Cristo Rey Kansas City Reading and Writing Handbook

Cristo Rey Kansas City Reading and Writing Handbook
Cristo Rey Kansas City
Reading and Writing
Handbook
Assembled by: Jordan Plowman
Edited by: Betty Farnan
Table Content
I.
Reading Handbook
a. Reading Benchmarks
i. Alignment Example
ii. Alignment Blank Template
b. Reading Tools, Before Reading, During Reading, and
After Reading Rationale
i. Strategies to apply to before reading
1. Activator Tools
2. Vocabulary Tools
a. Vocabulary Blank Templates
ii. Strategies to apply to during reading
1. Note-Taking Tools
a. Annotative Note Taking
i. Notation and Short note
b. Cornell Notes
c. Thieves Worksheet
d. Outline Template
2. Text-dependent questions
c. Strategies to apply to after reading
1. Summarizer Tools
a. Rule-Based Summarizing Strategy
b. Summary Frames
II.
Writing Handbook
a. Writing Benchmarks
i. Alignment Tool Example
ii. Alignment Tool Template
b. Thinking Strategies
i. Summary
ii. Burke’s Response Notes
iii. Burke’s Summary Paragraph
c. RAFT Writing and Strategy
i. Examples of RAFT Assignments
ii. RAFT Writing Worksheet
d. Teaching Compare and Contrast Writing
i. Compare and Contrast Drafting Transition Words
e. Effective Writing
f. Analyzing Perspectives
g. Crafting an Effective Argument
i. Burke’s Argument Organizer
h. Five Step of the Writing Process
i. Types of Writing
j. Freshman Expectations and Timelines
k. Sophomore Expectations and Timelines
l. Junior Expectations and Timelines
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m.
n.
o.
p.
Senior Expectations and Timelines
MLA Formatting Guideline
Citation
Works Cited v. Bibliography
3 Page 46
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Page 48-53
Page 54
Cristo Rey Kansas City
Reading Handbook
4 Reading Benchmarks



English Language Arts benchmarks should be shared by science, social studies, math,
and religious studies teams
It is essential that all disciplines include TEXT in their instructional routines
Content teachers will need to emphasize aspects of literacy that they have not in the past
(these are disciplinary standards, not content area reading standards—the idea is not how
to apply reading skills and strategies to content subjects, but how to teach the unique uses
of literacy required by each discipline)
o More that the students read in other disciplines will help develop/increase ACT
scores and will increase vocabulary to help understand instruction

Importance of Informational Text
o Most high school academic learning opportunities involve the reading of text that
is not literary (Even clearer in the workplace!)

The Right Mix of Literary and Informational Text
o Provide students with a good mix of literary and informational treading
experience so that they have sufficient opportunity to gain both sets of skills
o Secondary students’ experiences should be substantial, with more attention to
informational text (2/3-4/5 of all text read)

Text Throughout the Curriculum

The Real Point!
o Students must be engaged in a substantial amount of reading experience with both
literary and informational text
o It’s imperative that we beef up informational text learning. Students have been
getting too little experience with such text.
Adapted from the Reading Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
5 Alignment Tool Example Toolkit For Matching Content, Literacy, and Strategies Content Benchmark Literacy Benchmark
Sample: World History Sample: World History 9.10.3 Explain the 2.10.3 Analyze the importance of filial piety development of a central in the social culture of idea over the course of a China. text. 6 Strategies
Sample: Building Background Knowledge Alignment Tool Toolkit For Matching Content, Literacy, and Strategies Content Benchmark Literacy Benchmark
Strategies
7 Before Reading Strategies
1. Purpose for Reading: Every discipline must decide the purpose of reading for each
assignment, if it is: to answer an overarching question, to gain background knowledge, or
to provide evidence for a student’s claim.
a. Disciplines possess their own language, purposes, ways of using text
b. There are special skills and strategies needed for students to make complete sense
of texts for each discipline
c. As students begin to confront these kinds of text, instruction must facilitate their
understanding of how to read disciplinary texts for specific purposes
d. Science Reading:
i. Text provides knowledge that allows prediction of how the world works
ii. Full understanding needed of experiments or processes
iii. Close connections among prose, graphs, charts, formulas (alternative
representations of constructs an essential aspect of chemistry text)
iv. Major reading strategies include corroboration and transformation
v. Technical, abstract, dense, tightly knit language (that contrasts with
interactive, interpersonal style of other texts or ordinary language)
e. History Reading:
i. History is interpretative, and authors and sourcing are central in
interpretation (consideration of bias and perspective)
ii. Often seems narrative without purpose, and argument without explicit
claims (need to see history as argument based on partial evidence;
narratives are more than facts)
iii. Single texts are problematic (no corroboration)
iv. Multiple texts are encouraged to help students develop a fully rounded
point of view (Primary Documents should be used)
f. Math Reading:
i. Goal: arrive at “truth”
ii. Importance of “close reading,” an intensive consideration of every word in
the text
iii. Rereading a major strategy
iv. Heavy emphasis on error detection
v. Precision of understanding essential
Adapted from the Reading Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
8 Before Reading Strategies Continued…
2. Accessing Background Knowledge (Activators)
a. Students become cognitively engaged and focused.
b. We surface students’ misconceptions.
c. Students feel empowered and more confident- “I already know something”approaching the new material.
d. We gather data about how we might want to adapt the lesson plan(s) to match
student knowledge or interest.
e. Activator Playlist
i. Two-person interview: What do you know about this topic? From
looking at the cover, what do you think this book may be about?
ii. Absence Recovery: Jose was absent yesterday. We need someone to
explain to him what we learned yesterday. Class, prepare a 1-3 sentence
summary, and I’ll call on someone to explain in 1 minute.
iii. Steps of a Process: Name the 5 steps of the writing process we learned
yesterday. Mentally rehearse the description of each step, and be ready to
tell the group.
iv. Scratch Summary: Take out a piece of scratch paper, In 2 minutes, write
everything you know about….
v. Five Words- Three Words: A variation of brainstorming, 5 Words asks
students, working on their own, to list 5 words that come to mind when
they think of a particular topic. Students then get into pairs, groups of 3 or
4 to share and discuss their words. Finally each small group selects 3
words to share and explain to the entire class.
vi. Know, Think I know, Want to Know: Know; think I know, Want to
know is a brainstorming activator that can be used prior to the study of
new material, a discussion, a reading or an event. Students are asked to
brainstorm all of the things you either know, think you know or want to
know about__________ (topic they will be studying).
vii. Paired Verbal Fluency: Paired Verbal Fluency is a 3 to 5 minute strategy
for getting students verbally active prior to discussing or studying a new
topic. Students work with a partner and take turns brainstorming ideas
about a topic. The brainstorming is timed and partners get 3 rounds of
equal “air time.”
viii. Wordsplash: Display selected terms randomly and at angles on a visual
(overhead or chart). Students brainstorm and generate complete
statements, which predict the relationship between each term and the
broader topic. Once students have generated statements for each term they
turn to the printed material, read to check the accuracy of their predictive
statements and revise where needed.
Research for better teaching, Inc. One Action Place Acton, MA. 01720
9 Before Reading Strategies Continued…
3. Building Vocabulary
a. Why Teach Vocabulary?
i. Many of our students do not have strong foundations. (Some are English
Language Learners.)
ii. Explicit instruction will help will reading comprehension.
iii. Vocabulary is heavily stressed in standardized tests.
b. Five Instructional Strategies
i. Marzano Six-Step Process: Provide a description, explanation, or
example of the new term. (Include a non-linguistic representation of the
term for ESL kids.) Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or
example in their own words. (Allow students whose primary existing
knowledge base is still in their native language to write in it.) Ask
students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representing the word.
Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their
knowledge of the terms in their notebooks. Periodically ask students to
discuss the terms with one another. (Allow in native language when
appropriate) Involve students periodically in games that allow them to
play with terms.
1. See Example on page
ii. Frayer Model: is an adaptation of the concept map. The framework
includes: the concept word, the definition, characteristics of the concept
word, examples of the concept word, and non-example of the concept
word.
1. See Example on page
iii. Context Charts: Provides the breakdown of a word. The framework
includes: word, part of speech, prefix, root/connection, meaning, and a
sentence.
1. See Example on page
iv. Word Sort: There are two types of word sorts: closed and open. In closed
word sorts the teacher defines the process for categorizing the words. This
requires students to engage in critical thinking as they examine sight
vocabulary, corresponding concepts, or word structure. In open word sorts
the students determine how to categorize the words, thereby becoming
involved in an active manipulation of words
1. See Example on page
v. Word Maps: Provides the full understanding of a word. The framework
includes: the word/concept, the students definition, words that are alike,
examples of the word, and antonyms.
1. See Example on page
Adapted from the Reading Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
10 A Six-Step Process of Teaching Vocabulary
By Robert J. Marzano
Summarize Thinking about Each Process
Describe:
Draw
Restate:
Draw:
Activities:
Discuss:
Games:
11 Frayer Model
Definition
Facts
Word/Concept
Examples Non‐Examples
12 Context Chart
Word
P.O.S.
Prefix
Root/Connection
13 Meaning
Sentence
Word Map
Student Definition
Synonym
Word/Concept
Antonyms
Example
14 During Reading
Close Reading: involves an investigation of a short piece of text, with multiple readings done
over multiple instructional lessons. Through text-based questions and discussion, students are
guided to deeply analyze and appreciate various aspects of the text, such as key vocabulary and
how its meaning is shaped by context attention to form, tone, imagery and/or rhetorical devices;
the significance of word choice and syntax, and the discovery of different levels of meanings as
passages are read multiple times.


Explanation of Close Reading
o Engage with a text directly
o Examine its meaning thoroughly and methodically
o Use texts of grade-level appropriate complexity
o Focus students reading on the particular words, phrases, sentences, and
paragraphs of the author
o Read and re-read deliberately
Close Reading Procedure
o The first reading of a text should allow the reader to determine what a text says
o The second reading should allow the reader to determine how a text works
o The third reading should allow the reader to evaluate the quality and value of
the text (and to connect the text to other texts)
Informational Text

Informational text is text the primary purpose of which is to convey information about the
natural and social world.

Informational text typically addresses whole classes of things in a timeless way
o They are not typically about specific instances

Informational text requires the interpretations of structures, graphics, features, etc. that
are not available in literary text

Text that comes in many different formats (books, magazines, handouts, brochures, CDROMs, and Internet)
Adapted from the Reading Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
15 Annotative Note Taking

This strategy can be assigned as a note taking task in a variety of ways.
o Students can take notes on the reading material itself or use the worksheet on the
following page.
Annotate the Text
Annotate Symbol







L
**
?
??
!
R
16 Meaning of Symbol
Something Known
New Learning
Important
Questions
Confusion
Surprising Information
Reminds me
Annotative Note Taking Sheet
Name: _________________________
Class: ___________ Date: _______________
Directions: As you read, find a way to connect what you are reading to what you already know.
Use the following system to keep track of your connections on sticky notes. Create additional
notations for connections you make that are not listed below.
YES I agree with this
– I do not like this part
NO I disagree with this
! This is like something else I know
? I do not understand this
 This seems important
W I wonder …
+ I like this part
I need to come back and look at this
___ __________________________
If you do not have sticky notes, keep track of your connections in a chart like this.
Page
Ex: p. 6
Column Notation and short note about my connection
1
! The kid in this story reminds me of my friend Brad.
After Reading
Here is a summary of my connections: ______________________________________________
Here is how my connections were the same as those of my classmates: _____________________
Here is how my connections were different from those of my classmates: ___________________
17 Name: ___________________
Cornell Notes
Date: ____________
Title in Textbook: __________________________
Reduce & then Recite
- Create questions which elicit
critical thinking, not 1 word
answers
- Write questions directly across
from the answers in your notes
- Leave a space or draw a pencil
line separating questions
Page Numbers: ________________
Record for Review
- Write headings and key words in colored pencil
- Take sufficient notes with selective (not too much verbiage) & accurate
paraphrasing
- Skip a line between ideas and topics
- Use bulleted lists and abbreviations
- Correctly sequence information
- Include diagrams or tables if needed for clarification or length
18 Class: __________________
Thieves Worksheet
Name: _____________________________
Class: ________ Date: ________________
Chapter: ______________________________ Section: ______________________
Directions: This is a textbook reading strategy. The objective of the strategy is to preview the contents of the section
you are reading about. This strategy helps you to “steal” information before reading or taking notes. You can also
use this strategy to reread the textbook information.
1. Title- Write the title here. What information about the section can you learn from the title?
2.
Headings- Write the subheadings here. What information about the section can you learn
from reading all the headings and sub-headings?
3.
Illustrations-What types of illustrations are there? What information about the section can
you learn from looking at the illustrations?
4.
Every First Sentence- Write one of the first sentences. What information can you learn by
reading the first sentence of each subsection?
5.
Vocabulary- Write some of the vocabulary words. What information can you learn about the
section by looking at the vocabulary or key terms for the section?
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6. Every Last Sentence- Write one of the last sentences from subsection here. What information
can you learn by reading the last sentence of each subsection?
19 7.
Summary Questions- Write one of the Summary/Review questions. What information about
the section can you learn by reading the summary/review questions?
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20 Note Outline Template
I.
Main Heading
A. Subheading
1. Details
2. Details
B. Subheading
1. Details
2. Details
II. Main Heading
A. Subheading
1. Details
2. Details
B. Subheading
1. Details
2. Details
C. Subheading
1. Details
2. Details
Summary:
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Works Cited
21 During Reading Strategies
Text Dependent Questions

Close reading requires close attention to the ideas expressed and implied by the author
and to the author’s craft.

Often comprehension questions allow students to talk about other things besides the text
o (how do you think people felt about the emancipation Proclamation? If you were
a slave, who would you feel about it?)

Questions are text-dependent if they can only be answered by reading the text (the
evidence must come largely or entirely from the text and not form opinions/experience.)

Text dependent questions are not necessarily low level
o “Low-level” questions are little more than memory tasks—they ask readers to
remember what the author had said explicitly
o “High-level” questions ask for answers that require logic, inference, and/or
analysis of the text information
o Text dependent question can be low level or high level

Past research indicates that a mix of questions levels leads to better comprehension

The Common Core encourages both low level and high level questions, the answers of
which depend on text evidence
o The Common Core standards ask you to “read like a detective…and write
like a reporter.”
Possible Formula for Text-Dependent Questions:


Why do you think _______________________________?
Using facts from the text and your own ideas, explain your
Adapted from the Reading Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
22 After Reading Strategies

Given the opportunity to summarize and take notes, student performance has been
found to be 34% tile points higher than for students who do not summarize and take
notes.

Comprehension is crucial to understanding text in every subject area. At its core
comprehension is based on summarizing—restating content in a succinct manner
that highlights that most crucial information.
“Ruled-Based” Summarizing Strategy
1.
2.
3.
4.
Delete trivial material that is unnecessary to understanding
Delete redundant material
Substitute subordinate terms for lists.
Select a topic sentence or invent one if it is missing.
**Assume Nothing!**

Assume that your students do not know how to summarize

Teachers need to plan and explicitly teach summarizing strategies.
I DoWe DoYou Do
Adapted from the Reading Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
23 Summary Frame Types
Narrative Frame: Use these questions to help students to create a written summary.
1. Who are the main characters? What distinguishes them from the other characters?
2. When and where did the story take place? What were the circumstances?
3. What prompted the action in the story?
4. How did the characters express their feelings?
5. What did the main characters decide to do? Did they set a goal? What was it?
6. How did the main characters try to accomplish their goals?
7. What were the consequences?
Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame: This summary could be used for non-fiction reading and
research topics.
1. What is the general statement or topic?
2. What information narrows or restricts the general statement or topic?
3. What examples illustrate the topic or restriction?
Definition Frame: This summary could be used for all disciplines
1. What is being defined?
2. To which general category does the item belong?
3. What characteristics separate the item form the other things in the general category?
4. What are some different types or classes of the items being defined?
Argumentation Frame: This summary could be used for all disciplines
1. What is the basic claim or focus of the information?
2. What information is presented that leads to a claim?
3. What examples or explanations support that claim?
4. What restricts the claim? What evidence counters the claim?
Problem-Solution Frame: This summary could be used for all disciplines.
1. What is the problem?
2. What is a possible solution?
3. What is another possible solution?
4. Which solution has the best chance of succeeding and why?
Conversation Frame: This summary could be used for all disciplines
1. How did the participants in the conversation greet one another?
2. What questions or topics were insinuated, revealed, or referred to?
3. How did the conversation progress?
4. How did the conversation conclude?
Adapted from the Reading Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
24 Cristo Rey Kansas City
Writing Handbook
25 Writing Benchmarks

English Language Arts benchmarks should be shared by science, social studies, math,
and religious studies teams

It is essential that all disciplines include TEXTS in their instructional routines

Content teachers will need to emphasize aspects of literacy that they have not in the past
(these are disciplinary standards, not content area reading standards—the idea is not how
to apply reading skills and strategies to content subjects, but how to teach the unique uses
of literacy required by each discipline)

Five Components of an Effective School-wide Literacy System at a Cristo Rey
School
o Teach and assess English language arts curriculum benchmarks
o Teach and assess disciplinary literary benchmarks imbedded in all curriculum
o Ensure evidence-based, effective instruction in English language arts and all
content area classes
o Provide a double dose of literacy freshmen year
o Establish a learning resource center at the heart of the reading/writing research
process

Importance of informational Text
o Most high school academic learning opportunities involve the reading of text that
is not literary. (Even clearer in the workplace)

The Right Mix of Literary and Informational Text
o Provide students with a good mix of literary and informational reading
experiences so that they have sufficient opportunity to gain both sets of skills
o Secondary student’s experiences should be substantial, with more attention to
informational text (2/3-4/5 of all text level)

Text throughout the Curriculum

The Real Point!
o Students must be engaged in substantial amount of reading experience with both
literary and informational text
o It’s imperative that we beef up informational text learning. Students have been
getting too little experience with such text.

The teacher’s job is to create the right MATCH between the curriculum
benchmark(s) and the literacy strategy.
Adapted from the Writing Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
26 Alignment Tool Example Stage 1: Desired Results Content
Benchmarks
Sample: Biology
4.10.8
Explain the
ethical
considerations in
the development
of science and
technology
Stage 2: Evidence
Writing
Benchmarks
Scientific Literacy
in Writing:
4.10.9
Identify the
central ideas or
conclusions of a
text; provide an
accurate objective
summary of the
text distinct from
prior knowledge
or opinions
(ENG. 8.10.4)
Essential
Performance
Students Summary
of article on Stem
Cell Research
27 Stage 3: Instruction Tool
Summary Notes
Sheet
Alignment Tool Example Stage 1: Desired Results Content
Benchmarks
Stage 2: Evidence
Writing
Benchmarks
Essential
Performance
28 Stage 3: Instruction Tool
Thinking Strategies
Summaries
Two Thinking Strategies:
 Precision and Accuracy-Summary falls into this category
 Complex Reasoning Strategies
o Comparing is the process of identifying similarities and differences between
or among things or idea
o Classifying is the process of grouping things that are alike into categories on the
basis of their characteristics
o Constructing Support
o Analyzing Perspectives
Two Lifelong Learning Behaviors
 Persistence with New Tasks
 Teamwork and Collaboration
Summarizing MUST be in the “cognitive tool kit”
 Summarizing helps the students remember what they have read and communicate it to
others in writing. Summarizing also provides a vehicle for teachers to monitor
comprehension and even allows students to self-monitor and regroup before missing too
much information.

Cognitive strategies make the invisible process of reading and writing visible to students.
The Case for Teaching the Skill of Summarizing
 Summary especially helps lower-level learners, who “jump in” to writing or discussion
too often without prep.

Summary is an important skill that can also appeal to multiple intelligences
(Gardner)-linguistic, musical, logical/mathematical, spatial, bodily, personal, naturalist)

Summary can increase motivation and confidence: Summary is a “habit of mind” that
can be learned and mastered. According to Booth, citing Janet Allen- two most powerful
sources of motivation are achievement and recognition (could this be achieved step by
step with summary organizers)
29 Adapted from the Writing Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
Thinking Strategies
Summaries Continued…

The Common Core encourages both low level and high level questions, the answers of
which depend on text evidence
o The Common Core standards ask you to “read like a detective…and write
like a reporter.”

Applying the Summary Notes Tools
Step 1: Help students connect to the Text they will be summarizing by asking them what
they think about the subject.
Step 2: Develop a purpose question
Step 3: Using the summary notes page to help the students write the summary.

The Process of refining the piece of writing.
o Students should evaluate and revise their summaries:

Does it convey info accurately?

Is it too narrow or too broad? Does it convey all of the important
elements?

Would someone else using this summary gain what he or she needed to
know to understand the subject?

Are the right ideas in the right sequence?

Did I leave out my opinion and just report an undistorted essence of the
original content?

Did I use my own words and style?
30 Adapted from the Writing Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
Burke’s Summary Response Notes
Name: _____________________________ Date: _____________
Class: ____________
Directions: Please write all answers in complete sentences and cite any evidence from the text.
1. Write the title and author of the article here:
2. Set a purpose: What are you trying to answer about this subject?
3. Preview the article: Jot down three things you know based on your preview:
a. __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
b. __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
c. __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
31 Burke’s Summary Paragraph
Name: _________________________
Date: ___________
Class: _____________
Directions: Follow the following steps in order to create the summary.
o
o
o
o
o
o
Identify the title, author, and topic in the first sentence.
State the main idea in the second sentence
3-5 sentences where students explains in their own word’s the author’s point of view
2-3 interesting quotes or details
Ideas should be presented in the order in which they appear in the text
Use transition words- “according to” and the author’s last name to show your presenting
another’s idea
In addition, the summary should be:
o Shorter than the original text
o Maintain the author’s meaning
o Include enough information so someone who has not read the article will understand the
ideas
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32 RAFT Writing

RAFT is a writing strategy that helps students understand their role as a writer, the
audience they will address, the varied formats for writing, and the topic they’ll be writing

By using the strategy, teachers encourage students to write creatively, to consider a topic
from a different perspective, and to gain practice writing for different audiences. Students
learn to respond to a writing prompt that requires them to think about various
perspectives (Santa & Havens, 1995):
o Role of the Writer: Who are you as the writer?



A pilgrim?
A soldier?
The President?
o Audience: To whom are you writing?


A political rally?
A potential employer?
o Format: In what format are you writing?



A letter?
An advertisement?
A speech?
o Topic: what are you writing about?
RAFT: Create the Strategy

Explain to your students the various perspectives writers must consider when completing
any writing assignment

Display a RAFT writing prompt to your class and model on an overhead or Elmo how
you would write in response to the prompt.

Have students react to another writing prompt individually, or in small groups. It works
best if all students react to the same prompt so the class can learn from varied responses.

As students become comfortable in reacting to RAFT prompts, you can create more than
one prompt for students to respond to after a reading, lesson, or unit. Varied prompts
allow students to compare and contrast multiple perspectives, deepening their
understanding of the content.
Adapted from the Writing Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
33 RAFT Examples
RAFT: Social Studies
Grade Level: 10
Content Area: Social Studies
Content Benchmarks: U.S. History 11.11.4 P- Analyze the cause and results of the First World
War
Writing Benchmarks: U.S. History 3.11.8- Develop and strengthen writing by revising, editing,
rewriting, or trying a new approach focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific
purpose or audience (ENG 6.11.10)
Role: Kaiser Wilhelm II
Audience: European Heads of State
Format: Recipe
Topic: How to start a World War
RAFT: Algebra I
Grade Level: 9
Content Area: Algebra I
Content Benchmarks: Algebra I 1.09.8- Perform operations on polynomials (e.g. adding,
subtracting, and multiplying)
Writing Benchmarks: Algebra I 11.10.1- Acquire and accurately use mathematical words and
phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening. (ENG. 3.10.5)
Role: Doctor
Audience: Medical Students
Format: Medical Journal
Topic: Performing operation on polynomials
RAFT: Biology
Grade Level: 10
Content Area: Biology
Content Benchmarks: Biology 8.10.1- Describe and predict the inheritance of traits using
Mendelian genetic principles
Writing Benchmarks: Biology 4.10.3- Accurately use general academic words and phrases
sufficient for reading, writing, and listening at the college and career readiness level (ENG.
3.10.5)
Role: Parent
Audience: Child
Format: Letter
Topic: Why you are the way you are?
Adapted from the Writing Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
34 RAFT Writing
Name: ______________________
Date: _____________
Class: _____________
Directions: Pick one from each of the following three columns. After you mix and match the
categories write a short piece about ___________________.
ROLE
1. ______________
2. ______________
3. ______________
4. ______________
2. ______________
3. ______________
4. ______________
2. ______________
3. ______________
4. ______________
2. ______________
3. ______________
4. ______________
AUDIENCE
1. ______________
FORMAT
1. ______________
TOPIC
1. ______________
RAFT Writing Assignment:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
35 Teaching Comparing and Contrasting
Teaching Comparing
1. Help students understand the process.
2. Give the students a model for the process of comparing and create opportunities for them
to practice using the process.
3. As students study and use the process of comparing, help them focus on critical steps and
difficult aspects of the process.
4. Provide students with graphic organizers or representations to help them understand and
use the process of comparing.
5. Use teacher-structured and student structured tasks.
Why Teach Compare and Contrast?

When students compare and contrast, they come to understand that their knowledge of a
benchmark/idea isn’t about the process of comparing, but demonstrating understanding at
a deeper level through the process of comparing.

Practice and groupings can be differentiated: Students reading the same material can
grow their thinking through prewriting with a compare-contrast analysis using sentence
stems, or a more sophisticated use a comparison matrix.
How: Compare and Contrast

Prewrite
o Identify common ground between subjects you are comparing
o Examine specific similarities and differences
 Select the items you want to compare
 Select the characteristics of the items on which you want to base your
comparison.
 Explain how the items are similar and different with respect to the
characteristics your identified
o Brainstorming Tools
 Venn Diagram
 Triple Venn Diagram

Draft and Revise
o Develop a point you are trying to make about two subjects
o Use transitions to organize the comparison and make it flow

Edit
o Grammar and punctuation revised.
o Opportunities for self-editing and peer-editing
Adapted from the Writing Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
36 Compare and Contrast
Drafting: Transition Words

In Comparison and contrast, transition words tell a read that the writer is changing from
taking about one item to the other.

Transitional words and phrases help make a paper smoother and more coherent by
showing the reader the connection between the ideas that are being presented.
Compare
Contrast
Also
Although
As well as
But
Both
Differ
In the same manner
Even though
In the same way
However
Like
In contrast
Likewise
Instead
Most Important
Nevertheless
Same
On the Contrary
Similar/Similarly
On the other hand
The same as
Unless
Too
Unlike
While
Yet
Adapted from the Writing Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
37 Writing Using Evidence
Effective Writing
Write in an effective paragraphs is an essential skill for success in school and in life.
Most classes, courses, exams, jobs and college applications require students to write.
Many employment and personal situations will also require them to write, and they
benefit from being able to do so effectively.
Steps to helping students write effectively:
1. Help students connect to the text they will be summarizing by asking them what they
think about the subject.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Establish Focus
Identify Organizational Patterns
Discuss and label details that contribute to Development
Discuss the rhetorical purpose of the Paragraph
2. Have students revise their paragraphs using Summary Notes and FODP
a. Focus
b. Organizational
c. Development
d. Paragraph
Adapted from the Writing Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
38 Analyzing Perspectives
Teaching Analyzing Perspectives
1. Help Students understand the process.
2. Give the students a model for the process of analyzing perspectives and create
opportunities for them to practice using the process.
3. As students study and use the process of analyzing perspectives, help them focus on
critical steps and difficult aspects of the process.
4. Provide students with graphic organizers or representations to help them understand and
use the process of analyzing perspectives.
5. Use teacher-structured and student-structured tasks.
Steps for Analyzing Perspectives
1. Identify and articulate explicit points of disagreement that cause conflict.
2. Articulate a position and the basic reasoning underlying the position, addressing some
errors or gaps in the reasoning.
3. Articulate an opposing position and the reasoning behind it, addressing some errors or
gaps in the reasoning.
**Caution…Review the knowledge level first!**
Before a student can: articulate opposing positions, the reasoning behind each position, as
well as address some errors or gaps in the reasoning, he or she will need to have a
thorough understanding of all the information surrounding an issue, event, etc.
Adapted from the Writing Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
39 Crafting an Effective Argument
“Argument is not a genre or rhetorical mode as much as it is a way of thinking. The way of
thinking is essential to the academic work all students do in all their classes.”
Constructing Support is the process of building systems of support for assertions. Stated more
simply, it is the process of providing support for statements.

Support your argument
Burke’s Argument Organizer

Can be used multiple ways
1. To frame and support one claim in multiple ways from one text
2. To provide support or one claim from a variety of texts
3. To compare and contrast or synthesize claims in one text or among multiple texts
4. To organize a paragraph or an essay
Forces Systematic thinking and self-direction
1. Students reflect on “fit” between evidence and main idea at each stage
2. Provides space for additional thinking or connections, including rebuttals
3. Fairly easily assessed by partners for “fit”
Adapted from the Writing Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
40 Burke’s Argument Organizer
Claim: What is the main point?
Reason: Why should readers
accept your claim?
Claim: ________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Reason: ________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Evidence: ______________
Evidence:
Evidence: ______________
_______________________ _______________________ ______________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
_______________________ _______________________ ____________________
Acknowledge Acknowledge: ___________________________ Respond: ________________________
and Respond _______________________________________ _________________________________
Make sure to
_______________________________________ _________________________________
Evidence
 Facts
 Figures
 Statistics
 Observation
use citations
41 Five Steps of the Writing Process
Step
Description
Strategies
Prewriting
An activity that causes the writer
to think about the subject. The
writer organizes his or her
thoughts before he begins to
write.
Drawing
Talking
Brainstorming
Graphic Organizer
Research
Listing
Field Trips
Drafting
The process of putting ideas down
on paper. The focus is on content
not mechanics.
Taking notes
Organizing thoughts into paragraphs
Writing a first draft
Revising
The process of refining the piece
of writing. The writer adds to a
writing piece. The writer
reorganizes a piece of writing.
The writer shares his or her story
and gets input from peers or
teachers.
Peer editing
Conferencing
Share Chair or Author’s chair
Editing
Mechanical, grammatical, and
spelling errors are fixed in the
writing piece.
Publishing
The writing piece is prepared in
final form, including illustrations.
The writer shares his or her
writing with others.
42 Checklists
Rubrics
Editing Checklists
Proofreading
Reading aloud
Reading to a group
Displaying in the room
Printing the books
Web publishing
Adapted from the Writing Strategies that Work at Cristo Rey Network Workshop, Loyola
University Chicago.
Types of Writing Assignments
1.
Compare and Contrast Essay: Discuss and give examples of similarities and
differences between two or more persons, places, or things.
2.
Critical (Literary) Analysis Essay: Analyze characteristics or literary elements of a
text.
3.
Definition Essay: Define a key term by stating the criteria/rules by which a person
meets the term.
4.
Expository Essay: A factual essay that explains, gives information or persuades
about a topic
5.
I-Search Paper: A personal research paper, in which you pick a topic about a
genuine need or a real desire to know more about a topic.
6.
Lab Reports: A report that provides details about an experiment.
7.
Narrative/Personal Essay: Tell a story from author’s point of view about himself
with supporting details and examples based on personal experiences.
8.
Persuasive (Argumentative) Essay: State a position about a specific topic and
research information that supports and opposes your position. Then give details and
examples to show why your position is right to persuade the reader to believe your
point of view.
9.
Reflection/Journal Essay: State an overall reaction to content by supporting your
opinion with specific reasons and examples.
10.
Research Paper: A factual essay which presents information from a variety of valid
sources to support a point of view on a particular topic.
11.
Short Story: A short piece of fiction that often takes place in one setting.
12.
Summary Essay: Restate main points of a topic under study without personal
opinion
43 Adapted from the Essay Writing Manual Quick Reference at Verbum Dei High School in Los
Angeles, CA.
Freshmen Expectations and Timeline
1.
Pre-Writing Process (including use of graphic organizers)
2. MLA Formatting- Mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
3. Writing Five Paragraph Essay-Mastered by the end of the Fourth Quarter
a. Strong Thesis Statement- Mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
b. Topic Sentences to begin each paragraph- Mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
c. One to Two paragraph Essay mastered by the end of First Quarter
d. Two to Three Paragraph Essay mastered by the end of the Second Quarter
e. Four Paragraph Essay mastered by the end of Third Quarter
f. Five Paragraph Essay mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
g. Five to Six sentences per paragraph mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
4. Types of Essays Written throughout the course of the school year
a. Compare and Contrast Essay
b. Critical (Literary) Analysis Essay
c. Definition Essay
d. Expository Essay
e. Persuasive (Argumentative) Essay
f. Reflection/Journal Essay
g. Short Story
h. Summary Essay
44 Sophomore Expectations
1. Pre-Writing Process (including use of graphic organizers)- Mastered by the end of Fourth
Quarter
2. MLA Formatting- Mastered by the end of Freshman year (Needs to be reviewed at the
beginning of each year)
3. Writing a Two to Three page Essay by Fourth Quarter
a. Strong Thesis Statement- Mastered by the end of Freshman year (Needs to be
reviewed at the beginning of each year)
b. Topic Sentences at the beginning of each body paragraph- Mastered by the end of
Freshman year (Needs to be reviewed at the beginning of each year)
c. Integrating Sources and Quotes by the end of Second Quarter thru Fourth Quarter
d. Five Paragraph Essay mastered by the end of the First Quarter
e. Six to Seven Paragraph Essay mastered by the end of the Second Quarter
f. Two to Three page Essay mastered by the end of the Fourth Quarter
4. Types of Essays Written by the end of the year and mastered
a. Compare and Contrast Essay- Mastered by the end of the Fourth Quarter
b. Critical (Literary) Analysis Essay
c. Definition Essay- Mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
d. Expository Essay- Mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
e. I-Search Paper
f. Lab Report
g. Persuasive (Argumentative) Essay- Mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
h. Reflection/Journaling Essay- Mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
i. Summary Essay- Mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
45 Junior Expectations and Timeline
1. Pre-Writing Process (including use of graphic organizers)- Mastered by the end of
Sophomore year (Needs to be reviewed at the beginning of each year)
2. MLA Formatting- Mastered by the end of Freshman year (Needs to be reviewed at the
beginning of each year)
3. Writing a Four to Five page Essay by Fourth Quarter
a. Strong Thesis Statement Mastered by the end of Freshman year (Needs to be
reviewed at the beginning of each year)
b. Topic Sentences at the beginning of each body paragraph- Mastered by the end of
Freshman year (Needs to be reviewed at the beginning of each year)
c. Integrating Sources and Quotes- Mastered by the end of Third Quarter
i. Analysis of sources and quotes in the Essay
d. Two to Three page Essay Mastered by the end of First Quarter
e. Three to Four page Essay Mastered by the end of Second Quarter
f. Four page Essay Mastered by the end of Third Quarter
g. Five page Essay Mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
4. Types of Essays Written by the end of the year and mastered
a. Compare and Contrast Essay- Mastered by the end of Sophomore year (May need
to be reviewed)
b. Critical (Literary) Analysis Essay-Mastered by the end of Second Quarter
c. I-Search Paper- Mastered by the end of Third Quarter
d. Lab Report- Mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
e. Micro-Research Paper
f. Narrative/Personal Essay- Mastered by the end of Third Quarter
g. Persuasive (Argumentative) Essay- Mastered by the end of Sophomore year (May
need to be reviewed)
h. Reflection/Journaling Essay- Mastered by the end of Sophomore year (May need
to be reviewed)
i. Research Process- Mastered by the end of Third Quarter
j. Summary Essay- Mastered by the end of Sophomore year (May need to be
reviewed)
46 Senior Expectations and Timeline
1. Pre-Writing Process (including using graphic organizers)- Mastered by the end of
Sophomore year (Needs to be reviewed at the beginning of each year)
2. MLA Formatting- Mastered by the end of Freshman year (Needs to be reviewed at the
beginning of each year)
3. Writing a five to seven page Essay by Fourth Quarter
a. Strong Thesis Statement-Mastered by the end of Freshman year (Needs to be
reviewed at the beginning of each year)
b. Topic Sentences at the beginning of each paragraph- Mastered by the end of
Freshman year (Needs to be reviewed at the beginning of each year)
c. Integrating Sources and Quotes- Mastered by the end of Junior year (may need to
be reviewed)
i. Analysis of sources and quotes in the Essay- Mastered by the end of
Second Quarter
d. Four to Five page Essay Mastered by the end of First Quarter
e. Five to Six page Essay Mastered by the end of Second Quarter
f. Five to Seven page Essay Mastered by the end of Third Quarter
g. Six to Ten page Essay Mastered by the end of Fourth Quarter
4. Types of Essays Written by the end of the year and mastered
a. Compare and Contrast Essay- Mastered by the end of Sophomore year (May need
to be reviewed)
b. Critical (Literary) Analysis Essay- Mastered by the end of Junior year (May need
to be reviewed)
c. I-Search Paper- Mastered by the end of Junior year (May need to be reviewed)
d. Lab Report Mastered by the end of Junior year (May need to be reviewed)
e. Narrative/Personal Essay- Mastered by the end of Junior year (May need to be
reviewed)
f. Persuasive (Argumentative) Essay- Mastered by the end of Sophomore year (May
need to be reviewed)
g. Reflection/Journaling Essay Mastered by the end of Junior year (May need to be
reviewed)
47 MLA Formatting Guidelines
Modern Language Association (MLA) Guidelines:
1. The paper should be formatted to One inch margins and double-spaced.
2. The font should be Times New Roman size 12 font.
3. The students should place the heading in the left hand side of the paper. (This heading
should not be double-spaced).
a. Heading Example
Student Name
Instructor’s Name
Class
Due Date
4. The title should be centered in Times New Roman size 12 font. It should not be bolded or
italicized.
5. The header should start on the second page of the document and on the left side of the
paper. It should be the last name of the student with the number. (If the student has the
same last name of another student, the student should put their first initial of their first
name). The header and footer function should be used to place the header in the correct
position.
Suggested check off list to give students when writing a paper.
MLA Formmatting Check List
____ Typed
____On standard 8.5 X 11 inch paper
____ Double spaced
____Have 12 point, Times New Roman font
____ Left Aligned
____Spell Checked
____ 1 inch margins on all sides
____ All paragraphs indented .5 inches from left (1 tab)
____ Heading has your name, teacher’s name, course name and due date in the
upper left corner of the first page of the paper.
____ Title of the paper is centered. Important words are capitalized. No special fonts.
____ Number all pages in the upper right corner. Your last name should appear before
the page number (Myers 2).
____ Citations (if needed): In-text parenthetical citations
____ Works cited (if needed): Is the last page of the paper, and is titled Works Cited
(centered, regular text). Alphabetize each citation according to the first word of
the entry. Use the MLA style guide to write your works cited.
Taken primarily from:
Purdue OWL. “MLA Formatting and Style Guide.” The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 10
May 2008. Web. 15 Nov. 2008
48 Citation
Basic Terms
Internal Citations: When citing sources within an essay, the internal citation provides readers with
basic information about a source. Ex: (Whitman 151).
Parenthetical Citations: This term is another name for internal citations when the information is
presented in parenthesis.
External Citations: When citing sources at the end of an essay, the external citation provides
readers with the information for locating a source. Ex: See External Citation Formats.
How to Cite?
When quoting in MLA, writers need to look for set criteria. For prose, writers need to find the
author and page number of a work (Smith 76), but for poetry, writers need the author and the line
numbers (Poe 15-17). When working with dramas, writers need to introduce the author in the text
before a quotation and need to provide the play title and line numbers in the parenthetical citation
(Hamlet 15-17). As writers incorporate quotations into their work, they also need to consider
whether they have a short or long (block) quote.
Prose:
Short Quotations (4 typed lines or less) Place the quote within the text of the paper. Introduce the
quote with comma, and place the period after the parenthetical citation. Use quotation marks to
show all borrowed material. Include author and page number.
In literature, children often represent minor but important characters. In The Scarlet Letter, Nathaniel
Hawthorne writes, “Weeks, it is true, would sometimes elapse, during which Pearl’s gaze might never once
be fixed upon the scarlet letter; but then, again, it would come at unawares, like the stroke of sudden death,
and always with that peculiar smile, and odd expression in her eyes” (1299). Pearl, Hester’s daughter,
represents . . .
Block Quotations (More than 4 typed lines)
Place the quote one inch from the left margin, and omit quotation marks. Introduce the quote with
a colon, and place the period before the parenthetical citation.
In The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne discusses the impact of social code on the next generation as he writes:
Pearl saw, and gazed intently, but never sought to make acquaintance. If spoken to, she would not
speak again. If the children gathered about her, as they sometimes did, Pearl would grow
positively terrible in her puny wrath, snatching up stones to fling at them, with shrill, incoherent
exclamations that made her mother tremble, because they had so much the sound of a witch’s
anathemas in some unknown tongue. (1297)
Pearl’s experience shows the reader the impact of the scarlet letter. The author uses this example to make
his . . .
Poetry:
Short Quotation (3 lines or less) Place the quote within the text of the paper. Introduce the quote
with a comma, and place the period after the parenthetical citation. Use quotation marks to show
all borrowed material, and use slashes to denote lines.
She writes, “The greatest gift that ev’n a God can give, / He freely offered to the numerous throng, / That
on his lips with listening pleasure hung” (Wheatley 25-27).
From the MLA Formatting Handout from UMKC Writing Studio.
49 Citation Continued…
Block Quotation (More than 3 lines)
Place the quote one inch from the left margin, and omit quotation marks. Introduce the quote with
a colon, and place the period before the parenthetical citation. Use one hard return at the end of
every line.
In “On the Death of the Rev. Mr. George Whitefield 1770,” Phillis Wheatley writes:
Hail, happy saint, on thine immortal thorne,
Possessed of glory, life, and bliss;
We hear no more the music of they tongue,
Thy wonted auditories case to throng (1-4).
External Citation Formats
Book
Author. Title. Publishing City: Publishing Co, Year. Medium Publication.
Example: Diament, Anita. The Red Tent. New York. Picador USA, 1998. Print.
Book with Multiple Authors
First Author’s name, and second author’s name. Title. Publishing City: Publishing
Co, Year. Medium.
Example: Caldwell, Ian, and Dustin Thomason. The Rule of Four. New York:
Dial Books, 2004. Print.
A Work in an Anthology or Textbook
Original Author. “Title of Piece.” Title of Composite Text. Ed. Editor’s Name.
Publishing City: Publishing Co, Year. Page Number of the Piece. Medium
of Publication.
Example: Hawthorne Nathaniel. “Young Goodman Brown.” The Norton
Anthology of American Literature to 1865. 6th ed. Ed. Nina Baym.
New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2002. 1198-1207. Print.
An Introduction, Preface, a Forward or an Afterward
Author, Introduction. Title of Composite Text. Ed. Editor’s Name. Publishing
City: Publishing Co, Year. Page Numbers of the Piece. Medium of
Publication.
Example: Rosenthal, Lisa. Introduction. The Writing Group Book: Creating and
Sustaining a Successful Writing Group. Ed. Lisa Rosenthal.
Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2003. Xiii-xviii. Print.
A Translation
Author. Title. Trans. Translator’s Name. Publishing City: Publishing Co, Year.
Medium of Publication.
Example: Christine de Pizan. The Book of the City of Ladies. Trans. Earl Jeffrey
Richards. New York: Persea Books, 1982. Print.
From the MLA Formatting Handout from UMKC Writing Studio.
50 Citation Continued…
Article from a Periodical
Author. “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical Date: Page numbers. Medium of
Publication.
Example: Yakir, Dan. “The Sorcerer.” Film Comment 17 May 1981: 49-53. Print.
Article from a Newspaper
Author, “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper Date, edition abbreviated.: Page
Numbers. Medium of Publication.
Example:Mills, Nancy. “Half-Mortal Merlin Full of Heart.” Chicago Tribune TC
Week 26 May 1998, Sunday ed.: 3+. Print.
Scholarly Journal
Author. “Title of Article.” Journal Title Volume Number. Issue Number (Year):
Page Numbers. Medium of Publication.
Example: Mark, Elizabeth Wyner. “The Four Wives of Jacob: Matriarchs Seen
and Unseen.” Reconstructionist 63.1 (1998): 22-35. Print.
Film
Title. Dir. Director’s Name. Perf. List 2-3 of the main actors. Production
Company, Year. Medium of Publication.
Example:Spider-Man 2. Dir. Sam Raimi. Perf. Tobey Maguire, Kirsten Dunst,
and Alfred Malina. Sony Pictures, 2004. Film.
CD
Artist. Title. Publication Company, Year. Medium of Publication.
Example: Outlandish. Bread and Barrels of Water. BMG Denmark, 2003. CD.
An Article in a Reference Book
“Item looked up.” Title. Ed. Editor’s Name. Edition Publication City: Publication
Company, Year. Medium of Publication.
Example: “Violin.” Webster’s New World College Dictionary. Ed. Michael
Agnes. 4th ed. New York: Macmillan, 1999. Print.
Personal Interview
Name of Person being Interviewed. Personal Interview. Date.
Example: Knodel, Judy. Personal Interview. 8 May 2004.
The Bible
Title. Ed. Editor’s Name. Publication City: Publication Company, Year. Medium
of Publication.
Example: The Oxford Study Bible: Revised English Bible with the Apocrypha.
Ed. M. Jack Suggs, Katherine Doob Sakenfeld, and James R.
Mueller. New York: Oxford University Press. 1992. Print.
Map or Chart
Title. Map. Publication City: Publication Company, Year. Medium of Publication.
Example: Japenese Fundamentals. Chart. Hauppauge: Barron 1992. Print.
From the MLA Formatting Handout from UMKC Writing Studio.
51 Citation Continued…
Work Cited Only on the Web
Author. “Title of Work.” Title of Website if different from Title of Work. Version
of edition if one. Publisher. Publication Date. Medium of Publication.
Date Accessed.
Example: McWard, Jim. “McWard’s English Home Page.” Johnson County
Community College. n.d. Web. 12 July 2004.
Print Journal Accessed Online
Author. “Title of Article.” Journal Title. Volume Number. Issue Number (Year):
page numbers. Title of Database. Medium of Publication. Date Accessed.
Example: Myers, Sharon A. “Reassessing the ‘Proofreading Trap’: ESL Tutoring
and Writing Center Instruction.” The Writing Center Journal. 24.1
(2003): N. pag. The Wiritng Center Journal Online. Web. 24 July
2004.
Print Book Accessed Online
Author. Title. Publishing City: Publishing Co, Year. Title of Database. Medium
of Publication. Date Accessed.
Example: Dumas, Alexandre. Camille (la Dame Aux Camelias). New York:
Atlantic Books, 1852. The Online Books Page. Web. 21 July 2004.
From the MLA Formatting Handout from UMKC Writing Studio.
52 Works Cited v. Bibliography
A Work cited is a list of works referenced in the paper. A writer often researches more works
than they cite. A bibliography is a list of all works read during the course of the paper. When
constructing a bibliography, writers need to include everything they read associated with a
project, not just the works cited. Works cited lists and bibliographies are a source of information
for writers. When doing research, writers should use the works cited lists and bibliographies of
their source to find more information on a given subject.
Formatting and Organizing the Works Cited/ Bibliography
Alphabetize works cited lists and bibliographies by author’s last name and/or first key
word of the title. Indent all entries as a text wraps around.
Smith 12
Works Cited
Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid’s Tale. New York: Fawcett Crest, 1985. Print.
North, Steven M. “The Idea of a Writing Center.” The St. Martin’s Sourcebook for Writing Tutors. Ed.
Christina Murphy and Steve Sherewood. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2003. 31-46. Print.
From the MLA Formatting Handout from UMKC Writing Studio.
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