2520 Data Sheet - Nortelco Electronics AS

2520 Data Sheet - Nortelco Electronics AS
The 51⁄2-digit Model 6487 Picoammeter/Voltage
Source improves on the measurement capability
of the award-winning Model 6485, and adds a high
resolution 500V source. It provides higher accuracy
and faster rise times than the 6485, as well as a
damping function for use with capacitive devices.
With eight current measurement ranges and high
speed autoranging, this cost-effective instrument
can measure currents from 20fA to 20mA, take
measurements at speeds up to 1000 readings per
second, and source voltage from 200µV to 505V.
The Model 6487’s 10fA resolution, superior sensitivity, voltage sweeping, and Alternating Voltage
resistance measurements make it well suited for
characterizing low current devices. Using the latest
current measurement technology, it is significantly
less expensive than other instruments that perform
similar functions, such as optical power meters,
tera-ohmmeters, competitive picoammeters, or
user-designed solutions. With a price that’s comparable to a high-end DMM, the Model 6487 makes
picoamp-level measurements affordable for virtually any laboratory or production floor.
• 10fA resolution
• 51⁄2-digit resolution
• <200µV burden voltage
• Alternating Voltage method
ohms measurements
Low Voltage Burden and Higher Accuracy
While DMMs typically employ shunt ammeter circuitry to measure current, the Model 6487 is a feedback
picoammeter. This design reduces voltage burden by several orders of magnitude, resulting in a voltage
burden of less than 200µV on the lower measurement ranges. The low voltage burden makes the Model
6487 function much more like an ideal ammeter than a DMM, so it can make current measurements with
high accuracy, even in circuits with very low source voltages.
• Digital I/O
Successor to the Model 487
The Model 6487 builds on the strengths of one of
Keithley’s most popular picoammeters, the Model
487, offering an additional 20mA measurement
range, as well as much higher measurement
speeds, up to 1000 readings per second. It simplifies device characterization with built-in voltage
sweeping capability and the Alternating Voltage
method for high resistances. A time-stamped 3000reading data buffer provides minimum, maximum,
and standard deviation statistics. A built-in emulation mode makes it possible to control the Model
6487 with any custom code written to control the
Model 487.
• Driver for LabVIEW™,
LabWindows™/CVI, Visual Basic,
C/C++, and TestPoint™ included
Features that Expand Test and Measurement Flexibility
• Direct resistance measurements. Optimized for resistances from 50Ω to 5×1014Ω using the Source
Voltage/Measure Current method.
• ExceLINX™ Excel Add-In
included
• Alternating Voltage method resistance measurements. This method improves resistance measurements on devices with high background current or high noise. It extends the measurable resistance
range up to 1016Ω.
• Automated voltage sweeps for
I-V characterization
• Floating measurements up to
500V
• Up to 1000 readings/second
• Built-in Model 486 and 487
emulation mode
• IEEE-488 and RS-232 interfaces
• Analog output
Current Ranges
Voltage Burden
Reading Rate
Voltage Sweeps
Alternating
Voltage Ohms
Analog Output
Storage Buffer
Best V Source
Resolution
Model 487
2 nA–2 mA
200 µV
Up to 180/s
No
Model 6487
2 nA–20 mA
200 µV
(1 mV on
20 mA range)
Up to 1000/s
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
(non-inverting)
512 points
Yes
(inverting)
3000 points
1 mV
0.2 mV
• 500V overload protection. This high overload protection and a robust design let the Model 6487
tolerate abusive overflows, including accidentally shorting the voltage source directly into the ammeter.
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Measures low currents quickly, accurately, and economically
Picoammeter/Voltage Source
LOW I/HIGH R PRODUCTS
6487
6487
Measures low currents quickly, accurately, and economically
Ordering Information
6487
Picoammeter/Voltage
Source
Accessories Supplied
CAP-31 Protective Shield/Cap
(3-lug)
7078-TRX-3
Low Noise Triax Input
Cable, 1m (3 ft)
CS-459 Safety Interlock Plug
8607
High Voltage Banana
Cable Set for Voltage
Source Output
CA-186-1B
Ground Connection
Cable, Banana to
Screw-Lug
Picoammeter/Voltage Source
• Rear panel triax input. This allows the picoammeter to be used in floating operation, up to 500V.
When not floating, the addition of a triax to BNC adapter allows inexpensive, easy-to-use BNC cables to
be employed, rather than more expensive triaxial cables.
• RS-232 and IEEE-488 interfaces. These interfaces make it easy to integrate the Model 6487 into
automated test and measurement systems.
• Scaled voltage analog output. This output allows the Model 6487 to transmit measurement results
to devices like DMMs, data acquisition cards, oscilloscopes, or strip chart recorders.
• Built-in Trigger Link interface. The Trigger Link interface simplifies synchronizing the Model 6487
with other instruments and voltage sources. This interface combines six independent selectable trigger
lines on a single connector for simple, direct control over all instruments in a system.
• Display on/off switch. For research on light-sensitive components, such as measuring the dark currents of photodiodes or I-V measurements on unpackaged semiconductors, the front panel display can
be switched off to avoid introducing light that could significantly reduce the accuracy of the results.
• One-touch front panel design. Functions can be configured easily with the push of a button, without complicated function menus.
• Digital calibration. Using the Model 5156 Calibration Standard, the instrument can be calibrated via
either the front panel or over the IEEE-488 bus.
A Broad Range of Low Current Applications
APPLICATIONS
• Beam monitoring and radiation
monitoring
• Leakage current testing in
insulators, switches, relays, and
other components
• I-V characterization on
semiconductor and
optoelectronic devices
• Fiber alignment
• Circuit test and analysis in
DCLF circuits
Wafer-Level Photodiode Testing
The Model 6487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source can be paired with a calibrated light source and a probing
fixture to create a cost-effective photodiode test system. Multiple Model 6487s can be connected to the
DUT’s probe pads to provide photocurrent readings or, with the addition of a switch matrix, one picoammeter can take current measurements from multiple pads. In the first step of the measurement
process, performed in total darkness, the Model 6487 produces a voltage sweep and then measures the
resulting dark current. In the second step, a voltage bias is applied and the resulting photocurrent is measured while the light level is increased in calibrated steps. The same basic test configuration can be used for
testing positive intrinsic negative (PIN) and avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The 6487’s high resolution on
the 10V source range provides superior sweeping and biasing when small biases are required. The 500V
source capability is necessary to bias APDs.
Calibrated Light Source
• Sensor characterization
Photo Diode
• Production testing of printed
circuit board (PCB) resistance
Pads
Probe Needles
LOW I/HIGH R PRODUCTS
Probe
Needles
Wafer
Vsource
Ammeter
6487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source
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When do you need a
picoammeter?
Measuring low DC currents often
demands a lot more than a digital
multimeter can deliver. Generally,
DMMs lack the sensitivity
required to measure currents less
than 100nA. Even at higher
currents, a DMM’s input voltage
drop (voltage burden) of hundreds of millivolts can make
accurate current measurements
impossible. Electrometers can
measure low currents very accurately, but the circuitry needed to
measure extremely low currents,
combined with functions like
voltage, resistance, and charge
measurement, can increase an
electrometer’s cost significantly.
The Model 6487 Picoammeter/
Voltage Source combines the
economy and ease of use of a
DMM with low current sensitivity
near that of an electrometer.
6487
Picoammeter/
Voltage Source
Ion
Detector
Ion Beam
IM
High Resistance Measurements
The Model 6487 Picoammeter can be used to make
measure high resistances (>1GΩ) in applications
such as insulation resistance testing. A constant
voltage is placed in series with the unknown resistance and the picoammeter. The voltage drop
across the picoammeter is negligible, so all the
voltage appears across the unknown resistance.
The resulting current is measured by the picoammeter and the resistance is calculated using Ohm’s
Law (R = V/I). To prevent generated current due to
electrostatic interference, the unknown resistance
is housed in a shielded test fixture. A small series
resistor may be added to reduce noise if the unknown resistor has high stray capacitance across it.
Metal Shield
R
6487 Picoammeter/
Voltage Source
HI
Ammeter
LO
HI
Vsource
LO
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
CABLES
ADAPTERS
6517-ILC-3
7078-TRX-10
7078-TRX-20
7008-*
7009-5
8607
8501-*
8502
8503
Interlock Cable for 8009 Resistivity Test Fixture
Low Noise Triax Cable,3.0m (10 ft)
Low Noise Triax Cable, 6.0m (20 ft)
IEEE-488 Digital Cable, 0.9m, 1.8m or 3.9m
(3 ft, 6 ft, or 13 ft)
RS-232 Cable
High Voltage Banana Cable Set for Analog Output
Trigger Link Cable with male Micro-DIN connectors
at each end, 1m or 2m (3.3 ft or 6.6 ft)
Micro-DIN to 6 BNCs Adapter Box. Includes one
8501-1
DIN-to-BNC Trigger Cable
237-TRX-BAR Triax Barrel
7078-TRX-BNC Triax-to-BNC Adapter
TEST FIXTURES
8009
Powerful Software Options
To simplify integrating the Model 6487 into PCbased test systems, the instrument comes with
Keithley’s ExceLINX, an add-in utility for
Microsoft® Excel. Within minutes of installing
ExceLINX on a PC, users can acquire data directly
from the Model 6487 instrument, then employ
Excel’s graphics, charting, and analysis capabilities
to turn that data into useful information. No programming is required to use ExceLINX—a few
mouse clicks are all it takes. Keithley also provides
a 6487 instrument driver for use with Application
Development Environments such as LabVIEW™,
LabWindows™/CVI, Visual Basic, C/C++, and
TestPoint.
Resistivity Test Fixture
RACK MOUNT KITS
4288-*
Single or Dual Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
OTHER
KPC-TM
KPCI-488
KPC-488.2AT
1050
5156
Trigger Master Interface
IEEE-488.2 Interface for PCI Bus
IEEE-488 Interface Card for IBM PC/AT and PS/2
Padded Carrying Case
Calibration Source
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LOW I/HIGH R PRODUCTS
Monitoring and Control of Focused Ion Beam Currents
In semiconductor fabrication, focused ion beam systems are often used for nanometer-scale imaging,
micromachining, and mapping. Careful monitoring of the magnitude of the beam current with an ion
detector is critical. The ion detector generates a secondary current that’s proportional to the current of
the primary ion beam. When this secondary current is measured, it can be used to control the intensity of
the primary beam. However, this secondary current is very low, often just a few picoamps, so the instrumentation measuring it must provide high measurement accuracy and repeatability, as well as sub-picoamp
resolution. The Model 6487’s wide measurement range and 51⁄2-digit resolution make it ideal for this application. Signal connections to the Model 6487 are made through the instrument’s triax connector. Often, a
detector may require high voltage to attract ions, making the 6487’s 500V source a necessity.
Measures low currents quickly, accurately, and economically
Picoammeter/Voltage Source
6487
Picoammeter/Voltage Source
6487
Model 6487 Specifications
RANGE
2 nA
20 nA
200 nA
2 µA
20 µA
200 µA
2 mA
20 mA
51⁄2 DIGIT
DEFAULT
RESOLUTION
10 fA
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
ACCURACY (1 Year) 1
±(% rdg. + offset)
18°–28°C, 0–70% RH
0.3 % + 400 fA
0.2 % + 1 pA
0.15% + 10 pA
0.15% + 100 pA
0.1 % + 1 nA
0.1 % + 10 nA
0.1 % + 100 nA
0.1 % + 1 µA
TYPICAL
RMS NOISE 2
20 fA
20 fA
1 pA
1 pA
100 pA
100 pA
10 nA
10 nA
TYPICAL ANALOG
RISE TIME (10% to 90%)3
DAMPING4
ON
OFF
4 ms
80 ms
4 ms
80 ms
300 µs
1 ms
300 µs
1 ms
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT: 0°–18°C & 28°–50°C. For each °C, add 0.1 × (% rdg + offset) to accuracy spec.
INPUT VOLTAGE BURDEN: <200µV on all ranges except <1mV on 20mA range.
MAXIMUM INPUT CAPACITANCE: Stable to 10nF on all nA ranges and 2µA range; 1µF on 20µA and 200µA ranges, and on mA ranges.
MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS INPUT VOLTAGE: 505 VDC.
NMRR1: (50 or 60Hz): 60dB.
ISOLATION (Ammeter Common or Voltage Source to chassis): Typically >1×1011Ω in parallel with <1nF.
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE (between chassis and voltage source or ammeter): 505 VDC.
ANALOG OUTPUT: Scaled voltage output (inverting 2V full scale on all ranges): 2.5% ±2mV.
ANALOG OUTPUT IMPEDANCE3: <100Ω, DC–2kHz.
VOLTAGE SOURCE:
RANGE
(Max.)
STEP SIZE
(typical)
ACCURACY 5
±(% prog. + offset)
18°–28°C, 0–70% R.H.
NOISE
(p-p)
0.1–10 Hz
TEMPERATURE
COEFFICIENT
TYPICAL
RISE TIME 6, 8
(10%–90%)
TYPICAL
FALL TIME 7, 8
(90%–10%)
±10.100
±50.500
±505.00
200 µV
1 mV
10 mV
0.1 % + 1 mV
0.1 % + 4 mV
0.15% + 40 mV
<50 µV
<150 µV
<1.5 mV
(0.005% + 20 µV)/°C
(0.005% + 200 µV)/°C
(0.008% + 2 mV)/°C
250 µs
250 µs
4.5 ms
150 µs
300 µs
1 ms
SELECTABLE CURRENT LIMIT: 2.5mA, 250µA, 25µA for 50V and 500V ranges, 25mA additional limit for 10V range. All current limits are
–20%/+35% of nominal.
WIDEBAND NOISE 9: <30mVp-p 0.1Hz–20MHz.
TYPICAL TIME STABILITY: ±(0.003% + 1mV) over 24 hours at constant temperature (within 1°C, between 18°–28°C, after 5 minute
settling).
OUTPUT RESISTANCE: <2.5Ω.
VOLTAGE SWEEPS: Supports linear voltage sweeps on fixed source range, one current or resistance measurement per step. Maximum
sweep rate: 200 steps per second. Maximum step count 3000. Optional delay between step and measure.
RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT (V/I): Used with voltage source; resistance calculated from voltage setting and measured current. Accuracy
is based on voltage source accuracy plus ammeter accuracy. Typical accuracy better than 0.6% for readings between 1kΩ and 1TΩ.
ALTERNATING VOLTAGE RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT: Offers alternating voltage resistance measurements for resistances from 109Ω
to 1015Ω. Alternates between 0V and user-selectable voltage up to ±505V.
LOW I/HIGH R PRODUCTS
NOTES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
At 1 PLC – limited to 60 rdgs/s under this condition.
At 6 PLC, 1 standard deviation, 100 readings, filter off, capped input – limited to 10 rdgs/sec under this condition.
Measured at analog output with resistive load >2kΩ.
Maximum rise time can be up to 25% greater.
Accuracy does not include output resistance/load regulation.
Rise Time is from 0V to ± full-scale voltage (increasing magnitude).
Fall Time is from ± full-scale voltage to 0V (decreasing magnitude).
For capacitive loads, add C·∆V/ILimit to rise time, and C·∆V/1mA to fall time.
Measured with LO connected to chassis ground.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
All Keithley trademarks and trade names are the property of Keithley Instruments, Inc. All other
trademarks and trade names are the property of their respective companies.
Keithley Instruments, Inc.
© Copyright 2002 Keithley Instruments, Inc.
Printed in Germany
REMOTE OPERATION
IEEE-488 BUS IMPLEMENTATION: SCPI (IEEE-488.2,
SCPI-1996.0); DDC (IEEE-488.1).
LANGUAGE EMULATION: Keithley Model 486/487
emulation via DDC mode.
RS-232 IMPLEMENTATION:
Supports: SCPI 1996.0.
Baud Rates: 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2k,
38.4k, 57.6k.
Protocols: Xon/Xoff, 7 or 8 bit ASCII, parityodd/even/none.
Connector: DB-9 TXD/RXD/GND.
GENERAL
AMMETER INPUT CONNECTOR: Three lug triaxial on rear
panel.
ANALOG OUTPUT CONNECTOR: Two banana jacks on rear
panel.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT CONNECTOR: Two banana
jacks on rear panel.
INTERLOCK CONNECTOR: 4 pin DIN.
TRIGGER LINE: Available, see manual for usage.
DISPLAY: 12 character vacuum fluorescent.
DIGITAL FILTER: Median and averaging (selectable from 2
to 100 readings).
RANGING: Automatic or manual.
AUTORANGING TIME3: <250ms (analog filter off, 1PLC)
OVERRANGE INDICATION: Display reads “OVRFLOW”.
CONVERSION TIME: Selectable 0.01 PLC to 60 PLC (50PLC
under 50Hz operation). (Adjustable from 200µs to 1s)
READING RATE:
To internal buffer
1000 readings/second1
To IEEE-488 bus
900 readings/second1, 2
BUFFER: Stores up to 3000 readings.
PROGRAMS: Provide front panel access to IEEE address,
choice of engineering units or scientific notation, and digital calibration.
EMC: Conforms with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC,
EN61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms with European Union Directive
73/23/EEC, EN61010-1, CAT I.
ENVIRONMENT:
Operating: 0°–50°C; relative humidity 70% non-condensing, up to 35°C. Above 35°C, derate humidity by 3% for
each °C.
Storage: –10°C to +65°C.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracy (see manual for recommended procedure).
POWER: 100–120V or 220–240V, 50–60Hz, (50VA).
PHYSICAL:
Case Dimensions: 90mm high × 214mm wide × 369mm
deep (31⁄2 in. × 83⁄8 in. × 149⁄16 in.).
Working Dimensions: From front of case to rear including power cord and IEEE-488 connector: 394mm (15.5
inches).
NET WEIGHT: <4.7 kg (<10.3 lbs).
Notes:
1. 0.01 PLC, digital filters off, front panel off, auto zero off.
2. Binary transfer mode. IEEE-488.1.
3. Measured from trigger in to meter complete.
28775 Aurora Road • Cleveland, Ohio 44139 • 440-248-0400 • Fax: 440-248-6168
1-888-KEITHLEY (534-8453) • www.keithley.com
No. 2408
11028K
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