Practice and Homework Book

Practice and Homework Book
Practice and Homework Book
Authors
Peggy Morrow Maggie Martin Connell
Publisher
Claire Burnett
Elementary Math Team Leader
Diane Wyman
Publishing Team
Lesley Haynes
Enid Haley
Ioana Gagea
Lynne Gulliver
Stephanie Cox
Judy Wilson
Product Manager
Kathleen Crosbie
Design
Word & Image Design Studio Inc.
Typesetting
Computer Composition of Canada Inc.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada, a division of Pearson Canada Inc.
All Rights Reserved. This publication is protected by
copyright, and permission should be obtained from
the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction,
storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or likewise. For
information regarding permission, write to the
Permissions Department.
ISBN-13: 978-0-321-43803-4
ISBN-10:
0-321-43803-5
Printed and bound in Canada.
3 4 5 -- WC -- 11 10 09 08
Contents
UNIT
1
UNIT
2
UNIT
3
Patterns and Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Lesson 5
Patterns in Charts
Extending Number Patterns
Representing Patterns
Equations Involving Addition and Subtraction
Equations Involving Multiplication and Division
2
4
6
8
10
Whole Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Lesson 5
Lesson 6
Lesson 7
Lesson 8
Lesson 9
Lesson 10
Lesson 12
Lesson 13
Whole Numbers to 10 000
Comparing and Ordering Numbers
Sorting Numbers
Estimating Sums
Using Mental Math to Add
Adding 3-Digit Numbers
Adding 4-Digit Numbers
Estimating Differences
Using Mental Math to Subtract
Subtracting 3-Digit Numbers
Subtracting 4-Digit Numbers
Solving Addition and Subtraction Problems
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
Multiplication and Division Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Lesson 5
Lesson 7
Lesson 8
Lesson 9
Lesson 10
Using Doubles to Multiply
Multiplying by 1, by 0, and by 10
Using Skip Counting to Multiply
Other Strategies for Multiplying
Using Patterns in a Multiplication Chart
Using Arrays to Divide
Relating Multiplication to Division
Dividing by Numbers from 1 to 9
Pose and Solve Problems
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
iii
UNIT
4
UNIT
5
Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Lesson 5
Lesson 6
Lesson 7
Lesson 8
Lesson 9
Lesson 10
Lesson 11
Lesson 13
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Lesson 5
Lesson 9
Lesson 10
Lesson 11
Lesson 12
Lesson 13
Lesson 14
6
iv
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
Fractions and Decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson 7
Lesson 8
UNIT
Calendar Time
Exploring Time
Telling Time
Elapsed Time
Telling Time to the Minute
The 24-Hour Clock
Covering Shapes
Exploring Area
Measuring Area in Square Centimetres
Estimating and Measuring Area
Finding Area in Square Metres
Exploring Rectangles with Equal Areas
Fractions of a Whole
Fraction Benchmarks
Exploring Fractions of a Set
Finding a Fraction of a Set
Relating Fractional Parts of
Different Wholes and Sets
Comparing and Ordering Unit Fractions
Comparing and Ordering Fractions
with the Same Numerator or Denominator
Exploring Tenths
Exploring Hundredths
Equivalent Decimals
Adding Decimals to Tenths
Subtracting Decimals to Tenths
Adding and Subtracting Decimals
to Hundredths
78
80
82
84
86
88
90
92
94
96
98
100
102
Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 5
Lesson 6
Lesson 7
Objects in Our World
Constructing Prisms
Exploring Nets
Symmetrical Shapes
Line Symmetry
Sorting by Lines of Symmetry
104
106
108
110
112
114
UNIT
7
UNIT
8
Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Reading Pictographs and Bar Graphs
Drawing Pictographs
Drawing Bar Graphs
Comparing Pictographs and Bar Graphs
116
118
120
122
Multiplying and Dividing Larger Numbers . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 5
Lesson 6
Lesson 7
Lesson 8
Lesson 9
Lesson 10
Lesson 11
Exploring Multiplication Patterns
Estimating Products
Using Models to Multiply
Other Strategies for Multiplication
Using Patterns to Multiply
Multiplying a 3-Digit Number by a 1-Digit
Number
Estimating Quotients
Division with Remainders
Using Base Ten Blocks to Divide
Another Strategy for Division
Math at Home
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
138
140
142
145
v
To the Teacher
This Practice and Homework Book provides reinforcement of the concepts and skills
explored in the Pearson Math Makes Sense 4 program.
There are two sections in the book. The first section follows the sequence of Math Makes
Sense 4 Student Book. It is intended for use throughout the year as you teach the program.
A two-page spread supports the content of each core lesson in the Student Book.
In each Lesson:
Quick Review summarizes
the math concepts and
terminology of the
Student Book lesson.
Try These presents
questions the student
can use to check understanding of the math
concepts and skills in
each lesson.
The right page is the
“homework” page, to be
completed by the student with the assistance
of a family member.
Stretch Your Thinking
presents an extension
question.
Math at Home
The second section of the book, on pages 145 to 156, consists of 3 pull-out Math at Home
magazines. These fun pages contain intriguing activities, puzzles, rhymes, and games to
encourage home involvement. The perforated design lets you remove, fold, and send home
this eight-page magazine after the student has completed Units 3, 6, and 8.
vi
To the Family
This book will help your child practise the math concepts and skills that
have been explored in the classroom. As you assist your child to complete
each page, you have an opportunity to become involved in your child’s
mathematical learning.
The left page of each lesson contains a summary of the main concepts and
terminology of the lesson. Use this page with your child to review the
work done in class. The right page contains practice.
Here are some ways you can help:
• With your child, read over the Quick Review. Encourage your child to
talk about the content and explain it to you in his or her own words.
• Read the instructions with (or for) your child to ensure your child
understands what to do.
• Encourage your child to explain his or her thinking.
• Some of the pages require specific materials. You may wish to gather
items such as a centimetre ruler, index cards, a measuring tape,
scissors, number cubes labelled 1 to 6, and paper clips.
Many of the Practice sections contain games that will also improve your
child’s math skills. You may have other ideas for activities your child can
share with the rest of the class.
The Math at Home pull-out pages 145 to 156 provide more fun activities.
vii
TU
T
D E N B OO
1
K
S
UNIT 1
Patterns
in Charts
Xxx
LESSO N
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Quick Review
At Sc
At Ho
Look at this hundred chart.
➤ There is a pattern in the
circled numbers.
The pattern rule is:
Start at 3. Count on by 3s.
➤ There is a pattern in the
positions of the squares
with circles.
The pattern rule is:
The squares with circles lie
along every third diagonal.
The diagonals go 1 down, 1 left.
Try These
1. Look at the squares with circled
numbers on this hundred chart.
a) Describe the position pattern.
__________________________
__________________________
b) Write the number pattern.
__________________________
c) Write a pattern rule for the
number pattern.
___________________________
_____________________________________________________________
d) Circle numbers to complete the pattern on the hundred chart.
2
Practice
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
Circle these numbers.
b) Start at 102. Count on by 5s.
Put an X on each number.
c) Write the numbers that have
both an X and are circled.
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
________________________
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
3
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
4
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
5
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
6
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
7
7
14
21
28
35
42
49
1. a) Start at 102. Count on by 2s.
________________________
d) Write the pattern rule for the
number pattern in part c.
________________________
2. Look at the squares with circled
numbers in this multiplication chart.
a) Write a pattern rule for the
position pattern.
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
b) Write a pattern rule for the number
pattern.
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Follow this position rule. Put
an X in the squares on the chart.
The squares with an X lie along
every third diagonal, starting at
the first diagonal. The diagonals
go 1 down and 1 right.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
3
TU
T
D E N B OO
2
K
S
UNIT 1
Extending Number
Patterns
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
At Ho
➤ Here is a pattern of squares drawn
on dot paper.
l
hoo
Square Number of Dots
on Perimeter
1
4
2
8
3
12
4
16
5
20
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
One pattern rule for the number
of dots on the perimeter is:
Start at 4. Add 4 each time.
Another pattern rule for the
number of dots is:
Multiply the square number by 4.
➤ The number of dots on any perimeter is a number we get when we
start at 0 and skip count by 4.
For the 10th square, skip count by 4 ten times:
4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40
The 10th square will have 40 dots on its perimeter.
Try These
1. a) Complete the table for this pattern.
Triangle
Number of Dots
on Perimeter
1
2
3
4
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
b) Write the pattern rule. ________________________________________________
c) Which triangle will have 21 dots? __________ 30 dots? __________
d) Will any triangle have 22 dots? ____
Why or why not? ______________________
4
Practice
1. a) Complete the table for this pattern of
Figure
Perimeter
(units)
1
6
regular hexagons.
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
The side length of each hexagon is 1 unit.
b) Write the pattern rule for the perimeters.
__________________________________
2
3
4
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
c) Which figure will have a perimeter of 22 units? ______ 34 units? ______
d) Predict the perimeter of the 10th figure. ___________________________
e) Will any figure have a perimeter of 40 units? Explain. _______________
_____________________________________________________________
2. a) Complete the table for
Figure
this pattern.
Perimeter
(units)
Area
(square units)
1
Figure 1
2
Figure 2
Figure 3
3
Figure 4
4
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
b) Write the pattern rule for the areas.
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
1. a) Which figure in question 2 will have a perimeter of 60 units?
___________
What will its area be? ___________________________________________
b) Which figure in question 2 will have an area of 81 square units? __________
What is its perimeter? ___________________________________________
5
TU
T
D E N B OO
3
K
S
UNIT 1
Representing Patterns
LESSO N
Quick Review
Here is a pattern.
From the table, the Squares in a Figure
increase by 2.
Here are 2 different ways to build this pattern:
me
At Sc
At Ho
Figure
1
2
3
4
Squares in
Figure
2
4
6
8
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+2
+2
+2
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Pattern 1
Pattern 2
The pattern rule for the number of squares in a figure is:
Start at 2. Add 2 each time.
Try These
1. a) Use counters to build this pattern.
Figure
Record the pattern below.
1
2
3
4
Counters in
a Figure
1
3
5
7
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
b) What is a pattern rule?
____________________________________________________________
6
Practice
1. a) Use toothpicks to build this pattern.
Figure
Draw the pattern below.
1
2
3
4
Toothpicks in
a Figure
2
4
6
8
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
b) Write a pattern rule. ____________________________________________
c) How many toothpicks would be in the eighth figure? ________________
2. a) Use counters to build this pattern.
Record the pattern below.
Figure
1
2
3
4
Counters in
a Figure
2
5
8
11
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
b) Build the pattern in a different way.
Record the pattern below.
c) Write a pattern rule: ____________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Choose a pattern rule.
Complete the data in the table.
Draw the pattern below.
Figure
Squares in a
Figure
1
2
3
4
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
7
TU
T
D E N B OO
4
K
S
UNIT 1
Equations Involving
Addition and Subtraction
LESSO N
Quick Review
=6
➤ Use counters.
Take away all but
6 counters.
Count the counters
you took away.
So, 15 – 9 = 6
➤ Draw a picture.
15 – 9 = 6
➤ Use guess and test.
Guess: = 7
Test: 15 – 7 = 8 This is too low.
Guess: = 9
Test: 15 – 9 = 6 This is correct.
Try These
1. Use counters to solve each equation.
Rewrite each equation.
Replace the symbol with the correct value.
a) 8 +
= 40
b) 25 –
______________
c)
+ 17 = 24
______________
8
= 15
______________
d)
– 25 = 20
______________
l
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Here are 3 ways to solve this subtraction equation: 15 –
Put out 15 counters.
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1. Write an equation for each set of counters.
_____________________________
a)
b)
+
_____________________
=
2. Use counters to solve each equation.
a)
–8=8
b)
= ______
7 + = 24
c) 15 – = 13
= ______
= ______
3. Draw a picture to solve each equation.
a) 19 –
= 14
b)
= ______
+ 5 = 16
= ______
4. Use guess and test to solve each equation.
a) 53 +
= 68
= ______
b)
37 – = 14
= ______
5. Write a story problem you could solve using the equation: 20 = 38 –
Solve the equation.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Solve: 126 +
+ 847 = 1000
= _____
9
T
E N T B OO
UD
5
K
S
UNIT 1
LESSO N
Equations Involving
Multiplication and
Division
Quick Review
Divide the counters into 4 equal groups.
➤ Draw a picture.
4 3 = 12
➤ Use mental math.
Think of a related division fact.
What do we divide 12 by to get 4?
12 ÷ 3 = 4
So, 4 3 = 12
Try These
1. Use counters to solve each equation.
a) 5 c)
= 20
= ______
b) 24 ÷
÷3=6
= ______
d)
e) 2 3 =
= ______
10
= 12
=6
= ______
8 = 32
= ______
f) 7 6 =
= _______
l
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Here are 3 ways to solve this multiplication equation: 4 ➤ Use counters.
Put out 12 counters.
me
At Sc
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Practice
1. Write a multiplication and division equation for each picture.
a)
b)
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
2. Draw a picture to solve each equation.
a) 9 = 18
= ______
b) 14 ÷
=2
c)
= ______
6 = 12
= ______
3. Use mental math to solve each equation.
a)
9 = 81
= ______
b) 21 ÷ = 3
= ______
c) 3 = 27
= ______
4. Write a story problem that could be solved by using this equation: 28 ÷
= 7.
Solve the problem.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Use these numbers and some of these symbols: 3, 4,
Write as many different equations as you can.
, , ÷, =.
11
TU
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D E N B OO
1
K
S
UNIT 2
Xxx
Whole Numbers to 10 000
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
At Ho
l
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You can show the number 1453 in different ways.
➤ Use Base Ten Blocks.
1 thousand
4 hundreds
5 tens
3 ones
➤ Use a place-value chart.
Thousands
1
Hundreds
4
Tens
5
Ones
3
➤ Use expanded form. 1453 = 1000 + 400 + 50 + 3
➤ Use words. 1453 is one thousand four hundred fifty-three.
The number 1453 is written in standard form.
Every digit has a place value, depending on its position.
Try These
1.
Write each number in standard form.
a) two thousand six hundred thirteen _______
b) 8000 + 600 + 40 + 1 _______
2. Write each number in expanded form.
a) 7125 ______________________
b) 2307 ______________________
3. Write each number in words.
a) 1620 ________________________________________________________
b) 3408 ________________________________________________________
12
Practice
1.
Complete the chart.
Standard Form
Expanded Form
2. Write each number in words.
a) 3602 ________________________________________________________
b) 5045 ________________________________________________________
3. Use each of these digits once to make each 4-digit number: 4, 2, 7, 5
a) the greatest possible number _______
b) the least possible number _______
c) the greatest number with 5 tens _______
d) the least number with 5 ones _______
Stretch Your Thinking
Use 5, 3, 1, and 7 once in each number you make.
Make as many 4-digit numbers as you can.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
13
TU
Comparing and Ordering
Numbers
T
D E N B OO
2
K
S
UNIT 2
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
At Ho
l
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Here are some ways to order the numbers 3261, 3621, and 2163
from least to greatest.
➤ Use a place-value chart.
Thousands
3
3
2
Hundreds
2
6
1
2163 has the
fewest
thousands,
so it is the
least number.
Tens
6
2
6
Ones
1
1
3
Both 3261 and 3621
have 3 thousands.
Compare their
hundreds.
200 < 600
So, 3261 < 3621
< means less than.
> means greater than.
➤ Use a number line.
2163
2000
3261
2500
3000
3621
3500
4000
From least to greatest: 2163, 3261, 3621
Try These
1.
Compare each pair of numbers. Write >, <, or =.
a) 627
485
b) 2641
4824
c) 2683
2683
2. Write the numbers in order from least to greatest.
758, 709, 741 ____________________________________________________
3. Write the numbers in order from greatest to least.
7148, 6271, 7285 ________________________________________________
14
Practice
1.
Play this game with a partner.
The object of the game is to make the greater number.
You will need a paper bag containing 10 cards with the digits 0 to 9.
➤ Draw a card from the bag.
Record the digit in any space in the first row of your game board.
Return the card to the bag.
➤ Take turns until each player fills all four spaces in a row.
➤ Compare your numbers.
Write > or < in the box between the numbers.
The player with the greater number wins a point.
➤ Play two more rounds.
The player with the most points at the end of the game wins.
Player 1
Player 2
2. a) Put your numbers from the game in order from least to greatest.
_____________________________________________________________
b) Put your partner’s numbers in order from greatest to least.
_____________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Make up three 4-digit numbers.
Order the numbers from greatest to least.
___________________________________________________________________
15
TU
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D E N B OO
3
Sorting Numbers
K
S
UNIT 2
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
At Ho
l
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Here are four ways to sort these numbers.
86
225
895
300
75
1000
721
Venn Diagram
Venn Diagram
1000
86
1000
225
895 300
75
86
300
721
Have 2 digits
Less than 500
Venn Diagram
Odd
Odd
Carroll Diagram
Greater than 200
225
895
721
895
721
Have 3 digits
300
225
75
Digits add to
less than 10
86
75
Even
Odd
300
1000
225
Digits add to
10 or more
86
75 721 895
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
1000
Try These
1.
Use each Venn diagram to sort these numbers.
94 27 85 13 44 76
a)
b)
c)
Digits add to 13
Odd
16
Even
Less than 50
Multiples of 2
Even
Practice
1.
Sort these numbers in each Venn diagram.
421 718 246 967 358 709 626
a)
Less than 900
b)
Even
Digits add to 16
Odd
2. Use a coloured pencil to write one more number in each part of the Venn
diagrams in question 1.
3. a) Sort these numbers in the
Carroll diagram.
56 101 77 84 50 126
91 105
Even
Odd
Multiples of 7
b) Use a coloured pencil to write
another number in each box
in the Carroll diagram.
Not Multiples of 7
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
4. Elmo travels to Sweden every three years.
Sven visits Sweden every four years.
Both men went to Sweden in 2006.
Use a Venn diagram to find the year
in which both men will visit Sweden again.
______________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Choose two attributes. Label the circles.
Sort these numbers in the Venn diagram.
1514 2658 947 352 685 4109
17
TU
T
D E N B OO
4
K
S
UNIT 2
Estimating Sums
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
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l
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When a question asks “about how many,” you can estimate.
Here are some ways to estimate the sum of 294 + 351.
➤ Write each number to the closest 100.
294 is closest to 300.
351 is closest to 400.
300 + 400 = 700
So, 294 + 351 is about 700.
➤ Use front-end estimation.
Add the first digits of the
numbers.
200 + 300 = 500
So, 294 + 351 is about 500.
For a closer estimate:
Think about 94 and 51.
This is about 100 + 50 = 150.
So, 294 + 351 is about 500 + 150 = 650.
Try These
1.
Estimate each sum.
a) 198 + 389
b) 119 + 408
c) 640 + 192
Estimate: __________
Estimate: __________
Estimate: __________
d) 79 + 272
e) 516 + 482
f) 291 + 291
Estimate: __________
Estimate: __________
Estimate: __________
2. William estimated 246 + 585 as 700.
Is his estimate high or low? Explain.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
18
Practice
1.
About how many beads would you have if you bought these sizes:
a) small and large? ______________ b) medium and jumbo? ___________
c) medium and large? ___________ d) jumbo and small? _____________
2. The toy shop sold 117 wind-up cars and 289 battery-operated cars
in one week. About how many cars did it sell? _________________________
3. Yolanda has a desktop publishing business. She wants to print
1000 items today. She actually prints 352 brochures and 581 flyers today.
a) About how many items did she print? _____________________________
b) Did Yolanda reach her goal? Explain.
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
4. Last summer, 227 children signed up for T-ball and 139 signed up for
baseball. About how many children signed up altogether? __________
Stretch Your Thinking
The estimated sum of two numbers is 1000.
What might the numbers be? Give three different answers.
___________________________________________________________________
19
TU
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D E N B OO
5
K
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UNIT 2
Using Mental Math to Add
LESSO N
Quick Review
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➤ Use mental math to add: 267 + 197
Use the strategy of make a “friendly” number.
197 is 200 – 3.
Add 200, then take away 3.
200 is a friendly number
267 + 200 = 467
because it is easy to add 200.
467 – 3 = 464
So, 267 + 197 = 464
➤ Count on to add: 271 + 580
Add 271 and 500. 271 + 500 = 771
Count on by 10s eight times.
771, 781, 791, 801, 811, 821, 831, 841, 851
So, 271 + 580 = 851
➤ Use mental math to add: 415 + 342
Use the strategy of “adding on” from left to right.
Add on hundreds, then tens, and then ones.
Think: 415 + 300 + 40 + 2
Count on 3 hundreds: 415, 515, 615, 715
Count on 4 tens: 715, 725, 735, 745, 755
Then add 2: 755 + 2 = 757
So, 415 + 342 = 757
Try These
1.
Use mental math to add.
a) 262 + 345 = _____
b) 497 + 222 = _____
c) 370 + 163 = _____
d) 399 + 544 = _____
e) 262 + 290 = _____
f) 196 + 341 = _____
2. Becky gathered 316 clams and Charlie gathered 286.
How many clams did they gather in all? Use mental math to find out. _____
20
Practice
Use mental math.
1. Add.
a) 690 + 284 = _______
b) 2131 + 3468 = _______
c) 352 + 213 = _______
d) 229 + 493 = _______
For which problems did you make a “friendly” number? __________________
2. Look at these containers.
If you bought the following groups
of animals, how many toy animals
would you have?
a) farm animals and zoo animals _______
b) sea creatures and jungle animals _______
c) zoo animals and jungle animals ________
3. Ridgetown has a population of 8317 people.
Mayberry has a population of 1291.
How many people live in the two towns? _______
4. The cafeteria sold 123 cartons of chocolate milk and 204 cartons of
white milk. How many cartons of milk were sold? _______
Stretch Your Thinking
Use mental math to add: 453 + 197 + 205 = _______
Describe the strategy you used. ________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
21
TU
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D E N B OO
6
Adding 3-Digit Numbers
K
S
UNIT 2
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
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Geraldo has 276 hockey cards and 397 baseball cards.
To find how many cards Geraldo has in all, add: 276 + 397
➤ Add from right to left.
276
397
500
160
13
673
+
Add the hundreds:
Add the tens:
Add the ones:
Add the sums:
➤ Add from right to left.
Add the ones: 13 ones
Regroup 13 ones as
1 ten and 3 ones.
Add the tens: 17 tens Add the hundreds:
Regroup 17 tens as
6 hundreds
1 hundred and 7 tens.
1
11
276
+ 397
3
Geraldo has 673 cards in all.
11
276
+ 397
73
276
+ 397
673
Try These
1.
Add.
a)
295
+ 104
b)
327
+ 415
c)
299
+ 463
d)
508
+ 419
e)
285
+ 79
2. There were 139 more people at the soccer game on Saturday than on Friday.
On Friday there were 472 people at the game.
How many people were at the game on Saturday? ____________________
22
Practice
1.
Estimate first.
Circle the letters next to the examples for which
the sum will be less than 900.
Then, add to find all the sums.
a)
738
b)
637
c)
109
d)
718
+ 191
+ 439
+ 488
+ 237
f)
482
+ 519
g)
234
+ 410
h)
689
+ 130
i)
651
+ 259
e)
367
+ 662
j)
318
+ 491
e)
397
+ 459
j)
282
+ 531
2. Estimate first.
Circle the letters next to the examples for which
the sum will be greater than 700.
Then, add to find all the sums.
a)
418
b)
526
c)
381
d)
108
+ 231
+ 437
+ 294
+ 592
f)
362
+ 282
g)
583
+ 199
h)
435
+ 428
i)
339
+ 382
3. Add: 419 + 386
Explain your strategy.
________________________________________________________________
4. What is the greatest 3-digit number you can add to 457 without having to
regroup in any place? ______
Stretch Your Thinking
The sum of two numbers is 853. What might the numbers be?
Find two pairs of numbers. ____________________________________________
23
TU
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D E N B OO
7
K
S
UNIT 2
Adding 4-Digit Numbers
LESSO N
Quick Review
15 hundreds is 1 thousand 5 hundreds
14 ones is 1 ten 4 ones
1000s 100s 10s 1s
1
7
5
6
+4
8
2
8
5
15
7 14
6
5
7 14
6
5
8
4
➤ 1756 + 2469
Add from right to left.
Add the ones. Add the tens. Add the hundreds. Add the thousands.
Regroup.
Regroup.
Regroup.
1756
+ 2469
5
11
1756
+ 2469
25
111
111
1756
+ 2469
225
1756
+ 2469
4225
Estimate to check that the sum is reasonable.
1756 is close to 2000. 2469 is
4225 is close to 4000.
close to 2000. 2000 + 2000 = 4000
So, the sum is reasonable.
Try These
1.
Find each sum. Estimate to check.
a) 5558
b)
3047
+ 1343
+ 2828
2. Estimate each sum.
a) 3276 + 4192
Estimate: _______
24
c)
4189
+ 3673
b) 1258 + 3769
Estimate: _______
d)
1847
+ 5684
c) 2672 + 3409
Estimate: _______
l
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➤ 1756 + 4828
Use column addition.
1
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Practice
1. Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
1 number cube labelled 1 to 6
➤ Take turns rolling the number cube.
On each roll, both players record the digit rolled
in one of the boxes in their first addition grid.
➤ After 8 rolls, players add.
The player with the greater sum wins.
➤ Repeat with the other addition grids.
Player A
Player B
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Stretch Your Thinking
The sum of two 4-digit numbers is 4589.
What might the two numbers be?
Give two different answers.
___________________________________________________________________
25
TU
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D E N B OO
8
K
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UNIT 2
Estimating Differences
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
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Here are some strategies for estimating differences.
➤ Estimate: 513 – 289
To get a closer estimate, write
Write each number
only one number to the closest 100.
to the nearest 100
513 – 300 = 213.
and subtract.
So, 513 – 289 is about 213.
500 – 300 = 200
So, 513 – 289 is about 200.
➤ Estimate: 4592 – 2369
Use front-end estimation.
Use the digits in the thousands
4592 ៮៬ 4000
place. Replace the other
2369 ៮៬ 2000
digits with zeros.
4000 – 2000 = 2000
So, 4592 – 2369 is about 2000.
Try These
1.
Estimate each difference.
a) 749 – 263
b) 504 – 327
c) 988 – 214
Estimate: __________
Estimate: __________ Estimate: ____________
d) 4580 – 1235
e) 677 – 48
f) 6896 – 1583
Estimate: ____________ Estimate: __________
Estimate: ____________
2. Natalie estimated 584 – 126 as 400. Is her estimate high or low? Explain.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
26
Practice
1.
Use the data in the chart to estimate each difference.
School Lunches Served
Day
Monday
Number Served
286
Tuesday
327
Wednesday
489
Thursday
417
Friday
648
a) About how many more lunches were served on Friday
than on Monday? _____________________________________________
b) About how many more lunches were served on Thursday
than on Tuesday? ______________________________________________
c) About how many more lunches were served on Wednesday
than on Tuesday? _____________________________________________
2. Laleh estimated the difference of 7654 and 4111 as 4000, and Sam
estimated the difference as 3500.
a) How might Laleh have estimated?
_____________________________________________________________
b) How might Sam have estimated?
_____________________________________________________________
c) Whose estimate is better? Explain.
_____________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Find a pair of 3-digit numbers that have an estimated difference of 520.
___________________________________________________________________
27
TU
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D E N B OO
9
K
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UNIT 2
Using Mental Math to
Subtract
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
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Here are some strategies for using mental math to subtract.
➤ Use the strategy of “make a friendly number.”
Subtract: 437 – 103
Subtract: 719 – 398
Subtract 100 instead of 103.
Add 2 to 398 to make 400.
437 – 100 = 337
Add 2 to 719 to make 721.
Then subtract 3.
721 – 400 = 321
337 – 3 = 334
So, 719 – 398 = 321
So, 437 – 103 = 334
➤ Use the strategy of “counting on.”
Subtract: 441 – 230
Count: 230
330
430
440
441
+100 +100
So, 441 – 230 = 211
+10
+1
=
211
Try These
1.
Use mental math to subtract.
a) 427 – 299 = _______
b) 625 – 495 = _______
c) 586 – 397 = _______
d) 256 – 101 = _______
e) 748 – 403 = _______
f) 462 – 202 = _______
g) 4272 – 2150 = _______ h) 7758 – 3547 = _______ i) 6894 – 1673 = _______
2. Laslo travelled 637 km on Saturday and 402 km on Sunday.
How much farther did he travel on Saturday than on Sunday?
Use mental math to find out. ________
3. The hot dog stand served 250 hot dogs on Friday and 481 on Saturday.
How many more hot dogs were served on Saturday than on Friday?
Use mental math to find out. _____________
28
Practice
1. Use mental math to find each difference.
Then use the letters next to the differences to solve the riddle.
What did King Tut say
when he was scared?
543 – 260 = ________ (B)
622 – 415 = ________ (E)
894 – 517 = ________ (N)
583 – 298 = ________ (I)
499 – 354 = ________ (M)
314 – 189 = ________ (U)
532 – 220 = ________ (T)
847 – 606 = ________ (Y)
684 – 302 = ________ (W)
717 – 402 = ________ (Z)
536 – 199 = ________ (C)
632 – 421 = ________ (F)
947 – 624 = ________ (L)
231 – 111 = ________ (A)
285
382 120 377 312
145 241
145
125
145
145
241
Stretch Your Thinking
Describe two ways to find 4000 – 3894.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
29
UNIT 2
TU
Subtracting 3-Digit
Numbers
T
D E N B OO
S
K
10
LESSO N
Quick Review
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There are 300 seats in the theatre. One hundred eighty-four seats
are on the main floor. The rest are in the balcony.
To find how many seats are in the balcony, subtract: 300 – 184
9
➤ You can use place value to subtract.
2 10 10
You cannot take 4 ones from 0 ones.
300
There are no tens to regroup.
– 184
Regroup 1 hundred as 10 tens.
Regroup 1 ten as 10 ones.
9
Subtract the ones.
2 10 10
Subtract the tens.
300
– 184
Subtract the hundreds.
116
➤ You can use mental math to subtract.
Count on from 184 to 300.
184
284
294
300
+100
+10
+6
You can check by adding.
Add: 184 + 116 = 300
= 116
Try These
1.
Subtract.
a) 465
– 213
b)
786
– 229
c)
574
– 197
d)
600
– 211
e)
238
– 79
2. Find the difference. Use mental math.
30
a) 400 – 174 = _______
b) 500 – 189 = _______
c) 347 – 215 = _______
d) 701 – 500 = _______
e) 428 – 299 = _______
f) 152 – 107 = _______
Practice
1.
Subtract. Check your answers.
a)
836
b)
726
– 451 Check:
– 538
c)
Check:
736
– 528
Check:
2. Use mental math to find each difference.
a) 400 – 263 = ______
b) 501 – 248 = ______
c) 450 – 231 = ______
3. Estimate first. Then subtract the numbers for which the difference will be
less than 300.
a) 591
b) 436
– 375
– 168
c)
624
– 235
d)
716
– 371
e)
327
– 79
4. Ms. Green’s class collected 600 cans for recycling.
Mr. Hso’s class collected 427 cans.
How many more cans did Ms. Green’s class collect?
___________
5. Sanil’s school had a book sale.
On Monday they sold 697 books.
On Tuesday they sold 842 books.
How many more books did they sell on Tuesday?
____________
Stretch Your Thinking
The difference of two numbers is 329.
What might the numbers be? Find two pairs of numbers.
___________________________________________________________________
31
UNIT 2
TU
Subtracting 4-Digit
Numbers
T
D E N B OO
S
K
12
LESSO N
Quick Review
2053
– 997
6
9 14
1 10 4 13
9 14
1 10 4 13
2053
– 997
6
2053
– 997
1056
Check.
➤ By adding:
997
+ 1056
2053
➤ By estimating:
2000 – 1000 = 1000
1000 is close to 1056.
So, the answer is reasonable.
The sum should be
the number you started with.
Try These
1.
Subtract.
a)
4532
– 2121
b)
5726
– 248
c)
7243
– 5685
d) 4029
– 388
2. Subtract. Check your answer.
a)
32
9354
– 3287
Check:
b)
7600
– 1452
Check:
l
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Subtract: 2053 – 997
You can use place value to subtract from right to left.
Subtract the tens.
Regroup 1 ten as
Regroup 1 thousand
Subtract the hundreds.
as 10 hundreds.
10 ones.
Regroup 1 hundred
Subtract the thousands.
Subtract the ones.
as 10 tens.
4 13
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Practice
1.
Estimate. Then subtract.
a)
3059
b)
5138
– 2298
– 4479
c)
8209
– 5919
d)
5439
– 3216
Estimate: _______ Estimate: _______ Estimate: _______ Estimate: _______
2. Manjit and Irene like to collect acorns.
Manjit collected 1286 acorns and Irene collected 898.
How many more acorns did Manjit collect than Irene? ______
3. Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
1 number cube
paper
pencils
➤ Each player draws a subtraction grid like this:
➤ Take turns rolling the number cube.
After each turn, both players record the digit
rolled in any box in their grid.
➤ After 8 rolls, players subtract.
The player with the greater difference wins.
Play 5 or more games.
Stretch Your Thinking
A 3-digit number is subtracted from a 4-digit number.
The difference is 426. What could the two numbers be? Give two answers.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
33
UNIT 2
T
Solving Addition and
Subtraction Problems
E N T B OO
UD
S
K
13
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
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Jakob delivered 2472 flyers in March, 3854 in April, and 1962 in May.
How many flyers did Jakob deliver in all?
➤ Add: 2472 + 3854 + 1962
2 1
2472
3854
+ 1962
8288
Add the ones.
Add the tens. Regroup.
Add the hundreds. Regroup.
Add the thousands.
Jakob delivered 8288 flyers.
Jakob was paid $165 for his work.
He bought a pair of skates for $119.
Later, he bought a hockey stick for $18.
How much money did Jakob have left?
➤ Subtract:
5 15
165
119
46
3 16
46
Then subtract 18 from the result: 18
28
Jacob has $28 left.
Try These
1. Add.
a)
4723
6415
+ 3027
b)
8962
3471
+ 536
c)
1357
2468
+ 2389
d)
4572
3002
+ 5679
2. Estimate to check each answer in question 1. Show your work.
34
a) ___________________________
b) ___________________________
c) ___________________________
d) ___________________________
Practice
1. Maddy had $1467 in her bank account.
She withdrew $247 one week and $135 the next week.
How much money did Maddy have left in her account?
________________________________________________________________
2. Play this game with a partner.
You will need a number cube labelled 1 to 6.
➤ Take turns to roll the number cube.
On each roll, both players record the digit rolled in one of the boxes in
the first addition grid.
➤ After 12 rolls, add.
The player with the greater sum wins.
➤ Repeat with the other grids.
Player A
Player B
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Stretch Your Thinking
The sum of three 4-digit numbers is 5638.
What might the numbers be? __________________________________________
35
TU
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D E N B OO
1
K
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UNIT 3
Xxx
Using Doubles to Multiply
LESSO N
Quick Review
➤ Use doubling to multiply by 4.
To find 4 5:
First find 2 5, then double.
2 5 = 10
4 5 = 20
double
25
➤ Use repeated doubling to multiply by 8.
To find 8 3:
First find 2 3, then double, then double again.
23=6
4 3 = 12
8 3 = 24
45
➤ Begin with a fact you know.
Double one of the factors, then multiply.
You know 3 4 = 12.
Double the factor 3, then multiply: 6 4 = 24 (double of 12)
Or, double the factor 4, then multiply: 3 8 = 24 (double of 12)
When you double a factor, the product doubles.
Try These
Use doubling to multiply.
a) 2 7 = 14
4 7 = _____
b) 4 3 = 12
8 3 = _____
c) 3 5 = 15
__________
2. Double one of the factors each time to get a product.
Then check the circle if the product is double the one in the box.
a) 4 3 =
__________
__________
36
b) 2 5 =
__________
__________
c) 5 3 =
__________
__________
l
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Doubling is a strategy you can use to multiply.
1.
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Practice
1.
Use doubling to multiply.
a) 2 9 = 18
4 9 = _____
2. Find each product.
a) 2 6 = _____
4 6 = _____
8 6 = _____
b) 3 3 = 9
c) 6 5 = ____
___________
___________
b) 2 9 = _____
4 9 = _____
8 9 = _____
c) 2 7 = _____
2 14 = _____
2 28 = _____
3. Use repeated doubling to multiply.
a) 8 6 =
b) 8 5 =
c) 9 8 =
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
8 6 = _____
8 5 = _____
9 8 = _____
4. What could each missing number be?
Find as many answers as you can.
a)
= 18
b)
= 36
______________________________
________________________________
______________________________
________________________________
______________________________
________________________________
______________________________
________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Multiply.
1.
2 2 = _____ 4 2 = _____ 8 2 = _____ 16 2 = _____ 32 2 = _____
2. 2 5 = _____ 4 5 = _____ 8 5 = _____ 16 5 = _____ 32 5 = _____
37
TU
Multiplying by 1, by 0,
and by 10
T
D E N B OO
2
K
S
UNIT 3
LESSO N
Quick Review
bowls
1
=
fish
5
fish in all
Also, 1 × 5 = 5
When 1 is a factor,
the product is always
the other factor.
Think: 7 groups of 0 is 7 × 0.
7
bowls
0
=
fish
0
fish in all
Also, 0 × 7 = 0
Think: 4 groups of 10 is 4 × 10.
4
10
=
When 0 is a factor,
the product is
always 0.
40
fish in all
When 10 is a factor, the
product is always the other
factor with a zero added.
a) 6 1 = ______
b) 7 1 = _______
c) 4 1 = _______
2. a) 6 0 = ______
b) 3 0 = _______
c) 2 0 = _______
3. a) 7 10 = ______
b) 8 10 = _______
c) 4 10 = _______
tanks
fish
Also, 10 × 4 = 40
Try These
Multiply.
1.
38
l
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Think: 5 groups of 1 is 5 × 1.
5
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Practice
1.
Find each product.
a) 1 4 = _______
b) 0 0 = _______
c) 0 7 = _______
d) 5 10 = _______
e) 6 0 = _______
f) 10 6 = _______
g) 0 4 = _______
h) 7 10 = _______
i) 1 1 = _______
2. Find each missing number.
a) 4 ____ = 0
b) ____ 6 = 6
c) 7 ____ = 70
d) ____ 1 = 1
e) ____ 5 = 50
f) ____ 4 = 4
g) 1 ____ = 10
h) ____ 1 = 3
i) 2 ____ = 2
a) 5 ____ 1 = 5
b) 1 ____ 1 = 1
c) 6 ____ 10 = 60
d) 10 ___ 3 = 30
e) 4 ____ 1 = 5
f) 0 ____ 2 = 0
g) 1 ____ 4 = 4
h) 1 ____ 1 = 2
i) 7 ____ 0 = 7
3. Write + or ×.
4. Rico has 1 nickel, 5 dimes, and 7 pennies.
How much money does Rico have?
Show your work.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Which is greater, the product of your age times 0 or
the product of your age times 1? Explain.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
39
TU
Using Skip Counting
to Multiply
T
D E N B OO
3
K
S
UNIT 3
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
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l
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You can use skip counting patterns to multiply mentally.
➤ To find 6 8, skip count by 8 six times.
These numbers
are multiples of 8.
8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48
8
0
16
24
32
40
48
6 steps of 8 is 48.
6 8 = 48
➤ Another way to find 6 8 is to skip count by
6 eight times.
6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
These numbers
are multiples of 6.
42
48
8 steps of 6 is 48.
6 8 = 48
Try These
1.
Skip count to find the missing numbers.
a) 4, 8, 12, _____, _____, _____, _____
b) 9, 18, 27, _____, _____, _____, _____
c) 7, 14, 21, _____, _____, _____, _____
2. Skip count to find each product.
a) 5 4 = _____
b) 3 8 = _____
e) 7 5 = _____
40
f) 3 7 = _____
c) 4 3 = _____
d) 9 2 = _____
g) 6 8 = _____
h) 8 8 = _____
Practice
1.
a) Use the hundred chart.
Hundred Chart
Colour all the numbers in
which the ones digit and
the tens digit add up to 9.
b) What multiples have
you coloured?
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
2. Play this game with 2 or 3 friends.
You will need:
2 sets of cards numbered 2 to 10
3 counters for each player
a small container
➤
➤
➤
➤
Take 3 counters each.
Shuffle the cards and put them in a pile face down.
Turn over the top card. This is the number you will start with.
Go around the group. Say one number each, counting on by the number
on the card.
The player who says 100 or a number over 100 puts a counter in the
container.
The next player turns over a new card and starts the counting.
➤ The first person to get rid of all 3 counters wins.
Stretch Your Thinking
1.
a) In the game above, which start numbers will result in a player saying 100?
_______________________________________________________________
b) Which start numbers will result in a player going over 100?
_______________________________________________________________
41
TU
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D E N B OO
4
K
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UNIT 3
Other Strategies for
Multiplying
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
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l
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You can multiply by adding groups to the facts you know.
➤ Use facts with 2 to multiply by 3. ➤ Use facts with 5 to multiply by 6.
To find 3 9:
To find 6 8:
2 9 = 18
5 8 = 40
18 + 9 = 27
40 + 8 = 48
19= 9
18= 8
So, 3 9 = 27
So, 6 8 = 48
➤ Use facts with 5 and 2
to multiply by 7.
To find 7 6:
5 6 = 30
30 + 12 = 42
2 6 = 12
So, 7 6 = 42
➤ Use facts with 10
to multiply by 9.
To find 9 8:
10 8 = 80
80 – 8 = 72
18= 8
So, 9 8 = 72
➤ To multiply by an even factor, use a half, and then double.
To find 8 7:
Half of 8 is 4.
4 7 = 28
28 2 = 56
So, 8 7 = 56
Try These
a) 3 7 = ____
b) 3 5 = ____
c) 3 8 = ____
2. a) 6 9 = ____
b) 6 5 = ____
c) 6 7 = ____
3. a) 7 7 = ____
b) 7 9 = ____
c) 7 8 = ____
4. a) 9 9 = ____
b) 9 7 = ____
c) 9 4 = ____
5. a) 6 3 = ____
b) 8 6 = ____
c) 4 9 = ____
1.
42
Practice
1.
Name two facts that help you find each product.
a) 4 9
______________________________________________________
b) 7 6
______________________________________________________
c) 6 8
______________________________________________________
d) 9 6
______________________________________________________
e) 4 8
______________________________________________________
f) 8 7
______________________________________________________
2. Show how you could use the product of 4 × 6 to find the product of 8 × 6.
________________________________________________________________
3. Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
3 number cubes labelled 1 to 6
2 calculators
6
2
3
5 1
4
5
1 3
➤ Take turns to roll all 3 number cubes.
Put the one with the greatest number aside.
If you roll more than one greatest number, put only one aside.
Roll the other 2 number cubes.
Put the one with the greater number aside.
Roll the last number cube.
➤ Add the numbers on your first 2 cubes.
Multiply the total by the number on your third cube.
The product is your score.
➤ Keep playing until one player reaches a total of 200.
Stretch Your Thinking
Show how you could use a half, than double to find the product 6 9.
___________________________________________________________________
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5
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UNIT 3
Using Patterns in a
Multiplication Chart
LESSO N
Quick Review
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You can use patterns to remember multiplication facts.
➤ In a multiplication chart,
there are matching numbers
on each side of the diagonal
from 1 to 81.
If you know...
then you know:
5 7 = 35
7 5 = 35
9 8 = 72
8 9 = 72
➤ There are patterns in the
multiplication facts with 9.
•
•
The digits in the product
always add to 9.
5 9 = 45
4+5=9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
2
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
3
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
4
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
5
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
6
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
7
7
14
21
28
35
42
49
56
63
8
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
9
9
18
27
36
45
54
63
72
81
8 9 = 72
7+2=9
The number multiplied by 9 is always 1 more than the tens digit
in the product.
6 9 = 54
6 is 1 more than 5. 4 9 = 36
4 is 1 more than 3.
Try These
1.
Complete.
a) 8 9 = ___ 8 b) 3 7 = 7 ___
c) 6 4 = ___ 6
2. Multiply.
44
a) 9 6 = ____
b) 5 9 = ____
c) 2 9 = _____
d) 9 8 = ____
e) 7 9 = ____
f) 4 9 = _____
g) 8 9 = ____
h) 9 7 = ____
i) 9 4 = _____
Practice
1.
Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
25 counters
2 calculators
paper and pencils
➤ Decide on a number from 2 to 9. This number will be the game factor.
➤ Player A: Place a counter on any number on the board and multiply by
the game factor. Record the product as your score.
➤ Player B: Place a counter on a number
When something is
adjacent to Player A’s number. Multiply by
adjacent to something
the game factor and record your score.
else, it is next to it.
➤ Continue playing. On each turn, place
a counter next to the last one played.
If an adjacent square is not empty, place the counter in any empty square.
➤ When the board is filled, the winner is the player with the highest total score.
1
5
0
2
9
7
8
3
7
1
8
3
4
2
6
4
6
7
9
3
2
4
1
5
0
Stretch Your Thinking
Suppose you are Player A. Where will you place the first counter? Explain.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
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7
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UNIT 3
Using Arrays to Divide
LESSO N
Quick Review
You can make an array to show each way.
2 rows of
3 stools
62=3
3 rows of 2
3 rows of
2 stools
63=2
1 row of 6
6 rows of 1
1 row of
6 stools
61=6
6 rows of
1 stool
66=1
Try These
1.
Use the array to complete the sentence.
a) 18 6 = _______
46
b) 14 2 = _______
c) 15 3 = _______
l
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There are 6 stools.
They will be put into equal rows.
How many stools could be in each row?
2 rows of 3
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Practice
1.
Write a division sentence for each array.
a)
b)
_______________
c)
_______________
_______________
2. Draw an array for each division sentence.
a) 15 5 = _______
b) 12 2 = ______
c) 24 6 = _______
3. Use counters. Make an array to find each answer.
a) 20 4 = _______
b) 16 2 = _______
c) 6 1 = _______
d) 18 9 = _______
e) 30 5 = _______
f) 28 7 = _______
Stretch Your Thinking
There are 24 members in the Boy Scout troop.
They will march in the parade in equal rows.
How many Boy Scouts could be in each row?
Find as many answers as you can.
___________________________________________________________________
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8
K
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UNIT 3
Relating Multiplication
and Division
LESSO N
Quick Review
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There are 42 students who want to play hockey.
There are 6 players on a team.
How many teams can there be?
To find out, divide: 42 6
Here are two ways to find 42 6:
➤ Make an array of 42 counters with
6 counters in each row.
There are 7 rows.
So: 42 6 = 7
There can be 7 teams.
Think:
➤ You can think about
multiplication to divide.
Every division fact has
a related multiplication fact.
6 times which
number is 42?
You know 6 7= 42.
So, 42 6 = 7
Try These
1.
Write a multiplication fact and a division fact for each array.
a)
b)
_________________________
_________________________
2. Use a related multiplication fact to help you divide. Write the related fact.
a) 20 4 = _______
b) 30 5 = _______
c) 14 7 = _______
_______________
48
_______________
_______________
Practice
1.
Divide. Draw a picture to show your work.
24 3 = _______
30 5 = _______
18 2 = _______
5 5 = _______
2. Use a related multiplication fact to divide.
a) 18 6 = _____ b) 45 5 = _____ c) 56 7 = _____ d) 35 5 = _____
e) 24 4 = _____ f) 27 3 = _____ g) 12 2 = _____ h) 9 1 = _____
3. Write a division fact to solve each question.
a) 24 children
b) 18 cookies
c) 42 cans
6 children on a team
How many teams?
9 cookies on a plate
How many plates?
7 cans in each row
How many rows?
_______________
_______________
_______________
Stretch Your Thinking
Find all the ways of dividing 36 students into equal teams.
Write a division fact to show each way.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
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TU
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9
K
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UNIT 3
Dividing by Numbers
from 1 to 9
LESSO N
Quick Review
l
hoo
Here’s how to divide by 8 and 9.
48 8
8×
= 48
Think
8 × 6 = 48
multiplication.
So, 48 8 = 6
Also, 48 6 = 8
63 9
9×
= 63
9 × 7 = 63
So, 63 9 = 7
Also, 63 7 = 9
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Related Facts
48 8 = 6
48 6 = 8
6 8 = 48
8 6 = 48
Related Facts
63 9 = 7
63 7 = 9
7 9 = 63
9 7 = 63
Think
multiplication.
Try These
1.
Write two multiplication facts and two division facts for each array.
a)
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
a) 27 9 = _______ b) 16 8 = _______
c) 45 9 = _______ d) 64 8 = _______
50
__________
__________
2. Divide.
e) 36 9 = _______
b)
f) 32 8 = _______
Practice
1.
Find the product. Then write a related multiplication fact and two related
division facts.
a) 3 9 = _______
b) 8 5 = _______
c) 9 7 = _______
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
2. Divide.
a) 49 7 = _______
b) 81 9 = _______
c) 45 5 = _______
d) 27 3 = _______
e) 56 8 = _______
f) 36 6 = _______
3. Write a division sentence to show each answer.
a) There are 28 days in February. How many weeks is that?
_____________________________________________________________
b) There are 3 tennis balls in a carton.
How many cartons are needed for 27 balls?
_____________________________________________________________
c) There are 54 students in the band. They march in 6 equal rows.
How many students are in each row?
_____________________________________________________________
d) There are 9 kiwi fruit in a small basket.
A box contains 72 kiwi fruit in a single layer.
How many small baskets of kiwi fruit can be filled?
_____________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Complete this division sentence in as many ways as you can.
=8
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
51
UNIT 3
TU
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D E N B OO
S
K
10
Pose and Solve Problems
LESSO N
Thirty-two students signed up for swimming lessons.
The classes are taught in groups of 8.
How many classes will there be?
Here are 2 ways to find out.
➤ Use a model.
Use 32 counters.
Put them into groups of 8.
So, there will be 4 classes.
➤ Guess, then test.
Suppose you guess 5 classes.
Test: 5 × 8 = 40; that is too many students.
Guess again: 4 × 8 = 32; that is the correct number.
So, there will be 4 classes.
Try These
Use counters or guess, then test. Show your work.
1. Twenty-three students go on a camping trip.
Each tent holds 4 students.
How many tents will be needed?
__________________________________
2. Ramzi has 4 cages of gerbils.
There are 5 gerbils in each cage.
How many gerbils does Ramzi have?
__________________________________
52
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Quick Review
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Practice
1. Suri picked 72 apples. Each basket holds 9 apples.
How many baskets did she need?
____________________________________________________________
2. Enrico saw 16 bicycles and tricycles in the playground.
He counted a total of 36 wheels.
How many bicycles were there? How many tricycles?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
3. Use the data in the table.
Write a story problem you can solve
using multiplication or division.
Solve your problem.
Product
Tennis balls
Baseballs
Hockey pucks
Number
in a Box
3
6
4
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Chase had 81 chickens. He sold an equal number of chickens to each of
3 customers and had 54 chickens left. How many chickens did Chase sell to each
customer?
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
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1
Xxx
Calendar Time
K
S
UNIT 4
LESSO N
Quick Review
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Gillian’s cat was born on May 15th, 2004.
We can write this date in different ways:
➤ We use 2 digits for the month and 2 digits for the day.
2004
05
15
Year
5th month
This date is written
in metric notation.
15th day
➤ This way of writing the date uses two 2 digits for the year too.
04
05
Year Month
15
05
15
04
15
05
04
Day
Month
Day
Year
Day
Month
Year
Try These
1.
Write each date in metric notation.
a) November 30th, 2005 ___________ b) March 17th, 1998 _____________
c) April 7, 2000 ___________________ d) June 26, 1959 ________________
2. Write each date using words and numbers.
a) 1976 10
14
b) 2007 12 01
Year Month Day
Year Month Day
c) 01
03
95
Month Day Year
e) 05
06
00
Day Month Year
54
d) 08
04 06
Month Day
f) 09
Year
05 12
Day Month Year
Practice
1.
Write each date using words and numbers.
a) 2001 09 08 ___________________ b) 1989 12 11 ___________________
c) 2009 10 02 ___________________ d) 2004 04 03 __________________
2. Use words and numbers to record the date of birth of 2 classmates.
Then write each date in metric notation.
a) _____________________________________________________________
b) _____________________________________________________________
3. Write each date in metric notation.
a) the seventh day of last month
_______________________________
b) the first day of this year
_______________________________
c) the date of your fifth birthday
_______________________________
d) the last day of next month
_______________________________
e) the day after April 19th, 2008
_______________________________
f) the day before June 1st, 1987
_______________________________
g) the day after December 31st, 2010
_______________________________
4. In what ways can the date 03 04 79 be interpreted?
________________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Benito turned 10 on the 3rd day of the 11th month of 2005.
Write this date in as many ways as you can.
___________________________________________________________________
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2
Exploring Time
K
S
UNIT 4
LESSO N
Quick Review
quarter after 5
5:15
half past 5
5:30
quarter to 6
5:45
➤ A clock with numbers and no hands is a digital clock.
The clock shows 45 minutes after 10 o’ clock.
10 45
We say: “Ten forty-five.”
Try These
1.
Write each time two different ways.
a)
b)
____________
____________
c)
____________
____________
____________
____________
2. Write each time in a different way.
56
a) 2:00
_______________
b)
quarter after 9
____________
c) 8:30
_______________
d)
twelve forty-five ____________
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➤ A clock with numbers and hands is an analog clock.
5 o’ clock
5:00
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Practice
1.
Read the time on each analog clock.
Write the same time on the digital clock.
a)
b)
3 45
c)
11 30
d)
2 15
11 00
2. Write each time in a different way.
a) quarter after 12 __________
b) 7:45 ___________________
c) nine o’clock _____________
d) three thirty _____________
e) 7:15 ___________________
f) half past one ____________
g) six forty-five ____________
h) quarter to four __________
3. Caleb did push-ups for 15 minutes. He started at 4:30.
At what time did he finish? ____________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Millie started baking at 3:45. She finished at 5:00.
How long did Millie spend baking? Explain how you know.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
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3
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UNIT 4
Telling Time
LESSO N
Quick Review
8 o’clock
8:00
5 minutes after 8 o’clock
8:05
5 35
This analog clock shows
50 minutes after 12 o’clock or
10 minutes before 1 o’clock
12:50
This digital clock shows
35 minutes after 5 o’clock
5:35
It is twelve fifty or
ten to one.
It is five thirty-five.
Try These
Write the time shown on each analog clock.
a)
b)
_______
58
c)
_______
_______
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It takes 5 minutes for the
minute hand to move
from one number
to the next number.
1.
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Practice
1.
Write each time two different ways.
a)
b)
c)
_______
_______
_______
__________________
__________________
__________________
2. Skip count to find how many minutes are between each pair of times.
a) 6:15 and 6:20 _______________
b) 8:10 and 8:40 _______________
c) 2:40 and 2:55 _______________
d) 12:00 and 12:30 _____________
3. Read the time on the analog clock.
Write the same time on the digital clock.
3 45
4. What is another way you could write twenty-five to seven?
________________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Lester left the library at 20 minutes before 5:00.
Show the time on the digital clock.
4:40
4
40
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4
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UNIT 4
Elapsed Time
LESSO N
Quick Review
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The amount of time from the start to the end of an activity
is the elapsed time.
Oscar practised on his drums
from 2:30 P.M. to 3:05 P.M.
To find the elapsed time in
minutes, count on by 5s.
Oscar practised for
35 minutes.
30
25
20
11
35
12
End
1
10
2
3
9
15
4
8
7
10
5
6
5
Start
Try These
Use a clock to help you.
1. Find each elapsed time. Write the answer in minutes.
a) 2:40 P.M. to 2:55 P.M. ___________________________________________
b) 6:05 A.M. to 6:40 A.M. ___________________________________________
c) 7:55 P.M. to 8:35 P.M. ___________________________________________
d) 11:45 A.M. to 12:25 P.M. _________________________________________
2. Tell what time it will be 25 minutes later.
60
a) It’s 4:30 P.M. __________
b) It’s 1:25 P.M. __________
c) It’s 8:20 A.M. __________
d) It’s 5:15 A.M. __________
Practice
1.
Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
2 play clocks
2 markers
1 number cube labelled 1 to 6
Go ahead
15 minutes
Go back
5 minutes
Time
Time
Start
Finish
Go ahead
10 minutes
Time
Go back
10 minutes
Time
➤ Show 4:00 on your play clock.
Go ahead
➤ Put your markers on Start.
30 minutes
➤ Take turns:
• Roll the number cube.
Time
Move your marker that many spaces.
• If you land on a Time space, change the
time on your clock. Read the new time.
➤ Keep playing until you reach Finish.
➤ Find the elapsed time between 4:00
and the new time on your clock.
Go ahead
➤ The player with the greater elapsed 25 minutes
time wins.
Time
Go back
15 minutes
Go ahead
20 minutes
Time
Time
Stretch Your Thinking
It is 11:20 P.M. What time will it be in 2 hours 25 minutes? __________
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UNIT 4
Telling Time to the Minute
LESSO N
Quick Review
9:25
9:26
5
You can read times after the half-hour in different ways.
12
52 minutes after
4 o'clock or 4:52
1
2
10
3
9
4
8
7
6
8 minutes before 5 o'clock
or 8 minutes to 5
5
Try These
Write the time shown on each clock.
a)
b)
____________
c)
____________
____________
2. Show the time on each clock.
a)
b)
9:58
62
c)
3:39
10:21
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When the minute hand moves from one mark on the clock to the next
mark, it takes 1 minute of time.
1.
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Practice
1.
Write each time two different ways.
a)
b)
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
2. Show the time on each digital clock.
a) quarter to five
b) half past eleven
4:45
4
45
11:30
11
30
c) quarter past six
6:15
6
15
3. Write something you might be doing at each time.
a) 12:04 P.M. ____________________________________________________
b) 3:58 A.M. _____________________________________________________
c) 9:25 P.M. _____________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
The sum of the digits on this digital clock is 15.
At what other times will the digits add up to 15?
Give at least 2 answers.
5 37
___________________________________________________________________
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6
The 24-Hour Clock
K
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UNIT 4
LESSO N
This is a 24-h clock.
There are 24 h in one day.
From midnight to noon, the hours are from 0 to 12.
From 1 P.M. to midnight, the hours are from 13 to 24.
24
13
11 12 1
22
14
10
2
21 9
3 15
8
4
20
7 6 5 16
19
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17
When we use the 24-h clock, we use 4 digits to write the time.
10:15 A.M. is
written 10:15.
23
24
13
11 12 1
14
10
2
21 9
3 15
8
4
20
7 6 5 16
22
19
18
6:30 A.M. is
written 06:30.
24
23
11 12 1
14
10
2
21 9
3 15
8
4
16
20
7 6 5
19
18
23
13
22
17
6:30 P.M. is
written 18:30.
24
13
11 12 1
14
10
2
21 9
3 15
8
4
16
20
7 6 5
17
22
19
18
17
Try These
1.
Write each time using a 24-h clock.
a) 8:10 A.M.
b) 12:00 noon
c) 10:20 P.M.
2. Write each time using A.M. or P.M.
a)
b)
6 12
________________
64
c)
10 55
__________________
13 43
________________
Practice
1. Write each time using a 24-h clock. Assume it is past noon.
a)
23
24
13
b)
11 12 1
14
22
10
2
21 9
3 15
8
4
16
20
7 6 5
19
18
23
24
13
c)
11 12 1
22
14
10
2
21 9
3 15
8
4
20
16
7 6 5
19
17
18
23
24
13
d)
11 12 1
22
14
10
2
21 9
3 15
8
4
20
7 6 5 16
19
17
18
23
24
13
11 12 1 14
10
2
21 9
3 15
8
4
20
7 6 5 16
22
19
17
18
17
2. Write each time using A.M. or P.M.
a)
07:14
b)
11:47
c)
15:58
d)
04:44
3. What time is it?
a) 2 h after 17:25
b) 7 h after 18:45
c) 6 h before 14:30
d) 12 h before 07:21
e) 20 min after 11:55
f) 45 min after 23:00
4. Gerald arrived at school at 09:03. School starts at 09:00.
How late was Gerald?
5. Shu Ying started running on the treadmill at 07:45.
She stopped at 08:02. How long did Shu Ying run?
6. Mr. Albert fell asleep at 23:30 and slept for seven and one-quarter hours.
At what time did he wake up?
Stretch Your Thinking
Amanjeet left Winnipeg, MB, at 16:55 on Oct. 26. When she arrived in Edmonton,
AB, her watch showed 08:05, Oct. 27. How long was the trip?
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7
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UNIT 4
Covering Shapes
LESSO N
Quick Review
Try These
1.
a) Use yellow Pattern Blocks to
find the area of this shape.
Record the area in the table.
b) Repeat using red, blue, and
green Pattern Blocks.
Area in
Pattern Blocks
3
Yellow Pattern Block
Red Pattern Block
6
Blue Pattern Block
9
Green Pattern Block
18
Unit
66
The unit is 1 blue Pattern Block.
The area is 3 blue Pattern Blocks.
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The number of units needed to cover a shape is the area of the shape.
The units must be the same size. The units must be congruent.
To find the area of a shape, count how many units cover it.
The unit is 1 green Pattern Block.
The area is 4 green Pattern Blocks.
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Practice
1.
a) Estimate the area of the hexagon in red Pattern Blocks.
Then find the area in red Pattern Blocks and record it in the table.
b) Repeat the activity with blue and green Pattern Blocks.
Pattern
Area in
Block Estimate Pattern
Unit
Blocks
red
10
8
blue
14
12
green
30
24
2. Use this grid.
Draw a shape
with area 3 red
Pattern Blocks.
Stretch Your Thinking
Suppose a shape has an area of 5 yellow Pattern Blocks.
What is its area in red Pattern Blocks? ____________________________________
In blue Pattern Blocks? ________________________________________________
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8
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UNIT 4
Exploring Area
LESSO N
Quick Review
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To find the area of a shape, count
the number of square units
needed to cover it.
The area of this shape
is 5 square units.
To find the area of a rectangle,
you can count the number of
square units or you can multiply.
There are 2 rows of 5 squares.
2 5 = 10
The area of this rectangle
is 10 square units.
Try These
Find the area of each shape in square units.
1.
a)
b)
_______ square units
c)
_______ square units
_______ square units
2. Write a multiplication fact to find the area of each rectangle.
a)
b)
_______________
68
c)
_______________
_______________
Practice
1.
Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
2 number cubes
2 pencil crayons of different colours
Take turns:
➤ Roll the cubes. Add the numbers to get an area in square units.
➤ Colour a shape with that area on the grid.
➤ No shape can overlap another shape.
➤ If there is no room left for your shape, you lose your turn.
➤ Continue until there is no more room on the grid.
Stretch Your Thinking
Find the total area you coloured on the grid. Then find the total area your partner
coloured. Who coloured the greater area?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
69
TU
T
D E N B OO
9
K
S
UNIT 4
Measuring Area in
Square Centimetres
LESSO N
Quick Review
Every square has an area of
one square centimetre (1 cm2).
You can use square centimetres to measure area.
The area of this shape is 3 cm2.
Try These
Find the area of each rectangle in square centimetres.
a)
b)
Area = _______
70
c)
Area = _______
Area = _______
l
hoo
Each side of every square on this grid paper
is 1 cm long.
1.
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1.
Write the area inside each shape in square centimetres.
C
A
B
D
E
F
2. Draw three different rectangles with area 12 cm2.
Stretch Your Thinking
The area of a square is 25 cm2. What are its length and width?
___________________________________________________________________
71
UNIT 4
TU
T
D E N B OO
S
K
10
Estimating and
Measuring Area
LESSO N
Quick Review
*
*
Try These
Find the approximate area of each polygon.
a)
b)
Area = about _______
Area = about _______
72
l
hoo
This is one way to find
the approximate area
of a triangle.
➤ Count each whole square.
X
There are 8 whole squares.
➤ Count each half square.
X X X
There are 4 half squares.
This equals 2 whole squares.
X X X X
➤ Count each part greater
than 12 a square as 1 square.
This triangle has an area
There are 2 parts
of about 12 cm2.
1
greater than 2 a square.
➤ Ignore each part less than 12 a square.
➤ Add to find the total number of squares: 8 + 2 + 2 = 12
1.
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1.
Draw a large clown’s head on the grid. Use as many different polygons as
you can. Find the approximate area of each part of the head.
Nose
Mouth
One Eye
Whole Head
Approximate
Area
Stretch Your Thinking
Explain how you would find the approximate area of a leaf.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
73
UNIT 4
TU
T
D E N B OO
S
K
11
Finding Area in
Square Metres
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
At Ho
l
hoo
A square with side lengths of 1 m has
an area of one square metre (1 m2).
You can use grid paper
to model a large area.
Each square represents 1 m2.
8m
represents
1 square metre
This is a model of a strawberry patch.
It is 7 m wide and 8 m long.
The model has 7 rows of 8 squares.
7 × 8 = 56
7m
The area of the strawberry patch is 56 m2.
Try These
1.
Find the area of each garden. Each square has an area of 1 m2.
1m
2m
4m
a) Area = _______
2m
6m
2m
b) Area = _______
c) Area = _______
2. Put the rectangles in question 1 in order from least to greatest area.
_______________________________________________________________
74
Practice
1.
Here are the dimensions of each
of Sheila’s rectangular gardens.
Model each of the gardens on
the grid.
➤ Find the area of each garden.
➤ On each model, record the
area and the type of flowers.
Sheila’s Gardens
Flowers
Width
Length
Roses
7m
3m
Wildflowers
5m
4m
Pansies
1m
8m
Petunias
6m
4m
10 m
2m
Daisies
represents 1 m2
Stretch Your Thinking
Sheila has a rectangular pumpkin patch with area 36 m2.
The patch is 4 m wide. How long is it?
___________________________________________________________________
75
UNIT 4
TU
T
D E N B OO
S
K
13
Exploring Rectangles
with Equal Areas
LESSO N
Quick Review
= 1 m2
Try These
Find the area of each rectangle.
a)
b)
c)
= 1 cm2
1 cm2
1 cm2
Area = _______
Area = _______
2. Draw all rectangles with an area of 12 cm2.
76
Area = _______
l
hoo
Different rectangles can have equal areas.
Each rectangle below has an area of 10 m2.
1.
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1.
Work with a partner.
➤ Draw a rectangle on the grid.
➤ Record the area on the rectangle.
Your partner draws a different rectangle with the same area,
and records the area.
➤ Switch roles and repeat. Continue the game until the grid is full.
= 1 cm2
Stretch Your Thinking
Draw two rectangles on the grid,
each with an area of 1 cm2.
77
TU
T
D E N B OO
1
K
S
UNIT 5
Xxx
Fractions of a Whole
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
At Ho
l
hoo
➤ Fractions describe equal parts of a whole.
3 equal parts
are thirds.
1
is shaded.
3
5 equal parts
are fifths.
4
are shaded.
5
The denominator tells
how many equal parts
are in 1 whole.
8 equal parts are eighths.
5 are shaded.
8
The numerator tells
how many equal parts
are counted.
5
8
➤ A proper fraction represents an amount less than 1 whole.
5
is a proper fraction.
8
Try These
1.
Write a fraction to tell what part of each shape is shaded.
a)
b)
c)
_______
_______
2. Colour some of the equal parts of each shape.
Write a fraction to describe the coloured parts.
a)
b)
____
c)
d)
_______
78
_______
_______
Practice
Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
2 number cubes labelled 1 to 6
2 pencil crayons or crayons of different colours
Take turns making fractions.
➤ Roll the number cubes. Use the greater number as the denominator.
➤ Find a shape on the game board that can be used to show your fraction.
Colour the shape. Write the fraction.
➤ If there is no shape that can be used, you lose your turn.
➤ Keep playing until all the shapes are coloured.
Stretch Your Thinking
This shape represents 53 of one whole.
Show what the whole might look like.
79
TU
T
D E N B OO
2
K
S
UNIT 5
Fraction Benchmarks
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
At Ho
l
hoo
This number line shows the benchmarks 0, 12, and 1.
0
1
1
2
You can use number lines to find which benchmark a fraction is closer to.
7
is
8
closer to 1.
5
12
is closer to 12.
It is a little less than 21.
1
6
is closer to 0.
0
1
2
0
0
5
12
1
6
7
8
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
Try These
1.
Colour each strip to show a fraction.
Write whether the fraction is closer to 0, 12, or 1.
a)
0
1
2
1
Closer to ________
b)
0
1
2
Closer to ________
2. A trash can is not quite full. Write a fraction that might tell how full it is.
___________________________________________________________
80
1
Practice
Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
index cards with these fractions written on them:
1 2 1 2 3 4 1 2 4 5 1 2 3 5 6 7 1
2
4
5
7
8 10 11
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 3 3 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
a paper bag
strips of paper 15 cm long
crayons
Put the fraction cards in the bag.
Take turns.
➤ Draw a card from the bag.
➤ Estimate whether the fraction is closer to 0, 12, or 1.
➤ Fold and colour a paper strip to show the fraction.
➤ Line up your strip with this number line to check your estimate.
0
1
2
1
➤ You get a point if your estimate was right.
➤ Your partner gets a point if your estimate was wrong.
➤ Keep playing until one player has 10 points.
Stretch Your Thinking
1.
Name a fraction between 0 and 21 that is neither closer to 0 nor closer to 21.
_______________________________________________________________
1
1
2. Name a fraction that is between 2 and 1 that is neither closer to 2 nor
closer to 1.
________________________________________________________________
81
TU
T
D E N B OO
3
K
S
UNIT 5
Exploring Fractions
of a Set
LESSO N
Quick Review
➤ There are 8 buttons.
6 of the 8 buttons are white.
6
of the buttons are white.
8
2
of the buttons are black.
8
➤ There are 9 fish bowls.
7 of the 9 fish bowls have a fish.
7 of the fish bowls have a fish.
9
2 of the fish bowls are empty.
9
Try These
What fraction of each set is shaded?
a)
b)
_________
c)
_________
d)
__________
__________
2. Here are the children who
signed up for the chess club.
What fraction are boys? __________
What fraction of the children are girls? __________
82
l
hoo
To find a fraction of a set, start by counting.
1.
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1.
Colour some of the fish in each set.
Write to tell what fraction you coloured.
a)
b)
___________
c)
___________
d)
___________
___________
2. a) Marvin has 8 pets.
2 of the pets are cats.
8
3 of the pets are dogs.
8
The rest are hamsters.
Draw Marvin’s pets.
b) Suppose Marvin gets 1 more cat.
What fraction of his pets will be cats?
______________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Three of Sally’s pencils are broken.
That’s 1 quarter of Sally’s pencils.
How many pencils does Sally have?
Use pictures, words, and numbers
to show your answer.
________________________________
83
TU
T
D E N B OO
4
K
S
UNIT 5
Finding a Fraction of a Set
LESSO N
Quick Review
1
4
of 8 = 2
4
4
3
4
of 8 = 6
1
6
1
6
of 8 = 8
5
Here is a way to find 6 of 18.
1
6
1
6
1
6
of 18 = 3
5
6
1
6
1
6
of 18 = 15
Try These
Draw a picture to show the fraction of each set.
1.
2.
1 of 10 = _______
2
3.
4.
4 of 15 = _______
5
84
2 of 9 = _______
3
1 of 12 = _______
4
l
hoo
You can use fractions to
show equal parts of a set.
The denominator lets us know
we are counting sixths.
Divide 18 counters into 6 equal
groups to show sixths.
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1.
Write a fraction for the shaded part of each set.
a)
b)
______________
c)
_______________
______________
2. Use counters to find the fraction of each set.
1
a) 2 of 14 = _______
2
b) 6 of 18 = _______
3
c) 5 of 15 = _______
3
d) 8 of 16 = _______
3
e) 4 of 12 = _______
6
f) 1
0 of 20 = _______
7
g) 7 of 14 = _______
7
h) 8 of 24 = _______
2
i) 3 of 15 = _______
3. On Pet Day, 18 children brought a pet to school.
Two-thirds of the pets were dogs. One-ninth of the pets were cats.
a) How many dogs were there? _______
b) How many cats were there? _______
c) How many animals were neither dogs nor cats? _______
Stretch Your Thinking
1.
Choose letters from the box.
1
a) Write a word that uses 2 of the letters.
____________________________________________
3
b) Write a word that uses 5 of the letters.
____________________________________________
T
A I
L
U
M
R
O E S
85
T
E N T B OO
UD
5
K
S
UNIT 5
LESSO N
Relating Fractional
Parts of Different
Wholes and Sets
Quick Review
3
Three-quarters of the big circle is greater than 4 of the small circle.
➤
3
3
of 15 counters are greater than of 10 counters.
5
5
3
3
of 15 counters
of 10 counters
5
5
are 9 counters.
are 6 counters.
Try These
1.
Draw a picture to show that:
1
1
a) 2 of one pizza is less than 2 of another pizza.
5
5
b) 6 of one group of birds is greater than 6 of another group of birds.
86
l
hoo
When 2 wholes have different sizes, the same fraction of the whole is
different for each whole.
➤
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1.
1
Colour each strip to show 4 .
1
Circle the strip that shows a shorter length to represent 4 .
4
2. Colour 5 of each set of balloons.
4
Circle the set in which 5 represents a greater amount.
2
3. Draw a picture to show that 3 of one set of counters is greater than
2 of another set of counters.
3
Stretch Your Thinking
Use 2 strips of paper of different lengths.
5
Fold and colour each strip to show 8. Paste the strips below.
5
Circle the one in which 8 represents a lesser amount.
87
TU
Comparing and Ordering
Unit Fractions
T
D E N B OO
7
K
S
UNIT 5
LESSO N
Quick Review
➤ With different unit fractions, the equal parts of the whole have
different sizes.
1
5
5 equal parts in the whole
1
8
8 equal parts in the whole
Fifths are greater than eighths.
1
1
So, 5 > 8
1 1 1
➤ Order these unit fractions from greatest to least: 7, 1
0, 2
1
is the greatest because halves are greater than sevenths and tenths.
2
1 is the least because tenths are smaller than sevenths.
10
1 1 1
From the greatest to least: 2, 7, 1
0
Try These
Use > or < to compare each pair of fractions.
a) 1
3
1
6
b) 1
9
1
4
2. Order these fractions from least to greatest.
88
a) 1, 1, 1
6 3 8
b) 1, 1, 1
4 2 5
c) 1, 1, 1
7 12 10
d) 1, 1, 1
9 3 7
c) 1
5
1
2
l
hoo
A fraction with a numerator of 1 is a unit fraction.
1 1
1
, , and are unit fractions.
3 8
1
1.
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1.
Work with a partner.
You will need crayons and four strips of paper of the same length
for each person.
➤ Each of you folds a strip into any number of equal parts.
Colour one of the parts to show a unit fraction.
➤ Show your strip to your partner and name the fraction.
➤ Compare the fractions by lining the strips up one below the other.
➤ On the lines below, record a fraction sentence using >, <, or =.
➤ Repeat with three more pairs of strips.
a) ________________
b)
________________
c) ________________
d)
________________
2. Order these numbers from least to greatest.
1
a) 81, 11
4, 3
1 1 1
b) 1
0, 4, 6
c) 1, 1, 1
3 4 2
d) 1, 1, 1
6 7 4
3. Stivi and Zach each ordered a medium pizza.
1
1
Stivi ate 3 of the pizza and Zach ate 4 of his pizza.
Who ate more? Explain.
________________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
1.
Write a unit fraction to make each statement true.
a) 1 >
9
e)
___
____
<
1
5
b) 1 <
3
f)
____
>
____
1
9
c)
___
>
g) 1 <
10
1
8
____
d) 1 >
7
h)
____
> 41
____
89
Comparing and Ordering
Fractions with the Same
Numerator or Denominator
T
E N T B OO
UD
8
K
S
UNIT 5
LESSO N
Quick Review
2 4
1
1 has the fewest parts, so it is the least.
5
4 2 1
From greatest to least: 5, 5, 5
2 2
2
➤ Here are two ways to order 5, 3, and 6 from least to greatest.
The fractions have the same numerator but different denominators,
so the parts being counted have different sizes.
● Use number lines.
● Use strips.
2
5
2
3
0
0
1
5
1
1
3
1
2
6
1
5
1
5
1
6
1
1
5
1
5
1
3
1
6
1
6
1
3
1
6
1
6
1
6
2 2 2
From least to greatest: 6, 5, 3
Try These
1.
3 3
0
1
0
1
0
1
From greatest to least:
90
3
Use the number lines to order 8, 4, and 6.
l
hoo
➤ Here is one way to order 5, 5, and 5 from greatest to least.
The fractions have the same denominator, so the parts being
counted have the same size.
4
has the most parts, so it is the greatest.
5
0
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1.
Colour the strips to show the fractions.
Use > or < to compare the fractions.
a)
3
5
3
4
b)
4
10
2
3
10
2
2. Estimate to place 8 and 4 on the number line.
0
1
Which fraction is greater?
4 4 4
3. Use the 3 number lines to order 8, 6, 5.
0
1
0
1
0
1
From least to greatest:
Stretch Your Thinking
Fold and colour paper strips to show each pair of fractions.
Use < or > to compare the fractions.
a)
4
8
__
4
6
b) 53
__
3
4
2
c) 3
__
2
5
91
TU
T
D E N B OO
9
Exploring Tenths
K
S
UNIT 5
LESSO N
Quick Review
➤
➤ You can write the fraction as a decimal using a symbol,
the decimal point.
3
is the same as 0.3. We say 0.3 as “zero and three-tenths.”
10
This is the decimal point.
3
Since 1
0 , or 0.3, is less than 1 whole, we write 0 before the decimal
point to show there is no whole number part.
➤ You can also use a place-value chart to show a decimal.
Tenths
0
3
The decimal point is between the
ones place and the tenths place.
Try These
1.
Write a fraction and a decimal for each group of Base Ten Blocks shown.
a)
_________
b)
_________
c)
_________
2. Write each fraction as a decimal.
7
a) 1
0 _______
92
2
b) 1
0 _______
8
c) 1
0 _______
l
hoo
3
You can use Base Ten Blocks to model 1
0.
Ones
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1.
Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
24 small counters
1 number cube
0.1
9
10
8
10
0.3
7
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
0.6
0.7
0.1
3
10
2
10
1
10
Player A
0.4
0.2
2 game markers
0.2 0.4 0.9
0.8
Each player selects a strip to the
right or the left of the game board.
The object of the game is to play
until one of you covers all the
numbers on your strip.
➤ Put your markers on Start.
➤ Take turns rolling the number
cube. Move that number of
spaces in either direction.
➤ Put a counter on your strip on
the fraction that names the
same amount as the decimal
you landed on.
➤ The first one to cover a full strip
wins.
0.5
START
0.5
9
10
0.7
8
10
7
10
0.4
0.8
0.9
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
0.6
2
10
1
10
0.3
Player B
Stretch Your Thinking
Place each decimal on the number line.
0.4 0.7 0.1 0.9 0.2
0
1
93
UNIT 5
TU
T
D E N B OO
S
K
10
Exploring Hundredths
LESSO N
Quick Review
➤ We can use decimals to write parts of one dollar.
1 dollar = 100 cents
1
So, 1 cent = 100 dollar, or 0.01 dollar.
Here are 23 cents.
2
3
23 cents = 100 dollar
We write this as 23¢ or $0.23.
Try These
Write a fraction and a decimal for the shaded part of each picture.
a)
b)
c)
2. Write each fraction as a decimal.
94
4
8
a) 100 _______
7
b) 100 _______
6
c) 100 _______
17
d) 100 _______
67
e) 100 _______
5
f) 100 _______
l
hoo
➤ This grid is divided into 100 equal squares.
Each square is one-hundredth of the grid.
Three-hundredths of the grid are shaded.
3
We can write this as 100 or 0.03.
1.
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1.
Colour the grids to show the numbers.
a) 0.09
b) 0.43
c) 0.02
70
d) 100
2. Write each decimal as a fraction.
a) 0.24 __________
b) 0.93 __________
c) 0.80 __________
d) 0.27 __________
e) 0.01 __________
f) 0.4 __________
3. Draw pictures of dimes and pennies to show each amount.
$0.33
4. Write each amount as a decimal.
a) 84¢
b) 7 cents
$0.19
c) 15¢
Stretch Your Thinking
Carlos said that 0.30 is greater than 0.3
because 30 is greater than 3. Is he correct?
Use pictures to support your answer.
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
95
UNIT 5
TU
T
D E N B OO
Equivalent Decimals
S
K
11
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
At Ho
One row of this hundredths grid is
one-tenth of the grid.
Each small square is one-hundredth
of the grid.
l
hoo
=1
70 squares
are 70 hundredths.
7 rows are 7 tenths.
0.7
0.70
Both 0.7 and 0.70 name the shaded part of the grid.
So, 0.7 = 0.70
Decimals that name the same amount are called equivalent decimals.
Try These
1.
Write two equivalent decimals that name each shaded part.
a)
b)
_____ _____
c)
_____ _____
d)
_____ _____
_____ _____
2. Write an equivalent decimal for each number.
a) 0.6 ________
b) 0.70 _______
c) 0.90 _______
d) 0.5 ________
e) 0.80 _______
f) 0.1 ________
g) 0.30 _______
h) 0.60 _______
0.40 _______
j) 0.2 ________
k) 0.50 _______
l)
i)
96
0.10 _______
Practice
1. Colour the grid to show each decimal.
Write an equivalent decimal.
a) 0.3 ____________
b) 0.80 ____________
c) 0.6 ____________
2. Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
9 pairs of cards with 2 equivalent decimals (0.1 and 0.10 to 0.9 and 0.90).
➤ Shuffle the cards and turn them face down on a table in 3 rows of 6.
➤ Take turns to turn over 2 cards.
If the cards name equivalent decimals, keep the cards and play again.
If the cards do not name equivalent decimals, turn them face down again.
➤ Play until there are no cards left on the table.
➤ The player with the most cards wins.
Stretch Your Thinking
Gabriel is making a design on a hundredths grid.
He says he will colour 0.6 of the grid red, and 0.6 black.
Will Gabriel’s plan work? Explain.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
97
UNIT 5
TU
Adding Decimals
to Tenths
T
D E N B OO
S
K
12
LESSO N
Quick Review
➤ To estimate 3.6 + 1.9, find a whole
number close to each decimal.
3.6 is close to 4.
1.9 is close to 2.
4+2=6
So 3.6 + 1.9 is about 6.
➤ Use Base Ten Blocks to add.
Tenths
Ones
Tenths
3.6
10 tenths
equal
1 whole.
1.9
3.6 + 1.9 = 5.5
➤ Use place value to add.
Add the tenths:
10 tenths equal 1 whole.
15 tenths
That’s 1 and 5 tenths.
3.6
+ 1.9
1
3.6
+ 1.9
.5
Add the ones.
1
3.6
+ 1.9
5.5
Try These
Estimate each sum.
1. a) 2.8 + 3.4 _________ b) 5.9 + 2.8 ________
c) 4.3 + 5.2 ________
2. Add. Use Base Ten Blocks to help you.
a) 3.2 + 4.5 = _______ b) 6.6 + 2.4 = _______ c) 3.5 + 8.7 = _______
98
l
hoo
You can use whole number strategies to
add decimals.
Ones
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Practice
1.
Add. Use Base Ten Blocks or pictures of the blocks to help you.
a) 1.7 + 4.9 = _______ b) 6.5 + 2.7 = _______ c) 3.9 + 8.6 = _______
d) 3.8 + 2.7 = _______ e) 2.4 + 6.3 = _______ f) 4.1 + 6.4 = _______
2. Use place value to find each sum.
a)
4.2
+ 2.3
b)
1.7
+ 5.6
c)
7.3
+ 2.8
d)
2.3
+ 1.6
e)
6.4
+ 9.7
f)
7.4
+ 8.6
g)
3.7
+ 1.9
h)
8.2
+ 3.8
i)
5.7
+ 6.7
j)
3.2
+ 9.8
3. Kruti jogged 2.8 km on Saturday and 1.9 km on Sunday.
How far did she jog altogether?
________________________________________________________________
4. Alexander grew two pumpkins in his garden.
One had a mass of 4.7 kg.
The other had a mass of 3.6 kg.
What was the total mass of both pumpkins?
________________________________________________________________
5. Sally had 3.4 L of orange juice and 2.7 L of grape juice.
How much juice did she have altogether?
________________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
1.
a) Write two decimals whose sum is approximately 5.
_____________________________________________________________
b) Write two decimals whose sum is closer to 1 than 2.
_____________________________________________________________
99
UNIT 5
TU
Subtracting Decimals
to Tenths
T
D E N B OO
S
K
13
LESSO N
Quick Review
4.2 is close to 4.
1.7 is close to 2.
4–2=2
So 4.2 – 1.7 is about 2.
➤ Use Base Ten Blocks to subtract.
Tenths
Ones
Tenths
Trade
1 whole for
10 tenths.
4.2 – 1.7 = 2.5
➤ Use place value to subtract. Try to subtract the tenths.
You cannot take
7 tenths from
2 tenths.
4.2
– 1.7
Trade 1 whole
for 10 tenths.
Subtract the
tenths.
Subtract the
ones.
3 12
3 12
3 12
4.2
– 1.7
4.2
– 1.7
.5
4.2
– 1.7
2.5
Try These
1.
Estimate each difference.
a) 5.8 – 2.9 ________
b) 8.1 – 3.2 ________
c) 2.1 – 0.9 ________
2. Subtract.
a) 8.4 – 3.2 = _______ b) 7.9 – 4.2 = _______ c) 6.4 – 2.5 = _______
100
l
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You can use whole number strategies
to subtract decimals.
➤ To estimate 4.2 – 1.7, find a whole
number close to each decimal.
Ones
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Practice
1.
Subtract. Use Base Ten Blocks or pictures of the blocks to help you.
a) 7.4 – 2.3 = _______ b) 2.7 – 0.8 = _______ c) 4.2 – 3.8 = _______
d) 4.9 – 2.6 = _______ e) 5.2 – 3.7 = _______ f) 0.9 – 0.2 = _______
g) 4.8 – 3.7 = _______ h) 6.4 – 5.8 = _______ i) 3.6 – 0.7 = _______
2. Use place value to find each difference.
a)
9.3
b) 10.2
c) 14.8
– 6.4
f)
8.4
– 0.9
– 3.6
g)
3.8
– 1.2
d)
8.5
– 0.7
e)
6.4
– 2.8
i)
12.6
– 9.9
j)
10.4
– 3.7
– 6.9
h)
7.5
– 2.8
3. When Baily planted a new evergreen tree, the tree was 1.3 m tall.
Now it is 2.1 m tall.
How much has the tree grown? _____________________________________
4. Symron lives 2.4 km from the movie theatre.
Sofia lives 3.1 km from the theatre.
How much farther away does Sofia live? ______________________________
5. Stephanie had 1.8 L of water.
After she drank some water, she had 1.3 L of water left.
How much water did she drink? __________________
Stretch Your Thinking
1.
a) Name two decimals whose difference is approximately 2.
_____________________________________________________________
b) Name two decimals whose difference is between 2 and 3, but closer to 3.
_____________________________________________________________
101
UNIT 5
TU
T
D E N B OO
S
K
14
Adding and Subtracting
Decimals to Hundredths
LESSO N
Quick Review
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You can use different methods to add and subtract decimals to hundredths.
➤ You can use a place-value mat.
➤ You can count on.
➤ You can use place value.
What is the change from $5 when you spend $3.52?
Use place value and subtraction to find out.
Line up the
decimal points.
Trade $1 for
10 dimes.
Trade 1 dime for
10 pennies.
Subtract the
cents.
9
41010
$5.00
– 3.52
$5.00
– 3.52
Subtract the
dollars.
4 9 10
4 9 10
$5.00
– 3.52
.48
$5.00
– 3.52
$1.48
The change from $5 is $1.48.
Try These
1.
Add or subtract.
a) $2.49
+1.30
b) $4.26
+3.49
c)
$9.32
– 4.50
d) $7.27
– 4.88
2. Find each sum or difference.
a) $5.39 + $2.20 = _______
b) $1.49 + $7.37 = _______
c) $14.55 – $8.32 = _______
d) $10.00 – $8.23 = _______
102
Practice
1.
Find each sum.
a) $6.70
+ 2.85
b) $2.57
c) $6.85
d) $1.99
+ 5.84
+ 1.78
+ 0.67
a) $6.74
b) $5.75
c) $7.00
d) $3.49
– 2.54
– 2.83
– 2.51
– 0.58
2. Find each difference.
3. Use the prices in the table to solve
the problems.
a) Yvonne bought a sun hat and
beach towel.
How much did she spend?
____________________________
Beach Supplies
Sun Hat
Sunglasses
Beach Towel
Beach Ball
Flippers
Sun Umbrella
$5.79
$8.95
$9.85
$1.59
$4.67
$12.84
b) How much change did Yvonne
get from $20? _______________
c) Sandy bought two items. She spent $13.62.
Which two items did she buy?
_____________________________________________________________
d) How much more does a sun umbrella cost than a beach towel? ________
e) How much do a beach ball and a sun umbrella cost altogether? _______
Stretch Your Thinking
Malio bought two items listed on the Beach Supplies table.
He got $2.62 change from $10.
Which two items did he buy? __________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
103
TU
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D E N B OO
1
Xxx
Objects in Our World
K
S
UNIT 6
LESSO N
Quick Review
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Rectangular face
Rectangular base
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Rectangular face
Triangular base
➤ You can sort objects by the shapes of the bases.
Rectangular bases
Triangular bases
➤ You can sort objects by the shapes of the faces.
Triangular faces
All congruent faces
Try These
1.
Sort these objects. Use the letters to record your sorting.
A
B
C
E
F
G
D
Rectangular
faces
104
Triangular
faces
Practice
1.
Write the name of a prism to answer each riddle.
a) I have 6 congruent faces.
b) I have 3 rectangular faces and 2 triangular faces.
c) I have 2 square bases and 4 square faces.
2. Look through old magazines or catalogues for 3 small pictures of objects
that look like prisms. Cut them out and paste them here.
Name the prism each object resembles.
3. Sort these objects. Use these attributes:
“Has square bases” and “Has all congruent faces”
Record your sorting.
A
B
D
E
C
Stretch Your Thinking
Complete each sentence.
a) All triangular prisms have
b) All cubes have
c) No rectangular prisms have
105
TU
T
D E N B OO
2
K
S
UNIT 6
Constructing Prisms
LESSO N
You can use modelling clay to build prisms.
➤ Rectangular prisms
➤ Triangular prisms
Try These
1.
Use modelling clay. Make a prism with each set of faces.
Identify each prism.
a)
b)
106
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l
Quick Review
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Practice
1.
Identify the object that has each set of faces.
a)
b)
c)
2. Use modelling clay. Make a prism for each description.
Identify the prism.
a) It has 2 congruent triangle faces and 3 congruent rectangle faces.
b) It has 2 congruent square faces and 4 congruent rectangle faces.
c) It has 3 pairs of congruent rectangle faces.
Stretch Your Thinking
Make a prism with modelling clay.
Describe the prism in as many ways as you can.
107
TU
T
D E N B OO
3
K
S
UNIT 6
Exploring Nets
LESSO N
Quick Review
➤ A triangular prism can also be made from a net.
Try These
Name the prism you could make with each net.
a)
108
b)
c)
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A pattern that can be folded to form an object is called a net.
➤ A rectangular prism can be made from a net.
1.
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Practice
1.
Circle the picture that shows a net for the prism named.
a) cube
b) rectangular prism
c) triangular prism
2. Trace this net on paper, then cut it out.
Decorate the net to look like a package for a product.
Then fold and tape your package.
Stretch Your Thinking
Draw a net for a cube on the grid paper.
Write the letters T and B on 2 faces of the
net so that when the net is folded, the
T will be on the top and the B on the bottom.
109
TU
T
D E N B OO
5
K
S
UNIT 6
Symmetrical Shapes
LESSO N
Quick Review
A line of symmetry divides a
shape into 2 congruent parts.
You can fold along the line
and the 2 parts match.
You can use a Mira to check
a line of symmetry.
Some shapes have more than
1 line of symmetry.
Some shapes have no line
of symmetry.
A rectangle has
2 lines of symmetry.
This shape is non-symmetrical.
Try These
Colour the pictures that have 1 or more lines of symmetry.
110
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Line of
symmetry
1.
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Practice
1.
Label the shapes below as follows:
A – no lines of symmetry
C – 2 lines of symmetry
B – 1 line of symmetry
D – more than 2 lines of symmetry
2. Look at these numbers.
a) Which numbers have no lines of symmetry? _______________
b) Which numbers have 1 line of symmetry? _______
c) Which numbers have more than 1 line of symmetry? _______
Stretch Your Thinking
1.
Does a circle have more than 1 line of symmetry? Explain.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
111
TU
T
D E N B OO
6
K
S
UNIT 6
Line Symmetry
LESSO N
Quick Review
➤ Draw a line of symmetry on dot paper.
Draw one-half of a shape on one side of the line.
➤ Draw the other half of the shape on the other side of the line.
Try These
One-half of a symmetrical shape is shown.
Complete the shape.
a)
112
b)
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A symmetrical shape has one or more lines of symmetry.
Here is one way to make a symmetrical shape.
1.
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Practice
1.
Work with a partner.
One person draws one-half of a symmetrical shape on one side of the line.
The other person completes the shape.
2. Find the shapes that are symmetrical.
Draw the lines of symmetry.
a)
b)
c)
Stretch Your Thinking
One-quarter of a symmetrical shape is shown.
Complete the shape.
113
TU
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D E N B OO
7
K
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UNIT 6
Sorting by
Lines of Symmetry
LESSO N
Quick Review
When a line of symmetry can be drawn
on a shape, it has symmetry.
Some shapes have no
lines of symmetry.
Some shapes have more
than one line of symmetry.
1 line of symmetry
4 lines of symmetry
Try These
1.
Is each broken line a line of symmetry? Write Yes or No.
a)
b)
_______
114
c)
_______
_______
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A line of symmetry divides a shape
into two parts that are congruent.
0 lines of symmetry
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Practice
1.
Draw as many lines of symmetry on each shape as you can.
a)
b)
c)
2. Work with a partner.
Each of you draw one-half of a design on one side of the line of symmetry
on your grid. Switch places and complete your partner’s design.
Your Grid
Your Partner’s Grid
Line of
symmetry
Line of symmetry
Stretch Your Thinking
Complete the shape to make
it symmetrical.
115
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D E N B OO
1
K
S
UNIT 7
Reading Pictographs
and Bar Graphs
LESSO N
Quick Review
Pictograph
Symbols are used to show data
in a pictograph.
The key shows what each
symbol stands for.
Bar Graph
Bars are used to show data
in a bar graph.
Numbers on the axis show
the scale.
Tickets Sold for Each Performance
of the Fourth Grade Play
vertical axis
Tuesday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Thursday
Saturday
Friday
= 10 tickets
Saturday
horizontal axis
0
10
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Number of Tickets
For this pictograph, the key is
represents 10 tickets.
So, represents 5 tickets.
In this bar graph, 1 square
represents 10 tickets.
So, 12 square represents 5 tickets.
Try These
Favourite Drinks
Use the pictograph to answer these questions.
1. Which drink had the most votes?
2. Which drink had 12 votes?
3. How many votes did lemonade have?
116
Milk
Juice
Lemonade
Water
= 6 votes
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The title of a graph tells you what the graph is about.
The labels on the axes tell you what data are shown in the graph.
Tickets Sold for Each Performance
of the Fourth Grade Play
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Practice
Pet Owners
1. This graph shows the number of pet owners
Grade 1
in each grade at Parkdale School.
a) Which grade has the most
Grade 2
Grade 3
pet owners? _____________
Grade 4
Grade 5
b) Which grade has one-half as many
Grade 6
pet owners as Grade 2? _____________
= 4 students
c) How many pet owners did Grade 6 have? ___
2. This graph shows the types of dwellings
Types of Dwellings
Number of Students
the students in Enzo’s school live in.
a) How many students live in condos?
__________________
b) How many more students live in
duplexes than condos?
__________________
c) How many students live in condos
and townhouses altogether?
__________________
d) 26 girls live in apartments. How
many boys live in apartments?
__________________
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Ap
t
en
tm
ar
o
ily
ex
se
nd
pl
ou
am
u
h
F
Co
D
le
wn
ng
To
Si
Dwellings
Stretch Your Thinking
How many students attend Enzo’s school? Show how you know.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
117
TU
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D E N B OO
2
Drawing Pictographs
K
S
UNIT 7
LESSO N
Quick Review
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Here are the results of a survey showing the favourite subjects of
students in Kim’s class.
Math Science Social Gym Writing
Studies
Number of
Students
6
7
4
5
6
title
Students' Favourite Subjects
Here’s how Kim made
a pictograph to display
these data.
To make sure her graph was
not too large, Kim chose
to represent 2 students.
Kim completed the pictograph
with a key, a label on the axis,
and a title.
Math
Science
vertical axis
label
Subjects
Subject
Social
Studies
Gym
Writing
= 2 students
key
symbol
Try These
1. Suppose you drew a pictograph to represent the data in each table.
What key would you use for each graph?
a)
Favourite
Fruit
Orange
Number of
Students
12
Eye
Colour
25
40
6
Brown
Banana
8
Grey
10
Key: _________________________
Number of
People
Blue
Apple
Grape
118
b)
Green
5
15
Key: ____________________
Practice
1. Draw a pictograph to display these data.
Names for Our Fish
Bubbles
Spotty
Precious
Ralph
20
10
5
10
Number of
students
2. Finish the pictograph to display the data in the table.
Birds Seen in the Park
Birds Seen in the Park
Bird
Number
Crow
4
Robin
12
Chickadee
14
Duck
20
Crow
Robin
Chickadee
Duck
= 4 birds
Stretch Your Thinking
Suppose the key on a pictograph is = 40 votes.
What symbol would you draw to represent:
10 votes? _______________
20 votes? _______________
119
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D E N B OO
3
K
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UNIT 7
Drawing Bar Graphs
LESSO N
Quick Review
Student
Votes
Brown bear
Cougar
Eagle
Coyote
40
60
75
35
Favourite Mascots
for the Hockey Team
80
75
70
65
60
55
Student Votes
Here’s how to draw a vertical bar graph
to display the data in Arnie’s table.
1. Draw 2 axes. Label them
“Animal” and “Student Votes”.
2. Count by 5s for the scale. The scale
is 1 square represents 5 votes.
3. Draw a vertical bar for each
animal in the table.
4. Write a title for the graph.
Try These
Use the data in this table to complete the graph.
Ice-Cream
Flavour
Vanilla
Chocolate
Strawberry
Number of
People
40
75
50
a) Label the axes.
b) Number the scale.
c) Give the graph a title.
120
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Brown
bear
Cougar
Eagle
Animal
Coyote
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The students in Arnie’s school voted on a mascot for their school hockey
team. Here is a table Arnie made to show how they voted.
Animal
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Practice
1. The students in Peter’s school
voted for their favourite type of
music. The results are displayed
in this table.
a) Draw a vertical bar graph to
display these data.
Type of
Music
Number of
Students
Rock
Rap
Hip
Hop
Pop
65
70
40
55
b) Write two things you know from looking at your graph.
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Your grid paper has 20 squares along one side. The greatest value you
have to display on the graph is 150. What scale will you use? Explain.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
121
D
TU
Comparing Pictographs
and Bar Graphs
E N T B OO
4
K
S
UNIT 7
LESSO N
Quick Review
Trees Planted in Victory Park
Trees Planted in Victory Park
Hickory
Species
Hickory
Species
Oak
Willow
Birch
Willow
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Number of Trees
Birch
represents 20 trees
In the pictograph, symbols show the data.
In the bar graph, bars show the data.
From the pictograph, we use the key to determine the number of trees.
From the bar graph, we use the scale to determine the number.
Try These
Use the data displayed in the graphs above.
a) How many oak trees were planted in Victory Park? __________
b) What does
on the pictograph represent? ___________
c) How many birch trees were planted? ___________
d) What is the scale on the bar graph? ________________________
e) How many more oak trees were planted than willow trees? _________
122
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These two graphs show the same data.
Oak
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Practice
1. Use the data in the bar graph.
Walk-A-Thon Participants
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
b) Which group had the most people? ________________
Number of People
a) How many people took part in the walk-a-thon? _____
c) How many more Brownies took part than Cubs? ____
__
d) Suppose you wanted to display these data as a
pictograph. What key would you use?
s
de
ui
G
s
irl
G
ts
es
ni
ou
ow y Sc
r
B
Bo
bs
Cu
Groups
___________________________________
How many symbols would you need for
the Girl Guides? ___________________
2. This bar graph shows how long five of Canada’s
Prime Ministers of Canada were in office.
Prime Ministers' Time in Office
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
__________________________________
Who was in office the shortest time?
___________________________________
Number of Years
a) Who was in office the longest time?
b) Who was in office about 7 years longer
than St. Laurent?
__________________________________
r
d
al
n
do
ac
M
A.
.
rJ
Si
__________________________________
ilfr
S
W
ir
rie
u
La
ng
zie
Ki
nt
re
u
La
n
t.
e
ke is S ierr
ac
u
P
M
Lo
id
u
ea
ud
Tr
Names
Stretch Your Thinking
Lester B. Pearson was Prime Minister from April, 1963 to April, 1968.
How long was he in office?______________
Add this information to the graph in question 2 above.
123
TU
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D E N B OO
1
K
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UNIT 8
Exploring Multiplication
Patterns
LESSO N
Quick Review
You know 5 × 1 = 5.
Use mental math to find 5 10 and 5 100.
5 × 1 ten = 5 tens
5 × 10 = 50
5 × 1 hundred = 5 hundreds
5 × 100 = 500
➤ Use basic multiplication facts and place value to multiply by
multiples of 10 and 100.
You know 3 × 3 = 9.
Use mental math to find 3 30 and 3 300.
3 × 3 tens = 9 tens
3 × 30 = 90
3 × 3 hundreds = 9 hundreds
3 × 300 = 900
Try These
Multiply. Use Base Ten Blocks when they help.
1. a) 6 × 1 = _______
b) 8 × 1 = _______
6 × 10 = _______
8 × 10 = _______
9 × 10 = _______
6 × 100 = _______
8 × 100 = _______
9 × 100 = _______
b) 5 × 2 = _______
c) 4 × 2 = _______
3 × 20 = _______
5 × 20 = _______
4 × 20 = _______
3 × 200 = _______
5 × 200 = _______
4 × 200 = _______
3. a) 8 × 4 = _______
124
c) 9 × 1 = _______
b) 3 × 4 = _______
c) 5 × 4 = _______
8 × 40 = _______
3 × 40 = _______
5 × 40 = _______
8 × 400 = _______
3 × 400 = _______
5 × 400 = _______
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➤ Use place value to multiply by 10 and by 100.
2. a) 3 × 2 = _______
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Practice
Find each product. Then fill in the boxes below with the letters that match the
products. The words in the boxes will answer this riddle:
Why do rabbits make good mathematicians?
A 6 × 100 = _______
J
200 × 5 = _______
S
8 × 20 = _______
B 8 × 10 = _______
K 5 × 100 = _______
T
3 × 80 = _______
C 3 × 50 = _______
L
D 80 × 7 = _______
M 9 × 10 = _______
V 5 × 10 = ______
U 7 × 50 = _______
4 × 30 = _______
E
6 × 80 = _______
N 2 × 9 = _______
W 7 × 300 = _______
F
3 × 300 = _______
O 2 × 100 = _______
X 8 × 90 = _______
G 6 × 400 = _______
P 6 × 30 = _______
Y 4 × 200 = _______
H 5 × 60 = _______
Q 7 × 700 = _______
Z 9 × 50 = _______
7 × 100 = _______
I
R 3 × 10 = _______
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
80
480
150
600
350
160
480
240
300
480
800
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
90
350
120
240
700
180
120
800
Stretch Your Thinking
There are 40 quarters in a roll.
How many quarters are there in 10 rolls?
___________________________________________________________________
How many quarters are there in 100 rolls?
___________________________________________________________________
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TU
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D E N B OO
2
K
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UNIT 8
Estimating Products
LESSO N
Quick Review
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Estimate to solve multiplication problems.
➤ A basket holds 23 apples.
About how many apples do 5 baskets hold?
To estimate 5 × 23
5 × 20 = 100
Think: 23 is close to 20.
There are about 100 apples
in 5 baskets.
➤ A bucket holds 28 tennis balls.
About how many tennis balls do 7 buckets hold?
To estimate 7 × 28
7 × 30 = 210
Think: 28 is close to 30.
There are about 210 tennis balls
in 7 buckets.
Try These
1. Estimate each product.
a) 4 × 29
b) 6 × 52
Estimate: __________
Estimate: __________
c) 5 × 81
Estimate: __________
2. There are 48 crayons in a box.
About how many crayons are there in 8 boxes? _________________________
3. There are 9 chairs in each row.
About how many chairs are there in 18 rows? __________________________
4. Kara bought 27 packs of stickers. There are 8 stickers in each pack.
About how many stickers does Kara have? _____________________________
126
Practice
1. Estimate each product.
a) 6 × 78 __________
b) 4 × 93 __________
c) 9 × 42 __________
d) 5 × 69 __________
e) 7 × 21 __________
f) 52 × 7 __________
g) 38 × 8 __________
h) 47 × 6 __________
i) 84 × 5 __________
2. About how many gel pens would you have
if you bought:
a) 3 boxes? __________
b) 7 boxes? __________
c) 5 boxes? __________
d) 8 boxes? __________
3. Bertha types 58 words a minute.
About how many words can she type in:
a) 5 minutes? ____________
b) 8 minutes? ____________
c) 30 minutes? ___________
4. Estimate how many treats you would get from:
a) 6 piñatas __________
b) 4 piñatas __________
c) 9 piñatas __________
d) 8 piñatas __________
Stretch Your Thinking
Jack collects superhero trading cards.
He has 5 collections with 22 cards each and 7 collections with 27 cards each.
About how many cards does Jack have altogether?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
127
TU
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3
K
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UNIT 8
Using Models to Multiply
LESSO N
Quick Review
➤ Show an array on grid paper.
2
20
5
←
←
5 rows of 20 = 100
5 rows of 2 = 10
Add. 100 + 10 = 110
Try These
Use the models to multiply.
b)
4 × 16 = _____
3 × 15 = _____
4 × 10 = _____
3 rows of 10 = _____
______________
__________________
______________
__________________
128
l
hoo
Here are two ways to use models to multiply 5 × 22.
➤ Use Base Ten Blocks. Arrange 5 groups of 22.
Multiply the tens. 5 × 20 = 100
Multiply the ones. 5 × 2 = 10
Add.
100 + 10 = 110
1. a)
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1. Multiply. Use grid paper or Base Ten Blocks when they help.
a) 32
b) 42
c) 84
d) 71
e)
×4
f)
56
×3
×4
g)
19
×5
×2
h)
57
×6
65
×3
×8
i)
48
×4
j)
56
×9
2. Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
10 small pieces of paper with one of these numbers
written on each piece: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
a small paper bag
paper and pencil
➤
➤
➤
➤
➤
×
Draw a multiplication grid like this on your paper.
Put the numbered pieces of paper in a bag.
Pull out 3 numbered pieces each.
Record each digit in one of the boxes in your multiplication grid.
Find your products.
The player with the greater product wins a point.
➤ Play 5 rounds.
➤ Then, change the rules to make a new game. Record your digits in the
boxes of your partner’s multiplication grid. Play 5 more rounds.
Stretch Your Thinking
The box to the right represents the game you just played.
The digit boxes are represented by A, B, and C.
Which digit box is the best place to write your highest number?
Explain.
A B
× C
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
129
TU
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5
K
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UNIT 8
Other Strategies for
Multiplication
LESSO N
Quick Review
Add.
360 24 = 384
←
←
←
←
➤ Write the number in expanded form: 64 = 60 + 4
Multiply the tens and multiply the ones. Then add.
6 64 = (6 60) + (6 4)
24
=
384
➤ Break the number apart.
Multiply the ones: 6 4
Multiply the tens: 6 60
Add.
So, 64 6 = 384
64
6
24
360
384
Try These
Find each product. Show your work.
1. a) 27 8 = ______
b) 58 3 = ______
2. a) 51
b)
8
130
35
6
c) 77 7 = ______
c) 6 3
2
l
hoo
Here are 3 ways to multiply: 64 6.
➤ Multiply the tens. Multiply the ones.
60 6 = 360
4 6 = 24
So, 64 6 = 384
360 +
So, 64 6 = 384
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
paper and pencils
counters of 2 colours
➤ Take turns to choose one number from each number box.
Multiply your 2 numbers and cover the product on the game board with a
counter.
➤ Continue playing until one player covers 4 products in a vertical, horizontal,
or diagonal line.
117 216 304 504 135
54
252
424 380 159 273 336 234 532
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
78
456 608 106 162 371 212
189 228 312 265 672 108 318
156 168 195 588
81
53
76
420 152
84
27
39
Stretch Your Thinking
Which product is greater, 98 6 or 76 9? How much greater?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
131
TU
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6
Using Patterns to Multiply
K
S
UNIT 8
LESSO N
Quick Review
➤ Multiply: 6 52
Think:
89 is 1 less than 90.
So, 7 89 is
7 less than 7 90.
7 90 = 630
Subtract 7.
630 – 7 = 623
So, 7 89 = 623
Think:
52 is 2 more than 50.
So, 6 52 is
6 50 plus 6 2.
6 50 = 300
Add 6 2, or 12.
300 + 12 = 312
So, 6 52 = 312
Try These
Use patterns to multiply.
1. a) 6 78 = _______
b) 4 29 = _______
c) 5 59 = _______
d) 7 68 = _______
e) 8 27 = _______
f) 9 79 = _______
2. a) 8 31 = _______
b) 7 52 = _______
c) 6 42 = _______
d) 4 92 = _______
e) 9 71 = _______
f) 8 62 = _______
3. a) 53 8 = _______
b) 79 7 = _______
c) 61 6 = _______
d) 82 5 = _______
e) 58 4 = _______
f) 32 9 = _______
g) 41 6 = _______
h) 9 82 = _______
i) 51 7 = _______
132
l
hoo
You can use patterns and mental math to multiply.
➤ Multiply: 7 89
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1. Use patterns to complete each multiplication chart.
a)
b)
12
13
14
15
5
7
6
8
7
9
20
21
22
23
2. Hot dogs cost $2 each. How much do 7 hot dogs cost?
_______________
3. Marbles are sold in bags of 49. How many marbles are in 8 bags?
_______________
4. There are 52 cards in a deck. How many cards are in 7 decks?
_______________
5. There are 13 doughnuts in a baker’s dozen.
How many doughnuts are there in 9 bakers’ dozens? _______________
6. There are 24 pencil-tip erasers in a package.
How many erasers are there in 6 packages? _______________
Stretch Your Thinking
Explain how you could use patterns to find 7 699.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
133
TU
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7
K
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UNIT 8
Multiplying a 3-Digit Number
by a 1-Digit Number
LESSO N
Quick Review
The total number of paper clips is 5 175.
Here is one way to multiply:
Break 175 apart.
Multiply each part by 5.
Then add.
175
5
25
350
+ 500
875
Multiply the ones: 5 5
Multiply the tens: 5 70
Multiply the hundreds: 5 100
Add.
Margaret got 875 paper clips.
Try These
1. Multiply.
b)
121
9
c)
517
8
d)
258
7
2. Lester has 3 books of stickers. Each book has 144 stickers.
How many stickers does Lester have? _______________
134
e)
409
6
l
hoo
Margaret bought 5 boxes of paper clips.
Each box contains 175 paper clips.
How many paper clips did she get?
a) 340
2
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1. Multiply.
a)
763
4
b)
495
8
c)
508
9
d)
659
5
e)
828
3
f) 614 7 = ________ g) 8 271 = ________ h) 366 6 = _______
2. There are 125 balloons in a bag.
How many balloons are there in 7 bags? _______________
3. Play this game with a partner.
You will need a set of 10 cards numbered 0 to 9.
➤ Each of you draw a multiplication grid like this:
➤ Shuffle the cards and lay them face side down.
➤ Take turns flipping over a card.
Each time a card is turned over, both players
write that number in any box on their grids.
➤ Continue until players have filled all the
boxes on their grids.
➤ Multiply. The player with the greater product wins.
Play 5 more games.
Stretch Your Thinking
Choose a 3-digit number to multiply by 8 so that the
product is between 4000 and 5000, but closer to 4000.
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
8
135
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K
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UNIT 8
Estimating Quotients
LESSO N
Quick Review
←
quotient
Here are two ways to estimate 74 8.
➤ Use division.
74 is close to 72.
72 is a multiple of 8.
72 8 = 9.
So, 74 8 is about 9.
Think:
Think
➤ Use multiplication.
About how many groups of 8 are in 74?
9 8 is 72.
72 is close to 74.
So, 74 8 is about 9.
Think:
Think
Try These
1. Circle the quotient in each division fact.
b) 32 4 = 8
c) 48 6 = 8
2. Write a division fact that helps you estimate each quotient.
a) 37 6 __________
b) 48 7___________
c) 25 4 __________
3. Write a multiplication fact that helps you estimate each quotient.
a) 17 8 ___________
136
b) 82 9 ___________ c) 34 7 __________
l
hoo
In a division fact, the answer is the quotient.
18 6 = 3
a) 24 8 = 3
me
At Sc
At Ho
Practice
1. Write a division and a multiplication fact that help you estimate the quotient.
a) 23 6 __________ ___________ b) 55 9 ___________ ___________
c) 36 5 __________ ___________ d) 39 8 ___________ ___________
2. Estimate each quotient.
a) 17 6
_________
b) 44 9
________
c) 37 5
________
d) 20 7
________
e) 19 2
_________
f) 33 4
________
g) 29 3
________
h) 70 8
________
3. Joachim has 71 stickers. He wants to arrange them into 8 groups.
About how many stickers will be in each group? ________________
4. About how many weeks are there in 44 days? _________
__________
5. Eighty-four students sign up for basketball. The coach puts them into
9 teams. About how many students are on each team? ________________
6. Sarah shares 26 seashells among 8 friends. About how many seashells does
each friend get? __________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Is the quotient of 55 7 greater than or less than 8? Explain.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
137
TU
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K
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UNIT 8
Division with Remainders
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
At Ho
l
hoo
➤ Here’s how to share 17 pears equally among 5 boxes.
Divide: 17 5
Put 3 pears in each box.
There are 2 pears left over.
Write: 17 5 = 3 R2
This is a division sentence.
The “R” stands for remainder.
➤ Here’s how to decide how many tables are needed for 32 students
eating in the lunchroom. Six students can fit at each table.
Divide: 32 6
Think about the division fact that is closest to 32 6.
You know that 30 6 = 5. So, 32 6 = 5 R2
But if 5 tables are used, then 2 students cannot sit at a table.
So, 6 tables are needed.
Try These
1. Write a division sentence for this picture.
_______________
2. Divide.
a) 15 6 = _______
b) 27 5 = _______
c) 31 4 = _______
d) 19 6 = _______
e) 17 4 = _______
f)
138
37 8 = _______
Practice
1. Play this game with a partner.
You will need:
counters of two colours
number cubes: one labelled 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3 and one labelled 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6
Take turns:
➤ Roll the number cubes to make a 2-digit number.
(For example, with 6 and 3, you can make 63 or 36.)
➤ Place a counter on a circled number.
Divide your 2-digit number by the number in your circle.
➤ Place a counter on a square containing your remainder if you can.
➤ Remove your counter from the circle.
Continue playing until all the squares are covered.
7
6
1
2
0
5
3
5
4
5
2
6
0
8
3
4
8
3
7
1
1
6
0
2
4
2 6
3 7
4 8
5 9
Stretch Your Thinking
1. Write a division sentence with remainder 8.
_______________________________________________________________
2. Write a division sentence with remainder 4.
________________________________________________________________
139
UNIT 8
TU
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D E N B OO
S
K
10
Using Base Ten Blocks
to Divide
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
At Ho
l
hoo
➤ Divide: 24 2
Divide the blocks into two equal groups.
So, 24 2 = 12
12 in each group
➤ Divide: 63 5
Divide the blocks into 5 equal groups.
There are 10 in each group and 13 left over.
Trade the leftover ten rod for 10 unit cubes.
Divide the 13 unit cubes among the 5 equal groups.
So, 63 5 = 12 R3
Try These
1. Divide. Use Base Ten Blocks when they help.
a) 88 4 = _______
b) 54 3 = _______
c) 37 2 = _______
d) 89 8 = _______
e) 25 2 = _______
f) 41 3 = _______
2. Divide. Draw a picture to show how you got the answer.
27 7 = _______
140
Practice
1. Divide. Use Base Ten Blocks when they help.
a) 56 7 = _______
b) 81 9 = _______
c) 35 4 = _______
d) 27 6 = _______
e) 75 8 = _______
f) 24 6 = _______
2. Write a division sentence to show each answer.
a) Nine children want to share 36 stickers equally.
How many stickers will each child get?
_____________________________________________________________
b) It takes 2 cups of milk to make a milkshake.
How many milkshakes can be made with 17 cups of milk?
_____________________________________________________________
c) Emilio is putting 7 treats into each party bag.
How many bags can he fill with 59 treats?
_____________________________________________________________
3. Three tennis balls fit into each carton.
How many cartons are needed for 29 tennis balls?
________________________________________________________________
4. Four children can fit into each seat on the carnival ride.
How many seats are needed for 39 children?
________________________________________________________________
5. Write 2 division sentences with remainders.
________________________________________________________________
Stretch Your Thinking
Daniella divided a number between 45 and 50 by 5. The remainder was 4.
What number did Daniella divide? Write the division sentence.
___________________________________________________________________
141
UNIT 8
TU
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D E N B OO
S
K
11
Another Strategy for
Division
LESSO N
Quick Review
me
At Sc
At Ho
Divide: 55 2
l
hoo
You write:
Arrange the 5 rods in 2 equal rows.
2
1
2 55
One ten rod remains.
Trade the leftover ten rod for 10 ones.
2 7 R1
1
2 55
Now you have 15 unit cubes.
Share the 15 cubes equally among the 2 groups.
This is called
short division.
So, 55 2 = 27 R1
Try These
1. Divide. Use Base Ten Blocks when they help.
a) 25 8 = _______
b) 42 5 = _______
c) 59 7 = _______
d) 29 4 = _______
e) 37 9 = _______
f) 34 6 = _______
g) 20 7 = _______
h) 52 8 = _______
i) 19 3 = _______
2. Luis divided 43 marbles equally among his 6 friends. How many marbles did
each friend get? Did Luis have any marbles left? Write a division sentence to
show how you got the answer.
________________________________________________________________
142
Practice
1. Play this game with a partner.
Start
45
49
35
24
19
50
41
40
21
33
11
44
29
13
You will need:
1 marker per player
50 counters per player
1 number cube marked 2 to 7
36
Place your markers on Start.
Take turns.
15
Roll the number cube. Move that many
spaces in either direction.
Divide the number you land on by
the number you rolled.
If you have a remainder, give that
many counters to your partner.
28
Continue to take turns. On each turn, you
may move your marker in either direction.
Play until one player runs out of counters.
That player is the winner.
31
20
25
39
42
48
32
38
Stretch Your Thinking
Describe the strategy you used to try to win this game.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
143
8
Calendar Puzzles
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada. Not to be copied.
Fold
Take a month from an old
calendar. Cut out all the
squares except the 1st
and put them in a paper
bag. Now, you can
challenge a friend to
help you put the month back together!
➤ Pull a square out of the bag. In your head, figure
out where that day would lay using the first day
as your starting point.
➤ Did you use a pattern to help? Share it with your
partner!
➤ Take turns until the month is back in “tiptop”
shape! Could you use the same pattern for
another month?
What did the girl
octopus say to the
Did You Know?
boy octopus?
Our number system was
developed by mathematicians
in India in the sixth century.
What could a possible date be?
Traders carried the system west
to Baghdad.
Arabs then took it to North
Africa and Europe.
See how a good idea spreads?
The next 4 pages fold in half to make an 8-page booklet.
I wanna hold your hand,
hand, hand, hand, hand,
hand, hand, hand
Math at Home 1
Math at Home
Math makes lots of sense to me
Until my brain goes numb.
But when I get confused,
I remember the “rule of thumb.”
I think about the problem
As it happens day by day.
I grab some stuff and act it out,
Draw it a different way.
Once I’ve got the picture,
It’s time to make a plan.
Now I’m ready to tackle it,
‘Cause now I know I can!
Math at Home 1
2
Hey, here’s a really
cool pattern!
Take turns until someone gets 4 counters in a row.
(The counters can run diagonally, vertically,
and horizontally.)
On your turn:
➤ Choose 2 cards from the top of the pile.
➤ Find the numbers on the top row and left side
column of the multiplication chart.
➤ Find the product of the two numbers and put
a counter on that square.
➤ If you draw a 10, you get to put your counter
on any square.
You’ll need:
➤ different counters for each player
➤ cards numbered 1–10
➤ a multiplication table
4-In-A-Row
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada. Not to be copied.
7 4 1 Switch the 8 and 1.
2 3 6 Switch the 9 and 2.
7 4 8 Then flipped tails ...
9 3 6
Figure out the sum of your two numbers.
Show your numbers to your partner.
The player with the highest sum earns a point.
If the sums are within 1000 of each other,
you both earn a point.
➤ The first player with 10 points wins!
➤
➤
➤
➤
So, if you drew this: 1
2
You’d probably
change it to this:
8
9
7
Switch the position
of 4 cards.
➤ Both players may switch any 2 or 4 cards to
make the largest sum.
Flip the coin.
Switch the position
of 2 cards.
To begin:
Without peeking, each player draws 8 cards and lays
them out one at a time, left to right in 2 rows of 4.
You’ll need:
➤ 3 sets of cards numbered 1–9 (shuffled well)
➤ a coin
➤ a large book to use as a barrier
Sum It Up!
6
How Many?
Oh, no! I was on my way to
pick up balls for a “Family Fun
Day” when I accidentally
spilled pop on my list.
36
s
zzle
n pu
r ow
you lve!
e up
so
Mak hers to
t
for o
➤ Can you figure out how
many of each ball I need?
➤ Is there more than one way to solve it?
Make a list of all the choices.
➤ What if I could clean the spill enough to see
that the first number had 2 digits, with a 0 in
the ones place? How many of each ball would
I need now?
Think About It!
42
?
What is
?
What is
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada. Not to be copied.
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
X
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81
16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72
14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63
12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
8
6
4
2
2
12 16 20 24 28 32 36
9
6
3
3
12 15 18 21 24 27
8
4
4
10 12 14 16 18
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
Multiplication Table for 4-In-A-Row
9
3
4
“But that’s impossible!
Each triangle has 3 sides.
7 3 = 21.”
What if you changed the shape to squares?
Would you need to build it all to find out?
selgnairt eht fo lla oD •
?etarapes eb ot deen
What do you think?
Make a prediction, then try it out yourself. If you get
stuck, use a mirror to read the hints below:
“I built 7 triangles with
only 13 toothpicks.”
Powerful Patterns
(Don’t give up! The more you
try it, the faster you’ll get!)
➤ Can you estimate the distance between those
places, before you drive past?
➤ Get everyone in on it.
Who can make the best
estimate?
Do you find long car rides boring? Watch for a sign
showing the number of kilometres to 2 or 3 places.
On a Trip ...
ni nrettap a ees uoy naC •
skciphtoot fo rebmun eht
?emit hcae dda lliw uoy
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada. Not to be copied.
Hin
out
t: Tr
e
r
u
y
g
i
t
f
o
u
buil using
o
y
?
n
s
d th
c
Ca
work
e id ounter
t
i
y
e
s
a.
wh
Will it work with
any number?
Now tell your friend that the answer to his/her
secret calculation is 3!
1. In your head, think of a secret number
between 1 and 10.
2. Double that number.
3. Add 12. Now keep that total in your head.
4. Divide your total by 4 and remember the
answer.
5. Now think of your original number.
Take half of that and subtract it from the
total in step 4.
Master this trick and your friends will think you are
a mind reader!
Lead your friends carefully through the following
steps:
Mind Readers, Inc.
5
Math at Home 2
8
4
12
8
10
7
2
5
The next 4 pages fold in half to make an 8-page booklet.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada. Not to be copied.
Fold
Math at Home
Math is all around my house.
It shows up everywhere.
How many eggs to bake a cake?
How long to brush my hair?
How many strokes will I need
To sweep the upstairs hall?
How many pop star posters
Can I squeeze on my bedroom wall?
How many of my sister’s toys
Are scattered on the floor?
Should I pick them up in groups of two
Or grab a whole lot more?
How much water fills the sink
To scrub those dishes clean?
How far can I blow the bubbles
And still keep from being seen?
How many minutes are left
Until all these jobs are done?
But wait! I guess it’s no big deal,
‘Cause “Mathy” chores are fun!
Math at Home 2
2
Play until someone runs out of money!
On your turn:
➤ Pull a “price tag” out of the bag.
➤ Print the price underneath the $20.00
and subtract. (Estimate first.)
➤ On your next turn, you’ll subtract the price from
the money you had left from your turn before.
Before you play:
➤ Cut out from a grocery store flyer about 20 items
that cost less than $4.00.
➤ Place the pictures in a bag you can’t see through.
➤ Each take a pencil and paper and print $20.00
at the top of the page.
Shopping Anyone?
What is the perimeter of both shapes?
Hmmm … interesting!
Cut two pieces of string 30 cm
long. Use one piece to design
a dog pen with the greatest
possible area. Use the other
one to design a pen with
the least possible area.
String Shapes
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada. Not to be copied.
1
3
5
Try it again – this time aim for a symmetrical design
that is not a fish.
How many different ways are there to make a fish
with lines of symmetry? Can you design more than
one?
Use the pieces you’ve earned to begin building a
fish design. You can make it any way you choose.
The example on page 8 shows one way to do it.
But, here’s the catch: every line of symmetry in your
fish shape is worth 5 points if you can prove it!
You might say, “5 1 is 5, and 5 + 3 is 8, so I
get the shape with an 8 on it!”
If you rolled:
On your turn:
➤ Roll all three number cubes.
➤ Add, subtract, multiply, or divide the numbers
to try to get an answer that matches a number
on a tangram shape.
The goal here is to earn each piece in order to
make the fish on the next page!
You’ll need:
➤ 3 number cubes labelled 1 to 6
➤ 1 set of tangram pieces for each player (trace
the pieces on the next page and cut apart)
Terrific Tangrams
7
6
Chocolate Bar Surprise
Willie Wonka is looking for a great new chocolate
bar to make in his “Chocolate Factory.”
Follow the clues below to create the perfect bar for Willie.
➤ 61 is mint (colour green)
➤ 41 is caramel filled (colour golden brown)
➤ 112 is dark chocolate (colour dark brown)
➤ 112 is white chocolate (colour white)
➤ 85 has rice crisps (colour speckled)
Now, design your own!
Tell a friend about each flavour using fractions.
Is anyone hungry?
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada. Not to be copied.
Time Olympics
With a friend, think of 10 “active events”
to include in your “Time Olympics.”
Print them on separate pieces of paper.
Here are a few ideas to get you started:
➤ Do the “hokey-pokey” 2 times through.
➤ Run around the house 3 times (outside, please!).
➤ Push a cotton ball across the floor with your nose.
➤ Put the pieces of paper face down on the table.
➤ One person chooses one and reads it.
➤ Both players write down an estimate of how
long it will take to do the event.
➤ The player who picked the activity begins, while
the other person keeps track of the time.
➤ Whoever ends up with the closest estimate
keeps the card.
➤ Take turns until all Olympic events are done.
Whoever has
the most cards
wins GOLD!
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4
Play until one player earns enough points!
Hmmm … How are you going to decide how close
is close enough? Is it harder to guess within 2 m
or 2 cm? Why?
On your turn:
➤ Choose a card and roll the number cube.
➤ Find something in your house that is about the
same length as the card and number cube show.
(If you rolled a 2 and picked a cm card, you’d
look for something with a dimension of 2 cm.)
➤ Once you’ve found something, measure it.
If you’re close:
1 point
Exactly right:
2 points
Before you begin, put the cards face down on the
table. Decide how many points you’ll need to win
the game.
You’ll need:
➤ 3 of each card — cm, m
➤ a number cube labelled 1 to 6
How Long? How Wide?
How Thick?
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada. Not to be copied.
Ralf Laue of Germany can toss a pancake 416 times
in 2 minutes. How many times could he do it in
1 minute? 6 minutes? 10 seconds?
Did You Know?
How much do you think you’ll have by the end of the
month? A calculator could be your friend on this one!
?
If you start with 1¢ and double your savings each
day, how long until you have about $5? Guess first,
then try it!
Savvy Saving
Did anything surprise you?
Check the mall layout sign
and see if you’re right!
➤ Which stores do you think cover the greatest area?
➤ Which ones cover the least?
➤ Which ones are
farthest away
from each other?
At the Mall
5
Math at Home 3
8
Pet Survey
12 six-year-olds were surveyed
about their favourite pets.
Dog
///
Cat
//
Hamster
/
Goldfish
/
Bird
Check the results below!
////
6
11 12
7
1
5
2
4
3
I guess
1:55 is the same
as 5 minutes to 2!
Now let’s make it a bit more interesting!
Take the results from
the survey and turn
them into a circle
graph.
Need a hint?
Figure out what
fraction of kids liked
each pet best.
9
8
10
Got a Minute?
Look at a clock
at your house
and tell the
time in two
different ways.
The next 4 pages fold in half to make an 8-page booklet.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada. Not to be copied.
Fold
Math at Home
Visiting the supermarket
Needn’t make you snore.
Just take a look around
And you’ll see Math galore!
Numbers on the labels.
Numbers on the tags.
Numbers on the cash register.
Numbers on the bags.
There are shapes of every size
Lining every aisle.
Angles jumping out at you,
Just browse a little while.
Estimate the grocery bill.
Count up change galore!
But…
Don’t ever let me hear you say,
“Shopping’s just a BORE!”
Math at Home 3
2
The product of my strip
is somewhere between
300 and 400.
Try making up your own number strips.
Use division, multiplication or maybe a combination!
4. Player B tries to guess which strip Player A was
thinking of. Could there be more than 1 answer?
5. Use the calculator to check!
6. Now switch roles.
Example:
1. Place all of your strips on the table, face up.
Mix them up so that they are not in any
particular order.
2. Player A chooses a strip (in her mind).
3. She now gives the hint by telling 2 numbers that
are close to the product of that strip.
Here is a game you can play with 2 or more people.
Before you begin, you will need to make number
sentence strips. You can cut them from page 3 or make
your own from cardstock.
Guesstimate!
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada. Not to be copied.
What fraction will be left over?
(Use the pizzas below to help you figure it out!)
➤ You estimate that each kid will eat 3 pieces.
(Don’t forget yourself!)
➤ If each pizza is cut into 8 pieces, how many whole
pizzas will you need to order?
Imagine you’re having a pizza party and 5 kids
have been invited over.
Party Time
Switch places and play again!
Give the calculator to your friend and ask him to
press the equal key 3 more times, watching the
numbers change each time. Challenge him to try
to figure out what you did!
Enter a number in a calculator and show it to a
friend. Secretly, either add or subtract a one-digit
number from the first number and press the
equal key.
Calculator Patterns
7
6
Art Attack!
Create an abstract sculpture using many
3-D objects, some tape, and your imagination.
First, collect several empty boxes, toilet paper rolls,
milk cartons, juice boxes, ice-cream cones, and any
other interesting 3-D objects you can find.
Think about how the shapes might fit together and
then start taping. Each time you pick up a new
object, count the faces and name them.
12
1
When you’re all done, tell someone
about your masterpiece. (Be sure to
point out lots of cool “attributes”!)
11
Crazy Clocks
10 What time could it be if 2
the minute hand and the hour
hand made a square corner?
9 Smaller than a square corner? 3
Bigger than a square corner?
8
6
Is there more than one
4
choice? Use a real clock
to find out!
5
7
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada. Not to be copied.
492 3
4 45
82 6
16 7
151 2
43 0
9 43
199 6
86 2
8 29
2 64
256 4
480 9
43 9
9 43
19 5
45 4
Guesstimate Number Strips
804 7
3
4
➤ Draw in furniture where you would like it placed.
(Pretend you’re looking down from the ceiling.)
➤ Estimate the actual size of real furniture and cover the
right number of squares. (A queen-size bed would
cover approximately 2 squares by 212 squares.)
➤ Colour your furniture.
5m
What’s the area of the room? What’s the perimeter?
6m
The grid below represents your new room.
Each square stands for 1 square metre.
Have you always wanted that dream room but never
been allowed to design your own? Here’s your chance!
Dream Design
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada. Not to be copied.
What area of floor space does your bed take up?
Is it more or less than the dresser?
What’s the area of the “empty” floor space?
Find the perimeter of 3 different pieces of furniture.
If your room was only 12 the size, would you still
be able to fit all the furniture in? How could you
test your prediction?
Show your design to your family.
Do you think they’ll go for it?
5m
Great news! Now you get to design your floor!
Use at least 3 different colours to create an interesting
tile pattern on the grid below.
6m
➤
➤
➤
➤
➤
Let’s Take a Closer Look …
5
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