Arborist Safety Program - NC Department of Labor

Arborist Safety Program - NC Department of Labor
Arborist Safety Program
Health and Safety
for Arborists
in North Carolina
Southern Chapter
International Society of Arboriculture
213 Apollo Drive
Mount Airy, NC 27030
(336) 789-4747
www.isasouthern.org
[email protected]
N.C. Department of Labor
1101 Mail Service Center
Raleigh, NC 27699-1101
1-800-625-2267
www.nclabor.com
2010 Third Edition
Published in partnership
Table of Contents
How to Use This Booklet ............................................................................................................................ 2
Potentially Dangerous Situations................................................................................................................ 3
Quick Safety Checklist ................................................................................................................................ 4
Company Training Policy ............................................................................................................................ 5
Company Safety Policy .............................................................................................................................. 6
Minimum Safety Requirements .................................................................................................................. 7
Company Drug and Alcohol Policy ............................................................................................................. 10
Free On-Site Safety Consultation ............................................................................................................... 11
What to Expect from an OSH Inspection .................................................................................................... 12
Safety Meeting Topics ................................................................................................................................ 13
Safety Meeting Record ............................................................................................................................... 14
Personal Protective Equipment Requirements ........................................................................................... 15
List of Equipment Operation Manuals ........................................................................................................ 16
Lockout/Tagout Policy ................................................................................................................................ 17
Hazard Communication (HAZCOM) Program ............................................................................................ 18
HAZCOM Materials Master List .................................................................................................................. 20
Emergency Response Plan for Hazardous Materials................................................................................. 21
First Aid Training Record ............................................................................................................................ 23
First Aid Kit Contents .................................................................................................................................. 24
Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan ............................................................................................ 25
Hearing Conservation Program .................................................................................................................. 27
Job Safety, Health and Associated Posters ............................................................................................... 29
Safety Behavior Observations .................................................................................................................... 30
Contact Information and Telephone Numbers ........................................................................................... 33
Directions to and Phone Numbers for Local Hospitals ............................................................................... 34
Arborist Safety Program Booklet Order Form ............................................................................................ 57
Appendixes
A. Chain Saw Operation .................................................................... ……….… .......................36
B. Chipper Operation ......................................................................... ………… ........................41
C. Manual Line Clearance Check List ................................................ …………. .......................53
1
How to Use This Booklet
Keep this booklet on the job site at all times.
Booklets should be used for a one-year period. Request another copy prior to the twelfth month.
In the upper right hand corner of each page is a box with the words daily, weekly, monthly, annually
or continuously in it. This tells you how often to review, discuss or post information discussed on that
page.
Blank lines (________) require written information such as company name or signatures and dates, etc.
Record entries in ink.
You may photocopy materials in this book and keep this book as a master.
This booklet contains sample forms, sample policies and guidelines for maintaining safety records.
Formats are suggested and can be modified by each operation. Use of this booklet and completion of
suggested forms will assist with OSHA (Occupation Safety and Health Act) requirements as related to
arborist operations. A list of agencies and contact information is included for additional information and
consultation.
This booklet is not a safety manual with everything you will need. It is intended to be a record of
activities and a source of useful information. Each company is encouraged to begin its own manual with
detailed information to support information in this booklet. It may also be downloaded from the N.C.
Department of Labor’s website.
Comments on booklet use and suggested improvements should be directed to the N.C. Department of
Labor, Education, Training and Technical Assistance Bureau, 1101 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, NC
27699-1101.
Special thanks to the N.C. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Division, for guidance
in the technical review of this publication.
2
Potentially Dangerous Situations
Be alert for these situations AT ALL TIMES:
•
Are workers wearing hard hats when exposed to overhead hazards?
•
Are lodged or hung trees flagged and pulled down as soon as possible?
•
Are workers a safe distance from trees being felled?
•
Are workers a safe distance from moving equipment?
•
Are workers wearing tight-fitting clothing while operating chippers?
•
Are overhead power lines in the immediate work area?
3
Safety Checklist
General Operations
Are all employees properly trained in the safest way to perform their jobs?
Are all employees in visual or audible contact with another employee?
Are all employees who are exposed to overhead hazards wearing hard hats?
Are all chain saw operators wearing all required personal protective equipment?
Is all equipment located a safe distance from other equipment and employees?
Are there adequate handholds and footing surfaces on equipment?
YES
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NO
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Felling Operations
Is a minimum safe distance being maintained between felling and closest
employee?
Are all lodged and hung trees pulled down as soon as possible?
Are all chain saw safety devices present and operational?
Are overhead hazards checked before felling?
When manually felling, are high wind conditions being avoided?
Is a clear path of retreat for manual fellers being provided?
Are chain saws being used properly to prevent saw kickback?
Are manual felling cuts resulting in directional felling?
Is domino tree felling prohibited and are pusher trees being used?
Are the protective cab structure and guards on mechanical cutters in place?
Manual Limbing and Bucking
Is the work area clearly identified and is it free from random equipment movements?
Are limbers/buckers determining direction of limbing or log movement before
cutting?
Are employees cutting and removing spring poles safely?
Are chain saws being controlled during cuts and travel between cuts?
_____ _____
_____ _____
_____ _____
_____ _____
Pre-Climbing Inspections
Are the ropes, safety lanyards, and climbing saddles being inspected for any
defects?
Are only double-locking snap hooks being used?
4
_____ _____
_____ _____
Company Training Policy
How and when employees are trained:
How existing employees receive refresher training:
How training is documented (equipment, first aid, hazcom, hearing conservation, minimum safety rules,
safety meetings, personal protective gear, emergency response, etc.):
Safety workshops or training courses (locations, personnel expected to attend):
What training materials are used (videos, handouts, checklists, etc.):
Time schedule for training new and existing employees:
5
Company Safety Policy
It is our policy to provide as safe a workplace as possible for all employees. Safety is the number one
priority. Accidents and injuries are preventable.
Our policy includes the following:
1. A responsible employee in a position of authority will be appointed Safety Coordinator.
_________________________ (employee name) has been appointed to fill this position.
2. Owners, supervisors, foremen and employees are responsible for implementing this policy by
working in a safe manner.
3. Regularly scheduled safety meetings will be held with all employees.
4. All accidents will be reported and investigated, and actions will be taken to prevent reoccurrence.
5. All new employees will be trained in safe working practices for their particular jobs and closely
supervised until they are fully capable of safe performance.
6. All employees are required to use personal protective equipment provided by this company or the
employee and to keep the equipment in good condition.
7. Employees will report any and all accidents to their immediate supervisor.
8. All employees are expected to cooperate in keeping work areas clean and free of hazards.
Employees will report any observed hazard to their immediate supervisor.
9. Each employee is required to keep a safe distance from other employees while moving equipment
or other hazards.
10. Employees will operate equipment as instructed in a safe and reasonable manner.
6
Minimum Safety Requirements
1. Immediately report all accidents, no matter how slight, to your supervisor.
2. Any employee injured on the job or requiring medical attention must report the injury to his/her
supervisor before seeking medical treatment. A medical emergency is defined as an open wound
requiring stitches, loss of consciousness, or any injury involving broken bones. If you go to an
Emergency Room or to a physician on your own, you may have to pay your own bill. The company
has the right to refuse payment when you elect to use the services of a physician other than the
company medical provider without first obtaining consent from the company.
3. Personal protective equipment such as hard hats, chaps, eye protection, ear protection, gloves,
etc., will be provided and must be worn in designated areas at all times.
Designated areas where personal protective equipment is required are as follows:
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
4. All workers must wear adequate footwear, preferably steel-toed shoes or high-top boots. Tennis
shoes, platform shoes, sandals, etc., are not acceptable.
5. Use of alcohol and/or illegal drugs on the job, or the debilitating effects of their prior use, shall not
be permitted and shall be grounds for immediate termination of employment.
6. Machine guards and/or protective shields, barricades, safety devices, etc., shall not be removed
except by authorized personnel, such as mechanics, maintenance personnel, etc., and shall be
reinstalled as soon as maintenance activities are completed.
7. Machine and equipment operators must ensure that all guards and shields are in place and in
proper working conditions prior to beginning and during operations.
8. When attempting to “jump start” mobile equipment, employees must ensure that its running gear is
in neutral, brakes are locked, head/blades and/or buckets are lowered, and no safety device
designed to prevent machine movement is being by-passed.
9. Horseplay and running shall not be permitted on the premises, including all work areas inside and
outside the buildings and in parking lots.
10. Use of seatbelts is required whenever roadway vehicles are being driven and when woods
equipment with rollover cab protection is being operated.
11. If you are unfamiliar with an operation of a machine, do not use it. Check with your supervisor prior
to proceeding.
12. Immediately report any unsafe condition to your supervisor, who is responsible for having the
condition corrected prior to proceeding.
13. Before starting a cut, the employee cutting must alert all other employees and ensure that they are
at a safe distance from the tree.
14. Workers must keep a minimum distance of at least one-tree length between themselves and mobile
equipment and/or felling operations. At least 300 feet should be maintained between high-speed
disc cutters on feller bunchers and any equipment or people.
7
15. Never leave a lodged or hung tree. Flag the area in which the lodged tree is located and get the
hazardous tree to the ground immediately.
16. Employees working on the ground shall always be observant for overhead hazards, i.e., lodged
trees, hung limbs, etc.
17. Employees cutting down trees shall have a clear path of retreat before beginning a cut to ensure
that a line of escape is available.
18. Always plan the direction of fall of any tree being felled. Proper undercut must be made on all trees.
Never cut a standing tree completely through. Sufficient wood should be left between the undercut
and the felling cut, on which the tree can hinge, to prevent kickback.
19. Chain saw operators must always grip the saw firmly with both hands and never begin cuts with the
upper tip of the chain saw blade; this action may create kickback.
20. To prevent being thrown or struck while logs or poles are being moved, employees shall position
themselves to avoid standing between logs/wood sticks that may roll while being bucked or
positioned themselves.
21. Loader operators shall never load log trucks more than ½ the height of the diameter of the outer
logs over stationary standards. The load must be rounded in the middle to stabilize the load.
22. When in the immediate vicinity of a log truck, each employee shall constantly be aware of hazards
and position him/herself in a manner, to ensure that he/she will not be struck by material falling from
the truck.
23. All truck drivers must comply with all State and Federal laws, statutes, and regulations relating to
highway safety such as speed limits, weight limits, driving time, stop signs, etc.
24. Each employee will be trained in, and required to use, proper lifting techniques and body
mechanics. When confronted with lifting and/or moving any object for which the employee must
exert more force than that required in the normal performance of his routine duties, he is either to
seek the assistance of an adequate number of employees to lift and/or move the object in a safe
manner, or to lift and/or move it by mechanical means.
NOTE: These safety rules have been developed for the protection of your safety and health. Abiding by
these rules will make our operation more efficient and successful. Repeated violations of these safety
rules will be grounds for termination of employment. The following actions will be taken for repeated
violations:
First Offense:
_____________________________________________________________
Second Offense:
_____________________________________________________________
Third Offense:
_____________________________________________________________
Other disciplinary actions:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
I have read and understand the safety policy and minimum rules listed above and agree to comply with
the company’s safety requirements.
8
Employee Signature
Date
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9
Company Drug and Alcohol Policy
In consideration for employment, I hereby agree to the following rules and regulations pertaining to
illegal drugs, alcohol and legally prescribed medical drugs:
1. I agree to notify my employer of the need for me to take any prescription drug(s) that may impair the
safe performance of my duties.
2. I agree not to operate any equipment or motor vehicle while taking a prescribed drug that may
impair the safe performance of my duties.
3. I agree never to drink alcohol when operating employer owned or leased vehicles or equipment.
4. I agree never to use any illegal or controlled substance while employed.
5. I agree never to report for work under the influence of alcohol or illegal drugs. I will advise my
supervisor upon reporting to work if I am taking medication prescribed by a doctor that may impair
the safe performance of my duties.
6. I agree that if I am asked to take a test for illegal or controlled substance and refuse, it will
constitute my immediate voluntary resignation.
7. I agree that if I violate any of the above rules and regulations, my employment will be terminated
immediately.
Employee:
___________________________
Date:
___________________________
Witness:
___________________________
Date:
___________________________
This form may be used as a master; photocopies maybe made.
Signed forms should be kept with employee’s personnel file.
10
Free On-Site Safety Consultation
Upon request, a consultant from NCDOL’s Consultative Services Bureau can visit your work site to
offer advice on reducing hazards and eliminating injuries. The consultant will evaluate your equipment
and procedures and help you establish a work site safety program. The consultant will contact you
directly to arrange a meeting after receiving your request. You are protected from a general compliance
inspection while the consultant is working with you. The protection begins after the consultant arrives
and begins working with you. Keep a copy of the request form on the job site until the consultative
session begins. You may read more details about the process at the following website:
www.nclabor.com/osha/consult/consult_steps.htm
Request for On-Site Safety Consultation for Arborist Operations (Please Print)
Company Name:
_________________________________________________________
Contact Person:
_________________________________________________________
Title:
_________________________________________________________
Mailing Address:
_________________________________________________________
Number of
Employees
_________________________________________________________
E-Mail Address:
_________________________________________________________
Office Phone:
_________________________
Mail to:
N.C. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Division
Consultative Services Bureau
1101 Mail Service Center
Raleigh, NC 27699-1101
Cell Phone:
__________________
Or fax:
(919) 807-2902
Consultative Services Bureau
Or call:
(919) 807-2899
Consultative Services Bureau
Give information requested above.
KEEP A COPY OF YOUR REQUEST ON THE JOB SITE.
11
What to Expect from an OSH Inspection
AN OSH INSPECTOR'S CREDENTIALS
When an OSH compliance officer arrives at the establishment or inspection site, he or she will
display official credentials. The compliance officer will ask to meet with the employer or an
appropriate employer representative. Employers should always ask to see the compliance
officer's credentials.
OPENING CONFERENCE
In the opening conference, the compliance officer will explain how and why the establishment or site
was selected for an inspection. The officer will instruct whether the inspection will be comprehensive
or partial. The compliance officer will also request the following kind of information from the
management representative:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Company mailing address
Contact names and telephone numbers
Number of employees
Accident and injury records (OSHA Form 300)
Written safety and health programs
Whether there are any trade secrets at the establishment or site
Trade secrets are treated confidentially. The employer will be asked to select an employer
representative to accompany the compliance officer during the inspection. This selection process may
include a bargaining agency representative, safety committee selection or employee selection.
THE INSPECTION PROCESS
The inspection tour will start at the beginning of the work process to the finished product. The
compliance officer will observe safety and health conditions and practices, interview employees
privately and make every effort to minimize any work interruptions. The compliance officer will take
photographs and monitor employee exposures if necessary.
CLOSING CONFERENCE
At the conclusion of inspection, the compliance officer will conduct a closing conference with the
employer and the employee representatives. A free discussion will take place of the alleged
violations that were observed during the inspection. Additional safety and health problems and
needs may be discussed.
The compliance officer will not indicate any specific proposed monetary penalties. Many factors
influence that amount and will only be calculated after all of the facts of the case are established. The
employer rights and responsibilities will be explained. The discussion will include the time line of
what happens after the site visit. Good communication and contact with the compliance officer is
encouraged until the case is closed.
12
Safety Meeting Topics
Frequent safety meetings are very useful. A short weekly meeting is recommended to keep safety
topics in the minds of staff; however, a more lengthy and detailed meeting will be necessary for some
areas. In the sample list below, topics with an asterisk (*) are included in the following pages. Other
suggested topics are also listed and you should add additional topics specific for your company in the
lines following the suggested list. Use the Safety Meeting Record form (on the next page) to document
your meetings.
* Personal Protective Equipment
* Equipment Manuals and Operation
* Lockout /Tagout Procedures (zero energy state)
* Hazard Communication
* Emergency Response Plan
* First Aid
* Bloodborne Pathogens
* Hearing Conservation Program
Driver Training/DOT Review (Class C)
Bucket Truck Annual Certification
Company Safety Policies
Heat Stroke (Exhaustion)
Fire Extinguisher Training
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
13
Safety Meeting Record
(Make copies of this page for use at every meeting and for good recordkeeping.)
Date: _______________________________
Location: ________________________________________________________________
Topic (s): ________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Presented by: ____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Brief outline of discussion:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
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___________________________________________________________________________
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Signatures of employees:
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14
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Personal Protective Equipment Requirements
The employer must document the hazard assessment and certify a written copy of that
assessment in accordance with 1910.132(d). This short checklist is to assist the employer in
beginning that process.
Check (3) what is required:
Equipment
Chipper
Operator
Bucket Truck
Operator
Groundman
Climber
Hard Hat
Eye Protection
Climbing Gear
Body Belt/Harness
Hearing Protection
Safety Shoes
Saw Chaps
I understand the above company requirements for proper use of personal protective equipment.
Employee Signature:
Date:
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15
Equipment Operation Manuals
Equipment operation manuals must be with each machine on the job site. Use them as training
materials with each new employee before the new job begins. Review the manuals each year with all
employees who will operate that specific piece of equipment.
Equipment
Operator(s)
Date of Review / Initial Training
________________
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16
Lockout/Tagout Policy
1. All arborist equipment, transport vehicles, and implements will have a lockout or tagout procedure to
protect employees who are conducting service or maintenance. Actions will be based on procedures in
the equipment operator’s manual.
2. Equipment will be shut down and placed in a zero energy state (ZES) for areas on the equipment
where work will be performed. Examples of energy include gravity (rolling down a hill, broken floor
jack), hydraulic pressure (falling boom, falling blade), electrical (equipment switch-on, shock), chemical
(ignited fuel can), and air pressure (changing tires).
3. Persons authorized to service and repair equipment must eliminate energy from the affected
equipment and lockout or tagout the equipment to be sure that another person does not energize the
equipment. Tags and locks should be readily available and all employees trained in their use. Locks are
prevention tools and tags are warning tools.
4. No person is to remove or by-pass a tag or lock. Only the employee who placed the tag or lock may
remove it.
I have read and understand the above policy on lockout and tagout and agree to follow the stated
procedures.
Employee Signature:
Date:
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17
Hazard Communication (HAZCOM) Program
This HAZCOM Program was developed to make employees aware of chemical hazards. Information is
provided to employees about chemicals used on the job through the following a master list of chemical
names, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) kept on the job site in a booklet, proper labeling of
containers, training for new employees, and annual reviews for all employees.
The HAZCOM Program Coordinator for this company is______________________.
The Coordinator is responsible for overseeing the program.
Master Chemical List
A list of any hazardous materials used on our job sites is available at this location:
_________________________________________________________. This list is updated as needed.
Job Site Chemical List
A list of common and frequently used hazardous materials is available at this location:
_________________________________________________. This list is kept with the MSDS file on
the job site and has an MSDS for each chemical listed.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Information on hazardous materials found on the job site is available to any and all employees. The
MSDS file is found on the job site at _______________________________.
Container Labeling
Hazardous material containers will be clearly labeled as to: contents, correct hazard warning or symbol,
name and address of manufacturer. Labeling is not required for portable containers intended for
immediate use.
Training
New employees must attend a training session before working with hazardous materials. This training
will cover:
• Information contained in MSDS
• Physical and health hazards for job site chemicals
• How presence or release of materials is detected
• How to protect against hazards by personal protective equipment, special handling, and other
controls
• Emergency procedures in case of leaks, spills or reactions
• First aid procedures to follow if employees are exposed
• All employees must receive annual refresher training in above and immediate training if a new
material is added or new hazard is determined.
•
Supervisors must receive training adequate to answer employee questions and monitor job site
hazards.
•
Any outside contractor will be advised of any hazards existing on the job site, location of MSDS’s
and must provide proper labeling and MSDS for any chemical brought on the job site.
Additional information
Any employee can obtain additional information by contacting the designated HAZCOM Program
Coordinator indicated above.
The HAZCOM Program above has been reviewed with me and I understand my rights and
responsibilities:
18
Employee Signature:
Date:
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19
HAZCOM Materials Master List
An MSDS for each of the materials listed below is available at: _____________________________
Chemical:
Location
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This master list was prepared by and will be updated by:
Name: ______________________________ Title: ______________________________
20
Emergency Response Plan for Hazardous Materials
Most spills will involve fuel oil, motor oil or hydraulic oil. Only fuel oil is a “hazardous substance” by
definition. The following actions will be used to handle leaks and spills and to prevent any environmental damage not related to employees handling hazardous substances:
PREPARING FOR A SPILL
Designated persons will be trained as a first response team. The training will include: how to contain
spills, how to clean up spills, recognizing hazards in clean up, limits on ability to clean up.
REPORTING A SPILL
You must report any leak or spill to an immediate supervisor. The reporting sequence is as follows:
Employee → Supervisor → Company Owner → NC Emergency Management, 1-800-858-0368.
Spills that threaten lives or have significant environmental threat must be reported immediately. If you
cannot reach someone in the chain of command, then report directly to NC Emergency Management.
When talking to NC Emergency Management be sure to:
• provide good direction to the spill
• do not hang up until directed to do so
• record the name of the person to whom you spoke to and the time you talked with him/her
• write a brief report including calls made, public agency answers and responses, actions taken
by you and other company employees
HANDLING A SPILL
If the material is listed as hazardous or you do not know what it is:
• do not attempt containment or clean up
• maintain a safe distance
• allow no one to enter the area, use flagging if necessary
• avoid large volumes of gasoline or other volatile substances
• call and wait for first response team
If the material is known and not hazardous:
• stop the release if you have been trained on operating/opening/closing the container, and
• fire and other dangers do not exist
The “First Response Team” of trained employees is:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
Spill cleanup tools and supplies consist of:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
21
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
and are located:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
The following employees have reviewed this emergency response plan and understand their duties.
Employee Signature:
Date:
_______________________________________
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22
First Aid Training Record
The following employees have completed the indicated training. Photocopies of signed certification
cards are on file at this location: _________________________________________________.
COMPLETION DATES
Employee Signature
_______________________
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First Aid
CPR
Bloodborne
Pathogens
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23
First Aid Kit Contents
First aid kits must be available on each job site and in transport vehicles.
Large Kits - Located on job site at ____________________________________________
The first aid kit contents listed below should be adequate for small work sites, consisting of approximately two or three employees. When larger operations or multiple operations are being conducted at
the same location, additional first aid kits should be provided at the work site or additional quantities of
supplies should be included in the first aid kits. The contents include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Gauze pads (at least 4x4 inches)
Two large gauze pads (at least 8x10 inches)
Box of adhesive bandages (“Band-Aids”)
One package gauze roller bandage at least 2 inches wide
Two triangular bandages
Wound cleaning agent such as sealed moistened towelettes
Scissors
At least one blanket
Tweezers
Adhesive Tape
Latex gloves
Resuscitation equipment such as resuscitation bag, airway or pocket mask
Two elastic wraps
Splint
Directions for requesting emergency assistance
Compact Kits - carried by each chain saw operator working away from the primary work site.
Compact kits, at a minimum, should contain:
• Wound compress
• Latex gloves
• Assorted of adhesive bandages (“Band-Aids”)
• Antiseptic swipes
• Items should be packaged to remain clean and dry.
24
Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan
This plan has been developed to minimize and prevent exposure of employees to disease-causing
microorganisms in human blood. All employees who could be exposed to blood or infectious materials
are involved in this program. The OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard applies to those persons who
are first aid trained and those who would be exposed while not in a first aid capacity. If any arboriculture
employees are designated first aid providers, they would be covered by the bloodborne standard.
BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS
The standard covers those agents, primarily viruses, present in human blood, semen, vaginal
secretions, internal body fluids, and any body fluid contaminated with blood. Urine, feces, and vomit are
not considered infectious unless contaminated with blood. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and
HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) are the two pathogens that come to mind for many people when discussing this
standard; however, any bloodborne pathogen is covered by this standard. Other examples include, but
are not limited to, the following: syphilis, malaria, babesiosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, arboviral
infections (especially Colorado tick fever), relapsing fever, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, human Tlymphotropic virus type I, and viral hemorrhagic fever.
HAZARDS
The covered pathogens can be spread in the workplace by any contact with blood such as an open
wound (scratch or cut), contact with mucous membranes (mouth, eyes, and nose), being stuck with a
used hypodermic needle (diabetic use), etc.
Clothing and other materials can become contaminated and can be sites for infection. An employee can
be exposed by using improperly cleaned equipment where blood and body fluids are present. Touching
and removing blood soaked clothing or bandages can also lead to infection. Someone away from the
job can also be affected such as a spouse or garbage collector who comes in contact with the
contaminated material.
PREVENTION
Protective Equipment: protective items must be used during administration of first aid or CPR
(disposal rubber gloves, eye protection, and mouthpiece or airway device). These must be readily
available on the job site.
Handling: once used, rubber gloves must be disposed of. Employees must wash their hands
immediately after removal of disposable gloves. Equipment in contact with blood or body fluids must be
washed immediately with soap and water.
Clothing and Articles: personal clothing and equipment must be cleaned, laundered, disposed of or
replaced if contaminated. The employer supervises the disposal. Consider calling the local Health
Board or other medical authorities. Sharp objects must be placed in puncture-proof bags.
25
Housekeeping: All equipment and work areas exposed to blood or other body fluids must be cleaned
with a disinfectant. All tarps and protective covers should be cleaned or replaced if contaminated.
Eating, drinking, smoking, and applying contact lens are prohibited in work areas where there is a
possibility of contact with human blood or body fluids.
Hepatitis B Vaccinations: Any person who has had an occupational exposure has the right to request
a series of three injections. The arborist may arrange for the three injections over a six-month period
prior to exposure or offer this series within 24 hours of a first time exposure. The employee, normally a
first-aider, is not required to take the vaccination. If he/she declines, then sign a form stating the
decision.
After Exposure and the Follow-up: The employee reports the exposure immediately to his supervisor. The supervisor writes down the method of exposure and details of the incident. Personal data such
as identification can be included in the medical file. Blood from the victim and exposed person must be
collected and tested. Medically indicated treatment to prevent disease will be given to the employee.
Counseling of the employee regarding results of the finding and documentation from the health care
provider will be given to the employee. A record of illnesses of the employee after the incident shall be
documented for one (1) year by the employer.
BBP Training
Annual training is required for employees covered by the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. Names of
attendees and the names of certified individuals will be documented. 1910.1030(g)(2) contains detailed
requirements for the training and trainer. It is recommended that this be done in conjunction with first
aid/CPR training.
Employee Signature:
Date:
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
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_____________________________________________
trainer: _______________________________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
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______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
RECORDKEEPING
•
•
•
Employee illnesses for one (1) year after exposure
Training records for three (3) years
Employee medical records for thirty (30) years after leaving employment
26
Hearing Conservation Program
Protecting the hearing of employees is a priority. This operation will take the following steps to help
prevent hearing loss:
1. All employees will wear hearing protection in areas where noise levels are above 85 decibels.
2. Noise levels can be expected to be in the following ranges at full power:
• Chain saws
(105-110 decibels)
• Chipper
(100-105 decibels)
• Stump grinder
(100-105 decibels)
An annual noise level check, listed previously, should be made to identify high noise areas.
3. Employee training will be conducted for those exposed to noise above 85 decibels. This will include:
• A safety meeting on hearing conservation
• A discussion on proper types of protection
• Being told to wear hearing protection
• Documentation on a safety meeting record form
4. Employees exposed to noise over 85 decibels will wear one of the following approved types of
protection:
• Moldable inserts
• Earmuffs attached to hardhats
• Earmuffs attached to headband
Hearing Conservation Overview
Hearing loss can happen slowly over a period of time, or it can happen instantly with exposure to a
loud, sudden noise. Either way, it can affect you as an employer.
If your employees work in conditions where they have to shout to be heard, your company probably
falls where OSHA guidelines governing to hearing conservation. The allowable noise exposure for
employees has been 85 decibels per eight-hour period since 1983. The noise levels associated with
most machinery used in arboriculture activities ranges from 85-110 decibels. If you have such noise
levels, you must have a hearing conservation program in place. You might say. “I provide hearing
protection, isn't that enough?” Not according to OSHA. A complete hearing conservation program
consists of five areas: (1) Sound level measurements, (2) Audiometric testing and evaluation, (3)
Hearing protection, (4) Education, (5) Recordkeeping.
Sound Level Measurements: You have to know how loud your equipment is to know if you should
have a program. These measurements determine what type of hearing protection your employees
should use. They also help determine who should be included in the program. Many insurance
companies will measure your sound levels free of charge. The N.C. Department of Labor’s Consultative
Services Bureau may also be able to measure noise levels for small businesses (see page 11). You
can also take your own sound level measurements if you have a calibrated sound level meter. Most
industrial audiometric companies can explain how to do this. Some companies may allow you to borrow
a sound level meter. These options can save your company money; however, certain criteria must be
met.
27
Audiometric Testing: Hearing tests are conducted at least once each year. The first test is called the
baseline test. This determines the employees’ hearing thresholds (the level at which they can just hear
a tone presented at each frequency). Each year thereafter, an annual test is conducted. The results are
compared to the baseline to measure any changes in hearing. An audiologist or medical professional
makes appropriate recommendations such as a change in hearing protection, ensuring employees are
wearing their protection correctly, and medical referral. If there is a significant change at certain
frequencies, known as a Standard Threshold Shift (STS), the employee and STS are recorded on the
OSHA-300 and 301 forms.
Hearing Protection: Employees should be provided with adequate hearing protection. This can be
formable, disposable earplugs, hard rubber plugs, earmuffs, customized hearing protection, etc. There
are a variety of different options. It is not enough, however, just to provide hearing protection. As an
employer, it’s also your responsibility to make sure that the hearing protection is worn and that it’s worn
correctly. Hearing protection should be treated just like any other protective devices. How do you
handle an employee who does not wear safety glasses or an employee who does not wear safety
boots?
Education: Education is one of the most important aspects of the hearing conservation program.
OSHA requires that specific topics be covered in safety sessions, which must be conducted each year.
Employees are much more likely to wear their hearing protection if they see how it can protect them.
Recordkeeping: When OSHA inspectors come into the workplace, one of the first things they ask for is
documentation. Written documentation proves that testing and training were conducted. You should
keep all employee test results, sound level measurements and records of educational sessions (who
attended, topics covered). It is not only important to have a hearing conservation program to avoid
OSHA citations, but also to protect the health and well-being of your employees. Hearing loss is
painless, progressive, permanent and preventable!
28
Job Safety, Health and Associated Posters
POSTER
ID NUMBER
CONTACT
OSHA 300
NONE
http://www.nclabor.com/pubs.htm#Forms
State OSH Poster
Requirements:
- Safety and Health on the
Job
- Wage and Hour Act
- Workers’ Compensation
Notice
- Unemployment
Insurance
NONE
ETTA
N.C. Department of Labor
1101 Mail Service Center
Raleigh, NC 27699-1101
Phone: (919) 807-2875
Equal Employment Opportunity
(Federal)
O-383-798
EEOC
1309 Annapolis Drive
Raleigh, NC 27608-2129
1-800-669-3362
Minimum Wage Standards
Polygraph Protection Act
Family and Medical Leave Act
WH-1462
U.S. Department of Labor
Wage and Hour Division
4407 Bland Rd, Suite 260
Raleigh, NC 27609
(919) 790-2741
Noise Exposure
1910.95
www.osha.gov/SLTC/noisehearingconservation
These posters are to be displayed in prominent locations for all employees to see.
29
Safe Behavior Observations
Safe behavior observations are simple notes on how an employee is observed working. Work behavior
is the key to eliminating accidents because it involves all aspects of equipment, job site terrain,
weather, and human behavior and decisions. Potential hazards should be identified for major job
activities using supervisor and crew input. Write in how to avoid these hazards on the forms. Later,
observations should be made by a supervisor or another employee and the results shared with the
employee observed. Points of interest should also be shared at crew safety meetings.
The following Safe Behavior Observation form is suggested for the following jobs or work sites:
• Chain saw operation
• Shop area
• Chipper operation
• Stump grinder operation
• Bucket truck operation
An example behavior observation has been provided on chain saw operation. That is followed by a
blank form for you to copy and use on your job site.
30
Safe Behavior Observations (Example)
Job: Chain Saw Operation
Behavior: Inspect chain saw before use for proper chain tension, good repair, loose bolts and screws,
levels of fuel and chain lubricant, filter condition and that all safety features work. Wear necessary
personal protective gear. Start saw from a stable surface clear of debris and combustible material.
Position body properly and pull starter rope after setting chain brake, turning on switch, and positioning
choke. Once started, release trigger and be sure chain does not move in idle with brake off. Never carry
saw unless chain brake is on or engine off. Keep blade pointed to the rear when transporting. Inspect
work area for hazards and plan an escape route before cutting. Keep chain teeth sharp. Control saw at
all times. Proper open-faced cuts and back cuts practiced to directionally fell trees. Limbing and topping
done to prevent turning or rolling of logs. Take rest breaks when necessary. Allow saw time to cool
before refueling or adding lubricant.
Observations (check)
Safe
Unsafe
Comment
1. Chain saw inspection
_______
9
_______
________________________
2. Saw started properly
_______
9
_______
________________________
3. Inspection of starting site and cutting area
_______
9
_______
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4. Proper carrying technique
_______
9
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5. Inspection of work area
_______
9
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6. Escape route planned
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9
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7. Saw in control at all times
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9
_______
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8. Proper open-faced cuts and back cuts
_______
9
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9. Logs stable when limbing and topping
_______
9
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10. Adequate work breaks taken
_______
9
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11. Saw secured when climbing/blocking
_______
9
_______
________________________
Total Observations Safe:
____10_________________________________
Total Observations Unsafe: ____1__________________________________
% Safe Observations:
_______91______________________________
By: ____supervisor_______________
Date: ___________________
31
Safe Behavior Observations
Job: _______________________________________________
Behavior
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Observations (check)
Safe
Unsafe
Comment
__________________________________
_______
_______
________________________
__________________________________
_______
_______
________________________
__________________________________
_______
_______
________________________
__________________________________
_______
_______
________________________
__________________________________
_______
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________________________
__________________________________
_______
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________________________
__________________________________
_______
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________________________
__________________________________
_______
_______
________________________
__________________________________
_______
_______
________________________
__________________________________
_______
_______
________________________
__________________________________
_______
_______
________________________
Total Observations Safe:
_____________________________________________
Total Observations Unsafe: _____________________________________________
% Safe Observations:
By: ___________________
_____________________________________________
Date: ___________________
32
Contact Information and Telephone Numbers
ISA Technical Resources
Champaign, IL
(217) 355-9411
Southern Chapter of ISA
Fax:
(336) 789-4747
(336) 789-0202
Sherrill Inc Arborist Supply
(800) 525-8873
N.C. Division of Forest Resources
Raleigh, NC
(919) 733-2162
N.C. Department of Labor (General Information)
Raleigh, NC
1-800-625-2267 or
(919) 807-2796
N.C. Cooperative Extensions
Raleigh, NC
(919) 515-5581 or
(919) 515-5637
N.C. Emergency Management
1-800-858-0368 or
(919) 733-3300
TCIA (Tree Care Industry Association)
Londonderry, NH 03053
(800)733-2622
Your Company’s Insurance Agent
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
Other Important Numbers:
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
33
Directions to and Phone Numbers
for Local Hospitals
Rescue squad phone number(s):
Area ________________________________________
Phone __________________
Area ________________________________________
Phone __________________
Area ________________________________________
Phone __________________
Hospital(s):
City/County __________________________________
Phone __________________
City/County __________________________________
Phone __________________
City/County __________________________________
Phone __________________
City/County __________________________________
Phone __________________
If rescue squad/emergency responders are not in the immediate area, sketch of nearby roads leading
to nearest hospital (new for each work site):
If in remote area, nearest helicopter landing area, (including latitude/longitude if available) in case an
injured worker has to be removed from work site:
34
APPENDIXES
Each piece of equipment will have an owner’s manual. The manual will contain important
detail on the operation and maintenance. Safe work practices will also be included and must
be followed. The manual will have part identification and inspection suggestions or
requirement. The following appendixes are extracts from operator’s manuals and are not
complete. The extracts are examples only and are not intended to replace any operator’s
manuals or regulatory requirements.
Appendix A
Chain Saws and Tree Felling
Appendix B
Chippers
Appendix C
Line Clearance Checklist
35
Appendix A
Chain Saw Operation
Safely starting the chain saw requires two points of contact. Any method that uses the chain brake
and ensures that the saw is secured by TWO POINTS OF CONTACT is acceptable. We (ISA and
OSH) recommend either of the methods illustrated below. “Two points of contact” means that the
saw is securely held at two points while one hand is used to pull the starting cord.
For example, in the photo on the left, the operator’s left hand holds the saw for one point of contact,
while the saw is held between the operator’s legs for the second point of contact. In the photo on
the right, the operator’s left hand holds the saw for one point of contact, while his right foot securely
holds the saw on the ground for the second point of contact.
36
Chain Filing
Smooth and efficient cutting of the saw requires a properly sharpened chain. Many chain saw
operators tend to reduce the height of the rakers in an attempt to “take a bigger bite”.
Dull chains reduce cutting speed and increase the chance of injury to the operator. To properly file
a saw, it is important to understand the function of each of the elements of the chain.
The following is a brief description of the functions of the saw chain teeth:
1. Raker (sometimes referred to as a Depth Gage) – The raker determines the thickness of
the chip, which should be 20 to 30/1000 of an inch depending on whether you are cutting
hard wood or soft wood. A raker depth gage is the best tool to use to get the proper height
of the raker and can be purchased at local chain saw stores.
2. Working Corner or Point – This is the point formed by the intersection of the side and top
plates. This is where the cut begins.
3. Side Plate – The side plate cuts off the fiber. The side plate should lean forward
approximately 5-degrees. Making this angle too great will cause the tooth to be sucked into
the wood, creating a kickback danger. Many chain saw operators have a tendency to create
a hook on the side plate. This is very dangerous and inefficient.
4. Top Plate – The top plate angle establishes the width of the saw Kerf. The angle causes
the tooth to be pushed to the side. The greater the angle the more wood needs to be cut.
Current models of saws need a top plate angle of 20 to 30 degrees.
5. Chisel Angle – The chisel angle is beneath the top plate, and allows chips to slide
underneath the tooth. This angle should be 45 to 55 degrees.
37
Reactive Forces and Stance
It is very important that a chain saw operator understands the reactive forces upon the saw and
know the proper stances to counteract these reactive forces. The illustration below shows the areas
of the bar and the associated reactive forces. When cutting with the top of the bar, the saw will
push back toward the operator. When cutting with the bottom of the bar, the saw will pull away
from the operator. The top quarter of the bar tip is the kickback area and should never be allowed
to make the initial contact with the wood or any other object in the cutting area. The bottom quarter
of the bar tip, called the attack portion, will be used to make the initial contact when making a bore
cut.
Knowing the reactive forces upon a saw allows the operator to use a stance that will counteract the
forces and maintain good balance. A proper stance consists of standing with the feet slightly apart,
one foot ahead of the other, and the knees bent. Whenever possible, brace the right arm or elbow
against your leg for extra support. See the photograph below.
Operators who use a saw only occasionally will likely tire quicker than an operator who uses a saw
every day. If your arms and legs begin to tire and weaken, stop and rest. Remember, fatigue is
the primary cause of chain saw accidents.
38
Felling Hazards
When a tree falls, it often brushes against other trees and leaves broken live or dead limbs hanging in
surrounding trees. Sometimes falling trees will shoot off a stump and roll sideways or ahead creating
pressures on tree limbs. Chain saw operators should never limb a tree immediately after felling.
Consider dropping several trees and refueling the saw prior to limbing. This will provide ample time for
overhead hazards to fall or stabilize.
Prior to limbing, chain saw operators should evaluate the following five potential hazards:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Overhead hazards.
Spring poles.
Butt movement forward (creates back pressure on limbs).
Butt twist (creates sideways pressure on limbs).
Butt off the ground (creates tension on the tree stem).
Limb Lock: Back and sideways pressure on limbs can be handled using a limb lock.
If limbs have backpressure on them, they can severely injure an operator when they are severed from
the tree. In these circumstances, use a limb lock as a precaution. A limb lock will prevent a limb under
pressure from kicking back and striking the leg or pinching the saw. The first cut is made on either the
top side or bottom side of the limb (top and bottom refer to top and bottom of the limb as if the tree were
standing up). It is preferable to make the first cut on the side with compression pressure, and then
make a second cut on the side with stress.
The cut on the top of the limb is made closer to the trunk of the tree; the cut on the bottom is made
further out on the limb. It is important that the two cuts by-pass so that all fiber is severed. This will
create a step in the limb which will prevent the limb from kicking back and hitting the operator. This is
similar to the way in which a raised back cut prevents the butt of a tree from kicking back over the
stump.
Top Lock: Twisting of trees and butts off the ground creates pressure on the stem that can be handled
with a top lock.
If the tree stem is under stress, a top lock can be used to prevent the top from kicking up and striking
the operator. The first cut of a top lock is made on the side of the tree that is under compression, in the
top or bottom of the stem. The second cut is made on the side of the tree, which is under tension. This
prevents pinching the saw. The top cut is always made closer to the top of the tree and the bottom cut
is made closer to the bottom of the tree (the reverse order of the limb lock). Both cuts must by-pass so
that all fiber is severed.
Tongue and Groove: Dangers of a tree or portion of a tree rolling on the operator can be handled with
a tongue and groove. To make a tongue and groove, bore the stem of the tree in the center, then make
the up and down cuts closer to the top or butt of the tree, so that each of them bypasses the bore cut,
but do not meet. With all fibers severed, the tongue and groove will prevent the tree from rolling.
39
Small Tree Felling
Chain saw operators may assume that small trees are not worth the extra effort of direction felling.
However, a small tree that falls the wrong way, or hangs up, can be very costly to pull down.
If felled in the wrong way, even small brushy trees that are cleared as part of housekeeping chores
around the base of the tree, or for an escape route, can create additional production problems. For
example, a small sapling that is being removed from the base of one tree can fall into the next tree
requiring the operator to cut the tree a second time when doing housekeeping around the second
tree. Therefore, the extra seconds taken to directionally fell a small sapling can save time later.
Directionally felling saplings: It is difficult to put a regular notch in a small sapling, since it is easy
to cut right through the tree. Creating a tab by making a downward cut through the last few years of
growth will make an acceptable notch. A back cut, leaving a hinge, will cause this tree to fall in the
direction of the initial undercut. It is important for the operator to use the Sight Line on the saw to
make sure this sapling falls in the intended direction.
Spring Poles
Spring poles may also be released from underneath. To do this the operator should stand at 45
degrees to the rear of the spring pole and use the chain saw to shave wood off the underside of the
spring pole at the maximum point of tension. Do not cut into the spring pole because the
compression of the wood will pinch the saw. After enough wood is shaved the fibers will begin to
break by themselves and the operator can stand aside and let the spring pole release its tension
naturally.
If the point of maximum tension on the spring pole is higher than the shoulders of the chain saw
operator, then the spring pole should be released from the top. The operator can stand under the
spring pole. Trim any branches that may be in the way and then release the spring pole by cutting
off the top. The spring pole should fly harmlessly above the operator and not cause injury.
40
Appendix B
CHIPPERS
41
CHIPPER REQUIREMENTS
ALL personnel using a chipper MUST be trained and qualified in all aspects of the operations,
maintenance, repair and safety procedures defined in this manual prior to conducting any operations or
procedures. Improper or careless use of this chipper CAN result I serious injury, and even death. All
procedures in this section must be completed in a timely fashion to ensure safe operation. See Section
1.0 GENERAL for additional information.
Operations shall be restricted to:
1. Properly trained, qualified and experienced operators and/or qualified and experienced
maintenance and test personnel.
2. Trainees under the direct supervision of qualified and experience3d personnel.
3. Qualified and experienced maintenance and test personnel only in the performance of their
duties.
Personnel who qualify to operate this equipment under the above restrictions shall also comply with
the following physical requirements:
1. Have a good vision and the ability to read and understand this manual as well as all safety
and operational decals and placards on equipment.
2. Be capable of hearing, with or without a hearing aid, at a level adequate for the assigned
operation.
3. A record of mental stability with no history of epileptic seizures, dizziness, or any other
disability that may result in injury to him/herself or others.
4. If any of these requirements are not satisfied at any time, the personal failing to meet these
requirements MUST NOT OPERATE THIS EQUIPMENT.
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
1. Each operator must demonstrate competence to understand all placards, operator’s manuals,
safety codes, applicable government regulations, and all other information applicable to the
safe and proper operation of this chipper.
2. Each operator must demonstrate the ability to recognize an emergency condition that may
arise during chipper operations and knowledge and procedures to implement corrective
action.
3. Each operator must demonstrate or provide evidence of qualification and experience prior to
operating this chipper.
4. Each operator must be able to recognize existing or potential problems regarding the
mechanical integrity of the chipper and report any maintenance requirements to the
supervisor in charge.
5. Each operator must wear the proper personal clothing and safety gear.
6. Operators must not be mentally or physically fatigued.
42
7. Operators must not be under the direct or indirect influence of alcohol and/or drugs. This
includes prescription drugs that could cause drowsiness, dizziness or any other conditions
that would impair their ability to operator or use this equipment in a safe manner.
PREPARATION FOR OPERATION
Before your chipper is put into operation it is very important to read and follow procedures outlined in
the engine manufacturer’s ENGINE OWNER’S MANUAL. (EOM)
To assist the reader in determining when to refer to the ENGINE OWNER’S MANUAL, look for this
symbol. (EOM) You will find this symbol used throughout the rest of this manual.
For specific information regarding the following checks please refer to the “MAINTENANCE” section
of this manual and the (EOM).
DISENGAGE clutch and the hydraulic feed system. REMOVE keys from the ignition switch.
DO NOT remove disc pin until you have read and understand section 6.2.1. Disc and drive system
continue to move after the clutch has been disengaged and the engine has been cut off. ENSURE
that the disc and drive system have come to a COMPLETE STOP BEFORE ATTEMPTING ANY
MAINTENANCE IN THIS AREA!
Blades are extremely sharp. Care must be taken to avoid contact with the blades and blade pinch
points. Failure to do WILL result in severe injury.
ALWAYS secure cutter disc to prevent rotation before tightening fasteners or performing
maintenance in the disc housing areas.
Never place any part of the body under or behind guards or any other visually obscured area.
IMPORTANT CHECKS
Note: The following checks contained in sections 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4 should be preformed prior to
leaving the storage area for several reasons:
a. Tools and spare parts may not be available at the job site.
b. Safety gear and procedures cannot be followed if they are not available at the work site
c. Unscheduled delays at the work site cost you lost time and money
d. You may leave a bad impression on your customers if you are not ready to go to work once
arriving on the job site.
1. Check engine fuel, coolant and oil levels. (EOM)
2. Check the engine air filter. (EOM)
3. Check all bolts and nuts to ensure they are tight.
4. Check cutting knives to ensure all attachments bolts are tight and knives are in good condition.
5. Inspect anvil to ensure all attachments and adjust bolts are secure.
6. Check all controls for free and proper operation.
43
7. Check chipper disk main drive belt for proper adjustment.
8. Inspect the fan blades and paddles to ensure that they are bolted securely, welds intact, not
bent or deformed and free of any cracks, fatigue, or separation from the disc.
9. Inspect discharge chute to determine if it is clear, positioned and secure.
10. Inspect the chipper frame and structure for any bent, broken, cracked, missing or loose parts.
11. Check all guards to ensure they are undamaged, in place and properly secured.
12. All decals must be in place and legible prior to operating the chipper.
13. Check hydraulic fluid level, fluid must be within 1” of top of the tank when the fluid is cold.
14. Factory supplied Disc Hold Pin in place and secure with a padlock before operation.
15. Check feed rollers for debris.
FAILURE to properly hitch chipper to tow vehicle, verify the toad-worthiness of the chipper and tow
vehicle and verify all equipment is properly stowed, may cause serious injury or death to you or to
others.
TOW VEHICLE MUST have proper towing capacity for the chipper being towed. Check the tow
vehicles operating manual for rating capacity.
DO NOT tow the chipper unless all the important checks listed below are satisfactorily complete.
ADDITIONAL CHECKS
1. Hitch secured to tow vehicle and safety pin/latch secured.
2. Frame must be level or the tongue slightly lower than the rear of the chipper while towing to
ensure proper weight distribution. The hitch may have to be adjusted when towing with vehicles
of varying tow hitch height.
3. Safety chains installed correctly.
44
SAMPLE MAINTENANCE INTERVALS
Sample for a particular model. Use the list specific to your model.
OPERATION
Visual Examination
Rotor blades and cutting bar
Draw bar for damage, cracks,
wear, etc
All fasteners are tight
Cutter bar and blade bolts tight
Fuel, oil and coolant leaks
Engine oil level
Radiator coolant level
Drive belt tension
DAILY
WEEKLY
YEARLY
X
X
X
X
X
X
See
Engine
Manual
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
See Clutch
Manual
X
Maintenance
Tighten all fasteners
Blade change
As
required
As
required
As
required
Cutting bar rotation
Sharpen cutting edges
Engine
BIMONTHLY
X
Lubrication
Engine
Check engine oil level
Change oil and filter
Grease pilot bearings
Trailer wheel bearings
Grease jackstand
Grease spring shackle bushings
(if unit is so equipped)
Grease rotor pillow block bearings
Clutch
MONTHLY
X
X
See
Engine
Manual
Radiator coolant/antifreeze
Tune engine
Replace filter
Air cleaner
Crankcase breather
Governor oil level
Engine oil and filter
Battery water level
Drive belts
Tire pressure
Torque of wheel lug bolts
(90-95 ft. lbs.)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
45
Warning: Shutdown the engine and remove the ignition key before performing any maintenance.
Except for engine check out, after tune-up, there is no need to incur the risk of working close to
operating equipment, while performing maintenance operations.
WARNING
Operational personnel must be familiar with the contents of this manual and trained in the operation of
the chipper before attempting operation. Serious injury, or even death, can result from the improper or
careless use of this equipment.
Operation must be limited to:
1. Designated, competent, and experienced persons.
2. Trainees or untrained persons under the direct supervision of qualified persons.
3. Maintenance and test personnel, only in so far as it necessary for the performance of their
duties.
Operators and trainees shall meet the following qualifications:
1. Have good vision in both eyes.
2. Hearing, with or without hearing aid, must be adequate for the specific operation.
3. A history of mental stability and not subject to epileptic seizures, dizziness, or any other
disability which may cause injury to himself or other persons on the job site.
4. If an operator becomes physically or mentally unfit he shall disqualify himself.
In addition to the above listed requirements, the operator shall:
1. Demonstrate the ability to comprehend and interpret all placards, operator’s manuals, safety
codes, appropriate governmental regulations, and other information pertinent to safe chipper
operation.
2. Possess knowledge of emergency procedures and implementation of the same.
3. Demonstrate to the employer the ability to operate the specific type of equipment or provide
satisfactory evidence of qualifications and experience to do the same.
4. Recognize any potential problem and alert the Shop for any maintenance requirement of the lift
operated by him or trainees under his supervision.
5. Fully comprehend the operating procedures as outlined in this manual.
6. Not operate this machine while under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
46
Preparation for Operation
CLOTHING AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT
Persons working close to the chipper shall wear appropriate clothing and personal protective equipment
to guard against possible injury caused by whipping branches, flying debris and excessive noise levels.
1. Clothing shall be free of all decorations and loose parts which could become entangled in the
brush before being fed. Clothing should be close fitting, but not so tight as to hamper
movement. Gauntlet type gloves, loose scarves, neckties, and jackets with straps at the wrists
or shoulders should not be used. Hooded sweat shirts may be worn if the hoods are pulled
tightly around the face and the drawstrings are carefully tucked inside the collar. If it becomes
desirable to remove the hood, it should be tucked into the back of the collar to prevent
entanglement in whipping brush.
2. Protective Equipment Hard hats, safety goggles and ear protectors are a must when operating
a chipper. Hard hats should be worn without any under-chin strapping. Eye protectors should be
the wraparound goggle type which are held in position by an elastic band around the head. Hard
hat mounted shields offer a greater area of facial protection. Avoid the use of glasses which
hook over the ears. Plug type ear protectors are prefer-able to muff types. The plug type cannot
be entangled by whipping branches.
SAFETY CHECK
Before start up of the engine or chipper, perform the following walk around safety check.
1. Ensure the feed table and chipper housing are free of all foreign objects.
2. Confirm the discharge chute is clear and directed away from people.
3. Look under the chipper for any evidence of an oil leak.
4. Ensure all fasteners are in place and secure.
BRUSH PREPARATION
To minimize the dangers from flying debris and to extend the life of the chipper’s cutting edges, all
foreign materials should be removed from the brush before it is fed to the chipper. Properly delimbing
the brush will permit easy passage through the feed opening, eliminating hangups and the need to
assist feeding by pushing with a limb.
Warning - Stones trapped in crotches, cans caught in leaves, nails driven into branches and wire
wrapped limbs are all examples of foreign materials that can cause damage to the chipper. Such
materials will not only damage the cutting edges, they may also cause the cutting blades to shatter,
with resultant fragments being discharged. Fragment ejection can cause personal injury or damage to
nearby property.
Pre-trim the brush to a size and shape that will allow it to be drawn easily through the opening to the
cutting edges. The size and growth direction of most branches will allow the self-feeding action of the
chipping mechanism to bend them toward the main stem, permitting passage through the feed opening.
Many evergreens, however, have side branches that grow toward the butt end of the main stem rather
than toward the tip. When brush of this shape is pulled into the cutting mechanism, the side branches
will spread apart, rather than being pushed inward toward the main stem, and the branch will not pass
47
through the opening. A similar “no feed” situation can develop if the branch has crotches which are too
wide or too stiff to be bent by the chipper’s self-feeding action. Where side branches grow toward the
butt end, or where crotches are too wide or too stiff to permit easy passage through the feed opening,
the brush should be pre-trimmed with an appropriate cutting tool before it is fed to the chipper.
SET-UP OF EQUIPMENT
Work site preparation and organization is a major factor in the safety of chipper operation. The following
guidelines should be observed by operating personnel.
1. Select a work site out of the mainstream of highway traffic, but not too close to houses or other
inhabitable buildings.
2. Establish adequate warning and diversion systems for both automotive and pedestrian traffic.
Signs, cones, and flagmen may be required, depending on circumstances.
3. Do not set up the chipper directly beneath a tree being trimmed.
4. Provide enough room on the curbside of the chipper to maneuver while feeding brush.
5. Clear the ground directly beneath and around the chipper of flammable materials. Hot sparks
from the chipper’s engine exhaust are capable of starting fires.
6. Confirm that no one is working overhead.
7. Unlatch and lower the feedtable. Ensure the feedtable is clear of all tools and foreign objects.
8. Ensure that all persons who are working in the area are wearing required personal protective
equipment.
9. Exclude all personnel not feeding the chipper from the feed and discharge area of the chipper.
10. Position the exhaust deflector assembly in the desired direction for chip discharge.
11. If the chipper is unhitched from the towing vehicle for operation, always chock the wheels and
lower the jackstand.
12. If the chipper is equipped with an optional flywheel brake the rear dropleg must be down before
operation begins.
Danger - Failure to lower the rear drop leg may cause the trailer to upset when the flywheel brake is
applied.
Warning - Do not attempt to hitch or unhitch the chipper from a towing vehicle without sufficient help.
Ensure the dropstand is lowered and both trailer wheels are chocked.
The chipper is heavy and could roll out of control on a grade. Serious injury to personnel or property
damage could result. The chipper tongue is too heavy to be lifted safely by one man. Lower the
dropstand to support the tongue weight. Serious muscle strains could occur by lifting the tongue.
OPERATION ENGINE START
1.
Refer to Figure 2-1. Pull the choke knob out slightly.
2.
Depress the rubber capped button in the center of the throttle knob and pull the throttle rod out all
the way, to establish its full length, then push it in to about one third of its length.
48
3. Ensure the clutch lever is in its disengaged, horizontal position, refer to Figure 2-1.
4. Turn the ignition key/starter switch fully clockwise to energize the starter. Press the override button
until the engine starts. This button overrides the low oil pressure, high temperature of engine water
shut down system. Pull the choke knob if the engine is hesitant about starting. (No choking required
on EFI engines).
5. When the engine starts, allow it to run for several minutes at approximately 1000 RPM. Check the
oil pressure gauge to confirm pressure is developed, and listen to the engine sound to make sure
that the clicking noise associated with dry valves disappears in a few seconds.
CHIPPER START
Warning before starting the chipper, check the feed table to ensure it is clear of foreign objects such as
wrenches etc. and the exhaust chute and discharge bonnet are directed away from personnel. Be sure
the rubber shroud is in place. Do not operate the chipper without a rubber shroud. Kick back from the
feed hopper and/or violent discharge through the exhaust chute can occur, with resultant blade damage
and/or injury to personnel. The chipper should not be operated when the aerial device is being utilized.
An electrical shock hazard exists when the lift comes into contact with energized electrical lines.
1.
When the engine is running smoothly at approximately 1000 RPM, push the clutch lever to the
vertical position to engage the clutch, Refer to Figure 2-1. Do not push the lever too fast or too
slow as either extreme can cause excessive clutch wear. The cutter head should begin to rotate
without causing the engine to lose speed or stall. If the engine begins to stall, it indicates the
clutch is being engaged too quickly or the engine is running too slowly.
2.
Listen to the sound of the engine and cutter head. Any strange sounds should be investigated
promptly.
3.
When the cutter head is running smoothly, move the RPM switch to “Run”. The engine should
now be running at its factory set speed.
FEEDING BRUSH TO THE CHIPPER
Proper brush feeding technique involves placing the brush on the feed table, pushing it toward the
cutter opening, and moving quickly to the curbside of the chipper - all in one continuous motion, See
Figure 2-2. The following procedures should be followed
1. Ensure the brush has been properly prepared (See Brush Preparation), and does not
exceed six inches in diameter.
Warning - Chipping limbs larger than six inches in diameter can result in equipment damage and/or
personal injury resulting from brush kickback.
2. Carry the brush butt end first toward the feed hopper, approaching the chipper on an angle
to the line of cutting action from the curbside, to avoid traffic hazards. (See Figure 2-2).
Warning - Never approach the chipper directly from behind. At any time and without warning, a piece
of brush can be kicked back with sufficient velocity to cause bodily injury.
3. Lay the brush on the feed table, butt end toward the cutter opening, and feed it toward the
opening, being careful to release it before the cutting mechanism actually grabs it. Small
pieces of brush may be thrown toward the opening.
4. When the brush has been fed into the cutter opening move immediately forward and to the
49
curbside of the feed table. Do not wait to see if the cutters have grabbed the brush. The
sound of the chipper will confirm chipper operation. Even with ear protection in place, the
sound of a chipper chipping is unmistakable.
5. Do not refeed small pieces of brush which remain on the feed table. Feed a large branch
last, which will carry small brush into the chipper.
6. If the blades do not grab a branch, use another branch to push the first one toward the
opening, being careful to stand at the side of the feed table, not in a direct line with the
cutting action.
Warning - Do not operate or feed brush into the chipper without the rubber shroud in place. The rubber
shroud is provided to stop or slow down material which is kicked back. Without the rubber shroud,
kickback is more violent. Serious injury can result.
7. Do not feed limbs exceeding six inches in diameter into the chipper. Large limbs may stall
the chipper or not self feed.
Warning - Do not use any tool with metal components such as a rake or pruning tool to push the brush.
Metal components fed into the chipper can damage the blades. Violent discharge through the chute or
kick back from the feed hopper can result.
Do not feed the brush by standing in one spot and throwing it toward the cutter opening; operator
movement with the brush minimizes the impact of moving brush.
Keeps hands and arms out of the feed hopper. Loss of limb can result.
Do not lean or permit others to lean or stand on the feed table. Loss of balance can result in serious
injury or death.
Keep the working area clear of limbs on the ground which could trip or entangle the operator. An
entangled operator could be dragged into the feed hopper by brush being fed, serious injury or death
could result.
Do not throw clean up sweepings which contain foreign materials e.g. wires, stones, nails, etc. into the
chipper. Blade damage and violent discharge can result.
SHUT-DOWN PROCEDURES
1. To shut-down the chipper, move the engine speed switch to idle.
2. When the engine has slowed to idle speed, disengage the clutch by moving the clutch lever
to the horizontal position, Refer to Figure 2-1.
3. Turn off the ignition switch, and remove the ignition key.
4. Place the feed table in its closed, stowed position and latch, to prevent feeding by
unauthorized personnel.
Caution - The rotor will continue to rotate after the engine has stopped and the clutch has been
disengaged.
5. Do not leave the chipper unattended until the rotor has stopped revolving.
50
TOWING THE CHIPPER
Before the chipper is towed ensure the following items have been properly taken care of. In addition
close and latch the feed table.
1. Ensure the vehicle being used to pull the chipper is adequate for the job.
2. Hitch is secured to tow vehicle and safety pin/latch is secured.
3. Safety chains are installed correctly.
a. Chains are routed under the trailer tongue in an “X” pattern between tow vehicle and
trailer.
b. Slack in chain should be adjusted to permit turning but not dragging on the ground.
4. Connect trailer wiring to the tow vehicle and insure that all trailer lighting is operating
properly.
5. Check tire pressure and insure that all lug nuts are securely fastened.
6. Visually examine the chipper frame to determine if all components are correctly positioned
and secured for travel.
7. Check discharge chute to confirm it is positioned and secured for travel.
8. Insure that the safety breakaway switch is functioning properly and attached securely to the
tow vehicle. Allow enough slack to insure that vehicle turns will not activate the safety
breakaway switch.
51
52
Appendix C
Line Clearance Checklist
To answer the following questions, observe the employees at work, or ask employees directly to
determine the understanding of individual employees. Check appropriate answer Yes, No or N/A (Not
Applicable, or type of work not being done when observation made). If “No”, cross-reference items and
comments.
Yes
No
N/A
General Training – 1910.269(a)
Have employees been trained to perform the jobs they are doing?
(Determine by observing or asking employees.)
____
____
____
Medical Service and First Aid – 1910.269(b)
When employees are performing work on or associated with exposed lines or
equipment energized at 50 volts or more, are employees trained in first aid and
CPR, available, as follows:
____
____
____
1. If two people or more people are working, are at least two of them
certified in CPR and First Aid? (New hires have 90 days to become
trained.
____
____
____
2. Is each first aid and CPR kit maintained and readily available for use?
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
1. Eye and Face Protection – 1910.133
a. When there is a hazard of flying objects, is each employee wearing
eye protection that includes side protection?
____
____
____
2. Head Protection – 1910.135
a. Are all employees working in areas where there is possibility of
head injury wearing hard hats?
____
____
____
3. Leg Protection – 1910.132
a. Are all employees using chaps when operating a power saw on the
ground
____
____
____
4. Hearing Protection – 1910.95
a. Are all employees using hearing protection when operating power
saws or chippers?
____
____
____
5. Foot Protection – 1910.137
a. Are employees using foot protection when operation power saws
or chippers?
____
____
____
Job Briefing – 1910.269(c)
1. Did the employee in charge conduct a job briefing with the employees
involved before they started this job?
2. Did the job briefing include, at least, the following:
a. Hazards associated with the job?
b. Work procedures involved?
c. Special precautions?
d. Energy source control?
e. Personal protective equipment?
Personal Protective Equipment – 1910.269(g)
53
Mechanical Equipment – 1910.269(p)
1. Were the safety components of mechanical elevating and rotating
equipment (components that would result in free fall or rotation)
visually inspected before this shift?
____
____
____
2. Are outriggers extended and firmly set for the stability of the specific
equipment?
____
____
____
3. Is equipment being operated so that minimum approach distances are
maintained? If answer here is NO, stop work immediately!
____
____
____
4. Is there a designated employee (other than the equipment operator)
observing the approach distance to exposed lines and equipment and
warning before the minimum approach distance (MAD) is reached?
____
____
____
1. Before any employee climbs, enters, or works around any tree, is a
determination made of the normal voltage of electric power lines that
pose a hazard?
____
____
____
2. Is there a second line-clearance tree trimmer within normal
(unassisted) voice communication present under the following
conditions:
____
____
____
If a line-clearance tree trimmer is to approach more closely
than 10 feet of any conductor energized at more than 750
volts?
____
____
____
If branches or limbs being removed are closer to lines
energized at more than 750 volts than the minimum approach
distance allowed?
____
____
____
If roping is necessary to remove branches or limbs from
conductors energized at more than 750 volts?
____
____
____
____
____
____
Are branches that are contacting exposed energized conductors or
that are within the minimum approach distances removed through the
use of insulating equipment?
____
____
____
5.
Are conductive ladders brought no closer to an energized part than
the minimum approach distance?
____
____
____
6.
Are brush chippers equipped with a locking device (key) in the ignition
system?
____
____
____
7.
Are brush chippers, not equipped with a mechanical infeed system,
equipped with an infeed hopper of sufficient length to prevent
employees from contacting the blades or knives of the machine during
operation?
____
____
____
Are trailer chippers detached from trucks chocked or otherwise
secured?
____
____
____
9. Is each chain saw equipped with a chain brake?
____
____
____
10. Is the chain saw started at least 20 feet away from the fueling area?
____
____
____
Line-clearance Tree Trimming – 1910.269(r)
•
•
•
3. Do line-clearance tree trimmers themselves (not equipment) maintain
minimum approach distances?
4.
8.
54
11. Is the chain saw started on the ground or where otherwise firmly
supported? (Drop starting of saws over 15 pounds is permitted
outside the bucket of an aerial lift only if the area below the lift is clear
of personnel.)
____
____
____
12. Is the chain saw held with both hands during operation?
____
____
____
13. Does each employee operating a chain saw, always use it below head
level?
____
____
____
14. Are saws not running when carried into trees by employees?
____
____
____
15. When the bucket is in the air, is an insulated tool (off the truck)
available for lowering control operation during emergency situations?
____
____
____
16. Is rope inspected before each use and discarded if unsafe?
____
____
____
17. Are wet ropes, or ropes contaminated to the extent that their insulating
capacity is impaired, not used near exposed, energized lines?
____
____
____
18. Is each employee tied in with a climbing rope and safety saddle when
working in a tree (except when ascending into a tree)?
____
____
____
19. If work is done in the facility of traffic, are warning signs or flags and
other traffic control devices used to alert and channel traffic?
____
____
____
55
Incident Investigation Form
Conveyed to Contractor
Date
By
Contractor Supervisor
Date
Description of Incident
Contractor Follow-up Action Planned
Follow-up Action Implemented
Date
56
By
Arborist Safety Program Booklet Order Form
To re-order a new Arborist Safety Program Booklet, please complete this form and mail to:
Southern Chapter
International Society of Arboriculture
213 Apollo Drive
Mount Airy, NC 27030
For more information or questions call (336) 789-4747 or e-mail [email protected]
Name:
___________________________________________________________
Company:
___________________________________________________________
Address:
___________________________________________________________
City/State/Zip:
___________________________________________________________
Phone:
(______) ___________________________________________________
Please send me
________
(# of Arborist Safety Program Booklets).
600 copies of this public document were printed at a cost of $660.15, or $1.10 per copy.
57
For technical assistance or training on OSHA standards and their interpretation, contact:
N.C. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Division
Education, Training and Technical Assistance Bureau
1-800-625-2267
1-919-807-2875
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