Shiro Otani A Ceramics Monthly Portfolio
William C. Hunt....................................... Editor
Ruth C. Buder..........................Associate Editor
Robert L. Creager.............................Art Director
Kim S. Nagorski...................Editorial Assistant
Shawn R. Hiller........................... Staff Assistant
Mary Rushley...................Circulation Manager
Mary E. Beaver................ Circulation Assistant
Connie Belcher................ Advertising Manager
Spencer L. Davis................................ Publisher
Editorial, Advertising
and Circulation Offices
1609 Northwest Boulevard
Box 12448, Columbus, Ohio 43212
(614) 488-8236
FAX (614) 488-4561
Ceramics Monthly (ISSN 0009-0328) is pub­
lished monthly except July and August by
Professional Publications, Inc., 1609 North­
west Blvd., Columbus, Ohio 43212. Second
Class postage paid at Columbus, Ohio.
Subscription Rates: One year $20, two years
$36, three years $50. Add $8 per year for
subscriptions outside the U.S.A.
Change of Address: Please give us four weeks
advance notice. Send the magazine address
label as well as your new address to: Ceramics
Monthly, Circulation Offices, Box 12448,
Columbus, Ohio 43212.
Contributors: Manuscripts, photographs,
color separations, color transparencies (in­
cluding 35mm slides), graphic illustrations,
announcements and news releases about
ceramics are welcome and will be consid­
ered for publication. Information may also
be submitted on 3.5-inch microdiskettes
readable with an Apple Macintosh™ com­
puter system. Mail submissions to Ceramics
Monthly, Box 12448, Columbus, Ohio 43212.
We also accept unillustrated materials faxed
to (614) 488-4561.
Writing and Photographic Guidelines: A
booklet describing standards and proce­
dures for submitting materials is available
upon request.
Indexing: An index of each year’s articles
appears in the December issue. Addition­
ally, Ceramics Monthly articles are indexed in
the Art Index. Printed, on-line and CD-ROM
(computer) indexing are available through
Wilsonline, 950 University Ave., Bronx, New
York 10452; and from Information Access
Co., 362 Lakeside Dr., Forest City, Califor­
nia 94404. These services are available
through your local library. A 20-year subject
index (1953-1972), covering Ceramics
Monthly feature articles, and the Sugges­
tions and Questions columns, is available
for $1.50, postpaid, from the Ceramics
Monthly Book Department, Box 12448, Co­
lumbus, Ohio 43212.
Copies and Reprints: Microfiche, 16mm and
35mm microfilm copies, and xerographic
reprints are available to subscribers from
University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
Back Issues: When available, back issues are
$4 each, postpaid. Write for a list.
Postmaster: Please send address changes to
Ceramics Monthly, Box 12448, Columbus,
Ohio 43212. Form 3579 requested.
Copyright © 1991
Professional Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved
2 Ceramics Monthly
June/July/August 1991
3
4 Ceramics Monthly
Volume 39, Number 6 • June/July/August 1991
Feature Articles
Deborah Masuoka..................................................................................... 26
The Art of Paul Bogatay by Thomas C. Folk..................................................28
Japanese Masters’ Pots...............................................................................32
University of Montevallo by Scott Meyer......................................................33
Raku Integrations by Douglas Kenney............................................................ 37
John Foster Retrospective a review by Susan E. Crowell.................................. 40
Italian Architectural Influences The
time-worn doorways, walls, arcaded streets
and sunny piazzas of Italy were the inspira­
tion for wall reliefs by Connecticut artist
Mary Lou Alberetti; turn to page 46.
Developing Mid-Temperature Clays Test­
ing with a series of glazes, ranked by ther­
mal expansion, reveals the alterations
necessary to yield a good clay body suitable
for firing at Cone 4 or 6; page 92.
Ah-Leon: 14 Principles of a Good Teapot................................................ 43
Italian Architectural Influences by Mary Lou Alberetti...................................46
Portfolio:
Shiro Otani by Rob Barnard...................................................................... 49
Agustm De Andino’s Mural by RaulAcero................................................... 57
Explorations in Gold
Working with Leaf by Cheryl Williams....................................................... 58
Jeff Kell by Maryalice Yakutchik...................................................................... 89
Developing Mid-Temperature Clays by Larry
Clark......................... 92
Casting Glazes and Engobes!
Slip Casting, Part 6 by Gerald Rowan........................................................ 98
Up Front
University of Montevallo Thanks to the
enthusiasm of faculty artists such as Ted
Metz (shown left), the ceramics depart­
ment at this small liberal arts college in
Alabama has grown from a single room to
to a 6700-square-foot facility; see page 33.
Opinion versus Promotion Critic Mat­
thew Kangas reviews people, museums
and magazines (the latter seen as erratic
forums for serious writers interested in
evaluating functional ware); page 102.
The cover Oregon potter Cheryl Wil­
liams with an array of her “Explorations in
Gold”; her article (beginning on page 58)
explains how to apply gold leaf.
Carl Paak, 1922-1991 ............................. 14
Alfred Museum Established.................... 14
Philadelphia Collections Shown.............. 14
Arneson Achievement Recognized.......... 14
Niche Awards.......................................... 16
Nancy Monsebroten................................. 16
Canton Invitational.................................. 16
Craft Fair Optimism................................. 16
Otto Natzler............................................. 18
Evelyn Shapiro Foundation..................... 18
William Shinn......................................... 18
Bernard Mattox....................................... 18
Human Form as Mythical Vessel............ 20
Deirdre Daw
by Anne Crowley Tom......................... 20
Individual Spirits..................................... 20
Clayton Bailey........................................ 22
Marian Haigh.......................................... 22
Departments
Letters......................................... 6
Call for Entries ...........................62
Questions.................................... 66
Calendar .....................................68
Suggestions................................. 78
New Books .................................80
Video ........................................ 84
Classified Advertising ............. 100
Comment:
Opinion versus Promotion
by Matthew Kangas....................
102
Index to Advertisers ................. 104
June/July/August 1991
5
Letters
not currently in use. Nevertheless, the term
is still widely used in the commercial dinnerware industry. I am a ceramic engineer and
at my former employer, Shenango China,
we had people “placing” and “drawing” ware
24 hours a day for both bisque and “glost”
(glaze) “kills” (kilns).
Diverse Oregon Pottery
Last week, I sintered some technical alu­
As a member of the Oregon Potters Asso­ mina in a Super Kanthal rapid-fire furnace
ciation (OPA), I am very happy to see Or­
in my lab at Alfred University, and found
egon potters getting some international myself asking how soon I could “draw the
coverage (“Oregon Potters Today,” CM, April kiln.”
1991). There are many excellent potters
William J. Walker, Jr.
working in Oregon, and although the ar­
Alfred, N.Y.
ticle written by Matthew Kangas was some­
what hazy as to how he really felt about Sham Ware?
Oregon potters, any publicity is good pub­
It has come to my attention that certain
licity.
unscrupulous persons have opted to hire
However, not all the potters in the state, other potters on a subcontract basis, then
or in the Oregon Potters Association, live in are signing their own names with under­
the Portland-Salem area, as the article sug­
glaze pencil. The sham continues when these
gests. Two-thirds of the state lies east of the pieces are entered into numerous art fairs
Cascade Mountains, where many of the and offered next to the works of honest,
potters are separated by large distances. hard-working artists looking to offer a de­
This relative isolation allows for many di­
cent investment value for their ware. I urge
verse working methods and styles. Here, in the public and collectors to steer clear of
Central Oregon, we have many fine artists anything that is neither handstamped nor
working in raku, stoneware and porcelain. handsigned into the clay. Caveat emptor
The coast has some very fine potters who baby!
have uniquely Oregon styles. One of the few
Name withheld by request
American anagamas is in the coastal moun­
tains near Willamina. The city of Eugene has
Do you really think that the unscrupulous
been a haven for potters for years—stimu­
could not handsign or handstamp the work of
lated by the University of Oregon’s pro­
others just as easily ?—Ed.
grams in ceramics. The southern area has
long been known for its commitment to the Mystery, Not Ken and Barbie
arts, and the potters there have developed a
Watching the letters reacting to [Paul]
rich tradition.
Soldner’s puzzling marketing values, I’m
The OPA show included many excellent neither outraged nor amused—just disap­
potters, but was by no means an “Oregon pointed and perplexed why a man of such
All-Stars” show. Oregon is home to many aesthetic achievement and visibility has cho­
potters who have worked hard for years, sen such an uninspiring approach to public
dedicating their lives to excellence in ce­
relations. Soldner’s ads disappoint in their
ramics. They deserve the recognition they failure to suggest a higher ground at a time
are receiving.
when the lowest common denominator is a
I believe that Oregon and the rest of the busy and violent place.
Northwest are on the verge of being discov­
Objecting to what (at best) may be a
ered as having some of the best ceramics in parody of assumption, one risks being dis­
the country. Mr. Kangas and the readers of missed as an advocate of a sexless, humor­
CM can not be expected to see an accurate less, politically correct world—a small risk.
representation of Oregon potters without However, I suspect that if the sponsor of the
traveling outside of the Portland area. There “ad” were simply another industrial con­
are many outstanding potters to be discov­
cern, little if any support would have been
ered throughout the state.
forthcoming.
Michael Gwinup
It’s a clarifying practice, whenever there
Bend, Ore. is ambiguity or ambivalence about whether
women are being exploited or simply in on
Family Business
the joke (usually on them), to insert a signifi­
Do any Ceramics Monthly readers home cant female into the context—lover, grand­
school their children and make them a part mother, wife, daughter—and take another
of their ceramic life? What role do their look. If the issue becomes uncomfortably
children play in the pottery business?
personal—good, that’s where it belongs.
Meg McClorey
I hope for a future for my boys in which
Somerset, Ky. the exploitation of women by marketing
experts will no longer threaten the delicate
Archaic Remains in Industrial Context
dance of relationships. I count on those with
In the April 1991 “Questions” column, it visibility to exercise and affirm values that
was stated that the term “drawing a kiln,” will make such a future at least a possibility.
meaning to remove the ware, is archaic and Learning the dance and passing it on are,
6
Ceramics Monthly
after all, what we’re here for—what it’s all
about. This “passing on” must be done with
care and intention so that when we open our
hands to show what we’ve done, our daugh­
ters and sons will find mystery awaiting
them—not Ken and Barbie.
Kevin Crowe
Amherst, Va.
Respirator Faux Pas
In the spirit of readers’ commentary on
Soldner advertisements, I’d like to point out
that in the April 1991 ad, the man actually
pouring clay (while very attractive) wears no
respirator—can’t, of course, because of his
beard. Perhaps he should let his friend, who
does wear a respirator, pour the clay.
It is obvious from this photo, since the
respirator is being worn incorrectly (both
straps above the ear), that there is no ad­
equate respirator program, as per OSHA
regulations. Those who want further infor­
mation on respirators can send a SASE for
our data sheet on respirators.
Angela Babin
Director
Art Hazards Information Center
Center for Safety in the Arts
5
Beekman Stree
New York, New York 10038
Comforting Controversy
I have always considered that Letters to
specialist magazines such as Ceramics Monthly
are windows giving immediate access to the
contemporary thought and practice of the
people the magazines serve.
The space dedicated to such letters is an
indication of their importance. I recognize
that there is a scarcity of critical writing on
the crafts—writing that seeks to investigate
theories of meaning and understand why
artists express their values, ideas, beliefs (in
short, their ideology) through a craft me­
dium; writing that seeks to illuminate the
process of making and exposing.
With this in mind, it is interesting to note
that a seemingly burning issue, occupying
past issues of Ceramics Monthly and a major
part of the correspondence of the February
1991 copy of CM, is about the deconstruction
of a paid advertisement and, to quote Donna
Ragsdale, “the dirty old man of clay.”
It seems that this issue is so important
that it has moved one contributor to write to
a “great intellectual and protector of the
public morality.”
I am comforted by the publication of
such critical scrutiny. If it were not so, it
might tend to support the modernist’s as­
sumption that producers of crafts possess
minds incapable of intellectual pursuit, and
that they are incapable of producing objects
that stand up to intellectual examination.
These assumptions maintain the bound­
aries between that which is considered art
and that which is not. These boundaries
continue to keep craft on the periphery of
serious cultural practice and as having no
June/July/August 1991
7
ic craft’s approach to validation as fine art.
Concerned about the potential of these
ads to alter the course of history, I have
taken time to look into the future by means
intellectual properties or importance, thus of a stoneware ball to write history based on
allocating its practices to the nonintellectual, the effect of the December Soldner ad.
February 1991: Turmoil reaches a criti­
functional stereotype.
Paul Counsel cal point with 67% of the Letters section of
Wallongong, New South Wales CM being devoted to this issue.
September 1991: A male child (we’ll call
Australia
him Joe) is born. His parents had seen the
December Soldner ad, and were so affected
Sexist or Sexy ?
My feeling is that lots of people are upset by the image in the ad that Joe was born
not because Paul Soldner is sexist, but rather naked and wrinkled.
September 1993: Still feeling the effects
because Paul Soldner is sexy. I can only pray
of the ad, Joe’s parents give him a beach
that my body and spirit will age as wonder­
shovel and pail for his second birthday. Joe
fully as his has.
Lisette Varlay loses the shovel prior to his 21st year.
1993 to 2089: Things happen.
Areata, Calif.
November 2089: Joe dies.
As you can plainly see, a clear view of
Morality on Patrol
As Yogi Berra said, “It’s like deja vu all history shows the effect this ad had was well
over again.” Yes, it is our task, we who are the below all expectations.
Ersatz Sobriquet
moral guards of the purity of ideas, to smite
Lansing, Mich.
anyone who looks at a Soldner ad with fire
and brimstone. Or at least throw pebbles.
Several years ago [June/July/August Kindred Spirits
My six-year-old son recently entered the
1988 Letters], I had to point out to the
school system, to the great bewilderment of
moral guard that the ad that featured Rob­
in Whatshemame was in fact a picture of his teachers. In trying to figure him out, they
Paul Soldner or Abe Lincoln. So now Sold­
sent him to many tests and checkups. The
neurologist he saw asked him to make a
ner has used the magic of half-tone repro­
duction to send a message that will forever drawing: “I can tell you right now he’ll never
and irreversibly change the course of ceram­ become an artist.”
Letters
8 CERAMICS MONTHLY
The kid likes to draw BIG, with tremen­
dous energy and concentration, working on
several different areas simultaneously. At
home, he goes to it for hours on 8x4-foot
sections of building paper on the floor.
(Cheap paper—$8 for a big roll in hardware
stores.) He likes working three dimensionally, too. Sometimes he drives me nuts with
his pileups on the basement floor: clay,
wood, sticks and anything, all fitted together.
Anyway, after the neurologist, I picked
up the mail and looked through the Decem­
ber Ceramics Monthly; it was wonderful to see
the picture of John Mason and his [largescale] works on page 26.
Margareta Warme
Fort Langley, B.C.
Canada
Reviving Craftsmanship
The comment “Reviving Craftsmanship”
by William Hunt [March 1991] is, itself, an
example of good craft. Thanks for a precise
and pertinent message that affects all of us.
Matt Povse
Scranton, Pa.
Very seldom have I liked an article as
much as the one William Hunt wrote about
“Reviving Craftsmanship” in the March 1991
issue.
I went through a three-year pottery ap­
prenticeship, from 1946 to 1949, in HohrGrenzhausen before I could work for my
June/July/August 1991
9
Letters
hours of pottery per week are not enough to
turn out a good potter, unless the student
puts in a lot of extra time.
To my great joy, when my oldest son,
master’s degree. Those three years (a re­
Stephan, decided to become a potter also,
quirement in Germany) were very tough he had two choices—go to college or ap­
and, looking back today, I am wondering prentice with me. He opted for the latter.
how I survived. We worked every weekday During those three years, he learned all the
from 7 A.M. to 5 P.M., including Saturdays. steps: making clay, throwing, glazing, build­
When we fired the large muffle or salt kilns— ing kilns, firing and marketing.
one with wood and the other with coal—
Stephan felt he wanted to have some type
and were done by 3 in the morning, we had of degree to show for “slaving in mother’s
to be at our wheels by 7 o’clock again.
pottery,” so I called the potters’ guild in
I still remember that at one time our Hohr-Grenzhausen; they told me that ac­
pottery had to make 2000 cups for the occu­
ceptance for the German examination re­
pying French army in order not to have our quired a three-year apprenticeship under a
electricity cut off. I was the only female German master who went through the same
among 13 male potters, and to make handles program. In 1987, Stephan flew to Germany
was considered women’s work. So I had to and was the first American to pass this test.
handle all those cups by myself. By the
It amazes us when people come to our
second thousand, I had developed so much studio to watch us throw and the husband
speed that I was able to handle 60 cups an says to the wife, “Honey, what a nice hobby;
hour.
I think I’ll buy you a wheel so you can make
I didn’t dare complain, because thou­
a few extra bucks.” I have gone to great
sands of veterans would have gladly taken lengths to explain to these people that it
my place. But it taught me discipline, a sense takes more than enthusiasm to become a
of direction and—last but not least—crafts­
good potter.
manship.
My professor at the ceramics academy in
I wish there was a better-organized ap­
Hohr-Grenzhausen told us over and over:
prenticeship program in the United States. “Pottery is only for the mentally strong, who
It would solve many problems and give pot­
continue after failure, after failure, after
ters a good start. I taught for seven years at failure”
Western Wyoming College in Rock Springs,
This is why I enjoyed the March com­
and know firsthand that the required six ment so much. If we strive for better crafts­
10 Ceramics Monthly
manship, success will come automatically.
Annelise Domhoff-Borbe
Thermopolis, Wyo.
More Critical Meat
There should be meatier articles on aes­
thetics and criticism.
Susan Wallace
Columbia, S.C.
Crude Prerequisite?
It seems like the more crude and ugly a
piece is, the more likely it is to be on the
cover or written about!
Mary Dawes-Rudine
Captain Cook, Hawaii
Suggestion Correction
I would like to correct an error I made on
my “reader’s suggestion” printed in the
March 1991 issue. I said a great trimming
tool could be made from a jigsaw blade. I
should have said saber saw blade.
The saber saw blade is ideal. It’s a lot
thicker and already has a hole in the shank
for mounting.
Don DuBose
Albion, Calif.
Share your thoughts with other readers. All letters
must be signed, but names will be withheld on
request. Mail to The Editor, Ceramics Monthly,
Box 12448, Columbus, Ohio 43212; or fax to
(614) 488-4561.
June/July/August 1991
11
Up Front
Carl Paak, 1922-1991
New Mexico potter/teacher/author Carl
Paak died at his home in Albuquerque on
March 1. Born in Milwaukee, Paak earned
a degree in art education from the Chi­
cago Art Institute and a master’s in ceram-
Carl Paak, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
ics from the Ohio State University, then
taught at Cornell College in Mount Vernon,
Iowa, before joining the faculty at the Uni­
versity of New Mexico (Albuquerque),
where he taught for 31 years.
Though he dedicated his career to teach­
ing and was proud of his former students’
accomplishments, his efforts in the field
extended beyond the classroom. Paak was
one of the founders of the New Mexico
Arts and Crafts Fair (an annual event since
the early 1960s) and a representative to the
National Arts and Crafts Council. He also
was an active member of the National Coun­
cil for Education in the Ceramic Arts, which
honored him posthumously at its April
meeting for his service and contributions
to the field; an honorary membership was
accepted by his family.
Even when rheumatoid arthritis forced
him to give up working with clay, Paak
continued his activities in the field, includ­
ing compiling a series of autobiographies
by well-known potters and ceramics artists
that were published in Ceramics Monthly dur­
ing 1989 and 1990.
Alfred Museum Established
With the appointment of Margaret Carney
Xie as director, and agreement on a formal
name, the Museum of Ceramic Art at Alfred
has been officially established at the New
York State College of Ceramics at Alfred
University. The museum is considered a
natural evolution of the study collection
begun in the early days of its ceramic art
program.
In the first issue of Ceramophile, the
museum’s newsletter, Val Cushing explains:
“When I first came to Alfred in 1948, as a
14 CERAMICS MONTHLY
freshman art student, we began to hear
about a kind of mysterious place called the
‘Glory Hole.’ We eventually came to under­
stand that the Glory Hole was the place
where ‘special’ pieces of student work were
kept, having been selected by the faculty
from final critiques and end-of-the-year ex­
hibitions. To the students, this honored
place, and one’s inclusion in it, was a signal
that our work was favored and a source of
quiet pride.
“When I eventually returned here to
teach, in 1957,1 realized that Charles Harder
and Dan Rhodes kept pieces that were fail­
ures as well as successes, and that the Glory
Hole was...a study collection. The work il­
lustrated a variety of techniques and pro­
cesses of the ceramic medium. Examples
were kept that helped students see what
was possible regarding form, function,
color, decorative process, different types of
firing, different ways of making forms and
so on. In with all these kinds of things were
also kept pieces that the faculty felt were
beautiful and examples of very good work.
The study collection was educational and
functioned as a...teaching aid, as well as [a]
source for occasional small exhibitions
around the campus and elsewhere.
“Charles Binns started this collection in
the early 1900s when the school was
founded. Charles Harder kept the idea go­
ing, as did all other teachers who came to
Alfred. As time went by, donations were
made to the Ceramics College and to the
Art and Design School. By the 1960s, we
were given part of the Colonel Fox Collec­
tion of Korean Ceramics, as well as Rosanjin
pieces, which are extremely rare. Other
gifts of this sort began coming in during
the 1970s and 1980s and it became clear
that we had the beginnings of a ceramics
museum as well as a study collection. With
the gift of the Krevolin Collection of InDirector Margaret Carney Xie (left)
discussing museum holdings with graduate
students Kate Maury and Brad Taylor.
dian Pottery of the Ancient Americas, we
made another leap toward ‘museumhood.’”
Philadelphia Collections Shown
“Contemporary American Crafts,” an exhi­
bition of 46 ceramic, fiber, glass, metal and
wood works drawn from the museum’s hold-
“David,” a larger-than-life glazed clay
portrait of David Gilhooly, 1977, by Robert
Ameson, Benicia, California.
ings and local collections, was on view re­
cently at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
The selection was particularly rich in
ceramics. The earliest objects, from the
1940s, were made by Austrian emigres
Gertrud and Otto Natzler, who brought Bauhaus aesthetics with them. Early proponents
of the studio crafts movement, they were
important teachers as well as artists. Among
their students was Beatrice Wood, still pot­
ting today at age 98, who was also repre­
sented in the exhibition.
More recent works included Robert
Ameson s “David,” a larger-than-life portrait
of fellow California artist David Gilhooly.
Ameson Achievement Recognized
California ceramist Robert Ameson was one
of eight artists recognized last April for “sig­
nificant achievement in art” by the New
York-based American Academy and Insti­
tute of Arts and Letters. The $7500 award
winners were chosen from over 200 candi­
dates nominated by the organization’s
members in the fall of 1990. From that
initial list, 31 artists were selected by a com­
mittee of artist members, consisting of chair­
person Alex Katz, Varujan Boghosian, Jane
Freilicher, Dimitri Hadzi, Wolf Kahn and George
You are invited to send news and photos
about people, places or events of interest.
We will be pleased to consider them for
publication in this column. Mail submis­
sions to Up Front, Ceramics Monthly, Box
12448, Columbus, Ohio 43212.
June/July/August 1991
15
Up Front
staff position at the institute last summer to
pursue a career as a studio ceramist), “in
that I have expanded my thinking on what
constitutes a ceramic artist, and have in­
vited several who work with combinations
of clay and other materials.”
Among works on view were trompe l’oeil
sculpture by Victor Spinski, Newark, Dela­
ware. Spinski uses social commentary, so
that the sculpture not only “fools the eye,”
but also provokes thought. He does not
like to think of himself as one of the “nor­
mal and practical people. I rejoice in my
impracticalities, that even for a short mo­
ment I might interfere with an ‘accepted’
train of thought.” Photo: Henry Hulett.
Segal. Approximately 100 works by the
finalists were then presented at the or­
ganization’s annual exhibition in March,
and the committee’s final selections were
made there.
Chartered by Congress, the 93-year-old
organization annually honors artists, archi­
tects, writers and composers with awards
totaling about half a million dollars.
Niche Awards
Niche, a magazine for retailers (department
stores, craft shops, etc.) published by the
Rosen Agency, announced the winners of
its 1991 awards for excellence during the
Philadelphia Craft Market in February. Se­
lections were based on three criteria: out­
standing achievements in design, technical
excellence and market viability.
The jury included Mary Bahus-White and
Andrea Smith, Smithsonian Institution,
Candlesticks formed from flung porcelain
slabs, from the “White Earth” series, by
Nancy Monsebroten.
broad horizons, the swirling snow, the
sculpted drifts. I had known them as a child,
but not as a potter. I saw them with a new
eye, and began struggling with capturing
this environment, especially the colors of
the winter sunsets (pearly pinks, icy whites,
pastel purples and oranges) and the pat­
terns of windblown snow.
“I experimented with the properties of
the clay itself, how clay can stretch and
move. Flung slabs have all kinds of irregu­
larities, textures, motions, stretch marks,
crevices and cracks. After a slab is flung, I
try not to overmanipulate it to let the viewer
see how the clay can stretch into its own
asymmetrical rhythm of patterns.”
Bowl and 8-inch plate from a five-piece
dinnerware set retailed for $82; pressmolded stoneware, with Shino glaze and
green glaze overlay, by John Shedd, Rocky
Hill, New Jersey.
Canton Invitational
Works by 17 ceramists from the United
States and Canada were featured in the
fourth annual “Ceramic Invitational” at the
Canton (Ohio) Art
Washington, D.C.; Lammot (publisher of Institute through
the Crafts Report) and Debby Copeland, March 3. “This
Deborah Holmes, Jewelers Circular-Keystone, exhibit differs
Devon, Pennsylvania; Paul Leighton, Beauti­ from its pre­
ful Things, Scotch Plains, New Jersey; Lori decessors,”
Pourier, First Nations Financial Project, noted
the
Falmouth, Virginia; Toni Sikes, Kraus-Sikes, show’s cu­
Inc., Madison, Wisconsin; and Rick Snyder- rator Fran
man, Snyderman Gallery, Philadelphia.
Lehnert
In the functional craft category, John (who re­
Shedd was recognized for his production signed
stoneware. Curtis and Suzan Benzie received h e r
the award for ceramics in the decorative
craft category.
Nancy Monsebroten
“White Earth” vessels by Nancy Monsebroten
(Onalaska, Wisconsin) were represented in
a two-year anniversary exhibition at A.
Houberbocken Gallery in Milwaukee. The
series is “an homage to my childhood,”
Monsebroten explained. “When I returned
to the prairies of the Midwest as an adult, I
was amazed to rediscover the vast forms
unique to this region: the open fields and
16 CERAMICS MONTHLY
“Box with Trash,” 17 inches in length,
handbuilt and cast whiteware with low-fire glazes,
$1800, by Victor Spinski, Newark, Delaware.
Craft Fair Optimism
Responses to a survey taken at American
Craft Enterprises’ “Craft Fair Baltimore” in
February indicate a majority of exhibitors
(55%) are optimistic about the current
marketplace—despite that, retail sales were
about even with last year and wholesale
figures were down by just over 10%.
“What we’re seeing may actually be the
result of a basic shift in the way crafts are
being purchased wholesale,” commented
A.C.E. president Carol Sedestrom Ross. “Last
year, wholesale figures were down too, not
just at A.C.E. events, but at almost all whole­
sale craft fairs. Yet 50% of the craftspeople
we surveyed at Baltimore said that their
total sales actually increased in 1990.”
This is apparently the result of several
factors, says Ross. The first is that the major
wholesale shows have gotten so large that
buyers don’t have time to see everything
and place orders. So more buyers are wait­
ing to review their notes back at their of­
fices, then they order by phone or fax.
Retailers also are under a lot of pressure
to control overhead. One way to do this is
to keep inventory low, so ‘just-in-time” pur­
chases are becoming more common.
Another factor Ross
cites is
June/July/August 1991
17
Up Front
Inspiration for Shinn’s ceramic forms
and surfaces comes “from science muse­
ums and nature. While the monumental
shapes and textures of glacier erosion and
flash-flood-formed canyons are inspira­
tional, they can still be overwhelming—a
paradoxical reaction for an artist.
“Although teaching freed me financially
to explore and experiment, I found that
most of my energy was consumed in the
classroom. Now I work full time in the stu­
dio, but am confronted with the old en­
emy, security. However, there have always
that American crafts are entering the retail
mainstream—becoming just one more type
of merchandise offered by department
stores and specialty retailers, instead of the
exclusive province of craft galleries and
shops. Such diversity tends to minimize the
wholesale activity at major craft events. With
this in mind, sales at the “Craft Fair Balti­
more” were said to be encouraging when
viewed against the downturn other mer­
chandisers have experienced as a result of
the current recession.
Otto Natzler
Works by Otto Natzler, plus a selection of
pots made in collaboration with his late
wife Gertrud, were on view recently at Cou­
turier Gallery in Los Angeles and at MOA
Gallery in West Hollywood, California.
When the Natzlers began working in clay
in 1933, Otto concentrated on developing
“Split Disk Form,” approximately 21 inches
in height, with blue crystalline glaze, 1984,
by Otto Natzler.
with textured glazes, most recently explor­
ing the potential of crater glazes fired in
reduction. Photos: Gail Reynolds Natzler.
Evelyn Shapiro Foundation
New funding for artists, regardless of their
medium, has been a very scarce commod­
ity lately. Perhaps it is the recession or a
less-than-enthusiastic response from corpo­
rate/business sources when their own belts
are being tightened by forces outside their
control. Thus it comes as particularly good
news that the Evelyn Shapiro Foundation
(Box 121, Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania) plans
to assist young artists and students in the
field of ceramics by awarding an annual
grant. The board of directors has yet to
determine the selection process.
A substantial collector, Evelyn Shapiro
worked as an editor for many publications,
including those of the Morris Gallery/Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and the
Moore College of Art, both in Philadel­
phia. She and Stanley Shapiro were initially
collectors of American and European art
pottery, but became interested in contem­
porary ceramics during the 1970s.
The Shapiros often agreed to public ex­
hibition of their collected works. Various
examples of Rookwood from the collec­
tion were on display at the Clay Studio
(Philadelphia) through April, and can be
seen at the Cincinnati Museum of Art
(Ohio) in 1992.
“Moonskin,” oval vase, 11 inches high, with
copper crater glaze, reduction fired, 1982.
glazes that would complement Gertrud’s
classic, wheel-thrown forms. After her death
in 1971, Otto worked on a series of tiles,
which led to slab-built vessels, usually angu­
lar in shape, but often with circular ele­
ments breaking the planes.
Throughout the past decade, he has con­
tinued to concentrate on slab-built forms
18 CERAMICS MONTHLY
William Shinn
Extruded and altered vessels by Santa Maria,
California, artist William Shinn were exhib­
ited recently at MOA Art Gallery in West
Hollywood. Schooled in painting, Shinn
appreciates clay’s “infinite plastic and threedimensional possibilities....It’s for this rea­
son,” he explains, “that I am puzzled by
some potters who only turn the clay surface
into a compound curve canvas—missing
out on all the exciting texture and spatial
possibilities of the medium.”
“Winged Cantata,” 13 inches in height,
extruded and altered, by William Shinn.
been enemies to the creative process: peers,
friends, fellow students, gallery directors,
and even teachers. But risk is a necessary
element in an artist’s existence.”
Bernard Mattox
“Reliquaries,” a series of terra-cotta sculp­
ture by Louisiana artist Bernard Mattox, was
presented recently at Galerie Simonne
Stem in New Orleans. Based on a previous
group of “Altars and Alleys,” these pieces
were bisqued, pit fired in sawdust, then
“Reliquary ” 27 inches in height, pit-fired
terra cotta, by Bernard Mattox.
June/July/August 1991
19
Up Front
in Phoenix for display during the 1991
held in nearby Tempe.
NCECA conference,
decorated by rubbing in colorants by hand,
using “a wide range of materials, including
oil sticks, paint, pastels, oxides and wax.”
Each series of work is meant to “invent
and depict both a structural and glyphic
mythology,” states Mattox. “In short, [these
handbuilt reliquaries are] a theater in con­
flict, at first glance perhaps somber and
hidden, but also intending an undercur­
rent that would celebrate both ritual and
innocence.”
Human Form as Mythical Vessel
“The Human Form as Mythical Vessel,” an
exhibition of large-scale figurative sculp­
ture, was presented recently at the Dinnerware Gallery in Tucson. Curator Gary Benna,
a Tucson ceramist, invited both well-estab-
Deirdre Daw
by Anne Crowley Tom
One of Deirdre Daw’s work objectives is selfexamination. Critical to her intentions is
an interest in Jungian psychoanalysis—the
exploration of individual personality, ego
and archetypes.
Daw speaks of the development of her
ceramics as a process of making her uncon­
scious thoughts and dream symbols con­
scious. “I am investigating primordial
elements of myself, man and nature, and
the underlying structure of organic and
inorganic things,” she says.
In keeping with Jung’s ideas, she be­
lieves that an awareness of a relationship
between the symbols of one’s own uncon­
scious and those of the collective uncon­
“Strong Heart,” 25 inches long, with glaze and terra sigillata, by Adrian Arleo, Portland, Oregon.
lished and emerging artists, who work with scious of humanity, known as archetypal
the human form as metaphor for personal symbols, leads the individual out of isola­
and social commentary, to participate.
tion, beyond ego.
The exhibiting artists were Adrian Arleo,
An image that dominates Daw’s work is
Ronna Neuenschwander and Debra Norby, all the garden, a symbol for the place where
from Portland, Oregon; Rudy Autio, life began and a microcosm of all aspects of
Missoula, Montana; Janit Brockway, Sisters, the universe. Jung also identifies the gar­
Oregon; Nancy Carman, Philadelphia; den as a symbol of human consciousness.
Esmirelda Delaine, Phoenix; ChristineFederighi, While Daw explains that she does not
Coral Gables, Florida; Gayle Fichtinger, believe in magic, the ancient Greek science
Tempe, Arizona; Arthur Gonzales, Brooklyn; of alchemy also has had an influence on
Lauren Grossman, Seattle; Dick Hay, Terre her work. “The alchemical influence is in
Haute, Indiana; Judy Moonelis, New York my attitude toward materials and process—
City; Ann Scott Plummer, Newport, Rhode respect for the intrinsic quality or spirit of
Island; Paula Rice, Flagstaff, Arizona; and the material, which I try to understand well
Yoshio Taylor, Sacramento.
enough to release in new forms.”
Nine of the sixteen works from the show
According to ancient alchemy texts, a
then traveled to Grand Canyon University stone or other mineral has a spirit from
20 CERAMICS MONTHLY
“Story of Life Teapot,” 11 inches in height,
thrown and carved earthenware, with lowfire glazes, $800, by Deirdre Daw, Oakland,
California.
which the soul may be extracted by subject­
ing the original matter to lengthy proce­
dures that transform it. Daw compares this
concept to the Jungian psychoanalytical
process of extracting a meaning from a
concrete experience.
“The alchemical secret is a state of con­
sciousness, a perception of the archetypal
level of reality,” she explains. “Its parallel,
transcendence of the self, lies in process­
ing activities of the unconscious.”
Her “Story of Life” series, which was
exhibited recently at Mobilia Gallery in
Cambridge, Massachusetts, was based on
the theme of how all life developed over
time from the simplest of organisms. Inti­
mately related to this explanation for the
differentiation of life forms is a philosophy
to which Daw ascribes, existential human­
ism, in part a belief that all life is con­
nected. Through imagery of the natural
world and narrative painted/inscribed on
these vessels, she reflects upon evolution’s
wonders and shares a vision of the inter­
connectedness of all life.
For example, narrative written across a
banner on her “Story of Life Teapot” reads:
“Life has been changing gradually since it
first appeared on earth. Simple organisms
became more complicated over the years.
Life continued to evolve to ever higher
levels of complexities.”
When researching classical majolica,
Daw came across Italian Renaissance apoth­
ecary jars that had ceramic ribbons label­
ing the contents. She copied the idea, down
to the script, as a solution to inscribing
narrative on her pots.
She illustrated this linear science text­
book statement with deeply carved and textured interconnected images that flow into
one another around the surface of the pot.
The glaze colors, according to Daw, are
not only important symbolically in them­
selves, but in relationship to one another.
Largely cool blues, greens, yellows and
cream, they denote lushness of vegetation,
new life and growth.
Individual Spirits
“Individual Spirits,” an exhibition featuring
the work of Arizona clay artists Rose Cabat,
Maurice Grossman, and Mary and Edwin
Scheier, was presented recently at the Berta
June/July/August 1991
21
Up Front
1990 fellowship recipients identified by the
National Endowment for the Arts (NEA)
Visual Artists Program for Ceramics Monthly,
and subsequently was not included in the
December 1990 feature article announc­
ing fellowship winners. An NEA spokesper­
son said Bailey checked metal as well as
clay when applying for a crafts grant, so his
work was automatically classified as “other.”
Nevertheless, Bailey is working primar­
ily with clay, and he did receive a $20,000
fellowship based on slides of recent ceramic
sculpture. That brings the total number of
1990 awards to “mid-career or senior” ce­
ramists to 15, while 17 ceramists (who have
worked for 10 years or less in the field)
received $5000 grants. Photo: Kent Marshall.
Marian Haigh
Ceramic vessels and teapots by Austin,
Texas, artist Marian Haigh were featured in
a solo exhibition at the Arkansas State Uni­
versity Museum through April 30. Fiber
“Moon Dog” 26 inches in height, slab built,
raku fired, by Maurice Grossman, Tucson.
Wright Gallery in Tucson as part of Art
Expo, a city-wide celebration of the arts.
Cabat’s small, wheel-thrown bottles are of­
ten surfaced with crystalline glazes, while
the Scheiers’ bowls and vases incorporate
incised images of human figures. Gross­
man’s raku vessels and sculpture, such as
“Moon Dog,” explore his interest in desert
creatures, rituals and mythology.
Clayton Bailey
Thanks to an extra checkmark on the list
of media under the crafts category, Califor­
nia artist Clayton Bailey was not among the
“Green Leaf” 22 inches long, smoke-fired
stoneware, partly glazed, by Marian Haigh.
techniques, such as weaving, plaiting and
piercing, are prevalent in Haigh’s works.
Summer trips to Santa Fe also inspire
new forms. Through these travels, Haigh
says she gains “renewal through the land­
scape,” a feeling that is carried over into
her work in the form of bones, antlers and
stark vegetation. Photo: Phyllis Frede.
$20,000 NEA fellowship recipient Clayton Bailey with a sampling of his works in clay.
22 Ceramics Monthly
June/July/August 1991
23
Issues of vulnerability and intimidation are addressed
in a series of monumental rabbit heads handbuilt by
Deborah Masuoka, Las Vegas.
GLANT RABBIT HEADS made by Deborah Masuoka while an
artist-in-residence at the Bemis Foundation, Omaha, Ne­
braska, were featured in a solo exhibition at Mark Masuoka
Gallery in Las Vegas through April 27. Not the typical view
of bunnies, the imposing forms address “issues of vulner­
ability. A 6- or 7-foot rabbit is intimidating,” explains the
artist. “The prey [is enlarged] into the predator.”
Masuoka first became concerned with scale and how it
influences the space around a sculpture while a student of
Jun Kaneko at the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michi­
gan. “I wanted to see how fast I could make a rabbit look
like it was moving through space.” This early exploration
resulted in large, sleek forms with ears drawn back, resem­
bling aerodynamic sports cars.
26 CERAMICS MONTHLY
Once probed, the giant rabbit image presented Masuoka
with a reservoir of ideas to explore. The sculptures about
vulnerability were constructed from slabs and coils, pinched
to thicknesses varying from 1½ inches at the bottom to ¾
inch at the ears, with no inner support structure. Each
weighs about 1200 pounds, and took approximately six
weeks to complete.
After drying slowly for two weeks, the rabbits were
scraped, incised and brushed with a mixture of black
copper oxide and CMC gum. The surfaces were then
rubbed with steel wool, leaving copper only in the incised
lines and fingermarks. Next, terra sigillatas colored with
commercial stains were applied. Finally, each form was
fired slowly, taking about six days to reach Cone 04. ▲
PHOTOS: DIRK BAKKAR
Slab- and coil-built earthenware rabbit
sculpture, 55 inches in height.
Hollow rabbit head, 54 inches high,
with walls ¾ to IV2 inches thick.
Earthenware rabbit, 54 inches high,
with copper oxide and terra sigillatas.
Weighing up to 1200 pounds each, the heads were fired individually and slowly (taking
about six days to reach Cone 04) in a car kiln at the Bemis Foundation in Omaha, Nebraska.
June/July/August 1991
27
The Art of Paul Bogatay
by Thomas C. Folk
If in the arts in general Americas contri­
bution has been less than her lover’s desire,
her creative achievements in the difficult
field of ceramics have been still lower...
The stodgier collectors of pottery, with one
eye cocked on ancient China and another
on the price, may damn such pieces as
miniature giraffes and bulls and small,
shiny, ruminating hippopotamuses as ex­
pensive bric-a-brac. But ceramics enthusi­
asts see them as signs of the vitality of a
growing American art, and if they are true
collectors, treasure them in a way that the
homeowners of Rome probably treasured
their collections of unterrifying, homely, fa­
miliar little gods.
So WROTE an unidentified author
about a new generation of American
ceramists in the Christmas 1937 issue
of Fortune magazine, at the time of the
first significant showing of American
ceramics in Europe. Featuring 135
pieces, this exhibition traveled to four
museums in Scandinavian countries,
before returning for a final showing
at the Whitney Museum of American
Art in New York City.
The title of the article was “The
Art with the Inferiority Complex.”
Little did critics of the day realize that,
in about 25 years, American ceramics
would come to a position of world
importance; that ceramics would earn
a fine arts standing (something their
European
counterparts
did
not
achieve) and that innovative ceram­
ists like Paul Bogatay were taking the
first steps in that direction.
Paul Bogatay was part of the Cleve­
land school of ceramic sculpture that
included Viktor Schreckengost, Way-
“Elephant” 14 inches in length, slab-built,
salt-glazed stoneware, 1938.
28 CERAMICS MONTHLY
lande Gregory and Russell Aitken. Al­
though extremely popular in the Mid­
west, these men’s work was never quite
accepted as equal to their contempo­
raries in American sculpture who
worked in stone, wood or bronze, such
as William Zorach, Robert Laurent
and Gaston Lachaise. Unfortunately,
ceramists were subject to the biases of
their day—clay was considered an in­
ferior sculptural medium by many crit­
ics, collectors and public institutions.
A major explanation for that atti­
tude might be the strong Viennese
influence on many Cleveland school
works. Viennese ceramic sculpture,
with its frothy sentimentality and trivial
themes, could certainly be seen in the
work of Schreckengost and Aitken,
who studied under Michael Powolny
at Vienna’s Kunstgewerbeschule. But
“Leopard”4¾ inches in length, handbuilt
earthenware, with low-fire glazes, 1931.
Bogatay was unable to study in Eu­
rope, and his work generally does not
reflect the light-hearted Viennese
sense of humor, which became so
prevalent in Ohio ceramic sculpture.
Instead, his sculptures almost always
express a seriousness of concept, even
if they depict imaginative and whimsi­
cal human and animal figures. And
unlike other members of this school,
who at times employed mild ethnic
humor, Bogatay always treated his na­
tive subjects with a dignity and sensi­
tivity unusual for this period.
The son of eastern European im­
migrants, Bogatay was born in Ava,
Ohio, on July 5, 19Q5. He studied in
the Cleveland public schools, and
graduated from East Technical High
School in 1924. With the encourage­
ment of Eva B. Palmer, a wealthy bene­
factor, he was able to continue his
education at the Cleveland School of
Art (later the Cleveland Institute of
Art). While there, he became ac­
quainted with Viktor Schreckengost.
At that time, Bogatay was a sopho­
more, and Schreckengost, a freshman.
In fact, both were pledges initiated
together at the Alpha Beta Delta fra­
ternity. The young men studied de­
sign at the Cleveland School with Julius
Mihalik. After graduation in 1928,
Bogatay worked as a seaman on the
freighter S.S. Bessemer City, sailing
around the world. This gave him a
sense of the world and made it pos­
sible to visit zoos where he made the
pencil drawings of exotic animals, to
which he would refer when creating
his later ceramic sculptures.
Thereafter, Bogatay earned three
consecutive scholarships at the Louis
Comfort Tiffany Foundation Studios
at Oyster Bay, New York, for the sum­
mers of 1928 to 1930. He also worked
as a designer from 1929 to 1930 at the
Cowan Pottery in Rocky River, Ohio.
Guy Cowan was a principal figure
in establishing the Cleveland area as a
center of the ceramic sculpture move­
Paul Bogatay, shown circa
1940, forever changed “the art
with the inferiority complex.”
ment. In addition to Bogatay, several
other Ohio artists, including Viktor
Schreckengost and Waylande Gregory,
created designs for Cowan Pottery.
Many of the sculptures at Cowan were
art deco in style; they often reflected
the streamlined and graceful forms
of well-known American sculptor Paul
Manship, who also briefly worked
there. Only one Cowan vase is known
to have been designed by Bogatay.
A figure of pivotal importance to
Paul Bogatay’s career was Arthur
Baggs, who came to work at the Cowan
Pottery in 1925. Bogatay first met
Baggs in a 1926 workshop at the Cleve­
land School of Art. Apparently, Baggs
threw a pot and asked Bogatay to deco­
rate it. Baggs was much impressed.
He later took the young ceramist
under his wing, and in 1932 and 1933,
Bogatay worked summers with Baggs
at his Marblehead Pottery in Massa­
chusetts. There, Bogatay designed
bookends, dinnerware and other utili­
tarian ceramic objects, often incorpo­
rating nautical themes in these works.
Then, in 1934, Bogatay joined Baggs
as a faculty artist at the Ohio State
University, first as a temporary assis­
tant instructor in design. By 1946,
Bogatay had worked his way to the
position of professor of ceramics, a
post he maintained until his retire­
ment in 1970. Baggs and Bogatay were
principal figures in the formidable
Ohio State ceramics department,
which at that time also included Ed­
gar Littlefield and Carlton Atherton.
During the 1930s, Bogatay’s work
was very well received as he, Schreck­
engost, Aitken and Gregory came to
be considered leading exponents of
Ohio ceramic sculpture. “Native
Woman” (1935), ‘Javanese Mother
and Child” (1936, now in the collec­
tion of the National Museum of Ameri­
can Art in Washington, D.C.) and
“Elephant” (1938) were Bogatay’s best
known, most exhibited and most re­
produced works of the decade. In fact,
all won prizes at the Everson Museum’s
“Ceramic Nationals.”
“Native Woman” and “Javanese
Mother and Child” are both sensitive
studies. It is likely that the artist’s son,
June/July/August 1991
29
Paul Joseph, was the model for the
child in the second work in which
Bogatay depicts the frightened child
tugging at his mother’s skirt.
“Elephant” is one of the artist’s
most delightful animals. During the
summer of 1937, Bogatay had worked
for two weeks at the Maurice A. Knight
salt-glazed chemical ware plant in Ak­
ron. His interest in the textured sur­
face of salt-glazed stoneware resulted
in the creation of the rough skin on
his highly stylized pachyderm. In fact,
in the December 14,1941 issue of the
Columbus Citizen, Katherine Sater wrote
in a review of this work that Bogatay
“leaves muscles to the Frenchman,
Barye, and has concentrated on form.”
In his treatment of form and texture,
Bogatay may have been the most so­
phisticated sculptor of the Cleveland
school, and certainly an heir to the
sophisticated glazes of his colleague,
Arthur Baggs. The subject for “El­
ephant” seems to be somewhat ahead
of its time, for it was not until 1941
that Walt Disney released Dumbo. The
huge ears in the Bogatay work cer­
tainly anticipated their movie coun­
terpart.
Interest in exotic subjects was in
part a response to the Depression.
According to Viktor Schreckengost,
“In the thirties, in the bottom of the
Depression, it was hard to find any­
thing that would interest buyers. Ex­
otic places, mythology, religion,
folklore, we looked to anything that
would carry us out of the dumps.”
No doubt, the 1930s was Bogatay’s
decade of greatest achievement, as he
gained substantial recognition in the
field of American ceramics, and to a
lesser degree, in American sculpture.
By the late 1940s, he had become dis­
satisfied with the representational
sculpture with which he had become
associated; he must have been aware
of the public’s growing decline in in­
terest in Ohio ceramic sculpture. So
Bogatay began to experiment with new
techniques and styles, and he created
a group of abstract sculptures. How­
ever, these were never as successful as
his earlier work.
In 1955, Bogatay was awarded a
Fulbright Fellowship for study in Ja­
pan. He particularly became inter­
ested in the Japanese mingei (folk craft)
movement, and produced a number
of tea ceremony pieces in this style.
He also assembled an important col­
lection of mingei ceramics, which he
later donated to Ohio State.
His work as an artist was always his
priority, but the technical side of ce­
ramics also played a significant role in
Bogatay’s career. In 1939, he created
designs for mass production by the
Ford Ceramic Arts Company in Co­
lumbus. The company developed a
process where photographic images
could be duplicated in low relief on
ceramic surfaces. Furthermore, at
Ohio State, mass production tech­
niques played an important role in
Bogatay’s teaching, and in 1952, he
wrote an article titled “Ceramic Pro­
duction Laboratory” for an Ohio State
engineering journal.
Bogatay eventually became the
most important ceramics professor at
Ohio State University, where Howard
Kottler and Jack Earl were among his
most gifted students. Recently, Earl
recalled that: “I met Paul Bogatay dur­
ing a session of summer school at Ohio
State University in 1961. For myself
and the other advanced ceramics stu­
dents there at the time, he was the
ceramic arts teacher. We worked in a
large basement room. The handbuilding tables were in the center of the
room, the wheels surrounding on the
outside walls....Mr. Bogatay spoke
slowly with care.... [One] object I made
was different from anything I’d made
before. It was my first step on the
journey. He later stopped by and told
me the thing I’d made was good. I
made a hundred of them....Mr.
Bogatay was my teacher....He was my
reason for doing.”
Paul Bogatay’s last major sculpture
was titled “Gorilla,” a life-sized stone­
ware figure that was purchased by
Ohio State. He was working on this
sculpture when he learned he was dy­
ing of cancer. That disease finally took
his life at Hyannis, Massachusetts, in
February 1972. A
“Lady and the Tiger ” approximately 12 inches in length, glazed
earthenware, 1947; a critic of the day described this as the sassiest
tiger and the most abandoned woman he ever saw.
30 CERAMICS MONTHLY
“Javanese Mother and Child,” 22 inches in height, handbuilt,
burnished earthenware, collection of the Renwick Gallery,
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Bogatay with maquette and his last major sculpture, a life-size
stoneware gorilla, under construction (with removable stoneware
drying/firing supports) in his Ohio State University studio.
June/July/August 1991
31
PHOTO: COURTESY OF ARTHUR M. SACKLER GALLERY
Japanese Masters’ Pots
Stoneware jar, 123A inches
in height, wheel thrown, glazed
(with finger-wipe decoration), circa
1988, by “Living National Treasure19
Uichi Shimizu, Kyoto.
in Wash­
ington has recently acquired (through
gifts and purchases) works dating from
the 1940s to the 1980s by eight Japanese
potters, including several designated as
“Living National Treasures.” Some are fa­
miliar to American audiences, but others,
while major figures in Japan, are not well
known in the United States.
THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
32 CERAMICS MONTHLY
Among the latter is Uichi Shimizu
(b. 1926), who was honored as a “Living
National Treasure” in 1985 for his work
with iron glazes. The Smithsonian now
owns one of his large stoneware jars—
covered with a silvery, crystallized-iron
glaze, streaked with fingermarks.
Also new to the institution’s collection
are works by Shoji Hamada (1894-1977),
Munemaro Ishiguro (1893-1968), Imaemon Imaizumi XII (1897-1978), Kanjiro
Kawai (1890-1966), Shiro Otani (b. 1936),
Tatsuzo Shimaoka (b. 1919) and Wakao
Toshisada (b. 1933). They were featured
in the exhibition “Paper and Clay from
Modern Japan,” at the Arthur M. Sackler
Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution
through March 31. A
The 6700-square-foot ceramics department at the University of Montevallo is housed
in a warehouse complex formerly used by university maintenance.
University of Montevallo
by Scott Meyer
As SOON AS I plugged in the cord, a
loud whine rose from our makeshift
vacuum/blower, and the coals nestled
in our salvaged forge roared into
frenzied activity. A whoop went up
from several students gathered around
and one added, “Move over, Archie
Bray! ” I started to laugh at the notion
of the good folks at the Archie Bray
Foundation making room for the ce­
ramics department of the University
of Montevallo (our relatively small,
liberal arts institution in Montevallo,
Alabama). I glanced at my student’s
face, but there was no hint of humor
or irony. Deciding not to laugh, I
looked across the yard to where a
couple raku kilns hummed. Our newly
donated burnout kiln was cooling
slowly and a pit fire smoldered quietly
in a corner.
All this was taking place behind a
tall fence, which defines our space
and keeps the rest of the university
from knowing exactly what we’re up
to. The hairs stood up on my neck as
they had when I was a kid doing some­
thing pretty neat, or mischievous or
both. I found myself thinking again
of the great places of ceramic/art his­
tory: the Archie Bray Foundation in
the 1950s; the Otis Art Institute in the
’60s; SoHo in the ’40s and ’50s; Alfred.
It is with reverence and awe that one
reads of the people who made these
places historically significant. Energy
and collective human spirit have
elevated them to legend.
But to be honest, I’ve always felt a
certain frustration when learning of
another legend. There’s a remoteness,
an inaccessibility that comes from the
realization that these are boats that
have sailed and I wasn’t even on the
dock. When Voulkos knocked off the
neck of his first distorted form, I was
knocking off another bottle—of baby
formula. I grew up in SoHo’s back­
yard in the 1960s, unaware art existed.
I wanted to be a baseball player (any­
one want to guess how the New York
Yankees were doing in the late ’60s?).
I discovered clay in 1978 at Penn State,
the year after the last “Super Mud”
conference there. See a pattern de­
veloping?
Marshall McLuhan once likened
modern society to a driver with eyes
firmly fixed on the rearview mirror in
a car hurtling out of control. There
must be more to the trip than appre­
ciating, without stopping, those places
we’ve passed.
An admired professor of mine ac­
quainted me with the Japanese term
wabi. It refers to the reverence and
simplicity with which the tea ceremony
is approached. If a place has wabi, it
has a harmony and a sense of right­
ness that is correct for us and for our
heritage. The same professor added
sabi in reference to patina and a kind
June/July/August 1991
33
of aged tartness. With some distor­
tion, I define the term ‘Svabi sabi” to
mean, very roughly, richness of place.
One can not legislate wabi sabi, nor
concoct it from a formula. Nonethe­
less, I feel I can identify some of the
ingredients necessary for it to grow:
Community: The essence of the hu­
man bond that occurs in an endeavor.
Energy/optimism: Moving forward in the
endeavor out of a deep sense of its
rightness. (The individual and the task
are on the same side, not at odds with
one another.)
Discovery potential: It is possible to come
away each day with a large or small
“ah ha.”
Growth potential: The sense that one is
further along than yesterday, but not
nearly as much as will be possible.
(Note: Being unfinished is essential
to wabi sabi. It doesn’t seem to hang
around when the emphasis shifts from
building to admiring and archival pre­
serving.)
Humor: When a student adds 25
pounds of feldspar to 25 pounds of
stoneware to “whiten it up” and you’re
able to laugh...a little.
Spirit of inquiry: The question “what
if...?” seems to come from the general
momentum of the work being done
in a place.
Healthy resistance (also known as the “it
don’t come easy” principle): It may be
more rewarding to scrounge/salvage
than to order from a company.
I don’t know how well the pres­
ence of wabi sabi correlates with the
eventual historical significance of a
place. I do know that it seems to re­
treat from excessive ego and fame
fixation. Those things are not our con­
cern, because they are not within our
province to control. Nor, I imagine,
were they the concern of the majority
of individuals who later attained them.
I believe it is possible to be proud of
the place one has nurtured without
excessive ego, and it is with smallschool humility and a little humor that
we present the University of Montevallo ceramics and sculpture depart­
ments.
My colleague Ted Metz (a profes­
sor of sculpture and master at redeem­
ing junk) offers a singularly unique
view of its “biography.” In 1973, he
opened a small room in the basement
of one of Montevallo’s academic halls.
Inside was a 12x6-inch test kiln and a
table. He had located Montevallo’s ce­
ramics department.
Frank McCoy, a particularly ambi­
tious
art
historian/administrator,
came four years later to chair the art
department. With Metz’s flare for en­
gineering (he could probably build a
rocket launcher with paper clips) and
McCoy’s leadership, departmental
growth was as inevitable as kudzu (the
leafy vine that is gradually consuming
the South). They acquired potter’s
wheels, built a 60-cubic-foot gas kiln,
added electric kilns, etc., on almost
no budget. They would complain be­
cause they had no equipment, build
it, then complain because they had
no place to put it. So they got more
room. Kudzu.
The year before I came (1986), they
finally outgrew the whole building,
Student Chris Willcutt dry mixing stoneware before blending
the batch with slip (from classroom scraps) in a dough mixer.
34 CERAMICS MONTHLY
and the entire operation moved to a
huge warehouselike complex that
used to house university maintenance.
I’m sure that accompanying the move
came the administration’s silent
prayers that this would keep them
happy for a while. The department
was accredited nationally the follow­
ing year.
The current facility devotes 6700
square feet to ceramics; there are two
gas kilns, a raku kiln, a lOhp compres­
sor for spraying and sandblasting, mix­
ing and plaster rooms, plus a wood
shop, forge, a foundry, three types of
welding, a metal lathe, and various
cutters and rollers. Most of this comes
from monthly raids on government
surplus warehouses. The lathe, for ex­
ample, is around 700 pounds of knobs,
buttons and grease. We have no idea
how to run it...yet. The last raid yielded
a pipe cutter, a planer and some oddly
shaped reflective paneling that looks
military in function. We don’t have a
clue as to what it is, but we’re glad we
have it.
All this is not acquisition for its
own sake (though it is kind of seduc­
tive). Implicit is the attitude that one’s
dreams are affected by one’s tools;
e.g., you don’t seem to come up with
ideas for bronze casting until you have
a foundry.
Ted Metz and I teach the clay pro­
gram, which offers a foundations
course, and four intermediate and
advanced classes. B.F.A. students
graduate with a concentration in ce­
ramics and are prepared in firing tech­
niques, glaze formulation, throwing
Student Regina Alexander brushing glaze on a vase; for easy
access to all, “shop ” glaze buckets are mounted in the table.
PHOTOS: DWAIN ALFORD, ANDY RUSSELL, SCOTT STEPHENS
The main classroom is equipped with 11 kick wheels,
3 electric wheels and a slab roller (right comer).
and handbuilding methods, and aes­
thetics. Ironically, my colleague, the
sculptor, approaches ceramics with a
use-object orientation. I, with the tra­
ditional training, focus on the more
sculptural applications. The combina­
tion works.
Metz is quick to point out that ex­
citement about the department seems
to come in waves. You bust your tail
installing a forge one semester and it
stirs up everyone. The next semester,
new students come in with a blase
attitude, as if it had been there for­
ever. One way to deal with this prob­
lem is to bring in visiting artists with
interesting, unique points of view.
Thanks to state grant money, we’ve
recently invited Don Reitz and Rick
Hirsch to do workshops. Their ideas
excited the students long after they
were gone.
It is important that students see
teachers as productive artists also. Our
studios are always open and we are
usually working. Ted Metz recently
won a commission to do a public sculp­
ture (four stories high). Now his stu­
dio is filled with grinding noises, sparks
and spirit. I am currently working on
a series of sculptures that incorporate
wrought-iron and clay, and am mak­
ing numerous trips to a local black­
smith to gain advice and special
equipment. Students regularly make
the trip with me.
High-fire reduction takes place in a 60-cubic-foot downdraft
kiln with a detachable door on tracks.
If wabi sabi is ephemeral, the cur­
rent wave shows no signs of abating.
Last year saw our largest enrollment
in ceramics. The pleasant task now is
to accommodate the activity.
Back outside, I sit watching the
foundry cool. Metz checks the newly
poured bronze, as I shut off the forge’s
blower. After three hours of whining,
the silence feels like a fever that’s
broken. I glance at the various
branches we’ve built into the new gas
line...in case we want to add some­
thing else. ‘You know, Ted,” I say, try­
ing to sound casual, “We need glass
blowing.” The welding shield fails to
hide his slow, maniacal grin. Here we
go again! ▲
Students Howard Best (left) and Nelson Grice place a fiberlined, half-barrel raku chamber over ware to be fired.
June/July/August 1991
35
far left “Dust
Devil ,”
suspended sculpture, 57 inches
in height, wheel-thrown and
handbuilt stoneware, some
elements brushed with oxides
and fired to Cone 6, other
elements pit fired, assembled
and painted after firing, by
faculty ceramist Scott Meyer.
left Scott
Meyer with tile
installation, 130 inches in
length, press-molded
stoneware, raku fired, by
student Jennifer Redus.
University of Montevallo Recipes
The following are representative of
the high-fire reduction and raku clay
and glaze recipes used at the University
of Montevallo:
Mason Red Glaze
(Cone 9-10, reduction)
Bone Ash.................................. 16.95%
9.38
Dolomite...................................
G-200 Feldspar......................... 60.51
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4) . ... 5.60
7.56
Flint..........................................
100.00%
7.56%
Add: Red Iron Oxide................
Stoneware Clay Body
(Cone 9-10)
G-200 Feldspar............................ 1 part
Cedar Heights Ceramic
Fireclay (50 mesh) ..........................4
Oatmeal Glaze
Cedar Heights Goldart Clay
.... 6
(Cone 9-10, reduction)
Cedar Heights Redart Clay................. 2
Dolomite.......................................... 25 %
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4)
...........4
17 parts Gerstley Borate...................................... 5
Caramel Glaze
(Cone 9-10, reduction)
Dolomite....................................... 7.0 %
Gersdey Borate................................ 12.0
Talc.................................................. 15.0
G-200 Feldspar.................................41.0
Kaolin................................................ 5.0
Flint.................................................. 20.0
100.0%
Add: Ilmenite................................. 1.5%
Manganese........................... 2.0%
Turquoise Dry Matt Glaze
(Cone 9-10, reduction)
Barium Carbonate...................... 38.44%
Lithium Carbonate.......................... 0.64
Nepheline Syenite ......................... 59.63
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4) .... 1.29
100.00%
Add: Copper Carbonate.............. 2.75 %
Spodumene.......................................... 14
G-200 Feldspar..................................... 36
Kaolin ................................................. 20
100%
Add: Zircopax.................................... 5 %
Bauer Clear Glaze
(Cone 9-10, reduction)
Gersdey Borate............................ 3.03%
Whiting........................................ 18.18
Zinc Oxide................................... 3.03
Cornwall Stone............................ 72.73
Bentonite..................................... 3.03
100.00%
Leach White Glaze
(Cone 9-10, reduction)
Whiting............................................. 20 %
G-200 Feldspar................................. 40
Kaolin............................................... 10
Flint...................................................30
100%
Shino Glaze
(Cone 9-10, reduction)
Soda Ash...................................... 3.98%
Spodumene................................ 15.22
Kona F-4 Feldspar......................... 18.41
Nepheline Syenite ......................... 44.97
Bentonite......................................... 1.00
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4) .... 16.42
100.00%
36 CERAMICS MONTHLY
Add: Zircopax................................... 8 %
Raku Body I
Talc................................................... 10%
Cedar Heights Ceramic
Fireclay (50 mesh) ....................... 35
Cedar Heights Goldart Clay.............. 20
Grog.................................................. 35
100%
Raku Body H
Spodumene ................................ 5 parts
Talc............................................. 10
Cedar Heights Ceramic
Fireclay (50 mesh) .................35
Cedar Heights Goldart Clay .. 25
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4) ... 15
Mullite ....................................5-10
95-100 parts
Barium Crackle White Raku Glaze
Barium Carbonate........................ 14.87 %
Colemanite...................................41.89
G-200 Feldspar............................ 32.43
Flint.............................................. 10.81
100.00%
Pale Lemon Luster Raku Glaze
Colemanite..................................... 75.0%
Soda Feldspar................................ 25.0
100.0%
Add: Copper Carbonate................... 3.0 %
Manganese Dioxide............ 1.5%
Copper Luster Raku Glaze
Colemanite......................................... 82%
Cornwall Stone................................... 18
100%
Add: Cobalt Carbonate....................... 3 %
Copper Carbonate.................... 5 %
Pale Aqua Luster Raku Glaze
Colemanite..................................... 25.0%
Gerstley Borate.............................. 75.0
100.0%
Add: Cobalt Oxide......................... 0.1 %
Copper Carbonate............... 3.0 %
Tomato Red Raku Glaze
Borax.................................................. 50%
Gerstley Borate.................................. 50
100%
Add: Copper Oxide.......................... 20 %
Red Iron Oxide ....................... 5 %
Raku Integrations
by Douglas Kenney
When
first introduced to clay in
1980, I thought it was really fun to
work with, but never considered the
possibility that it would one day be
such a vital part of my life. At San
Diego Mesa College, I majored in fine
arts with an emphasis in crafts, then
earned a B.A. in applied design/ceramics at San Diego State University.
After graduation in 1985,1 contin­
ued to take courses in ceramics while
working part time at a commercial
pottery firm named “Out of Hand,”
making
potpourri
steamers
and
candlesticks by the thousands. Produc­
tion at this small factory was admit­
tedly routine, but I did gain some
valuable knowledge about how hard
one has to work for success in the
ceramics business. I learned that time
is synonymous with money, and that
production means long hours of of­
ten tedious labor. Soon, it also was
obvious that earning a graduate de­
gree in ceramics would lead to better
opportunities for employment.
With this in mind, I began sending
out applications, and was accepted by
both Scripps College and the Roches­
ter Institute of Technology’s School
for American Craftsmen. Having lived
only in Southern California, I felt the
need for a change, so I packed my
$1000 van and headed for New York.
When finally arriving in Rochester,
I realized R.I.T. was an institution that
quite literally lived up to its name. Its
library had a computerized card cata­
log, and there was a whole fleet of
computers in the art department. Sur­
rounded by this high-tech environ­
ment, I decided to incorporate a
technological theme in my artwork,
juxtaposing the computerized and
highly developed scientific nature of
the institute with the more organic
and down-to-earth characteristics of
clay. The combining of these seem­
ingly opposite elements is what even­
tually led to an approach that focused
on integrating traditional, utilitarian
“The
Nature
of Ceramics ”
19 inches in
diameter, textured
with crushed clay,
photo-silk-screened
and airbrushed underglazes,
clear glazed, raku fired.
June/July/August 1991
37
PHOTOS: PAUL GUBA, DOUGLAS KENNEY, ERIC RIPPERT, ROBERT WOLFE
“Architectural Study 3 ” jiggered slab platter, with embedded
slips and clay, airbrushed underglazes, 20 inches in diameter.
uses of clay with the more scientific
applications that are common today—
semiconductors and computer chips.
I decided to take advantage of the
flat, open, canvaslike spaces provided
by large platter forms made from the
following raku body:
“Lines and Pottery 2” 19 inches in diameter, u/it/i under­
glazes (some textured with grog) and clear glaze, raku fired.
relationship between antique and con­
temporary ceramic applications. But,
because of the Vallpaperlike” quality
of silk-screened designs, this potential­
ly superficial process was abandoned.
Raku Body
Spodumene................................. 11 lbs.
Talc............................................. 5
Bentonite..................................... 2
Hawthorn Bond Clay................. 25
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4) ... 11
Kentucky Special Ball Clay .... 11
Kentucky Stone.......................... 11
Kyanite....................................... 13
Medium Grog............................. 5
Coarse Grog................................ 5
99 lbs.
After their surfaces were embed­
ded with stains, oxides and dry clay,
round slabs were hand jiggered (over
a plaster mold), dried and bisqued.
The imagery was then developed fur­
ther with airbrushed underglazes.
Disappointed with my first efforts,
which seemed somewhat lifeless, I de­
cided to experiment with raku firing.
The crackling effect, as well as the
blacks and grays from postfiring re­
duction in sawdust, added to the work,
particularly in integrating the air­
brushed designs.
Then came photo-silk-screened im­
ages of ancient pottery and modern
electronic circuit boards as a means
to a more literal representation of the
38 CERAMICS MONTHLY
Douglas Kenney, San Antonio, Texas.
I still like to explore the possible
relationships that can exist between
seemingly disparate elements but, in­
stead of using such symbolic and obvi­
ous images as Greek amphoras and
computer chips, I am now combining
and integrating organic textures and
geometric shapes.
Of particular interest to me is the
work of Hans Hofmann and Jackson
Pollock. It was Hofmann who coined
the term “push and pull,” while inves­
tigating the layering of colors and
shapes to create illusionistic depth to
his work. His paintings depict unin­
hibited gestural strokes of color in con­
trast to geometric rectangular shapes.
Another influence was a class in
Oriental art history at R.I.T. It is this
exposure to old Chinese paintings and
Japanese prints, with their sense of
space and depth relationships between
the foreground and background, as
well as the quietly powerful way they
express elements of nature, that most
directly relates to my current work.
Because of my strong concern with
the painterly, I am often asked, “Why
don’t you just drop ceramics and be­
come a painter?” While I do enjoy
painting on canvas very much, paint
lacks the wonderful tactile qualities of
clay. Furthermore, there is that fasci­
nating challenge of successfully bring­
ing large platters through the hazards
of raku firing. Painters apply paint to
a canvas and get exactly what they put
down. They do not take the risks that
ceramic artists do when they subject
the results of hours of labor and
thought to the intense (and precari­
ous) heat of a kiln. It is this risk taking
that so attracts me to ceramics.
The author Douglas Kenney teaches ce­
ramics and three-dimensional design at San
Antonio College in Texas; a solo exhibition
of his work was presented in May at Gal­
lery Authentique in Roslyn, New York.
“Pots of the Past ”
19-inch raku platter,
with underglazes airbrushed
through stencils and photo silk
screens, clear glazed.
“Crackle Plate” 22-inch diameter, embedded with slips,
porcelain scraps and copper filings, airbrushed underglazes.
“Buildings and Landscape,” 21 inches in diameter, textured
slab, with underglazes and clear glaze, raku fired.
June/July/August 1991
39
John Foster Retrospective
a review by Susan E. Crowell
(1900-1980) was a cen­
tral figure in the establishment of the
Michigan ceramics community dur­
ing the 1930s and 1940s. Having
taught at the Society of Arts and Crafts
and at Wayne State University, he or­
ganized and chaired the Michigan Pot­
ters Association during its early years.
A retrospective of his work at the Cen­
ter for Creative Studies in Ann Arbor,
Michigan, revealed Foster’s broad
technical and aesthetic interests.
John Foster’s careful, considered
proportioning recalls the period of
transition in American ceramics dur­
ing the mid-20th century that still bore
European, especially Northern Euro­
pean, influences. Like other potters
of that era, such as Edwin and Mary
Scheier or Maija Grotell, his notion of
form was concentrated and nonplastic,
and the interaction between form and
surface tightly articulated.
Through his earlier collaboration
with art historian James Marshall
Plumer, an orientalist at the Univer­
sity of Michigan who studied temmoku ware, Foster had investigated the
aesthetics and techniques of Far East­
ern ceramics, particularly Chinese
Yiieh ware. Its influence was seen in
JOHN FOSTER
40 CERAMICS MONTHLY
much of the work produced in his
later life.
During the fifties—a tumultuous
period for American ceramics that re­
examined those earlier European ties
in light of influences from the Far
East—Foster maintained a formalist
approach to clay, but also began to
pursue other surfaces. His crystallineglazed vessels exemplified this con­
vergence between Eastern surrender
and Western control over ceramics.
At the beginning of the sixties and
progressively throughout the decade,
Foster reexamined his formalist ten­
dencies. His level of interaction with
surfaces, which in earlier times had
been decorative or graphic, became
labor-intensive, painterly and reflec­
tive of a more resolved and intense
involvement with volumetric concerns.
In evaluating Foster’s ceramics, it
is important to recognize the time and
place in which he worked. Judged by
contemporary standards, which value
pluralism, worldliness and sophistica­
tion, many of his design elements and
aesthetic strategies seem derivative or
perhaps naive: in his enthusiasm for
an ever-widening ceramic world, Fos­
ter sought to appreciate, rather than
appropriate, the art of other cultures.
He worked during more innocent
times, when a self-conscious intent to
build a consistent, identifiable body
of work for the marketplace and for
the sake of historical continuity would
have seemed cynical and vulgar.
While “originality,” in its contem­
porary Western context, was not a cen­
tral feature of the retrospective
exhibition, there were especially bright
and innovative moments—particularly
those in which Foster’s technical
finesse and playful approach find syn­
thesis with his more successful experi­
ments in surface decoration.
Through this exhibition, it was pos­
sible to recognize both the man and
the time in which he worked. He was
chief ceramic engineer for the Ford
Motor Company and a fierce partisan
of ceramic higher education. His pas­
sion for meticulous craftsmanship bal­
anced an intense concern for the
natural world. As a teacher, he left
students a rich set of technical and
aesthetic tools for apprehending their
world; and as a ceramist, he left a
strong body of work that shares his
concise and precise notions of what
clay might become. A
above Plate titled “Dog,” 6¾ inches in diameter, with lowfire glazes—bright red, yellow and black on a white ground
(each color is outlined with a thin line of exposed red
earthenware body), 1954, by John Foster
(above left).
top “Sukiyaki Rice Bowls,” to 92A inches in diameter,
porcelain with Albany/umber slip and black oil-spot
glaze, 1953.
vase, 9V2 inches in height, with crystalline
glaze (green crystals on amber ground), 1956.
right Porcelain
June/July/August 1991
41
PHOTOS: ROBERT VIGILETTI
“Geometric”4V2 inches in diameter, porcelain with sgraffito
decoration through satin black glaze, 1953.
Porcelain bowl, 6V2 inches in diameter, with pale yellow crystalline glaze, circa 1950, by John
Foster, whose meticulous craftsmanship belies the fact that he lost his right hand in an accident.
42 CERAMICS MONTHLY
Ah-Leon
14 Principles of a Good Teapot
CHING-LlANG CHEN (Ah-Leon) is a
Chinese potter working in the Yixing
tradition, but “determined to culti­
vate his own garden of expression.”
Because the work of Yixing has been
“honored from generation to genera­
tion, numerous teapots are being
made in one stereotype.” Today, he
sees “potters who ‘produce’ but who
do not ‘create’ pots. And materials
being employed are limited to purple
sand and red clay.”
A native of Taiwan, Ah-Leon cur­
rently has a studio at the top of a fivestory apartment building in Taipei. It
is equipped with five potter’s wheels,
a ball mill, three slip mills, a gas kiln
and two electric kilns (one is experi­
mental—equipped
with
computerdriven controls). Ah-Leon built the
gas kiln. Its design incorporates what
he calls a “water closet,” which allows
heat from the chimney to warm wa­
ter; in turn, this water contacts the
liquid propane tank, preventing it
Taiwan potter Ah-Leon.
from “freezing” as substantial fuel is
drawn off during firing.
Ah-Leon’s clay comes from a moun­
tain near his home. “I pick up some
dirt, hammer it, screen it and com­
bine it with other clays. Having ap­
prenticed to Taiwanese potters, I
understand the local clay. Like a pen
to a writer, it is so important that a
potter engage with the clay.”
Test pieces are fired, and the cor­
ners chipped. “A fired stoneware body
should show beautiful interior color,
as well as firm structure. Moreover,
Chinese potters stress the sandiness
of the inner structure as well as the
surface texture. To examine the in­
ner structure, they break off a corner
of a test piece.
“There are hundreds of theories
on evaluating a teapot, and much ad­
vice too. My favorite is ‘to care for
both the theory and the interest.’ It is
easy to understand this sentence, but
difficult to carry it out.”
The following 14 principles on mak­
ing a teapot are drawn from his expe­
riences. The first nine address theory;
the last five are for interest’s sake.
Begin with good clay: The character­
istics and quality of the clay decide
the texture and tint of the pot. Only a
craftsperson, who understands the
nature of the clay, can utilize it well.
The body must be thin: The wall thick­
Working under the influence of the Yixing teapot tradition, Ah-Leon concentrates on expression.
June/July/August 1991
43
A kettle to boil water is designed to fit on top of a charcoal
stove; both are thrown from a flameware clay body.
ness decides the weight of the pot and
the feeling of touch.
The lid must fit tightly against the rim
and still look graceful: It can’t be too
loose; otherwise, the fragrance will
come out through the crack. The most
difficult part to make is the lid.
The rim must be level: If the rim is
well designed, it will not be difficult to
seat the lid.
The tea must flow smoothly: If the
neck is clogged, it won’t pour the tea
easily, let alone pass through the spout
freely and smoothly.
The spout must function well: The
outlet of the spout controls the size of
the flow and the last drop of the pour­
ing. A full teapot should not spill its
contents onto the table.
The handle must be appropriate: When
appreciating a teapot, the first thing
we touch is the handle; that has a lot
to do with the pot’s disposition. If the
handle is properly arranged, the whole
framework appears right.
The pot must be steady when lifted:
The handle’s shape is part of the pot,
but its function is the lifting. Potters
should recognize that these are two
different things. So long as the handle
44 CERAMICS MONTHLY
“Hanging Heart Pot ” approximately 9 inches in height,
thrown and handbuilt from local, sandy stoneware.
is well balanced, the pot will be steady
when lifted.
The base should be round and gentle:
The bases of teapots vary a lot; this
interests many appreciators as well as
potters. As the saying goes, we are
supposed to evaluate a person from
bottom to top; in the case of a teapot,
we should appreciate from the base
too. The base is where the body ends,
and where the teapot touches the
table. If it is carelessly made, the whole
shape will look wrong.
The body should be elegant and unique:
The teapot elements (body, handle
and spout) make a vessel, but it will
be worthless without elegance. The
designing of the body is a language
explaining its identity, context and dis­
position. If it is unnatural, the pot will
be vulgar. A vulgar pot can’t be shown
in public, while an elegant pot has a
refined and dignified disposition for
all to see.
The firing must be appropriate: The
type of fire and time needed are the
last artistic goals the potter pursues.
Different types of clay need different
temperatures and firing cycles; these
elements decide appearance and
hardness. The best example of this is
the ancient pot that has been passed
down through generations, but re­
mains intact. Those that are not hard
enough have already been destroyed.
The teapot must look sound: Harmo­
nizing color, shape and volume pro­
duce a feeling of quality. It is not
necessary for the pot to be large. Ex­
aggeration might destroy the feeling
of quality.
The spirit must be enduring: The spirit
to the pot is the life to a human be­
ing. Enduring spirit is not only the
bone, the structure of the work; it is
also the maker’s disposition.
The tone must be profound: The tone
is like the pulse. We can find tone and
spirit in every artistic work.
“As our ancestors advised, we
should choose interest and taste, and
sacrifice theory when it is impossible
to maintain both. For what we want is
the joy of life rather than the theory.
“The most important thing about
a teapot is not its shape or color,” says
Ah-Leon. “Most important are the
ideas and cultural background behind
it. A teapot without taste and mean­
ing is only a thing, not a work of art.” ▲
PHOTOS: JIM DUSEN, AND COURTESY OF THE ARTIST
right Ah-Leon’s
studio/showroom/
home is at the top of a five-story
apartment building in Taipei.
below “Trunk
Teapot” carved,
reduced stoneware, approximately
8 inches in length. “As our ancestors
advised, we should choose interest
and taste, and sacrifice theory when
it is impossible to maintain both.
For what we want is the joy of life
rather than the theory.”
June/July/August 1991
45
Italian Architectural Influences
PHOTOS: LEO PHILLIPPE
by Mary Lou AJberetti
in ceramic
sculpture is somewhat similar to em­
barking on a journey without any clear
road markers to point the way. Occa­
sionally one comes across a light to
illuminate the path and guide one’s
aesthetic vision. Italian architecture,
from the Early Christian era through
the 16th century, has served both as a
road map and a light of inspiration
for my work of the past six years.
Free-standing sculpture and pottery
were the antecedents to my growing
interest in sculptural wall reliefs. I had
been attracted to such wall pieces and
architectural forms in museums, but
a summer in Italy in 1985 was a par­
ticularly influential experience. Liv­
ing in Urbino, without a car, I walked
everywhere. It wasn’t unusual to cover
8 to 10 miles a day on foot. More than
just an invigorating lifestyle, roaming
FINDING ONE’S DIRECTION
46 CERAMICS MONTHLY
the streets of that ancient city forced
me to see architecture in a new light.
Our small, rented house was situ­
ated in a medieval section of town,
right on the edge of the city wall, on a
street too narrow for cars to pass. Here,
where everything is made of stone,
shadow and light play hide-and-seek
in the hot Mediterranean sun. The
arcaded streets open into steeply
stepped passageways. The steps spill
out into piazzas of sienna, gold, gray
and dusty rose. Also striking are the
remarkable changes in scale, from
one- and two-story houses to huge,
multistoried churches and fortress
walls. Still, the streets, walls and build­
ings create a unified whole.
I remember being astonished and
delighted with such functional archi­
tectural details as doorways—some
carved from marble, some from gran­
ite or volcanic rock. Others were com­
posed of brick covered with a veneer
of stucco. Regardless of the material,
I immediately sensed their surface af­
finity with clay. This first visit to Italy
awakened in me a deep appreciation
for urban architectural forms.
Inspired by what I had seen, on
returning to Connecticut, I was anx­
ious to get back into my studio. Site
sketches, slides and photographs
proved invaluable references. They
helped clarify issues of scale, light,
color and form.
In response, I turned to extrusion,
press molding, impressing and carv­
ing. To achieve a sense of the texture
and color of time-worn walls, sawdust,
sand, coffee grounds and rice mixed
into slips, along with Mason stains,
oxides and underglazes, worked well.
A sabbatical from Southern Con-
above “Colonna
di Umbria ,” 52 inches
in height, press molded, slab built and
carved, with slips and clear glaze wash,
fired to Cone 05 in oxidation, $3200,
by Mary Lou Alberetti (above left).
“Ricordo
height, $2200.
top right
24 inches in
right Pen,
ink and colored pencil
drawing of an abandoned chapel in
Urbino, Italy. Site sketches, slides and
photographs helped Alberetti “clarify
issues of scale, light, color and form.”
June/July/August 1991
47
necticut State University in 1986, a
subsequent research grant and two
summer sessions teaching in Urbino,
gave me further opportunities to study
Italian architecture. The magic was
still there.
In Ferrara, I sketched the columns
on the side of the main cathedral.
They marched along in pairs—over
250 of them (it seemed natural to
count them!)—at once the same, yet
infinitely varied, a vision of gaiety, form
and rhythm.
In Volterra, I walked through the
town mindful of the history beneath
my feet—Roman roads, chunks of
Etruscan walls. Ancient strata were re­
vealed in the juxtaposed Early Chris­
tian,
Romanesque,
Renaissance,
Gothic and Baroque architecture—
doors chinked up, rebuilt, reshaped;
evidence of repeated face-lifts; rem­
nants of arches; columns embedded
in new stone.
I am working toward that same
sense of color, light and texture in my
current wall reliefs. They range in size
from 18x12x2 inches to 70x24x5
inches. The larger forms are usually
diptyches or triptyches of approxi­
mately 2-foot-square units. I slab build
each section from the following clay
body, carving, impressing or applying
details:
White Sculpture Body
(Cone 05)
Spodumene.............................. 9 parts
Talc.......................................... 10
Cedar Heights Goldart............. 12
Kentucky Ball
Clay (OM 4) ......................... 12
North American Fireclay......... 30
Molochite................................. 14
Filler*....................................... 5
92 parts
*Nylon fiber, sawdust, wood shavings,
vermiculite, crushed red brick.
Once the forms are resolved, I im­
mediately begin surface treatment—
spontaneous application of color on
the nearly finished wet to leather-hard
piece, sgraffito, rubbing through lay­
ers of color, adding, subtracting,
brushing, sponging, pouring and
scumbling. Slips used in these pro­
cesses include:
Slip 1
(Cone 05)
Talc ............................................... 40%
Ball Clay........................................ 60
100%
above “di
Slip 2
(Cone 05)
Gerstley Borate.............................. 40%
Bentonite........................................ 1
Edgar Plastic Kaolin...................... 10
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4).......... 20
White Sculpture
Clay Body (dry) .......................... 24
Flint................................................ 5
100%
Slip 3
(Cone 05)
Ball Clay........................................ 25%
Edgar Plastic Kaolin...................... 20
White Sculpture
Clay Body (dry) ..........................50
Flint................................................ 5
100%
All three recipes are mixed with tex­
tural ingredients (sawdust, sand, cof­
fee grounds and rice) and oxides or
stains.
This painterly approach is an ex­
hilarating process, as the works simul­
taneously become drawings, paintings
and sculpture.
The author Mary Lou Alberetti resides
in New Fairfield, Connecticut.
Pietra,” 25 inches in length, slab-built,
carved and impressed wall form, with colored/
textured slips applied on wet to leather-hard
clay, $1600, by Mary Lou Alberetti. This piece
was influenced by an on-site pencil sketch (left)
of stonework in Florence, Italy.
48 CERAMICS MONTHLY
Shiro Otani
A Ceramics Monthly Portfolio
by Rob Barnard
The landscapes on Shigaraki jarsperson’s view of ceramic art. presided over a new aesthetic
have seasons also. Some jars are Try to imagine, if you can, be­ in the tea ceremony that trans­
ing raised in a town whose formed forever the way Japa­
as bright and vivacious as a spring
identity was formed by the nese view the commonplace
morning, with green glaze cascad­
objects that surround them.
ing over a warm orange surface. esoteric and poetic descrip­
Others are moody and withdrawn,tions of its wares voiced by This aesthetic, referred to as
15th-century tea masters, and wabi cha, elevated rough, natu­
barely touched with color—streaks
of lavender and blue—against drybecoming aware from your ralistic and mundane objects
gray clay. The 15th-century tea earliest moments of the into the realm of connoisseurship, which until then had
men who first brought those jars uniqueness of Shigaraki pot­
into their tea rooms knew how to tery. Consider what it would been occupied exclusively by
read the landscape, just as they be like to work your way more elaborate and techni­
cally sophisticated pottery
could read shadings of ink on pa­through high school as a la­
per and see mountains and borer in various potteries; and, from China. Juko’s poetic de­
streams. In their mind’s eye, they after graduation, to study with scription of Shigaraki and
saw the valley that had made the a pottery decorator, then Bizen as being “chilled and
withered,”
spend five
jars.
and
his
—Louise Cort years deco­
linkage of
Shigaraki Potters’ Valley rating over
this kind of
50 hibachi
apprecia­
a day. This
Shiro Otani was born in
tion with
Shigaraki in 1936. For the ma­ was Otani’s
the search
jority of American potters, youth. Shi­
for spiritual
whose awareness of pottery garaki pot­
enlighten­
came late in adolescence tery was
ment made
more than Otani’s studio in Shigaraki.
through the introduction re­
wabi cha
ceived in university ceramics just part of
classes, it may be difficult to his daily life; it became part of (and objects like the Shigaraki
jars that embody it) a power­
understand all that being bom his psyche.
In the late 15th century, ful philosophical and aesthetic
in Shigaraki implies; and how,
the tea master Murata Juko force that still reverberates in
for better or worse, it shapes a
Japan and is felt even here in
the West.
When Otani bought land
and built his own wood-burn­
ing kiln across the road from
Shigaraki’s old imperial palace
in 1973, he was totally ab­
sorbed with the idea of work­
ing in the tradition of
Shigaraki that had developed
around Juko’s philosophy of
wabi cha and was epitomized
by those early Shigaraki tea
wares. Shiro Otani’s image of
that tradition springs from and
revolves around a special feel­
ing he has for two elements
he believes make Shigaraki
ware special. The first is the
material itself: a coarse, white,
highly refractory clay, flecked
with feldspathic rocks that ap­
pear to erupt over the entire
surface of the pot when it is
fired. The second is the inter­
action of the clay with ash and
flame in the lengthy and in­
tense wood firing that gives
Shigaraki pottery its distinctive
surfaces, ranging from soft
pinks and oranges to crusty
Shiro Otani with a 150-year-old Shigaraki jar outside his showroom.
Vase with ash-wind glaze, 12 inches high; Otani arranging flowers
in one of his pots displayed on an old potter’s wheel converted into a small table.
above
portfolio cover
Vase, approximately 14 inches in height,
wheel-thrown stoneware, fly-ash glazed,
wood fired.
A Ceramics Monthly Portfolio
gray and toasted brown cov­
ered with transparent olive
green glaze. Although other
places in Japan also have a long
history of wood-fired ware,
Shigaraki’s
clay
and
the
unique way it interacts with fire
have
made
it
recognizable
worldwide.
Up until the mid 1970s,
Otani expended all his energy
and resources learning how to
make and fire work that fit his
image of traditional Shigaraki
ware. Then, he experienced a
kind of crisis in faith and be­
gan to fear that it was impos­
sible as a modern artist to
make any impact on the
Shigaraki tradition. It seemed
to him that there might not
be any room for his personal
aesthetic investigations. Otani
struggled through the early
’80s to find his own voice, at
times even exploring possibili­
ties outside the Shigaraki tra­
dition. In 1980, for example,
he applied for and received
an exchange fellowship from
the Japanese Ministry of Cul­
above “1981
ture and the National Endow­
ment for the Arts. He spent a
year at the University of Ten­
nessee, and a brief period at
Arrowmont School for Arts
and Crafts, where he built and
fired a Japanese-style, woodburning anagama.
Although his stay in the
U.S. was personally gratify­
ing—allowing him to meet, exchange
ideas
and
form
friendships with many Ameri­
can craftspeople—it only cre­
ated more confusion in his
mind about exactly what kind
of work he wanted to make.
The freedom to experiment
exhausted
him.
He
started
down numerous paths of in­
quiry only to reach as many
dead ends. It was a time when
he changed his mind a lot, a
time when he was often un­
sure of himself, and his work
by his own admission reflec­
ted this state of uncertainty.
This period shows, though,
perhaps more than anything
else the strength of Otani’s de­
sire to find his own voice by
taking the kinds of risks that
most Japanese potters would
find unacceptable. This desire
not only led him to live and
work in an alien culture where
his
cultural
preconceptions
were severely challenged, but
also forced him to focus on
that part of his work where
the superficial idiosyncrasies of
culture cease to be relevant.
Otani’s approach, both then
and now, reminds me of some­
thing Walt Whitman said in
Leaves of Grass: “I reject none,
accept all, then reproduce in
my own form.”
In 1985, Shiro Otani re­
turned to Arrowmont for three
months to make work for a
Tokyo exhibition. In the cata­
log for that show, he wrote:
“Since Shigaraki ware is un­
glazed and carries no external
design, its quality can only be
expressed
in
such
abstract
words as ‘taste’ or ‘sense of
understated elegance.’ Within
these parameters, I asked my­
self what it was that I could
add to Shigaraki. Looking out
over the Great Smoky Moun­
tains National Park, I re­
thought these problems as if
standing outside myself.”
There was no sudden mo­
ment of enlightenment where
he clearly saw the direction his
work should take. Instead, cer­
tain elements and concepts
slowly
seemed
to
reassert
themselves in his mind and be­
gan to take on renewed sig­
nificance. One of the most
important of these was the con­
cept of harmony. A vase, for
example, must not only accom­
modate the flowers it was made
to contain, but also fashion a
moment in space where those
flowers together with the vase
create an aesthetic or spiritual
resonance that either of them
alone would have been unable
to achieve. This idea of har­
mony,
which
eschews
the
supercilious and egotistical in
favor of the subtle and unas­
suming, forms the cornerstone
of Otani’s idea of beauty. This
kind of harmony, however,
should not be confused with
Plate,” approximately 16 inches in length. A plate is simply a surface for serving food. In that context, this challenging
piece “can be read as two plates, each with its own distinct surface and edge. Furthermore, when...placed side by side, they create
the sort of dynamic tension that either piece alone or both together as an unbroken whole would be incapable of delivering.”
“Hanging Vase,” approximately 8 inches in height, wheel thrown from
local clay (a coarse, white, refractory body flecked with feldspathic
rocks), wood fired, with traditional bronze eyelet for wall mounting.
A Ceramics Monthly Portfolio
the easily appreciated, predi­
gested sort of beauty that lacks
psychological
texture
and
emotional tension. Instead, it
is much like the imperfect per­
fection of nature—fragile, raw,
full of contradictions—that is
never redundant and always
compelling. Shiro Otani tries
to emulate these qualities in
his own work by the continu­
ous denial of the superfluous,
as well as his insistence on
searching for beauty in the
basic, rather than trying to find
it in the lavish and/or the ex­
travagant.
One of the best examples
of melding this notion of har­
mony with his desire to fash­
ion a personal statement inside
the Shigaraki tradition is his
“broken” ware. Begun in the
early ’80s, these plates and
vases were made deliberately
to crack or break in the long
firing.
While “1981 Plate” may
seem to be nothing more than
a
dysfunctional
abstraction,
one only has to realize that a
plate is simply a surface on
which food can be served. In
that context we see that this
piece can be read as two plates,
each with its own distinct sur­
face and edge. Furthermore,
when the two are placed side
by side, they create the sort of
dynamic tension that either
piece alone or both together
as an unbroken whole would
be incapable of
delivering. Otani
not only has en­
larged our no­
tion of the plate
and how it can
be perceived and
used, but also
has invited us,
through use, to
participate in his
aesthetic propo­
sition.
Though
controversial,
these
dramatic
and elegant statements have
brought significant critical recognition
and
mark
Shiro
Otani’s emergence as one of
the most important and influ­
ential potters of his generation
in Japan.
Otani, like all modern pot­
ters who are engaged in the
struggle to fashion meaning
rather than mere utensils, is
involved in creating objects
that actively challenge our
imagination and point beyond
themselves to ideas, feelings
and emotions that are part of
our cultural as
well as our per­
sonal
lives.
A
vase, for exam­
ple, may appear
mannered
and
self-conscious
when
compared
to the deliber­
ately crude mod­
eling
of
early
Shigaraki
tea
wares that were
trying to affect
the rusticity of
older utilitarian jars. By play­
ing, however, to our traditional
view of Shigaraki, while at the
same time contradicting that
view, Otani forces us to reex­
Otani throws clockwise.
Otani constructed his kiln across the road from the old imperial
palace in Shigaraki; at the front it has one large anagamalike
chamber, sloping uphill to additional noborigamalike chambers.
amine
our
preconceptions
about how beauty can be ex­
pressed inside that tradition.
Some of Otani’s works are
more aggressive in this respect
than others, but all are about
his struggle—and we could say
our own—with the dilemma
of what it means to be mod­
ern and yet feel mysteriously
drawn to primordial forms of
expression.
Like tea-ware potters of the
late 16th and early 17th centu­
ries, who built on the tradi­
tion of Shigaraki that preceded
them, Otani has struggled to
expand on what he inherited.
He has taken that history and
combined it with his own mod­
ern vision to give us work that
somehow satisfies both our
sense of continuity with the
past and our desire to explore
the possibilities of the future.
The author Rob Barnard pro­
duces wood-fired ware at his stu­
dio in Timberuille, Virginia; he is
also the ceramics editor for New
Art Examiner.
Heavily fly-ash-glazed vase, approximately
12 inches in height, wheel thrown from
feldspathic Shigaraki clay, wood fired.
A Ceramics Monthly Portfolio
Wood-fired vase, approximately 16 inches in height; such works have brought
“significant critical recognition and mark Shiro Otani’s emergence as one of
the most important and influential potters of his generation”
A Ceramics Monthly Portfolio
Agustin De Andino’s Mural
by Raul Acero
A COMMISSION to
create an exterior
ceramic mural at
Hostos
Commu­
nity College in the
Bronx was com­
pleted recently by
Agustin De Andi­
no, a well-known
figure on the art scene in his native
San Juan, Puerto Rico, and presently
an adjunct assistant professor of art at
Kingsborough Community College of
the City University of New York. The
state-funded commission was the re­
sult of a competition to incorporate
art into buildings on campus.
De Andino submitted a maquette,
scaled down to 1 inch equaling 1 foot,
to represent his idea for a 30x5-foot
space; also prepared were a budget
and a timetable for completion. Seiz­
ing on the school’s name (after the
Puerto Rican visionary and educator
Eugenio Maria de Hostos), he sug­
gested a tile mural fusing the land­
scape and colors of the Caribbean to
represent Hostos’s idea of a federa­
tion of Caribbean nations. The frieze,
entitled “The Unification of the
Americas,” would incorporate six dif­
ferent designs organized into blocks
of ten and repeated throughout.
On learning that he had won the
competition, De Andino enlisted the
help of New York ceramist Renee
Azenaro. The two set about refining
the designs to enable them to create
standardized tiles that could be inter­
changed easily.
De Andino was familiar with the
difficulties of producing tiles free of
warpage, having already done a tile
commission for the Prudential Life
Insurance headquarters in Princeton,
NewJersey. Using what he had learned
from that experience, De Andino de­
cided to make molds that would be
pressed into a clay slab. The mold
itself would then serve as a template
to cut the tile to its correct shape.
Working with a Cone 6, dark brown
clay body and firing in an electric kiln,
he calculated shrinkage and had
molds made accordingly; then sculp­
tor Paul Konchagulian was asked to
fabricate a press for the molds. Once
the press and molds were ready, pro­
duction was begun.
The raw tiles were completed in
eight weeks. Due to the pressing
method, tiles remained remarkably
flat and uniform, and there was very
little waste. Bisqued at Cone 04, they
were brushed with stains and com­
mercial glazes, then fired to Cone 6.
The building wall was prepared for
installation with a scratch coat of con­
crete, copper cap flashing and stainless-steel corner iron. This was
fabricated and installed by the same
firm De Andino hired to install the
tile, and their advice and expertise
proved invaluable.
The tiles were then placed using
thin-set mortar; %-inch vertical expan­
sion joints were left at 10-foot inter­
vals. A coat of stucco completed the
building facade. A
“The Unification of the Americas” 30 feet in length, a tile mural composed of six
different designs (press-molded, bisqued, stained/glazed and fired to Cone 6), at
Hostos Community College in the Bronx, New York, by Agustin De Andino.
June/July/August 1991
57
Working with Leaf
Explorations in Gold
by Cheryl Williams
of brilliant gold on a
rough-textured clay body intrigues me.
Hence my recent experimentation
with gold leaf on bowls thrown from
clay containing a large percentage of
sand or grog. To me, these bowls are a
metaphor for humankind: luminous
THE CONTRAST
on the inside, often coarse and plain
on the outside.
A workshop with Berkeley potter
Jim Gremel in 1989 was the catalyst
for this work. He demonstrated the
technique of throwing with 6-inch-diameter wooden rings. Placing a ring
Gold leaf (a sheet of very thin gold metal) may be applied to
any clay surface, smooth or rough, depending on the desired
effect—the smoother the clay, the more mirrorlike the gold.
First the surface is coated with a gilding adhesive, which
58 CERAMICS MONTHLY
on the rim of a cylinder allows a pot­
ter to easily preserve a pot’s narrow
mouth while reaching inside to fully
expand the wall. Taking this technique
one step further, I also began pushing
out the rims of my bowls until they
achieved maximum thinness. The
takes one to five hours to become sufficiently tacky. With
clean fingers, a sheet of gold leaf is carefully removed from
its book, then laid in place. Once positioned, the leaf is
adhered by tapping with the fingers or a brush.
work with gold leaf came shortly there­
after, when I had the impulse to con­
trast the bowls’ coarse exteriors.
For those wishing to experiment
with gold leaf, I recommend using a
soft, bushy brush with flat sides. Sable
brushes are excellent, but not essen­
tial; a less expensive brush can serve
well. Leaf application is basically a twostep process:
1. Brush the surface to be gilded
with a small amount of adhesive (such
as Old World or Easy Leaf). The sur­
face may be either rough or smooth,
depending on the desired effect.
2. When the adhesive becomes
tacky (one to five hours), lay the leaf
in place. I carefully position each sheet
with very clean fingers, but some pot­
ters like to use a brush charged with
static electricity by rubbing it on their
Cheryl Williams, Eugene, Oregon, with
a selection of her gold leaf work.
clothes, hair, etc. The static charge
draws the leaf to the brush, so that it
can be gently lifted from the book of
leaves. Of course, too much static can
be a deterrent to placement. That’s
why I prefer the free-floating applica­
tion achieved by simply using one’s
hands. Once the sheet is in place, ad­
here by tapping with the fingers or a
brush, then rub with a smooth cloth
or brush.
Gold may be purchased in several
forms: powder, skewings (confettilike
pieces of gold, often used for culinary
purposes—decorating cakes, cham­
pagne punches, etc.), ribbons (rolls ½
to 4½ inches wide and 69 feet long),
and books of thin sheets of varying
thicknesses. Composition gold leaf, or
metal leaf, is actually a mixture of cop­
per and zinc; while European gold
leaf is composed of gold that ranges
anywhere from 16 to 24 karats. I pre­
fer using sheets, and purchase them
from Sepp Leaf Products, Incorpo­
rated; 381 Park Avenue, South; New
York 10016; (212) 683-2840. Prices
currendy range from $25.50 for a 25sheet book of 16-karat leaf to $42.00
for a 25-sheet book of 24-karat leaf. A
A wooden ring stuck on the rim
of a thrown cylinder (during shaping)
allows the wall to be fully expanded
while maintaining a small mouth.
above
top Bowl, 11 inches in height, thrown
from a high-sand stoneware body, fired
to Cone 10, surfaced with airbrushed
acrylics and gold leaf.
Stoneware bowl, 14 inches in
height, wheel thrown, bisqued, exterior
covered with “granite”glaze, fired to
Cone 06, interior covered with gold leaf.
left
June/July/August 1991
59
60 Ceramics Monthly
June/July/August 1991
61
Call for Entries
Exhibitions, Fairs, Festivals and Sales
International Exhibitions
June 24 entry deadline
Dexter, Michigan “The Mask: 1991” (July 13August 24) .Juried from slides. Entry fee: $10; $5
for each additional entry up to 5. Commission:
40%. Awards: $500. Juror: Liza Bancell, artist/
teacher/lecturer. For prospectus, send sase to
the Farrington Keith Creative Arts Center, Clara
Kott Von Storch Gallery, 8099 Main Street, Dexter
48130; or telephone (313) 426-0236.
July 22 entry deadline
Toronto, Ontario, Canada “6th Annual Inter­
national Exhibition of Miniature Art” (Novem­
ber 1-December 30). Juried from up to 4 actual
works. Entryfee: Can$34 (approximately US$30).
Awards: over $8000. Contact Del Bello Gallery,
363 Queen Street, West, Toronto M5V 2A4; or
telephone (416) 593-0884 or fax (416) 593-8729.
October 18 entry deadline
Warrensburg, Missouri “Greater Midwest Inter­
national VH” (January 20-February 14, 1992).
Juried from slides. Entry fee: $20 for a maximum
of 3 entries; maximum of 2 slides per entry.
Awards: $1500 plus exhibition contracts. Send
business-size SASE for prospectus to Billi R. S.
Rothove, Gallery Director, Central Missouri State
University, Art Center Gallery, Warrensburg
64093; or telephone (816) 429-4481.
National Exhibitions
June 15 entry deadline
New Haven, Connecticut “The Celebration of
American Crafts” (November 11-December 23).
Juried from slides. For prospectus, send sase to
the Celebration, Creative Arts Workshop, 80
Audubon Street, New Haven 06510; or telephone
(203) 562-4927.
Chicago, Illinois “Anticipation ’91” (Septem­
ber 19-22, in conjunction with the International
New Art Forms Exposition), open to emerging,
unrepresented artists and craftspersons. Juried
from a maximum of 3 slides. Jurors: Edward
Cooke, Jr., associate curator of American Deco­
rative Arts and Sculpture, Museum of Fine Arts,
Boston; Wayne Higby, artist/professor, New York
State College of Ceramics at Alfred University;
andJoanne Rapp, owner,Joanne Rapp Gallery/
The Hand and the Spirit, Scottsdale, Arizona.
Entryfee: $20. Awards: $4000. Contact Anticipa­
tion ’91,600 North McClurg Court, Suite 1302A,
Chicago 60611; or telephone (312) 787-6858 or
fax (312) 787-2928.
June 20 entry deadline
Wichita, Kansas “The Wichita National” (Sep­
tember 12-October 27). Juried from slides. Ju­
ror: Marcia Manhart, executive director, Philbrook Museum, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Entryfee: $20
for up to 3 entries. Awards: $3000 cash, plus
purchase prizes. Commission: 30%. For prospec­
tus, send first-class stamp to Wichita Center for
the Arts, 9112 East Central, Wichita 67206; or
telephone (316) 634-2787.
June 30 entry deadline
Richmond, Virginia Place setting exhibition
(January 10-February 28,1992) .Juried from 1020 slides. Send a resume and sase to Place Set­
tings, Hand Workshop, 1812 West Main Street,
Richmond 23220; or telephone (804) 353-0094.
July 5 entry deadline
Ingram, Texas “Counterpoint” (August 25September 29), open to fine crafts, graphics and
photography. Juried from slides. Fee: $22 for up
to 3 entries. Awards: $2200. Send sase to Hill
Country Arts Foundation, Box 176 CM, Ingram
78025; or telephone (512) 367-5121.
July 6 entry deadline
Gatlinburg, Tennessee “From All Directions”
(October 17-December 14). Juried from slides
of up to 3 works. Jurors: John McGuire, Geneva,
New York; and John McQueen, Alfred Station,
New York. Entry fee: $15. Cash awards. Contact
Arrowmont School of Arts and Crafts, Box 567,
Gatlinburg 37738; or telephone (615) 436-5860.
August 9 entry deadline
Mesa, Arizona “Hidden Personas” (December
lO^January 18, 1992), competition for artwork
exploring the transformative power of masks.
Juried from slides. Jurors: Margaret Archuleta
and Krista Elrick. Awards: $1400. For prospectus,
contact Galeria Mesa, Box 1466, Mesa 85211; or
telephone (602) 644-2242.
August 15 entry deadline
Wichita Falls, Texas “Works in Clay VII” (Octo­
ber 20-December 1). Juried from slides. Juror:
Mary Roehm. Entry fee: $20 for up to 3 works.
Commission: 30%. Awards: approximately $2000.
For prospectus, send sase to Polly Cox, 2609
Amherst, Wichita Falls 76308.
Regional Exhibitions
July 1 entry deadline
Kansas City, Missouri “Six States of Clay: A
Juried Midwestern Competition” (October 4—
29), open to artists from Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas,
Missouri, Nebraska and Oklahoma. Juried from
slides. Entry fee: $ 15 for up to 3 entries. Juror: Val
Cushing. For prospectus, send #10 SASE to Six
States of Clay, Kansas City Artists Coalition, 201
Wyandotte, Kansas City64105; or telephone (816)
421-5222.
September 28 entry deadline
New Rochelle, New York “New Rochelle Art
Association’s 77th Annual Open Juried Exhibi­
tion” (September 30-0ctober 19), isjuriedfrom
works hand delivered on September 28,10 A.M2 P.M. Over $2500 in cash and art material awards.
For prospectus, send #10 sase to Br. Andrew La
Combe, 148 Main Street, New Rochelle 10802; or
telephone (914) 235-4554.
Fairs, Festivals and Sales
June 15 entry deadline
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania “A Fair in the Park”
(September 6-8) .Juried from 5 slides. Entry fee:
$5. Booth fee: $120. Contact A Fair in the Park,
Box 10128, Pittsburgh 15232; or telephone (412)
361-8287.
June 25 entry deadline
San Diego, California “Contemporary Crafts
Market” (October 12-13). Juried from 5 slides.
Entry fee: $15. Booth fee: $390 for a 10x10-foot
space; larger and smaller booths available. Con­
tact Roy Helms or Chris Andrews, 777 Kapiolani
Boulevard, Suite 2820, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813;
or telephone (808) 422-7362.
SanFrancisco, California “Contemporary Crafts
Market” (March 21-22, 1992). Juried from 5
slides. Entryfee: $15. Booth fee: $450 for a 10x10foot space; larger and smaller booths available.
Contact Roy Helms or Chris Andrews, 777
Kapiolani Boulevard, Suite 2820, Honolulu,
Hawaii 96813; or telephone (808) 422-7362.
Santa Monica, California “Contemporary Crafts
Market” (November 1-3) .Juried from 5 slides.
Entry fee: $15. Booth fee: $434 for a lOxlO-foot
space outside, $530 for a 10x10 inside; larger or
Send announcements of juried exhibitions, fairs, festi­
smaller booths available. Contact Roy Helms or
vals and sales at least four months before the event’s
Chris Andrews, 777 Kapiolani Boulevard, Suite
entry deadline (please add one month for listings infuly 2820, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813; or telephone
and two monthsfor those in August) to Callfor Entries, (808) 422-7362.
Ceramics Monthly, Box 12448, Columbus, Ohio June 29 entry deadline
43212; or telephone (614) 488-8236. Fax announce­
Manitou Springs, Colorado “Commonwheel
ments to (614) 488-4561.
Artists 17th Annual Labor Day Arts and Crafts
62 CERAMICS MONTHLY
June/July/August 1991
63
Call for Entries
Festival” (August 31-September 2). Juried from
3 slides. Entry fee: $5. Booth fee: $55 for a 10x10foot space. Commission: 10%. Contact the
Commonwheel Fair, Box 42, Manitou Springs
80829; or telephone (719) 685-1008.
June 30 entry deadline
Mobile, Alabama “27th Annual Outdoor Arts
and Crafts Fair” (September 28-29) Juried from
slides. Entry fee: $10. Booth fee: $75. Awards: up
to $6500 in purchase, distinction and merit
awards. Contact the Fine Arts Museum of the
South, Outdoor Arts and Crafts Fair, Box 8426,
Mobile 36689.
July 1 entry deadline
Eureka Springs, Arkansas “15th Fall Art Fair”
(October 11-13) .Juried from 5 slides. Entry fee:
$10. Booth fee: $65 or $95. Awards. For further
information contact Lynn Williams, Uptown
Gallery CM, 123 Spring Street, Eureka Springs
72632; or telephone (501) 253-8313.
Herkimer, New York “16th Annual Herkimer
County Arts and Crafts Fair” (November 9-10).
Juried from 5 slides. Fee: $100 ($5 nonrefundable). Awards. Send sase to HCC Founda­
tion Arts and Crafts Fair, Jackie Baggetta, Reser­
voir Road, Herkimer 13350.
July 5 entry deadline
Auburn Hills, Michigan “Golden ’90s Exposition-Auburn Flills” (October 11-12 and/or
November 15-16). Juried from 3 photos, 1 of
display. Booth fee: $135 and up. Contact Michi­
gan Cultural Association, Box 877, Sterling
Heights, Michigan 48311; or telephone (313)
795-4258.
Port Huron, Michigan “Golden ’90s Exposition-Port Huron” (November 1-3) .Juried from
3 photos, 1 of display. Booth fee: $135 and up.
Contact Michigan Cultural Association, Box 877,
Sterling Heights, Michigan 48311; or telephone
(313) 795-4258.
Rochester, Michigan “Golden ’90s ExpositionRochester” (November 29-30). Juried from 3
photos, 1 of display. Booth fee: $195 for a 10x11foot space. Contact the Michigan Cultural Asso­
ciation, Box 877, Sterling Heights, Michigan
48311; or telephone (313) 795-4258.
Taylor, Michigan “Golden ’90s ExpositionTaylor” (October 18-20) .Juried from 3 photos,
1 of display. Booth fee: $135 and up. Contact
Michigan Cultural Association, Box 877, Sterling
Heights, Michigan 48311; or telephone (313)
795-4258.
July 15 entry deadline
Jacksonville, Florida “20th Annual Riverside
Art Festival” (September 28-29). Juried from 3
slides. Registration fee: $75. Jury fee: $10 nonrefundable. Awards: over $4000. Contact River­
side Art Festival Committee, Riverside Avondale
Preservation, 904 King Street,Jacksonville 32205;
or telephone (904) 389-2449.
July 20 entry deadline
Ellicottville, New York “17th Annual Fall Festi­
val Arts and Crafts Show” (October 12-13). Ju­
ried from 4 slides, including 1 of display. Entry
fee: $5. Booth fee: $60 for a lOxlO-foot space.
Send sase to Fall Festival Art Committee, Box
808, Ellicottville 14731.
August 15 entry deadline
Nashville, Tennessee'1 Tennessee Fall Crafts Fair”
(October 11-13) .Juried from 5 slides. Entry fee:
$10. Booth fee: $225 for a 10x10-foot space, $335
for 10x15, and $445 for 10x20. For further infor­
mation contact Tennessee Fall Crafts Fair, Box
120066, Nashville 37212; or telephone Alice
Merritt (615) 665-0502.
September 3 entry deadline
White Plains, New York “9th Westchester Art
Workshop Craft Fair” (November 9-10) Juried
from 5 slides. Booth fee: $175 for an 8x10-foot
indoor space. Contact Westchester Art Workshop/Craft Fair, Westchester County Center,
White Plains 10606.
64 Ceramics Monthly
June/July/August 1991
65
Questions
Answered by the CM Technical Staff
CM, that you might like to experiment with:
Griffith Porcelain Body
David Leach Porcelain Body
(Cone 8-10)
Custer Feldspar.................................... 25%
Bentonite.............................................. 3
Edgar Plastic Kaolin ............................45
Flint...................................................... 25
Macaloid............................................... 2
100%
(Cone 10)
Potash Feldspar (Custer) ..................... 25%
Grolleg Kaolin..................................... 52
Quest White Bentonite......................... 4
Q I have been searching for some very durable, Flint...................................................... 19
translucent “trueporcelain” bodies with which to
100%
experiment. I would particularly like a body simi­
lar to that used at the Norwegian factory whose
Flanagan Porcelain Body
artistic director, PoulJensen, was featured in CM
(Cone 10, reduction or oxidation)
last year [June/July/August]. Could you recom­ Cornwall Stone................................. 12.5%
mend some good ones suitable for throwing and G-200 Feldspar................................. 12.5
handbuilding that I can fire in a standard top- Kaolin (6 Tile Clay).......................... 25.0
loading electric kiln ?—W.K
Tennessee Ball Clay (9).................... 25.0
The very best, true porcelain—like that Flint...................................................25.0
100.0%
used at Porsgrund in Norway—is quite
nonplastic (unsuitable for anything but cast­
Porcelain Body
ing), and fires at Cone 15—well beyond the
(Cone 10, reduction or oxidation)
range of most electric kilns (unless yours is
Ball Clay.............................................. 25%
fired with Globars or silicon carbide ele­
ments). There are recipes for good quality Feldspar................................................ 25
porcelain that can be fired at Cone 10 or Kaolin .................................................. 25
below, well within the range of most electric Flint...................................................... 25
100%
kilns, though. Durability, however, is strongly
tied to firing temperature/vitreousness.
Martin Porcelain Body
Translucency can be improved with some
(Cone 10, reduction or oxidation)
of the lower-firing “soft-paste” recipes; while
not true porcelains, they are quite handsome Kingman Feldspar................................25 %
materials in their own right. Soft pastes are Grolleg Kaolin..................................... 46
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4) ................ 16
nearly glass because of high flux content.
The following are some soft- and hard- Flint...................................................... 13
100%
paste recipes, many from previous issues of
66 CERAMICS MONTHLY
For handbuilding strength, add 1.25% Du­
Pont ¾-inch nylon fiber.
Utah Porcelain Body
(Cone 9-10, reduction or oxidation)
Custer Feldspar.....................................25%
Grolleg Kaolin...................................... 55
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4) .................. 8
Flint........................................................ 5
Macaloid................................................. 2
Pyrophyllite............................................ 5
100%
Ferguson’s Porcelain Body
(Cone 10-11, reduction or oxidation)
Custer Feldspar............................... 19.42%
Bentonite......................................... 1.63
Grolleg Kaolin................................ 53.07
Flint................................................. 12.94
Pyrophyllite (Pyratol) ..................... 12.94
100.00%
Dry mix the ingredients, add hot water and
stir as slip for at least five minutes with a
blade powered by an electric drill or a
blunger; then dry to a workable consistency.
Porcelain Body NS7
(Cone 9)
Nepheline Syenite............................... 30 %
Edgar Plastic Kaolin ............................... 25
Tennessee Ball Clay #7........................... 15
Flint......................................................... 30
100%
Add: Bentonite ..................................... 3 %
Harry Hall Porcelain Body
(Cone 9, reduction or oxidation)
Dolomite......................................... 1.96%
Nepheline Syenite........................... 9.80
Potash Feldspar............................... 9.80
Ball Clay......................................... 19.61
Edgar Plastic Kaolin....................... 39.22
Flint................................................. 19.61
100.00%
Porcelain Body
(Cone 6-11, reduction or oxidation)
Nepheline Syenite* ........................24.51 %
Bentonite......................................... 4.90
Edgar Plastic Kaolin....................... 46.08
Flint................................................. 24.51
100.00%
*Or substitute Cornwall Stone.
Add a spoonful of tannic acid powder to
the batch.
Peleg Porcelain Body
(Cone 6, reduction or oxidation)
Talc................................................... 3.9%
Custer Feldspar..................................... 11.5
Nepheline Syenite................................... 9.6
Ball Clay................................................. 5.8
Georgia Kaolin .................................... 17.3
Kaolin (6 Tile Clay)............................. 34.6
Flint...................................................... 17.3
100.0%
Rothman Porcelain Body
(Cone 3, reduction or oxidation)
Desert Talc (51)........................ ..... 6.25%
Dolomite...................................
3.13
Custer Feldspar.........................
6.25
Nepheline Syenite.....................
12.50
Edgar Plastic Kaolin.................
46.87
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4) ....
12.50
Flint...........................................
6.25
Pyrophyllite..............................
6.25
100.00%
Add: Bentonite..........................
3.13%
Duca Porcelain Body
(Cone 05, reduction or oxidation)
Frit P-311 (Pemco) .......................... 27.5%
Frit P-830 (Pemco) .......................... 27.5
Grolleg Kaolin.................................. 38.0
Tennessee Ball Clay.......................... 5.0
Flint................................................... 2.0
100.0%
Add: Macaloid................................... 1.0%
Subscribers’ questions are welcome and those of
general interest will be answered in this column.
Due to volume, letters may not be answered person­
ally. Address the Technical Staff, Ceramics
Monthly, Box 12448, Columbus, Ohio 43212.
June/July/August 1991
67
Calendar
Conferences, Exhibitions, Fairs,
Workshops and Other Events to Attend
Conferences
D.C., Washington June 17 “Health and Safety
Compliance: What the Glass and Ceramic In­
dustry Needs to Know,” sponsored by the Society
of Glass and Ceramic Decorators. Fee: $275 ($300
after June 3); SGCD member, $225 ($250 after
June 3). Contact James Calderwood, Society of
Glass and Ceramic Decorators, 888 17 Street,
Northwest, Suite 600, Washington 20006; or tele­
phone (202) 728-4132.
Illinois, Chicago September 21 “The Millennium
Series 1991: Social Signals,” the Coalition of
Creative Organizations symposium focusing on
social and political issues pertinent to the artist
and the collector involved in clay, glass, wood,
metal and fiber; held in conjunction with the
Chicago International New Art Forms Exposi­
tion. Coalition members: American Association
of Woodturners, American Craft Council, Glass
Arts Society, National Council on Education for
the Ceramic Arts (NCECA), Society of North
American Goldsmiths. Location: Rubloff Audi­
torium, Art Institute of Chicago. Fee: $50; NCECA
members, $40. For further information contact
the Coalition of Creative Organizations, 600
North McClurg Court, Suite 1302A, Chicago
60611; or telephone (312) 787-6858 or fax (312)
787-2928.
February 13-15, 1992 “College Art Association
Annual Conference.” Location: Chicago Hilton
Hotel and Towers. For further information con­
tact the College Art Association, 275 Seventh
Avenue, New York, New York 10001; or tele­
phone (212) 691-1051.
Iowa, Iowa City October 23-26 “American Woodfire ’91 Conference” will include aesthetics, pot­
ters and technical panels, plus lectures by Louise
Cort, author of Shigaraki, Potter’s Valley/curator
at the Freer Gallery, Washington, D.C.; and
Charles Zug III, author of Turners and Burners/
professor of history, University of North Caro­
lina, Chapel Hill. Aesthetics panel members:
Rob Barnard, potter/author, Timberville, Vir­
ginia; Kirk Mangus, potter/educator, Kent, Ohio;
John Perreault, critic/senior curator of Ameri­
can Craft Museum, New York; Phillip Rawson,
sculptor/author, Dorset, England; Mary Roehm,
potter/director of Pewabic Pottery, Detroit; and
Jack
Troy,
potter/educator/author,
Hunting­
don, Pennsylvania. Potter panel members: Joy
Brown, South Kent, Connecticut; Mark Hewitt,
Pittsboro, North Carolina; RandyJohnston, River
Falls, Wisconsin; and Dave Shaner, Bigfork, Mon­
tana. Technical panel members: Richard Bresnahan, potter/educator, Avon, Minnesota; Gary
Hatcher, potter, Mineola, Texas; John Neely,
potter/educator, Logan, Utah; and Vernon
Owens, potter, Jugtown, North Carolina. Fee:
registration, $100; late registration (beginning
one week prior to conference), $125. Contact
Center for Conferences and Institutes, 249 Iowa
Memorial Union, University of Iowa, Iowa City
52242; or telephone (319) 335-3231 or fax (319)
335-3533.
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia March 4-7, 1992
“NCECA 1992—Old Worlds/New Worlds,” an­
nual conference of the National Council on
Education for the Ceramic Arts, focusing on the
formation and change of American art and culSend announcements oj conferences, exhibitions, ju­
ried Jairs, workshops and other events at least two
months before the month of opening (add one month for
listings in July and two months for those in August) to
Calendar, Ceramics Monthly, Box 12448, Columbus,
Ohio 43212; or telephone (614) 488-8236. Fax an­
nouncements to (614) 488 4561.
68 Ceramics Monthly
ture brought about by immigrants. Location:
Wyndham Franklin Plaza. For further informa­
tion contact Regina Brown, Executive Secretary,
Box 1677, Bandon, Oregon 97411.
Wisconsin, Madison October 16-19 “Vision: To­
ward the 21st Century,” 55th annual conference
of the Mid-America College Arts Association.
Contact MACAA 1991, Department of Art, Uni­
versity of Wisconsin-Madison, Humanities Build­
ing, Madison 53706; or telephone (608) 2621660 or fax (608) 262-2150.
International Conferences
Australia, Queensland, Broadway July 1-5 “Arts:
Industry Interface—Sixth National Ceramics
Conference” will include seminars, panel discus­
sions, workshops and gallery tours. Location:
Griffith University. Fee (US$ equivalents approxi­
mate): Aus$335 (US$250), students Aus$200
(US$150); on-site Aus$360 (US$270), students
Aus$220 (US$165). For further information con­
tact the National Ceramics Conference, Box 231,
Broadway, Queensland 4006; or telephone (07)
358 5121 or Phil Greville, Conference Manager
(07) 553 4419.
England, London June 14-17 “The International
Ceramics Fair and Seminar” will include “Ce­
ramics from thejohannjacobs Museum, Zurich”
exhibition; and an antique ceramics, glass and
enamel sale; as well as lectures by Tatiana
Arapova, curator, department of Oriental art,
State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad; Meredith
Chilton, curator, George R. Gardiner Museum
of Ceramic Art, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Sir
Geoffrey de Bellaigue, director of the Royal Col­
lection; Anthony Du Boulay, author/lecturer,
former director of Christie’s, adviser on ceram­
ics to the National Trust of England and Wales;
H. E. Frost, curator, Dyson Perrins Museum,
Worcester, England; Leslie Grigsby, consultant,
former assistant curator of ceramics and glass,
Colonial
Williamsburg
Foundation;
Mary
Campbell Gristina, assistant to the director,
Cummer Gallery of Art, Jacksonville, Florida;
Letitia Roberts, senior vice president/director
of European ceramics and Chinese export por­
celain, Sotheby’s, New York; William Sargen,
associate curator, Asian export art, Peabody
Museum, Salem, Massachusetts; Rosalind Savill,
assistant to the director, the Wallace Collection,
London; Rosemary Scott, curator of Percival
David Foundation of Chinese Art, London Julian
Thompson, deputy chairman, Sotheby’s, Lon­
don; Maureen Torgerson, research consultant,
division of ceramics and glass, National Museum
of American History, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C.; and Timothy Wilson, keeper
of Western art, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford,
England. Fee: £8 for fair only (approximately
US$14); £14 (approximately US$24), one lec­
ture plus entrance to fair; £9 (approximately
US$15), each subsequent lecture. Contact Inter­
national Ceramics Fair and Seminar, Booking
Office, 3B Burlington Gardens, Old Bond Street,
London W1X 1LE; or telephone (71) 734-5491
or fax (71) 494-4604.
New Zealand, Rotorua June 14-16 “Clay AZ Art
International Conference: Ceramics, Weaving,
Spinning” will include preconference salt-glaze
firing with Barry Brickell; demonstrations by
Brickell, Don Reitz and others; plus lectures and
tours. In New Zealand, contact Mark Chadwick,
100 Town Point Road, Maketu, RD 9, Te Puke;
or telephone 0164 753 2102. In the U.S.A., con­
tact Northern Arizona University Art Gallery,
Box 6021, Flagstaff, Arizona 86011; or telephone
Joel Eide (602) 523-3471; Donald Bendel 5232398; or Paula Rice 523-2622.
Solo Exhibitions
California, El Dorado Hills July 19-August 17
Mary Mendlein-Schroeder, “Earth, Fire and
Smoke,” raku and burnished vessels with mixed
media; at New Beginnings, 899 Embarcadero
Drive, #2, The Village.
California, La Jolla throughJune #Byron Temple;
at Gallery Eight, 7464 Girard Avenue.
California, Ventura August 2 7-September 22 Hanna
Lore Hombordy, “Contrasts,” clay, mixed me­
dia; at Buenaventura Gallery, 700 E. Santa Clara.
Connecticut, Washington Depot through June 14
Paul Chaleff; at Mendelson Gallery, Titus Square.
D.C., Washington through June 22 Otto Natzler,
sculpture, plus vessels made in collaboration
with his late wife Gertrud; at Susan Conway
Carroll Gallery, 1058 Thomas Jefferson St., NW.
Illinois, Chicago June 7-July 13 Christopher Davis
Benavides, sculpture; at Esther Saks Gallery, 311
West Superior Street.
Louisiana, New Orleans through June 30 Evelyn
Witherspoon, ceramics and watercolors; at New
Orleans Museum of Art, City Park, 1 Lelong Ave.
Maine, Portland through June 30 Paul Heroux,
“Perspectives”; at Pordand Museum of Art, Seven
Congress Square.
Missouri, Saint Louis through June 30 Virginia
Scotchie; at Pro-Art, 1214 Washington.
NewJersey, Millbum June 8-July 6 Nancy Adams,
wheel-thrown earthenware vessels with realistic
flora and fauna additions; at Sheila Nussbaum
Gallery, 358 Millburn Avenue.
NewJersey, Newark June 8-September 1 “Strong
Tea: Richard Notkin and the Yixing Tradition’;
at the Newark Museum, 49 Washington Street.
New Mexico, Santa Fe July 19-August 14 Avra
Leodas, vessels and sculpture; at Linda Durham
Gallery, 400 Canyon Road.
New York, Catskill June21-July 27Frank Giorgini,
sculpture Avail reliefs; at Greene County Coun­
cil on the Arts, Catskill Gallery, 398 Main St.
New York, New York through June 7 Jolyon
Hofsted, clay and bronze; at the Dome Gallery,
578 Broadway.
through June 15 Jack Earl, sculpture; at Helen
Drutt Gallery, 724 Fifth Avenue, Ninth Floor.
New York, Nyack June 16-July 7 Susan Eisen; at
Hopper House Art Center, 82 North Broadway.
New York, Piermont-on-Hudson July 1-31 Liz
Anderson; at America House Gallery of Con­
temporary Crafts, 466 Piermont Avenue.
New York, Syracuse through June 8 Angelo di
Petta; at Eureka Crafts, 210 Walton Street, Ar­
mory Square.
Ohio, Cleveland June 1-30 Arthur Kuhl, “Vessels
of the Eucharist”; at the Trinity Episcopal Cathe­
dral, Chapter Room, East 22 at Euclid Avenue.
Ohio, Columbus through June 15 Julius Prater,
“No Parking Anytime,” ceramic/neon art and
drawings; at Ohio State University, Drake Union,
1849 Cannon Drive, Second Floor.
Pennsylvania, Erie throughJuly 9 Curtis and Suzan
Benzie; at the Glass Growers Gallery, 701 Hol­
land Street.
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia throughJune 29 Rudolf
Staffel, an 80th birthday celebration; at Helen
Drutt Gallery, 1721 Walnut Street.
June 7-30 Christina Carver, “Metamorphose”;
and Diana Kulisek; at the Clay Studio, 139 North
Second Street.
Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh through June 12 Kyle
Hallam, “Painted Clay.” through July 10 Jerry
Caplan, “Reduction Stenciling”; at the Clay Place,
5416 Walnut Street.
Texas, San Antonio July 5-29 Douglas Kenney,
raku platters and sculpture; at the Turquoise
Coyote Gallery, 405 East Commerce.
Washington, Seattle throughJune 17Debra Norby,
“Bait and Tackle Series.” July 10-August 5 John
Harris, vessels and sculpture; at Foster/White
Gallery, Frederick and Nelson, Seventh Floor,
Fifth and Pine.
July 3-28 Jim Kraft, vessels and sculpture; at
Foster/White Gallery, 311½ Occidental Ave., S.
Group Ceramics Exhibitions
Arizona, Tempe through June 9 “Contemporary
Ceramics from the Collection of Stephane
Janssen and Michael Johns”; at the Arizona State
University Art Museum.
California, Davis June 8-July 7 “30 Years of TB-9
(1961-1991): A Tribute to Robert Arneson,”
works by Arneson and 50 of his students; at
Natsoulas/Novelozo Gallery, 140 F Street.
California, Downey throughJuly 7 “Ceramics Now
1991”; at the Downey Museum of Art, 10419
Rives Avenue.
California, Lincoln June 1-29 “Fourth Annual
Feats of Clay,” juried national; at the Gladding,
McBean and Company terra cotta factory. Res­
ervations only: (916) 645-9713.
California, Los Angeles June 1-26Works by Kim
Dickey and James Lawton. June 29-August 2
Works by Virginia Cartwright and Michael
Magoto; at Garth Clark Gallery, 170 South La
Brea Avenue.
California, Newport Beach through June 9 “Con­
temporary Yixing Teapots”; at Silas Dean, 512
31 Street.
California, Riverside June 17-July 19 “California
Collegiate Ceramic Competition”; at the River­
side Community College, 4800 Magnolia Ave.
California, WillitsJune 21-October 21 “Clay in the
Hands of the Creator”; at the Upstairs Gallery,
Mendocino County Museum, 400 East Commer­
cial Street.
D.C., Washington June 6-July 7 Works by the
Montgomery Potters; at the Art Barn Gallery,
2401 Tilden Street, Northwest.
Illinois, Chicago June 7-August 1 Earthenware
sculpture and vessels by Everette Busbee and
stoneware “artifacts” by Patrick Crabb; at
Schneider-Bluhm-Loeb Gallery, 230 West Supe­
rior Street.
June 15-July 21 “The Fifth Annual Great Lakes
Show,” juried national; at Lill Street Gallery,
1021 West Lill Street.
June 29-October 27 “Eighteenth-Century English
Pottery from the Collection of Harry Root”; at
the Art Institute of Chicago, Michigan Avenue at
Adams Street.
Indiana, Indianapolis through June 30 “Yixing
Ware from the K S. Lo Collection in the Flag­
staff House Museum of Teaware, Hong Kong ’;
at Indianapolis Museum of Art, 1200 W. 38 St.
Maine, Brunswick throughJuly 6 ‘Watershed ‘Art­
ists Invite Artists’ Exhibition,” with works by Linda
Arbuckle, Mary Barringer, Linda Christianson,
Barbara Diduk, Scott Goldberg, JeremyJernegan
and Ron Meyers; at the Elements Gallery, 56
Maine Street.
Maine, Portland June 10-21 ‘Watershed Winter
Residents Exhibition,” with works by Randy
Carlson, Linda Casbon, Doug Gimbel, Susan
Griswold, Sandy MacLeod, Janice Millman,
Jonathan Millman, Paul Steuerwald, Robin Teas
and Holly Walker. June 10-August 16 “1991 Wa­
tershed Guest Artist Exhibition,” with works by
Joe Bova, Cheryl Laemmle, Bruno LaVerdiere,
Michael Lucero and Farley Tobin; at the Baxter
Gallery, Portland School of Art, 619 Congress St.
Maryland, Baltimore June 25-September 22 “Na­
tional Museum of Ceramic Art Regional Juried
Exhibition”; at the National Museum of Ceramic
Art, 250 West Pratt Street.
Massachusetts, Ipswich June 5-30“In and Around
the Garden,” featuring works by the Northshore
Clayworks members; at the Ocmulgee Pottery
and Gallery, 263 High Street.
Michigan, Flint through July 21 “The 28th Ce­
ramic National: Clay, Color, Content”; at Flint
Institute of Art, 1120 East Kearsley Street.
Michigan, Royal Oak June 1-July 31 “Platters: On
the Table/On the Wall,” decorative and func­
tional work by 30 ceramists; at Swidler Gallery,
Washington Square Plaza, 308 W. Fourth St.
Minnesota, Saint Paul through June 22 “Fire!”
primitive and low-tech works by Dale BrynerMcMillan, George Kokis and Nancy Liedl. June
28-August 3 “Clay: About or for the Garden,”
Northern Clay Center members’juried show; at
the Northern Clay Center, 2375 University Ave­
nue, West.
Missouri, Kansas City June 7-July 2 7 Vessels with
spouts, handles and legs cast from found objects
by Cindy Kolodziejski; raku teapots by James
Lawton; at Garth Clark Gallery, 855 Rockwell
Lane.
New York, Catskill through June 16 Works by
June/July/August 1991
69
Calendar
Janet Corrigan, Milly DeAngelo, Lillian Dodson,
Betty MacDonald; at Greene County Council on
the Arts Mountain Top Gallery, 398 Main St.
New York, New York through June 9 “Personal
Approaches to Clay,” sculpture by Carole Aoki
and Barbara Takiguchi; at Wheeler-Seidel Gal­
lery, 129 Prince Street, Soho.
June 4-July 6 Yixing-inspired works by Richard
Notkin and sculpture by Arnold Zimmerman.
July 9-August 2 Works by Barbara Diduk, Steven
Montgomery and David Regen; at Garth Clark
Gallery, 24 West 57 Street.
New York, Piermont-on-Hudson June 1-30 Exhi­
bition of works by Sarah MacFarlane and Geff
Reed; at America House Gallery of Contempo­
rary Crafts, 466 Piermont Avenue.
North Carolina, Charlotte through July 14 “Fired
by Imagination: Clay Today,” functional forms
by Kate Collie, Julie Terestman, Kurt Weiser and
Bruce Winn, through August 25 “So Proudly We
Hail: The Evolution of American Ceramics”; at
the Mint Museum of Art, 2730 Randolph Road.
Ohio, Dennison through August 31 “Molded
Whimsies: Sewer Pipe Folk Art”; at the Dennison
Railroad Depot Museum, 400 Center Street.
Oklahoma, Norman through June 30 “Platters:
Functional and Decorative”; at the Firehouse
Art Center, 444 South Flood.
Pennsylvania, Bethlehem June 22-July 28 “Tile,”
juried national; at the Luckenbach Mill Gallery,
459 Old York Road.
Vermont, Bennington through September 2 “Redware and Stoneware: The Bennington Museum
Collection”; at the Bennington Museum, West
Main Street.
Virginia, Richmond through August 16 Tiled fur­
niture, wall forms and platters by Laurel Izard,
Susan Maye and Gordon McVay; at the Hand
Workshop/Virginia Center for the Craft Arts,
1812 West Main Street.
Ceramics in Multimedia Exhibitions
Arizona, Mesa June 14-July 13 “E-I-E-I-O,” juried
national of works depicting barnyard themes; at
Galeria Mesa, 155 North Center.
Arizona, Scottsdale August 1-31 Works in clay,
wood, metal, glass and fiber; at Joanne Rapp
Gallery/The Hand and the Spirit, 4222 North
Marshall Way.
Arizona, Tucson June 4-29 “Seven-State Juried
Exhibition”; at the Dinnerware Artists’ Coopera­
tive Gallery, 135 East Congress Street.
California, Los Angeles June 30-August 25 “De­
sign 1935-1965: What Modern Was”; at Los An­
geles County Museum of Art, 5905 Wilshire Blvd.
California, Palo Alto July 14-September 15 “Re­
sponsive Witness,” exhibition addressing social
and political concerns; at Palo Alto Cultural
Center, 1313 Newell Road.
July 27-August 31 “In Praise of Animals,” with
ceramics by Roberta Laidman; at Branner/
Spangenberg Gallery, 728 Emerson Street.
California, Sacramento through June 6 “66th An­
nual Crocker-Kingsley Open Art Exhibition”; at
the Crocker Art Museum, 216 0 Street.
California, San Francisco July 4-27 “Introduc­
tions,” dual exhibition with ceramics by Sana
Krusoe; at Dorothy Weiss Gallery, 256 Sutter St.
California, San Mateo July 18-August 25 “Gone
Fishin’,” including clayworks by Susannah Is­
rael; at Modern Myths, 2124 Fashion Island Blvd.
California, Walnut Creek through July 6 Crafts
exhibition with clayworks by Skip Esquierdo and
Barbara Takiguchi; at Banaker Gallery, 1373
Locust Street.
Colorado, Golden throughJune 25 “North Ameri­
can Sculpture Exhibition ”June 30-July 28 “Earth
and Images,” six-person exhibition with clay
sculptures by Dianne Hackett; at the Foothills
Art Center, 809 15 Street.
D.C., Washington throughJune30Exhibition fea­
70 Ceramics Monthly
turing seven NEA fellowship winners, includes
clayworks by RandyJohnston James Leedy, Ellen
Shankin and Patrick Siler; at the Farrell Collec­
tion, 2633 Connecticut Avenue, Northwest.
Florida, Saint Petersburg/?tne 14-August 2 “North
Florida Visits Florida Craftsmen”; at the Florida
Craftsmen Gallery, 235 Third Street, South.
Georgia, Athens through June 16 “Master of Fine
Arts Degree Candidates’ Exhibition,” with
clayworks by Heather Delisle; at the Georgia
Museum of Art, University of Georgia.
Georgia, Atlanta through June 16 “Yoruba: Nine
Centuries of African Art and Thought”; at the
High Museum of Art, 1280 Peachtree St., NE.
Illinois, Chicago through June 23 “A Selection of
Masterworks from the Asian Collection”; at the
Art Institute of Chicago, Michigan Avenue at
Adams Street.
Indiana, Indianapolis June 1-July 7 “Teapots,”
with ceramics by Marianne Baer, Jerry Berta,
Henry Cavanagh, Wells Gray, Jolyon Hofsted,
Randy James Johnston, Debra Manfree, Tim
Mather, Riki Moss, John Peterson, Steve
Schrepferman, Byron Temple and Kathy Triplett;
at Artifacts, 6327 Guilford Avenue.
Iowa, Mason City through July 14 “26th Annual
Area Show”; at Charles H. MacNider Museum,
303 Second Street, Southeast.
Kansas, Lenexa June 7-9 “Dimensions ’91”; at
the Sar-Ko-Par Trails Park.
Maine, Pordand June 1-29 Eleven-person exhi­
bition with ceramics by Joy Brown, Barbara
Diduk, Eric Jensen and James Watral. July 1—
September 3 Exhibition featuring ceramics by
Carole Aoki, Joy Brown, Barbara Diduk, Dennis
Maust, Joellyn Rock, Susanne Stephenson,
Marvin Sweet, James Watral and David Wright;
at Nancy Margolis Gallery, 367 Fore Street.
Maryland, Easton through June 29 “27th Annual
Juried Exhibition”; at the Academy of the Arts,
106 South Street.
Massachusetts, Boston through August 4 “Witness
to America’s Past: Two Centuries of Collecting
by the Massachusetts Historical Society”; at the
Museum of Fine Arts, 465 Huntington Avenue.
July 1-August 31 Exhibition of cups; at Signature
Gallery, Dock Square, 24 North Street.
Massachusetts, Chestnut Hill July 1-August 31
Exhibition of cups; at Signature Gallery, the
Mall at Chestnut Hill, Boylston Street.
Massachusetts, Mashpee July 1-August 31 Exhi­
bition of cups; at Signature Gallery, Mashpee
Commons, 10 Steeple Street.
Massachusetts, Northampton through July 7
“Pearls and Porcelain,” white porcelain works/
jewelry that features pearls. August 10-September
22 “Dog Days”; at Ferrin Gallery, 179 Main St.
Michigan, Detroit throughJune 29 “Made in Michi­
gan,” including clayworks by Alan Vigland; at the
Detroit Gallery of Contemporary Crafts, 104
Fisher Building.
Minnesota, Minneapolis through June 12 “1991
Contemporary Tribal Mask Exhibit,” with
clayworks by Lillian Pitt and Sally Thielen; at the
Raven Gallery, 3827 West 50 Street.
June 29-August 3 Dual exhibition featuring raku
vessels by Philip Williams; at Anderson and
Anderson Gallery, 414 First Avenue, North.
Minnesota, Saint Paul through June 16 “Art that
Works”; at Minnesota Museum of Art, Land­
mark Center, Fifth at Market.
Missouri, Saint Louis July 12-August 17 “MidAmerica Arts Alliance National Endowment for
the Arts Fellowship Winners,” with clayworks by
Janet Kastner; at Crafts Alliance, 6640 Delmar
Boulevard.
New Jersey, Montclair throughJune 23 “Signs and
Symbols in Native American Art”; at the Montclair
A^rt Museum, 3 South Mountain Avenue.
New Jersey, Newark through August 4 “The
Regilded Age,” contemporary and historical
works, through February 1992 “Continuity and
Innovation in Contemporary Native American
Art, 1976-1986”; through March 1, 1992 “Teapots
and Coffeepots”; at the Newark Museum, 49
Washington Street.
New Jersey, Red Bank throughJune 22 Exhibition
June/July/August 1991
71
Calendar
including ceramics by Wendy Williams; at Art
Forms, 16 Monmouth Street.
New Mexico, Santa Fe through September3“Tenth
Anniversary Inaugural Exhibition”; at Bellas
Artes, 653 Canyon Road.
New York, New York June 27-September 8 “The
Here and the Hereafter: Images of Paradise in
Islamic Art”; at the Asia Society, 725 Park Ave.
New York, Rochester through June 9 “50th Rochester-Finger Lakes Exhibition”; at Memorial Art
Gallery, 500 University Avenue.
June 15-October25 “Sculpture ’91,” with clayworks
by Carol Fleming, Jeremy Jernegan, Heather
Nicol and Chang Ching Yuan; at the Dawson
Gallery, 349 East Avenue.
North Carolina, Asheville through August 4 “New
Members Exhibit.” August 9-December 1 “Black
and White,” members’ exhibition; at the Folk
Art Center, Blue Ridge Parkway.
North Carolina, Charlotte through June 16 “Irish
Decorative Arts from Collections of the National
Museum of Ireland”; at the Mint Museum of Art,
2730 Randolph Road.
Ohio, Cleveland June 6-August 18 “Object Les­
sons: Cleveland Creates an Art Museum”; and
“Notable Acquisitions”; at the Cleveland Mu­
seum of Art, 11150 East Boulevard.
Ohio, Columbus August 1-18 “Ohio State Fair
Fine Arts Exhibition”; at Ohio Expositions Cen­
ter, Ohio State Fairgrounds.
Ohio, Massillon through June 16 “Massillon Mu­
seum Stark County Artists Exhibition”; at the
Massillon Museum, 212 Lincoln Way, East.
Ohio, Parma through June 8 “1991 Student Art
Show”; at Gallery West, Cuyahoga Community
College, Western Campus, 11000 Pleasant Val­
ley Road.
Ohio, Portsmouth June 1-July 20 “The Best of
1991 /’juried exhibition of Ohio residents; at the
Southern Ohio Museum, 825 Gallia Street.
Ohio, Toledo June 9-July 7 “Toledo Area Artists
73rd Annual Exhibition”; at the Toledo Mu­
seum of Art, 2445 Monroe Street.
Oklahoma, Tulsa July 6-September 1 “Art That
Works”; at the Philbrook Museum of Art, 2727
South Rockford Road.
Oregon, Portland August 4-September 7 “Clay and
Canvas,” clay artists and their invited counter­
parts who complement their work in painting; at
Contemporary Crafts Gallery, 3934 Southwest
Corbett Avenue.
Pennsylvania, Bethlehem through June 9 ‘Water/
Life.” August 10-September 22 “The Dining Experience/A Craft Expression”; at the Luckenbach
Mill Gallery, 459 Old York Road.
Pennsylvania, University Park July 6-28 “Crafts
National 25”; at the Zoller Gallery, Penn State
University.
Tennessee, Chattanooga July 14-September 22
“Next Generation: Southern Black Aesthetic”; at
Hunter Museum of Art, 10 Bluff View.
Tennessee, Gatlinburg through August 9 “Sum­
mer Faculty and Staff Exhibition,” featuring ce­
ramics by Linda Arbuckle, Sandra Blain, MaryJo
Bole, Patrick Crabb, Bill Griffith, Patrick Horsley,
Ron Meyers, Walter Ostrom, Pete Pinnell, Rob
Reedy and Owen Rye; at Arrowmont School of
Arts and Crafts, 556 Parkway.
Texas, Ingram August 25-September 29“Counter­
point,’’juried national; at Hill Country Arts Foun­
dation Gallery, Highway 39, West.
Texas, San Ajitonio through August 4 “Mexico:
Splendors of Thirty Centuries”; at the San Anto­
nio Museum of Art, 200 West Jones.
Vermont, Middlebury July 26-September 3 “The
Ubiquitous Bowl”; at Vermont State Craft Cen­
ter, Frog Hollow.
Virginia, Richmond August 23-October 4 “Shrines
and Icons”; at the Hand Workshop, Virginia
Center for the Craft Arts, 1812 West Main Street.
Washington, Bellevue July 26-August 25 “Masterworks: Pacific Northwest Arts and Crafts Now”;
72 Ceramics Monthly
at the Bellevue Art Museum, 301 Bellevue Square.
Washington, Richland through June 7 “Annual
Juried Multimedia Show ” July 2-27 “Members’
Works”; at Allied Arts Association, 89 Lee Blvd.
Wisconsin, Milwaukee June 7-July 13 “Under the
Big Top.” July 19-September 7 “Vessels”; at A.
Houberbocken, 230 West Wells, Suite 202.
Fairs, Festivals and Sales
Arizona, Tempe August 2-4 “Festival in the Pines”;
at the Coconino County Fairgrounds.
California, Laguna Beach July 10—August 30 “Fes­
tival of Arts”; along Laguna Canyon Road.
California, San Francisco June 9 “Sandra John­
stone Memorial Scholarship Silent Auction and
Association of California Ceramic Artists Spring
Sale”; proceeds from auction will provide fund­
ing each year to send a student to the NCECA
conference; at San Francisco County Fair Build­
ing, Golden Gate Park, Ninth and Lincoln Aves.
California, Sausalito August 31-September 2
“Sausalito Art Festival”; on the lawn of the Bay
Model Visitor Center.
California, Walnut Creek June 14-16 ‘Walnut
Creek Clay Arts Guild Summer Pottery Sale”; at
the Civic Arts Education Studio E, 1313 Civic Dr.
Colorado, Beaver Creek August 17-18 “Beaver
Creek Arts Festival”; at the Plaza Promenade.
Colorado, Pueblo August 16-September 2 “Colo­
rado State Fair Fine Art Exhibit”; at the Colo­
rado State Fairgrounds.
Colorado, Vail July 13-14 “Vail Arts Festival”; at
Lionshead Mall at Vail.
Connecticut, Guilford July 18-20 “34th Annual
Guilford Handcrafts Exposition”; at Guilford
Handcrafts, 411 Church Street.
Connecticut, Monroe June 15-16 “Strawberry
Festival Craft Show”; on the Monroe Center
Green.
Connecticut, South Norwalk August 3-4 “15th
Annual SoNo Arts Celebration”; in the water­
front district.
Idaho, Coeur d’Alene August 2-4 “Art on the
Green”; on the North Idaho College campus.
Kentucky, Berea July 12-14 “10th Annual Berea
Craft Festival”; at Indian Fort Theater, Berea
College.
Kentucky, Louisville July 5-7‘Waterside”; at the
Water Tower, Zorn Avenue and River Road.
Maryland, Columbia June 28-30 “Columbia Fes­
tival of the Arts”; on the Kittamaqundi Lakefront.
Maryland, Fair Hill August 10 “Fair Hill, Mary­
land, Country/Bluegrass and Crafts Festival”;
along Gallaher Road, Cross Country Course.
Maryland, Havre de Grace August 17-18 “Havre
de Grace Art Show”; at Tydings Memorial Park.
Minnesota, Saint Paul June 15-16 “Minnesota
Crafts Festival”; at the College of Saint Catherine.
New Hampshire, Newbury August 3-11 “58th
Annual Craftsmen’s Fair”; at Mount Sunapee
State Park.
New Jersey, Layton July 27-28 “Peters Valley
Craft Fair”; at the Peters Valley Craft Center.
New Mexico, Albuquerque June 27-30 “Summer
Festival of the Arts”; at the New Mexico State
Fairgrounds.
New York, Chautauqua July 5-7 and August 9-11
“Chautauqua Crafts Festival, ’91 ”; at Bestor Plaza,
Chautauqua Institution.
New York, Garrison August 17-18 “22nd Annual
Arts and Crafts Fair”; at Garrison’s Landing,
along the Hudson River Waterfront.
New York, New Paltz August 31-September 2
‘Woodstock-New Paltz Art and Crafts Fair”; at
the Ulster County Fairgrounds.
New York, New York June 29-30 and July 6-7
“15th Annual American Crafts Festival.” August
24-25 and August 31-September 2 “8th Annual
Autumn Crafts Festival; at Lincoln Center, Fordham University Plaza.
New York, ValhallaJune 15-16“Clearwater’s 1991
Great Hudson River Revival”; at the Westchester
Community College.
North Carolina, Asheville July 18-21 “44th An­
nual Guild Fair”; at the Asheville Civic Center.
North Carolina, Charlotte July 20-21 “Queen
June/July/August 1991
73
Calendar
Charlotte Ceramic Expo”; at the Embassy Suites,
South Tryon Street.
Ohio, Canton July 13-14 “Hall of Fame Artfest”;
on the campus of the Stark Technical College.
Ohio, Cincinnati June 7-9“Summerfair 1991”; at
Coney Island.
Ohio, Columbus June 7-9 “1991 Columbus Arts
Festival Streetfair”; downtown.
Ohio, Peninsula June 28-30 andJuly 4- 7 “Boston
Mills Artfest”; at the Boston Mills Ski Resort,
Riverview at Boston Mills Road.
Ohio, Shaker Heights June 14-16 “The Craftfair
at Hathaway Brown”; at Hathaway Brown school.
Ohio, Upper Arlington July 12-14 “Midsummer
Fair”; at Wellington School, 3650 Reed Road.
Oklahoma, Norman July 12-13 “A Midsummer
Night’s Fair”; at the Firehouse Art Center, 444
South Flood.
Oregon, Eugene July 4-7 “Art and Vineyard
1991 ”; at Alton Baker Park.
Oregon, Portland August 31-September 2 “Artquake”; along Broadway Street.
Oregon, Salem July 19-21 “42nd Annual Salem
Art Fair and Festival”; at Bush’s Pasture Park.
Pennsylvania, Greensburg July 4-7 “West­
moreland Arts and Heritage Festival” at Twin
Lakes Park.
Pennsylvania, Lancaster July 25-28 “The 44th
State Craft Fair”; on the campus of Franklin and
Marshall College.
Pennsylvania, Shawnee-on-Delaware August 2425 “The Pocono State Craft Festival”; at the Sun
Mountain Resort.
Pennsylvania, State College July 11-14 “25th
Annual Sidewalk Sale/Central Pennsylvania Fes­
tival of the Arts”; on the Penn State University
campus.
Texas, Amarillo July 13-1411 High Plains Ceramic
Association 14th Annual Ceramic Show”; at the
Amarillo Civic Center, Third and Buchanan.
Washington, Richland July 26-27 “Allied Arts
Association Sidewalk Show 1991”; at Howard
Amon Park.
Wisconsin, Madison July 13-14 “Art Fair on the
Square”; at Capital Square.
Wisconsin, Milwaukee June 14-16 “The Lakefront
Festival of Arts”; at the Milwaukee Art Museum,
750 North Lincoln Memorial Drive.
August 10-11 “Morning Glory Fair”; at the Charles
Allis Art Museum, 1630 East Royall Place.
Wisconsin, Sheboygan July 20-21 “21st Annual
Outdoor Arts Festival”; on the grounds adjacent
to the John Michael Kohler Arts Center, 608
New York Avenue.
Wisconsin, Spring Green June 29-30 “22nd An­
nual Spring Green Arts and Crafts Fair”; down­
town.
Workshops
California, Idyllwild June 23-29 “Hopi Pottery”
with Rondina Huma.June 30-July <5“Acoma Pot­
tery” with Delores Lewis Garcia and Emma Lewis
Mitchell, and guest artist Lucy Lewis. July 7-13
“Casas Grandes Pottery” with Juan Quezada; and
“San Ildefonso Pottery” with Blue Corn. Fee for
each workshop: $465. Contact Registrar, Sum­
mer Program, Idyllwild School of Music and the
Arts, Box 38, Idyllwild 92349; or telephone (714)
659-2171 extension 204.
California, Walnut Creek July 13 “Master Potter
Workshop” with Warren MacKenzie. Fee: $35.
Contact Walnut Creek Civic Arts Education, Box
8039, Walnut Creek 94596; or telephone (415)
943-5846.
Connecticut, Brookfield July 20 A lecture with
Jeff Zamek on glaze and clay body materials.
Contact the Brookfield Craft Center, Box 122,
Brookfield 06804; or telephone (203) 775-4526.
Connecticut, MiddletownJuly 13,14 and 20 “Pot­
tery Workshop” with Mary Barringer. Fee: $120.
August 5-9 “Functional Pottery” with Ellen
74 Ceramics Monthly
Shankin. Fee: $220. Contact Wesleyan Potters,
350 South Main Street, Middletown 06457; or
telephone (203) 347-5925.
Hawaii, Honaunau June 8, 9 and 15 “Once-Fired
Pit Fire” with Jan Daniels. Fee: $50, includes 12
pounds of clay and firing; reduced fee for SKAEA
members. Contact South Kona Potters Guild,
Box 1877, Kealakekua, Hawaii 96750; or tele­
phone (808) 328-9392.
Illinois, Edwardsville July 15-26 ‘Wood and Salt”
with Ron Kovatch. Contact the School of Fine
Arts and Communication, Department of Art
and Design, Southern Illinois University at
Edwardsville, Box 1774, Edwardsville 62026; or
telephone (618) 692-3071.
Illinois, Evanston July 14, 21 and 28 “The Ce­
ramic Cup: Small Form, Large Idea” with Mary
Seyfarth. Fee: $125; Evanston Art Center mem­
bers, $115. Advance registration required. Con­
tact Evanston Art Center, 2603 Sheridan Rd.,
Evanston 60201; or telephone (708) 475-5300.
Maryland, Baltimore June 22 and 29 “Inspired
Transformations” with Patrick Caughy and
Lonnie Graham, focusing on raku. Fee: $55 .July
15-16 Handbuilding workshop with Magdalene
Odundo. Fee: $65. Limited housing available.
Contact Baltimore Clayworks, 5706 Smith Ave.,
Baltimore 21209; or telephone (301) 578-1919.
Massachusetts, Hadley June 22 “Glaze and Clay
Body Defects: Cause and Correction” with Jeff
Zamek. Fee: $35; advance registration, $30. Con­
tact Amherst Potters Supply, 47 East Street,
Hadley 01035; or telephone (413) 586-4507.
Massachusetts, Williamsburg August 15-18 “Cast,
Molded and Slipped” with Marek Cecula. Con­
tact Horizons: The New England Craft Program,
374 Old Montague Road, North Amherst, Mas­
sachusetts 01002; or telephone (413) 549-4841.
Missouri, Kansas City July 7-13Single-fired func­
tional pottery workshop. Intermediate through
professional. Fee: $1400, includes some materi­
als and firing. Dormitory accommodations avail­
able. Contact Carla Crook, Kansas City Art Insti­
tute, 4415 Warwick, Kansas City 64111; or tele­
phone (816) 561-4852.
Nebraska, Omaha June 13 Slide lecture with
Alberto de Braud and Norbert Kleinlein. No fee.
Contact the Bemis Foundation, 614 South 11
Street, Omaha 68102.
New Mexico, Chaco Canyon August 21-30
“Acoma Pottery” with Delores Lewis Garcia and
Emma Lewis Mitchell, and guest artist Lucy Lewis.
Fee: $850. Contact Registrar, Summer Program,
Idyllwild School of Music and the Arts, Box 38,
Idyllwild, California 92349; or telephone (714)
659-2171 extension 204.
New York, Scarsdale June 4-6 “Ceramic Tile
Workshop” with Siglinda Scarpa, carving relief
inlay, working with majolica. Fee: $150. Contact
Carol Stronghilos, YM & YWHA of MidWestchester, 999 Wilmot Road, Scarsdale 10583; or
telephone (914) 472-3300.
North Carolina, Asheville June 15 “Clay Day.”
Contact the Folk Art Center and Southern High­
land Handicraft Guild, Box 9545, Asheville
28815; or telephone (704) 298-7928.
North Carolina, Penland September 2-6 “PreForms” with William Daley; and “Wheel-Thrown
Technique” with David Nelson. Fee: $215. Livein accommodations available. Contact Registrar,
Penland School, Penland 28765; or telephone
(704) 765-2359.
Pennsylvania, Uniontown September20-22 “Glaze
Decoration” with Donn Hedman. Fee: $195; in­
cludes materials, firing, lodging and meals. Con­
tact Julie Greene, Touchstone Center for Crafts,
Box 2141, Uniontown 15401; or telephone (412)
438-2811.
Virginia, The Plains June 22-23 “Raku” with Rick
Berman. Fee: $80. Contact Tin Barn Pottery,
Box 152, The Plains 22171; or telephone (703)
253-5997.
International Events
Barbados, Saint James July 1-19 “Raku Ceram­
ics” with Roger Ferland. Beginning through ad-
June/July/August 1991
75
Calendar
vanced skill levels. Limited to 15 participants.
Registration fee: Can$l 64.01 (approximately
US$140). Airfare: Can$618 plus tax (approxi­
mately US$535). Accommodations, including
breakfast: approximately US$380. Lunch and
dinner available upon request: approximately
US$4.50 and US$6.50, respectively. Contact
Roger Ferland, Department of Education in the
Arts, McGill University, 3700 McTavish Street,
Montreal, Quebec H3A 1Y2, Canada; or tele­
phone (514) 398-6946.
Canada, Alberta, Edmonton June 28-July 10
“Cups,” held in conjunction with “Works”; at
Manulife Place, E, 10180 101 St., Seventh Floor.
Canada, British Columbia, Cortes Island Septem­
ber 23-28 “Fire by the Sea,” raku, low-fire salt
workshop with Paul Soldner. Participants are
encouraged to bring bisqued work. Fee: Can$615
(approximately US$530), includes living accom­
modations and meals. Contact Hollyhock Farm,
Box 127, Manson’s Landing, Cortes Island V0P
1K0; or telephone (604) 935-6465.
Canada, British Columbia, Penticton July 22-26
“Handbuilding and Primitive Firing Techniques”
with Laura Wee Lay Laq. Fee: $120. Contact the
Okanagan Summer School of the Arts, Box 141,
Penticton V2A6J9; or telephone (604) 493-0390.
Canada, Ontario, Toronto through August 4 “Por­
celain Boxes: Miniature Masterpieces of the 18th
Century”; at Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen’s
Park.
Canada, Quebec, MontrealJune 7-July 21 “Fourth
National Biennial of Ceramics”; at the Galerie
d’Art Lavalin, 1100, Boul. Rene Levesque O.
Canada, Quebec, Saint-Laurent through June 16
EdouardJasmin, retrospective exhibition; at the
Musee d’Art de Saint-Laurent, 615, Boulevard
Sainte-Croix.
England, Devon August 28-September 7 “Ceram­
ics: Form and Firing.” Location: Dartington Col­
lege of Arts. Contact Horizons: The New En­
gland Craft Program, 374 Old Montague Road,
North Amherst, Massachusetts 01002; or tele­
phone (413) 549-4841.
England, Falmouth July 21-August 3 “Leach Tra­
dition at Falmouth” with David Leach, Janet
Leach and Bill Marshall. All skill levels. Fee:
£400 (approximately US$665), includes materi­
als and firing. Live-in accommodations avail­
able. Contact Peter Smith, Ceramics Depart­
ment, Falmouth School of Art and Design, Wood
Lane, Falmouth, Cornwall TR11 4RA; or tele­
phone (326) 211-077.
England, London September 18-October 18 Solo
exhibition of works by Japanese potter Tatsuzo
Shimaoka; at Galerie Besson, 15 Royal Arcade,
28 Old Bond Street.
England, Oxford July 1-31 Three-person exhibi­
tion with ceramics by Judy Trim; at the Oxford
Gallery, 23 High Street.
England, Stamford through October 6 Exhibition
of European pottery and porcelain; at the
Burghley House.
France, Paris through June 23 “Une Passion pour
la Ceramique,” from the collection of Fina
Gomez, 30 years of contemporary ceramics; at
the Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Palais du Louvre,
107 Rue de Rivoli.
France, Saint-Beat September 15-22 “Raku,” handbuilding, throwing and glazing workshop with
Jean Paul Betton. Beginning and intermediate
skill levels. Fee: Frl740 (approximately US$310),
includes materials and firing. Live-in accommo­
dations and camping facilities available. Contact
Secretariat CEDTE, 11, Rue du Cap Horn, 33700
Merignac, France; or telephone (56) 34 33 40.
Greece, Porto Cheli June 20-August 3 “Classical
Archaeology, Ceramics and Metalsmithing Work­
shop.” Contact Wolf Rudolph, Indiana Univer­
sity School of Fine Arts, Fine Arts Building 412,
Bloomington, Indiana 47405; or telephone (812)
855-7501 or 855-7766. Or contact Greg Pitts,
76 Ceramics Monthly
Vincennes University, Department of Arts, Ce­
ramics, Vincennes, Indiana 47591; or telephone
(812) 885-4449.
Italy, Bassano del Grappa through July 30 “Terre
Dall’est,” exhibition of works by 5 middle Euro­
pean ceramists, Mirjana Isakovic, Ildiko Poigar,
Imre Schrammel, Kurt Spurey andJindraVikova;
at Palazzo Agostinelli.
Italy, Calci July 1-13, July 15-27, August 26September 7 and/or September 9-21 Two-week ses­
sions on handbuilding, glazing and ceramic de­
sign with Silvia Fossati. All skill levels. Instruction
in English, German and Italian. Fee: 825,000 lire
(approximately US$670), includes materials,
lodging, breakfast, guided tours and use of
kitchen. Contact Studio Giambo, Associazione
Arte Lingua E Cultura, Via Giano della Bella 22,
Firenze 50124, Italy; or telephone (55) 22 44 47.
Italy, Faenza June 20-27, July 1-8, 14-21 and/or
September 2-9 “Sculpture Workshop.” Contact
Emidio Galassi, Arte Aperto, Via Castellina 4,
Faenza 48018; or telephone (546) 661-655.
Italy, Urbino September 9-2 7 Workshop on hand­
building, throwing, slip casting, glazing, Faenza
majolica, terra cotta and raku. All skill levels.
Instruction in English and Italian. Fee: US$2200,
triple occupancy; US$2300, double; or US$2400,
single; includes materials, firing, tours, lodging
and meals. Contact Lynne Streeter, La Corte
della Miniera, 627 Adams Street, Albany, Cali­
fornia 94706; or telephone (415) 524-7115.
Japan, Tokyo June 3-15 Exhibition of vessel sculp­
ture by Ban Kajitani; at Akasaka Green Gallery.
Mexico, Chihuahua August 6-15 “Casas Grandes
Pottery” with Juan Quezada. Limited to 16 par­
ticipants. Fee: $750, includes materials, camp­
ing facilities and meals. Contact Registrar, Sum­
mer Program, Idyllwild School of Music and the
Arts, Box 38, Idyllwild, California 92349; or tele­
phone (714) 659-2171 extension 204.
Mexico, Mitla October 31-November 9 “Ceramics:
From the Zapotec Tradition and Beyond.” Loca­
tion: Frissell Museum of Zapotec Art. Contact
Horizons: The New England Craft Program, 374
Old Montague Road, North Amherst, Massa­
chusetts 01002; or telephone (413) 549-4841.
Netherlands, Delft through June 30 “Ceramics
from Italy,” with works by Alda Brembilla,
Giovanni Cimatti, Mirco Denicolo, Guiseppe
Lampariello and Ingrid Mair Zischg; at Galerie
Terra, Nieuwstraat 7.
Netherlands, Deventer through June 9 Solo exhi­
bition of ceramic sculpture by Teja van Hoften.
June 16-August 18Porcelain exhibition with works
by Jeroen Bechtold, Wil Broekema, Mieke
Everaet, Horst Gobbels, Saskia Koster, Anne
Leclerqc, Ursula Morley Price, Leen Quist,
Corien Ridderikhoff, Agathe Larpent Ruffe, Hein
Severijns and Henk Wolvers. September 1-29 JLxhibition of ceramics by Johan Broekema, Inke
and Uwe Lerch, and Heide van Veen; at Kunst
and Keramiek, Korte Assenstraat 15.
Netherlands, Oene August 1 and 8, 6 and 13, 22
and 29, 27 and September 3, 21 and 28 Two-day
raku workshops with Jan Warnaar. Instruction
in English and Dutch. All skill levels. Fee: fll 25
(approximately US$65). Contact Jan Warnaar,
Huttenbosweg 3, 016 7LB Oene (Epe); or tele­
phone (57) 84 12 29.
New Zealand, Auckland May 31 -June 30 “Fletcher
Challenge Ceramics Award”; at the Auckland
Museum, Private bag.
New Zealand, Christchurch through June 23 “Mau
Mahara: Our Stories in Craft”; at the Robert
McDougall Art Gallery.
New Zealand, Dunedin July 20-September 1 “Mau
Mahara: Our Stories in Craft”; at the Otago
Museum, 419 Great King Street.
Switzerland, Aubonne through June 9 Exhibition
of works by Phillipe Barde; at Galerie de l’Amiral
Duquesne, Rue de l’Amiral Duquesne 6.
July 11-September 8 Exhibition of works by 16
ceramists; at the castle of Aubonne.
Wales, Cardiff September 26 Gallery talk with
Alison Britton. No fee. Contact O. Fairclough,
National Museum of Wales, Cathays Park, Cardiff
CF1 3NP; or telephone (222) 397-951.
June/July/August 1991
77
Suggestions
From Readers
Angled Knife for Trimming Tool
A soft steel fettling knife bent at a 90°
angle makes a great trimming tool for wheel
work. Place the knife in a vise at the point
you wish to angle the blade, bend the blade
by hand, then tap with a hammer a few times
to square it off. Remember to orient the
knife so that the cutting edge is to the left
when you are holding the tool —Joe Vitek,
Baltimore
Cold Clay Comfort
December was unusually cold in South­
ern California, and throwing frigid clay in
an unheated studio added insult to injury.
(Okay, I can hear you northeasterners yell­
ing, “Sissy.”) Reasoning that the coldness
came from the water in the pugged clay and
that my microwave oven did a great job of
78 CERAMICS MONTHLY
heating water distributed throughout a cold
chicken, I experimented with various
amounts of clay and heating times, with
quite satisfactory results.
For an 8-pound pug, two runs of two
minutes each produced a comfortable and
long-lasting warmth, even when cold water
was used to pull the cylinder. To ensure
uniform heat, I turned the pug over and
rotated it 90° between runs. You can experi­
ment by heating pugged or wedged clay for
a minute, cutting it in half with a wire, then
tracing the temperature profile with your
finger to determine the appropriate amount
of time to add.
As to safety, too much microwaving can
boil water within the clay, which will cause
the mass to burst open, but this would not be
explosive (like an egg). Remember, over­
heated water in the clay could burn your
hands when opening a centered mass. —Roy
Hackett, Woodland Hills, Calif.
and the glaze will again settle to the bottom
of the bucket.—Dolly Thompson, Boulder, Colo.
Recycled Kiln Elements
Don’t throw away defunct kiln elements.
They can be divided into sections for use as
hangers on decorative objects. Simply snip
with wire cutters and push into the wet clay,
then fire them in place.—Sandy Closs, Mari­
etta, Ga.
Minimizing Dust
A simple, yet effective way to minimize
clay dust in the studio air is to keep a kettie
of saltwater boiling on an electric hot plate.
A couple of vaporizers, picked up cheaply at
second-hand shops, will serve the same pur­
pose.—Wes Warlop, Anna, Kans.
Flying Scrap Catcher
To stop clay scraps from flying all over
when trimming on the potter’s wheel, I
bought an 18-inch-diameter, close-weave,
Changing Glaze Pudding to Cream
plastic laundry basket, then cut off the top 6
Did you ever have a glaze batch set up like inches. Nestled into the splash pan, this “fly
vanilla pudding? It is due to an excess of catcher” eliminates the mess. It is quick to
calcium or magnesium in the glaze, and can put on and take off, and costs only $3.—
happen when you try to save a “sinker” by Diana Frank, Troy, W.Va.
adding calcium chloride to the mix. The
Decorating “Chair” for Pots
cure, as prescribed by an oil-well mud engi­
neer, is Calgon. Mix a tablespoon or two in
Large bags (plastic, cloth, even old pil­
a cup of water. Add drop by drop to the thick low cases) filled with Styrofoam chips or
glaze while stirring until it reaches the de­
peanuts make good supports when decorat­
sired consistency, then stop. Add too much ing large pots. The pellet-filled bag acts like
a beanbag chair. If the bag is placed in a box,
it can go with a moist pot right into the damp
box, thus reducing the danger of break­
age.—Lili Krakowski, Constableville, N.Y.
Firing Glaze Tests
A small electric kiln is a good tool for
glaze testing, but I had to devise a tempera­
ture schedule that would yield results com­
parable to firing in a large kiln. My test kiln
(with interior dimensions of 8x8x4% inches)
is controlled by a dial switch, draws 15 amps
at 115 volts, and can be plugged into any
heavy-duty appliance outlet. The following
chart is the result of experimenting with
firings to a cool Cone 5.
Time
Temperature
Start
End of Hour 1
End of Hour 2
End of Hour 3
End of Hour 4
Room temperature
200° F
350°F
500°F
700°F
End of Hour 5
End of Hour 6
End of Hour 7
End of Hour 8
End of Hour 9
End of Hour 13
End of Hour 14
850°F
1150°F
1350°F
1550°F
2150°F
1550°F
1350°F
Switch Setting
Low (lid propped
with 1-inch stilt)
2
3
4
5
5 (stilt removed,
leaving 1/2-inch
opening)
5 (lid closed)
6
6½
5
3
Off
My full-size kiln has an optional 4%-inch
extender ring. When it is used, the tempera­
ture increase per hour is less. Also, when the
temperature reaches 2000°F, pyrometer
readings should be checked every ten min­
utes. I rely mainly on the pyrometer, but also
place cones in the kiln. At 2150°F, I check to
confirm that Cone 4 has flattened and 5 is
tipping.
Caution: Even a small test kiln should be
vented outside. Protective goggles should
be worn when looking into any kiln, even a
small one.—ElizabethDrachman, Bethesda, Md.
Pin-Point Accuracy
Measurements taken with aluminum
calipers can be rather vague. If you come
across situations where this is insufficient,
grind the blades to a very sharp point for
greater accuracy.—-Joe Vitek, Baltimore
Dollars for Your Ideas
Ceramics Monthly pays $10 for each suggestion
published; submissions are welcome individually
or in quantity. Include an illustration or photo
to accompany your suggestion and we will pay
$10 more if we use it. Mail ideas to Suggestions,
Ceramics Monthly, Box 12448, Columbus, Ohio
43212; or fax to (614) 488-4561. Sorry, but we
can’t acknowledge or return unused items.
June/July/August 1991
79
New Books
oped in Japan during the early 1500s by the
Korean-born son of a tile maker, raku has
been a highly favored ware for the Japanese
tea ceremony.
Because “a knowledge of the tea cer­
emony is helpful in understanding and ap­
preciating its influence both in the field of
ceramics and on the conduct of life,”
Khmer Ceramics from the
Piepenburg begins by describing the intri­
Kamratan Collection
cate details of this ritual, including the point
by Hiroshi Fujiwara
at which the teabowl itself is inspected and
Based on the catalog for an exhibition of appreciated.
the same name at the Toyama Museum of
He goes on to discuss the more practical
Fine Art injapan, this aspects of raku production, such as clay
history gives an over­ preferences, glazes
view of the Khmer (with more than
ceramics produced twice as many recipes
in Southeast Asia. Lo­ as in the first edition)
cated between the and glazing. “The
Menam and Mekong way the glaze is ap­
Rivers, the Khmer plied should be deter­
Empire existed be­
mined by the shape
tween the 9th and of the pot and the
15th centuries. Ce­
creative insights of
ramics made during the potter. The meth­
the Khmer reign ods of glazing should
were used for cooking and storage, as well as not be thought of
for animistic and religious rituals.
separately from the ceramic form to be
“In contrast to the temples built for gods glazed. Application and form should be
and kings, ceramics were made for the indistinguishable”
people.... Because they are functional wares,
The text also covers kilnbuilding, as well
the sheer beauty manifested in other as­
as the firing process. A final section offers
pects of Khmer art is absent in ceramics,” safety precautions. 159 pages, including fore­
states the author. “Still, they are no less word, epilogue and a list of instructional
appealing. The directness and realism of videos. 13 color plates; 126 black-and-white
these wares are highly artistic.”
photographs; 10 diagrams. $24.95. Pebble
Shaping was accomplished “by model­
Press, 1313North Main Street, Ann Arbor, Michi­
ing and with coils and a potter’s wheel. gan 48104.
Regardless of the method used, the base is
always flat, without a foot rim. The consis­
Tempest in a Teapot
tency of this feature makes it a hallmark of
The Ceramic Art of Peter Shire
Khmer wares.” Shapes modeled by hand
Although he describes teapots as “the
include sculpture, such as animals and
Holy Grail of pottery” because of their diffi­
conches. Pots formed by coils include me­
dium and large vessels, while the potter’s cult and complex forms, California artist
Peter Shire has been creating them since
wheel was used to make small pieces.
For the most part, the glaze color was the early 1970s. In fact, when working with
either green or brown; a few pieces have clay, he makes teapots almost exclusively.
both colors. Although some sites are not yet Shire also designs jewelry, furniture, archi­
tecture and stage sets.
excavated, the brown-glazed wares outnum­
This book chronologically documents
ber the green, three to one.
The text also addresses the dating of all of Shire’s teapot production since 1974.
Khmer wares, influences from other areas, Included are essays by Hunter Drohojowcharacteristic shapes and decoration, and ska, chair of the department of liberal arts at
Otis Art Institute/Parsons School of Design,
firing techniques. Ill pages, including bib­
liography; plus plate/figure/map indexes. Los Angeles; and Norman Klein, Los Angeles-based critic and art historian; as well as a
147 color plates; 14 black-and-white photo­
graphs; 16 sketches; 2 maps. $45. Oxford foreword by Ettore Sottsass, founder of the
University Press, 200 Madison Avenue, New Milan-based Memphis movement.
While Klein’s writing focuses on the his­
York, New York 10016.
tory of ceramics that has influenced Shire,
Drohojowska discusses the man and his work.
Raku Pottery
“Like so many artists of his generation,” says
by Robert Piepenburg
Drohojowska, “Shire has been dodging,
“Raku comes from a background of uni­
upsetting, or confronting the legacies of
versal human experience and offers potters modernism since 1974, the date he affixes
spiritual insight into themselves as well as to his first mature work....Shire chose ce­
their craft,” states the author of this how-to ramics from the pantheon of late-20thguide, an updated version (with many new century art media in part because of its
illustrations) of his 1972 text. First devel­
problematic status.”
Continued
80 CERAMICS MONTHLY
June/July/August 1991
81
New Books
Graduating from the Chouinard Art In­
stitute in 1970, Shire was influenced by the
ceramics movement at the Otis/Parsons Art
Institute. Ken Price especially, Shire says,
was one of the great­
est influences on his
work. Upon viewing a
1969 exhibition of
Price’s work, he re­
members, “I saw ce­
ramics could be stuff
you could love rather
than big lumps of clay
trying to take the art
world on its own
terms. That stuff was
playing into the business that sculpture has
to be heroic and macho. Price wasn’t doing
any of that.”
In his own work, Shire tries to balance
both the functional and sculptural. “Instead
of underscoring the plasticity of clay, Shire
dedicates considerable effort to disguising
it...,” says Drohojowska. “Thus, utility is ad­
mitted and subverted simultaneously. The
teapots are often so complicated that it is
daunting to pick them up.”
Shire explains, “I eliminate references
to the hand, to the small, discreet, and
comfortable object. I began by making them
confrontational so you’d have a hard time
grabbing them....They had to be more than
groovy little constructions.” 144 pages, in­
cluding bibliography. 113 color plates; 8
sketches; and 25 black-and-white photo­
graphs. $27.50, softcover. Rizzoli, 300 Park
Avenue, South, New York, New York 10010.
much money you can beg or borrow. It will
tell you whether or not you have a business
at all.” The author goes on to explain each
step of planning a business, using actual
plans written by successful entrepreneurs as
real-world examples.
Although this book is directed toward a
general audience, much of the information
is useful for craftspeople thinking about
starting their own studio businesses. It cov­
ers deciding what to sell, marketing yourself
and your business, dealing with the media,
finding and keeping track of money, man­
aging employees, using computers; plus tax
obligations and advantages, and the law.
The final chapter identifies crisis points in
the first few years.
Throughout the guide, the author sug­
gests further readings, with specific sources
for different types of businesses. 213 pages;
8 charts. $14.95, softcover. Stackpole Books,
Box 1831, Cameron and Kelker Streets, Harris­
burg, Pennsylvania 17105.
Lustre
For China Painters and Potters
by Heather Tailor
Geared toward beginners, this how-to
book discusses various aspects of luster glazes
in easy-to-read, short chapters. Lusters are
“...best applied over a high-fired glossy sur­
face. The colors fire bright, clear and shiny,
and will take a firing of between 720° and
800°C [1325°-1475°F]. Over semimatt sur­
faces, luster fires less glossy and loses some
of its reflective iridescence. Over matt sur­
faces, luster will not glaze and loses all of its
iridescence.”
Further chapters cover the hazards of
luster, which tools to use and when, firing
techniques, luster colors, stenciling, resist
How to Start a Business and
work and special effects. One of the last
chapters discusses disappointing results.
Succeed
Although the author says that “experi­
A Guide to Being Your Own Boss menting with the luster colors, making test
by Ripley Hotch
pieces, keeping notes and planning a design
Before starting your own business, the based on the results will contribute to suc­
author of this guide suggests you ask your­
cessful pieces,” she
self the following does note that some­
questions: “Are you a times things can still
self-starter? Do you go wrong, and offers
relate well to other some suggestions for
people? Do you have what to do when they
a lot of energy? Can do. For example:
you hang in there? “Fired luster can be
Are you organized? darkened by adding
Are you decisive? Are another coat of lus­
you creative?...If you ter and refiring. Un­
find yourself saying even [application],
‘no’ far more often tide marks, dust and
than ‘yes,’” he rec­
unwanted speckles can usually be covered
ommends that you or camouflaged with another coat of color....
“save yourself a lot of grief and keep working Mother-of-pearl will add an iridescent play
for someone else.”
of colored lights to a dark luster and give the
If, however, you answer yes to most of the illusion of a lighter surface.” 48 pages, in­
questions, your first step should be develop­
cluding index. 35 color plates; 18 black-anding a business plan. “A plan done properly at white photos. $14.95. International Special­
the beginning of your project will tell you ized Book Services, 5602Northeast Hassalo Street,
something far more important than how
Portland, Oregon 97213.
82 CERAMICS MONTHLY
June/July/August 1991
83
Video
this tape was assembled from stills, blend­
ing one into another. Usually, this kind of
production creates an inferior video, but
that is not the case here. All of Cardew’s
sense of humor, love of pottery, joy in life,
and full-bodied philosophy come through,
Vessels of the Spirits
and at times are enhanced by the marrying
of taped/edited voiceover and quickly
Pots and People in North Cameroon
changing images.
In this anthropological look at a West
At 75, Cardew dealt with diminishing
Africa village, coil-built earthenware pot­
strength by producing most large forms in
tery is identified as a key element of the
two parts. There was a time, he says, when
culture. “Pots are everywhere...used for
he would have “held this type of throwing
cooking, for shrines, for storage and trans­
in contempt,” but after working in West
port of water and beer.”
Africa, he recognized the merits of thrownOnly the women are potters, and they
coil techniques.
pot only during the dry season. The film
After the clay is spiral wedged, an ovoid
crew visits one woman’s workspace near
form is thrown at the wheel. “The wheel is
her family compound—a sheltered area
a tool,” he explains, “not a machine. It is
that will revert to a field during the rainy
completely under the control of the per­
season—to document typical forming and
son who is operating it. Repetition throw­
firing techniques.
ing...smooths out all your jumpy vibrations
Clay, dug nearby, is aged in a large pot,
and puts you into a rhythm. Once...estab­
then wedged by foot. A cone-shaped mallet
lished, the rhythm will carry you,...allowing
is used to form the base—by tapping and
the clay to make the pot.”
turning while the clay is supported by a
A thick coil, thrown off the hump to
carved tree trunk. The top is built up with
match the rim diameter, is attached to the
coils. Larger jars are begun on the trunk
ovoid base, then pulled to form the neck.
support, then transferred to an ash-filled
Lid and spout (a flared form that is pinched
bowl. Typically, several pots are made in
to shape, then divided in two) are also
succession, built up in stages so that the
thrown off the hump.
walls have time to dry sufficiently before
Careful attention is paid to attaching
coils are added.
spout and handle. Cardew advises not to
Having dried for days in the shade, pro­
rush, to take the time to do it well, and to
tected from animals and children, the pots
start over if the result is not satisfactory.
are fired in a shallow pit, stacked on dung
To him, form was “the beginning and
with straw piled on top. For blackware, pul­
end of the potter’s art, almost.” A pot is
verized dung is spread over the pit after the
finished when “it looks right. I feel that
fire has died down; this both starves the
about all the most admired pots. A success­
fire of oxygen and creates a carbonaceous
ful design is the way it ought to be, and
atmosphere, which together blacken the
there’s absolutely no discussion about it.”
pots’ surfaces.
The classical sound track is performed
Utilitarian pots are sold from the home
by Michael Cardew and his son Seth on
and at market. Their quality is high and
what appear to be recorders, although the
prices are reasonable.
instruments used and the title of the work
Other pots are made to express the
played are unspecified. 15½ minutes. Avail­
owner’s social status or achievements, or to
able as VHS videocassette. $34.95. Piker Pro­
placate the spirits, which have shrines ev­
ductions, Ltd., 34 East 30 Street, New York,
erywhere and can be influenced by pottery
New York 10016.
offerings. 50 minutes. Available as VHS or
¾-inch videocassette. $275 purchase; $60
rental. Barbara Murray, Administrative Assis­ From the Potter’s Hands
tant, Film Library, Department of Communica­ An Introduction to Ceramics
tions Media, The University of Calgary, 2500
Produced for an elementary/middle/
University Drive, Northwest, Calgary, Alberta high school audience, this aesthetically dis­
T2N1N4, Canada.
mal video is supposed to demonstrate all
the basic pottery techniques in just half an
Michael Cardew: A Coffeepot
hour. Perhaps that’s the problem. No one
Adapted from a slide presentation, this could effectively cover wedging, pinching,
video features British potter Michael Car­
coiling, slab building, throwing and glaz­
dew (1901-1983) demonstrating coffeepot ing in such a short time.
making at his Wenford Bridge Pottery in
The result is more an overview of possi­
Cornwall, England. More than a simple les­
bilities with troubling inaccuracies and
son, it is also a loving portrait of one of the much left to the imagination; it should not
be considered a “how to” by art teachers
world’s most remarkable, amiable and in­
fluential potters.
with limited knowledge of ceramics. 32 min­
Sensitively paced step-by-step photogra­
utes. Available as VHS videocassette. $129,
phy and well-edited voiceover give one the plus 8% ($10.32) for shipping and han­
sense of watching real motion, even though dling; state sales tax may also apply. Ameri-
84 CERAMICS MONTHLY
June/July/August 1991
85
Video
low-tech method of processing that yields
about 200 pounds of throwable material
per week—not exacdy production scale, but
respectable enough for the labor involved.
can School Publishers, Princeton Road, Box 408,
What’s
more, it follows from the techniques
Hightstown, New Jersey 08520.
shown that one could process very large
quantities of clay with this method, simply
Dance of the Wheel
by adding to the number of drying racks.
The Pottery of Todd Piker
Equipment requirements are minimal:
According to studio potter Todd Piker, a shovel; a large supply of recycled, lidded,
throwing is “a dance. Each particular pot plastic buckets (the kind in which joint
represents a different dance. Each pot will compound and other building materials
have the steps that a dance will have. If you are packaged—usually obtained free from
put the steps together in a certain way, contractors); a scale; a ½-inch electric drill
you’ll get a certain dance. The same thing and mixing blade; and several foam- and
goes with a pot. You can’t make one dance tarp-lined drying racks built from 2x4s and
plywood.
look like another.”
From his suburban studio, California
More a “how come” than a “how to,” this
video profile follows Piker, a successful func­ potter Paul Bodtke drives to the country to
tional potter with a large studio operation, load his pickup truck with clay dug from a
through the stages of production (pugging, dry creek bed. Under a bridge, he finds a
relatively free-of-debris deposit that has
weighing, wedging, throwing, glazing, load­
ing and wood firing ware), as he discusses dried to the point of cracking. Shovelfuls
of cracked clay are skimmed from the sur­
the work, both on and off camera.
face and dumped into awaiting buckets—
Piker established his pottery in Corn­
wall Bridge, Connecticut, in 1972 (see about 40 pounds each, 900 pounds per
truckload. “The larger the cracks, the bet­
“Cornwall Bridge Pottery” in the Septem­
ber 1976 CM), after apprenticing with ter the quality of the clay,” says Bodtke.
Back at the studio, he stores most of the
Michael Cardew. He “stepped out of mid­
town Manhattan, away from peace marches, raw clay, covering the buckets with lids,
nights at the Fillmore East, rock concerts, then begins processing the remainder by
things like that, and one week later was in a weighing out 20-pound batches. To make a
little granite building [in England], trying Cone 1 body, he adds 5 pounds (20%) ball
clay to each batch, then floods the buckets
to be a production potter.”
That first year was difficult, as he had with water and sets them aside for a few
little previous experience; most of his work days until all the clay is wet.
Next, part of the slaked clay is poured
ended up in the scrap bucket. But Piker
into additional buckets so that Bodtke ends
stayed with it because he liked making pot­
tery. Besides, he had been warned that it up with half-full containers. Each is then
takes seven years to become a thrower. Piker mixed with a drywall mortar mixing blade
says he was very much an example of that powered by a ½-inch electric drill—the
adage. Only after seven years of professional blade was purchased for $9 at a hardware
work did it begin “to come to me.” Today, store. The batches are then homogenized
his goal remains to make functional pots by pouring slurry from bucket to bucket.
After the slurry has been passed through
that can be sold at affordable prices.
Piker has always considered potting a bucket-fitting sieve (made from metal win­
“something of a social occupation, not a dow screen) to remove debris, it can be
solitary endeavor,” so over the years he has poured into the drying racks. A few days
worked with a series of assistants from later, it is scooped out and transferred
around the world. Film sequences of Piker (again by bucket) to a Masonite bat in the
and current assistant Cary Hulin throwing studio where drying to throwing consistency
standard forms illustrate similarities and can be carefully monitored.
Once the processing routine is estab­
differences in their techniques.
“Something that I’ve tried to maintain lished, it really doesn’t take much time away
here...just because I know it’s somehow con­ from production, says Bodtke. For him, it is
nected with my love of what I’m doing,” all worthwhile, as he obviously enjoys pot­
says Piker, “is having the option open at all ting with the results of his labor.
For those seeking a professional, welltimes to make something slightly differently
than I made it the last time.” 28 minutes. edited presentation, this video leaves much
to be desired: music/narration conflict; very
Available asVHS ($49.95) or^inch ($100)
videocassette. Frydenborg Videoworks, 29Northslow start; too much “real time,” including
lots of watching the potter’s truck drive off
Street, Guilford, Connecticut 06437.
into the hills. Yet Bodtke overcomes most
of these production annoyances through a
Native Clay
consistently upbeat manner and a barrage
A Potter’s Home Refinery
of insider tips. 48 minutes. Available asVHS
Of interest to local materials fans, or videocassette. $18 (includes shipping). Paul
anyone interested in saving money on the Bodtke, 1262 Weymouth Lane, Ventura, Cali­
next clay bill, this video fully describes a fornia 93001.
86 CERAMICS MONTHLY
June/July/August 1991
87
88 Ceramics Monthly
Jeff Kell
by Maryalice Yakutchik
They ARE MADE on a potter’s wheel in
the dusty basement studio of his
Reading, Pennsylvania, row house, but
Jeff Kell’s vessels achieve their iden­
tity through pit firing in a country
field. There, bisqueware is placed in a
55-gallon drum punched full of holes,
Vhich sits in a 4-foot-deep pit dug
into the bank of a hill,” Kell explains.
“This natural shelter protects the
drum from the wind, captures heat
and allows for more even tempera­
ture while firing.
“Initially, I tried burning myriad
materials—wood chunks, sawdust,
grass, leaves, etc.—in an attempt to
attain even temperature,” he says. “But
they all resulted in inconsistent fires
and cracked vessels.
“Finally, I tried straw and have
found it to be the ideal fuel for my
purpose. It can be spread evenly and
so yields consistent heat over the en­
tire vessel, which helps prevent crack­
ing. I continuously add straw so the
Jeff Kell, Reading, Pennsylvania.
fire quickly attains, then stays at a tem­
perature intense enough to permit
color development.
“Exciting, unexpected things hap
pen, but always within certain param­
eters, which I control.”
Kell’s current work is influenced
by early impressions of and continu­
“Ritual Vessel II,” 26 inches in height,
thrown and slab built, fired in straw.
ing exposure to primitive cultures.
“Sometimes I am made aware that
what I see or read directly influences
my work,” he adds.
Thrown in sections at the wheel,
his vessels range in height from 15 to
60 inches and in diameter from 12 to
22 inches. Using a heavily grogged,
commercial sculpture clay “helps pre­
vent slumping when I throw large
forms. Additionally, this body [made
of approximately 35% kaolin, 35%
fireclay, and 30% grog] resists crack­
ing (in the uneven temperatures that
occur during straw firing) better than
other clay bodies with which I have
experimented.”
Once the sections are assembled,
altered and textured, he completes
the form with slip trailing. “Although
application of the slip is the most spon­
taneous part of the process, I still con­
trol the movement, still plan for it, to
a degree,” he says. “I want fluid lines
that take the eye first horizontally
“Classic Vessel” 2 feet high, with impress­
ing, trailed slips and sprayed copper matt.
June/July/August 1991
“Prelibation of Deity ,” 41 inches in height, heavily grogged sculpture clay, thrown and slab built,
impressed, trailed with slip, bisqued to Cone 06, sprayed with copper matt solution, straw fired.
90 CERAMICS MONTHLY
Basic shapes are thrown at the wheel in
Kell’s basement studio.
Thrown sections are assembled, topped with a thrown and
slab-built lid, then textured by impressing and trailing.
across the vessel, then draw it down
dramatically. What allows me a bal­
ance between planned and spontane­
ous action is the consistency of the
slip, which must be fairly stiff, so that
it holds three-dimensional shape.”
Trailing slip is made from equal
parts of the same clay body used to
make the vessels and an earthenware
clay. This is subsequently passed
through an 80-mesh screen.
Once the vessels are bone dry, they
are bisque fired to Cone 06. To en­
hance color development during
firing, a copper matt solution is
Bisqueware is misted with a copper matt solution, then fired
with straw inside a metal drum punched full of holes.
sprayed—with an ordinary plant mis­
ter—onto each vessel. (The recipe
originally came from “The Copper
Matt Finish” published in the April
1985 Ceramics Monthly. It is 10% Ferro
frit 3110 and 90% copper carbonate.
To this, Kell usually adds 1%-2% red
iron oxide.)
“I’ve experimented with an air­
brush,” he explains, “but that rendered
regular results that looked too con­
trived. With a mister, I get intermit­
tent little drops and the occasional
big splash. The copper, in the atmo­
sphere of the straw firing, gives the
vessels a wide range of color, pre­
dominantly blue and rust tints, but
also some unexpected ones: muted
shades of pale peach through steel
blue/gray with some dark rust and
orange spots. “The copper starts to
react at very low temperatures (around
700°F), which is important since the
straw fire probably doesn’t get much
above 1000°F.
Tire is an elemental force, straight­
forward, powerful and primitive,” Kell
says. “I enjoy standing over and feed­
ing it, and watching as it changes the
vessel within.” ▲
June/July/August 1991
91
Developing
Mid-Temperature Clays
by Larry Clark
WITH the aesthetic qualities
that we ask of clays and glazes, we
sometimes want bodies that survive
repeated thermal shocks and that pro­
vide adequate fit for a variety of glazes.
To achieve this, we seek a balance of
quartz and cristobalite. Clays fired at
earthenware temperatures may re­
quire a catalyst to induce the develop­
ment of cristobalite, while at stoneware
temperatures it arises naturally, some­
times too much for shock resistance
and glaze fit. In these instances, feld­
spar is of use in controlling its forma­
tion, and quartz may be added where
necessary in order to place glazes in
the ideal state of slight compression.
These are well-known propositions,
and Phoenix, Oregon, potter Jim Rob­
inson has combined them in an infor­
mative way to develop a procedure
for body building at Cone 10. Using a
series of ten transparent glazes, which
are ranked by their expansion coeffi­
cients to help gauge progress, feld­
spar substitutions are made to a
chosen clay blend to halt shivering.
After these substitutions, some of
the glazes that previously fit will craze,
so the feldspar content is held con­
stant and substitutions of quartz are
tried. Clearly, there are variations on
this theme; instead of maintaining a
given percentage of feldspar as quartz
substitutions are made, one may
choose to hold constant the feldsparto-clay ratio.
For several years I have used Kevin
Byrne’s oxidation body [see “Majolica
Techniques at Cone 4” in the April
1980 issue of Ceramics Monthly]:
ALONG
Medium Temperature Clay Body
(Cone 4)
Nepheline Syenite .........................20%
Hawthorn Bond Clay.....................40
Jackson Ball Clay......................... 40
100%
When crazing is desired, or of small
consequence, this recipe provides a
workable, well-vitrified, Cone 4 body.
Much of my work, however, is des­
92 CERAMICS MONTHLY
tined
for
the
table—sometimes
straight from the oven. At the same
time, I would like to have the free­
dom to fire the same body over a
range from Cone 4 to Cone 6. Could
the feldspar/quartz approach be used
to achieve what is needed?
A test glaze series appropriate for
these lower temperatures will demon­
strate by applying the previously out­
lined procedure. The following are
transparent glazes that work well at
Orton Cones 4 and 6:
Glaze 1
Whiting (Atomite) ..................... 11.5%
Zinc Oxide.................................. 2.5
Frit 3134 (Ferro)......................... 18.7
G-200 Feldspar........................... 38.0
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 15.8
Flint............................................. 13.5
100.0%
Glaze 2
Whiting (Atomite) ..................... 18.0%
Frit 3134 (Ferro)......................... 18.5
G-200 Feldspar........................... 18.8
Calcined Alumina....................... 4.2
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 13.6
Flint.............................................26.9
100.0%
Glaze 3
Whiting (Atomite)...................... 15.0%
Zinc Oxide.................................. 2.5
Frit 3134 (Ferro)......................... 18.6
G-200 Feldspar........................... 18.9
Calcined Alumina....................... 4.2
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 13.8
Flint.............................................27.0
100.0%
Glaze 4
Talc (Nytal 100HR).................... 4.3%
Whiting (Atomite) ..................... 11.4
Zinc Oxide.................................. 2.6
Frit 3134 (Ferro)......................... 19.0
G-200 Feldspar........................... 19.3
Calcined Alumina....................... 4.2
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 14.0
Flint.............................................25.2
100.0%
Glaze 5
Talc (Nytal 100HR).................... 13.6%
Whiting (Atomite) ...................... 3.8
Zinc Oxide.................................. 2.7
Frit 3134 (Ferro)......................... 19.8
G-200 Feldspar........................... 20.1
Calcined Alumina....................... 4.4
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 14.6
Flint............................................. 21.0
100.0%
Glaze 6
Talc (Nytal 100HR).................... 16.6%
Whiting (Atomite) ..................... 6.5
Zinc Oxide.................................. 2.4
Frit 3185 (Ferro)......................... 30.1
G-200 Feldspar........................... 14.0
Calcined Alumina....................... 4.5
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 14.6
Flint............................................. 11.3
100.0%
Glaze 7
Talc (Nytal 100HR)....................21.2%
Whiting (Atomite) ..................... 2.9
Zinc Oxide.................................. 2.5
Frit 3185 (Ferro)......................... 30.7
G-200 Feldspar........................... 14.2
Calcined Alumina....................... 4.5
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 14.9
Flint............................................. 9.1
100.0%
Glaze 8
Talc (Nytal 100HR)....................25.1%
Zinc Oxide.................................. 2.4
Frit 3185 (Ferro)......................... 36.0
G-200 Feldspar........................... 9.9
Calcined Alumina....................... 4.8
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 16.0
Flint............................................. 5.8
100.0%
Glaze 9
Talc (Nytal 100HR).................... 22.8%
Whiting (Atomite) ..................... 2.8
Zinc Oxide.................................. 2.4
Frit 3185 (Ferro)......................... 35.6
Calcined Alumina....................... 5.8
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 18.8
Flint............................................. 11.8
100.0%
June/July/August 1991
93
Mid-Temperature Clays
Glaze 10
Talc............................................. 25.1%
Whiting (Atomite) ..................... 1.0
Zinc Oxide.................................. 2.5
Frit 3185 (Ferro)......................... 36.0
Calcined Alumina....................... 5.7
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 19.0
Flint............................................. 10.7
100.0%
The glaze expansion coefficients in
Table 1 are derived from formulas for
the glaze expressing the oxides in percent-by-weight form, along with the
associated oxide coefficients of ex­
pansion provided by W. Lawrence and
R. West in Ceramic Science for the Potter
(Chilton 1982).
When these glazes are applied to
clays contained in the preferred body,
results emerge that hint at the diffi­
culty of obtaining one that will per­
form equally well at both Cone 4 and
Cone 6. This moderate difference in
“heat work” produces quite different
behavior, as Tables 2 and 3 illustrate.
Little or no cristobalite forms at Cone
4, while significant amounts develop
at Cone 6. These differences are par­
94 CERAMICS MONTHLY
ticularly evident for the ball clay, where
six of the glazes that craze at Cone 4
shiver at Cone 6. Time, temperature
and atmosphere are potentially of
equal importance, but the tables’ re­
sults were obtained from firings of
separate samples in a medium-size
electric kiln, with an initial bisque at
Cone 06, and the Cone 4 and 6 firings
averaging 9-10 hours. The differences,
then, are primarily a matter of tem­
perature. Without the aid of added
catalysts, cristobalite develops around
2190°F (1200°C). The Cone 6 firings
encompass this temperature and the
Cone 4 firings fall short of it.
Combining the clays in equal
amounts provides a plastic body that
moderates the difficulties encoun­
tered with the ball clay; then a flux is
necessary to reduce porosity while pre­
venting cristobalite formation at Cone
6. Small amounts of nepheline sye­
nite or G-200 feldspar eliminate shiv­
ering and extend crazing to extra
glazes, but to be sure, further addi­
tions can be made. Holding either of
these at 12% is a reasonable place to
start; amounts in excess of this cause
no additional glazes to craze at Cone
4 or 6 as substitutions are carried to
18%. Partial substitutions of 325-mesh
June/July/August 1991
95
Mid-Temperature Clays
nepheline syenite allows room for ex­
tra quartz substitutions; however, even
with quartz at 18%, four glazes craze
and the absorption rises to 4.5%.
Adequate bodies comprised of clay,
feldspar and quartz are attainable at
Cone 6. It may be possible to improve
the fit of bodies at Cone 4 by length­
ening the firing cycle above 1830°F
(1000°C), by changing the propor­
tions of the clays, or by using different
clays. Alternatively, why not use talc
instead of nepheline syenite, in order
to obtain a cristobalite catalyst as well
as a flux? Because this is of question­
able benefit—it may generate behav­
ior that varies widely from one firing
to the next.
The results of two experiments that
differ only by a small change in the
length of the firing cycle are reported
in Table 5. In the first case magne­
sium is acting primarily as a flux, while
in the second its catalytic effect on
cristobalite formation dominates. To
achieve the desired results, an alter­
nate approach is sometimes war­
ranted. Cone 4 firings lie within the
region of what can be roughly termed
the boundary between earthenware
and stoneware, and this sometimes
dictates firing lower, where the talc/
quartz method is more at home; or
firing higher, where the feldspar/
quartz system comes into its own.
flint for clay will control some of the
crazing, and quench tests are of value
in assessing the adjustments. In the
method adopted here, fired samples
are heated to 266°F (130°C), held
there for an hour, then quenched in
68°F (20°C) water. This procedure is
repeated at 356°F (180°C). These ex­
periments give an idea of the amount
of crazing found during normal use
after two years and four months.
Quartz in the amount of 18% will
keep all but two glazes in compres­
sion without shivering when G-200
feldspar is held at 12% and the firing
is taken to Cone 6. But as seen in
Table 4, holding the feldspar constant
at other levels is sometimes fruitful.
With G-200 feldspar at 8% and quartz
at 12%, it is possible to obtain a body
that provides comparable perfor­
mance, and this one has a higher clay
content. Replacement of G-200 feld­
spar with nepheline syenite in either
of these bodies offers a moderate re­
duction in porosity, but additional
glazes craze because of nepheline
syenite’s lower molecular silica-to-alumina ratio.
The consequences of firing these
bodies to Cone 4, using nepheline
syenite, are presented in Table 5; those
using G-200 feldspar instead generate The author Larry Clark is an associate
virtually identical glaze performance professor at the University of Prince Edbut raise porosity. The body with
8% ward Island in Charlottetown.
96 CERAMICS MONTHLY
June/July /August 1991
97
Slip Casting, Part 6
Casting Glazes and Engobes!
by Gerald Rowan
Editor’s note: This is the last in a con­
secutive series of articles on slip cast­
ing that started with the January issue.
MOST OF THE SURFACE TREATMENTS
I
use on slip-cast work can be grouped
into two temperature ranges: Cone
06-05 and Cone 5-6. A little over five
years ago, I left the Cone 10 tempera­
ture range and adjusted materials and
working habits to Cone 6. I also
switched from gas reduction firing to
electric oxidation firing.
The change was made for two in­
terrelated reasons: First, in an era of
escalating fuel costs, it allowed more
competitive production (energy cost
was about half of firing to Cone 10,
and by building a well-insulated elec­
tric kiln, I was able to save almost
another third). Second, it made sense
to become as energy efficient as pos­
sible for the environment.
But while developing a palette of
suitable glazes, I felt I had not quite
found everything I needed for my slip
cast forms. So I tried to describe in
writing what I thought the surfaces
should look like. After reading what I
had written, I was stumped.
At an impasse, I tacked my descrip
tions, and logical engobe and glaze
recipes up in my studio, then lived
with them for several weeks. With loads
of slip-cast vessels piling up to be
glazed, it suddenly hit me that what I
was looking for was not something to
be applied to bisqueware, but a singlefire option that could be poured or
brushed into a mold, then backed with
cast slip. Casting the surface with the
form fit my aesthetic needs.
From that point on things seemed
to go fairly smoothly, and several hun­
dred tests later I was in business. The
following are some of the engobes
and glazes I have been working with
over the last five years.
The engobes are rough, stony and
earthy, and are terrible on functional
ware, but in combination with castable
colored slips, they do exactly what I
had in mind.
All the glazes have been fine tuned
98 CERAMICS MONTHLY
for use over slipcasting bodies. The
fact that casting bodies usually con­
tain less than 50% clay tends to cause
some problems with glaze fit—i.e., the
large percentage of nonplastic mate­
rials in slipcasting bodies alter glaze
shrinkage rates when compared to
plastic bodies (traditional throwing
bodies contain as much as 90% plas­
tic clay); and the nonplastic content
of most casting bodies is usually made
up of silicates (flint, feldspar, etc.),
which affects the clay/glaze interface.
Engobe No. 225
(Cone 06)
Wood Ash (unwashed) ............ 11.11%
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................. 22.22
Cullet........................................ 66.67
100.00%
Engobe No. 226
(Cone 06)
Wood Ash (unwashed) ................. 20%
Edgar Plastic Kaolin...................... 20
Cullet............................................. 60
100%
Light to medium gray stony matt.
Bright yellow. Great with other com­
mercial stains; use about 10%-15%.
Engobe No. 270
(Cone 06)
Albany Slip................................. 62.5%
Cullet.......................................... 37.5
100.0%
Add: Copper Carbonate.............. 5.0%
Yields reds and greens in reduction;
could try in raku.
Engobe No. 271
(Cone 06)
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 16.7%
Cullet...........................................83.3
100.0%
Deep gray.
Engobe No. 273
(Cone 06)
Soda Ash ...................................... 2.0%
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 28.6
Cullet...........................................69.4
100.0%
Add: Chrome Oxide...................... 1.0%
Gray to light olive.
Engobe No. 275
Engobe No. 227
(Cone 06)
Wood Ash (unwashed) .............. 27.3%
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................... 18.2
Cullet.......................................... 54.5
100.0%
For tan, add 5.0% iron oxide; for a
grayed tan, add 5.0% iron oxide and
3.0% rutile.
Engobe No. 230
(Cone 06)
Albany Slip.................................... 76%
Cullet.............................. ..............24
100%
Tan with gray overtones.
(Cone 06)
Edgar Plastic Kaolin................. 28.60%
Cullet........................................ 71.40
100.00%
Add: Tin Oxide......................... 1.50%
Zinc Oxide...................... 10.00%
Copper Carbonate........... 3.00%
Iron Oxide....................... 0.75%
Great greens and reds in heavy reduc­
tion; could try in raku.
Clear Tan Glaze
(Cone 06)
Gerstley Borate.............................. 70%
Cedar Heights Redart..................... 30
100%
Engobe No. 256
(Cone 06)
Wollastonite................................... 40%
Frit 14 (Hommel)...........................24
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4).......... 36
100%
Add: Yellow Stain......................... 10%
Bentonite............................. 2%
Birdsong Clear Glaze
(Cone 06-03)
Gerstley Borate..............................
Frit 3134 (Ferro)............................
Edgar Plastic Kaolin......................
Flint................................................
30%
25
30
15
100%
Clear Glaze “B”
(Cone 06)
Cornwall Stone......................... 5.00 %
Frit 25 (Pemco)........................ 95.00
100.00%
Add: Bentonite.......................... 3.00%
CMC Gum...................... 0.25%
An excellent clear glaze to spray over
colored casting bodies.
Clear Matt Glaze “B”
(Cone 06)
Lithium Carbonate................... 8.00 %
Frit 25 (Pemco)........................ 84.50
Georgia Kaolin......................... 7.50
100.00%
Add: Bentonite.......................... 3.00%
CMC Gum...................... 0.25%
Translucent Glaze
(Cone 5)
Gerstley Borate........................ 22.22 %
Zinc Oxide................................ 2.22
Frit 3110 (Ferro)....................... 11.11
Nepheline Syenite.................... 53.34
Tile 6 Clay................................ 11.11
100.00%
Color variations of this translucent
recipe are possible with the following
additions:
Blue
Copper Carbonate..................... 0.83 %
Green
Copper Oxide........................... 4.44%
Deep Blue
Cobalt Carbonate...................... 1.11%
Tan/Brown
Iron Oxide................................ 11.11%
Rutile........................................ 6.67 %
Dark and Runny Brown
Iron Oxide................................ 55.56%
Milky White Glaze
(Cone 06)
Frit 3134 (Ferro)....................... 88.80%
Georgia Kaolin......................... 11.20
100.00%
Add: Zircopax........................... 5.00%
CMC Gum...................... 0.25%
Glaze 101 “M”
(Cone 6)
Lithium Carbonate.......................... 5 %
Whiting.............................................. 15
Frit 3110 (Ferro).................................45
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4).......... 10
Flint.................................................... 25
100%
Add: Titanium Dioxide................... 5 %
Bentonite............................... 3 %
For turquoise, add 3% copper car­
bonate; for turquoise to green, add
2% copper carbonate and 2% chrome
oxide.
Dense Waxy White Glaze
(Cone 6)
Whiting..................................... 14.72%
Custer Feldspar............................. 46.86
Georgia Kaolin............................... 8.33
Flint............................................... 30.09
100.00%
Add: Tin Oxide......................... 4.33%
Titanium Dioxide........... 4.33%
Zinc Oxide...................... 8.23%
Bentonite........................ 3.25%
Opalescent Blue Glaze
(Cone 06)
Gersdey Borate......................... 65.00%
Spodumene................................... 18.00
Georgia Kaolin............................. 11.00
Flint................................................ 6.00
100.00%
Add: Cobalt Carbonate............. 0.25%
Rutile ............................. 3.00%
Lithium Blue Glaze
(Cone 05-03)
Lithium Carbonate..................... 29.0 %
Georgia China Clay....................... 14.4
Flint................................................. 56.6
100.0%
Add: Copper Carbonate.............. 3.7 %
Bentonite............................ 2.8%
Dark Opaque Glaze
(Cone 06)
Frit 3134 (Ferro)..........................88.8%
Georgia Kaolin............................... 11.2
100.0%
Add: Cobalt Oxide ....................... 3.0%
Copper Carbonate............... 6.0%
Zircopax........................... 10.0%
Slate Black Glaze
(Cone 06)
Magnesium Carbonate .............. 13.0%
Frit 14 (Hommel) .......................... 74.0
Georgia Kaolin.............................. 13.0
100.0%
Add: Chrome Oxide..................... 5.0%
Cobalt Oxide ..................... 1.0%
Copper Oxide.................... 3.0 %
Iron Oxide.......................... 4.0%
Runny Wood Ash Glaze
(Cone 5-6)
Wood Ash (unwashed) ............ 38.10%
Frit 3110 (Ferro)....................... 38.10
Barnard Slip Clay..................... 4.76
Kentucky Ball Clay (OM 4) .. 19.04
100.00%
Add: Iron Oxide........................ 4.76%
June/July/August 1991
99
100 Ceramics Monthly
June/July/August 1991 101
Comment
Opinion versus Promotion
by Matthew Kangas
Was it Lenin who defined progress as
“one step forward, two steps backward?”
His cynical recipe seems more prescient
than ever, given recent events in the
Soviet Union. Could it also be analo­
gous to the situation of the decorative
arts, or American crafts? Has recent
progress been tied to disappointing set­
backs?
On the side of progress, a number
of positive signs have appeared. Janet
Kardon, new director of the American
Craft Museum in New York, has vowed
that a history of American craft in the
20th century will be completed by the
end of the present decade. For this Cen­
tennial Project, numerous historians,
critics and curators will join forces in
five period-survey exhibitions, begin­
ning in 1992. Kardon also has sepa­
rated the museum from its parent
group, the American Craft Council; has
hired critic John Perreault as chief cu­
rator; and is rounding up her own board
of trustees to better fund and support
these activities, including acquisitions.
In Washington, D.C., participants
from nearly 40 states met at the Na­
tional Museum of American History in
November 1989 to begin plans for 1993,
the Year of American Craft. This project,
now fully underway with 50 separate
state committees and a full-time devel­
opment director, will encourage and
promote special exhibitions, publica­
tions and events—all to raise the level
of recognition for all aspects of Ameri­
can craft.
Over at the Renwick Gallery, curator-in-charge Michael Monroe and parent-museum director Elizabeth Broun
(National Museum of American Art)
have stated that their goal is to create
the nation’s biggest and best collection
of American craft in any museum by
the end of the century. For a five-year
period ending in 1995, $250,000 was
allocated for acquisitions.
Two smaller museums have redi­
rected their mission statements to con­
centrate solely on crafts—the Philbrook
Museum of Art in Tulsa, Oklahoma;
102 CERAMICS MONTHLY
and the Bellevue Art Museum in
Bellevue, Washington, near Seattle. The
former is organizing, touring and host­
ing important surveys of art deco, arts
and crafts, and recent work such as that
seen in its epoch-making survey of 1987,
“The Eloquent Object.” The latter, lit­
erally built with the profits from one of
the nation’s oldest and largest annual
crafts fairs, “The Pacific Northwest Arts
8c Crafts Fair,” is taking a regional focus
and will open an important exhibition,
“Masterworks: Pacific Northwest Arts
8c Crafts Show,” this summer.
Two other regional museums worth
mentioning—both of which have na­
tional scopes—are the Art Museum at
Arizona State University at Tempe,
which has one of the largest collections
of American ceramics and is still ac­
quiring; and the Nora Eccles Harrison
Museum at Utah State University in
Logan, which contains over 3000 works,
all traditional functional pottery by
American artists.
Taking an international view, the
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, under
chief curator Michael Conforti, is plac­
ing American crafts in relation to En­
glish and European influences in a
series of exhibitions, along with actively
acquiring relevant objects.
Once again active, Everson Museum
of Art in Syracuse, New York, recently
addressed the Japanese influence on
American ceramics, and has published
an important book on its permanent
collection of American ceramics, the
oldest in the nation.
That still leaves several hundred
other museums and art centers that
could be doing more. The National
Museum of American History, for ex­
ample, is supposed to have 30,000 ce­
ramic objects in its holdings, but only
50 to 100 are ever on view, including
Nancy Reagan’s famous set of Lenox
dinner ware.
Turning to scholarship and criticism,
apart from the centennial project at
the American Craft Museum, a num­
ber of smaller projects are well under­
way, such as Winifred Owens-Hart’s
upcoming survey of African-American
ceramics for the Everson Museum of
Art, and my own anthology-in-progress
of critical writing on American ceram­
ics since 1945.
Two major histories of American ce­
ramics have already appeared: Ameri­
can Ceramics 1876 to the Present, a revision
of his 1976 study by critic-turned-dealer
Garth Clark; and The History of Ameri­
can Ceramics, an omnibus study of three
centuries by California writer Elaine
Levin. Each book has its strengths and
weaknesses, but both are indispensable
in a field that only recently has attracted
scholars.
As Clark’s book makes clear, it is not
automatically true that the writing of
history avoids the charge of promotion.
Updating his original study to show­
case artists in his gallery in New York,
Clark runs the risk of his very real con­
tribution to the field being discounted
because of such blatantly self-serving
boosterism. Still the don, rather than
the dean, of American ceramics, his
power has shifted to a growing but un­
certain market, and away from inde­
pendent analysis and criticism.
Has any headway been made at infil­
trating the art world or art magazines
traditionally hostile to American craft?
Sticking only to clay, there are a num­
ber of good signs. The appointment of
Janet Koplos as a senior editor at Art in
America to replace the late Craig Owens
places a friend of ceramics in a very
high position indeed. Her recent ar­
ticle on Betty Woodman was given ex­
tensive space and is, one hopes, the
first of more to come. Her role as an
advocate for other writers wishing to
address the crafts sympathetically in an
art-world context should also be clear.
Time will tell.
Among established writers, most
have a few pet craft artists to relieve the
tedium of their tasks: Hilton Kramer
must think Mary Frank is the only
American clay sculptor alive. Donald
Kuspit addresses Robert Arneson and
Stephen DeStaebler with requisite psy­
chological depth and seriousness; he
also is one of the few big-time critics
willing to discuss the theory of craft.
Patterson Sims, now chief curator at
Seattle Art Museum, has written about
Viola Frey.
Sliding down from the heights of
Parnassus to the knee-deep mud of spe­
cialist trade magazines, a study of three
ceramics journals suggests how far the
field still has to go to guarantee cred­
ibility and respect from those who do
not have a bond of affection for crafts.
American Ceramics, a glossy quarterly
designed by Massimo Vignelli, which
celebrates its tenth anniversary early
next year, is an erratic forum for seri­
ous writers—when they can be found.
Revisionist historical monographs on
June/July /August 1991 103
Comment
significant and minor figures alternate
with longer pieces that may only be
described as promotional, such as a re­
cent ten-page essay by editor Michael
McTwigan on New York artist Michele
Oka Donner. At its best, American Ce­
ramics has raised the level of discourse
and respect for ceramic sculpture
through strong graphic design and bet­
ter fees for writers. At its worst, a num­
ber of the pieces published over the
years are indistinguishable from its chief
competitor, Ceramics Monthly.
A difference one soon notes in crafts
publications is that the artists do most
of the writing, either about themselves,
friends or faculty colleagues. Not since
the early days of Artforum when the
minimalists reviewed their own shows
in nine-page disquisitions has Ameri­
can art stooped so low. This approach
is standard in the crafts, especially at
Ceramics Monthly and, even better, the
author in question is usually pictured
on the cover surrounded by dusty equip
ment and bisqueware.
Lately, however, Ceramics Monthly has
also resembled or been influenced by
American Ceramics. Thus, critic Hunter
Drohojowska wrote a cheery profile on
L.A. artist Peter Shire, entirely appro­
priate for an author who also contrib­
utes to House & Garden. Relieving the
artist of an onerous task, Estelle Levy,
who attended his workshop at Hum­
boldt State University in 1989, pitched
New York artist Michael Lucero. An ar­
ticle on Michigan potters John and
Susanne Stephenson by Dolores Slowinski went into lavish detail about their
two-car garage. Not far off, Patterson
Sims, so flexible when it comes to bridg­
ing gaps between art and craft, de­
fended his choices for a Philadelphia
juried show and devolved to the hack­
neyed notion of “quality” once again
when validating nonfunctional clay and
its place in the art world.
Most obscure of all, but widely loved
for its back-patting promotional style, is
Studio Potter. Not only preaching to the
converted but actively canonizing them,
this semiannual journal featured an ar­
ticle on Ohio artist Jack Earl in the
form of a letter from his biographer
Lee Nordness accompanied by a oneline postcard reply from the succinct
artist. Another issue exposed Andy Wat­
son of Provo, Utah, throwing pots with
his feet. Anglo-Canadian poet Robin
Skelton railed against critics “who write
so you need to consult the Oxford En­
glish Dictionary...all these airy-fairy
words.”
With each issue devoted to a differ­
ent theme or region, Studio Potter does
more than fill a need; it dampens and
discourages more hard-hitting but nec­
essary analysis. Critic Patricia Malarcher
was allowed in to discuss if “ceramics
can be both useful and worthy of criti­
cism,” a shrewd and highly relevant ques­
tion today. She cited philosopher
Nelson Goodman and critic Kuspit,
among many others, but, as usual, failed
to take a stand of her own.
I hope this brief rundown on muse­
ums and magazines makes it clear that
functional crafts have made substantial
inroads at the museums, but that non­
functional crafts are more welcome in
the magazines. From now on, the task
of writers, curators, critics and histori­
ans is to make sure that the museums
do not neglect sculptors working in clay,
glass, wood, cloth and metal, and that
magazines devote space to seriously dis­
cussing the theory and evaluation of
functional crafts.
This latter issue, the judgment and
critique of functional objects, is in my
opinion the most pressing and interest­
ing theoretical question for American
crafts at this time. Despite strong pres­
sures for solid promotion, it is incum­
bent upon us all to maintain critical
and independent approaches when
encountering the handmade heritage
of our time.
The author Seattle critic Matthew Kangas
has written for American Ceramics, Amer­
ican Craft, Art in America, Artweek,
Glass and New Art Examiner, as well as
Ceramics Monthly.
Index to Advertisers
A.R.T. Studio..................23, 71
Aegean..........................................70
Aftosa...................................... 65, 103
Amaco.......................................... 21
Amherst Potters............................94
Art Barn........................................70
Axner......................................... 12, 13
Bailey............................. 1,24, 25, 88
Baltimore Clayworks...................68
Bennett’s......................................... 3
Bluebird........................................77
Botega......................................... 101
Brickyard..................................... 72
Bristol Video................................76
Byrne............................................ 63
California Pot-Tools.....................75
Cedar Heights......................... Cover 4
Ceramic Review...........................77
Ceramic Store...............................68
CeramiCorner..............................101
Ceramics Monthly... 60, 61, 73,
75
Classified.....................................100
Clay Factory................................. 70
Contemporary Kilns.....................82
Continental Clay..................... Cover 2
Cornell..........................................76
104 Ceramics Monthly
Creative Industries........................... 19
Creek Turn....................................... 74
Dedell...............................................87
Del Val........................................... 101
Dolan................................................70
Don Snyder ..................................... 79
Duralite.......................................... 101
Falcon...............................................74
Flotsam & Jetsam ........................... 72
Garendo............................................94
Geil ..................................................87
Giffin................................................95
Gilmour Campbell........................... 70
Great Lakes Clay............................. 77
Hammill 8c Gillespie.......................10
Handmade Lampshade.....................76
Hearts tone....................................... 80
Highwater.........................................97
IMC.................................................. 86
Jack D. Wolfe................................... 72
Jiffy.................................................. 81
Kickwheel ........................................ 4
Kraft Korner.....................................68
Laguna Clay..................................... 11
Leslie................................................ 96
Marjon..............................................69
Mark Polglase.................................. 62
Miami Clay...................................... 78
Miami Cork......................................15
Mid-South........................................ 67
Mile-Hi............................................ 84
Miller............................................... 83
Miller’s Pottery................................99
Minnesota Clay................................17
Molly’s.............................................72
Montgomery College.......................82
Mud File ..........................................72
North Star.......................................... 8
Olsen................................................ 85
Orton................................................ 87
Pacific Ceramic ...............................86
Pacifica.............................................66
Paragon ........................................... 86
Pebble Press .................................... 62
Peter Pugger...................................... 2
Peters Valley....................................76
Potters Guild.................................... 63
Potters Shop..................................... 96
Pure & Simple..................... ............86
Ram........................................... 81, 97
Randall............................................. 22
Rings 8c Things ............................. 73
Robert Fida...................................... 86
Robert Piepenburg...........................76
Sapir.................................................83
Scott Creek...................................... 85
Sheffield.......................................... 79
Shimpo.............................................. 7
Sierra Nevada College.................... 68
Skon................................................. 99
Skutt........................................Cover 3
Soldner............................................ 93
Southern Pottery.............................. 74
Standard...........................................65
Starkey............................................. 83
Studio Gallery................................. 81
Summit............................................ 82
Trinity.............................................. 64
Tucker’s.................................... 63, 64
Tuscarora Pottery............................ 68
V. R. Hood....................................... 69
Venco................................................ 9
Vent-A-Kiln.....................................85
W. P. Dawson.................................. 82
Wise................................................. 74
Worcester Center........................... 101
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement