HIMPP 1003 UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE

HIMPP 1003 UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE
UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE
_______________
BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD
_______________
K/S HIMPP,
Petitioner
v.
BENHOV GMBH, LLC,
Patent Owner
_______________
Case IPR2017-00930
Patent No. 8,170,884
_______________
DECLARATION OF SAYFE KIAEI, Ph.D.
HIMPP 1003
1.
My name is Sayfe Kiaei. I have been retained by counsel for K/S
HIMPP to serve as a technical expert in this Inter Partes review proceeding. I
have been asked to provide expert testimony in this declaration regarding the
patentability of claims 1-17 of the ’884 Patent.
I. BACKGROUND
2.
I received my Ph.D., M.S., and B.S. degrees, all in Electrical and
Computer Engineering, in 1987, 1984, and 1982, respectively, from Washington
State University. My M.S. and Ph.D. thesis was on the development of signal and
audio processing filters and systems. My specialization was in signal processing,
audio processing, communications, and integrated circuits for analog and digital
signal process.
3.
Currently, I am a Professor in the School of Engineering in the
Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering Department at Arizona State
University. I have held the position of Professor since 2001.
4.
I am also the Director of the National Science Foundation Center
“Connection One,” which is an Industry/University cooperative research center
with over thirty Industry members and five University members focused on
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developing integrated circuits, communication systems, bio-electronics, GPS, and
related technologies.
5.
I have been working on signal processing, audio signal processing,
hearing aids, GPS signaling, and communications for the past 30 years. I have
received several grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF) on audio
processing, hearing aids, and related areas. I have also published several technical
papers in these areas. This work includes an NSF grant entitled, “Micro-Power
Multi-Phase MEMS Hearing Aid.”
6.
I have several publications in signal processing, filtering, audio
processing, communications, GPS, and related areas. These include:
x “A MEMS-Based Power-Scalable Hearing Aid Analog Front
End,” published in IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits
and Systems;
x “Compact and Low-Cost MEMS Loudspeaker for Digital
Hearing Aids,” published in IEEE Transactions on Biomedical
Circuits and Systems; and
x “Dynamic calibration of feedback DAC non-linearity for a 4th
order CT sigma delta for digital hearing aids” presented at the
IEEE International SOC conference.
3
7.
From 1993 to 2001, I was a Senior Member of the Technical Staff
with the Wireless Technology Center and Broadband Operations at Motorola, Inc.
In this position, I was responsible for the development of wireless systems, cellular
systems, RF integrated circuits, GPS systems, Bluetooth systems, and Digital
Subscriber Lines (DSL) transceivers.
8.
From 1997 to 2001, I was the standards technical analyst for Motorola
and attended various standard setting committees, including International
Telecommunication Union (ITU), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE), and European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) related to
DSL, Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), Code division
multiple access (CDMA), second and third generation wireless telephone
technology (2G and 3G) systems. I was also the platform manager at Motorola as
the lead architect for the DSL, Discrete Multitone Modulation (DMT), and OFDM
for wireline and wireless systems, wireless networking, 3G, Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS), GPS systems, and Bluetooth systems for
cellular handsets.
9.
From 1987 to 1993, I was an Assistant and Associate Professor at
Oregon State University in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department
4
10.
From 1985 to 1987, I worked with Boeing on the development of
signal processing and control systems. I have also been a consultant on various
projects with Intel (designing 3G transceivers), Texas Instruments (developing 3G
and Bluetooth technologies), Sony Wireless (developing GPS technologies) and
Tektronics (designing wireless equipment)
11.
I have extensive industry and academic experience in communication
systems, networking, wireless and wireline communication systems, Radio
Frequency (RF) and antenna technologies, and integrated systems.
12.
I have been involved with wireless and wireline technology for the
last 30 years starting with the first generation of mobile phones (analog Advanced
Mobile Phone System mobile phones), 2G, 3G, and 4G including Global System
for Mobile (GSM), Enhanced Data for Global Evolution (EDGE), Interim Standard
95 (IS-95), 1X CDMA, Wide band CDMA, Bluetooth, Global Positioning System
(GPS), Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), and related areas. I designed the
baseband communication system for Motorola’s Talkabout Radio of which over
100 million are currently in the market place.
13.
In my over twenty years of teaching experience, I have taught a
number of courses and performed research projects in electronic circuits, RF, GPS,
communications, wireless transceiver, and communication systems.
5
14.
I have published over a hundred journal and conference papers
covering topics such as communication systems, signal processing, radio
frequency, integrated circuits (IC), filter design, and related areas.
15.
I am an IEEE Fellow, a distinction and highest level membership
awarded for extraordinary accomplishments.
16.
I am a member of the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society, IEEE Solid
State Circuits Society, IEEE Communication Society, IEEE RF and Microwave
committees, IEEE Low Power Symposium Committee, IEEE Signal Processing
Society, and the IEEE Fellow Selection Committee.
17.
I was the key organizer to establish the IEEE Radio Frequency
Integrated Circuits (RFIC) symposium in 1995 and have been on the executive and
technical committees of RFIC for the last 16 years. The RFIC Symposium has
grown and is now the premier international symposium in the world where the
latest RF circuits and components are presented.
18.
I have received several awards including the Carter Best Teacher
Award, the IEEE Darlington Award (which is given for the best technical paper on
circuits and systems in the IEEE CAS Society), and Motorola 10X Rapid Design
Cycle Reduction Award.
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19.
I was a principal investigator and recipient of two research grants
from the National Science Foundation on the development of a hearing aid system
from 2006-2011. I worked on the development of a hearing aid transceiver with
focus on reducing radio frequency feedback and improving noise reduction in
hearing aids. I have given presentations at several international conferences in this
area and am very familiar with design constraints applicable to hearing aids and
antenna designs for incorporation into hearing aids.
20.
I am being compensated at my normal consulting rate of $400.00/hour
for my work and for reasonable expenses incurred in preparing this declaration.
21.
My compensation is not dependent on and in no way affects the
substance of my statements in this Declaration.
22.
I have no financial interest in the Petitioner or any HIMPP member. I
similarly have no financial interest in the ’884 Patent.
23.
A copy of my curriculum vitae is attached as Appendix A.
24.
I have reviewed the specification and claims of the ’884 patent (Ex.
1001) and its U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) prosecution history (Ex.
1002).
25.
I have also reviewed the following references, all of which I
understand to be prior art to the ’884 Patent:
7
x U.S. Patent No. 5,563,951 to Wang et al. (“Wang”) issued on October
8, 1996, which is more than one year prior to the earliest priority date
claimed by the ’884 patent (April 14, 1998).
x U.S. Patent No. 5,692,058 to Eggers et al. (“Eggers”) was filed on
March 2, 1995 and issued on November 25, 1997, which is prior to
the earliest priority date claimed by the ’884 patent (April 14, 1998).
x U.S. Patent No. 5,130,665 to Walden (“Walden”) issued on July 14,
1992, which is more than one year prior to the earliest priority date
claimed by the ’884 patent (April 14, 1998).
x U.S. Patent No. 5,764,775 to Kim (“Kim”) was filed on October 31,
1995 and issued June 9, 1998. Kim issued from an application that
was filed prior to the earliest priority date claimed by the ’884 patent
(April 14, 1998).
x U.S. Patent No. 5,734,731 to Marx (“Marx”) was filed on November
29, 1994 and issued on March 31, 1998, which is prior to the earliest
priority date claimed by the ’884 patent (April 14, 1998).
x U.S. Patent No. 5,734,964 to Fishman (“Fishman”) was filed on
February 3, 1997 and issued on March 31, 1998. Fishman issued
8
from an application that was filed prior to the earliest priority date
claimed by the ’884 patent (April 14, 1998).
x U.S. Patent No. 5,661,812 to Scofield (“Scofield”) was filed on
November 21, 1996 and issued on August 26, 1997. Scofield issued
from an application that was filed prior to the earliest priority date
claimed by the ’884 patent (April 14, 1998).
x U.S. Patent No. 3,350,643 to Webb (“Webb”) issued October 31,
1967, which is more than one year prior to the earliest priority date
claimed by the ’884 patent (April 14, 1998).
x U.S. Patent No. 5,867,581 to Obara (“Obara”) was filed on October
11, 1995 and issued on February 2, 1999. Obara issued from an
application that was filed prior to the earliest priority date claimed by
the ’884 patent (April 14, 1998).
x U.S. Patent No. 5,666,426 to Helms (“Helms”) was filed on October
17, 1996 and issued on September 9, 1997. Helms issued from an
application that was filed prior to the earliest priority date claimed by
the ’884 patent (April 14, 1998).
9
x U.S. Patent No. 5,450,494 to Okubo (“Okubo”) issued September 12,
1995, which is more than one year prior to the earliest priority date
claimed by the ’884 patent (April 14, 1998).
26.
In addition, I have also reviewed the prior art discussed during
prosecution of the ’884 Patent.
I have read and agree with the facts and
conclusions presented in the accompanying petition.
II. LEGAL PRINCIPLES
27.
I am not an attorney. For the purposes of this declaration, I have been
informed about certain aspects of the law that are relevant to my opinions. My
understanding of the law was provided to me by Petitioner’s attorneys.
28.
I understand that prior art to the ’884 Patent includes patents and
printed publications in the relevant art that predate the priority date of the alleged
invention recited in the ’884 Patent. I have applied the earliest priority date of
April 14, 1998 as the priority date. However, I have taken no position taking a
position whether the ’884 Patent is entitled to that priority date
29.
I understand that a claim is unpatentable if it would have been obvious
to a person of ordinary skill in the art at the time the alleged invention was made. I
10
understand that a claim could have been obvious from a single prior art reference
or from a combination of two or more prior art references.
30.
I understand that an obviousness analysis requires an understanding of
the scope and content of the prior art, any differences between the alleged
invention and the prior art, and the level of ordinary skill in evaluating the
pertinent art.
31.
I further understand that certain factors may support or rebut the
obviousness of a claim. I understand that such secondary considerations include,
among other things, commercial success of the patented invention, skepticism of
those having ordinary skill in the art at the time of invention, unexpected results of
the invention, any long-felt but unsolved need in the art that was satisfied by the
alleged invention, the failure of others to make the alleged invention, praise of the
alleged invention by those having ordinary skill in the art, and copying of the
alleged invention by others in the field. I understand that there must be a nexus,
that is, a connection, between any such secondary considerations and the alleged
invention. I also understand that contemporaneous and independent invention by
others is a secondary consideration tending to show obviousness.
32.
I further understand that a claim would have been obvious if it unites
old elements with no change to their respective functions, or alters prior art by
11
mere substitution of one element for another known in the field, and that
combination yields predictable results. Also, I understand that obviousness does
not require physical combination/bodily incorporation, but rather consideration of
what the combined teachings would have suggested to persons of ordinary skill in
the art at the time of the alleged invention.
33.
While it may be helpful to identify a reason for this combination, I
understand that there is no rigid requirement of finding an express teaching,
suggestion, or motivation to combine within the references. When a product is
available, design incentives and other market forces can prompt variations of it,
either in the same field or a different one. If a person of ordinary skill in the art
can implement a predictable variation, obviousness likely bars its patentability. For
the same reason, if a technique has been used to improve one device and a person
of ordinary skill in the art would recognize that it would improve similar devices in
the same way, using the technique would have been obvious. I understand that a
claim would have been obvious if a person of ordinary skill in the art would have
had reason to combine multiple prior art references or add missing features to
reproduce the alleged invention recited in the claims.
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34.
I am not aware of any allegations by the named inventors of the ’884
Patent or any assignee of the ’884 Patent that any secondary considerations tend to
rebut the obviousness of any claim of the ’884 Patent discussed in this declaration.
35.
I understand that in considering obviousness, it is important not to
determine obviousness using the benefit of hindsight derived from the patent being
considered.
36.
I understand that other challenges to the validity of a patent, including
patent ineligibility, enablement, written description, and definiteness, cannot be
raised in IPR proceedings before the Board to challenge the validity of the ’884
Patent. Accordingly, I did not consider those other challenges.
37.
The analysis in this declaration is in accordance with the above-stated
legal principles.
III.
PERSON OF ORDINARY SKILL IN THE ART
38.
I understand that the level of ordinary skill may be reflected by the
prior art of record, and that a person of ordinary skill in the art to which the
claimed subject matter pertains would have the capability of understanding the
scientific and engineering principles applicable to the pertinent art. I understand
that one of ordinary skill in the art has ordinary creativity, and is not a robot.
13
39.
I understand there are multiple factors relevant to determining the
level of ordinary skill in the art, including (1) the levels of education and
experience of persons working in the field at the time of the invention, (2) the
sophistication of the technology, (3) the types of problems encountered in the field;
and (4) the prior art solutions to those problems. There are likely a wide range of
educational backgrounds in the technology fields pertinent to the ’884 patent.
40.
A person of ordinary skill in the art (“POSITA”) of the ’884 patent
would have been someone with a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering and at
least two years of experience in the field of audio engineering. Graduate education
could substitute for work experience, and additional work experience/training
could substitute for formal education. As described in more detail above, I would
have been a person with at least ordinary skill in the art of the ’884 patent as of the
time of its alleged invention.
IV.
OVERVIEW OF THE ’884 PATENT (EX1001)
A.
Brief Description of the ’884 Patent
41.
The ’884 patent’s purported “invention” is a system that includes a
transmitter and a plurality of playback devices (PLDs) for providing “voice-toremaining audio capability.” (’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 4:8-9, 8:6-13). Voice-toremaining audio (VRA) “refers to the personalized adjustment of an audio
14
program’s voice to remaining audio ratio by separately adjusting the vocal (speech
or voice) volume independently of the separate adjustment of the remaining audio
volume (which may include music, sound effects, laughter, or other non-speech
sounds that are included in a total audio program).” (Id., 4:12-18). Figure 4 of the
’884 patent “illustrates a block diagram of a voice-to-remaining audio (VRA)
system for simultaneous multiple broadcasting.” (Id., 3:18-19):
(Id., Fig. 4).
42.
Each playback device 220 includes a receiver 231 to receive “separate
voice and remaining audio signal components” from a transmitter 222. (Id., 8:2715
33). The “received voice signal 239, is sent to a separate variable gain amplifier
229, [so] that the end user can adjust [it] to his or her preference” and the “received
remaining audio signal 240, is sent to a variable gain amplifier 230, [so] that [it]
can be adjusted by the listener to his or her particular listening preference.” (Id.,
8:34-39). “These adjusted signals are summed by adder 228 and may also be
further adjusted by gain amplifier 227 before being forwarded to transducer 226.
Transducer converts the electrical signal from gain amplifier 227 into an audible
acoustic audio signal 232.” (Id., 8:39-43). Thus, “a preferred VRA for that
individual user is achieved.” (Id., 8:63-67).
B.
Summary of the Prosecution History of the ’884 Patent
43.
The application leading to the ’884 patent was filed on January 8,
2008. (’884 File History, Ex. 1002, 1). In a preliminary amendment filed Jan. 8,
2008, Applicants canceled claims 1-20, added new claims 21-23, and amended the
specification to claim priority to U.S. Application 11/154,814 as a continuation.
(Id., 6-9).
44.
The examiner issued a first (non-final) office action on July 15, 2011,
in which pending claims 21 and 23 were rejected as being anticipated by U.S.
Patent No. 4,064,364 to Veale, claims 21-23 were rejected on the ground of
nonstatutory obviousness-type double patenting over U.S. Patent Nos. 6,311,155
16
and 7,337,111, and claim 22 was indicated as otherwise allowable. (Id., 207-218).
Specifically, the examiner asserted that Veale taught the “personal listening
device” of claim 21 comprising:
a receiver that receives a first audio signal and a second audio signal
(60, 66), the signals including voice and being different from one
another;
an adjustment device (72, 82) that allows a listener to adjust the first
audio signal and the second audio signal independent of each other
(Col.9, lines 60-62); and
a transducer that receives the adjusted first and/or second audio
signals, combines the received first and second audio signals, and
outputs an audible sound based on the combined first and second
audio signals to the listener without interfering with other listeners in
the listening environment (claims 4 & 21; Fig.3).
17
The examiner asserted that Veale also taught claim 23 for the same reasons.
(Id., 212-213).
45.
In the September 19, 2011 response, Applicants did not contest the
examiner’s analysis of the prior art teachings and, instead, amended claim 21 to
further require that the first audio signal include substantially a voice signal and
that the second audio signal include a remaining audio signal. Id., 226-235).
Applicants also amended claim 23 to require that the second audio signal include a
remaining audio signal and added claims 24-37. (Id., 226-235). Applicants’
amendments to claims 21 and 23 are reproduced below:
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(Id., 228-229).
46.
Applicants asserted:
Contrary to the features of claims 21 and 23, Veale does not teach any
audio signal that substantially includes a voice signal. The signals in
Veale can come from a microphone, phonogram, tape-1, tape-2, etc.
(Veale, col. 3, lines 60-68.) Veale further teaches that each of the
input sources, such as the phonogram or tape, may have a left channel
and a right channel, as for example, in a stereophonic recording. (Id.
at col. 4, lines 3-8). The input signals are mixed and equalized, and
then sent to an output (Id. at col. 8, lines 28-41). All the input and
output signals in Veale are distinguished exclusively based on their
origin (microphone, phonogram, tape recorder, etc.). The signal
processing in Veale is, additionally or in the alternative, based on the
frequency of the signal (Id. at col. 6, lines 50-53). Thus, contrary to
19
the Office Action's assertions, Veale does not teach or suggest, inter
alia, “the first audio signal including substantially a voice signal and
the second audio signal including a remaining audio,” as recited in
claims 21 and 23.
(Id., 233-234). Applicants elected to not file a terminal disclaimer to obviate
the double patenting rejection. (Id., 233).
47.
The examiner issued a second (final) office action on October 14,
2011, rejecting claims 21-37 on the ground of nonstatutory obviousness-type
double patenting over U.S. Patent Nos. 6,311,155 and 7,337,111, indicating claims
21-37 to be otherwise allowable. (Id., 240-250).
48.
In the response filed on November 15, 2011, Applicants asserted that
“pending claims 21-37 are not obvious in light of the claims of the cited patent
references” but filed a terminal disclaimer over the ’155 and ’111 patents to
overcome the double patenting rejection. (Id., 251-263).
49.
The examiner issued a notice of allowance on December 29, 2011,
and the ’884 patent issued on May 1, 2012. (Id., 266-272; ’884 patent, Ex. 1001,
p. 1).
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V. CLAIM CONSTRUCTION
50.
I understand that in an IPR, the terms in the challenged claims should
be given their plain meaning under the broadest reasonable interpretation standard.
I also understand that if the specification sets forth an alternate definition of a term
with reasonable clarity, deliberateness, and precision, the patentee’s lexicography
governs. I have applied this standard for this proceeding. I have applied the
broadest reasonable meaning in light of the specification as commonly understood
by those of ordinary skill in the art for any claim term not included in this section.
51.
“a voice signal” – Claims 1 and 9 recite “the first audio signal
including substantially a voice signal” and claim 17 recites “the first audio signal
including a voice signal.”
(‘884 patent, Ex. 1001, 27:60-30:16).
The ’884
specification states that voice-to-remaining audio (VRA) “refers to the
personalized adjustment of an audio program’s voice to remaining audio ratio by
separately adjusting the vocal (speech or voice) volume independently of the
separate adjustment of the remaining audio volume (which may include music,
sound effects, laughter, or other non-speech sounds that are included in a total
audio program).” (’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 4:12-18). The ’884 specification further
refers to voice signals as “either pure voice signal or center channel signal.” (Id.,
10:22-23). For example, the voice signal may be “the announcers play by play
21
voice which had been recorded separately and was pure voice or mostly pure
voice” at a football game. (Id., 4:41:44; 5:30-39; 11:55-60). Accordingly, the
’884 specification distinguishes a voice signal, which contains speech or voice,
from other audio signals that contain non-speech sounds. In view of the patent
claims and specification, a POSITA would thus understand the term “voice signal”
to mean a signal that contains primarily speech or voice.
52.
“a remaining audio” – Claims 1, 9, and 17 recite “the second audio
signal including a remaining audio.” The ’884 patent specification states that
voice-to-remaining audio (VRA) “refers to the personalized adjustment of an audio
program’s voice to remaining audio ratio by separately adjusting the vocal (speech
or voice) volume independently of the separate adjustment of the remaining audio
volume (which may include music, sound effects, laughter, or other non-speech
sounds that are included in a total audio program).” (’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 4:1218, emphasis added). The ’884 specification also refers to “remaining audio” as
background audio. (Id., 1:59-62 (“mostly dialog to background”); 5:11-12 (“a
fixed background noise and the voice of an announcer”); 5:30-39 (“…the ratio of
the voice to the background …”); 6:6 (“ratio of voice to background”); 7:51-52
(“…separate the signals into video, voice audio, and background audio…”); 7:6566 (“…listener can adjust relevant voice to background levels…”); 11:55-60.) In
22
one example, the ’884 specification discloses “the ratio of voice to background”
for a football game where the voice is “the announcers play by play voice which
had been recorded separately and was pure voice or mostly pure voice” and the
background is “crowd noise” at the football game. (Id., 4:41:44 (“… remaining
audio for a football game (where the remaining audio was the crowd noise)…”);
5:30-39; 11:55-60 (“…the desired ratio of voice to remaining audio …. For
example, a football game contains dialog from the announcers and background
noise from the cheering fans.”)). Accordingly, the ’884 specification distinguishes
remaining audio, which contains non-speech sounds such as background audio,
from a voice signal that contains speech or dialog. In view of the patent claims and
specification, a POSITA would thus understand the term “remaining audio” to
mean audio containing primarily non-speech sounds.
53.
“transducer” – Claim 1 recites “a transducer configured to receive
the adjusted first and/or second audio signals, combine the received first and
second audio signals, and output an audible sound based on the combined first and
second audio signals to the listener without interfering with other listeners in the
listening environment.”
A POSITA would have understood the claimed
“transducer” combines traditional transducer functions of converting a signal into a
different form, with receiving and combining audio signals.
23
The dictionary
definition of “transducer” is: “Any device or element which converts an input
signal into an output signal of a different form; examples include the microphone,
phonograph pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn,
doorbell, and underwater sound transducer.” (Parker, Ex. 1005, 2053).
54.
The ’884 patent describes two separate components to achieve the
claimed transducer functions. It describes and shows in Figure 4, for example, that
the “adjusted signals are summed by adder 228 … before being forwarded to
transducer 226. Transducer converts the electrical signal from gain amplifier 227
into an audible acoustic audio signal 232.” (’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 8:39-43).
24
(Id., Fig. 4). In another example, a “demodulator 114 basebands the audio signals
resulting in a vocal track(s) and a remaining audio track(s) that are then manually
adjustable 115, summed 117, and further adjusted for level 116, amplified by the
headphone amplifier 118 and reproduced through the headphone speaker 119.”
(Id., 19:58-63). Accordingly, a POSITA would understand the term “transducer”
to include a component that combines at least two signals and a component that
converts an electrical signal into an audible acoustic audio signal.
55.
“means for receiving a first audio signal and a second audio
signal” – Claim 17 recites a “means for receiving a first audio signal and a second
audio signal.”
25
x Function
56.
The function is “receiving a first audio signal and a second audio
signal.”
x Structure
57.
There are multiple corresponding structures for the “means for
receiving:”
x a receiver system (’884 patent, Ex. 1001, Figure 2, 7:44-47);
x a receiver (Id., Figures 4, 7, 8, 14, 8:29-33, 9:58-61, 10:5-20,
10:42-44, 15:41-46, 18:62-65);
x a stereo receiver (Id., Figure 5, 9:35-37);
x a receiver/decoder (Id., Figure 17, 17:33-49);
x a voice extracting receiver (Id., Figure 18, 18:11-22); and
x a wireless receiver (Id., Figure 19, 19:56-58).
58.
“means for adjusting the first audio signal and the second audio
signal independent of each other by a listener” – Claim 17 recites a “means for
adjusting the first audio signal and the second audio signal independent of each
other by a listener.”
x Function
26
59.
The function is “adjusting the first audio signal and the second audio
signal independent of each other by a listener.”
x Structure
60.
There are multiple corresponding structures for the “means for
adjusting:”
x variable gain amplifiers (’884 patent, Ex. 1001, Figures 2, 4,
7:54-59, 8:33-39, 10:55-11:16);
x a VRA adjust (Id., Figure 7, 10:20-26);
x user adjustable gain (Id., Figure 11, 13:4-7); and
x a software program adjusting gains and a multiplier (Id., Figure
23, 23:23-24:4). The ’884 patent provides that the software
program calculates the adjustments to be applied to the voice
and remaining audio signals, and the signals are multiplied by
the calculated adjustments using the multiplier. (Id., 23:23-31)
(“The control of the gains applied to the voice and remaining
audio can be entirely software driven through a graphical user
interface. … The signals can be amplified in the digital domain
by incorporating several lines of source code into the decoding
program that indicated that each of the two signals (voice and
27
remaining audio) are to be multiplied by adjustable constants”);
(Id., 23:43-63) (“If the VRA adjustments are made available via
hardware … and the signal decoding is implemented via
software, a handshake protocol is needed to ensure that the
adjustments made using the hardware knob are translated to
software gain change and multiplication operations. … [The]
numbers … (for voice … and remaining audio) are multiplied
170 by the respective signals and those outputs are summed 172
to form the total VRA adjusted program.”)
61.
“means for receiving the adjusted first and/or second audio
signals, combining the received first and second audio signals, and outputting
an audible sound based on the combined first and second audio signals to the
listener without interfering with other listeners in the listening environment”
– Claim 17 recites a “means for receiving the adjusted first and/or second audio
signals, combining the received first and second audio signals, and outputting an
audible sound based on the combined first and second audio signals to the listener
without interfering with other listeners in the listening environment.”
x Function
28
62.
The function is “receiving the adjusted first and/or second audio
signals, combining the received first and second audio signals, and outputting an
audible sound based on the combined first and second audio signals to the listener
without interfering with other listeners in the listening environment.”
x Structure
63.
There are multiple corresponding structures for the receiving,
combining, and outputting:
x a unity gain summing amplifier (’884 patent, Ex. 1001, Figure
2, Figure 20, 7:60-64) (E.g., id., 7:60-61, “[t]he two adjusted
signals are summed by a unity gain summing amplifier 132 to
produce the final audio output”);
x an adder/summer and a transducer (Id., Figure 4, Figure7,
Figure 9, 8:39-43, 10:20-26, 11:16-21) (E.g., id., 8:39-43,
“adjusted signals are summed by adder 228 … before being
forwarded to transducer 226. Transducer converts the electrical
signal from gain amplifier 227 into an audible acoustic audio
signal 232.”; 10:22-25, “signals … are adjusted … and are then
recombined as disclosed above and are transduced 27 to audible
audio”);
29
x a spatial processing unit and a transducer (Id., Figure 8, 10:4053):
;
x a combiner and an amplifier (Id., Figure 15, 16:41-47) (e.g.,
“adjusted signals are then combined to form the total audio
program ….
An amplifier 79 is required to power the
transducers in the PLD. The outputs 90 of the airline VRA box
consist of connectors … [that] allow the airlines to use their
existing headsets for the PLD device.”);
x a summer (adder) and a speaker (Id., Figure 16, Figure 19,
16:55-60,
19:58-63)
(e.g.,
id.,
16:55-60,
“signals
are
independently adjusted … and a total signal is created 90. This
is further adjusted for overall level 91, 92 and used to drive
30
another speaker 93.”; id., 19:59-63, “vocal track(s) and a
remaining audio track(s) … are then manually adjustable 115,
summed 117, and further adjusted for level 116, amplified by
the headphone amplifier 118 and reproduced through the
headphone speaker 119.”);
x a headphone processor and headphone speakers (Id., Figure 25,
25:30-40); and
x an adder and a playback system (Id., Figure 28, 27:35-42) (“To
experience the whole program simultaneously with VRA
adjustment, these two signals are passed through two variable
gain amplifiers 205 and 206 where each of the levels are
controlled, and then they are summed to form a total program.
This total program can then be further adjusted for level 207.
This fully adjusted total program is then split if it is to be
reproduced 208 by a stereo playback system.”).
64.
Accordingly, the constructions I proposed above are consistent with
both the specification of the ’884 patent and with the ordinary use of the term.
31
VI.
PRIOR ART
A.
Wang – Ex. 1004
65.
I understand that Wang is prior art under pre-AIA 35 U.S.C. §102(b).
66.
Wang teaches a personal listening apparatus that comprises “a
garment-based audio interface” which “captures and displays high fidelity
spatialized sound to allow a plurality of users to access and share each other’s
auditory space.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, Abstract, 2:39-42, 3:39-43).
(Id., Figs. 1 and 2).
67.
Wang states that:
32
By wearing the garment member 12, a user is provided
with a personal listening environment by the sound
waves generated by the audio output device 16. The
combination of the garment member 12 and the audio
output device 16 provides a personal listening apparatus
which can be employed in a [s]imilar manner as a
headphone or an earphone, but does not block the ears of
the user. By including the audio input device 20, the
receiver 22, and the transmitter 24, a system is provided
which allows a user to communicate to a transceiver 26
adapted for use with the receiver 22 and transmitter 24
pair. Sound waves generated by the user speaking in a
normal manner are converted into an audio signal by the
audio input device 20 for transmission by the transmitter
24. Similarly, the audio output device 16 produces sound
waves in response to a signal received by the receiver 22
for listening by the user.
68.
(Id., 3:63-4:11). Wang’s personal listening apparatus “allows people
to mutually access and share their auditory spaces in a telecommunications
environment.” (Id., 4:12-14).
69.
Wang teaches a telecommunications environment of multiple personal
listening apparatuses that each include “a receiver capable of receiving at least one
transmitted signal and producing a first audio signal based thereupon, and a
33
transmitter capable of transmitting a second signal in dependence upon a second
audio signal. (Id., Abstract; 2:45-49).
70.
Wang teaches that the audio signals may come from a variety of
sources including “audio from a telephone receiver, one or more sources of music,
and audio from one or more other users having a like personal communications
apparatus.” (Id., 8:10-15). Wang’s personal listening apparatus can be used “to
form an enhanced, surround audio environment.” (Id., 5:58-59).
B.
Eggers – Ex. 1006
71.
I understand that Eggers is prior art under pre-AIA 35 U.S.C. §102(a)
and pre-GATT 35 U.S.C. § 102(e).
72.
Eggers relates to a “[d]ual program audio apparatus having two or
more sources of input audio program signals, switching circuitry for selecting two
of the input audio signals for amplification, one or more amplifiers for amplifying
the selected input audio program signals, and one or more audio speakers for
enabling a listener to hear both audio programs simultaneously.” (Eggers, Ex.
1006, Abstract). Figure 1 of Eggers shows:
34
(Id., Figure 1).
73.
Eggers discloses, “[f]ront panel portions 15 and 16 of audio system 10
provide volume and balance controls 15a, 16a, and 15b, 16b, respectively, for the
audio programs output by source A … and source B.” (Id., 4:24-28). Further,
Eggers discloses, “[m]aster volume control 19b permits the volume of both sources
of programming to be raised or lowered by the user as appropriate for a particular
listening situation.” (Id., 4:59-61; see also 6:29-56; Fig. 4).
35
C.
Walden – Ex. 1007
74.
I understand that Walden is prior art under pre-AIA 35 U.S.C.
§102(b).
75.
Walden relates to “[a]n audio volume controller includ[ing] a variable
gain amplifier which amplifies an audio signal and drives a sound transducer such
as a loud speaker.” (Walden, Ex. 1007, Abstract). Figure 1 of Walden is a
diagram of Walden’s audio system:
(Id., Figure 1).
76.
Walden discloses, “[a]n audio signal is applied to a signal inlet port 16
of the amplifier 10 where it is amplified and coupled from an amplifier outlet port
36
18 to the inlet terminals of the speaker 12 for conversion to a sound wave.” (Id.,
2:9-13).
D.
Kim – Ex. 1008
77.
I understand that Kim is prior art under pre-GATT 35 U.S.C. § 102(e).
78.
Kim relates to “[a]udio process units for controllably mixing L[eft]-
channel and R[ight]-channel portions of” an audio signal.
(Kim, Ex. 1008,
Abstract). Figure 1 of Kim discloses “a block diagram of audio signal mixing
procedures between L channel and R channel in a conventional APU [audio
processing unit].” (Id., 4:31-33):
(Id., Figure 1).
37
79.
Kim discloses a prior art “audio mixer” having adders 6 and 11 “to
mix the L-channel and R-channel audio signals” prior to outputting the signals.
(Id., 1:40-41; 1:63-2:25).
E.
Marx – Ex. 1009
80.
I understand that Marx is prior art under pre-AIA 35 U.S.C. §102(a)
and pre-GATT 35 U.S.C. § 102(e).
81.
Marx relates to “[a]n audio mixer for use with audio input devices for
buffering audio input signals in a dual buffering system where the dual buffering
system includes a mass storage device and a dynamic storage device.” (Marx, Ex.
1009, Abstract). Figure 1 of Marx “shows a block diagram of an audio mixing
system”. (Id., 3:34-35).
38
(Id., Figure 1).
82.
Marx discloses, the audio “mixer 10 utilizes a processor 12 to
selectively pass an audio signal 21 in a digitized form from the audio input device
20 into a buffer 14. The buffer 14 is a combination of random access memory
(‘RAM’) 16 and a disk drive 18 which is used to temporarily store the audio
signals.” (Id., 4:10-14). Marx discloses that once audio is “stored in the buffer 14,
the audio signal 21 can be processed by the processor 12 as per a user’s
requirements to generate a processed audio signal 23 which is then transmitted to
an audio output device 22”, which may be “transmission equipment for radio
broadcast or any of various other devices.” (Id., 4:15-22).
39
F.
Fishman – Ex. 1010
83.
I understand that Fishman is prior art under pre-AIA 35 U.S.C.
§102(a) and pre-GATT 35 U.S.C. § 102(e).
84.
Fishman relates to a “programmable FM assistive listening system …
adapted to send audio signals on a selected one of a plurality of predetermined
available channels. (Fishman, Ex. 1010, Abstract). Fishman discloses the use of
Dolby sound processor system with assistive listening devices (“ALDs”):
This circuit allows a number of different audio sources to
be input into the transmitter.
For example, the
transmitter may be connected to a sound processor
system such as that used in a theater for DOLBY
(“DOLBY” is a registered trademark of Dolby Labs,
Inc.) stereo. This allows the ALD to make DOLBY stereo
available to the hearing impaired. In the example of a
DOLBY stereo system, the inputs for the transmitter may
be connected at any one of three points in the sound
processor system at the option of the user: 1) the preamp
output/input; 2) the L/R/C processor output; or 3) the
L/R/C on the processor card cage.
(Id., 6:5-25, emphasis added).
85.
Fishman’s system may be used in a movie theater, where “a
transmitter is typically placed near each screen projector and sound processor and
40
connected to the sound processor.” (Id., 6:28-31). The transmitters “can be set to
selected channels.” (Id., 6:33). Fishman describes the operation of its ALDs in
movie theaters:
The programmer/charger could be located in the ticket
booth. When a patron buys a ticket to see “Outerspace”
and desires an ALD, the attendant would press the
membrane style pad labeled “OUTERSPACE”. This
programs all receivers to channel 3 which will receive the
transmitted
audio
signal
for
“OUTERSPACE”.
(However, the attendant may not know, and does not
need to know, that channel 3 is assigned to that movie.)
The attendant then can pick any receiver and hand it to
the patron. If the next patron wants an ALD for another
movie then the attendant simply presses the membrane
style pad labeled for that movie and then picks any
receiver and hands it to the patron. Furthermore, if a
group of ten persons wants to see the same movie, the
attendant need press only the appropriate pad and hand
out any ten of the receivers.
(Id., 6:57-7:4).
86.
The ALD of Fishman can be used in a variety of settings, including
“convention centers, schools, collages [sic], churches, and stage productions”
which “allows a college or school easily to provide ALD systems in which a
41
hearing impaired person … could easily hear one or several lectures throughout the
day with only a single portable receiver”. (Id., 7:5-21).
G.
Scofield – Ex. 1011
87.
I understand that Scofield is prior art under pre-AIA 35 U.S.C.
§102(a) and pre-GATT 35 U.S.C. § 102(e).
88.
Scofield relates to a “head mounted surround sound virtual
positioning system that includes a video recorder (200), which is operable to have
disposed therein a tape (202), having a surround sound audio track associated
therewith. The surround sound system is encoded on two channels, which are
output to a Dolby® decoder (204), which is operable to extract the five surround
sound system channels therefrom.” (Scofield, Ex. 1011, Abstract). For example,
FIG. 14 of Scofield “illustrate[s] a simplified block diagram of the binaural mixing
system …. The left and right outputs of the VCR 200 are provided on lines 224 to
the surround decoder 204. The decoded outputs are comprised of five lines 226
that provide for the left front, left rear, right front and right rear speakers and the
center front speaker.” (Scofield, Ex. 1011, 11:16-22).
42
(Id., Fig. 14).
89.
In addition, Scofield discloses that a subwoofer output may be
included in the output of the decoder 204 as well: “[t]he output of the crossover
circuit 274 associated with the lower frequency components provides two lines 288
which are input to a summation circuit 290 … operable to sum the two lines 288
with the subwoofer output of the decoder 204, this being a conventional output of
the decoder.” (Id., 13:37-42).
H.
Webb – Ex. 1012
90.
I understand that Webb is prior art under pre-AIA 35 U.S.C. §102(b).
91.
Webb “relates to signal communication circuitry and, more
particularly, to a system for automatically estimating signal-to-noise ratio and other
43
parameters in a signal communication system.” (Webb, Ex. 1012, 1:11-14). Webb
discloses, “continuously monitoring signals received in a communication system
and estimating the signal-to-noise ratio from which the performance of various
phases of the communication system may be evaluated.” (Id., 1:67-72). Webb
further discloses, “[d]uring each of a successive series of time intervals or periods,
the signals plus noise are integrated to produce an output at the end of each period.
These outputs are then accumulated to estimate the mean and the standard
deviation of the outputs which are related to the signal-to-noise ratio” and “in
systems where the ratios of different signals to noise are derived, these ratios may
automatically be operated upon to produce different performance parameters from
which the system’s actual performance can be assessed.” (Id., 2:19-25, 2:40-43).
I.
Obara – Ex. 1013
92.
I understand that Obara is prior art under pre-GATT 35 U.S.C.
§ 102(e).
93.
Obara relates to “a hearing aid capable of controlling the volume of
output sound or its switching, on the basis of a voiceless period extracted from the
input sound.” (Obara, Ex, 1013, 1:26-29). Obara also relates to “a hearing aid
capable of controlling volume of output sound or its switching, or attenuating a
frequency band of warning sound included in the output sound, by detecting the
44
warning sound, for example, when the warning sound suddenly gets into ambient
sound included in input sound.” (Id., 1:30-35). Figure 1 of Obara is a structural
diagram of a first embodiment of a hearing aid:
(Id., Figure 1).
45
94.
In Figure 1 of Obara, “[r]eference numeral 105 is an arithmetic and
control unit for calculating a ratio of the power level measured by the input sound
level detector 104 to the power level measured by the voiceless level detector
103.” (Id., 2:59-62). In the first embodiment disclosed in Obara, “[t]he arithmetic
control unit 105 determines a ratio (F1/Fenv) from the power level measured by
the input sound level detector 104 and the power level measured by the voiceless
level detector 103.” (Id., 3:46-49). Further, “[w]hen the ratio is smaller than a
predetermined value (for example, 20 dB), it is judged that the relative noise level
is high, and hence gain of the amplifier 108 is lowered. As a result, the output
level of the sound to the wearer is lowered, and the unpleasant sound including
noise of high level is not applied to the wearer. On the other hand, when the ratio
is greater than the predetermined value, it is judged that the relative noise level is
low, so that the gain of the amplifier 108 is set to an ordinary value.” (Id., 3:5059).
J.
Helms – Ex. 1014
95.
I understand that Helms is prior art under pre-AIA 35 U.S.C. §102(a)
and pre-GATT 35 U.S.C. § 102(e).
96.
Helms relates to a “system and method for automatically adjusting the
volume of an audio system to compensate for variations in ambient noise.”
46
(Helms, Ex. 1014, Abstract).
Helms describes various ambient noise levels
encountered when driving a car:
An example of an audio system is a car stereo. The car
stereo is located inside a car and, therefore, must interact
with a wide variety of ambient noises. In a typical
scenario, when the car is initially started, the ambient
noise level due to road noise, wind noise, and engine
noise is relatively low. Therefore, the car stereo may be
set at an initial, low volume level. As the car begins to
move, however, the ambient noise level increases, so the
volume level of the car stereo must also increase to
compensate for the increased noise. When the car reaches
a high speed, the ambient noise becomes very loud so
that the volume level of the car stereo must be increased
even more. If the car slows, the ambient noise decreases
and stereo volume level must be manually reduced. As a
result, the volume level of the car stereo must be adjusted
a number of times during a drive, so that the stereo can
be heard comfortably over the varying ambient noise.
(Id., 1:19-35).
97.
Helms explains that the need to constantly adjust the volume due to
variations in ambient noise is undesirable:
47
This constant requirement of adjusting the car stereo
volume is undesirable for several reasons. Most
importantly, for a driver to adjust the car stereo volume,
he must remove his concentration from the road, thereby
putting himself and others at risk. Furthermore, the
constant adjustment of the car stereo volume can be a
nuisance to the listener and detracts from the enjoyment
of listening to the car stereo.
(Id.,1:36-42)
K.
Okubo – Ex. 1015
98.
I understand that Okubo is prior art under pre-AIA 35 U.S.C. §102(b).
99.
Okubo relates to “[a]n apparatus for automatically controlling the
sound volume of a sound producing apparatus based on ambient noise.” (Okubo,
Ex. 1016, Abstract). Okubo discloses, “[a]s for the sound reproducing apparatus
used in noisy environments, such as a car radio or a car stereo equipment, it has
been attempted to automatically raise the reproducing volume depending on the
level of the ambient noise so as to maintain a favorable listening condition even in
a noisy situation.” (Id., 1:14-20).
48
VII. GROUNDS FOR FINDING THE CHALLENGED CLAIMS INVALID
100. It is my opinion that, for each of claims 1-17 of the ’884 Patent, any
differences between the claimed subject matter and the prior art (to the extent there
are any such differences) are such that the claimed subject matter would have been
obvious to a POSITA as of April 1998. I discuss and explain the specific grounds
for finding the challenged claims invalid as obvious below.
These grounds
demonstrate in detail that claims 1-17 (the “challenged claims”) are obvious under
35 U.S.C. §103 because they would have been obvious to a POSITA at the time of
the alleged invention.
A.
GROUND 1: CLAIMS 1, 2, AND 5 ARE OBVIOUS IN VIEW
OF WANG
101. As provided in my detailed analysis below, it is my opinion that
claims 1, 2, and 5 of the ’884 Patent are rendered obvious by Wang.
1.
Claim 1
102. Wang teaches a personal listening apparatus that comprises “a
garment-based audio interface.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 3:39-43).
49
(Id., Figs. 1 and 2).
103. Wang states:
By wearing the garment member 12, a user is provided
with a personal listening environment by the sound
waves generated by the audio output device 16. The
combination of the garment member 12 and the audio
output device 16 provides a personal listening apparatus
which can be employed in a [s]imilar manner as a
headphone or an earphone, but does not block the ears of
the user. By including the audio input device 20, the
receiver 22, and the transmitter 24, a system is provided
which allows a user to communicate to a transceiver 26
adapted for use with the receiver 22 and transmitter 24
50
pair. Sound waves generated by the user speaking in a
normal manner are converted into an audio signal by the
audio input device 20 for transmission by the transmitter
24. Similarly, the audio output device 16 produces sound
waves in response to a signal received by the receiver 22
for listening by the user.
(Id., 3:63-4:11).
104. Wang’s personal listening apparatus thus “allows people to mutually
access and share their auditory spaces in a telecommunications environment.” (Id.,
4:12-14).
a)
Claim 1[preamble]: “A personal listening device
useful in a listening environment having a plurality of
listeners, the personal listening device comprising:”
105. Wang teaches “[a] personal listening device useful in a listening
environment having a plurality of listeners.”
Specifically, Wang teaches a
telecommunications environment of multiple personal listening apparatuses each
of which includes “a receiver capable of receiving at least one transmitted signal
and producing a first audio signal based thereupon, and a transmitter capable of
transmitting a second signal in dependence upon a second audio signal.” (Wang,
Ex. 1004, Abstract; 2:45-49).
Wang’s personal listening apparatuses use “a
garment-based audio interface” which “captures and displays high fidelity
51
spatialized sound to allow a plurality of users to access and share each other’s
auditory space.” (Id., Abstract, 2:39-42, 3:41-43).
(Id., Figs. 1 and 2).
106. A “combination of the garment member 12 and the audio output
device 16 provides a personal listening apparatus which can be employed in a
[s]imilar manner as a headphone or an earphone, but does not block the ears of the
user.” (Id., 3:63-4:2).
52
b)
Claim 1[a]: “a receiver configured to receive a first
audio signal and a second audio signal, the first audio
signal including substantially a voice signal and the
second audio signal including a remaining audio, the
first audio signal being different than the second
audio signal;”
107. Wang’s personal listening device includes, or at least suggests, this
limitation.
Specifically, Wang teaches that each personal listening apparatus
includes a “receiver capable of receiving at least one transmitted signal and
producing a first audio signal based thereupon.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, Abstract; 2:4349).
(Id., Figs. 1 and 2).
53
108. Wang illustrates one example of the receiver 64 in Figure 3, shown
below.
(Id., Fig. 3).
109. Wang teaches that the audio signals received at a first personal
listening apparatus in the telecommunications environment may come from a
variety of sources including “audio from a telephone receiver, one or more sources
of music, and audio from one or more other users having a like personal
communications apparatus.” (Id., 8:10-15).
54
110. A first audio signal received by the receiver of the first personal
listening apparatus of Wang may include substantially the voice of a second user
(B) of a second personal listening apparatus in the telecommunications
environment.
(Id., 6:57-59, 7:2-6).
Wang, in particular, teaches that certain
microphones of the second user’s personal listening apparatus “would generally be
provided with a directional input characteristic aimed at the user to capture her
voice while ignoring, to some extent, the sound sources which may be present from
other directions” such that the users “can communicate to another person by
simply speaking as he/she would in a normal manner.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 6:57-59,
7:2-6). These microphones placed “on either side of the user’s collarbone provides
for a continuous, spatially correct capture of the stereo image of the user's speech.”
(Id., 6:59-64). The “[s]ound waves generated by the user speaking in a normal
manner are converted into an audio signal by the audio input device 20 for
transmission by the transmitter 24.”
(Id., 4:6-9).
Wang’s first audio signal
including the voice of the user of the personal listening apparatus is analogous to
the ’884 patent’s voice signal including “the announcers play by play voice” at a
football game. (’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 4:41:44; 5:30-39; 11:55-60).
111. A second audio signal received by the receiver of the first personal
listening apparatus of Wang may include “the 3-D auditory environment” around
55
the user of the second personal listening apparatus. (Wang, Ex. 1004, 4:12-24;
6:65-7:2). The 3-D auditory environment of the second user is captured by
different microphones “located on generally opposite sides of the neck opening so
that sound received by the at least two microphones is similar to that received by
two ears of a wearer.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 4:51-65; 6:65-7:2 (“…the microphones
should be positioned and designed to capture the 3-D auditory environment around
the user…”); 9:39-43).
The second audio signal of Wang including the 3-D
auditory environment around the user is the background audio around the user and
is analogous to the ’884 patent’s remaining audio that is “background noise from
the cheering fans” at the football game. (’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 4:41:44; 5:30-39;
11:55-60).
112. The first audio signal (the voice of the second user) is different from
the second audio signal (the “3-D auditory space” of the second user) in Wang.
Wang teaches capturing the voice of the second user and the 3-D auditory space of
the second user separately using different microphones as noted above and
transmitting those “audio signals by use of a predetermined modulation scheme” to
the first personal listening apparatus. (Wang, Ex. 1004, 7:7-8; 8:1-3; 8:10-15).
The user of the first personal listening apparatus may then selectively mix these
audio signals received from the second personal listening device. (Id., 4:28-35).
56
113. Accordingly, Wang discloses a receiver configured to receive a first
audio signal and a second audio signal where the first audio signal includes
substantially a voice signal (the voice of the second user) and the second audio
signal includes a remaining audio (the “3-D auditory space” of the second user),
and the first audio signal is different than the second audio signal.
114. To the extent Patent Owner argues that Wang does not expressly
disclose that the receiver is configured to receive a second audio signal including a
“remaining audio,” this is obvious in light of Wang’s disclosure. A POSITA
would be motivated to configure the device so that the 3-D auditory environment
sound is “remaining audio” (primarily sounds other than the user’s voice) so that
the recipient of the signals can easily hear and distinguish the voice sounds from
the environmental sounds.
c)
Claim 1[b]: “an adjustment device configured to
allow a listener to adjust the first audio signal and the
second audio signal independent of each other; and”
115. Wang discloses this limitation. Specifically, Wang teaches that “[t]he
user interface 76 allows the user to selectively control the amplitude and the
panning of each of the audio signals applied to the audio mixer 74. For example, if
the telephone rings while the user is listening to music, he/she can reduce the
57
volume of the music and increase the volume of the receiver of the telephone using
the user interface 76.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 8:18-23, emphasis added).
(Id., Fig. 3).
116. The user (A) of the first personal listening apparatus of Wang can also
“rotate, flip, augment, weaken B’s space perceived at A’s ears by selective mixing
of the audio signals received from B.”
(Id., 4:28-30, emphasis added).
Accordingly, the user interface 76 of Wang allows a user to adjust the first audio
signal (the voice of the second user) and the second audio signal (the “3-D auditory
space” of the second user) independent of each other.
58
d)
Claim 1[c]: “a transducer configured to receive the
adjusted first and/or second audio signals, combine
the received first and second audio signals, and output
an audible sound based on the combined first and
second audio signals to the listener without interfering
with other listeners in the listening environment.”
117. Wang discloses this limitation.
Wang teaches that the personal
listening apparatus includes an audio mixer 74 and that “[i]n response to a control
signal provided by [a] user interface 76, the audio mixer 74 selectively mixes the
one or more audio signals to provide audio signals to the speakers 42 and 44.”
(Wang, Ex. 1004, 7:54-57). Wang’s first personal listening apparatus also includes
“[a]n array of speakers positioned in the upper torso of the human body, such as
around the neck.” (Id., 5:3-5). These speakers are “coupled to the mixer to
produce sound waves” and “[a]pplication of a suitable audio signal to the speakers
42 and 44 produces a personal listening environment for the person wearing the
shirt 32.” (Id., claim 21, 5:60-62).
59
(Id., Fig. 2).
(Id., Fig. 3).
60
118. Wang further teaches that “[i]t is also desirable to aim and focus the
audio output of the speakers of the present invention such that only the listener’s
ears can hear their audio output. This maintains the privacy of the user’s personal
communications.” (Id., 6:32-35).
119. Accordingly, the audio mixer and speakers of Wang in combination
(the claimed “transducer”) receive the adjusted first audio signal (the voice of the
second user) and/or the second audio signal (the “3-D auditory space” of the
second user), combine (mix) the received first and second audio signals, and output
an audible sound based on the combined first and second audio signals to the
listener without interfering with other listeners in the listening environment.
2.
Claim 2
a)
“The personal listening device of claim 1 wherein the
personal listening device is chosen from a group
consisting of a headphone, a hearing aid, an assisted
listening device, a cochlear implant, an eyewear, a
wearable computer, or a combination thereof.”
120. Wang discloses this limitation. Wang, in particular, states that the
“combination of the garment member 12 and the audio output device 16 provides a
personal listening apparatus which can be employed in a [s]imilar manner as a
headphone or an earphone, but does not block the ears of the user.” (Wang, Ex.
1004, 3:63-4:2).
Wang explains that the garment-based audio interface may
61
comprise “a shirt 32 to be worn on the upper torso of a person,” “a necklace 82 to
be worn around the neck of a person” or “in other garments such as other forms of
jewelry, a hat, shawl or eyeglasses.” (Id., 5:39-41, 8:25-27, 8:38-41). Wang
further explains that the audio mixer 74 of the personal listening apparatus may
“contain signal processing capabilities.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 7:61-62). Accordingly,
the personal listening apparatus of Wang is at least an assisted listening device,
eyewear, a wearable computer, or a combination thereof.
3.
Claim 5
a)
“The personal listening device of claim 1 wherein the
first audio signal and the second audio signal
comprise digital signals that require decoding.”
121. Wang discloses this limitation. The personal listening apparatus of
Wang includes a transmitter that can be “a custom-designed digital radio that can
transmit more than two audio streams” and a receiver that “can be formed using
either a custom-designed receiver, or a more conventional receiver such as one
employed in a cellular telephone or a cordless telephone.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 7:1620; 7:32-35, emphasis added). Wang states that “at least one transmitted signal
received by the antenna 70 contains the one or more audio signals by use of a
predetermined modulation scheme … such as time division multiplexing and
frequency division multiplexing.” (Id., 8:1-5). The first and second audio signals
62
received by the receiver of the personal listening apparatus transmitted from a
custom-designed digital radio transmitter using a predetermined modulation
scheme such as time division multiplexing and frequency division multiplexing
comprise digital signals that require decoding.
B.
GROUND 2: CLAIM 3 IS OBVIOUS OVER WANG IN VIEW
OF FISHMAN
122. As provided in my detailed analysis below, it is my opinion that claim
3 of the ’884 Patent is rendered obvious by Wang in view of Fishman.
1.
Claim 3
a)
Claim 3: “The personal listening device of claim 1
wherein the receiver is chosen from a group
consisting of Digital Theater Sound (DTS) receiver,
Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS) receiver, Dolby
Digital receiver, and other multi-channel format
decoder.”
123. As I explained above, Wang renders claim 1 obvious. See supra
Section VII.A, Claim 1[preamble]-[c]. In addition, Wang, either alone or modified
in view of Fishman, discloses this element. Wang teaches that the audio signals
received at the first personal listening apparatus may come from a variety of
sources, including “audio from a telephone receiver, one or more sources of music,
and audio from one or more other users” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 8:10-15), and the
personal listening apparatus of Wang operates with “music, movies, and TV
63
shows.” (Id., 4:40-41). Wang’s personal listening apparatus is used “to form an
enhanced, surround audio environment” and includes “a signal processing
functional block that is capable of transmitting and receiving a signal carrying a
high-fidelity 3-D sound from multiple remote sources and processing three audio
signal[s] in various manners.” (Id., 5:30-34; 5:57-59). Wang further discloses that
its receiver includes a “demodulator 72 [that] acts to separate the one or more
audio signals for application to the audio mixer 74.”
(Id., 8:3-17, emphasis
added).
(Id., Fig. 3).
124. The ’884 patent admits, “[a] recent implementation of the prior art …
is the Dolby Headphones” and “[t]he VRA invention above is designed to work in
64
conjunction with the Dolby headphones as well as any other multi-channel
processing headphone that derives two headphone channels from multiple spatial
channels.” (’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 25:35-40). In order to provide surround audio
from an encoded signal, a multi-channel decoder separates an encoded signal into
several spatial channels in order to provide surround audio. As I explained above,
the personal listening apparatus of Wang derives its audio signals to the two
speakers 42 and 44 from multiple channels, and the device may be used to create
“an enhanced surround audio environment.”
(Wang, Ex. 1004, 5:58-59).
A
POSITA would have appreciated that creation of a surround audio environment
involves the use of multiple spatial channels.
125. Accordingly, Wang’s disclosure of the demodulator’s 72 separating
the “one or more audio signals,” combined with its disclosure of creation of an
“enhanced, surround audio environment” using two speakers 42 and 44 would
have indicated to a POSITA that the personal listening device of Wang, like the
personal listening device of the ’884 patent, derives its speaker signals from
multiple spatial channels in order to create a surround audio environment. (Wang,
Ex. 1004, 5:58-59). Therefore, Wang’s disclosure would indicate to a POSITA
that the receiver of Wang comprises a “multi-channel format decoder” as recited in
claim 3 of the ’884 patent.
65
126. To the extent Patent Owner argues that Wang does not teach a
receiver comprising a multi-channel format decoder, personal listening devices,
such as headphones and hearing aids, used receivers comprising multi-channel
format decoders prior to the ’884 patent’s alleged priority date. For example,
Fishman (Ex. 1010) discloses the use of a Dolby sound processor system with
assistive listening devices (“ALDs”):
This circuit allows a number of different audio sources to
be input into the transmitter.
For example, the
transmitter may be connected to a sound processor
system such as that used in a theater for DOLBY
(“DOLBY” is a registered trademark of Dolby Labs,
Inc.) stereo. This allows the ALD to make DOLBY stereo
available to the hearing impaired. In the example of a
DOLBY stereo system, the inputs for the transmitter may
be connected at any one of three points in the sound
processor system at the option of the user: 1) the preamp
output/input; 2) the L/R/C processor output; or 3) the
L/R/C on the processor card cage.
(Fishman, Ex. 1010, 6:5-25, emphasis added).
127. Fishman further discloses, for example, a user employing an ALD
device with a portable processor that is programmed to receive a selected channel
66
(e.g., a selected movie in a cinema context). (Id., 6:5-25, 6:57-7:1). A Dolby
sound processor system corresponds to a “multi-channel format decoder” as recited
in claim 3 of the ’884 patent.
128. It would have been obvious to a POSITA to combine Wang with
Fishman to allow the user of Wang’s personal listening apparatus to experience
high-quality Dolby audio, for example, when used with “music, movies, and TV
shows” with which the portable listening apparatus of Wang operates. (Wang, Ex.
1004, 4:40-41). All the claimed elements were known in the prior art, and a
POSITA could have combined the elements as claimed by known methods with no
change in their respective functions.
The combination would have yielded
predictable results to a POSITA at the time of the invention.
C.
GROUND 3: CLAIM 4 IS OBVIOUS OVER WANG IN VIEW
OF SCOFIELD
129. As provided in my detailed analysis below, it is my opinion that claim
4 of the ’884 patent is rendered obvious by Wang in view of Scofield.
67
1.
Claim 4
a)
Claim 4: “The personal listening device of claim 1
wherein the second audio signal comprises a
combination of left, right, left surround, right
surround, center, and subwoofer analog outputs.”
130. Wang as modified in view of Scofield discloses this element. As I
explained above, Wang teaches “a signal processing functional block that is
capable of transmitting and receiving a signal carrying a high-fidelity 3-D sound
from multiple remote sources and processing three audio signal[s] in various
manners.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 5:30-34). Wang also teaches that the audio signals
received at the first personal listening apparatus may come from a variety of
sources, including “audio from a telephone receiver, one or more sources of music,
and audio from one or more other users” (Id., 8:10-15), and that the personal
listening apparatus of Wang operates with “music, movies, and TV shows.” (Id.,
4:40-41).
Wang does not explicitly disclose that “the second audio signal
comprises a combination of left, right, left surround, right surround, center, and
subwoofer analog outputs.”
131. Scofield relates to a head mounted surround sound system that utilizes
a “Dolby® decoder”, which is known to have the analog outputs as recited in claim
4. (Scofield, Ex. 1011, Abstract). It would have been obvious to a POSITA to
68
combine the personal listening apparatus of Wang with the Dolby decoder of
Scofield (or of Fishman, as I explained for claim 3 above) to allow the user to
experience high quality surround sound using a personal listening device.
A
POSITA would have appreciated that the output of a multi-channel format
decoder, such as a Dolby system, includes “a combination of left, right, left
surround, right surround, center, and subwoofer analog outputs” as it was known
for systems such as Dolby to include such outputs.1 For example, FIG. 14 of
Scofield “illustrate[s] a simplified block diagram of the binaural mixing system ….
The left and right outputs of the VCR 200 are provided on lines 224 to the
surround decoder 204. The decoded outputs are comprised of five lines 226 that
provide for the left front, left rear, right front and right rear speakers and the center
front speaker.” (Scofield, Ex. 1011, 11:16-22)
1
The ’884 patent acknowledges that a “multi-channel sound decoder such as
a Digital Theater Sound (DTS), Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS), Dolby
Digital, or other multi-channel format decoder … converts a digital input into left,
right, left surround, right surround, center and subwoofer analog outputs.” (’884
patent, Ex. 1001, 9:58-63).
69
(Scofield, Ex. 1011, Fig. 14)
132. In addition, Scofield discloses that a subwoofer output may be
included in the output of the decoder 204 as well: “[t]he output of the crossover
circuit 274 associated with the lower frequency components provides two lines 288
which are input to a summation circuit 290 … operable to sum the two lines 288
with the subwoofer output of the decoder 204, this being a conventional output of
the decoder.” (Id., 13:37-42).
133. Accordingly, Scofield discloses, “the second audio signal comprises a
combination of left, right, left surround, right surround, center, and subwoofer
analog outputs.” It would have been obvious to modify Wang in view of Scofield
such that the second audio signal of Wang includes a combination of left, right, left
70
surround, right surround, center, and subwoofer analog outputs to allow the user of
Wang’s personal listening device to experience high quality surround sound (e.g.,
Dolby sound). All the claimed elements were known in the prior art, and a
POSITA could have combined the elements as claimed by known methods with no
change in their respective functions.
The combination would have yielded
predictable results to a POSITA at the time of the invention.
D.
GROUND 4: CLAIMS 6 AND 7 ARE OBVIOUS OVER WANG
IN VIEW OF EGGERS
134. As provided in my detailed analysis below, it is my opinion that
claims 6 and 7 of the ’884 patent are rendered obvious by Wang in view of Eggers.
1.
Claim 6
a)
Claim 6: “The personal listening device of claim 1
wherein the adjustment device is configured to adjust
the second audio signal and a sum of the first audio
signal and the adjusted second audio signal.”
135. Wang alone or modified in view of Eggers renders this claim obvious.
As I explained above in Section VII.A, Claim 1[b], Wang teaches that “[t]he user
interface 76 allows the user to selectively control the amplitude and the panning of
each of the audio signals applied to the audio mixer 74. For example, if the
telephone rings while the user is listening to music, he/she can reduce the volume
of the music and increase the volume of the receiver of the telephone using the user
71
interface 76.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 8:18-23, emphasis added). Wang also teaches
that the user (A) of the first personal listening apparatus can “rotate, flip, augment,
weaken B’s space perceived at A’s ears by selective mixing of the audio signals
received from B.” (Id., 4:28-30, emphasis added).
136. Wang does not explicitly disclose adjusting “a sum of the first audio
signal and the adjusted second audio signal.”
However, it would have been
obvious to a POSITA to provide a master volume control on the user interface 76
of Wang to enable a user to easily adjust an overall output from the personal
listening apparatus including a sum of first audio signal (the voice of the second
user) and the second audio signal (the “3D auditory space” of the second user).
Otherwise, a user would be required to adjust the volume of each audio signal
independently to reduce the overall volume output from the personal listening
apparatus. Indeed, providing individual audio source volume controls as well as a
master volume control to adjust the overall output of a combination of the audio
sources was known in the prior art as taught by Eggers. (Eggers, Ex. 1006, 4:2329 (“Front panel portions 15 and 16 of audio system 10 provide volume and
balance controls, 15a, 16a, and 15b, 16b, respectively, for the audio programs
output by source A (i.e., the radio receiver controlled by panel 11, compact disk
player 13, or cassette tape player 15) and source B (the radio receiver controlled by
72
panel 12).”); 4:59-61 (“Master volume control 19b permits the volume of both
sources of programming to be raised or lowered by the user as appropriate for a
particular listening situation.”); 6:29-56; Figs. 1 and 4).
It would have been
obvious to a POSITA to provide a master volume control on the user interface 76
of Wang to enable a user to easily adjust an overall output from the personal
listening apparatus including a sum of first audio signal (the voice of the second
user) and the second audio signal (the “3D auditory space” of the second user) as
taught by Eggers.
2.
Claim 7
a)
Claim 7: “The personal listening device of claim 1
wherein the adjustment device is configured to adjust:
a balance between the first and second audio signals,
and a balanced combination of the first and second
audio signals.”
137. Wang alone or modified in view of Eggers discloses this limitation.2
As I explained above in Section VII.A, Claim 1[b], Wang teaches that “[t]he user
2
The ’884 patent describes “balance” in terms of the first and second audio
signals. (’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 11:33-67). Indeed, the ’884 patent admits that
balance control itself is “a well known application in the adjustment of front to
73
interface 76 allows the user to selectively control the amplitude and the panning of
each of the audio signals applied to the audio mixer 74” as well as “rotate, flip,
augment, weaken B’s space perceived at A’s ears by selective mixing of the audio
signals received from B.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 8:18-20; 4:28-30). Reducing or
increasing the volume of the first audio signal and increasing or reducing the
volume of the second audio signal adjusts a balance between the audio signals.
138. It would have also been obvious to a POSITA to provide a master
amplitude control on the user interface 76 to enable a user to easily adjust an
overall output from the personal listening device including a balanced combination
of the first (the voice of the second user) and second (the “3-D auditory space” of
the second user) audio signals. Otherwise, a user would be required to adjust the
volume of each audio signal independently to reduce the overall volume output
from the personal listening device. Indeed, providing individual audio source
volume control as well as a master volume control to adjust the overall output of a
combination of the audio sources was known in the prior art as taught by Eggers.
back fade or right to left balance on car or home stereo systems.” (’884 patent, Ex.
1001, 11:42-45).
74
(Eggers, Ex. 1006, 4:23-29 (“Front panel portions 15 and 16 of audio system 10
provide volume and balance controls, 15a, 16a, and 15b, 16b, respectively, for the
audio programs output by source A (i.e., the radio receiver controlled by panel 11,
compact disk player 13, or cassette tape player 15) and source B (the radio receiver
controlled by panel 12).”); 4:59-61 (“Master volume control 19b permits the
volume of both sources of programming to be raised or lowered by the user as
appropriate for a particular listening situation.”) ; 6:29-56; Figs. 1 and 4). It would
have been obvious to a POSITA to provide a master volume control on the user
interface 76 of Wang to enable a user to easily adjust an overall output from the
personal listening device including a balanced combination of the first (the voice
of the second user) and second (the “3-D auditory space” of the second user) audio
signals as taught by Eggers.
E.
GROUND 5: CLAIM 8 IS OBVIOUS OVER WANG IN VIEW
OF WEBB AND OBARA
139. As provided in my detailed analysis below, it is my opinion that claim
8 of the ’884 Patent is rendered obvious by Wang in view Webb and Obara.
1.
Claim 8
a)
Claim 8: “The personal listening device of claim 7
wherein the balance adjustment is based on a sum of:
a ratio of actual and stored values of a first audio
signal standard deviation, and a ratio of actual and
75
stored values of a second audio signal standard
deviation.”
140. As I explained above, Wang renders claim 7 obvious. See supra
Section VII.A, Claim 7. Further, Wang as modified in view of Webb and Obara,
discloses this element.
The ’884 patent discloses setting a desired voice-to-
remaining-audio (VRA) ratio by the user. (’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 12:2-5 (“the user
can press a button after the [VRA] ratio has been set and that ratio will be stored
and maintained for the rest of the programming.”)).
The ’884 patent further
discloses “comput[ing] and stor[ing]” the “standard deviations of the voice signal
and the remaining audio signal” once the ratio has been set. (’884 patent, Ex.
1001, 12:5-8). The “stored standard deviation of each of the respective signals
(voice and remaining audio)” is then compared to the “actual standard deviations
in real time.” (Id., 12:38-40). Standard deviation can be “used as a measure of the
level of each of the signals.” (Id., 12:41-42). Accordingly, claim 8 relates to
adjusting the levels of each of the first and second audio signals based on ratios of
standard deviation of actual to stored signal values.
141. As I explained above, Wang teaches that the user (A) of the first
personal listening apparatus can “rotate, flip, augment, weaken B’s space perceived
at A’s ears by selective mixing of the audio signals received from B.” (Wang, Ex.
76
1004, 4:28-30, emphasis added). As I also explained above, it is my opinion that a
POSITA would have understood that reducing or increasing the volume of the first
audio signal and increasing or reducing the volume of the second audio signal
would adjust a balance between the audio signals. As discussed below, it is my
opinion that it would have been obvious to a POSITA that the balance adjustment
could be based on “a ratio of actual and stored values of a first audio signal
standard deviation; and a ratio of actual and stored values of a second audio signal
standard deviation” as recited in claim 8 of the ’884 patent.
142. Using a standard deviation of, for example, signal-to-noise, to adjust a
signal was known prior to ’884 patent’s alleged priority date. Signal-to-noise ratio
is the ratio of signal power to the noise power. This ratio is a well-known ratio in
the art, which is the representation of the signal power over the noise power. A
POSITA would have understood that this ratio can also be the representation of
one signal power over another signal power (which can be noise or another signal).
A POSITA would have also understood that the standard deviation is the
representation of the average signal power. It would have been obvious to a
POSITA to use standard deviation ratios to find the ratio which represents the
average power of two signals and to adjust a balance between the first and second
audio signals based on the same. For example, U.S. Patent No. 3,350,643 to Webb
77
(“Webb”) relates to “automatically estimating signal-to-noise ratio and other
parameters in a signal communication system.” (Webb, Ex. 1012, 1:12-14). Webb
discloses, “continuously monitoring signals received in a communication system
and estimating the signal-to-noise ratio from which the performance of various
phases of the communication system may be evaluated.” (Id., 1:67-72). Webb
further discloses continuously monitoring the standard deviation ratios and using
these ratios to assess various performance parameters: “[d]uring each of a
successive series of time intervals or periods, the signals plus noise are integrated
to produce an output at the end of each period.
These outputs are then
accumulated to estimate the mean and the standard deviation of the outputs which
are related to the signal-to-noise ratio” and “in systems where the ratios of different
signals to noise are derived, these ratios may automatically be operated upon to
produce different performance parameters from which the system’s actual
performance can be assessed.” (Id., 2:19-25, 2:40-43).
143. In addition, Obara (Ex. 1013) relates to adjusting the output sound
received by a hearing aid wearer by extracting a voiceless component from an
overall input sound signal and by calculating a ratio of the power level of the
voiceless component to the overall input sound signal to avoid amplifying
undesired sounds, such as warnings/alarms. (Obara, Ex. 1013, 1:26-35, 2:59-62,
78
FIG. 1). The ratio is compared to a predetermined value, and the gain of the
amplifier is adjusted based on whether the ratio is higher or lower than the
predetermined value. (Obara, Ex. 1013, 3:46-59). It would have been obvious to a
POSITA to use standard deviation ratios, as disclosed in Webb, to avoid
amplifying undesired sounds because using standard deviation was a known
method of maintaining a desired balance between signals as taught by Obara.
144. A POSITA would have appreciated that storing and maintaining a
desired ratio between the first and second audio signals in Wang would have
provided a user with a consistent and enjoyable listening experience. For example,
if the user is listening to music or a presentation, he or she may want to maintain a
particular ratio of the first audio signal to the second audio signal, without having
to manually readjust it, to compensate for ambient noise variations. See, e.g.,
(Helms, Ex. 1014, 1:19-42) (“constant adjustment of the car stereo volume can be
a nuisance to the listener and detracts from the enjoyment of listening to the car
stereo. … what is needed is a system and method for automatically adjusting the
volume of an audio system to compensate for variations in ambient noise.”);
(Okubo, Ex. 1015, 1:14-20) (“As for the sound reproducing apparatus used in
noisy environments, such as a car radio or a car stereo equipment, it has been
attempted to automatically raise the reproducing volume depending on the level of
79
the ambient noise so as to maintain a favorable listening condition even in a noisy
situation.”). Calculating standard deviation from a stored value and applying
adjustments to the signal based on the calculated standard deviation as discussed in
Webb was a known method of preserving a particular listening experience for a
user, as discussed in Obara. It is my opinion that it would have been obvious to a
POSITA to calculate the standard deviation ratios between the stored and actual
values of Wang’s first and second audio signals, and to adjust the balance between
the first and second audio signals and the balanced combination of the first and
second audio signals using the calculated standard deviation ratios, because this
was a known method of maintaining a desired ratio between two signals, as
discussed in Webb, and of avoiding amplification of undesired signals (e.g., siren
noises), as discussed in Obara.
Such an adjustment would improve speech
comprehension and provide an enjoyable user experience.
145. Further, it is my opinion that a POSITA would have appreciated that
the balance adjustment would be improved by using sums of ratios of actual to
stored standard deviations of the signals to generate normalized values for the
balance adjustment. For example, it would have been obvious to a POSITA to
apply the use of standard deviations, as discussed in Webb, to smooth the
balancing of the first and second audio signals of Wang and to avoid unnecessary
80
amplification of undesired audio signals, as discussed in Obara (e.g., avoiding
applying an unpleasant sound to the wearer due to excessively amplified noise
(Obara, Ex. 1013, 3:60-65)). Therefore, it would have been obvious to a POSITA
to use a sum of a ratio of actual and stored values of a first audio signal standard
deviation and a ratio of actual and stored values of a second audio signal standard
deviation in the balance adjustment of the personal listening device of claim 7.
146. It is my opinion that it would have also been obvious to a POSITA to
combine Wang with Webb and Obara to allow the user of Wang’s personal
listening device to maintain consistent and enjoyable listening experience, where
undesired sounds are not amplified. All the claimed elements were known in the
prior art, and a POSITA could have combined the elements as claimed by known
methods with no change in their respective functions. The combination would
have yielded predictable results to a POSITA at the time of the invention.
Accordingly, Wang in view of Webb and Obara, renders the subject matter of
claim 8 obvious.
81
F.
GROUND 6: CLAIMS 9, 10, 13, 14, AND 15 ARE OBVIOUS
OVER WANG IN VIEW OF MARX
147. As provided in my detailed analysis below, it is my opinion that
claims 9, 10, 13, 14, and 15 of the ’884 Patent are obvious over Wang in view of
Marx.
1.
Claim 9
a)
Claim 9[preamble]: “A broadcasting apparatus,
comprising:”
148. Wang teaches “[a] broadcasting apparatus.” As I explained above in
Section VII.A, Claim 1[preamble], Wang teaches a telecommunications
environment of multiple personal listening apparatuses that each include a
“receiver capable of receiving at least one transmitted signal” and a “transmitter
capable of transmitting a signal in dependence upon the audio signal.” (Wang, Ex.
1004, Abstract; 4:12-14). See supra Section VII.A, Claim 1[preamble].
82
(Wang, Ex. 1004, Figs. 1 and 2).
149. The “transmitter 54 includes a radio frequency modulator and an
antenna” and “can be formed using a custom-designed transmitter such as a custom
FM stereo transmitter, a custom-designed digital radio that can transmit more than
two audio streams, or a more conventional transmitter such as one employed in a
cellular telephone or a cordless telephone.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 7:16-22). The
transmitter is “capable of transmitting a signal in dependence upon the audio
signal” to be received by users of other personal listening apparatuses. (Wang, Ex.
1004, Abstract; 8:10-15). In particular, Wang teaches that “by providing the audio
signals from the microphones 50 and 52 to the transmitter 54, the sounds produced
83
within the physical space of a person wearing the garment member are receivable
by a remotely-located receiver.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 6:53-57). Accordingly, a first
one of Wang’s personal listening apparatuses transmitting audio to other personal
listening apparatuses in a telecommunications environment corresponds to a
“broadcasting apparatus.”
b)
Claim 9[a]: “a storage medium holding a first audio
signal and a second audio signal corresponding to the
first audio signal, the first audio signal including
substantially a voice signal and the second audio
signal including a remaining audio; and”
150. Wang’s personal listening device as modified in view of Marx
includes this limitation. As I explained above in Section VII.A, Claim 1[a], Wang
discloses or renders obvious “a first audio signal and a second audio signal” and
“the first audio signal including substantially a voice signal and the second audio
signal including a remaining audio.”
See supra Section VII.A, Claim 1[a].
Wang’s personal listening apparatus includes an “audio input device, such as an
array of microphones” to capture a user’s auditory space—the sound that a user
would perceive without wearing a personal listening apparatus. (Wang, Ex. 1004,
4:19-21, 4:49-51).
151. The first audio signal of Wang may include substantially the voice of
a user of a personal listening apparatus picked up by microphones “with a
84
directional input characteristic aimed at the user to capture her voice while
ignoring, to some extent, the sound sources which may be present from other
directions.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 6:57-59, 7:2-6). The second audio signal of Wang
may include primarily non-speech sounds such as the “3-D auditory space” of the
second user’s personal listening apparatus captured by other microphones
positioned and designed to “capture the 3-D auditory environment around the
user.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 4:12-24; 6:65-7:2). Wang does not explicitly disclose “a
storage medium holding” the first and second audio signals. However, Marx
discloses an audio mixer 10 having a buffer 14 which is “a combination of random
access memory (‘RAM’) 16 and a disk drive 18 which is used to temporarily store
the audio signals.”
85
(Marx, Ex. 1009, 4:12-14; Fig. 1).
152. Marx discloses that once audio is “stored in the buffer 14, the audio
signal 21 can be processed by the processor 12 as per a user’s requirements to
generate a processed audio signal 23 which is then transmitted to an audio output
device 22,” which may be “transmission equipment for radio broadcast.” (Marx,
Ex. 1009, 4:15-22).
153. It is my opinion that it would have been obvious to a POSITA to
provide a storage medium (e.g., a buffer) in the audio mixer of Wang for storing
the first and second audio signals prior to transmission as taught by Marx. A
POSITA would have understood that by providing a storage medium in the
personal communications apparatus of Wang to store the first and second audio
signals, loss of audio could be prevented in the event of a lost connection between
the users. Further, providing such a storage medium in the personal listening
apparatus of Wang would have been well within the technical ability of a POSITA
and would have been the use of a known technique (i.e., a storage device for audio)
in similar devices (i.e., audio mixers) to obtain predictable results.
154. The first audio signal received by the receiver of the first personal
listening apparatus of Wang may include substantially the voice of a second user
86
(B) of a second personal listening apparatus in the telecommunications
environment. (Id., 6:57-59, 7:2-6). The second audio signal received by the
receiver of the first personal listening apparatus of Wang may include “the 3-D
auditory environment” around the user of the second personal listening
apparatus. (Wang, Ex. 1004, 4:12-24; 6:65-7:2).
155. It is my opinion that a POSITA would have understood that the first
audio signal of Wang (the voice of a second user) “corresponds” to the second
audio signal (“the 3-D auditory environment” around the second user) in that they
are recorded simultaneously to capture the second user’s full auditory space as
experienced by the second user. The word “corresponding” does not appear in the
specification of the ’884 patent and only appears in claim 9. The word
“corresponding” indicates some correlation between the items which correspond to
each other. Here, the voice of a second user of Wang corresponds to the 3-D
auditory environment of Wang similarly to, for example, dialog from the
announcers and background noise from cheering fans at a football game in the ’884
patent (“For example, a football game contains dialog from the announcers and
background noise from the cheering fans”) or dialog and separate dialog track in
the ’884 patent “the dialog in the production mix and the separate dialog track …
87
recorded or broadcast simultaneously (i.e. time aligned).” (’884 patent, 11:58-60,
21:49-55).
c)
Claim 9[b]: “a transmitter configured to transmit the
first and second audio signals to a plurality of
receivers,”
156. Wang discloses this limitation. Specifically, Wang teaches that the
personal listening apparatus includes “a radio transceiver with a signal processing
functional block that is capable of transmitting and receiving a signal carrying a
high-fidelity 3-D sound from multiple remote sources and processing three audio
signal[s] in various manners” to allow “people to mutually access and share their
auditory spaces in a telecommunications environment.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 5:3034; 4:12-14, emphasis added).
88
(Wang, Ex. 1004, Figs. 1 and 2).
157. Wang’s transmitter is “capable of transmitting a signal in dependence
upon” an audio signal to be received by users of a plurality of other personal
listening apparatuses. (Wang, Ex. 1004, Abstract; 8:10-15). Wang further teaches
that “by providing the audio signals from the microphones 50 and 52 to the
transmitter 54, the sounds produced within the physical space of a person wearing
the garment member are receivable by a remotely-located receiver.” (Wang, Ex.
1004, 6:53-57).
d)
Claim 9[c]: “wherein the first and/or second audio
signals are configured to be independently adjusted at
each of the plurality of receivers and subsequently
combined to produce an audible sound.”
158. As I explained above in Section VII.A, Claim 1[b] and 1[c], Wang
discloses that “the first and/or second audio signals are configured to be
independently adjusted at each of the plurality of receivers and subsequently
combined to produce an audible sound.” See supra Section VII.A, Claim 1[b] and
1[c]. Wang, in particular, teaches that each of the plurality of personal listening
apparatuses includes a “user interface 76 [that] allows the user to selectively
control the amplitude and the panning of each of the audio signals applied to the
audio mixer 74.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 8:17-20). Each of the plurality of personal
89
listening apparatuses of Wang also includes an audio mixer 74 that “[i]n response
to a control signal provided by [a] user interface 76 … selectively mixes the one or
more audio signals to provide audio signals to the speakers 42 and 44.” (Wang,
Ex. 1004, 7:54-57). The speakers are “coupled to the mixer to produce sound
waves” and “[a]pplication of a suitable audio signal to the speakers 42 and 44
produces a personal listening environment for the person wearing the shirt 32.”
(Wang, Ex. 1004, claim 21, 5:60-62).
2.
Claim 10
a)
Claim 10: “The broadcasting apparatus of claim 9,
further comprising a personal listening device chosen
from a group consisting of a headphone, a hearing
aid, an assisted listening device, a cochlear implant,
an eyewear, a wearable computer, or a combination
thereof.”
159. As I explained in Section VII.A, claim 1[preamble]-[c] and claim 2,
Wang teaches this limitation. See supra Section VII.A, claim 1[preamble]-[c] and
claim 2. In particular, Wang teaches that a “combination of the garment member
12 and the audio output device 16 provides a personal listening apparatus which
can be employed in a [s]imilar manner as a headphone or an earphone, but does not
block the ears of the user.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 3:63-4:2). Wang explains that the
garment-based audio interface may comprise “a shirt 32 to be worn on the upper
90
torso of a person,” “a necklace 82 to be worn around the neck of a person” or “in
other garments such as other forms of jewelry, a hat, shawl or eyeglasses.” (Wang,
Ex. 1004, 5:39-41, 8:25-27, 8:38-41). Wang further explains that the audio mixer
74 of the personal listening apparatus may “contain signal processing capabilities.”
(Wang, Ex. 1004, 7:61-62). It is my opinion that a POSITA would have thus
understood that the audio output device 16 in the personal listening apparatus of
Wang was a personal listening device chosen from at least an assisted listening
device, eyewear, a wearable computer, or a combination thereof.
3.
Claim 13
a)
Claim 13: “The broadcasting apparatus of claim 9
wherein the first audio signal and the second audio
signal are digital signals that require decoding.”
160. As I explained in Section VII.A, claim 5, Wang teaches this
limitation. See supra Section VII.A, claim 5.
4.
Claim 14
a)
Claim 14: “The broadcasting apparatus of claim 9
wherein the adjustment comprises adjusting the
second audio signal and adjusting a sum of the first
audio signal and the adjusted second audio signals.”
161. As I explained in Section VII.D, claim 6, Wang renders this limitation
obvious. See supra Section VII.D, claim 6.
91
5.
Claim 15
a)
Claim 15: “The broadcasting apparatus of claim 9
wherein the independent adjustment comprises:
adjusting a balance between the first and second
audio signals, and adjusting a balanced combination
of the first and second audio signal.”
162. As I explained in Section VII.D, claim 7, Wang teaches this
limitation. See supra Section VII.D, claim 7.
G.
GROUND 7: CLAIM 11 IS OBVIOUS OVER WANG IN VIEW
OF MARX AND FISHMAN
163. As provided in my detailed analysis below, it is my opinion that claim
11 of the ’884 Patent is rendered obvious by Wang in view of Marx and Fishman.
1.
Claim 11
a)
Claim 11: “The broadcasting apparatus of claim 9
wherein the receivers are chosen from a group
consisting of Digital Theater Sound (DTS) receiver,
Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS) receiver, Dolby
Digital receiver, and other multi-channel format
decoder.”
164. As I explained in Section VII.F, Wang in view of Marx renders claim
9 obvious. As I further explained in Section VII.B, claim 3, Wang either alone or
as modified in view of Fishman teaches this limitation. See supra Section VII.B,
claim 3. It is my opinion that a POSITA would have been motivated to combine
Wang and Marx with Fishman to allow the user of Wang’s personal listening
92
device, using the audio mixer as taught by Marx, to experience high quality
surround sound. Accordingly, Wang in view of Marx and Fishman, render claim
11 obvious.
H.
GROUND 8: CLAIM 12 IS OBVIOUS OVER WANG IN VIEW
OF MARX AND SCOFIELD
165. As provided in my detailed analysis below, it is my opinion that claim
12 of the ’884 Patent is rendered obvious by Wang in view of Marx and Scofield.
1.
Claim 12
a)
Claim 12: “The broadcasting apparatus of claim 9
wherein the second audio signal is a combination of
left, right, left surround, right surround, center, and
subwoofer analog outputs.”
166. As I explained above in Section VII.F, Wang in view of Marx renders
claim 9 obvious. As I further explained in Section VII.C, claim 4, Wang as
modified in view of Scofield teaches the limitations of claim 12. See supra Section
VII.C, claim 4. It is my opinion that a POSITA would have been motivated to
combine Wang and Marx with Scofield to allow the user of Wang’s personal
listening device, using the audio mixer as taught by Marx, to experience high
quality surround sound derived from an audio signal that is a combination of left,
right, left surround, right surround, center, and subwoofer analog outputs.
Accordingly, Wang in view of Marx and Scofield renders claim 12 obvious.
93
I.
GROUND 9: CLAIM 16 IS OBVIOUS OVER WANG IN VIEW
OF MARX, WEBB, AND OBARA
167. As provided in my detailed analysis below, it is my opinion that claim
16 of the ’884 Patent is rendered Wang in view of Marx, Webb, and Obara.
1.
Claim 16
a)
Claim 16: “The broadcasting apparatus of claim 15
wherein the balance adjustment is based on a sum of:
a ratio of actual and stored values of a first audio
signal standard deviation, and a ratio of actual and
stored values of a second audio signal standard
deviation”
168. As I explained above in Section VII.F, Wang in view of Marx renders
claim 9 obvious. See supra Section VII.F, claim 9. In addition, as I explained
above in Section VII.E for claim 8, Wang as modified in view of Webb and Obara
teaches the limitations of claim 16. See supra Section VII.E, claim 8. It is my
opinion that a POSITA would have been motivated to combine Wang and Marx
with Webb and Obara to allow the user of Wang’s personal listening device, using
the audio mixer as taught by Marx, to maintain a consistent and enjoyable listening
experience, in which undesired sounds are not amplified. Accordingly, Wang in
view of Marx, Webb, and Obara renders claim 16 obvious.
94
J.
GROUND 10: CLAIM 17 IS OBVIOUS OVER WANG IN VIEW
OF MARX, WALDEN, AND KIM
169. As provided in my detailed analysis below, it is my opinion that claim
17 of the ’884 Patent is rendered Wang in view of Marx, Walden, and Kim.
1.
Claim 17
a)
Claim 17[preamble]: “A personal listening device
useful in a listening environment having a plurality of
listeners, the personal listening device comprising:”
170. As I explained in Section VII.A, Claim 1[preamble], Wang discloses
“[a] personal listening device useful in a listening environment having a plurality
of listeners.” See supra Section VII.A, Claim 1[preamble]. Specifically, Wang
teaches a telecommunications environment having multiple personal listening
apparatuses that each include a “receiver capable of receiving at least one
transmitted signal” and a “transmitter capable of transmitting a signal in
dependence upon the audio signal.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, Abstract). Wang’s personal
listening apparatuses use “a garment-based audio interface” which “captures and
displays high fidelity spatialized sound to allow a plurality of users to access and
share each other’s auditory space.” (Id., Abstract, 2:39-42, 3:41-43).
95
(Id., Figs. 1 and 2).
171. A “combination of the garment member 12 and the audio output
device 16 provides a personal listening apparatus which can be employed in a
[s]imilar manner as a headphone or an earphone, but does not block the ears of the
user.” (Id., 3:63-4:2).
b)
Claim 17[a]: “means for receiving a first audio signal
and a second audio signal, the first audio signal
including a voice signal and the second audio signal
including a remaining audio, wherein the first audio
signal is different than the second audio signal;”
172. Wang discloses the claimed function and a structure that is the same
as disclosed in the ’884 patent. Wang, in particular, discloses a receiver 64 that
includes an antenna 70 to receive “at least one transmitted signal of the radio
96
frequency variety” which is “provided to a demodulator 72” that “is capable of
producing one or more audio signals based upon the at least one transmitted
signal.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 7:47-53; see ’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 8:29-33 (“The
received signals are received by PLD receiver 231 which may be for example, an
infrared receiver, a wireless radio frequency receiver, or a mult-port [sic] audio
input jack for a wired connection”)). As I explained in Section VII.A, Claim 1[a],
Wang also discloses that the receiver is “configured to receive a first audio signal
and a second audio signal, the first audio signal including substantially a voice
signal and the second audio signal including a remaining audio, the first audio
signal being different than the second audio signal.” See supra Section VII.A,
Claim 1[a].
c)
Claim 17[b]: “means for adjusting the first audio
signal and the second audio signal independent of
each other by a listener; and”
173. Wang discloses the claimed function, and Wang in view of Walden
discloses the structure disclosed in the ’884 patent. As I explained above in
Section VII.A, Claim 1[b], Wang discloses “an adjustment device configured to
allow a listener to adjust the first audio signal and the second audio signal
independent of each other.” See supra Section VII.A, Claim 1[b]. Wang, in
particular, teaches that “[t]he user interface 76 allows the user to selectively control
97
the amplitude and the panning of each of the audio signals applied to the audio
mixer 74.” (Wang, Ex. 1004, 8:17-20). The user (A) of the first personal listening
apparatus of Wang can also “rotate, flip, augment, weaken B’s space perceived at
A’s ears by selective mixing of the audio signals received from B.” (Id., 4:28-30,
emphasis added).
174. Wang is silent on the structure that “allows the user to selectively
control the amplitude and the panning of each of the audio signals applied to the
audio mixer 74.” (Id., 8:18-20). However, Walden discloses a variable gain
amplifier to amplify an audio signal and drive a sound transducer (e.g., a speaker).
(Walden, Ex. 1007, Abstract). Like Wang, Walden is directed to an audio volume
controller for adjusting the volume of an audio signal to be output to a speaker.
(Wang, Ex. 1004, 8:18-20; Walden, Ex. 1007, Abstract). It is my opinion that it
would have been obvious to a POSITA to control the amplitude of each audio
signal of Wang using variable gain amplifiers as taught by Walden, and as
disclosed in the ’884 patent. (Wang, Ex. 1004, 8:33-39 (“…received voice signal
239, is sent to a separate variable gain amplifier 229…received remaining audio
signal 240, is sent to a variable gain amplifier 230…”)). Controlling the amplitude
of the audio signals of Wang using variable gain amplifiers as taught by Walden
would have been the use of a known technique (i.e., variable gain amplifiers to
98
amplify audio signals) to improve similar devices (i.e., audio output devices) in the
same way to obtain predictable results (i.e., controlled amplification of audio
signals).
d)
Claim 17[c]: “means for receiving the adjusted first
and/or second audio signals, combining the received
first and second audio signals, and outputting an
audible sound based on the combined first and second
audio signals to the listener without interfering with
other listeners in the listening environment.”
175. Wang discloses the claimed function, and Wang in view of Kim
discloses the structure disclosed in the ’884 patent. As I explained above in
Section VII.A, Claim 1[c], Wang discloses an audio mixer and speakers
“configured to receive the adjusted first and/or second audio signals, combine the
received first and second audio signals, and output an audible sound based on the
combined first and second audio signals to the listener without interfering with
other listeners in the listening environment.” See supra Section VII.A, Claim 1[c].
Specifically, Wang discloses an audio mixer 74 and that “[i]n response to a control
signal provided by [a] user interface 76, the audio mixer 74 selectively mixes the
one or more audio signals to provide audio signals to the speakers 42 and 44.”
(Wang, Ex. 1004, 7:54-57; see ’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 16:55-60 (describing use of
speakers)).
99
176. Wang does not explicitly disclose the structure of the audio mixer to
combine the audio signals. However, Kim discloses a prior art “audio mixer”
having adders 6 and 11 “to mix the L-channel and R-channel audio signals.”
(Kim, Ex. 1008, 1:40-41; 1:63-2:25).
(Id., Fig. 1).
177. Like Wang, Kim is directed to mixing two audio signals prior to
output. (Wang, Ex. 1004, 7:54-57; Kim, Ex. 1008, 1:40-41; 1:63-2:25). It is my
opinion that it would have been obvious to a POSITA for the audio mixer of Wang
to include an adder as taught by Kim to “selectively mix[] the one or more audio
signals,” and as disclosed in the’884 patent (see ’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 8:39-43
(“These adjusted signals are summed by adder 228…”), 19:58-63 (disclosing
100
summing signals)), because mixing audio signals with an adder was known in the
art prior to the priority date of the ’884 patent and would have been the use of a
known technique (i.e., adder) to improve similar devices (i.e., audio mixers) in the
same way to obtain predictable results (i.e., combined audio signals). (Wang, Ex.
1004, 7:54-57; ’884 patent, Ex. 1001, 8:39-41).
VIII. AVAILABILITY FOR CROSS-EXAMINATION
178. In signing this declaration, I understand that the declaration will be
filed as evidence in a review proceeding before the Patent Trial and Appeal Board
of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. I acknowledge that I may be subject to
cross-examination in the case and that cross-examination will take place within the
United States. If cross-examination is required of me, I undertake to appear for
cross-examination within the United States during the time allotted for crossexamination, and within the limits of my ability so to do.
IX.
RIGHT TO SUPPLEMENT
179. I reserve the right to supplement my opinions in the future to respond
to any arguments that the Patent Owner raises and to take into account new
information as it becomes available to me.
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X. CONCLUSION
180. I hereby declare that all statements made herein of my own
knowledge are true and that all statements made on information and belief are
believed to be true; and further that these statements were made with the full
knowledge that willful false statements and the like so made are punishable by fine
or imprisonment, or both, under Section 1001 of Title 18 of the United States
Code.
'FC
Dated: _______________
______________________________
Sayfe Kiaei, Ph.D.
Tempe, Arizona
102
APPENDIX A
103
Sayfe Kiaei
Professor & Director of NSF Center Connection One
Motorola Chair Professor in Analog and RFIC
School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287
Email: Sayfe at asu edu
FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION
Analog / Digital Integrated Circuits, Radio Frequency Integrate Circuits, Power Management IC,
Communication Systems, Wireless and Wireline Communication System
DEGREES
•
Ph.D., Electrical and Computer Engineering, Washington State University, 1987
•
M.S., Electrical and Computer Engineering, Washington State University, 1984
•
B.S.E.E., Electrical Engineering, Northeastern University/WSU, 1982
ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL POSITIONS
2016-Present, Associate Vice President for Research, OKED, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287
Associate VPR at the Office of Knowledge Enterprise Development (OKED), responsible for advancing
research, entrepreneurship and economic development at ASU. Focus on interacting with the faculty and
researchers in engineering, bio-tech, bio-design, and energy. Works closely with the Vice President for
research at OKED, Deans, and Associate Deans of research.
2001-Present: Professor, Motorola Endowed Chair Professor in Analog and RFIC - Director of Connection
One NSF Center, School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University,
Tempe, AZ
•
Professor, Research and teaching in Communications and signal processing, radio frequency circuits and
systems, Wireless and Wireline transceiver, mixed-signal and Analog IC, RFIC, Power management IC.
•
Director of NSF Connection One Industry/University Cooperative Research Center. Established the center
in 2002 with focus on Integrated Circuits and Systems, including wireless system, RF, and related areas.
The center has five universities with over 30 industrial members. The center funding is over $5M.
www.connectionone.org
•
Research Projects funded by NSF, USAID, DARPA, JPL, NASA, Motorola Inc., Intel Inc., Broadcom,
Qualcomm, Raytheon, General Dynamics, Texas Instruments, and over 10 other industries. Current
significant research awards:
o
Partnership Center for Energy systems, USAID, 2015-2020, $18M. Principle Investigator
o
QESST NSF ERC Center on Solar Energy, NSF, 2010-2020, $36M, Co-PI, Test-bed Director
o
Solar Energy Development in ME, Private funds and World Bank, $1.5M
o
Connection One NSF Center, Director, NSF and Industry, Center annual expenditure over $3 M
o
Dr. Kiaei research projects are funded by NSF, Qualcomm, TI, Intel, and other industry
1
104
Sayfe Kiaei
2008-2012: Associate Dean of Research, Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering, Arizona State University
Associate Dean for Research is responsible for leading the research infrastructure, promoting and developing
research programs with industry and federal agencies, leading large multi-university proposals, investing and
providing seed funding to foster new research areas, and promoting graduate program in the college of
engineering. Research Enterprise support included:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
College funding grew from $50M to over $80M in 2012 when Dr. Kiaei was the Associate Dean.
Established the first NSF Engineering Research Center (ERC) at the ASU on Solar Energy. Dr. Kiaei
managed, organized and planned the ERC proposal process. ASU is the lead school partnering with MIT,
Georgia Tech, U of Delaware, Cal-Tech, U of New Mexico, and UA.
Lead several trans-disciplinary 4M research projects (4M: multi-million, multi-investigator, multidisciplinary, multi-university grants).
Assisted in the development of several new Research Centers in the college. Oversight of over 15 existing
research centers in the college.
Working with Vice President for Research on University-wide research initiatives.
Engage with industry and federal government to establish new research collaborations.
Organized workshops and supported proposals for NSF, NIH, DOE, DOD, DARPA, etc.
Organized workshops for new assistant professors to apply for NSF CAREER Awards. ASU CAREER
awards grew from 3 annual awards in 2008 to over 10 in 2010.
Annual budget over $7M for supporting research centers, seed funding for new center, cost sharing,
proposal support, equipment and infrastructure support, graduate scholarships, and research
administration. ADR Staffs included, Director of industrial and government liaison, Director of research
administration, and 14 research advancement staff , Project manager responsible for supporting large
projects and proposals, Director of graduate programs recruitment and scholarships, Technical writer for
supporting proposals , Research and academic data analysis
Research Administration and pre-award proposal administration for the schools. Developed a
decentralized research administration and advancement team for the Schools supporting 5 schools, 12
departments, over 220 engineering faculty, with funding over $70M.
Graduate Programs: Recruiting, Fellowships, marketing, outreach, coordination with departments
1993-2002: Motorola Inc., Senior Member of Technical Staff, Personal Communication Sector, Austin,
Texas, and Plantation, FL. Worked at several sectors on projects related to wireless communications, two
way radios, wireless networks, ADSL and MODEM, RF, and related areas. Projects included:
•
Cellular Division, “Wireless Technology Center,” responsible for 1G-3G wireless handset development,
4G research, Bluetooth and WIFI transceiver, GPS Receiver, wireless networks, and related areas.
•
University relations: Responsible for the development of collaborative research programs with several
universities. Responsible for funding research in the areas of Wireless Transceiver IC Design, RF, and
mixed-signal and baseband system architecture.
•
ADSL Group, System & Architecture Engineering, Broadband Products Operations, responsible for
ADSL, MODEM, Broadband Wireline System, broadband communication transceivers, Development of a
single chip mixed-signal ADSL transceiver (CopperGoldTm). The transceiver contained Analog Front End
(A/D, D/A, Hybrid), DMT, modulation/demodulation, FFT, IFFT, echo canceler, time domain equalizer,
front-end constellation mapping, Trellis code modulation, Viterbi decoder) and an on-chip DSP core
(Motorola 56k 24-bit DSP core).
2
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Sayfe Kiaei
•
Standards: Technical representative of Motorola in the standards meetings including 2G-4G, GPS,
Bluetooth, and DSL standards including T1E1, International Telecommunication Unit (ITU), ETSI,
3GPPP, Universal ADSL Working Group (UAWG), etc.
•
Land Mobile Products Sector, Plantation FL, responsible for Wireless digital two-way radios, hot spot
wireless network, next generation of digital two-way radios, "Talk about Radios", Japanese cellular
systems (PHS).
1995-2002, Adjunct Professor, Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept., The University of Texas,
Austin, Texas
•
Taught graduate courses at UT Austin on Introduction to Telecommunication System and Digital
Communications. Co-advised two Ph.D. program committees in IC design and Telecomm (while at
Motorola)
1987-1993, Assistant / Associate Professor (Tenured) Electrical and Computer Engineering Department,
Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR
•
Research and classes in Electronics, DSP, Communication system and networks, Wireless systems,
MODEMS. Graduated 30 MS and Ph.D. students.
•
Faculty Chair, Computer Engineering Program, Developed a new Computer Engineering Program at OSU
in 1987
•
Co-Director, National Science Foundation Center for the Design of Analog/Digital IC’s (CDADIC),.
CDADIC is a NSF center focused on mixed-signal IC research. CDADIC members include four
universities (Oregon State University, University of Washington, Washington State University, University
of N.Y. Stony Brook), over 25 Electronics companies, and the National Science Foundation.
1985-87: Member of Research Staff, Boeing Co., Bellevue, Wa, Flight Systems Research and Technology
Center, summer. Design Engineer, Hardware and CAD tool development for system control.
AWARDS
•
IEEE Fellow, For contributions in Mixed-Signal Design, 2001
•
IEEE Fellows CAS Committee Chair, 2009-2012.
•
Global Standards Award, For contributions in the International Telecommunication Unit (ITU) for
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) G.Lite Standards. Motorola Inc., 1999.
•
10X Cycle Reduction Award, for development of new IC design process from DSP algorithm to IC layout,
Motorola Inc., 1995.
•
IEEE Darlington Award, IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Best Paper Award, 1995. For
“Characterization and Comparison of CMOS FSCL Circuits with Conventional CMOS for mixed-signal
ICs,” Published at: IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems II, Sept. 93.
•
Carter Best Teaching Award, College of Engineering Best Teacher Award, Oregon State University, 1992.
For “outstanding and inspirational teaching in the College of Engineering”. Award is selected by the
3
106
Sayfe Kiaei
confidential vote of all of the undergraduate students in the College of Engineering among over 125
professors in the College.
•
Industrial University Fellowship (IUF) Award, National Science Foundation, 1993.
•
Research Initiation Award, National Science Foundation, 1990-93.
•
Outstanding Graduate Student Scholarship, Azur-Data Inc. WSU, 1984
FUNDED RESEARCH PROJECTS
Summary of annual Research Awards at ASU, 2002-Present:
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
$255K
$644K
$1.85M
$1.2M
$1.35M
$650K
$840K
$650K
$640K
$1.5M
$1.2M
$950K
$2.25M
$18.2M
Partial list of Research Awards:
•
USAID, PCASE – Center for Energy systems, 2015-2020, $18M. PI and Director
•
NSF, QESST NSF ERC Center on Solar Energy, 2010-2020, $36M, Kiaei, Co-PI, Testbed Director,
•
Private Donor, $1.5M, Solar Energy Development
•
NSF IUCRC Center, Connection One 2002-present, $3.5M, PI
•
NSF, MEMS/NEMS Based Flexible Hearing Aid, 2006-2008, $250K
•
NSF, Micro-Power Multi-Phase MEMS Hearing Aid, 2007-2011, $450K
•
NSF - Design for Implantable Bio-Sensors, 2007-2009, $480K
•
Science Foundation of AZ, PEPER- Photovoltaic Environmental Performance and Reliability for the
Arizona-Wide Electric Grid, 2009-2013, $1.2M
•
NSF, Autonomous Self-Healing Sensor Network Radio, 2010-2014, $200K
•
DARPA, Florida Int’l University, Neural-Enabled Prostheses with Sensorimotor Integration, $500K
•
NSF, Microwave Sensors for Vital Signs Monitoring Device Design, 2011-2013, $250K
•
SRC –Self Characterization for Calibration and Process Feedback of MEMS Devices, 2011-2014, $300K
•
NSF- Cognitive MIMO Communications for Dynamic-Spectrum Wireless Networks – 2012-2014, $150K
•
NSF, Various REU funds, 8/31/12 to 8/31/13, $200K
•
Nano-Mechanical RF Band pass resonator for 2GhZ RF Applications, (DARPA), $2.2 M, 2002-2005,
•
Intel, IC Packaging, Connection One, 2012 - $250K
•
Intel –Title: Digital LDO - Connection One Center, 2010, $150K
•
Qualcomm, Connection One Center, Various projects on RF DAC, 2005-Present, $1.2M
•
Texas Instruments, Various projects 2009-present, $1.5M
•
Intel Corp, Wireless & RF Division, 2005-2006, $100K
•
Motorola Inc., Various projects 2002-2010, $1.2MK.
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Sayfe Kiaei
•
SIRF Technologies, GPS Transceiver, 2005, $300K.
•
Ridgetop Inc., RF Harsh Environment, $200K
•
Freescale Semiconductor, PWM Power Management, 2006, $150K
•
State of Arizona, WINTECH- Wireless Integrated Nano Technology Center Support (2005-2009),
Ranging from 450K annually from 2005-2009.
•
BAE Systems; “New Techniques for Time Measurement Circuits; 2005-2008; $650K
•
Ultra-Wideband Transceivers, SRC (Semi-conductors research Corp), $225K, 2001-2003
•
Design of Multi-Standard RF Front-End Circuits, Intel Corporations, $300K, 2002-2005
•
Mix-Signal and RFIC Design for SOC, Motorola Inc, $320K, 2001-2002
•
DC-DC regulators and RF IC on-chip Power management, Texas Instruments; $100K
•
National Science Foundation, Adaptive Compensation of Analog circuits imperfections using DSP
methods, $60K, 1996 (tie project with UC San Diego NSF center).
•
Center for the Design of Analog/Digital IC’s ( CDADIC1987-1995) $1.5M
•
Low Power IF processing for Direct Digital Transceivers, Motorola Inc, $100K, 93.
•
Hewlett-Packard Faculty Chair position in Mixed-Signal IC, HP, 1995-97, $500K (Co-PI D. Allstot)
•
Faculty Industry Fellowship, National Science Foundation, Motorola Inc, $250K, 93-94.
•
Synthesis and Automatic Derivation of Multi-Rate VLSI Arrays for DSP Algorithms, National Science
Foundation, Research Initiation Award (RIA) (same as current CAREER Award), 90-93. $320K.
•
Low-Noise Source Coupled Logic (SCL) for Mixed-Mode IC's, CDACI $200K, 1988-1992.
•
Decimation Filters for A/D Noise Enhancements, Tektronix, Inc., $100K, 1988.
•
Various grants for IC Fabrication (DARPA/MOSIS, VLSI), testing equipment (Tek, HP), DSP system
development (TI, Motorola), ranging in various amounts up to $200K/year. 1988-1997.
CONSULTANT
•
Intel Inc. Chandler, AZ, 2002-2006: Development of 3G-4G Wireless transceiver.
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Sony Inc., San Diego, CA and Tokyo, Japan, 2002-2004: Review and development of various
telecom cellular system architecture including 3G system architecture, and GPS system.
•
Motorola Inc. 2002-2005: Supporting development of DSL, E911, GPS integrated circuits and
systems for the cellular and mobile handsets.
•
Hewlett Packard, Corvallis, OR – 1990-1993: Various project on development of custom analog and
digital IC’s for printer and inkjet system. Some of this work was under consultation, and some under
various research grants with Oregon State University.
•
Tektronix Inc, Beaverton, OR - 1988-1990: Design and Implementation of Data acquisition system
for Spectrum analyzer, development of custom DSP algorithm for the Tektronix spectrum analyzer
including system architecture, simulation, analysis, and design of oversampled data acquisition
system.
•
Boeing Commercial Aircraft, BCAC, Renton, WA - 1985-1987: Development of Airplane Controller
Model, Simulation and Implementation of Flight control, Model reduction, and system control.
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EXPERT WITNESS (Patent)
Patent litigation, patent validity, IPR, expert reports, deposition, testimony, and trade secrets in the following
areas (Complete list of cases available):
•
Analog and Digital IC, Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits, Power Management, Power
Management IC
•
Wireless communication, Communication networks, Signal Processing, Communication system,
•
Standards including AMPS, GSM, CDMA, WCDMA, LTE, 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, BT, WiFi (802.11),
DOCIS, and related ITU/ETRI/3G.PPP standards.
•
Satellite communications, Satellite Transceiver, ECHO and Multi-path cancelation circuits
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Wireline Communications, MODEM, Digital Subscriber Line, ADSL, VDSL, MODEM
•
Wireless LAN, Wi-Fi, 802.11, Bluetooth. ZIGBEE
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GPS system, GPS receiver.
•
MEMS, Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters, SAW, MEMS resonators, MEMS accelerometer
Processing, Communication Systems.
Signal
PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION
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IEEE Fellow, 2002-Present
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IEEE Fellow Committee Chair, CAS, 2008-2010
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IEEE Fellow Committee member, 2007-2010.
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IEEE Senior Member, 1993-Present, IEEE Member 1987-1992.
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IEEE Faculty Advisor, Oregon State University, 1987-1990
IEEE Editorials
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IEEE Microwave Magazine, Guest Editor,
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IEEE System Journal, Associate Editor, 2010-2011.
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Associate Editor, IEEE Transactions on VLSI, Jan 2001-2008.
•
IEEE Comm. Magazine, guest Editor, Feature Issues on “Circuits for Wireless and Wireline
Communications,” April 1999.
•
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques , Guest editor, Special Issue on: "Radio
Frequency IC Design,” Dec. 1998.
•
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-II , guest editor, Special Issue on: “Low-Power Wireless
Communication Systems,” June 1997.
•
Associate Editor, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-II, 1993-1996.
•
Editor and Reviewer for IEEE ASIC/SOC Conference,
•
Editor and Reviewer for IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Journal
•
Editor and Reviewer for International Journal of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing
•
Founding member of IEEE RF Integrated Circuits Synposium
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Associate Editor, IEEE Communications, Tutorial & Surveys Magazine, 2006-2009.
Conference Organizations
•
RFIC Executive Committee members, 2000-present, Steering Committee Member, RFIC symposium,
1996-Present.
•
RFIC Founding member, 1995-96.
•
Technical Program Chair, IEEE International Sym. on Circuits and Systems, Phoenix, AZ, 2002.
•
ISSCC Admin Council, Conferences Committee 2000-2005.
•
General Chair, Radio Frequency IC (RFIC) Symposium, Seattle, WA, 2002.
•
Technical Program Chair, RFIC Symposium, Phoenix, AZ, 2001.
•
Finance Chair, RFIC symposium, Boston, MA, 2000.
•
Publicity Chair, RFIC symposium, Los Angeles, CA, 1999.
•
Transactions Chair, RFIC symposium, Baltimore, MD, 1998.
•
General Chair, Int. Sym. on Low-Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), Monterey, CA, 97.
•
Executive Committee Member, Int. Symp. On Low-Power Electronics and Design, 96-2000.
•
Technical Program Committee Member of the following conferences:
International Conference on Circuits and Systems: 1996, 2000, 2001, 2004-2008
RFIC Symposium, 1996-Present
Application Specific Array Processing (ASAP): 2000-2002
Technical Program Chair, Int. Sym. on Low-Power Electronics and Design, Monterey, CA, 96.
Arizona Telecom Comm (ATIC)
GLS VLSI 1998, Lafayette, Louisiana, 1998
VLSI Design 98, Chennai, India, Jan. 1998.
ICECS, Lisbon, Portugal, 98.
Application Specific Array Processing, 1995-97, 2000
Vehicular Technology Conference, 1995-97.
Inter. Conf. on Intelligent Information Systems, D.C., 1994-95.
IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on Communications & Computers, Victoria, BC, Canada, 1991.
Invited talks, Panelist, Session Chairs, Workshop Speaker
•
Conference chair, Technical Program committee chair and TPC member, tutorials, workshops, session
chair, etc. in RFIC, ISSCC, ISCAS,VLSI, ICASSP, Low-Power Symposium, ICC, Application Specific
IC’s, IMS, MTT, etc.
PATENTS, PUBLICATIONS
Patents & Disclosures
1. Finite impulse response digital to analog converter, US Pat. 7528754 2. Oscillator frequency correction in GPS signal acquisition, US6661371B2
3. Efficient non-iterative frequency domain method and system for ..., US Pat. App 11489102
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4.
5.
6.
7.
Monolithic supply-modulated RF power amplifier and DC-DC power …, US Pat. 7372333
Compressed vector-based spectral analysis method and system for …, US Pat. App 10535616
Integrated ZVS synchronous buck DC-DC converter with adaptive control, US Pat. 7218085
Low-Noise MOS Folded Source Coupled Logic (FSCL) for Mixed-Signal ICs” US 5,149,992.
Patent applications
1. S. Kiaei, N. Darbanian, Shahin Farahani, .S. Provisional Application No. 60/428,432, #
51579P/DMC/A59, “ CVB RF Models.
2. “Circuits and Systems for Powers of Two Wave Digital Filters,” Motorola Inc., 1995
3. “Direct Digital Demodulation for Narrow band signals,” Motorola Inc., 1996
4. “Capacity Maximized TEQ block for ADSL”, Motorola Inc., 97.
5. “Fast LMS Equalization with adaptive step size for TEQ,” Motorola Inc., 98.
6. “Peak-to-Average (PAR) reduction for DMT system,” Motorola Inc., 98.
Standards Contributions
1. “Spectral Compatibility of ADSL: Frequency Overlap vs. FDM,” T1E1, Dec. 97.
2. “Echo Cancellation for G.Lite Universal ADSL,” Universal ADSL Working Group, Atlanta, GA, Jan 98.
3. “8-bit QAM Constellation effects on reach for universal ADSL,” Universal ADAL Working Group,
Atlanta, GA, Jan 98.
4. “Trellis Code Modulation coding gain,” Universal ADAL Working Group, Atlanta, GA, Jan 98.
5. “Monte Carlo Modeling and simulation of twisted pair wiring,” Universal ADAL Working Group,
Atlanta, GA, Jan 98.
6. “Overlap Upstream/Downstream spectral allocation for ADSL,” International Telecommunication Unit,
Chicago, March 98.
7. “Echo Cancellation for ADSL,” International Telecommunication Unit, Antwerp, Belgium, 98.
8. “Performance of Echo Cancellation ADSL system in the presence of Near End Cross Talk (NEXT),”
International Telecommunication Unit, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 98.
9. Presentations and editorials at various ADSL standards: ITU, UAWG, and T1E1, 97-99.
Books
“Design, Modeling and Testing of Data Converters, P Carbone, S Kiaei,” F Xu - 2014 – Springer, © SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014
Refereed Journal Papers
1. Seungkee Min; Copani, T.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B., "A 90-nm CMOS 5-GHz Ring-Oscillator PLL With
Delay-Discriminator-Based Active Phase-Noise Cancellation," Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of ,
vol.48, no.5, pp.1151,1160, May 2013
2. Junghan Lee; Tino Copani; Terry Mayhugh Jr.; Bhaskar Aravind; Sayfe Kiaei; Bertan Bakkaloglu.;, “A
280 mW, 0.07% THD+N class-D audio amplifier using a frequency-domain quantizer,” Analog
Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 173-186, 2012.
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3. Seungkee Min; Copali, T.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B.; , “A 90nm CMOS 5GHz ring oscillator PLL with
delay-discriminator based active phase noise cancellation,” Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits
Symposium (RFIC), 2012 IEEE, pp. 173-176, 2012
4. Deligoz, I.; Naqvi, S.R.; Copani, T.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Sang-Soo Je; Junseok Chae; , "A MEMSBased Power-Scalable Hearing Aid Analog Front End," Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE
Transactions on , vol.5, no.3, pp.201-213, June 2011
5. Copani, T.; Seungkee Min; Shashidharan, S.; Chakraborty, S.; Stevens, M.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B.; ,
"A CMOS Low-Power Transceiver With Reconfigurable Antenna Interface for Medical Implant
Applications," Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on , vol.59, no.5, pp.1369-1378,
May 2011
6. Khalil, W.; Shashidharan, S.; Copani, T.; Chakraborty, S.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B.; , "A
405MHz All-Digital FractionalFrequency-Locked Loop for ISM Band Applications," Microwave
Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on , vol.59, no.5, pp.1319-1326, May 2011
7. Lashkarian, N.; Nassiri-Toussi, K.; Jula, P.; Kiaei, S.; , "Performance Bound on Ergodic Capacity of
MIMO Beam-Forming in Indoor Multi-Path Channels," Communications, IEEE Transactions on , vol.58,
no.11, pp.3254-3264, November 2010
8. Hyungseok Kim; Junghan Lee; Copani, T.; Bazarjani, S.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B.; , "Adaptive Blocker
Rejection Continuous-Time
ADC for Mobile WiMAX Applications," Solid-State Circuits, IEEE
Journal of , vol.44, no.10, pp.2766-2779, Oct. 2009
9. Kitchen, J.N.; Chu, C.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B.; , "Combined Linear and -Modulated Switch-Mode
PA Supply Modulator for Polar Transmitters," Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of , vol.44, no.2,
pp.404-413, Feb. 2009
10. Sang-Soo Je; Rivas, F.; Diaz, R.E.; Jiuk Kwon; Jeonghwan Kim; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S.; Junseok
Chae; , "A Compact and Low-Cost MEMS Loudspeaker for Digital Hearing Aids," Biomedical Circuits
and Systems, IEEE Transactions on , vol.3, no.5, pp.348-358, Oct. 2009
11. Taleie, S.M.; Copani, T.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S.; , "A Linear Digital IF to RF SD DAC Transmitter
With Embedded Mixer," Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on , vol.56, no.5,
pp.1059-1068, May 2008
12. Wing-Yee Chu; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S.; , "A 10 MHz Bandwidth, 2 mV Ripple PA Regulator for
CDMA Transmitters," Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of , vol.43, no.12, pp.2809-2819, Dec. 2008.
13. Lyles, U. J.; Copani, T.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S.; , "An Injection-Locked Frequency-Tracking ΣΔ Direct
Digital Frequency Synthesizer," Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, IEEE Transactions on , vol.54,
no.5, pp.402-406, May 2007
14. Khalil, W.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S.; , "A Self-Calibrated On-Chip Phase-Noise Measurement Circuit
With −75 dBc Single-Tone Sensitivity at 100 kHz Offset," Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of , vol.42,
no.12, pp.2758-2765, Dec. 2007
15. Chen, X.; Kiaei, S.; , "Pulse generation scheme for low-power low-complexity impulse ultra-wideband,"
Electronics Letters , vol.43, no.1, pp.44-45, Jan. 4 2007
16. Carlosena, A.; Wing-Yee Chu; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S.; , "Randomized Carrier PWM With Exponential
Frequency Mapping," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.22, no.3, pp.960-966, May 2007
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17. Abedinpour, S.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S.; , "A Multistage Interleaved Synchronous Buck Converter With
Integrated Output Filter in 0.18 μm SiGe Process," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.22,
no.6, pp.2164-2175, Nov. 2007
18. Kitchen, J. N.; Deligoz, I.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B.; , "Polar SiGe Class E and F Amplifiers Using
Switch-Mode Supply Modulation," Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on , vol.55,
no.5, pp.845-856, May 2007
19. A Multistage Interleaved Synchronous Buck Converter With Integrated Output Filter in 0.18 micron. , S
Abedinpour, B Bakkaloglu, S Kiaei - Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, Nov. 2007, Volume:
22, pp - 2164-2175
20. Delta-sigma (ΔΣ) frequency synthesizers for wireless applications - B Bakkaloglu, S Kiaei, B Chaudhuri
- Computer Standards & Interfaces, 2007 – Elsevier, Analog Computer Standards & Interfaces Volume
29, Issue 1 , January 2007, Pages 19-30
21. Pulse generation scheme for low-power low-complexity impulse ultra-wideband, Chen, X.; Kiaei, S.;
Electronics Letters; Volume: 43 Issue: 1 Jan. 2007 ; Page(s): 44-45
22. Bandwidth extension technique for polar modulated RF transmitters ; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S.; Dwyer,
R.; Electronics Letters; Volume: 42 Issue: 8 13 April 2006 ; Page(s): 476- 478 ;
23. Frequency modulated bandpass SD chirp synthesizer for sensor applications; Chung, H.H.; Lyles, U.;
Copani, T.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S.; Electronics Letters; Volume: 42 Issue: 16 August 3, 2006 ;
Page(s): 917- 918
24. Radiation Hardened by Design RF Circuits Implemented in 0.13 mm CMOS Technology; Chen, W.;
Pouget, V.; Gentry, G. K.; Barnaby, H. J.; Vermeire, B.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, K.; Holbert, K. E.;
Fouillat, P. ; Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on ; Volume: 53 Issue: 6 Part=1, Dec. 2006 ; Page(s):
3449-3454 ;
25. Analysis of Single Events Effects on Monolithic PLL Frequency Synthesizers ; Chung, H. H.; Chen, W.;
Bakkaloglu, B.; Barnaby, H. J.; Vermeire, B.; Kiaei, S. ; Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on ;
Volume: 53 Issue: 6 Part=1, Dec. 2006 ; Page(s): 3539-3543
26. Pulse generation scheme for low-power low-complexity impulse ultra-wideband
27. Chen, X.; Kiaei, S.; Electronics Letters; Volume: 43 Issue: 1 Jan. 4 2007 ; Page(s): 44-45
28. Bandwidth extension technique for polar modulated RF transmitters ; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S.; Dwyer,
R.; Electronics Letters; Volume: 42 Issue: 8 13 April 2006 ; Page(s): 476- 478 ;
29. Frequency modulated bandpass SD chirp synthesizer for sensor applications; Chung, H.H.; Lyles, U.;
Copani, T.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S.; Electronics Letters; Volume: 42 Issue: 16 August 3, 2006 ;
Page(s): 917- 918
30. Radiation Hardened by Design RF Circuits Implemented in 0.13 mm CMOS Technology; Chen, W.;
Pouget, V.; Gentry, G. K.; Barnaby, H. J.; Vermeire, B.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, K.; Holbert, K. E.;
Fouillat, P. ; Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on ; Volume: 53 Issue: 6 Part=1, Dec. 2006 ; Page(s):
3449-3454 ;
31. Analysis of Single Events Effects on Monolithic PLL Frequency Synthesizers ; Chung, H. H.; Chen, W.;
Bakkaloglu, B.; Barnaby, H. J.; Vermeire, B.; Kiaei, S. ; Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on ;
Volume: 53 Issue: 6 Part=1, Dec. 2006 ; Page(s): 3539-3543
32. "Channel Shortening For Discrete Multi-tone Transceivers To Maximize Channel Capacity," G. Arslan,
B. Evans, S. Kiaei; ; IEEE Transactions for Signal Processing, Vol 49; No. 12; Pp: 3123-3135. Dec
2001.
33. Optimum equalization of multicarrier systems: a unified geometric approach Lashkarian, N.; Kiaei, S. ;
IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume: 49 Issue: 10 , Oct. 2001 Page(s): 1762 –1769
34. Class of cyclic-based estimators for frequency-offset estimation of OFDM systems; Lashkarian, N.; Kiaei,
S. , IEEE Transactions on Communications , Volume: 48 Issue: 12 , Jan 2001; Page(s): 2139 –2149
35. Systems and circuits for broadband communications; Kiaei, S. IEEE Communications Magazine ,
Volume: 37 Issue: 4 , April 1999 Page(s): 70 –70
36. Westgate, C.R.; Gupta, R.K.; Kiaei, S. ; Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on ,
Volume: 46 Issue: 12 Part: 2 , Dec. 1998 ; Page(s): 2180 –2181
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37. Introduction to the special issue on low power wireless communications Kiaei, S.; Friedman, E.G.
Circuits and Systems II: IEEE Transactions on Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Volume: 44 Issue:
6 , June 1997 Page(s): 425 –427
38. Adaptive multiuser detector for asynchronous DS-CDMA in Rayleigh fading; Dutta, A.K.; Kiaei, S. ,
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Volume: 44 Issue:
6 , June 1997; Page(s): 468 -472
39. "Noise Considerations for Mixed-Signal RF IC Transceivers," ACM Transaction on Wireless Networks,
Vol. 4, pp. 41-53, 1998. [S. Kiaei, D. Allstot, N. Verghese, K. Hansen].
40. “A triangularly weighted zero-crossing detector providing delta-sigma frequency-to-digital conversion",
IEE Electronics Letters, vol.33, no.13, pp.1121-1122, June 1997. [M. Hovin, S. Kiaei, T.S. Laude]
41. "Adaptive Multi-user Detector For Asynchronous DS- CDMA In Raleigh Fading," IEEE Transactions on
CAS-II, pp. 468-473, June 97. [A.K. Dutta, S. Kiaei]
42. "Multi-Rate Transformation of Recurrence Equations for Regular VLSI Arrays, " Application Specific
Array Processors, IEEE Press, 1994. [L. Aihua, S. Kiaei]
43. "Analog Logic Techniques," IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine, pp. 12-21, May 1993. [S. Kiaei, D.
Allstot, R. Zele]
44. "Overlapping Transformation for Time-Area Optimal VLSI arrays for Toeplitz Matrices," J. of Computer
and Software Engineering, Vol. 3, #4, pp. 461-481, June 95. [S. Kiaei, Yuepeng Zheng]
45. "Characterization and Comparison of CMOS FSCL Circuits with Conventional CMOS Logic for Hybrid
ICs," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, Sept. 93. [S.H. Chee, S. Kiaei, D. Allstot]
46. "Low Noise Logic for Mixed-Mode VLSI Circuits, Journal of microelectronics, " Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 103115, April 1992. [S. Kiaei, D. Allstot]
47. "Enhancement Source-Couple Logic ESCL," IEEE Trans. on Circuits, and Systems II: Analog and Digital
Signal Processing, Vol. 39, No. 6, pp. 399-402, July92. [M. Maleki, S. Kiaei]
48. "Synthesis of Complex FSCL Blocks for Mixed Mode Systems," IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, Vol. 27,
No. 8, pp. 1157-1168, Aug 1992. [S. Maskai, S. Kiaei, D. Allstot]
49. "Adaptive self-correcting D-S Modulators," IEE Electronics Letters, Vol. 28, No. 14, pp. 1288-1290, July
92. [S. Abdenadher, S. Kiaei, G. Temes, R. Schreier]
50. "On-line Adaptive Digital Correction of Dual-Quantization Delta-Sigma Modulators," IEE Electronics
Letters, Vol. 28, No. 16, pp. 1511-1513, July 92.[Y. Yang, R. Schreier, G. Temes, S. Kiaei]
51. “Piecewise Linear Schedules for Recurrence Equations," VLSI Sig. Proc. VI, IEEE Press, 1992. [S.
Rajopadhye, L. Mui, S. Kiaei]
52. “Automatic Synthesis and Derivations of VLSI Architectures for Recursive IIR Digital Filters,” CAD for
VLSI Design, 1990. [S. Kiaei, S. Rajopadhye]
53. "VLSI Design of Wavefront Array Processors for Recursive Filters," VLSI Signal Processing II, IEEE
Press, pp. 152-164, 1988. [S. Kiaei, U.B. Desai]
54. “RFIC Design,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, v. 46, pp. 2180-2183, Dec.
98. [S. Kiaei, R. Gupta]
55. “Circuits for Wireless and Wireline Communications,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, April 1999. [S. Kiaei]
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Conference Publications
1. “Low power integrated on-chip current to digital converter, “ Marti-Arbona, Edgar; Mandal, Debashis;
Bakkaloglu, Bertan; Kiaei, Sayfe, Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2015
IEEE, Year: 2015
2. “PV panel power optimization using sub-panel MPPT,” Marti-Arbona, Edgar; Mandal, Debashis; Bakkaloglu,
Bertan; Kiaei, Sayfe Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2015 IEEE, Year: 2015
3. Deng, Lingfei; Kundur, Vinay; Naga, Naveen Sai Jangala; Ozel, Muhlis Kenan; Yilmaz, Ender; Ozev, Sule;
Bakkaloglu, Bertan; Kiaei, Sayfe; Pratab, Divya; Dar, Tehmoor, "Electrical calibration of spring-mass MEMS
capacitive accelerometers," Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), 2013 ,
vol., no., pp.571,574, 18-22 March 2013
4. Kiaei, M.S.; Fouli, K.; Scheutzow, M.; Maier, M.; Reisslein, M.; Assi, C., "Delay analysis for ethernet longreach passive optical networks," Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on , vol., no.,
pp.3099,3104, 10-15 June 2012
5. Marti-Arbona, Edgar; Bakkaloglu, Bertan; Kiaei, Sayfe, "Ultra-Low Power Current-to-Digital Sensor for
Switching DC-DC Converters," Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME), 2012 8th
Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,4, 12-15 June 2012
6. Seungkee Min; Copani, T.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B., "A 90nm CMOS 5GHz ring oscillator PLL with delaydiscriminator based active phase noise cancellation," Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium
(RFIC), 2012 IEEE , vol., no., pp.173,176, 17-19 June 2012
7. A fully integrated pulsed-LASER time-of-flight measurement system with 12ps single-shot precision; Copani,
T.; Vermeire, B.; Jain, A.; Karaki, H.; Chandrashekar, K.; Goswami, S.; Kitchen, J.; Chung, H.H.; Deligoz, I.;
Bakkaloglu, B.; Barnaby, H.; Kiaei, S.; Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2008. CICC 2008. IEEE; 2124 Sept. 2008. 359-362.
8. A Self-Calibrated On-chip Phase-Noise-Measurement Circuit with -75dBc Single-Tone Sensitivity at 100kHz
Offset. Khalil, W.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S. Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007. ISSCC 2007. Digest of
Technical Papers. IEEE International. 11-15 Feb. 2007. 546-621.
9. Supply modulators for RF polar transmitters. Kitchen, J.; Chu, C.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B. Radio Frequency
Integrated Circuits Symposium, 2008. RFIC 2008. IEEE. June 17 2008-April 17 2008. 417-420.
10. A 700uA, 405MHz fractional-N All digital frequency-locked loop for MICS band applications. Shashidharan,
S.; Khalil, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kiaei, S.; Copani, T.; Bakkaloglu, B. Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits
Symposium (RFIC), 2010 IEEE. 23-25 May 2010. 409-412.
11. A 14-GHz CMOS receiver with local oscillator and IF bandpass filter for satellite applications. Wenjian
Chen; Copani, T.; Barnaby, H.J.; Kiaei, S. Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, 2009. RFIC
2009. IEEE. 7-9 June 2009. 123-126.
12. (Invited) analysis and modeling of noise folding and spurious emission in wideband fractional-N synthesizers.
Khalil, W.; Hedayati, H.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S. Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, 2008.
RFIC 2008. IEEE. June 17 2008-April 17 2008. 291-294.
13. Combined Linear and Δ-Modulated Switched-Mode PA Supply Modulator for Polar Transmitters. Kitchen,
J.; Wing-Yee Chu; Deligoz, I.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B. Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007. ISSCC 2007.
Digest of Technical Papers. IEEE International. 11-15 Feb. 2007. 82-588.
14. A 24GHz CMOS digitally modulated polar power amplifier with embedded FIR filtering. Hyungseok Kim;
Copani, T.; Kiaei, S. Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME), 2010 Conference on. 1821 July 2010. 1-4.
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15. A 0.18μm CMOS fully integrated RFDAC and VGA for WCDMA transmitters. Taleie, S.M.; Yongping
Han; Copani, T.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S. Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, 2008. RFIC
2008. IEEE. June 17 2008-April 17 2008. 157-160.
16. A 96Gb/s-Throughput Transceiver for Short-Distance Parallel Optical Links. Goswami, S.; Copani, T.; Jain,
A.; Karaki, H.; Vermeire, B.; Barnaby, H.J.; Fetzer, G.; Vercillo, R.; Kiaei, S. Solid-State Circuits
Conference, 2008. ISSCC 2008. Digest of Technical Papers. IEEE International. 3-7 Feb. 2008. 230-609.
17. A 0.13-μm CMOS Ultra-Low Power Front-End Receiver for Wireless Sensor Networks. Wenjian Chen;
Copani, T.; Barnaby, H.J.; Kiaei, S. Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, 2007 IEEE. 3-5
June 2007. 105-108.
18. A low noise buck converter with a fully integrated continuous time ΣΔ modulated feedback controller.
Wong, M.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S. Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2007. CICC '07. IEEE. 16-19
Sept. 2007. 377-380.
19. A 10MHz-Bandwidth 2mV-Ripple PA-Supply Regulator for CDMA Transmitters. Wing-Yee Chu;
Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S. Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2008. ISSCC 2008. Digest of Technical Papers.
IEEE International. 3-7 Feb. 2008. 448-626.
20. A Bandpass ΔΣ DDFS-Driven 19GHz Frequency Synthesizer for FMCW Automotive Radar. Hoon Hee
Chung; Lyles, U.; Copani, T.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S. Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007. ISSCC 2007.
Digest of Technical Papers. IEEE International. 11-15 Feb. 2007. 126-591.
21. A 2mW CMOS MICS-band BFSK transceiver with reconfigurable antenna interface. Seungkee Min;
Shashidharan, S.; Stevens, M.; Copani, T.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Chakraborty, S. Radio Frequency
Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC), 2010 IEEE. 23-25 May 2010. 289-292.
22. A 14mW 5Gb/s CMOS TIA with gain-reuse regulated cascode compensation for parallel optical
interconnects. Goswami, S.; Silver, J.; Copani, T.; Wenjian Chen; Barnaby, H.J.; Vermeire, B.; Kiaei, S.
Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers, 2009. ISSCC 2009. IEEE International. 8-12
Feb. 2009. 100-101a.
23. A 0.13-Âμm CMOS local oscillator for 60-GHz applications based on push-push characteristic of capacitive
degeneration. Copani, T.; Hyungseok Kim; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S. Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits
Symposium (RFIC), 2010 IEEE. 23-25 May 2010. 153-156.
24. A 90nm CMOS 5GHz ring oscillator PLL with delay-discriminator based active phase noise cancellation.
Seungkee Min; Copani, T.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B. Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium
(RFIC), 2012 IEEE. 17-19 June 2012. 173-176.
25. A BiCMOS voltage controlled oscillator and frequency doubler for K-band applications. Copani, T.;
Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S. Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, 2008. RFIC 2008. IEEE. June 17
2008-April 17 2008. 537-540.
26. Dynamic calibration of feedback DAC non-linearity for a 4<sup>th</sup> order CT sigma delta for digital
hearing aids. Naqvi, S.R.; Deligoz, I.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B. SOC Conference (SOCC), 2011 IEEE
International. 26-28 Sept. 2011. 109-113.
27. Ultra-Low Power Current-to-Digital Sensor for Switching DC-DC Converters. Marti-Arbona, Edgar;
Bakkaloglu, Bertan; Kiaei, Sayfe. Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME), 2012 8th
Conference on. 12-15 June 2012. 1-4.
28. Dynamic calibration of feedback DAC non-linearity for a 4th order CT sigma delta for digital hearing aids
Naqvi, S.R.; Deligoz, I.; Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B. – 2011 IEEE International SOC Conference (SOCC), 2011
29. Ultra-Low Power Current-to-Digital Sensor for Switching DC-DC Converters
Marti-Arbona, Edgar; Bakkaloglu, Bertan; Kiaei, Sayfe – 2012 8th Conference on Ph.D. Research in
Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME), 2012.
30. A Bandpass S-D DDFS-Driven 19GHz Frequency Synthesizer for FMCW Automotive Radar
HH Chung, U Lyles, T Copani, B Bakkaloglu, S Kiaei - Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007. ISSCC 2007.
31. A 0.13-micron CMOS Ultra-Low Power Front-End Receiver for Wireless Sensor Networks
W Chen, T Copani, HJ Barnaby, S Kiaei - Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, 2007,
13
116
Sayfe Kiaei
32. A Self-Calibrated On-chip Phase-Noise-Measurement Circuit with -75dBc Single-Tone Sensitivity at 100kHz
Offset, Khalil, W. Bakkaloglu, B. Kiaei, S. , Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007. ISSCC 2007. Digest of
Technical Papers. IEEE International, 11-15 Feb. 2007
33. Combined Linear and SD-Modulated Switched-Mode PA Supply Modulator for Polar Transmitters
J Kitchen, WY Chu, I Deligoz, S Kiaei, - Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007. ISSCC 2007. Digest of,
2007 - Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007. ...
34. A Low Noise Buck Converter with a Fully Integrated Continuous Time SD Modulated Feedback Controller,
M Wong, B Bakkaloglu, S Kiaei, F Semiconductor, AZ … - Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2007.
CICC'07. IEEE, 2007
35. Tri-mode integrated receiver for GPS, GSM 1800, and WCDMA ; Darbanian, N.; Farahani, S.; Kiaei, S.;
Bakkaloglu, B.; Smith, M.; Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, 2006 IEEE ; 11-13
June 2006 ;
36. A low power bandpass ΣΔ modulator injection locked synthesizer ; Hoon Hee Chung; Lyles, U.; Copani, T.;
Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S. ; Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, 2006 IEEE; 11-13 June
2006
37. Linear RF polar modulated SiGe Class E and F power amplifiers ; Kitchen, J.D.; Deligoz, I.; Kiaei, S.;
Bakkaloglu, B. ; Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, 2006 IEEE ; 11-13 June 2006
38. Randomized carrier PWM with exponential frequency mapping; Carlosena, A.; Wing-Yee Chu;
Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S. ;Circuits and Systems, 2006. ISCAS 2006. Proceedings. 2006 IEEE International
Symposium on; 21-24 May 2006
39. A 65MHZ switching rate, two-stage interleaved synchronous buck converter with fully integrated output
filter ; Abedinpour, S.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S. ; Circuits and Systems, 2006. ISCAS 2006. Proceedings.
2006 IEEE International Symposium on; 21-24 May 2006
40. A Multi-Stage Interleaved Synchronous Buck Converter with Integrated Output Filter in a 0.18/spl mu/
SiGe process ; Abedinpour, S.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S. ; Solid-State Circuits, 2006 IEEE International
Conference Digest of Technical Papers; Feb. 6-9, 2006 ; Page(s): 1398- 1407
41. A Bandpass ΣΔ RF-DAC with Embedded FIR Reconstruction Filter ; Taleie, S.M.; Copani, T.; Bakkaloglu,
B.; Kiaei, S. ; Solid-State Circuits, 2006 IEEE International Conference Digest of Technical Papers ; Feb. 69, 2006 ; Page(s): 2370- 2379
42. S. Kiaei, S. M. Taleie, B. Bakkaloglu, “Low-power high-Q NEMS receiver architecture”, IEEE International
Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Vol.5, 23-26 May 2005 Page(s):4401 - 4404
43. Kiaei, Overview of Transmit and Linear PA Up-converters, Vol 5, May 05; RFIC 2005, Workshops, PP. 2845.
44. S. Kiaei, RF Design of Up and Down converters, S. Kiaei, Vol. 5, May 05, RF Building Blocks workshop,
PP. 45-68. Location: Long Beach Convention Center, Room 102AB
45. S. Kiaei, IMS 2005, DC/DC converters and Noise Shaping Techniques for Switched-Mode DC/DC
Converters for RF Transceivers, Vol. 5, May 05, Monilithic Power Management workshop, PP. 98-112.
46. Darbanian, N.; Kiaei, S.; Farahani, S.;, Optimum design and trade-offs for a triple-band LNA for GSM,
WCDMA and GPS applications, SOC Conference, 2004. Proceedings. IEEE International , 12-15 Sept. 2004,
PP 383-386
47. Xiaomin Chen; Kiaei, S.;, An improved delay-hopped transmitted-reference ultra wideband architecture, SOC
Conference, 2004. Proceedings. IEEE International , 12-15 Sept. 2004, Pages:359 - 362
48. Taleie, S.M.; Jiandong Zhang; Kiaei, S.;, Nonlinearity and power consumption analysis of a low-IF MEMS
receiver architecture, Circuits and Systems, 2004. MWSCAS '04. The 2004 47th Midwest Symposium on
, Volume: 3 , July 25-28, 2004; Pages:III_363 - III_366
49. Kiaei, S.; Smith, M.;, Receiver design for 4G, Microwave Symposium Digest, 2004 IEEE MTT-S
International , Volume: 1 , 6-11 June 2004, Pages:VI - VI
50. Badillo, D.A.; Kiaei, S.;, Comparison of contemporary CMOS ring oscillators, Radio Frequency Integrated
Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, 2004. Digest of Papers. 2004 IEEE , 6-8 June 2004, Pages:281 - 284
14
117
Sayfe Kiaei
51. Badillo, D.A.; Kiaei, S.;, A low phase noise 2.0 V 900 MHz CMOS voltage controlled ring oscillator, Circuits
and Systems, 2004. ISCAS '04. Proceedings of the 2004 International Symposium on , Volume: 4 , 23-26
May 2004, Pages: IV - 533-6 Vol.4
52. Xuejin Wang; Aykut Dengi; Sayfe Kiaei;, A high IIP3 X-band BiCMOS mixer for radar applications, Circuits
and Systems, 2004. ISCAS '04. Proceedings of the 2004 International Symposium on , Volume: 1 , 23-26
May 2004, Pages:I-113 - I-116 Vol.1
53. Shahin Farahani, Nazanin Darbanian, and Sayfe Kiaei, Simulation of Nonlinear Systems with Sparse Input
Vectors Using CRC Techniques, Proceedings of 11th IEEE workshop on Digital Signal Processing, Aug
2004, NM, Vo I, PP VoI
54. Shahin Farahani, Nazanin Darbanian, and Sayfe Kiaei, AN EDUCATIONAL TOOL AND TEACHING
GUIDELINES FOR NONLINEAR SYSTEMS WITH SPARSE INPUTS , Proceedings of 3rd IEEE
workshop on Signal Processing for Education, Aug 2004, NM, Vol I, PP Vol L
55. Shahin Farahani, Nazanin Darbanian, and Sayfe Kiaei, Compressed Vector-Based Spectral Analysis
Technique for Analysis and Simulation of Nonlinear Systems , Proceedings of IEEE Wireless and Microwave
Technology Conference, Florida 2004 pp.45
56. Shahin Farahani, Nazanin Darbanian, Sayfe Kiaei, Ali Afsahi, Hang Song , A SiGe BiCMOS 0.18 MultiMode RF front-end for GSM 1.8, GPS, and WCDMA Applications, Proceedings of Software Define Radio
technical conference, Phoenix, AZ 2004, Workshop Vol, Section III, PP 301-325
57. S. Farahani, N. Darbanian, S. Kiaei, , "Compressed Vector-Based Spectral Analysis Technique for RF
Nonlinear Analysis and Simulation of Circuits and Systems", , 6TH IEEE Wireless and Microwave
Technology Conference, Florida 2004, Section I, PP 40-45
58. N. Darbanian S. Farahani, A. Afsahi, H. Song, S. Kiaei, M. Smith, "A SiGe BiCMOS 0.18un Multi-Mode RF
front-end for GSM 1.8, GPS, and WCDMA Applications" accepted for presentation in IEEE WAMI
conference, Florida 2004, 6TH IEEE Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference , Florida
2004,Section I, pp 45-49
59. S.M Taleie, J. Zhang, S. Kiaei, A New Low-IF Receiver using High-Q MEMS filter, 6TH IEEE Wireless and
Microwave Technology Conference -Florida 2004, Section II, pp 90-95
60. S. Kiaei, S. M. Taleie, B. Bakkaloglu, “Low-power high-Q NEMS receiver architecture”, IEEE International
Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Vol.5, 23-26 May 2005 Page(s):4401 - 4404
61. Kiaei, Overview of Transmit and Linear PA Up-converters, Vol 5, May 05; RFIC 2005, Workshops, PP. 2845.
62. S. Kiaei, RF Design of Up and Down converters, S. Kiaei, Vol. 5, May 05, RF Building Blocks workshop,
PP. 45-68. Location: Long Beach Convention Center, Room 102AB
63. S. Kiaei, IMS 2005, DC/DC converters and Noise Shaping Techniques for Switched-Mode DC/DC
Converters for RF Transceivers, Vol. 5, May 05, Monilithic Power Management workshop, PP. 98-112.
64. “A Bandpass Delta Sigma RF-DAC with Embedded FIR Reconstruction Filter,” International Solid State
Circuits Conference (ISSCC) 2006 [Taleie, S.M.; Copani, T.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Kiaei, S.]
65. “Compressed Vector-Based Spectral Analysis Technique for RF Nonlinear Analysis and Simulation of
Circuits and Systems,” Proc. of IEEE WAMI Conference, Clearwater, FL, June 2004. [S. Farahani, N.
Darbanian, S. Kiaei]
66. "A SiGe BiCMOS 0.18un Multi-Mode RF front-end for GSM 1.8, GPS, and WCDMA Applications," Proc.
of IEEE WAMI Conference, Clearwater, FL, June 2004. [N. Darbanian S. Farahani, A. Afsahi, H. Song, S.
Kiaei, M. Smith]
67. “Delta-Sigma Data Converters for Wireless Applications,” Proc. of 2003 International Workshop on ADC's,
June 2003. [Chaudhuri, Bikram, Kiaei, S.]
68. “A Pseudo-Concurrent 0.18 /spl mu/m Multi-Band CMOS LNA,” Proc. of 2003 IEEE MTT-S International,
June 2003. [Lavasani, S.H.M.; Chaudhuri, B.; Kiaei, S.]
15
118
Sayfe Kiaei
69. “Monolithic Supply Modulated RF Power Amplifier and DC-DC Power Converter IC,” Proc. of 2003 IEEE
MTT-S International, June 2003. [Abedinpour, S.; Deligoz, K.; Desai, J.; Figiel, M.; Kiaei, S.]
70. “A Novel Low Phase Noise 1.8V 900MHz CMOS Voltage Controlled Ring Oscillator,” Proc. of ISCAS
'03 Volume: 3, May, 2003. [Badillo, D.A.; Kiaei, S.]
71. “Monolithic Distributed Power Supply for a Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuit,” Circuits and Systems, 2003.
ISCAS '03. Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on, Volume: 3, 2003 [Abedinpour, S.; Kiaei,
S.]
72. “A Pseudo-Concurrent 0.18 /spl mu/m Multi-Band CMOS LNA,” Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits
(RFIC) Symposium, 2003 IEEE, June 2003 [Lavasani, S.H.M.; Chaudhuri, B.; Kiaei, S.]
73. “Parasitic-aware synthesis of RF CMOS switching power amplifiers,”
Circuits and Systems, 2002. ISCAS 2002. IEEE International Symposium on , Volume: 1 , 2002 [Kiyong
Choi; Allstot, D.J.; S. Kiaei]
74. “Monocycle shapes for ultra wideband system,” Circuits and Systems, 2002. ISCAS 2002. IEEE International
Symposium on, Volume: 1, 2002, PP. 597 –600, [Xiaomin Chen; Kiaei, S.]
75. “An all-digital programmable digitally-controlled-oscillator (DCO) for digital wireless applications,” Circuits
and Systems, 2002. ISCAS 2002. IEEE International Symposium on, Volume: 4, 2002, [Abdollahi, S.R.;
Kiaei, S.; Bakkaloglu, B.; Fakhraie, S.M.; Anvari, R.; Abdollahi, S.E. ]
76. “Optimum equalization of multicarrier systems: a unified geometric approach Communications, IEEE
Transactions on, Volume: 49 Issue: 10, Oct. 2001; Page(s): 1762 –1769, [Lashkarian, N.; Kiaei, S.]
77. “Equalization for Discrete Multitone Transceivers to Maximize Bit Rate,” IEEE Transactions on Signal
Processing, Volume: 48, Issue:12, Dec. 2001; Pgs. 3123-3135, [Arslan, Evans, Kiaei]
78. "Performance of Differentially Detected DQPSK in the presence of I/Q Phase Imbalance," International
Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Zurich, Switzerland, June 2000. [M. Scarpa, J. Vogel, J. Stonick, S.
Kiaei]
79. "Globally Optimal ML Estimation of Timing and frequency offset in OFDM Systems," International
Communications Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2000. [N. Lashkarian, S. Kiaei]
80. "Minimum variance unbiased estimation of frequency offset in OFDM systems, a blind synchronization
approach." Int. Conf. On Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Istanbul, Turkey, 2000. [N. Lashkarian, S.
Kiaei]
81. "Optimum Channel Shortening for Multicarrier Transceivers, " Int. Conf. On Acoustics, Speech and Signal
Processing, Istanbul, Turkey, 2000.[G. Arslan, B. Evans, S. Kiaei]
82. “Class of Cyclic-Based Estimators for Frequency-Offset Estimation of OFDM Systems,” IEEE Transactions
on Communications, Volume: 48, Issue:12, Dec. 2000; Pgs. 2139-2149, [Lashkarian, Kiaei]
83. “Optimum Equalization of Multi-Carrier Systems Via Projection onto Convex Set,” International
Communication Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 1999. [N. Lashkarian, S. Kiaei]
84. "BER of Differentially Detected pi/4 DQPSK in the Presence of Quadrature Gain Imbalance" IEEE Wireless
Communications and Networking Conference, Sept. 1999. [M. Scarpa, J. Vogel, J. Stonick, S. Kiaei]*
85. “Fast Equalizers for Finite Length MMSE Equalization with Application to DMT ADSL System," Int. Conf.
On Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, vol. 5, pp. 2753-2756, Phoenix, AZ, 1999. [N. Lashkarian, S.
Kiaei]
16
119
Sayfe Kiaei
86. “Communication and Signal processing Circuits for ADSL/VDSL system,” international workshop on design
of mixed-mode integrated circuits and applications, Guanajuato, Mexico, July 1998. [S. Kiaei]
87. “Analysis of Adaptive CMOS Down Conversion Mixers,” Proceedings of the 8th Great Lakes Symposium on
VLSI, Feb. 1998. [Sandalci, C.K.; Kiaei, S.]
88. “DC offset correction for direct conversion transceivers,” Great Lake VLSI Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana,
1998. [C. Sandalci, S. Kiaei]*
89. “Fundamentals of ADSL system,” SuperComm, Atlanta, GA, June 1998. [S. Kiaei]
90. “Low-Power RF Design,” Design Automation Conference (DAC), Anaheim, CA, June 1997. [S. Kiaei]
91. “Adaptive Multi-user Detector for Asynchronous DS-CDMA in Rayleigh Fading,” Transactions on Circuits
and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, June 1997. [Dutta, A.K.; Kiaei, S.]
92. “Δ-Σ Frequency-to-Time Conversion by Triangularly Weighted ZC Counter,” International Symposium on
Low Power Electronics and Design, Aug. 1997. [Hovin, M.; Kiaei, S.; Lande, T.S.]
93. “Introduction to the Special Issue on Low Power Wireless Communications,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits
and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, June, 1997. [Kiaei, S.; Friedman, E.G.]
94. “Low Power Frequency-to-Time Conversion for Cellular Systems Using Predictive Zero-Crossing,” 1997
IEEE 47th Vehicular Technology Conference, May 1997. [Dutta, A.K.; Kiaei, S.; Talwalkar, S.A.]
95. “Triangularly Weighted Zero-Crossing Detector Providing ΣΔ Frequency-to-Digital Conversion,” Electronics
Letters, Volume: 33, Issue: 13, June 1997. [Hovin, M.E.; Lande, T.S.; Wisland, D.T.; Kiaei, S.]
96. Pages:1121 - 1122
97. “Low-Power Delta-Sigma Time-to-Digital Conversion,” Proc. 1997 International Symposium on Low Power
Electronics and Design, pp. 52-56, Monterey, CA, 1997. [M. Hovin, S. Kiaei, T.S. Laude]
98. “Modified Adaptive Multi-user Detector for DS-CDMA with Fading,” 47th Vehicular Technology
Conference, VTC 97, Phoenix, AZ, May 97. [A. Dutta, S. Kiaei]
99. “Predictive Zero-Crossing Frequency Discrimination for Cellular Systems, Part I and II.” 47th Vehicular
Technology Conference, VTC 97, Phoenix, AZ, May 97. [A. Dutta, S. Kiaei]
100.
“CDMA Multi-user Cancellation,” ", Int. Conf. On Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Munich,
Germany, April 97. [A. Dutta, S. Kiaei]
101.
“Digitally Correcting Schemes for Oversampled A/D,” Int. Symp. On Circuits and systems, London, UK,
1994. [ S. Abdenadher, S. Kiaei, G. Temes, R. Schreier]*
102.
“Multi-Rate Transformation of Recurrence Equations,” Int. Conf. on ASAP, Venice, Italy, Oct. 1993. [Li
Aihua, Y. Zheng, S. Kiaei]
103.
“Adaptive Digital Correction for Dual Quantization /spl Sigma/-/spl Delta/ Modulators,” IEEE
International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, May 1993. [Kiaei, S.; Abdennadher, S.; Temes, G.C.;
Yang, Y.]
104.
“Analog Logic Techniques Steer Around the Noise,” IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine, Volume: 9,
Issue: 5, Sept. 1993; Pages:18 – 21 [Allstot, D.J.; Kiaei, S.; Zele, R.H.]
105.
“Folded Source-Coupled Logic vs. CMOS Static Logic for Low-Noise Mixed-Signal ICs,” IEEE
Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, Sept. 1993. [Allstot, D.J.;
San-Hwa Chee; Kiaei, S.; Shrivastawa, M.]
106.
“Multi-Rate Transformation of Directional Affine Recurrence Equations,” International Conference on
17
120
Sayfe Kiaei
Application-Specific Array Processors, Oct. 1993. [Zheng, Y.; Kiaei, S.]
107.
“Adaptive self-correcting Σ−Δ modulators,” International Conference on microelectronics, Tunisia, 1992.
[S. Abdenadher, S. Kiaei, G. Temes]*
108.
“Adaptive Self-Calibrating Delta-Sigma Modulators,” Electronics Letters, Volume: 28, Issue: 14, 2 July
1992; Pages: 1288 – 1289. [Abdennadher, S.; Kiaei, S.; Temes, G.; Schreier, R.]
109.
“Enhancement Source-Coupled Logic for Mixed-Mode VLSI Circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits
and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Volume: 39, Issue: 6, June 1992; Pages: 399 – 402.
[Maleki, M.; Kiaei, S.]
110.
“On-line Adaptive Digital Correction of Dual-Quantization Delta-Sigma Modulators,” Electronics
Letters, Volume: 28, Issue: 16, 30 July 1992; Pages: 1511 – 1513 [Yaohua Yang; Schreier, R.; Temes, G.C.;
Kiaei, S.]
111.
“Piecewise Linear Schedules For Recurrence Equations,” Workshop on VLSI Signal Processing, Oct.
1992. [Rajopadhye, S.; Mui, L.; Kiaei, S.]
112.
“Synthesis Techniques for CMOS Folded Source-Coupled Logic Circuits,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State
Circuits, Aug. 1992. [Maskai, S.R.; Kiaei, S.; Allstot, D.J.]
113.
“A Folding Transformation for VLSI IIR Filter Array Design,” Proc. of International Conference on
Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Toronto, Canada, pp. 1237-1240, May 1991. [S. Rajopadhye, S.
Kiaei]
114.
“Systematic Derivation of Multi-Rate VLSI Arrays for the Solution of Toeplitz Matrices,” IEEE Great
Lakes Symposium on VLSI, March 1991. Proc. of IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on Communications,
Computers, and Signal Processing, Victoria, BC, Canada, pp. 623-626, May 1991. [S. Kiaei]
115.
“CMOS Source-Couple Logic for Mixed-Mode VLSI,” Proc. of International Symposium on Circuits and
Systems, New Orleans, Louisiana, pp. 1608-1611, May 1990. [S. Kiaei, S.H. Chee, D. Allstot]
116.
“VLSI Design of Multi-Rate Arrays,” Proc. of International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal
Processing, New Mexico, pp. 1049-1052, 1990. [L. Aihua, S. Kiaei]
117.
“Comparison of Low-Noise Current-Mode Logic Circuits for High Performance Mixed-Mode
Applications,” Proc. of International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, New Orleans, Louisiana, May
1990. [S. H .Chee, S. Chow, S.S. Lee, S. Kiaei, D. Allstot]
118.
“VLSI Design of Dynamically Reconfigurable Array Processors-DRAP,"" Proc. of International
Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Glasgow, Scotland, 1989. [S. Kiaei, J. Durgham]
119.
“VLSI Design of Bit/Serial Adaptive IIR Filters,” Proc. of IEEE Pacific Conference on Communications,
Computers, and Signal Processing, Victoria, Canada, pp. 650-652, June 1989. [R. Badyal, S. Kiaei]
120.
“CCA Approach for ARMA Spectral Analysis,” Proc. of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and
Systems, Portland, OR, pp. 1319-1322, May 1989. [S. Kiaei, L. Luo]
121.
“Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) for ARMA Spectral Estimation,” IEEE International Symposium
on Circuits and Systems, May, 1989. [Kiaei, S.; Luo, L.]
122.
“VLSI Implementation of Adaptive Bit/Serial IIR Filters,” IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on
Communications, Computers and Signal Processing, June 1989. [Badyal, R.; Kiaei, S.]
123.
“VLSI design of WAP for Recursive Equations,” VLSI Signal Processing, 1988. [S. Kiaei, U. Desai]
124.
“Independent Data Flow Wavefront Array Processors for Recursive Equations,” Proc. of 20th Annual
Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, Princeton University, NJ, 1986. [S. Kiaei, U. Desai]
18
121
Sayfe Kiaei
125.
“A Stochastic Realization Approach to Reduced-Order Hierarchical Estimation,” Proc. of 24th IEEE
Conference on Dec., Ft. Lauderdale, FL, pp. 416-421, December 1985. [U. Desai, S. Kiaei]
126.
“Hierarchical Estimation Algorithms,” Proc. of IEEE Conference on Man, Cybernetics, and Systems,
Tucson, AZ, October 1985. [U. Desai S. Kiaei]
127.
“Approximation of Markovian Models with Non-Constant Parameters,” Proc. of 23rd IEEE Conference on
Dec., Las Vegas, NV, pp. 1642-1644, December 1984. [U. Desai, S. Banerjee, S. Kiaei]
128.
“A Canonical Correlation Approach to Reduced-Order LQR Design,” Proc. of 23rd IEEE Conference on
Dec., Las Vegas, NV, pp. 1523-1528, December 1984. [U. Desai, S. Banerjee, S. Kiaei]
19
122
Sayfe Kiaei
GRADUATE STUDENT ADVISEES & RESEARCH PROJECT
(Partial list of Students graduated, current employment to the best of my knowledge)
1. J. Durgam, VLSI Design of Dynamically Reconfigurable Array Processors, MSEE, 1988. Intel.
2. J. Gilbert, Minimization Techniques for PLAs, MSEE, 1988, Tektronix Inc.
3. L. Luo, CCA Methods for ARMA Spectral Estimation, MSEE, 1989. Berkeley Research Center
4. E. Zahl, Enhancement Methods for A/D Noise Reduction, MSEE, 1989. AT&T
5. L. Aihua, Synthesis of MRAs, MSEE, 1990. Intel.
6. F. Aslam, Image Restoration Methods, MSEE, 1990.
7. S.H. Chee, FSCL Circuits for Mixed-Mode IC’s, MSEE, 1990. Linear Tech.
8. C. Dawson, MSEE, 1990. Boeing
9. A. Chow, Source-Coupled Logic ALU, MSEE, 1990. Intel
10. S. Maskai, Decimation Filters Using FSCL Circuits, MSEE, 1991. Intel
11. L. Louis, VLSI Implementation of Toeplitz Matrices, MSEE, 1991.
12. R. Badyal, Bit/Serial VLSI Design of IIR Filters, MSEE, 1992, HP
13. Lap Mui, Piece-Wise Linear Schedule for VLSI Arrays, MSEE, 1992. HP
14. S. Abdennadher, Adaptive Sigma-Delta Modulators, MSEE, 1992. Level One / Intel.
15. H. Bribech, Second Order Adaptive A/D Schemes, MSEE, 1992.
16. B. Hickman, MSEE, 92. Tektronix
17. M. Maleki, Current-Mode Flash A/D, MSEE, 1992. University of Oregon
18. Man Wong, Low-Noise Decimation Filter for Mixed-Mode ICs, MSEE, 1993, Motorola.
19. Anu Krishna Swamy, Low Noise IC Blocks for Mixed-mode IC's, MSEE, 1993, Ph.D., 1997.
20. Manu Srivastava, Comparison of Differential Logic (FSCL, CVSL, DSLL), MSEE, 1994, Intel.
21. Joel Oren, VLSI Design of Asynchronous FIR Filters, MSEE thesis, Feb. 1994. E-Systems.
22. Y. Zheng, VLSI Design and Synthesis of Multi-Rate Arrays, Ph.D. March 94, Hughes Research.
23. Satish Kulkarni, Low-Sensitivity Filters, MSEE, 1995, Motorola.
24. Amit Dutta, Multi-user Interference Cancellation, Ph.D, Dec. 97, Faculty, India.
25. Dwight Poplin, Multiplierless MPEG Decoder, MSEE, 1996. HP.
26. Maxim Scarpa, Adaptive I/Q Miss-match Correction for Direct Conversion Receivers, MSEE 1998.
27. Jeff McNeal, Sigma-Delta Frequency-to-Time Conversion, MSEE, 1998. Level One Comm.
28. Julia Vogel, Adaptive DC offset Cancellation, MSEE, 1998. Faculty in Germany.
29. Takao Inoue, MS, Echo Cancellation for ADSL, 1998. MSEE, The U of Texas at Austin.
30. Navid Lashkarian, Frequency off-set estimation and Synchronization of OFDM systems, Ph.D., June
1999. Broadcom Inc. & Faculty at UC San Jose.
20
123
Sayfe Kiaei
31. Guner Arslan, (co-advisor with B. Evans), "Fast Equalization for DMT systems, with applications to
ADSL," Ph.D. The University of Texas at Austin, 2000
32. Salem Abdennadher, I/Q Mismatch Correction for RF Wireless transceivers, Ph.D., Level One
Comm/Intel.
33. Can Sandalci, DSL Line Driver, Ph.D., 2001, Intel.
34. Dean Badillo, Low-Cost VCO Ring Oscillators, PhD, 2004, Intel, Chandler,
35. Siamak Abedinpour, PhD, 2005 Freescale, Tempe, Arizona
36. Hemanth Shivalingaiah, Multi-Band Low Noise Amplifiers, Ph.D., 2006, Intel,
37. Shahin Farahani, PhD, 2006, Qualcomm Inc,
38. Nazanin Darbanian, M.S. Freescale, Tempe, Arizona
39. Joe Rutkowski, Joseph, MS, 2004, Phillips.
40. Chaudhuri, Bikram, Synthesizer, MS/PhD, MS 2004.
41. Zhang, Jiandong, MEMs, MEMS, December-04
42. Afsahi, Ali, MS/PHD, UC San Diego, QUALCOMM, Connection One
43. Chen, Xiaomin, UWB, PHD, 2007, SRC/Motorola
44. Jali, Hilda, Power Management, MS, June-05,
45. Xuejin Wang, RF Optimization, 2006 CAD tools, PhD, Neo-Linear
46. Umar Lyles, Power Amplifier, MS, 2006. Texas Instruments
47. MS, Erika Munoz, RADHARD, 2007, Intel
48. Waleed Khali, (Co-Advisor), Professor at Ohio State
49. Jennifer Kitchen, PhD, 2009, Professor at ASU
50. Shahin Mehdizad Taleie, RFDAC, PhD, 2009, Qualcomm
51. Ilker Deligoz, PHD, 2009, Qualcomm
52. Hyung Kim, PhD, Jan 2010, Intel
53. Jung Le, PhD 2010, Intel, TI
54. Syed Naqvi, PhD, 2012, Intel.
55. Todd Martin, MS, 2011, TI
56. Seungkee Min, PhD, 2011, Intel
57. Ali Meamar, Post Doc, RFIC 2013
58. Hitesh Khunti, MS 2013, Qualcom
59. Debashis Mandal, Post Doc, 2018
60. Edgar Martinez, PhD, 2015, Qualcomm
61. Chirag Desai, MS, 2016, Qualcom
62. Sanjay Avasarala, MS, 2016
63. Amir Ayati, PhD Expected 2017
64. Pasisa Mahmoudi, PhD, Expected 2017
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Sayfe Kiaei
65. Li Ming, MS, 2017
66. Qirong Peng, MS, 2017
67. Yu Geng, PhD, 2018
68. Chai Yong, MS: 2015, PHD: 2019, IDC
69. John Sochaki, PhD, 2019, ViaSat Comm.,
70. Shrikant Singh, MS: 2016, TI, PhD, 2019
UNIVERSITY COMMITTEES
Various Committees at ASU, Oregon State University, etc.
INDUSTRY COMMITTEES
Arizona Telecommunications and Information Council (ATIC), Board Member
CAS Fellows Committee (ends December 31, 2006)
•
IEEE CAS Phoenix Chapter Organizers (the committee is in the process of determining new chair –
current chair not active)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Executive Committee, RFIC 2006.
Technical Program Comm, IEEE RFIC 2006.
Executive Committee, Conferences, International Solid Sate System’s Conference.
IEEE CAS Society, VLSI Technical Comm. Member
Editorial Board, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials
Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits- RFIC 2006
•
IEEE RF Integrated Circuits Conference, Committee Chair for two workshops
•
International Microwave Symposium, IMS-MTT 2006
•
Int. Symposium on Circuits and Systems - ISCAS 2006
•
Wireless Networks & Emerging Technologies, WNET06
•
Midwest Symposium on Circuits and System
•
•
Arizona Governor IT Advisory Committee – GITA
Arizona Telecom – ATIC
INSTRUCTIONAL SUMMARY
•
•
•
•
Digital IC Design, Analog IC Design, Advance CMOS Analog IC, VLSI, RFIC Design
Wireless Transceiver Design, Wireless Communications, GPS, Telecomm Systems, Digital
Communication
Signal Processing, Advance DSP, Communication, Digital Communication, Digital Audio
Processing,
Computer Architecture, Microprocessor System Architecture, Pipeline Array Processing
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