MIC Annual 2002 Report Contents Annual Report 2002 MIC (Mikroelektronik Centret) September 2003 Editor Pieter Telleman Text MIC If you wish to receive MIC Annual Reports on a regular basis, please contact: MIC - DTU, Building 345 east, Oersteds Plads - DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby Phone +45 4525 5700 - Fax. +45 45887762 - E-mail [email protected] - www.mic.dtu.dk Design & Layout by Hanne Christensen Introduction 4- 5 Process Lab 18-21 Education 6- 7 Innovation 22-23 Nano 8-11 Theses 26 Mems 12-15 Publications 27-33 Bio 16-17 Management 34 Photographs by Karsten Damstedt Printed in Denmark by TrykBureauet, Grafisk Produktion A/S Management New winds blowing After celebrating the Mikroelektronik Centret’s (MIC) tenth anniversary in 2001, 2002 presented itself as a year of change. Jon Wulff Petersen, director of MIC for over 6 years, announced his departure from MIC in the summer of 2002. He accepted new challenges in the role of vice-director at Risø National Laboratory. Jon leaves a strong organisation with a reputation for research and innovation in micro- and nanotechnologies. Under his guidance, microtechnology firmly established itself in Denmark in the form of a string of commercial activities. In the fall of 2002, following the birth of his daugther, vice-director Francois Grey opted for reunification with his family in Switzerland. He has since accepted a position at CERN. Francois has been with MIC for 8 years and fulfilled the role of vice-director since 1996. We wish both Jon and Francois the best of luck in their new positions. At the time that this year report goes to print I have accepted the position of director. The excellent infrastructure and unique atmosphere at MIC which were important factors for me in acquiring a position at MIC in 1997, prompted me to accept the position of director of the centre. To warrant continuity from the previous management to the new management, I asked Ejner Mose Hansen to become vice-director at MIC. Ejner has been with MIC ever since the establishment of MIC in 1991 and managed MIC’s most important asset, the clean room, since its inauguration in 1993. The changes in management in 2002 leave us with two open positions in the management group which we aim to fill in the course of 2003. Introduction 5 Message from the Director The entire staff at MIC is dedicated to pursuing education, research, and innovation in micro- and nanotechnology as set forth in the Result Contract with the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). MIC´s goals In 2002 important results were obtained towards reaching our goals. In our aim to double the number of M.Sc. and Ph.D. candidates we have expanded and modernized our teaching. These As one of the first equipment purchases, DTU acquired a stateof-the-art e-beam lithography set-up. This e-beam facility opens up the possibility to fabricate and explore components and efforts have resulted in a further increase of the number of students that attended courses at MIC in 2002 compared to the previous systems at a scale well below our current capabilities. The system will come on-line soon after DANCHIP is inaugurated in year. This increased exposure to MIC’s exciting research projects entices more and more students to stay at MIC and engage in a the begining of 2004. The bridge across the sound between Sweden and Denmark M.Sc. or Ph.D. project at MIC. In research we witnessed a doubling of the number of peer-reviewed conference proceedings as well which was completed in 2000 not only improved the infrastructure of the region but also increased regional as an increase in peer-reviewed papers. Never satisfied with scientific publications as the only outcome of research, 2002 has been a collaborations in the form of joined teaching and research programs. To further stimulate collaboration between MIC and succeful year for MIC’s collaboration with industry. The highly succesful SUM ‘center kontrakt’ which contributed significantly in LTH, Prof. Lars Samuelson from the Nanometer Consortium at LTH accepted a part-time position as vice-director at MIC. MIC bringing microtechnology closer to commercialization in Denmark came to an end and efforts are underway to find means to continue and the Nanometer Consortium will constitute a strong axis in an international context not the least when applying for funds this fruitful collaboration between Danish institutes and industry. In 2002 MIC started collaboration with a number of Danish from EU’s 6th framework programme. Closer cooperation between the two institutions will strengthen MIC’s national institutes and companies in a new ‘center kontrakt’: Micro Chemical Analysis in Polymers (µKAP). The aim here is to fabricate position within nanotechnology, and help MIC in attracting well-qualified senior researchers as well as gifted students from microstructures for chemical and biochemical analysis in polymers. In 2002, DTU finalized its plans to expand the clean room facilities all over the world. The cooperation will likewise contribute to a broader contact with the Swedish academic environment to further enhance micro- and nanotechnology related activities at DTU. The existing clean room combined with the newly build and the Swedish industry and thereby lead to a greater Scandinavian engagement in the new extended processing facilities will be known under the name Danish Advanced Nanotechnology Center for Highly Integrated Production (DAN- facility DANCHIP. MIC has witnessed many changes over the years and will CHIP). DANCHIP will allow small scale commercial production thereby continue to do so in the coming years. We view these changes as precursors to new acitivities and improvements that will bridging the wide gap between research and foundry. allow MIC to stay at the forefront of education, research, and innovation in micro- and nanotechnology. Education 6 Record breaking year for education Year 2002 was a record breaking year for education at MIC with 330 students following the courses given by teachers at MIC. This is the highest number in the history of MIC as evidenced by the evolution in student numbers shown in the figure. In short, 150 students followed the lecture courses, 110 students participated in experimental 3-week courses and around 60 students carried out other types of experimental courses based on project work. Year 2002 was also in another manner an epoch-making year. In autumn 2001 DTU launched a new course schedule where lessons are given in blocks of four hours, and at the same time many courses were rescheduled from five to ten ECTS points in accordance with the new guidelines provided by DTU. At MIC this meant a major change in curriculum and a considerable didactic challenge for the three introductory courses in nano-, micro- and bio-technology. For example, in the course Solid State Electronics and Micro Technology several new teaching methods were introduced to activate the students during the lessons with the goal of increasing learning. Conventional lectures are supplemented with interactive sessions where the students are challenged with questions and exercises. There are also two poster sessions, an exercise where a multi-layered cake is used to illustrate the planar process used for silicon wafer processing, and a final project work. This course was so well received by the students that they recommended one of the teachers, Erik V. Thomsen, for DTU “Teacher of the Year 2002” award which he received later that year. 350 300 number of students 250 200 Fagpakke 150 Special 100 Midterm Lecture 50 3-weeks 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Teacher of the year During 2002 MIC restructured its course program under the heading nanosystems engineering and as a result of this several new courses will be introduced in the next two years. The course program consists of three blocks of courses arranged within the fields of nano-technology, micro-technology and bio-chemical microsystems. There are three introductory courses aimed at the fourth semester (Nano-1, Bio-1, Micro-1) each having a related experimental 3-week course. A new course in nano-and micro fabrication will be launched in autumn 2003. This course, aimed at the sixth semester, provides a good background for doing a midterm project within the research fields at MIC. The graduate level core of the education consists of three advanced courses (Nano-2, Bio-2, Micro-2), each having a related experimental project course (Nano- Master Project Nano-P Bio-P Micro-P Nano-2 Bio-2 Micro-2 Midterm Project 3-week Nano & Micro fabrication Nano-1 Bio-1 TF Fagpakke project Supplementary Micro-1 Bio-3W Nano-3W Micro-3W P, Bio-P, Micro-P), and a package of supplementary courses at an advanced level. The advanced microtechnology course, the Micro-2 course, was launched already in 2001, the advanced nano technology The final part of the education is a master project within the fields of research at MIC. With this education in place MIC is well prepared to course (Nano-2) will start in autumn 2003 followed by the advanced course in bio-chemical microsystems continue to educate a growing number of engineers and researchers within the fields of nano-technology, micro-technology and bio-chemical micro- (Bio-2) which will begin in autumn 2004. systems. Nano 8 Nanosystems engineering One of the unique aspects of the research at MIC is the systems level emphasis on the applications, which has enabled the results to be translated into commercial products. Hence at MIC the research and education of nanoscience and fabrication facilities will again be utilized to achieve expediated technology is addressed in a systems context as well. Nanosystems engineering focuses the device level applications of commercialisation of nanotechnology. With the recent establishment of the DANCHIP facility at DTU we are uniquely positioned nanotechnology and its interface to micro and bio systems. The proven MIC model of close industry collaboration toget- to accomplish this goal. We will also continue our close collaborations with national and international partners in this her with world-class research utilizing the state of the art endeavour. nanotechnology research areas at MIC DEVICE PROTOTYPING Packaging Laser Rapid Prototyping Testing DESIGN NANO CAD MODELLING CHARACTERISATION Optical/Magnetic Mechanical/Electrical SPM (AFM, STM, 4P) Fluidics (PIV) SIMS, SEM MICRO BIO INTEGRATION Nano-assembly Dielectrophoresis Catalytic Selfassembly Nanosoldering NEMS Micro/Nano Fluidics Molecular Electronics MATERIALS FABRICATION UV-lithography AFM/Laser Lithography Laser Micromachining Hot Embossing Nanoimprint/E-Beam Deposition/Etch Silicon, Glass Polymer (SU8) Nanostructured Materials Nanotubes, Wires Nano 9 An electron microscope image of a gold core inside a carbon coating. The diameter of the gold core relative to the coating can be adjusted by controlling the growth conditions. Scientific highlight: soldering on the nanoscale As nanotechnology steadily progresses in discovering and a tiny metallic “solder bump”. The soldering material is a developing new small objects that have outstanding properties, one can only dream of how these could be used as compact, fast gas of organic molecules containing gold, and the solder iron is a beam of electrons that frees the gold at exactly the transistors and ultra-sensitive sensors in microscale circuitry. For instance, carbon nanotubes have been investigated with an right spot; where the connection is to be made. Tiny 50 nm diameter carbon nanotubes were soldered to tiny micro- amazing intensity throughout the past decades; these small rolls of carbon atoms are expected to revolutionize electronics and fingers. materials science. All that is needed are methods to connect these - just like a soldering iron does it with macroscale components. The combination of low contact resistance and a high mechanical strength of the connections - of the “solder At MIC a considerable effort is devoted to finding solutions to the bumps”, holds great promise for the future of this method. The researchers are now learning to control the gold content problem of integrating nanoscale components. In 2000 a microfabricated nanotweezer was developed providing and the composition of the solder material, and to automatise the soldering process. smaller hands to hold and move nanoscale components. MIC has developed a novel method that aims to solve the pro- In combination with nanotweezers for grasping and moving nanocomponents, a powerful method for integration of blem by “soldering” the carbon nanotube to the electrode using nanocomponents in nanosystems is at hand. Students in nanolab Nano 11 Visions for nanoscience & nanotechnology for MIC and Øresund By Lars Samuleson, Vice-director at MIC and Head of the Nanometer Consortium in Lund (Sweden). The recent inauguration of the Øresund bridge between Copenhagen and Malmö has made it possible to commute between the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH) at opposite ends of the region in less than one hour. Sharing of laboratory facilities and exchange of staff are therefore realistic. Substantial regional investments in nanoscience and technology research and education present an opportunity right now to optimize these investments and gain a sharper profiling of our research centres. In this way we can allow each of the universities to reach international excellence in their respective primary areas of strengths. These specializations will become accessible to researchers and students in the whole region. In principle, all research sites need access and activities in the areas of silicon microfabrication, compound semiconductor materials technology, quantum transport physics, quantum devices and systems, photonic devices and systems, macro-molecular systems and bioanalytical systems, to a varying degree. There is little doubt however that an optimization and coordination would be beneficial to all research sites and have important consequences for attracting top-level scientists and students to the region as well as attract and generate more high-tech companies. In the traditional mode of operation, each university would make sure to have all resources in-house with the consequence that the effort at each site and in the region as a whole gets under-critical. In the new vision, each of the sites focuses on its primary strength areas and guarantees full access to researchers and students from the other sites. MEMS 12 300µm Brick by brick - building the optical lab on a chip 2002 has been an year of new initiatives for the MEMS research at MIC, building on our strengths in silicon based microsystems as well as bridging MEMS and µTAS to provide additional functionalities in a lab on a chip. Some of these new initiatives are highlighted in the following. Optical techniques - like spectroscopy, fluorescence detection and evanescent wave sensing - are widely used for chemical and biological analysis. This motivates for integrating optical and micro-fluidic components on lab-on-a-chip microsystems. MIC has a series of research activities on integration of optical transducers - lasers and photodetectors – on polymer based labon-a-chip microsystems. During 2002 the building blocks for a fully integrated optical analysis system – lasers, waveguides and photodectors - were demonstrated at MIC. The picture shows a scanning electron microscope picture of a solid polymer dye micro-cavity laser, fabricated at MIC by Søren Kragh during his master thesis project. The active material is a commercial laser dye cast into a matrix of solid polymer. In the present device, the laser dye Rhodamine 6G was dissolved into SU-8 photo-resist. The dye doped photo-resist is spun onto a Pyrex glass substrate, and the laser micro-cavities are formed by standard photo-lithography. The solid polymer dye lasers are pumped optically by an external laser. The 1.6 µm high solid polymer cavity has a lateral shape of a trapez. In the present form, the optically pumped solid-state polymer micro-cavity lasers rely on total internal reflections at the polymer-air interfaces, as illustrated in the figure above. The lasing wavelength is controlled by the lateral dimensions of the polymer cavity. The present device is optically pumped by a laser at a wavelength of 532 nm, and emits at a wavelength of 598 nm. MEMS 13 Optical MEMS for controlling light In this project, a new technology for fabrication of an integrated optical MEMS system for controlling light is By focusing light on the surface of a microchip consisting of a large amount of individually addressable microshutters, it developed in collaboration with the Danish company Dicon A/S. is possible to control the spatial transmission of light. Such a system is called a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM). One By combining MEMS and optical components such as possible application for such an SLM is in advanced fibre optical light distribution systems, where the SLM is used for mirrors, switches and microlenses on the micro-scale, very cost attractive, compact and advanced systems can be switching on and off or modulate light in a number of optical fibres. made. Such systems have an increasing number of applications within areas like telecommunication, displays, The goal for this project at MIC is to develop cost optimized fabrication processes for very compact SLM’s with on-chip scanning, data storage, signal processing and sensing. packaging. A micro-optical stack containing a 4x4 array of a microlens chip on top of a micro-shutter chip. Control signals for the shutters are fed through the electrical connections seen at the front of the SEM picture of a microshutter with control electrodes. image. MEMS 14 100µm 100µm Microreactors for studies of catalytic reactions Last year’s acquisition of a high performance silicon plasma etcher (STS-ASE) has allowed us to move into new fields of microchemical systems. We are now able to fabricate channel networks with high aspect ratios in silicon, making higher temperature reactions like for instance catalysis reactions possible in the channels. To investigate this application space, a collaboration between ICAT (Interdisciplinary Research Center for Catalysis) and MIC has been established concerning fabrication and application of silicon microreactors. Microreactors are catalytic chemical reactors with at least one linear dimension in the micrometer range. Compared to ordinary macroscopic chemical reactors, they exhibit enhanced heat dissipation and laminar flow characteristics, and due to these physical differences a whole new parameter space for chemical reactions can be investigated. For example, chemical reactions that are difficult or impossible to control in macroscopic reactors have been demonstrated in microreactors, and even explosive reactions can be carried out safely. With the variety of microfabrication methods available, it is possible to integrate different sensors and actuators into the microreactor, giving the technology very interesting scientific and technological perspectives. At ICAT, the use of microreactors serves two purposes. One is to use microreactors to demonstrate fast catalyst characterization and optimization as compared to slow conventional testing. The other is to use the unique physical properties of microreactors to study catalytic reactions far away from steady state. Examples include extreme temperature gradients or fast oscillating temperatures and flows. The primary tool in the development of silicon microreactors is the new plasma etcher capable of etching trenches with aspect ratios exceeding 20 at etch rates ten times higher than traditional systems. Combining this tool with MIC’s wide range of other microfabrication methods, we are able to make backside feedthroughs for in- and outlet channels and also high aspect ratio through-holes in the outlet channel for real-time studies of the catalytic reaction using gas chromathography and mass spectroscopy. MEMS 15 RF MEMS for mobile communicationsystems Applications of tunable capacitors in integrated circuits spread in a wide segment, several of which can be named At MIC, we have fabricated different versions of in-plane, high-aspect ratio novel tunable capacitors on silicon-on- as voltage controlled oscillators, tunable filters and resonators. In the implementation of channel selecting fil- insulator (SOI) substrates, which can offer a wide tunability range with state of the art electronics compatible low ters with center frequencies ranging from 455 kHz to 254 MHz in radio-frequency (RF) communication systems, actuation voltages. The device was fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) with parameter tuning, allowing band pass filters with high quality factors in heterodyne receivers are used. Conventionally, RF blocks have used a gap aspect ratio of 1:20 and a feature aspect ratio of 1:60. With a static capacitance of 1 pF, the tuning ratio was found electronic varactors implemented through diodes or transistors. Recently, micro electromechanical varactors have to be 2:1 with 3 V of excitation which is an order of magnitude better than the current semiconductor varactors. been a common interest of the RF community as an alternative technology to be used in the aforementioned Characterizations at microwave frequencies showed a selfresonance frequency exceeding 3.4 GHz permitting RF re- applications. gime operation without frequency range restrictions. 30µm 2.2 Capacitance (pF) 2 Measurements Calculations 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Control Voltage (V) 3 3.5 BIO 16 Cells collected on castellated type electrodes Bugs on a chip An integrated microsystem for detecting and analysing microorganisms. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an enzymatic, synthetic method used to amplify specific DNA In the Cell Particle Handling Project we have developed an integrated Microsystem that combines structures for PCR reaction sequences from organisms. PCR is widely used for detecting microorganisems in clinical, biological, and for sample pre-treatment (picture left). The cells are captured on the sample pre-treatment structure and inhibitors in the sample agricultural, and environmental samples as well as in food and food products. However, when doing PCR on are washed away (picture right). Then the cells are released and led into the PCR chamber where the DNA of the cells is amplified. complex biological samples such as blood, milk, soil, meat, cheese, faeces etc., inhibitory substances in the Such a system can e.g. be used in medical diagnostics or for sample may reduce the efficiency of the PCR process severely. It is therefore often necessary to “clean” the detecting microorganisms in food and food products. As an example we are currently developing this as a system for rapid sample for inhibitors prior to the PCR reaction. Such sample pre-treatment is labour-intensive, time detecting of the pathogen bacteria Campylobacter in chicken in close collaboration with Dr. Bang from the Danish Veterinary consuming and cannot easily be automated. Institute, Århus. Polymer microfludic systems Silicon micromachining has traditionally been the prominent technology platform at MIC. Taking advantage research program at MIC where we are transferring our extensive micro- and nanomachining knowledge from silicon to polymers. of the unique material properties of silicon an array of interesting components and systems can be realized as Polymers represent a large group of materials with a wide variety highlighted in this and previous MIC year reports. However, more recently, micro- and nanotechnology of properties, which make them ideally suited for micro- and nanosystems with applications in chemical and biochemical has attracted a strong interest from the chemistry, biotechnology, medicine, and pharmacology com- analysis. Furthermore, the ability to mass-produce polymer structures inexpensively by microinjection moulding enables the munities as well. The unfavorable material properties of silicon with respect to exposure to chemical and realization of single use devices as required in medical applications. biological samples and reagents have triggered a Berthie Liquid Handling chip (see picture, right) One example of a polymer chip, which was recently designed and fabricated at MIC, is the ‘Berthie’ microliquid handling chip for the online analysis of ammonia in waste water. This project is the continuation of a succesful collaboration with Danfoss A/S and other European partners in a former European project on waste water analysers: MicroChem. For this polymer chip a channel network was fabricated by means of laser ablation on 6 individual sheets of the polymer PMMA. These 6 sheets were thermally bonded to form a cube where sample and reagents were transported, mixed and reacted in three dimensions. During the bonding process other functional elements, such as optical fibers and membranes, can be incorporated into the microfluidic system, thus allowing for optimized optical detection on the one hand and the possibilities of filtering liquids or the connection of actuators for pumping or valving on the other hand. Exploring these possibilities is now just in its beginning phase and leaves room for exciting new discoveries. Signalling the strong interest from industry for microliquid handling structures in polymers, an extensive collaborative effort was started under the title “Centre for Microsystems for Chemical and Biochemical Analyses Based on Polymers (µKAP)”. This centre contract has been established in the summer of 2002 as a research collaboration between the following partners: Radiometer A/S, Danfoss A/S, Nunc A/S, Scandinavian Micro Biodevices (SMB A/S), Vir A/S, Delta, Sensor Technology Centre (STC), Teknologisk Institut, Institut for Produktion og Ledelse (IPL) and MIC. Within the centre methods for the fabrication of micro- and nano-structures in different polymers by micro-milling, laser ablation, hot embossing, and microinjection moulding will be developed. The partners will also investigate bonding methods and surface treatment of polymers. Manufacturers of polymer parts, research institutes, service institutes and end users work closely together in this consortium on several demonstrator projects such as an on-line wastewater sensor, a miniaturized blood analyser and a surface plasmon resonance biochip. Total funding for this project is almost 41 million DKK where industry contributes almost 24 million DKK and the Ministry for Science and Technology provides 16.7 million DKK funding. For more information please visit the website: mikrokap.teknologisk.dk Two SEM pictures of laser ablated microfluidic structures Cleanroom DANCHIP Establishing DANCHIP (Danish Advanced Nanotechnology Center for Highly Integrated Production) is a national investment in a new cleanroom facility for micro- and nanotechnology, based at the existing process facility shared by MIC and COM. DANCHIP is a professionally run organization based on knowledge- The users of DANCHIP will be companies, start-ups, and cost sharing which form a reliable bridge between education, research and industrial production supporting clusters of new MIC and COM, other departments at DTU, and universities in Denmark and abroad. The users of DAN- modern industry in Denmark. A staff of service- and maintenance technicians and process engineers maintains the facility and the CHIP will get access to advanced equipment for research and development within micro- and process equipment. The goal in establishing the new facility is to support world-class nanotechnology. The excellent facilities provided combined with knowledge sharing will enable a fast research and development within the broad range of micro- and nanotechnologies with state-of-the-art process equipment. The development of new areas and thus provide a technological lead. doubling of the cleanroom space will make DANCHIP able to develop process steps, process sequences, as well as components DANCHIP will be the ideal platform for cooperation between companies, MIC, COM and other universities and to have the capability to commercially manufacture these in small quantities. One of the new technological focus areas is within micro- and nanotechnology. During 2002 MIC, COM and the industrial partners nanotechnology where lithography is very crucial. The highlight is the new electron beam lithography system (EBLS) model JBX 9300FS have conducted the detailed planning of the new facilities. The construction of the new building started from Jeol with a spot diameter of 4 nm and a minimum feature size of around 10 nm. in the spring 2002 and will be finished primo 2004. Process Lab 19 Equipment in MIC´s cleanroom E-beamer, JBX-9300FS Photolithography: • Süss RC 8 single wafer spinner SSI 150 dual track spinner with thick • (25 µm) photoresist facility. Electronic Visions AL6-2 doublesided mask aligner. • • SÜSS MA/BA6 doublesided mask aligner. STAR 2000 photoresist adhesion primer. Furnaces: • • Wet and dry oxidation LPCVD of doped SiO2,Si3N4, as well as doped polysilicon • Annealing Deposition: • Three STS PECVD cluster systems for depositing SiO2, PSG, BSG, BPSG, Si3N4, and SiOxNy with rare earth doping facility. • Deep anisotropic dry etch of Si by „Advanced Silicon • Etch“ (ASE™) KOH based anisotropic etching • • Deep glass etch Isotropic etching • Plasma Processor 300 barrel asher from Technics Plasma Ion implantation: • Varian extrion 200keV cassette-to-cassette ion implanter Characterisation equipment: • Leo 1550 Field Emission SEM with EDX (X-ray analysis) • • Atomika Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) Scanning Probe Microscopes (STM, AFM from DME) • • Wolllam Vase Scanning Ellipsometer Tencor Profiler Evaporation and sputtering: Packaging: • • Dicing • • Wire Bonding Solder bump bonding • • Anodic glass bonding (bulk) Thin film glass anodic bonding • • Silicon direct bonding Polishing Alcatel SCM600 e-gun evaporation and sputter deposition • • Leybold LAB500 e-gun evaporation Varian 3180 cassette-to-cassette sputterer • DCA UHV dual sputterer Etching: • Dry etch of Si, SiO2, and Si3N4, by RIE in the STS clusters using F-based plasmas Satellite facts Sun-sensor: E-emitter: Weight ~3.5 gr. including electronics Weight: ~2.5 gr ex. elec. Dimensions 7.7 x 8.8 mm (sensor alone) Dimensions 10 x 20 mm Number of tips ~1.67 millions Field of View. +/- 70 º Predicted res. 0.07 º (to be verified) Expected current ~1 mA Process Lab 21 MEMS in space In April 2001 a number of students at DTU decided to build a small satellite. They contacted one of the designers of the Danish Ørsted satellite, Prof. Mogens Blanke. By adapting the CubeSat concept originally proposed by Prof. Robert Twiggs of Stanford University, a number of parameters are predetermined i.e. size, mass, and maximum energy consumption. The payload of the satellite consists of a new mechanism to wilfully remove a satellite from orbit by letting an electro dynamic thether interact with the earths magnetic field. By slowing down the satellite it looses altitude and eventually burns up in the atmosphere. Small and light The electron emitter With a size of only 10 cm by 10 cm by 10 cm, ca. 1 Watt power and a total mass of 1 kg the students needed to be very creative The electron emitter is a crucial part of the payload. The electrodynamic thether (an aluminium wire) collects electrons in the in order to make a fully functional satellite. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) solutions present an excellent choice plasma surrounding the satellite in orbit. In order to keep a current running in the tether electrons need to be emitted from when size, weight and power consumption must be limited. Therefore two of the sub-systems of the satellite the sun sensor the satellite. To meet the requirements of low power consumption a MEMS based device consisting of millions of and the electron emitter, were MEMS-based. gated tips for electron emission was chosen. The device was fabricated with the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) tip process The sun-sensor (see picture above, left) (see picture above, right) developed at MIC. By changing the number of emitting tips the current in the tether can be regulated thereby controlling the A Micro Opto Electro Mechanical System (MOEMS) was chosen to realize a sextant for space applications. The device was electro-dynamic force on the satellite. The students Anders Torp and Philip Ralhan Bidstrup from the Physics Department of the developed by two students, Jan Hales and Martin Pedersen, during their midterm project. After this course finished two University of Copenhagen designed and fabricated the electron emitter during a special course at MIC. succesive special courses at MIC provided the possibility to realize the device in MIC’s clean room. The sun sensor consists of an This project not only demonstrates the excellent advantages of optical slit constricting the light and a set of photo-diodes measuring the light intensity. As the angle of the sun varies the MEMS and MOEMS in applications where size, weight and power consumption are limited, e.g. space applications, but also shows current generated by the photodiodes changes as well.By designing the photo diodes with triangular shapes the angle how far initiative, ambition and ingenuity can go. This project has been made possible by financial support from the Danish sensitivity can be enhanced. The fully finished sensor was tested and shown to perform according to specifications and accurately Space research committee and private industry. The satellite is to be launched into space by the Russian company Eurockot in measure the sun’s angle. June 2003. Industry and Innovation 22 From the lab to the fab Three recent examples: 1) Establishment of a MEMS production line Starting with a Ph.D.project in 1993, SonionMEMS developed its process and design competenc within MEMS technology costs, as well as the utilization of the general technology through national and international research collaborations at MIC. trends. One of the major hurdles was to transfer this know-how to a Today, SonionMEMS is constructing a cleanroom production environment. Production facilities and business concepts were still under development and most end users facility for an in-house assembly line in Roskilde, were not aware of this new technology. which will be used for all backend processing such as SonionMEMS started dedicated collaboration projects with MEMS manufacturing houses in order to establish this expertise, dicing, flip-chip assembly, and underfill application – realizing very soon that there was not any one single MEMS manufacturing house or foundry capable of and/or interested processes, which have been developed and tested within MIC (SUM and PackLab), and which SonionMEMS regards as a new core in implementing all desired processes. competence. All front-end processes have been developed at MIC/ DTU and were outsourced to foundries. In a major redesign and concept change, the component was divided into modules, which could be connected to each other SonionMEMS intends to continue its research and development by advanced packaging processes without sacrificing automization and standardization. The modular concept added activities at DANCHIP and PackLab, respectively, and hopes to be able to bridge the gap between R&D and production environments by flexibility and the possibility to outsource standard tasks, allowing for a shorter time to market and reduced up-front improved process control and uptime of critical equipment at these two facilities. 2) From Research to Industrial Production Grundfos has been an industrial partner of MIC right from its inception in 1991. This longstanding collaboration has enabled resistant protective coating. The launch of the new production facility has been very successful and the first sensors are now being tested. the company to start its own MEMS production of pressure sensors two years ago in a facility based in Farum near The company has also started a follow-up project at MIC on a „multi- Copenhagen. The sensor is based on a traditional design of the element with piezoresistors positioned on an anisotropically sensor for pump control“. This new industrial PhD project will involve a new sensor design at MIC, which will be processed at the new etched membrane of silicon. A unique feature of this sensor is its ability to operate in harsh environments due to very corrosion DANCHIP facility. The sensors will be packged at the company head quarter in Bjerringbro and evaluated in pumps. 3) SUM (by Jens Branebjerg,Delta & Erik V. Thomsen, MIC) In 2002 the SUM center contract project went into its final year. The SUM project is a collaboration on microsystem development between MIC, the service provider Delta and the Danish companies Capres, Danfoss, Grundfos and SonionMEMS. The project began in 1999 with an overall goal of bringing microsystems into production. The main results obtained are: The partners have built a packaging laboratory (packlab) located in the CAT building next to MIC. The partners have established connections to production networks and microsystem devices have been fabricated at foundries using Multi Project Wafer processes and engineering runs. MIC has established a prototyping process for fabrication of piezo-resistive devices and a database driven knowledge based process-composing and registration system. Delta has built up new services within the field of micro system packaging. Capres has realised packaging of micro four-point probes. Grundfos is starting up mass production of pressure sensors in Denmark. Danfoss has set pressure sensors in field test. SonionMEMS has developed packaging for micro mechanical microphones and are setting up mass production in Denmark. To ensure a highly efficient collaboration with low communication barriers the partners established a set of common values governing the collaboration and defined a vision for the SUM project: “All participants feel and work like a team. We use all available means of communication in a team oriented method of work. Our method of collaboration is widely known and sets an example because it has yielded better results: Professional, practical and commercial”. Throughout the project the focus on collaboration helped to fulfil the mission of SUM. The SUM project has placed high focus on microsystem production and the transfer process between research and production environments. The results obtained from the SUM project has strengthed the position of Denmark within the area of microsystem production. Mass production of MEMS sensors in Denmark is now a reality and the road is paved for newcomers to profit from this pioneering work. The SUM project was supported by the Ministry for Science and Technology. Partners 24 Brüel and Kjær Foss Development of high performance accelerometers and microphones Food quality analysis using micromechanical sensors Grundfos Cantion Development of sensors for water circulation systems Development of cantilever based biosensors Haldor Topsøe Capres Catalyst and technology company High-quality systems for accurate electrical characterization of materials on the microscale Hymite Chempaq Optical telecommunications equipment manufacturer: decreasing cost/performance ratio Development of new sensor technologies for medical Ibsen Photonics diagnostics Industrialization of holographic elements, phase masks and Cohaesio integrated optical sensors Advanced software for tracking cleanroom prototyping activities NKT Research Center Micro optoelectromechanical systems Danfoss Development of total chemical analysis systems and industrial Novo Nordisk sensors Microliquid handling systems for biochemical analysis Danish Technological Institute NUNC Polymer-based oxygen sensors Collaboration on development of plastic-based microsystems for rapid screening Danish Veterinary and Food Administration DNA mutation analysis on a chip (Fødevaredirektoratet) Oticon Microtechnology for hearing aid applications Dantec SonionMEMS Particle image velocimetry and computer simulations Intelligent silicon-based transducers for hearing instruments DELTA Radiometer Test and packaging of microsystems Medical instruments manufacturer DFM SMB Danish institute for Fundermental Metrologi Development and manufacture of biochips Dicon Sophion Microsystems for the graphics industry Development of equipment for ion-channel high through-put DME Probes for scanning probe microscopy Exiqon DNA chip design and fabrication screening of drug candidates for the pharmaceutical industry Topsil Fabrication of high-purity silicon crystals and wafer structures Vir Prototyping of polymer-based flow cells for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements Collaboration 25 CFM Microinstrument center supporting Ph.D. students, funded by Thomas B. Thrige foundation. DABIC National competence center developing advanced instrumentation platform for biotechnology. EU scientific networks MIC is part of the European networks NANOFAB (nanofabrication) ATOMS (nanolithography) NanoMass (cantilever-based mass sensor) and Saneme (molecular electronics). Framework program MIC is involved in three nationally-funded collaborative framework programmes in nanoscale electrochemistry, micro total analysis systems and silicon wafer bonding. FREJA National program for Female Researchers in Joint Action, supporting Bioprobes project. HISTACK Industrialisation of microsystems, in particular silicon microphones for hearing aids, in collaboration with Danish company Microtronic (EU funded). IMMUNALYZE SUM Microsystems for groundwater analysis, in collaboration with biotech company Exiqon and other Danish research institutes. Consortium of three Danish companies and the technology service institute Delta, collaborating on prototype fabrication at MIC NORMIC Network including Norwegian company SensoNor and other Talent Projects other European partners, offering services for prototyping, testing and qualification of microsystems (EU funded). Four national Talent Projects have been awarded to MIC researchers in molecular electronics, integration of optical Rapid Screening detection with microliquid systems, cell sorting, and nanoscale tweezers Development of detection for Campylobacteria in poultry, in collaboration with Danish Poultry Meat Association µKAP SeSiBon Mirosystems for chemical and biochemical analyses based on polymers Consortium focussed on silicon wafer bonding for sensor encapsulation, including Danish company Danfoss as well as Norwegian firm SensoNor and Finnish firm Okmetic (EU funded) Theses 26 Ph.D. theses Jensenius, H. “Microcantilever-based studies of bio/chemical systems” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 153 pages ISBN: 87-89935-44-6 Mogensen, K. B. “Integration of Planar Waveguides for Optical Detection in Microfabricated Analytical Devices” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 90 pages Petersen, N. J. “Electrophoretic Separations on Microchips: Performance and Possibilities” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 116 pages Master theses co-supervisors from MIC Alkauskas, A. “Coulomb drag in lateral superlattices” (Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania 2002) Supervisors: Jauho, A.P., Flensberg, K. Gjelstrup, H. “Strømninger i mikrosystemer” (DTU, Lyngby 2002) Co supervisors: Larsen, P.S., Michelsen, J.A., Kutter, J.P. Rehder, J. “Micromachined Loudspeaker for Hearing Instrument Application” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 130 pages Lisby, T. “Interconnect Substrates in Silicon with Flexible Regions for Multi Chip Microsystems” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 123 pages Master theses Awards Andersen, L. H. “Soft Magnetic Actuator membranes - Development and Fabrication of a Stepped Membrane” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 145 pages Nielsen, T. Master thesis stipend from the Oticon Foundation. The award consists of a grant of DKK 100.000 (2002) Bitsch, L. “Blood flow in micro channels” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 111 pages ISBN: 87-89935-29-2 Brask, A. “Principles of electroosmotic pumps” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 156 pages ISBN: 87-89935-31-4 Thomsen, E. V. “DTU Teacher of the Year”. The DTU Teacher of the Year award is given to a teacher who has showed outstanding performance. The award consists of a grant of 3.600 Euro and a work of art (2002) Eriksen, S. C. “DNA detection on cantilever-based sensors” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 52 pages Han, A. „Development and Characterization of a colorimetric Microarray Immunoassay for detection of Pesticides in Water“ (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 69 pages Hansen, F. R. “Dispersion in electrokinetically and pressure driven microflows” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 121 pages ISBN: 87-89935-33-0 He, J. “Micro-controller for Micro-analysis-system” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 84 pages Helbo, B. “Micro-Cavity Fluidic Dye Lasers” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 143 pages Jensen, M. J. “Bubbles in microchannels” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 155 pages ISBN: 87-89935-35-7 Johansen, W. J. “Modelling of a MEMS Actuator Array” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 138 pages Mateiu, R. “Fabrication and Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes on Microelectrodes” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 105 pages Meelby, T. “Miniaturized Polymer-flow-cell for SPR-setup” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 87 pages Ruseng, H. “Fremstilling og karakterisering af biokompatible multipunkts prober til måling af ionkanal aktivitet i nerveceller” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 110 pages Stangegaard, M. “Qualitative analysis of Campylobacter sp. by use of DNA micro arrays” (MIC, Lyngby 2002) 92 pages Patents 9 Patent discloseres filed with DTU 2 US patent applications filed 1 International patent application (PCT) filed Publications 27 Journal articles Calleja, M., Tello, M. and Garcia, R., “Size determination of field-indiced water menisci in noncontact atomic force microscopy”, Journal of Applied Physics 92 pp. 5539 - 5542 (2002) Brandbyge, M., Mozos, J. L., Ordejon, P., Taylor, J. and Stokbro, K., “Density functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport”, Physical Review B 65 pp. 165401-165417 (2002) Nielsen, S. K., Brandbyge, M., Hansen, K., Stokbro, K., Van Ruitenbeek, J. M. and Besenbacher, F., “Current-Voltage Curves of Atomic-Sized Transition Metal Contacts: Why Au is Ohmic and Pt is Not”, Physical Review Letters 89 pp. 66804-1 66804-4 (2002) Mozos, J. M., Ordejón, P., Brandbyge, M., Taylor, J. and Stokbro, K., “Simulations of quantum transport in nanoscale systems: application to atomic gold and silver wires”, Nanotechnology 13 (3), pp. 346-351 (2002) Christensen, C. B. V., “Arrays in biological and chemical analysis”, Talanta 56 (2), pp. 289-299 (2002) Hasegawa, S. and Grey, F., “Electronic transport at semiconductor surfaces - from point-contact transistor to micro-fourpoint probes”, Surface Science 500 (1-3), pp. 84-104 (2002) Hasegawa, S., Shiraki, I., Tanabe, F., Hobara, R., Kanagawa, T., Tanikawa, T., Iwao, M., Petersen, C. L., Hansen, T. M., Bøggild, P. and Grey, F., “Measurements of Surface Electrical Conductance by Microscopic Four-Point Probes”, Proceedings of the Surface Science Society of Japan 23 (12), pp. 740-752 (2002) Alkauskas, A., Flensberg, K., Hu, B. Y. K. and Jauho, A. P., “Sign reversal of drag in bilayer systems with in-plane periodic potential modulation”, Physical Review B 66 pp. 201304-1 - 201304-4 (2002) Kageshima, M., Jensenius, H., Dienwiebel, M., Nakayama, Y., Tokumoto, H., Jarvis, S. P. and Oosterkamp, T. H., “Noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment with quartz tuning fork and carbon nanotube probe”, Applied Surface Science 188 pp. 440-444 (2002) Klank, H., Kutter, J. P. and Geschke, O., “CO2-Laser Micromachining and Backend Processing for Rapid Production of PMMA-based Microfluidic Systems”, Labon-a-Chip 2 pp. 242-246 (2002) Klank, H., Goranovic, G., Kutter, J. P., Gjelstrup, H., Michelsen, J. and Westergaard, C. H., “PIV measurements in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure with three-dimensional flow behaviour”, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 12 pp. 862-869 (2002) Hasegawa, S., Shiraki, I., Tanikawa, T., Petersen, C. L. and Grey, F., “Surface conductance properties studied by micro four point probes”, Solid State Physics 37 (5), pp. 299-308 (2002) Kristensen, A. and Bruus, H., “Bias dependent subband edges and the 0.7 conductance anomaly”, Physica Scripta T101 pp. 151-157 (2002) Hasegawa, S., Shiraki, I., Tanikawa, T., Petersen, C. L., Hansen, T. M., Bøggild, P. and Grey, F., “Direct measurement of surface-state conductance by microscopic four-point probe method”, Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter 14 (35), pp. 8379-8392 (2002) Lin, R., Galili, M., Quaade, U. J., Brandbyge, M., Bjørnholm, T., Esposti, A. D., Biscarini, F. and Stokbro, K., “Spontaneous dissociation of a conjugated molecule on the Si(100) surface”, Journal of Chemical Physics 117 pp. 321-330 (2002) Petersen, C. L., Hansen, T. M., Bøggild, P., Boisen, A., Hansen, O., Hassenkam, T. and Grey, F., “Scanning microscopic four-point conductivity probes”, Sensors and Actuators A-Physical 96 (1), pp. 5358 (2002) D.N. Madsen, P. Yu, S. Balslev and J.W. Thomsen, “Generation of 99-mW continuouswave 285-nm radiation for magneto-optical trapping of Mg atoms”, Appl. Phys. B, 75 (2002) 835 D.N. Madsen and J.W. Thomsen, “Measurement of absolute photoionization cross sections using magnesium magneto-optical traps”, J. Phys. B, 35 (2002) 2173 D.N. Madsen, K. Mølhave, R. Matieu, A.M.Rasmussen, M. Brorson, C.J.H. Jacobsen and P. Bøggild, “Soldering of nanotubes onto microelectrodes”, Nano Letters, 3 (2003) 47 Marie, R., Jensenius, H., Thaysen, J., Christensen, C. B. V. and Boisen, A., “Adsorption kinetics and mechanical properties of thiol-modified DNA-oligos on gold investigated by microcantilever sensors”, Ultramicroscopy 91 pp. 29-36 (2002) Mortensen, N. A., Flensberg, K. and Jauho, A. P., “Mesoscopic fluctuations of Coulomb drag between quasi-ballistic one dimensional wires”, Physical Review B 65 pp. 085317-085326 (2002) Mortensen, N. A., Flensberg, K. and Jauho, A. P., “Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime”, Physica Scripta T101 pp. 177-180 (2002) Mortensen, N. A. and Egues, J. C., “Universal spin-polarization fluctuations in one-dimensional wires with magnetic impurities”, Physical Review B 66 pp. 153306-153309 (2002) Petersen, N. J., Mogensen, K. B. and Kutter, J. P., “Performance of an In-plane Detection Cell with Integrated Waveguides for UV/Vis Absorbance Measurements on Microfluidic Separation Devices”, Electrophoresis 23 pp. 35283536 (2002) Nielsen, M., Poulsen, M., Bunk, O., Kumpf, C., Feidenhans’l, R., Johnson, R. L., Jensen, F. and Grey, F., “Mapping strain fields in ultrathin bonded Si wafers by x-ray scattering”, Applied Physics Letters 80 (18), pp. 3412-3414 (2002) Quaade, U. J. and Oddershede, L., “Electrochemical etching of sharp tips for STM reveals singularity”, Europhysics Letters 57 (4), pp. 611-617 (2002) Rehder, J., Rombach, P. and Hansen, O., “Magnetic flux generator for balanced membrane loudspeaker”, Sensors and Actuators A-Physical 97-98C pp. 61-67 (2002) Publications 28 Journal articles Lægsgaard, J. and Stokbro, K., “Electronic structure and hyperfine parameters of substitutional Al and P impurities in silica”, Physical Review B 65 pp. 75208-75217 (2002) Taylor, J., Brandbyge, M. and Stokbro, K., “Theory of rectification in Tour wires: the role of electrode coupling”, Physical Review Letters 89 pp. 138301-1 138301-4 (2002) Kaun, C. C., Larade, B., Mehrez, H., Taylor, J. and Guo, H., “Current-voltage characteristics of carbon nanotubes with substitutional nitrogen”, Physical Review B 65 (20), pp. 205416-1 - 205416-5 (2002) Roland, C., Larade, B., Taylor, J. and Guo, H., “Ab initio I-V characteristics of short C-20 chains”, Physical Review B 65 (4), pp. 41401-1 - 41401-4 (2002) Thaysen, J., Yalçinkaya, A. D., Vettiger, P. and Menon, A., “Polymer-based stress sensor with integrated readout”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 35 pp. 26982703 (2002) Yu, X., Thaysen, J., Hansen, O. and Boisen, A., “Optimization of sensitivity and noise in piezoresistive cantilevers”, Journal of Applied Physics 92 pp. 62966301 (2002) Marx, E., Ginger, D. S., Walzer, K., Stokbro, K. and Greenham, N. C., “SelfAssembled Monolayers of CdSe Nanocrystals on Doped GaAs Substrates”, Nano Letters 2 pp. 911-914 (2002) Walzer, K., Stokbro, K., Quaade, U. J., Ginger, D. S. and Greenham, N. C., “Adsorption behaviour and currentvoltage characteristics of capped CdSe nanocrystals on hydrogen passivated silicon”, Journal of Applied Physics 92 pp. 1434-1440 (2002) Visser, M. M., Weichel, S., De Reus, R. and Hanneborg, A. B., “Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces”, Sensors and Actuators APhysical 97 (8), pp. 434-440 (2002) Yalçinkaya, A. D., Ravnkilde, J. T. and Hansen, O., “Fabrication of integrated metallic MEMS devices”, Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE) Electronics Letters 38 (24), pp. 1526-1527 (2002) Conf. proceedings Belleville, E., Aamand, J., Koch, C., Bruun, L., Lerstrup, K., Jakobsen, M. H. and Christensen, C. B. V., “Detection of Pesticides using Immuno-Microarrays”, International Symposium on Subsurface Microbiology (ISSM) Copenhagen, Denmark (2002) Brandbyge, M., Stokbro, K., Mozos, J. L., Taylor, J. and Ordejon, P., “Currentinduced forces in atomic gold wires”, Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2002) 179-180, Santiago de Compostela, Spain (2002) Brandbyge, M., Stokbro, K., Mozos, J. L., Taylor, J. and Ordejon, P., “Currentinduced forces in atomic gold wires”, Nano-7/Ecoss-21 Malmö, Sweden (2002) Brask, A., Goranovic, G. and Bruus, H., “The low-voltage cascade EOF pump: comparing theory with published data”, MicroTAS 2002, Kluwer Academic Publishers pp. 79-81, 1 Nara, Japan (2002) Brask, A., Goranovic, G. and Bruus, H., “Electroosmotically driven two-liquid viscous pump for nonconducting liquids”, MicroTAS 2002, Kluwer Academic Publishers pp. 145-147, 1 Nara, Japan (2002) Andersen, B. M., Hedegård, P. and Bruus, H., “Electronic checkerboard pattern in striped racetrak domains: a consistent picture of recent netron and STM experiments”, Physics and Chemistry of Molecular and Oxide Superconductors (MOS) Hsinchu, Taiwan (2002) Bøggild, P., Mølhave, K. and Hansen, T. M., “Nanotube Assembly Using Customised Nanotweezers”, International Conference on the Science and Application of Nanotubes (NT02) Boston, USA (2002) Gómez-Moñivas, S., Calleja, M., García, R. and Sáenz, J. J., “Electric Field effects on the formation and stability of nanometer size liquid bridges”, Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT) Santiago de Compostela, Spain (2002) Calleja, M., Anguita, J. V., García, F. and García, R., “Fabrication of a Field Effect Transistor by non-contact AFM oxidation”, Scanning Probe Microscopy, Sensors and Nanostructures (SPM) Las Vegas, USA (2002) Christensen, C. B. V., “Pesticide detection using Microarrays”, Lab-on-a chip and Microarrays Conference Zürich, Switzerland (2002) Pérez-Murano, F., Davis, Z. J., Abadal, G., Hansen, O., Borrisé, X., Boisen, A. and Barniol, N., “AFM characterization of a resonating nanocantilever”, Nano-7/ Ecoss-21 Malmö, Sweden (2002) Barniol, N., Abadal, G., Borrisé, X., PérezMurano, F., Verd, J., Villarroya, M., Davis, Z. J., Boisen, A., Campabadal, F., Figueras, E., Esteve, J., Monserrat, J., Nilsson, S. G., Maximov, I., Sarwe, E.-L. and Montelius, L., “A mass sensor with atto-gram sensitivity using resonating nanocantilevers”, Nano-7/Ecoss-21 Malmö, Sweden (2002) Pérez-Murano, F., Davis, Z. J., Forsén, E., Dong, M., Montserrat, J., Abadal, G., Borrisé, X., Hansen, O., Boisen, A. and Barniol, N., “Nanopatterning by AFM nano-oxidation of thin aluminum layers as a tool for the prototyping of nanoelectromechanical systems”, Microand nanoengineering (MNE) Lugano, Switzerland (2002) Dimaki, M. I., Ruseng, H., Fléron, R., Boubour, E. and Bøggild, P., “Design of microfabricated biocompatible multielectrode for single ion channel activity”, Nano-7/Ecoss-21 Malmö, Sweden (2002) Donarini, A., Ferrari, R., Jauho, A. P. and Molin, L., “Photon-mediated drag in double-layer electron gas”, 26 th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (ICPS-26) Edinburgh, UK (2002) El-Ali, J., Mogensen, K. B., PerchNielsen, I. R., Kutter, J. P., Telleman, P. and Wolff, A., “Integration of Polymer Waveguides for Optical Detection in Biochemical Microsystems”, MicroTAS 2002, Kluwer Academic Publishers pp. 260-262, Nara, Japan (2002) El-Ali, J., Perch-Nielsen, I. R., Poulsen, C. R., Telleman, P. and Wolff, A., “SU-8 based PCR chip with integrated heaters and thermometer”, Eurosensor XVI pp. 277-278, Prague, Czech Republic (2002) Publications 29 Geschke, O., Petersen, D., Varjo, S., Riekkola, M.-L. and Kutter, J. P., “Glass CE Microfluidic Devices with Monolithically Integrated Electrospray Tip for Coupling to MS”, The 13 th International Symposium on Capillary Electroseparation Techniques (ITP) Helsinki, Finland (2002) Hales, J. H., Pedersen, M., Fléron, R.W., Utah State University, “Two-Axis MOEMS Sun Sensor for Pico Satellites” Logan USA, (2002) Hansen, A. G., Boisen, A., Zhang, J., Wackerbarth, H., Andersen, J. E. T. and Ulstrup, J., “In Situ STM and nanoscale electronic function of redox metalloprotein monolayers on singlecrystal Au(111)-surfaces”, Nano-7/Ecoss21 Malmö, Sweden (2002) Hansen, T. M. and Bøggild, P., “Towards Nano-scale Conductivity Mapping”, Nano-7/Ecoss-21 Malmö, Sweden (2002) Rasmussen, F. E., Heschel, M. and Hansen, O., “Batch Processing of CMOS Compatible Feedthroughs”, Micro- and nanoengineering (MNE) Lugano, Switzerland (2002) Holmberg, M., Kühle, A., Garnæs, J. and Boisen, A., “Formation of self-assembled monolayers of short DNA molecules, investigated with in situ Atomic Force Microscopy”, Scanning Probe Microscopy, Sensors and Nanostructures (SPM) Las Vegas, USA (2002) Jensen, M. J., Goranovic, G. and Bruus, H., “Dynamics of bubbles in microchannels”, MicroTAS 2002, Kluwer Academic Publishers pp. 733-735, 2 Nara, Japan (2002) Jensen, M. F., Prichystal, J., Christensen, L. H., Meelby, T. and Geschke, O., “3D Characterization of Polymer Microstructures Formed by CO2 Laser Micromachining”, Eurosensors XVI pp. 100-104, Prague, Czech Republic (2002) Jensen, S. and Hansen, O., “Inverse Microloading Effect in Reactive Ion Etching of Silicon”, The International Symposium on Plasma Processing XIV Philadelphia, USA (2002) Jorgensen, A. M., Anachkina, D. and Geschke, O., “An integrated chemiluminescence detector for measuring enzymatically generated hydrogene peroxide”, MicroTAS 2002 891-894, Nara, Japan (2002) Jorgensen, A. M., Mogensen, K. B., Rong, W. and Kutter, J. P., “Biochemical microdevice with an integrated chemiluminescence detector”, The 6 th European Conference on Optical Chemical Sensors and Biosensors (Europt(r)ode VI) Manchester, UK (2002) A. Schönecker, D. Eikelboom, P. Manshanden, M. Gorris, P. Wyers, S. Roberts, T. Bruton, W. Jooss, K. Faika, A. Kress, R. Kühn, W. Neu, H. Knauss, P. Fath, F. Ferrazza, R. V. Nacci, E. van Kerschaver, S. de Wolf, J. Szlufcik, O. Leistiko, A. M. Jorgensen, S. W. Glunz, J. Dicker, D. Kray, J. Sölter, S. Schäefer, „ACE designs: The beauty of rear contact solar cells“, presented at 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, New Orleans, USA, 2002. Hansen, A. E., Kristensen, A. and Bruus, H., “Temperature dependent deviations from ideal quantization of plateau conductances in GaAs quantum point contacts”, 26th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (ICPS26) Edinburgh, UK (2002) Hansen, A. E., Kristensen, A. and Bruus, H., “Observation of novel temperature dependencies in the conductanc of quantum point contacts”, Nano-7/Ecoss21 Malmö, Sweden (2002) Ravnkilde, J. T., Larsen, K. P. and Henningsen, H., “Fabrication of Nickel Microshutter Arrays for Spatial Light Modulation”, Mesomechanics 161-165, 1 Aalborg, Denmark (2002) Larsen, K. P., Ravnkilde, J. T., Ginnerup, M. and Hansen, O., “Devices for Fatigue Testing of Electroplated Nickel”, MEMS pp. 443-446, Las Vegas, USA (2002) Lisby, T., Hansen, O. and Branebjerg, J., “Fabrication and characterization of Flexible Silicon Substrates with Electroplated Leads”, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Sensors conference (IEEE) pp. 568-571, Orlando, Florida, USA (2002) Lisby, T., Hansen, O. and Branebjerg, J., “Flexible silicon substrates with Cu leads and BCB dielectric”, Eurosensors XVI pp. 153-154, Prague, Czech Republic (2002) Westergaard, C., Klank, H. and Kutter, J. P., “Flow Mapping by PIV in Microstructures with Three-dimensional Flow Behavior”, Microfluidique Toulouse, France (2002) Kutter, J. P., Mogensen, K. B., Petersen, N. J., Jørgensen, A. M., Denninger, M., Hübner, J. and Geschke, O., “Integrated Optical Detection on Microfluidic Devices”, LabAutomation Palm Springs, CA, USA (2002) Kutter, J. P., Petersen, N. J. and Mogensen, K. B., “Performance of UV/ Vis Absorbance Detection on Miniaturized Separation Devices using Integrated Planar Waveguides”, The 13 th International Symposium on Capillary Electroseparation Techniques (ITP) Helsinki, Finland (2002) Jørgensen, H., Krogh, K. B. R., Kutter, J. P. and Olsson, L., “Analysis of Proteins in Complex Cultivation Samples Using Capillary Electrophoresis”, 22 nd International Symposium on the Separation of Proteins, Peptides and Polynucleotides (ISPPP) Heidelberg, Germany (2002) Marie, R., Christensen, C. B. V. and Boisen, A., “DNA immobilisator on gold surface for biosensors and microsystems; a fluorescense scanning study”, Microand nanoengineering (MNE) Lugano, Switzerland (2002) Marie, R., Christensen, C. B. V. and Boisen, A., “DNA immobilisator on gold surface for biosensors and microsystems; a fluorescense scanning study”, Medicon Vally Academy Conference (MVA) Malmö, Sweden (2002) Menon, A., “Lithography Implications in Magnetic Nanostructures for Digital Recording”, Micro- and nanoengineering (MNE) Lugano, Switzerland (2002) Mogensen, K. B., Petersen, N. J. and Kutter, J. P., “Integrated Planar Waveguides for Optical Detection in Biochemical Microsystems”, Mesomechanics 155-159, 1 Aalborg, Denmark (2002) Publications 30 Conf. proceedings Mogensen, K. B., Kwok, Y. C., Eijkel, J. C. T., Petersen, N. J., Manz, A. and Kutter, J. P., “Shah Convolution Fourier Transform Detection of Particle Velocities by using an Integrated 1x128 Planar Waveguide Beamsplitter”, MicroTAS 2002 pp. 636-638, Nara, Japan (2002) Mølhave, K., Mateiu, R., Dimaki, M., Hansen, T. M., Madsen, D. N. and Bøggild, P., “Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes on Microelectrodes by Nanomanipulation”, Nano-7/Ecoss-21 Malmö, Sweden (2002) Nilsson, D., Jensen, S., Kristensen, A. and Menon, A., “Silicon mold for casting polymer optics”, Micromechanics Europe (MME) pp. 111-114, Sinaia, Romania (2002) Nørholm, M., Prichystal, J., Snakenborg, D., Christensen, L. H. and Telleman, P., “Polymer Microstructures for Microarray Analysis”, SmallTalk San Diego, USA (2002) Workshops & courses Thaysen, J., Yalçinkaya, A. D., Vestergaard, R. K., Jensen, S., Mortensen, M. W., Vettiger, P. and Menon, A., “SU-8 Based Piezoresistive Mechanical Sensor”, MEMS pp. 320-323, Las Vegas, USA (2002) Brandbyge, M. The International Workshop on Total Energy Methods in Computational Condensed Matter Physics “Density Functional Method For Nonequilibrium Electron Transport” Tenerife, Spain. (2002) Thaysen, J., Hansen, O. and Menon, A., “A Polymer-Metal Composite Surface Stress Sensor”, 17th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites Purdue, USA (2002) Bøggild, P. Nordic Baltic Scanning Probe Microscopy Workshop “Nanohand: Expanding the Nano Toolbox” Tartu, Estonia (2002) Thaysen, J. and Boisen, A., “Translating molecular interaction into a nanomechanical signal”, Mesomechanics pp. 167-171, 1 Aalborg, Denmark (2002) Editor Kutter, J. P. “Special issue Miniaturization in analytical chemistry Preface” pp. 221-221 56 (2002) Petersen, D., Varjo, S., Geschke, O., Riekkola, M. L. and Kutter, J. P., “A New Approach for Fabricating a Zero Dead Volume Electrospray Tip for Non-aqueous Microchip CE-MS”, MicroTAS pp. 691693, Nara, Japan (2002) Rasmussen, P. A., Thaysen, J., Hansen, O., Eriksen, S. C. and Boisen, A., “Cantilever Biosensor with Integrated Read-out Optimised for Operation in Liquid”, Proceedings of Eurosensors XVI pp. 705-706, Prague, Czech Republic (2002) Rasmussen, P. A., Thaysen, J., Eriksen, S. C. and Boisen, A., “Optimised Cantilever Biosensor with Piezoresistive Read-out”, Scanning Probe Microscopy, Sensors and Nanostructures (SPM) pp. 41, Las Vegas, USA (2002) Rehder, J., Andersen, L. H., Rombach, P. and Hansen, O., “Magnetic reluctance change actuator for loudspeaker application”, Eurosensors XVI pp. 435436, Prague, Czech Republic (2002) Souza, F. M., Egues, J. C. and Jauho, A. P., “Spin-dependent quantum shot noise”, 26th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (ICPS-26) Edinburgh, UK (2002) Birkedal, D. and Jauho, A. P. “Proceedings of the 19th Semiconductor Meeting” Physica Scipta 242 pages T101 ISBN: 91-89621-07-7 Lyngby, Denmark (2002) Christensen, C. B. V. and Telleman, P. SmallTalk Conference - workshop on Microarrays “Microarrays and their applications” San Diego, USA (2002) Fléron, R.W. Workshop on Wafer Bonding, Barcelona “A MOEMS Sun Sensor Assembled with Self-Aligning Anodic Bonding”and Poulsen, M. “Structural Studies of Plasma Assisted Wafer Bonding” Barcelona, Spain (2002) Kutter, J. P., Nilsson, J. and Verpoorte, S. LabAutomation 2002 “Microfluidics” Palm Springs, USA (2002) Kutter, J. P., Jacobson, S. C., Hergenröder, R. and Ramsey, J. M. International Symposium on Microscale Separations and Analysis (HPCE) “Lab-on-a-Chip Systems” Stockholm, Sweden (2002) Kutter, J. P. and Verpoorte, S. Small Talk Conference “Microfluidics” San Diego, USA (2002) Kutter, J. P., Stemme, G., Van den Berg, A. and Verpoorte, S. Helsinki University of Technology “Microsystem Technology for Chemistry and the Life Sciences” Espoo, Finland (2002) Kutter, J. P. and Geschke, O. German Chemical Society (GDCh) “Analytical Chemistry on Microchips” Frankfurt, Germany (2002) Stokbro, K. The 10 th MEL-ARI/NID Workshop and Finnish Workshop on Nanoscience “First principles modelling of molecular Rectifiers” Helsinki, Finland (2002) Telleman, P. EuroBiochips “Design, Fabrication and Implementation of Microfluidics Systems” Berlin, Germany (2002) Publications 31 Talks & lectures Boisen, A. Danish Society for Biomedical Engineering “Nanomechanics as a diagnostic tool” Lyngby, Denmark (2002) Geschke, O. Medical Plastics 2002 “Polymeric Microsystems” Copenhagen, Denmark (2002) Boisen, A. General Physics Colloquia at Århus University “Micro-cantilevers as a tool for molecular recognition and adsorption studies” Århus, Denmark (2002) Gómez-Moñivas, S., Calleja, M., García, R. and Sáenz, J. J. IX International Summer School Nicolás Cabrera: Frontiers in Science and Technology: Molecular Electronics “Electric Field effects on the formation and stability of nanometer size liquid bridges” Madrid, Spain (2002) Brandbyge, M. Electronic Structure: Principles and Applications (ESPA2002) “First-principles simulations of quantum transport in nanoscale systems” Sevilla, Spain (2002) Brandbyge, M. Colloquium at IRSAMC, University Paul Sabatier “First-principles simulations of quantum transport in nanoscale systems” Toulouse, France (2002) Brandbyge, M. SIESTA developer/user meeting, Clark Hall, Cambridge University “Current-induced forces in atomic gold wires with TranSIESTA” Cambridge, UK (2002) Brandbyge, M. Kammerlingh Onnes Lab “Transport and current-induced forces in atomic wires from density functional theory” Leiden, Holland (2002) Bruus, H. Harvard University, Cambrigde (MA) “Forces on bubbles in contracting microchannels” USA (2002) Bruus, H. MIT, Cambridge (MA) “Microfluidics theory and simulation at MIC” USA (2002) Bøggild, P. 28th Heraus seminar: Quantum Transport through Nano-Wires, Point Contacts, and near Interfaces “Nanoscale conductivity mapping using four-point probe” Physik-Zentrum Bad Honnef, Germany (2002) Bøggild, P. University of Leiden “Manipulation and Soldering of Carbon Nanotubes” Leiden, The Netherlands (2002) Bøggild, P. University of Copenhagen “The Nanohand: Expanding the nano toolbox” Copenhagen, Denmark (2002) Jauho, A. P. Annual Meeting of the Finnish Physical Society “Moore’s Law: what challenges and opportunities does quantum physics present ?” Joensuu, Finland (2002) Madsen, D. N. The 2002 Fevik Meeting: Condensed Matter and Nano Materials “Nanomanipulation: Reaching into the World of Small,” Fevik, Norway (2002) Menon, A. Cambridge University “Engineering seminar: Integrated Microsystems using Functionalized Light Sensitive Polymers” Cambridge, UK (2002) Menon, A. ASME Conference on Redefining Mechanical Engineering and its impact on Engineering Education “Micro/ Nano Technologies and Mechanical Engineering” Clearwater Beach, FL, USA (2002) Jauho, A. P. Max-Planck Institut for Complex Systems “Mesoscopic Coulomb Drag” Dresden, Germany (2002) Menon, A. Danish Industry Conference on Nanotechnology “Nanotechnology Business of Today” Copenhagen, Denmark (2002) Jauho, A. P. Progress in Nonequilibrium Green’s Functions “Nonequilibrium Green function modeling of transport in mesoscopic systems” Dresden, Germany (2002) Menon, A. Purdue University Nanotechnology seminar “Microelectromechanical Systems Perspectives and Challenges” West Lafayette (2002) Kutter, J. P. Technical University of Siegen “Analytical Chemistry on Microchips: Challenges and Applications” Siegen, Germany (2002) Menon, A. Carnegie Mellon University, Data Storage Systems Center Seminar “Micro to Nano: Scaling the Future” Pittsburgh, USA (2002) Kutter, J. P. Dantec Dynamics “Microfluidics and Applications for Microfluidic Devices” Naestved, Denmark (2002) Menon, A. Royal Danish Military College Officers Training Course Lecture “Introduction to Nanotechnology” Copenhagen, Denmark (2002) Kutter, J. P. Lund Technical University “Microfluidic Devices for Analytical Chemistry: Condsiderations, Challenges and Possibilities” Lund, Sweden (2002) Stokbro, K. Carbon based molecular electronics “First principles modelling of molecular electronic devices” Great Malvern, UK (2002) Kutter, J. P. University of Tokyo “Integration of Optical Detection Elements on Microfabricated Analytical Devices” Tokyo, Japan (2002) Stokbro, K. EMRS spring meeting “First principles modelling of molecular electronic devices” Strasbourg, France (2002) Kutter, J. P. Novo Nordisk, Symbion “Micro-Total Analysis Systems Laboratories on a Chip” Copenhagen, Denmark (2002) Telleman, P. Philips Research “Micro Total Analysis Systems” Eindhoven, The Netherlands (2002) Madsen, D. N. Fysisk Institutet, Bergen Universitet “Micro and Nanotechnology: When Tiny is Way Too Big” Bergen, Norway (2002) Telleman, P. Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy “Micro Total Analysis Systems” Aarhus, Denmark (2002) Publications 32 Telleman, P. BioMEMS “Microfabrication in Polymers” Boston, USA (2002) Telleman, P. European Press Meeting “Sustainable Production: Nanotechnologies lead the way.” Kongens Lyngby, Denmark (2002) Telleman, P. „Microtechnology - Golden Opportunities ? New Technologies - New Challenges in Education - The MIC strategy“ Høje Taastrup, Denmark (2002) Telleman, P. Branchefællesskab for IT, tele-, elektronik- og kommunikationsvirkomsheder “The Mikroelektronik Centret” Nyborg, Denmark (2002) Telleman, P. Instituto Superior Tecnico, Department of Materials Engineering „Micro Total Analysis Systems“ Lisbon, Portugal (2002) Wolff, A. Danish Society for Biomedical Engineering “Laboratories on chip” Lyngby, Denmark (2002) Press 33 MIC in the press 10. jan. 2003, Ingeniøren: Sprøjtestøbte mikrosystemer på rekordtid 3. jun. 2002, Ingeniøren-net: Han sætter Danmark på nano-tek. verdenskort 2. feb. 2003, Nordjyske Stiftstidende: Mangemillionær i mikroverden maj. 2002, Biophotonics Research: Chemical sensors combine light and liquid 27. dec. 2002, Ingeniøren: Produktpris 2002 31.maj. 2002, Ingeniøren. Mikroteknologi bryder ud af laboratoriet 27. dec 2002, Ingeniøren: Mini-mikrofon i verdensklasse 31. maj.2002, Ingeniøren: Det mindste bliver det største 13. dec 2002, Ingeniøren: Danske producenter af print er truet fra øst 31. maj 2002, Ingeniøren: Mikrosensor i Grundfospumpe 09. dec 2002, Ingeniøren net: DTU bygger nyt til nanoteknologi 31. maj 2002, Ingeniøren: Han sætter Danmark på nano-tek. verdenskort 05. dec 2002, Nature: Soldering of nanotubes onto microelectrodes 31. maj 2002, Ingeniøren: Øresund skal være en stor nano-region 02. dec 2002, Berlingske Tidendes nyhedsmagasin: Det næste store hit er..... 25. nov. 2002, Aktuel Elektronik: MEMS-dag 14. okt. 2002, Politiken: Magtskifte på universiteter 09. okt. 2002, Berlingske: Mikroskopiske maskiner skaber industriel revolution 08. okt. 2002, MetroXpress: Milliarder til nano-teknologi 23. sep. 2002, Aktuel Elektronik: Alt for få så lyset i Bella Centret 03. sep. 2002, Børsen: EU sætter fokus på knapheden på IT-computancer sep. 2002, Alt om Data: Molekyle manden sep 2002, Aktuel Elektronik: Sensorer kombinerer intelligens med mikosystemer 23. aug. 2002, Ingeniøren: Blodanalyse på få sekunder 23. aug. 2002, Ingeniøren: Nyt renrum på DTU aug. 2002, Data-Tid: DNA styrer fremtidens computer aug. 2002, Miljø Horisont: Jon Wulff Petersen Risøs nye vicedirektør 22. jun. 2002, Information: Accepter forbrug-genforbrug 14. jun. 2002, Ingeniøren: Topscorer i spidsen for halvlederfabrik 26. apr. 2002, Berlingske: Forskere på valsen maj. 2002, Danvak Magasinet. Professor i nanoteknologi på DTU maj. 2002, Physics today: Quantum point contact Mysteries Reexamined apr. 2002, Dansk kemi: Første nanoteknologiprofessor på DTU 26. apr. 2002, Politiken: Fysikere i træningslejr til OL 31. maj 2002, Ingeniøren: Microcantilever 8. apr. 2002, Børsens nyhedsmagasin: Nye millarder til forskning 25. mar. 2002, Aktuel Elektronik: Chip med 128 reagensglas om bord 22. mar. 2002, Ingeniøren: Store muligheder for danske sensorer 8. mar. 2002, Ingeniøren: Professor i det mindste 28. feb. 2002, Berlingske Tidende: Første professor i nanoteknologi 15. feb. 2002, Politiken: Ole Olesen 4. feb. 2002, Ugemagasinet Industrien: Nanoteknologi-fremtidens forretning feb. 2002, Jyllands Posten: To gymnasieelever fro Risskov til Ol i fysik 25. jan. 2002, Ingeniøren: Nye nanouddanelser i Århus og København Management 34 MIC´s Management team: from left Vice Director, Lars Samuelsen, Industrial Relations and Innovations Manager, Aric K. Menon, Director, Pieter Telleman and Vice Director, Ejner Mose Hansen MIC Management Team: Pieter Telleman, Director Ejner Mose Hansen, Vice Director (Technical Support) Lars Samuelsen, Vice Director (Nanotechnology) Aric K. Menon, Professor (Industry and Innovation, Microtechnology) Faculty: Pieter Telleman, Professor Ejner Mose Hansen Lars Samuelsen, Professor Aric K. Menon, Professor Antti-Pekka Jauho, Professor Ole Hansen Flemming Jensen Jörg P. Kutter Anja Boisen Erik V. Thomsen Oliver Geschke Peter Bøggild Anders Kristensen Anders Wolff Mikkel F. Hansen Claus B. Christensen Mads Brandbyge Kurt Stokbro Henrik Bruus Board 2002: Børge Diderichsen, Director Novo Nordisk A/S (Chairman) Claus Elberling, General Manager, Research, Oticon Research Centre A/S Peter Elvekjær, Vice President, Group R & T, Grundfos Management A/S Mikael Ørum, General Partner, Ventac-Partners Helge Elbrønd Jensen, Dean of Studies,Technical University of Denmark Kristian Smistrup, Student Representative, Technical University of Denmark Associate Professor Ole Hansen, MIC Torben Støvhase Nielsen, MIC Scientific Council: Professor Martin A. Schmidt, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Dr. James McGroddy, Former Senior Vice President, Research, IBM Corporation Professor Andreas Manz, Imperial College, UK Professor Mark Welland, University of Cambridge, UK Special thanks to: Martin Dufva Erik V. Thomsen and students René Fléron and students JEOL Japan Students from the nanohand project SonionMEMS Mikroelektronik Centret (MIC) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), is a national research and development centre for micro- and nanotechnologies. Within this field, MIC is committed to educating scientists and engineers, conducting research on an internationally competitive level, and transferring new technologies to Danish industry through joint programmes.