Course Catalog 2017-2018

Course Catalog 2017-2018
Course Catalog
2017-2018
Contents
Discrimination and Harassment Policies.……
Academic Calendar.………………………….
Diversity Statement …………………………..
Our Mission……………………………………
A Brief History ………………………………..
Admission …………………………………….
Fees and Expenses…………………………..
Financial Aid…………………………………..
Around Campus……………………………….
Campus Life…………………………………..
The Academic Program………………………
Academic Policies and Regulations…………
The Honors Program………………………….
Special Academic Opportunities……………..
College Honors and Awards………………….
International Programs………………………..
Special Sessions………………………………
Integrative (Experiential) Learning……………
Honor Code…………………………………….
Courses of Instruction…………………………
Accounting and Finance …………………..
American Studies…………………………..
Anthropology………………………………..
Art and Art History………………………….
Asian Studies ………………………………
Biology……………………………………….
Black Studies………………………………..
Business Management……………………..
Chemistry……………………………………
Communication and Media Studies ……..
Creative Writing…………………………….
Economics…………………………………..
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Education……………………………………
Engineering………………………………….
English……………………………………….
Environmental Science and Studies……….
Ethnomusicology……………………………
Gender Studies……………………………..
History……………………………………….
Humanities…………………………………..
Information Systems………………………..
International Literature and Culture………..
International Studies………………………..
Justice, Law and Society…………………..
Marketing…………………………………….
Mathematics and Computer Science………
Modern Languages…………………………
Music………………………………………..
Nursing………………………………………
Pharmacy……………………………………
Philosophy and Religion……………………
Physical Education…………………………
Physics………………………………………
Political Science…………………………….
Pre-Law Preparation……………………….
Premedical Program………………………..
Psychology ………………………………….
Public Health ……………………………….
Sociology……………………………………
Theatre and Dance…………………………
The College Register………………………….
The Administration.……………………………
The Faculty……….…………………………….
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Discrimination and Harassment Policies Policy Statement on Discrimination
Washington College does not discriminate on the basis of race, sex, color, national or ethnic
origin, age, religion, marital status, disability, sexual orientation, genetic information, or any
other legally protected classification in the administration of any of its educational programs and
activities or with respect to admission and employment.
The designated coordinator to ensure compliance with Title IX of the Educational Act
Amendments of 1972 is Sarah Feyerherm, Vice President of Student Affairs, Casey Academic
Center, Washington College, 300 Washington Avenue, Chestertown, Maryland, 21620, phone
number (410) 810-7457.
The designated coordinator to ensure compliance with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of
1973 is, Andrea Vassar, Director of Academic Skills, Clifton Miller Library, Washington College,
300 Washington Avenue, Chestertown, Maryland, 21620, phone number (410) 778-7883.
For additional information and/or to file a complaint contact the Director, US Department of
Education, Office of Civil Rights, The Wanamaker Building, 100 Penn Square East, Suite 515,
Philadelphia, PA 19107, or local fair employment practices agencies.
Policy on Students with Disabilities
Students who have a qualifying disability that may affect their pursuit of a Washington College
education are eligible to receive reasonable academic accommodations. Accommodations for
students with documented disabilities will be tailored to meet the student’s individual needs and
will comply with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities
Act of 1990, and with subsequent federal legislation pertaining to the disabled and their rights.
Requests for accommodation and/or variation in degree requirements, accompanied by
appropriate supporting documentation, should be submitted in writing to Andrea Vassar,
Director of Disability Services and the Office of Academic Skills, Clifton Miller Library,
Washington College, 300 Washington Avenue, Chestertown, Maryland, 21620; phone number
410-778-7883.
Graduation Rates
Washington College, in compliance with the Federal Student Right-to-Know and Campus
Security Act of 1990, publishes the percentage of students who enter the College as first-time,
full-time students and then graduate in six years or less. Six-year graduation rates at
Washington College typically range between 70 and 76 percent.
Catalog Notice
While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the information provided in the Catalog as
of its publication date in June 2017, it must be understood that all courses, course descriptions,
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designations of instructors, curricular and degree requirements, and other academic information
contained herein are subject to change or elimination at any time without notice or published
amendment to the Catalog. In addition, Washington College reserves the right to make changes
at any time, without prior notice, to other programs, policies and regulations, procedures, fees
and charges, and other information that is described in this catalog or on any page that resides
under the DNS registration of washcoll.edu.
Washington College provides its website, Catalog, handbooks, and any other printed materials
or electronic media for general guidance. Individuals assume any risks associated with relying
upon such information without checking other credible sources such as the student’s faculty
advisor, the Provost/Dean of the College, the Vice President for Student Affairs, the Associate
Provost for Academic Services, the Associate Vice President for Student Affairs, or the
Registrar. In addition, a student’s or prospective student’s reliance upon information contained
within these sources when making academic decisions does not constitute, and should not be
construed as, a contract with the College.
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Academic Calendar 2017-2018
Fall 2017
Monday
Tuesday
Thursday
Friday
August 28
September 5
September 7
September 15
Friday
September 29
Wednesday
Thursday-Friday
Friday-Monday
Friday-Monday
Friday-Monday
Wednesday
Friday
Friday-Monday
Friday
October 11
October 12-13
October 20-23
October 27-30
November 3-6
November 8
November 10
November 10-13
November 17
Monday
Wednesday-Friday
Thursday
Friday
Monday-Friday
Tuesday
Friday
November 20
November 22-24
December 7
December 8
December 11-15
December 19
December 22
Undergraduate classes begin
Last day to Drop/Add or request an Audit
Fall Convocation
Last day to request Pass/Fail option; Incomplete grades due to
Registrar’s Office
Last day to withdraw from a first half of the semester course with a
“W” grade
Midterm grades and major declarations due to Registrar’s Office
Fall Break – NO CLASSES (offices open)
Spring registration for returning seniors
Spring registration for returning juniors
Spring registration for returning sophomores
Fall Advising Day – NO UNDERGRADUATE CLASSES
Last day to withdraw from a full semester course with a “W” grade
Spring registration for returning freshmen
Last day to withdraw from a second half of the semester course with
a “W” grade
Online Drop/Add reopens for all students via WebAdvisor
Thanksgiving Break – NO CLASSES (offices closed)
Last day of classes
Reading Day – NO CLASSES (offices open)
Final Exams
Final grades due to Registrar’s Office
College offices close at 4:30 PM for semester break
Spring 2018
Tuesday
Monday
Tuesday
Friday
January 2
January 22
January 30
February 9
Friday
Friday
February 23
February 23
Friday
Monday-Friday
Friday-Monday
Friday-Monday
Wednesday
Friday
Friday-Monday
Monday
Friday
March 9
March 12-16
March 23-26
March 30-April 2
April 4
April 6
April 6-9
April 16
April 20
Thursday
Friday
Monday-Friday
Tuesday
Saturday
May 3
May 4
May 7-11
May 15
May 19
College offices re-open
Undergraduate classes begin
Last day to Drop/Add or request an Audit
Last day to request Pass/Fail option; Incomplete grades due to
Registrar’s Office
Washington’s Birthday Convocation
Last day to withdraw from a first half of the semester course with
a “W” grade
Midterm grades and major declarations due to Registrar’s Office
Spring Break – NO CLASSES (offices closed Friday)
Fall registration for rising and non-graduating seniors
Fall registration for rising juniors
Spring Advising Day – NO UNDERGRADUATE CLASSES
Last day to withdraw from a full semester course with a “W” grade
Fall registration for rising sophomores and returning freshmen
Online Drop/Add reopens for all students via WebAdvisor
Last day to withdraw from a second half of the semester course with
a “W” grade
Last day of classes; deadline for thesis submission
Reading Day – NO CLASSES (offices open)
Final Exams
Final grades due to Registrar’s Office
235th Commencement
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Diversity Statement Washington College welcomes people of all backgrounds and beliefs who wish to participate in
a diverse educational community. The College strives to be a place where all students, ​faculty,
administrators, and staff are able to live, study, and work in an atmosphere free from bias and
harassment. The College encourages civil debate and the lively exchange of ideas in the belief
that such exchanges promote understanding that will grow beyond simple tolerance of
difference to embracing and celebrating the richness of diversity. Our graduates acquire
knowledge and learn skills that help them thrive in a culturally diverse world.
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Our Mission Mission Statement
Washington College challenges and inspires emerging citizen leaders to discover lives of
purpose and passion.
Core Values
We share these values of our founding patron, George Washington: integrity, determination,
curiosity, civility, leadership, and moral courage.
We offer academic rigor and self-discovery in a supportive, residential community of
well-qualified, diverse, and motivated individuals. We develop in our students habits of analytic
thought and clear communication, aesthetic insight, ethical sensitivity, and civic responsibility.
Unhurried conversation and close connections with an exceptional faculty and staff complement
a broad curriculum of study. A beautiful campus, ready access to exciting cities and the
Chesapeake Bay, and engagement with cultures and communities locally and around the world
afford our students ample resources and opportunities for personal exploration and shared
challenges.
We prepare our students for rich and fulfilling lives; for myriad and unpredictable opportunities;
for a lifetime of learning, leadership, and productive endeavor.
Vision Statement
The enduring values of Washington College—critical thinking, effective communication, and
moral courage—move the world.
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A Brief History The first college of the new nation, Washington College was founded in 1782 to educate citizens
for the vital task of democracy. So closely linked to the creation of a new nation, our history truly
distinguishes Washington College from other selective liberal arts colleges in the country.
Prominent among the colonial leaders who worked to establish this institution of higher
education to prepare the citizens of a new democracy was our nation’s first president, George
Washington.
“I am much indebted,” Washington wrote in 1782,” for the honor conferred on me, by giving my
name to the College at Chester.” In this letter to his friend, the Reverend Dr. William Smith,
General Washington also expressed the hope that the fortunes of the incipient college would
prosper, and donated “the trifling sum of Fifty Guineas as an Earnest of my wishes for the
prosperity of this seminary.” Two years later he consented to serve as a member of the Board of
Visitors and Governors, a position he occupied until 1789 when he became President of the
United States. He accepted an honorary degree from Washington College in 1789.
Yet more important than the gifts of his money, time, and name, George Washington shared
with this “infant seat of learning” his vision for a better future achieved through education. He
knew that it would take an educated citizenry to put the new nation on the right track, to lead
government, to start businesses, to promote peace. He also understood that by granting the
College at Chester permission to bear his name, it would forever be linked to the ideals he
valued. Our mission—to prepare our students to make meaningful contributions in their
world—remains the same two centuries later, and those values of scholarship, character,
leadership, and service to others continue to resonate at Washington College.
The College’s first president, the Rev. William Smith, was a prominent figure in colonial affairs of
letters and church and had a wide acquaintance among the great men of colonial days. Joining
General Washington on the Board of Visitors and Governors of the new college were such
distinguished leaders as John Page, Robert Goldsborough, Joshua Seney, and His Excellency
William Paca, Governor of Maryland. The Maryland legislature confirmed its first college charter
upon Washington College on October 15, 1782. The following spring, on May 14, 1783, the first
commencement was held.
Washington College had evolved from the Kent County School, an institution of more than sixty
years’ standing in “Chester Town,” which by 1782 had reached considerable strength and
importance as a port city.
Today, Washington College takes full advantage of its unique place in our nation’s history, its
distinctive environmental setting in the Chesapeake Bay region, and its proximity to urban
centers of political power, through academic programs, internship opportunities, and various
partnerships. Located on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, the College is seventy-five miles from
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Baltimore, Washington, DC, and Philadelphia.
Washington College is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary
Schools and the American Chemical Society, and is a member of the Centennial Conference,
the College Board, the Independent College Fund of Maryland, the Maryland Independent
College and University Association, the National Association of Independent Colleges and
Universities, the American Association of Colleges and Universities, the Annapolis Group, and
the American Council on Education.
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Admission
Admission Washington College is a selective national liberal arts college. Through the application and
supporting credentials, the Admissions Committee seeks to learn as much as possible about
each candidate for admission. In addition to the official transcript, a counselor recommendation
and one teacher evaluation are considered in evaluating the secondary school experience.
Standardized test scores are also part of the admission process but are considered to be
subordinate to the secondary school record. Test-optional admission is available for qualified
students. Other factors that are considered include the admission essay/personal statement,
extracurricular activity profile, and interview.
Then, on the basis of scholastic achievement, personal characteristics, and overall potential for
success in a collegiate environment, the Committee selects for admission those individuals
whose abilities, attributes, and interests match our criteria for the entering class.
General Information
There are two ways to apply to Washington College; either through the Washington College
Application or the Common Application.
By applying with the Washington College Application, you will receive an application fee waiver
and priority consideration for merit-based scholarships.
Washington College is a participant in the Common Application program. The Common
Application for Admission is available in most secondary school guidance offices, online at
www.commonapp.org​.
Application Fee
The application fee for 2017-2018 is $50.
Notification and Reply Date
You may apply to the college through the Early Decision, Early Action, or Regular Decision
processes and deadlines. For more details on each deadline, please see the “Special
Admissions Programs” section.
Early Decision candidates must apply by November 15 and will be notified by December 15.
Early Decision is a binding admissions agreement.
Early Action candidates must apply by December 1 and will be notified by January 15.
Regular Decision candidates must apply February 15 and will be notified by April 1.
Transfer admissions applications can be submitted and are reviewed on a rolling-basis.
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Admission
Since Washington College subscribes to the Candidate’s Reply Date Agreement, the required
$500 enrollment deposit must be received no later than May 1 for all Early Action and Regular
Decision applicants. The deposit is non-refundable and will be applied toward first-semester
bills. New students who wish to reserve on-campus housing will be required to complete a
housing application and submit a housing deposit of $200 by May 1 as well.
School Records
An official secondary school transcript is required of all candidates for admission to Washington
College. The following college preparatory units are recommended: four years of English; four
years of social studies; four years of mathematics, including Algebra II; three years of a lab
science; and two years of a modern foreign language or Latin. Considerable emphasis is placed
upon the rigor of the candidate’s course load in any given year (especially the senior year), and
on participation in accelerated, honors, advanced placement, or international baccalaureate
courses.
Recommendations
Two recommendations should be submitted on the applicant’s behalf: a written statement from
the secondary school college advisor or guidance counselor (or college faculty advisor if a
transfer applicant) and one teacher evaluation that must be completed by a teacher of a major
academic subject taken within the last two years. Additional teacher references may be
submitted if so desired.
Standardized Testing
Results of either the SAT I or ACT should be sent directly to Washington College (institution
code #5888) by the testing agency. We recommend, but do not require, that students submit
results from the writing component of these tests. Unless requested, transfer candidates who
have completed more than two semesters of college-level coursework are not required to
submit results of standardized testing.
Freshman applicants with a cumulative high school grade point average of 3.50 or better (on a
4.00 scale) or with a top ten percent class rank can request and be granted a “test-optional”
admission review. Documentation of a learning difference or medical condition can also be the
basis for a “test-optional” review.
If English is not the applicant’s first language, results of a language proficiency assessment
(TOEFL, IELTS or their equivalent) must be submitted to the Admissions Office. Students who
have been educated in an English-speaking curriculum may submit SAT or ACT scores in lieu
of TOEFL/IELTS scores.
The Admission Interview
The admission interview is seen as an ideal way for the prospective student and the College to
learn more about each other. Although an interview is not required (unless specifically
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Admission
requested by the Admissions Committee), candidates who have visited the campus and met
with a member of the admission staff are given preference in the admission process.
Arrangements for an admission interview and campus visit are best made in advance by
telephoning the Admissions Office (410-778-7700).
Special Admission Programs
Early Decision: Binding
The Early Decision option requires applicants to certify that 1) Washington College is their first
choice and that 2) an offer of admission, if extended, will be accepted. The application deadline
for early decision candidates is November 15. A signed Early Decision Agreement is required
for Early Decision consideration. Early Decision notifications are issued on a rolling basis
through December 1. Enrollment commitments are required by January 15. In addition to
committing to enroll, Early Decision students also agree to withdraw all other college
applications.
Early Action: Non-Binding
Washington College offers an early action plan for students who wish to be notified of their
admission status early in the senior year. Early action candidates who submit an application and
all required credentials on or before December 1 will be informed of their status (admitted,
denied, deferred) no later than January 1. Admitted Early Action applicants are not required to
make an enrollment commitment until May 1.
Early Admission
The College will consider applications from prospective students who have completed all
requirements for their secondary school diploma in three years rather than four. High school
students who have not received a secondary school diploma or its equivalent are not eligible for
admission to the College as matriculated, degree-seeking students.
Under special circumstances, secondary school seniors will be permitted to enroll for
undergraduate classes at the College as non-degree, non-matriculated students. This policy
applies to all participants in the College’s “More Able” program as well as the occasional local
student who has attained a cumulative grade point average of “B” or better and who
demonstrates strong motivation, maturity, and suitability for college-level coursework.
Permission to enroll on a non-degree, non-matriculated basis is granted by the Vice President
for Admissions.
Non-degree students are not eligible to receive any Federal Title IV financial aid funds until they
have attained either a secondary school or GED diploma. Non-degree students will not be
permitted to continue their studies at the College beyond the first year without either a
secondary school diploma or GED diploma.
Freshman Entrance With Advanced Standing
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Admission
A student may enter as a freshman with advanced standing toward a Washington College
degree. This standing is usually achieved through the Advanced Placement Examinations given
each May by the College Board. A score of four or five on an A.P. exam may, with the approval
of the appropriate academic department, earn course credit toward graduation and make the
student eligible to take upper-level courses in the department.
Washington College recognizes the International Baccalaureate curriculum, Higher Level
courses, and diploma for the assigning of advanced standing credit and the fulfillment of
requirements for distribution, prerequisite courses, and graduation. No special use is made of
Standard Level course credits. Students who receive grades of 5, 6, or 7 in the Higher Level
examinations may receive a maximum of one full year of credit. Advanced standing for high
academic achievement in other international education systems will be considered on a
case-by-case basis.
Home-Schooled Students
Washington College welcomes applications from home-educated students. Applicants will be
required to 1) submit a completed application form and essay/personal statement, 2) submit
official results of either the SAT-I or ACT examinations (the “score optional” policy does not
apply to home-schooled applicants), 3) submit a transcript (or its equivalent) of academic
coursework, and 4) submit one letter of recommendation.
Transfer Admission
Transfer students are admitted to the College for semesters beginning in January and August.
Admissions decisions are issued on a ‘rolling’ basis. It is recommended that applications for fall
transfer admission be filed prior to July 1 and that applications for spring transfer admission be
filed prior to December 1. Application procedures for transfer candidates are generally the same
as outlined above; however, SAT or ACT scores are only required for applicants who have
completed less than two semesters of college-level study. Official transcripts from all colleges
attended must be submitted. An official secondary school transcript is also required. Advanced
placement and course credit will be given to transfer students with acceptable A.P. scores
provided that documentation from the College Board is received within one semester of
enrollment at Washington College. It is advisable to consult with both the Admissions Office and
the Registrar in order to obtain an accurate evaluation concerning transfer of academic credits.
To satisfy requirements for graduation, transfer students must complete a minimum of fifty-six
credit hours at Washington College or in a Washington College approved off-campus study
program, and the final eight courses must be taken in residence. Transfer students must also
complete the senior capstone experience.
Readmission of Former Students
Unless an official leave of absence has been obtained, students who voluntarily withdraw in
good standing and take courses at another college or university during the withdrawal period
are required to complete an Application for Readmission. Such students also forfeit any/all
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Admission
previously-awarded merit-based scholarships. This may be appealed to the Scholarship
Appeals Committee.
To have their matriculated enrollment status reinstated, students suspended for academic
reasons must petition the Committee on Advising and Academic Standing and submit evidence
of further academic progress supported by an official transcript from an approved college.
Students dismissed for a disciplinary reason must petition the Vice President and Dean of
Students and supply evidence clearly indicating, through study at an approved college or
recommendation from an employer, that reinstatement of matriculated enrollment status is
warranted.
International Student Admission
International students are encouraged to apply to Washington College and should review all
information posted for international students at the College Web site:
www.washcoll.edu/admissions.
The required financial affidavit and appropriate academic transcripts should be mailed or faxed
(410-778-7287) to the College as quickly as possible. If English is not the applicant’s first
language, results of a language proficiency assessment (TOEFL, IELTS or their equivalent)
must be submitted to the Admissions Office. Students who have been educated in an
English-speaking curriculum may submit SAT or ACT scores in lieu of TOEFL/IELTS scores.
Washington College recognizes the International Baccalaureate curriculum, Higher Level
courses, and diploma for the following purposes: admission, the assigning of advanced standing
credit, and the fulfillment of requirements for distribution, prerequisite courses, and graduation.
No special use is made of Standard Level course credits. Students who receive grades of 5, 6,
or 7 in the Higher Level examinations may receive a maximum of one full year of credit.
Advanced standing for high academic achievement in other international education systems will
be considered on a case-by-case basis.
International students who require a student visa to enter the United States are required to
submit a health form with current immunization records and chest x-ray results, and an affidavit
of financial support; these documents are sent to all admitted applicants and must be returned
no later than June 1.
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Fees and Expenses
Fees and Expenses Basic educational fees for 2017-2018:
Tuition (full-time)
$43,702
Student Service Fee $748
Student Health Fee $250
Laundry Fee
$120 (mandatory for on campus students)
Campus Housing
$5,608-$7,002
Meal Plans Per Year
19/week
$5,432
14/week
$4,944
Ultimate Plan
$6,882
19/week UR
$6,288
14/week UR
$5,918
50 Block*
$844 per semester
75 Block*
$974 per semester
*available to off-campus students only
Orientation Fee
All first-year and transfer students must pay an orientation fee of $240 for the fall semester or
$174 for the spring semester.
Off-Campus Study Fee
Students who participate in off-campus programs for a semester or for two semesters, such as
study abroad or the Washington Center semester, while enrolled at Washington College must
pay tuition and fees associated with the off-campus program and an additional one-time $890
Off-Campus Study Fee. Students who study abroad at two different exchange partner colleges
or universities in two consecutive semesters pay the Off-Campus Study Fee once.
Short-Term Off Campus Study
Students who participate in a short-term (less than a semester) off-campus study program led
by Washington College faculty pay the fee for that program and an Off-Campus Study Fee of
$400. Fees for the program are paid in two installments. A deposit is required at
the time the student applies to the program, and the balance of the program fee is due upon
billing. Students should check with the faculty leading the program about amount and due date
for the deposit. Short-Term program fees are non-refundable.
Graduation Fee
There is a $300 mandatory graduation fee for all students expected to receive a Washington
College degree. Generally the fee will be billed and due during the senior or final year. The
graduation fee is a one-time non-refundable fee.
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Fees and Expenses
Part-time Student Fees
Part-time students are defined as those taking fewer than 12 credit hours in a semester. Tuition
is charged at the rate of $7,284per semester undergraduate course and $1,199 per semester
graduate course. Part-time undergraduate students are also assessed a ​pro rata​ student fee
($167 for a full credit course). Graduate students are also assessed a $100 non-refundable per
course registration fee. For students enrolled only as auditors, the tuition for each audited
course is $362..
Special Course Fees
Certain courses, such as applied music, education internship, and some specialized instruction
classes in physical education, have additional fees. These courses and their corresponding fees
are designated in the course descriptions section of this Catalog and on WebAdvisor.
Senior Obligation/Senior Capstone Fee
Students whose graduation requirements include completion of an SCE course:
If a student has completed all graduation requirements except the Senior Capstone Experience
(SCE) and has not previously attempted the four-credit SCE course, the fee for the SCE course
will be the same as the tuition paid by a part-time student taking one four-credit course: $7,284.
If a student has completed all graduation requirements except the SCE and has previously
attempted but did not successfully complete (either failed or withdrew from) the SCE course, he
or she will have to register for and successfully complete a second SCE in order to graduate.
The student should register for this SCE course in the semester in which the student and his or
her SCE advisor have agreed that the SCE will be completed. For students who enroll in the
second SCE course within one academic year of not completing their first attempt, the fee for
the new SCE registration will be $1,500. The same fee will be assessed on subsequent
registrations for the SCE course provided no more than one academic year has elapsed since
the student’s most recent attempt.
If a student has completed all graduation requirements except the SCE, has previously
attempted but did not successfully complete (either failed or withdrew from) the SCE course,
and has not been enrolled at the College for more than one academic year, the fee for the new
SCE course registration will be the same as the tuition paid by a part-time student taking one
four-credit course: $7,284. Students in this situation will need to contact the Associate Provost
for Academic Resources to be reinstated at the College.
Faculty may assign a grade of Incomplete to a student taking an SCE, subject to the College’s
policy on incomplete grading. As with all Incomplete grades, if the student has not completed
the SCE coursework by the deadline established by the SCE advisor (no later than the third
Friday of classes in the subsequent semester), the student’s Incomplete grade will become a
failing grade. When a student’s Incomplete SCE grade converts to an “F” in this manner, the
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Fees and Expenses
Registrar’s Office will make an exception to the normal Drop/Add deadline for that student to
register in a repeat attempt at the SCE course no later than Friday of the fourth week of classes.
The fee for that SCE will be $1,500.
Students whose graduation requirements include completion of the Senior Obligation
rather than an SCE:
If a student has completed all graduation requirements except the Senior Obligation, that
student must register as an auditor for and successfully complete an SCE (which replaced the
Senior Obligation in Fall 2006) in order to graduate. The fee for that SCE will be the same as
the tuition paid by an auditor taking one course: $362.
Deposits
Once admitted to Washington College, full-time matriculating undergraduate students are
required to make a $500 non-refundable enrollment deposit. The College reserves places in the
entering class in the order in which these deposits are recorded.
All first time students who will be living on campus are required to make a non-refundable
housing deposit of $ $200. This deposit will be applied to the room billing for the semester.
In addition to semester fees, all undergraduate students are required to maintain a security
deposit of $285 throughout their College careers.
BILLING AND PAYMENT POLICIES
Tuition, Fees, Room, and Board
The College bills for tuition, fees, room, and board twice a year: in early July for the fall
semester, and in late November for the spring semester. At the beginning of each semester,
pending financial aid is allowed as a credit to the student’s account, and is counted as payment
until September 30 and January 31 for the Fall and Spring semesters, respectively. Students
who have not completed all necessary paperwork to finalize pending aid by that time are
required to pay in full. If financial aid is later reinstated, the student will be given a full refund of
any credit balance. This refund is available by contacting the Business Office. The due dates for
each semester are the first Monday in August for fall semester and the first Monday in January
for spring semester.
Students who have not paid in full, or who have not made satisfactory arrangements to pay in
full using financial aid or the “Official Payments” payment plan, by the due date for the
semester, will not be considered as having met their financial obligation. A late payment fee will
apply and the student may be removed from class and housing assignments if payment
arrangements are not made by the due date.
15
Fees and Expenses
Late Fee
The amount of the late payment fee is $200 on any balance of $2,000 or more for
undergraduate students and $80 on any balance of $800 or more for graduate students.
A late fee is charged when a student:
has not paid their account in full or made payment arrangements by the officially posted
due date for the current semester; or
has defaulted on a payment plan; or
has financial aid cancelled, in any manner.
Until this obligation has been met, students may not return to campus, attend classes, or obtain
keys or a college ID card. Students may also be removed from class and housing
arrangements. All students are required to complete and submit to the Business Office an
Information Release/Responsibility Form. This form serves as consent for Business Office
personnel to discuss questions regarding the student’s account with the indicated parties. Only
those persons listed may be given information regarding the student’s account.
Other Students Charges
The Business Office bills each month for fines incurred by the student. These include parking
violations, Library fines, Honor Board fines, dorm damages and other assessed charges.
Parents/guardians should first discuss questionable charges with the student and/or appropriate
department head, before calling the Business Office. Students are notified in writing when any
fines are levied. Dorm damages are assessed after move out and are billed by June 15. All
charges are due upon receipt of the monthly Student Statement of Account. Any charge that is
outstanding for more than 30 days may result in grades not being sent, transcripts of academic
credit not being issued, a diploma not being issued, and pre-registration for subsequent
semesters may be delayed.
Students may view their student account through the Washington College Web site using
WebAdvisor.
​Prepaid Debit Card System
The College uses GET (https://get.cbord.com/washcoll) where students (and parents) can view
and/or manage a student’s campus card account. It provides valuable information about
account balances and spending history, while enabling deposits to the campus card account
using a credit card. GET is always on, and funds can be added anytime day or night. The card
can be used at retail venues throughout campus. Balances on the debit cards transfer from
semester to semester and year to year. Balances for graduating seniors will revert to their
College account the last week of May typically. Refunds for medical withdrawals must be
approved by the Business Office, otherwise there are no refunds. Lost or stolen cards are
reported by logging on to https://get.cbord.com/washcoll to submit a lost/stolen card report
immediately removing all access and spending privileges from the card. The student will be
instructed on what their next steps should be in order to obtain a new card.
16
Fees and Expenses
Payments
Washington College Business Office accepts cash, cashier’s checks, traveler’s checks, wire
transfers, and money orders in payment of student accounts. Wire transfer information can be
obtained by calling the Accounts Receivable Specialist in the Business Office (410-778-7736).
Personal checks are also accepted, unless there has been a previous incident of payment by
check that was returned for non-sufficient funds. Once a non-sufficient funds check has been
returned on a student’s account, future payments must be made using another acceptable form
of payment. Post-dated checks are not acceptable. Credit card payment for student account
balances may only be made via the Washington College Web site, there is a convenience fee
for this service. E-Check payment can be made via the Washington College Web site, there is
no fee for this service.
Personal checks submitted for payments on student accounts will have the student’s college ID
number written on the face of the check.
To insure against the financial losses associated with medical withdrawals after the beginning of
classes all students are automatically enrolled in the DeWar tuition refund insurance for a
premium of $134 per semester. Families who wish to opt out the this insurance coverage may
do so in writing by sending an email including the student’s name and student ID# to
[email protected] requesting cancellation of coverage. Details of the tuition refund
insurance can be found on the Business Office web site under Student Services.
Official Payments, in partnership with Washington College, offers tuition installment payment
plans. Tuition and fees may be paid in 9, 10, 11, or 12 monthly installments under these plans.
Information about the Official Payments Monthly Installment Plan can be obtained through the
Business Office. All payment obligations not included in the Plan must be paid in full by the due
date for the semester. If Official Payments terminates the student’s plan for nonpayment, the
student will be subject to a default penalty charge equal to the late check-in penalty.
Withdrawals and Refunds
If a student withdraws from the College during a semester, the student will be responsible for all
non​refundable amounts. When the student withdrawal results from a disciplinary action, the
College makes no refund of any kind.
Tuition refunds or credits will be allowed according to the following schedule:
Before classes begin
100%
During the first two weeks of classes
75%
During the third week of classes
50%
During the fourth week of classes
25%
After the fourth week of classes there will be no tuition refund.
17
Fees and Expenses
Fees are generally not refundable after the start date of the semester. Residence hall spaces
are assigned for the academic year; therefore no refunds or credits for rooms are given for a
student withdrawing after classes begin. Board refunds or credits will be determined on a
pro-rated basis.
18
Financial Aid
Financial Aid Washington College is committed to providing educational excellence and equity for all
students. The policies and principles of financial aid are based on the belief that all qualified
students—regardless of their race, sex, or economic status—should have the opportunity to
experience a Washington College education.
Washington College offers several types of financial aid to help qualified full-time undergraduate
students meet their college expenses. College-sponsored tuition scholarships and tuition grants
are available to full-time undergraduate students who demonstrate financial need and who meet
the College’s admission criteria. In addition to College-sponsored financial aid, eligible students
can receive assistance from federal, state, and independent aid programs. College support is
intended to complement family financial resources (including any federal, state, or other outside
aid for which a student may be eligible); College need-based tuition assistance is offered only
after all other sources of aid have been exhausted.
The purpose of need-based aid is to reduce the difference between the student’s estimated
contribution to college expenses (as determined by the Free Application for Federal Financial
Aid (FAFSA) and the actual cost of tuition, room, and board, plus an estimated amount for
books and miscellaneous expenses. For the 2017-2018 academic year at Washington College,
that total is $59,490. Applicants for Fall 2018 should file the FAFSA beginning in October 2017.
For students who show exceptional academic promise, Washington College also offers
merit-based academic tuition scholarships. These are offered without regard to financial need;
however, in cases involving both superior academic achievement and demonstrated financial
need, a merit-based tuition scholarship will be included in the financial aid package.
Grant and scholarship assistance from all sources is applied first to full-time tuition charges.
Grant and scholarship assistance in excess of tuition is then applied to direct College charges
for fees, and on-campus room and board.
Application Procedures for Freshmen and Transfer Students
The Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) must be submitted to be considered for
need-based financial aid at Washington College:
The FAFSA is used to collect financial information needed to determine a student’s eligibility for
federal aid (Federal Pell, Federal Supplemental Education Opportunity Grant (SEOG), Federal
Work-Study (FWS), Federal Direct Student Loans). The FAFSA is also used by Washington
College to determine eligibility for institutional need-based grants.
New students will be notified of financial aid decisions on a rolling basis. Returning, upper-class
student award notices are posted online and available through Self Service in June after the
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Financial Aid
completion of spring semester courses.
Upperclass Student Aid
Financial aid recipients are required to re-apply for need-based aid each year. Upperclass
students must complete the FAFSA form by March 1. Tax transcripts are required only in the
event that the student’s file is selected for verification by the U.S. Department of Education or by
the College. Notification of aid decisions begins in June.
Students who received no financial assistance during the fall semester, but who wish to be
considered for need-based aid during the spring term, must file the appropriate applications with
the Financial Aid Office no later than November 1. Spring term awards are based upon the
availability of funds as well as demonstrated need and academic achievement.
Important notes regarding need-based aid award: All students who have applied for and qualify
for need-based financial aid will be offered some form of self-help aid. Self-help aid is defined as
Federal Subsidized and Unsubsidized Direct Loans and Federal Work-Study. All students
offered WC Institutional need-based grant or scholarship assistance are expected to accept and
use the self-help assistance to offset their educational expenses. Although 100% of
demonstrated need can be met in some cases, meeting full need is not the policy of WC.
Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP) Policies
The Office of Student Financial Aid has established policies and procedures stated to fulfill the
requirements expressed in the Higher Education Act (HEA). The Satisfactory Academic
Progress policies and procedures of Washington College are reviewed when changes at the
federal or institutional level require review to ensure compliance with Federal Regulations. All
Washington College students applying for Title IV federal and selected other types of assistance
must meet the criteria stated hereafter regardless of whether or not they previously received aid.
Satisfactory Academic Progress for financial aid eligibility should not be confused with the
College’s academic progress policy. These are two distinct and totally separate policies. It is
entirely possible to fail to meet minimum standards of one policy and pass the minimum
standards of the other.
Our full Satisfactory Academic Progress policy can be found under the “Forms and Resources”
section of the Office of Student Financial Aid’s website at: ​www.washcoll.edu/fa
Washington College Academic Tuition Scholarships and Grants
Students who receive College merit-based academic tuition scholarships are required to
maintain Satisfactory Academic Progress. The Admissions and Financial Aid Committee will
review the progress of any merit scholarship recipient with a CGPA below 3.0 and, in such a
case, reserves the right to reduce or remove the student’s merit-based award.
Washington College recognizes and rewards exemplary academic achievement. More than
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Financial Aid
50% of all Washington College students qualify for a merit-based tuition scholarship at the time
of their admission to the College. In most cases, eligibility for a merit-based scholarship is
determined by high school GPA and SAT-I or ACT scores. Unless otherwise specified in the
scholarship award letter, the annual renewal of all merit-based awards is contingent upon
maintenance of full-time continuous enrollment and a CGPA between 3.00 and 4.00.
Recipients are eligible to renew their Academic Tuition Scholarship through the completion of 8
semesters.
Washington College offers a variety of scholarships including:
Washington College Academic Tuition Scholarships for Entering Freshmen
These four-year tuition scholarships are awarded to admitted applicants on the basis of
secondary school achievement and potential for success. All admitted applicants are reviewed
by the Scholarship Committee to determine their eligibility for these awards. Admitted applicants
who qualify for merit-based academic tuition scholarships are notified of their award and the
amount of the award at the time of admission to the College.
Admitted applicants who are members of their high school’s National Honor Society, Cum
Laude Society or National Society of High School Scholars and have a high School CGPA of at
least 3.0 at the time of admission are awarded a four-year Washington College Academic
Tuition Scholarship of at least $15,000 annually ($7,500 per semester) for four years). Some
NHS /CLS members with exemplary high school academic records may qualify for awards that
increase their Washington College Academic Tuition Scholarship from $15,000 per year to
$16,000-$23,000 per year.
Washington College Academic Tuition Scholarships for Transfer Students
These tuition scholarships are awarded to full-time, high-achieving transfer students including,
but not limited to, students who have been inducted into the Phi Theta Kappa Society. Typically,
awards range in amount from $5,000 to $17,500 per year. A cumulative GPA of 3.0 - 4.0 and
full-time continuous enrollment are required for renewal.
Admitted transfer applicants who qualify for academic tuition scholarships are notified of their
award and the amount at the time of admission.
Sophie Kerr Gifts in English Literature
These $6,000 scholarships ($1,500 annually for four years) are awarded to entering students
who intend to major in English and/or minor in Creative Writing and who show outstanding
promise in the field of English or American literature. Members of the English Department select
scholarship finalists.
Quill & Compass Scholarships
These $6,000 scholarships ($1,500 annually for four years) are awarded to entering students
who intend to major in History or American Studies. Members of the C. V. Starr Center for the
21
Financial Aid
Study of the American Experience select scholarship finalists.
Constance Stuart Larrabee Arts Scholarships
These $6,000 scholarships ($1,500 annually for four years) are awarded to entering students
who have a proven talent in art, music, or theatre, but who do not necessarily intend to major in the
arts
Hillel Leadership Scholarship
This $2,500 scholarship is awarded to an entering student with an active role in Jewish life.
Candidates should be eager to actively continue the above pursuits through WC Hillel, eventually
assuming a leadership role.
Readmission and Merit Scholarship Renewal Information for Students Who Withdraw
from Washington College
A student who voluntarily withdraws in good standing and subsequently takes courses at
another college or university prior to returning to Washington College is required to complete an
Application for Readmission. Students who enroll in classes at another college or university
prior to returning to WC will need to contact the Admissions Office to request an Application for
Readmission. The readmission decision will be based on the grades received in the courses
taken at the other college or university.
Students who receive merit scholarships to attend Washington College are expected to maintain
full-time continuous enrollment at Washington College, and maintain a CGPA of at least a 3.00.
Merit-based scholarships will not be reissued to students who withdraw from the College and
subsequently re-apply for admission. This may be appealed to the Scholarship Appeals
Committee. Students who withdraw and reapply will be considered for all appropriate
need-based aid programs if they meet the College’s need-based aid application deadlines.
College Scholarships and Grants
Income from the corporations, foundations, and individuals listed below provides funding for
need- and merit-based scholarships at Washington College. Students need not apply for these
scholarships, as the Director of Financial Aid awards them in accordance with the donors’
stipulated criteria and administers them in conjunction with the College’s financial aid program.
Awards held by upper-class students may not be available to new students in any given year.
Annual Scholarships
The Independent College Fund of Maryland Scholarships
The Kent and Queen Anne’s Alumni Scholarship Fund
The James Millard Murphy Scholarship
Dr. Jacob D. Rieger ’28 Scholarship
Endowed Scholarships
The Helen Sullivan Adams Scholarship Fund
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Financial Aid
The Bailey Memorial Scholarship
The William O. Baker ’35 Scholarship
John E. Barnes, Jr. ’47 Scholarship
The Veryan Beacham ’92 Scholarship
Cecil M. Benadon / Hodson Trust Memorial Scholarship
Berkshire Hathaway Scholarship
A.T. and Mary H. Blades Scholarship Fund
The Elizabeth A.”Bo” Blanchard Scholarship Fund
The Theodosia C. Bowie ’33 Scholarship Fund
The Ann Brandt ’43 Memorial Fund
George Avery Bunting Scholarships
The Burchinal Scholarship
The Joseph Raynor Carrow Fund
The Douglass Cater Scholarship
The Chevy Chase Bank Scholarship
The Christmas Scholarship
A. James Clark Scholarship Fund
The Dr. Charles B. Clark ’34 Scholarship Fund
Class of 1940 Scholarship
Class of 1950 Scholarship
The Class of 1956 Scholarship Fund
Class of 1987 Scholarship
Class of 1994 Scholarship
The William L. Clayton Scholarship
Cleaver / Hurst Educational Endowment
George and Ann Clegg Scholarship Fund
Clark M. Clifford Scholarship
Clough Family Scholarship
The Concordia Foundation Scholarship Fund
The Nellie Graham Cooley Scholarship
The Corddry Scholarship Fund
The Kevin Coveney Hodson Trust Scholarship
The Alonzo G. Decker, Jr. Scholarship
The Virginia G. Decker Scholarship
The Helen Springer Dryden Memorial Scholarship Fund
The Harry J. Duffey Scholarship
The Henry Armitt Brown Dunning Caroline County Scholarship
George R. Evans / Hodson Trust Memorial Scholarship
Robert Fallaw Endowed Scholarship
The Jefferson L. Ford, Jr. ’14 Memorial Fund
France-Merrick Scholarship
The Friends of the Arts Scholarship
Gale Fund for Environmental Studies
23
Financial Aid
The Charles H. Gibson Scholarship Fund
The Daniel Z. Gibson Scholarship Fund
Helen S. Gibson Scholarship
James H. Gilliam, Jr. Scholarship
The Gray-Pinkney Scholarship
The William G. Greenly ’50 Scholarship Fund
The William E. Griffith ’24 Scholarship
The Julius Grollman Scholarship American Legion Post #278
Norman M. and Eleanor H. Gross Scholarship Fund
Arlene Haddock Scholarship
Anna Melvin Hague ’05 Memorial Scholarship
The Charles S. Hague, Jr. ’38 Memorial Scholarship Fund
The Avery W. Hall Scholarship
William Randolph Hearst Foundation Scholarship
The Leroy Savin Heck, M.D. ’25 Scholarship Fund
Hillel Leadership Scholarship
The Alfred S. Hodgson Scholarship
The Hodson Trust-Beneficial Merit Scholarships
Hodson-Gilliam Scholarships
Leroy E. Hoffberger Music Scholarship
The William and Nellie Frederick Hotchkiss Scholarship Fund
The Ernest A. Howard Memorial Scholarship Fund
The Vincent Hynson Scholarship Fund
The Jenkins Family Scholarship
The Rufus C. Johnson ’42 Scholarship
Elwood M. Jones Memorial Scholarship Fund
The Reverend John Edward Jones Scholarship
The Mr. and Mrs. William Kight Scholarship
The Johan and Bart Koppenol Scholarship Fund
Prudence Kudner Memorial Scholarship
The Larkin Family Scholarship
The Constance Stuart Larrabee Scholarship Fund
Legg Mason Wood Walker Scholarship Fund
Eleanor C. and Ethel M. Leh Scholarship
The Lewis-McGrath Scholarship
The Dr. Frederick G. Livingood Memorial Scholarship
Thomas Hunter Lowe ’52 Scholarship
Thomas J. and Belle Patterson Maher Scholarship
The Ida May Heinz Mantel ’62 and Robert B. Mantel Scholarship
Timothy Maloney Theatre Scholarship
The Mary Emily Matthews Scholarship Fund
The William Beck Matthews Scholarship Fund
The Joseph H. McLain ’37 Memorial Scholarship
24
Financial Aid
The Memorial Scholarship
The Alice C. and J. William Middendorf, Jr. Merit Scholarship
The Mid-Shore Community Foundation Scholarship
The Mid-Shore Community Foundation/Steele Fund Scholarship
The Lewis Waters Milbourne Scholarship Fund
The Clifton M. Miller Scholarship
The Duncan Miller Scholarship
Mary Louise Moore Scholarship
Dorothy Woodall Myers Scholarship Fund
The Everett Nuttle Memorial Scholarship Fund
The George D. and Margaret A. Olds Memorial Scholarship Fund
The Dr. John Thomas Parker Scholarship Fund
The William Kennon Perrin and Anita Ewens Perrin Scholarship
The Raymond Richard Pomeroy ’51 Scholarship
The Raggedy Ann and Andy™ Scholarship Fund
The Irwin O. Ridgely Memorial Scholarship
The H. Charles Rienhoff Scholarship Fund
The John W. Roberts III ’67 Book Scholarship
The Emory T. Roe Fund
The Henry Rogers Scholarship
Sonia and Nathan Rosenwald Scholarship
The Harry S. Russell Memorial Scholarship
St. Paul Travelers Scholarship Fund
The Margaret Jane Martin Sasse Memorial Scholarship
The Joseph W. and Jean E. Sener Scholarship
The Seraph Foundation Scholarship
The Smith-Bandel Scholarship
C. V. Starr Scholarship
The Joe B. Stevens Scholarship
The George D. Stowman Memorial Scholarship
The SunTrust Scholarship
The J. Edwin Tawes Memorial Scholarship
The Eleanor and Francis Taylor Chemistry Scholarship
Ellen E. Thawley Scholarship
The Edith Louise Lawrie Thornton Scholarship
The Margaret Boulden Thornton Memorial Scholarship
The Ralph Usilton ’62 Scholarship
The William Warner Scholarship
George Washington Scholarship
Washington College Academy of Lifelong Learning (WC-ALL) Scholarship
P. Watson Webb Scholarship
Elizabeth Tate Westbrook Art Scholarship
The Clarence C. White Memorial Scholarship
25
Financial Aid
The Mrs. John Campbell White Scholarship
The Jacob O. Williams Memorial Scholarship
Federal and State Grants and Scholarships
The Federal Pell Grant program makes funds available to undergraduate students to attend
post-secondary institutions. Eligibility is based on financial need, and application is through the
FAFSA application .
The Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (SEOG)​ program provides funds for
grants to undergraduate students with great financial need. Application is through the normal
financial aid application process of Washington College, and the awards are determined by the
institution.
State Scholarships​ are available to some students through their individual state scholarship
administrative offices. To compete for these state awards, students should contact their state
scholarship administration to inquire about application procedures, eligibility criteria, and
application deadlines.
Student Loan Programs
The Federal Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Student Loan Program​ enables students to
borrow directly from the U.S. Department of Education. This loan is guaranteed by the federal
government.
The maximum for freshmen is $5,500; for sophomores, $6,500; and for juniors and seniors, the
maximum is $7,500. All borrowers must complete a FAFSA. The interest rate is set in July of
each year.
Repayment of Federal Direct Student Loans begins six months after leaving school, and
borrowers may be allowed up to ten years to repay the loan. Students borrowing funds through
the Unsubsidized Direct Student Loan program are responsible for monthly interest payments
while enrolled. Principal payment is deferred until six months after graduation. Consolidation
programs, which may allow a longer repayment period, are also available.
The Federal Direct Parent Loan for Undergraduate Students (PLUS)​ allows a parent to borrow
funds to assist with payments for the current academic year. This program is not need-based
and may be used in lieu of the family contribution. All borrowers must complete a FAFSA. The
interest rate is set in July of each year. Repayment normally begins within 60 days of
disbursement. However, parents may elect to postpone repayment of the principal until 6
months after the student is enrolled at least half time. Application information is available
through the Office of Student Aid.
Federal Work-Study Program
Washington College participates in the Federal Work-Study Program, which provides job
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Financial Aid
opportunities on campus for students who have financial need. There are a wide variety of jobs
from which to choose: students assist in the Admissions and Student Affairs offices, in Miller
Library, and for various departments and offices all over campus. In return for their efforts,
work-study participants earn a biweekly paycheck to help cover their ongoing educational
expenses. Application is made through the College’s normal financial aid application process,
and awards are determined by the College.
Campus Employment
Washington College also offers on-campus employment opportunities that are not need-based.
Federal Title IV Aid Refund Policy
Washington College adopted the refund policy that conforms to Section 668.22 of the Higher
Education Amendments of 1998. Withdrawing, or expelled students with Title IV funding will be
subject to both Federal Policy regarding the possible return of Title IV funds awarded to the
student and to Washington College’s policy regarding the possible return of institutional aid
awarded.
The law requires that, if a student withdraws, is granted an approved leave of absence, or is
expelled during a semester, the amount of Title IV assistance that the student has earned up to
that point is determined by a specific formula. If the student received more assistance than he or
she earned, the excess funds must be returned.
The amount of assistance that a student has earned is determined on a pro-rata basis. That is,
if a student has completed 30 percent of the semester, the student earns 30 percent of the
assistance they were originally scheduled to receive. Once the student has completed more
than 60 percent of the semester, the student earns all of his/her assistance.
If a student received excess funds that must be returned, Washington College must return a
portion of the excess equal to the lesser of the student’s institutional charges multiplied by the
unearned percentage of financial aid received, or the entire amount of the excess funds. Funds
are returned in the following order:
ID
USTF
GSL
GPLUS
PLUS
PELL
FSEOG
TEACH
Description
Return Priority
Unsub FFEL/Direct loan
1
SUB FFEL/Direct Stafford
2
FFEL/Direct Graduate PLUS
3
FFEL/Direct PLUS
4
Pell Grant
5
FSEOG Category
6
TEACH Grant
7
Policies and procedures for withdrawing from the College are described on page 61. To request
an approved leave of absence or to withdraw from the College, please contact the Associate
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Financial Aid
Provost for Academic Services.
Any Title IV aid recipient who is withdrawing from the College, requesting a leave of absence, or
is expelled must contact the Financial Aid Office to discuss how this action would affect his/her
financial aid awarded. Any questions related to this refund policy should be directed to the
Financial Aid Office in the Casey Academic Center.
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Around Campus
Around Campus Academic Facilities
William Smith Hall​, named in honor of the College’s founder, is the main classroom building.
Known affectionately as “Bill Smith,” the early twentieth-century building includes seminar rooms
and larger classrooms, faculty offices, and the Norman James Theatre, a 164-seat auditorium
used for symposia, films, and student recitals. Wireless access is also available.
Dunning Hall and the Alonzo G. Decker Jr. Laboratory Center​, recently renovated, are part of a
complex devoted to the sciences, and house state-of-the-art classrooms, labs, and offices for
mathematics, physics, and psychology.
The John S. Toll Science Center​ is a 45,000 square foot, state-of-the-art classroom, office, and
laboratory complex. The facility houses chemistry and biology labs, a 94-seat lecture hall, an
environmental classroom, two seminar rooms, a penthouse greenhouse, and a dramatic
three-story glass atrium. The atrium connects to the newly renovated Dunning Hall, and the
Alonzo G. Decker Jr. Laboratory Center.
The Eugene B. Casey Academic Center​ is the heart of campus activity. The ground floor of the
brick Georgian-style building is a grand concourse that opens onto the College’s bookstore,
student post office, and a common room for both faculty and students. The second floor
includes a multipurpose forum, several seminar-size classrooms, and the Student Affairs Office.
The third floor is home to the Office of Admissions and Student Financial Aid. Wireless access is
also available. The landscaped Martha Washington Square adjoining the Casey Academic
Center is a popular meeting place for students and faculty.
Daly Hall​ provides a mix of classrooms, seminar rooms, and faculty offices. Wireless access is
available. The two-story brick structure, while traditional in appearance, features the latest in
technology.
Louis L. Goldstein Hall​ combines faculty offices, classrooms, seminar rooms, labs, and a
75-seat lecture hall with 36 laptop computers. Wireless access is also available. The 23,000
square foot Flemish bond brick structure anchors the southern campus entrance.
The Barbara and George Cromwell Hall​ houses lab-style classrooms for Environmental Studies,
Environmental Science and Anthropology, an outdoor classroom with a teaching hearth, faculty
offices and a conference room. It also houses the primary facilities for the Barbara and George
Cromwell Center for Teaching and Learning, including a 30-seat classroom with state of the art
technology that faculty use to develop innovative approaches to teaching.
The Clifton M. Miller Library​, built in 1970, is located in the center of campus. It underwent a
complete renovation in 2012 which transformed the interior of the building into a vibrant and
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Around Campus
dynamic place for research, collaborative learning, and the creation of new ideas and
knowledge. A variety of easily accessible educational resources, state-of-the-art technology,
and academic services are located in the library—providing one-stop shopping for academic
resources services.
Miller Library provides a rich collection of print and online books, periodicals, newspapers, and
government documents as well as a growing collection of media resources. A dedicated team of
staff and librarians provides reference and research assistance, library and research instruction,
and interlibrary loan services. As part of the full service learning common concept, Educational
Technology and Digital Media Services are located in Miller Library in the Beck Multimedia &
Technology Learning Center and the Multimedia Production Center respectively. Additionally,
the Quantitative Skills Center and the Office of Academic Skills are located in the library.
The Daniel Z. Gibson Center for the Arts​ houses the 440-seat Decker Theater, the 200-seat
Shot​well Recital Hall, a 175-seat experimental theater, the Kohl Art Gallery, offices, and
teaching and support spaces for Music and Theatre.
The Constance Stuart Larrabee Arts Center​ i​s home to the visual arts. This recently renovated
space has two airy, open plan studio classrooms with plenty of natural light as well as additional
spaces for studio tools and cutting-edge digital technologies used in studio processes. In
addition, throughout their senior year all studio concentration majors have separate individual
studios with 24-hour access in which to develop their senior year capstone exhibition work.
The Rose O’Neill Literary House​ is the focal point for creative writing and literary activity. The
renovated Victorian home contains a student study lounge, a paperback lending library,
individual student writing rooms, gallery space for small art exhibitions, two Chandler and Price
letterpresses and a Heidelberg Press. The Lit House is the home of the College’s Board of
Publications, which includes ​The Collegian, The Elm, The Pegasus,​ and ​The Washington
College Review​. The offices of the ​Literary House Press​ and the Literary House’s director and
associate director are also located here.
Recreational Facilities
The Cain Athletic Center​ is home court for both the men’s and women’s basketball and
women’s volleyball programs. The facility also houses offices for physical education faculty, the
Director of Athletics, coaches, sports information and sports medicine; locker rooms; and the
Athletic Hall of Fame.
The Eugene B. Casey Swim Center​ houses an indoor pool and is home to the men’s and
women’s varsity swim teams. Non-varsity-level swimmers might try intramural water polo, take a
course in scuba diving, or do a few leisurely laps during recreational swim hours.
The Lelia Hynson Boating Park,​ located a short walk from campus on the Chester River,
features a dramatically designed waterfront pavilion, the perfect vantage point for watching
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Around Campus
sailing and crew races. The Truslow Boathouse, headquarters for the men’s and women’s
crews, the sailing program, and other waterfront recreational activities, is located here.
The Benjamin A. Johnson Fitness Center​ provides exceptional indoor practice space for varsity
baseball, softball, lacrosse, tennis, field hockey, and soccer teams. In addition, the Johnson
Fitness Center provides recreational space and equipment for individual and intramural
activities. The 56,000 square-foot facility includes a recently renovated 8,200 square-foot
strength and conditioning center, four indoor tennis courts, three basketball courts, a 200 meter
jogging track, a retractable batting cage, a 1200 square-foot dance studio, two squash courts,
two racquetball courts, locker rooms, saunas, offices for coaches, and two academic
classrooms.
Kibler Field/Roy Kirby, Jr. Stadium​, home of the Shoremen lacrosse and soccer teams, has a
new Field Turf artificial playing surface, a new track, and a spectacular new stadium. The
stadium features open bleacher seating, team meeting rooms, a concession area, and an
enclosed multi-purpose room overlooking the field. Baseball action takes place on the adjacent
Athey Field. Varsity practice fields and a varsity softball diamond are on the western end of
campus.
The Ellen Bordley Schottland Tennis Center​, one of the College’s newest athletic facilities,
provides a home for Washington College’s nationally competitive tennis program.
Other Buildings
The Alumni House​, renovated in 2008 thanks to generous gifts from alumni, serves as a place
for alumni to meet and socialize when they return for a visit. The space is also used as meeting
and event space for student groups and organizations. Located adjacent to campus, on the
corner of Washington and Campus Avenues, the house features a lounge, a comfortable
meeting space, a full kitchen, and a flat screen TV; upstairs reside the Alumni Relations and
Annual Giving staff.
The Roy P. and Nan Ans Hillel House,​ dedicated in 2012, offers study and meeting space as
well as a supportive living and learning community both for students practicing Judaism and for
those interested in learning more about Jewish tradition, observance, and culture.
Brown Cottage​ offers distinguished guests of the College comfortable overnight
accommodations and spacious living and dining areas for entertaining.
Bunting Hall​ houses the administrative offices of the College’s President, the Provost and Dean,
Advancement, College Relations, Institutional Research, and the Registrar.
The Custom House​, located at the foot of High Street along the Chester River, recalls
Chestertown’s importance as a port of entry for Maryland’s Eastern Shore. Constructed in the
1740s, the building features Flemish bond brickwork with glazed headers. This significant
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Around Campus
historical structure is one of very few of its type that survive from the colonial era. The historic
Custom House serves as the principal offices of the C.V. Starr Center for the Study of the
American Experience and the Center for Environment & Society.
The Foster House, ​located at 409 Washington Avenue, serves as the Global Education Office.
Newly renovated in 2013, the house now features meeting and study space for international
students and domestic students participating in foreign study, as well as GEO staff offices.
500 Washington Avenue​ houses the Human Resources offices.
508 Washington Avenue​ houses the Office of Advancement Services.
The historic ​Hodson Hall ​houses Hynson Lounge, an elegant space for readings, lectures and
small dinners; downstairs, in the study lounge, portraits of retired faculty are displayed
Hodson Hall Commons, ​opened in October 2009, is a beautiful new facility for dining, relaxing,
and socializing. The new student center features a game room, a wide-screen TV, a
performance space known as “The Egg,” and offices for the office of student engagement,
student events board and student government. Dining options include a two-level dining area,
outdoor seating, and several retail food establishments (see page 33-34 for details).
The Hynson-Ringgold House​ is one of Maryland’s beautiful eighteenth-century mansions, today
used as the home of the College’s President. Situated on Water Street in downtown
Chestertown, it overlooks the Chester River.
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Campus Life
Students at Washington College become members of a campus community rich with
intellectual, artistic, musical, athletic, and social opportunities. Here, students have the chance
to discover their purpose and passion and to build a foundation of knowledge and skill that will
last a lifetime. Central to forming this foundation are the interactions students enjoy with one
another and with faculty and staff members in and out of the classroom—whether they work
collaboratively on a research project, perform together on stage, meet for an afternoon kayaking
excursion on the Chester River, cheer side-by-side for the basketball team, or practice German
while having lunch in Hodson Hall Commons.
Students will benefit most from their college experience if they become involved with a few of
the many groups and organizations that make up the Washington College community. It is our
students, and their efforts to improve and enrich their community, that make Washington
College such a special place.
Student Engagement and the Student Center
Hodson Hall Commons Student Center is the heart of student activity on campus. Whether
students are looking for a comfortable place to relax between classes, a friendly game of pool or
the latest video game, a fun night of karaoke or a meeting place for their club or organization,
they can find it in the Student Center. The Student Center features the Goose Nest Pub that
offers entertainment and a popular game room, a performance space called “The Egg,” the
Office of Student Engagement, the Student Government Association Office and the Center for
Student Involvement and Leadership.
Student clubs and student leaders also find a home in the Student Center. Located near the
Office of Student Engagement and the Student Government Association Office, the Center for
Student Involvement and Leadership provides student organizations and student leaders with
the resources needed to plan activities and meetings. It even offers tools and supplies to craft
eye-catching promotional flyers and banners. At Washington College, the Student Center has
something for everyone!
Office of Student Engagement and Student Events Board: ​Staff and students in the Office of
Student Engagement and the Student Events Board plan most of the major student events, with
students taking the lead in selecting what is offered. The Student Events Board is known for the
variety of events it sponsors and for its success in creating a vibrant and interesting campus
social life. Open mic nights, an “Iron Chef” competition, dance parties, and nationally recognized
comedians and bands are just a few of the social events that the Student Events Board
sponsors on campus every year.
Lecture Series:​ The caliber of the lecturers and artists invited each year to Washington College
is impressive. Recent speakers have included former president of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf;
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Nobel Prize-winning chemist Mario Molina; journalists John Harwood and Chip Reid; campaign
strategists James Carville and Karl Rove; filmmaker Robert Bella; and numerous literary lights
including Pulitzer Prize winners Junot Diaz, Natasha Trethewey and Ron Chernow, graphic
novelist and screenwriter Neil Gaiman, and award-winning authors Nick Flynn, Colum McCann
and Daniel Handler (a.k.a. Lemony Snicket).
Concert Series:​ Students with a special love of the performing arts can enjoy distinguished
performances. The Washington College Concert Series, now in its fifth decade, annually
sponsors a variety of professional performances by such groups as the Brentano String Quartet
and Inna Faliks, pianist.
Film Series:​ For the viewing pleasure of students, faculty, and community members, the
College’s Film Series offers a selection of critically-acclaimed films.
Student Clubs and Organizations
Some student clubs have been around for years, while others come and go depending on the
interests of students enrolled at the time. At Washington College it is easy to launch a new
organization and the nearly 100 student organizations are proof. Below is a sampling of
organizations active in the last few years.
Active Minds (mental health advocacy)
American Chemical Society Student Affiliate Chapter (Chemistry Club)
American Marketing Association Student Chapter
Amnesty International
Anthropology Club
Arab Student Union
Art History Club
Asian Culture Club
Best Buddies
Black Student Union
Campus Christian Fellowship
Caring for Kids
Catholic Campus Ministry
Cleopatra’s Sisters
College Democrats
College Republicans
Colleges Against Cancer (Relay for Life)
Dance Club
Enactus (formerly Students in Free Enterprise)
EROS: Encouraging Respect of Sexuality
Habitat for Humanity
Health Occupation Students of America
Hillel (Jewish Student Organization)
History Society
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Independent Playhouse
International Relations Club
Interactive Gaming Society (WIGS)
Language Clubs: French, German, Spanish, Japanese, Portuguese
Model United Nations
Music Collegium
Musicians’ Union
Philosophy Club
Photography Club
Psychology Club
Service Council
Skeet and Trap Shooting Club
Student Environmental Alliance
WACappela
Wakeboarding and Waterskiing Club
Wilderness Adventure Club
Writer’s Theatre
Writers’ Union
Student Publications:​ The Washington College Elm is the College’s weekly student newspaper.
The Pegasus is the College yearbook. The Washington College Review (WCR) is a literary
review that presents original writing. The Collegian is a bimonthly features magazine. A board of
publications composed of faculty advisors, administrative advisors, and the publications’ editors
assists all student publications.
Student Government and Representation
Undergraduate members of the Washington College student body taking at least eight credits
are members of the Student Government Association (SGA). There are three branches of the
SGA. The legislative arm is the Student Senate, an elected group of students representing their
classes and residential areas. The Senate shares in the work of establishing College regulations
and standards of conduct and provides funding to support student clubs and extracurricular
activities.
The executive branch consists of a President, Vice President, and Financial Controller who are
elected by the entire student body each spring. They appoint an executive board to lead
initiatives, support legislative committees, and address general student concerns. The Review
Board of the SGA consists of the President, Treasurer, Parliamentarian, Speaker of the Senate,
and the Honor Board Chair.
The Honor Board exists to address both academic and social student misconduct, a
responsibility shared with the faculty and with the College administration. The Review Board
appoints a student Honor Board Chair and nine students who serve on the Honor Board; a
faculty committee appoints faculty members serving on the Honor Board.
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Students are represented on the following College committees: Academic Resources, Academic
Standing and Advising, Admissions and Financial Aid, Curriculum, Honor Board, Planning,
International Education Committee, Review Board for Research with Human Subjects, and
Student Life. In addition, the president of the SGA represents the student body at meetings of
the Board of Visitors and Governors. The SGA secretary of academics represents the student
body at faculty meetings; the editor of the Washington College Elm is also invited to faculty
meetings and the College’s governing board meetings.
Office of Student Engagement
Washington College assists students in developing a variety of leadership and interpersonal
skills as they negotiate the opportunities and challenges of college life. Additionally, the office
oversees student community service and Greek Life.
Community Service:​ Contributing to the welfare of one’s community, nation, and world through
service is an important part of the Washington College tradition. Opportunities for service
learning beyond the classroom are varied and include:
Adopt-A-Bear
Amnesty International
Best Buddies
Books for a Better World
Chester River Association
Chestertown Volunteer Fire Dept.
Delmarva Blood Bank
Ducks Unlimited
Enactus
For All Seasons, Inc.
Habitat for Humanity
Hands Out
Homeports (elderly assistance program)
Eastern Shore Hospice
Kent County Humane Society
Nothing but Nets Foundation
Sassafras River Association
Student Environmental Alliance
Students Helping Honduras
Students for Social Awareness
Tanzania Outreach
WC Service Council
Women in Need Alley Teen Center
Fraternity/Sorority Community:​ Roughly twenty percent of the students at Washington College
belong to a fraternity or sorority. The women’s national sororities are Alpha Chi Omega, Alpha
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Omicron Pi, and Zeta Tau Alpha. The men’s national fraternities are: Kappa Alpha, Kappa
Sigma, Phi Delta Theta, and Theta Chi.
The Interfraternity Council regulates and supervises recruitment and orientation of new
members and ensures cooperation between various fraternities in social and philanthropic
endeavors. The Panhellenic Council serves similar purposes for the sororities; both groups work
closely with the College administration. The President’s Council works with the Director of
Student Development and serves as the Greek governing body to set and uphold community
standards as well as maintain the true spirit of the Washington College Greek community.
Wellness and Prevention Education
The Office of Wellness and Prevention Education, working in conjunction with student and
campus leaders, educates students about sexual assault as well as the importance of making
informed and responsible decisions related to alcohol and other drugs and offers programming
on a range of student wellness issues. The office brings speakers to campus to address issues
of substance use and abuse known to be prevalent among college students nationwide. An
important educational strategy occurs before new students come to campus. Before arriving for
Orientation, every first-year student is required to complete Think About It, an online alcohol and
sexual assault education program. The office also coordinates a sexual assault response
advocate (SARA) program which provides 24/7 support for students who have experienced
sexual assault. Additionally, the office sponsors numerous programs, speakers, and other
initiatives to help educate students and prevent sexual assault.
Intercultural Affairs
The Office of Intercultural Affairs serves as the principal office promoting cultural awareness and
social justice programs for the Washington College community. In collaboration with student
organizations and academic departments, the office works with faculty, staff, and students to
engage in dialogue on multicultural awareness and social justice issues domestically and
globally. The office also serves as a support system for students from historically
under-represented populations in the areas of academics, personal development and career
development.
Recreational Sports and Activities
The focus of the Campus Recreation Department is not only on intramural competition, but also
includes leisure activities that promote the surrounding environment of Washington College. The
Recreation Department’s goal is to create exciting and enjoyable activities emphasizing and
educating Washington College students on the idea of living a healthy lifestyle. Lifetime
wellness is the essential component of the Recreation Department’s philosophy, and the only
way to obtain lifetime wellness is through the motivation and practical application by each
student.
Intramural activities promote friendly competition among friends and allow students an escape
from the continual classroom stressors. Intramurals have included flag football, tennis,
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basketball, outdoor and indoor soccer, volleyball, racquetball, dodge ball, floor hockey, and
kickball among others. The recreational fitness class arena offers a variety of free fitness
classes with top-notch instructors in their profession throughout the academic year. Students
can enjoy TRX Suspension training, Spinning, Pilates, yoga, Zumba, PiYo, Kickboxing, cardio
strength training, meditation and several other classes that will challenge the mind, body, and
soul. Orientations and one-on-one fitness consultations from the Benjamin A. Johnson Fitness
Center strength and conditioning staff are offered based on student interest.
The Washington College Club Sports program, under the auspices of the Campus Recreation
Department, promotes student participation in a variety of physical and athletic activities and
gives students opportunities to engage in the sport of their choice at various skill levels. The
emphasis of this program is on student leadership and involvement. The Club Sports Program
provides non-varsity competition in several sports, including: Equestrian, Trap and Skeet
Shooting, Men’s Lacrosse, Women’s Lacrosse, Men’s Rugby, Women’s Rugby, Field Hockey,
Men’s Soccer, Men’s and Women’s Volleyball, Tennis, Ultimate Frisbee, Bowling, Waterski and
Wakeboard, Mixed Martial Arts, Wilderness and Adventure Club, and the Cross Country Club.
With the Chester River and the Chesapeake Bay so close to campus, recreational boating and
fishing are favorite options for Washington College students. The College’s Boating Park on the
Chester River provides opportunities for a variety of water sports, including kayaking, canoeing,
sailing, crabbing, fishing, wakeboarding, waterskiing, and tubing. The Recreational Department
also provides seasonal opportunities for students to get away from the college setting and enjoy
the outdoors. Seasonal trips include whitewater rafting, winter skiing, camping, rock climbing,
cycling, and sport clay shooting among others. Please visit
http://studentlife.washcoll.edu/recreation/ for more information regarding campus recreation and
the Benjamin A. Johnson Fitness Center.
Intercollegiate Athletics
Washington College has a strong athletic tradition and is committed to providing a first-class
athletic experience for its students at both varsity and non-varsity levels of competition.
Approximately 25% of our students engage in intercollegiate athletics. The College is a member
of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (Division III), and the Centennial Conference. The
Centennial Conference, formed in 1993, comprises national liberal arts colleges and universities
in the region that share similar academic aspirations and a commitment to the importance of the
total educational experience of students engaged in sports. All eleven member institutions are
more than one hundred years old and are Division III members of the NCAA. The College is
also a member of the Mid-Atlantic Rowing Conference (MARC) as well as the Inter-Collegiate
Sailing Association (ICSA) and the Mid-Atlantic Intercollegiate Sailing Association (MAISA).
Under the auspices of these recognized bodies, there is intercollegiate competition in baseball,
basketball, lacrosse, rowing, soccer, swimming, and tennis for men; and basketball, field
hockey, lacrosse, rowing, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, and volleyball for women. The
intercollegiate sailing program is coed. Men’s lacrosse is arguably Washington’s highest-profile
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sport, with more than 30 appearances in post-season play and a national championship title in
1998. The men’s tennis program is highly successful as well, having captured two national titles
in four years—1994 and 1997—and remaining undefeated in conference play from 1986-2005.
For decades, varsity rowing has been an integral part of the College’s athletic program, with a
number of medals at prestigious regattas such as the Dad Vail. The women’s rowing team
received berths to several NCAA Division III Championship regattas. Varsity sailing has also
emerged as an elite program with its first ICSA National Championship appearance in 2009.
The College encourages all students to participate in some type of physical activity, and the
Benjamin A. Johnson Lifetime Fitness Center makes that prospect quite appealing. The indoor
practice area, the strength and conditioning room, the dance studio, the jogging track, and
racquetball and squash courts draw both students as well as student/athletes who are
interested in maintaining physical fitness and a healthy lifestyle.
Roy Kirby, Jr. Stadium, Kibler Field and Chatellier Track—home of the Shoremen and
Shorewomen lacrosse and soccer teams and field hockey team—were completed in the
summer of 2006 with a new field turf artificial playing surface, a new track, and a spectacular
new stadium. The stadium features open bleacher seating, an enclosed multi-purpose room
overlooking the field, team meeting rooms, and a concession area. Baseball action takes place
on the adjacent Athey Park. Varsity practice fields and a varsity softball diamond are on the
northern end of campus.
Employment Opportunities, Internships and More
Center for Career Development:​ As a resource for students in all classes and academic majors,
the Center for Career Development offers a variety of career related services through individual
appointments, information sessions, special events, a comprehensive website, and JOBS by
George! First year students are connected to the Center for Career Development staff and
resources early through the Career Awareness Program (CAP) that begins on-line before
students arrive in late August and continues during Orientation. During the first year, students
are guided to attend programs and engage in activities that clarify career interests, promote
internships and experiential learning activities, and help students identify pursuits that will help
them prepare for entry into graduate school, the workforce or other career choices. After the first
year, Career Center staff work with students to find careers related to their majors, locate
internships, develop job search, interviewing, and networking skills for employment and prepare
for the graduate and professional school application process.
Office of Human Resources:​ The office coordinates non-work study campus employment and
oversees all student employment authorization processes (for both work-study and non-work
study positions).
Residential Life
Residential Life is an integral part of the Washington College liberal arts tradition. Living in a
residence hall is an educational opportunity that supports and augments learning gained in the
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classroom. The College residence program, under the supervision of the Residence Life Office,
provides students with opportunities and experiences that foster personal responsibility, maturity
and independence along with the understanding, insight and skills needed for living in a
close-knit community.
The College offers a variety of housing options. In addition to traditional corridor-style residence
halls, several buildings offer suite style living. Students wishing to live with others who share
similar interests will find areas set aside for wellness (including substance-free living),
international relations, creative and performing arts, the sciences, and foreign languages. All
matriculated, full-time, first and second year students are required to live on-campus. Third and
fourth year students in good academic and social standing may file an appeal to live off-campus
with the Residential Life Office.
Dining​: Students enjoy a variety of dining options in Hodson Hall Commons including retail
operations on the first floor and a full-service dining hall on the second floor. The retail area
features Washington College’s own Java George, offering Caribou coffee, house-baked items,
grab and go meals and smoothies; the popular Mondo Subs; and specialty items in Martha’s
Kitchen.
The dining hall features Fresh Market, which offers house-made soups and fresh salads;
Martha’s Kitchen, an ever changing buffet-style service with vegetarian, main entrees,
specialties and ethnic foods; Baker’s Crust, with classic deli favorites; Hearthstone Oven has a
brick stone pizza oven to prepare classic Italian dishes; and My Pantry, a place students can
call their own, with foods prepared to order and, with prior arrangement, dining services can
store any special dietary requests in the cabinets and fridge for students’ personal use. All
students living on campus are required to have a meal plan. Any special needs or dietary
requests should be discussed with the Director of Dining Services. Please visit the website:
www.dineoncampus.com/wc.
Motor Vehicles: ​All students living on campus may have a motor vehicle on campus as long as it
is registered with the Department of Public Safety. Motor vehicle use must comply with
regulations outlined in the Student Handbook, which can be found on the College Web site.
Health and Safety
Health Service:​ The College Health Service, located in Queen Anne’s House, is open for
student care during the academic year, Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 12 p.m. and from
1:00 to 4:00 p.m. The clinic is staffed with nurse practitioners and a registered nurse. Nurse
practitioner hours are by appointment. Students can arrange an appointment or consult with the
nurse on a walk-in basis between the hours of 8:30 a.m. and 11:30 a.m. and from 1:30 p.m. to
3:30 p.m. For emergencies occurring when the Health Service is not open, students can go to
the Emergency Department at nearby Chester River Hospital Center.
While there is no charge for a sick visit, charges for medications, in-house lab tests, suturing
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and physicals may be incurred. There are also costs associated with prescriptions,
hospitalization, or services in the hospital or other facilities (including x-rays, laboratory tests,
referrals to other providers, and emergency visits).
Washington College requires that all students have and provide documentation of health
insurance annually and offers a health insurance plan for students who are not covered
elsewhere. Information regarding the plan can be found under the Health Services page on the
College Web site. All international students are required to purchase health insurance through
the College. Students insured under an HMO are encouraged to check with their insurance
carrier to determine if additional coverage is needed.
Counseling Service:​ The Counseling Service shares an office suite with the Health Service in
Queen Anne’s House. A full-time licensed psychologist is assisted by licensed part-time staff.
The staff provide confidential counseling, evaluation, and consultation to students seeking
assistance with personal, family, and college adjustment concerns.
Campus Safety: ​The campus Department of Public Safety is located on the lower level of
Wicomico Residence Hall. Office hours are 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday.
Officers conduct foot and vehicle patrols of the entire campus 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
The Department of Public Safety can also be reached by telephone around the clock in the case
of an emergency and by activating any of the emergency “Blue Light” phones located
throughout the campus grounds.
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The Academic Program
The Academic Program Educating the whole student is the goal of the liberal arts curriculum at Washington College. It is
a goal that calls for active participation on the part of both faculty and students. The College
values its role as a microcosm for today’s students who seek a liberal arts education.
Washington College’s size lends itself to educating the whole student in intensely personal,
important ways. With one professor for every 12 students, teachers know their students by
name rather than by College ID number.
The College’s commitment to the liberal arts and sciences encourages students to explore
many areas of interest and to develop the capacity to reason, to appreciate literature and the
arts, and to make the connection between courses of study and their implications in society.
Student participation is crucial to the success of a liberal arts education. That is why students
are expected to design—with the help and guidance of faculty advisors—an academic program
best suited to their individual interests and talents. To help in charting the course, Washington
College has established a set of guidelines concerning its General Education and Distribution
Requirements, which are designed to ensure a broad intellectual foundation in the arts and
sciences. In addition to these general requirements, students are expected to complete writing
requirements, course requirements for the major, and a Senior Capstone Experience, which
usually takes the form of a thesis, performance, or comprehensive exam.
Washington College operates on a two-semester academic calendar year. The majority of
courses are worth four credit hours; however, the College also offers one- and two-credit hour
courses. It is customary to complete sixteen credit hours for each of eight semesters and to
graduate at the end of four years with 128 credit hours total.
The curriculum is designed to provide for a thorough and intensive study of the material
selected. Like other leading national liberal arts colleges, Washington College asks students to
devote considerable time to each course—normally twelve hours a week for a four-credit
course. Since less than a third of that time is actually spent in the classroom, courses
emphasize the importance of outside work—independent research, additional reading and
writing, laboratory research, creative projects, as well as service learning opportunities and
participation in the many cultural events hosted by the College.
While the nature of any particular course is a matter to be determined by its instructor, that
instructor has the responsibility for defining the nature of work to be done outside of the
classroom and for demanding that it be successfully completed. Satisfactory grades are given
only to students who demonstrate a mastery of the material as intended.
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The Academic Program
The Bachelor’s Degree
Washington College awards the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees to
undergraduate students, depending on their major. Students may earn a Bachelor of Arts or a
Bachelor of Science, but not both.​ ​Please refer to the Second Bachelor’s Degree section in the
next chapter for additional information. To earn a baccalaureate degree, students must
satisfactorily complete a minimum of 128 credit hours, including four courses that fulfill the
writing program, major coursework, and the Senior Capstone Experience. Students may declare
an additional major, up to three minors, and concentrations or specializations within the
major—or may use their remaining credits to complete elective courses.
Students must achieve a cumulative grade point average (“GPA”) of 2.00 overall in the 128
credit hours offered toward graduation. Not more than six four-credit courses with “D” grades will
count toward the 128 credit hours required. Additionally, students must maintain a minimum
GPA of 2.00 within each major’s subject area and may not count more than two four-credit
courses with “D” grades toward any major. In most cases, students must complete the last two
semesters toward their degree, or the equivalent number of credit hours (32), in residence at
Washington College or in a Washington College-administered program.
Faculty advisors, division and department chairs, members of the Provost’s Office staff and the
Registrar are freely available to answer questions and offer guidance in selecting and planning
a course of study. The ultimate responsibility for meeting all requirements for the degree,
however, rests entirely with the student.
Goals of the Liberal Arts Education
A fundamental goal of a liberal arts education is to encourage and to further individual
self-development. Beyond this goal, the liberal arts college shares with other academic
institutions an obligation to preserve, to transmit, and to advance the accumulated wisdom of
civilizations. The scholarly tradition, in turn, provides the substance of what we offer to further
an individual’s intellectual development. As a special kind of liberal arts college, one that
stresses the value of close personal relationships, the faculty and staff strive to assist each
student not only in enlarging his or her intellectual and aesthetic capacities but in achieving a
social and personal maturity as well.
Two of the purposes of higher education listed by the Carnegie Commission describe
Washington College’s goals very well:
The provision of opportunities for the intellectual, aesthetic, ethical, and skill development of
individual students, and the provision of campus growth.
The transmission and advancement of learning and wisdom.
The Curriculum
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The Academic Program
Within the general guidelines of the curriculum at Washington College, students take primary
responsibility for shaping a program of study that will broaden and deepen their intellectual
development. Members of the faculty, especially faculty advisors, work closely with students to
help them develop and complete their program of study.
Other aims of the curriculum may be grouped into four broad classes:
Acquisition of Information: Acquiring information involves learning how to look for, to read, and
to listen for form and structure, coherence and cogency.
Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation: Analysis and synthesis require a reasoned, contemplative
approach to problems, the patience to do research and gather information, and the ability to go
beyond rationalization and emotionally charged arguments to discern good and fair bases for
judgment and action. Evaluation demands an awareness of one’s own values and value
commitments; an awareness that other individuals and cultures hold contrasting values which
must be understood and to some extent accepted for satisfactory interactions with them; a
sense of responsibility; defensible grounds of morality; and an ability to distinguish ideas of
lasting value from those which are ephemeral.
Articulation and Action: Action and its consequences require that students learn and practice
writing and talking with greater accuracy, grace, and persuasiveness. Students are thus
encouraged to act on their knowledge.
Responsiveness to Individual Needs: Because the College recognizes that not all people learn
in the same way, it provides alternative educational experiences for students. The College also
recognizes that different groups hold contrasting values and thus provides models for various
styles of life. In addition, the College offers students opportunities to work with others to achieve
common goals. In these ways, the College works to foster the physical, mental, social, and
aesthetic development of students.
A liberal arts education is only secondarily and indirectly vocational. The primary purpose of a
liberal arts education is to foster the process of self-development which finds an ideally
encouraging environment in a small, residential college such as Washington College. Students
should expect to play an active role as partners in an intellectual dialogue with instructors and
fellow students. While the curriculum provides guidance and ensures coherence in the
educational process, students should find sufficient flexibility to permit the pursuit of their
specific interests. In short, sound structure and necessary flexibility are the foundations of the
course of study at Washington College.
An Overview of the Academic Requirements
Three kinds of requirements must be satisfied to earn a baccalaureate degree at Washington
College: (1) general education requirements, (2) major requirements, and (3) graduation
requirements. ​General education requirements​ consist of courses that together ensure that
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The Academic Program
students get a balanced introduction to a variety of liberal arts and sciences. ​Major requirements
ensure that students concentrate sufficiently in at least one liberal art or science to become
proficient in that area. ​Graduation requirements ​ensure the academic integrity of any degree
that the College awards to its students. In sum: general education requirements are for breadth,
major requirements are for concentration, and graduation requirements are for uniformity.
General Education Requirements
To ensure a broad foundation in the liberal arts and sciences, all students at Washington
College are required to satisfy the following general education requirements, with a passing
letter grade, unless otherwise noted:
The Writing Program
In the course of their education at Washington College, all students will complete at least four
deliberate writing experiences that comprise the requirements of our Writing Program. These
experiences, sequenced over the four years of a typical Washington College education, will
serve to develop in students the knowledge, skills, and habits essential to the clear thinking,
sharp inquiry, careful analysis, and effective expression at the heart of the college’s tradition of
liberal education. Writing has traditionally been a prominent feature of the Washington College
curriculum, and across all disciplines it serves as an important means of helping students to
discover the purpose and passion that guide their intellectual endeavors. The sequenced writing
framework described in this document makes a clear statement of how writing will continue to
be at the core of the College’s mission—and at the heart of our transformative student
experience.
Students fulfill the Writing Program requirements by completing four courses, one in each of the
following categories:
W1 Critical Inquiry​: The W1 introduces all students to the essential thinking activities of liberal
arts education, including inquiry, critical thinking, discussion, writing, and argument. Students
fulfill this requirement by completing an FYS 101 section.
FYS 101. First-Year Seminar
Washington College’s First-Year Seminar program introduces new college students to the
excitement of critical inquiry and learning, and to the key academic skills required for sustained
collegiate success. FYS courses cover a wide range of topics, but all share three essential
elements: the passion of a dedicated instructor, a small-seminar format where students
contribute and learn from each other, and a sustained focus on careful reading, sound research,
thoughtful discussion, and clear writing—the ‘habits of critical inquiry’ at the heart of liberal
education.
All FYS courses introduce students to library research and information literacy; offer instruction
on the writing process, rhetorical knowledge, and academic conventions; and include significant
research, writing, revision, and presentation work. FYS courses satisfy the W1 component of the
45
The Academic Program
college’s Writing Program.
​ 2 Process of Writing​: W2 courses continue the development of rhetorical knowledge and
W
critical thinking introduced in W1, while providing additional time and attention to the practice of
all aspects of writing processes. Students must complete one W2 course by the end of their
second year at Washington College, or by completion of 60 credits. Courses that fulfill this
requirement are indicated on the course schedule every semester.
Please note, the W2 course must be taken at Washington College.
W3 Writing in the Discipline​: The W3 requirement advances the larger program goals of
persuasive analysis, flexible thinking, responsible inquiry, and effective expression into each
department and major, focusing attention on the methods and modes of writing and critical
thinking specific to a discipline or major field of study. Courses that fulfill this requirement are
indicated on the course schedule every semester.
W4 Senior Capstone Experience​: W4 is the capstone of the writing experience at Washington
College. All seniors complete discipline-specific writing as part of their Senior Capstone
Experience, demonstrating at an advanced level the elements of critical thinking, writing
processes, rhetorical knowledge, and knowledge of conventions that they have been
developing in their previous writing experiences.
Distribution Requirements
Foreign Language Requirement
Natural Science and Quantitative Requirement
Humanities and Fine Arts Requirement
Social Sciences Requirement
Distribution Requirements
Students are required to complete courses from the four categories listed below, unless a
waiver is granted on the basis of Advanced Standing credits (AP, CIE, CLEP, or IB) or Transfer
Credit equivalency. Other than the Natural Science component, combining courses from two
departments to satisfy part of a distribution requirement is not allowed without permission from
the chairs of the two departments involved. This permission must be obtained by the student
and submitted in writing to the Associate Provost for Academic Services before the student
takes the second of the two courses. Students may not use a single course to satisfy more than
one distribution requirement simultaneously. However, courses offered to satisfy distribution
requirements may also count toward any number of major or minor requirements.
I. Foreign Language Requirement
II. Natural Science and Quantitative Requirement
III. Humanities and Fine Arts Requirement
IV. Social Science Requirement
46
The Academic Program
I. Foreign Language Requirement​ (Students must complete one or two courses in a foreign
language depending on their placement level.)
For students starting a new language or students placed in the 100-level of a previously studied
language, complete two four-credit courses (eight credits total) in the new or placement
language.
For students placed in the 200-level or above in French, German, Spanish, or Chinese complete
one four-credit course.
Students who speak, read and write a native language other than English are exempted from
this requirement.
Students with a language-based learning disability may apply for an accommodation through
the College’s Office of Academic Skills. Students granted an accommodation by OAS will fulfill
the Foreign Language Requirement by substituting two four-credit courses (eight credits total),
taught in English, in a foreign culture. Courses must be selected from the list of courses
approved for this accommodation by the chair of the Department of Modern Languages and
available from the Office of Academic Skills. To apply for this accommodation, complete the
form on available on the OAS website.
II. Natural Science and Quantitative Requirement ​(Students must complete three courses,
with at least one satisfying the Natural Science component [letter A] and another satisfying the
Quantitative component [letter B]. The third course is the student’s option but must follow the
pairing rules explained below.)
A. Natural Science Component:​ To fulfill the overall requirement with ​two​ Natural Science
courses and ​one​ Quantitative course, complete either option below:
Option 1:​ ​Complete a natural science general sequence. ​This option is strongly
recommended for students who plan to major in biology, chemistry, environmental studies,
physics, or psychology or who intend to apply to medical or veterinary school. These sequences
are also recommended for students seeking teacher certification or who otherwise have a
strong interest in the sciences:
BIO 111, 112.
CHE 111, 112.
PHY 101, 102.
PHY 111, 112.
General Biology
General Chemistry
College Physics (algebra-based)
General Physics (calculus-based)
Option 2:​ ​Complete any two natural science courses. ​Any two of the non-major science
courses on this list may be taken, or one may be paired with a course from the list under
Option 1.
47
The Academic Program
BIO 100.
BIO 104.
CHE 110.
CRS 240.
PHY 100.
PHY 105.
ENV 140.
ENV 141.
Current Topics in Biology
Ecology of the Chesapeake Bay ​(may not be paired with CRS 240)
Chemistry of the Environment
Estuarine Science ​(may not be paired with BIO 104)
Concepts in Contemporary Physics
Astronomy
Exploring the Solid Earth
Atmosphere, Ocean, and Environment
Any ​one ​course from either option above will fulfill the Natural Science component for students
taking ​two​ Quantitative courses.
B. Quantitative Component:​ To fulfill the overall requirement with two Quantitative
Skills courses and one Natural Science course, complete one of the following two course
sequences exactly as listed below:
BUS 109, 209.
ECN 215, 320.
MAT, CSI
MUS
Managerial Statistics and Financial Analysis
Data Analysis and Econometrics
Any combination of two Mathematics (MAT) and/or Computer Science
(CSI) courses
Any combination of two Music Theory courses (MUS 131, 132, 231, 232)
Any ​one ​of the following courses will fulfill the Quantitative component for students who
complete ​two ​Natural Science courses:
BUS 109.
ECN 215.
MAT, CSI
MUS
PHL 108.
PSY 209.
Managerial Statistics
Data Analysis
Any Mathematics (MAT) or Computer Science (CSI) course
Any Music Theory course (MUS 131, 132, 231 or 232)
Logic
Statistics and Experimental Design
Note: PHL 108 and PSY 209 may not be paired with another course to satisfy the Quantitative
component of this requirement. One of these courses may be used to satisfy the Quantitative
component only by students taking two courses to satisfy the Natural Science component of the
Natural Science and Quantitative requirement.
Additionally, students fulfilling the Quantitative component with two courses may use
BUS 109 and MAT 109 interchangeably; however, students may only receive credit for one
Statistics course.
III. Humanities and Fine Arts Requirement​ ​(Students must complete three courses, with at
least one satisfying the Humanities component [letter A] and another satisfying the Fine Arts
48
The Academic Program
component [letter B]. The third course is the student’s option but must follow the pairing rules
explained below.)
A. Humanities Component:​ To fulfill the overall requirement with ​two​ Humanities courses and
one​ Fine Arts course, complete one of the following options listed below:
ENG
FLS
ILC
PHL
ENG 101 and one 200-level English course, ​or ​two 200-level English courses
Any two courses taught in the same foreign language and numbered 303 or
above, e.g. FRS, GRS, or HPS 303+ (except HPS 307)
Any two International Language and Culture courses
Any two Philosophy courses (except PHL 108)
Any ​one ​course from the list above will fulfill the Humanities component for students taking ​two
Fine Arts courses.
B. Fine Arts Component:​ To fulfill this requirement with ​two​ Fine Arts courses and ​one
Humanities course, complete one of the following options listed below:
ART
DAN
THE
MUS
Any two Art or Art History courses
Eight credits of Dance courses (except DAN 181-185, 310, or 381)
Any two Theatre courses (except THE 181-185, 285 or 400)
Eight credits of Music courses (except MUS 131, 132, 231 or 232), including
applied music (private instruction) and musical ensembles
Any ​one​ course from the list above, or a combination of four credits from the same department,
will fulfill the Fine Arts component for students taking ​two ​Humanities courses.
IV. Social Science Requirement ​(Students must complete three courses, with at least two from
the same department.)
To fulfill the Social Science requirement, complete a two-course sequence or pairing from any
department listed below plus one additional course from a different department on the list. The
third course must be one of the non-indented courses on this list (e.g. an introductory course).
An indented (e.g. an upper-level) course will not count as the third course unless otherwise
noted.
Anthropology
ANT 105, 107.
Economics
ECN 111, 112.
ECN 111 ​or​ 112.
Introduction to Anthropology ​and​ Introduction to Environmental
Archaeology
Principles of Macro- ​and​ Microeconomics, ​or
Principles of Macro- ​or​ Microeconomics, ​plus any one of the following:
49
The Academic Program
ENV 117.
ECN 218.
ECN 219.
ECN 312.
ECN 317.
ECN 318.
ECN 410.
ECN 411.
ECN 415.
ECN 416.
Introduction to Environmental and Natural Resource Economies
Economics Development
Human Resources Economics
Public Finance
Environmental Economics
Natural Resource Economics
International Trade
International Finance
Government and Business
Law and Economics
Note: Students choosing to take ​one​ Economics course and ​two​ courses from another
department may complete either ECN 111, 112, or ENV 117 for the one Economics course.
Education
EDU 251, 252.
Principles of Education ​and ​Educational Psychology
History
HIS 111.
Introduction to History, ​plus any other History course, or
Any two of the following 200-level History courses:
HIS 201.
History of the United States I
HIS 202.
History of the United States II
HIS 203.
Modern World History I
HIS 204.
Modern World History II
HIS 205.
Early Origins of Western Civilization I
HIS 206.
Early Origins of Western Civilization II
Note: Students choosing to take ​one​ History course and ​two​ courses from another department
may complete either HIS 111, or any of the 200-level History courses listed above.
Political Science
POL 102, 104.
American Government and Politics ​and ​Introduction to World Politics, ​or
POL 102 ​or​ 104.
American Government and Politics ​or​ Introduction to World Politics, ​plus
any 200- or 300-level POL course
Psychology
PSY 111, 112.
PSY 111 or 112.
PSY 202.
PSY 205.
PSY 220.
General Psychology I ​and​ II, ​or
General Psychology I ​or​ II, ​plus any one of the following:
Lifespan Developmental Psychology
Drugs and Behavior
Human Sexuality
Sociology
50
The Academic Program
SOC 101.
Introduction to Sociology, ​plus any 200-level SOC course.
Policies Regarding General Education Requirements
Transfer students with 28 or more transferable credit hours do not have to take an FYS 101
seminar.
Students entering the College with Advanced Standing credits (AP, CIE, CLEP, or IB) may
apply those credits toward the distribution requirements up to a total of 32 credit hours. ​More
information about Transfer credit and Advanced Standing credit equivalency is in the chapter on
Academic Policies and Regulations that follows.
Students may drop one FYS seminar and add another within the Drop/Add period but may not
withdraw from an FYS seminar without the approval of the Associate Provost for Academic
Services. Students approved to withdraw from an FYS seminar must enroll in an FYS seminar in
the next possible semester. Students must earn a “D-” or better in FYS 101 in order to satisfy
the requirement.
Alternatives to General Education Requirements
Students who wish to plan their general education outside of the normal guidelines may write a
proposal to this effect and submit it to their advisor as a basis for discussion of the feasibility of
the plan. After consultation with the advisor, the student should send the proposal to the
Committee on Academic Standing and Advising for final judgment. Approval of such proposals
depends on convincing evidence that the desired scheme provides an alternate way of
adequately meeting the broad aims of the distribution requirement. Proposals must make
provisions for meeting such specific goals as the following: promotion of cultural breadth,
introduction to empirical investigation, provision of some basis for aesthetic appreciation or
creativity, acquaintance with the nature of language (natural or symbolic), and opportunity to
view complex phenomena.
Major Requirements
The concentrated focus of the major balances the broader focus of the distribution requirement
and enables students to master a discipline. Detailed knowledge of the facts and terminology of
a discipline, development of skill in the use of techniques essential to a discipline, sufficient
mastery of the structure and methods of scholarly investigation to engage in independent study
in a discipline—such are the objectives of the major in a liberal arts curriculum.
Normally, students will declare a major before the end of the sophomore year, in time for
advising for the following fall. Prior to each semester’s registration period, undeclared students
will receive information about declaring a major. Students should discuss tthe selection of their
major with their current faculty advisor. To declare a major, students submit the Major-Minor
Declaration Form to the chair(s) of their major department(s) to obtain the appropriate
signature(s), then sign and return the form to the Registrar’s Office.
51
The Academic Program
Departments may, but are not required to, permit students to declare a major provided they
have completed at least 16 credit hours and have a cumulative grade point average of 2.00 or
better. Transfer and Advanced Standing credit cannot be counted toward this 16 credit hour
requirement. Students wishing to declare a major early should obtain the Major-Minor
Declaration Form from the Registrar, discuss the decision with their current faculty advisor, and
make an appointment to meet with the chair of the major department to discuss the decision
and obtain the appropriate signature. The chair assigns a member of the department as the
student’s advisor for the junior and senior years; the department chair will identify the new
advisor in the space provided on the form.
All majors include a minimum of eight semester courses (or 32 credit hours) in the major
department. Specified extra-departmental courses in related fields may be included in a major
program by special permission of the department.
Independent Major Guidelines
The Independent Major (INM) offers students the opportunity to create a cohesive major
program of study outside of the majors offered by the college. To earn an INM, students must
develop a proposal (described below), obtain letters of support from two faculty sponsors,
receive approval from the department chairs of the constituent departments and be approved by
the Curriculum Committee. Given the maturity and academic ability needed to successfully
complete an independent major, students must have a minimum 3.00 GPA when they submit
their proposal. In addition, students will not be considered for an INM after they have
completed 70 credits at Washington College.
Students begin the process by articulating a vision for their INM, including potential course work.
Once formulated, students must find two faculty sponsors, one in each of the departments from
which the majority of their intended INM coursework will be completed, with the understanding
that one of these faculty members will serve as the primary academic advisor if the proposal is
approved. The faculty sponsors and the student will then work together to develop a curriculum
for completing the INM.
The proposed major must meet the following criteria:
• At least twelve total courses (48 credits) from no fewer than two academic departments
• No more than four introductory courses
• At least four upper-level courses, where “upper-level” is defined by the department(s)
and/or the faculty serving on the student’s advisory committee (typically courses at the
300-level or above)
• No more than 8 credits of for-credit internship
• No more than 8 credits of independent study or faculty-led research
• Clearly defined requirements for completing the Senior Capstone Experience
• Clearly defined requirements for obtaining Honors in the INM, if applicable
In addition to a detailed course plan, the proposal must also include two letters of support from
52
The Academic Program
the faculty sponsors and a cover letter, written by the student, describing how the proposed INM
creates a cohesive program with a clear academic focus that is distinct from current majors
offered at Washington College.
If the major proposal appears reasonable but is not polished, complete, or otherwise ready for
approval, the subcommittee may suggest revisions. The subcommittee will send feedback
directly to the student, after which the student will have thirty (30) calendar days to revise and
resubmit the proposal for reconsideration. The subcommittee will then accept or reject the
revised proposal, but no further revisions to the proposal will be considered.
Once the application is complete, the proposal is submitted to the department chairs of the
constituent departments for review. Upon approval by the department chairs, the student must
submit the application to the Provost’s Office for consideration by a subcommittee of the
Curriculum Committee. If the proposal is accepted by the Curriculum Committee, the student
will be an official candidate for the proposed INM and the specified faculty advisor will be
assigned as the student’s academic advisor. In the event the approved course plan must be
modified, e.g. due to new course offerings or schedule conflicts, changes to the approved
proposal must be approved by both faculty sponsors.
Given the unique nature of the INM, students must complete at least 32 credits of the INM at
Washington College or in a Washington College approved program. While completion of the
INM satisfies the graduation requirement for an academic major, it does not preclude a student
from completing a secondary major or one or more minors. In addition, all students approved for
an INM must also complete all general education requirements appropriate to their Catalog
year. As with traditional majors, courses counted toward general education requirements may
overlap with major requirements.
To ensure the INM program adheres to the same standards as other majors offered by
Washington College, the Associate Provost for Academic Services will oversee assessment of
all INMs and will make recommendations to improve learning outcomes as necessary.
Double Majors, Minors, and Concentrations/Specializations
Students may complete one or two majors. Those who double-major are assigned two faculty
advisors, one from each discipline, and are expected to complete required coursework and a
Senior Capstone Experience for each major, although a joint SCE is permitted if both
departments approve. Pursuing a double major requires that students plan their course of study
carefully and in consultation with advisors from each major. Students are not permitted to
declare more than two majors. Any two of the majors offered by the College can be chosen as
part of a double major.
Some majors permit or require students to declare an area of concentration or specialization
within the major. Students will receive information about the concentration or specialization
options for their selected major when they first meet with the department chair to discuss their
53
The Academic Program
major decision, and may either declare the concentration/specialization at the same time that
they submit the Major-Minor Declaration Form or declare it at a later time.
Pursuing one or more minor areas of study is also an option. Minors require a minimum of five
courses. In addition to minors in most departments and programs, the College offers
interdisciplinary minors in American studies, black studies, earth and planetary science,
environmental studies, gender studies, the humanities, human development, information
systems, public health,​ ​and international studies. Students are not permitted to declare more
than three minors.
Senior Capstone Experience
The Senior Capstone Experience requires students to demonstrate the ability to think critically
and to engage in a project of active learning in their major field of study. In the SCE, which is
required of all graduating seniors, students integrate all relevant knowledge and skills from their
entire academic program into a senior project demonstrating mastery of a body of knowledge
and intellectual accomplishment that goes significantly beyond classroom learning.
Senior Capstone Experiences can take several forms. They might involve research papers,
comprehensive exams, professional portfolios, and artistic creations or performances. Whatever
the design, Senior Capstone Experiences will be informed by the following expectations:
●
●
●
●
●
Demonstrated student initiative
Significant preparatory work
Active inquiry
Integration of acquired knowledge and skills
Culmination of previous academic work
For those majors which require or allow the comprehensive exam:
●
Fulfill all departmental requirements (methodology courses, review sessions, etc.)
designed to prepare students for the exams.
●
Passed the comprehensive exam.
For those majors which require or allow a thesis or senior project:
●
Select paper or project topic no later than the fourth week of classes in the fall semester of
the senior year.
●
Submit outline (if required).
●
Submit rough draft of thesis or project by the deadline established by the department.
●
Submit final draft of thesis no later than the established departmental deadline or the last
day of classes of the semester in which the student is graduating, whichever is earliest.
Members of the faculty mentor seniors intensively as they work to complete their Senior
Capstone Experiences. As part of the process, students are expected to share with the College
54
The Academic Program
community in appropriate ways the results of their Senior Capstone Experience. The Curriculum
Committee reviews, at regular intervals, departmental policies regarding the Senior Capstone
Experience to ensure compliance with the expectations listed above and overall equality of
demands across departments. ​More information about policies governing SCE courses is
available in the Registration Policies section of the following chapter.
Because each department sets its own intermediate deadlines for submission or completion of
requirements for the Senior Capstone Experience, students should refer to their department’s
established deadlines or consult their department chair regarding each of the above checklist
items.
Students who fail to meet their department’s deadlines or other requirements may earn a failing
grade for their Senior Capstone Experience regardless of the College deadline of the last day of
classes.
Excellent work on the Senior Capstone Experience, along with the quality of work done in major
courses, can result in Departmental Honors. ​More information about Honors at Graduation is
available in the Graduation Policies section of the following chapter.
Graduation Requirements
A candidate for the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree must complete at least 128
credit hours, of which a minimum of 56 credit hours must be taken at Washington College or in
a Washington College-administered program. Students must satisfy the general education
requirements which include completion of the Writing Program and distribution requirements.
Students must also complete a major, which includes a minimum of eight courses (or 32 credit
hours) in the major and the Senior Capstone Experience.
Students must achieve a cumulative grade point average (“GPA”) of 2.00 overall in the 128
credit hours offered toward graduation. Not more than six four-credit courses with “D” grades will
count toward the 128 credit hours required. Additionally, students must maintain a minimum
GPA of 2.00 within each major subject area and may not count more than two four-credit
courses with “D” grades toward any major. In most cases, students must complete the last two
semesters toward their degree, or the equivalent number of credit hours (32), in residence at
Washington College or in a Washington College-administered program.
The Registrar’s Office helps students monitor their progress in completing graduation
requirements. This includes periodic degree audits informing both students and advisors of their
progress. Students may also request a degree audit from the Registrar at any time.
The Academic Advising Program
The faculty has approved a system for academic advising and has articulated the following aims
and goals of effective academic counseling:
55
The Academic Program
●
●
●
To enable students to take responsibility for designing their programs of study.
To encourage and assist the student to explore and articulate interests or career goals.
To encourage the student to take a reasoned, contemplative approach to designing a
program of study.
●
To assist the student in designing a program within the liberal arts framework that is
clearly
related to interests or career goals.
●
To ensure that the student has been fully informed about all available options and has
been encouraged to examine all options, and that the course of study is designed to
meet the student’s individual goals.
●
To provide advisors who not only monitor the student’s academic program but also speak
personally with the student and explore his or her changing interests and goals.
●
To ensure that all advisors have current and detailed information about course offerings
and are aware of the variety of options offered to students.
The Faculty Advisor
New students are assigned to a first-year faculty advisor after they have registered for their first
semester classes. First-year faculty advisors are well-prepared for this task and work with their
advisees until they declare a major, even if the student does not declare a major until his or her
second year at the College. Once the student selects one or more majors, he or she is assigned
to a member of the department as major advisor. Students should be particularly careful when
arranging their academic programs and must consult regularly with their advisor(s) to ensure
compliance with all graduation requirements and fulfillment of specific upper-level course
prerequisites. The final responsibility for meeting all of the academic requirements rests with the
individual student.
The Registrar’s Office will send major declaration information to any student who has completed
at least one semester of study and is still undeclared; students who have completed at least 48
credit hours and remain undeclared will receive a final reminder of their obligation to select a
major by the end of their fourth semester at the College; students who have completed at least
60 credit hours and achieved junior standing will have their first-year faculty advisor removed
and will be advised by the Registrar or the Associate Provost for Academic Services until they
successfully declare a major.
Both advisors and students have a responsibility in advising. It is essential that both take the
matter seriously if students are to achieve a meaningful and successful program of study. In the
dialogue between advisors and students, advisors serve in two capacities: to interpret the
College and its goals for students, and to encourage students to gain understanding of their
potential and how it may be developed. In a very practical way, advisors are sources of
information for students. They explain campus rules and customs, clarify special programs and
requirements, and collaborate with the student to help achieve his or her vision for
postsecondary education and career pursuits.
56
The Academic Program
When students have questions or problems, they should feel free to see their faculty advisor.
Although the College schedules advising sessions each semester, the real benefits of such an
advising system can only be realized through more frequent meetings between student and
advisor. The College’s advising program intends good working relationships to develop.
However, students and their advisors do not always relate well, and the student is free to ask
the Associate Provost for Academic Services for a change of advisor. This request should be
made in writing.
Among the faculty, students will find friends as well as advisors, and they are urged to foster
such friendships. Herein lies the great value of a small, liberal arts college and the education it
provides. The benefits of personal attention and assistance under the advising system of
Washington College derive from close association among students, faculty, and administrative
officers—an association rarely possible at large colleges or universities. The academic advising
system is under general direction of the Office of the Provost and Dean of the College. The
Associate Provost, the Registrar, and the student’s instructors are also on hand to help with
advising.
57
Academic Policies and Regulations
Academic Policies and Regulations Academic policy
The primary objective of the College’s academic policy is to support the direct relationship
between student and instructor. Academic policy is formulated by the faculty, who determine the
requirements for admission, academic standing, and graduation; the organization of the
curriculum; and the provisions covering academic probation and dismissal. Administrators
interpret and apply the rules so as to carry out the intentions of the faculty, subject to the
policies established by the Board of Visitors and Governors. Students play an important role in
determining academic policy. They serve as voting members on both the Curriculum Committee
and Committee on Academic Standing and Advising, where major academic policies are
formulated, subject to full faculty approval.
Academic Records Policies
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
For the full content of the College’s Record Release Policy, please visit the Registrar’s Office
website.
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 as amended (FERPA) affords students
certain rights with respect to their education records. These rights include:
The right to inspect and review the student’s education records within 45 days of the day the
College receives a request for access.
Students should submit to the College Registrar a written request that identifies the record(s)
the student wishes to inspect. The College Registrar will make arrangements for access and
notify the student of the time and place where the records may be inspected. If the records are
not maintained by the Registrar’s Office, the College Registrar shall advise the student of the
correct official to whom the request should be addressed.
The right to request the amendment of the student’s education records that the student believes
are inaccurate, misleading, or otherwise in violation of the student’s privacy rights under
FERPA.
A student who wishes to ask the College to amend a record should write the College Registrar
(or other College official who maintains the record in question, if the records are not maintained
by the Registrar’s Office), clearly identify the part of the record the student wants changed, and
specify why it should be changed.
If the College decides not to amend the record as requested, it will notify the student in writing of
the decision and the student’s right to a hearing regarding the request for amendment.
58
Academic Policies and Regulations
Additional information regarding the hearing procedures will be provided to the student when
notified of the right to a hearing.
The right to provide written consent before the College discloses personally identifiable
information (PII) from the student’s education records, except to the extent that FERPA
authorizes disclosure without consent.
The College discloses education records without a student’s prior written consent under the
FERPA exception for disclosure to school officials with legitimate educational interests. A school
official is a person employed by the College in an administrative, supervisory, academic or
research, or support staff position (including law enforcement unit personnel and health staff); a
person or company with whom the College has contracted to provide a service instead of using
College employees or officials (such as an attorney, auditor, or collection agent); a person
serving on the Board of Visitors and Governors; or a student serving on an official committee,
such as a disciplinary or grievance committee, or assisting another school official in performing
his or her tasks.
A school official has a legitimate educational interest if the official needs to review an education
record in order to fulfill his or her professional responsibilities for the College.
The right to file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Education concerning alleged failures
by the College to comply with the requirements of FERPA.
Students are encouraged to discuss their concerns with the College Registrar (as the College’s
official custodian of records). Should the student decide to file a complaint against Washington
College for a potential violation of his or her rights under FERPA, the name and address of the
Office that administers FERPA is:
Family Policy Compliance Office
U.S. Department of Education
400 Maryland Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20202-5901
As of January 3, 2012, the U.S. Department of Education’s FERPA regulations expand the
circumstances under which your education records and personally identifiable information (PII)
contained in such records—including your Social Security number, grades, or other private
information—may be accessed without your consent.
First, the U.S. Comptroller General, the U.S. Attorney General, the U.S. Secretary of Education,
or state and local education authorities (“Federal and State Authorities”) may allow access to
your records and PII without your consent to any third party designated by a Federal or State
Authority to evaluate a federal- or state-supported education program. The evaluation may
relate to any program that is “principally engaged in the provision of education,” such as early
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childhood education and job training, as well as any program that is administered by an
education agency or institution.
Second, Federal and State Authorities may allow access to your education records and PII
without your consent to researchers performing certain types of studies, in certain cases even
when the College objects to or does not request such research. Federal and State Authorities
must obtain certain use-restrictions and data security promises from the entities that they
authorize to receive your PII, but the Authorities need not maintain direct control over such
entities.
In addition, in connection with Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems, State Authorities may
collect, compile, permanently retain, and share without your consent PII from your education
records, and they may track your participation in education and other programs by linking such
PII to other personal information about you that they obtain from other Federal and State data
sources, including workforce development, unemployment insurance, child welfare, juvenile
justice, military service, and migrant student records systems.
Directory Information and Privacy
Washington College students are granted an automatic expectation of privacy for their
education records through FERPA. The law says that once a student begins postsecondary
study, the College can only release one’s education records directly to the student upon his or
her written request. By law, the College may only provide information from a student’s education
records when it is requested by a parent or guardian if the student consents to that release in
writing or if the parent or guardian provides us with proof of the student’s financial dependency
(usually substantiated by a certified copy of the most recent Federal Income Tax Form). All
entering students will have the opportunity to ​opt in ​and provide blanket parental/guardian
access to their education records at the start of their Washington College academic career.
Certain information from a student’s education records is considered directory information under
FERPA. The College may release the following directory information to parents, guardians,
and/or third parties without prior consent from the student:
Student name
Graduation dates
Awards
Campus box number
Expected graduation dates
Honors
Campus phone number
Previous institutions attended
Honor Societies
Hometown and State
Cell phone number
Permanent address
Home phone number
Email address
Major(s) and Minor(s)
Class year
Concentration(s)
Full/part-time status
Dates of attendance
Degrees
For Athletes​: Participation in officially recognized sports, photograph, height, and weight.
Release of this information to third parties is usually seen as a benefit to students. For example,
the College can verify the current student status or graduation information to loan servicing
organizations, potential employers or companies offering a student discount, or can share
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Academic Policies and Regulations
students’ honors and accomplishments with their hometown newspapers and other media
outlets. Nonetheless, FERPA provides an opportunity for students to restrict the dissemination
of directory information. Instructions on how to ​opt out ​will be supplied to all entering students.
Should the student decide to withhold his or her directory information from release, all future
requests from non-Washington College persons and organizations will be refused.
In general, the College does not honor blanket requests from third parties for directory
information about its current student population. However, the College does publish in the online
student directory each student’s name, email address, campus box number, and campus phone
number. Access to this directory is restricted to members of the Washington College Faculty
and Staff.
FERPA does not permit the release of educational records to anyone, including
parents/guardians unless the student has waived their FERPA rights, which they may do online.
Students may also choose to restrict the release of directory information online. Decisions
students about allowing parental/guardian access or restricting the release of directory
information remain in effect for the duration of the student’s matriculation at Washington College
unless otherwise revoked by filing a written request with the Registrar’s Office. The College will
honor each student’s most recent privacy preference after he or she graduates or withdraws.
Transcript Requests
In compliance with FERPA, all requests for a student’s academic transcript must be made by
the actual requesting student. Washington College provides transcripts using an electronic
transcript delivery service through an approved vendor. There is a small convenience fee
charged by the delivery service. Students can visit iwantmytranscript.com/washcoll to order an
official transcript to have delivered electronically or via USPS.
Students may also pick up transcripts in person at the Registrar’s Office. This does not incur
any fee or charge. Students should print, complete, and mail or fax the Transcript Request
Form on the Registrar’s Office web page at http://registrar.washcoll.edu/transcripts.php.
Alternately, students may submit the interactive form electronically​ ​by providing a digital
signature and submitting the completed form from their @washcoll.edu email account. Finally, a
transcript may also be obtained by sending a letter with the following information to the
Registrar’s Office:
Full name at the time of attendance
Social Security number
Dates of attendance or year of graduation
Degree program and major(s)
Home address and telephone number
Address where the transcript should be sent
Transcripts are generally sent out within 24 to 48 hours. Additional time may be required during
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Academic Policies and Regulations
registration, grading periods, and holidays. Students who are in financial arrears with an office
of the College (Business Office, Library, Bookstore, Central Services, or Public Safety for
overdue parking tickets, etc.) will be unable to have transcripts sent out until payment or until
satisfactory arrangements have been made to clear such debts.
Enrollment Verification Requests
In compliance with FERPA, all enrollment verification requests must be made in writing,
including a physical signature (pen to paper) of the actual requesting student. Students should
print, complete, and mail or fax the Enrollment Verification Request Form on the Registrar’s
Office website.​ ​Alternately, students may submit the interactive form electronically by providing
a digital signature and submitting the completed form from their @washcoll.edu email account.
The Registrar’s Office will gladly write a letter to any third party stating the student’s academic
status and verifying any other information contained on the student’s education record, provided
it is factually accurate. Furthermore, Washington College has established a relationship with the
National Student Clearinghouse (a non-profit resource funded by the Department of Education)
to help respond to student enrollment verification and degree completion requests automatically.
Registration Policies
Registration is an agreement with Washington College to attend and pay for the courses listed
unless the courses are dropped by an approved method. Payment is always due by the start of
the semester in which the course takes place. Bills for tuition and other services will be sent to
the student’s legal, permanent address on file before the semester of study. ​Note: It is the
student’s responsibility to notify the Registrar’s Office of any change to the legal, permanent
address immediately upon making such a change.
Registration for Entering Students
Entering first-year and transfer students register prior to the beginning of the semester while
meeting with a faculty advisor or the Associate Provost for Academic Services. Entering
students who wish to make changes to their first semester course registration after this initial
meeting must communicate their wishes to the Associate Provost or to the Registrar; online
changes are prohibited.
Registration Holds
Prior to the registration period, students will find specific registration information and instructions
available on the Registrar’s Office website. These instructions remind the student to complete
several tasks prior to the start of registration, including a review of any active holds on
WebAdvisor. Possible student holds may include a “no registration” hold from the Business
Office, Health Services, the Provost’s Office or Student Affairs. Any of these holds will prevent
registration for new courses until the hold is lifted by the originating office.
Registration
For all returning students, registration is divided into three distinct time periods: (a) priority
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Academic Policies and Regulations
registration by class year; (b) online Drop/Add for all students; and (c) paper Drop/Add for all
students. The priority registration period begins midway through October for the subsequent
spring and midway through March for the subsequent fall. Registration by class year is
determined by the number of credits the student has completed at the time of registration.​ More
information about the second and third registration periods is printed in the Drop/Add section
below.
All students who plan to attend the College in the upcoming semester must register during the
priority registration period in order to secure their seat in courses and to avoid lapses in
scholarship and financial aid eligibility. Students must schedule an appointment with their faculty
advisor during the same week as their registration date. Appointments begin on Monday of the
given week and online registration begins on the subsequent Friday.
Class Standing
An undergraduate student’s class standing is determined by the following credit-hour
thresholds:
Freshman class standing
fewer than 28 credit hours
Sophomore class standing 28-59 credit hours
Junior class standing
60-91 credit hours
Senior class standing
92 or more credit hours
Drop/Add
After the initial registration period, students may make changes to their course registrations
online until the Friday before the semester begins. All changes made during this time incur no
financial penalty. Although online Drop/Add does not require advisor approval, students are
encouraged to contact their advisor and discuss the changes they intend to make. ​Note: During
the summer, online Drop/Add is unavailable during the six weeks between Commencement and
the first week of July.
Registration changes made during the first seven days of the semester must be made using the
paper Drop/Add form available in the Registrar’s Office. Adding a course requires the
signatures of the student, his or her faculty advisor, and the instructor; dropping a course
requires the signatures of only the student and his or her advisor. Students must use the paper
Drop/Add form even if changing from one section of a course to another. Students changing
courses without filing the proper form run the risk of losing credit for work completed.
Students registered in a course who do not attend the first class meeting may be summarily
dropped from the course by the instructor. Students wishing to enroll in a course at or after the
first meeting are admitted only at the discretion of the instructor, who will generally defer to the
order of students on the waitlist for the course.
Courses that begin after the first day of the semester are typically one- or two-credit courses
that only meet for seven weeks. Students should register for these courses during the normal
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Academic Policies and Regulations
registration period, but are permitted to add or drop such a course through Friday of the same
week that the first class meeting takes place with no penalty. Students who wish to withdraw
from these courses must do so by the Friday of the fifth week of class.
Withdrawal from Courses
After the Drop/Add period, students may withdraw from one or more courses, with the exception
of a First-Year Seminar (see below), without penalty until the Friday following the mid-semester
advising day. A “W” grade will be noted on the student’s transcript. Withdrawal from a course
(as distinct from withdrawal from the College) shall take place only after the student has
discussed it with the faculty advisor or, if the student prefers, with the Associate Provost for
Academic Services. The student must submit a signed withdrawal form to the Registrar no later
than the Friday after the mid-semester advising day.
Students may not withdraw from First-Year Seminar (FYS) without the approval of the Associate
Provost for Academic Services. Students who are approved to withdraw from a FYS must enroll
in an appropriate FYS in the next possible semester​. ​Withdrawals from FYS follow all other rules
for course withdrawals.
A student may only withdraw from a course three times during his or her Washington College
career. Course withdrawals that take place in a semester where the student still completes at
least 16 credit hours will not count toward this limit. After reaching three withdrawals, the
Registrar’s Office will not process any future withdrawal request and will notify the student and
his or her faculty advisor that the student must continue to attend the course and will earn a final
grade based on their completed coursework at the end of the semester.
Waitlists
When a course section appears online “closed” or “waitlisted”, students may add themselves to
the waitlist for that section. While not all courses allow waitlisting, most departments at the
College use waitlists. Frequently waitlists assign a higher position based on class (seniors, then
juniors, etc.) and academic program (majors, then minors, then non-majors, etc.). The
Registrar’s Office will run a daily waitlist process and automatically adds the first student on the
waitlist to an available seat. Students who have added themselves to a waitlist can monitor
their current position on the waitlist online.
Students may not add themselves to a waitlist for a section if he or she is already registered for
a different section of the same course. Additionally, students nearing the top of a waitlist should
clear any schedule conflicts that may prevent the Registrar’s Office from adding him or her to
the section when a seat becomes available. A staff member from the Registrar’s Office will
typically contact a student who has such a conflict via email and grant them one business day to
adjust their schedule. After 24 hours, the available seat will be offered to the next student on the
waitlist. Thus, it is imperative that students regularly check their @washcoll.edu email account
for such notifications.
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Expected Course Load
Normally, Washington College students take four courses, worth four credit hours apiece, each
fall and spring—for a total of 16 credit hours per semester. This approach yields 32 credit hours
a year and 128 credit hours over the four years that a student typically attends the College.
However, students may plan a course of study with the approval of their faculty advisor(s) that
involves as few as 12 credits or as many as 22 credits. Students may not enroll in more than 22
credits in a single semester.
Full-Time, Half-Time, and Overload
For the purposes of federal student loan deferments and NCAA requirements, full-time student
status is defined as being enrolled for at least 12 credit hours per semester. Half-time student
status is defined as at least 8 credit hours but not 12 credit hours. Students who fail to enroll in
at least half-time status in a given semester run the risk of having federal student loans go into
repayment mode. By federal law, deferral of student loans is only available to students who are
actively enrolled in a half-time or greater course load. This determination is made by the loan
servicer based on information supplied to it by the College.
First semester students (whether first-year students or transfer students with accumulated
credits) are not ordinarily permitted to take more than 18 credit hours. This is to help these
students make a successful transition into Washington College.
Students on academic probation or academic warning may not take more than 18 credit hours
in any single semester.
Eligibility for Student-Athletes
Washington College is committed to developing students who excel in both academics and
athletics. All athletes must satisfy the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the
Centennial Conference, and Washington College eligibility rules, which are as follows:
Student-athletes must be enrolled for 12 or more credit hours in the semester of participation
and must be making satisfactory progress toward the baccalaureate degree to be eligible.
Student-athletes have ten semesters to complete four years of athletic eligibility.
Student-athletes who are on academic probation may be scheduled for a conference with the
Athletic Director or coach and the Associate Provost for Academic Services to determine
whether it is appropriate for the student to continue athletic participation.
Pass/Fail Option
To encourage greater breadth in course selection, and exploration of disciplines or fields of
study in which the student may have had little or no previous experience, students may take a
maximum of one non-required course on a Pass/Fail basis each semester after attaining junior
status (by credit). Instructors assign a final grade to all students according to the normal
procedures outlined in the course syllabus. For students who have elected Pass/Fail grading,
the final grade is then translated by the Registrar to a Pass (“D-” or above) or Fail (“F”) and
recorded as such on the student’s transcript. A failed course is computed into the grade point
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average as would any other grade of “F.” A passed course has no effect on the grade point
average.
Other policies governing the Pass/Fail option are as follows:
Since this option may only be exercised by juniors and seniors, and only one course may be
elected as Pass/Fail in any one semester, the maximum number of Pass/Fail courses a student
may elect to take in his or her career at Washington College is four courses. However, students
who have met the minimum graduation requirement of 128 credit hours may choose to take
additional courses on a Pass/Fail basis provided they do not exceed one per semester.
Courses for which all students earn a Pass/Fail grade by default will not count toward this
maximum.
Students on academic probation may not elect to take a course for a Pass/Fail grade.
Pass/Fail courses may not be used for distribution requirements, the major field of study,
major-related requirements, or the minor field of study. All such courses must be taken for a
letter grade unless all students in the course earn a Pass/Fail grade by default.
Students must use the Pass/Fail Option form to indicate which course is to be taken on a
Pass/Fail basis. At the end of the third week of classes, this status becomes permanent.
Students may not shift from a Pass/Fail to a letter grade or vice versa after this deadline except
as outlined below.
New Pass/Fail forms must be filed each semester even if the student is continuing a
two-semester course sequence.
Courses that were failed previously may not be retaken on a Pass/Fail basis.
If a student has already taken Pass/Fail courses and subsequently declares a major or minor in
that field, these options exist:
The letter grade the student would otherwise have received in the course may be
reinstated. In the case of a minor, this conversion takes place only after all minor
requirements are met.
The student may complete another course in the major department.
Auditing Courses
Matriculated undergraduate students may audit one or more courses without fee, with the
permission of the instructor(s). Non-matriculated students (including alumni) may audit courses
for a small fee, published in the Fees and Expenses chapter of the Catalog. Students will not
earn academic credit for this experience; in most cases, they are considered “listeners” during
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lectures and are not required nor are they permitted to participate in group or individual projects
or exams. Students intending to audit a course should consult with the instructor about the
specific coursework requirements for auditors.
Other policies governing the Audit option are as follows:
All students intending to Audit must formally register for the course to ensure the accuracy of
course rosters and to help the instructor uphold classroom capacity restrictions. To register a
matriculated student as an auditor, the student, instructor or advisor may list the course on a
paper Drop/Add form, followed by the notation “AUDIT,” and submit it to the Registrar’s Office.
Non-matriculated students should complete and submit the Non-Degree Student Registration
Form available from the Registrar’s Office.
If a student wishes to change a course to Audit or vice versa after it has begun, he or she must
request this change using the paper Drop/Add form, which must include the instructor’s
signature. At the end of the second week of classes, this status becomes permanent. Students
may not shift from an Audit to credit option or vice versa after this deadline.
At the end of the class, the instructor will assign a grade of “AU” on the student’s transcript only
if attendance is frequent enough to warrant the notation. Students who fail to attend enough
class sessions or who did not meet the criteria outlined by the instructor will be dropped from
the course and will receive no grade, nor will they receive a tuition refund.
Independent Study and On-Campus Research
Matriculated students interested in pursuing a course of study not offered within the standard
curriculum may undertake an independent study (e.g. a reading course, independent project,
summer research, or its equivalent) with a College faculty member, if that faculty member
agrees. To enroll in such a course, a student must complete the Independent Study or
On-Campus Research Registration Form available from the Registrar’s Office, including
signatures from the instructor and department chair.
Other policies governing Independent Study and On-Campus Research are as follows:
Independent study and on-campus research requires no less than 5 meetings with the instructor
to earn two credit hours, or no less than 10 meetings with the instructor to earn four credit
hours.
When seeking permission from the department chair, the student should attach copies of the
plan or outline of study, including a bibliography, and a document specifying the course
objectives or requirements as agreed upon by the student and the supervising instructor.
Independent study and on-campus research cannot be used to satisfy distribution requirements
or the Senior Capstone Experience.
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Students may register for independent study or on-campus research on a Pass/Fail basis
subject to the rules specified in the Pass/Fail Option section above.
Students may not earn more than 16 credit hours of independent study, internship, and
on-/off-campus research credits during their academic career unless they complete more than
the minimum of 128 credit hours required to graduate.
Internships and Off-Campus Research for Academic Credit
Internships and off-campus research for academic credit may be part of an already existing
program or they may be independent internships proposed by the student and a faculty
member. Before beginning the internship, the student must secure a faculty member as advisor
for the internship and submit all required paperwork to the Assistant Dean for Academic
Initiatives by the appropriate deadline. The internship or off-campus research opportunity must
meet the following criteria to be eligible for four credit hours:
Internships and off-campus research must consist of a minimum of 140 hours of supervised
work or research experience.
Internships and off-campus research must continue over a minimum of an eight to ten week
period of supervised experience, entirely or mostly completed on-site. Exceptions may be given
for supervised work at virtual sites with proper documentation.
Internships and off-campus research cannot be used to satisfy distribution requirements or the
Senior Capstone Experience.
Students may register for internships or off-campus research on a Pass/Fail basis subject to the
rules specified in the Pass/Fail Option section above.
Students may not earn more than 16 credit hours of independent study, internship, and
on-/off-campus research credits during their academic career unless they complete more than
the minimum of 128 credit hours required to graduate.
Academic credit for an internship or off-campus research will not be entered on the student’s
transcript until the student has completed all requirements of the internship, including all work
required by the faculty advisor for the experience and any reports required by the Assistant
Dean for Academic Initiatives. ​More information about Internships and non-credit Externships,
Job Shadowing and other experiential learning is available in the Integrated (Experiential)
Learning chapter of the Catalog.
Credit for Physical Education Courses
Students may not earn more than four credit hours from courses offered by the physical
education department (denoted in the course schedule by the prefix PED) unless they complete
more than the minimum of 128 credit hours required to graduate. Of these four credit hours, two
must be from the course PED 017 Introduction to Strength & Conditioning/Human Movement. A
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student who has already earned two credit hours in any PED course(s) and has not taken PED
017, or who has already earned four credit hours in PED courses (including two credit hours in
PED 017), has the option of auditing additional courses in physical education to reflect their
involvement in these activities.
English Language Learning Courses
Students for whom English is a second language and who at enrollment:
- Do not present a TOEFL score or equivalent measure of their English language skills taken
within the two years prior to enrollment at Washington College
- Or present a TOEFL score between 79 - 86 or equivalent measure of their English language
skills taken within two years of enrollment at Washington College
must complete the Washington College English language assessment process before they
begin classes at Washington College.
Students whose language assessment results indicate that they require more study of English
language to support their academic work at Washington College must successfully complete
both ELL 101: English for Academic Purposes I and ELL 102: English for Academic Purposes II,
in their first two semesters at Washington College.
Students who earn a grade of at least A- in ELL 101 may, at their request, opt out of taking ELL
102.
Credit for Study Abroad Programs
Students participating in a Washington College approved study abroad program receive
Washington College credit and grades for their coursework. Because the assignment of credits
and grades is different in other countries, the College follows a set of standards and best
practices when converting and transferring grades and credits from overseas institutions. The
Global Education Office provides students applying for study abroad with information on how
grades and credits earned at their specific host institution will be transferred upon their return to
Washington College. The following policies apply:
Students should take the equivalent of 16 credit hours per semester abroad in order to return
with a full course load equivalent at Washington College. Students must take the equivalent of
12 credit hours or more in order to maintain full-time student status.
All courses must be pre-approved by appropriate department chairs and by the student’s faculty
advisor using the Study Abroad Approval Form available from the Global Education Office.
If course registrations change while the student is abroad, he or she must contact his or her
faculty advisor, the appropriate department chair, and the Director of the Global Education
Office to communicate these changes in a timely manner (not later than the host institution’s
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Drop/Add deadline).
Students may only take courses on a Pass/Fail basis with permission of their faculty advisor,
subject to the rules explained in the Pass/Fail Option section above.
When the official transcript from the foreign institution is received by the Registrar’s Office, the
courses are given equivalent Washington College course numbers and credit values based on
the approvals noted on the Study Abroad Approval Form. All grades and credits become part of
the student’s Washington College transcript.
If students do not not submit their completed Study Abroad Course Approval Forms by the end
of the semester after they return to Washington College, the Registrar will post General credits
in the place of their credits earned abroad. General credits will not count towards major, minor,
or distribution requirements, but will be counted toward the minimum credits required to
graduate, and will be factored into the student's' GPA.
Only courses equivalent to three or more credit hours in Washington College’s curriculum may
be counted toward major, minor and distribution requirements. Some institutions offer
courses/modules for fewer than the equivalent of three credit hours. With permission of the
department chair, two courses worth fewer than three credit hours each may be combined to
count toward these requirements.
Students participating in a study abroad programs not approved by Washington College are not
guaranteed transfer credit for their coursework. For those students seeking transfer credit for
such courses, the following policies apply:
All courses must be pre-approved by the department chairs and by the student’s faculty advisor
using the Study Abroad Course Approval Form available from the Registrar’s Office.
When the official transcript from the foreign institution is received by the Registrar’s Office, the
courses are given equivalent Washington College course numbers and credit values based on
the approvals noted on the Transfer Credit Request Form. Only courses earning a letter grade
of “C-” or better will become part of the student’s Washington College transcript. Grades earned
in these courses will not become part of the student’s cumulative grade point average.
Policies for the Senior Capstone Experience
Students in their senior year will be advised to register for a Senior Capstone Experience course
worth four credit hours. With departmental approval, students who double major may complete
one integrated Senior Capstone Experience course. The final grade for this course will be
determined by the SCE advisors from both majors in consultation with one another and with
other faculty from the two departments who participated in the student’s capstone experience.
When such integration is not advisable, double majors will register for two separate SCE
courses worth two credit hours apiece, one for each department. The final grade for each
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individual course will be determined by the SCE advisor in consultation with others from the
student’s major department who participated in the student’s capstone experience. Students
who decide to drop a second major after the drop/add deadline and before the withdrawal
deadline will receive a W grade on that SCE. The remaining SCE will be updated to four
credits. Exceptions to this deadline must be approved by the Associate Provost.
The four credit hours awarded through the successful completion of the Senior Capstone
Experience course(s) will be part of the 128 credit hours required to graduate from the College.
Students may not earn more than four credit hours in fulfillment of their Senior Capstone
Experience.
Departments determine whether to assign a letter grade or designate Senior Capstone
Experiences in their department with honors or a Pass/Fail grade. Only Senior Capstone
Experience courses receiving a letter grade of “A-” or better qualify for honors.
Evaluation and Grading Policies
Attendance
It is the responsibility of students at Washington College to attend promptly each class meeting
scheduled in every course in which they enroll. Students on probation are expected to attend all
classes without exception and should contact the Provost’s Office about any absences that are
truly unavoidable. A faculty member’s attendance policy may include failure of the course for
excessive absences. Students are encouraged to ask their Professors about any attendance
policies that are not clear to them.
Members of the faculty are under no obligation to accept any student who misses the first day of
class. Faculty have the right to drop from a course any student who does not attend on the first
day of classes. Students who cannot attend on the first day but would like to remain in the
course must contact their instructors before the first day of class.
Students may occasionally be excused from other College obligations if they are involved in a
field trip regarded as an integral part of the work of a particular course. The Provost’s Office or
faculty member involved will send out to the faculty an advance listing of those students
participating in such a field trip. Field trips should be arranged as far ahead of time as
practicable.
As soon as arrangements have been completed, and in any event no less than one week before
the trip, the Provost of the College should be informed of the date and inclusive hours of the trip
and of the names of those students participating. If actual attendance differs from what was
anticipated, a revised list of names should be sent to the Provost’s Office immediately upon
conclusion of the trip.
A student who is repeatedly absent, or whose attendance continues to be unsatisfactory
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following a warning from the instructor, will be reported by his or her instructor to either the
Registrar or the Associate Provost for Academic Services to investigate cases of prolonged
absence in which the reasons are unknown to the instructor.
When an instructor is more than ten minutes late to a class, the students may leave without
penalty.
Attendance Policy for Student-Athletes
Because travel to athletic events may result in missed class time, class attendance at all other
times is expected. The student-athlete is responsible for notifying professors in advance and
arranging to make up missed work if the student-athlete misses class because of regular and
post-season contests. Practices, scrimmages, and off-season athletic events are not valid
reasons for missing classes; student-athletes should attend the class and arrange with the
coach to make up missed practice time.
To facilitate faculty awareness and cooperation with students regarding absences, the varsity
sports offered at Washington College and their competitive seasons are as follows:
MEN
WOMEN
Fall
Soccer
Sailing
Winter
Swimming
Basketball
Tennis
Crew
Volleyball
Swimming
Field Hockey Basketball
Soccer
Tennis
Sailing
Crew
Sailing
Spring
Baseball
Lacrosse
Softball
Lacrosse
Regular Examinations
Instructors may give quizzes and tests with sufficient frequency to enable students to have a
reasonably accurate measure of their level of work in a course as the semester proceeds. This
rule applies with special force to first-year and sophomore courses.
Final Examinations
Normally, examinations are given at the end of a course as well as at other points during the
semester. The final examination is to be given during the final examination period, which is the
week following the last day of classes, at the time scheduled officially by the Registrar, whether
this is a traditional final, that is, an examination testing the entire course, or simply the last in a
series of written exercises. Examinations that conclude a series may be given toward the end of
the semester only if there is a comprehensive final during the final examination period as well.
Instructors may give quizzes at any time they find it useful to do so.
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The duration of final examinations should not exceed two and one half hours. Take-home
examinations may be distributed at the last class meeting for submission to the instructor during
the final examination period. Occasionally, the final examination schedule prepared by the
Registrar creates unusual difficulties for a faculty member or for individual students. Change in
the established time of a final examination may be made, in very exceptional cases only, by
permission of the Registrar.
Final examinations are retained by the faculty at least until the middle of the semester following
their administration in order to permit students to review them if they are interested in doing so.
Making Up Work
Responsibility for handing in all announced papers, reports, and projects on time rests entirely
with the student. Instructors may penalize late work.
A student who has missed an examination or test is responsible for making it up and must take
the initiative in making arrangements to do so with the instructor. Instructors are not obliged to
prepare make-up exams unless the student’s absence was occasioned by serious and
unavoidable reasons. Students who are members of varsity sports teams and who must miss an
exam because of a scheduled sports event may make up exams. In such cases, responsibility
for informing the professor of an absence for an exam and for scheduling a make-up exam date
rests solely with the individual student.
Grading System
Washington College uses the following letter grades which, except for the “F” grade, may be
modified by a plus or a minus:
A
Excellent
B
Good
C
Fair
D
Passed
F
Failure
The following system is used to determine a student’s grade point average:
A/A+ 4.00
C
2.00
A3.67
C1.67
B+
3.33
D+
1.33
B
3.00
D
1.00
B2.67
D0.67
C+
2.33
F
0.00
Other notations used on student records include:
W
Withdrawal from course
P
Pass, in courses graded by this method or where the student elects to use the Pass/Fail
Option
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Academic Policies and Regulations
I
AU
R
H
Incomplete
Audit
Replaced course
Honors course
Midterm Grades
Instructors report midterm letter grades for all first-year students, students on academic
probation, and transfer students prior to the halfway point of the semester. Midterm grades are
issued to enable students to assess their progress through several weeks of the semester; they
are not recorded on the student’s transcript. Students who do not receive midterm grades
should consult their professors regarding their performance so far.
The Incomplete
If a student is prevented from completing any required coursework throughout the semester due
to illness (as shown by a physician’s certificate) or some other valid circumstance, the instructor
may assign the temporary grade of “I” (Incomplete) to the assignment or examination. In the
case of illness that occurs at the end of a semester or near the final grading period, submission
of a final course grade of “I” by the instructor should denote an agreed-upon extension of time
period in which the student may still complete and submit the work of the course to substantiate
a final grade in the course. Notice of necessary absence from a final examination must be given
by the student, or the Associate Provost, to the Registrar and to the instructor of the course
before the scheduled time of the examination if possible.
Under no circumstances should a student be given an Incomplete as a substitute for failure,
whether for an assignment, examination, or final grade. When a student, through negligence or
procrastination, fails to complete the work of a course on time, and where there are no
extenuating circumstances, the student will receive a grade of “F” for that assignment,
examination, or for the entire course—or, in the case of a final grade, should be awarded the
grade he or she has earned up to that point.
Students who receive a temporary Incomplete grade in a course should remain in contact with
the instructor(s) of the course(s) for which they have an Incomplete and must submit the work
of the course by the deadline established by the instructor. The deadline for instructors to
submit final grades to replace Incomplete grades is the Friday of the third week of classes in
the subsequent semester from when the grade of Incomplete was recorded. If students do not
finish the work of the course, the Incomplete grade is automatically changed to an “F” after this
deadline. Extenuating circumstances (long illness, for example) may make it necessary to grant
an extension of the Incomplete. The student should consult with the instructor and the
Associate Provost for Academic Services, who notifies the Registrar if an extension should be
granted.
Faculty may assign a grade of Incomplete to a student taking an SCE, subject to the same
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policy outlined above. As with all Incomplete grades, if the student has not completed the SCE
coursework by the deadline established by the SCE advisor, the student’s Incomplete grade will
become a failing grade. When a student’s Incomplete SCE grade converts to an “F” in this
manner, the Registrar’s Office will make an exception to the normal Drop/Add deadline for that
student to register in a repeat attempt at the SCE course no later than Friday of the fourth week
of classes. The fee for that SCE is listed in the Fees and Expenses chapter of the Catalog.
Failed Courses
In case of failure in any graded course, the student may correct the deficiency using one of the
following methods:
If the course is a graduation requirement (major, minor, or distribution requirement) other than
FYS 101, then a suitable course may be taken at another institution and transferred back to
Washington College. Before enrolling in a course at another college, the student must obtain
pre-approval from the department chair and the faculty advisor using the Transfer Credit
Request Form. The student will receive transfer equivalency for the course taken at another
institution only if he or she earns a grade of “C-” or better, and may apply this course toward the
outstanding graduation requirement. However, the original grade will remain on the transcript
and will be part of the GPA calculation.
If the course is offered in a subsequent semester at Washington College, the student may
repeat the failed course. ​See the following section on Repeating Courses below.
Students who fail FYS 101 must retake the First-Year Seminar in the following semester and
receive a passing grade. ​Please refer to The Academic Program section of the catalog that
discusses First-Year Seminar requirements.
Repeating Courses
Courses taken at Washington College in which a student completed the course but earned a
grade of “D+” or lower may be repeated for academic credit if the student repeats the course at
Washington College or in a Washington College-administered program and in compliance with
the following guidelines:
The student will repeat the same course; substitution of another course (including a special
topics course with the same catalog number but a different topic/content) is not permitted.
Not all courses are offered frequently enough to be repeated (e.g., special topics courses and
courses not taught on an annual basis, courses taken as part of a study abroad program, etc.).
Special topics courses and independent studies may not be offered as a substitute to courses
from the main curriculum.
The maximum number of attempts to repeat a course is twice. The final grade from a student’s
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Academic Policies and Regulations
second attempt at a course will be that course’s permanent grade.
The student will not earn additional credits for a repeat attempt; the repeat only serves to
improve the grade on the previously earned credits.
Improvement of the original grade will result in a recalculation of the student’s cumulative grade
point average, but not the semester grade point average. The Committee on Academic
Standing and Advising will not reconsider any decision made to place the student on academic
warning, probation, or suspension based on the semester GPA earned at the time.
Courses being repeated may not be taken on a Pass/Fail basis unless it was the grading
method for the first attempt.
Courses taken at Washington College, in which a student earns a grade of “C-” or better, may
not be repeated for academic credit. Under special circumstances, a student may petition the
Committee on Academic Standing and Advising to repeat a course in which a grade of “C-” was
received.
Students are not permitted to repeat FYS 101 if they have received a passing grade (D- or
higher). Students may only repeat FYS 101 if they have previously failed the course.
The student receives the credit and the grade earned in the second course. The original grade
remains on the transcript but no longer is a part of the cumulative grade point average
calculation. Credit for the repeated course is given if the course is passed.
Dean’s List
Students who achieve outstanding academic records during the semester may be named to the
Dean’s List. To be eligible for the Dean’s List, a student must complete a minimum of three
courses (12 credits) in a given semester, have no “D” grades, and no outstanding Incomplete
(“I”) grades. The minimum semester grade point average for Dean’s List is 3.50. Students
whose study abroad credits are not posted immediately upon their return remain eligible for
Dean’s List honors unless the delay is caused by a student’s failure to obtain all course
pre-approvals in a timely manner.
Changing Grades
An instructor wishing to change a student’s grade for valid reason, following the recording of the
grade in the Registrar’s Office, may do so by requesting the change in writing using the Grade
Update Form available from the Registrar’s Office. Grade changes after more than one
semester must be requested through the Associate Provost for Academic Services, who must
approve all such changes.
The instructor’s records are authoritative in all matters of course requirements, grades, and
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class attendance. The College, however, recognizes the right of the student to appeal a grade.
The student has until the end of the Drop/Add period of the semester following that in which the
final grade for the course was received to file a written appeal of the grade with the instructor. If
the student is not satisfied with the written decision of the instructor involved, then the student
has two weeks after the instructor’s decision to file a written appeal of the grade with the chair of
the department involved. If the student is not satisfied with the written decision of the chair of the
department involved, then the student has two weeks after the chair’s decision to file a written
appeal of the grade with the Provost of the College. If the instructor involved and the chair of the
department involved are the same individual, then the student may appeal directly to the
Provost after the instructor’s decision. The written decision of the Provost, in consultation with
the department chair and instructor involved, is final.
Students have the prerogative of knowing and having explained to them the reasons for the
grade on all examinations and term papers. Even though the instructor may wish to retain the
examination or paper, the educational value of the exercise cannot be achieved unless the
student has the opportunity to discuss in specific detail the reasons for his or her grade.
Final examinations are retained by the faculty at least until the middle of the semester following
their administration in order to permit students to review them if they are interested in doing so.
Grade changes are not possible regardless of circumstance after a student has graduated or
while a student is withdrawn from the College.
Academic Standing
In order to graduate from Washington College students must have a cumulative grade point
average (“GPA”) of at least 2.00 and a grade point average of at least 2.00 in the courses they
offer to fulfill their major subject area requirements. To help ensure that students make
adequate progress toward these graduation requirements, and to alert students and their
families, faculty advisors, and the Office of Academic Skills to struggles that some students
might be having in meeting their academic goals, each semester the Committee on Academic
Standing and Advising reviews the progress of all students who:
Earned a semester GPA below 2.00
Earned at least one “F” grade in the semester
Earned at least two “D” grades in the semester
Is currently on academic probation or warning
Have a cumulative GPA below 2.00 any time after their fourth semester
The Committee will recommend an action for each student, which may include placing the
student on academic warning, academic probation, or continued academic probation. With the
exception of a student in his or her first semester at the College, the Committee may suspend
students earning a semester grade point average of less than 1.75. Suspended students may
be required to take courses elsewhere in order to demonstrate sufficient academic readiness for
college-level work before requesting reinstatement at Washington College. Students with at
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Academic Policies and Regulations
least one previous suspension for academic reasons and whose subsequent performance
qualifies for review by the Committee on Academic Standing and Advising may be dismissed
from the College. All students suspended or dismissed have the option of writing an appeal to
the Committee and to the Provost, either of whom may choose to reverse the decision.
First semester first-year students earning a semester grade point average of less than 1.75 will
be placed on academic probation and required to participate in appropriate academic support
activities in recognition of the challenges that may occur in the transition from high school to
college-level work.
All students are required to attain a 2.00 cumulative GPA or better by the end of four semesters
at the College, typically the end of sophomore year for students who enter as first year students.
Students who transfer to the College with fewer than 28 credits are required to attain a 2.00
cumulative grade point average or better by the end of their fourth semester at Washington
College. Students who transfer to Washington College with 28 or more credits are required to
attain a 2.00 cumulative grade point average or better by the end of their second semester at
Washington College.
The Committee on Academic Standing and Advising reviews the academic record of any
student whose cumulative grade point average is below 2.00 at the end of four semesters (or at
the end of the appropriate semester for transfer students) to determine if the student will be
allowed to continue at the College.
Withdrawal from the College
A student who withdraws from his or her studies at Washington College will find that this
decision carries with it many consequences. Withdrawal can affect eligibility for continued
access to financial aid or student loan deferral, College-based or external scholarship programs,
private health insurance, and other insurance coverage. Thus is it imperative that students who
wish to withdraw from the College first complete the required paperwork and attend exit
counseling where appropriate. The Provost’s Office assists students with the process of
withdrawal, as outlined in the several options below, but it is ultimately the student’s
responsibility to inform him or herself about the overall effects of a withdrawal.
Exit Interview
Students who plan to withdraw either temporarily or permanently for reasons of transfer,
employment, or personal circumstances must complete a Withdrawal/Leave of Absence form
and schedule an exit interview with the Associate Provost for Academic Services. The purpose
of this exit interview is to explore factors behind the withdrawal decision, to find out how the
College can assist the student through his or her transition, and to gain feedback on the
student’s experiences at Washington College.
Refund Schedule
The College must make financial commitments to its faculty, staff, and service contractors on an
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annual basis and, thus, depends on tuition and other dollars to meet those commitments. If a
student withdraws from the College during a semester, the student is responsible for all
non-refundable amounts. When the student withdrawal results from a disciplinary action, the
College makes no refund of any kind. Tuition refunds or credits will be allowed according to the
following schedule:
Before classes begin: 100%
During the first two weeks of semester: 75%
During third week of semester: 50%
During fourth week of semester: 25%
After the fourth week of class there will be no refund.
Fees for other services are generally not refundable after the start date of the semester. Places
in residence halls are assigned for the full semester; therefore, no refunds or credits for rooms
are given for a student withdrawing after classes begin. Board refunds or credits are determined
on the same basis as the tuition refunds except for students who officially withdraw for medical
reasons.
Medical Withdrawal
A student who needs to take a medical withdrawal at any time must present to Health Services
or Counseling Services evidence of a documented medical diagnosis that would prevent the
student from completing course requirements. Health or Counseling Services advises the
Provost’s Office and the Office of Student Affairs about whether the student qualifies for a
medical withdrawal. A student may be required by the College to withdraw if his or her medical
condition presents a risk to him or herself or others. In either case, Health or Counseling
Services advises the student, the Provost’s Office, and the Office of Student Affairs, in writing,
about what the student must do in order to return to the College after treatment of the medical
condition. The Provost’s Office helps the student contact the Office of Financial Aid, the
Business Office, the Office of Student Affairs and the Registrar and complete the
Withdrawal/Leave of Absence form and informs the faculty that the student has withdrawn.
A student who is withdrawn for medical reasons is not allowed to reside on campus, attend
classes, participate in student social life or other campus activities or use Washington College
facilities. If the withdrawn student wishes to be on campus for a short visit as a guest, the
student must submit a written request to the Associate Vice President for Student Affairs two
weeks prior to the date that the student wants to visit.
Voluntary Withdrawal
Before the Withdrawal Deadline​: Students may voluntarily withdraw from the College before the
course withdrawal deadline (normally the end of the eleventh week of the semester) for any
reason. A student who wants to withdraw voluntarily from the College before the course
withdrawal deadline must complete a Withdrawal/Leave of Absence form available in the
Provost’s Office and obtain the required signatures from representatives of the Office of
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Academic Policies and Regulations
Financial Aid, the Office of Student Affairs, the Business Office, the Provost’s Office, and the
Registrar before he or she leaves campus. The Provost’s Office informs the student’s faculty
advisor and current instructors that the student has withdrawn. All active courses will be
immediately and permanently graded with a “W” grade representing the student’s choice to
withdraw, unless the Withdrawal/Leave of Absence form was submitted prior to the end of that
semester’s Drop/Add deadline, in which case no grade will appear on the transcript.
A student who wants to withdraw from the College before the course withdrawal deadline but is
not on campus at that time must contact the Provost’s Office. The Provost’s Office helps the
student contact the Office of Financial Aid, the Office of Student Affairs, the Business Office,
and the Registrar and completes the Withdrawal/Leave of Absence form and informs the faculty
that the student has withdrawn.
After the Withdrawal Deadline​: After the course withdrawal deadline, in order to voluntarily
withdraw from the College for any reason other than a documented medical condition, a student
must present to the Associate Provost evidence of an emergency. If the request is granted, the
Committee on Academic Standing and Advising informs the Provost’s Office of their decision.
The Provost’s Office helps the student contact the Office of Financial Aid, the Office of Student
Affairs, the Business Office and the Registrar and complete the Withdrawal/Leave of Absence
form and informs the faculty that the student has withdrawn. All active courses will be
immediately and permanently graded with a “W” grade representing the student’s choice to
withdraw. For students who stop attending classes at the College without being approved for a
withdrawal, all active courses will be permanently graded with whatever grade the student
earned up to the point they stopped attending, which may be grade of “F”.
After the semester has ended: ​A student who wants to voluntarily withdraw from the upcoming
semester at the College should contact the Provost’s Office prior to the final exam period of the
current semester. The Provost’s Office helps the student contact the Office of Financial Aid, the
Office of Student Affairs, the Business Office, and the Registrar and submit the
Withdrawal/Leave of Absence form before the conclusion of the semester. This form will not be
processed until all final grades for the student are received by the Registrar. A student who
changes his or her mind prior to this point is welcome to contact the Provost’s Office and rescind
their withdrawal form.
A student who decides to voluntarily withdraw from the College in between semesters (after
leaving campus) must still complete the above steps, and may ask the Provost’s Office for
assistance in completing the form while away from campus.
Note: Students who intend to leave Washington College to participate in a non-WC partner
study abroad or academic program, a semester at another college or university (including
Semester at Sea), a semester in a non-academic program (including National Outdoor
Leadership School), or those who simply wish to take a break from their studies must complete
the Withdrawal/Leave of Absence form as described above.
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Automatic Withdrawal for Non-Returning Students:​ Students who do not register for courses in
an upcoming semester and do not complete the Withdrawal/Leave of Absence form are given a
one-semester grace period during which time their academic program remains active. After a
second semester without receiving contact from the student, the College automatically
withdraws the student from his or her academic program with a status of “did not return.” The
student’s email account and access to WebAdvisor will be terminated at that time.
Leave of Absence
Students may take a temporary leave of absence from the College ​during the semester ​when
medical or other personal circumstances require that they be away from campus for more than a
few days. In the case of a leave of absence for other than medical reasons, the student must
contact the Associate Provost for Academic Services. The Provost’s Office informs Student
Affairs and the faculty about the student’s leave of absence and helps the student contact
faculty about keeping up with course work.
In the case of a medical leave of absence, a student must consult with Health Services or
Counseling Services about the problem that necessitates the leave. Health or Counseling
Services advises the Provost’s Office and the Office of Student Affairs about the student’s
request for a leave and, if the request is granted, advises the student, the Provost’s Office and
the Office of Student Affairs about what he or she must do in order to be approved to return to
classes. A student on medical leave of absence may not return to classes, ​reside on campus,
participate in student social life or other campus activities or use Washington College facilities,
until approved by Health or Counseling Services to do so.
A leave of absence is usually granted for two weeks (14 calendar days). If at the end of two
weeks, the student has not returned to classes or been approved by Health or Counseling
Services to return to classes, the Provost’s Office reviews the student’s situation, consulting with
Health Services or Counseling Services when appropriate, to determine whether the student’s
leave should be extended. Students who are not able or approved to return to classes at the
end of four weeks are generally advised to withdraw from the College. In these cases, the
withdrawal is retroactive to the last day the student attended classes and is indicated on the
student’s transcript by grades of “W” in all courses in which the student was enrolled that
semester.
A student who is not in good academic or social standing and who takes a leave of absence or
a withdrawal for any reason does not thereby return to good standing. A student’s reinstatement
of enrollment or readmission may be conditional, pending the resolution of any alleged
academic or social violations of the Honor Code.
Reinstatement of Enrollment and Readmission
A student who has voluntarily withdrawn from the College in good standing academically and
socially and wishes to return, and who has not taken college-level courses at another institution
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during his or her time away from Washington College, must contact the Provost’s Office and
request Reinstatement of Enrollment. He or she is then reinstated. A student who has
voluntarily withdrawn from the College and, while away, has taken college-level courses at
another institution without prior approval from the Provost’s Office must apply to the Admissions
Office for Readmission as a transfer student.
A student who has been on a medical withdrawal and wishes to return to the College must
demonstrate that he or she has complied with the recommendations made by Health or
Counseling Services when the student withdrew and must have the approval of Health Services
or Counseling Services to return. Health or Counseling Services advises the Office of Student
Affairs and the Provost’s Office in writing that the student is eligible to return. The Provost’s
Office then reinstates the student. Students who have been on a medical withdrawal do not
have to apply for readmission.
Merit-based scholarships are generally not reissued to students who withdraw from the College
and subsequently apply for readmission, including students who voluntarily withdraw to
participate in a non-WC partner study abroad or academic program. Students who withdraw and
apply for readmission are considered for all appropriate need-based aid programs if they meet
the College’s need-based aid application deadlines.
Students who receive merit-based scholarships and withdraw, but do not require readmission
because they have not taken college-level courses at another institution, will have their
merit-based scholarships reissued provided their cumulative grade point average was at least a
3.00 at the time of their withdrawal. However, students who receive merit-based scholarships
and who have been approved for an official medical withdrawal and did not have a 3.00
cumulative grade point average at the time of their withdrawal are allowed the benefit of one
additional semester of merit-based scholarship aid before any adjustment to the award is
determined.
Readmission After Suspension
Students who have been suspended for academic reasons and wish to be readmitted must
write a letter to the Associate Provost for Academic Services requesting readmission. In order to
be considered for readmission a student must:
Present evidence of further academic progress, which includes completing at least two courses
with a grade of “C” or better and having a cumulative grade point average of 2.00 or better at
the institution where the courses were taken.
Contact the Associate Provost for Academic Services to discuss their selected courses at
another institution.
Complete the Transfer Credit Request Form as described in the section below and submit this
form to the Registrar’s Office prior to registering for the courses.
Submit to the Registrar’s Office an official transcript of all coursework taken during the period of
suspension. Students may not be readmitted for the semester immediately following their
suspension, but may resume study at the College (if approved) after one full semester has
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passed.
Transfer Credit and Advanced Standing
Transfer Credit
Students attempting to accelerate their education and graduate in less than four years must
take care to accumulate the proper number of credits required for graduation, which is 128
credit hours. To maintain their pace toward graduation, students who wish to transfer
coursework onto their Washington College transcript from another institution should take
courses worth four credit hours at the other institution if possible, i.e. the equivalent of one
Washington College course, so as not to deviate from the four-course system. However, many
institutions only award three credits per standard course. Students who have completed or plan
to complete college-level courses at another institution should be aware that the Registrar’s
Office can only transfer the number of credits earned by the student according to the official
transcript of the other institution. If a student requests transfer credit for courses worth fewer
than four credit hours apiece, students will be responsible for taking additional courses (at
Washington College or elsewhere) to make up any deficiency in credits toward the 128 credit
hours required to graduate.
Transfer Credit Policies
The institution must be fully accredited by a regional accrediting agency approved by the U.S.
Department of Education.
The course must be comparable in content and academic level to courses offered at
Washington College.
Transfer credit is only accepted for courses in which the student earned a final grade of “C-” or
better. Courses taken on a Pass/Fail basis at another institution will not be considered for
transfer credit under any circumstances.
The W2 requirement may not be fulfilled with transfer credit.
The course must have been taken within the last seven years.
The College does not currently award transfer credit equivalency for life- or work-related
experience, with the exception of certain military training. Students seeking such transfer credit
may consider taking a College Level Examination Program (CLEP) test, offered by The College
Board, which the College does accept as equivalent to courses from its curriculum. ​More
information about CLEP exam equivalency is available in the following section.
To receive transfer credit for a course taken at another college or university, students should
consult their faculty advisor and then secure pre-approval for the proposed course(s) from the
chair(s) of the relevant department and/or departments that offer a similar course within
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Washington College’s curriculum. It may be necessary to provide a course description or
syllabus for the course(s). Each department sets its own policies about whether to approve
transfer credit for courses taught online or in other non-traditional formats. To approve a course
for transfer credit, the department chair must sign the Transfer Credit Request Form, provided
by the student and available in the Registrar’s Office and on its web site at
http://registrar.washcoll.edu/transfer-credit.php. Students should return the signed Transfer
Credit Request Form to the Registrar’s Office before enrolling in the course.
Students may need to apply for admission to the other college or university where they intend to
take the transfer course(s). If needed, the Registrar’s Office at Washington College will write a
“letter of good standing” to the other institution stating that the student has permission to take
outside courses. To request such a letter, the student should complete the Enrollment
Verification Request Form. Visit http://registrar.washcoll.edu/enrollment-verifications.php for
more information.
At the completion of the course, the student should request an official transcript from the other
college or university and have it sent directly to the Registrar’s Office at Washington College.
The transfer credit will not be posted on the student’s Washington College transcript until the
Registrar’s Office has received both the completed Transfer Credit Request Form and the
official transcript from the other college or university.
Grades from transfer courses do not factor into the calculation of a student’s cumulative grade
point average at Washington College, nor will the final grade(s) from the transfer course(s)
appear on the student’s College transcript. Students may not use a transferred course to
replace a passing grade and credits previously earned at the College. Students may transfer a
course onto their Washington College transcript to replace a course required for graduation
(major, minor, or distribution) provided that the grade earned at WC was an “F” (failing) grade,
but the original grade and its effect on the student’s cumulative grade point average will not
change on the WC transcript.
Transfer Students
To earn a degree at Washington College, no more than 72 credit hours of the total credits
required for the degree may be fulfilled by transfer credits from another institution. Therefore, a
minimum of 56 credit hours must be taken at Washington College or in a Washington
College-administered program. Every candidate for a degree at the College must meet all
graduation requirements as outlined in the Catalog from the academic year in which the student
matriculated.
Transfer students with a completed A.A. degree from community colleges with whom
Washington College has a “Direct Transfer” agreement will be granted junior standing upon
matriculation at Washington College. Therefore, a minimum of 56 hours of credit must be taken
at Washington College. In most cases, students must complete the last two semesters toward
their degree, or the equivalent number of credit hours (32), in residence at Washington College
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or in a Washington College-administered program.
Transfer students from colleges with whom Washington College does not a have a “Direct
Transfer” agreement, even though the students may hold an associate degree, will have their
coursework evaluated and will be granted appropriate transfer credit for individual courses.
Advanced Standing
Washington College may grant credit up to 32 credit hours for advanced standing upon a
student’s entrance into the College. Students may be awarded this advanced standing in the
form of credits toward graduation and courses that satisfy the College’s distribution (general
education) requirements. Department chairs review the examinations offered by The College
Board, International Baccalaureate, and Cambridge International Examinations, in consultation
with the faculty in their department, to determine the number of credits and the WC course
equivalency that should be offered to entering students with high exam scores. ​More information
about Washington College’s Advanced Standing policies is available on the Registrar’s Office
website.
Note: Advanced standing credit cannot exempt students from FYS 101.
Advanced Placement (AP/CEEB)
All departments require a minimum score of “4” or “5” on an AP exam to award equivalent
course credit. Students must submit their AP Score Report from The College Board within two
semesters of enrollment at the College, or they will forego their opportunity to receive advanced
standing from their high exam scores. Washington College’s CEEB code is 5888.
AP Exam
Art - History
Art - Studio
Biology
Score
WC Equivalent
Distribution Area
4, 5
ART 200
Fine Arts
subj. to portfolio review by Art Dept.​Fine Arts
4
BIO 112
Natural Sciences
5
BIO 111 & 112
Natural Sciences
Calculus AB
4, 5
MAT 201
Quantitative Studies
Calculus BC
4, 5
MAT 201 & 202
Quantitative Studies
Chemistry
5
CHE 111 & 112
Natural Sciences
Comp. Government
4, 5
POL 194
non-distribution
Computer Science A
4, 5
CSI 201
Quantitative
Economics - Macro
4, 5
ECN 111
Social Sciences
Economics - Micro
4, 5
ECN 112
Social Sciences
English Language/Literature 4, 5
ENG 101
Humanities
Environmental Science
5
ENV 101
non-distribution
French Language/Lit
4, 5
FRS 201 & 202
Foreign Language
German Language/Lit
4, 5
GRS 201 & 202
Foreign Language
Government/Politics - U.S. 4, 5
POL 102
Social Sciences
History - European
4, 5
HIS 203 & 204
Social Sciences
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Academic Policies and Regulations
History - U.S.
4, 5
History - World
4, 5
Human Geography
4, 5
Latin - Vergil
4, 5
Music Theory
4, 5
Physics B
4, 5
Physics C - Electr/Magnetsm 4, 5
Physics C - Mechanics
4, 5
Psychology
4
5
Spanish Language/Lit
4, 5
Statistics
4, 5
HIS 201 & 202
HIS 205 & 206
ANT 194
FLS 300 & 400
MUS 131 & 132
SCI 100
PHY 112
PHY 111
PSY 112
PSY 111 & 112
HPS 201 & 202
MAT 109
Social Sciences
Social Sciences
non-distribution
Foreign Language
Quantitative Studies
Natural Sciences
Natural Sciences
Natural Sciences
Social Sciences
Social Sciences
Foreign Language
Quantitative Studies
Please note, students may earn a maximum of eight credits in AP History.
CLEP (College Level Examination Program)
This test is normally used by adults who have been out of school for some time, veterans, or
those who have never taken college-level work, but have acquired a solid background through
their own broad experiences and efforts. Most departments only accept a minimum score of
50% or better on CLEP exams to establish a baseline of competency-based knowledge in the
discipline.
CLEP Exam
American Government
American Literature
Score
55 or higher
55-65
66 or higher
Chemistry
65 or higher
Educational Psychology
70 or higher
English Literature
55-65
66 or higher
Financial Accounting
50 or higher
French Language
55-65
66 or higher
German Language
55-65
66 or higher
Introduction to Business Law 50 or higher
Introduction to Sociology
55 or higher
Macroeconomics
55 or higher
Microeconomics
55 or higher
Principles of Marketing
50 or higher
Principles of Management
50 or higher
Spanish Language
55-65
66 or higher
WC Equivalent
POL 102
ENG 210
ENG 209 & 210
CHE 111 & 112
EDU 252
ENG 208
ENG 207 & 208
BUS 112
FRS 201
FRS 201 & 202
GRS 201
GRS 201 & 202
BUS 303
SOC 101
ECN 111
ECN 112
BUS 111
BUS 302
HPS 201
HPS 201 & 202
Distribution Area
Social Sciences
Humanities
Humanities
Natural Sciences
Social Sciences
Humanities
Humanities
non-distribution
Foreign Language
Foreign Language
Foreign Language
Foreign Language
non-distribution
Social Sciences
Social Sciences
Social Sciences
non-distribution
non-distribution
Foreign Language
Foreign Language
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Academic Policies and Regulations
U.S. History I
U.S. History II
Western Civilizations I
Western Civilizations II
55 or higher
55 or higher
55 or higher
55 or higher
HIS 201
HIS 202
HIS 205 ​or ​206
HIS 203 ​or ​204
Social Sciences
Social Sciences
Social Sciences
Social Sciences
International Baccalaureate (IB)
Students who complete the IB curriculum during high school are welcome to submit an IB
transcript or certificate of completion to substantiate their final exam grades. Only scores of “5,”
“6,” or “7” on the Higher Level test are considered by Washington College for advanced
standing equivalency.
Note: The list below only represents the IB High Level tests for which students entering
Washington College have sought credit equivalency in the past. Students who have taken a test
that does not appear on the list below should contact the Registrar for more information about
possible advanced standing.
IB Exam
English HL
Psychology HL
Spanish B HL
U.S. History HL
Score
5, 6
7
5, 6
7
5, 6
7
5, 6
7
WC Equivalent
Distribution Area
ENG 211
Humanities
ENG 211 & 212
Humanities
PSY 112
Social Sciences
PSY 111 & 112
Social Sciences
HPS 201
Foreign Language
HPS 201 & 202
Foreign Language
HIS 201
Social Sciences
HIS 201 & 202 Social Sciences
Cambridge International Examinations (CIE)
Students who complete the CIE curriculum (A- or AS-levels) during high school are welcome to
submit a CIE transcript or certificate of completion to substantiate their coursework in this
program. Students should contact the Registrar for more information about possible advanced
standing.
Military Training
Students should provide a copy of their Joint Services Transcript for evaluation. Washington
College will accept up to two transfer credits of Physical Fitness Training as Physical Education
credit.
Graduation Policies
Preparation for Graduation
Once a student has accumulated 80 credit hours toward graduation (usually after the fall
semester of the junior year), the Registrar’s Office supplies both the student and the student’s
faculty advisor(s) with a degree completion audit. This audit is an evaluation of the student’s
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Academic Policies and Regulations
progress toward completion of the College-wide general education and distribution requirements
of the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. The student should review this audit with
his or her faculty advisor(s) and use it to determine an appropriate course of study for the senior
year, such that the student earns enough credits and fulfills all general education and
distribution requirements in time to graduate.
Graduation Application
Students must apply for graduation in the fall semester of the senior year. The deadline for
submitting the application is October 15 (or the following Monday if this date falls on a
weekend). During the first month of the fall semester, the Registrar’s Office reminds students
nearing graduation of this application deadline.
Clearance to Graduate
Upon receipt of the completed graduation application and after seniors have registered for their
spring semester senior year courses, the Registrar’s Office runs periodic evaluations of the
student’s eligibility to graduate with a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. ​For more
information about the College-wide requirements a student must complete prior to graduation,
see the Graduation Requirements section in the Academic Program chapter.
In November of the senior year, in response to their graduation application and their registration
for spring classes, the Registrar either clears seniors as eligible to graduate (meaning that
assuming they successfully complete their fall and spring courses, they will be able to graduate)
or tells them that they are not eligible to graduate and sends them another degree completion
audit indicating what changes they need to make to their spring course schedule or what other
deficiency they need to address in order to graduate. The Registrar sends degree completion
audits on a regular basis to any seniors still not cleared as eligible to graduate until the end of
Drop/Add in the spring semester.
The Registrar’s Office sends copies of the degree completion audit and the Graduation
Clearance letter to the student’s advisor(s). Department faculty verify that the student has
completed the requirements of his or her majors, minors, specializations or concentrations prior
to graduation.
If the student’s academic record indicates that he or she will complete all general requirements
by the end of the fall semester, the student’s advisor(s) and department chair are notified, and
the student becomes eligible for the completion of his or her degree in December upon
verification from the department that all major, minor and concentration/specialization
requirements have been fulfilled. Students who have completed all degree requirements in the
fall semester may participate in the Commencement at the conclusion of the spring semester,
but will be listed as a graduate as of the end of the fall semester. Official transcripts will reflect
this earlier graduation date, and students who do not intend to participate in Commencement
may request that the Registrar issue their diploma at that time.
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Academic Policies and Regulations
Students with outstanding graduation requirements are not cleared to graduate until they make
changes to course registrations for the upcoming semester. If registration deficiencies are not
addressed by the end of the Drop/Add period of the spring semester, the student’s application to
graduate is denied due to ineligibility. Students are encouraged to make an appointment with
the Registrar to discuss any concerns or questions they may have about their degree
completion audit prior to or during their senior year.
Participation in Commencement
Only students who have completed all requirements for the degree, as verified by the Registrar
and the department chair(s), are eligible to participate in Commencement. These requirements
must be completed no later than the Tuesday before Commencement. Some departments and
programs may have earlier deadlines for the completion of requirements. The college-wide
deadline for the submission of all work for the Senior Capstone Experience is the last day of
classes of the spring semester.
Students who complete their graduation requirements but do not wish to participate in
Commencement exercises may request to graduate ​in absentia​ by writing to the Registrar. The
Registrar’s Office will mail the student’s diploma to his or her address of record after all
requirements are complete, including payment of the Graduation Fee and any outstanding
balance to the Business Office. All students, regardless of participation in Commencement,
must pay the full Graduation Fee as listed in the Fees & Expenses chapter of this Catalog.
During the final semester of study prior to Commencement, the graduation eligibility of all
students expected to graduate is periodically reviewed by the Registrar’s Office. If at any time a
student’s record indicates that he or she has become ineligible to graduate, the student, faculty
advisor(s) and the Associate Provost for Academic Services will be notified of this change in
status. Such a student may still participate in Commencement related activities such as the
senior class cruise at Mt. Vernon, the senior awards luncheon, and the senior dance, but will not
participate in the Commencement exercises and will not earn a diploma.
Students who complete the requirements for the degree after Commencement but prior to the
first day of the next fall semester’s classes receive a diploma dated with the previous academic
year and have the option of participating in the next Commencement. Any student with an
outstanding financial obligation at the time of Commencement will remain eligible to graduate
but will not receive a diploma or official transcript until the Business Office hold is cleared.
Students’ transcripts are finalized by the Registrar’s Office prior to awarding of the degree at
Commencement. No additional majors, minors, specializations or concentrations can be added
to the transcript after the student has graduated unless the student applies for readmission or
reinstatement. However, an exception is made for students who wish to complete an additional
major or minor by the conclusion of the summer immediately following their graduation from
Washington College. Students in this situation should contact the Registrar directly and must
abide by all transfer course policies as explained in the preceding section.
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Academic Policies and Regulations
College Honors at Graduation
Each student’s cumulative grade point average, rank in class, and honors are calculated upon
graduation and become part of the student’s permanent academic record. Only the academic
work completed at Washington College or in a Washington College-approved program is eligible
for consideration as part of the student’s accumulated credit hours. Students with transfer
coursework must have accumulated at least 64 credit hours at Washington College in order to
remain eligible for honors at graduation.
College honors will be awarded to undergraduate students who attain the following thresholds:
summa cum laude
3.875 cumulative grade point average
magna cum laude
3.750 cumulative grade point average
cum laude
3.625 cumulative grade point average
Departmental Honors at Graduation
Departmental honors, which are appropriately noted on the student’s official transcript and in the
Commencement program, are determined by the quality of work done both in major courses
and in the Senior Capstone Experience. The minimum requirements are Dean’s List average in
coursework offered for completion of the major and honors level work (a grade of “A-” or better)
in the Senior Capstone Experience course.
College Awards at Graduation
College and departmental awards that are academic in nature will also be noted on the
student’s official transcript and in the Commencement program. The criteria for each College
and departmental award is listed in the College Honors and Awards chapter of this Catalog.
Second Bachelor’s Degree
A student who has already completed a bachelor’s degree at another college or university and
wants to complete a second bachelor’s degree at Washington College is considered a transfer
student. Transfer students may transfer to Washington College up to 72 credits from their
previous college or university and thus must complete 56 credits at Washington College or a
Washington College program to earn a bachelor’s degree at Washington College. Transfer
students who have already earned a bachelor’s degree elsewhere must complete all general
education, distribution and major requirements for their Washington College degree.
A student who has completed a bachelor’s degree at Washington College and wants to re-enroll
at the College to complete a second bachelor's degree must complete a minimum of 32
additional credits in order to earn the second bachelor’s degree. The second bachelor’s degree
may be a bachelor of arts or a bachelor of science, regardless of which degree the student has
already earned. The student must complete all requirements for the major for the second
bachelor’s degree, including the proper sequencing of courses in the major and a second Senior
Capstone Experience, which might require more than 32 credits and/or more than two
semesters.
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Academic Policies and Regulations
Students may not earn two degrees from Washington College concurrently.
The student who has already earned a Washington College degree does not have to fulfill the
general education and distribution requirements a second time for the second bachelor’s
degree. The student is not permitted to invoke the College’s repeat course policy for courses
already counted toward the first degree because it is our policy that “Grade changes are not
possible regardless of circumstance after a student has graduated.”
Students who have not taken courses at another institution since graduating from Washington
College must request reinstatement from the Provost’s Office. Students who have taken
courses at another institution since graduating from Washington College should apply for
readmission through the Admissions Office.
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The Honors Program
The Honors Program Washington College offers a variety of challenging courses designed to widen the intellectual
perspectives of honors-caliber students. Lower-division courses are usually formulated as
honors sections of existing courses; upper-division courses frequently are cross-disciplinary
courses.
Entering first-year students need to have a high school GPA of at least 3.5, or the permission of
the instructor, to enroll in honors courses. All other students must have a college GPA of at least
3.4, or permission of the instructor, to register for such courses.
The following Honors classes were offered in recent years. For Honors classes during academic
year 2017-2018 please consult the course schedule.
ANT 105 90. Introduction to Anthropology
This course will focus on anthropological perspectives of the human condition and provide
students with an introduction to the fundamental concepts, methods, and theories of the
discipline of cultural anthropology. Readings by professional anthropologists will present
students with a variety of viewpoints and an awareness of some of the controversial issues in
the field. This course is centered on four research projects that will provide honors students with
the opportunity to learn some of the elementary skills of qualitative research, a ritual analysis,
analysis of a workplace, analysis of a family, and an oral history of an immigrant. For each of
these projects, students will interview informants, do participant observation, and interpret their
data within a theoretical framework of cultural anthropology.
ART 405 90. Rembrandt
This course, which has as its subject the life and art of Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), not only
opens a window onto the culture of the Netherlands in the seventeenth century, but also serves
as an introduction to the methodology of art history, from the scientific examination of paintings
to theories of interpretation, for few artists raise so many fundamental issues as to what it is we
do as art historians—indeed resist traditional methods of interpretation—as does Rembrandt.
The format of the course is that of a seminar, with students giving presentations, aimed at
honing their ability not only to tackle tough art historical questions but also to articulate their
ideas in both oral and written forms. ​McColl
BIO 111 90. General Biology
An introduction to living systems. Topics studied include biomolecules, cell structure and
function, metabolism, genetics, and molecular biology. Lectures on selected topics will be
supplemented with problem-based learning opportunities as well as discussions of current
events and selected papers from recent scientific literature.
The laboratory complements the lecture and provides an introduction to experimentation and
communication of experimental results. Students also conduct an independent research project.
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The Honors Program
Opportunities to attend research presentations and visit outside research facilities are provided.
This course will be limited to an enrollment of 16. BIO 111 is designed for students with a strong
interest in the biological sciences and is a prerequisite for upper-level biology courses. ​Verville
BIO 112 90. General Biology
An introduction to living systems. Topics studied include diversity of life, physiology of plants
and animals, evolution, and ecology. Lectures on selected topics will be supplemented with
problem-based learning opportunities as well as discussions of current events and selected
papers from recent scientific literature.
The laboratory complements the lecture and provides an introduction to experimentation and
communication of experimental results. Students also conduct an independent research project.
Opportunities to attend research presentations and visit outside research facilities are provided.
This course will be limited to an enrollment of 16. BIO 112 is designed for students with a strong
interest in the biological sciences and is a prerequisite for upper-level biology courses.
Prerequisite: Biology 111. Ford
BUS 302 90. Organizational Behavior
Multidisciplinary examination of research and theory in organizational behavior. A managerial
perspective on individuals, groups, and organizations, and on topics like leadership, culture,
communication, and change. In this honors course, students will read and discuss selected
classic texts in organizational behavior theory. Writing intensive. ​Harvey
CHE 111 90. General Chemistry I
Offered as separate lecture and laboratory sections of the first half of the introductory General
Chemistry sequence, this course is for students majoring or having an interest in physical and
biological sciences. Topics include atomic and molecular structure, stoichiometry, chemical
bonding, and energy, with an emphasis on molecules and reactions important in biological
systems. Laboratory work complements lecture and provides hands-on experience with modern
analytical instrumentation, such as Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform
Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Emphasis is placed
on effective communication of experimental procedures and results. Three hours of lecture and
one three-hour laboratory per week. ​Marteel-Parrish or Sherman
CHE 112 90. General Chemistry II
Offered as a separate lecture and laboratory sections of the second half of the introductory
General Chemistry sequence, this course is for students majoring or having an interest in
physical and biological sciences. Topics include kinetics, chemical equilibria, chemistry of
solutes and solutions, acids and bases, thermodynamics, and electrochemistry, as well as an
introduction to organic chemistry. Laboratory work complements lecture and provides hands-on
experience with modern analytical instrumentation, as well as exposure to products of the future
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The Honors Program
such as biodiesel and solar-powered fuel cell cars. Emphasis is placed on effective
communication of experimental procedures and results. Three hours of lecture and one
three-hour laboratory per week. ​Marteel-Parrish or Sherman
CHE 201 90. Organic Chemistry I Laboratory
The honors laboratory section will allow students to study the chemical reactivity and physical
properties of organic substances through the extensive use of molecular modeling software
(CAChe and Spartan), infrared, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and proton and carbon-13
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Throughout the laboratory sessions each
student will have access to a laptop computer that is part of a wireless LAN. ​A. Amick
CHE 202 90. Organic Chemistry II Laboratory
The honors laboratory section will involve the multi-step synthesis of a limited number of
complex molecules and the characterization of these substances by infrared, ultraviolet-visible
spectroscopy, and proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry.
Molecular modeling will be used to predict stereochemical parameters and mechanistic
pathways for these reactions. Throughout the laboratory sessions each student will have access
to a laptop computer that is part of a wireless LAN. ​A.Amick
HIS 418 90. Historical Film Genres
In this honors course, a selection of film genres will be presented for comparative analysis,
including four or five genres such as gangster films, “film noir” detective films, westerns,
musicals, or films that depict and characterize professions such as journalism or jurisprudence.
Films will be selected within each genre that offer different commentaries on recurrent social
themes in American history. This course will also incorporate a significant amount of reading
and research in primary-source documents relating to the historical periods and themes
represented in the films. It will also include new secondary-source and interpretive texts. The
course will thus extend the student’s repertoire of analytical skills in the field of history to more
sophisticated intellectual challenges. ​Striner
PSY 320 90. Health Psychology
This honors course will take a close look at the human physiological response to cognition,
emotion, and stress. Electromyographic, dermal temperature, and cardiac measures will be
studied and the body’s autonomic nervous system response to stress and relaxation will be
examined. Topics such as sports psychology, headache, systemic pain, cardiac illnesses, blood
pressure, psycho-neuroimmunological activity, alcohol abuse, smoking, and chronic illness will
be explored. Students will be expected to team up to develop original research on a topic
pertinent to the course, and be willing to present those results at a regional professional
psychology conference. ​Prerequisite: Psychology 201, 202. Beasley
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Special Academic Opportunities
Special Academic Opportunities Washington College offers several opportunities for students to enhance their academic
experience and to take full advantage of resources available beyond the classroom.
The American Chemical Society Student Members Chapter
The Student Affiliates of the American Chemical Society Chapter are strongly committed to the
celebration and promotion of chemistry education on campus and in the community through
various events including lectures, field trips and the celebration of National Chemistry Week.
They also take part in an annual “Chemistry Magic Show” at local elementary and middle
schools. Other outreach activities include food and toiletry drives each fall. The Student
Affiliates are striving to become a “Green” chapter, focusing on ways to make chemical products
and processes safer for human beings and the environment. The club is not strictly for students
who major or minor in chemistry, but is open for anyone who is interested in learning more
about the field. Aaron Amick, Associate Professor of Chemistry, serves as faculty advisor.
Brown Advisory Student-Managed Investment Fund Program
Students from any major can participate in the Brown Advisory Student-Managed Investment
Fund Program and help manage an equity fund valued at hundreds of thousands of dollars.
Under the mentorship of Richard Bookbinder P‘10, founder and manager of TerraVerde Capital
Management and Bookbinder Capital Management, LLC, you’ll learn to analyze and report on
stocks, and then execute trades worth tens of thousands of dollars. The program includes
career preparation, talks by visiting business leaders, and intensive work over the semester that
will help prepare you for a career in the investment field. Networking events and special
opportunities such as attendance at shareholder meetings allow students to acquire valuable
real-world knowledge. Hui-Ju Tsai, Associate Professor of Business Management, serves as
faculty advisor.
The Douglass Cater Society of Junior Fellows
The Douglass Cater Society of Junior Fellows, established in 1990, provides special
opportunities for academically outstanding students. Its purpose is to foster intellectual
exchange beyond the classroom and to encourage creative and independent projects beyond
particular course requirements. The Society funds independent projects designed by its
membership and meets regularly throughout the year to exchange student works-in-progress.
Students become eligible for membership at the end of their sophomore year. Nominations to
the Society are made twice each year. The Douglass Cater Society of Junior Fellows is directed
by Austin Lobo, Associate Professor of Computer Science.
The Louis L. Goldstein Program in Public Affairs
The Louis L. Goldstein Program in Public Affairs was established in 1990 to encourage students
to enter public service by introducing them to exemplary leaders both in and out of government.
The Goldstein Program sponsors lectures, symposia, visiting fellows, student participation in
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Special Academic Opportunities
models and conferences, and other projects that bring students and faculty together with
leaders experienced in developing public policy.
Recent speakers have included Kweisi Mfume, President and CEO of the NAACP; Jeff
Birnbaum, Washington Bureau Chief for Fortune magazine; Anita Perez Ferguson, former
president of the National Women’s Political Caucus; Ruben Zamora, El Salvador’s Ambassador
to the United States, and Dr. Robert Jones, CEO of the Public Religion Research Institute. The
Goldstein Program is directed by Christine Wade, Professor of Political Science and
International Studies.
The John Toll Science Fellows Program
Named in honor of the College’s 25th president, the program supports the academic and
research activities of students and faculty who belong to the College’s vibrant community of
natural sciences and mathematics scholars. Students who have expressed an interest in
pursuing a major in the sciences or mathematics and have demonstrated nascent research
abilities are initially invited to be program apprentices. As early as the end of their first academic
year, accomplished apprentices are invited to apply to become a John S. Toll Science and
Mathematics Fellow (JSTF). These fellowships provide funding to undergraduate majors in the
sciences and mathematics who are engaged in campus-based research projects under the
direct supervision of a faculty mentor during the academic year or in the College’s ten-week
summer research program. John S. Toll Science and Mathematics Fellows must major in
Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Environmental Studies, Mathematics, Physics, or
Psychology. These majors can be pursued in conjunction with the Premedical Studies/Pre-Vet
program, 3+2 Engineering program, 3+2 Nursing program, or 3+4 Pharmacy program. All
Apprentices and Fellows must maintain full-time enrollment at Washington College, maintain a
cumulative grade point average of 3.00 - 4.00, and abide by the Washington College Honor
Code in the pursuit of all endeavors, both academic and social.
The Sophie Kerr Program
With income from a handsome endowment created in 1967, this program brings to campus a
succession of distinguished writers, editors and literary scholars. Poet Laureate Robert Pinsky,
Joseph Brodsky, Gwendolyn Brooks, Lucille Clifton, James McBride, Peter Matthiessen, Toni
Morrison, and Bobbie Ann Mason are just some of the writers and scholars who have come to
Washington College in the last decade to teach, lecture, and conduct writing workshops.
The Sophie Kerr Fund also supports the Sophie Kerr Prize, the largest undergraduate award in
the United States and one of the largest literary awards in the world, totaling $61,192 in 2013.
The prize is awarded annually to a graduating senior “having the best ability and promise for
future fulfillment in the field of literary endeavor.” The Sophie Kerr Fund also provides
scholarships for entering English majors who show promise in English or American literature.
The Joseph H. McLain Program in Environmental Studies
The Joseph H. McLain Program in Environmental Studies was established in 1990 to focus
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Special Academic Opportunities
attention on and augment study in the fields of aquatic and environmental studies. The Program
supports lectures and symposia featuring visiting scientists and other professionals on matters
of environmental interest, particularly relating to the Chesapeake Bay. Past speakers have
included Sylvia Earle, an underwater explorer and chief scientist at NOAA; environmental writer
Tom Horton; Stephen Leatherman, Director, Laboratory of Coastal Research, University of
Maryland; Edward Hoagland, author and editor, Penguin Series on the Environment and Natural
History; Herman Daly, Senior Economist, Environmental Department, the World Bank;
Christopher D. Clark, internationally recognized sporting artist; Simon Levin, Director, Princeton
University Environmental Institute. The McLain Program is directed by Donald Munson, the
Joseph H. McLain Professor of Environmental Studies and Professor of Biology.
The C. V. Starr Center for the Study of the American Experience
This Center, located in the historic Custom House on the Chester River, builds on Washington
College’s national tradition as the first college founded in the new nation under the patronage of
General George Washington. The Center seeks to trace the evolution of modern American
thought from its roots in the ideas of the nation’s founders. One of its signature programs is the
George Washington Book Prize, launched in 2005 in partnership with the Gilder Lehrman
Institute of American History and George Washington’s Mount Vernon. The Prize awards
$50,000 annually to an author of a published work contributing to a greater understanding of the
life and career of George Washington and/or the founding era. ​Director: Adam Goodheart
The Center for Environment & Society
This Center is the natural outgrowth of the College’s environmental setting, its partnerships with
regional environmental centers, and its own environmental studies program. The work of the
Center addresses the academic and policy issues in the earth sciences as well as cultural
archaeology and cultural resource management. This Center is located in the Custom House.
Director: John Seidel
The Rose O’Neill Literary House
The Rose O’Neill Literary House stands at the center of Washington College’s thriving literary
community. With support from the Sophie Kerr endowment, some of the nation’s most
distinguished writers, editors, critics, and scholars have given readings and broken bread with
Washington College writers on the Literary House’s wraparound porch or within its poster-clad
Victorian walls. Students handset their own poetry broadsides in the Literary House’s pressroom
annex or perfect their prose in one of the student writing rooms on the upper floors. The Rose
O’Neill Literary House is both physical space and a programmatic center within a campus
environment in which all students, regardless of discipline, are expected to develop the arts of
writing and speaking well. ​Director: James Hall
Academic Resources
Clifton M. Miller Library
Miller Library is a dynamic place where active teaching and learning occurs at all times. The
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Special Academic Opportunities
library provides: a rich collection of over 400,000 resources befitting the curriculum; technology
to facilitate access and delivery of library resources and services any time and from anywhere; a
research instruction and reference program designed to empower students to become
independent learners and to cope with the rigors of research papers, projects, and the
culminating Senior Capstone Experience; an environment equipped with teaching and learning
spaces and workstations for individual and group study, research and computing; and librarians
and staff who are confident, innovative, and dynamic facilitators and communicators.
More than 400,000 print and online books, periodicals, newspapers, government documents,
microform, and multimedia resources comprise the library’s collection. A fully networked
integrated library system provides access to more than 30,000 electronic periodicals, 200,000
e-books, and numerous links to Internet sources. Furthermore, any resource not available in
Miller Library’s collection can be obtained through interlibrary loan. Library reserve materials are
accessible through the College’s Learning Management System, Canvas. Through a
collaborative initiative with the Office of Information Technology and Academic Resources, the
library environment is greatly enriched with the addition of the Beck Multimedia & Technology
Learning Center, the Multimedia Production Center, the Quantitative Skills Center, and the
Office of Academic Skills.
Academic Computing
Computers and technology play a very important role in all aspects of college life. Students,
faculty, and staff rely on e-mail and the Web to communicate and share important information.
Increasingly, library resources, academic and course information are accessible online. To
benefit from the College’s academic environment, students must have the tools to access and
work with digital resources. Therefore the College provides high speed Ethernet access in all
residence halls, the computing centers, and in all public access areas. Wireless access is also
available in the residence halls and in all academic buildings. Students have access to Windows
or Macintosh computers in the computing centers, Miller Library, and in the public access
locations in the residence halls. Every classroom has Internet access and about half have
computer-assisted capabilities. The 75-seat lecture hall in Goldstein Hall is equipped with
individual network connections to accommodate personal laptops.
Using Canvas, the College’s Learning Management System, professors can place their course
materials, instructional activities, assignments, grades, interactive presentations, and
assessments on their Canvas course site. With Canvas, students can participate in
synchronous and asynchronous online class discussions. Canvas helps faculty to enhance the
student learning experience.
In the Multimedia Production Center (MPC), faculty, students, and staff can create multimedia
projects using industry standard applications running on state of the art equipment. With a
variety of programs and services, the campus community can learn to enhance their
communications using multimedia technologies. Users can learn digital video production, create
graphics and animations, and develop web or CD-ROM based interactive presentations. To
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complement the MPC’s multimedia workstations and laptop computers, a comprehensive loaner
pool allows faculty, students, and staff to borrow equipment including digital video camcorders
and digital still cameras. The Multimedia Production Center is located on the ground floor in
Miller Library.
The Writing Center
The ability to write clearly and concisely is essential to professional success—for business
people writing reports, teachers creating curricula, or scientists drafting grant proposals. Thus,
Washington College is deeply committed to cultivating a student’s expository writing skills. To
this end, in addition to offering a curriculum rich in opportunities to write, the College requires
that students enroll in writing-intensive courses during their freshman year.
The Center, located in Goldstein Hall, provides resources for students who wish to sharpen their
writing skills, to generate new ideas through discussion, and to review their work with a tutorial
instructor in writing. The Center offers individual conferences and small group instruction. The
Writing Center is also an important resource for all students completing their two
writing-intensive courses.
Beyond helping students meet these formal requirements, tutorial instructors are available to
anyone in the College community—freshmen through graduate students—desiring to schedule
individual conferences at any stage in the writing process. In a supportive, non-evaluative
atmosphere, students may reflect on their ideas as they emerge in writing, measuring, and
testing their clarity and power.
The Quantitative Skills Center
The Quantitative Skills Center is located on the main floor of Miller Library. Students who desire
assistance with quantitative skills in math, computer science, business, economics, and other
disciplines will find friendly, well-trained peer tutors available to help them on a drop-in basis.
The Quantitative Skills Center is open Monday through Thursday, between 12 noon and 5 p.m.
Evening hours and other times are available by appointment. The Quantitative Skills Center
posts tutoring hours and other helpful information on their Website at
http://www.mathcenter.washcoll.edu.
The Office of Academic Skills (OAS)
The Office of Academic Skills, on the second floor of Miller Library
(http://offices.washcoll.edu/academic-skills/), is available to all students who wish to acquire
additional learning strategies and support for academic success at Washington College.
Through individual and small group instruction and discussion, the Director of the Office of
Academic Skills assists students in acquiring strategies and techniques necessary to excel
academically in college. These skills include discipline-specific study strategies, strategies for
time management, test-taking, and managing test anxiety, and reading skills for comprehension
and retention.
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Peer Tutors in a variety of subjects are also available in the Office of Academic Skills. Students
are strongly encouraged to request tutors early in the semester. The Office of Academic Skills
can assign an individual tutor in the appropriate discipline within two weeks of a student’s
request.
Students with Special Needs
The Office of Academic Skills also accommodates the curricular needs of students with
documented learning disabilities and special needs. Students with documented special needs or
learning disabilities who seek accommodation from the College should provide copies of
appropriate documentation to the Director of the Office of Academic Skills. The Director will
meet individually with students to discuss their needs and their choices about disclosure and to
help them approach professors about accommodation. Students who suspect they may have
learning disabilities can consult the Director about a preliminary evaluation.
The Center for Career Development
The Center for Career Development works with students to emphasize early self and career
awareness, career exploration, and experiential learning through internships, job shadowing,
and engagement in campus and community life. Professional development training includes all
aspects of the job search process and opportunities for professional networking. This
intentional, focused student support for personal and professional development includes active
employer relations to expand employment opportunities for internships and full-time jobs after
graduation. Small group and individual career counseling is available with professional career
educators and counselors who also assist students with graduate and professional school
searches and applications. More information on the Center for Career Development can be
found at career.washcoll.edu.
The Global Education Office (GEO)
This office, located in the Foster House at 409 Washington Avenue, serves as a resource center
and learning community for students contemplating study abroad and for international students.
Newly renovated in 2013, the office includes a lounge and study space on several floors. Staff
members provide study abroad advising, application guidance, and preparation for student
experiences abroad. International students are offered a full range of services and find support
for their academic, social, personal, and cultural adjustment to Washington College.
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College Honors and Awards Phi Beta Kappa
The Phi Beta Kappa Society was founded in 1776 at the College of William and Mary as the
nation’s first academic honor society. Over two centuries later the Society’s mission continues
to be to honor and advocate the ideals of a liberal arts education. Society members prize
freedom of inquiry and expression, rigorous scholarship within and among the disciplines,
breadth of intellectual perspective, the cultivation of skills of deliberation and ethical reflection,
and the pursuit of wisdom. Among the programs of the national Society are academic and
literary awards, lectureships, fellowships, visiting professorships, and publication of ​The
American Scholar​, an award-winning quarterly journal.
Membership in Phi Beta Kappa is widely considered to be the most highly regarded mark of
academic distinction for undergraduate students in liberal studies. Only about ten percent of the
nation’s institutions of higher learning shelter chapters of Phi Beta Kappa, and only about ten
percent of those institutions’ graduates in liberal studies are offered membership. Washington
College’s chapter, the Theta Chapter of Maryland, was founded in 2007.
Invitations to join Phi Beta Kappa are extended each spring to Washington College students,
usually seniors, of exceptional academic achievement in liberal studies, the area of focus of the
Society. To be eligible for consideration for membership, students must complete at least 96
credit hours in courses deemed by the national Society to be “liberal studies” (as opposed to
“vocational” in nature). The diversity of one’s college program, academic excellence, and
exceptional character are the primary factors considered in deliberations among Phi Beta Kappa
resident members (faculty and staff) who vote by secret ballot on candidates for membership.
In addition to sponsoring campus events that are consistent with the overall mission of the
Society, each fall Washington College’s Theta Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa recognizes students
who achieved the highest cumulative grade point average in their first year at the College, and
each spring presents the Gerda Blumenthal Award to a first- or second-year student for special
scholarly work in the humanities.
Fellowships
A number of fellowships are awarded for summer research, internships, and other specialized
educational opportunities.
The Roy Ans Fellowship in Jewish-American Studies​ is overseen by the Rose O’Neill Literary
House and is open to students of all religious backgrounds and beliefs. It offers a stipend for the
student (1) to work collaboratively with a Washington College faculty member in research
related to the Jewish-American experience and (2) to create a project based on or inspired by
this research. Applications will be judged by the Director of the Rose O’Neill Literary House.
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Margaret Bennett Fellowships in International Studies ​support experiential learning abroad for
international studies majors and others pursuing concentrations in international studies. The
fellowships provide small grants to partially offset the cost of short-term and semester-long
study abroad, internships abroad, and student participation in Model U.N. programs and
international conferences on world affairs. It is administered by the Director of the International
Studies Program.
The Gerda Blumenthal Phi Beta Kappa Award​ is awarded annually to a rising sophomore or
junior to support special scholarly work in the humanities, such as collaborative faculty-student
research or study abroad. The award is overseen by the Phi Beta Kappa chapter at Washington
College.
The S. Douglass Cater Society of Junior Fellows​ is the College’s flagship academic enrichment
program, rewarding creativity, initiative, and intellectual curiosity with competitive grants to
support self-directed undergraduate research and scholarship anywhere in the world. Requiring
a GPA of 3.60 or better, membership in the Society is offered to students who achieve
distinction among the school’s top scholars. Grants are highly competitive and awarded by the
Junior Fellows Advisory Council.
The Comegys Bight Fellows Program​ places students in fully paid summer internships at some
of the nation’s leading historical and cultural institutions. The program annually provides up to
ten Washington College students with opportunities to gain real world experience in history,
museum studies, research, education, book publishing, and more. Participating institutions have
included the Smithsonian, the National Archives, the Library of Congress, the U.S. House of
Representatives (Office of the Historian), the National Constitution Center, the National Park
Service, George Washington’s Mount Vernon, and others. Most positions are open to students
of all class years, including graduating seniors, although preference is given to sophomores and
above. The program is administered by the C.V. Starr Center for the Study of the American
Experience.
The Frederick Douglass Fellowship Program​ supports sophomores or juniors to work on a
spring semester research project related to African-American studies or related fields (women’s
studies, gay studies, Latino studies, etc.). The Douglass Fellowship Program is administered by
the C.V. Starr Center for the Study of the American Experience.
The Friends of Miller Library Research Fellowship ​is awarded to a rising sophomore or junior in
high academic standing to support research in their chosen discipline that requires extensive
use of the resources of Miller Library. The fellowship is administered by the Board of Friends of
Miller Library. The student will be mentored in research competency by a faculty member and a
librarian.
The Goldstein Program in Public Affairs​ supports internships, participation in student
conferences, and other projects. It is administered by the Curator of the Goldstein Program in
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Public Affairs.
The Richard L. Harwood Fellowship in Journalism​ is awarded annually to the editor-elect of the
Washington College student newspaper, ​The Elm​, and other editors-elect as funds permit. The
fellowship helps to underwrite summer internships at newspapers selected by the student
editors and approved by the faculty advisor to ​The Elm​. Typically the newspaper of choice is a
small-town paper willing to match the Harwood Fellowship Program stipend. The fellowship
program is administered by the Board of the Rose O’Neill Literary House Press.
The Clarence Hodson Prize​ ​It is the aim of The Clarence Hodson Prize to reward creativity,
initiative and intellectual curiosity with a competitive grant to support an internship,
undergraduate research project, or other form of study anywhere in the world. Requiring an
overall grade point average of 3.0 or better and a grade point average in the major of 3.5 (the
equivalent of Dean’s List), the Prize is offered to a sophomore, junior, or senior majoring in the
fine or performing arts, with a preference to a student majoring in music, who has achieved
distinction among Washington College’s top scholars.
Hodson Science Scholarships​ fund student-faculty collaborative summer research in the natural
sciences, mathematics, and computer science. The fellowships are awarded to incoming
freshmen on a competitive basis who are carrying a GPA of 3.80 - 4.00 and SAT scores of 1800
- 2400. The fellows may elect to use their stipend between their sophomore and junior or their
junior and senior years, provided they have declared a qualifying major and will undertake a
research assignment in that discipline. Individual projects are overseen by members of the
faculty of the Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics.
The William B. Johnson Business Internship Awards​ fund summer internships for students
interested in pursuing careers in business. The award is open to all majors, but recipients
should possess the three values that motivated William Johnson to achieve great success in
business and industry: scholarship, service, and character. Selection is made by the Chair of
the Department of Business Management.
The Sophie Kerr Fund​ offers to incoming freshmen merit awards that may be renewed for four
consecutive years. The program is administered by the College president and English faculty.
The Louise and Rodney Layton Fund​ supports summer research internships for upperclassmen
who are science majors. It is administered by the faculty of the Division of Natural Sciences and
Mathematics.
The Mary Martin Student Fellowships​ provide the opportunity for students majoring or minoring
in theatre to pursue independent learning experiences. Students may apply for a grant to
support, for instance, summer internships or research. Upon completion of their project,
students will be asked to share their learning with peers in the form of a paper or performance.
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The Summer Science Research Program​ funds research projects in the natural sciences,
mathematics, and computer science during a 10-week summer session. Poster presentations of
the results are given in the summer and frequently during the academic year at national and
regional meetings of scientific societies and organizations. The Summer Science Research
Program is administered by the faculty of the Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics.
Honorary Fraternities and Societies
Phi Beta Kappa, Theta of Maryland,​ sheltered at Washington College, is the oldest
undergraduate honors organization in the United States. It celebrates and advocates excellence
in the liberal arts and sciences.
Omicron Delta Kappa ​is a national leadership honor society recognizing and encouraging the
achievement of exemplary character and superior quality in scholarship and learning. ODK
identifies, honors and develops leaders in collegiate and community life; encourages
collaboration among students, faculty, staff and alumni to advance leadership; and promotes,
publicizes and enhances its ideals. ODK expects adherence to the highest standards of
Scholarship, Service, Integrity, Character and Fellowship.
Order of Omega​ is the national Greek leadership honor society for juniors and seniors who
attain a cumulative grade point average above the All-Greek average and who embody a high
standard of leadership.
Lambda Alpha​ is the national collegiate honor society for anthropology. It was founded for the
purpose of encouraging and stimulating scholarship and research in anthropology by
recognizing and honoring superior achievement in the discipline among students, faculty and
other persons engaged in the study of anthropology.
Beta Beta Beta, Rho Iota Chapter​, is a national honor society for students dedicated to
improving the understanding and appreciation of biological study and extending the boundaries
of human knowledge through scientific research.
Sigma Beta Delta​ is a national honor society in business, recognizing students in the top 20% of
their class who aspire toward personal and professional improvement and a life distinguished by
honorable service to humankind.
Gamma Sigma Epsilon, Gamma Eta Chapter,​ is the national honor society in chemistry
recognizing outstanding students demonstrating exceptional ability and interest in the field of
chemistry.
Delta Eta Pi​ is a national dance honor society sponsored by the National Dance Society to
recognize students for outstanding achievements in dance, including performance,
choreography, scholarship, technology, and community service. DEPi recognizes artistic and
academic achievement and promotes dance education within the college and the local
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community.
Omicron Delta Epsilon​ is an international honor society recognizing high achievement and
strong personal interest in economics.
Pi Lambda Theta​ is a national honor society recognizing high standards in the study of
education.
Sigma Tau Delta​ is an international honor society whose central purpose is to confer distinction
upon outstanding students of the English language and literature.
Pi Delta Phi ​is the national honor society recognizing outstanding scholarship in the French
language and its literature. Its purpose is to increase the knowledge and appreciation of the
French-speaking world and to stimulate and encourage French cultural activities. Students must
be either a French studies major or minor with sophomore or better class standing, have a
minimum 3.00 GPA in French courses and in their overall coursework, and demonstrate a
commitment to the study of French language and literature.
Phi Alpha Theta​ is a national honor society for students in the upper third of their class who
have demonstrated excellence in research and writing in the field of history.
Phi Sigma Tau, Delta Chapter​, is a national honor society recognizing high scholarship and
personal interest in philosophy.
Pi Sigma Alpha​ is a national honor society in political science recognizing students in the upper
third of their class who have demonstrated productive scholarship and personal interest in
government, international relations, or public administration.
Psi Chi​ is an international honor society in psychology, awarding distinction to students in the
upper 35% of their class who have demonstrated productive scholarship in psychology.
Sigma Xi​, the Scientific Research Society, was founded in 1886 as an honor society for science
and engineering. Today, Sigma Xi is an international research society whose programs and
activities promote the health of the scientific enterprise and honor scientific achievement. In
addition, Sigma Xi also endeavors to encourage support of original work in science and
technology and promote an appreciation within society at large for the role research has played
in human progress. Among its chief mission Sigma Xi seeks to foster worldwide interactions
among science, technology and society. Membership is awarded to students who have
accomplished substantive research achievements and, in the judgment of the members of the
Washington College Chapter of Sigma Xi, have demonstrated exceptional promise as research
scientists.
Alpha Kappa Delta​ is an international honor society dedicated to the investigation of humanity
for the purpose of service and the acknowledgment and promotion of excellence in scholarship
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in the study of sociology.
Sigma Delta Pi, Sigma Zeta Chapter​ is a national honor society in Spanish recognizing students
in the upper 35% of their class who have demonstrated superior academic achievement and
commitment to the study of Spanish language and Hispanic literature and culture.
Individual Awards
A number of awards honor individual members of the College community for special
achievements in scholarship, athletics, and leadership. The following are awarded at
commencement or appropriate occasions during the academic year:
Academic Honors and Prizes Conferred By the Entire Faculty
The Louis L. Goldstein ‘35 Award​ is awarded to a graduating senior who, in the opinion of the
faculty, has demonstrated unusual interest, enthusiasm and potential in the field of public
affairs.
Eugene B. Casey Medal​ is awarded to a senior woman voted by the faculty to be outstanding in
the qualities of scholarship, character, leadership and campus citizenship.
Henry W.C. Catlin 1894 Medal​ is awarded to a senior man voted by the faculty to be
outstanding in the qualities of scholarship, character, leadership and campus citizenship.
Clark-Porter Medal​ is awarded to the student whose character and personal integrity, in the
opinion of the faculty, have most clearly enhanced the quality of campus life. Created by
Charles B. Clark ‘34 in memory of Harry P. Porter, Class of 1905.
George Washington Medal and Award​ is awarded to the senior who shows the greatest promise
of understanding and realizing in life and work the ideals of a liberal education.
Other Academic Honors and Prizes
The First-Year Scholarship Medal​ is awarded to the first-year student who attains the highest
academic average in the class.
The Alumni Medal​ is awarded by the alumni of the College to the member of the sophomore
class who attains the highest cumulative average in the class.
The Visitors and Governors Medal​, given by the trustees of the College, is awarded to the junior
with the highest cumulative average in the class.
The American Studies Program Senior Capstone Experience Award​ is awarded to a graduating
American studies major with the most outstanding senior research project.
The Anthropology Achievement Award​ is given to the graduating major or majors who, in the
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opinion of the department, have demonstrated superior scholarship in the field of anthropology.
The Anthropology Service Award​ is given to the graduating major who demonstrates the
greatest dedication to leadership, service, and public education in anthropology at Washington
College.
The Lambda Alpha Gamma of Maryland Chapter Senior Award​ is awarded to the graduating
senior in anthropology who, as a member of Lambda Alpha, demonstrates exceptional promise
as a research scientist in anthropology.
The Lynette Nielsen Professional Practice Award​ is awarded annually by the department faculty
to the artist who demonstrates the most engaged, dedicated, and consistent creative practice
over the course of the SCE year.
The Lynette Nielsen Juror’s Choice Award​ is awarded annually by an invited guest juror to the
artist presenting the most outstanding work of art in the Thesis Exhibition.
The Art History Award​ is presented annually to acknowledge excellence in the field of art
history.
The Department of Biology Allied Health Professional Award​ is awarded to the graduating
biology major who has demonstrated academic excellence, who is pursuing an allied health
degree, and who has a strong potential for success in an allied health field.
The Department of Biology Medical Professional Award​ is awarded to the graduating biology
major who has demonstrated academic excellence, who is pursuing a medical or veterinary
degree, and who has a strong potential for success in the medical or veterinary fields.
The Department of Biology Research Award​ is awarded to the graduating biology major who
has demonstrated academic excellence and a commitment to undergraduate research, who is
pursuing a higher academic degree with a research component, and who shows great promise
for success in biological research.
The Department of Biology Award of Special Recognition​ is awarded on special occasion to the
graduating biology major who has demonstrated outstanding academic achievement and
exceptional depth of understanding in the field of biology.
The Department of Biology Teaching Award​ is awarded on special occasion to the graduating
biology major who has demonstrated academic excellence and exceptional dedication to
science education.
The Department of Business Management Award​ is given to a graduating business major who
has demonstrated outstanding qualities of scholarship, character, and leadership.
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The Department of Business Management Senior Capstone Experience Award​ is awarded to a
graduating business major with the most outstanding senior research project, demonstrating
high scholarship and analytical skills.
The Stanley A. Schottland Business Leadership Award​ is presented annually by the Department
of Business Management to a Washington College senior pursuing a major or minor offered by
the Department of Business Management r who has demonstrated outstanding academic ability
and leadership potential for business. The prize includes a cash award upon graduation, and an
additional award for tuition expenses for an accredited business school entered after at least
two years of employment in a participating or approved company. Two additional finalists will
each receive a cash award.
The Joseph H. McLain ‘37 Prize​ is awarded to the graduating senior who shows the greatest
promise for making a future contribution to human understanding of chemistry. Endowed in
1982 by members of the American Pyrotechnics Association.
The James R. Miller ‘51 Award for Excellence in Chemistry​ is given annually to an outstanding
senior majoring in chemistry or a premedical senior student who has demonstrated special
interest and high academic achievement in chemistry.
The Outstanding Dance Minor Student Award​ is awarded to a graduating dance minor for
excellence in their education, including service activities, scholarship, and artistry.
The Mary Martin Prize​ is awarded by the Department of Theatre faculty to a student majoring in
theatre who demonstrates great dedication in any area of the theater arts.
The Stewart Drama Award​ is given annually to a senior who has made outstanding
contributions to the College through dramatic and speaking ability. Endowed by Pearl Griffin
Stewart, Class of 1905.
The Economics Department Award ​is awarded for outstanding academic performance and the
potential for high achievement in the field of economics.
The Dr. Davy H. McCall Prize in International Economics​ is awarded to a graduating senior
majoring in economics who has demonstrated special interest, high academic achievement, and
superior oral and written abilities in international economics.
The Rachel Scholz Leadership Award ​is awarded to a graduating senior who, in the judgment of
the education department, has demonstrated the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of an
outstanding teacher-leader.
The Sean O Connor Teaching Award ​is awarded to a graduating senior who, in the judgment of
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the education department, has consistently displayed outstanding performance in teaching and
authentic student engagement.
The Education Department Award ​is awarded to a graduating senior who, in the judgment of the
education department, has shown the promise of meaningful contributions to diversified
pedagogy, cultural sensitivity, and global awareness within the fields of education and the liberal
arts.
The Maureen Jacoby Prize​ is given to the graduating senior who has demonstrated dedication
to student publications at Washington College, and has strong potential for a future in the field
of editing or publishing.
The Anna Melvin Hague 1905 Memorial Scholarship​ is awarded annually to a student whose
demonstrated qualities of scholarship, character, and dedication will make the most effective
contribution to the field of public education.
The Veryan Beacham Prize​ is awarded to a junior or student who is two semesters from
graduation who has produced a body of writing on any intellectual subject or in any creative
genre. The prize is the publication of that manuscript in a fine edition, which will be distributed
by the College and others to professionals and alumni who are interested in exceptional
students graduating from Washington College.
The Emil J. C. Hildenbrand Memorial Medal​ is awarded to the senior who attains the highest
average in English during the four years of study. Given by the Washington, D.C. Chapter of the
Alumni Association.
The Sophie Kerr Prize​ is awarded to the senior having the best ability and promise for future
fulfillment in the field of literary endeavor.
The Writers’ Union Award​ is given for outstanding service to the Writers’ Union. A gift of Robert
L. Chamberlin, Jr. ‘48 in memory of Mary Lou Chamberlin ‘49.
The Environmental Studies Award​ is given to the graduating environmental studies major who,
through academic accomplishment and extracurricular involvement, shows the greatest
potential for making significant lifetime contributions to helping solve the world’s environmental
problems.
The Gender Studies Award​ is awarded to a graduating senior who has displayed unusual
interest and/or scholarship in the field of gender studies.
The Arthur A. Knapp ‘39 Memorial Prize​ in History is awarded to the graduating history major
who, in the opinion of the department, has displayed unusual interest, enthusiasm, and ability in
the field of history.
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The Phi Alpha Theta Award​ is granted to the graduating senior history student whose
dedication best supports the mission of the Phi Alpha Theta History Honor Society to promote
the study of history through research, teaching, publication, and the exchange of learning and
ideas among historians.
The Norman James Humanities Award for Excellence​ is given by the James family to the senior
majoring in humanities who has shown academic distinction and represents the ideals of
humanistic society.
The Inter-Fraternity—Pan Hellenic Loving Cups​, given annually to the fraternity and sorority with
the highest scholastic index for the preceding year, are inscribed with the names of the current
winners.
The International Studies Award​ is given to a graduating major who, in the opinion of the faculty
of the international studies interdisciplinary major, demonstrates an exceptional understanding
of and interest in international studies.
The Tai Sung An Memorial Prize​ is awarded to the graduating international student who, in the
opinion of the faculty of the international studies interdisciplinary major, has exemplified in an
exceptional manner the benefits of inter-cultural education on our campus.
The Erika and Henry Salloch Prize​ is given by the Department of Modern Languages, in
memory of Erika and Henry Salloch, to the student whose achievement and personal
commitment have contributed to the understanding of other cultures.
The Department of Modern Languages Service Award ​is given to a graduating senior for
outstanding service within the department.
The German Studies Alumni Award ​is given annually to the senior who, in the opinion of the
faculty of the Department of Modern Languages, has demonstrated outstanding academic
achievement and a depth of understanding in the field of German studies.
The William Gover Duvall ‘30 Prize​ is awarded to a graduating senior who, in the judgment of
the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, has demonstrated outstanding
achievement and shows great promise in the field of mathematics.
The Alpha Chi Omega Music Award​ is given to a senior in recognition of excellence in music.
The Garry E. Clarke Performance Prize ​is awarded annually to the graduating senior who has
demonstrated excellence in musical performance or music composition. The recipient must
have shown leadership in departmental ensembles and excelled in the performance of their
senior recital or in applied music composition, as part of their Senior Capstone Experience.
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The Department of Music Award for Professional Promise in Research and Creative
Achievement ​is presented to a graduating music major who demonstrates professional promise
in the field of music. In addition to excelling in the classroom, recipients of this award will have
independently pursued professional and creative co-curricular opportunities beyond the
classroom.
The Clarence Hodson Prize​ ​— ​please see Fellowships section.
The Jane Huston Goodfellow Memorial Prize​ is awarded to a graduating senior, majoring in a
natural science (biology, chemistry or physics), who has an abiding appreciation of the arts and
humanities and has shown scholastic excellence.
The Gold Pentagon Awards​ are awarded to one senior and one alumnus, faculty, or friend of
the College, selected by the Omicron Delta Kappa Society, in recognition of meritorious service
to Washington College.
The Department of Philosophy and Religion Award​ is given annually to a graduating senior
majoring in philosophy, recognizing outstanding ability in, and engagement with, the field of
philosophy and religion.
The Holstein Prize for Ethics​ is awarded each year to the graduating senior whose senior thesis,
in the opinion of the selection committee, best demonstrates an interest in ethics and the
application of ethics to his or her area of interest.
The Department of Physics Award​ is given to a graduating physics major who has
demonstrated academic excellence and who shows promise for success in the physical
sciences.
The Political Science Award​ is given to a graduating major who in the opinion of the department,
demonstrates a superior theoretical and practical understanding of political life.
The Daniel L. Premo Award ​is given annually to the graduating senior in political science or
international studies who shows the most promise in the field of public diplomacy.
The Psychology Department Award​ is given to the senior psychology major who shows
outstanding promise in the field of psychology.
The Psychology Department Capstone Experience Award​ is presented to the graduating senior
majoring in psychology who, in the opinion of the department, should be recognized for
successful completion and presentation of an exceptional capstone project.
The Virginia M. Conner ‘85 Psychology Award​ is presented annually to the outstanding
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graduating senior or seniors majoring in psychology who, in the opinion of the department, have
demonstrated superior scholarship and service to the department and to the College.
The Psychology Department Outstanding Achievement Award​ is given to senior psychology
majors in recognition of exceptionally high levels of performance in the field of psychology.
The Sigma Xi Scientific Research Society Award​ is presented to students who have
accomplished substantive research achievements and, in the judgment of the members of the
Washington College Chapter of Sigma Xi, have demonstrated exceptional promise as research
scientists.
The Margaret Horsley Award​ is given to the graduating major or majors who, in the opinion of
the faculty and students of the Department of Sociology, have shown in his or her work the
clearest understanding of human social behavior.
The Sociology Service Award​ is awarded to the graduating senior who, in the opinion of the
department and its students, has made, through service, the greatest contribution to the
sociology program and to Washington College.
The W. Dennis Berry ‘87 Leadership Award​ is presented annually to the senior or seniors who
most clearly exhibit those characteristics of charismatic leadership that distinguished Mr. Berry’s
service to Washington College.
The Karen Kaitz Emerick Award​ is awarded to one or more senior students, chosen by the
Executive Committee of the Student Government Association, who have demonstrated strong
character and good academic standing, and who have been leaders in community and
volunteer service.
The Penny J. Fall Award​ is given annually by the Washington College Student Government
Association to the female athlete who most successfully continues, through service to the
College, the tradition and legacy set by Professor Fall. The recipient is chosen for her
leadership on campus and her ability to conceive, organize and execute academic and
extracurricular activities that have benefited the entire Washington College community.
The Jonathan A. Taylor, Jr. Leadership Award​ is given to the member of the Washington
College Student Government Association who diligently and effectively incorporates progressive
thought when addressing the needs and demands of the modern collegiate environment.
The Non-Traditional Student Award​ was established in 1991 to celebrate academic success by
a non-traditional student in the graduating class.
Outstanding Community Service Recognition​ is awarded to senior students who have
committed themselves to community service.
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College Honors and Awards
Athletic Honors and Prizes
The Doris T. Bell ‘50 Award​ is given to the senior woman with the highest cumulative average
who has won a varsity letter during the year.
The Alfred Reddish Award​ is given to the senior man with the highest cumulative average who
has won a varsity letter during the year.
The Thomas Reeder Spedden ‘17 Medal​ is awarded to graduating students for academic
standing and achievement in athletics.
The Eldridge Eliason Award​ is given annually to the male student and female student who, with
scholastic standing in the upper half of the class, have accomplished the most in the field of
athletics.
The Senior Athletic Award​ is given annually to the male student and the female student who, in
the opinion of the Department, achieved the most in athletics at Washington College.
Sho’men Club Award​ is given annually to the male student and female student who, in the
opinion of the department, by cooperation, loyalty, sportsmanship, spirit and industry,
contributed the most to the development of athletics at Washington College.
Faculty Awards
The Alumni Award for Distinguished Teaching​ encourages and recognizes outstanding teaching
at Washington College.
The Gold Pentagon Awards​ are awarded to one senior and one alumnus, faculty, or friend of
the College, selected by the Omicron Delta Kappa Society, in recognition of meritorious service
to Washington College.
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International Programs Global awareness is a major goal of a modern liberal-arts education. Overseas experiences
enhance students’ capacity for global understanding through an examination of the ways
history, culture, politics, economics, commerce, science, and the arts shape our world and our
world views. The College is committed to the philosophy that a student’s education is enriched
by spending one or two semesters in a foreign country as a participant in our international
programs, and participating in other short-term international programs sponsored by faculty,
staff, and other partner organizations. The Global Education Office (GEO) coordinates
academic semester and year study abroad and visiting exchange programs. Any student
considering study abroad should talk with their advisor, attend an information session on study
abroad, and meet with the Study Abroad Coordinator in the Global Education Office. Reviewing
information on the GEO Web page is a great first step in exploring the College’s study abroad
options: http://www.washcoll.edu/offices/global-education/
Washington College Exchange and Study Abroad Programs
In this section you will find an overview of the academic year and semester visiting exchange
and study abroad programs available through Washington College. These programs have been
vetted by the Washington College faculty and administration. Second-semester sophomores are
eligible to study abroad granted they meet the academic requirements of the host institution and
are in good academic/disciplinary standing at the College. Students’ acceptance to study
abroad is based on a number of factors including: GPA, faculty recommendations, the number
of applicants to a particular institution, major of study, and class year. Students interested in
studying abroad are encouraged to plan ahead and ensure they have the necessary
prerequisites of their anticipated host institution. Most exchange partners require a 3.0 GPA. All
exchange programs are Tuition Exchange programs, meaning the students continue to pay their
tuition to Washington College and maintain all scholarships, loans, and aid. Some programs are
Tuition/Room Exchange, meaning students pay their tuition and room charges to Washington
College, and their board overseas. There are also four Full Exchange programs, meaning
students pay their tuition, room, and board fees to Washington College, and are not charged
directly by the visiting institution for any of these fees.
The College reserves the right to withdraw and/or prevent students from attending programs
due to any situation that may negatively impact the students’ well-being. All exchange and study
abroad programs provide on-site orientations, and have an office dedicated to working with
visiting Washington College students. All credit earned overseas at one of our partner
universities will transfer back to Washington College as Washington College credit. Students
must complete the Course Approval form, consult with their academic advisors, and obtain the
proper signatures before departing to earn these credits. For policies pertaining to credit and
grade transfer, please see the section on Policies Concerning Credit for Study Abroad
Programs.
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International Programs
Argentina: Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires - Full Exchange
One of the finest and largest private universities in Argentina, Universidad Católica Argentina
(UCA) is located in Puerto Madero, an architecturally-acclaimed US$2.5 billion urban-renewal
project in the old port of Buenos Aires. Since its foundation in 1958, UCA has been a pioneer in
many fields and attracted leading scholars in each academic discipline to its faculty. The
University offers courses and degrees in: Economics, Commerce, Marketing, Business, Political
Science, International Relations, Law, Engineering, Computer Science, Philosophy, Literature,
History, Music and Musicology, Education, Journalism, Institutional Communications, and
Advertising. Students choose from different types of accommodations: home-stay, student
residences, or flats. All courses at UCA are taught in Spanish, so Spanish language skills must
be at the strong intermediate or advanced level. ​Advisor: Dr. Christine Wade
Australia: Bond University, Gold Coast - Tuition Only
Students can take courses in a wide variety of subjects including business, humanities, social
sciences, information technology, and languages. Bond’s small class sizes and low student:staff
ratio are a real strength and a distinguishing factor between it and most other Australian
universities. ​Advisor: Dr. Michael Harvey
Australia: Monash University, Melbourne - Tuition Only
Monash University was established in 1961 and has become the largest and most international
of all Australian universities. Located primarily in the city of Melbourne in the region of Victoria,
the location provides an excellent opportunity for travel around Australia. Monash campuses’
offer excellent student recreational facilities and the highest educational standards. The
university’s overall size allows for a vast breadth of course offerings. Students are able to take
courses across ​all​ disciplines offered at Washington College. Monash is a great option for
students in the natural sciences, including environmental studies and psychology, and Koorie
(Aboriginal) studies. ​Advisor: Dr. Michael Harvey
Brazil: Pontifícia Universidade Católica, Rio de Janeiro - Tuition Only
PUC-Rio is a private non-profit Catholic University created in 1941, now recognized as one of
the top five universities in Brazil. Located in the exciting city of Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio offers
courses taught in English along with Portuguese Language courses for the beginner through
advanced level. Courses in English are offered in the following areas: Art and Design, Business,
History, International Relations, Literature, and Sociology. The International Office at PUC-Rio
provides a week-long orientation for newly arrived international students, and arranges housing
for the students in a family homestay for their period of study. ​Advisor: Dr. Christine Wade
Ecuador: Universidad San Francisco De Quito, Quito - Tuition Only
The University is located in historic Quito, the capital of Ecuador. USFQ was established in
1988 with 130 students; today there are more than 1,200 students enrolled in USFQ. The
beautifully landscaped campus includes a library, a computing lab, cafeterias, a theater, an
auditorium, tennis courts, basketball courts, volleyball courts, and a fitness center. Classes are
taught in Spanish by USFQ faculty members requiring Washington College students to have an
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intermediate proficiency in Spanish prior to attending USFQ (ability to succeed in 300-level
Spanish courses at Washington College is a prerequisite). The International Programs Office
conducts the exchange student advising. Host family stays offer students a way to directly
engage with the Ecuadorian culture and improves their language skills. USFQ’s International
Programs Office will assist students with family placements. Students may take courses in art,
sciences, economics, business management, mathematics, humanities, music, philosophy,
political science, international studies, psychology, and environmental studies.
Advisor: Dr. Elena Deanda
Egypt: The American University in Cairo, Cairo - Tuition Only
The American University in Cairo was founded in 1919 as an English-language based college
that would provide an opportunity for a liberal arts education as well as develop awareness for
the needs of Egypt and the region. AUC has become a leading institution in the Middle Eastern
region by emphasizing the importance of studying humanities, natural sciences, and social
sciences in becoming an educated student and future leader. AUC has completed a larger,
newly constructed campus located in an area known as New Cairo located 35 km east of Tahrir
Square. All of the buildings are beautiful examples of traditional Islamic architecture with the
added bonuses of modernity and state of the art educational resources. Students are able to
take courses in a wide range of topics including Arabic Language and Arabic Studies. AUC
housing offers air-conditioning, computer labs, cafeterias, study rooms, wireless high-speed
internet, satellite TV, and a fitness facility in all of the residence facilities.
Advisor: Dr. Tahir Shad
England: The Hansard Scholars Programme, London - Tuition/Room
The Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government (HSP) developed The Hansard Scholars
Programme in Parliamentary and Public Policy Studies to offer students a chance to study the
workings of parliamentary democracy and to stimulate interest in its principles. Students
majoring in political science, economics or other social sciences, history, international relations,
or business administration will find the program particularly relevant to their studies. Hansard
Scholars are assigned to work with Members of the House of Commons, the House of Lords,
the political parties, public, social policy, and research institutes. The internship placements are
accompanied by three courses at the London School of Economics and Political Science.
Students take Politics and Public Policy, Politics and Parliament, and a supervised research
project. The Hansard Scholars Programme is affiliated with the London School of Economics.
Eligibility: The Hansard Scholars Programme is competitive and available to outstanding juniors
and first-semester seniors who meet the program criteria and are approved through the Global
Education Office (GPA 3.0 and above). ​ Advisor: To Be Determined
England: University of Hull, Hull, England - Tuition Only
The University of Hull has a long tradition of enhancing the education of students from
overseas. Located in northeast England, Hull is an attractive city of 350,000 with a rich history
and excellent transport links to major cities in the UK. Students have the choice of studying at
the main Hull campus (15,000 students) or at the smaller Scarborough campus (1,500 students)
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that has a smaller choice of classes located in a scenic coastal town 40 miles north of Hull. The
teaching staff value and encourage the University’s mix of UK and international students as one
that creates a positive and enriching learning environment; and the International Student’s
Association is one of the largest and most dynamic of the Students’ Union societies organizing
numerous trips and social events. Students may choose classes from a long list of departments:
Archaeology, Biology, Business, Chemistry, Coastal Studies, Theatre, Economics, English,
History, Languages, Mathematics, Music, Philosophy, Politics and International Relations,
Sociology and Anthropology and more. Students are housed in University accommodations,
adjacent to the campus.
Advisor: Dr. Lisa Daniels and Dr. Michele Volansky
England: Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham - Tuition Only
Royal Holloway is a unique blend of history, tradition and innovation. Famous for its Founder’s
Building, one of the most spectacular university buildings in the world, the College also enjoys
an international reputation for the highest quality teaching and research across the sciences,
arts and humanities. Royal Holloway is renowned for having a friendly environment—home for a
vibrant community of 6,600 undergraduate and postgraduate students of all ages and
backgrounds from more than 120 countries. The spacious 135-acre campus provides an
impressive range of modern academic and social facilities in a parkland setting in Surrey, close
to London. Students may choose classes from a long list of departments: Biology Sciences,
Classics, Computer Science, Economics, English, European Studies, French, German, Hispanic
Studies, History, Italian, Management, Mathematics, Music, Physics, Politics and International
Relations, and Psychology.​ Advisor: Dr. Janet Sorrentino
Finland: University of Oulu, Oulu - Full Exchange
Oulu is a modern and rapidly growing university in northern Finland’s cultural and commercial
center. Courses offered in English include Scandinavian studies, northern cultures and
societies, northern women’s studies, Japanese studies, American studies, and northern nature
and environmental studies. Finland’s relatively remote geographical position in northernmost
Europe has helped the country remain rich in vegetation and wildlife. ​Advisor: Dr. Brian Scott
France: American Business School Paris, Paris - Tuition/Room
The American Business School, Paris was established in 1985 and is one of the first
English-speaking business schools in France modeled on American undergraduate business
education and has established links with several renowned American universities. A U.S.
accredited Bachelor of Business Administration curriculum is taught entirely in English by
professors who are American, or who have trained in America, but who all have their own
unique international experience and career paths that they bring into the classroom. Course
offerings include but are not limited to: Accounting, Business, Economics Finance, Mathematics,
and Marketing. French language courses are taught in the beginner, intermediate and advanced
levels. ​Advisor: Dr. Michael Harvey
France: Université d’Artois, Arras - Tuition Only
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Situated in a small city approximately one hundred miles to the north of Paris (fifty minutes by
high-speed train), the Arras campus of the Université D’Artois is one of the most recently
created centers in France for the study of the liberal arts. The campus received its first students
in the early 1990’s and has been rapidly growing ever since. Arras itself was famous throughout
Europe during the Middle Ages for the manufacture of textiles. While few evidences of the
medieval city remains, it does boast two of the most beautiful 18th century public squares in all
of Europe. Both the city and the campus are of a scale that should appeal to a student who is
hesitant about facing the costs and pressures of big-city and big-university life. Students may
take classes in foreign languages, history, geography, business, computer science, sociology,
and more. An intermediate level of French is required to study at the Université D’Artois (ability
to succeed in 300-level French courses at Washington College is a prerequisite).
Advisor: Dr. Pamela Pears
France: Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble - Tuition Only
Students are able to take courses across all disciplines offered at Washington College. With its
40,000 inhabitants, Grenoble is the capital of the French Alps. Historically, Grenoble is where
the French Revolution germinated and where Napoleon returned from his exile on the Isle of
Elbe. On a lighter side, Grenoble is a beautiful city surrounded by mountain ranges which offer
alpine skiing in the winter and over 4000 km of trails for hikers in the summer. The city is
conveniently located 537 km from Paris, 331 km from Nice, 100 km from Lyon, 145 km from
Geneva, and 240 km from Turin while also at an important crossroads to Italy and Switzerland.
Students must have an intermediate level of French as all classes are taught in French (ability
to succeed in 300-level French courses at Washington College is a prerequisite). ​Advisor: Dr.
Katherine Maynard
Germany: Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Tübingen - Tuition Only
EKUT is located in Tübingen, which is in southern Germany near Stuttgart. The University was
founded in 1477 and hold a distinguished place in the intellectual life in Germany. The
University has 25,000 students living in a comparatively small city of 85,000. The University’s
academic reputation is based on the research achievements of many of its scholars. Campus
facilities include some of the most advanced technical equipment and extensive library facilities.
EKUT’s character is marked by an awareness of tradition and a cosmopolitan atmosphere.
Students can take a wide range of courses in different disciplines including business,
economics, history, philosophy, political science, psychology, mathematics, chemistry,
geography and the arts. This is an excellent opportunity for motivated and independent students
with strong language skills (ability to succeed in 300-level German courses at Washington
College is a prerequisite). ​Advisor: Dr. Nicole Grewling
Germany: Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mainz - Tuition Only
Founded in 1477, JGU is a globally renowned research institution of national and international
recognition. It offers an extraordinarily broad range of courses including Business, Economics,
Education, American Studies, English, History, Mathematics, Arts, Foreign Languages, Music,
Chemistry, Geography, Philosophy, Earth Sciences, Political Science, Sociology, and
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Psychology. The wide range of courses and the ideal geographic position in Germany makes it
one of the top destinations for students from all over the world. International students from about
130 countries make up 10% of the 36,000 students. JGUM is the sole German university of this
size to combine almost all institutes on one campus, which is located in Mainz, a lively state
capital west of Frankfurt on the Rhine River and in the heart of a wine-growing region. Mainz
has a rich history and excellent transport links for travelling. This is an excellent opportunity for
motivated and independent students with strong language skills (ability to succeed in 300-level
German courses at Washington College is a prerequisite). ​Advisor: Dr. Nicole Grewling
Hong Kong: Lingnan University, Tuen Mun - Tuition/Room
One of the few liberal arts institutions in Hong Kong, Lingnan University offers a unique
combination of eastern and western traditions. Located in the New Territories, Lingnan
University provides a campus environment that promotes self-learning and maximizes
opportunities for social, cultural, and extracurricular activities, as well as sharing the belief of the
importance of their bilingual society: English and Chinese. Students can choose from a variety
of courses taught in English in the following faculties: contemporary English studies, cultural
studies, business administration, social sciences, history, and philosophy. ​Advisor: Dr. Andrew
Oros
Ireland: University College Cork, Cork - Tuition Only
Founded in 1849, University College Cork (UCC) is located in Ireland’s second-largest city on
the south coast, 160 miles southwest of Dublin. It is one of three colleges that constitute the
National University of Ireland. Students may take courses ranging from the natural sciences to
social sciences and humanities. All of the university’s facilities will be available to students from
Washington College, including specially designed programs for students from the USA. ​Advisor:
Dr. Richard Gillin
Israel: The Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva - Tuition Only
For students with an interest in Israel, a semester or academic year at Ben-Gurion can be
arranged through the New York City office of this top Israeli university. Ben-Gurion University of
the Negev is the only Israeli university created to fulfill a unique nation-building mandate: to
develop the Negev, its land, and its people. As Israel’s fastest growing institution, it is gaining
international repute for its innovative research, its dynamic student body, and its modern
campus. BGU offers courses in anthropology, pre-medicine, international relations,
environmental studies, and linguistics and literatures, along with many opportunities for
experiential learning. ​Advisor: Dr. Tahir Shad
Italy: Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Milan - Tuition Only
Since its founding in 1921, the university has become a central point of reference for the
Milanese intellectual community. It’s a true campus, offering everything that makes this
university a unique and unrepeatable experience: study, research, the chance to meet the
lecturers and to become part of the dialogue of an academic institution, contact with the outside
world, and the opportunity to extend the personal development it offers through cultural and
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recreational extracurricular activities. UCSC is a great program for independent students who
are able to navigate new cities and academic systems on their own. The University offers
courses and degrees in: Communication and Performance Sciences, Economics and Business
Administration, Foreign Languages and Literature, History, Humanities, Philosophy, Political
Science, Psychology, and Sociology. Approximately 25 courses are offered in English each
semester in these various faculties. An Intensive Italian Language and Culture course is offered
both prior to and during each semester. ​Advisor: Dr. Katherine Maynard
Japan: Meiji Gakuin University, Yokohama - Tuition Only
Meiji Gakuin University (MGU), founded in 1877, is one of the oldest private institutions in Japan
and has a long history of international cooperation in education. As a liberal arts university,
MGU offers undergraduate studies in a variety of areas. MGU offers a program for international
students which allows them to take coursework in both Japanese and English. MGU prefers that
students have a full academic year of Japanese language instruction, however it is not required
in order to study on the Yokohama campus, as many classes are offered in English. Yokohama,
with a student population of approximately 10,000, is located in a spacious suburban setting and
provides international students with numerous opportunities for participation in the academic
and social life of the university.
Advisors: Dr. Andrew Oros
Morocco: Al Akhawayn University, Ifrane - Full Exchange
Located in the resort town of Ifrane, nestled in the Middle Atlas Mountains, Al Akhawayn
University is set in the heart of a region known for its beautiful forests, mountains, lakes, and
waterfalls. Al Akhawayn has multiple exchange programs with partner institutions worldwide.
AUI is home to excellent research facilities, particularly for North African and Middle Eastern
Studies. This small university offers programs in business administration, humanities and social
science, and science and engineering. The language of instruction at the university is English.
Facilities include 16 student residence buildings. There is a gymnasium, an indoor regulation
Olympic swimming pool next to the soccer field and track, and three regulation tennis courts. All
classroom buildings are situated next to each other, and faculty offices are distributed
throughout the campus.​ Advisors: Dr. Tahir Shad
Netherlands: Leiden University, Leiden - Tuition Only
Leiden University was founded in 1575 and is among Europe’s foremost international research
universities. Leiden University is home to 25,800 students and over 5,500 faculty and staff
members, and boasts of an alumni network more than 96,000 strong. The university has two
campuses; the original is located in the city of Leiden, but in 1998 Leiden University opened
another campus, entirely dedicated to studies related to pillars of peace, security, and justice, in
The Hague. The Hague campus houses approximately 3,000 students and works closely with
the cities’ governmental, ministries, and legal and/or diplomatic institutions. Leiden is a city
brimming with cultural exhibitions, galleries, museums, historical monuments and sites, close in
proximity to other vibrant locations in the Netherlands, such as Amsterdam and The Hague.
Leiden University offers classes in seven Faculties: Archaeology, Governance and Global
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Affairs, Humanities, Law, Medicine/Leiden University Medical Center, Science, and Social and
Behavioral Sciences​. ​Adviser: Dr. William Schindler
Peru: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru, Lima - Tuition Only
The Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru (PUCP) is a highly prestigious world-renowned
academic institution. Founded in 1917, the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru is the
oldest-established private higher educational institution in Peru. Lima is the cultural center of
Peru and offers entertainment for young people in the form of theaters, cinemas, cafes, bars,
and discotheques, which are to be found especially in Miraflores and Barranco, the city’s two
foremost cultural districts. Exchange students enroll at the School of Special Studies. The
University offers courses and degrees in: Fine Arts, Management and Accounting, Science and
Engineering, Social Sciences (Anthropology, Sociology, Economics), Law, Arts and Humanities
(Archaeology, Philosophy, Geography, History, Literature, Psychology), Communication Arts
and Sciences, Education. Overseas students live with Peruvian families and are immersed in
the social and family life of Peru as well as the Spanish language. Students must demonstrate a
strong intermediate or advanced knowledge of the Spanish language, as all courses at PUCP
are taught in Spanish (ability to succeed in 300-level Spanish courses at Washington College is
a prerequisite). ​Advisor: Dr. Christine Wade
Scotland: St. Andrews University, St. Andrews - Tuition Only
Founded in 1411, St. Andrews is the oldest university in Scotland. With 6,000 students and
faculty, the university comprises approximately one-third of the total population of the city of St.
Andrews. Local and university events in the town blend to offer a rich cultural and social life for
students and townspeople alike. Washington College sends students to St. Andrews University
to study a broad range of subjects including philosophy, sociology, psychology, mathematics,
and the natural sciences. A minimum GPA of 3.2 and demonstrated ability to work
independently and creatively in a tutorial educational system are prerequisites to
recommendation for the program.​ Advisor: Dr. Christine Wade
South Africa: Rhodes University, Grahamstown - Full Exchange
Located in the beautiful and historic city of Grahamstown, Rhodes University is nestled in the
hills of the city, just 45 minutes from unspoiled beaches. Rhodes University is one of South
Africa’s oldest and most prestigious institutions of higher education. Students participating in
this program are housed on campus in single rooms in residence halls equipped with a dining
hall, washer/dryer, TV, and lounge area. During the spring semester at Rhodes, Washington
College students attend a special interdisciplinary course on South Africa and the Eastern Cape
Region. All students attending Rhodes may choose from a wide range of courses in the
humanities, sciences, and social sciences. ​Advisor: Dr. Tahir Shad
South Korea: Yonsei University, Seoul - Tuition/Room
The oldest university in Korea, Yonsei celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1985. Yonsei sits
quietly in a well-wooded area outside Seoul, a city of 11 million people. Yonsei has provided
many opportunities for foreign students to learn more about the Korean language, history, and
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culture. The University is recognized not only in Korea, but also the Asia-Pacific area and the
international community as the most forward-looking, internationalized, and comprehensive
university in Korea. Courses offered in English fall under three main areas of study: East Asian
Studies, International Relations, and International Business. The Korean language is also
taught. Dormitory housing is available for students accepted to the program and there are 100+
student clubs and organizations, all covering a variety of interests. ​Advisor: Dr. Andrew Oros
Spain: Universidad De Nebrija, Madrid - Tuition Only
Nebrija University is located in the university district of Madrid. The Hispanic Studies Program at
UN offers exchange students various cultural activities such as lectures, films, and guided visits
to major museums, monuments, and other sites of interest. With the assistance of the
International Office, students are placed in homestay living arrangements. Students who have
an elementary Spanish level take courses in the Spanish studies program. Those who are
proficient in Spanish may also enroll in courses that are part of the normal curriculum for
Spanish students. Students choose courses from the following disciplines: Spanish studies,
business administration and economics, advertising and journalism, computer science, modern
languages, political science and international studies, history, and English.
Advisor: Dr. Cristina Casado Presa
Turkey: Bogazici University, Istanbul - Tuition Only
This university grew out of the long history of Robert College, the first American college to be
established outside the United States. With a distinguished academic tradition, Bogazici has five
campuses, six institutes, a school of foreign languages, a school of applied disciplines, and a
school of advanced vocational studies. Its historic Kandilli Observatory is the center of a
nationwide network of seismic stations and a prominent research center. The Kilyos Campus is
situated on the shores of the Black Sea. Students may take courses in the arts, sciences,
economics, political science, international studies, and education. All classes, except Turkish
language, are taught in English. ​Advisor: Dr. Tahir Shad
Short-Term Summer and Winter Programs
Washington College faculty and staff run a variety of short-term programs during the summer
and winter months. Short-term programs are open to all students in good academic and social
standing at the College. Students should be in touch with the program leaders regarding their
summer and winter sponsored programs. Recent trips include short-term programs in England,
Israel, Cuba, Denmark, Bermuda, Ireland, Nicaragua and Tanzania. The departments
sponsoring the short-term programs have additional information on these study abroad
opportunities.
College Authorized International Student Travel
Washington College seeks to promote safe, healthy and secure international travel for its
students. The College requires students who are engaged in independent international travel
(i.e. not with a faculty or staff member, and not on a semester or academic year program) that is
sponsored, recognized or organized by the College to adhere to the ​Student International Travel
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Policy​, and ensure that they complete the ​Pre-Travel Safety Assurances ​form and the ​Education
Abroad Program Agreement: Assumption of Risk Waiver of Liability and Indemnification ​form.
Details on the policy and access to the forms can be found online
http://www.washcoll.edu/offices/global-education/. Additionally, the College encourages all
students traveling abroad for educational or other purposes to thoroughly review and familiarize
themselves with the political, health, crime and other safety-related conditions prevailing in the
country (or countries) they intend to visit.
Billing and Payment Terms
See Fees and Expenses, Off Campus Study Fees
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Special Sessions
Special Sessions Washington College offers several intensive travel/study experiences, conducted under the
guidance of professors during times when classes are normally not in session. Successful
completion of these summer sessions earns academic credit.
Summer Session In Bermuda
This summer course will investigate the complex ecology of the Bermuda Islands, the impact
that human habitation has had on their natural history, and current environmental concerns and
means of mitigating those concerns. Major areas of study will include (but not be limited to) coral
reef ecology/symbioses, mangrove community ecology and environmental relevance,
architectural and military influences during colonization, fisheries practices (past, present and
future) and current concerns and problems, and ecotourism and associated environmental
impacts.​ Advisor: VanMeter
Summer Program In Ecuador
This three-week-long summer course, offered in conjunction with the Universidad San Francisco
de Quito, will investigate many of the worlds most distinctive species of plants, animals that
inhabit the richly diverse ecosystems of Ecuador. Students will gain an understanding of
Ecuador’s social and economic issues and the challenges it faces as a developing country while
attempting to conserve its natural resources. Topics investigated include conservation of the
Amazon rain forest and oil exploration, ecotourism, biodiversity concerns, mangrove
conservation and the fate of Galapagos tortoises and the Galapagos fisheries. ​Advisors:
Sherman and Fox
Summer Session At Kiplin Hall
During a three-week summer excursion to North Yorkshire, students experience the poetic
landscape of England. Hiking the remote hills of the Lake District and exploring the moors,
students literally follow the footsteps of Romantic poets as they study the literature of that
period. Students stay at Kiplin Hall, the ancestral home of Maryland’s Calvert family.
Participants earn four credits. ​Advisor: Gillin
Oxford Research Seminar on Religion, Politics, and Culture
Students interested in the intersection of religion, politics, and culture are encouraged to apply
for a two week study program conducted at the University of Oxford in June. Students reside on
campus in the heart of Oxford University, engage in a structured program of study directed by
Oxford faculty, develop an independent research project using the vast resources of Oxford
libraries, and conduct tutorials under Oxford faculty. For more information please contact
Joseph Prud’homme, director, the Institute for Religion, Politics, and Culture. ​Advisor:
Prud’homme
Summer International Business Experience
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Special Sessions
Washington College offers a 15-day travel course in international business. For five summers
the course was based at the University of Leiden, Holland’s oldest university. The course
concentrated on the economic aspects of the European Union and compared businesses in
Europe to businesses in the United States. Following are the European Union sites normally
visited: Information Desk of the European Union, Permanent Court of Arbitration, and the U.S.
mission to the European Union. Following are the businesses visited in 2004: ABN-AMRO,
Heineken, Nike’s Euro-pean headquarters, Porceleyn Fles which makes Delft, an international
flower market at Aalsmeer, a diamond cutter in Antwerp, Belgium, a chocolatier in Belgium, and
Villerroy & Boch in Luxembourg. For the past two summers the course took place in China. In
January 2010, the course was conducted in India. In both China and India a variety of
businesses were visited. ​Advisor: Scout
Summer Program In Tanzania
Washington College offers a 15-day summer course on politics, culture, economy, and
sustainable development in Tanzania. The course focuses on the familiar problems associated
with Africa: poverty, unemployment, health, debt, and the conflicts between tradition and the
lures of a changing world. Traveling to one of Tanzania’s national parks, to traditional Maasai
communities, to coffee co-ops, government agencies, and health care centers, students come
face-to-face with local communities and their diverse problems and challenges. ​Advisor: Shad
Summer Archaeological Field School
This five-week summer program is an introduction to archaeological fieldwork methods and to
the theoretical concerns of anthropological archaeology. It includes participation in
archaeological survey and excavation as well as lectures, readings, and writing assignments. A
minimum obligation of 20 hours per week is required. Sites will focus on North American native
people and colonial U.S. history in Maryland. ​Prerequisite: ANT 105, ANT 107 or HIS 201; or
permission of the instructor. May be repeated once for credit. Advisor: J. Seidel
Summer Session In Maine
During a three-week summer session at Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island, Maine,
students study coastal community ecology within geological and oceanographic contexts.
Advisor: Connaughton
Cuban Music and Culture
Offered during the Winter Break, this course introduces students to anthropological,
ethnomusicological, and ethnochoreological ethnographic fieldwork methods, including
participant-observation, ethnographic interviews, and audio/video documentation techniques.
Students will be exposed to both Afro-Cuban religious and Cuban popular expressive forms.
They will learn about the interrelatedness of music, dance, visual arts, ritual, and religious
beliefs, as well as with Cuban views on Cuban culture, gender, and race. Students will
attend/observe both formal and informal music performances, and take music and dance
lessons where they will have an opportunity to engage musicians on a one-on-one basis. In
addition to music-oriented activities, students will learn about Cuba’s cultural and economic
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Special Sessions
history by exploring Havana’s rich museums, monuments, and plazas.​ Advisors: Schweitzer &
Lampman
Billing and Payment Terms
See Fees and Expenses, Off Campus Study Fees.
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Integrative (Experiential) Learning
Integrative (Experiential) Learning At Washington College students have multiple opportunities to become engaged in experiences
designed to enhance their learning outside the classroom. Our proximity to the major cities of
Washington, DC, Baltimore, and Philadelphia as well as the Delmarva Peninsula makes it
possible for students to gain experience as members of premier governmental, commercial,
scientific, and artistic organizations while undertaking externships/job shadowing, internships,
research, and participation in a variety of model programs. These experiences enhance and
expand theoretical knowledge obtained through traditional coursework.
EXTERNSHIPS/JOB SHADOWING
By definition an externship is a short, usually one- to three-day, experiential learning
opportunity. A student visits an organization or business to learn about its missions and goals,
to ask questions about career paths and explore fields of interest. Externships can be especially
useful to younger students helping them guide decisions about major and minor courses of
study. Therefore in 2012, the College introduced a program designed for second semester
freshmen through senior year. Those with a qualifying GPA of B or better are encouraged to
apply and state their match preferences. Externs are required to attend an on-campus session
on workplace professionalism and meet with the Assistant Dean for Academic Initiatives for final
placements. For the most part, alumni, friends of the College, and parents of current or past
students serve as hosts to the externs. The sites include opportunities for students to explore
the arts, business, communications, education, health professions, law and justice, science and
technology, and social services and human rights, and are located nationwide. Placements are
made during Fall, Winter, and Spring breaks. Externships are recorded as a non-credit bearing
experience through the Offices of the Assistant Dean and the Registrar. More details are
available at http://www.washcoll.edu/academics/job-shadowing.
INTERNSHIPS/RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES
Students pursue internships and research for a variety of reasons. Working under the close
supervision of seasoned professionals provides a unique opportunity to learn about the
challenges and opportunities of a particular field. Potential experiences are reviewed according
to rigorous criteria involving engagement in a substantive experience, availability of an on-site
mentor or supervisor, and the relationship of the experience to the student’s academic program
of study. Some students do internships or research solely for the valuable experience they
provide and these are recorded using an on line learning contract system. At graduation, a
student can request a letter from the Registrar’s office that lists all non-credit outside the
classroom learning that he/she has completed.
With the addition of an academic plan of study, these may be done for academic credit.
Internships and research for academic credit are documented using an on line learning contract
system. Although academic credit for internship experiences may vary, the majority of students
may earn between two and four credits upon successful completion of approximately 140 to 500
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Integrative (Experiential) Learning
hours of applied experience. Learning goals are established prior to the beginning of each
opportunity and evaluated by the faculty advisor upon completion. Internships and research
provide experience that students may apply toward their degree by earning up to 16 credits.
The Office of the Assistant Dean for Academic Initiatives and the Center for Career
Development assist students with identifying appropriate integrative learning opportunities and a
database of over 2000 entries arranged by discipline is available for students to explore. The
college also has affiliations with the Washington Center in Washington, DC, CISAbroad,
America’s Unofficial Ambassadors, and IFSA-Butler for structured internship programming in the
Capital region and abroad.
Internship Opportunities By Major
Anthropology and Archeology
Students interested in ethnographic research, cultural studies, or archaeological and GIS skills
intern with the Smithsonian Museums, the U.S. Naval Academy Museum, in field schools here
in the U.S. and abroad, as well as in an array of non-profits. The nearby Rock Hall Museum and
Chesapeake Maritime Museum in St. Michaels offer students opportunities to study the
watermen of Maryland’s Eastern Shore. The Washington College GIS laboratory offers
semester and over-the-summer internships on grant-related mapping projects in environmental
studies, crime and justice, land use, and transportation. ​Advisors: Lampman and Schindler; for
GIS-Bruce
Art
Internships allow art and art history students to work in various museum and curatorial settings
including The Academy Art Museum in Easton, the Baltimore Museum of Art or The Walters Art
Museum in Baltimore, and at other galleries, art institutes, and art education outreach
organizations around the nation. Students work under the supervision of the museum’s
professional staff and gain firsthand experience in a wide variety of museum activities. To earn
academic credit, participants must submit to the Art Department a paper that summarizes their
experience. ​Advisor: Tsui
Biology
Biology students have the opportunity to conduct summer research on campus as well as at
other academic institutions and at field stations. They also engage in academic internships with
research and policy focused non-profits and government agencies. Recent student experiences
have included work internships at Children’s National Medical Center/Pediatric Cardiology, the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, as well as local health providers and clinical
settings h with recognized experts. (See Collaborative Research Opportunities below) ​Advisors:
Ford, Verville, Van Metre
Business Management
Business Management students participate in many local, national, and international internships
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Integrative (Experiential) Learning
according to their field of business interest. The internship course acquaints students with
current literature and allows them to discuss and share their internship experiences with their
classmates and faculty. Internships are available with major financial providers, hedge funds,
banks, insurance companies, accounting firms, and other enterprises. For example, students
have interned with Corbin Perceptions, Legg Mason, and NASDAQ. Locally, Kent County and
college partner to offer “Innovation Internships” in local businesses and companies.
Benchworks, Inc., a marketing firm, offers internships as does Dixon Valve, a multi-national
corporation with headquarters and manufacturing in Chestertown, and Coldwell Banker, a real
estate firm. ​Prerequisite: BUS 111 and 112 and minimum 2.5 GPA, or approval by the
department.Advisors: Eanes, Vowels or Williams
Chemistry
Faculty members in the department of Chemistry welcome students every year to participate in
the summer research program as well as in credit-bearing and non-credit internships and
research at other institutions. The broad range of projects undertaken here on campus is the
product of the areas of expertise carried on by chemistry faculty. Students have the opportunity
to tackle NMR spectroscopy and numerous characterization techniques, to embrace the field of
soil chemistry, to discover new organic reactions in the synthesis of bowl-shaped molecules and
to realize the power of more environmentally benign and sustainable chemistry. In recent years,
chemistry majors have interned at U.S. Department of Energy research sites, at the Johns
Hopkins School of Medicine, and at Baylor School of Medicine. ​Advisor: Marteel-Parrish
Economics
Students with majors or minors in Economics are allowed to seek credit for internships.
Opportunities are available In micro- and macro-interest areas, in international development,
and in non-profits. For example, recent intern placements included: NeighborWorks, a non-profit
housing policy organization in Atlanta; Doha Bank in Qatar, and opportunities through the
Washington Center (see below) with the Montgomery County, MD Bio-Health Innovation
Collaborative and the Mexican Embasssy-NAFTA Trade Desk in Washington, DC ​Advisor: Scott
English
The Department of English offers a journalism internship on campus each year. Students work
with a professional journalist in conjunction with the publication of the ​Elm​ and the ​Collegian​.
Each week students conduct a critical evaluation of the previous week’s publication. Sessions
on what constitutes effective work in various areas of news writing, such as feature articles,
editorials, sports, and campus announcements, as well as how to lay out an interesting and
communicative page, occur on a regular basis. The internship is open to all students interested
in working on the ​Elm​ or the ​Collegian​.
English majors also intern with publishing firms, publications and marketing organizations, radio
and media outlets, with commercial enterprises and non-profits. Recent examples of internships
include: Prestwick Press, The Summerset Review, and local newspapers. ​Advisors: For the oncampus internship contact Dubrow; for other opportunities contact Prof. O’Connor.
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Integrative (Experiential) Learning
Environmental Studies
Internships in environmental science education, wildlife and ecology management,
environmental research and non-profit management are available at sites locally and nationally.
Recently, environmental studies majors have interned at several National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration research sites including, Beaufort, NC, Honolulu, Hawaii, Naples,
Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, and Wells, ME, and locally on the Chesapeake.
Several others have combined their interests in environmental studies and law to work at the US
Department of Justice, Environmental Crimes Section, at the Environmental Protection Agency,
or with private law firms that litigate environmental cases.
The Center for the Study of the Environment and Society also offers internships during the
academic year and over the summers at Chino Farms and with Eastern Neck National Wildlife
Refuge. ​Advisor: Sherman
Modern Languages
Students utilize their language skills while working in for-profit and non-profit settings. Most
recently, Hispanic language students have interned with a Chilean company and with a
Peruvian health care provider, and more locally have job shadowed at the Garnett Elementary
School and , with a non-profit family support group. French majors have worked with
humanitarian organizations abroad as well as commercial enterprises in France. Several
international internships are offered through providers affiliated with the College such as
CISAbroad, America’s Unofficial Ambassadors and IFSA-Butler. ​Advisors: Maynard and Pears
History
History students are encouraged to explore internships with museums, archives, curatorial
services, and history-education outreach providers. More recently, students have interned with
the National Park Service, Harper’s Ferry, with the Smithsonian museums as well as with the
National Archives. Student interns also have opportunities at the Historical Society of Kent
County to organize archival resources, participate in preparing displays, and do research in
government records and family papers. The Maryland Historical Society in Baltimore offers
various internships involving research and administrative opportunities, including assistance
with publication and publicity projects. A number of stipend/paid opportunities are available in
the summer and are arranged by the CV Starr Center. ​Advisor: ​Sorrentino or at the CV Starr
Center, Jean Wortman.
International Studies and Political Science
International studies and political science internships are available for qualified students in
Washington, DC and abroad through the Department of State, the U.S. Agency for International
Development (USAID), and the Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government among many
other options.
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Integrative (Experiential) Learning
Most federal government internships are in Washington, DC, but some opportunities occur each
year for interns to serve abroad as Junior Foreign Service Officers. Depending on the needs of
the agency, interns are assigned junior-level professional duties, which may include research,
report writing, correspondence, analysis of international issues, and assistance in cases related
to domestic and international law. The department and program advisors help students prepare
applications and find internships with government agencies. Students from Washington College
have served in Bangladesh, Barbados, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji,
Gambia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Ireland, Japan, England, New Zealand, Pakistan, the
Philippines, Switzerland, Venezuela, and Washington, DC
Students interested in international human rights and social justice may opt to intern abroad in
Tanzania and Zanzibar or with NGOs located here in the US or globally. Some students
interested in foreign policy initiatives work with Washington, DC, think tanks such as the
Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars or on Capitol Hill as staff to committees with
oversight responsibilities for foreign policy and national security. ​Advisor: Oros and Shad
The Department of Political Science administers the Maryland General Assembly Internship
Program, open to majors and non-majors. These internships offer a firsthand glimpse into the
world of Maryland politics. Interns work for a state legislator in Annapolis for two days each
week throughout the spring legislative session, which stretches from January through mid-April.
Interns also meet on campus for a weekly seminar, which includes reading assignments and
written work. Two course credits are awarded for successful completion of the internship.
Juniors and seniors who have a GPA of 3.0 are eligible. (Political Science 311 or 391 is
recommended.) Legislators provide interns with a stipend to cover expenses; however, students
must arrange their own transportation to and from Annapolis. The faculty program director
evaluates each intern’s work in consultation with the legislator to whom the student has been
assigned and the Assembly’s intern coordinator in Annapolis. ​Advisor: Deckman
The Washington College Institute for Religion, Politics, and Culture offers internships for
qualified students in Washington, DC, through its partnership with the Disciples Center for
Public Witness where students intern with faith-based organizations working on social justice
issues​. Advisor: Prud’homme
Political Science and International Studies majors also frequently attend the program of the
Washington Center for Internships and Academic Seminars (see below).
Music
Students interested in careers related to music and music education are encouraged to seek
internships as well. An intern from last summer worked for an online music company, and others
have interned with community orchestras and non-profits. ​Advisor: Schweitzer
Sociology; Justice, Law and Society; and Social Work
Undergraduates interested in sociology, the minor in justice, law and society, or the
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Integrative (Experiential) Learning
concentration in social welfare find integrative learning to be an important part of their
experiences here at the College. Some courses require job shadowing and others, in social
work for example, offer full semester internships. Future sociologists interested in analytics and
data development have interned at the US Census Bureau and at Washington, DC, think tanks.
Several others have found opportunities with local and state agencies as well as non-profits.
Advisor: Anderson
Justice, law and society students have interned with the Kent County State’s Attorney, with the
Washington, DC, PreTrial Services Agency, Mid-Shore Council on Family Violence, or with For
All Seasons, a rape crisis agency serving several Eastern Shore Maryland counties, and
Maryland and D.C. law firms.​ Advisor: McCabe
The Social Work program offers students the opportunity to interact directly with clients in a
variety of community settings and under the supervision of agency professionals.
Physics
On-campus research projects are available for students to work corroboratively with faculty in
their labs or to seek off-campus opportunities with private industry or the government. (See
Collaborative Research below) ​Advisor: Lin
Psychology
The Psychology Practicum enables students to take courses at the College and work part-time
at nearby community agencies that provide psychological and or mental health services.
Depending on their internship/research site, student interns work closely with a therapy team
comprised of a psychiatrist, psychologist, psychiatric social worker, occupational therapist, or
with members of the nursing staff, and ward personnel. They participate in various aspects of
treatment and counseling. In addition to the clinical work, participants undertake a supervised
study of the literature on mental disorders. Those who have completed the practicum have
found it a valuable step toward a career in clinical psychology or allied health and medical
sciences. Examples of recent placements include: Eastern Shore Psychological Services in
Easton, Sheppard Pratt in Baltimore, Kent County Behavioral Health in Chestertown as well as
camps, local schools, hospitals, and private practitioners.
Students in either semester of their junior or senior year are eligible. Academic credit earned
through the practicum counts toward the major and graduation. ​Advisor: Littlefield
Theatre
Internships in professional theater allow theatre majors to work full-time as resident interns for
professional theater companies. In past years students have interned for Arena Stage in
Washington, DC, Center Stage in Baltimore, Philadelphia Theatre and the Play Penn in
Philadelphia, and the Hartford Stage Company in Connecticut. Locally, they also work in the
Church Hill Theatre and the Garfield Center for the Arts at the Prince Theatre. Theatre majors in
either semester of their junior or senior year who have been accepted by a theater company,
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Integrative (Experiential) Learning
and who have received approval from the theatre department, are eligible. Interns are
supervised by the department faculty and by a designated member of the theater company.
Advisors: Daigle, Volansky
Signature Internships Open To Various Disciplines
Washington College provides “Signature Internships” which by definition are open only to our
students or to workplaces where our students’ applications receive special consideration. Full
descriptions of current opportunities are available at
www.washcoll.edu/offices/career-development/internships/signature-internships.php. Several
are summarized below.
Children’s National Medical Center, Pediatric Cardiology, Washington, DC
Highly qualified STEM students are encouraged to apply for this internship where they select
from three specific professional areas including cardiology practice, magnet nursing, and health
care administration. They spend the majority of their summer in one of these areas and the last
two weeks of the internship in a second area. ​Advisors: Verville and Lange
Comegys Bight Fellows Program
The Comegys Bight Fellows Program offers funding for research-based summer internships (or
independent research projects) related to American history and culture. Grants are offered on a
competitive basis to sophomores and juniors from all academic majors. Comegys Bight
fellowships are often, but not always, related to a thesis project. The program is administered by
the C.V. Starr Center for the Study of the American Experience. ​Advisors: Wortman and
Goodheart
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Summer Research/Internship Program
NOAA provides field and research opportunities across more than 40 different sites in the U.S.
Along with several other prestigious liberal arts institutions, Washington College students
compete for these positions to study marine and wildlife habitats. Most recently, students were
accepted for dolphin research off the Pacific Coast, marine mammals in the Atlantic, oyster beds
on Eastern Shore rivers, and stream run-off in the Chesapeake Bay.​ Advisor: Sherman
U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC
A qualified student is chosen each summer to work with a chemistry research scientist at the
Navy’s laboratory. While the specific projects are classified,students are introduced to a range
of lab techniques and protocols. Advisor: Martell-Parrish; Lange
National Security Agency Internship, Odenton, MD
Internships within NSA and the national security community are available to students who are
awarded the National Security Scholarship through a competitive application process. Students
must have an interest in a career in a national security field, a minimum GPA of 3.0, U.S.
citizenship, completed a minimum of 30 semester-hours toward the baccalaureate degree, and
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Integrative (Experiential) Learning
pass a rigorous security clearance. Students with majors in political science, computer science,
mathematics, physics, history, business management, and languages and linguistics are
encouraged to apply.. ​Advisor: Lange
The Washington Center for Internships and Academic Seminars
Full-time, semester-long or summer internships with a federal government, political, business, or
non-profit agency in Washington, DC, are available for qualified students through the
Washington Center for Internships and Academic Seminars. In addition to working as an intern
four days a week, students participate in an academic course of their choosing and a
leadership forum designed to help them understand the connection between their academic and
professional goals and the special educational opportunities available through living and
working in Washington, DC. Students earn a full semester of academic credit in this domestic
off-campus experience or in the summer 8 credits. Sophomore status and a 2.8 minimum
cumulative GPA is required. U.S. citizenship and a security clearance are required for
appointments at certain government agencies. ​Advisors: Chairs of specific departments and
Campus Liaison: Lange
Collaborative Research Opportunities
Student/faculty collaborative research projects supported by research grants are available for
academic credit during the summer months in departments in the Division of Natural Sciences
and Mathematics. At the conclusion of the summer, student researchers present their findings at
a Summer Research Day and in the fall at the Student Academic Showcase. (See Biology,
Chemistry, Physics above)
Model Programs and Student Conferences
Model United Nations
Site: McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Students interested in learning about the UN have the opportunity to participate in the National
Model UN. Participating increases the students’ awareness of the role, organization, and
performance of the UN. Student delegates participate in the various committees of the UN and
represent a member state. ​Advisor: Shad
Public Leadership Education Network (PLEN)
Site: Washington, DC
Each year the Department of Political Science and the International Studies Program nominate
one or more women to attend the Women & Congress Seminar and the Women and Public
Policy Seminar, organized by PLEN. Participants meet with women in government relations,
observe sessions of the House and Senate or the Supreme Court, visit executive agencies,
meet with representatives of the media and interest groups, and discuss public issues. ​Advisor:
Hopper
West Point Conference On United States Affairs
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Integrative (Experiential) Learning
Site: U.S. Military Academy, West Point, NY
Each fall the Director of the International Studies Program nominates one student to attend the
annual Student Conference on United States Affairs (SCUSA). The conference brings together
undergraduates over three days of roundtables, plenary discussions, and addresses to debate
major issues of American foreign policy. ​Advisor: Wade
Security Council Simulation at Yale
Site: Yale University, Stanford, CT
Each October a small delegation attends the Security Council Simulation. Representing a
member state and sitting on committees of the Security Council, students discuss foreign policy
issues in terms of international law and crisis resolution. The four-day simulation, grounded in
parliamentary procedure and committee structure, is solid preparation for the Model UN
Conference in January. ​Advisor: Shad
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Honor Code
Honor Code By accepting the offer of admission, all students entering Washington College agree to conduct
themselves in accordance with the Washington College Honor Code, College policies, and all
local, state, and federal laws.
The Washington College Honor Code
We at Washington College strive to maintain an environment in which learning and growth
flourish through individuals’ endeavors and honest intellectual exchanges both in and out of the
classroom. To maintain such an environment, each member of the community pledges to
respect the ideas, well-being, and property of others. Thus, each member of the Washington
College community abides by its Honor Code.
The Spirit of The Honor Code
The Washington College Honor Code was established by vote of the faculty and students in
1976 and was studied and reaffirmed in 1987. In 1994 it was redrafted to reflect student and
faculty sentiment that a single code should address both academic and social conduct.
The Washington College Honor Code sets standards for the entire College community. The
intention of the Honor Code is to encourage honest academic achievement and the highest
standard of social conduct in all members of the institution. Those who agree to this honor
system promise to uphold it and abide by it. All students are required to sign the Honor Code
upon enrollment at Washington College, signifying that they have read and understood the
Honor Code, that they are willing to abide by its principles, and that they understand the
penalties they may incur if they violate the Code.
There are two kinds of Honor Code violations: academic and social. A complete description of
the implementation of the Washington College Honor System can be found online in the
Washington College Student Handbook.
The Student Pledge
In support of the spirit of the Honor Code faculty members are expected to have students attach
the following statement (or an abbreviation suggested by the instructor) to any credit-bearing
work: ​“I pledge my word of honor that I have abided by the Washington College Honor Code
while completing this assignment.”
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Courses of
Instruction
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Accounting and Finance
Accounting and Finance Minor Division of Social Sciences
​Department of Business Management
Hui​-Ju Tsai, Co-​director
S. Lansing Williams, Co-​director
The Accounting and Finance minor provides a rigorous, in depth opportunity to study these
in​-demand fields in preparation for employment or further study at the graduate level. The
minor consists of four core courses and four electives. Business Management majors cannot
declare the minor, but can earn a specialization in Accounting and Finance by completing the
same curricular requirements. Elective courses are offered on a rotating basis; please contact
the co​directors of the Accounting and Finance Minor or the chair of the Department of
Business Management to obtain a schedule of course offerings.
Four Core Courses
BUS 109. Managerial Statistics, or MAT 109. Statistics, or equivalent course
ECN 111. Introduction to Macroeconomics, or ECN 112. Introduction to Microeconomics
BUS 112. Introduction to Financial Accounting
BUS 209. Financial Analysis
Four Elective Courses (at least one from each area)
ACCOUNTING AREA
FINANCE AREA
BUS 212. Managerial Accounting
BUS 355. Corporate Finance
BUS 340. Intermediate Accounting
BUS 440. Investments
BUS 341. Income Tax Accounting
BUS 455. Financial Derivatives
BUS 342. Auditing
ECN 411. International Finance
​Special topic elective courses are also offered from time to time.
STUDENT OPPORTUNITIES
​Brown Advisory Student-Managed Investment Fund Program
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Accounting and Finance
Students from any major can participate in the Brown Advisory Student​-Managed Investment
Fund Program and help manage an equity fund valued at hundreds of thousands of dollars.
Under the mentorship of Richard Bookbinder P‘10, founder and manager of TerraVerde
Capital Management and Bookbinder Capital Management, LLC, studentsl learn to analyze
and report on stocks, and then determine trades worth tens of thousands of dollars. The
program includes career preparation, talks by visiting business leaders, and intensive work
over the semester that will help prepare students for a career in the investment field.
Networking events and special opportunities such as attendance at shareholder meetings
allow students to acquire valuable real​ world knowledge.
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American Studies
​American Studies Interdisciplinary Major
Kenneth Miller (History), Director
Richard De Prospo (English)
Alisha Knight (English and American Studies)
Sean R. Meehan (English)
Joseph Prud’homme (Political Science)
Kenneth Schweitzer (Music)
Richard Striner (History)
Aileen Tsui (Art History)
Michele Volansky (Theatre)
Carol Wilson (History)
American Studies explores culture and identity from an interdisciplinary perspective to help
students develop a rich understanding of the American experience. For instance, students
might explore racial and ethnic identity—a central theme in American Studies—in many
different fields, including history classes on slavery or the Civil Rights Movement; literature
classes on the Harlem Renaissance, Irish and Irish-American literature, or Jewish-American
literature; music courses on jazz and American music; or a summer-session archaeology field
school conducting excavations on the Eastern Shore.
Student Opportunities
American Studies students benefit from a close relationship with the C. V. Starr Center for the
Study of the American Experience. The C. V. Starr Center, located in the historic Custom
House on the Chester River in downtown Chestertown, supports student research, hosts
special events, and brings distinguished scholars to Chestertown. The Center also provides
significant funding support for undergraduate research, including Comegys Bight Fellowships,
which fund summer research in American Studies, and Frederick Douglass Fellowships,
which support spring-semester research in African-American studies.
The Curriculum
The major in American Studies requires twelve courses. Four of these are lower-level courses
in two introductory sequences: American Culture and American History. To satisfy the
sequence in American Culture, students must take one course from each of the following lists:
Introduction to American Culture I (AMS 201 cross-listed as ENG 211)
Introduction to American Literature I (AMS 209 cross-listed as ENG 209)
Introduction to African-American Lit I (AMS 213 cross-listed as ENG 213 and BLS 213)
AND
Introduction to American Culture II (AMS 202 cross-listed as ENG 212)
Introduction to American Literature II (AMS 210 cross-listed as
ENG 210)
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American Studies
Introduction to African-American Lit II (AMS 214 cross-listed as ENG 214
and BLS 214)
To satisfy the sequence in American History, students must take both of the following
courses:
History of the United States to 1865 (HIS 201)
History of the United States since 1865 (HIS 202)
Beyond this foundation, the major consists of eight upper-level courses. Two of these are
required: American Studies Colloquium (AMS 300), usually offered in the fall, and the Senior
Capstone Experience Seminar (AMS SCE), usually offered in the spring.
The remaining six required upper-level courses are electives. There is a formal list of
American Studies electives (see below), but students are encouraged to develop an
individualized course of study reflecting their interests and goals. This individualized course of
study may include additional courses (both special topics and regular offerings), as well as
internships, study-abroad experiences, experiential learning, and other programs. The
Program Director and other American Studies faculty will work closely with students to assist
in designing their course of study and preparing them for the Capstone.
Because of the program’s interdisciplinary nature, there is no minor in American
Studies.
Senior Capstone Experience
The American Studies Senior Capstone is an intensive research project guided by a faculty
advisor on a topic of the student’s choice. Students complete the Capstone while enrolled in
the four-credit Senior Capstone Experience (SCE) course in the spring of their senior year.
The Capstone receives a mark of Pass, Fail, or Honors. Double majors are encouraged to
develop Capstones that integrate their majors. Since this requires consultation and
cooperation between departments and faculty advisors, double majors should discuss the
possibility of an integrated capstone in their junior year.
Course Descriptions
209 (ENG 209). Introduction to American Literature I
Taught in the fall semester, the course is concerned with the establishment of American
Literature as a school subject. Texts that have achieved the status of “classics” of American
Literature, such as Hawthorne’s ​The Scarlet Letter​, Thoreau’s ​Walden​, and Mark Twain’s ​The
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn​, will be read in the context of the history and politics of their
achieving this status. Texts traditionally excluded from the canon of American literature, in
particular early Hispano- and Franco-American texts, will be considered in the context of their
relative marginality to the project of establishing American Literature in the American
academy. Other-than-written materials, such as modern cinematic representations of the
period of exploration and colonization of North America, as well as British colonial portraits
and history paintings, will be studied for how they reflect on claims for the cultural
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independence of early America. Other-than-American materials, such as late medieval and
early Renaissance Flemish and Hispanic still lifes, as well as the works of nineteenth-century
European romantic poets and prose writers, will be sampled for how they reflect on claims for
the exceptional character of American culture.
210 (ENG 210). Introduction to American Literature II
Taught in the spring semester, the course is concerned with the establishment of American
Studies as a curriculum in post-World War II American colleges and universities. Readings will
include a variety of written texts, including those not traditionally considered “literary,” as well
as a variety of other-than-written materials, including popular cultural ones. Introductions to
the modern phenomena of race, gender, sexual orientation, and generation in U.S. culture will
be included. A comparatist perspective on the influence of American culture internationally,
and a review of the international American Studies movement in foreign universities will also
be introduced.
213 (ENG 213). Introduction to African American Literature I
This course is a survey of African American literature produced from the late 1700s to the
Harlem Renaissance. It is designed to introduce students to the writers, texts, themes,
conventions and tropes that have shaped the African American literary tradition. Authors
studied in this course include Phillis Wheatley, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Jacobs, William
Wells Brown, Frances E. W. Harper, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Nella Larsen and Langston
Hughes.
214 (ENG 214). Introduction to African American Literature II
This course surveys African American authors from the Harlem Renaissance to the present. It
is designed to expose students to the writers, texts, themes, and literary conventions that
have shaped the African American literary canon since the Harlem Renaissance. Authors
studied in this course include Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, Gwendolyn
Brooks, James Baldwin, and Toni Morrison.
​300. American Studies Colloquium
Topics vary. The colloquium is often taught as a film course. Usually taught in the
fall.
190, 290, 390, 490. Internships
194, 294, 394, 494. Special topics
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus research
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus research
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
The Senior Capstone Experience (SCE) is a spring seminar for seniors completing their
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capstones. It includes sessions on research methods, organization, visual display of
information, writing, and electronic publication.
American Studies Elective in the Humanities
ART 322. The Arts in America
THE 306. Theater and Drama: American Musical Theater
THE 308. After Angels: American Theater since 1992
ENG 341. Native American Literature
ENG 343. American Short Story
ENG 344. The American Novel
ENG 345. The African-American Novel
ENG 346. The Postmodern American Novel
ENG 347. American Environmental Writing
ENG 360. The Literature of the European Colonies of North America and of the
Early U.S.
ENG 361. Literary Romanticism in the U.S. I
ENG 362. Literary Romanticism in the U.S. II
ENG 363. The Gilded Age and American Realism
ENG 370. The Harlem Renaissance
ENG 371. Faulkner and Modernism in the United States
ENG 372. American Poetry Since 1945
ENG 373. American Fiction Since 1945
ENG 374. Main Divisions in American Culture: Race, Gender, Sexual Preference,
Generation, Class
ENG 375. Body Language: Representation and Transgression from Dreiser and Chopin
through Baker and Easton Ellis
ENG 376. Culture of the Old/Cultures of the Young
ENG 377. 2PACalypse Now! The Cult of Heart of Darkness among White Male
Anglophone Intellectuals
ENG 409, 410. Special Topics in American Literature
MUS 206. Jazz History
MUS 303. American Music
* Additional “special topics” courses offered regularly by these departments
American Studies Elective in the Social Sciences
ANT 137. Cultures and Environments of the Chesapeake
ANT 208. Archaeological Method
ANT 296. Archaeological Field School
ANT 474. Historic Preservation and Cultural Resource Management
ECN 312. Public Finance: Theory and Policy
EDU 251. Principles of Education
EDU 354. Literature for Children, K-8
HIS 313. Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century America
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HIS 315. The Early Republic
HIS 319. African-American History
HIS 334. American Civil War
HIS 335. Reconstruction and the Gilded Age
HIS 336. Progressivism and the Twenties
HIS 337. The New Deal and World War II
HIS 338. The United States Since 1945
HIS 342. Victorian America
HIS 343. History of American Women
HIS 344. Hollywood Films in the Depression and World War II
HIS 414. Comparative Cultural Encounters
HIS 494. Selected Topics in American History
POL 311. Congress and the Legislative Process
POL 312. The American Presidency
POL 313. Elections and the Political Process
POL 317. State and Local Politics
POL 320. Law and Society
POL 321. Women and Politics
POL 323. Constitutional Law
POL 324. American Political Thought
POL 334. Media and Politics
POL 380. American Foreign Policy
SOC 351. Religion in the United States
* Additional “special topics” courses offered regularly by these departments
American Studies Elective in the Natural Sciences
ENV 109. Introduction to GIS
ENV 490. GIS Internship
Other courses, including special topics and regular catalog offerings, may also be used as
electives. Students should consult with the program director to plan their course of study.
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Anthropology
Anthropology Division of Social Sciences
Bill Schindler, Chair
Stewart Bruce
Chuck Fithian
Aaron Lampman
Julie Markin
Ken Schweitzer
Elizabeth Seidel
John L. Seidel
Mark Wiest
The anthropology major provides students with the knowledge to understand the complexities of
human behavior in the past and present and the practical skills to conduct rigorous research into
the environmental and social forces that influence human cultural development across the
globe. The major provides students with multiple perspectives for solving theoretical and
practical issues through courses in the subfields of sociocultural anthropology, archaeology,
linguistics, and biological anthropology. Students graduate with a broad understanding of
human evolution and adaptation, changes in food and technology, the rise of civilizations and
urban life, how language shapes worldviews, the diversity of cultural belief systems, and the
human consequences of globalization. Trained in data collection and analysis, critical thinking,
persuasive writing, and professional presentation, anthropology graduates find employment
opportunities in business, national and international government agencies, NGOs, museums,
and academia. Recent graduates have continued postgraduate work in anthropology and have
found careers in geospatial intelligence, foreign service, sociocultural data analysis,
international health and medicine, cultural tourism, grant writing, political analysis, international
education, law, social justice, journalism, and environmental advocacy. We often have
assistantships and internships available to students interested in geographic information
systems, cultural resource management in archaeology, and historic preservation. We offer a
summer field school in archaeology and educational-experiential programs in Tanzania,
Denmark, and the American Southwest, and Cuba. We also offer an interdisciplinary minor in
ethnomusicology with the Music Department.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ANTHROPOLOGY MAJOR
Core Courses (take all five)
ANT 105
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
ANT 107
Introduction to Environmental Archaeology
ANT 208
Archaeological Method
ANT 305
Ethnographic Method
ANT 405
Junior Seminar
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Foundational Courses (take at least three of the following courses, one at the 200 level,
two at the 300 level or above)
ANT 215
Sex, Gender, and Culture
ANT 234
Human Evolution and Biological Anthropology
ANT 300
Language & Culture
ANT 320
Race and Ethnicity
ANT 374
North American Indians
ANT 312
Contemporary Issues in Archaeology
ANT 402
Anthropology of Food
ANT 420
Media and Power
Applied Courses (take at least one)
ANT 210
Intermediate Geographic Information Systems
ANT 282
Experimental Archaeology
ANT 306
Marine Archaeology
ANT 313
Ethnomusicology of Latin America
ANT 415
Cultural Ecology
ANT 474
Historic Preservation and CRM
ANT 294 and ANT 394 Special Topics courses as approved by the Chair
Elective Courses (take at least one)
ANT 104
Introduction to World Music and Ethnomusicology
ANT 137
Cultures and Environments of the Chesapeake
ANT 280
Traditional Ecological Knowledge
ANT 235
Cultures of Latin America
ANT 354
Visual Anthropology
ANT 294 and ANT 394 Special Topics courses as approved by the Chair
Field Application or Practical Learning Courses (take at least one)
CRS 242
Society and Estuary (note CRS 242 is taken as part of the Chesapeake
Semester)
ANT 394
Cultures and Environments of the Southwest
ANT 396
Archaeology Field and Laboratory Methods
ANT 329
Cuba Music and Culture
ANT 394
Interpreting the Past
ANT 394
Tanzania Seminar
Semester-long study abroad
Other courses as approved by the Chair
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The Senior Capstone Experience
The Senior Capstone Experience integrates the theoretical knowledge and practical skills that
students have acquired throughout their undergraduate years, not only within the major, but also
across the liberal arts and sciences. The Capstone Experience is an independent research
project, on an anthropological topic of the student’s choosing, undertaken with the close
guidance of a faculty thesis advisor. Thesis proposals are typically developed during the spring
of the third year in the Anthropology Seminar. Course credit for this senior thesis project is
awarded through registration, in the fall or spring semester of the senior year, for ANT SCE.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ANTHROPOLOGY MINOR
Six courses, including Anthropology 105, 107, and either 208 or 305, plus three additional
anthropology courses (CRS 242 may count as an Anthropology elective).
The Distribution Requirement in Social Science
May be satisfied by taking ANT 105 and ANT 107.
To satisfy the requirement of a third (unpaired) course for social science distribution, students
may take Anthropology 105 or Anthropology 107.
ETHNOMUSICOLOGY MINOR
Using music as an entry into a variety of cultures, social classes, and populations, the
ethnomusicology minor offers a unique opportunity for students interested in both anthropology
and music. Ethnomusicologists take a global, interdisciplinary approach to the study of music
and seek to understand music as a social practice, viewing music as a human activity that is
shaped by its cultural context. Students who study ethnomusicology have a global outlook, are
critical thinkers, and are better able to appreciate the cultural and aesthetic diversity of the world
and communicate in ways that are ethically sensitive.
The minor in ethnomusicology is 23 credits and is open to students in all subject areas,
including anthropology, and there is no expectation that you have prior experience as a
musician. ​ ​None of the 4-credit classroom courses in the minor presume an ability to read music
notation, and the required 1-credit ensembles can be taken in subjects that do not assume prior
ability to read music. To ensure that anthropology students take this opportunity to expand their
knowledge in a supplemental area, anthropology majors who minor in ethnomusicology will
have to observe the following guidelines: (1) they may only double count 2 courses between
the ANT major and the Ethnomusicology minor, and (2) at least 2 of the electives must have a
MUS designation. Students will not be permitted to minor in both anthropology and
ethnomusicology simultaneously. For more information and a full list of requirements, see the
catalog entry ETHNOMUSICOLOGY.
Courses In Anthropology
ANT 105. Introduction to Anthropology
The study of human diversity with emphasis on cultural anthropology. Topics include the
anthropological perspective, resources of culture, organization of material life, systems of
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relationships and global forms of inequality. The course examines how anthropologists apply
their skills to solve contemporary human social problems. Basic ethnographic interviewing skills.
Introduction to ethnography.
ANT 107. Introduction to Environmental Archaeology
Exploration of the variety of past human societies and cultures through archaeology, with an
emphasis upon the interplay between environment and culture. The course covers a wide time
span, from the biological evolution of hominids and the origins of culture to the development of
complex civilizations and the more recent historical past.
ANT 109. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be found throughout our modern society. Programs
such as MapQuest and Google Earth have brought this technology into the lives of many
citizens of our world. More advanced software systems such as ArcGIS are being used in
academia, business, and government to manage large datasets of spatially-linked information
and provide the users with powerful analytic tools. The course lectures will review the
fundamental theories of GIS and will also focus on the various organizational and ethical issues
that impact the implementation and sustainability of GIS in our society. The lab portion of the
course will teach the student how to operate the ArcGIS ArcView Desktop software product.
Objectives for both the course lecture and lab section have been listed below. Introduction to
GIS will be taught as a blended course, which means that online content will be used to
supplement the course. The online content will not replace the traditional lecture and lab
components of the course, but is instead meant to enhance the content, and allow for materials
to be available outside of class time. Content will be reviewed prior to attending class, which will
provide time for discussion, clarification, and problem solving during class time. All course
materials along with lab assignments, quizzes, and exams will be managed in our innovative
Moodle virtual learning environment. There will be little paper handed out or turned in during this
class. You will receive a special user name and password to access Moodle.
ANT 137. Cultures and Environments of the Chesapeake
An examination of prehistoric and historic societies in the Chesapeake Region. Archaeological,
historical, and environmental evidence is used to understand cultural development and the
relationships between people and their environment. Topics include the arrival of humans in the
region, Native American groups, colonial settlement in the Tidewater, and the 19th Century.
(Also ENV 237)
ANT 194. Introductory Topics in Anthropology
Topics vary.
ANT 208. Archaeological Method
An examination of the methods of archaeology and theoretical perspectives. Course topics
include research design, site surveys, remote sending technology, excavation techniques,
dating methods, the analysis of material culture, and theory building. Students will be involved in
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exploration and research using the wide variety of resources available in the region, including
local excavations, local and regional archives, and museum collections. ​Prerequisite:
Anthropology 107.
ANT 210. Intermediate Geographic Information Systems
This second course in geographic information systems builds upon the theories discussed in
Introduction to Geographic Information Systems, and focuses on the more technical aspects of
GIS. Laboratory activities teach the student to use more advanced functions of GIS software,
and the fundamentals of advanced GIS analysis and display programs. The student will also
learn to operate a precision GPS field data collector. ​Prerequisite: Anthropology 109.
ANT 215. Sex, Gender, and Culture
The study of the biological differences of sex in relationship to the cultural construction of
gender. The importance of modes of production and ideology in forming gender concepts for all
human societies. Cross-cultural issues of gender identity, roles, relationships, and equality or
inequality. ​Prerequisite: Anthropology 105.
ANT 234. Human Evolution and Biological Anthropology
This course will utilize a holistic approach to explore the evolution of the human species.
Students will learn the basics of evolutionary theory, biology, and fossil and archaeological
evidence through lectures, discussion, readings, videos and hands-on learning. This course is
divided into three main sections titled: (a) how evolution works, (b) the history of the human
lineage, and (c) evolution, technology, and modern humans.
ANT 235. Cultures of Latin America
Prehistory of the Americas and survey of indigenous cultures in Latin America today
(Mesoamerica, the Andean countries and the Amazonian countries). Introduction to
environmental anthropology and applications to environmental issues. ​Prerequisite:
Anthropology 105 or permission of the instructor. Interested students who have a background in
history, political science, Spanish or international studies are encouraged to seek the instructors
permission.
ANT 280. Traditional Ecological Knowledge
This course introduces students to the anthropological study of indigenous peoples and how
they respond to the forces of globalization. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) refers to
the knowledge base acquired by indigenous and local peoples over many hundreds of years
through direct contact with the environment. It includes nomenclature, classification, beliefs,
rituals, technology, environmental management strategies and worldviews—all of which have
helped shape environments for millennia. This course explores these different forms of
knowledge and poses a series of questions about their importance and use, such as: How is
globalization affecting TEK? Who possesses TEK? Who “owns” TEK? Should the owners of
TEK be compensated for their knowledge? Does TEK promote sustainability? Can nation-states
utilize TEK? What are the impacts on indigenous groups when TEK is “promoted”? How can
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traditional knowledge of the natural world be responsibly and ethically collected, studied and
applied in modern medicine and global commerce?
ANT 282. Primitive Technology and Experimental Archaeology
Students in this course are exposed to the field of experimental archaeology and gain an
appreciation for the valuable contribution it can make to our understanding of the past.
Students will explore various primitive technologies utilized throughout prehistory. These
technologies were not only crucial to the survival of our ancestors but also played an important
role in the development of culture. A holistic, project based learning approach will be utilized
during the semester, which includes lectures, discussions, reading, hands-on learning,
self-reflection, and group work. ​Prerequisite or Corequisite: Anthropology 107, or permission of
instructor.
ANT 294. Special Topics in Anthropology
Contents vary. ​Prerequisite: Anthropology 105 or 107, or permission of instructor.
ANT 296. Archaeological Field School
An introduction to archaeological fieldwork methods and to the theoretical concerns of
anthropological archaeology. includes participation in archaeological survey and excavation as
well as lectures, readings, and writing assignments. It typically is a six-week summer program,
with a minimum obligation of 20 hours per week. ​Prerequisites: Anthropology 105, Anthropology
107 or History 201; or permission of instructor. May be repeated once for credit.
ANT 300. Language and Culture
This course will introduce the student to the study of linguistics. Concepts of both historical and
descriptive linguistics are included. Some of the areas of study are: linguistic history and
methodology, language origin, language and society, language structure, dialects and language
families. The course is open to all students.
ANT 305. Ethnographic Method
Introduction to cultural anthropological field methods and the writing of ethnographies. Students
practice skills of observation, participation, reflection, mapping, selection of informants,
ethnographic interviewing, analysis, proposal writing, and ethnographic writing. Each student
researches a cultural scene in the Chesapeake region and writes an ethnography. ​Prerequisite:
Anthropology 105.
ANT 306. Marine Archaeology
Introduction to underwater archaeology. Gives students an overview of the history and methods
of the field. In addition to class activities, students will be involved in practical exercises such as
mapping and data analysis; field trips, including remote sensing work on the College’s workboat
and visits to historic vessels; and outside lectures on marine history and archaeology. A basic
understanding of archaeological method and theory is useful for the course. ​Prerequisite:
previous archaeological coursework or permission of instructor.
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ANT 312. Contemporary Issues in Archaeology
In the absence of written records, archaeology plays a critical role in answering questions about
how past peoples interacted (trade, warfare) and were organized socially and politically (gender,
elites, priests). However, reconstructing past lifeways based on material remains poses unique
problems. Through class discussions and independent research, students will explore current
technical and ethical issues. Topics include the assessment of gender and children; the utility of
remote sensing techniques; collaboration between archaeologists and indigenous groups; the
ethics of museum display; and the illicit antiquities trade. ​Prerequisite: Anthropology 107.
ANT 320. Race and Ethnicity
The dangers of using the concept “race.” Focus on the cultural construction of ethnic, racial, and
national identities in the contexts of immigration, colonialism, nationalism, and globalization.
Symbols of ethnic identity, stereotyping, style, tactics of choice, situational ethnicity.
Prerequisite: Anthropology 105.
ANT 354. Visual Anthropology
The goal of visual anthropology is to immerse students in the study and production of
ethnographic media and documentary film. We will begin by exploring the varied genres of
historical anthropological documentary which range from salvage ethnography to ethnofiction
and include more recent attempts to empower cultures by encouraging them to visually capture
their own unique social, political and expressive worldviews. We will also examine and critique
other cultural forms of visual media ranging from film and photography to petroglyphs and
tattoos. Once we have an understanding of the varied approaches to media production,
students will engage in the creative process of developing an idea for an ethnographic film,
storyboarding, shooting film, and editing complete ethnographic documentaries. ​Prerequisite:
Anthropology 105
ANT 374. North American Indians
Although pre-Columbian North America did not see the rising and falling of states that unified
people through a single language or economy, it is extraordinarily rich in histories. The
archaeology of North America aims to understand the diversity of histories lived by peoples from
the Atlantic to Alaska, from the Plains to the Bayou, from nomadic hunting and gathering groups
to large-scale horticulturalists. We will explore the human experience on the continent north of
Mexico from the first footsteps on the continent to the impact of European contact to the
relationship between archaeologists and American Indians today. By the end of this course, you
will have an understanding of the history of archaeology in North America and the diverse
prehistoric Native American cultures. You will have a good handle on the issues faced by and
methods utilized in reconstructing past settlement patterns, subsistence strategies, religious
practices and social and political organization.
ANT 394, 494. Special Topics in Anthropology
Contents vary. ​Prerequisite: two prior anthropology courses.
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ANT 402. Anthropology of Food
The manner in which we select, prepare, and consume food is based upon culturally transmitted
notions of taste, nutrition, social regulations, and religious meaning. The meaning of food is
closely aligned with all aspects of our culture and the food choices we make are linked to our
identity. This course will use food, and the many ways in which people utilize food for nutritional
and cultural purposes, to better understand different societies throughout time and place. Armed
with a grounding in anthropological theory and informed through an understanding of the
prehistory and history of foodways, students will learn to contextualize modern food systems
throughout the world. Then, through hands-on, project-based learning students will build upon
what they learned from other cultures through time to explore many of the healthy and
sustainable alternatives to the modern western diet. ​Prerequisite: Anthropology 107
ANT 405. Seminar in Anthropology
Discussion of significant contemporary issues in anthropology. Application of anthropology to
ethical issues and careers. Familiarity with professional literature and professional style guides.
Research design and location and assessment of source materials. Grant writing and research.
Exploration of careers and higher studies in anthropology. Required course for anthropology
majors and minors. Should be taken in the spring semester of junior year.
ANT 415. Cultural Ecology
This course focuses on the human-environment relationship and the state of world ecosystems
resulting from this interaction across space and time. The course is focused on four paradigms
central to the anthropological understanding of the human-environment relation. The first
focuses on fundamental human-ecological principles; the second on the ecological dynamics of
foraging and domestication; the third on indigenous ecological knowledge and
community-based conservation, and the fourth on new approaches in human ecology.
Prerequisite: Anthropology 105
ANT 420. Media and Power
By investigating the idea that what we view and express regarding cultural identity and cultural
difference is artificial, we can see that popular entertainment, global news broadcasts,
monuments and museums, and the internet might be doing more than merely “capturing,”
“reporting,” or “exhibiting.” Understanding this, we can uncover something more about how
representations are created, how they have been manipulated historically to oppress or devalue
certain groups, and how they can be contested. Knowing that images are constructed and not
real, we can turn our focus to how people can reclaim their identities and thus their own power
through revising or even appropriating the representations that have been made of them.
Prerequisite: Anthropology 105
ANT 474. Historic Preservation and Cultural Resource Management
Provides a comprehensive overview of historic preservation and cultural resource management
as practiced in the United States. Examines the history of the preservation movement, the role
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of preservation in American culture, and the legislative framework for historic preservation.
Reviews the growing field of cultural resource management, looking at issues in architectural
design, contract or “salvage” archaeology, and heritage tourism. ​Prerequisite: 200-level
coursework in archaeology or American history, or permission of instructor.
ANT 290, ANT 390, ANT 490. Anthropology Internship
The department encourages students with prior courses in anthropology to develop, with a
member of the department, internship opportunities. Students interested in pursuing internships
should read “Internships And Other Opportunities” in this ​Catalog​. In addition to the
requirements listed there, interns should expect to write a paper describing their experiences, as
relevant to anthropology, and connected to a reading list to be developed and agreed upon by
the intern and the supervising faculty member.
ANT 297, ANT 397, ANT 497. Independent Study
Junior and senior students with a strong interest and background in anthropology may, working
with a faculty member in the department, develop either a research project or a course of study
in order to pursue a subject or topic within the discipline not a covered by the department’s
regular offerings. The student and faculty member will agree upon a reading list, and either a
formal research project or a substantial paper. The student should expect to meet regularly with
his or her instructor to demonstrate progress in, and knowledge of, the readings; and to discuss,
and to receive guidance on the project or paper. (Note that students may not use independent
study courses to gain academic credit for work on their Senior Theses).
ANT 295, ANT 395, ANT 495. On-campus Research
ANT 396, ANT 496. Off-campus Research
ANT SCE. Anthropology Senior Capstone Experience
The anthropology senior capstone experience is a significant piece of independent research
experience in the form of a thesis or project undertaken by each senior with the guidance and
mentorship of a department faculty member. All senior capstone experiences must include
anthropological methods and theory. A student who successfully completes the SCE will receive
a grade of Pass or Honors, and will be awarded 4 credits. A more extensive description of the
SCE is available from the department chair. Discussion of a joint thesis, undertaken by a
student with two majors, can be found in the Academic Program section of the catalog.
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Art and Art History
Art and Art History Division of Humanities and Fine Arts
Heather Harvey, Chair
Fatma Talaat Ismail
Katherine Markoski
Benjamin Tilghman
Aileen Tsui
Renee van der Stelt
Julie Wills
Washington College has a long and inspired tradition in the visual arts. Elizabeth Callister Peale
and her sister, Sarah, taught drawing and painting here in the 1780s—perhaps the first women
to teach at any institution of higher learning in North America. In the middle part of this century,
one of our graduates, Anthony Kloman, was a prime mover at the Institute for Contemporary
Arts, London, behind an extraordinary yet ultimately unsuccessful competition for a monument
to the Unknown Political Prisoner, the winning maquette for which, selected from some 2700
entries from 57 countries, survives in the Tate Modern. More recently, we had a special
relationship with the South-African photographer Constance Stuart Larrabee, whose name
adorns our studio facility, and whose work, a corpus of which she bequeathed to the College,
hangs, among other places, in the Smithsonian National Museum of African Art.
At a time when images shape our lives in ways hard to imagine even a decade ago, and
neuroscientists and evolutionary biologists are plumbing the ways in which image-making is
thought to make us uniquely “human,” we in the Department of Art and Art History try continually
to map the relations between thinking and making, to contemplate the role of the beautiful--yes,
the beautiful, which, in the work of certain aestheticians has again been linked to ideals of social
justice--and to live up to the ideal set forth in the Renaissance, that image-making at its best (at
that time, painting) is, in fact, the eighth liberal art, in dialogue with, and building on, the other
seven: logic, rhetoric, grammar, music, astronomy, geometry and arithmetic.
The student interested primarily in the study of visual cultures, past and present, is given the
tools for historical analysis and a theoretical grounding in the discipline of art history, as well as
some understanding of techniques and concepts of current studio practice. The student
concentrating in studio art, in turn, benefits from the perspective of those artists who came
before her/himself, by taking both introductory and advanced courses in art history, and learning
something of the traditions of which she/he is--or is not--a part, in addition to immersing
herself/himself in contemporary visual culture.
Whatever one’s interest, the major is structured to serve as an intellectual base from which the
student can make connections across disciplines, as she/he seeks to understand, criticize, and
engage our world, and especially the role of the visual in it—from study of works of art in
museums, to the images scientists use to model our bodies and cosmos. In fact, many of our
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majors complete an additional major while here, in fields ranging from anthropology, English,
and political science, to business, biology, psychology, and mathematics.
The curriculum throughout is integrated with a vigorous complement of internships, study
abroad programs, exhibitions, public lectures and classroom visits by leading artists, critics,
historians and curators, as well as regular departmental field trips to galleries and museums in
Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Washington, DC.
A highlight of the academic year is the Janson-La Palme Distinguished Lecture in European Art
History. Endowed by Washington College Professor of Art History Emeritus Robert J.H.
Janson-La Palme and his wife, Bayly, this series “brings internationally known scholars of
European Art to campus for public lectures and presentations.” Among those who have
delivered the Janson-La Palme lecture in recent years are Earl A. Powell III (National Gallery of
Art), Thomas Crow (New York University), Martin Kemp (Oxford University), Mariët Westermann
(Andrew W. Mellon Foundation), and Joseph Koerner (Harvard University).
We also have the advantage of having a new, secure and climate-controlled art gallery on
campus, Kohl Gallery. ​Kohl Gallery fosters the study and understanding of art through a diverse
range of exhibitions and public programs. Embracing its liberal arts context, Kohl endeavors to
present fresh perspectives on historical and contemporary art and to promote interdisciplinary
conversations about historical, social, and cultural issues of significance to the community of
Washington College, Chestertown, and beyond.
In recent years our majors have been admitted to post-baccalaureate programs at such
institutions as Parsons School of Art and Design, New York; Christie’s, London; Maryland
Institute College of Art; University of Maryland, College Park; University of Iowa; University of
Virginia; University of Pennsylvania; University of Texas, Austin; Fashion Institute of
Technology, San Francisco; University of St. Andrews, Scotland; University of Glasgow,
Scotland; and the Courtauld Institute of Art, London. They have flourished in many other fields
beyond studio art and art history as well, including teaching, medicine, business, and law, and,
perhaps most important (and this is true of the former group as well), continue to learn
throughout their lives, and make significant contributions to their families, communities and the
larger worlds of which they are a part.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ART AND ART HISTORY MAJOR
Fulfillment of the major requires ten 4-credit courses (plus the not-for-credit Senior Seminars in
Fall and Spring of senior year for studio majors only). ​All majors are required to take ART 200
and either ART 251 or one of the Intermedia studio courses; both introductory courses are
recommended in the first year. Beyond the two introductory-level courses, six additional Art or
Art History courses are required. These eight required courses do not include the further
requirements described below for each concentration.
Studio Art Concentration:​ ​Students who plan to major in Art and Art History with a
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concentration in Studio should be aware that many upper-level studio courses have
pre-requisites that include ART 251 or any Intermedia studio course. At least one of the six
additional Art or Art History courses referenced above must be a 300- or 400-level studio
course, and at least two must be 300- or 400-level Art History courses. Studio students are
encouraged to take more than one upper-level studio course and strongly encouraged to take a
class in the history of contemporary or twentieth-century art by their sophomore year.
In addition to the eight required courses described above, studio majors are also required to
take: 1. Contemporary Practices: Junior Seminar in Spring of junior year (4 cr), 2. Both Studio
Art Senior Seminars in Fall and Spring of senior year (0 cr), and 3. SCE Studio Senior Capstone
Experience in Spring of senior year (4 cr).
Art History Concentration​: ​In addition to the eight required courses described above, students
who plan to major in Art and Art History with a concentration in Art History are also required to
take 1. Junior Seminar: Methods and Theories of Art History, preferably in Spring of junior year
(4 cr), and 2. SCE Art History Senior Capstone Experience in Spring of senior year (4 cr).
Students concentrating in Art History are also encouraged to develop facility in a foreign
language, to participate in the College’s Study Abroad Programs, and to intern in the College’s
Kohl Gallery.
Senior Capstone Experience (SCE)
SCE for the Art History Concentration​: ​Either a comprehensive examination or, in the case of
those who have earned a cumulative grade point average of 3.5 or higher in the major, an art
history thesis, or curating an exhibition of works of art or other artifacts. For more details, please
download the relevant document from the Department’s website.
SCE for the Studio Concentration​: ​An approved year-long studio research project, successful
completion of which will demonstrate not only extensive knowledge of the medium or media
involved, but more importantly, the ability to think critically, conduct research, and produce
independently a substantial body of work. The final culminating requirement of the SCE is a
spring exhibition conceived and produced throughout fall and spring of senior year. Students
whose senior seminar work fails to meet standards for the public exhibition will be asked to
complete an alternate visual and written thesis that does not include a final exhibition
component.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ART AND ART HISTORY MINOR
For the minor, five courses are required: ART 200; either ART 251 or any Intermedia studio art
course; and any three additional studio art and/or art history classes.
COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
200. Introduction to History of Western Art
A careful discussion and analysis of a selection of significant topics in the history of Western art
from the earliest times to our own century. Emphasis is placed on the methods and approaches
of the art historian. The term paper is written on a museum object or objects. Required of all
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majors.
231. Creative Process
In this course students learn how to develop an idea over time. Students are expected to focus
on one concept and develop it more fully each week as the semester progresses. All media and
art forms are acceptable, including the written word, video, performance, painting, photography,
sound, construction, etc. Though centered upon the student and their ability to be objective
about their work, it also demands they help others to see the values, problems, and potentials in
their work. Thoughtful class participation in the form of discussion during weekly presentations
and critiques is expected from each student. ​Prerequisite: 1 course of Studio Art, Music,
Theatre or Creative Writing or permission of the instructor.
241. Environmental/Public Art
This course introduces students to the basic concepts of environmental and public art through
team projects in the field and studio. Students concentrate on the development of one artwork
created at Stepne Manor, a 77-acre farm owned by Washington College and adjacent to the
College’s waterfront campus. The curriculum centers on the production of a site specific work
created by students working in two-person teams. Students regularly engage in class
discussions about the projects being pursued by its participants, readings, screenings, and
research papers directed toward the work of specific artists. ​Prerequisite: 1 course of Studio Art
or permission of the instructor.
245. Photography
This course serves as an introduction to digital photography, with emphasis on basic camera
skills and understanding photographic imagery and processes.
251. Visual & Critical Thinking
This course is an introduction to a rigorous investigation of conceptual, technical, and critical
skills common to diverse areas of creative production. The curriculum is interdisciplinary and
designed to emphasize the development of studio fundamentals, through technical practice and
conceptual thinking. Basic visual design principles are covered, while contemporary and
historical examples are presented through lectures and applied to studio problems.
261. Intermedia_D
This course explores the theories and concepts of drawing from a contemporary perspective.
The curriculum, while focusing on basic skills and concepts of drawing, is interdisciplinary in
nature. In addition to drawing fundamentals, the course will place emphasis on connecting
conceptual thinking to one’s broader creative practice. Contemporary and historical examples of
artists working within such
a creative practice are covered through lectures and screenings.
271. Intermedia_P
This course will focus on the fundamentals of painting in form, concept and technique. The
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curriculum introduces the basic skills and theories as they pertain to a contemporary painting
practice, while exploring interdisciplinary applications of the medium. Basic materials and
processes are covered in facilitating students to move from concept to completed work, so as to
form an understanding as to how painting positions itself within the world. Relevant examples of
artists and their works are provided in the form of lectures, screenings, and readings.
281. Intermedia_S
This course introduces the methodologies and concerns consistent with the creation of
sculptural works of art. Drawing upon the basic skills, processes, and concepts of working with
three dimensional forms, the curriculum examines the expansiveness of sculpture’s inherently
interdisciplinary definition. In addition to sculpture fundamentals the course engages the critical
and theoretical concepts as they pertain to the relationships between meaning and making.
Artists whose works exemplify historical and contemporary approaches are examined through
lectures, screenings, and readings.
Art 291. Intermedia_VNM
This course introduces students to an interdisciplinary grounding in the techniques, concepts,
and empirical experiences they will need to engage video and new media technologies in the
making of art. Students develop the necessary conceptual and technical grounding to engage
the creation of imagery through digital means by studying various video and computer imaging
strategies. Contemporary artists working in the mediums of video and new media are examined
through lectures and screenings.
311. Italian Renaissance Art
After discussion of the special historic-cultural conditions that made the Italian city-state
possible, the greatest painters and sculptors of Florence and Venice will be examined. Giotto,
Michelangelo, Leonardo, Donatello, Botticelli, and Bellini are some of the major figures of the
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries to be included. Field trip to the National Gallery of Art.
Prerequisite: Art 200 or permission of instructor.
315. Northern Renaissance Art
Painting and the graphic arts in Germany and the Low Countries during the fifteenth through the
seventeenth centuries, with special emphasis on Van Eyck, Dürer, Bosch, Brueghel, Rubens,
Rembrandt, and Vermeer. Field trip to the National Gallery of Art. ​Prerequisite: Art 200 or
permission of instructor.
316. European Art from the Baroque to Neoclassicism
Covers the seventeenth-century grand manner in Italy, France, Spain, and England, followed by
the rococo and finally the austere style of revolution in the late eighteenth century. Caravaggio,
Bernini, Poussin, Velazquez, and Gainsborough are a few of the principal artists. ​Prerequisite:
Art 200 or permission of instructor.
318. Nineteenth-Century European Art
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Starting with Romanticism, the course gives intensive coverage to the major nineteenth-century
movements in European art. The art of the period is seen in its cultural context with special
reference to literature and to social conditions. Field trip to the National Gallery of Art.
Prerequisite: Art 200 or permission of instructor.
320. Twentieth-Century Art
This course discusses major artistic developments and key figures in twentieth-century art from
Matisse and Picasso into the twenty-first century. The emergence of abstraction, the historical
position of the avant-garde, and theories of visual modernism are among the themes discussed
in the course. Field trips to Philadelphia and Washington museums. ​Prerequisite: Art 200 or
permission of instructor.
322. The Arts in America
Although the course sketches in the art of the early colonies, its main body begins at the period
of the American Revolution. Lectures and discussion explore the changing significance of the
visual arts in American life and culture through the 1930s. Field trips to museums in
Washington. ​Prerequisite: Art 200 or permission of instructor. This course is cross-listed under
American Studies.
324. Photography’s First Century
This course examines historical developments in photography from the 1830s to the 1920s,
from the medium’s inception through early modernism. Lectures and discussion will consider
topics at issue in debates about photography’s place in the history of art, such as changing
attitudes toward photography’s dual role as aesthetic creation and as documentary artifact.
Prerequisite: Art 200 or permission of instructor.
327. Washington Center Internship
A full-time, semester-long internship in Washington, DC, with a federal government agency,
museum or gallery, or the like. The student must develop a substantial portfolio as part of their
internship experience. ​Prerequisite: ART 200, a cumulative GPA of 2.8, permission of an
instructor, and successful application to The Washington Center for internships and Academic
Seminars. This course is normally open only to juniors and seniors. 12 credits. The internship
package of Art 327, 328, and 329 will yield 16 credits towards graduation and 8 credits toward
the art major or minor.
328. Washington Center Seminar
Washington Center Interns participate in an evening seminar selected from a variety of topics
offered during the semester concerned. Students engage in class discussion, and may also be
required to research seminar topics, prepare written assignments, and take examinations.
Required of and limited to students enrolled in Art 327. Three credits.
329. Washington Center Forum
Washington Center Interns participate in lectures, site visits, small group discussions, briefings,
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and other required events, designed to help them understand the connection between their
academic and professional goals and the special educational opportunities available through
living and working in Washington, DC. Evaluations of these experiences are included in the
student portfolio. Required of and limited to students enrolled in Art 327. 1 credit.
330. Video Intensive
This course examines video as a medium for artistic expression and inquiry. The curriculum
engages students in an exploration of the video-making process and develops technical skills
associated with relevant video equipment. Methodologies for the use of video as an art-making
tool are explored, while contemporary and historical examples of works within the medium are
presented through screenings. ​Prerequisite: ART 291 or permission of the instructor.
335. New Media Intensive
This is an advanced course in the study of the intersection between art and technology. A broad
interdisciplinary investigation of the skills, concepts, and applications that are necessary to
develop a creative practice versed in the technologies of our time are pursued. Particular
emphasis is placed on the conceptual implications of choosing such a practice, and how those
implications inform each student’s work. Current practitioners within the discipline are examined
through lectures, readings, and screenings. ​Prerequisite: ART 291 or permission of the
instructor.
340. Photography Intensive
This course examines the production and pertinent concepts of photographic based images.
The curriculum is primarily centered on camera based work, while allowing for the exploration of
other methods of photographic image creation such as scanners, cell phones, and copiers.
Technical instruction and principles of composition are employed to form an understanding as to
how the construction and manipulation of photographic images implicate form and meaning.
Contemporary photographic based image-makers are examined through screenings, readings,
and lectures. ​Prerequisite: ART 251, 261, 271, 281, or 291, or permission of the instructor.
350. Advanced Studio_D
This course is an interdisciplinary exploration of advanced studio techniques and
conceptualization originating from a drawing perspective. Students engage projects thematically
and pursue their own interests in diverse mediums and hybrid forms. Particular emphasis is
placed on each student’s research and development practices as it relates to the
conceptualization and execution of each of their works. Contemporary and historic examples of
artists working within the designated themes of the course are introduced through screenings,
lectures, readings, and independent study. ​Prerequisite: ART 251, 261, 271, 281, or 291, or
permission of the instructor.
360. Advanced Studio_P
This course is an interdisciplinary exploration of advanced studio techniques and
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conceptualization originating from a painting perspective. Students engage projects thematically
and pursue their own interests in diverse mediums and hybrid forms. Particular emphasis is
placed on each student’s research and development practices as it relates to the
conceptualization and execution of each of their works. Contemporary and historic examples of
artists working within the designated themes of the course are introduced through screenings,
lectures, readings, and independent study. ​Prerequisite: ART 251, 261, 271, 281, or 291, or
permission of the instructor.
370. Advanced Studio_S
This course is an interdisciplinary exploration of advanced studio techniques and
conceptualization originating from a sculptural perspective. Students engage projects
thematically and pursue their own interests in diverse mediums and hybrid forms. Particular
emphasis is placed on each student’s research and development practices as it relates to the
conceptualization and execution of each of their works. Contemporary and historic examples of
artists working within the designated themes of the course are introduced through screenings,
lectures, readings, and independent study. ​Prerequisite: ART 251, 261, 271, 281, or 291, or
permission of the instructor.
392 Junior Seminar: Contemporary Practices
Required of all majors in Studio Art, this interdisciplinary course provides a practical and
theoretical framework for students to independently develop their creative practice through
research and studio work. Students begin to define their individual practice by writing an artist
statement and developing a professional portfolio. The course is designed to prepare each
student for the rigors of the Studio Art Senior Seminar, and culminates in a formal proposal for
the Senior Capstone Experience project to be produced in the student’s senior year.
Prerequisite: Advanced Studio or permission of the instructor.
393. Junior Seminar: Methods and Theories of Art History
Required of all art history majors, this seminar, which should be taken in the spring semester of
the junior year, will provide a more theoretical framework for art and its histories than is possible
in 300-level courses, while also modeling the best professional practices. The class is run in a
seminar format with student oral presentations, close analysis of assigned texts, and frequent
written assignments. The seminar’s exploration of the variety of methodologies in the discipline
of art history helps to prepare students for writing the senior thesis in art history.
394. Post-1945 Revolutions in Art and Theory
A profound shift in what we consider art resulted from the ethical and aesthetic crisis of the
post-1945 world, when artists began to wonder whether art was still possible after the
Holocaust, to paraphrase Theodore Adorno’s famous statement. This crisis proved to be a
revolutionary force in the field of contemporary art, inspiring ideas and movements related to
such cultural and social developments as Postmodernism and Feminism. This class not only
examines key works and texts of the period, but also the reasons why works of art increasingly
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inhabit public spaces, are made from ephemeral materials, contain site-specific messages, take
as their subject the body and its racial or gender identity, and eschew traditional means of
commercial exchange. ​Prerequisite: Art 200 or permission of the instructor.
425. Women Artists and Feminist Art History (Honors)
In recent decades, growing scholarly attention has been brought to the previously neglected
productions of female artists. This seminar examines the variety of approaches that feminist art
historians have taken in studying art made by women in the modern period. We will be
concerned both with the historical analysis of the visual productions of particular female artists
and with an exploration of how feminist theories, practices, and political commitments have
affected, and can continue to change, the discursive and institutional construction of the
history—or histories—of art and visual culture. ​Prerequisite: Art 200 or permission of instructor.
This course is cross-listed under Gender Studies.
440. Rembrandt (Honors)
This course, which has as its subject the life and art of Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69), not only
opens a window onto the culture of the Netherlands in the seventeenth century, but also serves
as an introduction to the methodology of art history—from the scientific examination of
paintings, to theories of interpretation—for few artists raise so many fundamental issues as to
what it is we do as art historians—indeed resist traditional methods of interpretation—as does
Rembrandt. The format of the course is that of a seminar, with students giving presentations,
aimed at honing their ability, not only to tackle tough art historical questions, but also to
articulate their ideas, in visual, oral, and written forms.
294, 394, 494. Special Topics
The intensive study of some selected art form, movement, or other specialized subject in studio
art or art history. Recent and upcoming special topics courses include The Performative
Object, Interventions, Art as Inquiry: The Artistic Laboratory, Installation and Site Specific Art,
Visual Poetics, Ancient Egyptian Art, Classical Art: An Odyssey in Method, American Pictures,
Whistler and His Contemporaries, Dürer and His Culture, and Art and Nature, Then and Now.
See the Department of Art and Art History’s website for descriptions of individual courses being
offered.
290, 390, 490. Internships
295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
397, 497. Independent Study in Studio Art
Exceptional students in their Junior or Senior years seeking to define their own course of study,
distinct from the course offerings in the department, may submit a formal application to do so.
The deadline for applications is the end of the 7th week of the preceding semester, and must
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consist of a 1-page written proposal for the student’s course of study, a 20 image portfolio of
recent work, a corresponding list of titles and materials, and an artist statement. Proposals will
be reviewed and notice will be given by the department’s faculty. If the student’s application is
accepted, notification of acceptance will be accompanied by an assigned studio advisor to
facilitate the course of study during the desired semester. ​Prerequisite: Advanced Studio​.
397, 497. Independent Study in Art History
Exceptional students in their Junior or Senior years seeking to define their own course of study,
distinct from the course offerings in the department, may submit a formal application to do so.
The deadline for applications is the end of the 7th week of the preceding semester, and must
consist of a 1-page written proposal for the student’s course of study, a portfolio of recent
written work, a bibliography of texts relevant to the proposed course of study, and a proposed
course syllabus. Proposals will be reviewed and notice will be given by the department’s faculty.
If the student’s application is accepted, notification of acceptance will be accompanied by an
assigned art history advisor to facilitate the course of study during the desired semester.
Prerequisite: Art 200​.
490. Museum Internship
This internship is for seniors with a strong academic record in the Department. In recent years,
art majors have held internships at such places as the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore; the
Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, North Adams, Massachusetts; the Kunstmuseum,
Bonn; and the British Museum, London. Students can also intern for academic credit at the
College’s Kohl Art Gallery.
491. Studio Art Senior Seminar (Fall)
Required of all graduating seniors preparing for the Studio Senior Capstone Experience, this
course instigates a concept-driven and research-supported project. Guided by a faculty advisor
and other studio art faculty, the seminar is an intensive exploratory period of weekly studio work
and research with feedback from peers. The curriculum prepares each student for the
culminating Spring Thesis exhibition by guiding them through the process of developing a
coherent body of work, including the ideas and influences driving that work, and the practical
issues that need be navigated in order to fully realize each student’s vision. Each student’s
performance in this non-credit bearing course will influence their grade earned at the completion
of the Studio Senior Capstone Experience. Should be taken in the fall semester of senior year.
Prerequisite: 392: Contemporary Practices​.
492. Studio Art Senior Seminar (Spring)
Required of all graduating seniors preparing for the Studio Senior Capstone Experience, this
course is a continuation of the intensive weekly studio work and research begun in Art 491
culminating in the Spring Thesis exhibition. Each student’s performance in this non-credit
bearing course will influence their grade earned at the completion of the Studio Senior Capstone
Experience. Should be taken in the spring semester of senior year.
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Prerequisite: 392: Contemporary Practices and 491: Studio Art Senior Seminar (Fall).
SCE. Studio Senior Capstone Experience
Required of all graduating seniors within the studio concentration, this course is defined by each
student’s engagement with a project of active learning and integration of materials and concepts
within the major. A continuation of the work initiated in the Studio Art Senior Seminar, students
are guided by a faculty advisor and other studio art faculty. The Capstone is an intensive period
of advanced independent studio practice with feedback from peers. Students employ their
course of study from within the department to think critically, conduct research, and
independently produce a substantial body of work. The culmination of this course is the Spring
Thesis exhibition in the Kohl Gallery, conceived and produced by the course’s participants, and
the associated supporting activities. The SCE will be accorded Pass, Fail, or Honors, and, upon
successfully completing it, the student will receive four credits. ​Prerequisite: Studio Art Senior
Seminar.
SCE. Art History Senior Capstone Experience
Meant to be the summation of all one has done in the Department, the SCE involves some
combination of comprehensive examinations and/or an art history thesis or curatorial project.
The SCE will be accorded Pass, Fail, or Honors, and, upon successfully completing it, the
student will receive four credits.
Courses Offered In The Washington College Abroad Programs
Art courses are presently offered through the following institutions: Monash University,
Melbourne, Australia (art); University of Costa Rico, San José (art), Costa Rica; University of
Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark (art); Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador
(art); Royal Holloway, University of London, London, UK (media arts); University of Hull, Hull,
UK (art history); Artois University, Arras, France (art history); University of Provence,
Aix-Marseille I, Marseille, France, (art); University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany (art);
University College, Cork, Cork, Ireland (art history); Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan,
Italy; University of Siena, Siena, Italy; Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands (art history);
Pontificia Universidad, Católica del Perú, Lima, Peru (fine arts); St. Andrews University, St.
Andrews, Scotland (art history); Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa (art); Semester
in Granada, Spain (art); and University of Nebrija, Madrid, Spain (art).
The following is a selection of commonly taken courses:
150. Methods and Monuments
Painting, sculpture, and architecture studied as artistic and cultural expressions of their times.
Emphasis is on selected major artists, monuments, and methods of analysis. Offered in the
London program only, both fall and spring semesters. Three credits.
308. Modern Architecture: 1750-1900
Aesthetic and technological developments of architecture, interior design, and the planned
environment: Renaissance tradition to Art Nouveau and the rise of the skyscraper. Offered in
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the London program only, both fall and spring semesters. Three credits.
312. Art in Northern Italy from the Late Gothic through the Renaissance
The course casts light on a very important period of Italian Art during which the Northern Italian
cities, with their enlightened rulers, gave birth and played host to some of the most important
European artists. Its goal is to examine the most relevant topics of artistic thought and practice
in order to understand the peculiarities of each cultural center and of the leading artists
operating there. Offered in the Milan program only. Three credits.
314. Art in Northern Italy from the Baroque through the Present
The course analyses a very fruitful segment in the history of Italian Art, focusing, in particular,
on artists and artistic movements that developed in the northern regions. The most important
topics in artistic thought and practice will be examined in order to understand the peculiarities of
each period. A detailed examination of the most significant works of painters, sculptors, and
architects will seek to underline the differences in their artistic “languages” and will strengthen
the students ability to “read” works of art independently. Offered in the Milan program only.
Three credits.
319. French Art of the 19th Century
This course surveys developments in art in France during the nineteenth century. The periods
and movements studied are Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism, Neo-Impressionism, and
Symbolism. The course includes visits to Paris museums and galleries. Offered in the Paris
program only, in the fall semester. (In English.) Three credits.
326. Art and Architecture of Germany
This course presents the history of art and architecture in Germany from the Middle Ages to the
present. The course includes several field trips to sites of artistic and architectural interest.
Offered in the Bayreuth, Germany, program only, in the spring semester. (In German.)
Prerequisite: German 202 or equivalent. ​Three credits​.
330. Art and Architecture of Spain
This course is a history of art and architecture in Spain, beginning with Hispanic-Moorish art
during the Middle Ages and ending with the contemporary period. Included are the
Renaissance, Mannerism, the Baroque, Rococo, and the modern period. The course includes
visits to major artistic and architectural sites in the city of Granada. Offered in the Granada,
Spain, program only, in the fall semester. (In Spanish.) ​Prerequisite: Hispanic Studies 202 or
equivalent. ​Three credits​.
335. Development of Space and Light in Florentine Painting, 1300-1550
This course will look at Florentine painting between 1300 and 1550 with special emphasis on
the development of the illusion of space and light on a two-dimensional surface. The course will
explore the sources of these forms (Greco-Roman, Early Christian, and Medieval), as well as
look at the works of the major painters of the period (Giotto, Masaccio, Michelangelo). Field trips
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to view the art of the period are included. Offered in the Siena, Italy, program only, in the spring
semester. (In English.) Three credits.
166
Asian Studies
Asian Studies
Interdisciplinary Minor
David N.C. Hull, Director
T. Clayton Black
Kevin Brien
Jonathan McCollum
Andrew Oros
Pamela Pears
Over half of the world's population lives in Asia, a region of remarkable cultural, ethnic, political,
and economic diversity. Asian Studies at Washington College provides an excellent
complement to multiple majors, providing an interdisciplinary focus on the study of Asia though
language and additional academic fields. Minors may complete up to half of their required
coursework at one of Washington College's three exchange partnerships in Asia – in Hong
Kong, China; Seoul, South Korea; and/or Tokyo, Japan.​ ​ At least half of the required
coursework must be taken either through a Washington College short-term program in Asia or
on campus with Washington College faculty​.
The Asian Studies Minor at Washington College is an interdisciplinary minor designed to foster
a multidisciplinary understanding of Asia​. ​In accordance with the larger College-wide mission to
develop in students “habits of analytic thought and clear communication,” students choosing this
minor will develop capacities for critical analysis, clear writing, and effective communication in a
global and cross-cultural setting. Minors will acquire basic knowledge about Asian nations, past
and present – including important historical and cultural events and study of an Asian language,
and are encouraged to travel abroad to Asia for a short-term summer or semester-long program.
All students intending to pursue the minor must meet with the director to design a program of
study within the minor requirements. It is also expected that the student will continue to consult
with the director in determining the best available courses to fulfill the minor requirements any
given semester.
Asian Studies is an interdisciplinary minor of 24 credits:
One 4-credit course of an Asian language*
20 remaining credits taken in at least two different departments.
Please note, no more than 16 credits from one department will count toward the minor. 12 of
these credits must be taken at Washington College or in a Washington College faculty-led
short-term study abroad program. Additionally, ​one 4-credit course that is not solely devoted to
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Asia but with substantial Asian content may be included toward the minor, with permission of
the director of the minor.
* For those students whose native language ​is ​an Asian language, an appropriate 4-credit
course may be used as a substitution, with permission of the director of the minor.
Courses for the Minor:
CHN 101. Elementary Chinese I
CHN 102. Elementary Chinese II
CHN 201. Intermediate Chinese I
CHN 202. Intermediate Chinese II
HIS 381. History of Modern China
HIS 383. History of Modern Japan
MUS 104. Intro to World Music & Ethnomusicology
MUS 279. Japanese Music Ensemble (1 credit course. May be repeated up to 8 times)
MUS 314. Music of Asia
MUS 394. Special Topics: Performing Japanese Buddhism
PHL 112. Intro to Comparative Religion: Eastern
PHL 416. Philosophy of Buddhism
POL 345. Comparative Government: East Asia
POL 346. Japanese Politics and Foreign Policy
POL 347. Chinese Politics and Foreign Policy
POL 351. Politics, Religion, and Ethnicity in South Asia
POL 384. The International Relations of East Asia
Additional courses – such as special topics courses, and those taken off-campus – also may be
counted with approval from the program director.
Students may not earn both the Asian Studies minor and the regional concentration in Asian
Studies offered via the International Studies program.
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Biology
Biology Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Mindy Reynolds, Chair
Martin Connaughton, Associate Chair
Jennie Carr
Walter Ellison
Aaron Krochmal
Mala Misra
Karen O’Connor
Suzanne Thuecks
Robin Van Meter
Kathleen Verville
Jennifer Wanant
Nancy Weibell
James Windelborn
The Biology major is designed to help students develop a strong and broad background in
biological science. Students can elect to earn either a B.S. in Biology by completing courses
across a wide spectrum of topics in biology and may include a specialization in one area to
obtain a greater depth of knowledge or a B.S. in Biology with a Biochemistry Concentration to
focus on studying biology at the chemical level. Students may also choose an area of emphasis
while earning their B.S. in Biology that provides more in-depth coursework in one of three areas:
Cell/Molecular Biology & Infectious Disease, Ecology & Evolution or Physiology & Organismal
Biology. If a student wishes to focus within an area of emphasis, the student’s Senior Capstone
Experience (SCE) must also be designed with that focus in mind.
The Biology Department also seeks to emphasize to its majors that the discipline of biology is
intimately related to many disciplines outside of the sciences. As part of the major, students will
gain an appreciation of the impact of biology on history, and they will appreciate the many
philosophical and ethical questions that have biological underpinnings. Students are
encouraged to find additional connections—to the humanities, to the social sciences, and to the
other science fields—as they pursue their education.
A strong knowledge base is essential for a biologist, but it does not alone make the scientist.
Therefore, the Biology major seeks to guide students to develop the skills to ensure that, for
them, biology is an inquiry-based discipline. Through ample opportunities for practice, students
learn to:
read, understand, and analyze biological literature;
design, perform, and analyze experiments to ask questions and test hypotheses;
use up-to-date techniques and equipment common in the discipline;
communicate their questions and findings both orally and in writing; and
work collaboratively on experimentation with fellow students and faculty who share a
love of inquiry.
The combination of these three components of our mission—the strong knowledge base, the
appreciation of the connections between biology and other academic areas, and the
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collaborative “doing” of biology—position students to become skilled biologists, lifelong
independent learners, and citizen leaders.
Many careers are available to students who have majored in biology. Some of these careers
can be accessed directly by those with a B.S. in Biology. Others require—or can be enhanced
by—post-graduate education. The Biology major seeks to ensure that graduates are well
prepared for careers in biology and for admission to graduate programs (M.S. and Ph.D.) and
programs designed to train and license the teaching or the medical professional. Among the
many examples of the latter for which our students are well trained are medical school, dental
school, veterinary school, pharmacy school, and nursing school, and well as programs that train
the physician assistant, the physical therapist, and the occupational therapist.
The Biology Department offers classes for students enrolled in the first-year FYS program,
distribution courses for nonscience majors, introductory level courses covering the breadth of
the discipline at two levels (regular and Honors), and diverse upper-level courses for majors.
Undergraduate research opportunities are available in departmental laboratories during both the
academic year and the summer. Students can also participate in internships sponsored by
off-campus laboratories through existing programs or those proposed by the student. A chapter
of Beta Beta Beta, the national biological honor society, provides supplemental activities for
students.
The nearby Chester River, a major tributary to the Chesapeake Bay, and Chester River Field
Station afford excellent opportunities for ecological studies in a wide variety of biological
subdisciplines. Another resource is the Virginia Gent Decker Arboretum, the collection of trees
and shrubs on the college campus, in which students can also study a broad range of topics.
Collaborative student-faculty research is an important focus of the department and the Toll
Science Center boasts personal labs for each of the faculty and a number of shared research
spaces including a set of microsuites (fluorescence microscopy, cell and tissue culture, and
histology), the aquatic research facility, and a spacious research greenhouse.
Requirements For The B.S. Degree
1. B.S in Biology
BIO 111, 112. General Biology with laboratory*
BIO 206. Ecology with laboratory
BIO 305. Genetics with laboratory
5 Advanced Biology courses
1 – course Category II
1 – course Category III
2 – courses Categories I, II, or III
1 – course Categories I, II, III, IV, or V
BIO 392. Junior Seminar
BIO 491. Senior Seminar
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
CHE 111, 112. General Chemistry with laboratory
CHE 201, 202. Organic Chemistry with laboratory
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MAT 201. Differential Calculus
Recommended: An introductory course in statistics
2.
B.S. in Biology with a Biochemistry Concentration
BIO 111, 112. General Biology with laboratory*
BIO 205. Cell Biology with laboratory
BIO 305. Genetics with laboratory
BIO 409. Biochemistry with laboratory
3 Advanced Biology courses
1 – course Category I
1 – course Category II
1 – course Category III
BIO 392. Junior Seminar
BIO 491. Senior Seminar
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience based in the field of biochemistry
CHE 111, 112. General Chemistry with laboratory
CHE 201, 202. Organic Chemistry with laboratory
CHE 301. Analytical Chemistry with laboratory
CHE 303. The Chemistry of Biological Compounds
MAT 201, 202. Differential and Integral Calculus
Recommended: Two semesters of introductory physics
Note: Students who complete the Concentration in Biochemistry will also complete the
minor in chemistry. Requests to substitute a course not listed above for one of the
requirements may be considered by the program advisor (Dr. Mindy Reynolds).
*Students who successfully complete the Biology major typically have grades of C- or better in
both semesters of General Biology (BIO 111, 112). We strongly encourage students who have
grades below a C- in these classes and who plan to major in Biology to retake General
Biology before enrolling in upper level biology courses.
We highly recommend that students enroll in a 200-level course in their Fall semester after
completing the BIO 111, 112 General Biology sequence because one 200-level course must be
completed before taking a 300- or a 400-level course.
All upper-level courses for the major must be taken at Washington College or in Washington
College-approved programs although exceptions may be made by the department chair for
transfer students.
Physics is a requirement for admission to medical school, many graduate programs, and some
allied health programs. This requirement can be fulfilled by taking either the algebra-based
physics course [College Physics I and II (PHY 101, 102)] or the calculus-based physics course
[General Physics I and II (PHY 111, 112)].
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Students should consult with the appropriate departmental advisor (listed on the departmental
Web page at biology.washcoll.edu) early in their academic career to assist them in preparing for
internships and admission to graduate schools and professional programs. Students are also
encouraged to discuss options concerning research opportunities and career choices with
members of the department.
Areas of Emphasis (AOE)
To successfully complete one of three optional areas of emphasis, students must fulfill the
requirements for the B.S. in Biology, design their Senior Capstone Experience with a focus on
that particular AOE, and complete ​three​ of the courses as outlined below within their chosen
AOE:
Cell/Molecular Biology & Infectious Disease:
● BIO 203 Microbiology
● BIO 205 Cell Biology
● BIO 207 Biotechnology and Molecular Biology
● BIO 302 Developmental Biology
● BIO 310 Microbial Ecology
● BIO 350 Toxicology
● BIO 404 Immunology
● BIO 409 Biochemistry
● BIO X94 Special Topics courses with laboratories designated for this concentration
● BIO X94 or BIO X95 Biological research on or off campus for course credit must be in
the area of study (Limit of one course)
Ecology & Evolution:
● BIO 211 Plant Biology
● BIO 309 Marine and Estuarine Biology
● BIO 310 Microbial Ecology
● BIO 313 Wetlands Ecology
● BIO 315 Ecophysiology
● BIO 328 Behavioral Ecology
● BIO 351 Evolution
● ENV 302 Conservation Wildlife Techniques
● BIO X94. Special Topics courses with laboratories designated for this concentration
● BIO X94 or BIO X95. Biological research on or off campus for course credit must be in
the area of study (limit of one course)
Physiology & Organismal Biology:
● BIO 203 Microbiology
● BIO 211 Plant Biology
● BIO 228 Ornithology
● BIO 208 General Zoology
● BIO 301 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
● BIO 303 Parasitology
● BIO 311 Neurobiology
● BIO 315 Ecophysiology
● BIO 336 Ichthyology
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●
●
●
●
BIO 404 Immunology
BIO 424 Comparative Animal Physiology
BIO X94 Special Topics courses with laboratories designated for this concentration
BIO X94 or BIO X95. Biological research on or off-campus for course credit must be in
the area of study (limit of one course)
Senior Capstone Experience (SCE)
Each student must successfully fulfill the Department’s Senior Capstone Experience (SCE).
Students will enroll in the four-credit SCE course during their final semester, although work on
the SCE will span the entire final academic year and the related Senior Seminar (BIO 491) will
be completed in the Fall. The Junior Seminar (BIO 392) introduces the SCE and the skills
needed to successfully complete this project during the senior year.
The SCE for a biology major may be satisfied (1) by completing an independent laboratory or
field research project or (2) by writing an in-depth scientific monograph. All SCEs are under the
direction of a faculty member. Students must receive project approval from a sponsoring faculty
member and the departmental chair. Guidelines for the Biology SCE, including requirements for
receipt of honors, are distributed to all rising seniors and are posted on the departmental Web
page.
Requirements For The Biology Minor
The course requirements for the biology minor include General Biology (BIO 111,112) and five
upper-level biology courses. By petition of the biology department, an appropriate upper-level
course in chemistry, psychology, or environmental studies may be substituted for one of the
required advanced biology courses. Students planning on using the biology minor as a basis for
further studies in the biological sciences or for employment should seriously consider taking a
year of General Chemistry (CHE 111, 112). All students should note that CHE 111, 112 is a
prerequisite for some upper-level biology courses.
Writing In The Discipline
The Biology Department emphasizes the importance of effective writing in the discipline in the
design of the curriculum for the biology major. Writing appropriate to the field of biology is a key
component of all majors-level courses, from the introductory General Biology sequence (BIO
111, 112) through the upper level biology courses and the Senior Capstone Experience. Some
introductory and upper level courses are designed as W2 and W3, but all courses in the major
emphasize the development of writing skills. Through a combination of required and elective
courses, students learn how to maintain laboratory notebooks; write abstracts, lab reports and
research papers; and prepare poster presentations and the written backdrop to oral
presentations.
Categories Of Study
Category I: Ecology
BIO 206. Ecology with laboratory
BIO 309. Marine and Estuarine Biology with laboratory
BIO 313. Wetlands Ecology with laboratory
BIO 328. Behavioral Ecology with laboratory
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BIO 351. Evolution with laboratory
BIO 194, 294, 394, 494. Special topics courses with laboratory
Category II: Cellular Biology
BIO 203. Microbiology with laboratory
BIO 205. Cell Biology with laboratory
BIO 207. Biotechnology and Molecular Biology with laboratory
BIO 302. Developmental Biology with laboratory
BIO 305. Genetics with laboratory
BIO 310. Microbial Ecology with laboratory
BIO 350. Introduction to Toxicology with laboratory
BIO 404. Immunology with laboratory
BIO 409. Biochemistry with laboratory
BIO 194, 294, 394, 495. Special topics courses with laboratory
Category III: Organismal Biology
BIO 208. General Zoology with laboratory
BIO 211. Plant Biology with laboratory
BIO 228. Ornithology with laboratory
BIO 301. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy with laboratory
BIO 303. Parasitology with laboratory
BIO 311. Neurobiology with laboratory
BIO 315. Ecophysiology with laboratory
BIO 336. Ichthyology with laboratory
BIO 424. Comparative Animal Physiology with laboratory
BIO 194, 294, 394, 495. Special topics courses with laboratory
Category IV: Seminars (excluding summer field courses)
BIO 394. Special Topics in Biology (non-laboratory bearing course)
BIO 415-90. Evolutionary Biology - Honors
Category V: Research/ Independent Study/ Internship/Summer Field Courses
BIO 210. Community Ecology of Coastal Maine (summer field course)
BIO 221. The Bermuda Environment (summer field course)
BIO 294. Special topics field courses
BIO 395. Summer Research
BIO 397. Independent Study
BIO 490. Biology Internship
BIO 495. Independent Research
Course Descriptions
BIO 100 and 104 are distribution courses, and do not count toward the major or minor in
biology.
100. Current Topics in Biology with laboratory
An introduction to some of the fundamental principles and concepts of modern biology with
emphasis on three dominant themes: cell biology, genetics, and animal physiology. The
application of biological phenomena to everyday life will be emphasized. The laboratory will
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explore topics introduced in lecture and expose students to investigative learning.
104. Ecology of the Chesapeake Bay with laboratory
A detailed exploration of the unique features and history of the Chesapeake Bay to demonstrate
the dynamic interrelationships between ecology and human affairs. Topics include ecological
principles, pollution, endangered species, conservation practices, and public policy. A regularly
scheduled laboratory session will complement the lecture.
BIO 111, 112 are also for distribution and along with all upper-level courses (200-level and
above) will count toward the major and minor in biology. Introductory courses and many
upper-level courses are offered annually, while other courses are offered on an alternate year
basis. For planning purposes, information about the semester/year in which a course is to be
offered is available on the departmental Web page.
111, 112. General Biology with laboratory
This course provides an introduction to living systems. Topics studied include biomolecules, cell
structure and function, metabolism, genetics and molecular biology (111) and diversity of life,
physiology of plants and animals, evolution, and ecology (112). The laboratory complements the
lecture and also provides an introduction to experimentation and communication of experimental
results. These courses are designed for students with a strong interest in the biological sciences
and are prerequisites for upper-level biology courses. An honors section of BIO 111 and of BIO
112 is offered. Biology 111 or permission of instructor is required for Biology 112.
203. Microbiology with laboratory
A study of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protists). Topics include microbial
physiology, metabolism, growth, and genetics; infectious diseases; interaction of the microbe
and host; and environmental microbiology. The laboratory portion of the course emphasizes
staining techniques; culture methods; environmental, food, and medical microbiology;
identification of unknown bacteria; and an independent research project.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112.
205. Cell Biology with laboratory
An examination of the structure and function of cells. Topics covered will include the various
chemical components and physical factors which contribute to cell structure and function.
Lectures will also include surveys of cellular diversity and subcellular organization, including
organelles, membranes, and the cytoskeleton. The laboratory explores these components using
microscopy, tissue culture, and molecular techniques. Biology 205 provides a broad foundation
for subsequent cellular, molecular, biochemical and genetics courses.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112.
206. Ecology with laboratory
A study of the fundamentals of ecology. Topics include the relationship between organisms and
their physical environments; population growth, regulation, and interactions; the nature and
diversity of biological communities; and ecosystem structure and function. Approximately half of
the weekly laboratories will involve off-campus field trips for the collection of data from various
ecosystems, while the remaining half will involve processing of collected data.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112.
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207. Biotechnology and Molecular Biology with laboratory
This course introduces the tools and techniques of biotechnology. While the discipline of
biotechnology is founded in molecular biology, its tools can be applied to tackle problems in all
branches of biology from cell biology to evolution. This course provides the conceptual
background for understanding the basis of biotechnology and emphasizes laboratory activities
related to DNA and DNA-RNA-protein interconnections. Students will learn standard techniques
in DNA analysis and cloning.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112.
BIO 208. General Zoology with laboratory
General Zoology topics range from taxonomy and systematics to the basic patterns of form and
function that characterize the major groups of animals. Lecture and laboratory work will include
functional morphology, reproduction, development, evolution, and ecology from simple
protozoans through complex vertebrate taxa. Emphasis will be on the diverse adaptations of
animals to the aquatic and terrestrial habitats in which they live.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112.
​210. Community Ecology of Coastal Maine
This summer course focuses on the biological communities of coastal Maine as represented by
the communities within Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island, ME. Students visit and
characterize many of the diverse forest and marine communities represented on the island. The
course begins with a consideration of the geological, oceanographic and climatic features of
coastal Maine. Other topics considered in lecture and through data collection and observation in
the field include succession, disturbance, species diversity, vertical and horizontal community
structure, physical and biological stresses on communities, bottom-up and top-down regulation
of community structure, and competitive and positive interactions among species.
Prerequisite: Biology 112.
211. Plant Biology with laboratory
An introduction to plants emphasizing their diversity, structure, function, and ecology. The
laboratory includes field trips to collect local flora and explores plant cells and tissues,
physiological processes and environmental influences on growth and metabolism.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112.
221. The Bermuda Environment
This summer course will investigate the complex ecology of the Bermuda Islands, the impact
that human habitation has had on their natural history, and current environmental concerns and
means of mitigating those concerns. Major areas of study will include (but not be limited to) coral
reef ecology/symbioses, mangrove community ecology and environmental relevance,
architectural and military influences during colonization, fisheries practices (past, present and
future) and current concerns and problems, and ecotourism and associated environmental
impacts. (Also ENV 221)
Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 101, or Biology 111-112, or permission of the instructor.
228. Ornithology with laboratory
An in-depth study of birds with respect to their evolutionary history, structural and physiological
adaptations, behavior, and ecology. The laboratory component of this course will focus on the
identification of local species of birds and reinforcement of lecture topics in the field. The lab will
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also introduce students to research techniques used to study birds in the field and will include
visits to the Chester River Field Research Station and Chino Farms.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112.
301. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy with laboratory
A comparative study of the major body systems of vertebrates, with emphasis placed on system
structure, function, and evolutionary modification across vertebrate phylogeny. Laboratory work
consists of detailed systems-level examination and comparative dissection in numerous
representative vertebrates.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112 and one 200-level biology course.
302. Developmental Biology with laboratory
Examines embryo development, focusing on cellular and regulatory mechanisms that guide the
process. We will cover the events of development from fertilization through organogenesis in a
range of animal systems including sea urchins, Drosophila, amphibians, chickens and
mammals. This course will also examine the role of developmental biology in medicine
including stem cells. The laboratory portion is an investigative approach to the study of animal
development, emphasizing cellular and molecular techniques that will complement many of the
topics covered in lecture using sea urchin and chicken animal models.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112 and one 200-level biology course. Biology 205 recommended.
303. Parasitology with laboratory
An introduction to the phenomenon of parasitism, the study of parasites and their relationships
to hosts. Lecture and laboratory studies emphasize the morphology, taxonomy, life history, and
host-parasite relationships of protozoa, helminths, and arthropods of medical and veterinary
importance.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112 and one 200-level biology course.
305. Genetics with laboratory
A study of heredity in cells, individuals, and populations, and of the molecular expression of
genes. The course emphasizes genetic analysis in both lab and lecture. Topics in the laboratory
include experiments in transmission, population, cellular, and molecular genetics using a variety
of organisms as models.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112 and two upper-level biology courses or permission of the
instructor.
Corequisite: Chemistry 112.
309. Marine and Estuarine Biology with laboratory
A study of marine and estuarine ecosystems. The biological, chemical, and physical parameters
influencing these ecosystems will be discussed and the natural history, physiology, and ecology
of selected ecosystems, invertebrate, and vertebrate phyla will be emphasized. About one-half
of the laboratory will be spent in off-campus field trips and will include a two-or three-day
mandatory trip to a field station. There will be some extra expense to the student, probably not
more than $80.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112 and one 200-level biology course.
310. Microbial Ecology with laboratory
A study of microbes, particularly the bacteria, fungi, and protists, and their relationship to the
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natural environment. Specific topics include microbes in terrestrial and aquatic habitats;
microbial interactions with other microbes, plants, and animals; microbial enumeration and
activity determination; and biogeochemical cycling. These topics will be explored with emphasis
on microbial physiology, metabolism, and adaptation. The laboratory portion of the course will
focus on the Chesapeake Bay region and will include an independent research project.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112 and one 200-level biology course. Biology 203 recommended.
311. Neurobiology with laboratory
T
​ his course will present an overview of the field of neurobiology. We will discuss the structure
and components of the nervous system, the development of the nervous system including early
events that specify neuronal cells and processes required for neuronal migration and function.
In addition, we will examine the methods of communication within the nervous system and
include and overview of some of the sensory systems that relay environmental cues for
processing in the CNS. We will explore the general maintenance and repair within the nervous
system. As well as explore topics of neurological diseases/disorders via student presentations.
The purpose of this laboratory is for you to become familiar with the neuroanatomy as well as
experimental techniques used in the field of neuroscience both by hands on experience and
reading/presenting journal articles. The laboratory is designed to help you to develop your skills in
carrying out experiments and analyzing/presenting experimental data.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112 and one 200-level biology course.
313. Wetlands Ecology with laboratory
Wetlands Ecology provides an in-depth examination of the function and types of wetlands with
an emphasis on ecosystem services, biodiversity and conservation. Lecture will include a broad
overview of the role wetlands play in larger ecosystems as well as the hydrology, geology,
chemistry, trophic interactions and species common to these unique aquatic systems.
Laboratories will include a large field-based component where students will learn to identify
wetlands and their associated flora and fauna.
Prerequisite: ​Biology 111-112​ for all enrolled, ENV 101 for ESI/EST majors, one 200-level
biology course for BIO majors.
315. Ecophysiology with laboratory
This course will examine how organisms’ physiological responses have evolved in response to
ecological challenges, such as fluctuating or extreme conditions in their environment.
Discussions of physiological adaptations will integrate topics from a variety of fields, including
behavior, ecology, and molecular biology. A particular emphasis will be given to interactions
between vertebrate animals and their biotic and abiotic environments. The laboratory
component of the course will include both in-lab and field activities.
Prerequisite: ​Biology 111-112 ​and one 200-level biology course.
328. Behavioral Ecology with laboratory
This course addresses how animal behavior has evolved in response to ecological pressures in
the environment. Topics covered in the course include competition, sexual selection,
parent-offspring conflict, social interactions, and game theory. Laboratory work will include
discussions of primary literature, activities in the classroom, and field excursions.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112 and one 200-level biology course.
336. Ichthyology with laboratory
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Ichthyology encompasses the study of fishes. Topics will include the systematics, physiology,
behavior, ecology, and evolution of this diverse group. Identification of specimens during a
weekly lab will familiarize students with the major fishes of the Chesapeake region. A multi-week
independent project will familiarize students with the scientific method and with aspects of fish
behavior. Field trips to the fish collection at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, the
largest in the world, and to the National Aquarium in Baltimore will broaden the perspective of
the course. There may be some additional cost to the students for these trips, though not more
than $50.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112 and one 200-level biology course.
350. ​Introduction to Toxicology with laboratory
This course introduces basic concepts of toxicology that pertain to human health and the
environment. Topics include principles underlying dose-response relationships, absorption,
distribution, metabolism and elimination. Many of these concepts are reinforced through the
use of a case-study approach where a pertinent environmental issue is incorporated into the
ongoing lecture and laboratory.
Prerequisite: Biology 111 and Chemistry 201 or permission by the instructor
351. Evolution with laboratory
An in-depth examination of various components of evolutionary biology. Topics covered in the
course will include (but are not limited to) evolutionary mechanisms, genetics, speciation,
adaptation, extinction, evolutionary history, and analysis of evolutionary relationships.
Laboratory exercises will emphasize the discussion and analysis of primary literature articles
supplemented by laboratory- and field-based observations.
Prerequisite: ​Biology 111-112​ and one 200-level biology course.
392. Biology Junior Seminar
Biology majors participate with faculty in the department’s weekly Biology Seminar in the spring
semester of the junior year. Instruction focuses on searching the biological literature, reading of
primary literature, and preparing students to be engaged in the Senior Capstone Experience.
Biology Junior Seminar is a non-credit bearing course.
404. Immunology with laboratory
An examination of the specific defense system of mammals. Topics include leukocyte
characteristics and their responses to antigen; antigen characteristics; antibody structure,
diversity, function, genetics, and synthesis; the major histocompatibility complex; vaccines; and
disorders of the immune system. The laboratory focuses on animal handling, antibody
purification, and detection of antigen-antibody interactions.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112 and one 200-level biology course.
Corequisite: Chemistry 112.
409. Biochemistry with laboratory (CHE 309)
An examination of living systems at the chemical level. Topics will include structure and function
of macromolecules, cellular energetics, cellular respiration, with a particular focus on protein
structure and enzyme function. A laboratory will be conducted weekly to introduce students to
experimental techniques and molecular modeling.
Prerequisite: Biology 111 and Chemistry 202.
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415. Evolutionary Biology - Honors
Evolutionary Biology is a seminar-style class revolving around discussion of readings from
popular literature and scientific papers drawn from the primary literature. Topics of consideration
will include natural selection, sexual selection, speciation, the co-evolution of man and disease,
the selfish gene, and battle of the sexes as it is fought on the molecular level. The course will
include a number of short writing assignments. Periodic Friday recitation sessions will be used
for debates, oral presentations, videos, and other activities.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112 and two 200-level biology courses, college GPA of 3.4 or higher.
424. Comparative Animal Physiology with laboratory
A comparative study of physiological processes in animals. Topics will include gas exchange,
circulation, water and ion balance, and excitable cells. As a comparative study, we will examine
a variety of animals that are adapted to function in diverse environments. A weekly laboratory
illustrates physiological principles.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112 and two 200-level biology courses.
491. Biology Senior Seminar
Biology majors participate with faculty in the department’s weekly Biology Seminar in the Fall
semester of the senior year. Instruction focuses on searching the biological literature, reading of
primary literature, and writing appropriate to the discipline. Students discuss readings and make
oral and poster presentations. Biology senior seminar is a non-credit bearing course.
Special Courses
190, 290, 390, 490. Biology Internship
An internship developed by a faculty mentor and student in close consultation with the
supervisor at the internship site. A learning contract will be developed prior to enrollment in the
course. Evaluation of student performance will be completed by the faculty mentor based on
fulfillment of the contract terms and written evaluation by the internship site supervisor. Not
offered as Pass/Fail.
Prerequisite: Permission of faculty mentor.
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics in Biology
The study of areas in biology that are not regularly offered in the curriculum. Courses may be
interdisciplinary, seminar or winter/summer field-type courses and will be designated as
Category 1, 2 or 3 if they have a laboratory component.
Prerequisite: Biology 111-112, or permission of instructor.
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
A ten-week on-campus summer research project to be guided by a faculty mentor. Based on
mutual interests, the student and faculty mentor will develop a research project, supported by a
reading list and involving theoretical, laboratory, or field investigations. Participants will produce
a final report detailing the findings of their research. Selection of students will depend on
academic background, scholastic achievement, and the results of a personal interview with the
faculty mentor. Not offered as Pass/Fail.
Prerequisite: Permission of faculty mentor.
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196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
The course consists of an individual research project chosen by the student in consultation with
a faculty mentor. The project involves the design and performance of an experiment or
experimental series and submission of a written report. Not offered as Pass/Fail.
Prerequisite: Permission of faculty mentor, academic advisor, and biology department chair.
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
The in-depth study of an area of particular interest to a student and faculty mentor not covered
by the regular curriculum. Not offered as Pass/Fail.
Prerequisite: Permission of faculty mentor, academic advisor, and biology department chair.
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
Each student must successfully fulfill the Department’s Senior Capstone Experience (SCE).
Students will enroll in the four-credit SCE course during their final semester, although work on
the SCE spans the entire final academic year and the related Senior Seminar (BIO 491) is
completed in the Fall semester.
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Black Studies
Black Studies Interdisciplinary Minor
Elena Deanda, Director
Lisa Daniels
Rachel Durso
Ryan Kelty
Alisha Knight
Kenneth Schweitzer
Tahir Shad
Ruth Shoge
Christine Wade
Carol Wilson
Black Studies is the interdisciplinary study of the multifaceted history, culture, and lives of
people of African descent. Unlike African American and African Studies, Black Studies is not
limited to a single nation or continent; rather, it encompasses all locales where black people
have voluntarily or involuntarily been dispersed throughout history. The Black Studies minor
offers students of all backgrounds the opportunity to explore and research various aspects of
black culture from a local, national, and global perspective. Students who earn a minor in Black
Studies will increase their knowledge of the impact people of African descent have had and
continue to have on world cultures and human history.
This interdisciplinary minor consists of six courses (24 credits). Two Humanities courses, three
Social Sciences courses and one additional course in any discipline are required. At least two of
these six courses must pertain to black culture outside of the United States, and students are
encouraged to take three of these courses.
Pre-approved Study Abroad courses may also count toward the minor (e.g., ECN 238 South
African Economy offered at Rhodes University, South Africa). One-credit music ensembles may
count toward the minor only if the student takes four semesters of the same ensemble.
Students may request that a special topics course or a course not cross-listed with Black
Studies be applied toward the minor. Credit for such courses may be granted only with the
program director’s approval and upon the completion of specific course requirements. Students
planning to complete the Black Studies minor should notify the director of their intentions and
consult with the director when selecting courses for the minor.
Senior Capstone Experience
Students who complete a Senior Capstone Experience project that focuses on a Black Studies
topic may request to have their SCE credits applied toward the Black Studies minor. A student
must first receive approval for the SCE according to the requirements stipulated by the major
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department. A copy of the approved SCE proposal must be submitted to the Black Studies
program director in order to be considered for Black Studies course credit. If approved by the
program director, the student would receive credit for one four-credit course within the Black
Studies minor upon successful completion of the SCE.
Social Sciences Courses That Count Toward the Black Studies Minor
ANT 320. Race and Ethnicity
ECN 218. Economic Development
HIS 319. African American History to 1865
HIS 371. History of South Africa
POL 341. Politics of Development
POL 356. Civil War and Violence In Africa
POL 348. Latin American Politics
SOC 221. Social Inequalities
SOC 240. Criminology
SOC 340. Victimology
Humanities Courses That Count Toward the Black Studies Minor
ENG 213, 214. Introduction to African American Literature
ENG 345. The African American Novel
ENG 370. The Harlem Renaissance
ENG 377. 2PACalypse Now!
ENG 470. Toni Morrison
FRS 312. The Contemporary Francophone World
FRS 419. Studies in Francophone Literature and Culture
GRS 315. Minorities in Germany: Reading at the Margins
HPS 494. SpTp: Afro (Latin) America
MUS 106. Rock, Pop, and American Culture
MUS 206. Jazz History
MUS 303. American Music
MUS 313. Music of Latin America
One credit music ensembles:
Jazz Ensemble
Jazz Combo
Afro-Cuban Ensemble
Steel Pan Ensemble
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Business Management Division of Social Sciences
Susan A. Vowels, Chair
Sun Young Ahn
R. Stewart Barroll
Joseph Bauer
Ryan Eanes
Michael Harvey
Kurt Landgraf
Robyn Moore
Caddie Putnam Rankin
Crystal Richard
Hui-Ju Tsai
S. Lansing Williams
Build in-demand career skills with a specialization in Accounting and Finance . . . gain
experience with internships in town and around the world . . . study abroad in London, Paris, or
other business capitals . . . work hands-on with SAP, the world’s leading enterprise software
package. . . invest in your future with the Brown Advisory student-managed investment fund: at
Washington College, business management is an active liberal art.
Our quantitative orientation teaches you how to think with numbers. Our small course size
sharpens your discussion skills and lets you work closely with faculty. Our team projects let you
experience the challenges and rewards of collaborative work. Our senior capstone—a rigorous,
senior-year individual project—polishes your research, analytic, and writing skills. All in all, our
program challenges you to link the College’s enduring liberal-arts values of critical thinking,
effective communication, and moral courage with cutting-edge business leadership skills.
Managerial knowledge, critical thinking skills, quantitative analysis skills, communication skills,
global perspective, collaboration skills, ethical awareness: these are abilities you will take with
you after your successful completion of the Business Management major.
The Major
The Business Management major consists of two economics introductory courses, eight 4-credit
required courses, one 4-credit elective course at the 200-level or above, a Global Learning
requirement, and the Senior Capstone Experience.
ECN 111. Principles of Macroeconomics
ECN 112. Principles of Microeconomics
BUS 109. Managerial Statistics (or alternative--see details under Quantitative Requirement)
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BUS 111. Principles of Marketing
BUS 112. Introduction to Financial Accounting
BUS 209. Financial Analysis
BUS 210. Management Information Systems
BUS 302. Organizational Behavior
BUS 303. Legal Environment of Business (or a PHL ethics course or BUS 360)
BUS 401. Strategic Management (counts for W3;must be taken at Washington College)
BUS elective at the 200-level or above
Global learning requirement (see details under Global Learning Requirement)
BUS SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
All required courses are offered every semester. Elective courses are offered on a rotating
basis; please check with the department chair or your advisor for details. All of these courses
(except for the Senior Capstone Experience and BUS 401 Strategic Management) may be
taken at our study-abroad partners (not all courses are offered by all study abroad partners).
Global Learning Requirement
Since business is global, the Business Management major includes a global learning
requirement. (International students are exempt but are welcome and encouraged to take
advantage of visiting another country through study abroad.) It may be fulfilled in one of three
ways: (1) participating in any study-abroad or away-from-campus experience that earns
Washington College credit; (2) studying a foreign language through the 202-level; or (3) taking
two global-focus courses. One of these must be a Business Management course (BUS 310
International Business, BUS 311 Global Business Strategy, or an approved elective course).
The other may be chosen from any course listed as part of the International Studies Program
offered by any other department (excluding ECN 111).
The department encourages students to fulfill their global learning requirement by studying
abroad. Study abroad gives you first-hand experience with other ways of life; you’ll get a deeper
understanding of how culture affects markets, firms, and strategy. And study abroad, by offering
you a new perspective on your native culture, will challenge you and stimulate your creativity
and critical thinking. To facilitate study abroad, we’ve identified nine outstanding partner
business programs (all taught in English):
Royal Holloway, University of London (England)
American Business School Paris (France)
Bond University (Gold Coast, Australia)
Lingnan University (Hong Kong, China)
Al Akhawayn University (Ifrane, Morocco)
Meiji Gakuin University (Yokohama, Japan)
Bogazici University (Istanbul, Turkey)
University College Cork (Cork, Ireland)
Monash University (Melbourne, Australia)
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Business Management
Including those listed above, there are a total of 28 semester-long study abroad programs
available; only four do not offer business or management classes for their international students
(please see the Global Education Office for details). Students interested in study abroad are
encouraged to share their interest with their academic advisors and visit with the Global
Education Office at their earliest convenience.
Many students planning to study abroad and interested in further study of international business
choose to pursue a concentration in Global Business Studies, administered through the
International Studies Program (students are not required to major in International Studies). In
addition, students interested in a particular region may wish to pursue a regional concentration
in African Studies, Asian Studies, Latin American Studies, Near Eastern Studies, or European
Studies.
Quantitative Requirement
BUS majors are required to complete a two-course quantitative sequence: BUS 109 Managerial
Statistics and BUS 209 Financial Analysis. Students may replace BUS 109 with MAT 109
Statistics, ECN 215 Data Analysis, or PSY 209 Statistics and Research Design I for the
Business Management major. However, students are advised to consult requirements for the
college’s general education quantitative requirement before making substitutions.
Internships
Most majors and many minors in Business Management gain valuable experience by
participating in for-credit internships during the fall, spring, or summer after completing
Marketing and Introduction to Financial Accounting (see the course descriptions below for BUS
390 and BUS 490). The Business Management department works closely with the Center for
Career Development to prepare our students to vie for internships and flourish during their
experience.
Recent local, national and international internships garnered by our students include the
following:
Bank of America Headquarters (Charlotte, NC)
Corbin Perception (Farmington, CT)
Deloitte (McLean, VA)
Dixon Valve and Coupling Headquarters (Chestertown, MD)
Equirus Capital Private Limited (Mumbai,India)
Li & Fung Headquarters (Hong Kong)
RETHINK Water (Ellicott City, Maryland)
Sam’s Club Headquarters (Bentonville, AK)
Semiconductor Industry Association (Washington, D.C.)
Social Security Administration (Woodlawn, MD)
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Business Management
The Business Management Minor
A Business Management minor adds value to your résumé regardless of your major. You’ll
learn the language of business, the concepts of organizations, and lay the foundation for
infusing your vision with these valuable tools whether you plan to pursue a career in the arts,
humanities, social sciences, mathematics or natural sciences. The five-course minor consists of
three required courses (BUS 111, 112, and 302) and two BUS electives, which may be drawn
from any upper-level (200-level or higher) BUS course. BUS 109 Managerial Statistics is not
required for the Business Management minor but is highly recommended.
The Accounting and Finance Minor/Specialization
The Accounting and Finance minor provides a rigorous, in-depth opportunity to study these
in-demand fields in preparation for employment or further study at the graduate level. The minor
consists of four core courses and four electives. Business Management majors cannot declare
the minor, but can earn a specialization in Accounting and Finance by completing the same
curricular requirements. Details can be found in the separate catalog listing for the Accounting
and Finance Minor.
The Information Systems Minor
Information Systems is the interdisciplinary study of the ways in which computer technology can
foster organizational excellence. Drawing from both Business Management and Computer
Science, the Information Systems Minor stresses strong analytical skills, the facility to find
imaginative solutions to difficult problems, and the application of ethical principles. Details can
be found in the separate catalog listing for the Information Systems Minor.
The Marketing Minor
Marketing is a creative problem-solving endeavor that rigorously identifies people’s needs and
desires and develops products and services to meet them. Marketing includes market research
and data analysis of consumer behavior and mindset; development of new products and
services; cultivation of relationships with consumers and target markets; and creation and
maintenance of brand identities as a durable source of trust and credible information in complex
environments. The minor consists of three required courses, and two electives. Details can be
found in the separate catalog listing for the Marketing Minor.
STUDENT OPPORTUNITIES
Honor Societies
The Washington College chapter of Sigma Beta Delta, the national business honor society,
recognizes Business Management majors and minors in the top 20% of their class who aspire
toward personal and professional improvement and a life distinguished by service to
humankind.
In addition, business management students may aspire to membership in other honor societies,
including Omicron Delta Kappa, the national leadership honor society, and Phi Beta Kappa, the
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nation’s oldest academic honor society. Membership in Phi Beta Kappa is by invitation only,
and eligibility is based on the totality of a student’s academic achievement and character.
Students interested in Phi Beta Kappa are advised to take a broad range of courses and should
plan a program that includes at least 96 credits in “liberal studies” courses. (BUS 109
Managerial Statistics, BUS 302 Organizational Behavior, BUS 303 Legal Environment of
Business and the BUS senior capstone count toward the “liberal studies” requirement, but other
BUS courses do not.) More information about Phi Beta Kappa is available online.
American Marketing Association Student Chapter
Students declaring the Marketing minor are invited to participate in the student chapter of the
American Marketing Association (AMA), which provides a variety of opportunities and
experiences, including speakers, networking, real-life case-based competitions and more.
Brown Advisory Student-Managed Investment Fund Program
Students from any major can participate in the Brown Advisory Student-Managed Investment
Fund Program and help manage an equity fund valued at hundreds of thousands of dollars.
Under the mentorship of Richard Bookbinder P‘10, founder and manager of TerraVerde Capital
Management and Bookbinder Capital Management, LLC, you’ll learn to analyze and report on
stocks, and then execute trades worth tens of thousands of dollars. The program includes
career preparation, talks by visiting business leaders, and intensive work over the semester that
will help prepare you for a career in the investment field. Networking events and special
opportunities such as attendance at shareholder meetings allow students to acquire valuable
real-world knowledge.
SAP Student Recognition Award
Washington College, a member of the SAP University Alliances Program, has been authorized
by SAP to award students meeting the following criteria with the SAP Student Recognition
Award. In order to earn this highly valued non-transcript resume-building recognition, students
must successfully complete BUS 210, BUS 315 and BUS 316, reflecting a breadth of
experience and familiarity with the SAP software products that are used to support pedagogy in
these three classes. BUS 210 is offered every semester but BUS 315 and BUS 316 are offered
on a rotating basis so students interested in pursuing this award should work with their advisors
to plan accordingly.
Washington College Enactus
Enactus is an international organization that develops students into leaders through hands-on
experience in designing and implementing entrepreneurial-based projects that empower people
to engage in real, sustainable progress for themselves and their communities. Guided by
academic advisors and business experts, students not only transform lives, they also develop
the kind of talent and perspective that are essential to leadership in an ever more complex and
challenging world. Current projects of the Washington College Enactus team include providing
employment for local people with developmental disabilities, aiding a young entrepreneur in
Haiti, and assisting local businesses in upgrading their social media outreach skills. Students
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Business Management
participate in both regional and national competitions and have access to job fairs, internships
and employment opportunities. Membership in the Washington College Enactus team is open
to students of all majors. Enactus: ​EN​trepreneurial ​ACT​ion for others creates a better world for
US​ all.
Course Descriptions
109. Managerial Statistics
Managerial statistics focuses on the use of statistical analysis to make fact-based decisions for
business firms and other organizations. Topics taught include descriptive statistics, normal
distributions, probabilities, sampling distributions, hypothesis testing, ANOVA, and simple and
multiple linear regression analysis. Data analysis techniques using Microsoft Excel are
included.
111. Principles of Marketing
A critical approach to the study of the marketing concept including policies and principles.
Emphasis is placed on the identification of variables involved in marketing decision-making and
the process by which marketing decisions are made. ​Pre/corequisite: ECN 112
112. Introduction to Financial Accounting
An introduction to the accounting principles and procedures used for collecting, recording,
summarizing, and interpreting financial information. Students will learn to read and interpret
financial statements. Special emphasis is placed upon the concepts of internal control over
resources and transactions. Computerized spreadsheets are integrated into the course.
200. Introduction to the Business Management Discipline
Students will acquire a broad view of the discipline, learn how the requirements for the major fit
together and be introduced to contemporary issues in business. They will also acquire
proficiency in skills necessary for success in the Business Management major including
Microsoft Excel, Word, and PowerPoint skills related to the major, presentation skills, and the
ability to speak in a public forum, and participation as team members and team leaders.
Strategies for applying critical thinking skills and personal ethical frameworks in the context of
business management will also be included. Classes meet once weekly for half of the semester.
Grading is pass-fail. ​By permission of department chair.​ One credit.
209. Financial Analysis
This course introduces students to the fundamental concepts of finance and equips students
with the ability to make meaningful financial decisions. This course addresses topics including
the analysis of financial statements, the operation of financial markets, and the valuation of
financial instruments, such as stocks and bonds. After taking this course, students should be
able to (1) conduct financial ratio analysis, (2) understand the time value of money and apply
the discounted cash flow (DCF) method to value assets, and (3) understand the concept of risk
and return. ​Prerequisite: BUS 109 (or other statistics course) and BUS 112.
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210. Management Information Systems
This course introduces Management Information Systems and its use in solving business
problems, finding new opportunities for organizational improvement, and supporting enterprise
strategic, operational, and analytical objectives. Students learn database concepts, document
and analyze business processes as related to integrated software systems, and use various
models to develop ethical approaches to the design and use of information systems. Microsoft
Access and SAP enterprise software are used to illustrate concepts. ​Prerequisite: BUS 112.
212. Managerial Accounting
Study of the use of accounting information to plan for, evaluate, and control activities. The
course will explore various product and service costing procedures. Other topics include
responsibility accounting, budgets, financial analysis, costs control, and the time value of
money. Emphasis will be placed upon the use of information for management decisions.
Prerequisite: BUS 112.
223. Marketing Research Methods
This course examines the role of marketing research in the formulation and solution of
marketing problems, and the development of the student’s basic skills in conducting and
evaluating marketing research projects. Special emphasis is placed on problem formulation,
research design, alternative methods of data collection (including data collection instruments,
sampling, and field operations), and data analysis techniques using IBM SPSS. Applications of
modern marketing research procedures to a variety of marketing problems are explored.
Prerequisite: BUS 111 and BUS 109 or equivalent.
224. Digital Marketing
This course introduces the practice of using social media and other digital communication
channels, including Internet and mobile-based tools and platforms, to reach consumers and
advance marketing strategies. Digital media can be used to build brands, create and maintain
relationships, launch promotions, advertise products and services and more. While this course
will aim to offer theoretical underpinnings needed to launch, manage, and measure digital
marketing efforts, it will also attempt to teach students to creatively engage with digital
marketing tools and to stay abreast of the latest developments in the fast-growing world of
digital marketing. ​Prerequisite: BUS 111
234. Introduction to Nonprofit Management
In this course we explore the foundations of nonprofit management in our society. We focus on
how nonprofits contribute to the health and wellbeing of our communities. We will investigate the
unique challenges of nonprofits and how to manage them to promote success and longevity.
We will also discuss and debate how to maximize their social impact. The course will focus on
case studies of high impact nonprofits and nonprofit failures from a thematic standpoint in order
to critically examine the future of the sector.
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302. Organizational Behavior
A research-based exploration of how organizations function. Topics include the contemporary
workplace, career management, culture, bureaucracy, teams, motivation, emotional intelligence,
power, communication, gender, diversity, and leadership. Students prepare and make
collaborative presentations and conduct workplace and leadership interviews.
303. Legal Environment of Business
This course looks at how American law has evolved from English common law to today’s
statutory and regulatory legal environment. The course explores recent statutes such as
Sarbanes-Oxley and Dodd-Frank and how they have impacted the way businesses operate.
The course also investigates legal and ethical issues facing businesses today, different types of
business associations, and liability issues faced by businesses under current tort law, contract
law, and property law.
310. International Business
Introduction to the study of international business, including the dynamics of conducting
business across national boundaries. Focuses on the critical roles that environment, culture,
technology, politics, economics, communication, and ethics play in successfully conducting
business on an international level.
311. Global Business Strategy
An interactive course designed for future leaders to understand and experience the challenges
associated with business at the global level. The course focuses on long term strategy, short
term tactical options, the active management of functional areas within global operations,
corporate structure, and supply chain management from raw material procurement to sales,
marketing, and distribution of finished products. The course includes lectures, cases, guest
speakers, and actively operating a competitive global business simulation.
315. Enterprise Resource Planning Systems
This course introduces students to software essential to the functioning of the firm —Enterprise
Resource Planning (ERP) software. Using SAP ERP software, students learn the information
flow for major distribution and manufacturing business processes and learn how ERP systems
support these business processes in an integrated fashion. The course includes an introduction
to system configuration, in which organizational structure, policy rules and other corporate
information are analyzed and then mapped to the ERP system. Guest speakers and field trips
provide real-world context. ​Prerequisite: BUS 210 or permission of the instructor.
316. Business Analytics
Introduction to theory and practice encompassing tools used to perform analysis of various
forms of business information. Topics may include data warehouses, in-memory analytics,
predictive analysis, visualization, big data, and methods to approach both structured and
unstructured data. Students use SAP software to model and provision analytics databases, and
develop actionable information from databases and spreadsheets using SAP, Tableau and SAS
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visualization products. ​Prerequisite: BUS 210 or permission of the instructor.
320. Entrepreneurship
A study of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, the process of identifying opportunities, the
marshaling and management of resources, and strategic planning and development of a
business plan. An examination of the management process through growth and change,
including reasons for the successes and failures of specific companies. ​Prerequisite: BUS 111
or permission of the instructor.
323. Consumer Behavior
This course is concerned with how and why people behave as consumers. Its goals are to: (1)
provide conceptual understanding of consumer behavior; (2) provide experience in the
application of buyer behavior concepts to marketing management decisions and social policy
decision-making; and (3) to develop analytical capability in using behavioral research.
Prerequisite: BUS 111 or permission of the instructor.
327, 328, 329.
An integrated three-course unit for students spending a semester at the Washington Center.
Students receive 16 elective credits in Business Management. (Details below.)
327. Washington Center Internship
A full-time, semester-long internship in Washington, DC, with a federal agency, non-profit
organization, or private firm. Depending upon interest and internship placement, students may
attend hearings, conduct policy research, draft correspondence, monitor legislation, lobby
members of Congress, or write analytical reports. Students will create an in-depth portfolio of
their internship experience. 12 credits. ​Prerequisite: BUS 111, 2.8 cumulative GPA, permission
of an instructor, and successful application to The Washington Center for Internships and
Academic Seminars. This course is normally open only to juniors and seniors.
328. Washington Center Seminar
Washington Center Interns participate in an evening seminar selected from a variety of topics
offered during the semester. Students engage in class discussion and may also research
seminar topics, prepare written assignments, and take examinations. ​Required of and limited to
students enrolled in BUS 327.​ Three credits.
329. Washington Center Forum
Washington Center Interns participate in lectures, site visits, small group discussions, briefings,
and other required events designed to help them understand the connection between their
academic and professional goals and the special educational opportunities available through
living and working in Washington, DC. Evaluations of these experiences are included in the
student portfolio. ​Required of and limited to students enrolled in BUS 327.​ One credit.
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330. International Business Experience
This summer course, taught by a Washington College Business Management faculty member,
takes students abroad for two weeks of intensive study and experiential learning in international
business. The itinerary is intense. Students visit two businesses each weekday for facilities
tours and/or presentations by managers on their firms’ international strategy. Cultural activities
are scheduled in the evenings and on weekends. On-campus sessions prior to travel round out
the academic component of the course, and ensure that students get the most out of their
experience abroad.
334. Leadership
What do leaders do? Are they born or made? Why are some leaders effective, and others
ineffective? What role do followers play? This seminar explores these and other questions by
focusing on leadership in organizations. Topics include vision, power, trust, ethics,
communication, gender, and change. ​Not open to first- or second-year students.
340. Intermediate Accounting
The study of current and emerging financial accounting theory and techniques. Emphasizes
financial statement presentation and the underlying treatment of cash, investments, receivables,
inventory, long-lived assets, and intangible assets. ​Prerequisite: BUS 112.
341. Income Tax Accounting
Federal taxation of individuals focusing on income, exclusions, deductions, depreciation, credits,
and capital transactions. Property coverage includes the tax consequences of sales and
dispositions of investment and business assets. Both tax planning and tax compliance issues
are covered. ​Prerequisite: BUS 112.
342. Auditing
Auditing consists of a set of practical conceptual tools that help a person to find, organize, and
evaluate evidence about the assertions of another party. This course will focus on those
analytical and logical skills necessary to evaluate the relevance and reliability of systems and
processes. Critical thinking and communications skills are developed through a variety of means
including case analyses, presentations, discussion, preparation of group and individual case
papers, and research of professional and scholarly literature. Recognizing that ethics is an
integral part of the entire accounting-related profession and a significant topic in all the College’s
accounting courses, this course will contain a section reviewing audit ethics, and will cover
lapses of ethical behavior by both auditors and audited firms. ​Prerequisite: BUS 112.
351. Advertising
Overview of the advertising industry from client and agency sides. Advertising is placed within
the marketing context of consumer behavior and market segmentation. Included is media
strategy and selection, creative strategy, print and broadcast advertising from concept through
production, advertising research, and international advertising strategy. ​Prerequisite: BUS 111.
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355. Corporate Finance
This course provides an in-depth analysis on the financial policies of corporations. Students
learn how to use and analyze financial data to make sound managerial decisions. Topics
covered include capital budgeting, capital structure, dividends and payout policies, working
capital management, real options, and mergers and acquisitions. In addition, to help students
develop an ethical sensitivity in business, topic about ethics in corporate finance will be
included. ​Prerequisite: BUS 209 or permission of the instructor.
360. Corporate Social Responsibility
This course offers an introduction to corporate social responsibility and a discussion of business
ethics. Students will examine and debate the minimal social expectations for organizations
embodied in ethical theories, legal doctrines, and community principles. We then explore and
critique broader corporate social responsibilities by drawing upon theories that discuss an
organization’s role in maintaining a vibrant civil society. Finally, we will analyze how corporate
responsibilities can promote strategic and competitive advantages for the firm. ​Prerequisite:
BUS 302.
390. Internship
For-credit internships combine work experience (at least 140 hours for two credits) and faculty
supervision. Internships may be taken for credit during the fall, spring, or summer. Grading is
pass-fail. ​Prerequisite: BUS 111 and 112 and minimum 2.5 GPA, or approval by the
department.
401. Strategic Management
Culmination of the study of business management, covering strategic analysis and
implementation. The case study method is used, requiring oral and written presentations. All
separate functional areas are integrated in the strategy process in relation to the firm’s social
responsibilities with regard to society, employees, and the larger environment. ​Prerequisites:
BUS 111, 209, and 302. Fulfills W3 writing requirement. Must be taken at Washington College;
cannot be transferred from study abroad or other institution.
440. Investments
This course provides students with the essential concepts in investment and enables them to
make meaningful investment decisions. To reach this goal, it will talk about current investment
theories and the associated empirical evidence found in academic research. Topics addressed
include the operation of financial markets, financial assets and their valuation, and the
construction of optimal investment portfolios. After taking this course, students should be able to
(1) understand the operation of financial market, (2) be familiar with various financial
instruments, (3) apply the discounted cash flow method to determine the value of financial
assets, (4) be familiar with various investment strategies, and (5) conduct financial analysis to
make investment decisions. ​Prerequisite: BUS 209 or permission of the instructor.
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455. Financial Derivatives
This course introduces financial derivatives and the operation of derivatives market. Coverage
includes options, forward contracts, commodity and financial futures, and swaps. Students also
learn how to use analytical models to determine the proper value of these financial products.
Since the existence of a well-functioning financial market depends on the integrity of its
participants, especially the investment professionals, cases regarding financial crisis and
business ethics will be provided and discussed. These case studies also allow students to
strengthen their oral as well as written communication skills. ​Prerequisite: BUS 209 or
permission of the instructor.
490. Internship
Students taking a second for-credit internship are enrolled in BUS 490. Grading is pass-fail and
as with BUS 390 the course is normally two credits. ​Prerequisite: Completion of BUS 390 and
approval by the department.
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics
Topics not regularly offered in the department’s normal course offerings.
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
Consists of an individual research project chosen by the student in consultation with a faculty
member, involving both design and implementation. Submission of a written report is required.
Open only to upper-level business management majors and minors who have acquired a strong
foundation in business management, and who have received project approval from a
sponsoring faculty member and permission of the department chair.
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
The Senior Capstone Experience is an intensive research project on a topic chosen by the
student and guided by a faculty mentor. It hones research, analytic, and writing skills developed
during four years of study. Students complete the Capstone while enrolled in the four-credit
Senior Capstone Experience (SCE) course, usually in the spring of their senior year; however,
planning for the SCE begins in the spring of their junior year with the submission of an SCE
application during advising week. The Capstone receives a mark of Pass, Fail, or Honors. In
order to pass, students must participate in an SCE poster presentation. Full details on the
capstone are available on the department website. ​Prerequisite: BUS 401. 195
Chemistry
Chemistry Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Aaron Amick, co-Chair
Dana Chatellier
James Lipchock
Rick Locker
Anne Marteel-Parrish, co-Chair
Betsy Moyer-Taylor
Leslie Sherman
The mission of the Chemistry Department at Washington College is to provide outstanding
undergraduate education in the chemical sciences by integrating classroom instruction with
laboratory experimentation, faculty-student collaborative research, and service opportunities.
Our goal is to inspire students to become liberally educated scientists. Our program is approved
by the American Chemical Society. The program is designed to prepare students for graduate
work in pure chemistry, for professional work in other scientific fields such as environmental
science, engineering, medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, neuroscience and veterinary
science, for teaching at the secondary school level, and for work in industrial or governmental
laboratories. Chemistry graduates have established diverse career paths that range from a
dedication to pure or applied scientific research, to management of scientific and business
concerns, to consultantships with industries and governments on scientific, environmental, legal,
and business issues, and to service as medical personnel and elected public officials.
Students who have an interest in majoring in chemistry or double majoring in chemistry and
another subject are advised to take CHE 111 and CHE 112 during their first year. Premedical
students and students interested in the 3:4 pharmacy program are advised to take CHE 111,
112 and BIO 111, 112 during their first year. Students intending to teach at the secondary
school level should consult with the Chair of the Department of Education and the Chair of the
Department of Chemistry about planning a full-course schedule as early as possible in their
college career. Such students need to be aware that NASDTEC Certification in Chemistry
requires BIO 111, 112 and at least one course in computer science.
Programs In Chemistry
The Department offers two programs leading to the Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry: a
non-ACS Certified Chemistry major and an ACS Certified Chemistry major. In addition, students
may elect to specialize their chemistry major by focusing their elective coursework and Senior
Capstone Experience in one of the four areas of emphasis offered by the department (described
below). Successful completion of one of these optional areas of emphasis will be noted on a
student’s transcript after graduation.
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Chemistry
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CHEMISTRY MAJOR
The table below summarizes the REQUIRED courses for both tracks in chemistry as well as for
students who have declared a major in chemistry late (Spring of sophomore year or Fall of
junior year).
Non-ACS certified degree
in chemistry
ACS certified degree in
chemistry
Chemistry major
declared late
First
year
CHE 111, CHE 112
BIO 111​*
MAT 201, MAT 202
CHE 111, CHE 112
BIO 111*
MAT 201, MAT 202
Second
year
CHE 201, CHE 202
PHY 111, PHY 112 ​or​ PHY
101, PHY 102
CHE 201, CHE 202
PHY 111, PHY 112
CHE 111, CHE 112
MAT 201, MAT 202
Third
year
CHE 301
CHE 305 ​or​ CHE 306
Elective #1 and Elective #2
CHE 392
CHE 301
CHE 305 ​and​ CHE 306
CHE 392
CHE Elective #1 and CHE
Elective #2
CHE 201, CHE 202
PHY 111, PHY 112 ​or
PHY 101, PHY 102
CHE 392
Elective #1 and
Elective #2
Fourth
year
Elective #3 and Elective #4
CHE SCE
CHE 311
CHE 303 ​or​ 309
CHE Elective #3
CHE SCE
CHE 305 ​or​ CHE 306
Elective #3 and
Elective #4
CHE SCE
*Students on the pre-med track must take CHE 309 and therefore BIO 111 (BIO 111 is a
prerequisite for BIO 409/CHE 309).
Elective courses are courses at the 200-level or above. Three of the four elective courses for
the non-ACS certified degree can be BIO or PHY courses not counted towards that major. The
three elective courses for the ACS certified degree in chemistry must be CHE courses such as:
CHE 303 (or CHE 309), CHE 310, CHE 314, CHE 320, CHE 403, CHE 405, CHE 410, CHE
395, 495, CHE 396, 496 or CHE 394, 494.
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Historically students who obtain a C- or below in the first semester of general chemistry rarely
perform well in the second semester of General Chemistry and continue to struggle in Organic
Chemistry I and II (CHE 201 and CHE 202). Therefore we recommend that students do not
pursue CHE 201 and CHE 202 (Organic Chemistry I, II) if their grade in pre-requisite courses is
not satisfactory. We also strongly recommend that students take Organic Chemistry I and II the
year immediately following General Chemistry I and II.
Areas of Emphasis
In addition to the major offerings listed above, students wishing to specialize within a
subdiscipline of chemistry or a chemistry-related cross-disciplinary or multidisciplinary area have
the option to complete an area of emphasis within the ACS certified or non-ACS certified
chemistry majors. As outlined below, each area of emphasis requires students to complete their
SCE in the selected area, as well as three additional 4-credit courses. For students who do not
wish to pursue a B.S. in Chemistry with an area of emphasis, they have the option to complete
their SCE with any professor of their choice on any topic of their interest.
Successful completion of an area of emphasis will be noted on a student’s transcript after
graduation. Given that the SCE must be completed in the selected area of emphasis, a student
may only complete one area of emphasis. The chemistry department offers the following areas
of emphasis:
1. Organic and Medicinal Chemistry
This area of emphasis is designed for students interested in pursuing graduate study or
careers in organic chemistry, medicinal chemistry or pharmacology. Students will gain a
strong foundation in organic synthesis and mechanisms, while broadening their knowledge
in areas such as drug discovery and pharmacology.
Requirements:
SCE specialization in Organic or Medicinal Chemistry, plus ​three​ of the following:
·​
​CHE 403. Advanced Organic Chemistry
·​
​CHE 320. Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry
·​
​CHE 494. Advanced Synthesis and Spectroscopy
·​
​CHE 303 ​OR​ CHE 309. Chemistry of Biological Compounds ​OR​ Biochemistry
2. Greener Materials Science
This area of emphasis is designed for students interested in receiving a thorough
grounding in the basic sciences and engineering of all materials while being exposed to
environmentally friendly chemical processes (Green Chemistry). Students will be prepared
for graduate study or bench research dealing with the production, structure,
characterization, properties, and utilization of metals, ceramics, polymers, composites,
nano- and bio-compatible and electronic materials. Additionally future chemists and
engineers will be provided the tools required to minimize the environmental impact of
materials production.
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Requirements:
SCE specialization in Greener Materials Science, plus ​three​ of the following:
·​
​CHE 310. Greener and Sustainable Chemistry
·​
​CHE 311. Inorganic Chemistry
·​
​CHE 410. Fundamentals of Materials Science
·​
​CHE 494. Advanced Synthesis and Spectroscopy
·​
​CHE 314. Instrumental Methods of Analysis
3. Physical and Instrumental Chemistry
This area of emphasis is designed for students with an interest in the more physical
aspects of chemistry or instrumental design and data analysis. Students will be prepared
for graduate school or careers that require a stronger foundation in theoretical or analytical
areas of chemistry.
Requirements:
SCE specialization in Physical or Instrumental Chemistry, plus ​three​ of the following:
·​
​CHE 305 ​AND​ CHE 306. Chemical Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics ​AND
Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy
·​
​CHE 314. Instrumental Methods of Analysis
·​
​CHE 494. Advanced Synthesis and Spectroscopy
·​
​CHE 405. Biophysical Methods
·​
​PHY elective at the 200-level or above
·​
​MAT 203 ​OR​ MAT 345. Multivariable Calculus ​OR​ Differential Equations
4. Biophysics and Biological Chemistry
This area of emphasis is designed for students interested in pursuing graduate study or a
career in biophysics, biological chemistry, chemical biology, pharmacology or related
fields. Students will gain a strong background in biomolecular structure and dynamics,
techniques utilized in biophysical and biochemical characterization of biomolecules, and
principles of effective drug design.
Requirements:
SCE specialization in Biophysics or Biological Chemistry, plus ​three​ of the following:
·​
​CHE 303. Chemistry of Biological Compounds
·​
​CHE 309. Biochemistry
·​
​CHE 405. Biophysical Methods
·​
​CHE 320. Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry
·​
​CHE 305 ​AND​ CHE 306. Chemical Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics ​AND
Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy
·​
​BIO elective at 200-level or above
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Chemistry
Requirements For The Chemistry Minor
Students intending to minor in Chemistry should meet with the Department Chair early in their
career to insure that they are able to complete the following courses and to get their minor
declaration card signed.
Six chemistry courses are required for the chemistry minor.
CHE 111, 112. General Chemistry I and II
CHE 201, 202. Organic Chemistry I and II
Two courses at the 200 level or above.
Chemistry Seminar
All junior majors participate in a one four-credit Chemistry Seminar course offered in the spring
semester. This course prepares our chemistry majors to become citizens of the 21st century by
exposing them to research ethics, sustainable science literacy, societal and moral issues in
chemistry, and academic subject lectures (modern chemistry). Professional preparation
(exposure to career options, resume building, job searching and mock interview) as well as
improvement of communication skills (oral (debate, discussions, final presentation), written
(ethics case study, abstract) and visual (poster, blog) are the main outcomes of this seminar
course.
Senior Capstone Experience
Chemistry majors fulfill the Senior Capstone Experience by conducting a yearlong research
project either based on a laboratory project or an in-depth literature review in collaboration with
a chemistry faculty member. Many research projects involve synthetic and preparative
procedures and include the use of the department’s research grade analytical instrumentation.
The results of this research are presented in the department’s annual research symposium and
are included in a written, thesis-quality report. Many projects involve synthetic and preparative
procedures and include the use of the department’s research-grade UV-VIS, FTIR, AA, NMR,
GC, HPLC, GC-MS, ICP-MS, electrochemical analyzer, and polarimeter. Students pursuing the
ACS-certified degree in Chemistry must perform a laboratory-based research project for their
SCE to meet the number of laboratory hours required by the ACS. This requirement could be
waived if ACS-certified majors have already performed research for credit during the academic
year or during the summer. Seniors present the results of their project in a poster session that is
open to the College community. The department has a set of Senior Capstone Experience
Guidelines that are distributed to both junior and senior chemistry majors each Fall. For those
students meeting the College-wide standards of eligibility for departmental honors at graduation,
the capstone experience also forms the basis of an oral examination given at the end of the
students’ final semester. Students must enroll in CHE SCE in their final semester to obtain credit
for the Senior Capstone Experience. The Senior Capstone Experience is graded according to
the Washington College grading system, which involves the use of letter grades (A-F) that may
be modified by a minus or a plus.
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Internship and Research Opportunities
A number of stipend-bearing internships and research opportunities exist for chemistry majors
and minors. Summer on-campus research projects as well as summer and semester-long
off-campus internships not only provide additional laboratory experience, but also allow students
the opportunity to explore, in depth, areas of chemistry not covered in the core curriculum.
Off-campus internships may or may not bear credit. On-campus summer internships are credit
bearing.
Honors Courses
The Department of Chemistry offers Honors sections of General Chemistry I and General
Chemistry II.
Distribution Courses
For distribution credit in Natural Sciences, the Chemistry department offers CHE 111, 112
General Chemistry I, II, and CHE 110 Chemistry of the Environment.
Advanced Placement Credit
Students scoring 4 or 5 on the chemistry advanced placement examination may, with the
approval of the department, receive credit for General Chemistry I, II. Students wishing to
progress directly into Organic Chemistry I (CHE 201) must score a 5 on the advanced
placement examination and receive approval from the department.
Transfer Credit
It is not recommended for Chemistry majors to take any chemistry course off campus. It is not
encouraged for any other major to take general chemistry and/or organic chemistry off campus.
If absolutely necessary, it is the responsibility of the students to provide the Chair of the
Chemistry department the appropriate documentation for transfer credit.
NOTE ABOUT PREREQUISITE
Having the correct prerequisite for a course also means that the students successfully pass the
prerequisite course.
Course Descriptions
110. (ENV 110) Chemistry of the Environment
This introductory course focuses on the chemical dimensions of current environmental problems
such as global warming, ozone depletion, water and soil contamination, and energy production.
Fundamental principles of chemical bonding, reactions, and energy are studied as they arise in
connection with each environmental issue. Interdisciplinary aspects are explored to further
understand the multiple dimensions of the problems. Intended for students planning to major
outside the sciences. Three hours of lecture and one hour and 3/4 of laboratory each week.
(Offered annually)
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Chemistry
111, 112. General Chemistry I, II
This two-semester sequence focuses on the fundamental principles of chemistry. Key topics are
atomic and molecular structure, chemical bonding, and stoichiometry, with an emphasis on
molecules and reactions important in biological systems. Other topics include thermochemistry,
kinetics, chemical equilibria, electrochemistry, intermolecular forces and states of matter,
periodic properties, coordination chemistry, and an introduction to organic chemistry,
biochemistry, and Green Chemistry. Laboratory work is designed to complement lecture
material. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory each week. ​Prerequisite.
Chemistry 111 is a prerequisite for Chemistry 112.​ (Offered annually)
201, 202. Organic Chemistry I, II
This two-semester sequence is concerned with the molecular architecture and chemical
reactivity of a broad spectrum of organic molecules, including aliphatic and aromatic
hydrocarbons, their halogenated derivatives, and molecules containing oxygen and nitrogen,
alone or in one or more combinations. Particular emphasis is placed on the structure and
function of organic molecules important in biological systems. Heavy emphasis is given to the
study of reaction mechanisms. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory each week.
Prerequisite. Chemistry 112 or its equivalent. Chemistry 201 is a prerequisite for Chemistry 202.
(Offered annually)
210. (ENV 210) Environmental Chemistry
The cycling of natural chemical species and pollutants in the water, soil and air of our earth
system is a major component of our complex ecosystem. In this environmental chemistry
course, students will develop an understanding of the transport and reactions controlling natural
chemical species in our environment, as well as the cycling of pollutants. Students will study
current issues of water, soil and air pollution, and how society is working towards reducing the
movement of pollutants through our environment. In the laboratory portion of the class, students
will investigate the water quality of local water bodies, including the Chester River, as well as
conduct hands-on experiments related to the environmental topics studied in class. Three hours
of lecture and three hours of laboratory each​. ​Prerequisites. Chemistry 112.​ (Offered Fall: even
numbered years)
301. Analytical Chemistry
This course is intended to be an introduction to analytical chemistry. Both classical and
instrumental methods of analysis are considered. A detailed treatment of simple and complex
chemical equilibria with particular emphasis on theoretical aspects of acid-base,
oxidation-reduction, complex formation, and precipitation equilibria is presented as a basis for
the classical gravimetric and titrimetric methods. The instrumental techniques included
electroanalytical, uv-visible molecular spectroscopy, atomic spectroscopy, and chromatography.
Applications of the techniques to inorganic, organic, biochemical, and environmental analysis
are covered in the lecture and lab components of the course. Three hours of lecture and three
hours of laboratory each week. ​Prerequisite. Chemistry 112.​ (Offered annually: Fall)
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Chemistry
303. Chemistry of Biological Compounds
This course is designed to provide a comprehensive introduction to the structure and function of
biological molecules at the molecular level. Using post-translational modification of proteins as a
guide, we will explore intermolecular interactions, biomolecular structure (proteins, nucleic acids,
carbohydrates and lipids) and fundamental concepts in mechanistic enzymology. Students will
learn to interpret biochemical data, predict the impact of mutations associated with disease and
visualize biomolecular structures with the aid of computer software commonly utilized in the
field. Additional topics include: RNA transcription, protein translation, enzyme engineering and
more. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory each week. ​Prerequisite. Chemistry
202. ​(Offered annually)
305. Chemical Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics
Thermodynamics is the study of the behavior of matter and the transformation between different
forms of energy on a macroscopic scale. Chemical dynamics is the study of the rate at which
the macroscopic properties and composition of matter change. These changes can involve
either transport properties, such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, and diffusion or chemical
kinetics. Some of the chemical kinetics topics covered are rate laws, temperature effects on
reaction rates, reaction rate theories, reaction mechanisms, and enzyme catalysis. Applications
of chemical thermodynamics and chemical dynamics are drawn from environmental chemistry
and biochemistry. Laboratory exercises include determination of thermodynamic properties and
kinetics experiments. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory each week.
Prerequisite: Chemistry 112 and Mathematics 202. Co-requisite: Physics 111.​ (Offered annually:
Fall)
306. Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy
Quantum chemistry is the application of quantum mechanics to the field of chemistry. Topics
included in the discussion of quantum chemistry are the early development of quantum
mechanics, quantum mechanical models for molecular vibrations and rotations, and electronic
structure of atoms and molecules. Spectroscopy is the study of the interactions of
electromagnetic radiation with matter, and is the principal experimental tool used to investigate
the predictions made using quantum mechanics. The laboratory exercises include spectroscopy
experiments and the use of molecular modeling programs. Three hours of lecture and three
hours of laboratory each week. ​Prerequisite: Chemistry 112 and Mathematics 202. Co-requisite:
Physics 112. ​(Offered annually: Spring)
309. (BIO 409) Biochemistry
An examination of living systems at the chemical level. Topics will include structure and function
of macromolecules, cellular energetics, cellular respiration, and photosynthesis. A laboratory will
be conducted weekly to introduce students to experimental techniques. ​Prerequisite: Biology
111 and Chemistry 202, or permission from instructor.​ (Offered annually: Fall)
310. Greener and Sustainable Chemistry
Environmentally friendly scientists are increasingly conscious about the need to make chemistry
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“greener.” The goal of this course is to present a different perspective regarding chemistry and
its applications in academia and industry worldwide. This course will cover both the theoretical
and practical aspects of green and sustainable chemistry. The introduction will include the
foundations of green chemistry and sustainability as well as a description of the tools and
principles it employs. There will be an in-depth study concerning the evaluation of methods and
tools in designing environmentally benign reactions and chemicals. Real-world examples will be
used to illustrate the goals of green chemistry. Throughout the semester students will have the
opportunity to enhance their writing and oral presentation skills and improve their
communication and discussion abilities. Three hours of lecture each week. ​Prerequisite:
Chemistry 202.​ (Offered Spring: in rotation with Chemistry 410)
311. Inorganic Chemistry
This course is an in-depth study of structure and bonding in molecules. Topics include atomic
structure, symmetry and bond theory, ionic and covalent bonding, coordination and
organometallic chemistry, and catalysis. The laboratory work focuses on the synthesis and
characterization of the following: main group compounds, bioinorganic molecules, zeolites,
coordination and organometallic complexes used in catalysis. It also introduces green inorganic
chemistry, computational chemistry, and metal complexes used in bioinorganic chemistry. Three
hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. ​Co-requisite: Chemistry 305 or
permission of the instructor.​ (Offered annually: Fall)
314. Instrumental Methods of Analysis
This course examines instrumental methods based on their selectivity, sensitivity, and detection
limits. Instrumental systems are analyzed in terms of electronics, computers, and optics. The
following topics are included: Molecular and atomic spectroscopy, electroanalytical techniques,
and separation techniques. Applications of the techniques to inorganic, organic, biochemical
and environmental analysis are covered in the lecture and lab components of the course. The
laboratory emphasizes the critical evaluation of data. Three hours of lecture and three hours of
laboratory each week. ​Prerequisite: Chemistry 201 and Chemistry 301.​ (Offered annually:
Spring)
309. (BIO 409) Biochemistry
An examination of living systems at the chemical level. Topics will include structure and function
of macromolecules, cellular energetics, cellular respiration, and photosynthesis. A laboratory will
be conducted weekly to introduce students to experimental techniques. ​Prerequisite: Biology
111 and Chemistry 202, or permission from instructor.​ (Offered annually: Fall)
320. Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry
This course is an introduction to the field of Medicinal Chemistry and will focus heavily on the
chemistry of pharmacological agents as well as their synthesis. Attention will also be placed on
enzyme mechanisms and how bioactive molecules affect their activity. This course meets three
hours each week.​ Prerequisite. Chemistry 201 AND 202. ​(Offered Biennially)
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Chemistry
403. Advanced Organic Chemistry
This course expands upon the topics discussed previously in the two semesters of organic
chemistry. Topics that are covered are: Frontier Molecular Orbital (FMO) Theory and how this
can be applied to chemical reactivity, Pericyclic Reactions, Linear Free-Energy Relationships,
Molecular Rearrangements, Heterocyclic Chemistry, and Organometallic Chemistry. Heavy
emphasis will be on reaction mechanisms and synthesis. ​Prerequisite: Chemistry 202.
405. Biophysical Methods
This course explores experimental methods used to characterize the structure and dynamics of
biological molecules. An emphasis will be placed on the theory behind the techniques and the
data obtained, in addition to the biological interpretation of the results. Topics include:
biomolecule synthesis and purification, NMR spectroscopy, x-ray crystallography, fluorescence
spectroscopy, and more. Three hours of lecture each week. ​Prerequisites: MAT 202 plus CHE
303 or CHE 309.
410. Fundamentals of Materials Science
Our lives are influenced by all types of materials in transportation, housing, clothing,
communication, recreation, and food production. The development and advancement of
societies have been dependent on the ability to use existing materials, produce, manipulate,
and select new materials suitable in many technologies that make our existence more
comfortable. This course depicts relationships between the processing of a material, its
structure, and finally its performance based on its properties in terms of the design, production,
and utilization of the material. The overall goal of this course is to become familiar with the
selection process that scientists and engineers use when designing a suitable material at a
reasonable cost with minimal environmental impact. Three hours of lecture each week.
Prerequisite: Chemistry 305 or Chemistry 306 or permission of the instructor ​(Offered Spring: in
rotation with Chemistry 310)
392. Chemistry Seminar
This seminar course attempts to prepare our Chemistry majors for their future professional
career so they become successful professionals and experts in the Chemistry field. It is
expected that our majors 1) become proficient at literature searching, reading and interpreting,
2) increase their awareness about societal issues either professionally or as citizens and have
the background to constructively engage in debates, 3) understand the variety of career options
available to chemists, and 4) are involved in a course relying on critical analysis,
decision-making within a context, effective oral, written, and visual communication, and
cooperative teamwork. Therefore, at the end of this course, the following “​4 Cs​” will have been
practiced and mastered: ​C​ritical thinking and problem solving, ​C​ommunication, ​C​ollaboration,
and ​C​reativity and innovation.
​Prerequisite: chemistry major and junior status.​ (Offered in the Spring)
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics in Chemistry
A detailed study of an advanced topic or topics in chemistry chosen on the basis of current
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Chemistry
student interest and faculty expertise. Special topics include but are not limited to: Biophysical
Methods, Heterocyclic Chemistry, Organometallic Chemistry, Solid-State Chemistry, Chemistry
of Macromolecules, Medicinal Chemistry, Advanced Synthesis and Spectroscopy, and
Electronics Instrumentation. Three hours of lecture per week. (Offered annually)
195, 295, 395, 495. On-Campus Research
This course is comprised of a ten-week summer research project guided by a faculty mentor.
The student and faculty mentor develop a research project supported by a reading list and
involving theoretical, laboratory, or field investigations supervised by the faculty mentor.
Participants will produce a final report detailing the findings of their research. Students may earn
four credits per summer for a maximum of eight credits. Not offered as Pass/Fail. ​Prerequisite:
Permission of the mentor.​ (Offered annually)
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
This course consists of an individual research project chosen by the student in consultation with
a faculty mentor. The student will, with the help of the mentor, design a project to be
implemented during a one- or two-semester period or during the summer. The student will
conduct an appropriate literature search, carry out the research, and submit a written report by
the end of each semester. Students may earn two credits per semester or four credits for
summer research for a maximum of eight credits.​ N
​ ot offered as Pass/Fail. ​Prerequisite:
Permission of the mentor.
190, 290, 390, 490. Internship
An internship is based on an opportunity for students to work with industries, governmental
laboratories and institutes, and outside non-research based institutions. Students will be able to
work closely with an on-site supervisor to discover the numerous aspects of the working world.
Participants will produce a final report detailing the findings of their research. Students may earn
two or four credits per semester for a maximum of four credits. Not offered as Pass/Fail.
Prerequisite: Permission of the mentor.​ (Offered annually)
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
This course provides an opportunity for students to work with a professor of their choice on a
research project or on an in-depth literature review project during the academic year. Students
may earn one or two credits per semester. Not offered as Pass/Fail. Prerequisite: Permission of
the mentor. (Offered annually)
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
Chemistry majors fulfill the Senior Capstone Experience by conducting a yearlong research
project in collaboration with a chemistry faculty member and writing a thesis-quality report. Many
projects involve synthetic and preparative procedures and include the use of the department’s
research-grade UV-VIS, FTIR, AA, NMR, GC, HPLC, GC-MS, ICP-MS, electrochemical
analyzer, and polarimeter. Students pursuing the ACS-certified degree in Chemistry must
perform a laboratory-based research project for their SCE to meet the number of laboratory
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Chemistry
hours required by the ACS. This requirement could be waived if ACS-certified majors have
already performed research for credit during the academic year or during the summer. Seniors
present the results of their project in a poster session that is open to the College community.
The Senior Capstone Experience is graded according to the Washington College grading
system, which involves the use of letter grades (A-F) that may be modified by a minus or a plus.
(Offered annually)
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Communication and Media Studies Interdisciplinary Major
Dale Daigle
Ryan Eanes
Heather Harvey
The Communication and Media Studies major focuses on communicative practices and media
technologies and raises the kinds of questions that push liberally educated people to interrogate
their own knowledge, question accepted wisdom, and develop deeper analytical insight.
Communication and Media Studies contributes to the intellectual emancipation of its majors by
practicing the values of liberal learning: analytical thought, clear communication, aesthetic
insight, ethical sensitivity, and civic responsibility. The major builds upon a foundation of
communication theory and draws from multiple disciplines to enable students to study a wide
range of communication and media studies topics and develop the quantitative, qualitative and
interpretive skills necessary to engage in original research.
The requirements for majors in Communication and Media Studies are as follows:
CMS 194. Introduction to Communication & Media Studies
CMS 294. Intermediate Communication & Media Theory
CMS 394. Research Methods in Communication & Media Studies
Majors must also select one concentration, and take seven additional courses in this
concentration. At least four of these seven must be at the 300 or 400 level.
Arts & Production Concentration Requirements
Two of the following courses:
ART 251. Visual and Critical Thinking
ART 200. Intro to History of Western Art
ENG 223. Intro to Drama
MUS 104. Intro to World Music & Ethnomusicology
MUS 106. Rock, Pop, & American Culture
THE 101. Drama, Stage and Society I or THE 102 Drama, Stage,
and Society II
Two of the following theory/history/genre courses:
ART 320. Twentieth Century Art
ART 324. Photography's First Century
ART 425. Women Artists and Feminist Art History
CHN/ILC 394. Chinese Cinema
208
ENG 205. Shakespeare I
ENG 206. Shakespeare II
GRS 317. German Cinema
HIS 318. Historical Film Genres
HIS 344 Hollywood Films in the Depression and WWII
HPS/ILC 394. Tequila Gang: Mexico
ILC 305. European Cinema
ILC 413. The Film in Spain and Latin America
MUS 205. History of Western Music Since 1900
MUS 206. Jazz History
MUS 313. Music of Latin America
MUS 314. Music of Asia
THE 358. Dramaturgy
THE 401. Dramatic Theory
THE 415. Theories of Acting
Three of the following applied courses (at least two at the 300 or 400 level):
ART 231. Creative Process
ART 261. Intermedia_D
ART 291. Intermedia_VNM
ART 330. Video Intensive
ART 335. New Media Intensive
ART 340. Photography Intensive
ART 394. Art as Inquiry: The Artistic Laboratory
ENG 294. Introduction to Journalism
ENG 394. Special Topic: Hamlet and its Afterlife
MUS 332. Music Production & Recording
THE 221. Directing
THE 241. Introduction to Theatrical Design
THE 351. Introduction to Playwriting
THE 361. Performance Studies: Adaptation
THE 394. Special Topics: Screenplay
THE 394. Costume Design
THE 451. Advanced Playwriting
Business/Organization Communication and Media Concentration Requirements
One of the following courses:
ANT 105. Introduction to Anthropology
SOC 101. Introduction to Sociology
Three of the following courses:
209
BUS 111. Principles of Marketing
BUS 224. Digital Marketing
BUS 302. Organizational Behavior
BUS 334. Leadership
BUS 451. Advertising
PHL 300. Business Ethics
Three of the following courses:
ANT 215. Sex, Gender & Culture
ANT 300. Language and Culture
ANT 305. Ethnographic Method
ANT 320. Race & Ethnicity
ANT 354. Visual Anthropology
ANT 420. Media and Power
CMS 294/394/494. Social Science Topics in Communication & Media Studies
ENG 294. Introduction to Journalism
ENG 393 & 493. Journalism Practicum (2 credits each)
POL 334. Media and Politics
SOC 213. Sociology of Gender
SOC 221. Social Inequalities
SOC 262. Self and Society
SOC 394. Sociological Documentaries
Social Science Communication & Media Studies Concentration
One of the following courses:
ANT 105 Introduction to Anthropology
SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology
Six of the following courses:
ANT 215. Sex, Gender & Culture
ANT 300. Language and Culture
ANT 305. Ethnographic Method
ANT 320. Race & Ethnicity
ANT 354. Visual Anthropology
ANT 420. Media and Power
CHN/ILC 394. Chinese Cinema
CMS 294/394/494 Social Science Topics in Communication & Media Studies
ENG 294. Introduction to Journalism
ENG 393 & 493. Journalism Practicum (2 credits each)
GRS 317. German Cinema
HIS 318 Historical Film Genres
HIS 344 Hollywood Films in the Depression and WWII
210
HPS/ILC 394. Tequila Gang: Mexico
ILC 305. European Cinema
ILC 413. The Film in Spain and Latin America
PHL Ethics course (PHL 102 Contemporary Moral Problems, PHL 225 Ethical Theory,
PHL 226 Global Ethics, PHL 235 Foundations of Morality, PHL 300 Business
Ethics, PHL 303 Environmental Ethics, PHL 325 Biomedical Ethics)
POL 312. The American Presidency
POL 313. Elections and the Political Process
POL 321. Women and Politics
POL 334. Media and Politics
SOC 213. Sociology of Gender
SOC 221. Social Inequalities
SOC 262. Self and Society
SOC 394. Sociological Documentaries
SOC 394. Internet & Society
SOC 394. Diversity in Media
SOC 394. Social Change & Social Media
211
Creative Writing
Creative Writing Minor, Division of Humanities and Fine Arts
Kathryn Moncrief, Director
Kimberly Andrews
Dale Daigle
James Allen Hall
Robert Mooney
Emma Sovich
Michele Volansky
Budding writers find the creative writing community at Washington College inviting and full of
opportunities to practice their craft. The minor in creative writing offers a carefully planned
curriculum designed to foster the young writer’s creative expression—guidance that is
significantly enhanced by exposure to the voices and visions of some of the finest poets and
fiction writers in the country. Each year, thanks to the endowment of the Sophie Kerr Fund, the
College brings to campus a succession of distinguished writers, editors, and literary scholars.
Billy Collins, Junot Díaz, Nick Flynn, Jonathan Franzen, Neil Gaiman, Lauren Groff, Ted Kooser,
Li-Young Lee, Colum McCann, Azar Nafisi, Maggie Nelson, Joyce Carol Oates, Claudia
Rankine, Jane Smiley, Natasha Trethewey, Colson Whitehead, and Jacqueline Woodson and
are just some of the writers and literary scholars who have come to campus in the last decade
to teach, lecuture, and conduct writing workshops.
The Sophie Kerr Fund also supports the justly famous Sophie Kerr Prize (at $65,768 in 2017,
the largest undergraduate literary prize in the country), as well as various student publications
that spring from the imaginations of students who find a welcoming and creative environment in
the Rose O’Neill Literary House.
The minor in creative writing can be achieved through the successful completion of five
courses—ENG 103 Introduction to Creative Writing and then any combination of four
300/400-level creative writing courses including those indicated below, as well as additional
“special topics” courses. Recent “special topics” courses have included The Screenplay, Poetry
in Performance, Poetry and Book Arts, The Art of Biography, Travel Writing, and Writing about
the Natural World.
ENG 103. Introduction to Creative Writing
A workshop introducing new writers to several forms of creative writing, including poetry, fiction,
and nonfiction. Students will use classic and contemporary literature as models for their own
efforts. In the fall semester, this course is only open to first-year students. In the spring
semester, beginning writers from all years may enroll in ENG 103.
ENG/THE 351. Introduction to Playwriting
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Creative Writing
Analysis and practical application of techniques and styles employed in writing for the stage.
ENG 352. Forms of Poetry
This course explores the rich literary tradition of received forms in English and American verse.
By studying a wide range of formal poems students will discover the adaptability of fixed forms
like the sonnet, villanelle, and sestina. Class assignments will include both critical writing and
creative “experiments” in poetic forms. Students are strongly encouraged to take Forms of
Poetry in preparation for the “Creative Writing Workshop: Poetry.”
ENG 353. Contemporary American Literature: Living Writers
This course focuses on the study of American poetry, fiction, and nonfiction from 1945 to the
present. (The course alternates among the genres of poetry, fiction, and nonfiction.) Emphasis
includes an examination of the work of major American writers of the last half-century. The
course is structured in a way similar to a traditional offering in literature with this difference:
some of the writers whose work is studied in class will at some time during the semester come
to campus to visit the class, discuss their work with participants, and give a public reading.
ENG 354. Literary Editing and Publishing
The Rose O’Neill Literary House is home to ​Cherry Tree,​ a professional literary journal featuring
poets, fiction writers, and nonfiction writers of national reputation and staffed by Washington
College students. In this course, students receive hands-on training in the process of editing
and publishing a top-tier literary journal. They analyze literary markets even as they steward into
print work from the nation’s most prestigious emerging and established writers. This class
includes extensive research and discussion of nationally recognized literary magazines and
covers topics such as a publication’s mission statement, its aesthetic vision, and its editorial
practices. All students who wish to join the editorial staff and be included on the masthead of
Cherry Tree​ must complete one semester of ENG 394: Literary Editing & Publishing.
ENG/THE 451. Advanced Playwriting
An advanced workshop in writing for the stage. ​Prerequisite: ENG 351 Playwriting I​.
ENG 452. Creative Writing Workshop: Fiction
This workshop offers guided practice in the writing short fiction. Using established writers as
models, considerable effort is put toward the objective of learning to read as writers and, in the
process, becoming better critics of the student’s own work and the work of others in the group.
By offering a more intimate familiarity with the elements of fiction, students write and revise
prodigiously and, in the process, learn and practice a repertoire of literary strategies in
preparation and in support of short stories of their own composition. ​Prerequisite: ENG 103
Introduction to Creative Writing.
ENG 453. Creative Writing Workshop: Poetry
This course builds upon student’s previous training in the workshop, asking them to hone their
skills not only as writers but also as readers and critics of poetry. Using recently released, debut
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Creative Writing
collections as role models, students will address concepts of diction, the line and line break,
figurative language, imagery, rhyme, meter, and narrative. Assignments will include drafting
new poems, performing close readings of published texts, and facilitating class discussions.
Prerequisite: ENG 103 Introduction to Creative Writing.
ENG 454. Creative Writing Workshop: Nonfiction
This course will use a workshop approach for students who are interested in developing their
skills in a kind of writing which combines elements of journalism, such as the feature article, with
elements of the literary, such as the personal essay. In addition, students will also develop their
essay skills in the form of the personal narrative and travel writing. In essence this course treats
the various forms of the essay with a special emphasis on the creative ways the genre can be
interpreted and rewritten. Readings of representative essays will be included​. Prerequisite: ENG
103 Introduction to Creative Writing.
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Economics
Economics Division of Social Sciences
Adalbert Mayer, Chair
Lisa Daniels
Andrew Helms
Kyoung Mook Lim
Robert Lynch
Brian Scott
At its heart, economics is a social science that seeks to explain human behavior. Far from
being limited to questions of the demand and supply for goods and services, economics seeks
to answer questions spanning a wide range of issues. These include poverty, discrimination,
crime, pollution, education, international trade, taxation, natural resource management, and
many other areas. Unlike the study of business management which focuses on improvements
for a single firm or industry, economics takes a societal view that examines the impact of
decisions or policies on individuals, households, businesses, taxpayers, the environment, and
the country or the world as a whole.
In order to examine the impacts of policies from a societal view, economic analysis relies on a
highly quantitative analytical method that requires knowledge of microeconomic and
macroeconomic theory, mathematical modeling, statistics and logic. Graduates who have
mastered the “economic way of thinking” are prepared to move on into successful careers. Our
majors have gone on to careers in law, business, finance, foreign service, government,
consulting, education, and research. For those wishing to pursue graduate school, Economics
majors tend to score very well on entrance exams. Nationwide, Economics graduates tend to
score better than majors from business management, political science, international studies,
psychology and virtually every other field of study on the Graduate Record Examination (GRE),
Law School Admission Test (LSAT), and the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT).
Many of our majors have successfully completed graduate school in these areas.
Major Requirements
Students planning to major in Economics must take ECN 111, 112, 211, 212, 215, and five
additional Economics courses at the 200-level or above. Students will fulfill the Writing in the
Major requirement (W3) by taking ECN 215.
In addition to the required courses, students must complete the Senior Capstone Experience,
which is fulfilled by writing a thesis or passing comprehensive exams.
Minor Requirements
Students who wish to minor in Economics must complete ECN 111, 112, and four economics
courses at the 200-level or above.
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Economics
Social Science Distribution Requirements
Students who elect to use Economics to fulfill their Social Science distribution requirement with
only one course from Economics can choose from ECN 111, 112, or ENV 117. If students want
to fulfill their Social Science distribution requirement with two courses from Economics, they
may take ECN 111 and 112, or they may take either ECN 111 or 112 and any one of the
following courses (some of which require 111 or 112 -- see individual course descriptions for
prerequisites):
ENV 117 Introduction to Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
ECN 218 Economic Development
ECN 219 Labor Economics
ECN 312 Public Finance
ECN 317 Environmental Economics
ECN 318 Natural Resource Economics
ECN 416 Law and Economics
Internships through The Washington Center
Students who major or minor in Economics have the opportunity to undertake an internship in
Washington, D.C. through The Washington Center (see www.twc.edu). During this
semester-long program, students may attend hearings, conduct policy research, draft
correspondence, monitor legislation, lobby members of Congress, or write analytical reports
depending upon their placement. In addition, students attend an evening seminar selected from
a variety of topics offered during the semester. Finally, students participate in lectures, site
visits, small group discussions, briefings, and other required events designed to help them
understand the connection between their academic and professional goals and the special
educational opportunities available through living and working in Washington, D.C. Students
earn 16 credits for this internship during the semester (eight toward upper-level Economics
electives and eight toward general electives). If students undertake an internship during the
ten-week summer program, they earn eight credits (four toward upper-level Economics
electives).
In addition, the department encourages activities outside the classroom by helping interested
individuals find suitable projects and programs, including independent studies, study abroad,
and internships outside of the Washington Center program. In some cases, upper-level
academic credit may be earned.
Course Descriptions
111. Principles of Macroeconomics
An introduction to principles of economic analysis, economic institutions, and issues of
economic policy. The course examines factors determining national income, price, and
employment levels as well as the international position in the U.S. economy.
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Economics
112. Principles of Microeconomics
An introduction to the principles of economic analysis, economic institutions, and issues of
economic policy. Principal topics covered include commodity and factor price determination
under various market structures, and resource allocation and income distribution through a
pricing system.
211. Intermediate Macroeconomics
The course reviews the measurement of national income and examines modern and classical
theories explaining the determination of national income, employment, price, and growth levels.
Prerequisite: Economics 111.
212. Intermediate Microeconomics
The course examines modern and classical theories of demand and supply, and analyzes
market equilibrium, general equilibrium, and criteria for welfare maximization. ​Prerequisite:
Economics 112.
215. Data Analysis
An introduction to applied statistical methods, including descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing,
analysis of variance, and linear regression. Students study questionnaire design, sample
selection, and data analysis techniques using STATA or other software packages. Students also
design their own online survey and analyze the results. Students are encouraged, though not
required, to take MAT 109 or BUS 109 prior to taking ECN 215.
218. Economic Development
This course introduces students to issues related to economic development and growth among
poor countries. The topics include measurement of development, poverty, inequality, population
growth, the role of markets and government, population, trade, and the role of institutions.
Students will also compare the success or failure of poverty alleviation strategies in different
countries. ​Prerequisite: Economics 111 or 112.
219. Labor Economics
This course combines theoretical modeling and basic empirical analysis to study the market for
labor. We use models of labor supply and labor demand in different market settings to examine
differences in earnings, labor-force participation, and unemployment. We study the effects of
education, technological change, information, immigration, and government policies on earnings
and employment.
Prerequisite: Economics 112, and Math 109 or Economics 215.
312. Public Finance
An examination of the role of government in a competitive market economy and the effects of
tax and expenditure policies at the federal, state, and local levels on the allocation of resources
and the distribution of income and wealth.​ Prerequisite: Economics 111 or 112.
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Economics
314. Money and Banking
An examination of banking institutions, techniques of money management, theories of the
demand for money, and the influence of money on economic activity. ​Prerequisite: Economics
211.
316. Regional and Urban Economics
An examination of the economic factors influencing the growth of urban concentrations, their
size, and their functions. The course studies the problems of transportation, housing,
segregation and discrimination; poverty; crime; the various ecological factors affecting cities,
including pollution, congestion, and urban decay; and the financing and provision of public
services, including planning, zoning, and the special problems of inner cities. ​Prerequisite:
Economics 212.
317. Environmental Economics
This course is a survey of the application of economic analysis to environmental problems.
Analysis will focus on: policy options available to lawmakers and citizens, methods for assigning
value to the environment, and air and water pollution and the laws meant to control these
problems. ​Prerequisite: Economics 112.
318. Natural Resource Economics
This course surveys the economic theory behind, and the management of, renewable and
non-renewable resources including fisheries, minerals, timber, water, and biodiversity. Analysis
of management options is at the local, regional, and national levels. Analysis includes trade-offs
of policies and the effect of property rights regime on resource use. ​Prerequisite: Economics
112.
320. Econometrics
This course introduces the statistical tools that economists use to test and quantify their
theories. Regression analysis is used to evaluate relationships between economic variables.
The results are interpreted with the help of concepts like causality and significance.
Prerequisite: Economics 111 or 112, and Math 109 or Economics 215.
327, 328, 329.
An integrated three-course unit for students spending a semester at the Washington Center.
Students receive 8 elective credits in Economics and 8 general elective credits.
327. Washington Center Internship
A full-time, semester-long internship in Washington, DC, with a federal agency, non-profit
organization, or private firm. Depending upon interest and internship placement, students may
attend hearings, conduct policy research, draft correspondence, monitor legislation, lobby
members of Congress, or write analytical reports. Students will create an in-depth portfolio of
their internship experience. 12 credits. ​This course is normally open only to juniors and seniors.
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Economics
328. Washington Center Seminar
Washington Center Interns participate in an evening seminar selected from a variety of topics
offered during the semester. Students engage in class discussion and may also research
seminar topics, prepare written assignments, and take examinations. ​Required of and limited to
students enrolled in Economics 327. ​Three credits​.
329. Washington Center Forum
Washington Center Interns participate in lectures, site visits, small group discussions, briefings,
and other required events designed to help them understand the connection between their
academic and professional goals and the special educational opportunities available through
living and working in Washington, DC. Evaluations of these experiences are included in the
student portfolio. ​Required of and limited to students enrolled in Economics 327. ​One credit​.
410. International Trade
The principles that govern world trade and investment and the factors that determine the
direction of international trade will be discussed. The gains from trade, the basis for trade, and
the arguments for and against protection will be examined. The effects of various policies that
obstruct the free flow of trade will be analyzed. The influence of international trade on economic
development will also be studied within the contexts of both developed and developing
economies. In addition, the regional and international organizations that are designed to
influence or promote the orderly functioning of the international trading system will be described.
Prerequisite: Economics 111 and 112.
411. International Finance
The course examines foreign exchange markets, the concept of the balance of payments, and
exchange rate determination. The cases for fixed and flexible exchange rates are presented.
The various mechanisms for achieving domestic and international equilibrium and stability, in
terms of employment, prices, and growth, are discussed. The evolution of the international
monetary system and current international economic problems are analyzed. ​Prerequisite:
Economics 111 and 112.
416. Law and Economics
This course describes how rules, e.g. property rights or contract law, should be designed to
encourage economic efficiency. The human response to the prices imposed by laws on different
kinds of behavior is analyzed. Applications to land use legislation, consumer products liability,
the criminal justice system, and medical malpractice are included. ​Prerequisite: Economics 112.
194, 294, 394, 494. Selected Topics in Economics
The topics covered by this course vary from term to term as dictated by student and faculty
interest. Course topics have included Health Economics, Mathematical Economics, Economics
of Information, Behavioral Economics, and other topics not specifically covered in other
Economics courses. ​Prerequisites vary.
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Economics
190, 290, 390, 490. Internship
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study in Economics
The topics covered through independent study vary as dictated by student and faculty interest.
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
All students are required to complete the Senior Capstone Experience. This can take the form of
a senior thesis or comprehensive exams. In the case of the thesis, students are required to
begin their research and submit a proposal in the spring semester of their junior year. Students
who choose to take the comprehensive exams instead must pass the microeconomics,
macroeconomics, and field exams.
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Education
Education Division of Social Sciences
Bridget Bunten, Chair, Elementary Coordinator
Sara Clarke-Vivier
Erin Counihan, Secondary Coordinator
L. Michelle Johnson
The Education Department is characterized by a highly nurturing and personalized environment,
intellectual rigor, and a performance milieu within a liberal arts context. Education is not a
subject major; the Department offers an interdisciplinary major in Human Development and a
minor in Secondary Education Studies in addition to two teacher certification programs. As the
department is a member of the Social Sciences Division, the foundational sequence courses
(Principles of Education and Educational Psychology) can fulfill distribution requirements in the
social sciences.
DEPARTMENT MISSION
Together, faculty and students in the Department of Education engage in interdisciplinary
inquiry of the processes and institutions by which societies enculturate, socialize, and educate
their youth, an inquiry that is grounded in the liberal arts and enables students to become citizen
leaders and lifelong learners.
Learning Goals (Our students will be able to…)
1. Demonstrate an understanding of social, cultural, psychological, philosophical, and
historical foundations of education (and their applications to practice)
2. Integrate and apply knowledge of human development across the fields of anthropology,
education, psychology, and sociology
3. Use content knowledge to design, evaluate, and interpret field experiences
4. Communicate effectively in a variety of formats and media
5. Display global consciousness and cultural sensitivity as emerging leaders
The Education Department offers teacher certification programs in Elementary and Secondary
Education. Program requirements are in alignment with the Maryland Redesign of Teacher
Education and standards of assessment are based on The Maryland Essential Dimensions of
Teaching. The Department has established eleven Professional Development School (PDS)
partnerships in three local counties; this facilitates implementation of state requirements that
each teacher candidate complete 100 days of an extended internship in a PDS in two
consecutive semesters, including the student teaching experience. The Maryland State
Department of Education (MSDE) has reciprocal certification agreements with 47 other states.
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Education
ENTRY REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS
Entry criteria for the Teacher Certification Program are as follows:
● cumulative GPA of 3.0 (and a GPA of 3.0 in the teaching field for ​secondary
certification​);
● recommendation from a professor in the student’s major field of study (​secondary only​);
● a Maryland passing score on one of the following exams: Praxis Core (reading, writing
and math), SAT-composite score (math and reading) of 1100, ACT-composite score of
24, or GRE-composite score of 1000 (if taken before 9/1/2011) or 297 (as of 9/1/2011)
● a passing score on: Praxis II 5001 (reading & language arts, mathematics, social
studies, and science) (​elementary only​)
● approval of the Education Department following a formal interview with the Chair and
departmental colleagues. The following are ​some​ of the personal and professional
attributes that are considered for approval: maturity, oral and written communication
skills, professional attitude, flexibility, initiative, collaboration, and overall potential to be
successful in a teaching internship.
Applicants for the Teacher Certification Programs should realize that Education Department
faculty may use any and all prior interactions, within the Department and in PDS field
experiences, as input for program entry.
Admission to the secondary program generally occurs during the fall semester of the junior year,
and admission to the elementary program generally occurs during the spring semester of the
junior year. (Where possible, the Department will make accommodations for “late deciders”).
Students should be aware that the Maryland State Department of Education requires a grade of
“C” or better in all courses applied toward certification.
It should be noted that Washington College Teacher Certification Program requirements may be
modified because of evolving state requirements for approved programs in teacher education.
Program Completion
Students will be recommended for Maryland Approved Program teacher certification when they
successfully 1) earn an academic degree with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 (and a GPA of 3.0 in
their major for secondary certification); 2) complete the Washington College Teacher
Certification Program; 3) complete national examinations according to Maryland standards, 4)
complete an exit interview with the program Certification Administrator; and 5) earn a grade of
“B-“ or better in EDU 405 or EDU 413 and 414.
I. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
The Elementary Certification Program (grades 1-6) is made up of three required components: 1)
completion of selected core courses in Humanities, Social Sciences, and Mathematics-Natural
Sciences; 2) an academic major, usually in Human Development; and 3) a required sequence of
Education courses and field experiences. Consultation with the Coordinator of Elementary
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Education should be held during the first semester of the freshman year to insure proper
scheduling and selection of courses.
The required education courses for students who wish to become certified as elementary
teachers are listed under the Human Development major.
The Human Development Major
Students selecting the Human Development major will study the individual in community and the
world of schooling. The major provides a comprehensive preparation for prospective elementary
school teachers, and an interdisciplinary program for students who wish to examine human
development in the context of theory and practice in education but who do not wish to seek
teacher certification.
The Human Development major is designed to help students answer the question, “How do
children develop into fully mature, autonomous and self-aware human beings who are capable
of both intimate and public communal relationships?” These studies will facilitate an
understanding of the development of children in our multifaceted society within the
comprehensive liberal arts foundation of the Washington College experience. The Human
Development major provides the opportunity for enlarging our understanding of the
development of school-aged youth. This is a particularly appropriate foundation for individuals
wishing to become elementary school teachers.
The academic program includes sequenced study in educational foundations (the history,
philosophy, and psychology of education), a developmental progression of study in pedagogical
theory and practice, a demonstrated knowledge of content in selected liberal arts disciplines,
and multi-disciplinary courses from the departments of anthropology, sociology, and
psychology.
Field experiences and research are an essential component for the major. The major study for
the teacher candidate requires a 100-day internship in a Professional Development School; for
the non-teacher candidate, the major study includes field experiences in schools or other
educational and social agencies.
Washington College places singular emphasis on the completion of a significant independent
project as the culminating activity in a major program. The teacher candidate will develop and
present a professional portfolio which includes an action research project; the Maryland
Essential Dimensions of Teaching standards will provide guidance and evaluative criteria. The
non-certification major will develop and present an approved interdisciplinary thesis that
includes field research.
Course Sequence for Human Development Majors
HDV Major - Option 1:​ Course sequence for Human Development majors with professional
courses required for Maryland Approved Program Elementary Certification. Students should be
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aware that the MSDE requires a grade of “C” or better in all courses applied toward certification.
EDU 211-214. Clinical Experiences/practica
EDU 251. Principles of Education
EDU 252. Educational Psychology
EDU 305. Qualitative Inquiry in Education
EDU 330. Diversity and Inclusion
EDU 351. Processes and Acquisition of Reading
EDU 352. Reading Instruction and Assessment
EDU 354. Children’s & Young Adult Literature
EDU 411. Curriculum and Instruction: Mathematics and Natural Science
EDU 412. Curriculum and Instruction: Language Arts and Social Studies
EDU 413. Teaching Internship (part-time)
EDU 414. Teaching Internship (full-time)
EDU SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
PSY 202. Lifespan Development
An additional two courses (from two different disciplines) will be selected, in consultation with
the advisor, from the following:
Anthropology
ANT 200. Introduction to Linguistics
ANT 215. Sex, Gender, and Culture
ANT 280. Traditional Ecological Knowledge
ANT 300. Language and Culture
ANT 305. Ethnographic Methods
ANT 320. Race and Ethnicity
Psychology
PSY 221. Social Psychology
PSY 231. Personality
PSY 234. Psychopathology II
PSY 302. Advanced Developmental Psychology with Lab
PSY 309. Statistics and Research Design II with Lab
PSY 313. Learning with Lab
PSY 316. Cognitive Psychology with Lab
PSY 403. Behavior Modification with Lab
PSY 433. Child Assessment with Lab
Sociology
SOC 212. Sociology of the Family
SOC 213. Sociology of Gender
SOC 221. Social Inequalities
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SOC 250. City and Suburb
SOC 262. Self and Society
SOC 306. Research Methods in Sociology
SOC 341. Variant Behavior
SOC 351. Religion in the United States
In completing the General Education requirements of the College, certification students will
choose from the following list of courses in the distribution sequences:
Four Year Writing Requirement
W1 - First Year Seminar (any FYS course)
W2 - Process of Writing (EDU 251)
W3 - Writing in the Discipline (EDU 305)
W4 - Senior Capstone Experience (EDU SCE)
Natural Science - Two Courses
Students will take two courses in the natural sciences. The courses must have a laboratory
component, and can be courses for non-majors or majors.
Students may complete any combination of the following courses:
BIO 100. Current Topics in Biology
BIO 104. Ecology of the Chesapeake Bay
CHE/ENV 110. Chemistry of the Environment
ENV 140. Exploring the Solid Earth
ENV 141. Atmosphere, Ocean, and Environment
PHY 100. Concepts in Contemporary Physics
PHY 101. College Physics I
PHY 102. College Physics II
PHY 105. Astronomy
Preferred two-course sequences are:
BIO 111, 112. General Biology I, II
CHE 111, 112. General Chemistry I, II
PHY 111, 112. General Physics I, II
Students pursuing a minor in a natural science or psychology should take one of the preferred
two-course sequences.
Quantitative - Two Courses
Students will take two math courses and may choose from MAT 109 Statistics, MAT 135 Finite
Mathematics, MAT 221 Communication, Patterns and Invention in Mathematics, PSY 209
Statistics and Research Design I with Lab (for Psychology minors only), BUS 109 Managerial
Statistics (for Business Management minors only), or any other mathematics course.
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Humanities - Two Courses
Students will fulfill the Humanities requirement by taking any two of the following courses:
AMS 201/ENG 211, AMS 202/ENG 212. Introduction to American Culture I, II
ENG 207, 208. History of English Literature I, II*
ENG 209, 210. Introduction to American Literature I, II
ENG 213, 214. Introduction to African American Literature I, II
*This requirement cannot be fulfilled with ENG 207 AND 208. If you take 207 or 208, your
second ENG course must be one of the other ENG courses listed above.
Fine Arts - One course​ in art, theatre, music, or dance that will fulfill distribution in the Fine
Arts.
Social Science - Three Courses
EDU 251. Principles of Education
EDU 252. Educational Psychology
HIS 201 or 202. History of the U.S.
HDV Major - Option 2: ​Course sequence for Human Development majors ​without teacher
certification
Required Foundation Courses
EDU 251. Principles of Education (satisfies social sciences distribution)
EDU 252. Educational Psychology (satisfies social sciences distribution)
EDU 305. Qualitative Inquiry in Education (must be taken spring of junior year)
EDU SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
PSY 202. Life-Span Development
Introductory Courses ​(Choose two)
ANT 105. Introduction to Anthropology
SOC 101. Introduction to Sociology
PSY 111, 112. General Psychology
Experiential Field Course ​(Choose two)
Students must complete two one-credit experiential learning components, i.e. EDU 218 and
EDU 219. (Clinical Field Experiences) or EDU 494. Special Topics: Individualized
Internships/Experiential Learning.
Eight courses (in addition to those listed previously) will be selected from at least two areas as
listed. Two of these courses may be at the introductory (200) level; six of these courses must be
at the upper (300/400) level.
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Area 1: Anthropology
ANT 200. Introduction to Linguistics
ANT 215. Sex, Gender, and Culture
ANT 280. Traditional Ecological Knowledge
ANT 300. Language and Culture
ANT 305. Ethnographic Methods
ANT 320. Race and Ethnicity
Area 2: Education
EDU 311. World Geography
EDU 315. Traditional and Modern Grammar
EDU 318. Cultural & Linguistic Diversity in Education
EDU 330. Diversity and Inclusion
EDU 351. Processes and Acquisition of Reading
EDU 354. Children’s & Young Adult Literature
EDU 406. Seminar in Peer Tutoring
Area 3: Psychology
PSY 221. Social Psychology
PSY 231. Personality
PSY 234. Psychopathology II
PSY. 302. Advanced Developmental Psychology with Lab
PSY 309. Statistics and Research Design II with Lab
PSY 313. Learning with Lab
PSY 316. Cognitive Psychology with Lab
PSY 403. Behavior Modification with Lab
PSY 433. Child Assessment with Lab
Area 4: Sociology
SOC 212. Sociology of the Family
SOC 213. Sociology of Gender
SOC 221. Social Inequalities
SOC 240. Criminology
SOC 250. City and Suburb
SOC 262. Self and Society
SOC 306. Research Methods in Sociology
SOC 341. Variant Behavior
SOC 351. Religion in the United States
Substitution of up to two courses is possible with the approval of your advisor.
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Senior Capstone Experience
Human Development majors selecting the non-certification route will complete and present an
interdisciplinary, independent research study that includes field work.
II. SECONDARY EDUCATION
CERTIFICATION PROGRAM
Washington College has fourteen Maryland Approved Secondary Certification Programs:
biology, business education, chemistry, English, environmental science, mathematics, physics,
social studies, and theatre (grades 7-12); and art, French, German, music, and Spanish
(PreK-12). The number and specificity of courses required for certification in these subject areas
vary, with social studies and English having more extensive state requirements.
The following education courses are required for students who wish to become certified as
secondary teachers:
EDU 216, 217. Clinical Field Experience (each 1 credit)
EDU 251. Principles of Education
EDU 252. Educational Psychology
EDU 307. Reading in the Content Field
EDU 330. Diversity and Inclusion
EDU 401. Principles of Teaching: Secondary
EDU 403. Special Methods in the Teaching Area*
EDU 404. Secondary Teaching Internship
EDU 405. Secondary Education Internship (double credit)
EDU 401, 403, and 405 make up the “Education Block” taken in the fall semester of the senior
year or the fall semester after graduation.
*Students in EDU 403 choose the section that is appropriate for their area of certification: art,
biology, business education, chemistry, English, environmental science, French, German,
mathematics, music, physics, social studies, Spanish, or theater.
EDU 307 meets Maryland Reading I and II Secondary Requirements (together with 252 & 401).
Students wishing to be certified in English must take EDU 315 Traditional and Modern Grammar
and​ either EDU 354 Children’s & Young Adult Literature ​or​ ENG 342 Children’s and Adolescent
Literature.
It should be noted that students majoring in economics, political science, psychology, sociology,
international studies, and American studies may apply for certification in social studies and do
their student teaching in social studies. They must plan their programs carefully in order to fulfill
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all requirements. Social studies certification includes the following core courses: HIS 203, 204
Modern World History; HIS 201, 202 History of the United States; HIS 319 African American
History; ECN 111 Introduction to Macroeconomics; POL 102 American Government and
Politics; EDU 311 Human Geography; and an approved upper division course in social science.
Students who major in environmental science may apply for certification in biology, chemistry or
environmental science. Students are encouraged to work with department and major advisors,
as they must plan their programs carefully in order to fulfill all course requirements.
SECONDARY EDUCATION STUDIES MINOR
The Secondary Education Studies Minor requires a minimum of seven courses: EDU 251, EDU
252, EDU 307, EDU 330, a one-credit Secondary Field Experience (EDU 215-217), and two
additional courses from the following:
EDU 303. Comparative Education
EDU 305. Qualitative Inquiry in Education
EDU 311. Human Geography
EDU 315. Traditional and Modern Grammar
EDU 318. Cultural & Linguistic Diversity in Education
EDU 354. Children’s & Young Adult Literature ​or​ ENG 342. Children’s and Adolescent Literature
EDU 406. Seminar in Peer Tutoring
PSY 202. Lifespan Development
ANT 200. Introduction to Linguistics
SOC 221. Social Inequalities
EDU Special Topics courses
An approved research design course
Related courses approved by Department Chair and Coordinator of Secondary Education
Students planning on pursuing teacher certification should note that this minor on its own is not
sufficient for certification. Students who wish to teach are encouraged to consider applying for
the Secondary Teacher Certification Program.
Human Development majors are not eligible for a minor in Secondary Education Studies.
Course Descriptions
211-219. Clinical Field Experiences
Field work consists of off-campus supervised experiences. For teacher candidates, four
separate one-credit experiences will take place in Professional Development Schools and
include experiences with special needs students. Field work opportunities for Human
Development majors may also include international teaching experiences or alternative
experiences studying related school personnel.
211, 212, 213, 214. Clinical Field Experiences – Elementary
This four-part course consists of off-campus supervised field experiences, including experience
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with special needs students. For teacher candidates, these will take place in a Professional
Development School. (1 credit each)
215. Clinical Field Experience – Alternative
This course is designed for Human Development majors and students in Education Certification
programs who participate in the international teaching experience. Students are responsible for
planning, implementing, and assessing lessons as well as participating in school community. (2
credits)
216, 217. Clinical Field Experience – Secondary
This two-part course consists of off-campus supervised field experiences, including experiences
with special needs students. For teacher candidates, these will take place in a Professional
Development School. (1 credit each)
218, 219. Clinical Field Experience – Human Development
This two-part course consists of off-campus supervised field experiences. Field work
opportunities may also include alternative experiences studying related educational personnel.
(1 credit each)
251. Principles of Education
A general summary of the field of education. The historical, philosophical, and sociological
foundations of education will be surveyed; contemporary education in the United States will be
examined.
252. Educational Psychology
A general summary of theories of educational psychology. Aspects of evaluation, individual
differences, and psychological adjustments that are relevant to education and applicable to
classroom practices will be examined.
303. Comparative Education
A study of the educational systems of various nations. Social, political, and economic influences
upon educational practice and theory will be considered.
305. Qualitative Inquiry in Education
This course offers an overview of qualitative research methods and an introduction to action
research within the field of education. Course participants will be asked to develop their
epistemological framing of a research project, cultivate an understanding of researcher
positionality and ethics, and further their engagement in critical inquiry through a qualitative
lens. The class will develop students’ abilities to conduct participant observations and
interviews; write a literature review; carry out qualitative data analyses; and write and present
from a research study. Prerequisites: EDU 251 and 252, or permission of the instructor.
307. Reading in the Content Area
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This is a Maryland-approved reading course. It is designed to train preservice middle school and
high school teachers to develop in their students the literacy skills necessary for learning in all
content areas. Cooperative learning and performance assessment will be used extensively.
(Additional reading competencies not included in EDU 307 are integrated into EDU 252 and
EDU 401 for students in the undergraduate approved program to meet all requirements set by
the state Reading Professional Development Committee). Prerequisites: EDU 251 and 252, or
permission of the instructor.
311. Human Geography
The course examines the relationships between the physical environment, population, and
culture in the evolution of global regions.
315. Traditional and Modern Grammar
The course reviews traditional grammar and introduces generative/transformational grammar. It
promotes confidence and competence in a student’s ability to recognize and manipulate
grammatical elements of English.
318. Cultural & Linguistic Diversity in Education
This course is an examination of contemporary cultural and linguistic diversity within the United
States educational environments. Special attention is given to cultural problems and issues that
influence opportunities and performance in educational institutions. The basic premise of the
course is that teachers play an important role in creating a positive classroom learning
environment and bringing school success, especially for English language learners. Students
will develop understandings of the impact of culture, cultural diversity, immigration, migration,
colonialism, and power on language policy and on students currently learning English as a
second language.
330. Diversity and Inclusion
Students will learn: a) to understand the nature and range of special needs among pupils in
today’s public schools; b) to differentiate instruction to meet the special needs of students in our
multicultural society; c) to interpret and implement an Individualized Educational Program; and
d) to use a range of support services available to students and teachers. Prerequisites: EDU
251 and 252.
351. Processes and Acquisition of Reading
An investigation of research explaining the relationship between language acquisition and
reading development, the interactive nature of the reading process, and the interrelationship of
reading and writing. Topics include assessing the stages of literacy development from emergent
literacy through fluency in the language arts processes of speaking, listening, reading, and
writing and applying corresponding instructional strategies. This is an MSDE-approved reading
course. Prerequisites: EDU 251 and 252.
352. Reading Instruction and Assessment
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Students will demonstrate mastery of instructional strategies used to make educational
decisions in a balanced literacy program including developmentally appropriate word recognition
and comprehension strategies. Students will evaluate, use, and interpret a variety of
assessment techniques and processes, local, state, and national instruments. The co-requisite
clinical field experience will require the student to plan, implement, and evaluate
developmentally appropriate reading and language arts instruction and evaluation in a
Professional Development School classroom. This is an MSDE-approved reading course.
Prerequisite: EDU 351 and passing score of Praxis Core and Praxis 5001, or permission of the
instructor.
354. Children’s & Young Adult Literature
A study of literary texts by notable American authors with children as the major audience.
Emphasis will be placed on the literary elements, evaluation criteria, and value to the reader of
each genre. Through the lens of reader response theory, students will explore the variety of
materials, from bound literature to electronic media, available to support children’s motivation to
become fluent, independent readers and writers. Students will demonstrate their ability to
identify, select, and evaluate literature and other materials that meet students’ literacy needs
and interests and to communicate such knowledge to parents. This is an MSDE-approved
reading course.
401. 402. Principles of Teaching I & II: Secondary
An exploration of the art and science of teaching and a study of curriculum. Course content,
teaching methods, planning, instructional technology, as well as observation and performance
of varied teaching techniques are combined to prepare prospective teachers for their student
teaching. EDU 252 and 401 in combination comprise an MSDE-approved reading course.
403. Special Methods in the Teaching Field
A course concentrating upon the specific teaching field of the student. Examines objectives and
the nature and place of the academic discipline in the secondary school, with emphasis placed
on methods and materials for teaching that discipline in light of the changing demands of 21st
century education. Corequisite: EDU 405.
404. Secondary Teaching Internship
The first of a two-semester internship, EDU 404 requires the teacher candidate to begin to show
proficiency in a Professional Development School classroom. Teacher candidates also
participate in monthly evening seminars that supplement their PDS classroom experiences. One
credit. Prerequisites: EDU 251 and 252 or permission of the instructor.
405. Secondary Teaching Internship
The second of a two-semester internship, EDU 405 represents the culmination of the
professional development of the teacher candidate. The teacher candidate is required to
demonstrate increasing responsibility for planning, assessing, and evaluating instructional
effectiveness in a Professional Development Classroom. Teacher candidates will also
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participate in weekly seminars held on campus. 8 credits. Laboratory fee. Prerequisite: EDU
404.
406. Writing Center Theory and Pedagogy: A Seminar in Peer Tutoring
This seminar explores current research and theory on the writing process and prepares
students for potential work as Peer Consultants in the college Writing Center. Over the
semester, students will develop rhetorical knowledge and critical strategies for working with
other writers and their texts. To be considered for the seminar, students must submit faculty
recommendations and a writing sample and complete an interview with the Director of the
Writing Center. Students from all disciplines may apply.
411. Curriculum and Instruction: Mathematics and Natural Science
This course examines the mathematics and science concepts, curriculum, methods and
materials used for effective instruction in mathematics and science in the elementary school.
The focus will be on the development of strategies for active learning that will help children
construct a meaningful understanding of mathematics and science. Prerequisites: EDU 351 and
352. Corequisite: EDU 413.
412. Curriculum and Instruction: Language Arts and Social Studies
Teachers of social studies should possess the knowledge, capabilities and dispositions to
organize and provide instruction at the appropriate school level for the study of the ten social
studies content themes as identified by the National Council for the Social Studies. This course
provides the teacher candidate with some of the organizational tools and instructional strategies
needed to conduct classroom instruction in social studies and in the language arts, primarily
writing. Prerequisites: EDU 351 and 352. Corequisite: EDU 413.
413. Elementary Teaching Internship
The first of a two-semester internship, EDU 413 requires the teacher candidate to begin to show
proficiency in a Professional Development School classroom. Teacher candidates will also
participate in weekly seminars held on campus. Prerequisites: EDU 351 and 352.
414. Elementary Teaching Internship
The second of a two-semester internship, EDU 414 represents the culmination of the
professional development of the teacher candidate. The teacher candidate is required to
demonstrate increasing responsibility for assessing, planning, and evaluating instructional
effectiveness in a Professional Development School classroom. Teacher candidates will also
participate in weekly seminars held on campus. 12 credits. Laboratory fee. Prerequisites: EDU
413.
190, 290, 390. Internships
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics of Education
Advanced study in a selected area under departmental guidance.
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195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
EDU SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
The Senior Capstone Experience for Human Development majors seeking teacher certification
will include the preparation and public presentation of a professional teaching portfolio. For
students meeting honors SCE requirements, the portfolio will include an independent action
research project. Human Development majors selecting the non-certification route will complete
and present an interdisciplinary, independent research study based on field work, which will
generally be in the form of a thesis. Prerequisite: EDU 305.
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Engineering A Dual Degree Program
Austin A. Lobo, Program Advisor
This program makes it possible for qualified undergraduate students to earn baccalaureate
degrees from both Washington College and ​Columbia University in​ as little as five years. It was
designed in response to a widely felt need for engineers with a broad understanding of issues
that a liberal education provides. A significant benefit of the program is the opportunity for
students with an interest in engineering to complete their pre-engineering course requirements
in a liberal arts environment at a small college.
Students who complete the core course sequence and earn the grade of B or above on the first
attempt in each of those courses and have a minimum overall grade point average of 3.3 are
guaranteed admission to Columbia University. Students who complete the core courses but do
not meet the minimum grade point requirements are still eligible to apply to Columbia University
but their admissions are not guaranteed. Students who complete the core courses and earn a
Bachelor’s degree at Washington College may alternatively proceed to a Master’s program in
Engineering at many engineering schools in the nation. On the other hand, students who
complete several semesters of pre-engineering studies and subsequently decide to forego
engineering as a major remain eligible to pursue any of the majors offered at Washington
College.
A student in the Dual Degree Program will attend Washington College for approximately three
academic years and the ​Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia
University​ for approximately two years. ​In this program, students spend three or three and
one-half years at Washington College and then two years at The Fu Foundation School of
Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University in New York. Students earn a B.S. or
B.A. degree in their major at Washington College and a B.S. degree in one of the engineering
disciplines from Columbia University.
Washington College faculty in physics, mathematics and computer science advise students in
this program to ensure that they complete all of the Washington College courses required for
admission to Columbia University in a timely manner.
Dual degree candidates from Washington College may major in any of the following areas:
Applied Mathematics or Applied Physics
Biomedical Engineering
Chemical Engineering
Civil Engineering
Computer Engineering
Computer Science
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Environmental Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics
IEOR: Industrial Engineering, Engineering Management Systems, or Operations Research
Materials Science and Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Requirements For Dual Degree Students While Attending Washington College:
● Completion of the College General Education and Writing requirements
● Completion of the College Distribution Requirements
● Completion of the following common core courses:
CHE 111. General Chemistry I
CSI 201. Computer Science I
ECN 111. Principles of Macroeconomics
ECN 112. Principles of Microeconomics
ENG 101. Literature and Composition
MAT 201. Differential Calculus
MAT 202. Integral Calculus
MAT 203. Multivariable Calculus
MAT 325. Vector Spaces
MAT 345. Differential Equations
PHY 111, 112. General Physics I, II
PHY 352. Electronics
PHY 211. Modern Physics
Students are encouraged to select these courses in consultation with the designated Program
Advisor at Washington College.
Different engineering major programs in the ​Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied
Science ​have slightly different prerequisites; some engineering majors require coursework in
addition to those listed above. Students should consult the Program Advisor about these and
other requirements at the earliest opportunity and keep themselves informed about any
important changes in them.
Students interested in the Dual Degree Program should investigate the possibility of taking
prerequisite courses in a program acceptable to Columbia University while still enrolled at
Washington College.
During the third year at Washington College students will formally apply for transfer admission to
the ​Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science​. A letter of recommendation from
the Dual Degree Engineering Program Advisor at Washington College will be necessary to
assist qualified students applying for transfer admission.
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English Division of Humanities and Fine Arts
Kathryn Moncrief, Chair
Kimberly Andrews
Richard DeProspo
Katherine Charles
Richard Gillin
James Allen Hall
Alisha Knight
Sean Meehan
Robert Mooney
Elizabeth O’Connor
Courtney Rydel
Emma Sovich
Katherine Wagner
From classes in literature and creative writing to the welcoming environment of the Rose O’Neill
Literary House, writers and students of literature alike will find Washington College home to a
vibrant literary community. Each year, thanks to the endowment of the Sophie Kerr Fund, the
College brings to campus a succession of distinguished writers, editors, and literary scholars.
Billy Collins, Junot Díaz, Nick Flynn, Jonathan Franzen, Neil Gaiman, Lauren Groff, Ted Kooser,
Li-Young Lee, Colum McCann, Azar Nafisi, Maggie Nelson, Joyce Carol Oates, Claudia
Rankine, Jane Smiley, Natasha Trethewey, Colson Whitehead, and Jacqueline Woodson and
are just some of the writers and literary scholars who have come to campus in the last decade
to teach, lecture, and conduct writing workshops.
The Sophie Kerr Fund also supports the justly famous Sophie Kerr Prize (at $65,768 in 2017,
the largest undergraduate literary prize in the country), as well as various student publications
that spring from the imaginations of students who find a welcoming and creative environment in
the Rose O’Neill Literary House.
To read, to think, to write, to communicate: these habits of interpretation and expression are
fundamental to a liberal arts education, to the mission of Washington College, and to the study
of English. The mission of the English Department is to develop students who can read the
variety of literature in English broadly, think through ideas critically, analyze texts closely, gather
and communicate information effectively, and write clearly, creatively, and articulately.
The English Major
The major in English is the study of the arts of literature. Although the emphasis is on the critical
analysis of great works, students are expected to attain a general knowledge of the historical
development of English and American literature by the end of the senior year.
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A student majoring in English must complete a total of twelve courses plus the SCE in the
English Department in the following areas:
100- and 200-level:
Three courses selected from English courses on the 200-level, also including ENG 101 and
excluding 103, 205, 206. (Note: ENG 101 will not count for students who took the course prior
to fall 2016 in order to fulfill the first-year writing requirement.)
300/400-level:
Three courses in pre-1800 literature (ENG 205/206 Shakespeare I & II will also count here)
Three courses in post-1800 literature
Three electives
Note: Students who both major in English and minor in creative writing may “double count” no
more than two courses.
Senior Capstone Experience (SCE)
The Senior Capstone Experience (SCE) requires students to demonstrate the ability to think
critically and to engage in a project of active learning in their major field of studies. In the SCE,
required of all graduating seniors, students integrate acquired knowledge and skills in a senior
project demonstrating mastery of a body of knowledge and intellectual accomplishment that
goes significantly beyond classroom learning. Upon successful completion of her/his SCE, a
student will receive a grade and four academic credits. These four credits will count toward the
total needed to graduate from the College.
The SCE in the English department allows students the opportunity to pursue a substantive
research project while working closely with a faculty advisor. English majors will bring their
research and interpretive abilities, their writing skills, and their understanding of the literary
tradition to bear on a long-term, independent project in the form of an annotated bibliography
and​ an essay that will serve as the culmination of their literary studies at Washington College.
The SCE for English majors exemplifies each student’s accumulated knowledge and mastery of
literary analysis.
The English Minor
Any five courses at the 300/400-level, including those labeled as “special topics,” are required
for a minor in English. ENG 205/206 Shakespeare I & II will also count for the minor.
Creative Writing Minor
The minor in creative writing can be achieved through the successful completion of five
courses— ENG 103 Introduction to Creative Writing and then any combination of four
300/400-level creative writing courses including those indicated below, as well as additional
“special topics” courses. Recent “special topics” courses have included The Screenplay, Poetry
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in Performance, Poetry and Book Arts, The Art of Biography, Travel Writing, and Writing about
the Natural World.
ENG/THE 351. Playwriting I
ENG 352. Forms of Poetry
ENG 353. Contemporary American Literature: Living Writers
ENG 354. Literary Editing and Publishing
ENG/THE 451. Advanced Playwriting
ENG 452. Creative Writing Workshop: Fiction
ENG 453. Creative Writing Workshop: Poetry
ENG 454. Creative Writing Workshop: Nonfiction
Distribution Credit in English
Students who wish to fulfill the Humanities Distribution Requirement with one Humanities course
may do so by taking any course listed below. Students who choose to take two courses in
English to fulfill the Humanities Distribution Requirement are not required to take a sequence;
they may take any two of the following:
ENG 101. Literature and Composition
ENG 203. The Art of Rhetoric
ENG 205. Shakespeare I
ENG 206. Shakespeare II
ENG 207. History of English Literature I
ENG 208. History of English Literature II
ENG 209. Introduction to American Literature I
ENG 210. Introduction to American Literature II
ENG 211. Introduction to American Culture I
ENG 212. Introduction to American Culture II
ENG 213. Introduction to African American Literature
ENG 214. Introduction to African American Literature II
ENG 215. Bible as Literature
ENG 216. Classical Literature
ENG 220. Introduction to Fiction
ENG 221. Introduction to Nonfiction
ENG 222. Introduction to Poetry
ENG 223. Introduction to Drama
Course Descriptions
101. Literature and Composition
This course develops the student’s capacity for intelligent reading, critical analysis, and writing
through the study of literature. There are frequent writing assignments, as well as individual
conferences on the student’s writing.
103. Introduction to Creative Writing
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A workshop introducing new writers to several forms of creative writing, including poetry, fiction,
and nonfiction. Students will use classic and contemporary literature as models for their own
efforts. In the fall semester, this course is only open to first-year students. In the spring
semester, beginning writers from all years may enroll in ENG 103.
203. The Art of Rhetoric
Students will study and develop the rhetorical knowledge readers and writers use to generate
persuasive critical analysis and compelling expository prose in any discipline or field of
inquiry. Topics chosen by the instructor (for example: the rhetoric of documentary, the
rhetoric of science, the rhetoric of identity) explore the ways writers, artists, and thinkers
use rhetoric to communicate in a range of circumstances and texts, both print and
multimedia, literary and multidisciplinary. Guided by readings in classical elements of
rhetorical study (the 5 canons of rhetoric, rhetorical tropes and figures) students will
develop knowledge of writing process and effective style; attention will also be given to
the oratorical delivery of composition in the form of speech and/or multimedia presentation.
The guiding principle of the course is emulative: while students read and critique various models
of rhetorical knowledge evident in the course texts, they will also apply that knowledge to the
texts they generate as writers.
205. Shakespeare I
This course examines some of Shakespeare's best known earlier plays (those written before the
death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603) both in the context of early modern English culture and as
play scripts/performances. Using films and live productions (when available) it considers the
plays as they have been and could be interpreted for performance.
206. Shakespeare II
This course examines some of Shakespeare's best known later plays (those written after the
death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603) both in the context of early modern English culture and as
play scripts/performances. Using films and live productions (when available) it considers the
plays as they have been and could be interpreted for performance.
207, 208. History of English Literature I and II
A survey of the development of English literature from Anglo-Saxon times to the present with
attention to the historical background, the continuity of essential traditions, and the characteristic
temper of successive periods. The second semester begins approximately with the Restoration
in 1660.
209 (AMS 201). Introduction to American Literature I
Taught in the fall semester, the course is concerned with the establishment of American
Literature as a school subject. Texts that have achieved the status of classics of American
Literature, such as Hawthorne’s ​The Scarlet Letter​, Thoreau’s ​Walden​, and Mark Twain’s ​The
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,​ will be read in the context of the history and politics of their
achieving this status. Texts traditionally excluded from the canon of American literature, in
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particular early Hispano- and Franco-American texts, will be considered in the context of their
relative marginality to the project of establishing American Literature as worthy of being taught
and studied in the American academy. Other-than-written materials, such as modern cinematic
representations of the period of exploration and colonization of North America, as well as British
colonial portraits and history paintings, will be studied for how they reflect on claims for the
cultural independence of early America. Other-than-American materials, such as late medieval
and early Renaissance Flemish and Hispanic still lifes, as well as the works of
nineteenth-century European romantic poets and prose writers, will be sampled for how they
reflect on claims for the exceptional character of American culture.
210 (AMS 202). Introduction to American Literature II
Taught in the spring semester, the course is concerned with the establishment of American
Studies as a curriculum in post-World War II American colleges and universities. Readings will
include a variety of written texts, including those not traditionally considered literary, as well as a
variety of other-than-written materials, including popular cultural ones, in accordance with the
original commitment of American Studies to curricular innovation. Introductions to the modern
phenomena of race, gender, sexual orientation, generation, and class in U.S. culture will be
included. A comparatist perspective on the influence of American culture internationally and a
review of the international American Studies movement in foreign universities will also be
introduced.
211, 212. (AMS 201). Introduction to American Culture I and II
213. Introduction to African American Literature
This course is a survey of African American literature produced from the late 1700s to the
Present. It is designed to introduce students to the key writers, texts, themes, conventions and
tropes that have shaped the African American literary tradition. Authors studied may include
Frederick Douglass, Zora Neale Hurston, Ralph Ellison, Gwendolyn Brooks, Toni Morrison and
Walter Mosley.
214. Introduction to African American Literature II
This course surveys African American authors from the Harlem Renaissance to the present. It is
designed to expose students to the writers, texts, themes, and literary conventions that have
shaped the African American literary canon since the Harlem Renaissance. Authors studied in
this course include Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, Gwendolyn Brooks,
James Baldwin, and Toni Morrison.
215. Bible as Literature
We will read and analyze the Bible as literature, covering as much of the Hebrew and Christian
scriptures as a semester allows. Our focus will be in gaining familiarity with the major stories,
characters, images, and diverse genres of biblical literature, with some attention to the historical
and cultural context in which these texts were composed. This course will provide you with the
background to appreciate later literary and artistic works that assume biblical knowledge, as well
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as understanding the Bible itself as a unique and influential literary work.
216. Classical Literature
This course will survey representative texts of ancient Greece and Rome, focusing on the
genres of epic poetry, the dramatic play, lyric poetry, and the philosophical fragment. It will
explore aspects of classical mythology, civilization, and history, and it will trace how ancient
Greece and Rome maintain a dynamic presence in post-classical art, literature, and culture.
Authors to be studied may include Homer, Aeschylus, Euripides, Sappho, Herakleitos, Catullus,
Virgil, and Ovid.
220. Introduction to Fiction
This course will survey the rich tradition of prose fiction largely, but not exclusively, in English.
Emphasis will be placed on the enduring features of this genre as it evolved throughout the
centuries as well as to the innovations introduced by individual writers. The literary works
selected for this course will draw upon a variety of fictional forms and styles. Class discussions
will include, along with close readings of the works themselves, an appreciation of the historical
and cultural contexts out of which they arose and to which they gave a fictional rewriting.
221. Introduction to Nonfiction
This course will offer students a selective overview of the “fourth genre” of nonfiction prose.
Readings will be drawn from some of the principal subdivisions of this field, which includes
autobiography and biography, documentary, the essay, literary journalism, memoir, and writing
in new media.
222. Introduction to Poetry
This course will provide an introduction to the study of various styles and forms of poetry. By
reading a wide range of poetic styles from a number of aesthetic schools, students will consider
the ways in which poetry has become a conversation across centuries, how the genre may act
simultaneously as a personal and a political voice, and how it may be interpreted not only as
intimate confession but also as “supreme fiction.”
223. Introduction to Drama
This course will examine plays as literary texts, as play scripts, and as performances. It will
investigate theatre/drama from a variety of styles and themes across several centuries (from
ancient Greece to renaissance England to contemporary USA) to understand dramatic
conventions and assumptions. The course will consider how writers from across the globe in
various time periods consider, rework, and comment upon similar subjects and themes.
300. Medieval Literature
In this course, we will focus on medieval texts and writers that shaped expressions of authority
in two key ways: through their exploration of political authority and their formulation of literary
authorship. After familiarizing ourselves with key political theories of the Middle Ages, we will
acquaint ourselves with some well-known medieval figures—King Arthur, Lancelot and
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Guinevere, and Robin Hood—to explore the theories of kingship, fealty, treachery, law, country
and outlawry they came to embody. We will also read major representative writers from the
period, including Geoffrey of Monmouth, Marie de France, Dante Alighieri, the Pearl Poet,
Geoffrey Chaucer and Christine de Pizan. The course concludes with an in-depth look at a
single popular genre, which will rotate among religious dramas, medieval romance, and debate
poetry, depending on the year the course is offered.
301. Chaucer
Chaucer’s fellow poets hailed him as “the father of English poetry” for his ability to transform
diverse genres and sources into a living tradition of English poetry that continues to this day.
This course will focus on The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer’s most popular and beloved
work, and its creation of fictional and real communities. We will become comfortable with
Chaucer’s poetry in the original Middle English, and acquaint ourselves with current scholarly
debates and the historical and literary context of the Canterbury Tales, observing how he
transforms genres as diverse as Latin epics and philosophy, Italian novelle, French love poetry
and fabliaux.
302. Arthurian Literature
This class will examine the development of the Arthurian romance in the medieval literary
tradition and its many genres, as well as gain as well as some insight into the longer trajectory
of Arthuriana that continues in present day popular adaptations. The class is primarily
structured around Sir Thomas Malory’s "Le Morte D’Arthur," for this fifteenth-century text unifies
the stories about King Arthur, Guinevere, the knights of the Round Table, and their associates
into an overarching narrative that has dominated retellings ever since. Alongside the Morte
D'Arthur, we will read Malory's sources and analogues to see their contrasting perspectives on
these characters. As we study how these authors and texts reinterpret each other, we will read
literary criticism and engage in scholarly research to produce presentations and essays.
303. Women Writers to 1800
Early women’s writing, much of it highly popular in its contemporary moment and compulsively
readable today, has a history of being forgotten. In this class, we will explore texts authored by
women in the Euroamerican tradition before 1800, venturing from the continent into the “New
World.” These gifted women lived lives as exciting as their texts: runaway bride Christina of
Markyate, widowed traveller Margery Kempe, professional novelist and playwright Aphra Behn,
and poet Phillis Wheatley, among others. The texts covered in this course represent only a
small sampling of the female-authored works that have survived from this time, but our readings
provide ample material for exploring how women and men have collaborated to create literature,
the role of gender in authorial identity, and the contributions of women to the Western literary
world.
310. The Renaissance
The literature and culture of the Tudor period focusing on the age of Elizabeth. Poetry, prose
and drama including Kyd, Shakespeare, Marlowe, Sidney, Spencer, More, and Whitney.
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311. The Seventeenth Century
A study of the literature and culture of the Jacobean period through the Restoration. Poetry,
prose and drama including Shakespeare, Jonson, Webster, Middleton, Donne, Herbert, Marvell,
Lanyer, Cavendish, Philips, and Milton.
312. Renaissance Drama
This course examines early modern English drama, exclusive of Shakespeare, from the 1580s
through the 1630s in its unique cultural, historical, and theatrical context. It explores plays by
prominent dramatists including Thomas Kyd, Christopher Marlowe, John Lyly, Thomas Dekker,
Thomas Heywood, Ben Jonson, Thomas Middleton, William Rowley, John Webster and John
Ford. Key issues will include the following: playing conditions (theatres and theatre
companies), the relationship of the stage to the monarchy, the importance of the city (London),
the relationship of the stage to dominant religious beliefs and practices, the impact of Puritanism
and anti-theatricality, the effect of censorship and licensing, the role of gender and
cross-dressing in theatrical representation and the staging of desire.
320. The Eighteenth Century
The triumph and decline of the neoclassic ideal in the eighteenth century. The course
concentrates on the great figures of Swift, Pope, Johnson, and Boswell.
321. Romanticism
The movement from the late eighteenth century to 1832 considered as a revolution in the aims
and methods of poetry. Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, and Keats.
322. The Victorian Age
Major poets, novelists, and essayists including Tennyson, Browning, Arnold, Rossetti, Carlyle,
Newman, Mill, Pater, Bronte, and Gaskill will be studied in conjunction with the culture of the
age of Victoria.
323. 19th-Century English Novel
Major writers such as Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Charlotte Bronte, Charles Dickens, George
Eliot, and Thomas Hardy will be studied. Attention will be given to the cultural and literary
context of the novels.
330. The Rise of Modernism
This course will trace the rise of what we now call modernism beginning with the
decadent movement at the end of the 19th century, its emergence during World War I,
and its flourishing during the 1920s by reading a range of fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and
drama by Henry James, Joseph Conrad, T.S. Eliot, H.D., James Joyce, Katherine
Mansfield, Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, J.S. Synge, and Virginia Woolf among others.
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331. Modernism and Its Discontents
A study of the fiction, nonfiction, poetry and drama from the 1920s to the late 1930s
paying close attention to the after effects of the experimentation of high modernism and
how it, coupled with the rise of fascism and World War II, led to the fracturing of the
movement and a return to more traditional prose and poetic structures. Writers will
include Djuna Barnes, Ernest Hemingway, James Joyce, Marianne Moore, Flann
O'Brien, Jean Rhys, Virginia Woolf, and William Butler Yeats.
332. Modern and Contemporary British Literature
This course will cover a range of British and American writing from World War II and the
retreat to realism in the 1950s through the postmodern turn and the current literary
landscape. Writers will include W.H. Auden, Samuel Beckett, Elizabeth Bowen, Angela
Carter, Caryl Churchill, Graham Greene, Edna O’Brien, Graham Swift and Zadie Smith.
333. James Joyce
This course will focus on the work of James Joyce, examining the forces—historical,
sociopolitical, religious, artistic, and other—that helped shape his oeuvre. We will take
stock of Joyce's enduring legacy—his status as an author whose writing practices have
reshaped ways of understanding the scope and nature of fiction itself-- will explore, from
multiple perspectives, the situation of Joyce's work within the landscapes of modernist
writing. The bulk of the class will focus on a close reading of the 18 episodes of his
1922 masterpiece, ​Ulysses.
334. The Irish Short Story
The modern short story is part of an international tradition. The form is a relative newcomer to
literature, and for various reasons that we will investigate, the Irish have taken to it with
particular verve. Through lecture-discussions and response paper and essay assignments, the
course teaches techniques for interpreting stories from the abundantly rich Irish imagination
evident in its mythology and folklore to the modern agora of the written page. Writers include
Maria Edgeworth, Elizabeth Bowen, Liam O’Flaherty, Frank O’Connor, Sean O’Faolain, Edna
O’Brien, and William Trevor.
336. ​Postcolonial Literature: Resistance, Recovery, and Renewal
This course will investigate the impact of British colonialism, national independence
movements, postcolonial cultural trends, and women's movements on the global
production of literary texts in English. We will read a diverse grouping of writers
including Mulk Raj Anand, Kiran Desai and Salman Rushdie from India, Jamaica
Kinkaid, Una Marson, and Sam Selvon from the Caribbean, as well as the Kenyan
Nugugi Thiong’o and the Zimbabwean Tsitsi Dangarembga among many others.
Careful attention will be paid to ethnographic, geographic, and historical modes of
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understanding the multi-layered effects of colonialism and its aftereffects.
340. Women’s Literature
Beginning with Jane Austen, Emily Dickinson, and George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) in the
nineteenth century and ending with Virginia Woolf, Adrienne Rich, and Zadie Smith in the 20th,
this course will cover a range of fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and drama by women up to the
present. The course will also introduce students to a range of feminist theory.
341. Native American Literature
This course will be a consideration of contemporary Native American prose and poetry. Most of
the readings will focus on twentieth-century works and their sources in Native American and
European American cultural and literary traditions. Students will consider how complicated the
process of defining Native American literature can be; how works by native people relate to or
depart from other ethnic American literatures; how indigenous speakers/writers respond to and
resist colonialism; and how Native American perspectives and narratives continue today.
Emphasis will be placed on the use of Native American myths and images of the natural world
in the texts.
342. Children’s and Adolescent Literature
Various genres will be treated with regard to historical, social, cultural, and contemporary
perspectives. Readings for the course will be drawn from the folk tale, fairy tale, poetry, myth,
fiction, and picture books. The art and practice of storytelling will be treated.
343. American Short Story
Irving, Hawthorne, Poe, Twain, Crane, James, Hemingway, Porter, and Salinger are among the
writers this course will consider. The study will be chronological and historical, placing emphasis
upon the development of the genre.
344. The American Novel
This course is a survey of nineteenth- and twentieth-century novels written by Americans.
Writers include Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Theodore Dreiser, Willa Cather, F. Scott
Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, J.D. Salinger, Toni Morrison, and Tom Wolfe.
345. African American Novel
This course examines the origin and development of the African American novel. We will begin
with the earliest novels and conclude with an analysis of contemporary novels by African
American writers. We will examine novels from multiple genres and give careful attention to the
intersection of race, gender, class and environment in representative novels of the 19th, 20th
and 21st centuries.
346. The Postmodern American Novel
The main focus of this literature course will be the careful reading and examination of seven
‘postmodern’ novels from the 1950’s to the 1980’s. We will look at historical fiction, memoir,
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realism, post-modernism, post-post-modernism, science fiction, and satire. We will discuss
contemporary issues in the context of the stories and novels we read, but this is not a course in
cultural studies; we will come back to the individual, the character, and his or her place,
experience, and reflections upon cultural and psychological idiosyncrasies in the general
context of contemporary America.
347. American Environmental Writing
The study of writing from an environmental perspective is both an emerging field in literary
criticism and a rich tradition in American literary history. What does it mean to be green from a
literary point of view? This course explores that question in looking at classic and contemporary
authors of American environmental writing, from Henry David Thoreau to Annie Dillard to recent
examples of eco-criticism. Though the primary focus will be on nonfiction prose, the traditional
home of nature writing, the course will also explore environmental perspectives in poetry, fiction,
and film as well as cross-disciplinary connections with the natural sciences and social sciences.
351. (THE 351) Introduction to Playwriting
Analysis and practical application of techniques and styles employed in writing for the stage.
352. Forms of Poetry
This course explores the rich literary tradition of received forms in English and American verse.
By studying a wide range of formal poems students will discover the adaptability of fixed forms
like the sonnet, villanelle, and sestina. Class assignments will include both critical writing and
creative “experiments” in poetic forms. Students are strongly encouraged to take Forms of
Poetry in preparation for the “Creative Writing Workshop: Poetry.”
353. Contemporary American Literature: Living Writers
This course focuses on the study of American poetry, fiction, and nonficion from 1945 to the
present. (The course focuses on poetry one year, novels and short fiction the next, and
nonfiction the next, rotating among them.) Emphasis includes an examination of the work of
major American poets or fiction writers of the past half-century. The course is structured in a
way similar to a traditional offering in literature with this difference: some of the writers whose
work is studied in class will at some time during the semester come to Washington College to
visit the class, discuss their work with course participants, and give a public reading
354. Literary Editing and Publishing
The Rose O’Neill Literary House is home to Cherry Tree, a professional literary journal featuring
poets, fiction writers, and nonfiction writers of national reputation and staffed by Washington
College students. In this course, students receive hands-on training in the process of editing
and publishing a top-tier literary journal. They analyze literary markets even as they steward into
print work from the nation’s most prestigious emerging and established writers. This class
includes extensive research and discussion of nationally recognized literary magazines and
covers topics such as a publication’s mission statement, its aesthetic vision, and its editorial
practices. All students who wish to join the editorial staff and be included on the masthead of
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Cherry Tree must complete one semester of ENG 394: Literary Editing & Publishing.
360. The Literature of the European Colonies of North America and of the Early U.S.
Alvar Nuñez Cabeza De Vaca, Père Jogues, Rowlandson, Marrant, Wheatley, Bradstreet,
Franklin, Jefferson, Brockden Brown, Poe.
361. Literary Romanticism in the U.S. I
Poe, Emerson, Thoreau. Stowe.
362. Literary Romanticism in the U.S. II
Hawthorne, Melville, Whitman, Dickinson.
363. The Gilded Age and American Realism
This course examines key prose fiction of the Gilded Age of American literary history and culture
(roughly 1878 – 1901). Careful attention will be given to various treatments of “Big Business,”
industrialization, urbanization, regionalism and social inequality in the work of Mark Twain,
Stephen Crane, Kate Chopin, Frances E.W. Harper, Charles Chesnutt, and others.
370. The Harlem Renaissance
This course examines the literature and intellectual thought of the Harlem Renaissance. It is
designed to move beyond a cursory treatment of the movement and offer students the
opportunity to study key figures and texts at length. Authors studied in this course include Alain
Locke, W. E. B. DuBois, Zora Neale Hurston, Wallace Thurman, Nella Larsen and Langston
Hughes.
371. Faulkner and Literary Modernism in the United States
The course will concentrate on the novels of Faulkner as exemplifying modernism.
372. American Poetry Since 1945
A survey of the major American poets who have written and published their work in the
post-World War II era. Lowell, Wilbur, Stafford, Brooks, and Hecht are examples.
373. American Fiction Since 1945
A survey of major American fiction writers who have written and published their work in the
post-World War II era. Salinger, Mailer, Updike, Cheever, and O’Connor are examples.
374. Main Divisions in American Culture: Race, Gender, Sexual Orientation, Generation,
Class
Ever since the Harvard-educated Midwestern American Studies founder V.L. Parrington
identified the ​Main Currents in American Thought​, the tendency of most influential scholars has
been synoptically to emphasize the commonalities that unite “We, the people,” since even
before the founding of the U.S. Conflictual approaches to American culture have been pursued
mainly from the margins—by African-American, Latina/o, feminist, queer, and Marxian critics.
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Playing on the title of Parrington’s book, this course will pay attention to what divides us, still,
approaching a century after Main Currents first appeared back in 1927.
375. Body Language: Representation and Transgression from Theodore Dreiser and
Claire Chopin through Nicholson Baker and Brett Easton Ellis
A study of how bodies have been transformed from soma into vox in modern and post-modern
culture. Curriculum will be a catholic mixture of a variety of genres and media, including
standard school texts, literary and feminist theory, popular music, still images and video, and
journalism. Readings will include fiction that has been labeled transgressive, and in all but the
very latest examples for a time banned in the U.S.; theory from De Beauvoir to Judith Butler;
and various works associated with the pornography debate from Katherine MacKibbon and
Andrea Dworkin through Madonna and Linda Williams.
376. Culture of the Old/Cultures of the Young
Whereas what once seemed controversial topics—race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation,
borderlands —have become mainstream in college and university American Studies and
English courses, one, arguably major category of cultural difference remains relatively
understudied—at least in the humanities. The study of generation, like that of all of the topics
listed above, is potentially subversive, and it may be neglected because of the fact that most
college and university professors (admittedly with increasingly numerous exceptions) are
members of the single, for some time now and for some time to come, dominant generation.
The Baby Boom runs the same risks as do white people in the U.S., white
Anglo-Saxon-Protestant people in the U.S., men everywhere, and heterosexuals everywhere
when it acknowledges that the products of (sub)cultures other than its own are as worthy of
becoming college and university curricula as its own traditional canon. The course will try to
distinguish in a variety of ways the belated, frequently plaintive, cultures of the young from that
of the Baby Boom.
377. 2PACalypse Now! The Cult of​ Heart of Darkness​ among White Male Anglophone
Intellectuals
There’s something about ​Heart of Darkness​—neither the most readable nor the most teachable
of books, even of Conrad’s books. And there’s something about Conrad, too, a native Pole for
whom English was a third language, a third language that he evidently spoke so poorly that
when conversing with his American literary friend Henry James they both reverted to what was
for both of them a second language: French. The course will try to explore what it is that has
attracted so many white male Anglophone intellectuals—and prompted the condemnation of
one African writer, the mockery of one black rapper, and, perhaps, the rivalry of a prominent,
brown, novelist—over the more than hundred years now since the original publication of ​Heart
of Darkness​ in 1899 in England in ​Blackwood’s Magazine​. Class texts will include Conrad’s
novella, Coppola’s ​Apocalypse Now​, Tupac’s ​2PACalypse Now,​ Faulkner’s ​Absalom, Absalom!
(which contains a prominent allusion to ​Heart of Darkness​), Chinua Achebe’s essays, V.S.
Naipaul’s ​A Bend in the River​, a sampling of the blizzard of journalistic quotations of the novel’s
title and of its most famous, four-word, speech, plus some theorizings of race and gender that
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might shed some light on why the book has managed to appeal so strongly to a relatively
homogenous cohort of readers and adaptors.
410. Shakespeare Now: Shakespeare and Contemporary Criticism
This course focuses on the advanced study of plays initially covered in the 200-level
Shakespeare course in conjunction with the study of contemporary literary theory. The semester
begins with an introduction to literary theory and methodology. Then, using plays as case
studies, we will examine each play in relation to historical, seminal, or controversial criticism.
Reading will concentrate on important critical approaches to the study of Shakespeare (i.e.,
New Criticism, Reader Response Theory, Structuralism, Post-structuralism, Psychoanalytic
Criticism, Marxism, Feminism, New Historicism/ Cultural Materialism, Queer Theory,
Performance Criticism and Post-Colonialism).
411. Milton
This course focuses on Milton’s poetry, especially his epic poem ​Paradise Lost​, with some
attention to his minor poems and prose. Emphasis includes study of the following: the formal
elements of his poetry; the importance of his poetry in literary history; Milton’s biography,
especially his experience of blindness and revolutionary defeat; Milton’s writing in relationship to
his culture (regicide and revolution, the turmoil of the seventeenth-century Puritan experiment,
the commonwealth government, and restoration of the monarchy.)
430. Joyce, Eliot, and Beckett
An intensive study of James Joyce’s ​Dubliners​, T.S. Eliot’s major poems, and Samuel Beckett’s
major plays.
451 (THE 451). Advanced Playwriting
An advanced workshop in writing for the stage. ​Prerequisite: ENG 351 Playwriting I.
452. Creative Writing Workshop: Fiction
Prerequisite: Introduction to Creative Writing.​ ​(Students who completed Introduction to Creative
Writing or Intermediate Creative Writing in previous years are also eligible to register.) Primarily
intended for juniors and seniors.
453. Creative Writing Workshop: Poetry
Prerequisite: Introduction to Creative Writing. (Students who completed Introduction to Creative
Writing or Intermediate Creative Writing in previous years are also eligible to register.) Primarily
intended for juniors and seniors.
454. Creative Writing Workshop: Nonfiction
This course will use a workshop approach for students who are interested in developing their
skills in a kind of writing which combines elements of journalism, such as the feature article, with
elements of the literary, such as the personal essay. In addition, students will also develop their
essay skills in the form of the personal narrative and travel writing. In essence this course treats
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the various forms of the essay with a special emphasis on the creative ways the genre can be
interpreted and rewritten. Readings of representative essays will be included. ​Prerequisite:
Introduction to Creative Writing. ​(Students who completed Introduction to Creative Writing or
Intermediate Creative Writing in previous years are also eligible to register.) Primarily intended
for juniors and seniors.
470. Toni Morrison
This course focuses on the works of Toni Morrison, the first African American and the eighth
woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature. Students will study the important motifs, tropes
and themes of Morrison’s writings, including her notable critical essays and short fiction.
Students will become well versed in Morrison’s writings and develop an understanding of
various contemporary critical approaches used to interpret her work.
190, 290, 390, 490. Internship
Internships in the English Department serve to give focus to a student’s prospective
employment in the world beyond Washington College, and they aim to integrate and develop
the writing, thinking, and communicative skills acquired in the course of completing an English
Major. The specific conditions related to each internship will be developed among the faculty
advisor, the representative of the institution offering the internship, and the student. This course
may be taken only once for academic credit.
393, 493. Journalism Practicum
The purpose of this practicum is to introduce students to journalism by writing for a newspaper
or magazine. Students will receive instruction on effective news writing, along with other topics
including AP Style, interviewing, bias in the media, libel and ethics. They will also receive
one-on-one feedback about their articles from the instructor. This practicum is 2 credits,
pass/fail only. Students may not earn more than 4 credits for ENG 391/491 and may not count
more than four journalism practicum credits towards the major in English.
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics
The intensive study of a selected figure, movement, form, or theme.
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
Courses offered in the Washington College Abroad Programs
385. Literature and Landscape
This course is attached to the Kiplin Hall Summer Program. Literature connected to specific
landscapes in Yorkshire and the Lakes will be studied in conjunction with firsthand experience
of those landscapes by foot.
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386. Literature of London
London through the literature of Charles Dickens, Virginia Woolf, T.S. Eliot, George Orwell, and
contemporary writers; developments in literary movements (Romanticism, Realism, Modernism).
Offered in the London program only, both fall and spring semesters. Three credits.
387. Studies in the Drama
Special topics in author or authors, a type or types of drama, a period, or theme. Emphasis is on
the development, function, and continuing development of the theater in London. Variable
content: may be repeated for credit. Offered in the London program only, both fall and spring
semesters. Three credits.
388. English in Africa: West African Literature
This course offers, through the study of selected texts, an introduction to the modern literatures
in English of sub-Saharan Africa, the theorization of colonial and postcolonial discourse, the
politics of language, the question of African identity, and the relationship between art and social
praxis. offered at Rhodes University, South Africa.
389. English in Africa: East and Southern African Literature
Offered at Rhodes University, South Africa.
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Environmental Science and Studies
Environmental Science and Studies Majors in Environmental Science (B.S.) and Environment Studies (B.A.)
Minor in Earth and Planetary Science
Concentration in Chesapeake Regional Studies
Leslie Sherman, Department Co-Chair
Rebecca Fox
Karl Kehm, Director, Earth and Planetary Science Minor
Brian Scott, Department Co-Chair
John Seidel, Program Advisor, Chesapeake Regional Studies
Robin Van Meter
Washington College, located between the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic beaches, is in a
unique location for the study of the environment. Washington College students can use the
Chesapeake Bay region—its farms and waterways, its history and culture, its people and their
environmental concerns—as a learning laboratory. The Chester River, a tributary of the
Chesapeake Bay, is at Washington College’s back door. The college has two research vessels,
and state-of-the-art field equipment. In the Toll Science Center, a new ICP-mass spectrometer
is available for analysis of environmental samples. In addition, the college’s Chester River Field
Research station at nearby Chino Farms and Foreman’s Branch Bird Observatory are additional
locations for hands-on environmental study.
Two majors are available to students through the Department of Environmental Science and
Studies. Students can pursue an environmental science major (B.S.) or an environmental
studies major (B.A.) Both majors are grounded in an interdisciplinary course of study which
prepares students to critically analyze and investigate solutions to regional and global
environmental issues, whether it is the revival of a depleted fishery, the fate of toxics, land use
management in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, world population concerns, loss of biodiversity,
or climatic changes. The environmental science major focuses on an interdisciplinary scientific
study of the environment, while the environmental studies major is broader in perspective and
draws in numerous courses in the humanities and the social sciences, as well as the natural
sciences.
For both majors, students are encouraged to participate in internships and summer research
programs and complete a minor in an allied field of study. It is recommended that majors take a
course that introduces them to the techniques and applications of Geographical Information
Systems. The senior capstone experience (SCE) in environmental studies can be fulfilled by
either doing a research paper or a laboratory investigation. With either selection, the Senior
Capstone Experience should be interdisciplinary in nature. Advanced Placement credit will be
given for ENV 101 provided a score of 5 is attained on the Environmental Science AP exam.
However, it is strongly suggested that students in this category audit this course.
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In addition to the two majors, the Department offers a minor in Earth and Planetary Science and
a concentration in Chesapeake Regional Studies. The Earth and Planetary Science minor gives
students a broad understanding of processes that formed and modify the Earth and other
planets in the solar system. The curriculum introduces a wide range of topics, from surface
phenomena such as weather and climate, to the Earth’s internal composition and dynamics.
Transcending the boundaries of traditional geological studies, the Earth and Planetary Science
program focuses on the way large Earth systems such as the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and
atmosphere interact and evolve. Further emphasis is placed on the fundamental physical and
chemical laws that govern the cycling of matter and energy on the Earth. Together, these
complementary approaches help to provide students with a comprehensive view of the planet’s
origin and evolution, as well as an enlightened appreciation for the forces at work in our natural
environment.
The concentration in Chesapeake Regional Studies is founded on the understanding that the
Chesapeake Bay is central to the history, culture, and economy of the mid-Atlantic region, and it
is an attractive educational resource for exploration and integration of liberal arts studies. The
concentration in Chesapeake Regional Studies allows students to assemble a coherent array of
courses based on student interests. Commonly students interested in this concentration
participate in the Chesapeake Semester. This is a four course program for 16 credits It
combines intensive study, field work, and outdoor adventure. Students study the complex
history, ecology, and culture of the Chesapeake as a microcosm of the challenges and
transitions confronting coastal communities around the world. Using the College and the
Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum as base camps, students travel in, on and around the
64,000 square mile watershed. In addition, participants will travel to foreign lands such as Peru,
Guatemala, or Belize, to explore similarities and differences in culture, environment, economics,
politics, laws and ethics.
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE MAJOR (B.S.) - Requirements
Introductory course:
ENV 101. Introduction to Environmental Studies
ECN 117. Introduction to Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
Introductory science courses. Two of the following introductory sequences are required:
BIO 111, 112. General Biology I, II
CHE 111, 112. General Chemistry I, II
Math course:
MAT 109. Statistics or MAT 201. Differential Calculus
Environmental science courses. All of the following are required (5 courses):
ENV 141. Atmosphere, Ocean, and Environment
BIO 206. Ecology
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CHE/ENV 210. Environmental Chemistry
ENV 311. Field Methods in Environmental Science ​(pre-req ENV 101, ENV 141 and two of the
following: BIO 112, CHE 112, PHY 112)
ENV 312. Watershed Biogeochemistry ​(pre-req ENV 101, ENV 141, BIO 206, ENV/CHE 210)
Three elective science courses selected from the list below:
At least 2 must be ENV
At least 2 must have a lab
ENV/BIO 221. The Bermuda Environment (summer course)
ENV 222. Summer Environmental Studies in Ecuador
ENV 302. Conservation and Wildlife Techniques
ENV 313. Wetlands Ecology
ENV 314. Energy and the Environment( (no lab)
ENV 394. Sustainability and the Environment
ENV 394. Climate Change
ENV 294, 394. Special Topics (with approval of the Chair, possibility of a lab)
CRS 246. Interdisciplinary Study of an Estuary: Integration and Action (if enrolled in the
Chesapeake Semester)
BIO 309. Marine and Estuarine Biology
BIO 328. Behavioral Ecology
CHE 201. Organic Chemistry
CHE 301. Analytical Chemistry
Junior and Senior Seminar (1-credit each)
ENV 392. Environmental Studies Junior Seminar
ENV 491. Environmental Studies Senior Seminar
Note​ for students who double major or minor in Biology:
Students who double major in Environmental Science and Biology can count a maximum of 5
Biology courses (BIO 111, 112, 206 and 2 more) towards their Environmental Science major.
Courses cross-listed in BIO and ENV count towards this maximum. ​Only one Biology Category
V class can be used. ​Students who minor in Biology can only count 4 Biology courses for the
both the BIO minor and the Environmental Science major (BIO 111, 112, 206 and 1 more.)
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES MAJOR (B.A.) - Requirements
Introductory Course:
ENV 101. Introduction to Environmental Studies
One introductory-level majors sequence in the Natural Sciences chosen from below:
BIO 111, 112. General Biology I, II
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CHE 111, 112. General Chemistry I, II
Three additional science courses:
Ecology: (1 course)
BIO 206. Ecology (if taken BIO 111-112)
or BIO 104. Ecology of the Chesapeake Bay (if do ​not ​plan to take BIO 111-112)
Environmental Chemistry: (1 course)
CHE/ENV 210. Environmental Chemistry (if taken CHE 111-112)
or CHE/ENV 110. Chemistry of the Environment (if do ​not ​plan to take CHE 111-112)
Earth Science: (1 course)
ENV 140. Exploring the Solid Earth
or ENV 141 Atmosphere, Ocean, and Environment
Math course:
MAT 109. Statistics or MAT 201. Differential Calculus
Social Science, Humanities, and Fine Arts Classes (5 courses):
Two core courses are required:
ENV 117. Introduction to Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
or ECN 317. Environmental Economics (if taken ECN 111, 112)
PHL 102. Contemporary Moral Issues
At least one additional Humanities or Fine Arts course, chosen from those listed below:
ART/ENV 241. Environment and Public Art
CRS 244. A Humanities Perspective on the Chesapeake (if enrolled in the Chesapeake
Semester)
ENG 321. Romanticism
ENG 347. American Environmental Writing
PHL 310. Philosophy of Science
At least two additional Social Science courses, chosen from those listed below::
ANT/ENV 107. Introduction to Environmental Archaeology
ANT 280. Traditional Ecological Knowledge
CRS 242. The Social Science of an Estuary (if enrolled in the Chesapeake Semester)
ECN/ENV 318. Natural Resource Economics
POL/ENV 335. Environmental Politics
SOC/ENV 370. Environmental Sociology
Two upper level ENV courses chosen from the following:
ENV/BIO 221. The Bermuda Environment (summer course)
ENV 222. Summer Environmental Studies in Ecuador
ENV 302. Conservation and Wildlife Techniques
ENV/BIO 313. Wetlands Ecology
ENV 314. Energy and the Environment
ENV 294, 394. Special Topics (with approval of the Chair)
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Junior and Senior Seminar (1-credit each)
ENV 392. Environmental Studies Junior Seminar
ENV 491. Environmental Studies Senior Seminar
Note​ for students interested in Physics: ​ Students interested in pursuing a physics track
within the environmental studies or environmental science degree program can substitute PHY
111 and/or PHY 112 for one or two courses in the major, after consultation with and written
approval from the ENV department chair.
EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE MINOR
This minor can be combined with any major at Washington College. It comprises six courses, to
be chosen as follows:
All of the following are required:
ENV 140. Exploring the Solid Earth
ENV 141. Atmosphere, Ocean and Environment
ENV/PHY 240. Earth and Planetary Systems Studies
MAT 201. Differential Calculus
And two courses from the following:
CHE 111. General Chemistry I
CHE 112. General Chemistry II
CSI 201. Introduction to Computer Programming
ANT/ENV 109. Introduction to Geographical Information Systems
PHY 111. General Physics I
PHY 112. General Physics II
CHESAPEAKE REGIONAL STUDIES CONCENTRATION
Students can complete the concentration in one of two ways. Either completion of the
Chesapeake Semester and one other course chosen from those listed below, or completion of
BIO 104 and three additional courses chosen from at least two academic divisions listed below.
Division of Humanities and Fine Arts
ART 322. The Arts in America
PHL 102. Contemporary Moral Issues
Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
BIO 206. Ecology
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BIO 309. Marine and Estuarine Biology
ENV 313. Wetlands Ecology
Division of Social Sciences
HIS 313. 17th- and 18th-Century America
ECN 117. Introduction to Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
ANT 305. Doing Anthropology
Chesapeake Semester Courses
CRS 240. The Natural Science of an Estuary
CRS 242. The Social Science of an Estuary
CRS 244. A Humanities Perspective on the Chesapeake
CRS 246. Interdisciplinary Study of an Estuary: Integration and Action
SENIOR CAPSTONE EXPERIENCE
Every environmental science and environmental studies major is required to complete a Senior
Capstone Experience (SCE). Students will enroll in the four credit SCE course during their final
semester, although students must begin work on their SCE during the previous semester. The
SCE can take the form of a laboratory or field research project or a monograph. Selection of the
nature of the SCE will be based upon discussion with Environmental Science and Studies
faculty members, and also will require the approval of the Chair of the Environmental Science
and Studies Department. The SCE will be graded A (Honors), B C D or Fail. Grading will be
based on joint evaluation of the SCE by Environmental Science and Studies faculty.
RESEARCH AND INTERNSHIPS
Experiential learning is at the heart of the environmental science or studies major. Although not
required for the major, internships and research opportunities help students directly apply the
insight, theory, and research methodology they learn in class. The College sponsors ten-week
summer research projects in the fields of biology, chemistry, environmental studies, psychology,
and physics. Internships and research projects outside of the natural sciences are also
encouraged. Students of environmental studies and science have completed internships with
many organizations, such as the Chesapeake Bay Foundation in Annapolis, the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center and
the Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies in Cambridge, the Maryland Department of
Natural Resources, The Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, Florida and the Washington
College Center for Environment and Society.
One of the credit-bearing internships or research opportunities, as well as pertinent special
topics courses, can substitute for a selection in the Humanities, Natural Sciences, or Social
Sciences where appropriate. This decision is based on the approval of the Chair of the
Department of Environmental Science and Studies.
ENV 395. Summer Research
ENV 490. Individualized Internships
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ENV 495, 496. Independent Research
SUMMER FIELD COURSES
The Department of Environmental Science and Studies regularly conducts summer courses
abroad. Students are accompanied on these courses by Washington College faculty. Summer
Study in Bermuda is based at the Bermuda Institute of Oceanographic Sciences in St. George.
In field trips, lectures, and labs, students study the ecology and history of the island, exploring
mangrove swamps, coral reefs and much more. Summer Study in Ecuador, jointly run with the
Universidad de San Francisco in Quito, takes participants through a variety of ecosystems, from
the Pacific coast and highlands to the rain forests of the Amazon, and to the Galapagos Islands.
These trips allow students to relate their coursework to new parts of the world, to meet
professionals and students from other countries, and to see a wide variety of ecosystems and
related social systems.
Course Descriptions
101. Introduction to Environmental Studies
This course is an introduction to the discipline of environmental studies. A multidisciplinary,
international view of human responsibility toward the natural world will be emphasized, focusing
on significant contemporary environmental issues. Topics to be covered include environmental
literature (both historical and current), economic and ethical environmental concerns, scientific
methods of assessment and analysis of environmental problems, and possible solutions to
representative environmental problems. The laboratory/recitation section will be utilized for field
trips, guest lectures, demonstrations, and discussions. This course is a prerequisite for all
upper-level courses entitled environmental studies. The course should be completed by the end
of the sophomore year if it is going to be counted toward the major.
107. Introduction to Environmental Archaeology
Exploration of the variety of past human societies and cultures through archaeology, with an
emphasis upon the interplay between environment and culture. The course covers a wide time
span, from the biological evolution of hominids and the origins of culture to the development of
complex civilizations and the more recent historical past. (Also ANT 107)
109. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be found throughout our modern society. Programs
such as MapQuest and Google Earth have brought this technology into the lives of many
citizens of our world. More advanced software systems such as ArcGIS are being used in
academia, business, and government to manage large datasets of spatially-linked information
and provide the users with powerful analytic tools. The course lectures will review the
fundamental theories of GIS and will also focus on the various organizational and ethical issues
that impact the implementation and sustainability of GIS in our society. The lab portion of the
course will teach the student how to operate the ArcGIS ArcView Desktop software product.
Objectives for both the course lecture and lab section have been listed below. Introduction to
GIS will be taught as a blended course, which means that online content will be used to
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supplement the course. The online content will not replace the traditional lecture and lab
components of the course, but is instead meant to enhance the content, and allow for materials
to be available outside of class time. Content will be reviewed prior to attending class, which will
provide time for discussion, clarification, and problem solving during class time. All course
materials along with lab assignments, quizzes, and exams will be managed in our innovative
Moodle virtual learning environment. There will be little paper handed out or turned in during this
class. You will receive a special user name and password to access Moodle. (Also ANT 109)
110. Chemistry of the Environment
This introductory course focuses on the chemical dimensions of current environmental problems
such as global warming, ozone depletion, water and soil contamination, and energy production.
Fundamental principles of chemical bonding, reactions, and energy are studied as they arise in
connection with each environmental issue. Interdisciplinary aspects are explored to further
understand the multiple dimensions of the problems. Intended for students planning to major
outside the sciences. Three hours of lecture and one hour and 3/4 of laboratory each week.
(Also CHE 110)
117. Introduction to Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
Environmental and natural resource economics focuses on the economic sources of
environmental problems and natural resource use in a market economy and the evaluation of
the alternative policies for dealing with these problems. This analysis extends to the
examination of regional issues (local air and water pollution, recycling programs, and fisheries)
and global issues (climate change and waste disposal). The course is intended for students not
planning to major in economics. (Also ECN 117, must not be an Economics major)
137. Cultures and Environments of the Chesapeake
An examination of prehistoric and historic societies in the Chesapeake Region. Archaeological,
historical, and environmental evidence is used to understand cultural development and the
relationships between people and their environment. Topics include the arrival of humans in the
region, Native American groups, colonial settlement in the Tidewater, and the 19th Century.
(Also ANT 137)
140. Exploring the Solid Earth
This course investigates the composition, structure, and dynamics of the solid Earth. The course
reviews prominent theories for the origin of matter, the accretion and differentiation of the
planets, and the structure of the Earth’s interior. The role of plate tectonics in driving the
exchange of matter and energy between Earth systems is a central theme of the course,
providing the theoretical context for understanding geological phenomena such as seismic
activity, volcanism and mountain building. The course is designed to provide the necessary
scientific and intellectual background for understanding a wide range of Earth phenomena, and
to give students a greater appreciation for the origin and evolution of their planet. Includes three
lecture-hours per week plus lab.
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141. Atmosphere, Ocean and Environment
This course examines processes and features that characterize the Earth’s surface. The course
focuses on the major Earth systems of land (lithosphere), air (atmosphere), and water
(hydrosphere) and explores how these systems evolve and interact through geologic time.
Examples include studying global air circulation and its effect on weather, examining links
between ocean currents and global climate, and exploring how stream processes help to shape
landscape. The role of plate tectonics in driving the exchange of matter and energy between
Earth systems is also a central theme. The course is designed to provide the necessary
scientific and intellectual background for understanding a wide range of Earth phenomena, and
to give students a greater appreciation for their natural environment. Includes three lecture
hours per week plus lab.​ Prerequisite: ENV 140 and ENV 101
210. Environmental Chemistry
The cycling of natural chemical species and pollutants in the water, soil and air of our earth
system is a major component of our complex ecosystem. In this environmental chemistry
course, students will develop an understanding of the transport and reactions controlling natural
chemical species in our environment, as well as the cycling of pollutants. Students will study
current issues of water, soil and air pollution, and how society is working towards reducing the
movement of pollutants through our environment. In the laboratory portion of the class, students
will investigate the water quality of local water bodies, including the Chester River, as well as
conduct hands-on experiments related to the environmental topics studied in class. Three hours
of lecture and three hours of laboratory each. (Also CHE 210) ​Prerequisite. CHE 111-112 (112
can be taken concurrently)
211. Intermediate Geographic Information Systems
This second course in geographic information systems builds upon the theories discussed in
Introduction to Geographic Information Systems, and focuses on the more technical aspects of
GIS. Laboratory activities teach the student to use more advanced functions of GIS software,
and the fundamentals of advanced GIS analysis and display programs. The student will also
learn to operate a precision GPS field data collector. ​Prerequisite: ANT 109.
221. The Bermuda Environment
This summer course will investigate the complex ecology of the Bermuda Islands, the impact
that human habitation has had on their natural history, and current environmental concerns and
means of mitigating those concerns. Major areas of study will include (but not be limited to) coral
reef ecology/symbioses, mangrove community ecology and environmental relevance,
architectural and military influences during colonization, fisheries practices (past, present and
future) and current concerns and problems, and ecotourism and associated environmental
impacts. (Also BIO 221) ​Prerequisite: ENV 101, or BIO 111-112, or permission of the instructor.
222. Summer Environmental Studies in Ecuador
This three-week-long summer course, offered in conjunction with the Universidad San Francisco
de Quito, will investigate many of the world's most distinctive species of plants, animals that
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inhabit the richly diverse ecosystems of Ecuador. Students will gain an understanding of
Ecuador’s social and economic issues and the challenges it faces as a developing country while
attempting to conserve its natural resources. Topics investigated include conservation of the
Amazon rainforest and oil exploration, ecotourism, biodiversity concerns, mangrove
conservation and the fate of Galapagos tortoises and the Galapagos fisheries. ​Prerequisite:
ENV 101 or permission of the instructor.
240. Earth and Planetary Systems
This course features a detailed examination of the unique interaction between the Earth’s
geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, and how these systems contrast with
those of the other planets in the solar system. The course includes a lecture and an integrated
lab component. The lecture discussion and reading emphasizes the history of Earth systems,
from the birth of the solar system and differentiation of the Earth, to the emergence of biological
life, chemical evolution of the modern atmosphere, and the changes to the Earth’s climate,
ocean and lithosphere throughout geologic history. The lab will introduce students to important
tools in Earth Science research, including radiometric dating, chemical studies of natural
materials, remote sensing and data base analysis. The course provides advanced students with
the necessary scientific and intellectual background for pursuing further studies in Earth and
planetary science, geography, and environmental studies. Includes three lecture hours per week
plus lab. ​(Also PHY 240)​ ​Prerequisite: ENV 140 and 141, or permission of the instructor.
241. Environmental and Public Art
This course introduces students to the basic concepts of environmental and public art through
team projects in the field and studio. Students concentrate on the development of one artwork
created at Stepne Manor, a 77-acre farm owned by Washington College and adjacent to the
College’s waterfront campus. The curriculum centers on the production of a site specific work
created by students working in two-person teams. Students regularly engage in class
discussions about the projects being pursued by its participants, readings, screenings, and
research papers directed toward the work of specific artists. ​Prerequisite: 1 course of Studio Art
or permission of the instructor.
302. Conservation and Wildlife Techniques
Lecture will examine patterns in local and global biological diversity and current causes for
biodiversity loss. Conservation strategies from the genetic to ecosystem scale will be evaluated
to inform students about tools scientists can use to prevent species loss and restore natural
wildlife habitats and populations. Laboratory exercises will allow students to gain familiarity with
hands-on techniques for monitoring wildlife populations and will include field trips that focus on
local conservation efforts. ​Prerequisite: ENV 101, BIO 111-112.
311. Field Methods in Environmental Science
Students will learn to be environmental field researchers through two collaborative projects
conducted throughout the semester. For these collaborative projects, student will begin with a
literature review and then ask questions, form hypotheses, establish an experimental design,
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execute the design, analyze the data, and communicate the findings through writing. Other
environmental research methods are demonstrated through lab activities including groundwater,
river, and stream sampling. ​Prerequisite: ENV 101, ENV 141 and two of the following: BIO 112,
CHE 112, PHY 112.
312. Watershed Biogeochemistry
Biogeochemistry is the study of the physical, chemical, biological, and geological processes and
reactions that govern the composition of and changes to Earth. This class will examine the
water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycles generally and more specifically related to
the Chester River watershed. The laboratory component will involve biogeochemical field
sampling and laboratory analysis techniques. ​Prerequisite: ENV 101, ENV 141, BIO 206, and
CHE 210
313. Wetlands Ecology
This course provides an in-depth examination of the function and types of wetlands with an
emphasis on ecosystem services, biodiversity and conservation. Lecture will include a broad
overview of the role wetlands play in larger ecosystems as well as the hydrology, geology,
chemistry, trophic interactions and species common to these unique aquatic systems.
Laboratories will include a large field-based component where students will learn to identify
wetlands and their associated flora and fauna. ​Prerequisite: ENV 101, BIO 111-112.
314. Energy and the Environment
This course explores general topics of energy generation, distribution and use, as well as the
many ways that the energy industry affects the environment. Topics include: fossil fuels, heat
engines, renewable energy sources, global effects of energy use, politics and energy policy,
nuclear energy, and energy conservation. ​Prerequisite: ENV 101 or permission of the
instructor​.
317. Environmental Economics
This course is a survey of the application of economic analysis to environmental problems.
Analysis will focus on: policy options available to lawmakers and citizens, methods for assigning
value to the environment, and air and water pollution and the laws meant to control these
problems. (Also ECN 317) ​Prerequisite: ECN 112, must not have taken ENV 117.
318. Natural Resource Economics
This course surveys the economic theory behind, and the management of, renewable and
non-renewable resources including fisheries, minerals, timber, water, and biodiversity. Analysis
of management options is at the local, regional, and national levels. Analysis includes trade-offs
of policies and the effect of property rights regime on resource use. (Also ECN 318)
Prerequisite: ECN 112, must not have taken ENV 117.
335. Environmental Politics
This course explores public policy and the policy process in American politics, and specifically
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focuses on the development and enactment of environmental policies over the past several
decades in the United States. Attention is given to how political actors have responded to
environmental problems, what creates a favorable landscape for environmental policies to be
implemented, and how effective such policies are at achieving their goals. (Also POL 335)
Prerequisite: POL 102 or permission of the instructor.
370. Environmental Sociology
This class explores the human dimension of ecosystem science. Use of environmental
sociology as a framework for understanding the dynamic relationship between humans and the
environment, trends in environmental policy and public opinion, environmentalism as a social
movement, human-induced environmental decline, and environmental justice. Students will
explore how changes in ecosystems influence the achievability and sustainability of societal
values such as security from natural disasters, health, good social relations, and freedom to
pursue personal and cultural interests. (Also SOC 370) ​Prerequisite: SOC 101 and one
additional sociology course or permission of the instructor.
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
The course is comprised of a ten-week summer project guided by a faculty member at
Washington College. The student and the faculty mentor develop a research project, supported
by a reading list and involving theoretical laboratory or field investigations supervised by the
faculty mentor. Participants will produce a final report detailing the findings of their research.
190, 290, 390, 490. Internships
Students can receive credit for pursuing a full-time internship outside of Washington College. To
receive academic credit, one must apply through the Washington College internship office and
find a Washington College advisor and an on-site advisor. Participants will produce a final paper
detailing the findings of their work. Internships must first be approved by the Chair of the
Department.
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-Campus Research
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
Courses in this category are currently available in most disciplines. The course consists of an
individualized research project chosen by the student in consultation with a faculty member. The
student will, with the help of the faculty mentor, design a project to be implemented during the
course of the semester. The student will conduct an appropriate literature search, carry out the
research, and submit a written report by the end of the semester.
392, 491. Environmental Studies Seminar
A two semester weekly seminar that prepares students for either graduate education, career
development, and writing a successful Senior Capstone Experience (SCE). Seminars are led by
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Environmental Studies faculty and invited guests. Students will present their SCE proposals and
findings as part of the seminar. Required of all Environmental Studies majors.
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
Every senior is required to complete a Senior Capstone Experience (SCE). Students will enroll
in the 4 credit SCE course during their final semester. The SCE can be in the form of either a
monograph or a laboratory or field research experience.
Chesapeake Semester Courses
CRS 240. The Natural Science of an Estuary
This course is one of four courses that make up the Chesapeake Semester. Here students
explore topics such as geology, coastal morphology and the formation of the Chesapeake Bay,
physical, chemical and biological estuarine oceanography, estuarine productivity and
community structure, zonation in marine habitats, salt marshes and mud flats, oyster bars and
sea grass beds, forest ecology, and the science and impacts of climate change. Some
lecturers are on campus, while others are delivered while traveling. The course includes class,
home, and field lab exercises designed to reinforce course content, introduces scientific thinking
and training in data collection and analysis. It is designed to foster cross-disciplinary thinking
with the Humanities and Social Science courses of the Chesapeake Semester.​ ​A substantial
amount of learning will take place in the field with particular design and focus around the second
Journey, “Ridge to Ocean: Ecology and Geology of the Chesapeake.”
CRS 242. The Social Science of an Estuary
The focus of this piece of the semester is to explore the social aspects of the Chesapeake Bay
and its watershed, including its people, history, and their complex relationships with one another
and the environment. Students will cover a wide range of topics, drawing on the disciplines of
anthropology and archaeology, economics, geographic information systems, history, political
science and sociology. Students will also explore the ways in which these approaches may be
informed by other disciplines, such as those in the humanities and natural sciences.
Intersections between disciplines and integrating different kinds of knowledge are essential. A
substantial amount of learning will take place in the field with particular design and focus around
the first Journey “Around the Chesapeake: A Sense of Place and History.”
CRS 244. A Humanities Perspective on the Chesapeake
This section of the Chesapeake Semester offers a humanistic perspective on the Chesapeake
Bay. One way to think about this part of the course would be the most familiar: just as you will
be exploring the organic life of the Bay from the perspective of the natural and social sciences,
so too you will encounter, in both readings, discussions, and your various field experiences,
cultural artifacts of the Bay in terms of music, philosophy, the visual arts, and writing. However,
it will also be emphasized that to develop any understanding of the Bay, be it scientific or poetic
or philosophical or anthropological, the student must learn to see and hear and think and write,
as Thoreau puts it, with deeper references. Writing and thinking and creating are also organic
endeavors. In this sense, our course is an exploration not just of the humanities of the
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Bay—arts, ethics, literature, writing—but of the humanistic understanding that you will bring to
all the components of the Chesapeake Semester, that you will demonstrate (the expectation) in
your final project, and that you will translate (the hope) into your future studies and endeavors
beyond this course and the college.
CRS 246. Interdisciplinary Study of an Estuary: Integration and Action
The Chesapeake Semester is a novel design of integrated experiential learning rooted in
Washington College’s strong traditions in liberal learning, coupled with its rich historical heritage
and natural setting. This course builds upon three additional courses: CRS 242, CRS 240, and
CRS 244 and helps to deliver elements of each course curricula in the field, dissolving
disciplinary boundaries and making trans-disciplinary connections. Environmental policy and
natural resource management are key topics, as students explore the rules and regulations that
govern society’s use of our most precious resources. Food production and food systems are
analyzed as a key but often controversial linkage between environment and society. An
additional area of focus for this course is the global nature of the problems that we face in the
Chesapeake, using our experiences in Central America as a means to compare and contrast
coastal environments around the world. Students will use interdisciplinary tools like the
“Chesapeake Semester Intersections” to help frame these concepts. A substantial amount of
learning will take place in the field with particular design and focus around “Journey 4:
Resources and Regulations of the Chesapeake.” Finally, this course will explore the ways in
which a fuller understanding of place and people can be used to construct visions for the future,
empowering people to take an active role in positively influencing society’s impact on the natural
world. In doing so, students will learn the elements of becoming “student-citizen-leaders,”
taking on the evolving role as they explore the Chesapeake area’s rich culture and environment.
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Ethnomusicology
Ethnomusicology Interdisciplinary Minor
Jonathan McCollum, Director
Aaron Lampman
John Leupold
Julie Markin
Kenneth Schweitzer
Using music as an entry into a variety of cultures, social classes, and populations, the discipline
of ethnomusicology has become an important field of study for students interested in music
education, music performance, music history, performance studies (ritual studies, dramaturgy
and ethno-choreology), cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology, and other interdisciplinary
fields. Broadly speaking, ethnomusicology can be defined as the study of music as a cultural
phenomenon. Ethnomusicologists take a global, interdisciplinary approach to the study of music
and seek to understand music as a social practice, viewing music as a human activity that is
shaped by its cultural context. Ethnomusicologists often engage in ethnographic fieldwork, by
participating in and observing the music being studied, and frequently gain facility (or expertise)
in another music tradition as a performer or theorist. Ethnomusicologists also conduct historical
research utilizing the methods of historiography, manuscript analysis, archaeomusicology, and
archival/museum research. These skills reflect the diversity of learning expected from liberal arts
students. Students who study ethnomusicology have a global outlook, are critical thinkers, and
are better able to appreciate the cultural and aesthetic diversity of the world and communicate in
ways that are ethically sensitive.
The minor in ethnomusicology is open to students in all subject areas, including both musicians
and non-musicians. Though it represents an exciting opportunity for music majors, none of the
4-credit classroom courses presume an ability to read music notation. The Music Department’s
1-credit world music ensembles welcome students from a variety of backgrounds. While the
Early Music Consort and the Steel Pan Ensemble cater to students with music-reading
capabilities, the Afro-Cuban Ensemble relies entirely upon the oral/aural pedagogy, which is
modeled on the traditional teaching style that typifies Afro-Cuban folk culture. The Japanese
Music Ensemble, by contrast, utilizes a notational system unique to Japanese instruments, and
is generally equally unfamiliar to both classically trained musicians and non-musicians. In this
ensemble, students learn three different notation systems, depending on the instruments they
choose to learn.
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MINOR (23 Credits)
Core Requirements (4 credits)
Students must select one of the following courses:
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Required:
● MUS 406. Theory and Method in Ethnomusicology
Elective Requirements (at least 2 must be a MUS course) (16 credits)
● MUS/ANT 104. Introduction to World Music and Ethnomusicology
● MUS 106. Rock, Pop and American Culture
● MUS 301. Music and Gender
● MUS/ANT 313. Music of Latin America
● MUS 314. Music of Asia
● MUS/PHL 327. Music, Ritual, and Early Christianity
● ANT 105. Introduction to Anthropology
● ANT 215. Sex, Gender and Culture
● ANT 305. Ethnographic Method
● ANT 420. Media and Power
● Appropriate Internships (credit bearing) (approved by the Chair of the Music Department)
● Other courses, such as study abroad or summer/winter session courses (approved by
the Chair of the Music Department or the Director of the Ethnomusicology Minor, as
appropriate)
World Music Performance Requirement (3 credits)
● MUS 278. Steel Pan Ensemble
● MUS 279. Japanese Music Ensemble
● MUS 285. Early Music Consort
● MUS 289. Afro-Cuban Ensemble
In recognition of the close ties and shared skill sets between ethnomusicology and cultural
anthropology, the Ethnomusicology Minor is being jointly sponsored by the Department of Music
and the Department of Anthropology, whose chairs will cooperatively administer the Minor.To
ensure that music students take this opportunity to expand their knowledge in a supplemental
area, music majors who minor in ethnomusicology will have to observe the following guidelines:
(1) they may only double count 2 courses between the MUS major and the Ethnomusicology
minor and (2) at least two of the courses used to satisfy the minor must be offered by the
Department of Anthropology. Students will not be permitted to minor in both music and
ethnomusicology simultaneously. To ensure that anthropology students take this opportunity to
expand their knowledge in a supplemental area, anthropology majors who minor in
ethnomusicology will have to observe the following guidelines: (1) they may only double count 2
courses between the ANT major and the Ethnomusicology minor and (2) at least 2 of the
electives must be have an MUS designation. Students will not be permitted to minor in both
anthropology and ethnomusicology simultaneously.
MUSIC COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
MUS/ANT 104. Introduction to World Music and Ethnomusicology
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An introduction to music of the world, including popular, folk, religious and classical traditions.
Explores the way ethnomusicologists organize and analyze knowledge about the world, while
investigating the ways music acquires meaning in performances that are socially, historically,
and culturally situated.
MUS 106. Rock, Pop and American Culture
An examination of popular music in America from the 1830s through the modern day. With a
particular emphasis being placed on the 1950s and 1960s, students will develop an
understanding of the cultural, political, and economic forces of these eras and will examine how
popular music history intersects with all aspects of American history and culture. This course
also examines several important threads in popular music history, including the ever-present,
but ever changing, role of race relations, the impact of evolving technologies, and the history of
the music industry. In addition to reading the assigned textbook, students are also asked to
watch/listen to important archival performances, televised interviews with notable musicians,
radio interviews with scholars of popular culture, and other relevant primary sources.
MUS 278. Japanese Music Ensemble
By the Edo period (1603-1868), three instruments had emerged from various directions to
become popular among the Japanese people. The koto, a 13-string zither, the shamisen, a
3-string banjo-like instrument, and the shakuhachi, a Zen Buddhist bamboo flute. In this new
ensemble, students are introduced to these instruments, have the opportunity to research, write
about, and learn how to perform on an instrument of the student’s choice. Students also learn
the unique notation systems of each instrument, as well as gain a deep understanding of
Japanese traditional arts in relation to the social, ideological, and cultural development of
Japanese traditional aesthetics.
MUS 279. Steel Pan Ensemble
The Washington College Steel Band (Steel Revolution) offers students an opportunity to explore
the Trinidadian steel band tradition, as well as classical and popular arrangements and
transcriptions. Students learn to perform on steel band instruments and study the social,
historical, and cultural context of the ensemble. Readings, recordings, and video viewings
supplement in-class instruction. The ensemble will present public performances. ​Prerequisite:
Permission of the instructor.
MUS 285. Washington College Early Music Consort
The Early Music Consort is an instrumental ensemble that performs music from the Middle
Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque eras on period instruments. Membership is open to qualified
students.
MUS 289. Washington College Afro-Cuban Ensemble
The ensemble focuses primarily on the Cuban drum and song traditions associated with rumba
and Santeria. Musical literacy is not a requirement; instead, rhythms and melodies will be
transmitted via the oral traditions that are prevalent in Cuba. Membership is open to all students.
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MUS 310. Music and Gender
An examination of the role of gender in music, including the effect of gender on music history,
analysis, and performance. Topics will include the lives and musical accomplishments of
selected musicians, and the impact of social and cultural conditions affecting those musicians.
MUS/ANT 313. Music of Latin America
Students will be introduced to ethnomusicological theory and method, while focusing on the
musical practices of selected musical areas from South and Central America and the
Caribbean. Folk, ritual, popular, and art/classical traditions will be examined in the contexts of
cultural issues such as belief systems, politics, aesthetics, and identity.
MUS 314. Music of Asia
Using selected musical areas from Asia, this course introduces and reinforces the basic
concepts of ethnomusicology and trains students to develop listening and musicological
analytical skills. We will examine folk, ritual, popular, and art/classical traditions in the contexts
of cultural issues, such as belief systems, politics, aesthetics, and identity.
MUS/PHL 327. Music, Ritual and Early Christianity
Using music, ritual, and liturgical analyses, this course investigates the historical, social,
political, and intellectual circumstances that led to the eventual success of Christianity as a
major religion of the world. Examples are drawn from Eastern Orthodoxy and Catholicism.
MUS 406. Theory and Method in Ethnomusicology
This course examines the formation of the discipline of ethnomusicology through a survey of its
history, theory, and methodology. Students read and discuss the works of major scholars in the
field and examine the interdisciplinary nature of ethnomusicology, particularly its relationship
with historical musicology, anthropology, folklore, linguistics, and cultural studies. Research
projects will compliment theoretical discussions and technical activities associated with the field
such as fieldwork, ethnography, historical research, and transcription.
ANTHROPOLOGY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
ANT 105. Introduction to Anthropology
This course will focus on anthropological perspectives of the human condition and provide
students with an introduction to the fundamental concepts, methods, and theories of the
discipline of cultural anthropology. Readings by professional anthropologists will present
students with a variety of viewpoints and an awareness of some of the controversial issues in
the field. This course is centered on four research projects that will provide honors students with
the opportunity to learn some of the elementary skills of qualitative research, a ritual analysis,
analysis of a workplace, analysis of a family, and an oral history of an immigrant. For each of
these projects, students will interview informants, do participant observation, and interpret their
data within a theoretical framework of cultural anthropology.
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ANT 215. Sex, Gender, and Culture
The study of the biological differences of sex in relationship to the cultural construction of
gender. The importance of modes of production and ideology in forming gender concepts for all
human societies. Cross-cultural issues of gender identity, roles, relationships, and equality or
inequality. Prerequisite: Anthropology 105.
ANT 305. Ethnographic Method
Introduction to cultural anthropological field methods and the writing of ethnographies. Students
practice skills of observation, participation, reflection, mapping, selection of informants,
ethnographic interviewing, analysis, proposal writing, and ethnographic writing. Each student
researches a cultural scene in the Chesapeake region and writes an ethnography. Prerequisite:
Anthropology 105.
ANT 420. Media and Power
By investigating the idea that what we view and express regarding cultural identity and cultural
difference is artificial, we can see that popular entertainment, global news broadcasts,
monuments and museums, and the internet might be doing more than merely “capturing,”
“reporting,” or “exhibiting.” Understanding this, we can uncover something more about how
representations are created, how they have been manipulated historically to oppress or devalue
certain groups, and how they can be contested. Knowing that images are constructed and not
real, we can turn our focus to how people can reclaim their identities and thus their own power
through revising or even appropriating the representations that have been made of them.
Prerequisite: Anthropology 105
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Gender Studies
Gender Studies Interdisciplinary Minor
Cristina Casado Presa, Director
Erin Anderson
Jennifer Benson
Cristina Casado Presa
Melissa Deckman
Richard De Prospo
Richard Gillin
Ryan Kelty
Alisha Knight
Kathryn Moncrief
Matthew McCabe
Pamela Pears
George Spilich
Aileen Tsui
Christine Wade
Carol Wilson
The Gender Studies minor offers students the opportunity to concentrate on the ways gender is
analyzed in a variety of fields in the liberal arts. In order to complete this interdisciplinary minor,
students will take six courses. One course, either Sociology of Gender (GEN 213/SOC 213) or
Sex, Gender, and Culture (GEN 215/ANT 215), is required. Five more courses may be taken as
electives from regular or special topics offerings in a number of departments: Art; Theatre;
English; Modern Languages; History; Philosophy and Religion; Political Science; Psychology;
and Sociology and Anthropology. Other courses which are not cross-listed as Gender Studies
may be applied to the Gender Studies minor after consultation with the instructor and the
program director in order to set up specific Gender Studies requirements. Students planning to
complete the Gender Studies minor should consult with the program director on their course
selection. Students whose senior capstone experience focuses on the issue of gender may also
apply that credit toward the minor. Courses regularly offered that apply toward the Gender
Studies minor include:
GEN 194. Introduction to Women’s Studies
GEN 212. Sociology of the Family
GEN 213. Sociology of Gender
GEN 215. Sex, Gender, and Culture
GEN 220. Human Sexuality
GEN 302. Renaissance: Age of Elizabeth
GEN 305. Romanticism
GEN 312. Contemporary Francophone World
GEN 317. Women’s Literature
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GEN 319. The African-American Novel
GEN 321. Women and Politics
GEN 343. History of American Women
GEN 348. Gender in Western Civilization to 1600
GEN 355. Women in Medieval Europe
GEN 374. Main Divisions In American Culture: Race, Gender, Sexual Preference, Generation,
Class
GEN 375. Body Language: Representation and Transgression from Theodore Dreiser and
Claire Chopin through Nicholson Baker and Brett Easton Ellis
GEN 376. Culture of the Old/Cultures of the Young
GEN 377. 2PACalypse Now! The Cult of ​Heart of Darkness​ among White Male Anglophone
Intellectuals
GEN 399. Gender Studies Seminar
GEN 425. Women Artists and Feminist Art History (Honors)
Course Descriptions
194: Introduction to Women’s Studies
This course serves as an introduction to the cross-disciplinary field of Women’s Studies. We will
explore issues relevant to women from a variety of fields, including history, politics, law, media
and communication, sexuality, literature, and economics. We will also study the concepts of
gender and sex from psychological, anthropological, and sociological perspectives. The class
will focus mainly on the lives of women in the United States, but will pay particular attention to
diversity—ethnic, racial and class—within our nation.
212. Sociology of the Family
Study of the family as a social institution. Comparative family systems, history of the family, and
theory and research dealing with courtship, marriage, and disorganization of the modem family.
Prerequisite: Sociology 101
213. Sociology of Gender
Gender as a social construction. Sex and gender. Effects of gender on individuals’ statuses and
opportunity structures. Focus on contemporary American responses to sex and gender. Gender
roles and definitions earlier in U.S. history and in other societies. ​Prerequisite: Sociology 101.
215. Sex, Gender, and Culture
The study of the biological differences of sex in relationship to the cultural construction of
gender. The importance of modes of production and ideology in forming gender concepts for all
human societies. Cross-cultural issues of gender identity, roles, relationships, and equality or
inequality. ​Prerequisite: Anthropology 105 or permission of the instructor.
220. Human Sexuality
A biological approach to the study of human sexuality. This course emphasizes topics such as
the anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system, conception and contraception,
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STDs and infertility, and then continues on to discuss the influences that shape sexual attitudes
as well as the values and behavior systems that influence human sexual behavior. An overview
of attitudes towards sexuality across cultures is included.
302. Renaissance: Age of Elizabeth
The literature and culture of the Tudor period focusing on the age of Elizabeth. Poetry, prose,
and drama including Kyd, Shakespeare, Marlowe, Sidney, Spencer, More, and Whitney.
305. Romanticism
The movement from the late eighteenth century to 1832 considered as a revolution in the aims
and methods of poetry. Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, and Keats.
312. The Contemporary Francophone World
Taught in English, this course provides an introductory historical and cultural study of the
contemporary Francophone world. Designed as a survey of the non-European Francophone
world, the course will offer for study both literary and cultural documents from the Caribbean,
North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Canada. Initially students will be provided tools for
cultural interpretation via critical texts, media analysis (including print and internet sources) and
the analysis of Francophone films; they will then apply them to the cultural history of
Francophone world. We will explore French colonization, the process of decolonization, and
subsequent independence movements. We will examine social, political, and economic roles of
both women and men, changing gender roles, and contemporary divisions of labor. Finally, we
will reflect on the political, historical, and socio-cultural situations of post-colonial Francophone
nations.
317. Women’s Literature
A study of women writers with an emphasis on nineteenth- and twentieth-century works.
Essays, fiction, poetry, and drama.
319. African American Novel
This course examines the origin and development of the African-American novel. We will begin
with the earliest novels and conclude with an analysis of contemporary novels by
African-American writers. We will examine novels from multiple genres and give careful
attention to the intersection of race, gender, class, and environment in representative novels of
the 19​th​, 20​th​, and 21​st​ centuries. Prerequisite: Any combination of two 200-level English
courses, or permission of the instructor.
321. Women and Politics
This course examines the role of women as voters, citizens, candidates, and leaders in
American politics, grounded in theories of gender. Attention will also be given to the history of
the women’s movement and the current status of women’s organizations. The course also
focuses on how various public policies, including workplace issues, family issues, education
issues and reproductive rights, affect women and their legal rights.
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343. History of American Women
Examines the private lives and public roles of women throughout American history, from colonial
settlement to the present. Social attitudes and laws and policies affecting women will be studied,
as well as women’s daily lives, experiences, and accomplishments. Attention will be given to
women of different races, classes, and ethnic backgrounds. Topics include women’s right to
vote; involvement in reform movements; family life; education; birth control and abortion; and
economic activities. ​Prerequisite: One year of introductory history required.
348. Gender in Western Civilization to 1600
A survey of the differing social roles, legal status, and day-to-day lives of women and men in
Mediterranean and European societies from the earliest Near Eastern civilizations through the
Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the Reformation. ​Prerequisite: One year of introductory
history or permission of the instructor.
355. Women in Medieval Europe
A seminar exploring the lives of women and their role in society from the fifth through the
fifteenth centuries. Topics include legal status, economic activity, marriage and family, and
women in religion. Readings include both traditional and feminist-influenced secondary works,
medieval works about and for women, and the writings of medieval women themselves.
Discussion is a major component of the course. ​Prerequisite: One year of introductory history or
permission of the instructor.
374. Main Divisions In American Culture: Race, Gender, Sexual Preference, Generation,
Class
Ever since the Harvard-educated Midwestern American Studies founder V.L. Parrington
identified the Main Currents in American Thought, the tendency of most influential scholars has
been synoptically to emphasize the commonalities that unite “We, the people,” since even
before the founding of the U.S. conflictual approaches to American culture have been pursued
mainly from the margins—by African-American, Latina/o, feminist, queer, and Marxian critics.
Playing on the title of Parrington’s book, this course will pay attention to what divides us, still,
approaching a century after Main Currents first appeared back in 1927.
375. Body Language: Representation and Transgression from Theodore Dreiser and
Claire Chopin through Nicholson Baker and Brett Easton Ellis
A study of how bodies have been transformed from soma into vox in modern and post-modern
culture. Curriculum will be a catholic mixture of a variety of genres and media, including
standard school texts, literary and feminist theory, popular music, still images and video, and
journalism. Readings will include fiction that has been labeled transgressive, and in all but the
very latest examples for a time banned in the U.S.; theory from De Beauvoir to Judith Butler;
and various works associated with the pornography debate from Katherine MacKibbon and
Andrea Dworkin through Madonna and Linda Williams.
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376. Culture of the Old/Cultures of the Young
Whereas what once seemed controversial topics—race, ethnicity, gender, sexual preference,
borderlands—have become mainstream in college and university American Studies and English
courses, one, arguably major category of cultural difference remains relatively understudied—at
least in the humanities. The study of generation, like that of all of the topics listed above, is
potentially subversive, and it may be neglected because of the fact that most college and
university professors (admittedly with increasingly numerous exceptions) are members of the
single, for some time now and for some time to come, dominant generation. The Baby Boom
runs the same risks as do white people in the U.S., white Anglo-Saxon-Protestant people in the
U.S., men everywhere, and heterosexuals everywhere when it acknowledges that the products
of (sub)cultures other than its own are as worthy of becoming college and university curricula as
its own traditional canon. The course will try to distinguish in a variety of ways the belated,
frequently plaintive, cultures of the young from that of the Baby Boom.
377. 2PACalypse Now! the Cult of ​Heart of Darkness​ among White Male Anglophone
Intellectuals
The course explores Conrad’s ​The Heart of Darkness ​to understand what it is that has attracted
so many white male Anglophone intellectuals--and prompted the condemnation of one African
writer, the mockery of one black rapper, and, perhaps, the rivalry of a prominent, brown,
novelist--over the more than hundred years now since its original publication in 1899 in England
in ​Blackwood’s Magazine.​ Class texts will include Conrad’s novella, Coppola’s ​Apocalypse Now​,
Tupac’s ​TUPACalypse Now​, Faulkner’s ​Absalom, Absalom!​, Chinua Achebe’s essays, V.S.
Naipul’s ​A Bend in the River​, and other sources, plus some theorizings of race and gender that
shed light on the book’s long-standing appeal to a relatively homogenous cohort of readers and
adaptors.
399. Gender Studies Seminar
A special topics course that offers opportunities for courses on gender that are trans-disciplinary
in nature or are co-taught. Examples are Gender and Multiculturalism, and Women in Sport and
Society: 1850-present.
425. Women Artists and Feminist Art History (Honors)
In recent decades, growing scholarly attention has been brought to the previously neglected
productions of female artists. This seminar will examine the variety of approaches that feminist
art historians have taken in studying art made by women in the modern period. We will be
concerned both with the historical analysis of the visual productions of particular female artists
and with an exploration of how feminist theories, practices, and political commitments have
affected, and can continue to change, the discursive and institutional construction of the
history—or histories—of art and visual culture. ​Prerequisite: Art 200 or permission of instructor.
294, 394, 494. Special Topics in Gender Studies
Offered occasionally, these courses provide focused study of specialized topics in gender.
Contents will vary according to the instructor. Examples include Philosophy, Feminism, and the
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Body; Human Rights and Social Justice; Post-1945 Revolutions in Art and Theory; and
American Women Playwrights.
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History Division of Social Sciences
Janet Sorrentino, Chair
T. Clayton Black
Adam Goodheart
Kenneth Miller
Richard Striner
Carol Wilson
Through stimulating teaching of the works of historians, and also non-historians, we foster in our
students a sense of the development of past societies and a curiosity about why these
developments occurred. We believe that understanding the past through a maturing historical
consciousness and instruction in the proficient use of primary and secondary sources can
improve students’ understanding of their own time. Students at Washington College are trained
as generalists, studying a variety of geographical areas and eras, and able to apply their skills of
research and analytical thinking to whatever interests them.
The study of history is closely related to other disciplines that inform the student’s understanding
of the world. History gives a context to and a wider perspective on the approaches offered by
the political scientist, the geographer, the economist, the sociologist, as well as the disciplines of
art history, music, and literature. History is in many ways the broadest of the traditional
disciplines. In other words, it has a great deal to contribute to the making of a cultured person.
We endeavor to promote among our students an appreciation for outstanding cultural
achievements, an appreciation which helps them to know who they are and who they might
become.
Engaging in historical studies at Washington College is an excellent preparation for future
careers. Our graduates have been successful in secondary school and college teaching,
archival, curatorial, and museum work, law, journalism, and publishing. Many of our majors work
in other areas traditionally attracting liberal arts graduates--business and government, for
example.
The Major
Twelve courses: Students pursuing the history major must successfully complete the following
requirements: HIS 111, one U.S. History survey (201 or 202), one non-U.S. History survey (203,
204, 205, or 206), HIS 399 Historical Method (Junior Seminar) History Senior Capstone
Experience, five additional department offerings at the 300 and 400 level, at least one coming
from each of the following sub-categories, plus two elective 300 or 400 level history courses:
1. Pre-1860 United States
313: Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century America
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315: The Early Republic
319: African-American History
342: Victorian America
343: History of American Women
414: Comparative Cultural Encounters
2. Post-1860 United States
319: African-American History
334: The American Civil War
335: Reconstruction and the Gilded Age
336: Progressivism and the Twenties
337: The New Deal and World War II
342: Victorian America
343: History of American Women
344: Hollywood Films in the Depression and World War II
3. Early Europe
350: Empire and Papacy: Medieval Germany and Italy
351: Ancient Rome
352: Castles, Cloisters, Cathedrals, and Mosques
353: Medieval Europe
354: Renaissance and Reformation
355: Women in Medieval Europe
4. Modern Europe
360: Modern Germany
391: Russia and the Soviet Union I
392: Russia and the Soviet Union II
5. Global
371: History of South Africa
381: History of Modern China
383: History of Modern Japan
357: Early Islamic Civilization
372: Colonial Latin America
473: Latin American Literature as History
Departmental special topics courses (HIS 394 or 494) offered in the above subject areas can be
counted toward the requirements.
History majors have opportunities for internships with the George Washington’s Mount Vernon,
Kent County Historical Society, the Maryland Department of Archives and History, the Maryland
General Assembly, the Office of the Governor of Maryland, the Library of Congress, the
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National Portrait Gallery, and the Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government in London,
and many others.
History majors are eligible to prepare for secondary school teaching certification either in history
or social studies. To ensure proper scheduling of courses, interested students should consult
with the chairs of the History and Education Departments as early in their college careers as
possible.
Students who major in history may pursue a regional concentration. These concentrations are
administered through the International Studies Program, but students are not required to major
in International Studies. Current regions of study include African, Asian Studies, Latin American
Studies, Near Eastern Studies, and Western European Studies. More information about the
requirements for these concentrations can be found in the International Studies Program section
in this catalog.
Senior Capstone Experience
The Senior Capstone Experience in history consists of studies in historiographical techniques
and preparation of a substantial senior thesis. During the spring term of the junior year, history
majors participate in a required course entitled Historical Method (HIS 399). In connection with
this course, each student is assigned a thesis advisor under whose supervision a prospectus,
preliminary bibliography and other elements are prepared. Students who wish to be considered
for departmental honors, or who are preparing for graduate study in history or related fields,
should request permission to attempt an honors thesis. Students who wish to be candidates for
honors on the senior thesis must have and maintain a 3.5 grade point average by the start of
Spring semester junior year.
The Minor
The history minor consists of at least six courses: HIS 111, one U.S. History survey (201 or
202), one non-U.S. History survey (203, 204, 205, or 206), and three more courses at the 300 or
400 level. At least one of the upper-level courses must be in U.S. history; at least one must be
in non-U.S. history. Introductory courses must be taken at the college level; AP credits will not
count toward the history minor.
Distribution Credit
The distribution requirement in Social Science may be satisfied by: HIS 111 paired with any
other history course, or any two 200-level history courses
To satisfy the requirement of an unpaired third course for social science distribution, students
may take HIS 111 or any 200-level history course
Course Descriptions
111. Introduction to History
This course introduces students to the discipline of history by exploring compelling themes or
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problems in history. Through study of different topics, each section instructor will teach students
the core methodological skills of historical analysis and interpretation. Students are expected to
appreciate differing interpretations of the same historical questions. Students will study
appropriate primary and secondary sources in the field, and learn the basic analytical and
writing skills historians use to interpret the past. Various topics offered each semester, such as
“The Underground Railroad," "The Invention of Childhood," "American Home Front," "Russian
Revolution," Harry Potter's World: Renaissance Science, Magic, and Medicine," "Small Worlds
of Early America," and "America in the 1960s."
201. History of the United States to 1865
A survey of United States history through the Civil War, this course begins with the history of the
first residents of North America, Native Americans. Includes the founding and development of
the various colonies that eventually joined to form a new nation, and the early history of that
nation--political, economic, and social.
202. History of the United States Since 1865
This survey of United States history starts with the Reconstruction era and traces the growth of
the nation to the present. We will study how the nation was restored after the Civil War, how the
United States industrialized, urbanized, and became a world power in the twentieth century.
Note: HIS 201 is not a prerequisite for HIS 202​.
203. Modern World History I
A survey of world history from the fourteenth century to the end of the eighteenth. This course
treats the increasing integration of world civilizations through commercial and cultural
interactions and traces the emergence of Europe as a center of global economic and military
power. Prominent themes include the Mongol empire, Black Death, Age of Exploration,
Reformation, Gunpowder empires, Enlightenment, and French revolution.
204. Modern World History II
A survey of world history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The course examines the
world in the age of global integration and includes such themes as the rise of republicanism and
nationalism, the industrial revolution, imperialism, communism and fascism, the world wars, the
Cold War, and globalization, among others. ​Note: HIS 203 is not a prerequisite for HIS 204​.
205. Early Origins of Western Civilization I
Focuses on ancient societies, from Sumer through imperial Rome, whose cultures contributed
to the development of Western civilization. The course stresses the multiplicity of cultures that
melded and conflicted in the ancient Near Eastern and Mediterranean worlds, and looks to the
origins of cultural symbols that appear and reappear in the emerging Western world.
206. Early Origins of Western Civilization II
Studies European society from the fall of the western Roman empire through Galileo and
Newton. The course is a continuation of History 205; it builds on the assimilation of ancient
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culture into Roman, Germanic, Greek, Christian, Jewish, and Islamic societies. It traces the
development of Europe through the Middle Ages, Renaissance, Reformation, and Scientific
Revolution. ​Note: HIS 205 is not a prerequisite for HIS 206​.
218. Historical Film Genres
In this course, a selection of film genres will be presented for comparative analysis, including
four or five genres such as gangster films, “film noir” detective films, westerns, musicals, or films
that depict and characterize professions such as journalism or jurisprudence. Films will be
selected within each genre that offer different commentaries on recurrent social themes in
American history. This course will also incorporate a significant amount of reading and research
in primary-source documents relating to the historical periods and themes represented in the
films. It will also include new secondary-source and interpretive texts. The course will thus
extend the students repertoire of analytical skills in the field of history to more sophisticated
intellectual challenges.
313. Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century America
The social, economic, and political structure of Colonial America; the background and
development of the American Revolution; and the interaction of social and political life during
the Confederation, Constitutional, and Federalist periods. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level
history courses taken at the college level required.
315. The Early Republic
This course explores the history of the early American republic from the framing of the
Constitution to the Civil War. The course investigates the clash between Hamiltonian and
Jeffersonian visions, the development of party politics and a popular political culture, territorial
expansion and the dispossession of Native Americans, the spread of King Cotton and slavery,
the transportation and market revolutions, religious revival and social reform, and the sectional
conflict between North and South. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses taken
at the college level required.
319. African-American History
Examines the experience of African Americans from African origins through two centuries of
slavery to emancipation in 1865, through segregation, the civil rights movement, up to the
present. This course explores the nature of racism and race relations as well as Black initiative.
Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses taken at the college level required.
334. The American Civil War
This course encompasses the U.S. Civil War (1861-1865) in all pertinent areas. In addition to
military history, the course reviews significant historical interpretations of the causes and effects
of the Civil War; the dimensions of social, economic, political, and diplomatic history pertaining
to the war; and the evolution of war aims relating to the central issues of slavery and race
relations. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses taken at the college level
required.
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335. Reconstruction and the Gilded Age
A study of the thirty-five years of American history that followed the Civil War, with particular
emphasis given to problems of reconstruction, the achievements and costs of industrialization,
the economic and social problems confronting workers and farmers, and the major intellectual
and cultural cross-currents of American life during the late nineteenth century. ​Prerequisite: HIS
111 or two 200-level history courses taken at the college level required.
336. Progressivism and the Twenties
A study of America’s early-twentieth-century age of reform and the very different period that
followed in the 1920s. Emphasis is placed on the politics and culture of reform at the local,
state, and federal levels from 1900 through 1920; the presidencies of Theodore Roosevelt and
Woodrow Wilson; the impact of World War I; and the cultural contradictions and ferment of the
1920s, culminating in the Wall Street crash of 1929. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level
history courses taken at the college level required.
337. The New Deal and World War II
A study encompassing a period dominated by the presidential leadership of Franklin D.
Roosevelt. Emphasis is placed on the crisis and challenge of the Great Depression, the
interlude of Herbert Hoover’s administration, the themes and occasional contradictions of the
New Deal, the struggles for the redefinition of American society, and the challenge of totalitarian
aggression in World War II. ​Prerequisite: Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses
taken at the college level required.
342. Victorian America
Examination of American social attitudes and behavior in both the public and private spheres
during the nineteenth century. Topics include marriage and the family; childhood; the
individual’s role in society; entertainment; race and ethnicity; religion; migration; immigration;
urbanization; and reform movements. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses
taken at the college level required.
343. History of American Women
Examines the private lives and public roles of women throughout American history, from colonial
settlement to the present. Social attitudes and laws and policies affecting women are studied, as
well as women’s daily lives, experiences, and accomplishments. Attention is given to women of
different races, classes, and ethnic backgrounds. Topics include women’s right to vote;
involvement in reform movements; family life; education; birth control and abortion; and
economic activities.​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses taken at the college
level required.
344. Hollywood Films in the Depression and World War II
This course uses American films of the 1930s and early-to-mid 1940s combined with
appropriate readings to provide a richer understanding of the social and cultural history of the
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era encompassed in the regular upper-level course HIS 337 (New Deal and World War II). Films
from a variety of genres—social protest/ topical exposés, melodramas, screwball comedies,
musicals, historical romances, gangster films, and “film noir” detective films—will present a wide
array of themes reflecting the moods and preoccupations of the era. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or
two 200-level history courses taken at the college level required.
350. Empire and Papacy: Medieval Germany and Italy
Germany and Italy emerged as modern nations only in the nineteenth century. Both
experienced turbulent internal divisions for centuries prior to their respective national
unifications. A common thread bound their political difficulties, that is, the tension between two
supranational ideas: The Roman Empire and the Roman Papacy. This course will explore the
origins and development of this conflict between the Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy and
its effect on the histories of medieval Germany and medieval Italy. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two
200-level history taken at the college level courses required.
351. Ancient Rome
The social, cultural, and political history of ancient Rome and its dominions, from prehistory
through the decline and fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century C.E. Topics will include
republican and imperial government, Rome’s army and conquests, the Roman family, Roman
religion, and the rise of Christianity. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses taken
at the college level required.
352. Castles, Cloisters, Cathedrals, and Mosques
This course traces the history of France and Spain from the 8​th​ to 16​th​ centuries from the
perspective of their castles, monastic cloisters, cathedrals, and mosques. Topics include
architectural structure and style; pre-modern French and Spanish history; history and regular
routines of religious life; social and cultural aspects of buildings including their roles in military
technology, guild organization, palatial residence, and church life. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two
200-level history courses taken at the college level required.
353. Medieval Europe
An exploration of the cultural and political development of medieval Europe in the period
500-1500. Topics covered include the fall of Rome, kingship, feudalism, the medieval church,
art and architecture, literary culture, and the realities of everyday life. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or
two 200-level history courses taken at the college level required.
354. Renaissance and Reformation
A study of Europe in the period 1400-1648. Cultural developments in fifteenth-century Italy are
the starting point; students then explore religious and political change, and social and economic
trends throughout Europe. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses taken at the
college level required.
355. Women in Medieval Europe
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A seminar exploring the lives of women and their role in society from the fifth through the
fifteenth centuries. Topics include legal status, economic activity, marriage and family, and
women in religion. Readings include both traditional and feminist-influenced secondary works,
medieval works about and for women, and the writings of medieval women themselves.
Discussion is a major component of the course. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history
courses taken at the college level required.
357. Early Islamic Civilization
Early Islamic civilization from its origins in Arabia to its expression in several imperial regimes in
the sixteenth century (e.g. Ottoman, Mughal). We will examine the creation of a Muslim
community, the development of a rich and dynamic civilization, the competing claims for political
and religious authority, the forging of empires and their break-up, as well as contacts with the
non-Muslim societies. Thus we will be studying a universal religion as it was expressed and
incorporated into a variety of unique cultures that differed in ethnicity, language, geography and
beliefs. Students will acquire an understanding of basic vocabulary, geography, historical
sources and narrative, through directed readings, lecture and class discussion. ​Prerequisite:
HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses taken at the college level required.
360. Modern Germany
An examination of Central Europe from the unification of the German lands in the
mid-nineteenth century through the Kaiserreich, World War I, Weimar Republic,
National Socialism, Cold War division, and reunification. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two
200-level history courses taken at the college level required.
371. History of South Africa
Traces the political, economic, and social history of the Republic of South Africa. Beginning with
the earliest inhabitants, the course traces the diversity of African institutions, the establishment
of European colonies, the policy of apartheid, and African resistance. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or
two 200-level history courses taken at the college level required.
372. Colonial Latin America
This course surveys Spanish and Portuguese America from the pre-Columbian era to the
present. Topics include the origins and evolution of indigenous civilizations, the process of
European conquest and colonization, the formation of mixed cultures, and the struggle for
independence. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses taken at the college level
required.
381. History of Modern China
This course traces the history of China from roughly 1800 to the present. It devotes special
attention to the development of nationalism and communism in China and China’s uneasy
relationship with the West. Topics will include the Opium War and Taiping Rebellion, Republican
era and warlordism, China in the Pacific War, Maoism and the reforms of Deng Xiaoping,
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among others. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses taken at the college level
required.
383. History of Modern Japan
An examination of Japan from the late Tokugawa era (ca. 1800-1868) to the present. The
course looks at the causes and consequences of the Meiji Restoration, Japan’s rise as a
modern industrial state, its struggle with democratic government, imperialist expansion, the
impact of World War II on the country’s subsequent political, social, and economic development,
the “Japanese Miracle” of the 1970s, and Japan’s current difficulties in confronting its past and
defining its place in the twenty-first century. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history
courses taken at the college level required.
391, 392. Russia and the Soviet Union
Russian political, social, economic, and cultural developments from the founding of the first
eastern Slavic state to the present. The first semester treats Kievan Rus, Muscovy, and the
Imperial period from Peter the Great to Alexander II. The second semester deals with the final
decades of the Russian autocracy, the revolutionary movement, World War I, the revolutions of
1917, the Civil War, and the history of the Soviet Union to the end of the Gorbachev era.
Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses taken at the college level required.
399. Historical Method
A study of history as a discipline. Classroom lecture and discussion on fundamental aspects of
research and synthesis plus the history of historical writing. With the help of an assigned
advisor, each student prepares first a prospectus and then a preliminary chapter of the eventual
senior thesis in history. Both papers are presented to the class for comment and review in
workshop format. ​Enrollment is limited to history majors. Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level
history courses taken at the college level required.
414. Comparative Cultural Encounters
This seminar examines interactions among native, European, and African peoples during the
initial centuries of North American colonization. Situating the American colonies within a
broader Atlantic World and offering a comparative approach, the course investigates processes
of cultural conflict, exchange, adaptation, and transformation. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two
200-level history courses taken at the college level required.
473. Latin American Literature as History
This seminar employs new and classic novels to investigate diverse trends in modern Latin
American history, focusing on the insight each text offers into the land’s people and institutions.
Collectively, these volumes illuminate sweeping historical themes, harnessing personal stories
to broad, impersonal forces and surveying a range of topics, from poverty and repression to
adaptation and rebellion. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses taken at the
college level required.
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474. Historic Preservation and Cultural Resource Management
Provides a comprehensive overview of historic preservation and cultural resource management
as practiced in the United States. Examines the history of the preservation movement, the role
of preservation in American culture, and the legislative framework for historic preservation.
Reviews the growing field of cultural resource management, looking at issues in architectural
design, contract or “salvage” archaeology, and heritage tourism. ​Prerequisite: 200-level
coursework in archaeology or American history, or permission of instructor.
190, 290, 390, 490. Internship
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics in History
Intensive study of specialized topics or limited periods in American history. Such courses will be
offered occasionally and topics will vary. ​Prerequisite: HIS 111 or two 200-level history courses
taken at the college level required.
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
See page 183.
Courses Offered In The Washington College Abroad Programs
208. Introduction to Latin American History
An introduction to Latin American History from the pre-conquest period until the present. Topics
include regional geography, Pre-Columbian cultures, the colonial experience, independence
and the problems of nation-building, economic and political trends from 1850 to the 1930s,
demography and society, Latin America and international relations, Mexico since the
Revolution, the Cuban Revolution and aftermath, Central America, and the future of democracy
in Latin America. ​Offered in the Costa Rica program only, in the spring semester. (In English.)
Prerequisite: May not be taken with History 209 or History 210. ​Three credits​.
357. Topics in French History
The course focuses on some aspect or period of French history. Specific topics change from
year to year. Courses in the past have looked at the period from World War I to World War II,
the Fourth and Fifth Republics, social developments since World War II, immigration and
national identity, and the evolution of the European Union. ​Offered in the Paris program only, in
the fall semester. (In French.) Prerequisite: Introductory sequence in history desirable and FRS
202 or equivalent required. ​Three credits​.
358. Modern Italian History
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The course describes the historical evolution of Italy from its unification in 1860 to the present,
with special emphasis on the connection between historical events and political and social
developments. ​Offered in the Siena, Italy, program only, in the spring semester. Prerequisite
Introductory sequence in history desirable. (In English.) ​Three credits​.
359. Topics in Modern European History: the History of Spain
This course deals with the history of Spain from its unification under Isabel and Ferdinand
through the contemporary period. Topics covered include the reign of the “Reyes catolicos;” the
Spanish Empire under Charles V and Philip II; the decline of the Empire under the subsequent
Habsburg rulers; the Bourbon reforms; the crisis of the “ancienne regime” and the formation of
the liberal state; the democratic interlude and the restoration; the failure of the restoration; the
Second Republic and the Civil War; Spain under Franco; and the return of democracy since
1975. ​Offered in the Granada, Spain, program only, in the fall semester. (In Spanish.)
Prerequisite: Introductory sequence in history and Hispanic 303 or equivalent required. ​Three
credits​.
364. Topics in Modern German History
This course focuses on some aspect or period of German history. Past courses have covered
German history from 1870 to 1933. Topics included the achievement of German unification, the
politics of Bismarck, Wilhelm II, the First World War, and the Weimar Republic. ​Offered in the
Bayreuth, Germany, program only, in the spring semester. (In German.) Prerequisite:
Introductory sequence in history and German 202 or equivalent required. ​Three credits​.
372. Introduction to African and South African History
An introduction to broad themes, problems, and debates in South African and African history.
Designed both for students who do not proceed to History second-level courses and for those
who require a foundation for the most in-depth courses in South African and African history
offered at the second and third levels. Note: This course may not be taken with History 371.
Offered at Rhodes University, South Africa.
373. South African History in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
This course surveys southern African history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The
central theme of the first part of the course is the establishment of a thoroughgoing colonial
system in the region during the nineteenth century. In the second half of the course the main
focus is on the rise of capitalism, urbanization, cultural change, and popular resistance in
twentieth-century South Africa. Note: This course may not be taken with History 371. ​Offered at
Rhodes University, South Africa.
374. Race, Class, Nationalism, and Ethnicity in Twentieth-Century South Africa
South Africa has long been a country marked by divisions of race, class, and national and ethnic
affiliation. This course explores how these divisions have arisen and gained expression. It also
examines how these different identities have come to be represented by different interest
groups and debated by scholars. ​Offered at Rhodes University, South Africa.
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375. History of England 1715 to Present
Rise and decline of a global power, the transformation of an oligarchy into a democracy, and the
consequences of industrialization and urbanization. ​Offered in the London program only, both
fall and spring semesters. Prerequisite: One of the introductory sequence, History 261, 262
preferred. ​Three credits​.
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Humanities
Humanities Interdisciplinary Major
Nicole Grewling, Director
T. Clayton Black, Advisory Board Member
Peter Weigel, Advisory Board Member
The humanities include branches of learning that investigate what makes us essentially
human, specifically languages, the arts, and history. This interdisciplinary program provides
students special fields of concentration. They might, for example, choose a particular historical
period and view it from a particular philosophical or aesthetic perspective, compare forms of
artistic expression, or combine insights from distinct fields of research in the pursuit of specific
themes or interests.
The humanities are central to the liberal arts and, as such, foster eminently practical skills that
can be applied to a diverse array of professional fields. Written and oral communication, critical
analysis, research techniques, and cross-disciplinary thinking are among the many strengths
of students in humanistic fields. Our majors have gone on to graduate studies in a variety of
subjects, from philosophy and English to library science. Others have chosen careers that
value interdisciplinary skills such as publishing, public relations work, or the legal profession.
The program encourages students to seek a broad background in the associated disciplines
and to recognize that all significant achievements of culture are closely interrelated. In the
course of their studies, students will develop disciplined thinking and writing skills in more than
one academic field and will learn to transfer insights and methods from one area to another.
Prospective majors will take introductory courses in at least three of the following areas: art
history, theatre, English, foreign languages, history, music history, philosophy, and world
literature. Humanities majors must take at least one year of a foreign language or literature in
translation. Students interested in the major should discuss their ideas and plans with the
director as early as possible in their college careers.
The major consists of a minimum of eight courses on the 300 and 400 level in at least two,
preferably three, of the disciplines mentioned above. While offering students the opportunity to
work in several academic fields, the major nevertheless requires a distinct focus and careful
planning, and regular contact with the director and affiliated professors is essential.
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Senior Capstone Experience
Humanities Majors must complete a thesis for the SCE. The thesis must relate to at least two
fields in the Humanities.
The Humanities Program offers no minor.
While students generally select courses for the major from the humanities disciplines taught at
Washington College, they are introduced to the history and development of the humanities in
two courses specifically designed for them and taught in alternate years by the director of the
Program. These two courses do not fulfill distribution.
Course Descriptions
305. The Humanist Tradition and the Humanities
Intended for students majoring in the humanities program, but open to all, this course is
designed to focus on the historical context, educational intent, and social vision which shaped
the study of the humanities from its beginnings in the fifteenth century to the present day. The
course will emphasize the reading of primary sources in the humanist tradition, but will also
include secondary analyses of its achievements. Required of all majors in the humanities
program unless excused by the director.
400. The Humanities in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries
An intensive exploration of major challenges which developments in modern life and thought
have mounted against the traditional canons of the humanities. Topics will vary but will
concentrate on such movements as feminism, pragmatism, radical political theories, and
post-modernism in their impact on the identity and viability of the humanities today. Strongly
recommended to all majors in the humanities program, open to all upperclass students or by
permission of the instructor.
394, 494. Special Topics
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
The Senior Capstone Experience is a thesis which must include research in at least two
humanities disciplines. Students are responsible to find Senior Capstone Experience advisors
from the humanities division faculty.
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Information Systems
Information Systems Interdisciplinary Minor
Austin A. Lobo, Co-director
Susan A. Vowels, Co-director
Information Systems is the interdisciplinary study of the ways in which computer technology can
foster organizational excellence. Drawing from both Business Management and Computer
Science, the Information Systems minor builds on the foundations of an education in the liberal
arts by stressing strong analytical skills, the facility to find imaginative solutions to difficult
problems, and the application of ethical principles. Students who complete the Information
Systems minor will understand and be able to write and orally communicate about technology to
a body of professionals and non-professionals alike. The minor is especially suited to students
majoring in Business Management who would like to acquire an in-depth understanding of
technology, and to students majoring in Computer Science who wish to acquire business skills
essential to a productive career. The minor is open to students from all majors offered at
Washington College.
A minimum of eight courses (32 credits) are needed for the minor. Of these, the following seven
are required:
BUS 112. Introduction to Financial Accounting
BUS 210. Management Information Systems
BUS 302. Organizational Behavior
MAT 201. Differential Calculus
CSI 201. Computer Science I
CSI 202. Computer Science II
CSI 360. Database Systems
The eighth course, an elective, may be chosen from the following:
BUS 109. Managerial Statistics
BUS 111. Principles of Marketing
BUS 209. Financial Analysis
BUS 212. Introduction to Managerial Accounting
BUS 303. Legal Environment of Business
BUS 315. Enterprise Resource Planning Systems
BUS 316. Business Analytics
CSI 100 . Basics of Computing
CSI 250. Introduction to Computer Organization and Architecture
CSI 470. Computer Networks
CSI 480. Software Engineering
ANT 210. Intermediate Geographical Information Systems
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Additionally, special topics courses in Business Management or Computer Science or in other
areas deemed suitable and approved by one of the Information Systems program co-directors
may be taken as the elective. Students majoring in Computer Science are urged to take the
elective from the courses offered in Business Management; students majoring in Business
Management are similarly encouraged to take the elective from the courses offered in Computer
Science.
Students may not count the courses for a minor in Information Systems again for a minor in
Computer Science or Business Management without the approval of the Chairs of the
respective departments. Students who wish to double-major in Computer Science and Business
Management will be required to take an additional elective.
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International Literature and Culture
International Literature and Culture Interdisciplinary Major
Students pursuing the interdisciplinary major in International Literature and Culture will complete
nine upper-level courses chosen in consultation with their advisor from among course offerings
in this department or related courses in other disciplines as outlined below. In addition they will
successfully complete the Senior Capstone seminar (See below.) The prerequisites for the
major are completion of ANT 105 Introduction to Anthropology and study of a foreign language
through the 202 level (or demonstration of proficiency at that level). The major courses must
include one of the following Anthropology courses: ANT 200, ANT 208, ANT 215, ANT 235 and
ANT 320. Of the remaining eight, at least four should be selected from the upper-level offerings
in a foreign language, literature or culture in this department or at study abroad sites. At least
two of these must be at the 400-level.
If students are pursuing study in a language in which Washington College does not offer
upper-level courses, four culturally relevant courses in other disciplines taught in English may
be substituted as necessary. The remaining four courses may be chosen from among the
International Literature and Culture courses (ILC) offered by this Department or appropriate
courses from other departments or programs (such as History, Art, Music, Theatre, Philosophy,
Humanities). With the help of the advisor, students will design their major to focus on a
language or culture, a particular theme (such as gender or ethnicity), a historical period, or a
particular literary genre or form of cultural expression (such as the novel, poetry, drama, film,
art, or music). Students may choose Chinese, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, or Arabic cultural
studies as the central focus of their major in International Literature and Culture by combining
appropriate study abroad with courses that are available on campus in those fields.
Majors must successfully complete the Senior Capstone Experience, during which they will
produce a thesis or other project related closely to the focus of the major. The project or thesis
may be written in English or in the foreign language. Students will also give a formal oral
presentation of their thesis or project before their peers and faculty, again either in English or
the foreign language. The Senior Capstone Experience will be graded Pass, Fail or Honors.
International Literature and Culture majors are strongly urged to engage in a semester-long or
summer study abroad experience.
Courses Taught In English
305. European Cinema
Study of European film and its history. Special attention will be given to the various dimensions
of film structure and criticism, with emphasis upon foreign language films (with English
subtitles). Selected films will be viewed and analyzed.
306. French Literature in Translation
Study of a selected author, movement, genre, or theme. Open to all students.
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311. Contemporary France
This course provides an introductory historical and cultural study of contemporary France.
Students will be provided tools for cultural interpretation via critical texts and the analysis of
French films and their American remakes; they will then apply them to the cultural history of
France. We will explore the impact of World War II, of the student protests of May ’68, and of
women’s emancipation movements. We will examine France’s position in the world—its past as
a colonizing nation, its present post-colonial actions, and its multicultural identity enriched by
different waves of immigration. We will study the political and economic roles of women, their
place in the family, health concerns, and struggles for autonomy through works by women. This
course counts toward the French major and minor if the journal entries, mid-term exam, and
final paper are written in French.
312. The Contemporary Francophone World
This course provides an introductory historical and cultural study of the contemporary
Francophone world. Designed as a survey of the non-European Francophone world, it will offer
for study both literary and cultural documents from the Caribbean, North Africa, Sub-Saharan
Africa, and Canada. Initially students will be provided tools for cultural interpretation via critical
texts, media analysis (including print and Internet sources) and the analysis of Francophone
films; they will then apply them to the cultural history of the Francophone world. We will explore
French colonization, the process of decolonization, and subsequent independence movements.
We will examine social, political, and economic roles of both women and men, changing gender
roles, and contemporary divisions of labor. Finally, we will reflect on the political, historical, and
sociocultural situations of post-colonial Francophone nations. This course counts toward the
French major and minor if the journal entries, mid-term exam, and final paper are written in
French.
313. Berlin – Symphony of a Great City. History, Culture and Identity in Germany’s
Metropolis
The course provides an overview of the cultural, sociological, political, and historical significance
of Berlin. It presents a survey of its history and culture over the past century, examining how
Berlin has come to stand as a symbol of the development of Germany as a whole. Discussion of
selected (fictional and nonfictional) texts from specific moments in Berlin’s history. Course may
be taught in English or German. This course counts toward the German major and minor if the
written work is in German.
315. Minorities in Germany: Reading at the Margins
The course provides an overview of the historical background to situate minorities in
contemporary Germany, focusing on cultural productions (fictional, non-fictional texts, films) that
contribute to the discussion about the situation of minorities in postwar Germany. We examine
works that address minorities and their particular circumstances such as guest workers, the
Turkish community, Black Germans, Jews, Muslims, Aussiedler, Russian immigrants. Course
may be taught in English or German. This course counts toward the German major and minor if
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International Literature and Culture
the written work is in German.
413. The Film in Spain and Latin America
A study of the film as art form and as social and cultural document in Spain, Spanish America,
and Brazil. The thematic focus of this course and the films included will vary. Important topics
include gender issues, the quest for identity, and freedom versus repression.
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics in International Literature and Culture
Study of a selected topic within a single national literature or culture, or a comparative study
across cultures. Recent and planned offerings include: Perspectives on International Film; Food
in Film, Literature and Culture; Shakespeare and Cervantes (Honors); The Big City in Literature
and Film; Love and the Ideal in European Literature and Film; and The Reception of the Middle
Ages.
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience in International Literature and Culture
The senior capstone seminar is required for graduation and is devoted to the completion of a
thesis or other project in the field of International Literature and Culture. Senior ILC majors
register for this course in the last semester in which they have full-time status at the College.
While much of the work is done by each student independently in consultation with a faculty
advisor, there are occasional group meetings in which students discuss their respective theses
or other projects. All students will give a formal oral presentation of their thesis or project before
their peers and the faculty at the end of the seminar. Both written and oral work may be
presented in English or in the foreign language. The Senior Capstone Experience will be graded
Pass, Fail or Honors.
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International Studies
International Studies Interdisciplinary Major
Andrew Oros, Director
Lisa Daniels
Nicole Grewling
Michael Harvey
Aaron Lampman
Tahir Shad
Janet Sorrentino
Christine Wade
Our world has become globalized, with organizations, corporations, and individuals from around
the world interacting on a daily basis. International Studies majors learn the importance of
understanding and experiencing diverse cultures and the skills to work together on solutions to
global challenges. International Studies is an​ interdisciplinary major​, coordinated by the
departments of anthropology, business management, economics, history, modern languages,
and political science. The major requires coursework drawn from these departments and
supplemented by other departments and courses taken abroad. All International Studies majors
study abroad for at least one semester, at one of dozens of programs managed by our​ Global
Education Office​. Majors also engage in “experiential learning” to link real-world experiences to
classroom-based learning. Other opportunities to make such linkages exist on campus as well,
through our vibrant​ Model United Nations program​, the student-run International Studies
Council, foreign language “coffee hours” and lectures from internationally known speakers
sponsored by the​ Goldstein Program in Public Affairs​ and the​ Institute for Religion, Politics, and
Culture.​ After graduation, our majors go on to apply their education and skills in a wide range of
careers, including business, journalism, non-profit organizations, politics, teaching, and
international and public service. Double majors also find International Studies a useful
supplement to all of Washington College’s major fields of study. There is no minor in
International Studies, though non-majors (and majors) are encouraged to pursue​ a regional or
functional concentration​ in the program.
Major Requirements
The International Studies major is an intensive, interdisciplinary program with five required
elements:
13 four-credit courses, taken across at least five academic departments;
Foreign language study beyond the College-wide requirement;
A semester-long study-abroad experience*;
An experiential learning activity; and
The senior capstone experience.
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In addition, International Studies majors are encouraged to pursue a concentration,
either regional or functional, to add focus and depth to their course of study.
* International students at Washington College pursuing an International Studies major are not
required to study abroad, though they are encouraged to do so.
1. 13 required four-credit courses:
Five introductory courses to be completed in the freshman and sophomore years:
Anthropology 105. Introduction to Anthropology
Economics 111. Introduction to Macroeconomics (should be completed in the first year)
Economics 218. Economic Development (typically offered fall semester only)
History 203, 204, 205, ​or​ 206. Modern World History I or II, or Early Origins of Western
Civilization I or II
Political Science 104. Introduction to World Politics
One upper-level course in International Business, Economics, or Political Economy, chosen
from:
BUS 310. International Business
BUS 311. Global Business Strategy
ECN 410. International Trade
ECN 411. International Finance
POL 375. International Political Economy
An equivalent course taken abroad
One course focusing on theories of international politics, chosen from:
POL 201. Theories of Peace and Conflict
POL 371. International Politics
POL 374. International Organization and Law
An equivalent course taken abroad
Five upper-level elective courses related to International Studies:
These courses are offered in a wide range of academic departments at Washington
College and abroad, including Anthropology, Business Management, Economics,
History, and Political Science as well as most foreign language courses above the 302
level and courses in departments such as Art, English, Philosophy, and others. A list of
pre-approved courses is published in the on-line schedule of classes each semester. At
least three of these courses are typically completed during the required study abroad
component of the major.
The international studies senior seminar
INT 491. International Studies Seminar (taken in the first semester of the senior year)
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International Studies
2. Foreign language requirement
Option One: completion of a 202-level or higher language course at Washington College or
abroad
Option Two: completion of at least four credits of study of an approved language not taught at
Washington College while studying abroad. (This option may also require students to
separately fulfill the College-wide foreign language requirement.)
Note (1): students with a documented learning accommodation related to language
acquisition may substitute two additional courses towards this requirement.
Note (2): majors may also count foreign language courses above the 302 level toward
the five upper-level elective courses for the major, as discussed under the 13-course
requirement above.
Option Three: native speakers of a foreign language may be excused from the foreign language
requirement upon request to the Director of International Studies.
3. Semester abroad requirement
Majors must study abroad for one semester at one of the programs offered through the Global
Education Office before the fall of the student’s senior year.
Note (1): students must attain a GPA of at least 2.5 to be considered for study abroad.
Failure to achieve this GPA by the fourth semester at Washington College may require students
to pursue a different major or to extend their graduation beyond the typical eight semesters.
Note (2): a combination of short-term study abroad programs shall not be substituted for
this requirement, though short-term study abroad does satisfy the experiential learning
requirement discussed below.
Note (3): students may petition the Director of International Studies to pursue a
semester-long equivalent at a non-Washington College program to satisfy this
requirement, though ordinarily this would require withdrawal from the College during the
time of this experience (apart from a semester-long summer experience).
Note (4): international students pursuing the major may be excused from this
requirement, though they are encouraged to study abroad as well.
4. Experiential learning requirement
Majors must complete one activity from an approved list of options, including an internship or
volunteer work related to international studies, study abroad beyond the one-semester
requirement, or participation in an off-campus Model United Nations simulation.
A worksheet that details how majors have completed this requirement must be submitted once
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International Studies
this activity is completed. See the experiential learning page of the International Studies
web-site for further information.
Note: An internship or volunteer work should consist of at least 80 hours of work and
may or may not be pursued for academic credit.
5. Senior capstone experience (SCE) requirement
The senior capstone experience (SCE) requirement for International Studies is a year-long
self-directed project. The traditional course to complete the SCE is a 30-page minimum
research-based thesis written in English and followed by a poster presentation that highlights
the main findings of the research. By application and under the direction of a willing capstone
advisor, majors alternatively may propose a self-designed capstone project that could take
different forms, such as a performance, exhibition, web-site, or advocacy project – but which
also must include a written component and a poster presentation that highlights the main
findings of the research. Double-majors may complete a combined thesis or self-designed
project with approval of advisors from both majors; double-majors with a modern language may
complete a thesis written in French, German, or Spanish under the direction of a willing
capstone advisor. Ordinarily students initiate the project together with the required International
Studies Seminar (INT 491) during the fall semester of the senior year. Students should register
for the SCE during the last semester of their senior year, when a final version of the capstone
will be due. The senior capstone should be interdisciplinary in scope, methodology and content.
Capstone projects will be assessed on the basis of Pass/Fail/Honors. Students who wish to be
considered for honors should request permission to attempt an honors thesis prior to
submission of the complete draft, at which point they will be informed of additional requirements
for an honors-level thesis. A minimum 3.5 GPA in the major is required to pursue an honors
thesis. An oral defense is held at the end of the semester during which a student is applying for
honors for the thesis by faculty members of the program. Self-designed projects are not eligible
for honors.
Note: Students who wish to complete their studies at Washington College in the fall semester
must begin working on their senior thesis in the preceding spring semester under the direction
of an assigned thesis advisor.
Concentrations in International Studies (open to all majors)
Regional and functional concentrations are open to students of all majors and offer an
interdisciplinary approach to the study of a particular area. They combine coursework at
Washington College in anthropology, economics, history, modern languages, and political
science with at least one semester (or summer/winter) abroad in the area of focus. Regional
concentrations are available in the following areas: African Studies, Asian Studies, European
Studies, Latin American Studies, and Near Eastern Studies. The regional concentration is
designed to serve students who wish to develop a focus on a particular world region, for those
who plan to enter business, government, international agency service, science and medicine,
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International Studies
and for those who are preparing for graduate study of a particular region.
Functional concentrations are available in Global Business Studies and Peace and Conflict
Studies.
Common Requirements for the Regional and Global Business Concentrations
Students must complete six courses (plus the study of a regional language for a regional
concentration or a seventh course for the Global Business concentration), must study abroad for
a semester (preferred) or complete a summer/winter short-term program, and complete a
research paper in the area of concentration (ordinarily as part of the required coursework). In
particular, to complete a concentration students must:
Take two of the following introductory courses, preferably during their freshman and sophomore
years:
ANT 105. Introduction to Anthropology
ECN 111. Principles of Macroeconomics
HIS 203, 204, 205, 206 Modern World History I, II or Early Western Civilization I, II
POL 104. Introduction to World Politics
Students may substitute other introductory-level courses that pertain to their concentration with
approval from the Director of International Studies. Examples include, but are not limited to,
Philosophy 112, Introduction to Comparative Religion: Eastern for African or Asian Studies, or
Art 200, History of Western Art for European Studies.
By the middle of their final semester at Washington College, provide evidence of a
research-based paper of acceptable quality on a topic relating to the area of concentration,
approved by the concentration advisor. Students are free to revise or adapt a paper written for
one of the required courses for the concentration or to offer a portion of the senior thesis to fulfill
this requirement.
Pursue upper-level coursework in their area of specialty, both at Washington College and in the
region itself, beyond the study of language. Students must complete two such courses (three for
Global Business) at Washington College (see recommended courses listed below) and two
courses abroad. Alternatively, participation in a Washington College summer program plus one
additional course at Washington College may substitute for two courses abroad.
Non-Washington College programs or Washington College summer programs may be
considered with approval of the concentration faculty advisor listed below. Please note:
students may not count the same upper-level courses towards the completion of multiple
concentrations.
The Concentration in African Studies
Faculty Advisor: Dr. Tahir Shad, Associate Professor of Political Science and International
Studies
WC abroad programs in Egypt, Morocco, South Africa, and Tanzania (summer)
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International Studies
Required language of study: French, or an indigenous African language abroad.
Recommended Courses Offered At Washington College:
ANT 320. Race and Ethnicity
ECN 218. Economic Development
FRS 312. The Contemporary Francophone World
HIS 371. History of South Africa
POL 341. Politics of Development
POL 356. Civil War and Violence in Africa
The Concentration in Asian Studies
Faculty Advisor: Dr. Andrew Oros, Director of International Studies
WC abroad programs in China/Hong Kong, Japan, and South Korea
Required language of study: Chinese, or another Asian language abroad.
Recommended Courses Offered At Washington College:
HIS 381. History of Modern China
HIS 383. History of Modern Japan
MUS 314. Music of Asia
PHL 416. Philosophy of Buddhism
POL 345. Comparative Government: East Asia
POL 346. Japanese Politics and Foreign Policy
POL 347. Chinese Politics and Foreign Policy
POL 351. Politics, Religion, and Ethnicity in South Asia
POL 384. International Relations of East Asia
The Concentration in European Studies
Faculty Advisor: Dr. Nicole Grewling, Associate Professor of German
WC abroad programs in England, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Scotland, Spain
Required language of study: French, German, Spanish, or another European language abroad.
Recommended Courses Offered At Washington College:
ART 311. Italian Renaissance Art
ART 315. Northern Renaissance and Baroque Art
ART 316. European Art from Baroque to Neoclassicism
ART 318. Nineteenth Century European Art
ENG 323. Nineteenth Century English Novel
ENG 334. The Irish Short Story
ENG 430. Joyce, Eliot, and Beckett
FRS 311. Contemporary France
HIS 351. Ancient Rome
HIS 353. Medieval Europe
HIS 354. Renaissance and Reformation
HIS 355. Women in Medieval Europe
HIS 360. Modern Germany
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International Studies
HIS 391, 392. Russia and the Soviet Union
ILC 306. French Literature in Translation
ILC 307. German Literature in Translation
ILC 308. Spanish and Latin American Literature in Translation
ILC 313. Berlin: Symphony of a City
ILC 315. Minorities in Germany: Reading at the Margins
ILC 317. German Cinema
MUS 304. Opera
POL 344. Comparative Government: Europe
In addition, several courses that count toward the concentration are taught in the French,
German, and Spanish languages.
The Concentration in Global Business Studies
Faculty Advisor: Dr. Michael Harvey, Associate Professor of Business Management
WC abroad programs world-wide ​that have sufficient coursework in business​.
Required language of study: no additional study beyond the college-wide requirement
Recommended Courses Offered At Washington College—choose three:
BUS 310. International Business
BUS 311. Global Business Strategy
ECN 410. International Trade
ECN 411. International Finance
PHL 226. Global Ethics
POL 375. International Political Economy
Special topics courses offered in an area related to global business also may be acceptable
upon approval from the Concentration advisor.
The Concentration in Latin American Studies
Faculty Advisor: Dr. Christine Wade, Professor of Political Science and International Studies
WC abroad programs in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru
Required language of study: Spanish, or Portuguese abroad.
Recommended Courses Offered At Washington College:
ANT 235. Cultures of Latin America
HIS 372. Colonial Latin America
HIS 473. Latin American Literature as History
MUS 313. Music of Latin America
POL 348. Latin American Politics
POL 382. U.S.-Latin American Relations
The Concentration in Near Eastern Studies
Faculty Advisor: Dr. Tahir Shad, Associate Professor of Political Science and International
Studies
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WC abroad programs in Egypt, Israel, Morocco, Turkey
Required language of study: French, or Arabic or Hebrew abroad.
Recommended Courses Offered At Washington College:
HIS 357. Early Islamic Civilization
POL 354. US Foreign Policy in the Middle East
POL 356. Civil War and Violence in Africa
Peace and Conflict Studies Concentration
Faculty Advisor: Dr. Christine Wade, Professor of Political Science and International Studies
Peace and conflict studies is an interdisciplinary area of study that emerged in the post-World
War II era that seeks to promote a greater understanding of causes of war and ways of
resolving conflicts without resorting to violence. The goals of the concentration are to expose
students to the nature of contemporary conflicts, increase awareness about the practices and
philosophies that guide peacemaking, and to help students develop a critical understanding of
policies and values about conflict, war and peace. The concentration is open to students of any
major and may be combined with any regional concentration.
Requirements for the Peace and Conflict Studies Concentration:
Students will complete three courses in the political science department that include specific
treatment of the issue of peace and conflict, and then will take three additional courses offered
in a range of departments (including political science and abroad programs) that will offer more
treatment of specific aspects of peace and conflict, both philosophical and practical. The
concentration is composed of six courses focusing on peace and conflict, as well as either an
experiential learning component or a senior capstone project. Concentrators should meet with
the concentration advisor, Dr. Christine Wade, prior to the second semester of their sophomore
year to develop a coherent course of study.
Courses
Concentrators are required to take POL 201 Theories of Peace and Conflict and five courses
from the three categories listed below:
a)
Two courses on the philosophical approaches and practical applications of peace and
peace processes. Courses in this category include religious approaches to our conceptions of
peace and those focusing on the resolution of conflict and peacebuilding. Students are required
to take either POL 373, POL 374, or POL 386 and any additional course in this category which
includes:
PHL 111. Introduction to Comparative Religion: Western
PHL 112. Introduction to Comparative Religion: Eastern
PHL 225. Ethical Theory
PHL 235. Foundations of Morality
PHL 335. Philosophy of Law
PHL 416. Philosophy of Buddhism
POL 373 Human Rights and Social Justice
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International Studies
POL 374. International Law and Organization
POL 386. Comparative Peace Processes
b)
One course exploring contemporary conflict. Students are required to take one course
exploring area studies of conflict-prone regions. Courses in this category include:
HIS 360. Twentieth Century Germany
HIS 371. History of South Africa
HIS 381. History of Modern China
HIS 383. History of Modern Japan
HIS 392. Russia and the Soviet Union
POL 347. Chinese Politics and Foreign Policy
POL 351. Politics, Religion and Ethnicity in South Asia
POL 356. Civil War and Violence in Africa
POL 348. Latin American Politics
POL 382. US-Latin American Relations
POL 388. US Foreign Policy in the Middle East
c)
Two courses on the structural causes of violence and conflict, including inequality,
poverty, racism, repression and demographic stresses. Students are required to take either POL
341, POL 342 or POL 371, and any additional course in this category which includes:
ANT 320. Race and Ethnicity
ECN 218. Economic Development
PHL 226. Global Ethics
PHL 414. Philosophy of Marxism
POL 341. Politics of Development
POL 342. Revolutions, Violence and Terrorism
POL 371. International Politics
SOC 221. Social Inequalities
SOC 240. Criminology
Note: No more than two courses taken at abroad institutions may apply to the concentration.
Any courses taken abroad for the concentration must be approved by the program advisor.
Concentrators are also required to complete either an experiential learning exercise or a Senior
Capstone Experience.​ ​For the Experiential Learning option,​ ​students are required to participate
in a semester-long applied learning experience in the field of conflict resolution. Such activities
include the Model UN course, internship or volunteer activity. Alternatively, students receiving
the concentration may complete a senior capstone experience in their respective major
discipline on a topic related to peace and conflict studies. Concentrators should seek the
approval of concentration advisor prior to either endeavor.
Course Descriptions
190, 290, 390, 490. International Studies Internship
Students may receive course credit for an individualized internship at an organization that
engages in substantial international activity, under the supervision of a faculty advisor. The
details of the internship and associated academic require​ments will be specified in a learning
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International Studies
contract drawn up by the student and advisor. For-credit internships combine work experience
(at least 140 hours for two credits) with scholarly readings and reflective writing. Grading is
pass-fail. ​Prerequisite:​ must be a declared international studies major.
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics in International Studies
The Program occasionally offers a course on a special topic in International Studies that is not a
part of the regular course offerings.
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
Students may receive credit for an individualized course of reading and writing under the
supervision of a faculty advisor. The requirements of the course will be specified in a learning
contract drawn up by the student and advisor.
327, 328, 329. Washington Center Semester
An integrated three-course unit for students spending a semester at the Washington Center.
Students receive 8 elective credits in International Studies and 8 general elective credits, and
fulfill the Experiential Learning requirement. ​Prerequisite: 2.8 cumulative GPA and successful
application to the Washington Center for Internships and Academic Seminars. This program is
normally open only to juniors and seniors.
327. Washington Center Internship
A full-time, semester-long internship in Washington, DC, with a federal agency, non-profit
organization, foreign embassy, or private firm. Depending upon interest and internship
placement, students may attend hearings, conduct policy research, draft correspondence,
monitor legislation, lobby members of Congress, or write analytical reports. Students will create
an in-depth portfolio of their internship experience. 12 credits.
328. Washington Center Seminar
Washington Center interns participate in an evening seminar selected from a variety of topics
offered during the semester. Students engage in class discussion and may also research
seminar topics, prepare written assignments, and take examinations. Students must choose a
seminar with clear international content chosen in consultation with the Director of International
Studies. ​Required of and limited to students enrolled in International Studies 327. ​Three credits​.
329. Washington Center Forum
Washington Center interns participate in lectures, site visits, small group discussions, briefings,
and other required events designed to help them understand the connection between their
academic and professional goals and the special educational opportunities available through
living and working in Washington, DC. Evaluations of these experiences are included in the
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student portfolio. ​Required of and limited to students enrolled in International Studies 327. ​One
credit​.
491. International Studies Seminar
This course is designed to help students to consider in depth their off-campus experiences as
an International Studies major and to draw connections among inter-disciplinary courses
required of the major. The nature of theory, its application to International Studies, and problems
involved in defining this field of study and in developing empirical methods for it will be
analyzed. Special attention will be given to anthropological, economic, historical, and political
approaches to International Studies, as well as to approaches that include textual analysis
(including foreign language texts). The seminar also will provide students with an opportunity to
discuss topics for their senior capstone. This course is required for, and limited to, senior
International Studies majors.
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
See description of the SCE requirement in International Studies under that heading above. To
be completed in the final semester at Washington College.
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Justice, Law and Society
Justice, Law and Society Interdisciplinary Minor
Matthew McCabe, Director
The minor in Justice, Law and Society provides an interdisciplinary study of justice, law, civil
liberties, crime and ethics in both domestic and global contexts, from a variety of social sciences
and humanities perspectives. The Minor explores a range of topics, such as social control,
variant behaviors, legal processes and human rights, as well as crime ranging from street
violence to complex organizational crime, often referred to as white collar and transnational. The
Minor is open to students with various majors and encourages them to: explore theoretical
explanations of justice, law, civil rights, and criminal activities; and to use an array of research
tools to study incidence, prevention, and reduction policies associated with American and
international legal systems.
The minor prepares students for post-graduate study at more than 30 Ph.D. and 100 Master’s
and certificate programs here in the U.S. Juris Doctor programs (law school) or combined law
and Master’s programs in criminology may also be of interest to students with this minor.
Students seeking entry level positions in law firms, advocacy organizations, government, and
social service agencies involved with the administration of justice will find the Justice, Law and
Society minor has provided useful theoretical and practical concepts.
This interdisciplinary minor consists of seven courses (28 credits). Sociology 101 (Introduction
to Sociology) and Sociology 240 (Criminology) are required unless a waiver is granted by the
director. Students must select two other Sociology courses of which one pertains to criminology
and three elective courses from the list specified below. The three electives include selections
from both Humanities and Social Sciences courses. Students interested in pursuing the Justice,
Law and Society minor should consult with the Director on their course selections and should be
aware that internship opportunities in justice and law related organizations are offered through
the Washington Center program as well as several of the courses listed below.
Department of Sociology Courses That Count Toward the
Justice, Law and Society Minor
Criminology Options (one required):
SOC 341. Variant Behavior
SOC 347. Juvenile Delinquency and Social Welfare
Additional Sociology Course Options (one required):
SOC 221. Social Inequalities
SOC 250. Cities and Suburbs
SOC 341. Variant Behavior (if not taken as a criminology option)
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SOC 483-484. Field Experience in Social Welfare
Note: Special Topics courses (such as SOC 294 Sociology of Law, SOC 394 Environmental
Justice, Law and Sustainable Development: Legal Theory and Practice and SOC 394 Fraud: A
Forensic View and Analysis) may be used to meet Criminology and/or Additional Sociology
Course options with approval from the director.
Other Social Science Courses That Count toward the Justice, Law and Society Minor
ELECTIVE REQUIREMENT
ANT 109. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems
BUS 303. Legal Environment of Business
POL 202. Justice, Power, and Political Thought
POL 320. Law and Society
POL 323. Constitutional Law
POL 374. International Organization and the Law
Note: The elective courses may have prerequisite courses that must be taken prior to
enrollment. See course descriptions for further information.
Humanities Courses That Count toward the Justice, Law and Society Minor ELECTIVE
REQUIREMENT
PHL 210, Introduction to Political Philosophy
PHL 225. Ethics
PHL 226. Global Ethics
PHL 300. Business Ethics
PHL 303. Environmental Ethics
PHL 325. Biomedical Ethics
PHL 335. Philosophy of Law
Note: The elective courses may have prerequisite courses that must be taken prior to
enrollment. See course descriptions for further information.
Course Descriptions
SOC 101. Introduction to Sociology
Introduction to basic concepts and theories in sociology concerning the nature of society,
culture, and personality. Consideration of social processes, groups, and institutions found in
modern American society.
SOC 221. Social Inequalities
The nature of the systems of social stratification and racial inequality as well as the interaction
between social class and race in the United States. Personal consequences of the various
forms of inequality and perceptions of the legitimacy of social systems based on race are
considered. ​Prerequisite: Sociology 101.
SOC 240. Criminology
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Study of the nature, causes, and social significance of crime. ​Prerequisite: Sociology 101.
SOC 250. Cities and Suburb
Cities from their origins to the present. Cities are both causes and consequences of social and
technical change: therefore they are always places of social problems and conflict. Course will
focus on medieval and industrial cities, and on the newly emerging “edge cities.” ​Prerequisite:
Sociology 101 or Anthropology 105.
SOC 341. Variant Behavior
An exploration of behavior that has been socially defined as “deviant.” The nature, sources, and
consequences of this definition will be discussed. Prerequisite: Sociology 101 and one
additional course in sociology.
SOC 347. Juvenile Delinquency and Social Welfare
Examines theories of delinquency causation and looks critically at programs that treat
delinquents and status offenders, nationally and in Maryland. Students visit detention center and
Juvenile Court and talk with experts in the field. ​Prerequisite: Sociology 101 and at least two of
the following: Sociology 212, 240,250, 303, 341, 382; or prior permission of the instructor.
SOC 483-484. Field Experience in Social Welfare
A study of the organization and operation of social agencies. Field Experience in welfare work
under professional supervision. ​Prerequisite: Sociology 382 and prior permission of the
instructor.
ANT 109. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used in academia, business and government to
manage large datasets of spatially-linked information to provide users with powerful analytic
tools. Classroom discussions introduce the theories and uses of GIS and focus on the
organizational issues that impact the implementation of GIS in our society. Lab activities teach
the student how to extract and present GIS data in graphical form and how to construct and
augment GIS databases using on-the-ground data gathering, map point-plotting equipment, and
auxiliary data bases.
BUS 303. Legal Environment of Business
This course looks at how the law has evolved from English common law to today’s statutory and
regulatory legal environment. The course explores recent statutes such as Sarbanes-Oxley and
Dodd-Frank and how they have impacted the way businesses operate. The course also
investigates legal and ethical issues facing businesses today, different types of business
associations, and liability issues faced by businesses under current tort law, contract law, and
property law.
PHL 210, Introduction to Political Philosophy
Political philosophy applies the tools of philosophical analysis to the challenges of politics and
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social life. Most fundamentally, political philosophy seeks to answer the question, how should
we organize our society? The course content may focus on such themes as rights, justice,
equality, freedom, power, oppression, exploitation, multiculturalism, obligations of the State, and
the duties of citizenship. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100
PHL 225. Ethical Theory
An examination of some of the major ethical theories in Western philosophy. Applications of
these theories to concrete ethical problems will be considered. Special attention will be given to
Consequentialist, Deontological, and Virtue theories. Readings will be drawn from classical and
contemporary authors. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100
PHL 226. Global Ethics
As we become a global community, the need for secular ethical discourse becomes increasingly
important. This course will explore how international culture, policy, and standards impact
ethical practices around the world. Current events, anecdotes, and personal experiences will be
brought together to highlight ethical theory in action in today’s global environment. General
topics include: the Absolutism-Relativism debate, The Ethics of Globalization, Global Business
Ethics, Global Bioethics with emphasis on Feminist issues, Global Environmental Ethics, and
the Ethics of Warfare and Terrorism. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
PHL 300. Business Ethics
A course focused on major ethical theories and principles as they apply to individuals,
companies, corporations, and consumers in the business world. Typical issues treated are:
corporate social responsibility; government versus self-regulation; employee and consumer
safety; whistle-blowing; deceptive advertising; conflicts in accounting; insider trading and issues
in international business.​ Prerequisite: Philosophy
PHL 303. Environmental Ethics
A study of the nature and history of the environmental movement and our ethical responsibilities
with regard to such current issues as the preservation of species, animal rights, the value of
ecosystems, ozone depletion, and “deep” or radical ecology. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100
PHL 325. Medical Ethics
This course focuses on patients rights, duties of physicians, conflicts of interest between
regulators, pharmaceutical companies, and physicians.​ Prerequisite: Philosophy 100
PHL 335. Philosophy of Law
This course explores the philosophical issues surrounding a number of areas of the law
including, the nature of law, constitutional interpretation, legal responsibility, punishment, capital
punishment, and legal limits on personal liberty. Readings will be drawn from classical and
contemporary authors. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100
POL 202, Justice, Power, and Political Thought
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This course will introduce students to the study of political philosophy by examining the ways
many of the most influential political theorists have struggled to define the nature of justice, as
well as developing an understanding of how theorists have approached the question of founding
just regimes; ensuring that just systems of government operate legitimately once established;
and assessing the major causes for the deterioration of regimes based on justice.
POL 320. Law and Society
A study of the American system of criminal justice. The major emphases of the course are the
operation of the institutions and processes of the system, the constitutional rights of those
accused of crime, and the social goals and consequences of criminal punishment. ​Prerequisite:
Political Science 102 or permission of the instructor.
POL 323. Constitutional Law
An analysis of the distribution of power among the three branches of the federal government,
and between the federal and state levels of government, as specified in major decisions of the
U.S. Supreme Court. The Court itself will be studied as a political institution, with emphasis on
its role in a democratic political system. The course also includes a study of the constitutional
rights of individuals, as specified by the U.S. Supreme Court, with primary emphasis on issues
of freedom and equality. ​ Prerequisite: Political Science 102.
POL 374. International Organization and the Law
A study of organized human efforts made throughout history to promote international
cooperation and peace. Special attention is given to the principles and rules of international law
regulating national conduct in international affairs, the League of Nations, the United Nations,
and contemporary blueprints for world federation and government. ​Prerequisite: Political
Science 104 or permission of the instructor.
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Marketing
Marketing Minor Division of Social Sciences
Department of Business Management
Ryan Eanes, Director
Marketing is a creative problem-solving endeavor that rigorously identifies people’s needs
and desires and develops products and services to meet them. Marketing includes market
research and data analysis of consumer behavior and mindset; development of new
products and services; cultivation of relationships with consumers and target markets; and
creation and maintenance of brand identities as a durable source of trust and credible
information in complex environments. The minor consists of three required courses and two
electives.
Three Required Courses
BUS 111. Principles of Marketing ​(Pre/corequisite: ECN 112)
BUS 223. Marketing Research Methods ​(Prerequisites: BUS 111, BUS 109 or equivalent)
BUS 323. Consumer Behavior ​(Prerequisite: BUS 111)
Two Electives ​(at least one elective must be a BUS course)
BUS 224. Digital Marketing ​(Prerequisite: BUS 111)
BUS 351. Advertising ​(Prerequisite: BUS 111)
BUS 294. Special Topic in Marketing (will vary by semester)
BUS 394. Special Topic in Marketing (will vary by semester)
BUS 497. Independent Study in marketing (with permission of the Director of the minor).
ART 231. Creative Process ​(Prerequisite: 1 course of Studio Art, Music, Theatre or Creative
Writing, or permission of instructor.)
ART 251. Visual & Critical Thinking
ART 291. Intermedia_VNM
ART 330. Video Intensive ​(Prerequisite: ART 251 or permission of instructor.)
ART 335. New Media Intensive ​(Prerequisite: ART 291 or permission of instructor.)
ART 340. Photography Intensive ​(Prerequisite: ART 251 or permission of instructor.)
With the prior permission of the Director of the minor or Chair of the Department of Business
Management, pertinent courses at study-abroad partners may be applied to the minor.
STUDENT OPPORTUNITIES
American Marketing Association Student Chapter
Students declaring the Marketing minor are invited to participate in the student chapter of the
American Marketing Association (AMA), which provides a variety of opportunities and
experiences, including speakers, networking, real-life case-based competitions and more.
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Mathematics and Computer Science
Mathematics and Computer Science Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Austin A. Lobo, Chair
Eugene Hamilton
Matthew Kibler
Shaun Ramsey
Nathaniel Schwartz
The Mathematics and Computer Science Department’s curriculum gives students technical
knowledge along with a broad foundation of reasoning and analytical skills that can be applied
to many fields. Graduates can pursue graduate work in computer science or mathematics, teach
in secondary schools, work as professionals in government and industry, or use quantitative and
computing techniques in the natural sciences or social sciences. All students must master the
relevant basic mechanical concepts necessary to perform the fundamental operations related to
mathematics or computer programming. The learning environment places emphasis on
reasoning and problem-solving and communications skills. Students are required to make oral
presentations in classes and at seminars and to write detailed papers and reports for regular
classes and for their Senior Capstone projects.
Freshman/Sophomore Courses
Provided they have the necessary prerequisites, students planning to take one quantitative
course for distribution credit may take any course in this department; students planning to take
two quantitative courses may take any combination of two courses in mathematics and/or
computer science.
In mathematics, the calculus sequence of MAT 201, MAT 202, and MAT 203 is the gateway to
the major; the analogous sequence for computer science consists of CSI 201, CSI 202, and CSI
203. Prospective majors should begin coursework in these sequences in their first semester at
the College.
The Department strongly advises students not to take a course unless they received a grade of
C or better in the prerequisite course.
The Major in Mathematics
Normally a student with good preparation in mathematics who intends to major in mathematics
or one of the natural sciences will start in the calculus sequence with MAT 201, but a student
who has had some work in calculus or who has received advanced placement credit for calculus
may start with a more advanced course, and is encouraged to consult with the department chair
to make such arrangements.
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Mathematics majors are eligible for the teacher education program. In order to assure proper
scheduling, students wishing to become certified to teach mathematics should inform the chairs
of both the Mathematics and Education Departments as soon as possible.
The major in mathematics consists of the senior capstone plus a minimum of eleven courses:
three gateway courses, two theory courses, and six electives:
Three Gateway Courses:
MAT 201 Differential Calculus
MAT 202 Integral Calculus
MAT 203 Multivariable Calculus
A Minimum of Two Theory Courses from:
MAT 311 Real Analysis I
MAT 312 Real Analysis II
MAT 322 Abstract Algebra
MAT 325 Vector Spaces
Six Electives Chosen From:
MAT 240 Discrete Mathematics
MAT 316 Complex Analysis
MAT 318 Probability
MAT 327 Number Theory
MAT 330 Foundations of Geometry
MAT 340 Numerical Analysis
MAT 345 Differential Equations
MAT 294, 394, 494 Special Topics in Mathematics
Any of MAT 311, MAT 312, MAT 322, MAT 325 that was not counted as a theory course.
CSI 201 Computer Science I
CSI 202 Computer Science II
CSI 350 Theory of Computation
CSI 370 Analysis of Algorithms
CSI 380 Organization of Programming Languages
The Minor in Mathematics
The minor in mathematics consists of MAT 201, MAT 202, MAT 203, and any four other courses
that count for the major. However, at least one of these must be a theory course from the list
above.
The Major in Computer Science
Typically, a student with good background preparation who intends to major in computer
science will start in the computer science sequence with CSI 201. However, a student who has
received advanced placement credit for computer science may start at a higher level and is
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encouraged to consult with the department chair to make such arrangements.
The major in computer science consists of the senior capstone plus a minimum of twelve
courses: six core courses, four theory and systems courses, and two electives.
Six Core Courses:
MAT 201. Differential Calculus
CSI 201. Computer Science I
CSI 202. Computer Science II
CSI 203. Object Oriented Programming
CSI 240. Discrete Mathematics (cross-listed as MAT 240)
CSI 250. Introduction to Computer Organization and Architecture
Four Theory and Systems Courses:
CSI 350. Theory of Computation
CSI 360. Database Systems
CSI 370. Design and Analysis of Algorithms
CSI 480. Software Engineering
Two Electives Chosen From:
CSI 340. Numerical Analysis
CSI 380. Organization of Programming Languages
CSI 394. Special Topics in Computing
CSI 450. Operating Systems
CSI 460. Artificial Intelligence
CSI 470. Computer Networks
CSI 494. Special Topics in Computing
The Minor in Computer Science
The minor in computer science consists of MAT 201, CSI 201, CSI 202, CSI 203, CSI 250, and
any two of the following: CSI 240, CSI 340, CSI 350, CSI 360, CSI 370, CSI 380, CSI 394, CSI
450, CSI 460, CSI 470, CSI 480, CSI 494.
Mathematics Course Descriptions
MAT 109. Statistics
Introduction to the appropriate methods for analyzing data and designing experiments. After a
study of various measures of central tendency and dispersion, the course develops the basic
principles of testing hypotheses, estimating parameters, and reaching decisions.
MAT 110. Precalculus Mathematics
The objective of this course is to prepare students to undertake Mathematics 201. Topics
studied will include a review of algebra, properties of transcendental functions including
trigonometry, and elementary analytic geometry. ​Prerequisite: permission of the department.
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Students who have successfully completed a calculus course or who have received advanced
placement credit for calculus may not enroll in this course.
MAT 120. Chaos and Fractals
This course is an introduction to the rapidly developing science of complexity. It is a discussion
of the tools—fractals, chaos, and self-organization—being refined for the purpose of
understanding such things as the fractured and irregular structures of Nature, surprise and
unpredictability, and the emergence of lifelike properties from inanimate matter. The theme of
the course is that complexity can arise from simple origins, such as the repeated application of
elementary processing rules. The course emphasizes the use of the computer for visualization.
Practical application of these ideas in medicine and engineering will be discussed, as will
examples of the connections between complexity in the sciences and that in the humanities and
the arts.
MAT 135. Finite Mathematics
Linear programming, matrices, sets and counting, Markov process, difference equations, and
graphs. The course will emphasize developing, analyzing, and interpreting mathematical
models.
MAT 201. Differential Calculus
Analytic geometry, the derivative and differential, elementary functions, limits, continuity, and
applications.
MAT 202. Integral Calculus
The indefinite integral, the definite integral, the fundamental theorem of the integral calculus,
sequences, series, and applications. ​Prerequisite: Mathematics 201 or permission of the
instructor.
MAT 203. Multivariable Calculus
Vectors, partial derivatives, and multiple integrals for functions of several variables. Line and
surface integrals. ​Prerequisite: Mathematics 202 or permission of the instructor.
MAT 221. Communication, Patterns, and Inventions in Mathematics
This course is designed for students in the Elementary Education Certification Program and for
students planning to complete the Secondary Education Certification Program in an area other
than mathematics. The framework of the course consists of four themes: Number Systems and
their Operations, Algebra and Functions, Geometry and Measurement, Data Analysis, Statistics,
and Probability. Emphasis throughout is on reasoning and problem solving using concepts and
procedures from all four areas. Substantial amounts of both reading and writing will be required
and students will be expected to demonstrate both orally and in writing a thorough
understanding of the concepts and the ability to communicate this understanding to others.
MAT 240. Discrete Mathematics (cross-listed as CSI 240 )
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An introduction to logic, reasoning, and the discrete mathematical structures that are important
in computer science. Topics include proposition logic, types of proof, induction and recursion,
sets, combinatorics, functions, relations, and graphs.
MAT 311, MAT 312. Real Analysis I and II
A rigorous treatment of calculus. Topics include limits, continuity, sequences and series,
differentiation and integration, compactness, completeness, and calculus of several variables.
Prerequisite: Mathematics 202 and at least one of Mathematics 322, Mathematics 325,
Mathematics 327, or Mathematics 330, or permission of the instructor.
MAT 316. Complex Analysis
Theory of functions of a complex variable, including applications to problems in the theory of
functions of a real variable. Cauchy’s Integral Formula and its application to the calculus of
residues. ​Prerequisite: Mathematics 203 or permission of the instructor.
MAT 318. Probability
Events and their probabilities, dependence and independence. Bayes Theorem. Variates and
expected values. Theorems of Bernoulli and De Moivre. Special distributions. Central limit
theorem and applications. ​Prerequisite: Mathematics 202 or permission of the instructor.
MAT 322. Introduction to Abstract Algebra
Introduction to groups, rings, and fields. Other topics may include integral domains, polynomial
rings, and extension fields. ​Prerequisite: Mathematics 202.
MAT 325. Vector Spaces
Axiomatic treatment of vector spaces. Adjoint spaces. Linear transformations. Elementary
spectral theory. Proof of the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem. ​Prerequisite: Mathematics 202.
MAT 327. Theory of Numbers
Factorization of integers. Congruences and residue classes. Theorems of Euler, Fermat,
Wilson, and Gauss. Primitive roots. Quadratic residues and the reciprocity theorem.
Prerequisite: Mathematics 202.
MAT 330. Foundations of Geometry
A critical study of the basic concepts of geometry. This course begins with an axiomatic
approach to Euclidean geometry which includes careful proofs of its principal theorems. The
course will continue with an examination of various types of non-Euclidean geometries which
may include spherical geometry, projective geometry, and/or hyperbolic geometry. ​Prerequisite:
Mathematics 202.
MAT 340. Numerical Analysis (cross-listed as CSI 340)
Solution of equations and systems of equations by iteration and elimination, numerical
differentiation and integration, assessment of accuracy, methods of interpolation and
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extrapolation. ​Prerequisite: Mathematics 203 or permission of the instructor.
MAT 345. Differential Equations
Elementary methods for the solution of ordinary differential equations, including the expansion
of the solution in an infinite series. ​Prerequisite: Mathematics 203 or permission of the
instructor.
MAT 194, MAT 294, MAT 394, MAT 494. Special Topics in Mathematics
Study of an area of mathematics not covered in other courses. Students are urged to suggest
possible topics to the department as their interests and needs develop. ​Prerequisite: Permission
of the instructor.
MAT 190, MAT 290, MAT 390, MAT 490. Internship
MAT 195, MAT 295, MAT 395, MAT 495. On-campus Research
MAT 196, MAT 296, MAT 396, MAT 496. Off-campus Research
MAT 197, MAT 297, MAT 397, MAT 497. Independent Study
MAT SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
The Senior Capstone Experience in mathematics consists of two components:
a senior thesis and oral presentation AND
the solution and oral presentation of six approved problems or equivalent.
Each major will research and write a senior thesis with the supervision of a faculty member and
will make an oral presentation on the thesis at a departmental seminar. Each major should have
a thesis topic selected and approved by the end of his/her junior year. The senior capstone in
mathematics will be graded Pass, Fail, or Honors.
Capstone problems may be selected from a departmental list of approved problems or from
current issues of the following journals: ​Mathematics Magazine, The American Mathematical
Monthly, The College Mathematics Journal, Math Horizons, The AMATYC Review, SIAM
Review, Journal of Recreational Mathematics, and School Science and Mathematics.​ Students
may also earn credit for problems solved while participating in teams in the annual ACM
Programming Contest or the COMAP Mathematical Contest in Modeling. A maximum of three
such problems may be credited toward the six required capstone problems. The department
strongly recommends that each major complete at least two capstone problems by the end of
his/her junior year. Capstone problem credit may also be earned for the oral presentation of the
review of an approved scholarly paper in Mathematics. Papers may be chosen from the journals
mentioned above as well as from other sources after consultation with a faculty member from
the department.
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Weekly seminars of the majors and faculty in the department are scheduled to provide
information about careers, graduate school, thesis topics, and research areas, as well as to
enable each major to make presentations of problem solutions and to make the required
presentation on the thesis. All mathematics majors are enrolled in the seminar and will receive a
pass/fail grade at the end of the semester.
The Senior Capstone Experience in mathematics is graded as Pass, Fail, or Honors.
Computer Science Course Descriptions
CSI 100. Basics of Computing
This course introduces computer programming in a modern, high-level programming language.
Objectives include proficiency in the language (including variables, functions, types, flow
control, and basic data structures) as well as familiarity with common computer science problem
solving strategies. Students will also gain experience in team programming and in program
design for practical problem solving. This course counts for distribution but does not count
towards the major in computer science
CSI 201. Computer Science I
The objectives of this course are threefold: (a) to introduce problem-solving methods and
algorithmic development; (b) to teach an object-oriented programming language; and c) to teach
how to design, code, debug, and document programs in an object oriented environment using
techniques of good programming style.
CSI 202. Computer Science II
The objectives of this course are twofold: (a) to study data structures, such as stacks, queues,
trees, dictionaries, tables, and graphs, their efficiency, and their use in solving computational
problems; and (b) to gain proficiency in an object-oriented programming language. Exercises in
that language will provide an opportunity to design and implement the data structures.
Prerequisite: Computer Science 201 and Mathematics 201 or permission of the instructor.
CSI 203. Object Oriented Programming
This course gives a deep understanding of object-oriented programming, and the design and
coding of applications programs using Java. The use of Java for graphics and graphical user
interfaces, multithreading, connectivity with databases and across networks will be covered.
Students will be required to design and write a large application for a final course project that
incorporates GUIs and a selection of the principles taught. ​Prerequisite: Computer Science 202
and Mathematics 201.
CSI 240. Discrete Mathematics (cross-listed as MAT 240)
An introduction to logic, reasoning, and the discrete mathematical structures that are important
in computer science. Topics include proposition logic, types of proof, induction and recursion,
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sets, combinatorics, functions, relations, and graphs.
CSI 250. Introduction to Computer Organization and Architecture
Principles of computer organization and architecture are introduced, including interfacing and
communication, register and memory organization, digital logic, representation of data, and
introduction to assembly language. ​Prerequisite: Computer Science 202 and Mathematics 201.
CSI 340. Numerical Analysis (cross-listed as MAT 340)
Solution of equations and systems of equations by iteration and elimination, numerical
differentiation and integration, assessment of accuracy, methods of interpolation and
extrapolation. ​Prerequisite: Mathematics 203 or permission of the instructor.
CSI 350. Theory of Computation
Formal models of computation such as finite state automata, pushdown automata, and Turing
machines will be studied along with corresponding formal languages, e.g., regular languages
and context-free languages. Uncomputability, including the halting problem, and computational
complexity including the classes P and NP and NP-completeness will be studied. ​Prerequisite:
Computer Science 202 and Computer Science 240.
CSI 360. Database Systems
An introduction to the design and use of databases together with insights into the key issues
related to the use of database systems. The course covers the entity-relationship model; the
hierarchical, network, and relational data models, and their languages; functional dependencies
and normal forms; the use of SQL language, and the design and implementation of relational
databases using MS ACCESS and MySQL. ​Prerequisite: Computer Science 202 and Computer
Science 240, or permission of the instructor.
CSI 370. Design and Analysis of Algorithms
The topic of this course is the design of computer algorithms and techniques for analyzing their
efficiency and complexity. Types of algorithms include greedy algorithms, divide and conquer
algorithms, dynamic programming, searching and sorting. ​Prerequisite: Computer Science 202,
Computer Science 240.
CSI 450. Operating Systems
Introduction to operating systems including tasking, memory management, process scheduling,
file systems, protection, and distributed systems. ​Prerequisite: Computer Science 250.
CSI 460. Artificial Intelligence
Explores the principles and techniques involved in programming computers to do tasks that
usually are thought of as requiring intelligence when done by people. State-space and heuristic
search techniques, logic and other knowledge representations, and statistical and neural
network approaches are applied to problems such as game playing, planning, the
understanding of natural language, and computer vision. ​Prerequisite: Computer Science 202.
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CSI 470. Computer Networks
This course covers the principles, structure, and operation of computer networks. Emphasis will
be placed on understanding the protocols and mechanisms used in the Internet, and in local
and wide-area networks. The student will write application-level programs running on the LINUX
or Windows operating systems. ​Prerequisite: Computer Science 240, Computer Science 250,
and a strong background in C++ and Java.
CSI 480. Software Engineering
A capstone course on information management covering the principles and practice of software
project specification, design, testing, and production. The course incorporates real-world
problems from industry and uses the “Six Sigma” structure and CASE tools for the project
management and software development. ​Prerequisite: Computer Science 203 (or Computer
Science 202 with permission of the instructor).
CSI 194, CSI 294, CSI 394, CSI 494. Special Topics in Computing
Study of an area of computer science not covered in other courses. Students are urged to
suggest possible topics to the department as their interests and needs develop. ​Prerequisite:
Permission of the instructor.
CSI 190, CSI 290, CSI 390, CSI 490. Internship
CSI 195, CSI 295, CSI 395, CSI 495. On-campus Research
CSI 196, CSI 296, CSI 396, CSI 496. Off-campus Research
CSI 197, CSI 297, CSI 397, CSI 497. Independent Study
CSI SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
The Senior Capstone Experience in Computer Science can take one of two forms:
a senior thesis and oral presentation on a topic in theoretical computer science; OR
a senior programming project with a written exposition and oral presentation.
Each major choosing the thesis option will research and write a senior thesis with the
supervision of a faculty member and will make an oral presentation on the thesis at a
departmental seminar. Each major choosing the thesis option should have a thesis topic
selected and approved by the end of his/her junior year. For students with double majors in
mathematics and computer science, this thesis may also satisfy the thesis requirement of the
Senior Capstone Experience for a major in mathematics.
Each major choosing the programming project option will complete the project with the
supervision of a faculty member and will also complete a written exposition and make an oral
presentation on the project at a departmental seminar. Each major choosing the programming
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project option should have a project selected and approved by the end of his/her junior year.
For students with double majors in mathematics and computer science, the senior programming
project may be awarded credit for some of the problems to be done as part of the Senior
Capstone Experience for a major in mathematics. The Chair will decide the number. Students
may also earn credit for problems solved while participating in teams in the annual ACM
Programming Contest or the COMAP Mathematical Contest in Modeling.
A maximum of three problems from these alternative sources may be credited toward the six
required capstone problems in mathematics.
Weekly seminars of the majors and faculty in the department are scheduled to provide
information about careers, graduate school, thesis ideas, and research areas, as well as to
enable each major to make the required presentation on the thesis or programming project.
The Senior Capstone Experience in computer science is graded as Pass, Fail, or Honors.
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Modern Languages
Modern Languages Division of Humanities and Fine Arts
Collin Ashmore
Cristina Casado Presa, Chair
Elena Deanda Camacho
Nicole Grewling, Associate Chair
John Hepler
David Hull
Katherine Maynard
Rebeca Moreno Orama
Pamela Pears
Martín Ponti
Luyang Wang
The Department of Modern Languages offers majors in French Studies, German Studies,
Hispanic Studies, and International Literature and Culture. Our courses prepare students to live
and work in the global community of the 21st century by giving them powerful tools for
communicating and collaborating with people in the pluralist U.S. and abroad. Our courses have
three main goals: 1. to foster critical thinking skills through an awareness of the power of
language in its many contexts, 2. to provide linguistic training for students to develop proficiency
in a modern language, and 3. to promote intercultural competence for students to communicate
effectively across diverse cultural lines. Our graduates pursue successful careers in numerous
fields, including education, international education, journalism, social services, business,
international business, economics, government, law, international law, and applied and
theoretical sciences.
The Department offers courses appropriate to majors and minors in French Studies, German
Studies, and Hispanic Studies, as well as courses given in English in the field of International
Literature and Culture. It also offers language courses in Chinese. All modern language courses
may be used to satisfy the College’s foreign language requirement. For more details on how to
complete the foreign language requirement, please consult the section on distribution
requirements found under the Academic Program heading of this catalog.
ALTERNATIVE LANGUAGE STUDY
After consultation with the chair a student may receive tutorial instruction in a modern language
that is not part of the regular curriculum but for which expertise is available. Students who
participate in this program are urged to follow up with a study abroad experience in a country
where the language is spoken.
COURSES THAT FULFILL THE HUMANITIES DISTRIBUTION REQUIREMENT
Courses on literature and film in a foreign language and courses in International Literature and
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Culture (ILC), given in English, may be used to fulfill the distribution requirement in the
Humanities. In some cases, where such action seems appropriate, the department chair may
approve the use of foreign language literature courses to fulfill the foreign language
requirement. In that case, those courses may not be used in fulfillment of the distribution
requirement in Humanities as well.
LANGUAGE REQUIREMENT PLACEMENT POLICY
All Washington College students are required to fulfill the Language Requirement. In order to
ensure consistent treatment of all students, each student must take the language placement test
(which can be found in WebAdvisor). If the student decides to continue with the language of the
placement test at WAC, they must register for the course indicated by the test.
There are some special cases to consider:
1. Students can also fulfill the Language Requirement with transfer credit from other institutions
after approval of the Associate Chair of Modern Languages.
2. Students who are native speakers of a foreign language have the option of waiving the
requirement upon approval of the Associate Chair of Modern Languages.
3. Native Speakers cannot register in HPS 302 or FRS 302, a conversational level. For the rest
of the courses the instructor will determine if the Native Speaker is in the correct class and can
move the student to a more appropriate level.
Very Important:​ ​We strongly recommend that students take the​ ​Language Requirement​ ​in
the first two years of instruction. Otherwise, they may find that the class they need is not
offered, preventing them from graduating.​ In the exceptional case that the Department
deems that a change of placement is appropriate, the placement will only be lowered by one
level. Should the student still feel uncomfortable with their placement, they may start a new
language at the 101 level.
Language placement process
*All incoming freshmen must take the language survey and, if applicable, placement exam to
determine their level​. Incoming transfer students should take the placement survey, and the
placement exam if required. Transfer students should refer to the Transfer Evaluation memo
provided by Admissions and the Registrar to determine if the language placement exam is
required.
Even if you have never studied a language, you must take the language survey.
To access the language survey, please login Webadvisor and click on the”Students” menu.
Under “Miscellaneous options,” click on “Placement Survey and Test.”
How to complete the language requirement
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For students starting a new language or students placed in the 101 or 102 level: two
semesters in the new or placement language.
For students placing in 200-level or above in French, German, Chinese, or Spanish: one
semester of study.
Students who have achieved a score of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement test have
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●
●
satisfied this requirement.
Students whose native language is not English may satisfy this requirement with that
language​ pending approval from the Chair of Modern Languages​.
Students who present appropriate documentation qualifying them for a foreign language
substitution may be allowed to substitute​ two pre-approved courses​ to satisfy this
requirement.
​MAJORS IN FRENCH STUDIES/GERMAN STUDIES/HISPANIC STUDIES
To major in either French, German or Hispanic Studies the student must take ​at least eight
courses ​(32 credits) at the 200, 300 and 400 levels and complete the Senior Capstone
Experience.
The courses chosen for the FRS major must include:
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Either 301 or 302 (or an equivalent taken abroad)
Either 303 or 304, to be taken on the Washington College campus.
At least two courses at the 400 level, one of which must be taken during the senior
year on campus.
For those students beginning FRS at either the 100 or 200 level, FRS 201 and/or
202 may count toward the major.
​The courses chosen for the GRS major must include:
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GRS 301 ​and ​GRS 302 (or an equivalent taken abroad)
GRS 304 or GRS 305
At least one course at the 400 level, which must be taken during the senior year
on campus.
For those students beginning GRS at either the 100 or 200 level, GRS 201
and/or 202 may count toward the major.
The courses chosen for the HPS major ​if the student studies abroad ​must include:
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HPS 301 or 302 (or an equivalent taken abroad)
HPS 303 or 304 or 305, to be taken on the Washington College campus
At least two courses at the 400 level, one of which must be taken during the senior
year on campus.
Students may count up to ​one ​course given in English under the International
Literature and Culture heading toward their major if their written work is done in
Spanish.
For those students beginning HPS at either the 100 or 200 level, any HPS 200 level
course at or above 202 will count toward the major.
The courses chosen for the HPS major ​if the student is unable to study abroad ​must
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include:
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HPS 301 ​and ​302
Two ​courses from this list: HPS 303, HPS 304, HPS 305
Two 400 level courses, one taken during senior year
Students may count up to ​two ​courses given in English under the International
Literature and Culture heading toward their major if their written work is done in
Spanish.
For those students beginning HPS at either the 100 or 200 level, any HPS 200
level course at or above 202 will count toward the major.
As a general rule, at least four of the courses presented for the major must be taken on the
Washington College campus unless otherwise agreed upon by the faculty advisor.
The Department strongly encourages its majors in a foreign language to complete a semester
of overseas study (or a summer program if previously approved by the Department) in the
relevant language, and further recommends a year-long course of study. In some cases, study
abroad may be necessary in order to complete all the coursework. As part of their study abroad
experience, students complete a study abroad portfolio (FRS/GRS/HPS 375) to be turned in to
the faculty advisor. Through exchanges coordinated by the Global Education Office,
Washington College offers many options for study abroad to majors and minors in this
department. Students are expected to consult the faculty when planning their study abroad
experience to insure that the program they choose meets the needs of their major and that
they have a well-balanced course of study while abroad, including classes that complement
their course of study on campus. There are opportunities for language-related internships as
well. Interested students are urged to consult the chair or other department faculty.
To improve fluency, enrich course work, and further their interest in the customs and cultures
they are studying, language students are encouraged to speak the foreign language on a daily
basis with the native French, German, and Spanish assistants who reside in the Language
Suites. The language assistants are also available to students on a regular basis at informal
coffee hours and meetings of the foreign language clubs throughout the year. All interested
students are invited to participate in the cultural activities sponsored by the language clubs,
Honor Societies, and the department itself.
The Department encourages students to enrich their knowledge of the foreign culture they are
studying by taking related courses from other departments and in some cases, these courses
may be counted toward the major. We also recommend that our majors study two years of a
second foreign language.
MINORS IN FRENCH STUDIES/GERMAN STUDIES/HISPANIC STUDIES
The Department offers minors in French Studies, German Studies, and Hispanic Studies.
Students who begin a language with 101, 102, 200, or 201 must take a total of six classes in
order to obtain the minor. Students who begin with 202 or above must take a total of five
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classes, at least one of which must be at the 400 level.
THE SENIOR CAPSTONE EXPERIENCE
Majors must successfully complete the Senior Capstone Experience, which may consist of a
comprehensive examination (in HPS only), an original research project (open to students with a
3.5 GPA or higher in the major in HPS and FRS), or a thesis based on a seminar paper. In each
case, students will consult with the faculty advisor(s) in order to choose the most appropriate
Capstone Experience, which must be approved by the faculty advisor(s). The Senior Capstone
Experience will be graded Pass, Fail or Honors and should be taken during the semester in
which the student plans to graduate.
TEACHER TRAINING
Students planning to earn certification for secondary school teaching in a foreign language
should consult with the Chair of the Department of Modern Languages and with the Chair of the
Education Program during their first year or no later than their sophomore year.
Chinese Studies
David Hull
Luyang Wang
101, 102. Elementary Chinese
An introduction to Mandarin Chinese, this course offers an integrated approach to basic
language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Class work is supplemented by
laboratory periods that include engagement with native language via multimedia sources.
Discussion of a graded series of cultural topics promotes students understanding of Chinese life
and society and aids language learning. The class will meet three days plus two laboratory
periods per week. Please note that this course is NOT appropriate for native speakers of
Mandarin.
201, 202. Intermediate Chinese
This course will review and build upon language skills acquired in the introductory course to
Mandarin Chinese. It offers an integrated approach to basic language skills: listening, speaking,
reading, and writing. The class will meet three days per week, plus a laboratory period. The
laboratory includes engagement with native language via multimedia sources. Graded readings
on topics related to Chinese life and society serve as an aid to language learning and provide
an introduction to Chinese culture. ​Prerequisite: Chinese 102 or the equivalent.
375. Study Abroad Portfolio
This tutorial continues the development of specific listening, speaking, reading, writing, and
critical thinking skills in the target language while students pursue a language-immersion study
abroad program. Students will create a portfolio remotely with frequent consultation and
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feedback from a faculty advisor. The study abroad portfolio will be assessed for progress in the
student’s language learning skills and personal development.
French Studies
Katherine Maynard
Pamela Pears
101, 102. Elementary French
Designed for beginning students and aimed at developing skill in listening, speaking, reading,
and writing in French. Emphasis on communication through intensive aural/oral practice and
awareness of cultural context. Three class meetings and one or two laboratory sessions per
week at the discretion of the instructor.
200. Review of Introductory French
This course for high/advanced beginners reviews the material covered in FRS 101 and FRS 102
for those who need a refresher in the basics but have enough experience to progress to more
advanced language production. The objective of this course is to expand basic proficiency in the
four language skills--speaking, listening, reading and writing--as well as to help students interact
with various elements of the culture from different French-speaking countries FRS 200 is only
appropriate for those with no prior French experience at the university level who have had a
minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 4 years at the high school level. Three class meetings
and one or two laboratory sessions per week at the discretion of the instructor. ​Prerequisite: By
placement exam or departmental approval only.
201, 202. Intermediate French
Continued emphasis on the four basic skills. Intensive aural/oral practice. Review of grammar,
expansion of vocabulary, and their application in writing. Development of effective reading
strategies in response to both expository and literary texts. Familiarization of the student with
French life and the francophone world. Three class meetings and one laboratory session per
week. ​Prerequisite: French 102 or 200 (for 201) or French 201 (for 202), appropriate placement
score, or permission of the instructor.
301, 302. Advanced French
A sequence designed to deepen the student’s skills reading, writing, speaking, and listening.
301 focuses on writing: Journalistic, cultural, and literary readings about contemporary French
life serve to develop the student’s ability to analyze texts and to write clearly and persuasively in
varied forms, such as the résumé, analysis, commentary, description, and short narrative. 302
focuses on speaking: Class discussion aims at stimulating fluent and spontaneous use of
spoken French. The course includes instruction in phonetics as a guide to correct pronunciation
as well as multimedia cultural activities intended to improve the student’s linguistic and cultural
knowledge. Theses courses prepare the student for upper-level literature and civilization
courses and for study abroad in a Francophone country. ​Prerequisite: FRS 202, appropriate
placement score, or permission of the instructor. FRS 302 may be taken before FRS 301.
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303, 304. Introduction to French and Francophone Literature and Culture
A course designed to help students answer the questions, “How does one talk and write about
literature?” and “What does it mean to read and give a reading to a text?” An exploration of
selected works representing different genres both in relation to other literary movements and
their historical contexts. ​Prerequisite: French 301 or 302 or permission of the instructor.
311. Contemporary France
Taught in English, this course provides an introductory historical and cultural study of
contemporary France. Students will be provided tools for cultural interpretation via critical texts
and the analysis of French films and their American remakes; they will then apply them to the
cultural history of France. We will explore the impact of World War II, of the student protests of
May ’68, and of women’s emancipation movements. We will examine France’s position in the
world—its past as a colonizing nation, its present post-colonial actions, and its multicultural
identity enriched by different waves of immigration. We will study the political and economic
roles of women, their place in the family, health concerns, and struggles for autonomy through
works by women. This course counts toward the French major and minor if the journal entries,
mid-term exam, and final paper are written in French.
312. The Contemporary Francophone World
Taught in English, this course provides an introductory historical and cultural study of the
contemporary Francophone world. Designed as a survey of the non-European Francophone
world, the course will offer for study both literary and cultural documents from the Caribbean,
North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Canada. Initially they will be provided tools for cultural
interpretation via critical texts, media analysis (including print and internet sources) and the
analysis of Francophone films; they will then apply them to the cultural history of the
Francophone world. We will explore French colonization, the process of decolonization, and
subsequent independence movements. We will examine social, political, and economic roles of
both women and men, changing gender roles, and contemporary divisions of labor. Finally, we
will reflect on the political, historical, and sociocultural situations of post-colonial Francophone
nations.
375. Study Abroad Portfolio
This tutorial continues the development of specific listening, speaking, reading, writing, and
critical thinking skills in the target language while majors pursue their required
language-immersion study abroad program. Students will create a portfolio remotely with
frequent consultation and feedback from a faculty advisor. The study abroad portfolio will be
assessed for progress in the student’s language learning skills and personal development.
411. Love In the Middle Ages
An investigation of the various modes of representation used to define love during the Middle
Ages in France. Readings will include Ovid, Andreas Capellanus, the troubadours, Chrétien de
Troyes, Marie de France, and the letters of Heloise and Abelard. ​Prerequisite: French 303, 304
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or permission of the instructor.
412. The Renaissance in France
Reading and discussion of works exemplifying the literary achievement of sixteenth-century
France and its relation to the spread of printing, voyages of exploration, the rise of Humanism,
the Reformation, and the Wars of Religion. Readings include works by Marot, Rabelais, Scève,
Louise Labé, du Bellay, Ronsard, Marguerite de Navarre, and Montaigne. ​Prerequisite: French
303, 304 or permission of the instructor.
413. The “Grand Siècle”
A study of representative works of the “grand siècle,” in which France achieved cultural
ascendancy in Europe. Exploration of the development of classicism and its relation to the
emergence of a centralized, autocratic régime. Readings will include dramatic works by
Corneille, Racine, and Molière and selected non-dramatic writings: the poetry of La Fontaine,
Madame de Lafayette’s ​La Princesse de Clèves​,and selected writings of Descartes, Pascal, and
La Bruyère. ​Prerequisite: French 303, 304 or permission of the instructor.
414. Les Lumières
A study of letters and the history of ideas from the Regency to the Revolution, with emphasis on
the philosopher’s use of literature as a weapon to further their rationalistic, humanitarian ideas.
The Pre-Romantic reaction to the Age of Reason as manifested in writing and painting.
Readings include works by Prévost, Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, Beaumarchais, Bernardin de
Saint-Pierre, and de Staël. ​Prerequisite: French 303, 304 or permission of the instructor.
415. Nineteenth-Century France: Romantics, Realists, Symbolists
An exploration of the nature of the different grands récits that shape this century and of how
they relate to problems of colonialism, aestheticism, industrialization, class structures, feminism,
publishing, and criticism. Examines as well the effects of the crise du roman. ​Prerequisite:
French 303, 304 or permission of the instructor.
416. French and Francophone Poetry
An examination of major trends in French poetry from Romanticism to the present, this course is
designed to increase the student’s awareness of and appreciation for poetry by close reading
and explication in class of representative poems. Special attention will be paid to poetic forms
and devices. ​Prerequisite: French 303, 304 or permission of the instructor.
417. Twentieth Century Evolutions and Revolutions: 1900-1945
Evolutions and revolutions in French literature in their necessary relation to other artistic, social,
philosophical, and psychoanalytical developments, criticism, the impact of the two World Wars
and the interwar period. Emphasis on narrative and genre. Readings will include works by
Apollinaire, Barthes, Colette, Proust, Sartre, and Surrealist writers. ​Prerequisite: French 303,
304 or permission of the instructor.
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418. Post-World War II France
What are the voices of the post-war period, feminism, and anticolonialism? What is the nature of
identity and nationalism? What was the impact of the Algerian War and Mai 68? What is the
nouveau roman? Who are some of the critics that have helped shape the visions of this
century? Readings will be drawn from works by de Beauvoir, Beckett, Césaire, Cixous, Duras,
Fanon, Foucault, Ionesco, and Robbe-Grillet. ​Prerequisite: French 303, 304 or permission of the
instructor.
419. Studies in Francophone Literature and Culture
This course will present the student with a number of aesthetic, cultural, historical, and political
issues relevant to francophone literature. The particular national or regional focus will vary.
Prerequisite: French 303, 304 or permission of the instructor.
451, 452. Senior Reading
The intensive study of an author or literary genre. Open to seniors; others by permission.
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics in French Studies
The intensive study of a selected author, movement, genre, or theme. ​Prerequisite: French 303,
304 or permission of the instructor for 394 and 494.
190, 290, 390, 490. Internship
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience in French Studies
Majors must successfully complete the Senior Capstone Experience, which may consist of an
original research project (open to students with a 3.5 GPA or higher in the major), or a thesis
based on a seminar paper. In each case, students will consult with the faculty advisor(s) in order
to choose the most appropriate Capstone Experience, which must be approved by the faculty
advisor(s). The Senior Capstone Experience will be graded Pass, Fail or Honors and should be
taken during the semester in which the student plans to graduate.
German Studies
Nicole Grewling
101, 102. Elementary German
Designed for beginning students and aimed at developing skill in listening, speaking, reading,
and writing in German. Emphasis on communication through intensive aural/oral practice and
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awareness of cultural context. Three class meetings and one or two laboratory sessions per
week at the discretion of the instructor. Student may not have taken/tested a higher level of
German.
201, 202. Intermediate German
Review and intensified practice of language skills. German literary texts, newspapers,
magazines, and television shows provide the basis for discussion of a wide range of
contemporary social, political, and cultural topics. Class projects allow students to explore
issues of their particular interest. A native German-speaking assistant serves as tutor for the
course. Three class meetings and one laboratory session per week. ​Prerequisite: German 102
(for 201), German 201 (for 202), appropriate placement score, or permission of the instructor.
301, 302. Advanced German Proficiency
A sequence designed to enhance students' skills in reading, writing, speaking, and listening as
well as their cultural knowledge. Engagement with contemporary cultural and literary texts
serves to develop students' abilities to analyze texts and to express themselves clearly and
according to genre-specific conventions in written and oral communication. These courses also
include review of German grammar.​ Prerequisite: GRS 202, appropriate placement score, or
permission of the instructor. GRS 302 may be taken before GRS 301.
304. German Civilization
A survey of German history, politics, and art from their beginnings to the present with special
emphasis on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In addition, this course will focus on a
close study of the geography and social structures of German-speaking countries. Use will be
made of authentic sources. Students will continue to develop language skills, especially reading
strategies and vocabulary building. ​Prerequisite: German 301 or 302 or permission of the
instructor.
305. Introduction to German Literature
This course provides students with the analytic tools that will facilitate the reading and
interpretation of German literature. Specific artistic accomplishments are discussed against the
background of historical and social contexts. Brief selections reach from the writings of Martin
Luther to works by contemporary women. Particular emphasis will be placed on authors of the
twentieth century. Students will continue to develop language skills, especially reading
strategies and vocabulary building. ​Prerequisite: German 301 or 302 or permission of the
instructor.
313, 314. Berlin – Symphony of a Great City. History, Culture and Identity in Germany’s
Metropolis
The course provides an overview of the cultural, sociological, political, and historical significance
of Berlin. It presents a survey of its history and culture over the past century, examining how
Berlin has come to stand as a symbol of the development of Germany as a whole. Discussion of
selected (fictional and nonfictional) texts from specific moments in Berlin’s history. Course may
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be taught in English or German. ​Prerequisite: None if taught in English (313); GRS 301 or 302
or permission of the instructor if taught in German (314).
315, 316. Minorities in Germany: Reading at the Margins
The course provides an overview of the historical background to situate minorities in
contemporary Germany, focusing on cultural productions (fictional, non-fictional texts, films) that
contribute to the discussion about the situation of minorities in postwar Germany. We examine
works that address minorities and their particular circumstances such as guest workers, the
Turkish community, Black Germans, Jews, Muslims, ​Aussiedler​, Russian immigrants. Course
may be taught in English or German. ​Prerequisite: None if taught in English (315); GRS 301 or
302 or permission of the instructor if taught in German (316).
317, 318. German Cinema
Explores the history and cultural background of German cinema, its topics, forms of
representation and relationship to main issues of German history; major themes, movements,
and trends, and the construction of identity and difference with special focus on gender. Apart
from the historical and narrative context of the films, we will also consider how movies produce
meaning and how our perspectives as viewers are guided. While this course is not an
introduction to Film Studies, it will give students a general idea how to think and write about film
in a critical way. Films are screened outside of class; if students cannot attend the screenings,
they must watch the films before the class discussion on their own time. ​Prerequisite: None if
taught in English (317); GRS 301 or GRS 302 if taught in German (318).
375. Study Abroad Portfolio
This tutorial continues the development of specific listening, speaking, reading, writing, and
critical thinking skills in the target language while majors pursue their required
language-immersion study abroad program. Students will create a portfolio remotely with
frequent consultation and feedback from a faculty advisor. The study abroad portfolio will be
assessed for progress in the student’s language learning skills and personal development.
411. The Classical Age
Largely prevented from taking an active political role in the society of their day, late
eighteenth-century German authors and intellectuals began what amounted to an artistic
revolution—a revolution in thought and expression whose effects are still felt today. Focusing on
key works by Kant, Goethe, Schiller, Mozart, Beethoven, and others, this course explores and
critiques central concerns of the German Classical Age (e.g., enlightenment, tolerance,
harmony, human perfectibility, progress, etc.) ​Prerequisite: GRS 304 or 305 or permission of
instructor.
412. Romantic Germany
Set against the backdrop of French/European revolution, German Romantic thought manifested
two distinct but related modes. On the one hand, many romantics broke with traditional
commonplaces about art, nature, and humanity, embracing forms of philosophical idealism,
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pantheism, and “Romantic Irony. “ On the other hand, however, a number of artists and
intellectuals also longed for a return to the past—to an “organic” society in which divisive
religious and political conflicts were as yet unknown. The course examines these and related
trends as manifested in the literature, philosophy, painting, and music of the era. ​Prerequisite:
GRS 304 or 305 or permission of instructor.
413. The Birth of Modern Germany
In many respects, modern German history may be said to have begun with the failed bourgeois
revolution of 1848. With the shattering of its democratic hopes, the German middle class largely
turned away from political concerns, focusing instead on the pleasures of family life, the private
accumulation of wealth, and the advancement of science and industry. At the same time, the
German bourgeoisie also came to accept the autocratic state authority with which it would ever
afterwards be associated. This course traces the often ambivalent artistic responses to German
“modernity, “ focusing on figures such as Fontane, Hauptmann, Nietzsche, Wagner, and Rilke,
and the movements with which they are associated (Realism, Naturalism, Symbolism, and
Expressionism.) ​Prerequisite: GRS 304 or 305 or permission of instructor.
417. Democratic and Totalitarian Germany
Few eras continue to fascinate as do those of Germany’s Weimar Republic (1918-1933) and
Third Reich (1933-1945). In the former, we find a fragile new democracy characterized at once
by anxiety, inflation, and the destruction of values, as well as an explosion of creative energies
in literature, film, music, the visual arts, and architecture. In the latter, by contrast, Germany’s
“Golden Twenties” come crashing to a halt; post-war anxieties, uncertainties, and freedoms are
exchanged for the reactionary nationalism of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Drawing on key
cultural artifacts from the periods in question, this course considers the troubled relationship
between democracy and totalitarianism in German history. The course then concludes with an
analysis of the divided Germany as it developed after 1945. ​Prerequisite: GRS 304 or 305 or
permission of instructor.
418. The Culture of the Open Society
With the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, Germany’s permanent separation seemed
assured. In the east, the German Democratic Republic sought to realize a socialist state
founded upon the principles of Marxism-Leninism. In the west, the Federal Republic of Germany
embraced the model of a capitalist and politically “open” (pluralistic) society. This seminar
focuses on the trials and triumphs of the latter, tracing social, cultural, and political
developments from 1961 to the present. Topics of discussion will include Germany’s “economic
miracle” and “affluent society, “ the social market economy, student, peace, and women’s
movements, terrorism, and German Reunification. ​Prerequisite: GRS 304 or 305 or permission
of instructor.
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics in German Studies
The intensive study of a selected author, movement, genre, or theme in German culture studies.
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190, 290, 390, 490. Internship
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience in German Studies
Majors must successfully complete the Senior Capstone Experience, which may consist of an
original research project or a thesis based on a seminar paper. In each case, students will
consult with the faculty advisor(s) in order to choose the most appropriate Capstone
Experience, which must be approved by the faculty advisor(s). The Senior Capstone Experience
will be graded Pass, Fail or Honors and should be taken during the semester in which the
student plans to graduate.
Additional Courses for German Studies
After consultation with the faculty in the German Program, students can take up to two 300- or
400-level courses from outside the German Program for credit toward a major, one such course
toward a minor, in German studies if these courses contain substantial work done in German
under the supervision of the German faculty. The following courses are recommended. This list
is not exclusive.
ART 315. Northern Renaissance and Baroque Art
ECN 410. International Economics
HIS 354. Renaissance and Reformation
HIS 360. Twentieth Century Germany
HIS 362. Europe Since 1945
MUS 308. Classic Music
MUS 312. Romantic Music
PHL 414. The Philosophy of Marxism
POL 315. Comparative Government Western Europe
Hispanic Studies
Collin Ashmore
Cristina Casado Presa
Elena Deanda Camacho
Rebeca Moreno Orama
Martín Ponti
101, 102. Elementary Spanish
Designed to develop basic proficiency in aural comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. A
native Spanish-speaking assistant serves as tutor for the course. Three class meetings and one
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or two laboratory sessions per week at the discretion of the instructor.
200. Review of Introductory Spanish
A review of the material covered in HPS 101 and HPS 102 for those who need a refresher in the
basics but have enough experience to progress to more advanced language production. The
objective of this course is to expand basic proficiency in the four language skills: speaking,
listening, reading and writing, as well as to help students interact with various elements of the
culture from different Spanish speaking countries. HPS 200 is only appropriate for those with
no prior Spanish experience at the university level who have had a minimum of 2 years and a
maximum of 3 years at the high school level. Students who have completed HPS 101, HPS 102,
or HPS 201 may not take this course. Three class meetings and one laboratory session per
week. ​Prerequisite: Appropriate placement score, or permission of the instructor.
201, 202. Intermediate Spanish
Review and intensified practice of language skills. Readings cover a wide range of topics in
Spanish and Spanish American culture and literature. A native Spanish-speaking assistant
serves as tutor for the course. Three class meetings and one laboratory session per week.
Prerequisite: HPS 102, 200, appropriate placement score, or permission of the instructor for
HPS 201; HPS 201, appropriate placement score, or permission of the instructor for HPS 202.
301. Advanced Spanish Proficiency I
A course designed to improve reading and writing skills and to augment vocabulary through the
use of literary and cultural texts, including film. Spanish grammar is thoroughly reviewed with
emphasis on those elements of the structure of Spanish that are often the most troubling to
non-native learners. ​Prerequisite: HPS 202, appropriate placement score, or permission of the
instructor.
302. Advanced Spanish Proficiency II
This course is designed especially to improve speaking and listening comprehension skills,
again through the use of cultural and literary materials, including film. Emphasis will continue to
be placed on vocabulary building and the review of Spanish grammar. ​Prerequisite: HPS 202,
appropriate placement score, or the permission of the Instructor. HPS 302 may be taken before
HPS 301.
303. Introduction to the Literature and Culture of Latin America
An introduction to the literature of Latin America. This course provides students with the analytic
tools that will facilitate the reading and interpretation of the literature of various Latin American
countries and their representative authors. The course includes works of poetry, drama, short
story, novel and film. ​Prerequisite: HPS 301 or 302 or permission of the instructor.
304. Introduction to the Literature and Culture of Spain
An introduction to Spanish literature. This course provides students with the analytic tools that
will facilitate the reading and interpretation of the literature of Spain and its representative
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authors. The course includes works of poetry, drama, short story, novel, and film. ​Prerequisite:
HPS 301 or 302 or permission of the instructor.
305. Introduction to the Literature of Spain and Latin America
An introduction to Spanish and Latin American literature. This course provides students with the
analytic tools that will facilitate the reading and interpretation of the literature of Spain and Latin
America and their representative authors. The course includes poetry, drama, short story, novel,
and essay. This class combines key texts from HPS 303 and 304 and prepares HPS majors for
the Senior Capstone Experience. ​Prerequisite: HPS 301or 302 or permission of the instructor.
307. Spanish for International Business
Designed to give students a foundation in the vocabulary of business and international trade
and in the expression of basic business concepts in Spanish. Practice in presenting oral reports
on business and cultural topics, in reading business reports and other texts of a cultural nature,
and in writing various kinds of business correspondence, including résumés, memos, and
letters. All materials are presented within a cultural context intended to expand the students’
knowledge and understanding of the manners and mores of Spain and the Spanish-speaking
republics of Latin America, as well as of demographic, geographic, and other data related to
those nations. ​Prerequisite: HPS 301 or 302 or permission of the instructor.
375. Study Abroad Portfolio
This tutorial continues the development of specific listening, speaking, reading, writing, and
critical thinking skills in the target language while majors pursue their required
language-immersion study abroad program. Students will create a portfolio remotely with
frequent consultation and feedback from a faculty advisor. The study abroad portfolio will be
assessed for progress in the student’s language learning skills and personal development.
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics in Hispanic Studies
The intensive study of a selected author, movement, genre, or theme in literature or film or a
study of the culture of a particular period, region, or nation. ​Prerequisite: HPS 303, 304 or 305,
or permission of the instructor.
401. The Civilization of Spain
The course begins with a look at the geography of Spain, followed by a study of the early
cultures that contributed to the formation of Spanish character and civilization. It continues with
the study of the evolution of Spain’s civilization from the Middle Ages up to the present time. A
major emphasis is on contemporary Spanish society, its institutions and forms of cultural
expression. ​Prerequisite: HPS 303, 304 or 305, or permission of the instructor.
410. History of Spanish
A study of the evolution (phonological, morphological, semantic and syntactic of spoken Latin
into Castilian through the reading and analysis of medieval texts. The class will also consider
the major historical events (social and political that contributed to the formation of modern
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Spanish. ​Prerequisite: HPS 301 or 302, or permission of the instructor.
414. How to (Make) Love in Early Modern Spain
This course investigates different texts that were read and/or produced in Early Modern Spain
around the topics of love, gender, and sex in order to reflect on how we have loved throughout
history. It will look at manuals, treatises, and diverse literary genres (poetry, narrative, and
theater) that aimed to describe and/or prescribe ways of loving and ways of knowing. The goal
is for students to put into practice their literary analytical skills and to reflect on everyday issues
that puzzle us, weaken us, and strengthen us: love, sex, and the Other. ​Prerequisite: HPS 303,
304 or 305, or permission of the instructor.
415. Studies in Early Modern Spanish Literature
Spanning the medieval era to the XVIII century, this course focuses on selective works of
history, essay, poetry, prose, and theatre that are representative of literary periods such as
Medieval, Golden Age, Baroque, and/or the Enlightenment. This class emphasizes close
reading as well as contextual analysis, considering the major historical, social and political
events that contributed to each period formation.
Prerequisite: HPS 303, 304 or 305, or permission of the instructor.
416. Studies in Colonial Latin American Literature
Spanning the pre-hispanic era to the XVIII century, this course focuses on selective works of
history, essay, poetry, prose, and theatre that are representative of periods like Pre-Hispanic
literature, Colonial Baroque, and/or the Enlightenment. This class emphasizes close reading as
well as contextual analysis, considering the major historical, social and political events that
contributed to each period formation.
Prerequisite: HPS 303, 304 or 305, or permission of the instructor.
417. Afro Latin America
This class will introduce students to the process of critical thinking through theoretical works on
race and through selected historical and contemporary texts about the legacy of Africa in Latin
America and the USA. This course will explore the effects of race on the relationship between
language and the mind and will look at the intersections of race, gender, class and sexuality as
socially constructed practices. Students will learn to read, think and write critically about different
perspectives on being Afro-American, Afro-Caribbean, Afro-Mexican, etc. It will consider why
race still matters in the so-called "post-racial America." ​Prerequisite: HPS 303, 304 or 305, or
permission of the instructor.
418. Narratives of Mexico
An examination of modern Mexican society through representative works of cultural production,
this course aims to enhance students’ understanding of Mexican literature, film, art, history and
politics, by focusing on critical analysis of narrative forms that derive from a wide range of
aesthetic and ideological approaches, including the idea of Mexico, imagined communities,
national consciousness, representations of stereotypes, border culture and migration,
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democracy, human rights, justice (environmental and social), the Mexican Revolution, free
trade, the Zapatista Rebellion, and violence (gender-based and narco). Successful completion
of this course will enhance proficiency in technical vocabulary for writing and speaking about
cultural analysis. ​Prerequisite: HPS 303, 304 or 305, or permission of the instructor.
419. Weapons, Words, Images: Perspectives on the Spanish Civil War
Few events on the 20th century have ignited the imagination, caused ideological discussions,
inspired historical studies and shaken more passions inside and outside Spain than the Spanish
Civil War (1936-1939). This course analyzes this conflict in depth and shows how the Civil War
has been and continues to be the center of an extraordinary cultural energy and a center of
reflection in popular culture, art, literature, politics and the society of Spain today. ​Prerequisite:
HPS 303, 304 or 305, or permission of the instructor.
420. I Am No Angel: Post-Franco Literature Written by Women
Literary representations throughout the centuries reflect the belief that the aspirations of the
Spanish woman must be subordinated to the roles of mother, saint, virgin…the prudente. This
course explores representative literary works written by women after General Franco’s death. In
this moment of political change, a significant tendency is the emergent depiction of female
characters that show a clear self-consciousness and express fully their thoughts, emotions and
desires. Throughout the course we will examine poems, short stories and plays that allow us to
consider the possibility of the production of new ideologies at a moment in which new models of
“la mujer española” coexist and come into conflict with the old ones. ​Prerequisite​:​ HPS 303, 304
or 305, or permission of the instructor.
190, 290, 390, 490. Internship
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience in Hispanic Studies
Majors must successfully complete the Senior Capstone Experience, which may consist of a
comprehensive examination, an original research project (open to students with a 3.5 GPA or
higher in the major), or a thesis based on a seminar paper. In each case, students will consult
with the faculty advisor(s) in order to choose the most appropriate Capstone Experience, which
must be approved by the faculty advisor(s). The Senior Capstone Experience will be graded
Pass, Fail or Honors and should be taken during the semester in which the student plans to
graduate.
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Other Courses
ELL 101 English for Academic Purposes I
The purpose of this course is to assist matriculated English language learners (ELL) at
Washington College in the development and improvement of listening, speaking, reading,
writing, and critical thinking skills needed to be successful in post-secondary academic and
professional settings. It prepares ELL students for the oral and written demands and
expectations frequently encountered in college-level academic classes. Permission of the
instructor or the Provost’s Office required.
ELL 102 English for Academic Purposes II
This course aims to develop specific listening, speaking, reading, writing, and critical thinking
skills including preparing and executing group presentations, working with and synthesizing
primary and secondary sources, creating and implementing peer-to-peer activities, leading
peer-to-peer constructive discussions, and research-based writing projects. Permission of the
instructor or the Provost’s Office required.
FLS 101, 102. Elementary Language Study
Students may enroll in this course to study a modern language that is not part of the regular
curriculum of the Department of Modern Languages. Permission to study the language under
this independent study/tutorial arrangement depends upon the availability of an appropriate tutor
for the language requested. Students who study a language in this way are strongly urged to
follow up such study by participating in a study abroad experience in a country where the
language is spoken. ​Permission of department chair required.
FLS 200. Introduction to Language
This course will introduce the student to the study of linguistics. Concepts of both historical and
descriptive linguistics are included. Some of the areas of study are: linguistic history and
methodology, language origin, language and society, language structure, dialects and language
families. The course is open to all students.
FLS 194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics in Foreign Language Studies
FLS 400. Romance Linguistics
A comparative overview of the Romance language family. Topics include the evolution,
variation, and structural characteristics of these languages. Also considered are the
sociopolitical factors favoring the linguistic autonomy accorded to some languages but not to
others. Taught in English. ​Prerequisites: 300-level HPS or FRS, Italian 201 or permission of the
instructor. ​Not currently offered​.
FLS 490. Foreign Language Internship
Designed to provide students with pre-professional experience in fields in which their language
proficiency is an essential asset. The specific internship experiences will vary. They include
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placement of Hispanic Studies students with public health and social service agencies, as well
as in the local school systems as instructional aids with ESOL students. ​Interested students
should consult the department chair.
ARA 101,102. Elementary Arabic I and II
An introduction to Arabic, this course offers an integrated approach to basic language skills:
listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The class meets three days per week, and class work
is supplemented by one or two weekly laboratory sessions, at the discretion of the instructor.
The course is accompanied by a continuous video narrative that is presented as the basic text
and the context for new grammatical concepts. Not currently offered.
ITA 101, 102. Elementary Italian
Designed for beginning students and aimed at developing skills in listening comprehension,
speaking, reading and writing Italian. Emphasis on communication through intensive aural/oral
practice, basic composition, and awareness of cultural context. Three class meetings and one
or two laboratory sessions per week at the discretion of the instructor. Not currently offered.
ITA 201, 202. Intermediate Italian
Continued emphasis on the four basic skills. Intensive aural/oral practice. Review and continued
study of grammar, expansion of vocabulary, and their application to writing. Readings devoted
to a wide range of topics in Italian culture. Class discussion of contemporary issues and cultural
topics. Class meets three days per week with one additional laboratory session. Not currently
offered.
JPN 101, 102. Elementary Japanese
The course aims at the acquisition of communicative competence in the four basic language
skills—listening comprehension, speaking, reading and writing in contemporary Japanese. The
emphasis is on thorough mastery of the basic structures of Japanese through student-centered,
aural-oral exercises and practice, and on an introduction to Japanese culture. Three class
meetings per week, plus one or two drill sessions at the discretion of the instructor. Not currently
offered.
JPN 201, 202. Intermediate Japanese
The course aims at further development in communicative competence in the four basic
language skills—listening comprehension, speaking, reading and writing in contemporary
Japanese. The emphasis is again on thorough mastery of basic structures of Japanese through
student-centered aural-oral exercises. Continued practice in reading and writing Japanese in a
cultural context. Three class meetings per week, plus one or two drill sessions at the discretion
of the instructor. Not currently offered.
POR 101, 102. Elementary Portuguese
Designed for beginning students and aimed at developing skill in listening comprehension,
speaking, reading and writing Brazilian Portuguese. Emphasis on communication through
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intensive aural/oral practice, basic composition, and awareness of cultural context. Three class
meetings and one or two laboratory sessions per week at the discretion of the instructor. Not
currently offered.
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Music
Music Division of Humanities and Fine Arts
Jonathan McCollum, Chair
Thomas Anthony
Matthew Brower
Jean-Bernard Cerin
Davy DeArmond
J. Ernest Green
Lori Kesner
John Leupold (on leave, fall 2017)
Kimberly McCollum
Matt Palmer
Woobin Park
Josh Perry-Parrish
Eric Plewinski
James Rester
Heidi Schultz
Daniel Shomper
Kenneth Schweitzer
Keith Wharton
Carolene Winter
Music transcends time and geographic boundaries. The study of music, as a diverse human
cultural expression, includes not only the analysis of the music itself, but importantly, the very
processes that shape the uses and functions of music in society, such as the construction of
historical memory, the role of music in human migrations, kinesics (bodily movement) as well as
other socio-cultural factors such as the role of music in shaping identity, its use in ritual and
belief systems, as a tool for political activism, and as a creative artistic expression. In this spirit,
the Department of Music recognizes and celebrates the diversity of musical experiences––from
performance and education to music business and production.
As a model for true liberal arts learning, the Department of Music’s educational goals are guided
by an interdisciplinary approach to teaching music. In the medieval university, music, arithmetic,
geometry, and astronomy together formed the ​quadrivium​, the upper division of the seven
liberal arts. In addition, music held an important position in the philosophy and theology of the
age. The music department at Washington College is committed to assisting both students who
expect to study music in preparation for a professional career, as well as those who wish to
pursue music as an interest or avocation. Our BA degree program is flexible and divided into
specific advisory tracks that include performance (vocal and instrumental), music education,
music history and criticism, world music and ethnomusicology, theory and composition, and the
traditional liberal arts. The course offerings provide solid preparation for a lifelong engagement
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with music.
All students pursuing the study of music in a liberal arts setting, regardless of intended major or
future career, are given opportunities to explore music and to develop their individual musical
talents through a selection of classroom experiences, private lessons, and ensemble offerings.
MAJOR REQUIREMENTS
The music major at Washington College requires 58 credits (14.5 courses which includes a 4
credit Senior Capstone Experience).
Music Theory (16 credits)
●
MUS 131, 132, 231, 232. Music Theory I, II, III, IV
Music History (8 credits)
Two courses selected from the following History of Western Music sequence:
●
MUS 203. Ancient to Baroque
●
MUS 204. Classical to Romantic
●
MUS 205. Music Since 1900
World Music Elective (4 credits)
One course selected from the following:
●
MUS 104. Introduction to World Music & Ethnomusicology
●
MUS 313. Music of Latin America
●
MUS 314. Music of Asia
●
MUS 327. Music, Ritual, & Early Christianity
●
MUS 406. Theory and Method in Ethnomusicology
Music Electives (8 credits)
●
Any two four-credit courses in music (except MUS 100)
MUS 400: Music Practicum (0 credits); must be enrolled every semester while a declared
major
Performance Requirements (18 credits)
Performance Requirements for students of Brass, Woodwind, Percussion, Strings, and
Voice
●
Four semesters of two-credit (400-level) applied music in their declared area (8 credits)
●
Two semesters of two-credit (400-level) applied or class piano, or by passing a piano
proficiency exam (4 credits)
●
Performance ensemble participation (6 credits):
●
Brass, Woodwind, and Percussion​ ​students must acquire at least four credits in
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Music
MUS 277 Symphonic Band. The remaining two credits may come from any other
ensemble offered by the Department of Music.
●
String students must acquire at least four credits from MUS 291 String Orchestra.
The remaining two credits may come from any other ensemble offered by the
Department of Music.
●
Voice students must acquire at least two credits from MUS 283 College Chorus.
The remaining two credits may come from any other ensemble offered by the
Department of Music.
Performance Requirements for students of Guitar and Composition
●
Four semesters of two-credit (400-level) applied music in their declared area (8 credits)
●
Two semesters of two-credit (400-level) applied or class piano, or by passing a piano
proficiency exam (4 credits)
●
Six additional credits of additional applied music or ensemble participation, of which at
least four credits must be in a large ensemble (MUS 277 Symphonic Band, MUS 281 Jazz
Ensemble, MUS 283 College Chorus, or MUS 291 String Orchestra) (6 credits)
Performance Requirements for students of Piano
●
Four semesters of two-credit (400-level) applied music in applied piano (8 credits)
●
Ten additional credits of additional applied music or ensemble participation, of which at
least four credits must be in a large ensemble (MUS 277 Symphonic Band, MUS 281 Jazz
Ensemble, MUS 283 College Chorus, or MUS 291 String Orchestra) (10 credits)
Other Expectations
●
Music majors should regularly enroll in MUS 400 Performance Practicum every semester
they are a declared major. This course provides experiential learning for majors and minors
through participation in music department events. By enrolling in this course, students commit to
completing all required activities during the indicated semester. Course requirements will be
clearly outlined by the instructor(s) at the beginning of the semester. These requirements will
typically include: attendance at concerts, attendance at department-sponsored
lectures/masterclasses, and attending general information meetings. This is a zero-credit course
and is graded pass/fail. Majors must enroll in and pass the course four times; minors must enroll
and pass twice.
●
If a music major intends to pursue graduate work in music, the department strongly
recommends studying two years of German or French, in that order of preference.
SENIOR CAPSTONE EXPERIENCE (4 credits)
The Senior Capstone Experience in music may be fulfilled by writing an extensive research
paper or an extended composition; by presenting a research paper in conjunction with a lecture
recital; by performing an hour-long solo recital; or by combining a half recital with a research
paper. Students may pursue an alternate Senior Capstone Experience project with the approval
of the department chair. Students who double major are encouraged to explore a project that
satisfies both majors. The SCE will be accorded Pass, Fail, or Honors, and, upon successfully
completing it, the student will receive four credits.
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MUSIC MINOR REQUIREMENTS
For the music minor, students are required to take MUS 131, 132, and twenty additional credits
selected in music, including history, ethnomusicology, theory, applied music, and ensembles. In
addition, minors must attend and participate in department-designated performances and
events.
ETHNOMUSICOLOGY MINOR
Using music as an entry into a variety of cultures, social classes, and populations, the
ethnomusicology minor offers a unique opportunity for students interested in both music and
anthropology. Ethnomusicologists take a global, interdisciplinary approach to the study of music
and seek to understand music as a social practice, viewing music as a human activity that is
shaped by its cultural context. Ethnomusicologists often engage in ethnographic fieldwork, by
participating in and observing the music being studied, and frequently gain facility (or expertise)
in another music tradition as a performer or theorist. Ethnomusicologists also conduct historical
research utilizing the methods of historiography, manuscript analysis, archaeomusicology, and
archival/museum research. Students who study ethnomusicology have a global outlook, are
critical thinkers, and are better able to appreciate the cultural and aesthetic diversity of the world
and communicate in ways that are ethically sensitive.
The minor in ethnomusicology is 23 credits and is open to students in all subject areas,
including music. To ensure that music students take this opportunity to expand their knowledge
in a supplemental area, music majors who minor in ethnomusicology will have to observe the
following guidelines: (1) they may only double count 2 courses between the MUS major and the
Ethnomusicology minor and (2) at least 2 of the courses used to satisfy the minor must be
offered by the Anthropology department. Students will not be permitted to minor in both music
and ethnomusicology simultaneously. For more information, see the catalog entry
ETHNOMUSICOLOGY.
DISTRIBUTION REQUIREMENT
To fulfill the Quantitative component of the Natural Sciences and Quantitative distribution
requirement, students may complete two consecutive courses in the music theory sequence
(MUS 131, 132, 231, 232). If the student chooses to take two Natural Science courses, then any
one course in music theory (MUS 131, 132, 231, 232) may be used to satisfy the Quantitative
component.
To fulfill the Humanities and Fine Arts distribution requirement with two Fine Arts courses and
one Humanities course, students may complete eight credits of Music courses (except MUS
131, 132, 231 or 232). This includes any combination of applied music (private instruction) and
musical ensembles. To fulfill the Humanities and Fine Arts distribution requirement with one
Fine Arts course, students may complete any four credits of Music courses (except MUS 131,
132, 231 or 232) along with two Humanities courses.
Applied Music
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Instruction in applied music solves technical problems, develops knowledge of the literature,
and teaches performance techniques. 200-level applied music courses are one-credit and are
open to all students. Each course consists of a weekly 30-minute individual lesson. One hour of
daily practice is expected. For non-majors, there is an additional fee of $360 for each 200-level
applied music course. The fee is waived for music majors.
251. Voice
253. Piano
255. Woodwinds
257. Guitar/Lute
259. Brass
261. Strings
263. Percussion/Drums
265. Composition
400-level applied music courses are intended for advanced students, and may require auditions.
They are 2 credits and are open to all qualified students. Each course consists of a weekly
60-minute individual lesson. One to two hours of daily practice per hour lesson is expected. For
non-majors, there is an additional fee of $720 for each 400-level applied music course. The fee
is waived for music majors.
451. Advanced Voice
453. Advanced Piano
455. Advanced Woodwinds
457. Advanced Guitar/Lute
459. Advanced Brass
461. Advanced Strings
463. Advanced Percussion/Drums
465. Advanced Composition
Music Ensembles
Music ensembles are one credit. Although students may register directly for music ensemble
courses, their enrollment in the course may be subject to an audition. Students who do not
successfully audition for an ensemble will be dropped from the course by the instructor or by the
department chair for music, who will communicate an enrollment list to the Registrar’s Office
once auditions for the ensemble are complete.​ ​Auditions sometimes take place beyond the
Drop/Add deadline for a semester. Additionally, spaces in these courses are not always
guaranteed. Therefore, full-time students are encouraged to plan their course load in such a
way that they will not drop below full-time status if they do not succeed in their audition.
277. Symphonic Band
The Symphonic Band studies and performs concert band and wind ensemble music from
various musical periods. Membership is open to qualified students.
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278. Steel Pan Ensemble
The Steel Pan Ensemble (Steel Revolution) offers students an opportunity to explore the
Trinidadian steel band tradition, as well as classical and popular arrangements and
transcriptions. Students learn to perform on steel band instruments and study the social,
historical, and cultural context of the ensemble. Readings, recordings, and video viewings
supplement in-class instruction. The ensemble will present public performances. ​Prerequisite:
Permission of the instructor.
279. Japanese Music Ensemble
By the Edo period (1603-1868), three instruments had emerged from various directions to
become popular among the Japanese people. The ​koto​, a 13-string zither, the ​shamisen​, a
3-string banjo-like instrument, and the ​shakuhachi​, a Zen Buddhist bamboo flute. In this new
ensemble, students are introduced to these instruments, have the opportunity to research, write
about, and learn how to perform on an instrument of the student’s choice. Students also learn
the unique notation systems of each instrument, as well as gain a deep understanding of
Japanese traditional arts in relation to the social, ideological, and cultural development of
Japanese traditional aesthetics.
281. Jazz Ensemble
The Jazz Ensemble presents programs each semester and plays at various College functions
throughout the year. Membership is open to qualified students.
283. College Chorus
The College Chorus performs music from all principal style periods. Membership is open to all
students.
285. Early Music Consort
The Early Music Consort is an instrumental ensemble that performs music from the Middle
Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque eras on period instruments. Membership is open to qualified
students.
291. String Orchestra
The String Orchestra studies and performs orchestral music from various musical periods.
Membership is open to qualified students.
295. Afro-Cuban Ensemble
The Afro-Cuban Ensemble focuses primarily on the Cuban drum and song traditions associated
with rumba and Santeria. Musical literacy is not a requirement; instead, rhythms and melodies
will be transmitted via the oral traditions that are prevalent in Cuba. ​Prerequisite: Permission of
the instructor.
475. Jazz Combo
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The Jazz Combo allows advanced jazz students to perform various styles of jazz literature,
including standards, original compositions and arrangements. Ample opportunity is given for
improvisation. The Combo presents programs each semester and performs at various College
functions throughout the year. The ensemble is open to students through auditions, which take
place at the beginning of each semester. ​Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.
479. Chamber Singers
Chamber Singers perform music from all principal periods and performs both on and off
campus. The ensemble is open to students through auditions, which take place at the beginning
of each semester. ​Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.
487. Chamber Ensembles
Various woodwind, brass, and string ensembles (duets, trios, quartets, quintets) perform in
recitals throughout the year. The ensembles are open to students through auditions, which take
place at the beginning of each semester. ​Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.
Course Descriptions
Music History/Literature, World Music and Ethnomusicology, and Music Theory
100. Introduction to Music
An introduction to music, including the study of notation, the basic elements of music theory,
terminology, instrumentation, form, and the basic style periods. Representative works will be
examined, and the aesthetics of music will be considered. Intended for students with little or no
background in music.
104. Introduction to World Music and Ethnomusicology
An introduction to music of the world, including popular, folk, religious and classical traditions.
Explores the way ethnomusicologists organize and analyze knowledge about the world, while
investigating the ways music acquires meaning in performances that are socially, historically,
and culturally situated.
106. Rock, Pop and American Culture
An examination of popular music in America from the 1830s through the modern day. With a
particular emphasis being placed on the 1950s and 1960s, students will develop an
understanding of the cultural, political, and economic forces of these eras and will examine how
popular music history intersects with all aspects of American history and culture. This course
also examines several important threads in popular music history, including the ever-present,
but ever changing, role of race relations, the impact of evolving technologies, and the history of
the music industry. In addition to reading the assigned textbook, students are also asked to
watch/listen to important archival performances, televised interviews with notable musicians,
radio interviews with scholars of popular culture, and other relevant primary sources.
131. Music Theory I
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The basic goal in music theory courses is to focus on the growth and development in the areas
of comprehension, skills, and creativity. The academic approach will be to study and apply
principles of melodic, harmonic, contrapuntal and formal structures, which are basic to musical
composition and essential to the serious musician. The lecture portion of this course will focus
on the elements of diatonic harmony through part-writing, formal analysis, and composition.
The ear-training portion will focus on the development of intervals, triads, rhythmic
study/dictation, melodic dictation, and sight-singing. Recommended for participants in
performance groups.
132. Music Theory II
As a continuation of MUS 131, Music Theory II will continue the development of music
comprehension through theory lectures/exercises and aural skills training. The lecture portion of
this course will focus on part writing, the study of diatonic harmony, and formal analysis. The
ear-training portion of this course will focus on the continuation and development of intervals,
triads, seventh chords, melodic dictation, harmonic dictation, rhythmic dictation, as well as
sight-singing and rhythmic studies. Recommended for participants in performance groups.
Prerequisite: MUS 131 (Students who have a strong background in theory may take an
examination to receive advanced standing and exemption from this prerequisite).
135. Class Piano I
Class Piano I introduces the art of piano playing through establishing fundamentals in proper
piano technique and facility. Simplified classical and popular literature will be taught in
conjunction with fundamental music theory, technique, rhythmic exercises, and sight-reading. It
is a prerequisite course for those students wishing to take applied music piano lessons, but
have no prior experience with the piano instrument.
136. Class Guitar I
Class Guitar I offers group instruction in the fundamental principles of playing the guitar.
Students will be introduced to a variety of styles and techniques for the guitar, and will learn to
read standard notation and tablature. Course goals are to develop and improve technical skills
and musicality, while gaining a deeper understanding of music theory, fretboard harmony, and
performance practice of various stylistic periods and musical genres. No prior experience is
required.
203. History of Western Music: Ancient to Baroque
An examination of music in Western culture from its roots in ancient Greece to 1750. This
course covers the Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque periods of music history.
Areas of focus include the transformation of musical language and form, notions of musical
creativity, music and politics, and the sociology of listening. These themes will be explored
through close readings and analyses of significant musical, literary and philosophical works.
This course requires that students have an advanced knowledge in reading and writing music
notation.
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204. History of Western Music: Classical to Romantic
An examination of music in Western culture from the end of the Classical to the Romantic
periods. Areas of focus include the transformation of musical language and form, notions of
musical creativity, music and politics, and the sociology of listening. These themes will be
explored through close readings and analyses of significant musical, literary and philosophical
works. This course requires that students have an advanced knowledge in reading and writing
music notation.
205. History of Western Music: Music since 1900
An examination of music in Western culture since 1900. This course covers Impressionism,
Modalism, Expressionism, Free Atonality, Modernism, Neoclassicism, Nationalism, Minimalism,
and Postmodernism. Areas of focus include the transformation of musical language and form,
notions of musical creativity, music and politics, and the sociology of listening. These themes
will be explored through close readings and analyses of significant musical, literary and
philosophical works. This course requires that students have an advanced knowledge in reading
and writing music notation.
206. Jazz History
Jazz is both a uniquely American style as well as an international collaboration. Beginning with
an examination of the roots and antecedents of jazz in the mid 1800s, students will learn the
artistic contributions of many notable instrumentalists, vocalists, bandleaders and arrangers.
Particular emphasis will be placed upon understanding the musical and social forces that
influenced each artist, and the role of each artist in encouraging innovation and development
within this art form. Prior musical experience is not required.
231. Music Theory III
Upon completion of Music Theory I and II, students will have gained a basic knowledge of
diatonic harmony. Music Theory III will delve into more advanced topics address diatonic and
chromatic harmonies, as well as large-scale form. The lecture portion of this course will focus on
more advanced work in diatonic harmony, including applied chords, modulation, form, modal
mixture, and other chromatic harmony. This will be accomplished through part-writing, formal
analysis, and composition. The ear-training portion will focus on the continued development of
intervals, triads, rhythmic study/dictation, melodic dictation, harmonic dictation, and
sight-singing. ​Prerequisite: Music 132.
232. Music Theory IV
As the final course in the theory sequence, MUS 232 addresses the advanced theoretical
concepts from more recent music. The lecture portion of this course will focus on more
advanced work in diatonic harmony, specifically, that of the late-Romantic period. A portion of
the course will also be dedicated to post-tonal music. This will be accomplished through
part-writing, formal analysis, and composition. The ear-training portion will focus on the
continued development of intervals, triads, rhythmic study/dictation, melodic dictation, harmonic
dictation, and sight-singing. ​Prerequisite: Music 231.
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233. Conducting
A study of basic conducting skills, score reading, rehearsal techniques, and the elements of
arranging. ​Prerequisite: Music 132 or permission of the instructor.
234. Creative Process
In this course students learn how to develop an idea over time. Students are expected to focus
on one concept and develop it more fully each week as the semester progresses. All media and
art forms are acceptable, including the written word, video, performance, painting, photography,
sound, construction, etc. Though centered upon the student and their ability to be objective
about their work, it also demands they help others to see the values, problems, and potentials in
their work. Thoughtful class participation in the form of discussion during weekly presentations
and critiques is expected from each student. 3 contact hours per week. Prerequisite: One
course of Studio Art, Music,Theatre, or Creative Writing or permission of the instructor.
235. Class Piano II
Class Piano II teaches the art of piano playing through establishing fundamentals in proper
piano technique and facility. This course is a continuation of Class Piano I and is designed for
students who already possess basic piano skills. Intermediate level classical and popular
literature will be taught in conjunction with fundamental music theory, technique, rhythmic
exercises, and sight-reading. Prerequisite: MUS 135, or by instructor permission.
236. Class Guitar II
Class Guitar II offers Intermediate/advanced group guitar instruction. In a group setting,
students will learn music from various stylistic periods and genres, and will continue to develop
technical and musical skills on the guitar. Prerequisite: MUS 136, or by instructor permission.
303. American Music
A study of music in the colonies and the United States from the various editions of the Bay
Psalm Book to the music of the present.
304. Opera
Opera from the Florentine era to the present. The elements that comprise opera are studied,
and representative works are analyzed. Students attend performances at the Washington
National Opera as part of their study in the course.
313. Music of Latin America
Students will be introduced to ethnomusicological theory and method, while focusing on the
musical practices of selected regions in South and Central America and the Caribbean. Folk,
ritual, popular, and art/classical traditions will be examined in the contexts of cultural issues
such as belief systems, politics, aesthetics, and identity.
314. Music of Asia
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Using selected musical areas from Asia, this course introduces and reinforces the basic
concepts of ethnomusicology and trains students to develop listening and musicological
analytical skills. We will examine folk, ritual, popular, and art/classical traditions in the contexts
of cultural issues, such as belief systems, politics, aesthetics, and identity.
327. Music, Ritual and Early Christianity
Using music, ritual, and liturgical analyses, this course investigates the historical, social,
political, and intellectual circumstances that led to the eventual success of Christianity as a
major religion of the world. Examples are drawn from Eastern Orthodoxy and Catholicism.
328. The Symphony in Context: History and Development
This course traces the history and development of the symphony from its roots in music of the
late Baroque, its development in the Classical and Romantic periods, and its interpretations
during the twentieth century. Using symphonic literature and readings as sources for analyses,
this course examines both the musical innovations and social contexts of key composers and
style periods. This course requires that students have an advanced knowledge in reading and
writing music notation. ​Prerequisite: MUS 132 or permission of instructor.
330. Counterpoint
Study of two great periods of contrapuntal music: sixteenth-century vocal music and
eighteenth-century instrumental music. Exercises and composition in two and three voices;
analysis of contrapuntal works. ​Prerequisite: MUS 132 or permission of instructor.
331. Analytical Technique
A study of the principles of musical organization through analysis of compositions from diverse
periods in music history. ​Prerequisite: Mus 232 or permission of the instructor.
332. Music Technology
A study of a variety of technologies associated with music recording, post-production,
performance and composition. Students will become familiar with advanced software, a variety
of recording equipment, and MIDI peripherals. Potential students must first demonstrate
competency as an instrumental or vocal performer.
400. Music Practicum
This course provides experiential learning for majors and minors through participation in music
department events. By enrolling in this course, students commit to completing all required
activities during the indicated semester. Course requirements will be clearly outlined by the
instructor(s) at the beginning of the semester. These requirements will typically include:
attendance at concerts, attendance at department-sponsored lectures/masterclasses, and
attending general information meetings. This is a zero-credit course and is graded pass/fail.
Majors must enroll in and pass the course four times; minors must enroll and pass twice.
406. Theory and Method in Ethnomusicology
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This course examines the formation of the discipline of ethnomusicology through a survey of its
history, theory, and methodology. Students read and discuss the works of major scholars in the
field and examine the interdisciplinary nature of ethnomusicology, particularly its relationship
with historical musicology, anthropology, folklore, linguistics, and cultural studies. Research
projects will compliment theoretical discussions and technical activities associated with the field
such as fieldwork, ethnography, historical research, and transcription. ​Prerequisite: MUS 104 or
ANT 105 or permission of Instructor.
430. Orchestration and Arranging
A study of the fundamentals of instrumentation, orchestration, and arranging. ​Prerequisite: MUS
132 or permission of instructor.
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics
A period course in music history or an offering in some other specific area of interest, such as
conducting, composition, or independent research.
190, 290, 390, 490. Internship
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
The Senior Capstone Experience in music may be fulfilled by writing an extensive research
paper or an extended composition; by presenting a research paper in conjunction with a lecture
recital; by performing an hour-long solo recital; or by combining a half recital with a research
paper.
Courses Offered In The Washington College Abroad Programs
103. Appreciation of Music
An introduction to Western music literature through a nontechnical presentation of various
musical styles and forms. Offered in the London program only, both fall and spring semesters.
Three credits.
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Nursing
Nursing A Dual-Degree Program
Tia Murphy, Program Advisor
Jodi Olson, Director of Pre-health Professions Programs
Students may earn a bachelor’s degree from Washington College and a bachelor of science
degree with a major in nursing from the University of Maryland School of Nursing or the
University of Delaware College of Health Sciences. This dual degree program requires five
years of study. The first three years are spent at Washington College fulfilling the general
education requirements, requirements for a major, and the prerequisites for entrance into the
school of nursing. For students applying through the articulation agreements, the schools prefer
that the prerequisites courses are taken at Washington College. Because of the shortened
period of time at Washington College and the prerequisites in biology, students will usually
major in biology or psychology, although another major is possible with departmental approval.
At the University of Maryland students enter the “Traditional Baccalaureate Program,“ which
takes two years, and students opting for Delaware enter the “Accelerated Degree Nursing
Program,“ which is completed in 17 months.
Admission to a School of Nursing requires an application and successful completion of their
requirements. Students should contact the Program Advisor to learn about the requirements for
applying to these schools through the articulation agreements. Successful students admitted
through the articulation agreements have a B+ average in their science courses. Students also
have the option of applying through the School of Nursing’s regular admission process.
Applicants are reviewed on an individual basis and admission is not guaranteed.
These nursing programs recommend that students participate in a nursing internship program.
Students may speak with the 3:2 Nursing Advisor for information about internship opportunities.
Students successfully completing the first year of the nursing program will have satisfied the
requirements for a bachelor’s degree from Washington College. To be eligible for graduation
from Washington College, students must see that the Registrar at Washington College receives
their transcripts from the University of Delaware or University of Maryland by the appropriate
graduation deadline. In their first year at the nursing school students must plan to carry
sufficient credits to satisfy the graduate requirement of Washington College.
Students should refer to the Web site for each School of Nursing and contact personnel at the
nursing school to learn more about each school.
Some students elect to complete the bachelor’s degree at Washington College before applying
to nursing school. These students could enter either an accelerated BS or MS-entry nursing
program.
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Nursing
Prerequisites for the University of Maryland
BIO 111, 112. General Biology (w/lab) 8 credits
BIO 301, 424. Anatomy and Physiology (w/lab) 8 credits
BIO 203. Microbiology (w/lab) 4 credits
CHE 111. General Chemistry (w/lab) 4 credits
Nutrition 3 credits*
MAT 109 or PSY 209. Statistics 3 credits
Mathematics 3 credits (any college math course but not a computer science course)
ENG 101. English Composition and a second English course 6 credits
PSY 111. Introductory Psychology 3 credits
PSY 202. Life-span Development 3 credits
SOC 101. Introductory Sociology 3 credits
Social Sciences Electives 3 credits
Anthropology, Economics, Geography, History, Political Science, or another course in
Psychology or Sociology,
Humanities Electives 9 credits
Other courses taken from at least two different departments -- English, Philosophy, Art,
Music, Theatre, Dance, Religion, or Foreign Languages
Open Electives 7 credits
*Nutrition must be taken elsewhere.
Prerequisites for the University of Delaware
BIO 111, 112. General Biology (w/lab) 8 credits
BIO 301, 424. Anatomy and Physiology (w/lab) 8 credits
BIO 203. Microbiology (w/lab) 4 credits
Pathophysiology* 3 credits NURS 212 (Delaware)
Nutrition* 3 credits NTDT 200 (Delaware)
CHE 111, 112. General Chemistry (w/lab) 8 credits
CHE 201, 202. Organic Chemistry (w/lab) 8 credits
MAT 109 or PSY 209. Statistics 3 credits
Critical Reading, Writing, and Literature (Two literature courses) 6 credits
ENG 101. Literature and Composition 3 credits
A course in English literature 3 credits
PSY 111. General Psychology 3 credits
PSY 202. Life-Span Development 3 credits
SOC 101. Introductory Sociology 3 credits
Social Sciences Electives 3 credits (or another course in the Social Sciences)
Art 200. Introduction to History of Western Art 3 credits (Humanities Elective)
Open Electives 6 credits
*These courses will be taken in the first semester at UD.
Requirements for a major in biology or psychology from washington college in the 3:2
nursing program
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Completion of 96 credit hours before leaving Washington College
Completion of all general education requirements prior to leaving Washington College
For A Major in Biology:
BIO 111, 112. General Biology
BIO 203. Microbiology
BIO 301. Comparative Anatomy
BIO 424. Comparative Physiology
Two additional upper level biology courses (BIO 305, Genetics, is recommended)
CHE 111, 112. General Chemistry
CHE 201. Organic Chemistry
MAT 201. Differential Calculus
For A Major in Psychology:
PSY 111, 112. General Psychology
Two-semester methods sequence in statistics (BUS 215, ECN 215, MAT 109 or PSY 209),
followed by PSY 309 Research Design
Three additional psychology electives, one of which must be a lab course. The three electives
must be chosen so that one comes from each of the following areas:
General Experimental (PSY 202 required for nursing)
Biological (PSY 210, 305, 313, 317, 410)
Applied/Clinical (PSY 233, 234, 304, 320, 333, 403, 433, or Human Neuropsychology).
Advising
The strict requirements of this program make it imperative that interested students start planning
their schedules of courses early in the first year at Washington College. It is strongly
recommend that students contact the 3:2 Nursing Advisor soon after arrival on campus and that
they attend information sessions on the 3:2 Nursing Program. Students should continue to meet
with the Nursing Advisor on a semester basis.
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Pharmacy
Pharmacy A Dual-Degree (3:4) Program
Martin Connaughton, Program Advisor
Jodi Olson, Director of Pre-health Professions Programs
For students with a strong interest in a liberal arts education and a career in pharmacy,
Washington College and the University of Maryland offer the 3:4 Pharmacy Program. Through
this program, students may earn a bachelor of science degree from Washington College and a
doctor of pharmacy degree (Pharm. D.) from the University of Maryland School of Pharmacy. A
Pharm. D. is the current standard for today’s pharmacists. This dual degree program requires a
minimum of seven years of study: The first three years are spent at Washington College,
completing the Washington College general education requirements and the prerequisites for
entrance into the School of Pharmacy. After the third year at Washington College, four years of
additional study are required at the School of Pharmacy.
Consideration of the prerequisite courses for entrance into the School of Pharmacy leads to
the recommendation that students major in biology. Students in this program will receive their
B.S. degree from Washington College after successful completion of the first year of courses in
the Pharm. D. program. To be eligible for graduation from Washington College, grades from
the School of Pharmacy must be submitted to the Washington College registrar by the
appropriate deadline. Because the academic calendar at the University of Maryland generally
runs behind that of Washington College, students in the 3:4 program might not be able to
participate in graduation exercises after their first year in the Pharm. D. program.
Prerequisites To Enter The School Of Pharmacy
Natural Sciences
Biology (w/lab) 5 semesters: BIO 111, 112, 203, 301, 424
Chemistry (w/lab) 4 semesters: CHE 111, 112, 201, 202
Physics (w/lab) 2 semesters: PHY 111, 112
Mathematics 2 semesters: MAT 109, 201
Humanities and Social Sciences
English Composition 1 semester
Other humanities and social sciences 4-6 semesters
ECN 112. Microeconomics
Additional requirements of the 3:4 Pharmacy Program for completion of the BS at
Washington College
Required of All Students:
Completion of 96 credit hours before leaving Washington College
Completion of all distribution courses before leaving Washington College
Completion of the required FYS seminar course
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Pharmacy
Required for the Major in Biology:
BIO 203. Microbiology
BIO 301. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
BIO 424. Comparative Animal Physiology
Any additional upper-level biology course.
A Senior Capstone Experience is not required unless a student wishes to be eligible to graduate
with departmental honors.
Advising and Application
The numerous requirements of this program make it imperative that interested students and
their advisors lay out an appropriate schedule of courses as soon as possible! Prospective
students should contact the 3:4 Pharmacy Advisor during the freshman orientation period and
take required courses beginning with the first semester at Washington College. Each semester,
students should consult with both their regular advisors and the 3:4 Pharmacy Advisor to make
sure that they are meeting all requirements of the program.
Students can obtain an internship at a local pharmacy to get experience before applying to the
School of Pharmacy.
Admission to the University of Maryland School of Pharmacy is a separate process, and it is
highly competitive. Washington College students are not guaranteed positions in the School of
Pharmacy. Students participating in the 3:4 Pharmacy Program should submit applications to
the School of Pharmacy by February 1 of the third year at Washington College. Applicants must
have an overall GPA of 2.5; the average GPA for entering students has been 3.5 in recent
years. Applicants must also submit results of the Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT),
which should be taken in October prior to application to the School of Pharmacy. An admissions
interview and writing assessment are required as well.
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Philosophy and Religion
Philosophy and Religion Division of Humanities and Fine Arts
Matthew McCabe, Chair
Jennifer Benson
Kevin Brien
Peter Weigel
Philosophy—traditionally at the center of the liberal arts—asks some of the most difficult and
searching questions about human existence, the nature of the universe, right and wrong in
human conduct, and the basis of our social and political arrangements. In so doing, it gives the
mind the greatest possible leeway to doubt, probe, and criticize.
The courses of the Department of Philosophy and Religion have four main purposes: (1) to
acquaint the student with some of the great philosophical questions of the past and present and
with leading attempts to answer them; (2) to exhibit the connections between philosophy and
such related areas as art, business, law, literature, medicine, science, religion, and the
environment; (3) to develop the students’ capacities for clear thinking and critical analysis; and
(4) to provide the basis for reflecting on right versus wrong and good versus evil in the
present-day world. These aims are pursued in the atmosphere of diverse philosophical interests
and approaches found among the staff of the department. Typically, students also bring varied
concerns to their own explorations in philosophy and move on to careers in many diverse fields.
Academic Requirements
A ​major​ ​in philosophy​ includes ten courses in the department selected in consultation with the
major advisor. Five courses are required: PHL 100, 108, 213, 214, and either 225 or 235. (The
Department urges that PHL 213 be taken before PHL 214.) Among the five elective courses
required for the major, at least one must be a 400-level seminar. Majors are encouraged to take
PHL435 Philosophical Methods in the Fall semester of their Junior year.
Students wishing to minor in the program may elect either a philosophy minor or a religion
minor. ​Philosophy minors​ are required to take six courses: PHL 100, either 213 or 214, plus four
electives in philosophy. ​Religion minors​ are also required to take six courses: PHL 100, 111 and
112 (the Comparative Religion sequence), plus three courses in religion or courses having
significant religious content, given either within the Department or outside of it with permission.
Courses in religion may be counted among the elective courses for the philosophy major and
minor.
Distribution credit​ for the Humanities Requirement will be given for any two courses taken in the
Department with the exception of Philosophy 108. Distribution credit for the Quantitative
Requirement will be given for Philosophy 108 to those students choosing only one course in the
Quantitative area. An FYS course taught by a member of the philosophy department may, in
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Philosophy and Religion
some cases, be used instead of PHL 100 anywhere in the program, except in a departmental
distribution sequence.
Senior Capstone Experience
In addition to the ten required courses, each philosophy major must also complete the Senior
Capstone Experience (SCE) which can take the form of ​either​ a senior thesis ​or​ a set of
comprehensive exams. In either case majors will work in close association with a department
mentor; and those majors who do successfully complete the SCE will receive four credits toward
graduation.
Course Descriptions
100. Introduction to Philosophy
A study of selected systems of thought designed to acquaint the student who has no training in
philosophy with basic philosophical concepts and with the techniques and advantages of a
thoughtful and reflective approach to problems. Topics taken up vary with the individual
instructor. Offered every semester.
102. Contemporary Moral Issues
This course will introduce students to the basic ideas behind the major ethical theories in
Western Philosophy by studying their application to numerous moral issues, problems, and
controversies in our time. Possible topics for discussion and writing assignments include but are
not limited to: moral consideration of animals and the environment, respect for biodiversity,
population and consumption, pollution, climate change, responsibilities to future generations,
corporate social responsibility, workplace ethics, advertising ethics, whistleblowing, engineering
ethics, cyber ethics, the ethics of globalization, the ethics of war, euthanasia, medical
experimentation on human subjects, the physician-patient relationship, health care and social
justice, reproductive assistance technology, and eugenics.
108. Logic
A systematic overview of the rules and methods of argument. The course has three parts. The
first part examines the features of arguments one finds in everyday speech and writing. A
second part covers Classical Aristotelian methods of syllogistic reasoning. The third part
teaches the modern use of abstract symbols to represent and assess the formal structure of
proofs. This last part involves the skills of formal and quantitative reasoning. Please note that
this course can only combine with two natural science courses to fulfill Natural Science and
Quantitative Distribution. It may not combine with a second quantitative course. ​No prerequisite.
111. Introduction to Comparative Religion: Western
This course offers an introductory study of the central ideas in living Western religions. The
course concentrates on Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The readings focus on the primary
religious texts of each religion. Consideration is also given to philosophical issues common to
Western religions. ​No prerequisite.
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112. Introduction to Comparative Religion: Eastern
This course offers an introductory study of the central ideas in some major living Eastern
religions. The course focus primarily on Hinduism, Buddhism, and Zen Buddhism--but will give
some attention to Taoism and Confucianism as time permits. Our readings will be in primary
classical and contemporary texts. This course introduces students to the spiritual perspectives
of other cultures, and to the philosophical issues at play in them, with a view toward developing
better intercultural understanding. ​No prerequisite.
210. Introduction to Political Philosophy
Political philosophy applies the tools of philosophical analysis to the challenges of politics and
social life. Most fundamentally, political philosophy seeks to answer the question, how should
we organize our society? The course content may focus on such themes as rights, justice,
equality, freedom, power, oppression, exploitation, multiculturalism, obligations of the State, and
the duties of citizenship. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100, or permission of the instructor.
213. History of Philosophy: Ancient
A study of the historical development of Western philosophical thought in ancient times. The
main emphasis of this course will be on the Pre-Socratics, and on works of Plato and Aristotle.
Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
214. History of Philosophy: Modern
A study of the development of Western philosophic thought from the early Modern period
through Kant. The emphasis of this course will be on the works of major figures such as
Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
215. Medieval Philosophy
This course examines medieval philosophical thought and argumentation from its origins in the
Greco-Roman world through the early 15th century. Major figures from Judaism, Christianity,
and Islam usually include: Philo, Augustine, Anselm, Avicenna, Averroes, Maimonides, Aquinas,
Scotus, Ockham, and others. Topics include the problem of universals, faith and reason, God,
ethics, political theory, and the rise of science. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
225. Ethical Theory
An examination of some of the major ethical theories in Western philosophy. Applications of
these theories to concrete ethical problems will be considered. Special attention will be given to
Consequentialist, Deontological, and Virtue theories. Readings will be drawn from classical and
contemporary authors. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
226. Global Ethics
As we become a global community, the need for secular ethical discourse becomes increasingly
important. This course will explore how international culture, policy, and standards impact
ethical practices around the world. Current events, anecdotes, and personal experiences will be
brought together to highlight ethical theory in action in today’s global environment. General
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topics include: the Absolutism-Relativism debate, the Ethics of Globalization, Global Business
Ethics, Global Bioethics with emphasis on feminist issues, Global Environmental Ethics, and the
Ethics of Warfare and Terrorism. ​Prerequisite: PHL 100, or permission of the instructor.
235. Foundations of Morality
An examination of the moral theories of some major philosophical positions from traditions East
and West: for example, Aristotle and Kant from the Western philosophical tradition, as well as
Buddha and Confucius from the Eastern tradition. The aim is to systematically explore the
understanding of what these positions interpret the best or most moral life to be, and of what
varying views of human nature are correlated with them. Moreover, this exploration will face the
question of how one decides what is the best or most moral life, and also other central
questions concerning the relationship of ethics to religion and science. ​No prerequisite.
240. Philosophy of Humor
This course will explore the questions: What is meant by claiming that something is humorous or
funny and why? What is the relationship between humor, reason, and the emotions? How might
one understand the ethics of laughter and humor? Insights from scholars including Plato,
Aristotle, Hobbes, Kant, Schopenhauer, Spencer, Freud, Bergson and contemporary authors
will be discussed in a seminar-style class setting. The application of theory to everyday life will
be examined and discussed through the presentation of non-philosophical examples of humor
and jokes in both print and audio-visual mediums. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
245. Metaphysics and Epistemology
This course examines classic debates in metaphysics and the nature of knowledge. Close
attention is given the study of philosophical argumentation and methods. Topics usually include:
knowledge, mind, reality, universals, identity, time, God, and freedom. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy
100.
300. Business Ethics
A seminar focusing on major ethical theories and principles as they apply to individuals,
companies, corporations, and consumers in the business world. Typical issues treated are:
corporate social responsibility, government versus self-regulation, employee and consumer
safety, whistle-blowing, deceptive advertising, conflicts in accounting, the environment, insider
trading, issues in international business, etc. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
303. Environmental Ethics
A study of the nature and history of the environmental movement and our ethical responsibilities
with regard to such current issues as the preservation of species, animal rights, the value of
ecosystems, ozone depletion, and “deep” or radical ecology. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
305. Philosophy of Religion
An examination of major philosophical discussions in the Western religious tradition. Among the
topics dealt with are: the existence of God, faith and reason, religious language and experience,
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evil and suffering, science and religion, the afterlife, and the challenges of modernity to religious
belief. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
310. Philosophy of Science
This course will begin with an exploration of the nature of scientific revolutions, along with an
examination of some case studies of such revolutions from the history of science. We will go on
to examine some current theories concerning the evolution of microbial life, as well as issues
associated with the Darwinian understanding of biological evolution. Our primary concern will be
the philosophical presuppositions and implications of such theories. On the methodological side,
we will treat such issues as induction, falsification, the hypothetical-deductive method, scientific
facts, experimentation, etc. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100 or permission of the instructor.
325. Biomedical Ethics
Biomedical ethics explores the ethical problems that arise in the context of modern medical care
and biomedical research. As such, biomedical ethics involves the lives and decisions of
patients, family members, doctors, nurses, and medical researchers. The course content
focuses on the application of ethical theories to problems such as the rights of patients, duties of
physicians, the distribution of resources, conflicts of interest in the managed care system,
assisted suicide, euthanasia, end of life decisions, abortion, nature of disease, the use of human
subjects in research, and the use of genetic and reproductive technologies. ​Prerequisite:
Philosophy 100, or permission of the instructor.
335. Philosophy of Law
The course explores the philosophical issues surrounding a number of areas of the law
including, the nature of law, constitutional interpretation, legal responsibility, punishment, capital
punishment, and legal limits to personal liberty. Readings will be drawn from classical and
contemporary authors. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
410. Existentialism
A survey of the major themes and thinkers identified with existentialistic philosophy in recent
times. Major emphasis will be on such thinkers as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Jaspers, Sartre,
Tillich, and Camus. ​Prerequisite: Two courses in philosophy or permission of the instructor.
414. Philosophy of Marxism
This course begins with a focus on Hegel’s philosophy of history and goes on to explore various
dimensions of Marx’s own thought, such as: his philosophy of history, his conception of human
nature, his analysis of the structural dynamics of the capitalist system, alienation, “positive
freedom,” and the nature of dialectical reasoning. The course will also critically examine the
dominant interpretations of Marx. ​Prerequisite: Two courses in philosophy or permission of the
instructor.
415. Seminar: Marx, Nietzsche, Buddha
This course will focus on three important and major philosophical positions that share a
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common concern about human suffering, but that have differing, although often complementary,
ways of attempting to explain the generation of such suffering, and of addressing and alleviating
it. We will work to understand, and to critically assess, each of these philosophical perspectives
taken separately; but we will also work to bring out the philosophical similarities, dissimilarities,
and interconnections that obtain among them. ​Prerequisite: Two courses in philosophy or
permission of instructor.
416. Philosophy of Buddhism
In this course we will range over the main schools of Buddhism. We will read and discuss both
primary and secondary Buddhist texts associated with the Theravada Buddhist tradition, the Zen
Buddhist tradition, and the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. The format for this course is class
discussion. Regular response papers and a longer paper on each of the three major currents in
Buddhism will be required.
418. Seminar in Epistemology and Metaphysics
A detailed examination of one or several systematic approaches to the problems of
epistemology and metaphysics. The specific subject matter will vary from year to year and will
focus on topics such as Plato’s theory of ideas, Kant’s ​Critique of Pure Reason​, or the
contemporary theories of knowledge. ​Prerequisite: Two courses in philosophy or permission of
the instructor.
420. Analytic Philosophy
A study of the development of analytic philosophy and its characteristic methods. Major figures
include C. S. Peirce, Frege, Russell, Moore, Wittgenstein, Carnap, Quine, and select
contemporary thinkers. ​Prerequisite: Two courses in philosophy.
425. Seminar in Ethics
A seminar on one major moral philosopher, movement, or issue in ethics, such as Kant, Rawls,
Utilitarianism, Natural Law, the Nature of Rights, etc. ​Prerequisite: Two courses in philosophy or
permission of the instructor.
435. Philosophical Methods
The course studies the nature, aims, and methods of philosophical inquiry. Readings explore
questions in meta-philosophy, what philosophy is and how it is done. Study of the technical
practices of philosophizing and philosophical writing prepares students for advanced work in the
major. ​Prerequisite: Two courses in philosophy.
​ 94, 294, 394. Special Topics
1
A topic of special interest in philosophy or religion offered at the intermediate level. ​Prerequisite:
Philosophy 100 or permission of the instructor.
494. Special Topics
A detailed consideration of selected problems and areas of philosophical interest. The course
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may be centered on a particular topic (e.g., Philosophy of Mind or Philosophy of Buddhism), on
a certain historical period (e.g., Pre-Socratic Philosophy or Nineteenth-Century Philosophy), or
on the thought of a major philosopher such as Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Hume, Kant, Marx,
Nietzsche, Heidegger, Krishnamurti, or Nishida. ​Prerequisite: Two courses in philosophy, or
permission of the instructor.
190, 290, 390, 490. Internship
195, 295, 395, 494. On-campus Research
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
All philosophy majors must complete the Senior Capstone Experience. This will take the form of
a senior thesis. Students will be given four credits for successful completion of their Senior
Capstone Experience. Each senior philosophy major will work in close association with a faculty
mentor from the Department of Philosophy and Religion. The association between student and
mentor will be an intensive one spanning the whole course of development of the thesis—from
the initial formulation of a thesis proposal in the spring of the student’s junior year to the final
completion of the thesis by the conclusion of the senior year.
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Physical Education
Physical Education Jonathan Jenkins (Chair)
Alexa Fry
Sandra Griffiths
Matthew Harris
John Kiser
Kimberly Lessard
Matthew Reynolds
Ben Arminger
Max Kurland
Roy Dunshee
Heidi Yetman
The courses in the Physical Education program are designed to develop capacities, knowledge,
and carry-over skills in health and movement essential to daily life based on the needs,
interests, and abilities of the students with an emphasis on scientific bases of exercise and
wellness and to develop an appreciation for physical activity as a foundation for a healthy life.
The variety of Physical Education courses provide the pertinent information so the student can
guide himself/herself in this direction to develop sufficient skill and knowledge in several
activities in which the individual may participate throughout life in order to maintain fitness and
health, as well as to constructively and enjoyably utilize leisure time. The purpose of the
program is to expose the student to numerous activities and to seek individual improvement in
those he/she finds most suited to his/her specific goals and capabilities.
All full-time students may take theory and activity classes in Physical Education for academic
credit. Students may receive a maximum of four credits -- two of which must be Basics of
Strength and Conditioning. Theory courses and combined theory/activity courses (such as
Lifeguarding/CPR and Scuba) yield two credits; activity courses are one half semester in length
and yield one credit (see below). Classes may be taken for grades or on a pass/fail basis.
While students may receive only the maximum of four credits in physical education, they may
audit any class any number of times.
In order to receive the maximum total allowed of four credits in Physical Education, students
must take one section of the CORE COURSE Basics of Strength and Conditioning (two
credits)—and any other two credits in Physical Education. Without Basics of Strength and
Conditioning, students may receive a maximum of two credits in Physical Education.
Theory class grades are judged on the basis of normal academic criteria, including reading
assignments, composition, and class participation and testing. Activity credit is assessed on the
basis of skill acquisition; skill analysis; knowledge of strategies, rules, techniques and required
reading and testing.
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While there is no major or a requirement in physical education, students are encouraged to take
a variety of credit-bearing classes. The program offers activities in sports, fitness, dance, and
aquatics, which serve to improve health and physical fitness, develop recreational and
leisure-time skills, and facilitate functional and aesthetic body movement. The classes also
impart knowledge of health and fitness, skills performance, game strategies and rules, sport
coaching, nutrition, and sport history as well as offering American Red Cross certification in
Advanced Emergency Care, CPR/Lifeguarding Red Cross certification, NASM Personal Trainer
certification and PADI certification in Scuba.
Students are also encouraged to take advantage of instructional and recreational opportunities
available through the use of the Johnson Fitness Center, Cain Gymnasium, Casey Swim
Center, and the waterfront facilities. Recreation and dance programs, club sports, and 16
intercollegiate sports are offered as extracurricular activities. Contact the Physical Education
Department, Athletic Office, or Rec Sports Office for details.
COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
Theory and Activity Classes in Physical Education
002. Bodyweight and Core Conditioning ​(one credit). The course is designed for conditioning
of joints and muscle groups, strength, flexibility, coordination, and agility using one’s own body
weight. As well as garnering an understanding of the body’s core musculature
004. Tennis​ (one credit). The course focuses on instruction in the sport’s fundamental strokes:
forehand, backhand, volley, and serve. The course also includes an explanation of the rules, as
well as basic singles and doubles strategy.
005. Golf​ (one credit). The course offers instruction and practice in golf skills—chipping,
pitching, full swing, putting, the rules of golf and golf etiquette.
006. American Red Cross Lifeguarding/CPR ​(two credits). The course stresses physical
fitness and strength and endurance combined with the skills and techniques needed to be a
certified lifeguard. Participants will take standard ARC test, and cards will be issued for
successful completion of the course.
013. Sailing ​(one credit). The course offers instruction and practice in small sailboats on the
Chester River. Students must be able to swim to take this course.
017. Basics of Strength Training and Conditioning and Human Movement ​(two credits).
The course offers instruction, practice and lecture based learning on a variety of fitness
concepts. Students will grasp the basic concepts of human movement, planes of motions,
weight lifting techniques, strength and conditioning variables, cardiovascular exercise, flexibility,
and mobility. Students will receive an extended orientation of the college’s fitness center,
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equipment, and how to appropriately write and follow an exercise program based on their over
arching fitness goals. Students will spend 150 minutes per week for a full semester. Students
needing accommodations will be asked to complete the theory portion of the class to its full
extent. Based on the student’s ability level, the practical application will be graded based on
observation and discussion. Students will also learn alternatives methods of exercise based on
their accommodation.
018. Horseback Riding ​(one credit). The course offers an introduction to riding in both English
and Western disciplines. The course also includes basic skills and horsemanship, tack and
application, equine anatomy, health and management as well as Equestrian techniques, theory
and practice. The course provides an introduction to Washington College Equestrian Team
opportunities. Additional fee of $650.00 is required.
019. Pilates Mat Class​ (one credit). The Pilates Method helps to lengthen and strengthen
muscles while building a uniformly developed body, focusing on core strength—abs, gluteus,
and inner thighs. It is the perfect activity to tone and elongate muscles, rehabilitate from an
injury, or train for an athletic event. Class will help with posture, alignment, breathing, control,
balance, flow, and strength.
023. Introduction to Rowing​ (one credit)
The course offers instruction and practice in Rowing & Sculling on the Chester River. Students
will be taught proper technique through use of Washington College’s Rowing Equipment &
Rowing Shells. Students will utilize both the Washington College’s boathouse water tanks,
classroom for video analysis, and the Chester River for all instruction. A swim-test is required to
take this course. Students will meet 100 minutes per week for the 7 ½ week course.
025. Yoga ​(one credit). Hatha yoga exercises involve stretching, relaxation, and deep breathing
to increase the circulation of the blood and the powers of concentration. Faithful practice can
bring relief from tension and fatigue and will help develop poise, flexibility, balance, energy,
vitality, and a firm figure. Course includes postures (asanas), breathing (pranayama) and yogic
theories of movement and meditation.
026. Racquet Sports ​(one credit). The course offers instruction and practice in fundamentals of
badminton, racquetball, platform tennis, and squash. The Course also includes an explanation
of the rules and etiquette of each sport.
030. SCUBA ​(two credits). This PADI open water certified diver course would provide students
with the knowledge and skills to visit the underwater world safely. Instruction includes two hours
of classroom and two hours of pool time for six weeks plus a weekend open water dive.
Advanced Scuba also offered. Additional fee of $200.00 is required for SCUBA, additional fee of
$175.00 is required for Advanced SCUBA.
031. Cycling ​(one credit). The course offers biking for aerobic exercise as well as the care,
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repair, and maintenance of bikes and techniques for safe riding.
034. Advanced SCUBA​ (zero credits; audit only). See description above.
035. Basics of Swimming​ (one credit). The course offers basic instruction on the concepts of
Swimming. The Understanding and comprehension of the basic form and strokes (Breaststroke,
Butterfly, Backstroke, Sidestroke, Freestyle) Students will learn basic safety maneuvers of
treading, floating, etc… No prior experience in swimming is necessary. This class accepts
varying degrees of experience. Class participates will also receive their swim test for
Washington College water related activities during the course.
047. Personal Training Certification​ (two credits) Washington College Physical Education
Department has partnered with the National Academy of Sports Medicine to offer a certified
personal trainer course. In this two credit seven week course students will follow an accelerated
learning of the human movement system, fitness assessment, integrated training and theory
application, design of fitness programs, nutrition and exercise, lifestyle coaching and
professional development. Taking the course does not guarantee a personal trainer certification.
Students must schedule and pass the NASMCPT exam at a certified testing center outside of
Washington College. An additional fee of $475.00 is required for this course which covers the
textbook, study guide, online content, practice exams and the NASM-CPT exam which must be
taken at a certified testing center.
051. Methods of Coaching​ (two credits). The course is directed to those individuals who are
interested in coaching team or individual sports. The course focuses on responsibilities of
coaches, including organization, pre-, post-, and in-season workouts, teaching fundamental
skills, developing team play, sports psychology, game or contest strategies and scouting.
052. Nutrition​ (two credits). The course concentrates on the study of foods and nutrients and
their relationships to health and disease. Topics include vitamins, minerals, fats, carbohydrates,
protein, water; additives and preservatives; diet and weight control; herbs; eating disorders;
caffeine and alcohol.
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Physics Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Karl Kehm, Chair
Colin Campbell
Gerald Ferguson
Juan Lin
Derek Thuecks
Physics is the most fundamental of sciences. Physicists seek to discover the laws that govern
the behavior of material objects and waves, and the interactions between particles. Application
of these universal laws to systems ranging from atoms and molecules to clusters of galaxies
gives rise to challenging problems whose solutions requires creative insight alongside logical
rigor and mathematical reasoning.
The study of physics helps students to understand the scientific method and its
implications—how to make rational inferences from data and how to test hypotheses critically. It
also leads to an appreciation of the aesthetic dimensions of a scientist’s work and the
interrelationship of physics with other areas of knowledge and its technological applications.
This aspect is particularly emphasized in courses intended for distribution.
Courses in the department are designed to develop the student’s competence in those
fundamental areas of classical and modern physics that have played an important role in the
evolution of physics. Familiarity with the art of scientific experimentation is provided through
laboratory work that complements the study of theoretical principles. Computation—the third
mode of “doing physics”—is emphasized at all levels.
The Physics Department prepares its majors for any career where problem-solving skills are
required. Popular career options include graduate study in physics, industrial research,
secondary school teaching, and professional careers in engineering and medicine. Some of our
recent graduates have gone on to graduate studies in the physical sciences. Others have
chosen to work in government or industrial laboratories or used their computer skills in the
private sector.
Physics 100, 101, 102 and 105 are designed to serve the needs of students wishing to take a
science course to meet distribution requirements. They do not assume any special mathematics
or science preparation beyond high school algebra and trigonometry.
Requirements for the Bachelor of Science in Physics
1. All of the following introductory courses are required:
PHY 111. General Physics I
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PHY 112. General Physics II
PHY 211. Modern Physics
PHY 252. Scientific Modeling and Data Analysis
2. Three upper level theory courses are required, selected from the following:
PHY 321. Classical Mechanics
PHY 322. Quantum Mechanics
PHY 323. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics
PHY 324. Electricity and Magnetism
3. Both of the following courses in experimental physics are required:
PHY 352. Electronics
PHY 451. Advanced Physics Laboratory
4. All of the following courses in mathematics are required:
MAT 201. Differential Calculus
MAT 202. Integral Calculus
MAT 203. Multivariable Calculus
MAT 345. Differential Equations
5. One additional science or math course is required, selected from the following list:
BIO 111, CHE 111, CSI 201, ENV 140, MAT 325, MAT 340, any additional physics course at
the 300+ level, or another science or math course approved by the department.
6. Five semesters of the departmental seminar course are required (PHY 292, 391, 392, 491
and 492). Each seminar course is one credit hour. The seminar meets one afternoon each
week. Students begin the seminar sequence during the spring semester of the sophomore
year.
7. All students must fulfill the Senior Capstone Experience (SCE). The SCE is a year-long
research project on a theoretical, computational or experimental topic completed during the
senior year.
Students planning to major in physics should ideally take PHY 111, 112, MAT 201 and 202 in
their freshman year. However it is possible to complete the major if students start major
coursework during their sophomore year. A score of four or better on an Advanced Placement
examination may, with the approval of the appropriate academic department, earn course credit
toward graduation and make the student eligible to take upper-level courses in the department.
Physics majors intending to become certified high school teachers should inform the Education
Department as early in their college careers as possible to assure proper scheduling.
Physics and Engineering Dual Degree with Columbia University
Students pursuing the Physics/Engineering Dual Degree Combined Plan Program receive a
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degree in Physics from Washington College and a degree in an engineering discipline at
Columbia University. Admission to Columbia University is guaranteed provided students fulfill
admissions requirements: students must complete general admission requirements for
Columbia University’s Combined Plan Program as well as any special requirements for the
engineering subfield the students seek to pursue. Students work closely with an engineering
advisor to plan course schedules to ensure that all requirements are met.
For the 3:2 combined physics and engineering degrees, students must complete Washington
College’s physics curriculum through the third year as well as the college’s distribution and
writing program requirements. Specific course requirements for the physics portion of the dual
degree are as follows.
Requirements for the Bachelor of Science in Physics for Dual Degree Engineering
Students
1. All of the following introductory courses are required:
PHY 111. General Physics I
PHY 112. General Physics II
PHY 211. Modern Physics
PHY 252. Scientific Modeling and Data Analysis
2. Two upper level theory courses are required, selected from the following:
PHY 321. Classical Mechanics
PHY 322. Quantum Mechanics
PHY 323. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics
PHY 324. Electricity and Magnetism
3. PHY 352. Electronics
4. All of the following courses in mathematics are required:
MAT 201. Differential Calculus
MAT 202. Integral Calculus
MAT 203. Multivariable Calculus
MAT 345. Differential Equations
5. CHE 111. General Chemistry I
6. Three semesters of the departmental seminar course are required (PHY 292, 391 and 392).
Each seminar course is one credit hour. The seminar meets one afternoon each week.
Requirements for the Minor in Physics
The minor in physics requires a total of six semester courses in physics: PHY 111, 112, 211,
252 and two additional courses in physics at the 300 level or higher. MAT 201, 202, 203 and
345 are also required.
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Courses In Physics
100. Concepts in Contemporary Physics
This course traces the evolving concepts of space, time, and motion through the main
contributions of Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and Bohr. Topics include: sizing up the universe
surrounding us, the kinematics and dynamics of motion, the great conservation laws, the
unification of space-time and gravity in the theories of special and general relativity, the physics
of black holes, and the quantum structure of matter. There will be laboratory sessions, class
demonstrations, and exercises.
101. College Physics I
An algebra-based introduction to physics for life science majors. Kinematics in one and two
dimensions, Newton’s laws of motion, work-energy theorem, conservation of energy,
conservation of linear momentum, collisions, rotational kinematics and dynamics, simple
harmonic motion, Newton’s law of gravitation, fluid mechanics, temperature, heat, kinetic theory
and thermodynamics. One three-hour laboratory session per week. Prerequisite: High school
algebra and trigonometry, or permission of the instructor. (Offered annually: Fall)
102. College Physics II
Second part of two-semester algebra-based introduction to physics for life science majors.
Electric charge, electric field and potential, conductors, dielectrics, capacitors, electric circuits
and power; magnetic fields, forces on moving charges and on current-carrying wires, fields of
current-carrying wires, electromagnetic induction; wave motion, superposition, physical and ray
optics; quantum physics of atoms and atomic nuclei. One three-hour laboratory session per
week. Prerequisite: Physics 101 or permission of the instructor. (Offered annually: Spring)
105. Astronomy
A survey of the universe, beginning with the Earth, Moon, the planets, and the Sun, and
continuing outwards to distant stars, galaxies, galactic clusters, superclusters, and large-scale
structure. The emphasis will be on the interplay between physical theory and observation that
leads to the modern astrophysical perspective of the universe. Topics include the origin and
evolution of stars, formation of red giants, planetary nebulae, white dwarfs, neutron stars,
supernovae, and black holes. We will explore the present state of our knowledge of these
objects and how this knowledge is acquired. The course concludes with a discussion of quasars
and the past, present, and future of the universe according to the Big Bang cosmology. There
will be laboratory and observing sessions, demonstrations, and exercises.
111. General Physics I
A calculus-based introduction to physics for further study in the physical sciences and
engineering. Mechanics: kinematics and dynamics of particles, conservation laws, the law of
universal gravitation, oscillations, and fluids. Thermodynamics: internal energy, heat, work,
entropy and their statistical foundations. One three-hour laboratory session per week.
Co-requisite: MAT 201, or permission of the instructor.​ ​(Offered annually: Fall)
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112. General Physics II
Second part of two-semester calculus-based introduction to physics. Waves: wave propagation,
superposition, interference, and physical and ray optics. Electric and magnetic fields: Coulomb’s
law, Gauss’s law, electric potential, steady currents, magnetic forces, Ampere’s and Faraday’s
laws. One three-hour laboratory session per week. Prerequisite: PHY 111, co-requisite: MAT
202, or permission of the instructor.​ ​(Offered annually: Spring)
211. Modern Physics
The first part of the course will explain the special theory of relativity: simultaneity, time dilation,
length contraction, Lorentz’s transformations, and relativistic dynamics. The second part of the
course will introduce the fundamental ideas of quantum physics: Planck’s hypothesis, Bohr’s
model of the hydrogen atom, wave-particle duality, Schrödinger’s equation, and basic
applications of the formalism to atomic and molecular physics. One three-hour lab session per
week. Prerequisite: PHY 112, co-requisite: MAT 203, or permission of the instructor. (Offered
annually: Fall)
240. Earth and Planetary Systems
This course features a detailed examination of the unique interaction between the Earth’s
geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, and how these systems contrast with
those of the other planets in the solar system. The course includes a lecture and an integrated
lab component. The lecture discussion and reading emphasizes the history of Earth systems,
from the birth of the solar system and differentiation of the Earth, to the emergence of biological
life, chemical evolution of the modern atmosphere, and the changes to the Earth’s climate,
ocean and lithosphere throughout geologic history. The lab will introduce students to important
tools in Earth Science research, including radiometric dating, chemical studies of natural
materials, remote sensing and data base analysis. The course provides advanced students with
the necessary scientific and intellectual background for pursuing further studies in Earth and
planetary science, geography, and environmental studies. Includes three lecture hours per week
plus lab. Prerequisite: ENV 140 and 141, or permission of the instructor.
252. Scientific Modeling and Data Analysis
The first part of the course serves as a focused introduction to programming for scientists and
engineers, with topics including algorithm development, statistical analysis, numerical
integration, and the creation of publication-quality graphics. The second part of the course
focuses on a research project in the student’s major. Programming language: Python.
Co-requisite: MAT 202.
321. Classical Mechanics
Kinematics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies. Topics include: Conservation laws,
central forces, motion in non-inertial frames, small oscillations, and Lagrangian and Hamiltonian
equations of motion. Prerequisite: PHY 211, PHY 252 and MAT 345, or permission of the
instructor.
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Physics
322. Quantum Mechanics
An introduction to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics: quantum states and the
principle of superposition, probability distributions and expectation values, observables and
operators, operator representations, and perturbation theory. There will be a discussion of
selected applications of the theory to atomic, solid state, and nuclear physics. Prerequisite: PHY
211, PHY 252 and MAT 345, or permission of the instructor.
323. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics
An in-depth presentation of the three laws of thermodynamics and their applications followed by
a study of the statistical foundations that underpin these phenomenological laws. Additional
topics include the theory of ideal gases, heat engines, statistical properties of systems of
particles, the Boltzmann distribution, entropy, partition functions and quantum gases. Other
topics may be included at the discretion of the instructor. Prerequisite: PHY 211, PHY 252 and
MAT 345, or permission of the instructor.
324. Electricity and Magnetism
Electric and magnetic fields in vacuum. A survey of experiments and theory leading to Maxwell’s
equations. Topics include: electrostatics, electric currents, magnetic fields, electromagnetic
induction, Maxwell’s equations, and electromagnetic waves. Prerequisite: ​PHY 211, PHY 252
and MAT 345, or permission of the instructor.
352. Electronics
The study of electronics as it is used in the physical sciences. Theory, operation and
applications of R-L-C electrical circuits, diodes, transistors, operational amplifiers, timers,
analog, digital, mixed-signal and microprocessor circuits. The course comprises three lecture
hours and one three-hour laboratory session per week. Prerequisite: ​PHY 211 and MAT
345 or permission of the instructor.
451. Advanced Physics Laboratory
Advanced experiments in mechanics, electromagnetism, waves, physical and geometrical
optics, thermal and statistical physics, atomic, and nuclear physics.
Prerequisite: PHY 351 or permission of the instructor.
292, 391, 392, 491, 492. Physics Departmental Seminar
The departmental seminar consists of weekly meetings of students and faculty. Meetings
include both formal presentations and informal discussion. Students solve problems in physics,
conduct reviews of current scientific literature, deliver oral presentations, and develop writing
skills appropriate to the physics discipline. The physics seminar is also the venue for
presentations of SCE projects. One credit per semester. The course is open for credit to physics
majors and minors only.
190, 290, 390, 490. Internship
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194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
A ten-week, on-campus summer research project guided by a faculty mentor. Based on mutual
interests, the student and faculty mentor develop a research project supported by a reading list
and involving theoretical, laboratory, or field investigations supervised by the faculty mentor.
Participants produce a final report detailing the findings of their research. Selection of students
will depend on academic background, scholastic achievement, and the results of a personal
interview with the faculty mentor. The course may be taken twice for credit. Not offered as
pass/fail. ​Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Studies
The study of areas of physics not covered in other courses. Instructor and student will meet
weekly to discuss any progress made. Designed for the student interested in pursuing a
professional career in physics or engineering. Available to physics majors and others by
agreement of instructor. ​Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
The Senior Capstone Experience is required of all majors in Physics. It consists of an
experimental, theoretical, or computational investigation of a current topic in physics under the
guidance of a faculty mentor. Results of these investigations will be presented in two sessions
of the weekly Physics Seminar, and may also result in conference posters or publication in
professional journals. Academic credit equivalent to one semester course (four credits) is
granted upon successful completion of the Senior Capstone Experience, and a grade of Honors,
Pass or Fail will be recorded on the student’s transcript along with the title of the investigation.
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Political Science
Political Science Division of Social Sciences
Melissa Deckman, Chair
Paulina Cossette
Alvin Drischler
Andrew Oros
Joseph Prud’homme
Tahir Shad
Christine Wade
The political science major is designed to provide an understanding of the political forces,
institutions, ideas, and problems of contemporary society. The curriculum prepares students for
graduate studies and professional careers in law, politics, teaching, journalism, government,
and international civil service. Our top faculty, our innovative teaching styles, and our emphasis
on experiential learning set the study of political science at Washington College apart from other
places. Political science students at Washington College benefit from the college’s close
proximity to our nation’s capital as well as Annapolis, the Maryland state capital, and many of
our students complete internships or volunteer to work for political parties, nongovernmental
organizations or campaigns during election season.
Political science majors may become certified to teach secondary school social studies. To
assure proper scheduling, students interested in this program should inform the chairs of both
the Political Science and Education Departments as early as possible in their college careers.
The Major
Requirements for the major in political science are: (1) Political Science 102 (American
Government and Politics) and 104 (Introduction to World Politics), to be taken in the freshman
or sophomore year; (2) Political Science 201 (Theories of Peace and Conflict) or Political
Science 202 (Justice, Power, and Political Thought), to be completed by the junior year, (3)
Political Science 401 (Empirical Political Research), to be taken in the fall of senior year; (4)
Political Science SCE, the Senior Capstone Experience; (5) completion of a
department-approved experiential learning activity; and (6) seven additional department
offerings, including one 300-level course from each of the three subfields offered at Washington
College: American Government and Political Thought; Comparative Politics; and International
Politics. Note: earning credit for BOTH the Model Diplomacy Program (POL 471) or a Model
United Nations program (POL 473) together for a total of 4 credits will count as a complete
International Politics course; students who complete only one of the model programs for credit
or who participate in either program but do not earn credit are still required to complete a
minimum of one International Politics course.
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Experiential Learning Requirement
All majors must complete one experiential learning activity, which the Political Science
Department at Washington College envisions as a meaningful experience related to politics
outside of the classroom, for a minimum number of 120 hours. We believe it is important for
students to apply the theories and concepts that they have learned in a “real-world” setting.
Majors may complete this requirement through one of the following ways:
●
Completion of a relevant internship related to political science and approved by the
political science faculty (either credit or non-credit bearing). Credit-bearing internships
include formally structured programs such as the Maryland General Assembly Internship
Program, The Tanzania Internship, The Washington Center Internship Program in
Washington, DC and the Hansard Programme in London—all of which are competitive
and have minimum GPA requirements (see course listings below for more information on
these programs). Students may also participate in internship programs administered
through the International Studies Program (see International Studies Program Director
for more details). In addition, students may arrange their own political internship
experience and work with political science faculty to develop course credit or may opt to
complete an internship without a credit option. Please note: to earn college credit for a
political internship, arrangements for credit, including the completion of a learning
contract, must be made PRIOR to the start of the internship; please see department
chair for more details.
●
Participation in a Model Diplomacy Program (POL 471) or a Model United Nations
program (POL 473) together with the two-credit course component. Please see
Professor Tahir Shad, advisor to the Model UN programs, for more information for
applying to participate.
●
Participation in the Geographic Information Systems program that has a direct policy or
political application.
●
Completion of a substantial volunteer or political advocacy activity ​outside​ of class
requirements that has been approved by a member of the political science faculty.
Regular participation in student clubs, such as Student Government or College
Democrats or Republicans, does not count.
●
At least one semester or summer program of study abroad. The college currently
participates in more than 30 study-abroad programs—including 15 programs in which
courses are taught in English. Students who complete our summer Tanzania Seminar
(see Professor Tahir Shad for more information) or the Oxford Research Seminar (see
Professor Joseph Prud’homme for more information) will have this count for their
experiential learning activity. Please contact the Global Education Office and the
International Studies Director, Professor Oros, for more information about other
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Political Science
programs.
Students intending to major in political science are encouraged, but not required, to take
Mathematics 109 (Statistics) as part of their freshman-sophomore distribution selections, so that
some aspects of the most recent methodological developments in political analysis will be more
readily understandable to them.
Senior Capstone Experience
Political Science majors are required to write a thesis, which should be a minimum of 30 pages,
and then present that research as a poster presentation as part of a required Senior
Symposium. Each student works closely with a faculty advisor who guides and supports the
project from beginning to end. Students may attempt an honors thesis in Political Science only if
their GPA is 3.5 or higher in the major.
The Minor
Requirements for the minor in political science are Political Science 102, 104 and four other
courses in political science. Students who minor in political science must complete three
courses at Washington College or in a Washington College program. Students majoring in
International Studies may not minor in political science.
Internships and Other Opportunities
Students in good standing are encouraged to participate in one of the internship opportunities
administered through the Department and the International Studies Program, and they may earn
course credit for doing so. Completion of such internships counts as part of their required
experiential learning activity. For program details and eligibility requirements, see “Internships
and Other Opportunities” in this catalog. Those of particular interest to political science majors
include:
● Maryland General Assembly Internship (see also course listings below)
● The Washington Center Internship (see also course listings below)
● Hansard Scholars Programme in London (see also course listings below)
● The Tanzania Internship
● Internships with the Department of State
● The Washington Center
A number of special programs and student conferences are also of interest to majors. For
details, see “Internships and Other Opportunities” in this catalog. Those of interest to majors
include:
● Model Diplomacy and Model United Nations
● Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference
● Student Conference on United States Affairs at West Point
● PLEN Seminar on Women and Congress, Women and Public Policy, and/or Women in
Global Policy
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Political Science
Political science majors are also eligible to complete regional concentrations in African, Asian,
European, Latin American, or Near Eastern Studies, and/or a functional concentration in Global
Business Studies or Peace and Conflict Studies. For details, see the catalog section for
International Studies.
Course Descriptions
Introductory Courses
102. American Government and Politics
A study of the foundations, institutions, processes, and policy issues of American government at
the national level.
104. Introduction to World Politics
A general introduction to the study of world politics and international relations. The course
focuses on the history and nature of the international system, the cold war and the post-cold war
era, foreign policy behavior, arms control, conflict, nationalism, international political economy,
environmental problems, terrorism, and human rights.
201. Theories of Peace and Conflict
The course reviews theoretical and philosophical approaches to understanding and explaining
conflict and peace, including theories of violence and nonviolence. The first half of the course
addresses the causes of conflict at the individual, group and systems level. We will also review
modern thinking on the relationship between gender and conflict. The second half of the course
addresses the theoretical considerations of peace, including positive and negative peace, and
the realization of peace through strength, negotiations, justice and personal transformation.
202. Justice, Power, and Political Thought
This course will introduce students to the study of political philosophy by examining the ways
many of the most influential political theorists have struggled to define the nature of justice, as
well as developing an understanding of how theorists have approached the question of founding
just regimes; ensuring that just systems of government operate legitimately once established;
and assessing the major causes for the deterioration of regimes based on justice.
Courses in American Politics and Political Thought
311. Congress and the Legislative Process
This course is designed to introduce students to the legislative process in the U.S. Congress.
The impact of the inputs (constituents, elections, interest groups, the bureaucracy, the Supreme
Court, and the president) upon the congressional structure is discussed and analyzed, as well
as the structure itself (rules, norms, procedures, the committee system, party leadership,
congressional staff). Finally, the outputs of the legislative process are examined (policy-making,
representation, and legislative oversight). Throughout the course, students will participate in an
ongoing simulation of the congressional legislative process so that they can experience the
challenges of crafting legislation. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or permission of the
instructor.
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312. The American Presidency
This course involves a systematic examination of the dynamic institution of the presidency. It
includes a study of presidential power, character, leadership, domestic and foreign
policy-making, the presidential-election process, as well as the interaction between the
president and the media, and presidential-congressional relations. ​Prerequisite: Political
Science 102 or permission of the instructor.
313. Elections and the Political Process
An examination of the idiosyncratic nature of the American electoral process with a focus on the
role of political parties. The course includes an overview of American electoral history as well as
a study of the factors influencing election outcomes, such as issues, ideology, party
identification, candidate images, campaign finance, organization, and strategies. ​Prerequisite:
Political Science 102 or permission of the instructor.
314​. ​Religion and Politics in the U.S.
This course is designed to analyze the nature of the relationship between religion and various
aspects of politics in the United States. The course considers why religion and politics are so
thoroughly interwoven in the United States by examining the religion-politics relationship in
historical and theoretical perspective. The course also analyzes how religion affects American
politics at the mass and elite levels. Lastly, the course considers church-state conflicts in
American jurisprudence by examining some of the most hotly contested Supreme Court cases
dealing with First Amendment issues. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or permission of the
instructor.
317. State and Local Politics
This course focuses on the interactions among the three levels of government in the United
States as well as on the institutional structures of state and municipal governments. It
concentrates on the interaction among governments as a significant portion of the policy-making
process. The course discusses the changing roles over time of different levels of government.
Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or permission of the instructor.
320. Law and Society
A study of the American system of criminal justice. The major emphases of the course are the
operation of the institutions and processes of the system, the constitutional rights of those
accused of crime, and the social goals and consequences of criminal punishment. ​Prerequisite:
Political Science 102 or permission of the instructor.
321. Women and Politics
This course examines the role of women as voters, citizens, candidates, and leaders in
American politics, grounded in theories of gender. Attention will also be given to the history of
the women’s movement and the current status of women’s organizations. The course also
focuses on how various public policies, including workplace issues, family issues, education
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issues and reproductive rights, affect women and their legal rights. ​Prerequisite: Political
Science 102 or permission of the instructor.
323. Constitutional Law
An analysis of the distribution of power among the three branches of the federal government,
and between the federal and state levels of government, as specified in major decisions of the
U.S. Supreme Court. The Court itself will be studied as a political institution, with emphasis on
its role in a democratic political system. The course also includes a study of the constitutional
rights of individuals, as specified by the U.S. Supreme Court, with primary emphasis on issues
of freedom and equality. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or permission of the instructor.
324. American Political Thought
A study of the influence of values and ideologies upon the formation, evolution, and operation of
the American constitutional and political system. In deference to the pragmatic character of
American political thought, the course focuses on the writings of American statesmen as they
confronted such continuing problems as the nature of the Union, the contest between economic
power and democratic power, and the responsibility of government for individual and social
welfare. The course concludes with a consideration of the relevance of American political
doctrines for contemporary issues of public policy. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or
permission of the instructor.
331. History of Political Thought
A critical study of the enduring problems of political philosophy as treated by the major thinkers
in the Western political tradition. The emphasis of the course is upon the fundamental choice of
values which underlies the design of every system of government. The course thus examines
how such writers as Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Burke, and Marx
have formulated and attempted to resolve the conflicting demands of freedom and order, law
and justice, authority and obligation, and the individual and the state. ​Prerequisite: Political
Science 102 or 104 or permission of the instructor.
334. Media and Politics
This course will explore the role of the media in politics from various perspectives, providing an
overview of the following: the history of the media in the United States; the legal issues that
relate to the media; the impact that the media has on public opinion; the substance (or lack of
substance) of the media’s coverage of the news, government and elections; biases of the news
media; political campaign advertising; alternative and newly developing forms of media; and the
increasing conglomeration of the news media through mergers. Throughout the course, these
issue areas will be discussed in a larger context involving questions of freedom, representation,
and political participation. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or permission of the instructor.
335. Environmental Politics
This course explores public policy and the policy process in American politics, and specifically
focuses on the development and enactment of environmental policies over the past several
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decades in the United States. Attention is given to how political actors have responded to
environmental problems, what creates a favorable landscape for environmental policies to be
implemented, and how effective such policies are at achieving their goals. ​Political Science 102
or permission of the instructor.
Courses in Comparative Politics
341. Politics of Development
This course focuses on the political and economic challenges confronted by developing
countries, including democratization, gender, nationalism and regional integration, trade, foreign
investment, and sustainable development. The course also examines issues of development
theory and practice in developing countries of Latin America, Asia and Africa. ​Prerequisite:
Political Science 104.
342. Revolutions and Revolutionary Movements
This course examines revolutions as a means of political and social change through the study of
competing theories about the causes, processes, outcomes and aftermath of revolution. These
theories and approaches are then applied to cases of social revolutions of the 20th century,
wars of anti-colonial struggles, and their anti-global successors. The course concludes with a
discussion about the future of revolution in the modern world, including whether revolution
through democracy and non-violence can be achieved, the influence of globalization, and the
effect of the September 11 attacks on would-be revolutionary movements. Prerequisite: Political
Science 104 or permission of the instructor.
344. Comparative Government: Western Europe
A comparative study of the governmental structures and organizations, as well as the political
cultures and processes, of the diverse states of Western Europe, with special focus on the
United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Also included will be study of the European Union and
its process of expansion into Central Europe. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 104.
345. Comparative Government: East Asia
This course provides a broad overview of the different governmental structures and
organizations, as well as history and political cultures, of a range of states in East Asia,
including Japan, the Koreas, China, and the countries of Southeast Asia. Particular attention will
be paid to the link between governmental structure and economic development. ​Prerequisite:
Political Science 104.
346. Japanese Politics and Foreign Policy
This course provides a broad introduction to Japan of the early 21st century, considering its role
in the world and its unclear domestic agenda after successfully “catching up with the West.”
Study of Japan’s post-Second World War political and economic development will provide the
basis for deeper study of demographic, social, economic, and diplomatic challenges facing
Japan today. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or permission of the instructor.
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347. Chinese Politics and Foreign Policy
This course provides an introduction to the vast political challenges facing China today, which
requires an examination of China’s governmental structure, social development, and the effect
of communism under Mao Zedong and other Chinese leaders. Emphasis will be placed on
political reform currently underway, the possibility of democracy’s arising, and China’s economic
and diplomatic linkages to the outside world. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or permission of
the instructor.
348. Latin American Politics
An introduction to the politics of Latin America. Attention is given to the historical and cultural
context of political institutions and behavior, the roles of traditional and emerging groups and
forces, political instability, and the decision-making process under different types of regimes.
Case studies of individual countries are selected on the basis of their contemporary importance
and representativeness of general political problems. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or
permission of the instructor.
351. Politics, Religion, and Ethnicity in South Asia
This is a survey of contemporary politics in South Asia (Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and
Sri Lanka). It examines the impact of British colonialism on state formation, the internal politics
since the 1940s, and the relationship of these countries to each other and with the major
external powers (U.S., Russia, and People’s Republic of China) influencing the region.
Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or permission of the instructor.
356. Civil War and Violence in Africa
This course provides an analytical approach to the study of civil wars in post-independent
sub-Saharan Africa. The course divides into four parts. The first provides a broad overview of
the challenges that Africa confronts. The second part of the course investigates the causes of
civil wars: what conditions permit civil war? Why do dissidents or governments choose violence
instead of peaceful means of resolving disputes? Is civil war politics by other means or a means
of wealth acquisition? The third explores the processes of civil war: why do people join
insurgencies? And why do some conflicts become more violent than others? We will conclude
the course by examining mechanisms for resolving conflicts. We will explore why the
international community intervenes to stop genocide in some wars but not others; what takes it
so long to act, if it acts at all; how the prospect of military intervention affects the military
strategies of combatant parties in civil wars; and whether outsiders help or hinder the resolution
of civil wars. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or permission of the instructor.
Courses in International Politics
371. International Politics
A study of an integrated theoretical framework for analyzing the behaviors of nation-states in the
international political arena, as well as of selected critical issues and areas in contemporary
international politics. Normally included in the study are nuclear weapons systems and their
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implications in international politics; nuclear arms negotiations and agreements; East-West
relations; the triangular relationship among the United States, the former Soviet Union, and
China; the Arab-Israeli conflict; the Third World’s non-alignment movement, and the North-South
tensions. Students who have taken Political Science 302 at Rhodes University will not receive
credit for this course. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 104.
373. Human Rights and Social Justice
This course is designed to provide an introduction to the history, philosophy and major debates
on human rights and social justice. Students will consider the philosophical and political
positions underlying the debates that are central to the promotion of human rights, including
gender, universalism and cultural relativism. The course also covers contemporary issues in the
international human rights and social justice movement, including the right to development and
freedom from poverty, women’s human rights, minority rights, torture, slavery and genocide.
Group work and the creation of a public awareness campaign are required course assignments.
Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or permission of the instructor.
374. International Organization and Law
A study of organized human efforts made throughout history to promote international
cooperation and peace. Special attention is given to the principles and rules of international law
regulating national conduct in international affairs, the League of Nations, the United Nations,
and contemporary blueprints for world federation and government. ​Prerequisite: Political
Science 104 or permission of the instructor.
375. International Political Economy
This course is a study of the relationship between international politics and economics. It
examines theories of international political economy, including Liberal, Mercantilist, and Radical.
Using these themes, the course will analyze the history of political economy, the relationship
between economics and politics, trade, foreign investment, economic aid, development,
dependency, interdependency, and the role of the United States in the global political economy.
Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or permission of the instructor.
380. American Foreign Policy
A brief historical survey of American diplomacy and analytical study of factors conditioning
American foreign policy; the constitutional basis of U.S. foreign relations; the concept of
American national interest and goals; the structure and processes of decision-making and
policy-execution; the organization of, and relations among, the White House, Department of
State, Department of Defense, other Executive organs, and Congress; and America’s current
involvement in world affairs. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 102, Political Science 104 or a year
of American history.
382. U.S.-Latin American Relations
A study of U.S. foreign policy and Latin America since the Monroe Doctrine. Attention is given to
the interests of Latin American nations in their relationship with each other and with other areas
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of the world, with special emphasis on the post-World War II period. ​Prerequisite: Political
Science 104 or permission of the instructor.
384. The International Relations of East Asia
The course seeks to expand student knowledge of important past political events and
contemporary political issues related to the international relations of East Asia, including
U.S.-East Asia relations; to introduce students to a new terminology based in international
relations theory, including the contentiousness of some terms, major thinkers associated with
these terms and theories, and how general international relations theory has been applied to the
case of East Asia; and, to assist students in applying their new knowledge of terminology and
theory to better understand past and contemporary political interactions in East Asia.
Prerequisite: Political Science 104 or permission of the instructor.
386. Comparative Peace Processes
This course focuses on contemporary conflicts and efforts at peace-building in a comparative
perspective. Drawing on cases such as Bosnia, Northern Ireland, and East Timor, the course
will examine the roots of conflict, theories of peace, methods of peace-building, reconciliation,
and international cooperation. Simulations will be used to enable students to understand the
dynamics of the peace process. ​Prerequisite: POL 104 or permission of the instructor.
388. U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East
In recent decades, the Middle East has proved to be one of the most troubling as well as
important parts of the world. The war in Iraq, the standoff with Iran, the regular failure to find a
diplomatic solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the continuing danger posed by Al
Qaeda all testify to the intractability of the region’s problems. This course focuses on US foreign
policy in the Middle East. The United States has grappled with the region’s persistent and cross
cutting conflicts, and confronted fundamental questions about the use of force, the role of allies
and international law. ​Prerequisite: POL 104 or permission of the instructor.
Courses in Research Methods and Experiential Learning
401. Empirical Political Research
An introduction to current research techniques and methodology in political science, taken by
majors in the fall semester of the senior year. The course includes a discussion of the use of
theory building, hypothesis testing, survey research, statistics, and computers in empirical
political inquiry. Much of the class will be interactive, as students learn basic data analysis
techniques using statistical software. Students will work in groups to develop, administer, and
analyze their own survey of the political attitudes of the student population of Washington
College. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 102 and 104, or permission of the instructor. This course
is required for Political Science majors.
419. Maryland General Assembly Internship
Students enrolled in this program spend two days per week as state legislative interns in
Annapolis during the three-month legislative session. They also meet and do assignments for a
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weekly academic seminar on campus. Students may enroll in this program only by application to
the Director (Dr. Deckman), and applicants must have a 3.0 GPA. Eight credits. (Note: this
program counts as two political science courses.) ​Prerequisite: Political Science 311 or 317, or
permission of the Director.
427. Washington Center Internship
A full-time, semester-long internship in Washington, DC, with a federal government, political, or
non-profit agency. Depending upon their interest and internship placement, students may attend
hearings, conduct policy research, draft correspondence, monitor legislation, lobby members of
Congress, and write analytical reports. Students will create an in-depth portfolio of their
internship experience. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 102, 2.8 cumulative GPA, permission of an
instructor, and successful application to The Washington Center for Internships and Academic
Seminars. This course is normally open only to juniors and seniors. Twelve credits. The
internship package of Political Science 427, 428, and 429 yields 16 credits towards graduation
and 8 credits towards the political science major or minor.
428. Washington Center Seminar
Washington Center Interns participate in an evening seminar selected from a variety of topics
offered during the semester. Students engage in class discussion and may also research
seminar topics, prepare written assignments, and take examinations. ​Required of and limited to
students enrolled in Political Science 427. ​Three credits​.
429. Washington Center Forum
Washington Center Interns participate in lectures, site visits, small group discussions, briefings,
and other required events designed to help them understand the connection between their
academic and professional goals and the special educational opportunities available through
living and working in Washington, DC. Evaluations of these experiences are included in the
student portfolio. ​Required of and limited to students enrolled in Political Science 427. ​One
credit​.
471. Model Diplomacy
This two-credit course is offered as a complement to required delegate training for participation
in an off-campus model diplomacy simulation. The course goes beyond the basics of delegate
preparation (public speaking, model procedure, and familiarity with committee topics) to offer a
broader framework for understanding the evolution of the practice of diplomacy, principal
challenges facing diplomats today, and the role of diplomacy and the diplomat in the modern
world. As part of the course, students are offered individualized feedback on their committee
research for a model simulation, background information on important developments in
international affairs and major international organizations, and the opportunity to reflect on the
linkage between the model experience and the actual practice of international organizations in
the 21​st​ and previous centuries. Two credits. ​Prerequisite: application and acceptance into a
Model Diplomacy program.
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473. Model United Nations
This two-credit course is offered as a complement to required delegate training for participation
in an off-campus model United Nations simulation. The course goes beyond the basics of
delegate preparation (public speaking, model procedure, and familiarity with committee topics)
to offer a broader framework for understanding the evolution of the United Nations since its
founding in 1945, principal challenges it faces today, and the role of diplomacy and the diplomat
in the modern world. As part of the course, students are offered individualized feedback on their
committee research for the model simulation, background information on important
developments in international affairs and major international organizations, and the opportunity
to reflect on the linkage between the model experience and the actual practice of international
organizations in the 21​st​ and previous centuries. Two credits. ​Prerequisite: application and
acceptance into a Model United Nations program.
190, 290, 390, 490. Political Science Internship
Students may receive course credit for an individualized internship at a political organization,
under the supervision of a faculty advisor. The details of the internship and associated
academic requirements will be specified in a learning contract drawn up by the student and
advisor.
194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics in Political Science
The department occasionally offers a course on a special topic in political science that is not a
part of the regular course offerings.
197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Study
Students may receive credit for an individualized course of reading and writing under the
supervision of a faculty advisor. The requirements of the course will be specified in a learning
contract drawn up by the student and advisor.
195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research
196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research
SCE. Senior Capstone Experience
The Senior Capstone Experience is an independent research project on a topic of the students
choosing, culminating in a thesis of at 30 pages and the presentation of the research in a poster
session as part of the Senior Symposium. Thesis proposals are generated as part of the work of
the required course on Empirical Political Research, although thesis advisors will be determined
in the spring semester, junior year. Candidates for honors must employ primary sources,
contribute some element of original research, analysis, or interpretation, and must present their
findings publicly at the Senior Symposium. Candidates must have a GPA of 3.5 in their major
courses to be considered for honors status. This project is required of all majors in political
science.
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Political Science
Courses offered in the Washington College Abroad Programs
Students enrolled in Rhodes University Program in South Africa take the following courses:
402. International Politics
This course examines the dynamics of post-World War II international political economy,
financial institutions, the North-South debate, debt, development, democracy, Africa and the
New World Order. Five classes per week, including one tutorial. Students who have taken
Political Science 361 will not receive credit for this course. ​offered at the Rhodes University,
South Africa, program only, in the spring semester. Prerequisite: Political Science 104. ​Eight
credits.
404. Introduction to South African Politics
This course will study the process of transformation and transition to democracy in South Africa
by looking at external and domestic factors which have shaped the present reality. Particular
attention will be given to the issues of democratic consolidation and policy implementation after
1994. The course will provide an historical context with which to examine the challenges facing
the new democracy from gender to economic policy and international relations. At least three
classes per week. ​offered at the Rhodes University, South Africa, program only, in the spring
semester. Prerequisite: Political Science 104. ​Four credits​.
406. Government and Politics in Africa
Case studies in selected African countries looking at political economy, development, and
democratization. At least three classes per week. Students who have taken Political Science
356 will not receive credit for this course. ​offered at the Rhodes University, South Africa,
program only, in the spring semester. Prerequisite: Political Science 104. ​Four credits​.
408. International Relations
This course examines contemporary theories, issues and debates in the study of international
relations. At least three classes per week. ​offered at the Rhodes University, South Africa,
program only, in the spring semester. Prerequisite: Political Science 104. ​Four credits​.
Students enrolled in The Hansard Scholars Programme in London take the following courses:
470. Hansard Internship
Hansard Scholars are assigned to work in most cases as research assistants to Members of the
House of Commons and the House of Lords, or to the political parties and other
politically-related organizations. Students write speeches, research political issues, prepare
briefs, and take part in constituency work. Six credits.
472. Politics and Parliament
This course examines the constitutional and political process in Britain with special reference to
the student’s internship programs. External lecturers include leading British politicians, political
commentators, and lobbyists. Three credits​.
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Political Science
474. Politics and Public Policy
This course analyzes current policy issues, seen in their historical context and in a European
dimension. Topics include the economy, social policy, education, the role of the media, and
ethnic and regional problems. Three credits​.
476. Supervised Research Project
Each student works on an individually designed research project leading to a substantial paper
of between 8,000 and 12,000 words. Usually, this is based on research undertaken during the
internship. Three credits​.
392
Pre-Law Preparation
Pre-Law Preparation Andrea Lange, Program Advisor
Joseph Prud’homme, Program Advisor
Admission requirements at law schools normally include the completion of a baccalaureate
degree program at an accredited institution, a distinguished overall average, and a competitive
score on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Standards concerning grade averages and
LSAT scores vary from school to school. Law schools do not specify a particular undergraduate
curriculum or major as preparation for a legal education. Legal study draws on many fields of
knowledge in the social sciences, natural sciences, and humanities. Potential law students
should elect courses sufficiently diverse to acquire the basic ideas and methodologies of a
number of disciplines, and to develop their skills of critical analytical thinking and effective
written and oral expression. The pre-law advisors are available to help in this process. They
counsel individual students with respect to course selection, how to prepare for the LSAT, the
law school application process and provide periodic programs and workshops of interest to
pre-law students.
The regular course distribution requirements at Washington College, which provide the student
with a broad foundation in the liberal arts and sciences, are part of the general preparation for
law school. The pre-law student is urged to consider taking some of the following courses, either
as part of the distribution requirement or as electives. The pre-law advisors particularly
recommend those courses marked with an asterisk: logic because it is helpful in preparing for
the LSAT, political science courses because they prepare students for the study of cases in law
school, business law because it introduces topics like contracts and torts, philosophy of morality
and ethics courses because these are issues central to the profession, and sociology and
justice, law and society courses since these courses explore domestic and global crime and
justice issues.
Recommended Courses
*particularly recommended for pre-law students
BUS 112. Introduction to Financial Accounting
An introduction to the accounting principles and procedures used for collecting, recording,
summarizing, and interpreting financial information. Students will learn to read and interpret
financial statements. Special emphasis is placed upon the concepts of internal control over
resources and transactions. Computerized spreadsheets are integrated into the course.
BUS 303. The Legal Environment of Business*
Study of the various legal environments in which business operates, including the legal/political
systems of major trading areas abroad. American government regulation of business will be
examined in detail, as well as the international legal environment, to appreciate varying legal
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Pre-Law Preparation
requirements affecting foreign trade. Ethics and corporate responsibility will be compared to the
differing standards in foreign countries.
ECN 111. Principles of Macroeconomics
An introduction to principles of economic analysis, economic institutions, and issues of
economic policy. The course examines factors determining national income, price, and
employment levels as well as the international position in the U.S. economy.
ECN 112. Principles of Microeconomics
An introduction to the principles of economic analysis, economic institutions, and issues of
economic policy. Principal topics covered include commodity and factor price determination
under various market structures, and resource allocation and income distribution through a
pricing system.
ECN 416. Law and Economics
The course describes how legal rules, e.g. property rights or contract law, should be designed in
order to encourage economic efficiency. The human response to the prices imposed by laws on
different kinds of behavior is analyzed. Applications to land use legislation, consumer products
liability, the criminal justice system, and medical malpractice are included. ​Prerequisite:
Economics 112.
HIS 201, 202. History of the United States
A basic course designed for students wishing to supplement their knowledge of general
American history. The first semester covers the period from the European backgrounds of
colonization in the New World to 1865; second semester, the period from 1865 to the present.
MAT 109. Statistics
Introduction to the appropriate methods for analyzing data and designing experiments. After a
study of various measures of central tendency and dispersion, the course develops the basic
principles of testing hypotheses, estimating parameters, and reaching decisions.
PHL 100. Introduction to Philosophy
A study of selected systems of thought designed to acquaint the student who has no training in
philosophy with basic philosophical concepts and with the techniques and advantages of a
thoughtful and reflective approach to problems. Topics taken up vary with the individual
instructor. Offered every semester.
PHL 108. Logic*
An introduction to informal logic (especially informal fallacies), formal sentential logic, and the
application of logic to arguments found in ordinary language.
PHL 225. Ethical Theory*
An examination of some of the major ethical theories in Western philosophy. Applications of
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Pre-Law Preparation
these theories to concrete ethical problems will be considered. Special attention will be given to
Consequentialist, Deontological, and Virtue theories. Readings will be drawn from classical and
contemporary authors. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
PHL 300. Business Ethics
A seminar focusing on major ethical theories and principles as they apply to individuals,
companies, corporations, and consumers in the business world. Typical issues treated are:
corporate social responsibility, government versus self-regulation, employee and consumer
safety, whistle-blowing, deceptive advertising, conflicts in accounting, the environment, insider
trading, issues in international business, etc. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
PHL 335. Philosophy of Law*
The course covers three areas: (1) the nature of law, (2) the relation between law and morality,
and (3) the nature and justification of punishment. Legal philosophers of various viewpoints will
be covered. The class will meet with the judge of the Second Maryland Circuit in his courtroom
and make an all-day field trip to one or more Maryland prisons. ​Prerequisite: Philosophy 100.
POL 102. American Government and Politics
A study of the foundations, institutions, processes, and policy issues of American government at
the national level.
POL 323. Constitutional Law*
An analysis of the distribution of power among the three branches of the federal government,
and between the federal and state levels of government, as specified in major decisions of the
U.S. Supreme Court. The Court itself will be studied as a political institution, with emphasis on
its role in a democratic political system. The course also includes a study of the constitutional
rights of individuals, as specified by the U.S. Supreme Court, with primary emphasis on issues
of freedom and equality. ​Prerequisite: Political Science 102.
POL 407. Law and Society*
A study of the American system of criminal justice. The major emphases of the course are the
operation of the institutions and processes of the system, the constitutional rights of those
accused of crime, and the social goals and consequences of criminal punishment. ​Prerequisite:
Political Science 102 or permission of the instructor.
SOC 240. Criminology*
Study of the nature, causes, and social significance of crime. ​Prerequisite: Sociology 101.
SOC 341. Variant Behavior*
An exploration of behavior that has been socially defined as “deviant.” The nature, sources, and
consequences of this definition will be discussed. ​Prerequisite: Sociology 101 and one
additional course in sociology.
395
Premedical Program
Premedical Program Kathleen Verville, Program Advisor and Chair, Premedical Committee
Jodi Olson, Director of Pre-health Professions Programs
Students interested in pursuing a career as a physician, dentist, veterinarian, podiatrist or
optometrist should take advantage of the College’s Premedical Program. The Premedical
Program, under the guidance of the Premedical Committee, assists students with
pre-​professional planning and applications to the health professions schools that grant degrees
in allopathic medicine (MD), osteopathic medicine (DO), dentistry (DDS, DMD), veterinary
medicine (DVM), podiatry (DPM), and optometry (OD). Premedicine is not a major. Although
many premedical students major in one of the Natural Sciences, any major offered by the
College may be pursued.
Premedical Committee members include Professors Kathleen Verville (Committee Chair;
Biology), Anne Marteel-Parrish (Chemistry), Colin Campbell (Physics), George Spilich
(Psychology), and Matthew McCabe (Philosophy), and Director of the Pre-health
Professions Program, Jodi Olson.
In addition to the courses required for the chosen major and for graduation from Washington
College, students will need to take those courses that are required for admission to health
professions schools and needed to provide an academic background for admissions tests.
Many of these courses also satisfy some of the requirements of various majors, especially
majors in the Natural Sciences, and some satisfy college distribution requirements.
Because some of the courses needed for admission for the health professions programs have
one or more prerequisites--and students who want to attend professional school in the
academic year after graduation from Washington College will normally need to complete the
courses necessary for professional school admission by the end of the Junior year--students
should begin to map their future coursework during their first academic advising meeting. The
timing of the chemistry courses (a 5-course/ 5-semester series from General Chemistry I
through Biochemistry) is especially important. Additional details are provided below.
Premedical students should consult members of the Premedical Committee early in their
academic careers and notify the Premedical Committee Chair of their interest in considering a
career in medicine.
To become aware of expectations, requirements, procedures, and deadlines, premedical
students should read the advising information found on the College’s premedical website and
premedical Canvas site and in the college catalog. They should also attend all premed
meetings, including the meeting held during first-year student orientation. In addition,
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Premedical Program
premedical students are strongly encouraged to frequently seek out individual advice from
Premedical Committee members.
Students seeking a Committee Letter from the Washington College Premedical Committee,
which is required/recommended by the majority of medical schools, must be aware of the need
to complete a file with the Premedical Committee, the file requirements and file completion
deadline (the last business day in February of the Junior year for students who plan to attend a
health professions school in the academic year following graduation from Washington College),
and the procedures for obtaining a Committee Letter. This information is provided and
discussed at premed meetings.
The courses required for professional school admission vary depending on the type of medical
program (e.g., veterinary medicine vs. allopathic medicine) and, to some extent, from school to
school. The required courses (admission prerequisites) most commonly include the following:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
General Biology I and II w/lab (BIO 111, 112)
General Chemistry I and II w/lab (CHE 111, 112)
Organic Chemistry I and II w/lab (CHE 201, 202)
Biochemistry w/lab (BIO 409/CHE 309)
College Physics I and II w/lab (PHY 101, 102) or General Physics I and II w/lab
(PHY 111,112)
Two Math courses (see specific information below)
Two English courses (ENG 101 is recommended along with one additional
English class)
Social Science courses (see additional information below)
Humanities courses.
Given the variation in required courses from program to program, and the fact that some
schools have additional requirements, students should consult the appropriate websites for
each area of medicine (aamc.org, aacom.org, aacpm.org, aavmc.org, adea.org, opted.org)
and for individual schools. They should also consult books that list professional school
requirements: Medical School Admission Requirements for U.S. and Canadian Medical
Schools (MSAR); Osteopathic Medical College Information Book (CIB); Veterinary Medical
School Admission Requirements (VMSAR); and ADEA Official Guide to Dental Schools). Most
of these books are available online.
Those students who plan to attend a health professions program in the academic year
following graduation from Washington College (without one or more gap years) must be aware
that the hierarchical nature of the chemistry courses--needed for admission to professional
schools and for many of the admissions tests such as the MCAT-- requires students to take
General Chemistry (CHE 111,112) in the first year, Organic Chemistry (CHE 201, 202) in the
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Premedical Program
second year, and Biochemistry (BIO 409/CHE 309) in the fall of the third year. This is because
the prerequisites for Biochemistry are BIO 111 and CHE 202; the prerequisite for CHE 202 is
CHE 201; and the prerequisite for CHE 201 is the CHE 111/CHE 112 course series. Students
who elect not to take General Chemistry in the first year will normally not be able to apply to
medical school without taking a gap year.
Students may fulfill the physics requirement for health professions schools by taking either the
algebra​-based physics course [College Physics I and II (PHY 101, 102)] or the calculus​-based
physics course [General Physics I and II (PHY 111, 112)]. Those students planning a major in
Physics or planning to major in Chemistry and receive an ACS​-certified degree need to take
the calculus-​based physics sequence (PHY 111, 112).
Math requirements can vary depending on the program. Statistics (MAT 109) is strongly
recommended. Since many medical schools require or recommend Differential Calculus (MAT
201) and the course is required for the major in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics, students
should normally plan to take MAT 201. The next course in the calculus series, Integral Calculus
(MAT 202), is required for some majors (biology with a biochemistry concentration, physics, and
chemistry) but is not required for admission to health professions schools. Students opting to
take the calculus​-based General Physics course (PHY 111, 112) should note that MAT 201 is a
co​requisite for PHY 111 and MAT 202 is a co​requisite for PHY 112. Note that some students
may need to take Precalculus (MAT 110) to be adequately prepared for Differential Calculus.
Registration for Precalculus requires permission from the Math Department.
In addition to fulfilling prerequisites for admission, the content of many of the above courses is
included on the tests required for admission [Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), the
Dental Admission Test (DAT), and the Optometry Admission Test (OAT)].The MCAT tests
critical analysis and reasoning skills as well as knowledge of general biology, general chemistry,
organic chemistry, biochemistry, physics, statistics, psychology, and sociology. Therefore,
students planning to enter programs that require the MCAT (allopathic medicine, osteopathic
medicine, many podiatric medicine programs) should consider fulfilling the social science
distribution requirements with General Psychology (PSY 111, 112) and Introduction to Sociology
(SOC 101). Knowledge of statistics for the MCAT can also be gained from Statistics and
Research Design I and II with lab (PSY 209, PSY 309).
Note that many programs require or recommend additional biology courses beyond General
Biology. These biology classes are also important for students who ultimately opt for programs
in related health fields such as Physician Assistant programs instead of medical school.
Students who do not major in one of the sciences are strongly encouraged to take more than
the minimum required science classes.
Students are encouraged to seek breadth in their course selections and pursue their academic
passions. Ethics courses [e.g. Ethical Theory (PHL 225), Foundations of Morality (PHL 235),
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Premedical Program
Biomedical Ethics (PSY 325)] as well as health-related courses such as Introduction to Public
Health and Global Health Disparities are examples of courses that may be of interest to
students seeking careers in healthcare.
Students should plan to take the appropriate test (MCAT, DAT, OAT, GRE) before applying to
professional school. Advice about which test is required for particular programs, when to take
these tests, and how to prepare for them should be sought from the Premedical Committee.
Along with a strong GPA, strong test score are important for a successful application to these
highly competitive programs. The exams should not be taken without adequate and extensive
preparation, and students should plan to take the test one time only, earning an exceptional
score the first time. All scores are normally visible to and considered by professional schools.
Students may plan to attend professional school the academic year following graduation, but
are encouraged to consider taking additional time. Taking a year or more between college
graduation and entrance to medical school (i.e., taking one or more gap years) is common
across the nation and has many benefits. These include additional time for experiential
learning opportunities, additional time to prepare for exams such as the MCAT or to make an
application more competitive, and increased flexibility in the timing of courses and planning for
a semester abroad.
A sample schedule for various majors that allows for completion of required courses by the
end of the Junior year is shown below. However, because there are many other possible
course arrangements and because students differ in academic background and preparedness,
each student is encouraged to seek individual advice about course planning. The course
schedule presented is rigorous and for this and many other reasons may not be appropriate
for every student.
Students with Advanced Placement credit in required premedical courses should seek advice
from the Premedical Committee, as some professional schools do not accept AP credit for
required courses. Those schools typically ask students either to retake the course at a four ​year
college or to take additional upper level courses in the discipline(s) in which the AP credit was
received.
Those students planning to study abroad should seek advice about coursework planning and
should take required premedical courses in the United States.
Courses required for medical school admission should not be taken Pass/Fail. In addition,
professional schools normally impose minimum grade requirements on required courses.
All required science classes should be “ majors level” or those intended for pre-health
students. They should also have a laboratory component.
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Premedical Program
Although many of the information above pertains to academic requirements, students should
be aware of the importance of factors such as communication skills, ability to work in a team,
cultural competence, community service, campus involvement, leadership, character, and
experience in and knowledge of medicine.
Students who do not have U.S. citizenship or permanent residency should seek out early advice
about career planning and be aware that it is very difficult (although not impossible) for non-​U.S.
citizens/permanent residents to gain entry into U.S. medical schools and to finance their medical
education.
Sample Course Schedules For Students Who Plan to Enter Medical/Professional School
The Academic Year Following College Graduation*
Biology Major
Chemistry Major
Physics Major
Psychology Major
Other Major
First Year
FYS 101, ENG 101 FYS 101, ENG 101 FYS 101, ENG 101 FYS 101, ENG 101 FYS 101, ENG 101
BlO 111, 112
CHE 111, 112
PHY 111, 112
PSY 111,112
Introductory
Sequence for Major
CHE 111, 112
BlO 111, 112
CHE 111, 112
BIO 111, 112
BIO 111, 112
MAT 201, Math
MAT 201, 202
MAT 201, 202
CHE 111, 112
CHE 111, 112
Second Year
CHE 201, 202
CHE 201, 202
CHE 201, 202
CHE 201, 202
CHE 201, 202
Advanced Biology
PHY 111, 112 ‡
PHY 211, 252
PSY 209, PSY 309
Advanced Course
for Major
English
English
MAT 203, 345
Advanced
Psychology
English
Distribution or
Elective
Distribution or
Elective
BlO 111, 112
MAT 201, Math
MAT 201, Math
Third Year
BIO 409/CHE 309
BIO 409/CHE 309
BIO 409/CHE 309
BIO 409/CHE 309
BIO 409/CHE 309
Advanced Biology
Advanced
Chemistry
Advanced Physics
PHY 101,102 or
PHY 111, 112
PHY 101,102 or
PHY 111, 112
PHY 101,102 or
PHY 111,112
Advanced
Chemistry
English
Advanced
Psychology
Advanced Course
for Major
Distribution or
Elective
Distribution or
Elective
Distribution or
Elective
English
Distribution or
Elective
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Premedical Program
Fourth Year
Advanced Biology
Course(s)
Advanced
Chemistry
Course(s)
Advanced Physics
Course(s)
Advanced
Psychology
Course(s)
Advanced
Course(s) for Major
Advanced Biology
Course(s)
Advanced
Chemistry
Course(s)
Advanced Physics
Course(s)
Advanced
Psychology
Course(s)
Advanced
Course(s) for Major
Distribution or
Elective Course(s)
Distribution or
Elective Course(s)
Distribution or
Elective Course(s)
Distribution or
Elective Course(s)
Distribution or
Elective Course(s)
Distribution or
Elective Course(s)
Distribution or
Elective Course(s)
Distribution or
Elective Course(s)
Distribution or
Elective Course(s)
Distribution or
Elective Course(s)
‡ PHY 111,112 is required for students seeking an ACS-certified degree in chemistry. Other
chemistry majors may take PHY101, 102 or PHY 111,112.
*These sample schedules allow for a professional school application in the summer between the
junior and senior years, the approximate application timing for students who plan to enter
professional school in the year following college graduation. We strongly encourage students to
consider taking at least one additional year before applying to professional school. Please note
that these sample schedules should not be used without also reading the accompanying text,
which provides additional explanation. As there are many course combinations that can allow
this same application timing, students should seek out individual advice regarding course
planning. When planning courses, students should be aware that the required courses for
professional school admission normally need to be completed before the application is
submitted and that many of the required courses are also necessary for strong performance on
admission tests (e.g., MCAT), which students should plan to complete before the application is
submitted. Students should also be aware of course prerequisites and the hierarchical nature of
the biology and chemistry courses that lead to Biochemistry.
401
Psychology
Psychology Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Cynthia Gibson, Chair
Michael Kerchner
Lauren Littlefield
Kevin McKillop
Tia Murphy
Amanda Sommerfeld
George Spilich
Psychology addresses the fundamental premises of human behavior and the brain’s complex
role in determining who we are. Students are kept abreast of the latest scientific advances and
research methods in this burgeoning field. The department offers a bachelor of arts degree in
psychology, as well as two specialized programs: a bachelor of arts concentration in
clinical/counseling and a bachelor of science concentration in behavioral neuroscience.
The curriculum in psychology is designed to provide a strong background in the biobehavioral
sciences and to prepare students for entry into graduate programs in experimental psychology,
clinical/counseling psychology, neuroscience, medicine, and related fields. The course offerings
reflect both the basic scientific content of psychology and its application in the clinical setting or
in the business world. The department heavily stresses faculty-student interaction through
laboratories and internships. A psychology club is open to all interested students, and a chapter
of Psi Chi, the international honor society in psychology, hosts speakers and supplementary
activities.
The curriculum is three-tiered. Students first survey the domain through a year-long general
psychology course (tier 1) and then progress through a two-semester methods sequence in
statistics and research design while they broaden and deepen their understanding through
lab-oriented cognate coursework (tier 2). Students preparing for graduate or professional school
are encouraged to work with faculty in a mentor-apprentice fashion no later than their third year;
such work