Thumbs up for Facebook data centre substations 6

Thumbs up for Facebook data centre substations 6
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Focus on data centres
special issue
Image courtesy of the Node Pole
Thumbs up for Facebook data centre substations 6
Green’s Zurich-West data centre saving energy with DC power 8
First UK installation of innovative PASS M0H switchgear 14
Infrastructure management with Decathlon 24
Variable-speed drives keep running costs in check 36
Lifetime service for power assets 38
Welcome
ABB Power Products
Power Products are the key components for transmitting and distributing electricity.
The division incorporates ABB’s manufacturing network for transformers, switchgear,
circuit breakers, cables and associated equipment. It also offers all the services
needed to ensure products’ performance and extend their lifespan.
ABB Power Systems
Power Systems offers turnkey systems and services for power transmission and
distribution grids and for power plants. Substations and substation automation
systems are key areas. Additional highlights include flexible alternating current
transmission systems (FACTS), high-voltage direct current (HVDC) systems and
network management systems. In power generation, Power Systems offers the
instrumentation, control and electrification of power plants.
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David Hughes
Division Head of ABB Power Products
UK & Ireland
How ABB delivers
grid connections
Data centres special issue
Dear Reader,
The business of running data centres is
ever more demanding. Operators are under
pressure to meet growing levels of efficiency
and flexibility without compromising availability to meet their customers’ demands
for uninterrupted up-time and low costs.
As consumers of large amounts of power,
data centres are calling for power systems
and components that deliver ever-higher
levels of performance and efficiency in a
small footprint.
In support of this, ABB offers its extensive capability and engineering know-how
in power distribution, grid connections,
critical power and infrastructure management. It supports its customers not just
with products but also entire systems to
power data centres reliably and efficiently.
The rapid pace of technological development in the data centre world means
that to remain competitive, operators must
be quick to adopt new technologies. With
ABB’s track record of innovation, we’re
always moving, inventing, growing and
answering the changing requirements of
forward-thinking data centre owners and
operators.
Today’s state-of-the-art technology
from ABB improves the efficiency and
performance of the systems that power
data centres, helping operators to gain
the competitive edge and maintain focus
on computing power.
In this newsletter, we’ve gathered
together examples of what ABB does in
the realm of data centres and we hope that
you find it informative. Please get in touch
if you’d like any more information.
Stephen Trotter
Division Head of ABB Power Systems
UK & Ireland
ffwd issue 6/14 • The customer newsletter of ABB Power Products and Power Systems • Subscription newsletter available as printed or electronic copy. Subscribe
online at abb.co.uk/ffwd • Contact and [email protected] • Publisher ABB Limited, Power Products Division, Oulton Road, Stone, Staffordshire ST15 0RS.
Phone: 01785 825 050. Website: www.abb.com/datacenters
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Contents
20
Arc flash
protection
24
Portfolio
4
ABB’s world of data centres
Success stories
6
7
8
10
Facebook’s Luleå data centre
AWAN data centre
Green’s Zurich-West data centre
Telehouse
40
Infrastructure
management
Infrastructure management
24 Decathlon for data centres
Low voltage
26 MNS
28 Emax 2 – from circuit breaker to power manager
Power protection
Grid connections
30 Decentralised parallel architecture
32 Power protection with PCS 100 MV
12 How ABB delivers grid connections
14 First UK order for PASS M0H
16 New Eco directive for transformers
Cooling
Medium voltage switchgear
18 UniGear Digital
Safety
20 Arc flash protection
21 IS Limiter
Cyber security
34 Cool running
Drives
36 Variable-speed drives
Service
38 Lifetime service
Relays
Cyber security
22 Protection, measurement and control
40 A state of mind
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3
Portfolio
ABB’s world of data centres
Data centres are becoming
more strategic to the alwayson global enterprises they
support. Today’s leading
operators view them as
coordinated and optimised
facilities that are built to be
intelligent, highly efficient and
increasingly flexible. That’s
why data centre designers and
developers turn to ABB as a
partner for their most critical
equipment and systems.
Every data centre has its own set of
needs and these can be broadly categorised into four areas where ABB has
expert knowledge and experience.
Power distribution
This includes the products, systems and
expertise required to distribute power
reliably and safely. It also keeps operating
costs down through improved electrical
efficiencies.
ABB supplies not just individual products but also develops and implements
whole systems, from power delivery and
distribution to micro-grids and automated
4
monitoring and control. This leads to data
centres that more readily attain their operators’ performance goals and includes
aspects such as simple maintenance,
enhanced reliability, increased safety performance and reduced likelihood of human
error.
ABB supplies productions and systems
including:
– – Alternating current (AC) power
systems
– – Direct current (DC) power systems
– – A wide range of low and mediumvoltage products
– – Distribution substations
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Intelligent grid connections
Many operators demand their own grid
connection to meet growing demand
for power as well as greater levels of
redundancy. ABB’s equipment, systems and
expertise mean that it can reliably create
new connections at up to 132 kV and its
turnkey grid connection capabilities provide:
–– Better management of energy
demands
–– Optimal utilisation of renewables and
power assets
–– Integration into smart grids and
microgrids
–– Substations
Portfolio
Critical power
Critical power systems ensure that data
centre customers have continuous access to
their data. Products such as uninterruptible
power supplies are built to withstand the
rigours of data centre operation and ensure
many years of reliable, trouble-free service.
ABB’s offering includes:
– – Modular UPS
– – Genset sub-supply and integration
– – Energy storage systems
Data centre infrastructure
management (DCIM)
Decathlon® for Data Centres provides industrial-grade tools to manage a flexible network of power, cooling and IT systems, so
you can deliver data services faster, in the
most reliable, efficient and sustainable way
possible. It is the only DCIM solution that
provides controls to automate both workflow and physical infrastructure processes, enabling you to continually optimise
your data centres to the highest levels of
performance.
Its
––
––
––
––
––
––
––
benefits include:
Real-timer monitoring and visibility
Contextualised decision support
Higher system availability and
performance
Intuitive capacity planning and
management
Resource forecasting and energy
planning
Reliable facility and IT automation
Rapid troubleshooting and root
cause analysis
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Success stories
An illustration of a substation at Luleå
Thumbs
up from
Facebook
in Luleå
Commissioned in 2012, ABB created
the power supply infrastructure for
Facebook’s data centre in Luleå, Sweden.
The social media giant selected the
location because of its stable supply
of clean hydropower as well as reliable
communications and electricity networks.
In addition, the site offers a plentiful
supply of cold air for cooling.
The Arctic climate is a boon for cooling
Image courtesy of the Node Pole
6
To supply power to the site, ABB built
two high and two medium-voltage air
insulated switchgear substations including high-voltage air-insulated switchgear
(AIS), transformers, high-voltage cables,
medium-voltage switchgear, substation
automation equipment and control and
protection systems.
DCB for a small footprint
The site’s high-voltage switching is
supplied by ABB’s Disconnecting Circuit
Breakers (DCBs), which has a significantly
smaller footprint than conventional AIS.
Conventionally, AIS comprises circuit
breakers, disconnectors and current
transformers as separate components.
In a typical arrangement, disconnectors
were located on both sides of each circuit
breaker to isolate it in case of failure or to
enable safe maintenance.
When ABB introduced the DCB in 2000
it extended the functionality of the circuit
breaker, integrating the disconnecting
function into the circuit breaker’s breaking chamber and meeting the standards
of both types of equipment.
In doing so, the concept reduced the
footprint required for AIS and paved the
way for simpler installation, lower maintenance, lower failure rates and improved
levels of safety. Plus, because the primary
contacts in a DCB are enclosed in SF6 gas
and protected from the environment, reliability is greater than standalone air-insulated disconnectors.
And while the Luleå installation also
includes voltage and current transformers
for measurement, the latest version of the
DCB has integrated highly accurate measurement in the form of the latest state-ofthe-art Fibre Optic Current Sensor (FOCS).
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The FOCS sensor eliminates the need for
voltage and current transformers, not only
reducing the overall footprint of a substation
design but also saving energy consumed by
the transformers. FOCS is even compatible
with IEC 61850 standard, in common with
the substation automation system supplied
for the Luleå data centre.
The substations connect to three server
buildings with a total area of 84,000 square
metres, equivalent to 11 full-sized soccer
fields. The centre has a total power consumption of 120 MW, which exceeds the
city of Luleå’s consumption on cold winter
days.
A clean and green centre
All of the power demand is met by the local
supply of clean and green hydropower and
the Arctic climate helps to keep cooling
costs to a minimum by eliminating air-conditioning equipment.
Building on the success of the centre in
March 2014, Facebook announced plans for
a second data centre adjacent to its existing
site in Luleå and announced in a blog post
that it has achieved a PUE (Power Usage
Effectiveness) of around 1.05. This means
that for every 1.05 watts of power feeding
into the data centre, 1 watt is used to run
the computing equipment.
Elsewhere in the industry, PUE levels
of 2.0 are not uncommon, meaning that
operators must consume 2 watts of energy
for every 1 watt used by the servers.
And in April 2014, Greenpeace recognised Facebook’s commitment to clean
operation and transparency in its report
‘Clicking Clean: How companies are creating the green internet’.
Success stories
Tier-4 infrastructure DC facilities are ideal for large
corporate customers in the financial industry as well
as retail colocation operators
Supplying
a Tier-4
facility for
Singapore
Leading Asia Pacific data centre operator
AWAN Data Centre selected ABB as its
preferred supplier of electrical equipment
for the second phase of its new data
centre in Singapore.
Under the agreement, ABB will supply
DC electrical distribution equipment as well
as Decathlon, the DCIM (data centre infrastructure management) solution. AWAN will
also seek to be a potential hosting site for
ABB in Singapore.
AWAN’s objective is to deliver a data
centre with Tier-4 infrastructure, certified
by US-based Uptime Institute, as part of
a purpose-built and very secure DC facility that is ideal for large corporate customers in the financial industry as well as retail
colocation operators and cloud-based service providers.
Once complete, the new 52 MW facility will be a major new Tier-4 data centre
for Asia and will meet the requirements of
Singapore’s BCA-IDA Green Mark Scheme.
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Success stories
Green’s ZurichWest leads the
way for DC
The world’s data centres demand around 80 million MWh of electricity per year,
which equates to 2 percent of total CO2 emissions and demand is growing.
An extra 5.75 million new servers are added to the ranks every year, causing
demand to grow by 10 percent.
Green’s Zurich-West data centre
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Success stories
To balance the financial and environment
costs of growing demand, operators are
keen to improve the efficiency of their
data centres. One major opportunity
is in eliminating the energy lost when
converting AC (alternating current) to
DC (direct current) and back.
While the grid carries AC power to the
door, electronic equipment works from
DC, as do the batteries in UPS systems.
By switching to a DC power system, data
centre operators can convert from AC to
DC only once, simplifying their power supply
and removing the need for equipment, as
well as saving the energy that is lost during
conversion.
Because less equipment needs to
be purchased, installed and maintained,
investment costs are 15 percent lower and
the footprint is 25 percent smaller than a
comparable AC system. Fewer components
lead to fewer outages, improved reliability
and lower operating and maintenance
costs in a sector where outages can cost
upwards of $1 million per hour.
World’s largest DC data centre
The world’s largest DC-powered data centre
opened its doors in May 2012 in Switzerland
following a project between operator Green,
and partners ABB and HP. The Green group
is a major Swiss data centre operator
employed by banks, insurance companies,
system integrators and technology
companies around the world.
Its stringent ecological values meant
that it jumped at the opportunity for ABB to
deliver the pilot project, which had the goal
of operating the data centre with greater
efficiency and consuming less energy than
a conventionally powered centre.
ABB’s installation is a fully redundant
one megawatt DC power distribution
solution for a 1,100 m 2 expansion of the
3,300 m 2 Zurich-West data centre and
meets the specifications of the International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The
project won the prestigious Swiss Federal
Office of Energy’s Watt d’Or prize for
buildings and space in 2013.
Performance tests have shown that the
data centre’s power distribution system is
10 percent more efficient than comparable
AC technology and investment costs were
15 percent lower.
Franz Grueter, CEO of Green said: “The
implementation of 380 volt DC technology
in our data centre is part of our long-term
energy optimisation strategy, a big step
Back up generator
that has set a new standard in the industry.
When fully loaded, the system will result
in energy savings of up to 20 percent in
power consumption from grid to chip and
in cooling.”
DC power distribution
The system was installed by ABB Switzerland
in collaboration with Validus DC systems,
a leading supplier of DC power infrastructure
and is powered by AC power from the
local grid at 16 kV or an emergency power
system. These feed into ABB’s ZS medium
voltage GIS (gas-insulated switchgear).
Power is then converted into 400 V DC
by a rectifier unit made up of a mediumvoltage switch, a highly efficient transformer
and a rectifier unit based on high efficiency
power electronics and semiconductors.
DC power is then distributed to servers
throughout Green’s facility with no need for
further transformation to power equipment
or to connect with the site’s battery system, which is based on DC power and
which stores energy to power the site for
10 minutes while the emergency power
system is brought online.
AC comparison
From the point of the medium-voltage GIS,
a comparable AC power supply would
include medium-voltage transformers, AC
switchgear, power conversion equipment
for the UPS, AC power distribution units
and AC power supply units for every item
of equipment in the data centre.
Switching to DC will not only cut the
costs of power engineering equipment but
will also save costs in installation, operation
and maintenance and will free up valuable
space for servers. Plus, by removing the
individual power supply units for every
item of equipment, the operator will not
only improve energy efficiency but will also
reduce the need for cooling in the IT room
(and the energy demands of the cooling
equipment).
Decathlon for Data Centres
Green is also making use of Decathlon
for Data Centres, ABB’s data centre
infrastructure management (DCIM) solution,
at Zurich West. The software delivers precise
monitoring, control and automation of the
building management and electrical power
systems and is Green’s primary data centre
automation solution. As part of the package,
ABB has deployed its Decathlon Command
Centre Extended Operator Workplace
solution, which enables operators to oversee
and manage the entire operation.
Reliability and efficiency
Tarak Mehta, head of ABB’s Low Voltage
Products division said: “Across all our business areas, customers are asking for
improved availability and energy efficiency,
and DC power is an effective solution. Zurich
West will serve as a global showcase to
demonstrate that DC is a complementary
technology in data centres as it enhances
reliability while minimising footprint, installation and maintenance costs.”
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Success stories
ABB’s state-of-the-art
ELK-04 132 kV switchgear
Power security
in Docklands
ABB has successfully future-proofed the power supply for a major data
centre in London’s Docklands by providing a dedicated primary 132 kV
substation for leading provider of global data centres and managed ICT
solutions Telehouse. During a turnkey project, ABB designed, supplied,
installed and commissioned all the electrical plant required.
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Success stories
When it built the latest addition to its
Docklands campus in 2010, Telehouse
wanted to ensure the highest level of
power security for any data centre
in the UK and become the only data
centre operator in the UK with separate
connections to two individual 132 kV
transmission grids, giving the ultimate
in redundancy. In addition, it wanted to
future-proof its supply to meet growing
demand for its services while delivering
reliability of 99.999 percent.
Around 500 major international organisations base their IT infrastructure at the Docklands campus and the site also supports
connectivity for internet service providers,
carriers, operators and internet exchanges.
Growing demand
While maximum demand from the existing campus was in the region of 16 megavoltamperes (MVA), growing demand and an
extension of the campus meant that Telehouse wanted to create a substation that
could meet a maximum demand of 40 MVA.
The most cost-effective route to
powering the site was replacing the existing
metered feed from UK Power Networks’
11 kV distribution network with a direct
connection to the 132 kV transmission grid.
Telehouse brought together a consortium
to deliver its new primary substation led
by Arcadis and selected ABB to design,
supply, install and commission the electrical
network.
Contestable connection
ABB is one of a select group of companies
accredited under the National Electricity
Registration Scheme (NERS) that is operated
by the Lloyd’s Register Group on behalf of
the UK’s Distribution Network Operators
(DNOs). This means that ABB is able to
deliver contestable connections. As a result,
it was able to liaise closely with UK Power
Networks during the project so that the
DNO was able to focus only on providing
the 132 kV supply points.
One important element of the project was
that the substation had to be energised in
May 2012 in time to support Telehouse’s
operations during that summer’s Olympic
and Paralympic Games.
Substation equipment
ABB supplied its state-of-the-art ELK-04735 GIS, which has a compact size that
minimised the footprint of the substation
as well as 33/50 MVA 132/11 kV grid
transformers. Before being installed, the
GIS had to undergo UK Power Networks’
rigorous approval procedure.
On the secondary distribution side,
ABB installed its UniGear 2500 A, 11 kV
switchgear and all of the ancillary equipment,
including 350 kVA transformers, earthing
resistors, substation earthing, batteries and
battery chargers, SCADA interface and 415
V switchgear.
To create the new connection, ABB
tapped into two separate 132 kV circuits
operated by UK Power Networks and fed
new cabling into the substation via underground cabling. This dual redundancy means
that if the normal live feed is interrupted,
the supply will switch seamlessly to the
other feed. It also required doubling up of
key equipment, including the GIS and grid
transformers. Plus, by tapping straight into
the 132 kV grid, Telehouse can avoid paying DUoS (distribution use of system) charges to the distribution network operator.
The site’s central London location
and close proximity to Docklands meant
that ABB was careful to keep noise and
disruption to a minimum, particularly when
working in the Telehouse campus and on
the high voltage cable routes. Its location
in the busy Docklands business area meant
that the project demanded careful planning
and execution, especially in the scheduling
of deliveries and civil works.
Medium-voltage UniGear switchgear panels
Low Total Cost of Ownership for Munich Re
Munich Re selected the UPS for its low
running costs
When the world’s largest reinsurer
Munich Re wanted to modernise and
extend its computing centre, it chose
ABB’s PowerWave 33 uninterruptible
power supply (UPS). Having done their
sums carefully, Munich Re selected the
PowerWave 33 because it delivers the performance at the most attractive total cost
of ownership over a lifetime of 15 years.
Munich Re’s computer centre had been
equipped with a 8 x 120 kVA single-block
UPS that no longer fulfilled requirements.
ABB replaced this with a 2 x 3 x 300 kVA
PowerWave 33 system. Plus, the existing
single power bus was replaced by a dualfeed system for additional power security.
The work was carried out in two phases.
A new power bus was installed in parallel
with the existing bus and then the exist-
ing bus was replaced by the second of
the new dual feeds and the PowerWave
33 was installed to replace the existing
infrastructure. The architecture will make
it possible to extend the facility easily
with four units to each power bus in the
future. Daniel Haller said:
“Alongside the technical excellence
of the product, deciding factors were
the exceptional energy efficiency, low
maintenance cost and the operational
savings these will deliver over the
next 15 years.”
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Grid connections
Eliminating the power
connection bottleneck
ABB is a leading Independent Connection Provider (ICP) with the proven
capability to deliver new connection projects including the turnkey
management of multi-million pound contestable connections for large
data centre projects.
Working with DNOs to achieve
a fast connection
Procuring and securing utility connections
can be a major concern for data centre
developers in delivering their projects in
terms of cost, risk and on-time delivery.
Many UK DNOs (Distribution Network
Operators) are heavily over-subscribed
with new connection applications. In some
cases they are simply unable to provide a
new connection offer and/or the associated
works within the desired timescale which
can lead to significant project delays and
sometimes even prevent otherwise viable
projects going ahead.
ABB offers a very successful approach
to new connections that can help reduce
this bottleneck. This allows the DNO to
focus on the ‘non-contestable’ element
of a project – in essence they verify that
there is a point of connection available and
sufficient electrical capacity in the networks
to enable the new connection. ABB will then
deliver a project focused single interface to
PASS M0 switchgear
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design and construct the actual connection
substation to the DNO’s own standards.
Once the works are complete the
substation can be handed over to/adopted
by the host DNO who will take on the overall
management of the substation and earn
the associated revenue from this newly
adopted asset. Because of this, the DNOs
regard ABB as working in partnership with
them and they have come to welcome our
services in this area.
Grid connections
ABB’s innovative underground substations can make the most of space
Years of experience
Ofgem, the UK’s regulator of gas and
electricity markets, first brought competition
to the new connections market in 1997.
Since then, ABB has completed many new
connection projects for private developers
and end users from 11 kV up to 132 kV,
something that is beyond the scope of
most ICPs.
Commitment, expertise and
customer focus
The specific benefits of working with ABB will
vary from project to project. In the majority
of cases we offer significant cost and time
savings, but the real advantages often lie
in our commitment, technical expertise and
customer focus. Indeed, many customers
are delighted to find that, when we are
invited to tender for a new connections
project, we often find more innovative
options or approaches to a particular new
connection requirement which can reduce
time, money and programme risk – all of
this is detailed in a comprehensive ABB
tender document.
Flexibility
Making a new connection is a critical part
of most projects. On major developments,
the one thing a client needs is flexibility. If
the project needs to go ‘off-plan’ for any
reason, it is vital that the electricity contractor can adapt to meet the changing project
requirements. In our role as an ICP, ABB
understands the evolving needs and priorities of different projects. We also recognise
the need to work with all the equipment
suppliers whose products are approved
by the local network operator.
We also understand the need for financial flexibility and can arrange contracts
with commercial terms that reflect the
competitive nature of the market, including
staged milestone payments as the project
progresses.
Innovation
ABB is always pushing the boundaries of
what is achievable in substation projects.
Most recently, we have introduced the stateof-the-art PASS M0 hybrid high-voltage
switchgear that creates an extremely compact installation footprint. We are also
exploring UK opportunities for our underground substation concept that enables
up to 98 percent of an installation to be
tucked away below ground, with only cooling ducts and access routes visible above
ground. The approach means that ABB can
integrate a transformer substation into any
urban environment while meeting and
future-proofing customer needs.
NERS Accredited
ABB is one of a select group of companies
to be accredited under the National
Electricity Registration Scheme operated
by the Lloyd’s Register Group on behalf
of the UK DNOs. This scheme provides
technical assessment of service providers
who elect to be assessed for accreditation
for contestable works associated with the
installation of electrical connections.
ABB has a broad NERS registration
that covers design, project management,
cable laying, cable jointing, overhead lines,
substation installation and associated civil
engineering works.
Why connect with ABB?
Comprehensive scope from low voltage
through 11 kV, 33 kV, 66 kV up to 132 kV
–– Just one interface for the entire
connection project
–– Flexible, responsive service for fasttrack ‘power-on’
–– Commercial flexibility with milestone
payments
–– UK-wide coverage
–– NERS accredited
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13
Grid connections
Freedom Group
orders UK’s first
PASS M0H
Freedom Group, the provider of engineering services to the
utility sector and wider markets, has ordered the UK’s first
installation of ABB’s innovative PASS M0H switchgear.
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Grid connections
The switchgear is due to be installed in
a new data centre campus, now under
construction in the UK, that is set to
become the country’s greenest data
centre. The initial 130,000 square foot
building at the site is the first of three
phases and will consume 10 MW power.
Working on behalf of the data centre
operator, Freedom Group’s Colchester
office has specified a dedicated grid connection with a 2N level of security that will
connect to two separate incoming 132 kV
transmission feeds.
Freedom turned to ABB to supply the
switchgear that will control the incoming
high-voltage power as well as medium
voltage switchgear for distribution inside
the centre. ABB is supplying its innovative
PASS M0H high voltage switchgear module and its UniGear ZS1 medium voltage
switchgear.
The PASS M0H is the latest addition
to ABB’s well-established PASS (Plug and
Switch System) high-voltage switchgear
family and enables the fast-track construction of compact ‘H’ configuration
substations.
Flexibility and security
PASS M0H encloses all the functions of a
complete switchgear bay in a single-phase
gas-insulated housing designed for connection to the high-voltage network in an
H configuration. These include circuit breaker, combined disconnector and earthing
switches, current transformers and fast
acting earth switch.
The module will be connected to two
separate incoming 132 kV feeds from the
local UK Power Networks grid and will feed
two 132/11 kV power transformers. On one
side, it uses silicone rubber outer insulated bushings and on the other side plug in
type cable connections.
As hybrid switchgear, the PASS M0H
module integrates elements of air-insulated
switchgear (AIS) as well as gas-insulated
switchgear (GIS). On one side of the H,
traditional air-insulated connections control
equipment and on the other side, bay
functions are enclosed in a single-phase
gas-insulated housing. A changeover
switch in the cross bar of the H will deliver
total flexibility and security of supply by
seamlessly switching between the two
incoming or outgoing circuits when required.
Compact footprint
Because it encloses the functions of a complete switchgear bay with an H configuration in a single sub-assembly, the PASS
M0H has a significantly smaller footprint
than alternative solutions.
For a data centre operator this means
that more of its footprint can be dedicated
to income-generating server space without losing any performance or resilience of
the grid connection. It also minimises the
resources required for civil engineering and
enabling works.
Fast-track construction
Another benefit of using a PASS M0H
module is that it is delivered to site
completely factory assembled and tested,
meaning that it can be installed quickly.
In addition, a key advantage of PASS
M0H is that the modules are fully factory
assembled and tested, reducing on-site
logistics and associated costs and reduced
maintenance as all live contacts are in
SF6 gas.
By eliminating on-site assembly, testing
and commissioning work, Freedom Group
will not only cut out the work but also its
associated costs and risks. And because
the module is a self-contained single unit,
it minimises vehicle movements, leading to
simpler construction logistics and a lower
environmental impact.
ifications for grid-connected high-voltage
switchgear and has full Energy Networks
Association (ENA) approval.
UK Power Networks has given its
approval to switchgear from the PASS M0
family and is adopting a number of PASS
M0 modules that are being installed as the
grid connections for solar photovoltaic farms
that feed into the 132 kV transmission network in the East of England.
Pre-engineered reliability
Richard Watkins, ABB’s Regional Sales
Manager for southern UK said: “Not only
does the PASS M0H offer exceptional
reliability and flexibility by enabling the data
centre operator to reconfigure the power
supply as needed, it delivers this capability
in a compact pre-engineered, factory
tested module for fast-track delivery and
commissioning.”
Medium voltage switchgear
ABB is also supplying its UniGear ZS1 medium voltage switchgear rated at 11 kV to
Freedom Group for the new data centre.
The panels will control the power distribution circuits inside the new facility.
The switchgear is tried and tested in
data centre environments and each panel
consists of a single unit that can be equipped
with circuit-breaker, contactors or switchdisconnector, as well as all accessories for
the switchgear’s conventional units.
A cubicle in the upper part of each
panel houses auxiliary instrumentation. All
service operations are carried out from the
front, removing the need for rear access
for installation or maintenance – a factor
that keeps the footprint of the installation
to a minimum.
Left: The innovative PASS M0H
Meeting high standards
While the switchgear will be owned and
operated by the data centre operator it
meets UK Power Networks’ stringent spec-
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15
Grid connections
Ready to meet
or exceed new
legislation
David Hughes, Head of ABB’s Power Products division
in UK and Ireland explains the repercussions of the
EU’s ecodesign legislation and how ABB’s amorphous
core dry-type transformers are already exceeding the
energy efficiency demands of planned future legislation.
The EcoDry99plus
transformer delivers
high efficiency
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Grid connections
In June 2014, new ecodesign transformer
regulations were passed by the European
Commission (EC) that introduced new
efficiency standards for small, medium
and large power transformers used
in electrical transmission distribution
networks and industrial applications.
The legislation comes into force in July
2015 and so gives the industry only one
year to adapt so now is the time to gain an
understanding of the legislation and how
to react to it. One important aspect to note
is that the legislation does not apply to all
transformer products – for example, single phase transformers are not affected.
It is part of the EC’s ecodesign legislation, which covers more than 40 types
of product that use, generate, transfer or
measure energy. The list includes household appliances, refrigeration equipment,
computers and industrial products.
The Commission estimates that the combined effect of all of the ecodesign minimum efficiency regulations will contribute
around a third of its energy efficiency target, called the 20-20-20 target. This aims
for a 20 percent reduction in greenhouse
gas emissions, raising renewable energy
consumption to 20 percent and improving
energy efficiency by 20 percent.
Because large quantities of power pass
through transformers, they account for
30 – 40 percent of the losses in transmission and distribution systems. With this in
mind, even a small increase in transformer
efficiency can have a significant impact on
energy losses and CO2 emissions.
Intended to prevent high loss transformers from being installed in the EU, the legislation is phased. The first phase, known as
Tier 1 introduces a set of efficiency requirements from July 2015 but it’s only the start.
By 2021, a Tier 2 standard will demand
transformer designs that are around 10
percent more energy efficient than Tier 1.
By eliminating the worst performing
transformer models, the EC expects to see
energy savings in the range of 16 terwatt
hours (TWh) per year from 2020. That’s
equal to around half the annual electricity
consumption of Denmark and is equivalent to avoiding CO2 emissions of 3.7 million tonnes.
Making even marginal improvements in
transformer efficiencies can yield substantial
energy savings in a working life of 30 years
or more. And when multiplying these
efficiencies by the number of transformers
EcoDry transformers exceed 2021’s Tier 2 standards
in Europe, the potential energy savings are
considerable. And the potential savings are
growing too. The number of transformers
in the EU is growing from an estimated 3.6
million in 2011 to nearly 4.7 million units
by 2025.
By selecting transformer models with
high efficiency, data centre managers can
not only select transformers that already
meet the requirements of Tier 1 and Tier 2
but also deliver energy savings that reduce
operating costs.
ABB can help its customers make a
head start in meeting the new regulations.
It already has the advanced technology in
hand that enables the production of highly
efficient transformers that exceed the
rigorous demands of the Tier 2 standard
that will be introduced in 2021.
EcoDry transformers
One example is ABB’s ultra-efficient EcoDry
distribution transformer. The dry-type transformer has a low-loss amorphous core that
has been well proven in liquid-filled transformers. It is available in ratings from 100
to 3,150 kVA with operating voltages of up
to 36 kV.
Being dry-type transformers, EcoDry
transformers offer all the practical advantages of their type, such as: no fire risk; no
risk of escape of pollutants or fire-hazardous
substances; long lifetime; high mechanical
strength; ability to cope with load changes,
overloads, short-circuits and over-voltages;
and reduced installation footprint.
The range includes three models, each
of which is designed to meet the differing
needs of applications where losses are
either predominantly ‘no-load’ losses, ‘load’
losses or a combination of the two.
‘Load’ losses are most relevant to data
centre operators as they have the greatest
impact on transformers that are operating
at or near full capacity constantly. They
occur in a transformer’s conductors and
increase quadratically with the load on the
transformer and are a result of ohmic loss
and eddy currents.
Of the three types of transformer in
ABB’s EcoDry family, the EcoDry99plus is
designed for full-load efficiency and can
operate at more than 99 percent efficiency.
This means that in a typical data centre
application, an EcoDry99plus transformer
rated at 1,000 kVA with 10,000 V primary
voltage would reduce annual power losses
by more than 30,000 kWh and cut CO 2
emissions by around 18 tonnes per year.
This not only enhances the environmental
performance but also enables operators to
cut running costs.
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17
Medium voltage
Smart grid-ready
UniGear Digital
The latest iteration of ABB’s popular UniGear switchgear
integrates protection, control, measurement and digital
communication to help substation operators prepare for
the coming smart grid era.
UniGear Digital integrates digital measurement and communication
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Medium voltage
Designed to enable a safe, flexible, ecoefficient and smart electrical network,
UniGear Digital takes the well-established
switchgear concept to the next level with
an advanced design and components.
The difference to previous UniGear
models is that state-of-the-art digital current and voltage sensors are integrated
into each panel, along with multifunctional
Relion IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Devices),
which are compatible with the IEC 61850
digital communications protocol.
The combination is designed to perform
a central role in medium voltage smart grids
and models from the Relion 615 range form
the backbone of the UniGear Digital communication concept.
Saving time and resources
Because switching, sensing and communication functions are packaged together in a
single panel, the new generation switchgear
has less complex purchasing, engineering,
installation and commissioning. Its delivery
lead-time is 30 percent quicker than conventional UniGear ZS1 models.
Another benefit is the reduced footprint,
with no separate metering panel required.
This reduces the need for the size of substation buildings and means that UniGear
Digital uses less material and cuts out
the on-site handling of heavy instrument
transformers.
Plus, the substations based on the digital version uses less energy than conventional UniGear ZS1 because the in-built
digital sensors eliminate energy loss that
takes place in instrument transformers. In
a substation with 14 feeders, UniGear Digital has the potential to save 250 MWh over
30 years in operation, which is equivalent
to 150 tons of CO2.
By integrating more functionality into
the panels, UniGear digital has simplified
its approach to medium voltage switchgear. Using the in-built IED, connecting to
a customer’s SCADA system is simple and
the user-friendly human machine interface
(HMI) is designed for straightforward operation, either on-site or remotely.
Operational performance
From an operational perspective, UniGear
Digital represents higher than ever levels
of substation availability and safety. The
Relion relays enable remote connection via
an Ethernet interface, meaning that remote
monitoring or reconfiguration are possible
without the need for a site visit.
It meets the highest requirements of
peer-to-peer GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented Substation Event) communication
that is faster than traditional hard-wired
systems and which also enables constant
supervision. This means quick and reliable
tripping following an event.
The switchgear is also enabled for high
performance applications such as highspeed busbar transfer and fast load shedding, meaning that UniGear Digital is ushering in a level of performance that is better
than ever before.
Future proofing
As demand grows, the digital panels can
be plugged in to upgrade and extend
substations using the interoperability of
the IEC 61850 standard, which ensures
that devices are compatible irrespective
of manufacturer. This means that UniGear
Digital is built for flexibility, scalability,
modification and expansion without the
need for complex additional wiring.
Availability
While the UniGear range includes switchgear
for single level, double level and double
busbar solutions, UniGear Digital is currently
available exclusively as an option for
UniGear ZS1 up to 17.5 kV, which is popular
in utilities, industrial and infrastructure
applications. And being based on UniGear
ZS1, the switchgear is withdrawable for
straightforward maintenance and low total
cost of ownership.
In-built Relion 615 relays enhance automation
Slimline switchgear
Another form of ABB’s switchgear
that is proving popular with spaceconstrained data centres is the UniGear
500R.
Designed for 11 kV power distribution,
the air-insulated switchgear has been
developed especially for customers who
have a limited footprint. Also because it
can operate under free cooling conditions with no need for air conditioning,
it supports energy efficient operation.
At only 500 mm wide, UniGear 500R
represents a significant space saving
compared with standard switchgear
panels, which are typically 650 mm or
more. In a typical data centre application, banks of 10 or more panels might
be installed and so the space savings
quickly mount up.
It can be fitted with IEC 61850
compliant Relion IEDs for smart grid
communication.
Inside the panel, mechanical interlocks between the circuit breaker,
three-position line disconnector and
cable testing device ensure maximum
safety. All components can be accessed
from the front of the panel, eliminating
the need to access the rear. A fixed version of ABB’s well-proven Vmax vacuum circuit breaker provides the breaking
mechanism and it can be replaced in less
than 90 minutes should a problem arise.
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19
Safety
Minimising risk
from arc flash
The Ultra Fast Earthing Switch
Although arc flash incidents in power distribution systems are rare, they are
extremely hazardous when they do occur. In a data centre, they could be caused
by human error, poor maintenance or legacy equipment. Awareness of the dangers
of arc flash has increased dramatically in recent years following the introduction
of new guidelines and standards by international trade and safety bodies such as
the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the US Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OHSA).
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Safety
During an arc flash incident, the sudden
release of energy causes an intense
flash of light and a temperature rise as
high as 20,000˚C, which itself causes
thermal expansion of air that leads to
an explosive blast.
Not only does this pose significant risk to
operators but it can also damage essential
substation equipment and cause expensive
service outages and down-time.
The key to minimising the risks posed
by arc flash is fast detection and clearing of
faults. Arcing that lasts 40 ms (milliseconds)
or less typically causes no personal injury
or switchgear damage, whereas if left for
500 ms or more, an arc has the potential to
result in serious personal injury and major
damage to switchgear.
Two of ABB’s products are designed to
detect and clear faults quickly and reliably.
The REA arc flash relays detect faults rapidly
and UFES (Ultra Fast Earthing Switch)
enables fast switching to earth. Both can
be retrofitted into existing installations,
improving safety standards and enabling
operators to reduce the need for personal
protective equipment.
REA arc flash protection relays
The intense light emitted by an arc is the
key to the ultra-fast detection and tripping
time of ABB’s REA 10 arc flash relays. A
long unclad fibre optic light sensor will pick
up the light from an arc flash and transmit
it to the relay at the speed of light.
In normal operation, both bright light
and overcurrent need to be in evidence
simultaneously to trip the circuit and the
system can be installed into new substations
or retrofitted into existing sites.
At up to 60 metres in length, the sensor
can cover the same protection zone at
a much lower cost than is possible with
individual lens sensors, while overcoming
any shadowing issues. Because the sensor
can be configured in a loop, it can provide
regular self-checking of the sensor’s
integrity and generate an alarm if a problem
is detected.
Ultra Fast Earthing Switch
The Ultra Fast Earthing Switch (UFES) protects switchgear against arc flash incidents
by initiating a 3-phase short-circuit to earth
in the event of a fault. An extremely short
switching time of less than 1.5 ms and rapid and reliable fault detection ensures that
an arc fault will be extinguished almost
immediately after it arises.
Rapid operation is achieved by channelling the uncontrolled release of energy of
the arc through a solid metal three-phase
earth connection. It’s the low impedance
of this earth connection that encourages
the arc current to flow through the UFES
unit, triggering the switch to open and stop
the current.
UFES is available as a withdrawable
assembly to insert into a panel or as a box
mounted on top or on the end cover of a
panel. Once fitted, UFES will spring into
operation when the flash of an arc forming
triggers one of several optical sensors. Arc
detection takes only around 2.5 ms and
together with three-phase current detection
will lead UFES’s primary switching elements
to channel the current to earth and break the
circuit, quenching the arc before it forms.
The IS-Limiter
IS-Limiter
Medium-voltage circuit breakers are
typically too slow to provide protection
against exceptionally high peak shortcircuit currents. By installing ABB’s
IS-limiter, operators can detect and limit
a short-circuit current at the first rise. This
ensures that the maximum instantaneous
current remains well below the peak
short-circuit current level. The device is
ideal as a link between an ‘unprotected’
and a ‘protected’ switchboard as it can
significantly reduce voltage drops for a
more reliable power supply.
One advantage is particularly helpful
to data centre operators. When operated,
the voltage in the parts of the system that
are not affected by a short-circuit only
drops for a fraction of a millisecond. This
means that even sensitive computers
remain protected from drops in the
system voltage.
The IS-limiter consists of three
independent phases, each made up of
an extremely fast switch that can carry
a high current but has a low switching
capacity and a high rupturing capacity
fuse arranged in parallel.
An electronic device inside the
IS-limiter monitors the current and at the
very first rise of a short-circuit current, it
decides whether tripping is necessary.
When triggered, a small charge opens
the switch on the main conductor within
0.5 ms. The current then continues to
flow through the parallel fuse, where it
is limited and then finally interrupted
as the voltage passes through zero.
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21
Relays
Future-proofing
substation
automation
Until recently, there was no overall standard for the serial communications
in substation automation. This meant that the many thousands of
substation automation systems installed worldwide were based on
proprietary standards and that each system was either limited to using
components from a single supplier or that complex and costly protocol
conversions had to be supplied.
ABB’s System Verification Facility in Stone can verify substation automation schemes before installation
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Relays
The introduction of the IEC 61850 standard in 2004 is changing this. Major industrial power users such as data centre
operators want to safeguard their investment in substation automation equipment.
The standard meets a growing demand
for flexible, future-proof systems that
are able to cope with changing requirements, philosophies and technologies.
The IEC 61850 ‘Communication Networks and Systems in Substations’ standard is the first and only global standard that
considers all the communication needs
within substations.
It effectively defines standard data models and sets, communication mechanisms
and the system configuration language. Its
goals are interoperability of system components and software tools, free allocation
of functions and choice of system architectures, reuse of configuration data, and
understanding of the system functionality.
IEC 61850 native products
Developments in communication technolo-
gy typically move faster than developments
in substation automation, protection and
control equipment and because of this,
the standard is future-oriented by taking
ease of adaptation and evolving technology into account.
ABB was instrumental in development
and implementation of the standard through
a number of initiatives and continuous
engagement with the standard. Before it
was launched, ABB had already committed
to a ‘native implementation’ philosophy so
that IEC 61850 would be fully implemented
in new products.
In a typical IEC 61850 native design,
the functionality of an intelligent electronic
device (IED) must consider the entire process, including specification and evaluation, system and device engineering, system commissioning and operations and
maintenance.
A 61850 native IED should provide a
number of features and functionality. These
include a full set of protection and control
data provided to substation automation
systems to ensure interoperability. In addi-
tion, fast communication and application
performance is essential for generic object
oriented substation event (GOOSE) peerto-peer communication. Adherence to data
modelling and substation configuration language (SCL) information is also vital, as is
ease of adaptation.
ABB’s approach has been based on
consistent implementation, modular solutions and guaranteed system openness for
future hardware and functional extensions.
Integrating third-party devices and systems
means that its approach is compatible with
multi-vendor systems.
Plus, ABB can verify substation automation schemes before installation, testing
and commissioning at its customers’ sites.
It has a System Verification Centre (SVC) in
Baden, Switzerland that is the world’s first
vendor test centre with official qualification
by UCA International, an independent user
organisation for IEC 61850. This is complemented by a System Verification Facility
in Stone, Staffordshire, where a near-identical site de-risks substation automation
projects for UK customers.
Potential of IEC 61850 for data centres
The Relion family of IEDs
Data centre operators can plug into
the full potential of the IEC 61850 standard for communication, power monitoring
and interoperability of substation automation equipment with ABB’s Relion
family of IEDs.
The Relion product family was one
of the first to undergo the IEC 61850
transformation. The products required
a completely new platform architecture
that integrates communication services
and data representation into the core
protection and control applications. This
development was carried out in parallel
with the development of the standard
itself to ensure that the product family
was designed to support the standard
from the outset.
Relion includes the widest range of
products for the protection, control,
measurement and supervision of pow-
er systems. The family of products is split
into a number of series that group together devices in terms of their application and
complexity.
Of these, relays from the 605, 610, 611,
615, 620 and 630 series have applications
in power distribution for industrial and these
include protection and control of motors,
busbars, transformers, back-up, power
management, transformers and more.
Relion 615 series
The 615 series has a number of devices
that are well suited to applications in data
centres. The series offers a compact and
powerful solution for utility distribution
and industrial applications. It includes
standard configurations to meet the needs
of protecting industrial power systems and
utility substations.
Features of 615 series IEDs
–– Standard configurations for several
applications.
–– High performance GOOSE
messaging.
–– Compact design that minimises
footprint in new and retrofit
installations.
–– Plug-in cases for speedy
installation, maintenance and
testing. The cases can be installed
and wired before the plug-in units
are delivered to site.
–– Straightforward commissioning
once the application-specific
protection parameters are set.
–– A human-machine interface or
remote control system that enables
customisation of interlocking
schemes.
–– Advanced earth fault/ground fault
protection, including transient
protection to detect faults in any
cable and overhead network.
–– Three-channel arc-fault protection
to enhance safety for personnel
and equipment and to minimise
down-time.
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23
Infrastructure management
Decathlon takes the
hurdles out of DCIM
ABB has launched the latest version of Decathlon® for Data
Centres. The software provides the industrial-grade tools for
flexible management of power, cooling and IT. It helps operators
deliver data services faster and in the most reliable, efficient and
sustainable way possible.
Decathlon gives increased visibility of the entire operation
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Infrastructure management
The data centre infrastructure management (DCIM) software builds on the
capabilities of traditional management
systems (BMS) and building automations systems (BAS) to provide visibility, decision support and control across
worldwide operations through a single
interface.
It is the only DCIM system that tightly
integrates with third party solutions and it
lets operators ‘see’ system performance
and environmental factors with real-time
monitoring and analytics. Reporting is
context sensitive, meaning that relevant
information such as historical trends,
forecasts, workflow processes, intelligent
alarms and incident reporting is provided
quickly for rapid response and resolution.
Plus, Decathlon’s centralised controls enable
efficiencies through automation, helping to
reduce human error.
Key benefits
While DCIM solutions vary widely, ABB
groups the benefits of Decathlon into five
categories:
– – System availability and
performance – Decathlon enables
precise monitoring of IT and facility
systems so that operators can view
status, energy consumption and
environmental data from anywhere.
– – Capacity planning and
management is possible by
monitoring and planning based on IT
assets’ current and future states.
–– Resource forecasting and energy
planning – by accessing realtime energy and power prices, it’s
possible to determine running costs,
transactions per server, PUE, carbon
emissions and other metrics.
–– Facility and IT automation –
Decathlon enables control and
process automation of work flow,
asset management and automatic
demand response of facilities in the
form of power and cooling and IT in
the form of load shifting.
–– Troubleshooting and root cause
analysis is supported by granular
performance detail such as timestamping and occurrences of alerts
and alarms.
Optimising energy consumption in Manhattan
One major operator selected Decathlon
for its New York data centre in April 2014.
Telx, the rapidly growing colocation, interconnection and cloud enablement service
provider has ordered the system for its new
NYC3 data centre in lower Manhattan. Telx
currently serves 1,200 customers via a network of 20 data centres across the USA
with total power consumption over 115 MW.
Telx will incorporate Decathlon into a
3 MW data centre as part of a renovation
of a 10th floor space at 32 Avenue of the
Americas. It will use Decathlon to optimise
the energy consumption and cooling in the
new data centre by managing some 14,000
calculated points.
According to Telx’s leadership team, one
of its major reasons for selecting Decathlon
was its open platform designed and built
with industrial controls rather than with the
office building management approach that
is typically used by other DCIM products.
Plus, the system will give Telx a single
view of its entire data centre operation and
Telx will be able to continuously update and
expand its infrastructure with functional
components from any vendor.
Rich Ungar, Head of Data Centre Automation for ABB in North America said: “In
evaluating infrastructure management systems for its Manhattan site, Telx project
leaders found three advantages in ABB
Decathlon. Its industrial control perspective offers exception reliability and operational control. Its enterprise support has a
software package that can unify their new
systems with their existing data centres.
Plus the commitment of ABB to provide the
software and services in a timely cost-effective way was also an advantage.”
Download Decathlon for a free trial
Data centre operators can download a preview version of Decathlon to
evaluate the software first-hand. The trial software is available in two options:
a preview for power distribution and a
preview for power meters.
Installation is quick and easy on a
Microsoft Windows operating system
with IP connection to devices. Using a
web browser, the user can configure
the service and monitor equipment. An
auto-discovery setting will identify connected devices, minimising set-up time.
Search on ABB’s website for
‘ABB Decathlon Preview’ to find
and download either version of the
software for a 21-day trial period.
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25
Low voltage switchgear
An MNS Power Distribution Unit
Reconfigure without
powering down
In a fast-paced data centre environment, operators have the challenge of
minimising their investment in infrastructure while ensuring the flexibility to
adapt to future hardware changes. ABB’s low voltage MNS PDU (power
distribution unit) gives the flexibility to reconfigure, expand and modify
without disrupting live operations.
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Low voltage switchgear
High value computer installations need
to operate on a 24-hour 365-day basis
to ensure availability of data and processing for national and multi-national
corporations. Data corruption or loss
following an unscheduled power interruption of just a few minutes can take
weeks to retrieve.
With this in mind ultimate reliability in a
data centre’s power distribution system is
vital. Down-time is extremely rare and so
the industry requires products where traditional maintenance has been ‘designed
out’ and which allow asset migration during live operations.
Expanding, updating and maintaining
networks calls for system managers to
add or remove hardware without disrupting the operation so the power distribution
system should allow parts of the system to
be removed while adjacent circuits remain
live.
Flexibility
ABB’s MNS PDUs (power distribution units)
are high-level distribution boards designed
specifically for computer rooms and data
floor environments. The modular switchgear is built for flexibility and SPN, SPSN,
3-pole and 4-pole modules can be mixed
and matched on the same PDU without
the need to power down the installation or
replace or modify the existing PDU.
At the heart of the cabinet is the ‘multi-functional wall’, a patented precision-moulded composite barrier that is both
the carrier for the distribution busbars and
the segregation between them and the main
busbars. This touch-proof compartmenting
keeps technicians safe from hazardous
voltages and maximises uptime.
Reliability
The switchgear is part of the MNS family
of switchboards, PDUs and motor control
centres that are designed for a life of more
than 25 years. Based on ABB’s tried and
tested technology, today there are more
than 1.8 million MNS cubicles in opera-
tion in all types of industrial environment.
One aspect of the design that enhances
reliability is that the precision engineered
power stabs are independently certified for
more than 1,000 operations, which is more
than five times the industry standard. Plus,
cable forces are decoupled from the power
stabs, reducing cable stress and breakage.
Individual venting of compartments leads to
better cooling and eliminates thermal interference and hot spots to further increase
reliability.
Real-time condition monitoring allows
operators to monitor the health of their
assets and address problems before they
occur, reducing downtime by as much as
50 percent. In addition, redundant communications interfaces ensure 100 percent
process control back up.
Modularity
Because the MNS is modular, it allows
operators to adapt through the life of the
data centre and expand to meet growing
demand. Additional client cabinets can be
added with minimal downtime and satellite client cabinets can be added without
interruption to supply.
The MNS platform provides the flexibility to mix and match feeders, motor starters, variable speed drives, soft starters,
and reactive power compensation, all in a
single line-up.
The mechanical structure and the main
bus bar system are designed to be maintenance-free and front accessible. By eliminating the need to access the equipment
from the rear, MNS can be installed virtually anywhere in a facility.
Ease of maintenance
The MNS product family is designed for
lower maintenance requirements. All operators require a certain amount of planned
downtime for essential maintenance activities and to keep everything in working order.
ABB has built reliability and ease of
maintenance into MNS with aspects such
as withdrawable units, which keep maintenance downtime to minutes instead of
hours. This enables facilities to get back
on line 20 to 30 times faster than common
fixed installed starter modules. Plus, standardised parts leads to simple and straightforward maintenance, enabling customers
to reduce their spare parts inventory.
Features of the MNS PDU
The MNS is suitable for switchboard,
motor control centre and PDU applications
at up to 8,000A continuous or 120 kA
fault current. It is AC and DC rated, arc
fault tested to IEC 61641 and seismic
tested.
It allows designers, installers and
operators to:
– – Adapt through the life of the data
centre, not the process
– – Expand and modify without
powering down
– – Populate as required
–– Asset manage through modular
design
–– EPO (emergency power off) test
without powering down
–– Provide backwards and future
compatibility
–– Reduce downtime by using an
approved maintenance-free
busbar system
–– Apply non-intrusive maintenance
–– Carry out simple installation
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27
Low voltage switchgear
Emax 2:
from circuit
breaker
to power
manager
Rob McCaskie, ABB’s Product Manager for Power Circuit Breakers in the UK,
explains how the new Emax 2 concept enables a low voltage air circuit breaker
to become a power management device fit for the smart grid age.
Rob McCaskie
The Emax 2 circuit breaker is ideally
suited to applications such as data
centres where protection and control
of large amounts of energy are used in
a low-voltage environment. Replacing
an existing circuit breaker with the new
Emax 2 is technically simple and energy
savings will typically pay for the new
equipment within one year.
28
By integrating compatibility with the IEC
61850 standard, the breaker has extended
ABB’s IEC 61850 offer across high, medium and low voltage circuit breakers.
ABB introduced its Emax 2 low voltage
circuit breaker to meet calls for greater performance in a more compact design, combined with enhanced control functionality.
The time had come for a major evolutionary
step in low voltage technology so we effectively started from blank sheet of paper to
create the brand new Emax 2 design.
The most obvious difference is the low
size and weights compared with previous models. An Emax 2 unit rated for an
uninterrupted current of 1250 A weighs
32 kg, compared with 60 kg for the original
Emax. Another obvious advantage is the
user-friendly touchscreen interface.
But to see the real difference we need
to explore the Emax 2’s full capabilities
that enable it to cover power management,
among many other things.
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Control
Central to the operation of the Emax 2 is
a protection trip relay with an integrated
power controller that measures and evaluates energy consumption, then manages
the loads to maintain or reduce the demand
for power.
To manage this, the Emax 2 switches
off the power to non-essential equipment,
returning it as soon as acceptable power
levels are reached. A built-in controller and
software uses complex algorithms to take
low priority loads offline when demand rises.
The Emax 2 also integrates new generation Rogowski sensors to measure current,
voltage, power and energy to high precision.
The in-built sensors eliminate additional
external instrumentation, freeing up space
and funds. Plus, by eliminating instrument
transformers, the Emax 2 consumes less
power, saving on running costs.
The conventional method for switchboard control is to equip circuit breakers
with complex communication systems and
Low voltage switchgear
programme the supervision software. However, by integrating a system called Ekip
Link, the Emax 2 can be controlled either
locally through a user-friendly colour touchscreen or remotely via the web. It’s a plug
and play system that saves on the need for
specific programming, meaning that it provides an economic way for a small plant to
increase its monitoring capabilities or for a
large plant to simplify local supervision and
maintenance.
Connectivity
Multiple cartridge communication modules can be fitted to the circuit breaker
at any time. These integrate the module
into automation and energy management
systems through the seven most popular
global communications protocols, including IEC 61850, future-proofing the breaker
for extensions or alterations.
The units have been designed for flexibility of installation. The rear terminals
can be rotated from horizontal to vertical
on-site and have been designed to fit the
most common bus configurations. Installation is designed for simplicity of connection and installation and each terminal has
been created to the standard width of bus
bar for its current, meaning that less bus
bar stock is required.
Further flexibility comes from the ability to modify the neutral position from left
to right. And the largest model, the E6.2
is available with neutral conductor sizes
of 50 or 100 percent to allow for the correct sizing of bus bar and an opportunity
to reduce construction costs.
Performance
Four frame sizes are available and each
is sized to be only as wide as its current
rating requires. This means that panel
designers can optimise their use of space
and materials.
A fan module contained inside each unit
continuously monitors the internal temperature of the fixed switchgear part and activates cooling fans if required. This enables
the increased current-carrying capacity.
Plus, they can be accessed and programmed via a smartphone, tablet or computer using the Ekip Connect application.
Breaker settings can be implemented with
ABB’s DOC software and the Ekip Connect
interface. This avoids possible errors when
retyping the settings into the breaker or
software programme.
In terms of safety, an accessory mounting area is kept separate from the operating mechanism and it’s possible to lock
the breaker during maintenance to avoid
unwanted operation. Dedicated guide rails
ensure correct, locked and clearly identifiable positioning on the withdrawable part.
The rails extend outside the fixed part for
easy insertion of the mobile part and shutters on the fixed part can be locked from
the front.
Learn more about the Emax 2 at
abb.com/emax2.
Ease of use and safety
The large colour touchscreen display provides clear and simple navigation in ten languages for quick access to information and
adjustment capability. Because they can be
read and used directly, there is no need for
an expensive human machine interface.
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29
Low voltage switchgear
The DPA way
Why decentralised parallel architecture (DPA) increases
UPS availability and lowers cost of ownership.
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Low voltage switchgear
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
ensures a continuous source of clean
power. But the UPS itself can become
a focus of reliability. Because in many
cases, the result of a UPS failure could be
catastrophic for a data centre – causing
chaos for credit card companies, banks
or online traders. That’s why their most
critical loads are protected by the very
best UPS design - decentralised parallel
architecture (DPA). DPA not only provides
the best availability, but also the best
serviceability, scalability and flexibility.
Taken together, these features all deliver
a low total cost of ownership (TCO).
Availability
Availability measures how much time per
year a system is up and available and is one
of the most important reliability parameters
for IT equipment.
Since power problems are the largest
single cause of computer downtime, increasing power availability is the most effective
way to increase overall system availability.
Power availability has two components:
mean time between failures (MTBF) and
mean time to repair (MTTR). Therefore, two
most important issues in increasing power availability are increasing the MTBF and
decreasing the MTTR of the power protection system.
DPA architecture
UPS systems with a centralised parallel
architecture (CPA) have some degree of
hierarchical, centralised control or hardware
(e.g. static bypass). They are vulnerable as
one fault can bring down the entire UPS.
With DPA, the UPS is modularised and each
module has all the hardware and software
needed for autonomous operation - rectifier, inverter, battery converter, static bypass
switch, back-feed protection, control logic, display, and mimic diagram for monitoring and control. A module’s output is not
affected by failures elsewhere in the UPS.
If redundancy is provided for, i.e. there are
more modules than needed to supply the
critical load, then one or more modules
can be lost without jeopardising the load.
In other words, a multimodule system is
fault tolerant and there are no single points
of failure. Availability is maximised.
DPA – load transfer and load sharing
The CPU in each UPS module continuously
monitors the status of its inverter, bypass
and loading and shares this information with
the other CPUs. In the event of a fault, the
CPU of each module reports the availability
of the module’s inverter and bypass to the
module system logic. Based on this information, the modules then decide together if the critical load should remain on the
inverter or be transferred to the bypass.
For load sharing the situation is different. One module is the master and all the
others are slaves. The master’s control circuit continuously monitors the current in
each module and, if it is deviating from
specification, a message is sent to the relevant modules to regulate their current.
Should a master module fail, the next module takes over as master.
These DPA decision making and load
sharing features are at the core of its ability to maximise system availability.
Modularity and redundancy
A major advantage of DPA’s modularity is
the ease with which redundancy can be
accommodated.
If N UPS modules are needed to cover the power needs of a particular critical
load, then, often, one extra module is used
so that even if one module subsequently
fails there are still enough healthy modules
left to power the load. This is called N+1
redundancy. Of course, an entire second
set of N modules could be held in reserve
– this is even more reliable and is called 2N
redundancy. To further improve reliability
one module extra could be added to each
set, giving 2N+1 redundancy, and so on,
though 2N+1 is usually quite sufficient to
cover most premium reliability and availability requirements.
the modular nature of DPA makes it really easy to add modules and increase the
power capabilities. So, there is no need to
over-specify the initial configuration to cater
for future expansion, modules are added
as required. The operator then only has to
cable, power and cool what they need. Power consumption is a major concern for most
operators and the energy savings offered
by the modular approach over the service
life of the UPS are substantial.
Hot-swapping and serviceability
Modules can be hot-swapped, i.e. removed
or inserted, without risk to the critical load
and without the need to power down or
transfer to raw mains supply. This unique
aspect of modularity directly addresses
continuous uptime requirements, significantly reduces MTTR, reduces inventory
levels of specialist spare parts and simplifies system upgrades. This approach pays
off too when it comes to serviceability and
availability. Online swapping of modules
means there is no need to switch off during
replacements, so there is no downtime and
service personnel do not need special skills.
This online-swap technology, as well
as having a significant impact on cost,
can also help achieve six nines (99.9999
percent) availability - highly desirable for
installations in pursuit of zero downtime.
Energy and space costs
The modularity and scalability described
have a major positive impact on achieving
a low cost of ownership. Costs are also
minimised by DPA designs that have bestin-class energy efficiency. ABB’s conceptpower DPA 500, for example, operates with
an efficiency of up to 96 percent. Furthermore, cooling costs can be substantial and,
because less power is consumed, high-efficiency modular UPSs require less cooling
effort, creating further savings.
Modularity lends itself well to keeping
the UPS footprint small, too, which is ideal
where real estate is limited and expensive.
Scalability
As UPS power requirements change – if
a data centre is expanded for example –
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31
Power protection
PCS100 steps up
for MV applications
ABB has launched the PCS100 Medium Voltage UPS
(PCS100 MV UPS), designed for mega data centres and
large critical industries.
ABB’s PCS100 MV UPS
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Power protection
The new PCS100 MV UPS offers medium
voltage capability – 6.6 kilovolts (kV)
and 6 Mega Volt Amperes (MVA) – for
the mega-size data centres, which are
increasingly being developed to satisfy
the current global expansion in cloud
computing and co-location services.
ABB already holds a strong market position in industrial power protection for data
centres with a substantial installed base
of the low voltage PCS100 UPS-I industrial UPS product. For many years these
highly efficient and reliable products have
protected some of the world’s most critical
data centres from voltage sags and outages. The trend towards free air cooling
and centralised protection makes medium
voltage UPS protection with an industrially rated product a very attractive solution.
The PCS100 MV UPS is also applicable
for retrofits, allowing for custom designs that
suit applications in data centres that need
additional protection or where traditional
rotary UPS solutions require replacement.
Because the energy storage is kept at
low voltage levels, a wide range of energy
storage options are available from traditional lead-acid batteries to super capacitors
and lithium-ion batteries.
One of the challenges facing design
engineers is the limited fault current capacity of many traditional static UPS designs.
The rugged fault and overload capability of
ABB’s medium voltage UPS allows for better electrical protection and discrimination,
which in itself has a major impact of overall
system reliability and availability.
Total cost of ownership is a major consideration when selecting power protec-
tion equipment. The PCS100 MV UPS is
designed to minimise life cycle costs with
very low losses and a wide operating temperature range which reduced cooling costs.
While many commercial UPS designs have
capacitors and other core components
selected with a design life of five or fewer
years, ABB has targeted a design life of
more than 10 years. In terms of overall lifetime cost, the reduced maintenance saving is huge. The very small footprint and
ability to locate the product remotely from
the protected loads also result in reduced
ownership cost.
Watch a video on ABB’s YouTube
channel on the UPS called ‘ABB’s
PCS100 Medium Voltage UPS’
Voltage and current conditioning
While the UPS is often the technology
of choice for a data centre, it can come
at a relatively high operational cost particularly as a result of the need for battery maintenance and replacement. In
a typical power system, some 90 to 95
percent of voltage events that cause
problems are voltage sags which can
be corrected with a voltage conditioner.
ABB’s PCS100 AVC range of active
voltage conditioners correct voltage sags
and surges within a few milliseconds while
maintaining exceptional efficiency. For
applications where outage ride through is
not required they can offer an ideal solution. This can include bypass (or reserve)
supply conditioners for UPS, conditioning
of balance of data centre loads to prevent
nuisance trips through to conditioning the
alternative feed on a dual reticulated server
protection application where running two
independent UPSs is not justified.
Voltage disturbances are not the only
power quality problem present in data
centres. Power electronic loads on both
the balance of data centre equipment and
servers can create harmonic and power
factor problems. Most servers utilise wave
shaping rectifiers on their switch mode
power supplies but these will often draw
leading reactive current (capacitive) under
light loading conditions. As most of these
supplies are redundantly configured they
do run very lightly loaded.
Harmonics and power factor problems
cause increased apparent power (kVA) loading on the electrical supply often resulting
in higher electricity charges from the utility.
Most data centres also run standby diesel
generators and they can require considerable de-rating for poor power factor, harmonics and supply imbalance.
Leading power factor is a particular
problem for generators and even quite low
levels of leading reactive current can cause
the alternator to enter an unsafe operating
area and potentially lose control of voltage
The PCS100 RPC Reactive Power Conditioner is an active solution to power factor
and low order harmonic problems. Its fast
operation and flexible control mean even
the most difficult power factor problems
including leading power factor are resolved.
In addition to power factor and harmonics
the RPC can also correct the component
of supply imbalance, negative sequence
current that is most problematic for diesel
generators.
ABB’s PCS100 MV UPS
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33
Cooling
Cool running
Heat generation is a cause for major concern in data centres.
Indeed, up to 45 percent of their total energy usage can go to just
cooling the server racks. Servers are becoming ever more compact
and, as a result, power densities are increasing. At the same time,
the heat flux from commercial microprocessors has increased
from around 1 W/cm2 to 100 W/cm2 over the past decade and
is expected to rise further. So there is a massive increase in the
demands placed on cooling systems.
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Cooling
Data centre cooling requires the transfer
of heat generated by the IT equipment to
the environment in a two-step process.
The heat is first transported by a medium
(air or liquid) out of the server racks and
then it is rejected to the environment,
both these steps consume electrical
energy. The target of cooling efficiency
measures is to reduce the energy
required to remove the heat and recover
and reuse as much of it as possible. This
can be achieved through innovations in
the design of the cooling system itself as
well as by inventive operating strategies
– e.g. Smart sensing and monitoring and
integrated system management.
Novel cooling designs
There are various cooling technologies at
different stages of commercial maturity
and some of these show promising results:
– – Aisle containment is practised
commercially and can improve
system efficiency by up to 30
percent.
– – On-chip cooling is at a preliminary
research phase and has been
reported to achieve cooling of up to
15°C for heat fluxes as high as 1,300
W/cm2.
– – Liquid cooling is expected to reduce
cooling energy consumption by as
much as 50 percent compared with
conventional air-cooled systems and
is being commercialised now.
– – Membrane air drying and evaporative
cooling is reported to reduce energy
requirements by up to 86.2 percent
compared with conventional
mechanical vapour compression
systems.
– – The waste heat from a data centre
can be augmented by solar thermal
energy to drive an absorption chiller,
further improving power usage
effectiveness.
Liquid cooling, absorption cooling and evaporation-based cooling are already applied
in other industries. However, data centres
pose unique challenges in terms of the variable heat generation associated with highly
dynamic load behaviour and the requirements for high reliability. ABB’s expertise in
ensuring the high reliability of critical power
system components, combined with extensive experience in integrated process management, can help address the integration
challenges of novel cooling technologies.
Heat flow in data centres
Waste heat
Source
(IT equipment)
Intermediate
medium to transfer
heat (chiller) plus
economiser where
fitted
Heat removed from
the source by fans,
pumps, etc.
Sink
(Environment)
Electric heat
Monitoring and sensing
The first step in managing and controlling
cooling is to monitor the thermal behaviour
of the data centre. Hot spots are a major
concern and they can be detected using
infrared sensing or wireless sensors. Soft
sensors that combine data already available
with detailed computational fluid dynamics
models, or empirical models, are another
important tool.
ABB has demonstrated the use of concepts such as infrared sensing, wireless
communication, soft sensing and fingerprinting across different application areas
in the power and automation domain. This
knowhow is being extended, with suitable
adaptations, toward data centre performance monitoring.
by up to 30 percent. This situation can be
further improved by the use of additional
storage and demand-response management to exploit energy price variation.
Cooling control
A data centre cooling unit has a chiller, cooling tower, pumps and thermal storage. It
often also has an economiser, which provides a form of ‘free cooling’. Economisers
complement the existing cooling by drawing
in colder outside air and using it to reduce
chiller energy consumption. The external
air passes through one or more sets of filters to catch particulates that might harm
the hardware. It is also conditioned to an
appropriate relative humidity.
Optimising such a cooling system in
an integrated way involves minimising
the net cost of power while ensuring that
cooling requirements for a given IT load
are met. This often results in a complex
demand-response problem that involves
inputs of weather forecasts, energy prices
and load-versus-efficiency curves for all the
equipment involved. An integrated cooling
approach involving only economiser integration, along with model predictive control
strategies for temperature control, has been
shown to reduce cooling management costs
Integrated management of power, IT
and cooling
In almost all existing data centres IT load
management is not coupled with the cooling management or the power supply. That
means the IT load management software
makes an independent decision to start new
IT jobs, or when to migrate running jobs,
without any consideration for the cooling
or power required. This ‘selfish’ behaviour can reduce the power used by the IT
equipment, but at the expense of a higher
cooling energy consumption.
To avoid these problems, coordination
of all three subsystems is required. Furthermore, it is also necessary to have a dynamic and predictive IT load management tool
so that the data centre location and corresponding time-varying energy provisioning can be taken into account. This kind of
advanced load management, which could
be integrated with ABB’s Decathlon data
centre infrastructure management (DCIM)
system, can deliver energy savings of 20
to 40 percent.
A modular approach
Modular cooling units allow data centres to
expand their capacities incrementally. However, they present a challenge to integrated cooling control as there is an interaction
between them and related common facilities
such as the chiller, evaporator and economiser. This poses additional constraints on
the integrated cooling control challenge.
ABB’s cpmPlus Energy Manager has the
ability to handle such integrated demand
response management problems to help
customers realise additional benefits.
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35
Drives
ACS880 variable
speed drives are
available in multiple
frame sizes
Variable-speed drives
keep costs in check
Carl Turbit, Team Leader for HVAC Drives for ABB in the UK,
explains how the relatively straightforward action of retrofitting
variable-speed drives to the motors in HVAC systems can
help data centre operators reduce the energy costs from such
systems by up to 70 percent.
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Drives
Conventionally, fluid or air flow rates
in cooling systems are controlled by
‘throttling’ the flow with valves, vanes or
dampers while the pump or fan works at
a fixed speed using a fixed speed motor.
But the power required to run a pump or
fan changes with the cube of its speed.
In practical terms, this means that a centrifugal pump or fan running at 80 percent speed consumes only half as much
energy as a unit running at full speed.
Even a small reduction of just 7 percent
speed, 3.5 Hz can deliver a 20 percent
energy saving.
By introducing variable-speed drives (VSD),
data centre operators can take advantage
of this phenomenon and reduce running
costs with a payback period as short as
six months. Plus, because the VSD has
the capability of optimising the current on
start up this puts mechanical assets under
less strain. The cost of maintenance can
be reduced and equipment can last longer,
typically 25 percent.
Another benefit is that reducing the running speed of motors may avoid the production of harmful harmonic waveforms on
supply lines and cut ambient noise.
The drives are also eligible for the government’s Enhanced Capital Allowances,
as well as helping qualifying organisations
reduce their energy use and emissions
as required by the CRC Energy Efficiency
Scheme.
Operationally versatile
With a range of pre-loaded macros, ABB
drives can be readily set up to run any of
the cooling and air conditioning applications
in a data centre – supply fans, return fans,
liquid cooler fans, condenser water pumps,
chiller compressors or chilled water pumps.
Selecting a macro sets up the drive
for the expected duty. An ABB drive can
increase the system’s efficiency by adjusting the motor speed to the correct operation point, reducing running costs by 20 to
70 percent. The drive incorporates a kilowatt hour calculator to enable easy monitoring of energy consumption, as well as
calculating the energy saved compared
to a direct-on-line system in terms of carbon and money. The drives also incorporate energy optimisers to minimise energy
usage continuously throughout the drive’s
life.
ABB’s ACS880 and ACH550 drives are
popular with data centre operators and one
major operator was able to cut £140,000
from its air conditioning bill, as well as save
1,300 tonnes of CO2 production per annum
after installing ABB drives.
Supporting maintenance
ABB drives feature a real-time clock with
calendar function, enabling users to schedule activities for different times of the day or
week. The timer function enables the drive
to be used as a small building management
system (BMS), as the I/Os can be used to
control other devices. Any faults within the
system are recorded by the real-time clock
with a time and day stamp.
Using the real-time clock, users can
set limits for running hours or motor rotation, so that the drive gives an alarm when
the limits are reached, enabling preventive
maintenance at regular intervals.
Starting, stopping and braking can be
programmed to reduce stress on mechanical equipment such as pumps and fans.
This increases equipment life and reduces maintenance requirements for pumps,
motors and pipework.
Minimising harmonic pollution
Under the Electricity Association’s recommendation G5/4, the users of drives are
responsible for keeping harmonic pollution
within certain limits. ABB drives offer swinging DC chokes that suppress harmonics
caused by the inverter, reducing total harmonic distortion by up to 25 percent at
partial loads. ABB drives can also be offered
with low harmonic rectifiers, or with active
closed loop harmonic suppression to bring
harmonic levels within the G5/4 limits.
Lowering motor noise
A noise optimisation feature increases the
switching frequency of the drive when the
motor load is reduced, lowering motor noise.
Noise is further reduced through the higher switching frequency of the sensorless
vector control platform, a motor control
method used to maximise torque production in the motor. The on-board cooling fan
runs only when necessary, reducing noise
levels further.
Specify VSDs with confidence
VSDs have changed dramatically in
recent years, becoming more efficient
with fewer losses. They offer greater
energy efficiency, which leads to reduced
energy bills, faster installation and commissioning times and lower noise levels.
Plus the effects of harmonics can be
avoided with technology such as winging chokes that help to reduce harmonic
levels by 25 percent.
Many drives have features such as
the ability to pre-programme drives, a
drive control panel, multilingual alphanumeric displays or the facility to copy
the drive’s parameters for backup
or downloading to another device. And
there’s more to specifying VSDs than just
the product. As much emphasis should be
given to the levels of service and support
that a manufacturer or supplier offers.
To help building services consultants
specify VSDs with confidence, ABB has
published a checklist so that the VSD has
the right features as well as service and support levels for their building. The checklist
is included in ABB’s publication ‘A guide
to selecting variable-speed drives for use
in buildings – Checklist for building services consultants’.
It is available on ABB’s website or
from ABB’s BrochureLine on 0800
783 7491 or [email protected]
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37
Service
Lifetime service for data
centre power assets
It’s vital to maintain data centre power assets to ensure
optimum performance, to prolong the life of equipment and
avoid costly equipment failures. ABB offers a comprehensive
service that enables our data centre customers to continue to
enjoy safe, reliable, efficient and profitable performance from
their power assets, large or small.
01
Understanding unique service needs,
ABB’s approach to service is based on
customer collaboration. Together with
our knowledge base and skill sets, this
enables us to provide service solutions
tailored to meet individual customer
requirements.
Our customer support can commence at
any stage of product ownership, from prepurchase engineering to attending factory
acceptance testing, end of life expectancy
and all stages in between. We can assist
with training of customer personnel, through
to planning preventative maintenance and
execution of all works.
Service Level Agreements (SLA)
By implementing an SLA, our customers
benefit from guaranteed 24/7 technical
support; a scheduled agreed preventative
maintenance plan and guaranteed agreed
rates for any unplanned maintenance. By
contacting our 24 hour hotline, our customers have instant access to our technical support and skilled maintenance teams
who can effect round the clock emergency
repairs to their network.
ABB’s Service Strategy
At the centre of our service strategy is an
understanding of the customers’ assets.
In-depth knowledge of the actual status
of equipment is based on the recorded
history of assets, review of their design
and advanced diagnostic techniques.
This enables us to identify potential faults
before they happen and put in place con-
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dition-based maintenance schedules or
take corrective action.
ABB has a network of certified regional
service hubs around the world, from which
we can provide a fast response. Personnel
with the right qualifications and certifications operate under rules and regulations
to ensure reliable and safe operation.
Wherever possible, we carry out all work
on-site at the customer’s facility but when
more extensive work is needed, full factory repair and refurbishment of major plant
such as transformers can be arranged in
one of our specialist facilities.
Our customer tailored maintenance
plans, which include inspection, maintenance and repair, enable our specialist
engineers to ensure that critical high-value
network assets are maintained in optimum
condition, to guarantee maximum reliability
and safety.
Power networks
ABB specialises in the service of all aspects
of electrical power distribution equipment
and networks including transformers, cables
and control systems, from 400 kV down to
400 V for utility, industrial and public sector customers.
Cable fault location
ABB’s service engineers are equipped with
a suite of test equipment that enables them
to perform immediate on site diagnostics
on the key network elements of switchgear, transformers and cables. If the fault
is identified in a cable – as is often the
case – and the network is interconnected,
Service
they can sectionalise the problem circuit to
restore power to as much of the network
as possible, bringing in additional generation if necessary. The next task is to locate
the position of the underground cable fault
with maximum accuracy, since this makes
it easier to find and repair so that the full
network can be restored quickly.
Our fault location regime is very accurate in locating underground cable faults in
both modern XLPE type cables and older
PILCSWA (paper insulated lead covered
steel wire armoured) designs. It is usually
carried out on cable networks up to 11 kV,
however the techniques can be applied on
cables up to 33 kV.
Remote condition monitoring
Remote on-line monitoring is the best tool
data centre operators can use to increase
performance, reduce failure risks and cut
maintenance costs on their power network
assets. Compared to traditional diagnostic methods, which are performed onsite
with the equipment de-energised, monitoring gives the asset owner access to
real-time condition information, even from
remote locations. When changes in conditions are detected, the operator is notified immediately.
Through remote access, ABB helps
asset owners to evaluate the status of their
equipment without dispatching an engineer
to the site, saving both valuable time and
resources. Since monitoring detects condition changes in real-time – versus periodically with traditional diagnostic methods – the asset owner has time to plan and
act before a fault can result in data centre
downtime.
02
03
Lifecycle management
As infrastructure ages, it’s important to be
ready to address obsolescence, maintenance, reliability and safety issues. In support of this, ABB is the first major switchgear supplier in the UK to offer an Energy
Network Association assessed retrofit of
out-dated and ageing switchgear at medium voltage. This can enhance the life of
time-served switchgear by 20+ years at a
cost that is typically around 30 percent less
than completely replacing the switchboard.
01 Cable fault location
02 Remote diagnostics and monitoring
03 R
etrofitting service extends the life of timeserved switchgear
Data centres special issue abb.co.uk/ffwd FFWD 6/14
39
Cyber security
Cyber security –
it’s a state of mind
ABB has identified cyber security as a key
requirement for data centre power projects and
we are committed to providing products, systems
and services that clearly address this issue.
We take a systematic approach to
cyber security through our operations
on a global level. For instance, we have
established the Power Systems Security
Council to keep track of global needs and
requirements concerning cyber security.
The mandate of the council is to ensure
that products and solutions used in
power systems meet the expectations
of our customers.
Besides continuously adapting security requirements to keep up with changing demands, the Security Council drives
proactive R&D efforts to address emerging
trends and ensures fast and efficient security improvements. We also recognise the
importance of cyber security standards
and we are an active member in several
industry initiatives, including IEEE and IEC.
This involvement ensures that the specific
needs of our customers are considered in
the creation of new standards and that ABB
remains abreast of new developments. It
also enables us to incorporate new standards into our products and systems, helping
our customers to comply with new regulation as it comes into force.
To ensure reliability and availability
of electrical power, ABB has developed
the SDM600 as a data manager for the
whole system. It checks the credentials of
cyberspace visitors on behalf of network
equipment, it logs IED (Intelligent Electronic Device) disturbances to produce comprehensive reports, and it tracks software
versions to ensure everything is kept up to
date, all with a unified interface for comprehensive management.
We have also established a strategic
partnership with the well-known cyber
security company Industrial Defender to
provide in-depth monitoring, enhanced
management and protection for utility operations networks that can complement the
SDM600 Data Manager platform.
Ultimately, cyber security is about much
more than having a firewall and anti-virus
protection. It’s really a state of mind.
ABB has a strategic partnership with
Industrial Defender
40
FFWD 6/14 abb.co.uk/ffwd Data centres special issue
ABB Power Products Division
ABB Limited, Power Products Division, Oulton Road, Stone, Staffordshire, ST15 0RS
Phone: 01785 825 050. Email: [email protected] Website: www.abb.com/datacenters
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