SQA so that appropriate arrangements for assessment may be investigated.
Grade descriptions
Grade C
A successful composition or compositions showing some musical understanding and technical
competence in handling compositional techniques for this level (Appendix 2) and demonstrating:
•
•
•
•
evidence of structural planning
good handling of characteristic features in pitch and rhythm
appropriate use of timbre
satisfactory deployment of a range of concepts identified in the programme note
Grade A
Imaginative and well crafted composition or compositions showing musical flair and a sound grasp of
compositional techniques for this level (Appendix 2) and demonstrating:
•
•
•
•
a well-conceived structure
imaginative development of characteristic features in pitch and rhythm
imaginative and effective use of timbre
good deployment of a range of concepts identified in the programme note
Music: Advanced Higher Course
12
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
LISTENING
Details of the instruments for external assessment
All candidates are required to develop and demonstrate the listening skills already identified as
appropriate for the level. Advanced Higher concepts are those identified for all other levels.
Candidates will be required to show very advanced aural skills in identifying concepts in a wide
range of contexts, and in great depth.
Evidence for external assessment:
•
•
submission of a 1500-word Commentary on two or more related or contrasting musical works
of the candidate’s own choice studied in depth during the course
an aural discrimination test of about one hour’s duration
10% of the content of this paper will test the ability of candidates to relate sound to printed music.
The test will include several questions relating sound to printed music. Candidates will be expected
to identify melodic, rhythmic, harmonic and contrapuntal features; stylistic characteristics;
instruments and orchestration; vocal styles and techniques; and varied forms and structures. The full
list of concepts is attached as Appendix 2.
Evidence to be retained by the centre:
•
•
•
a course log, reflecting music played and listened to, and the candidate’s understanding of
relevant concepts
related reports, reflecting the candidate’s understanding of music played, sung or listened to,
covering at least two compositions of the candidate’s own choice, which will be used as the
basis for work leading to the course award
evidence of aural discriminatory skills from internal assessments
Grade descriptions
Grade C: Listening test
The listening test will show that the candidate has undertaken a range of coursework, and will
demonstrate that:
•
•
•
relevant concepts have been acquired and understood
adequate knowledge and understanding of concepts in a variety of musical styles
adequate knowledge of the main developments in music related to the concepts listed (the
concepts are given in Appendix 2)
Grade A: Listening test
The listening test will show that the candidate has undertaken an appropriate and varied range of
coursework, and will demonstrate that:
•
•
•
relevant concepts have been acquired with depth of understanding
broad knowledge and understanding of concepts in a variety of musical styles
broad knowledge of the main developments in music related to the concepts listed (the
concepts are given in Appendix 2)
Music: Advanced Higher Course
13
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Grade C: Commentary
A piece of competent work is produced, which:
•
•
•
•
•
shows evidence of individual initiative
demonstrates understanding of the music heard
displays musical material developing the theme of the Commentary (Investigative Study)
shows evidence of planning and organisation
communicates ideas adequately
Grade A: Commentary
A piece of imaginative work is produced, which:
•
•
•
•
•
shows evidence of individual initiative and thought
demonstrates considerable understanding of and insight into the music heard
displays musical material which is well selected to develop the theme of the investigative study
is well planned and organised
demonstrates that ideas are well focused and clearly expressed
Optional Units
MUSIC: ACCOMPANYING (AH)
Details of the instruments for external assessment
All candidates are required to develop and demonstrate the accompanying skills already identified as
appropriate for the level (to be further exemplified).
Evidence for external assessment:
A live performance before a visiting examiner of
•
•
•
•
•
•
prepared accompaniments (8–10 mins) to a standard which equates with Grade V of the
Associated Board
sight-playing an accompaniment – at a technical standard not beyond that of AB Grade III or
equivalent
harmonisation of given melodies with chord indications (N.B. for guitar and electronic
keyboard, this would include improvisation on the chord symbols) or realisation of an unseen
melody with figured bass: the technical requirements will not be beyond that of AB Grade III
performance of a sample of five previously prepared harmonisations – at a technical standard
not beyond that of AB Grade III or equivalent
transposition of given musical extracts – at a technical standard not beyond that of AB Grade
III or equivalent
performance of previously unseen music from open score – at a technical standard not beyond
that of AB Grade III or equivalent
An overall period of 20 minutes will be allowed for the preparation of tests in sight reading,
harmonisation, transposition and score reading.
Evidence to be retained by the centre:
•
as appropriate, taped evidence of one item of each aspect of the external assessment
Music: Advanced Higher Course
14
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Grade descriptions
Grade C: Prepared and Unseen Accompaniment
At a standard equivalent to AB Grade V (Prepared) and AB Grade III (Unseen), the candidate’s
performance demonstrates:
•
•
•
•
•
•
overall success in conveying the composer’s intentions with regard to tempo, phrasing and
dynamics
notes and rhythm satisfactorily communicating the sense of the music
mainly secure technique
musical flow and fluency
some sense of style
success in supporting the soloist
Grade A: Prepared and Unseen Accompaniment
At a standard equivalent to AB Grade V (Prepared) and AB Grade III (Unseen), the candidate’s
performance demonstrates:
•
•
•
•
•
•
a convincing interpretation of the composer’s intentions with regard to tempo, phrasing and
dynamics
accurate notes and rhythm
technical assurance
convincing musical flow and fluency
a very good sense of style
success in supporting the soloist
Grade C: Harmonisation
At a technical standard not beyond that of AB Grade III, the candidate can perform an appropriate
harmonisation in which:
•
•
rhythmic flow is maintained overall, although tempo may vary
chords (and improvisation where appropriate) are accurate and performed securely
Grade A: Harmonisation
At a technical standard not beyond that of AB Grade III, the candidate can perform a harmonisation
in which:
•
•
good rhythmic flow is sustained throughout, at a consistently appropriate tempo
chords (and improvisation where appropriate) are accurate, performed securely and fully
reflect the harmonic rhythm of the piece
Grade C: Transposition
At a technical standard not beyond that of AB Grade III, the candidate can perform a transposition,
which demonstrates:
•
•
overall success in conveying the composer’s intentions with regard to tempo, phrasing and
dynamics
general accuracy in notes and rhythm
Music: Advanced Higher Course
15
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
•
•
Music (Advanced Higher)
musical flow and fluency
some sense of style
Grade A: Transposition
At a technical standard not beyond that of AB Grade III, the candidate can perform a transposition,
which displays:
•
•
•
•
a convincing interpretation of the composer’s intentions with regard to tempo, phrasing and
dynamics
accuracy in notes and rhythm
good musical flow
a very good sense of style
Grade C: Unseen Open Score
At a technical standard not beyond that of AB Grade III, the candidate achieves overall success in
responding to a soloist, producing a performance which demonstrates:
•
•
•
•
•
overall success in conveying the composer’s intentions with regard to tempo, phrasing and
dynamics
general accuracy in notes and rhythm
mainly secure technique
musical flow and fluency
some sense of style
Grade A: Unseen Open Score
At a technical standard not beyond that of AB Grade III, the candidate achieves overall success in
responding to a soloist, producing a performance which demonstrates:
•
•
•
•
•
a convincing interpretation of the composer’s intentions with regard to tempo, phrasing and
dynamics
accuracy in notes and rhythm
technical assurance
convincing musical flow and fluency
a very good sense of style
MUSIC: INVENTING – EXTENSION (AH)
Details of instruments for external assessment
All candidates are required to develop and demonstrate the inventing skills already identified as
appropriate for this level. In this unit, candidates are required to demonstrate greater breadth and
depth in creative use of the techniques for composing than in the 80-hour mandatory unit, with the
ability to deploy a broader range of concepts as identified in Appendix 2.
Evidence for external assessment:
•
•
an audio folio of composition(s) of 8–15 minutes’ duration with programme note outlining the
compositional process
a score or overall performance plan for each piece
Music: Advanced Higher Course
16
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Evidence to be retained by the centre:
•
•
a minimum of one taped composition and programme note per candidate
a score or overall performance plan for each taped piece
Where an extended work is offered (in excess of 15 minutes), the candidate would be expected to
draw attention to an appropriate passage for external assessment, and show through the programme
note and score/performance plan how the selected passage related to the work as a whole. The audio
folio should demonstrate appropriate developments of melody, rhythm, harmony and style, and be
arranged appropriately for performance purposes.
Where candidates choose to take a stimulus from another composer’s work to produce an
arrangement, a copy of the original will be required. In such cases, the candidate will be expected to
demonstrate a range of compositional skills through a substantial melodic, harmonic, rhythmic and
structural development of the borrowed musical ideas.
Any exceptional difficulties which prevent a centre taping a composition should be subject to
correspondence with the SQA so that appropriate arrangements for assessment may be investigated.
Grade descriptions
Candidates will be expected to show a greater depth of understanding and creativity in the
deployment of concepts than in the mandatory unit. (Exemplification to clarify the additional
demands in this extension unit is available on the CD ROM ‘Effective Music Teaching’.)
Grade C
A successful composition(s) showing some musical understanding and technical competence in
handling compositional techniques at this level and demonstrating:
•
•
•
•
evidence of structural planning
good handling of characteristic features in pitch and rhythm
appropriate use of timbre
satisfactory deployment of a range of concepts identified in the programme note
Grade A
Imaginative and well-crafted composition or compositions showing musical flair and a sound grasp of
compositional techniques at this level and demonstrating:
•
•
•
•
a well conceived structure
imaginative development of characteristic features in pitch and rhythm
imaginative and effective use of timbre
good deployment of a range of concepts identified in the programme note
MUSIC: LISTENING – EXTENSION (AH)
All candidates are required to develop and demonstrate greater depth and breadth of musical
discrimination identified as appropriate at this level.
Evidence for external assessment:
•
a dissertation of 3000–4000 words based on a musical topic of the candidate’s choice
Music: Advanced Higher Course
17
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Evidence to be retained by the centre:
•
•
a course log
related reports on at least five pieces of music played, sung or listened to covering an area of
musical repertoire which may be used as the basis for work leading to the course award
Grade descriptions
Exemplification of the required levels for each aspect will follow.
Grade C: Dissertation
A piece of work is produced, which shows:
•
•
•
•
•
evidence of individual initiative
understanding of the music heard
musical material developing the theme of the dissertation
evidence of planning and organisation
ideas adequately communicated
Grade A: Dissertation
A piece of work is produced, which shows:
•
•
•
•
•
evidence of individual initiative and thought
considerable understanding of and insight into the music heard
musical material well selected to develop the theme of the dissertation
good planning and organisation
ideas are well focused and clearly expressed
MUSIC: MIDI SEQUENCING (AH)
Details of the instruments for external assessment
All candidates are required to develop and demonstrate the MIDI sequencing skills already identified
as appropriate for the level.
Evidence for external assessment:
•
•
a practical test of about 3 hours* duration, in which candidates will set up and use a MIDI and
digital audio workstation to record and edit 2 pieces of Music lasting at least 3 minutes.
a stereo master recording of the candidate’s music as used in a project
The test is to be conducted under controlled conditions, and will require access to MIDI hardware
and software within the centre.
Evidence to be retained by the centre:
•
•
tape or MIDI file of a MIDI sequenced invention of at least four parts and one digital audio
part lasting at least 3 minutes
a stereo master of the candidate’s music as used in a project
Music: Advanced Higher Course
18
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Grade descriptions
Grade C: Stereo master and computer file of piece of music from practical test
Musical productions which demonstrate:
•
•
•
efficient and effective use of sequencing techniques
application of production concepts which shows some sense of musical understanding
creative and effective use of compositional techniques
Grade A: Stereo master and computer file of Inventions and Practical Tests
Musical productions which consistently demonstrate:
•
•
•
fluent and very effective use of sequencing techniques
imaginative application of production concepts which shows good depth of musical
understanding
imaginative and highly effective use of a range of compositional techniques
MUSIC: PERFORMING – EXTENSION 1 (AH) AND
PERFORMING – EXTENSION 2 (AH)
Details of the instruments for external assessment
All candidates are required to develop and demonstrate the additional performing skills already
identified as appropriate for Extension 1 or Extension 2.
Evidence for external assessment for Music: Performing – Extension 1:
•
perform solo and/or group a programme of contrasting pieces lasting 20-30 minutes in total to a
visiting examiner on a different instrument from that used in the mandatory unit
Evidence for external assessment for Music: Performing – Extension 2:
•
perform solo and/or group a programme of contrasting pieces lasting 25-30 minutes in total to a
visiting examiner on a different instrument from that used in the mandatory unit
Evidence to be retained by the centre for Music: Performing – Extension 1 and Music: Performing –
Extension 2:
Centres should also retain evidence to back up the documented assessments. This need not be for all
pieces contributing to the recital. It is recommended that a minimum of one performed piece per
candidate be taped.
Grade descriptions
The standard required for Performing 1 is equivalent to AB Grade VI or similar, and for Performing 2
is equivalent to AB Grade VII or similar. The instrument will be chosen from a different category to
that professed in the mandatory unit (Appendix I).
Music: Advanced Higher Course
19
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Grade C
The candidate’s performance demonstrates:
•
•
•
•
•
mainly secure technique
overall success in conveying the composer’s intentions with regard to tempo, phrasing and
dynamics
that, if they occur, any small lapses in intonation are quickly remedied
notes and rhythm satisfactorily communicating the sense of the music
musical flow, fluency and some sense of style
Grade A
The candidate’s performance demonstrates:
•
•
•
•
•
technical assurance and a good sense of style
musical sensitivity
secure intonation (where appropriate)
accuracy in pitch and rhythm
fluency
MUSIC: SOUND ENGINEERING AND PRODUCTION (AH)
Details of the instruments for external assessment
All candidates are required to develop and demonstrate the Sound Engineering and Production skills
already identified as appropriate for the level.
Evidence for external assessment:
•
submission of a stereo master recording of two or more contrasting pieces lasting a minimum
of 6–12 minutes using either stereo recording techniques or multi-track techniques.
For recordings using stereo techniques, each piece should have been compiled from at least 3 takes.
For recordings using multi-track techniques, the master should have been mixed from 8 or more
tracks for each piece.
•
•
•
a session log for each piece recorded.
a take sheet, an edit sheet and an annotated musical score or performance plan for each piece.
a listening test of aural discrimination and conceptual awareness of about an hour’s duration
Evidence to be retained by the centre:
•
•
•
•
a stereo master recording as for external assessment above.
a session log for each piece recorded.
a take sheet, an edit sheet and an annotated musical score or performance plan for each piece.
a listening test of concepts and techniques (internal assessment).
Music: Advanced Higher Course
20
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Grade descriptions
Grade C: Stereo Master
A competent stereo master recording, session log, take sheet, edit sheet and annotated musical
score/performance plan which demonstrates:
•
•
•
efficient and effective use of recording and mixing techniques
application of editing and production techniques which show some sense of musical
understanding
overall success in organisation and planning.
Grade A: Stereo Master
A highly competent stereo master recording, session log, take sheet, edit sheet and annotated musical
score/performance plan which demonstrates:
•
•
•
fluent and very effective use of recording and mixing techniques
imaginative application of editing and production techniques which show depth of musical
understanding
a high level of organisation and well-conceived planning.
Grade C: Test of Aural Discrimination and Conceptual Awareness
A listening test which demonstrates:
•
•
that relevant concepts, as identified in the unit, have been acquired and understood
adequate knowledge and understanding of the application of relevant concepts and techniques
in the musical context.
Grade A: Test of Aural Discrimination and Conceptual Awareness
A listening test which demonstrates:
•
•
that relevant concepts, as identified in the unit, have been acquired with greater depth of
understanding
broad and secure knowledge and understanding of the application of relevant concepts and
techniques in the musical context.
MUSIC: TRAINING AND DIRECTING (AH)
Details of the instruments for external assessment
Evidence for external assessment:
•
videotaped evidence of:
i
ii
iii
•
•
•
an early rehearsal demonstrating the starting point for both candidate and performers
a rehearsal mid-way illustrating the development which has taken place
a final performance of 5–15 minutes’ duration
candidate’s rehearsal log containing planning and evaluative information
viva voce based on rehearsal log content
an aural perception test of about an hour’s duration
Music: Advanced Higher Course
21
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Evidence to be retained by the centre:
•
•
•
rehearsal log
evidence of aural discriminatory skills from internal assessments
videotaped evidence of two rehearsals and a final performance
Assessment will be based on evidence of the development which has taken place across the rehearsal
period and the difficulty of the task in terms of the musical content and its associated challenges to
both the candidate and performers.
Grade descriptions
The standard of the music selected will be appropriate to the nature of and the abilities within the
performance group.
Grade C: Rehearsal Log – Selection/preparation of repertoire
Candidates will demonstrate musical perception in terms of:
•
•
•
selecting repertoire appropriate to available instrumental/vocal resources
selecting and preparing repertoire to meet the differing abilities of the performers
selecting repertoire appropriate to the performance situation
Grade A: Rehearsal Log – Selection/preparation of repertoire
Candidates will demonstrate a high level of musical perception in terms of:
•
•
•
selecting repertoire appropriate to available instrumental/vocal resources
selecting and preparing repertoire to meet the differing abilities of the performers
selecting repertoire appropriate to the performance situation
Grade C: Rehearsal Log – Evaluation of rehearsals/performance
Candidates will demonstrate confidence in terms of:
•
•
•
determining the capabilities and limitations of the performers
establishing clarity of appropriate targets for each rehearsal
ability to identify areas of strength and areas for development
Grade A: Rehearsal Log – Evaluation of rehearsals/performance
Candidates will demonstrate a high level of awareness in terms of:
•
•
•
determining the capabilities and limitations of the performers
establishing clarity of appropriate targets for each rehearsal
ability to identify areas of strength and areas for development
Music: Advanced Higher Course
22
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
Grade C: Musical Skills in rehearsals/performance
Candidates will demonstrate ability in terms of:
•
•
•
•
•
identifying inappropriate intonation, rhythm, tempi, phrasing
maintaining a clear and steady lead throughout the music
encouraging a sense of style
refining the performance with some regard to attention to detail
helping performers to communicate the music to the listener
Grade A: Musical Skills in rehearsals/performance
Candidates will demonstrate a high level of ability in terms of:
•
•
•
•
•
identifying inappropriate intonation, rhythm, tempi, phrasing
maintaining a clear and steady lead throughout the music
encouraging a real sense of style and sensitivity
refining the performance with regard to attention to detail
helping performers to communicate the music to the listener
Grade C: Management Skills in rehearsals/performance
Candidates will demonstrate ability in terms of:
•
•
•
ability to communicate intentions clearly and concisely
efficient use of preparation and rehearsal time
engaging and involving performers
Grade A: Management Skills in rehearsals/performance
Candidates will demonstrate a high degree of ability in terms of:
•
•
•
ability to communicate intentions clearly and concisely
the highly efficient and effective use of preparation and rehearsal time
engaging and enthusing performers
Grade C: Aural Perception test
Candidates will demonstrate ability in terms of:
•
•
•
correctly identifying errors in pitch, rhythm and intonation
making an accurate aural and stylistic analysis
commenting on rehearsal issues within an unseen score
Grade A: Aural Perception test
Candidates will demonstrate a high level of ability in terms of:
•
•
•
correctly identifying errors in pitch, rhythm and intonation
making an accurate and illuminating aural and stylistic analysis
commenting on rehearsal issues within an unseen score
Music: Advanced Higher Course
23
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
APPROACHES TO LEARNING AND TEACHING
Music is an intrinsically integrated discipline and the three elements of performing, inventing and
listening should be fully harnessed at all levels to provide stimulating and coherent coursework, tasks
and activities. Integrated learning experiences provide effective and efficient teaching opportunities,
enhance the quality of candidates’ learning, and help provide shared learning experiences when
individualised programmes are being followed.
Practical activities should form the framework of the Advanced Higher course, and it is, therefore,
appropriate to articulate with the integrated approach to performing, inventing and listening which
will have become familiar to many candidates and staff at Standard Grade, Higher and CSYS.
While the design of the course acknowledges and certificates the particular characteristics of performing,
inventing, listening and other related skills, it also encourages learning and teaching approaches which
illustrate the integration of music experience by harnessing the relationships among the elements.
Contexts for learning should meet the objectives stated in these approaches to learning and teaching
and provide opportunities for candidates to acquire knowledge and a practical understanding of
musical concepts. Such contexts, however, should not be limited to the teaching and acquisition of
essential knowledge and skills required for the examination. The wider aims of the course and the
needs of candidates will best be met through experiences which help them to develop the versatility,
skills and understanding applicable to a variety of musical situations.
There should be opportunities to listen to, create, rehearse and play music which illustrates particular
concepts while developing general understanding of melody, harmony, timbre, texture, structure and
design. At the same time, candidates will gain insights into the historical development of music and
the ways in which composers work.
Sharing music through group performances and listening to the music performed by others in the
class should provide a natural vehicle for the delivery of much of the Advanced Higher Music course.
Concepts assimilated in this meaningful, memorable and enjoyable fashion become part of the fabric
of the musical experience to be used in the development of candidates’ own creativity.
Such integrative approaches should naturally see candidates routinely using their best performing
skills to be creative, and using the now well-established technologies to aid the creative process as
appropriate. Candidates should be encouraged to create music for available instrumental and vocal
resources, and particularly for their instrument(s) professed in the Performing element. Audio
recording facilities, such as multi-track tape recorders and computers, should feature prominently
within the creative process to enable candidates to create ideas and then build or edit in a practical,
musical way. The concepts identified for inventing and listening assessment should feature
prominently within structured creative courses, thereby giving candidates a secure palette of
compositional devices and techniques for individual, creative deployment.
It is recommended that teachers/lecturers maintain regular supervision over the progress of
candidates’ course log keeping. This should involve no more than checking periodically, as needs
dictate, that a record is being kept in step with progress of work in the classroom, supplemented by
notes on other relevant musical activities in which the candidate may be involved.
Music: Advanced Higher Course
24
National Course Specification: course details (cont)
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
SPECIAL NEEDS
This course specification is intended to ensure that there are no artificial barriers to learning or
assessment. Special needs of individual candidates should be taken into account when planning
learning experiences, selecting assessment instruments or considering alternative outcomes for units.
For information on these, please refer to the SQA document Guidance on Special Assessment and
Certification Arrangements for Candidates with Special Needs/Candidates whose First Language is
not English (SQA, 1998).
SUBJECT GUIDES
A Subject Guide to accompany the Arrangements documents has been produced by the Higher Still
Development Unit (HSDU) in partnership with the Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum
(SCCC) and Scottish Further Education Unit (SFEU). The Guide provides further advice and
information about:
•
•
•
•
support materials for each course
learning and teaching approaches in addition to the information provided in the Arrangements
document
assessment
ensuring appropriate access for candidates with special educational needs
The Subject Guide is intended to support the information contained in the Arrangements document.
The SQA Arrangements documents contain the standards against which candidates are assessed.
Music: Advanced Higher Course
25
National Unit Specification: general information
UNIT
Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening
(Advanced Higher)
NUMBER
D349 13
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
SUMMARY
This unit seeks to allow candidates to use instruments and/or voice to perform a variety of pieces of
music. Through performing and listening activities, they will acquire and develop skills of aural
discrimination and conceptual awareness, and they will apply these skills and this knowledge
creatively in inventing tasks. The unit serves as a strong foundation for enjoyment of the subject, and
offers possibilities of progression towards fuller study at tertiary levels.
OUTCOMES
1
2
3
Perform music in various styles, solo and/or in group.
Demonstrate the creative use of compositional techniques.
Demonstrate discriminatory awareness of musical concepts (listed in Appendix 2) by
responding critically to music.
RECOMMENDED ENTRY
While entry is at the discretion of the centre, candidates will normally be expected to have attained
one of the following:
•
•
units or a course in Music at Higher
or equivalent
Administrative Information
Superclass:
LH
Publication date:
July 2000
Source:
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Version:
02
© Scottish Qualifications Authority 2000
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit is derived from
reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged.
Additional copies of this unit specification can be purchased from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. The cost for each
unit specification is £2.50 (minimum order £5).
26
National Unit Specification: general information (cont)
UNIT
Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening
(Advanced Higher)
CREDIT VALUE
2 credits at Advanced Higher.
CORE SKILLS
This unit gives automatic certification of the following:
Complete core skills for the unit
None
Core skills components for the unit
Critical Thinking
Planning and Organising
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening (AH)
Int 2
H
27
National Unit Specification: statement of standards
UNIT
Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening
(Advanced Higher)
Acceptable performance in this unit will be the satisfactory achievement of the standards set out in
this part of the unit specification. All sections of the statement of standards are mandatory and cannot
be altered without reference to the Scottish Qualifications Authority.
OUTCOME 1
Perform music in various styles, solo and/or in group.
Performance criteria
At a standard equivalent to Grade V (AB) or similar:
(a)
Demonstrate technical skills appropriate to the chosen instrument
•
•
(b)
notes and rhythm satisfactorily communicate the sense of the music
intonation (where appropriate) is sufficiently accurate to communicate the sense of the
music
Demonstrate the musical ability to interpret and express music through performing, and
improvising (where intrinsically appropriate to the vocal or instrumental performing style):
•
•
•
musical flow is maintained and the composer’s intentions are realised
points of musical style – tempo, phrasing and dynamics – are observed
success in supporting the performance of others in group music-making situations
Evidence requirements
Performance solo and/or in group of at least two contrasting pieces lasting 12–15 minutes in total.
The music chosen must be equivalent in task level to Grade V of the Associated Board or similar.
OUTCOME 2
Demonstrate the creative use of compositional techniques.
Performance criteria
(a) Create a structured product with evidence of planning.
(b) Deploy instrumental and/or vocal parts appropriately.
(c) Demonstrate creativity through the use of compositional concepts* which show a sound grasp
of compositional skills in developing melodic, harmonic and rhythmic ideas appropriate to the
medium.
*The concepts are given in Appendix 2 of the Arrangements Document.
Evidence requirements
•
an audio folio of composition or compositions of 5–12 minutes’ duration with programme
notes for each piece
•
a score or overall performance plan for each piece
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening (AH)
28
National Unit Specification: statement of standards (cont)
UNIT
Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening
(Advanced Higher)
Where ideas from the music of others feature, that is, in arrangements, a copy of the original source
will be required. In such cases, the candidate will be expected to demonstrate compositional skills
through the substantial reworking of music arranged. The audio folio should demonstrate appropriate
developments of melody, rhythm, harmony and structure and should be stylistically effective.
OUTCOME 3
Demonstrate discriminatory awareness of musical concepts (listed in Appendix 2 of the
Arrangements Document) by responding critically to music.
Performance criteria
(a) Correctly identify and clearly describe concepts in contrasting musical repertoire.
(b) Demonstrate sound understanding of the interrelationship between compositional techniques
and stylistic characteristics in two or more contrasting pieces.
Evidence requirements
•
evidence of aural discriminatory skills from internal assessments eg listening tests
•
a course log, reflecting music heard and the candidate’s understanding of concepts
•
related reports on music played, sung or listened to, covering at least two compositions which
will be used as a basis for work for the course award
The range of music to be studied will be drawn from a variety of periods and styles.
Moderation requirements
Details of the moderation arrangements which will apply to the internal assessment of this unit will
be issued in due course by the SQA.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening (AH)
29
National Unit Specification: support notes
UNIT
Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening
(Advanced Higher)
This part of the unit specification is offered as guidance. The support notes are not mandatory.
While the time allocated to this unit is at the discretion of the centre, the notional design length is
80 hours.
GUIDANCE ON CONTENT AND CONTEXT FOR THIS UNIT
The design of this unit acknowledges the particular characteristics of performing, inventing and
listening. It encourages learning and teaching approaches which harness the unity of music as an art
form through which skills in each aspect can be developed. Candidates should work with musical
concepts from a wide variety of styles. With this in mind, the musical concepts listed provide the
framework for activities at Advanced Higher.
GUIDANCE ON LEARNING AND TEACHING APPROACHES FOR THIS UNIT
The integrated approach to the teaching of performing, inventing and listening and related skills,
identified in the course specification, should be adopted for this unit.
Where appropriate, arrangements should be made to ensure that there will be no artificial barriers to
learning and assessment.
GUIDANCE ON APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENT FOR THIS UNIT
Teachers/lecturers will use Composing Task Level Descriptors (CTLDs) to ensure that a composition
is of an appropriate standard.
Further advice on assessment and standards to assist in determining an overall pass for the unit may
be found in the course specification.
SPECIAL NEEDS
This unit specification is intended to ensure that there are no artificial barriers to learning or
assessment. Special needs of individual candidates should be taken into account when planning
learning experiences, selecting assessment instruments or considering alternative outcomes for units.
For information on these, please refer to the SQA document Guidance on Special Assessment and
Certification Arrangements for Candidates with Special Needs/Candidates whose First Language is
not English (SQA, 1998).
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening (AH)
30
National Unit Specification: general information
UNIT
Music: Accompanying (Advanced Higher)
NUMBER
D355 13
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
SUMMARY
This unit seeks to allow candidates to accompany instrumentalists and/or vocalists in live
performances in both rehearsed/prepared and unseen/briefly prepared situations; after a short
preparation period the candidate will perform harmonisations of melodies with/without chord
symbols or figured bass, transpose up or down a tone and read from an open score.
OUTCOMES
1
2
3
4
5
Perform prepared accompaniments.
Perform a previously unseen accompaniment.
Harmonise previously seen and unseen melodies.
Transpose music.
Perform previously unseen music from an open score.
RECOMMENDED ENTRY
While entry is at the discretion of the centre, candidates will normally be required to demonstrate
performing ability on one of the following: a keyboard instrument; accordion; guitar; concert harp; or
clarsach. The accompaniments played should be equivalent in standard to Associated Board (AB)
Grade V.
Administrative Information
Superclass:
LH
Publication date:
July 2000
Source:
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Version:
02
© Scottish Qualifications Authority 2000
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit is derived from
reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged.
Additional copies of this unit specification can be purchased from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. The cost for each
unit specification is £2.50 (minimum order £5).
31
National Unit Specification: general information (cont)
UNIT
Music: Accompanying (Advanced Higher)
CREDIT VALUE
1 credit at Advanced Higher.
CORE SKILLS
There is no automatic certification of core skills or core skills components in this unit.
Additional information about core skills is published in Automatic Certification of Core Skills in
National Qualifications (SQA, 1999).
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Accompanying (AH)
32
National Unit Specification: statement of standards
UNIT
Music: Accompanying (Advanced Higher)
Acceptable performance in this unit will be the satisfactory achievement of the standards set out in
this part of the unit specification. All sections of the statement of standards are mandatory and cannot
be altered without reference to the Scottish Qualifications Authority.
NOTE ON RANGE FOR THE OUTCOME
For all outcomes, candidates will select from the following: a keyboard instrument; accordion; guitar;
concert harp; or clarsach.
OUTCOME 1
Perform prepared accompaniments.
Performance criteria
The minimum standard of the accompaniments should be equivalent to HS Advanced Higher
Performing (mandatory unit) or Grade V (AB).
(a)
Demonstrate technical skills in performing prepared accompaniments:
•
•
(b)
notes and rhythm are sufficiently correct to communicate the sense of the music
intonation is sufficiently accurate (where appropriate)
Demonstrate musical skills in performing prepared accompaniments:
•
•
•
musical flow is maintained
some points of musical style are in evidence
success is achieved in supporting the soloist
Evidence requirements
Performance of at least two contrasting accompaniments lasting 8–10 minutes in total.
OUTCOME 2
Perform a previously unseen accompaniment.
Performance criteria
The minimum standard of the accompaniment should not be beyond that of Intermediate 2
Performing (mandatory unit) or Grade III (AB) technical standard.
Demonstrate ability to perform a previously unseen accompaniment. The technical skills and
musicality of the performance should have the following features:
•
•
•
•
notes and rhythm are accurate enough to communicate the sense of the music
musical flow is maintained and the composer’s intentions are realised
points of musical style – tempo, phrasing and dynamics – are observed
success is achieved in supporting the soloist
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Accompanying (AH)
33
National Unit Specification: statement of standards (cont)
UNIT
Music: Accompanying (Advanced Higher)
Evidence requirements
Performance of a previously unseen accompaniment which has been prepared by the candidate under
test conditions. Preparation time will be allowed.
OUTCOME 3
Harmonise previously seen and unseen melodies.
Performance criteria
The technical requirements will not be beyond that of Intermediate 2 Performing or Grade III (AB).
(a)
Either:
Keyboard instruments (excepting electronic), accordion, concert harp and clarsach:
Harmonise a melody which may include from given chord symbols or figured bass in which:
•
•
the rhythmic flow is maintained overall, although the tempo may not be consistent
chords are sufficiently accurate for musical sense to be maintained
Or:
Guitar or electronic keyboard:
Harmonise a melody using improvisation as appropriate from given chord symbols or figured
bass in which:
•
•
(b)
the rhythmic flow is maintained overall, although the tempo may not be consistent
chords are sufficiently accurate for musical sense to be maintained
Harmonise a sample of five melodies
•
•
the rhythmic flow is maintained overall, although the tempo may not be consistent
chords are sufficiently accurate for musical sense to be maintained
Evidence requirements
(a) Either:
Realisation of a previously unseen melody with chord symbols and with 1–3 chord changes per
bar which has been prepared under test conditions.
Or:
Realisation of a previously unseen melody with figured bass (12–16 bars) which has been
prepared by the candidate under test conditions.
Preparation time will be given for test (a).
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Accompanying (AH)
34
National Unit Specification: statement of standards
UNIT
(b)
Music: Accompanying (Advanced Higher)
Performance of a sample of 5 from a collection of 8–10 previously prepared harmonisations. The
melodies, to be selected by the centre at the beginning of the unit, must include at least one of
classical, folk and pop styles. They should be in major/minor keys with up to two sharps and flats.
The harmonic vocabulary required should consist of:
•
•
•
•
•
primary triads in root position and first inversion
the cadential second inversion
the dominant 7th
the added 6th (where stylistically appropriate)
chords of the supertonic and submediant where appropriate
OUTCOME 4
Transpose music.
Performance criteria
At a standard not beyond that of Intermediate 2 (Performing) or Grade III (AB) or equivalent:
(a)
Transpose music to an adjacent key, in which:
•
•
•
musical flow is maintained
notes and rhythm are sufficiently correct to communicate the sense of the music
points of musical style – tempo, phrasing and dynamics – are observed
Evidence requirements
Transposition of previously unseen music of about 12-16 bars with single line melody in the treble
and some chords in the bass. The original and transposed keys will not go beyond the range of two
sharps or flats (major or minor). Preparation time for the test will be given.
OUTCOME 5
Perform previously unseen music from open score.
Performance criteria
At a technical standard not beyond that of Intermediate 2 (Performing) or Grade III (AB) or
equivalent.
(a)
Demonstrate technical skills in performing unseen music from open score:
•
(b)
notes and rhythm are sufficiently correct to communicate the sense of the music
Demonstrate musical skills in performing unseen music from open score:
•
•
musical flow is maintained
points of musical style are observed
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Accompanying (AH)
35
National Unit Specification: statement of standards (cont)
UNIT
Music: Accompanying (Advanced Higher)
Evidence requirements
For all keyboard instruments and accordion performance of a previously unseen score on three staves
(treble and bass clefs only), of about 16 bars in mainly homophonic style. For guitar, harp and
clarsach, a performance of previously unseen music from a score of a similar level of difficulty for
these instruments. Preparation time will be allowed.
Moderation requirements
Details of the moderation arrangements which will apply to the internal assessment of this unit will
be issued in due course by the SQA.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Accompanying (AH)
36
National Unit Specification: support notes
UNIT
Music: Accompanying (Advanced Higher)
This part of the unit specification is offered as guidance. The support notes are not mandatory.
While the time allocated to this unit is at the discretion of the centre, the notional design length is
40 hours.
GUIDANCE ON LEARNING AND TEACHING APPROACHES FOR THIS UNIT
Opportunities for learning and teaching the valuable skills described in Outcomes 2, 3, 4 and 5 may
be available within the day to day work of the Advanced Higher Music class. In guiding candidates
towards their choice of eight to ten melodies for practising harmonisation, teachers/lecturers should
be aware of the benefits in musical experience of including classical, folk and pop styles.
A list of useful publications from which teachers/lecturers can select suitable candidate practice
materials will be included in the support documents to follow.
GUIDANCE ON APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENT FOR THIS UNIT
Further advice on assessment and standards to assist in determining an overall pass for the unit may
be found in the course specification.
SPECIAL NEEDS
This unit specification is intended to ensure that there are no artificial barriers to learning or
assessment. Special needs of individual candidates should be taken into account when planning
learning experiences, selecting assessment instruments or considering alternative outcomes for units.
For information on these, please refer to the SQA document Guidance on Special Assessment and
Certification Arrangements for Candidates with Special Needs/Candidates whose First Language is
not English (SQA, 1998).
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Accompanying (AH)
37
National Unit Specification: general information
UNIT
Music: Inventing – Extension (Advanced Higher)
NUMBER
D350 13
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
SUMMARY
This unit seeks to allow candidates to make creative use of the tools of composition, including the
deployment of a range of concepts, arranging and improvising skills as appropriate, to produce
original music. Candidates will be able to produce a well-structured composition(s). This unit extends
the scope and demand in inventing beyond that required in the mandatory Music: Performing,
Inventing and Listening unit at Advanced Higher.
OUTCOME
Demonstrate the creative use of techniques of composition including the deployment of concepts.
RECOMMENDED ENTRY
While entry is at the discretion of the centre, candidates will normally benefit from having attained
one of the following:
•
•
relevant units or a course in Music at Higher level
or equivalent
CREDIT VALUE
1 credit at Advanced Higher.
Administrative Information
Superclass:
LF
Publication date:
July 2000
Source:
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Version:
02
© Scottish Qualifications Authority 2000
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit is derived from
reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged.
Additional copies of this unit specification can be purchased from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. The cost for each
unit specification is £2.50 (minimum order £5).
38
National Unit Specification: general information (cont)
UNIT
Music: Inventing – Extension (Advanced Higher)
CORE SKILLS
There is no automatic certification of core skills or core skills components in this unit.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Inventing – Extension (AH)
39
National Unit Specification: statement of standards
UNIT
Music: Inventing – Extension (Advanced Higher)
Acceptable performance in this unit will be the satisfactory achievement of the standards set out in
this part of the unit specification. All sections of the statement of standards are mandatory and cannot
be altered without reference to the Scottish Qualifications Authority.
OUTCOME
Demonstrate the creative use of techniques of composition, including the deployment of concepts.
Performance criteria
(a) Create a structured product with evidence of planning.
(b) Deploy instrumental and/or vocal parts appropriately.
(c) Demonstrate creativity through the use of compositional concepts which show a sound grasp of
compositional skills in developing melodic, harmonic and rhythmic ideas appropriate to the
medium.
Evidence requirements
•
an audio folio of composition or compositions of 8–15 minutes’ duration with programme
notes for each piece
•
a score or overall performance plan for each piece
Where an extended work is offered (in excess of 15 minutes), the candidate would be expected to
draw attention to an appropriate passage for assessment, and show through the score/performance
plan how the selected passage related to the work as a whole. The audio folio should demonstrate
appropriate developments of melody, rhythm, harmony and style, and be arranged appropriately for
performance purposes.
Where candidates choose to take a stimulus from another composer’s work to produce an
arrangement, a copy of the original will be required. In such cases, the candidate will be expected to
demonstrate a range of compositional skills through a substantial melodic, harmonic, rhythmic and
structural development of the borrowed musical ideas.
Moderation requirements
Details of the moderation arrangements which will apply to the internal assessment of this unit will
be issued in due course by the SQA.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Inventing – Extension (AH)
40
National Unit Specification: support notes
UNIT
Music: Inventing – Extension (Advanced Higher)
This part of the unit specification is offered as guidance. The support notes are not mandatory.
While the time allocated to this unit is at the discretion of the centre, the notional design length is
40 hours.
GUIDANCE ON CONTENT AND CONTEXT FOR THIS UNIT
Contexts for learning should meet the objectives stated for the element and provide opportunities for
candidates to acquire knowledge and a practical understanding of the concepts. Such contexts,
however, should not be limited to the teaching and acquisition of essential knowledge and skills
required to achieve the stated outcomes. The wider aims of assesssment and the needs of the
candidates will best be met through experiences which help them to develop the versatility, skills and
understanding applicable to a variety of musical situations. There should be opportunities to hear,
create, rehearse and play music which illustrates particular concepts. At the same time, candidates
will gain insights into the historical development of music, and the ways in which composers work.
GUIDANCE ON LEARNING AND TEACHING APPROACHES FOR THIS UNIT
For advice on learning and teaching refer to the course specification.
GUIDANCE ON APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENT FOR THIS UNIT
Teachers/lecturers will use Composing Task Level Descriptors (CTLDs) to ensure that a composition
is of an appropriate standard.
Further advice on assessment and standards to assist in determining an overall pass for the unit may
be found in the course specification.
SPECIAL NEEDS
This unit specification is intended to ensure that there are no artificial barriers to learning or
assessment. Special needs of individual candidates should be taken into account when planning
learning experiences, selecting assessment instruments or considering alternative outcomes for units.
For information on these, please refer to the SQA document Guidance on Special Assessment and
Certification Arrangements for Candidates with Special Needs/Candidates whose First Language is
not English (SQA, 1998).
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Inventing – Extension (AH)
41
National Unit Specification: general information
UNIT
Music: Listening – Extension (Advanced Higher)
NUMBER
D351 13
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
SUMMARY
This unit seeks to allow candidates to be able to respond critically to a range of music in a variety of
styles.
OUTCOME
Demonstrate discriminatory awareness of musical concepts by responding critically to music.
RECOMMENDED ENTRY
While entry is at the discretion of the centre, candidates will normally benefit from having attained
one of the following:
•
•
relevant units or a course at Higher level in Music
or equivalent
CREDIT VALUE
1 credit at Advanced Higher.
CORE SKILLS
There is no automatic certification of core skills or core skills components in this unit.
Administrative Information
Superclass:
LF
Publication date:
July 2000
Source:
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Version:
02
© Scottish Qualifications Authority 2000
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit is derived from
reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged.
Additional copies of this unit specification can be purchased from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. The cost for each
unit specification is £2.50 (minimum order £5).
42
National Unit Specification: statement of standards
UNIT
Music: Listening – Extension (Advanced Higher)
Acceptable performance in this unit will be the satisfactory achievement of the standards set out in
this part of the unit specification. All sections of the statement of standards are mandatory and cannot
be altered without reference to the Scottish Qualifications Authority.
OUTCOME
Demonstrate discriminatory awareness of musical concepts by responding critically to music.
Performance criteria
Demonstrate sound understanding of the interrelationship between appropriate conceptual and
stylistic features in 5 or more contrasting works.
Note on range for the outcome
•
the range of music to be selected will be dependent upon availability of printed and recorded
resource materials
•
candidates will be expected to comment on: melodic, rhythmic, harmonic and contrapuntal
features; stylistic characteristics; instruments and orchestration; vocal styles and techniques;
varied forms and structures (where appropriate).
Evidence requirements
•
a course log
•
related reports on at least five pieces of music played, sung or listened to, showing evidence of
candidates’ personal research, which may contribute to work for the course award
Moderation requirements
Details of the moderation arrangements which will apply to the internal assessment of this unit will
be issued in due course by the SQA.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Listening – Extension (AH)
43
National Unit Specification: support notes
UNIT
Music: Listening – Extension (Advanced Higher)
This part of the unit specification is offered as guidance. The support notes are not mandatory.
While the time allocated to this unit is at the discretion of the centre, the notional design length is
40 hours.
GUIDANCE ON CONTENT AND CONTEXT FOR THIS UNIT
Contexts for learning should meet the objectives stated for the element and provide opportunities for
candidates to acquire knowledge and a practical understanding of the concepts. Such contexts,
however, should not be limited to the teaching and acquisition of essential knowledge and skills
required to achieve the stated outcomes. The wider aims of assessment and the needs of the
candidates will best be met through experiences which help them to develop the versatility, skills and
understanding applicable to a variety of musical situations.
There should be opportunities to hear, create, rehearse and play music which illustrates particular
concepts. At the same time, candidates will gain insights into the historical development of music,
and the ways in which composers work.
GUIDANCE ON LEARNING AND TEACHING APPROACHES FOR THIS UNIT
At this level, where there is no external listening paper, the course log plays a significant part in
assisting candidates in the preparation of initial materials for related reports and in preparing for a
course award. It should enable candidates to collate information on key issues related to their chosen
area of study by recording concepts experienced and consolidated through a variety of musical
experiences which include listening, practical work and background reading, where appropriate.
Maintaining a course log will assist the reflective process which is central to effective preparation for
a listening unit and should enable candidates to offer personal insight on their selected study through
comparing and balancing the views encountered in listening and reading with those established
through personal, practical experiences.
GUIDANCE ON APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENT FOR THIS UNIT
Further advice on assessment and standards to assist in determining an overall pass for the unit may
be found in the course specification.
SPECIAL NEEDS
This unit specification is intended to ensure that there are no artificial barriers to learning or
assessment. Special needs of individual candidates should be taken into account when planning
learning experiences, selecting assessment instruments or considering alternative outcomes for units.
For information on these, please refer to the SQA document Guidance on Special Assessment and
Certification Arrangements for Candidates with Special Needs/Candidates whose First Language is
not English (SQA, 1998).
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Listening – Extension (AH)
44
National Unit Specification: general information
UNIT
Music: MIDI Sequencing (Advanced Higher)
NUMBER
D352 13
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
SUMMARY
This unit seeks to allow candidates to use digital music technology in a project environment to invent,
develop and produce music.
OUTCOMES
1
2
Use a MIDI and digital audio workstation to record and edit musical ideas.
Demonstrate creative use of a MIDI and digital audio workstation.
RECOMMENDED ENTRY
While entry is at the discretion of the centre, candidates will normally benefit from having attained:
•
•
relevant units or a course in Music at Higher level
experience of MIDI computer applications
Some experience of keyboard would be an advantage, as would experience of inventing music.
CREDIT VALUE
1 credit at Advanced Higher.
Administrative Information
Superclass:
LH
Publication date:
July 2000
Source:
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Version:
02
© Scottish Qualifications Authority 2000
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit is derived from
reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged.
Additional copies of this unit specification can be purchased from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. The cost for each
unit specification is £2.50 (minimum order £5).
45
National Unit Specification: general information (cont)
UNIT
Music: MIDI Sequencing (Advanced Higher)
CORE SKILLS
This unit gives automatic certification of the following:
Complete core skills for the unit
IT
Additional core skills components for the unit
Critical Thinking Int 2
Music: Unit Specification – Music: MIDI Sequencing (AH)
H
46
National Unit Specification: statement of standards
UNIT
Music: MIDI Sequencing (Advanced Higher)
Acceptable performance in this unit will be the satisfactory achievement of the standards set out in
this part of the unit specification. All sections of the statement of standards are mandatory and cannot
be altered without reference to the Scottish Qualifications Authority.
OUTCOME 1
Use a MIDI and digital audio workstation to record and edit musical ideas.
Performance criteria
(a) Connections and settings for workstation’s power, audio, and digital data are appropriate.
(b) Connections and settings for internal and external synchronisation are appropriate.
(c) Use of data inputting functions is fluent and accurate.
(d) Use of audio recording functions is fluent and accurate.
(e) Use of editing functions is fluent and accurate.
(f)
Use of mixing functions is fluent and accurate.
Note on range for the outcome
Inputting functions: MIDI in; analogue audio input; digital audio input; sample rate synchronisation.
Editing functions for: pitch, rhythm and velocity of MIDI notes; common MIDI controllers; cut, copy,
delete and paste of audio data; song structure.
Evidence requirements
Evidence of actual performance is required to show that the candidate can use all of the functions.
Candidates are asked to use a sequencer to invent a backing track with at least four parts, lasting at
least 3 minutes. They will add a recording of a ‘live’ instrument or voice. There is no requirement for
the audio part to be 3 minutes long; 16 bars is the minimum length. The piece should be edited and
mixed to stereo master. In addition, a disc containing the sequenced data stored as a MIDI file must
be submitted.
OUTCOME 2
Demonstrate creative use of a MIDI and digital audio workstation.
Performance criteria
(a) Research and planning are imaginative and effective.
(b) Techniques of invention are used creatively and effectively.
(c) Techniques of MIDI sequencing are used creatively and effectively.
(d) Techniques of digital audio recording are used creatively and effectively.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: MIDI Sequencing (AH)
47
National Unit Specification: statement of standards (cont)
UNIT
Music: MIDI Sequencing (Advanced Higher)
Evidence requirements
The work of this outcome takes the form of a project. Candidates use digital and analogue equipment
to produce a master recording which has been edited and refined to a high standard. Some projects
are suggested below. Evidence comprises: a log of the candidate’s work on the project; an account
summarising the stimulus, planning and execution of the project; the final presentation. The project
should be recorded onto the medium which best demonstrates its features, for example, video, CDROM.
Moderation requirements
Details of the moderation arrangements which will apply to the internal assessment of this unit will
be issued in due course by the SQA.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: MIDI Sequencing (AH)
48
National Unit Specification: support notes
UNIT
Music: MIDI Sequencing (Advanced Higher)
This part of the unit specification is offered as guidance. The support notes are not mandatory.
While the time allocated to this unit is at the discretion of the centre, the notional design length is
40 hours.
GUIDANCE ON CONTENT AND CONTEXT FOR THIS UNIT
This unit allows candidates to gain experience and competence in the use of a MIDI and digital audio
workstation. Technical and creative skills are called upon in the development and production of a
piece of music which can be either the candidate’s original idea, or a new arrangement of an existing
piece. This unit includes an amount of digital recording of performers, and synchronising these to
sequenced parts. Candidates will be encouraged to relate their musical and technical knowledge and
skills of aural discrimination to the assessment of performances.
In addition to developing the skills and techniques of musical invention, candidates gain a strong
conceptual understanding of the assembly and operation of MIDI and digital audio hardware devices,
including computers, audio cards; sound sources and keyboards.
The minimum amount of equipment necessary to offer this unit is: a computer or hardware sequencer
with simultaneous digital audio; a sound module or synthesiser, at least 6-part multi-timbral; a MIDI
keyboard; a stereo amplifier (such as the type used in a hi-fi); appropriate leads and connectors.
GUIDANCE ON LEARNING AND TEACHING APPROACHES FOR THIS UNIT
Although MIDI technology can be used simply to recreate music, it is most rewarding when used as a
means of synthesising, developing and refining musical ideas. In order that technical problems do not
impede the flow of these ideas, candidates must achieve familiarity and fluency with software and
hardware. It is important that technical skills are learnt in the context of inventing. One of the most
rewarding aspects of MIDI sequencing is its immediacy; as soon as the candidate has an idea, it can
be recorded, played, edited and further developed. As these ideas go through the process of
development and refinement, so technical skills are assimilated.
Where appropriate, arrangements should be made to ensure that there will be no artificial barriers to
learning and assessment. The nature of candidates’ special needs should be taken into account when
planning learning experiences and selecting assessment instruments. Alternative arrangements may
be made as necessary.
GUIDANCE ON APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENT FOR THIS UNIT
In outcome 1, candidates are asked to use a sequencer to invent a backing track with at least four
parts, lasting at least 3 minutes. They will add a recording of a ‘live’ instrument or voice. The piece
should be edited and mixed to stereo master. In addition, a disc containing the sequenced data stored
as a MIDI file must be submitted. It would be advantageous if sounds were drawn from a General
MIDI (GM) sound source. Where a non-GM sound source is used, however, this should be noted
within the file, on the storage medium, or in an accompanying note, as appropriate to the sequencer.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: MIDI Sequencing (AH)
49
National Unit Specification: support notes (cont)
UNIT
Music: MIDI Sequencing (Advanced Higher)
In either case, tracks should be named, with program change and volume parameters set at the start.
There will be a practical test on candidates’ use of digital recording, editing and filing functions.
The work of outcome 2 takes the form of a project. Candidates use digital and analogue equipment to
produce a master recording which has been edited and refined to a high standard. Some projects are
suggested below. Evidence comprises: a log of the candidate’s work on the project; an account
summarising the stimulus, planning, and execution of the project; and the final presentation. The
project should be recorded onto the medium which best demonstrates its features, for example, video,
CD-ROM.
Other guidance
Examples of projects:
A programme of at least three pieces of pop music in contrasting styles. Pieces will have live vocals
and, if appropriate, other live instruments. Although new arrangements of existing pop songs are
acceptable, exact re-creations are not.
Re-creating the feel of one or more ‘real’ instruments in three pieces in contrasting styles (perhaps
the movements of a concerto). MIDI programming skills will be used to reflect nuances in timing,
timbre, pitch, etc give the impression of a ‘real’ performance.
Create and sequence music and effects to accompany a film, a television programme or a multimedia
presentation of around 10 minutes’ duration. This may require access to timecode (SMPTE)
equipment, although many multimedia computers are already able to synchronise music and video.
SPECIAL NEEDS
This unit specification is intended to ensure that there are no artificial barriers to learning or
assessment. Special needs of individual candidates should be taken into account when planning
learning experiences, selecting assessment instruments or considering alternative outcomes for units.
For information on these, please refer to the SQA document Guidance on Special Assessment and
Certification Arrangements for Candidates with Special Needs/Candidates whose First Language is
not English (SQA, 1998).
Music: Unit Specification – Music: MIDI Sequencing (AH)
50
National Unit Specification: general information
UNIT
Music: Performing – Extension 1 (Advanced Higher)
NUMBER
D2KB 13
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
SUMMARY
This unit seeks to allow candidates to use an instrument or voice to perform a variety of pieces of
music solo and/or group situations. This unit extends the scope and demands in performing to a level
beyond that required in the mandatory Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening unit.
OUTCOME
Perform music in various styles, solo and/or in group.
RECOMMENDED ENTRY
While entry is at the discretion of the centre, candidates will normally benefit from having attained:
•
•
•
units in Performing or a course in Music at Higher
Grade VI (AB)
or equivalent
CREDIT VALUE
1 credit at Advanced Higher.
Administrative Information
Superclass:
LH
Publication date:
July 2000
Source:
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Version:
02
© Scottish Qualifications Authority 2000
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit is derived from
reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged.
Additional copies of this unit specification can be purchased from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. The cost for each
unit specification is £2.50 (minimum order £5).
51
National Unit Specification: general information (cont)
UNIT
Music: Performing – Extension 1 (Advanced Higher)
CORE SKILLS
There is no automatic certification of core skills or core skills components in this unit.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Performing – Extension 1 (AH)
52
National Unit Specification: statement of standards
UNIT
Music: Performing – Extension 1 (Advanced Higher)
Acceptable performance in this unit will be the satisfactory achievement of the standards set out in
this part of the unit specification. All sections of the statement of standards are mandatory and cannot
be altered without reference to the Scottish Qualifications Authority.
OUTCOME
Perform music in various styles, solo and/or in group.
Performance criteria
The standard of performance required is equivalent to that for Grade VI (AB).
(a)
Demonstrate technical skills appropriate to the chosen instrument:
•
•
(b)
notes and rhythm are sufficiently accurate to communicate the sense of the music
intonation (where appropriate) is sufficiently accurate
Demonstrate ability to interpret and express music through performing and (where appropriate)
improvising:
•
•
•
musical flow is maintained and the composer’s intentions are realised
points of musical style are observed
success in supporting the performance of others is achieved in group music-making
situations.
Evidence requirements
Tape recordings of solo and/or group performances lasting 20–30 minutes in total, as appropriate.
The music chosen must be equivalent in task level to Grade VI of the Associated Board of the Royal
Schools of Music.
Moderation requirements
Details of the moderation arrangements which will apply to the internal assessment of this unit will
be issued in due course by the SQA.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Performing – Extension 1 (AH)
53
National Unit Specification: support notes
UNIT
Music: Performing – Extension 1 (Advanced Higher)
This part of the unit specification is offered as guidance. The support notes are not mandatory.
While the time allocated to this unit is at the discretion of the centre, the notional design length is
40 hours.
GUIDANCE ON CONTENT AND CONTEXT FOR THIS UNIT
The design of this unit acknowledges the particular characteristics of performing. It encourages
learning and teaching approaches which harness the unity of music as an art form through which
skills in each aspect can be developed. Candidates should work with musical concepts from a wide
variety of styles.
GUIDANCE ON LEARNING AND TEACHING APPROACHES FOR THIS UNIT
The integrated approach to the teaching of performing, inventing and listening and related skills,
identified in the course specification, should be adopted for this unit.
GUIDANCE ON APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENT FOR THIS UNIT
Further advice on assessment and standards to assist in determining an overall pass for the unit may
be found in the course specification.
SPECIAL NEEDS
This unit specification is intended to ensure that there are no artificial barriers to learning or
assessment. Special needs of individual candidates should be taken into account when planning
learning experiences, selecting assessment instruments or considering alternative outcomes for units.
For information on these, please refer to the SQA document Guidance on Special Assessment and
Certification Arrangements for Candidates with Special Needs/Candidates whose First Language is
not English (SQA, 1998).
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Performing – Extension 1 (AH)
54
National Unit Specification: general information
UNIT
Music: Performing – Extension 2 (Advanced Higher)
NUMBER
D2KC 13
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
SUMMARY
This unit seeks to allow candidates to use an instrument or voice to perform a variety of pieces of
music solo and/or in group situations. This unit extends the scope and demands in performing to a
level beyond that required in the mandatory Music: Performing, Inventing and Listening, 80-hour
unit.
OUTCOME
Perform music in various styles, solo and/or in group.
RECOMMENDED ENTRY
While entry is at the discretion of the centre, candidates will normally benefit from having attained:
•
•
•
units in Performing or a course in Music at Higher
Grade VII (AB); or
or equivalent
CREDIT VALUE
1 credit at Advanced Higher.
Administrative Information
Superclass:
LH
Publication date:
July 2000
Source:
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Version:
02
© Scottish Qualifications Authority 2000
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit is derived from
reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged.
Additional copies of this unit specification can be purchased from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. The cost for each
unit specification is £2.50 (minimum order £5).
55
National Unit Specification: general information (cont)
UNIT
Music: Performing – Extension 2 (Advanced Higher)
CORE SKILLS
There is no automatic certification of core skills or core skills components in this unit.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Performing – Extension 2 (AH)
56
National Unit Specification: statement of standards
UNIT
Music: Performing – Extension 2 (Advanced Higher)
Acceptable performance in this unit will be the satisfactory achievement of the standards set out in
this part of the unit specification. All sections of the statement of standards are mandatory and cannot
be altered without reference to the Scottish Qualifications Authority.
OUTCOME
Perform music in various styles, solo and/or in group.
Performance criteria
The standard of performance required is equivalent to that for Grade VII (AB).
(a)
Demonstrate technical skills appropriate to the chosen instrument:
•
•
(b)
notes and rhythm are accurate to communicate the sense of the music
intonation (where appropriate) is accurate
Demonstrate ability to interpret and express music through performing and (where appropriate)
improvising:
•
•
•
musical flow is maintained and the composer’s intentions are fully realised
points of musical style are observed
success in supporting the performance of others is achieved in group situations
Evidence requirements
Tape recordings of solo and/or group performances lasting 25–30 minutes in total, as appropriate.
The music chosen must be equivalent in task level to Grade VII of the Associated Board of the Royal
Schools of Music.
Moderation requirements
Details of the moderation arrangements which will apply to the internal assessment of this unit will
be issued in due course by the SQA.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Performing – Extension 2 (AH)
57
National Unit Specification: support notes
UNIT
Music: Performing – Extension 2 (Advanced Higher)
This part of the unit specification is offered as guidance. The support notes are not mandatory.
While the time allocated to this unit is at the discretion of the centre, the notional design length is
40 hours.
GUIDANCE ON CONTENT AND CONTEXT FOR THIS UNIT
The design of this unit acknowledges the particular characteristics of performing. It encourages
learning and teaching approaches which harness the unity of music as an art form through which
skills in each aspect can be developed. Candidates should work with musical concepts from a wide
variety of styles, such as baroque, classical, romantic, popular, folk, chromatic, atonal and serial.
GUIDANCE ON LEARNING AND TEACHING APPROACHES FOR THIS UNIT
The integrated approach to the teaching of performing, inventing and listening and related skills,
identified in the course specification, should be adopted for this unit.
GUIDANCE ON APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENT FOR THIS UNIT
Further advice on assessment and standards to assist in determining an overall ‘pass’ for the unit may
be found in the course specification.
SPECIAL NEEDS
This unit specification is intended to ensure that there are no artificial barriers to learning or
assessment. Special needs of individual candidates should be taken into account when planning
learning experiences, selecting assessment instruments or considering alternative outcomes for units.
For information on these, please refer to the SQA document Guidance on Special Assessment and
Certification Arrangements for Candidates with Special Needs/Candidates whose First Language is
not English (SQA, 1998).
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Performing – Extension 2 (AH)
58
National Unit Specification: general information
UNIT
Music: Sound Engineering and Production
(Advanced Higher)
NUMBER
D354 13
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
SUMMARY
This unit seeks to allow students to use stereo or multi-track recording techniques, production skills
and digital editing techniques to produce stereo master recordings.
OUTCOMES
1
2
Demonstrate secure understanding of the recording and production of musical performances
using either stereo or multi-track recording techniques.
Demonstrate creativity and musicality through using digital editing and processing to compile a
stereo master.
RECOMMENDED ENTRY
While entry is at the discretion of the centre students will normally benefit from having attained:
•
•
a unit in Music: Sound Engineering and Production at Higher; or
similar experience of recording.
CREDIT VALUE
1 credit at Advanced Higher.
Administrative Information
Superclass:
KG
Publication date:
July 2000
Source:
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Version:
02
© Scottish Qualifications Authority 2000
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit is derived from
reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged.
Additional copies of this unit specification can be purchased from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. The cost for each
unit specification is £2.50 (minimum order £5).
59
National Unit Specification: general information (cont)
UNIT
Music: Sound Engineering and Production
(Advanced Higher)
CORE SKILLS
It is likely that attainment of this unit would lead to the automatic award of:
Complete core skills for the unit
None
Core skills components for the unit
Planning and Organising
H
A final statement will be provided at a later date by the Scottish Qualifications Authority, once full
validation procedures are complete. The Subject Guide indicates how learning and teaching methods
commonly used in this subject can permit further core skills components to be claimed. This will
require evidence of attainment to be gathered and held for moderation, using relevant dedicated core
skills units.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Sound Engineering and Production (AH)
60
National Unit Specification: statement of standards
UNIT
Music: Sound Engineering and Production
(Advanced Higher)
OUTCOME 1
Demonstrate secure understanding of the recording and production of musical performances using
either stereo or multi-track recording techniques.
Performance criteria
(a) Management of recording sessions with regard to location, performers and resources is
constructive and effective.
(b) Analysis and evaluation of acoustic properties of the recording environment is effective and
appropriate.
(c) Deployment of recording techniques and microphone placement is accurate, creative and
appropriate.
(d) Production of recording sessions with regard to musical performance and sound quality is
creative and effective.
Note on range for the outcome
Management of recording sessions: organising and liaising with performers; layout of performers and
equipment; maintenance of session log; labelling and storage of media.
Acoustic properties: room size and shape; surface material; reverberation time; acoustical problems;
frequency response.
Recording techniques and microphone placement: microphone selection and positioning; polar
patterns/pick-up patterns; microphone height, angle, distance; gain; level; slating takes; equalisation;
use of appropriate controls, effects, processes; headphone and loudspeaker monitoring.
Production: assessing and directing recording takes; interpersonal skills; musical performance –
pitch, rhythm, dynamics, timing, intonation, interpretation; sound quality – effective and appropriate
use of recording techniques and microphone placement.
Evidence requirements
Performance evidence of candidate’s ability to organise, set up, engineer and produce a recording of
two or more contrasting pieces lasting 6–12 minutes in total duration.
For recordings using stereo techniques, the pieces should be recorded with four or more microphones
and mixed straight to stereo. They should be performed by two different groups, one of which must
have four or more musicians. At least three takes of each piece should be recorded.
For recordings using multi-track techniques, 8 or more tracks should be used for each piece.
Evidence in the form of a session log and take sheet, detailing the layout and progress of the session.
For stereo recordings there should be detailed comments on each take while for multi-track
recordings there should be details of each track recorded and any controls, effects and process used.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Sound Engineering and Production (AH)
61
National Unit Specification: statement of standards (cont)
UNIT
Music: Sound Engineering and Production
(Advanced Higher)
OUTCOME 2
Demonstrate creativity and musicality through using digital editing and processing to compile a
stereo master.
Performance criteria
(a) Analysis and evaluation of individual takes or sections with regard to all aspects of musical
performance and sound are effective.
(b) Connections and settings for audio and digital data are appropriate.
(c) Identification of edit points is accurate and appropriate.
(d) Identification and selection of replacement sections are accurate.
(e) Use of structure and data editing functions are fluent and accurate
(f)
Understanding of concepts and techniques involved in digital editing and processing is sound.
Note on range for the outcome
Analysis and evaluation: musical performance; sound quality.
Aspects of sound: analogue-digital conversion; digital-analogue conversion; digital audio input and
output; sample rate; quantisation; data transfer and storage.
Editing functions: edit points; cut, copy and paste; defining regions; silence; fade-in; fade-out;
normalise; gain.
Evidence requirements
Recorded evidence in the form of a stereo master recording of the edited/mixed down performances
of two or more contrasting pieces lasting 6–12 minutes in total duration.
Evidence in the form of an edit sheet and annotated musical score or performance plan. For multitrack recordings there should be details on the final mix from multi-track to stereo master.
Evidence from a listening test paper is required to demonstrate knowledge of the concepts and
techniques involved.
Moderation requirements
Details of the moderation arrangements which will apply to the internal assessment of this unit will
be issued in due course by the SQA.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Sound Engineering and Production (AH)
62
National Unit Specification: support notes
UNIT
Music: Sound Engineering and Production
(Advanced Higher)
GUIDANCE ON CONTENT AND CONTEXT FOR THIS UNIT
This unit allows students to gain wide experience of and competence in stereo or multi-track
recording and digital editing techniques, and to apply musical knowledge and aural discrimination to
the development of production skills.
Aural discrimination with regard to musical performances and sound quality is essential for a
successful creative and musical production.
When using microphones students should be aware that microphone techniques and placement are
critical to the quality of the recording and that exact microphone placement and choice of technique
depend upon the many factors related to the actual recording situation.
When recording using stereo techniques equalisation should be used judiciously as it can affect all
the instruments/voices in an ensemble. Pan controls should be used to reflect a natural stereo image.
Different takes should be recorded of each piece and all takes should be recorded and mixed live to
stereo.
When recording using multi-track techniques equalisation, effects and processors should be used
appropriately. After editing, a number of mixes should be made of each piece.
When analysing or evaluating recordings and when using digital editing, takes and mixes should be
played over speakers.
As students may be expected to set up and dismantle equipment for each session, industry
conventions and standards on health and safety and handling of equipment must be observed. A
circuit breaker plug or adapter should be used at all times to minimise the risk of electric shock.
GUIDANCE ON LEARNING AND TEACHING APPROACHES FOR THIS UNIT
As Sound Engineering and Production skills are essentially practical and creative, learning and
teaching should be practical and fully integrated with and related to music.
This unit can be central to the three main areas of music: performing, inventing and listening.
As students should be responsible for taking production decisions, it is essential that they relate their
musical knowledge and aural discrimination to the process of recording and producing and that they
continually collaborate and liaise closely with the performers.
When recording students should compare their takes and mixes with commercially available
recordings of similar types of music that use similar recording techniques.
There should be opportunities to record various styles of music performed by a variety of ensembles
to develop and broaden experience.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Sound Engineering and Production (AH)
63
National Unit Specification: support notes (cont)
UNIT
Music: Sound Engineering and Production
(Advanced Higher)
Where appropriate, arrangements should be made to ensure that there will be no artificial barriers to
learning and assessment. The nature of students’ special needs should be taken into account when
planning learning experiences and selecting assessment instruments. Alternative arrangements can be
made as necessary.
GUIDANCE ON APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENT FOR THIS UNIT
Further advice on assessment and standards to assist in determining an overall ‘pass’ for the unit may
be found in the course specification.
SPECIAL NEEDS
This unit specification is intended to ensure that there are no artificial barriers to learning or
assessment. Special needs of individual candidates should be taken into account when planning
learning experiences, selecting assessment instruments or considering alternative outcomes for units.
For information on these, please refer to the SQA document Guidance on Special Assessment and
Certification Arrangements for Candidates with Special Needs/Candidates whose First Language is
not English (SQA, 1998).
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Sound Engineering and Production (AH)
64
National Unit Specification: general information
UNIT
Music: Training and Directing (Advanced Higher)
NUMBER
D358 13
COURSE
Music (Advanced Higher)
SUMMARY
This unit seeks to allow candidates, taking responsibility under supervision, prepare, rehearse and
direct a programme of music for performance. They will show awareness of the aural and technical
skills associated with conducting and directing. The organisation and direction of a musical
performance is a natural development for candidates, allowing the application of performing,
inventing and listening skills in a musical context. In addition, it offers opportunities to exercise
interpersonal skills associated with leading and inspiring others.
OUTCOMES
1
2
3
Prepare a programme of music for performance.
Rehearse and direct a programme of music in performance.
Integrate aural and reading skills.
RECOMMENDED ENTRY
While entry is at the discretion of the centre, candidates will normally benefit from having attained
one of the following:
•
•
a unit or a course in Music at Higher
or equivalent
Administrative Information
Superclass:
LH
Publication date:
July 2000
Source:
Scottish Qualifications Authority
Version:
02
© Scottish Qualifications Authority 2000
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes provided that no profit is derived from
reproduction and that, if reproduced in part, the source is acknowledged.
Additional copies of this unit specification can be purchased from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. The cost for each
unit specification is £2.50 (minimum order £5).
65
National Unit Specification: general information (cont)
UNIT
Music: Training and Directing (Advanced Higher)
CREDIT VALUE
1 credit at Advanced Higher.
CORE SKILLS
There is no automatic certification of core skills or core skills components in this unit.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Training and Directing (AH)
66
National Unit Specification: statement of standards
UNIT
Music: Training and Directing (Advanced Higher)
Acceptable performance in this unit will be the satisfactory achievement of the standards set out in
this part of the unit specification. All sections of the statement of standards are mandatory and cannot
be altered without reference to the Scottish Qualifications Authority.
OUTCOME 1
The standard of the music selected will be appropriate to the nature of, and the abilities within, the
performance group.
Prepare a programme of music for performance.
Performance criteria
Preparation of selected repertoire is appropriate and demonstrates that:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Musical features which are appropriate to the style have been identified.
Literacy skills to ensure knowledge and understanding of appropriate musical features are
apparent.
Likely musical challenges for performers have been identified.
Account is taken of the need for effective organisation of resources for the performance venue,
and is carried out.
Evidence requirements
A rehearsal log (see support notes and Appendix 4), detailing information on the preparation of
music.
OUTCOME 2
Rehearse and direct a programme of music in performance.
Performance criteria
(a) Demonstrate appropriate aural and communicative musical skills, by:
•
•
(b)
Demonstrate appropriate management skills, through:
•
•
•
•
(c)
recognising errors in pitch, rhythm, entry, intonation and balance
communicating and explaining beat, tempo, dynamics, entry signals, with evaluative
comment to improve performance
effective time management of rehearsals and rehearsal schedule
effective interpersonal skills which improve performance
striking a good balance of informed, constructive criticism and encouragement
creating and sustaining a positive and motivating rapport with performers
Demonstrate appropriate evaluative skills (in rehearsals/within the rehearsal log), through:
•
•
recognising the challenges for performers
preparing incisively for rehearsals
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Training and Directing (AH)
67
National Unit Specification: statement of standards (cont)
UNIT
Music: Training and Directing (Advanced Higher)
Evidence requirements
•
performance evidence on video tape of:
i
ii
iii
an early rehearsal demonstrating the starting point
a rehearsal mid-point, illustrating the development which has taken place
a final performance of 5-15 minutes’ duration with teacher/lecturer observation notes
The total length of performance evidence need be no more than 30 minutes’ duration.
•
candidate’s rehearsal log containing planning and evaluative information
OUTCOME 3
Integrate aural and reading skills.
Performance criteria
(a) Demonstrate appropriate aural perception skills, by:
•
•
(b)
Demonstrate appropriate reading skills, by:
•
(c)
recognising errors in pitch, rhythm, entry, intonation and balance
analysis of stylistic features.
analysis of stylistic features.
Demonstrate ability to prepare an unseen score by:
•
identifying rehearsal issues.
Evidence requirements
•
evidence from short tests of the candidate’s ability to identify inaccuracies aurally and
comment on features listed in the performance criteria
•
evidence of the candidate’s ability to identify rehearsal issues from previously unseen scores
Moderation requirements
Details of the moderation arrangements which will apply to the internal assessment of this unit will
be issued in due course by the SQA.
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Training and Directing (AH)
68
National Unit Specification: support notes
UNIT
Music: Training and Directing (Advanced Higher)
This part of the unit specification is offered as guidance. The support notes are not mandatory.
While the time allocated to this unit is at the discretion of the centre, the notional design length is
40 hours.
GUIDANCE ON LEARNING AND TEACHING FOR THIS UNIT
The video camera should be viewed not only as an assessment requirement which documents the
development which has taken place during the duration of the unit, but as a valuable teaching and
discussion tool. It will allow teachers/lecturers and candidates to review the performance of both
trainer/director and performers thereby enabling candidates to consider appropriate remediation
strategies for ensuing rehearsals. Such material will also be referred to in a candidate’s rehearsal log
helping to illustrate how the video information has been deployed as a natural part of continuous selfevaluation.
GUIDANCE ON APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENT FOR THIS UNIT
Candidates should be continuously assessed to assist in the development of skills and techniques, and
informal self/peer assessment should be encouraged.
Summative assessment should be related to the requirements of each outcome.
Guidance on specific performance issues is given in Appendix 5.
Rehearsal Log
The rehearsal log should be an ongoing series of notes containing:
•
•
•
•
the candidate’s comments on selection, preparation and target setting for repertoire and
rehearsal
a checklist for use in preparation and implementation stages
rehearsal and performance evaluations, review and remediation strategies
plans for rehearsal procedures and time management
Further advice on assessment and standards to assist in determining an overall pass for the unit may
be found in the course specification.
SPECIAL NEEDS
This unit specification is intended to ensure that there are no artificial barriers to learning or
assessment. Special needs of individual candidates should be taken into account when planning
learning experiences, selecting assessment instruments or considering alternative outcomes for units.
For information on these, please refer to the SQA document Guidance on Special Assessment and
Certification Arrangements for Candidates with Special Needs/Candidates whose First Language is
not English (SQA, 1998).
Music: Unit Specification – Music: Training and Directing (AH)
69
Appendices
70
Appendix 1
Music (Advanced Higher)
CATEGORIES OF INSTRUMENTS FOR PERFORMING UNITS
Where candidates are presented for an optional unit in Performing, it will have to be taken on a different
instrument from that professed in the mandatory unit. This can be done by selecting instruments from
two separate categories. It is also possible on occasion for the two instruments to come from within the
same category. There are a number of cases where this is not possible and these are detailed below.
Categories
Prohibited choice of two
different instruments
Accordion
Any two instruments of the Accordion
family
Bass Guitar
Bass guitar and double bass
Bagpipes/Chanter
Any two instruments of the Bagpipe
family; bagpipe/chanter with the tin
whistle
Brass
2 valve/2 slide
Drumkit/Timpani/Snare
drum
Additional Information
Chanter for levels up to and including
Intermediate 1 only
At levels up to and including
Intermediate 2, performances may be on
one or more instruments. For Higher and
Advanced Higher candidates are required
to play on a minimum of two instruments
chosen from drumkit/timpani/snare drum.
See important notes for additional
information.
Guitar
Any combination of 6 and/or 12 string
guitars
Harp/Clarsach
Any two instruments of the harp/clarsach
family
Keyboard
Any two keyboard instruments
Strings
Any two instruments of violin/fiddle/
viola/mandolin
Tuned Percussion
Any two tuned percussion instruments
See important notes for additional
information
Any two single reed instruments; any
two of the flute family; any two oboes
including the Cor Anglais; any two
bassoons. Recorder/tin whistle with any
other woodwind instrument
At Higher Extension level and Advanced
Higher levels, candidates playing
recorder must include items for C and F
recorders in their programmes. At other
levels C or F recorder may be played
Voice
Woodwind
Music: Appendix 1
71
Appendix 1 (cont)
Important Notes
•
For percussion candidates (at all levels) it is also possible for candidates to include in their
Drumkit/Timpani/Snare Drum performance one or more pieces on Tuned Percussion. In such cases
any performance on a second instrument would have to come from a category other than percussion.
Here are two examples to illustrate this:
Levels up to Intermediate 2
Higher and Advanced Higher Levels
First performance
drumkit and a tuned
percussion instrument
First performance
drumkit, timpani and
a tuned percussion
instrument
Second performance
instrument from a
category other than
percussion
Second performance
instrument from a
category other than
percussion
•
Further information on electronic keyboard will be issued in due course.
•
Any doubt about an acceptable choice of instruments must be subject to correspondence with SQA.
This should include early instruments and ethnic instruments and any other instrument which does
not fit neatly into one of the listed categories.
•
The tabla is now an approved instrument for examinations. However, advance notice of
presentations must be given in writing so that appropriate assessment arrangements can be made.
•
Different instruments from the same category, including prohibited choices, may be combined into
the one performance and a second instrument then chosen from a different category. For example,
this would allow one performance combining electric and acoustic guitar as long as the second
instrument performance came from a different category.
•
The list of instruments and prohibited choices will be kept under constant review by SQA.
Additional illustrations
In order to provide additional illustrations for centres, here are a few examples of the combinations of
instruments which are now possible due to the removal of some of the previous restrictions:
Flute and clarinet
Flute and saxophone
Guitar and bass guitar
Violin and cello
Music: Appendix 1
72
Appendix 2
Music (Advanced Higher)
THE CONCEPTS
The concept list has been structured to provide balance between appropriate breadth and increasing
depth at each level. The list identifies the minimum requirements for teaching and assessment at each
level. Each level subsumes all concepts at previous levels.
1
The list of concepts provides:
•
•
•
the detailed parameters and contexts within which candidates’ aural discriminatory skills will
be assessed
the list of compositional techniques which candidates will learn for deployment in inventing
a focus for understanding performing repertoire and developing relevant practical skills.
The concept list does not restrict centres regarding the range of compositional techniques
delivered, the depth to which they are explored, or the contexts in which they are taught. Aural
skills and awareness of compositional techniques can be developed further in additional contexts
reflecting candidates’ and centres’ individual needs and interests. The list does not limit or
restrict the creative freedom of candidates. While they will learn compositional techniques, the
choice of techniques and manner of their deployment in work submitted for assessment is left to
the discretion of the candidate/centre.
2
Candidates’ knowledge and understanding of concepts will be acquired through:
•
•
•
•
3
exploring sound
group and solo performing activities
analytical listening and reflecting
deploying concepts in creative tasks.
Operating Principles
Concepts have been organised into two broad categories: compositional techniques; and contexts.
Both broad categories are subdivided into strands.
3.1
Compositional techniques are generic tools and devices of particular relevance in planning
teaching programmes in inventing. They are mostly style/form free. Concepts have been
assigned to specific strands for convenience of access, but many apply to more than one
and should be considered across strands.
3.2
Contexts are the places where the compositional techniques are found and can be
experienced and deployed.
•
Each level subsumes concepts at all previous levels.
•
Once introduced, concepts should be explored in greater depth at subsequent levels,
and in extension units at the same level.
•
There should be progression both in the range of concepts taught at each level, and
in the depth of understanding candidates’ acquire.
Music: Appendix 2
73
Appendix 2 (cont)
4
Assessment
Candidates’ awareness of concepts will be assessed through:
• Listening assessments of aural discrimination, testing their ability to identify compositional
techniques in the range of contexts identified at the appropriate level;
• Inventing portfolios, where candidates will identify in the programme note the compositional
techniques used, and the manner of deployment. Candidates who choose only to deploy the
compositional techniques from levels below that being assessed will be expected to
demonstrate greater depth in the use of the concepts; and
• Performing recitals, where candidates will be expected to demonstrate an awareness of style
and the composers’ intentions as appropriate.
Music: Appendix 2
74
Appendix 2 (cont)
TABLE OF CONCEPTS (includes concepts identified at Access 2)
Access 3
COMPOSITIONAL TECHNIQUES
HARMONIC
RHYTHMIC
MELODIC
Ascending
Descending
Stepwise
Leaping
Broken chord
Chord
Chord change
Consonance
Dissonance
Notes together
Repetition
Sequence
Phrase
Question
Answer
Repetition
Faster/slower
Longer/shorter
Pause
Accented
Beat/pulse
In simple time:
2/3/4 beats in a bar
On/off the beat
Pattern
Drum fill
Scotch snap
CONTEXTS
STRUCTURAL
TIMBRE
STYLES/FORMS
Sound, silence
Louder, softer
Baroque
Jazz
Solo
Ensemble
Sustained, staccato, legato,
striking, blowing, bowing,
strumming, plucking, slapping
Ostinato
Riff
Orchestra: woodwind, brass,
strings, percussion
Scottish
Round
Bands: brass, pipe, rock, steel,
dance (Scottish), wind/military
March, Strathspey, Reel,
Waltz
Groups: folk, pop, jazz
Latin American
Single line
Unison/octave
Harmony
Accompanied,
Unaccompanied
Repetition/contrast
Section
Rock/pop
Instruments: guitars (electric, acoustic),
keyboards (piano, organ, synthesiser),
accordion, fiddle, drums, pipes, voice
Vocal, choral, lead vocals, backing vocals
Music: Appendix 2
75
Appendix 2 (cont)
Intermediate 1
COMPOSITIONAL TECHNIQUES
HARMONIC
RHYTHMIC
MELODIC
CONTEXTS
STRUCTURAL
Theme
Variation
Chord progressions
using I, IV, V in major
Down/up beat
Anacrusis
Chords, cluster
Arpeggio
Imitation
Tonality: major/minor
Compound time
Ornament
Modulation
Scales:
pentatonic,
major,
minor,
chromatic
Vamp
Speed change:
accelerando,
rallentando,
rubato,
Walking bass
Descant
Contrary motion
Tone
Semitone
Canon
Binary, ternary
AB, ABA, ABBA,
Minuet and trio
Rondo
Theme and
variations
Programme
TIMBRE
STYLES/FORMS
Individual instruments:
orchestra, keyboard, folk,
Scottish, string, rock/pop
Recorders, pan pipes
Blues, Dixieland, ragtime, swing,
boogie woogie
Voices: soprano, alto, tenor, bass
Fanfare
Concerto, symphony
Effects, distortion, reverb
Psalms
Scots ballad, Bothy ballad,
Pibroch, Waulking song,
Mouth music
Electronic drums
Ghanaian drum ensemble
Romantic
Gamelan
Ghanaian
Latin percussion ensembles
Indonesian gamelan
Scat singing
Improvisation
Jig
Samba, salsa
Music: Appendix 2
76
Appendix 2 (cont)
Intermediate 2
COMPOSITIONAL TECHNIQUES
HARMONIC
RHYTHMIC
MELODIC
Modulating
Relative major
minor
Chords: I, IV, V, VI
in major and minor
keys
Groupings in
simple and
compound time
Tonal
Atonal
Modal
Cross rhythms
Trill
Grace note
Syllabic/
melismatic
word setting
Modulation to
relative major, minor
Cadence: perfect,
imperfect
Tierce de Picardie
Discord, dissonance
Word painting
CONTEXTS
STRUCTURAL
Voices: mezzo soprano,
countertenor, baritone
Pedal
Inverted pedal
Ground bass
Alberti bass
Homophony
Polyphony
Obbligato
Countermelody
Strophic
Through-composed
Suspension
Scales: blues,
whole-tone
Passing note
Music: Appendix 2
TIMBRE
Con sordino
Flutter tonguing
Arco
Pizzicato
Col legno
Tremolando/tremolo
Vibrato
A capella
Register
STYLES/FORMS
Impressionist
Minimalist
Aleatoric
Classical
Scherzo
Cantata/oratorio/passion
Chorale/hymn tune
Recitative, aria, chorus
12-string guitar, slide guitar, fretless bass
guitar
Soul, country
Sitar, tabla
Indian
Coda
Cadenza
77
Appendix 2 (cont)
Higher
COMPOSITIONAL TECHNIQUES
HARMONIC
RHYTHMIC
MELODIC
Cadence: plagal,
interrupted
Mode
Harmonic
and melodic
minor
Acciaccatura
Appoggiatura
Turn
Mordent
Dominant 7th
Diminished 7th
Augmented chord
Added 6th
Time changes:
pulse and beat,
irregular metres
Three against two
Hemiola
Augmentation
Diminuation
CONTEXTS
STRUCTURAL
TIMBRE
Episode
Exposition
Subject
Counter-subject
Transition
Bridge
Basso continuo
Organised sound
Sonata form
Ripieno, concertino
Harmonics
Coloratura
Sprechgesang
Consort
Heterophony
Polytonality
Tonal sequence
Antiphonal
Microtone
Tritone
Inversion
Retrograde
Tone row
Tonal answer
Real answer
Idée fixe/leitmotiv
Stretto
STYLES/FORMS
Renaissance
Nationalist
Serial
Neo-classical, late romantic
Jazz-Funk
Mustique concrète
Dances: pavan & galliard
Plainchant
Mass, motet, madrigal
French, Italian overture
Suite
Concerto grosso
Anthem, air, chant
Chorale prelude
Ballett
Chaconne/passacaglia
Fugue
Lied, song cycle
Symphonic/tone poem
Da capo aria
Ritornello
Music: Appendix 2
78
Appendix 3
SOUND ENGINEERING AND PRODUCTION – CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES
Amplifier, Circuit Breaker,
Connectors, Headphones,
Loudspeaker, Mains
Multiblock,
Microphone, Microphone Stand,
Mixing desk, Plugs, Session
Log, Sockets, Stereo recorder.
Boom stand, Reverberation unit,
Windshield.
INT 2
INT 1
EQUIPMENT AND CABLES
HIGHER
Acoustic screen, Control room,
Multi-effects unit, Processors.
CONTROLS, EFFECTS,
PROCESSES
*Boost, Channel, *Cut,
*Distortion, *Equalisation
(High/Low), Fader, Gain, Input,
Meters, Mute, Output, Pan
control, *Panning, Routing,
Sensitivity, Trim.
Auxiliary send, Auxiliary return,
Buss, *Feedback, Effects send,
Effects return, Foldback, Noise
reduction, *Overload,
*Reverberation, Talkback.
TECHNIQUES
*Balance, *Close multimicrophones, *Fade in, *Fade
out, *Mix, Monitoring, Multitrack recording, Playback,
Record, Take.
Direct Injection, Overdubbing,
*Microphone positioning,
*Popping and blasting,
*Production, *Sibilance,
*Sound separation, *Sound
spillage.
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATIONS
Cardiod, *Hiss, *Level,
*Mono, Pick-up pattern, Signal,
*Sound Quality, *Stereo,
Stereo master, Track.
OTHER MUSICAL
FEATURES
*Backing vocals, *Bass
guitar, *Drums, *Guitar,
*Keyboard, *Lead Vocal,
*Melody.
*Acoustics, *Direct sound,
*Dry sound, *Indirect sound,
Impedence, Reflection,
*Reverberation time, Session
tape, *Wet sound.
Count-in, *Arrangement,
*Chorus, *Coda,
*Electronic, *Individual
instruments - pop, folk,
*Introduction, *Middleeight, *Structure, *Verse,
*Solo.
*Key change, *Rhythm
tracks, *Solo break,
*Texture.
Channel separation, Crosstalk,
*Chorus effect, *Compression, Basic tracks, Bouncing, Click
*Delay, *Echo,
track, Guide vocal, *Phase
*Dynamic range, *Frequency
*Enhancer/exciter, *Gate,
range, Generation loss, *Hum,
cancellation, *Proximity
*Harmonics, Insert point,
Masking, MIDI, *Noise,
effect, Punching-in ('Dropping*Phasing, *Pitch bend, *Pitch in'), Punching-out ('DroppingReference tone, Soundwave,
shifter, Post-fade, Pre-fade,
out'), Slate, *Stereo image,
*Transient, *Wow and flutter.
*Sample.
Studio layout, Tuning tone.
Terms and concepts with an asterisk * and in bold type can be assessed aurally.
NOTE ON RANGE OF FOR THE OUTCOMES
OUTCOME 1
OUTCOME 2
Music: Appendix 3
Management of recording sessions: setting up; connecting equipment; organising performers; storing and labelling recordings.
Recording techniques: microphone selection and positioning; gain; level; slating takes; equalisation; effects send and returns; uses of effects and
processors; selection of effects; overdubbing; bouncing down; punching -in and -out; headphone and loudspeaker monitoring.
Mixing techniques: gain, level, panning, equalisation, effects send and returns; uses of effects and processors; control of faders and mutes; defining
start and end points.
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Appendix 4
TRAINING AND DIRECTING - Rehearsal Log
The Rehearsal Log should be maintained on an on-going basis to ensure thoroughness of preparation
and reflective evaluation. The log is an integral part of the work of this unit and the time allocated to
it should be sufficient to allow key points of rehearsal preparation and evaluation to be covered. An
aide-memoire rather than an essay-style document, it should be used in tandem with any practicalbased preparation required. The content should be both specific and incisive, giving the candidate a
precise agenda to ensure that rehearsal time is maximised.
The points listed below should assist candidates both in the setting of targets and in evaluating
rehearsals by offering a series of musical issues which require to be considered to ensure an effective
performance. As performance groups are likely to embrace a variety of musical situations, it will be
necessary for candidates to focus on those points which are relevant to their particular performance
situation and which are realistic in terms of the music selected and the abilities of the performers.
Points to consider in relation to the preparation of the music:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
starting and stopping;
appropriateness of speed(s);
changes in tempo /rubato/ rallentando/ accelerando;
pause control;
direction of accompanied recits.(where appropriate);
dynamic contrasts;
interpretative issues;
awareness of likely musical challenges for performers;
effective organisation of resources for the performance venue.
Points to consider in relation to the rehearsal/performance:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
awareness of musical challenges for performers;
recognising faulty entries, inaccurate rhythms, foreshortened note lengths;
recognising and identifying inaccurate intonation;
improving tone, diction and purity of vowels (where appropriate);
affecting an appropriate balance of parts;
shaping of phrases;
appropriate instrumental/vocal balance in terms of individual parts/sub-section/whole
section/whole group.
Points to consider in relation to effective rehearsal skills:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ability to give clear instructions;
ability to give a clear beat, including changing time signatures/irregular patterns;
ability to establish rhythmic control/setting the right tempo;
ability to give clear and helpful leads/closes;
ability to indicate dynamic contrasts;
need for on-going reflective evaluation;
ability to deliver the music in a confident, enthusiastic manner.
Music: Appendix 4
80
Appendix 4 (cont)
Points to consider in relation to effective inter-personal skills:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
effective time management of the rehearsal;
positive and motivating rapport with performers;
appropriate language skills;
effective eye contact;
a sense of humour;
offering clear explanations with regard to musical decisions taken by the
trainer/director;
offering a balance of informed, constructive criticism and encouragement;
responding to the standard of the performance in an appropriate manner;
acknowledging musical/instrumental/vocal expertise of others;
an ability to acknowledge any personal misjudgements.
Music: Appendix 4
81
Appendix 5
TRAINING AND DIRECTING - Additional Issues
The statements included in both the Performance Criteria and Grade Descriptions cover the
performance issues which are pertinent to this unit and the combination of these will allow teachers
and lecturers to make decisions with regard to the quality of the pass.
However, it should be recognised that in certain musical contexts, there will be specific musical
issues which require to be considered in addition to those outlined in Appendix 4 in order that the
performance meets the needs of a particular musical genre. Some examples follow:
JAZZ
General issues
The trainer-director as performer
The director may well be playing in the group and as such will be giving verbal instructions as the
piece or rehearsal progresses. He will be cuing backing figures, solo sections, dynamics etc. which
are usually worked out ‘live’.
Selecting repertoire appropriate to available instrumental/vocal resources
Most directors work in a situation where they create blues and ‘rhythm changes’ (ie tunes based on
the chord sequence of, for example, “I got Rhythm”) and improvise ‘head’ figures which are picked
up by the other musicians.
Selecting and preparing repertoire to meet the differing abilities of the performers
The rhythm section parts in a jazz band are usually skeletal and rely on the players’ experience and
musicality to realise the composer’s intention. A director should be aware of basic drum grooves,
double bass patterns and basic keyboard voicings.
Selecting repertoire appropriate to the performance situation
Most jazz performances feature a variety of styles ie. Be Bop, Fusion, Jazz Rock, Latin, Modal, Funk
etc., and a performance should include different tempi, for example, ballad (slow), medium groove
and ‘up’ (very fast).
Rehearsal Log issues
Appropriateness of phrasing
The director should be able to sing phrases phonetically in order to describe its line and feel; for
example, the opening riff of “In the Mood” would be ‘doo d’n doo ba doo d’n doo baa do d’n doo
dat’.
Appropriateness of speed
The director must be aware of the groove of the piece. A prerequisite for a successful performance is
a speed in which the music does not sound hurried.
Music: Appendix 5
82
Appendix 5 (cont)
Dynamic contrast
In a jazz set up, all short notes are played with strength and energy and all ‘kick’ figures
(syncopations), are accented. However, in phrases of quavers, the ‘on the beat’ notes are played
quietly.
Interpretative issues
The players must phrase eighth notes in a swing style; although the notation is written in 4/4 it sounds
12/8.
Awareness of likely musical challenges for performers
In a jazz context each player should be prepared to improvise over a chord sequence or a scalic
pattern. The director should know the technical and theoretical strengths of the players and should
assign solos accordingly.
Effective organisation of resources for the performance venue
Directors should know how to position a band or combo for maximum visual and aural effect. The
ability to cope with a sound check using some knowledge of P.A.equipment is helpful, as is an
awareness of lighting effects for moods. The band should be set up in such a way that each player
maintains visual contact with each other as well as with the band leader.
Ability to give a clear beat, including changing time signatures/irregular patterns
The body language of the director is essential for imparting style or groove. In jazz as
opposed to ‘classical’ music, there is always a clear ‘count off’ which must be given in such a manner
as to give tempo, groove and energy.
Scottish Music: Scottish Fiddle/Accordion - Ceilidh Bands - Scottish Country Dance
Bands
General issues
Points to consider in relation to the preparation of the music
In the case of Scottish Fiddle and Accordion there should be consideration of the appropriate tempo
changes between styles of tune, for example, March-Strathspey-Reel. In terms of Scottish Fiddle,
pre-marked bowing should also be part of the preparation to ensure that the music is stylistically
appropriate.
Points to consider in relation to the performers
In the case of Scots singing, there should be an emphasis on clarity of diction whilst preserving the
traditional style.
The trainer-director as performer
Scottish bands will not have a conductor as such but will have a director who will lead the rehearsals
and also play in the band. In performance s/he will have the responsibility of leading the group,
indicating the appropriate speed, when to move on to the next tune, when to do repeats.
Music: Appendix 5
83
Appendix 5 (cont)
Selecting repertoire appropriate to available instrumental/vocal resources
Students should be encouraged, where appropriate, to create their own arrangements. In the case of
Scottish Fiddle and Accordion there should be encouragement to create sets of tunes in related keys,
rather than playing isolated melodies.
Selecting and preparing repertoire to meet the differing abilities of the performers
Most dance bands rely upon the drummer to make up his part. S/he will be told the speed and style
beforehand and will mostly supply a back beat. As the drummer becomes more familiar with the
dances and the particular tunes, s/he can incorporate fills and stylistics that fit in with the melodic
line. (It is a different type of drumming style from that of a drum kit player as Scottish dance bands
only require a snare drum and hi-hat and ceilidh bands, if acoustic, likewise. If a ceilidh band chooses
to include electric guitars and keyboards, a full drum kit may well be used).
If there is to be a pianist, s/he will normally vamp from a chord sequence and supply the odd harmony
in 3rds with the melody, depending on the skills and ability of the pianist. The leader of the band
might have to consider writing out a full piano part for those members who cannot vamp accurately.
A good deal of Scottish music is played from memory. If this is the case and the melody is known to
the members of the band but has been learned differently, as is often the case, the players will have to
come to some sort of compromise.
Selecting repertoire appropriate to the performance situation
Repertoire must take account of the abilities of individual players. The director must be fully aware
of the speed and length of a variety of dances, for example, Reels, Canadian Barn Dance, St
Bernard’s Waltz, and communicate this information effectively to the band.
Rehearsal Log issues
Appropriateness of speed
The correct speed of the dances is vital to ensure that the band becomes one to dance to rather than
merely offering a listening experience.
Dynamic contrast
This will be limited as most of the dances need to be loud and lively. The placing of accents and the
beat are more important than a range of dynamics. Slower dances, such as waltzes, should be more
expressive.
Awareness of likely musical challenges for performers
Quick key changes and repeats can make the music as challenging as the notes themselves.
Effective organisation of resources for the performance venue
It is acknowledged that not many schools will have accordions or pipes, but bands may include both
pupils’ own instruments and those found within the class.
Appendix 5 (cont)
Music: Appendix 5
84
Ability to give a clear beat, including changing time signatures/irregular patterns
This will be lead from within the band. The director/leader must have signals with which to
communicate. These may be: vocal; eye signals; foot stamps; body motions. As the director will not
only rehearse but play in the band, at times s/he may need to stop playing in order to make directions
clear; however, if the band is functioning properly, they should be able to follow, no matter what
instruments s/he is playing, and to pick up on a nod or wink or some sort of motion which is clear to
them.
Ability to deliver the music in a confident, enthusiastic manner
Knowledge of the correct speed and length of dances is crucial. Dancers are totally reliant on a band
thereby direction must be confident and energetic.
Music: Appendix 5
85
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