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Oper ati on G e r tru d
contentS
THE GERMAN INVASION OF TURKEY
1.0 INTRODUCTION
2.0 COMPONENTS
3.0 SET UP
4.0 HOW TO WIN
5.0 SEQUENCE OF PLAY
6.0 STACKING
7.0 SUPPLY
8.0 ZONES OF CONTROL
9.0 MOVEMENT
10.0 REINFORCEMENTS
11.0 COMBAT
12.0 NAVAL GUNFIRE SUPPORT
13.0 COMBAT AIR SUPPORT
14.0 ULTRA
15.0 PARADROPS
16.0 MOUNTAIN UNITS
17.0 RAID ON THE GOEBEN
18.0 SCENARIOS
19.0 OPTIONAL RULES
ADDITIONAL COUNTERS &
RULES FOR WAW 43 & 47
creDitS
Design: Eric r. Harvey
Playtesters: Eric r. Harvey, Joseph
Miranda, John teixeira, John Beattie,
John Heim, david Bush, robert Stultz
Map Graphics: Joe Youst
Counter Graphics: Eric r. Harvey
Production: Chris Cummins
© 2016 decision Games
Bakersfield, Ca.
Made & Printed in the USa.
NOTE: to remove the rules from this
magazine, carefully and slowly peel
them from the subscription card they are
attached to by peeling from the top and
then the bottom meeting in the middle.
the card is not intended to be removed.
these rules use the following color system:
red for critical points such as errata and
exceptions, Blue for examples of play.
1.0 introDUction
Operation Gertrud is a speculative twoplayer wargame about a German invasion
of turkey during World War II. though the
historic course of events during World War
II precluded any likelihood that the Germans
would invade their erstwhile ally, it is
conceivable that a different turn of events,
under the right circumstances, could have
precipitated a German blitzkrieg into turkey.
to be sure, the turks were concerned about
this possibility and they endeavored to
remain quite neutral during most of the war
(although both Hitler and Churchill tried to
entice turkey to join their respective camps;
however, turkey—the “sick man of Europe”—
was too economically feeble to offer much
more than another front to fight over).
Unlike the World War I, the turks could
not hope to hold Istanbul (turkey’s most
commercial city) in the event of a war, and any
incursion by one side (axis or allied) would
certainly invite an incursion by the other.
Ironically, the turks were most concerned about
Soviets, but if Hitler had conceived a notion
to invade turkey, the Germans’ most daunting
challenge would be the allied response,
not necessarily the turkish army. that said,
however, the turks had been underestimated
during the previous world war, and so it’s
anyone’s guess how well they could have
faced up to the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe.
1.1 Scale
Each hex on the map equals ~36 miles (58
kilometers) from side to opposite side. Each
game turn represents about a week.
2.0 coMponentS
the components to a complete game of
Operation Gertrud include these rules,
one map sheet, and one counter sheet of
176 game pieces (16 are expansion game
pieces for Patton’s Third Army, World
at War #43 and Crete, World at War #47).
rules for these expansion counters are
found at the end of this rules booklet.
Players must provide themselves
with two standard six-sided dice to
resolve combat and other probabilistic
events that occur during play.
2.1 Map
the game map represents the militarily
significant terrain of turkey and the
Mediterranean region. a hexagonal (“hex”)
grid has been printed over it to regulate unit
placement and movement similar to the way
squares are used in chess and checkers. a unit
is always in only one hex at any one time.
Each hex contains natural and/or man-made
terrain features that may affect movement
and combat. Some of the map’s terrain
representations have been altered slightly from
their exact real-world configurations in order
to make them conform to the hex-grid, but
the terrain relationships from hex to hex are
accurate to the degree necessary to present
players with the same space-time dilemmas
that would be faced by the actual participants.
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Each hex on the map also has a unique four-digit number printed
in it which is provided to help you find specific locations referred
to in the rules (for example, the city of Istanbul is in 2709),
and to allow you to record unit positions if a match has to be
interrupted and taken down before it can be completed.
2.2 Counters
There are 160 counters in the game (also referred to as
“units” and “unit-counters”), most of which represent
combat formations; others are provided as memory aids and
informational markers. Carefully punch out the counters. Each
combat unit is printed with several pieces of information.
Historical ID
Nationality Color
(German)
Unit Type Symbol
(Armor)
Firepower
2.3 Sides & Nationalities
A unit’s nationality, and therefore its “side,”
is indicated by its color scheme.
German: Gray Turkish: Brown
Italian: Green
Soviet: Red
Allied: Tan
2.4 Unit Types
Units are distinguished by their specific type, listed as follows.
2.6 Movement Factor
Unlike most war games, the movement factor
of most units in the game is five (5).
The movement factor of the German Airborne or Kommando unit
in the game is only three (3) while moving like a normal land unit,
but they are capable of a special airborne movement (see 15.0).
2.7 Step Strength
Most units in the game have two “strength steps.” That’s an arbitrary
term used to express the ability of a unit to absorb a certain amount
of combat losses before ceasing to be an effective formation (a
measure of its “robustness” in current US Army jargon). If a unit
suffers a step loss, it’s flipped so its reduced side (the one with the
lower combat factor) shows upward. If an already-reduced unit takes
a step loss, it’s removed from the map (“eliminated”) and placed in
the “dead pile.” All units of both sides start the game, or enter play
later, at their full two-step strengths. No single unit has more than
two steps and no unit may ever give or loan a step to any other unit.
2.8 Other Counters
The uses of the following counters
are explained at appropriate points
throughout the rest of the rules.
3.0 Set Up
After determining who will play which side, both players should set up
the game according to the deployments listed under the scenarios. All
of the “set-up” units must be placed on the map as indicated (players
may not choose to enter any set-up units during later turns) and in
the hexes indicated, if any. Units that are merely required to be set
up anywhere in a particular region may be placed in that region only,
but never outside of that region (although such units may be stacked
together during set-up, if not in excess of stacking limits; see 6.0).
Some units are indicated in the scenarios as reinforcements,
meaning that will arrive in play at a certain location on later
game turns. Replacements (the ability to rebuild reduced units
back to their full strength) are quantified by each scenario.
Note: Some of the unit’s NATO symbolism do not correspond
with their actual historic structure in all scenarios, since
each scenario represents a different period of the war.
2.5 Combat Factor
Any unit printed with a number is a unit that is capable of conducting
land combat attacks and defending itself against enemy land combat
attacks. For example, a German fallschirmjaeger division is printed with
“8,” meaning that it possesses a firepower of “8” during combat.
3.1 Close Air Support (C.A.S.) and Naval
Gunfire Support (N.G.S.) Markers
Both sides receive CAS and NGS markers to be used during the
scenario. These markers do not exist on the map, but rather are
simply placed off to the side in separate piles to be selected and
used by their owning player during the Combat Phase of each turn.
Each CAS and NGS marker may be used once per turn, after
which it is returned to its off-map pile (assuming it wasn’t
eliminated) to be available again during the next turn.
CAS units that were eliminated are eligible to be replaced with
available replacement points; one replacement point will replace
one CAS. Eliminated NGS units cannot ever be replaced, however.
3.2 ULTRA Markers
The Allied player is provided with four ULTRA markers at the
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beginning of any scenario. ULTRA markers represent the British cypher
code-breaking efforts during the war, and can affect land combat
and/or air combat (depending on how they are apportioned).
The British player must decide how his ULTRA markers will
be used during a game turn; he can use them to influence
land combat or air combat (but not naval combat). Each
ULTRA marker can be used for only one purpose during a
game turn. When an ULTRA marker is expended during
a combat engagement, it is removed from the map (regardless of the
result) for the remainder of that scenario. It cannot be used again.
3.3 Reinforcement Arrival
Reinforcements, when they arrive on the map, must arrive where
indicated. If a reinforcement unit cannot arrive where indicated due to
the presence of any enemy unit(s), or stacking restrictions, its entry is
delayed until the next game turn when it can enter the map legally.
3.4 Free Deployment Set-up (Optional)
The game’s standard set-up is based on historic assignments, but it’s
not unreasonable to expect the Turks to redeploy as necessary if they’d
perceived war clouds gathering. As such, players may agree to allow
the Turkish player to set up all of his units for the current scenario in any
hexes within Turkey that he prefers, provided that all other rules (such
as stacking) are observed. However, no Turkish unit may be set up in
the Yavuz hex (2611), and no more than 15 Turkish units may be set up
between Istanbul and the Bulgarian or Greek border. Moreover, at least
five Turkish units must be set up within five hexes of the Soviet border.
Every allowable action performed by a player may only be
carried out during the appropriate part of the sequence outlined
below. Once a player has finished a particular activity, he may
not go back to perform some forgotten action or redo a poorly
executed one unless his opponent graciously permits it.
5.1 Game Turn Sequence
The game turn sequence is tabulated below. The sequence of play
must be followed in strictly the order presented, as follows:
Administrative Segment
A. Flip all surviving CAS air units from their OOS sides
to their front support side, and all surviving NGS naval
units from their In Port sides to their front side.
B. Check to see if the Yavuz sinks per 17.0.
B. Allied Interdiction Placement Phase
The Allied player may place CAS units atop German land
units to interdict their movement. Pending reinforcements
may not be interdicted, however (see 13.7).
4.0 How to Win
The German player wins the game based on the number
of objective hexes that are presently occupied by
German units at the end of each game turn.
Victory is assessed at the end of each game turn (during the End of
Turn Phase); the German player must roll two six-sided dice (modified
per 4.1). If the result of that dice roll is less than (<) the number of
objective hexes that are currently occupied by any German land units,
the German player wins the game immediately. If the result of that
dice roll is equal to or higher than (>) the number of objective hexes
that are currently occupied by any German units, there is no effect
and the game continues to the next turn. If the German player has
not won the game by the end of the last game turn, he loses.
4.1 German Victory Conditions Dice Modifiers
When the German player rolls two dice to determine if he has
achieved a victory, his dice roll must be modified as per the scenario
he is playing, and by specific casualties incurred, listed as follows:
5.0 Sequence of Play
Each game turn is divided into two distinct “player turns”, one
German and one Allied. That sequence makes up one full “game
turn”, of which there are a maximum of ten in an entire game of
Operation Gertrud. The German turn is always the first player turn
in every game turn. At the very end of every completed game turn,
move the Game Turn marker forward one box on the Turn Track.
German Player Turn
A. German Replacement Phase
The German player may replace eligible units (see 10.0).
Any Turkish units that are indicated as “(reduced)”
in the current scenario must be set up reduced just
the same when using a free deployment.
If playing the Early 1941 scenario (easy scenario)
If playing the Late 1941 scenario
If playing the Early 1942 scenario
If playing the Late 1942 scenario
If playing the Early 1943 scenario (difficult scenario)
Per German air currently eliminated (at turn's end) +1
Per German armor currently eliminated (at turn's end) +1
+0
+1
+2
+3
+4
C. German Movement & Reinforcement Phase
Determine if any German units are out of supply (see 7.0).
The German player may move any non-interdicted German
land units that are present on the map and enter any
reinforcements per 3.0. Reinforcements that arrive in specific
hexes may move their full movement immediately.
D. German Combat Phase
The German player may designate any of his land units to attack any
enemy land units that they are currently adjacent to (see 11.0).
Allied Player Turn
A. Allied Replacement Phase
The Allied player may replace eligible units (see 10.0).
B. German Interdiction Placement Phase
The German player may place CAS units atop Allied land
units to interdict their movement. Pending reinforcements
may not be interdicted, however (see 9.4).
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C. Allied Movement & Reinforcement Phase
determine if any allied units are out of supply (see 7.0).
the allied player may move any non-interdicted allied land units that
are present on the map, and enter any reinforcements scheduled
to arrive this game turn per 10.0. reinforcements that arrive in
specific hexes may move their full movement immediately.
D. Allied Combat Phase
the allied player may designate any of his land units to attack any
enemy land units that they are currently adjacent to (see 11.0).
E. End of Game Turn Phase
If the Germans have captured enough objectives to possibly achieve
a victory, the German player must roll two dice, once during each End
of Game turn Phase, to determine if he has won the game (see 4.0).
If the German player has not won the game, move the Game
turn marker on the turn track to the next higher box.
6.0 StacKinG
“Stacking” is the term used to describe the piling of more than one
friendly unit in a hex at the same time. the general rule is, both players
may stack no more than five land units of any type in any hex at one
time. Stacking may be temporarily exceeded during movement only
(as in when a unit is simply moving through another friendly stack’s
hex, whether during normal movement or during a retreat). However,
if the stacking limit in any hex is exceeded after a unit’s movement or
retreat is complete, the owning player must then immediately eliminate
enough units (of his choice) from that hex to be within stacking limits.
7.0 SUpply
all land units on the map must be in supply to avoid penalties. to qualify
as “in supply,” the owning player must be able to demonstrate a path
of contiguous land hexes from each of his own units to any friendly city
hex at the end of his own Movement Phase. this path of hexes may
follow any route of any length to a friendly city hex, but only if it does
not enter any enemy land unit’s hex or any enemy unit’s Zone of Control.
Exception: a supply path may always enter a friendly unit’s hex,
even if that hex is within an enemy unit’s Zone of Control.
7.1 Terrain Restriction
a supply path may not enter any mountain hex
except via a path of connected roads.
a supply path may only cross a river hexside if that
hexside is traversed by a road or railroad symbol.
a supply path may cross a strait hexside, but only if friendly
units presently occupy both sides of that same hexside, and only
if there is no allied naval unit in that hex at that moment.
Note: Terrain has no effect on stacking.
6.1 Stack Movement
Units may move as stacks, and may even move through other
friendly units and/or stacks without violating stacking limits per 6.0
above. Units moving as a stack are not required to move together
as a stack, or are required to remain together as a stack during their
movement; some units in a stack may be stopped as other units
continue moving on, and/or some units in a stack may even split off
and move in multiple directions (moving players must be careful to
remember each unit’s movement point expenditure as they split off).
However, no stack may ever pick up another unit as it is moving;
units moving as a stack must begin their movement as a stack.
6.2 Stacking Irrelevancy
Stacking limits never apply to CaS, NGS or other play aid
or informational markers (such as out of Supply markers);
only land units are subject to stacking restrictions.
7.2 Out of Supply
If, at the end of a unit’s own Movement Phase, any particular unit(s)
cannot demonstrate a supply path per 7.0 above, place an out
of Supply marker on any such unit at that time. that unit will be
considered out of supply (with all attendant effects; see 7.3, and 7.4)
until the moment that a valid path of supply can be demonstrated.
Each unit is subject to its own out of supply circumstance.
Multiple out-of-supply units in the same hex don’t
affect each other negatively or positively.
7.3 Out of Supply Effects
If a unit is currently out-of-supply (marked with an out of
Supply marker), its movement is simply halved (rounded down)
to two (2), or one (1) for airborne/Kommando units.
6.3 The Ascendency of Airpower (No Fog of War)
representing the abundance of reconnaissance aircraft available
to both sides (even including the turks), both players are always
free to know exactly what comprises any stack of units.
6.4 Allied Stacking Restriction
Under no circumstances may Soviet units ever stack with any
other non-Soviet units (except temporarily during movement).
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Straits are only traversable at designated hexes.
If an out-of-supply unit attacks or is attacked, its combat factor
is also simply halved (rounded down) during that combat.
a unit that remains out of supply suffers no further effects; no unit
becomes reduced or eliminated solely because it is out of supply.
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7.4 Air Supply
If a unit or stack becomes out of supply during its own Movement
Phase (marking it with an Out of Supply marker), the owning player
may immediately declare a “Supply Drop” by voluntarily eliminating
one of his own CAS air units during that same Movement Phase.
That eliminated air unit is removed from the game permanently,
and that Out of Supply marker is removed from that out of supply
land unit or stack. That out-of-supply land unit or stack is therefore
considered to be in supply until the next friendly Movement Phase
despite no demonstrable supply path to a friendly supply source.
As of the next friendly Movement Phase, if that unit or stack
cannot demonstrate a supply path, it will become out-ofsupply again normally. However, the owning player may
eliminate yet another friendly CAS air unit to declare another
supply drop if he has any CAS air units available to do so.
A player may declare as many supply drops as he desires
assuming he has enough CAS air units to do so.
7.5 Friendly Supply Sources
All Turkish cities are considered friendly supply sources to all Turkish
units. All cities in Bulgaria and Greece are considered friendly
supply sources to all German and Italian units. All cities in the
Soviet Union are considered friendly supply sources to all Soviet
units. All cities in the Levant, Lebanon, and Cyprus (but not Iraq) are
considered friendly supply sources to all non-Soviet Allied units.
Captured enemy supply sources never provide supply while captured.
7.6 Supply Exemptions
Four specific German units do not ever require supply
and never suffer from out of supply effects, as follows:
Armenian, Kommando, Kurd and Muslim.
8.2 Airborne Exception
The German airborne unit (7th Flieger) may always ignore
the Zone of Control of all other enemy units.
8.3 Kommando Exception
The German Kommando unit may always ignore the
Zone of Control of all other enemy units.
8.4 ZOC Effect upon Supply
A supply path may not be demonstrated into or through any enemy
unit’s ZOC unless that hex is also occupied by any friendly land unit.
9.0 Movement
During a friendly Movement Phase, friendly land units may be moved
individually or as stacks from their current hex (the hex they began
the Movement Phase occupying) to an adjacent hex or a path of
connected hexes up to the limit of each unit’s movement allowance.
No unit is ever required to move, or even move the full distance of
hexes it is capable of moving (except when retreating; see 11.1), and
the owning player is free to move only some or all of units own land
units, assuming they are otherwise capable of legal movement.
The movement allowance of every land unit in the game is expressed
as “movement factors.” Each unit possesses a movement factor
of five (5), or three (3) if it is an Airborne or Kommando unit.
As each unit is moved on the map, it must expend movement
factors; the amount of movement factors it must expend
depends on the type of hex (terrain) it enters (and crosses, if
crossing a river hexside). The movement cost for each type
of hex is listed on the Terrain Key printed on the map.
Exception: Airborne units always ignore terrain movement
costs when conducting a paradrop (see 15.0).
8.0 Zones of Control
The six hexes immediately surrounding any hex containing one or
more land units constitute the “Zone of Control” (ZOC) of the unit(s)
in that hex. Zones of Control extend across all hex sides and into all
types of terrain (except non-land hexsides). All land units of both
sides project their ZOC at all times and in all supply states. There’s
no difference in effect between Zones of Control projected by units
of different sides or nationalities into the same hex; opposing units
always simultaneously project their ZOC into the same adjacent hexes.
Note: CAS and NGS units never project any ZOC, and
are likewise never affected by an enemy ZOC.
8.1 Effect of Enemy Zones of Control
When any land unit enters an enemy unit’s Zone of Control, it
must end its movement immediately (regardless of its movement
before then) for that Movement Phase. If a unit begins its
movement within an enemy unit’s Zone of Control, that unit may
exit that ZOC without effect, but it must then stop immediately
if it subsequently enters any enemy unit’s Zone of Control.
If a hex contains multiple types of terrain, the terrain that imposes
the highest movement cost is used to expend movement factors
(except in the case of roads; see 9.1 below). In some cases on the
Terrain Key, a certain terrain type will list “Other Terrain in Hex”;
this indicates that the background terrain or road terrain is used
to expend movement factors when a land unit enters that hex).
No land unit is ever required to expend all of the movement factors it
possesses during movement, but once its movement is completed, it
may not move again later during that same Movement Phase (such as
when a land unit had moved up to—but was blocked by—some other
friendly stack that subsequently moved). For this reason, players should
consider the order of their units’ moves carefully each Movement Phase.
9.1 Road Movement
Hexes that are printed with roads permit land movement per
the road movement cost (1 MP per road from a road) rather than
the other terrain feature(s) printed in that hex. However, the
road movement cost only applies to a unit that is moving from
a road hex to an adjacent hex via a connected road symbol.
Note: The additional river movement cost doesn’t
apply when crossing a river via a road.
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If a land unit enters a road hex from a non-road (or disconnected
road) hex, the terrain cost to enter that road hex is per
the other type of background terrain in that hex.
For all movement purposes, a railroad is also considered to be a road
during game play. There is no functional difference between the two.
There is no limit to the number of Turkish units that may be railed
during any single game turn, provided that any Turkish unit that
is moving by rail begins its movement and ends its movement
on a rail hex. No other nationality (even Turkish-allied units,
or even if captured) may utilize Turkish rail movement.
Turkish rail movement is liable to be interdicted normally (see 13.7).
9.2 Movement Restrictions
Movement factors may not be accumulated from turn to turn
nor may they be shared or loaned by any unit to another. If a
land unit lacks enough movement factors to enter a particular
hex, it cannot enter that hex and any movement factors that are
not used by a land unit during a Movement Phase are lost.
As any land unit is moved, it may not ever jump or skip hexes along its
movement route; a land unit may only move by entering a succession
of connected hexagons, paying the movement cost for the type
of terrain in that hex (see the Terrain Key printed on the map).
10.0 Reinforcements
Reinforcements arrive during a player’s own Movement Phase, either
by entering the map (in which case they begin paying movement
costs as of the first hex they enter) or by arriving on the map in
a specific hex (in which case they can begin moving from there,
although they don’t pay movement costs for the hex they arrive in).
Under no circumstances may any land unit ever enter any enemy
land unit’s present hex. Furthermore, if a land unit (except
Airborne type units) enters any enemy land unit’s ZOC, it must
end its movement immediately for the remainder of that turn.
Reinforcements, when they arrive on the map, must arrive where
indicated by the reinforcement schedule (furthermore, reinforcement
arrivals may not be purposefully delayed). If a reinforcement unit
cannot arrive where indicated due to the presence of any enemy
unit(s), or stacking restrictions, its entry is delayed until the next
game turn when it can enter the map legally. Mere ZOC doesn’t
prevent a reinforcement’s arrival (although that reinforcement would
be required to end its movement in an enemy ZOC hex normally).
Units that have been successfully interdicted (see 13.7) lose half of
their movement factors (rounded down) during that ensuing Movement
Phase. Interdiction does not affect a unit’s ability to retreat, however.
Reinforcements always enter the map supplied even if
they move into a position that puts them out of supply
immediately (such as could occur with an Airborne unit).
No land unit may ever exit the map once it is on the map. If any land unit
is forced to retreat off of the map, it is eliminated permanently instead.
Both players may generally enter reinforcements via any
friendly-controlled and overland-supplied city hexes that
have no enemy units adjacent to them at the time.
9.3 Minimum Movement
A land unit is always entitled to move at least one hex
even if its movement factors have been reduced below the
movement cost of surrounding or accessible terrain.
9.4 Rivers
When moving across a river hexside, an additional movement factor (+1)
must be expended by the moving land unit (in addition to the movement
cost to enter the terrain in the hex on the other side of that river hexside)
except where a road or railroad is printed astride that river hexside.
9.5 Retreats
Retreat movement only occurs during the Combat Phase
and doesn’t require the expenditure of movement factors.
Terrain movement costs are ignored as well, although all
other movement restrictions apply nonetheless (see 9.2).
9.6 Turkish Rail Movement
If a Turkish unit began its movement on a railroad hex, its Movement
Factor is tripled if that Turkish unit began its Movement Phase nonadjacent to any enemy units, and if it does not move adjacent to any
enemy units (even those that do not possess a ZOC) during the entirety
of its movement (including where it ends its movement), and provided
that its entire movement is via a series of contiguous railroad hexes.
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10.1 Amphibious Assault
No amphibious assaults are permitted in the game. That is to
say, no unit (not even the Italian San Marco marine unit) may
be placed directly upon any enemy unit in a coastal hex even
if a particular unit is scheduled to arrive on a coastal hex.
Note that an amphibious “landing” on an undefended
coastal hex is not an amphibious assault by definition.
10.2 Replacements
Once per game turn, during his own Replacement Phase, a player
may be permitted to rebuild reduced and/or eliminated land units
and CAS air units (but never NGS units). Replacements are always
expressed in terms of “steps” and vary for each side from one
scenario to the next (see the Replacement Chart printed with each
scenario). For instance, if playing the “Early 1941” scenario, the
German player receives two replacement steps to rebuild German
reduced and/or eliminated units. He may either rebuild two reduced
units or replace one eliminated unit. In any case, this only ever occurs
during the Replacement Phase of a player’s own game turn.
Replacements cannot be accumulated from turn to turn, nor can
they be reapportioned once they are received, and any eligible
replacement that is not used is forfeited permanently (as might happen
if there are no reduced or eliminated units to rebuild that turn).
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Note: No unit that is within any enemy land unit’s ZOC or marked with
an Out of Supply marker, may be rebuilt while that condition exists.
To rebuild a friendly reduced unit, the owning player simply flips it
over to its front side in its present hex (and thus this would require
one step from among the replacement steps allotted for that side
on the Replacement Chart for that turn). To rebuild an eliminated
unit, the owning player simply places that unit in any friendly city
hex that is not within any enemy land unit’s ZOC (and only if this
would not exceed the stacking limit in that hex). An eliminated unit
may be rebuilt as a reduced unit (thus requiring one step) or a fullstrength unit (thus requiring two steps). In any case, once a unit is
rebuilt, it continues to function normally immediately thereafter.
10.3 CAS Replacements
A player may use allotted replacements to rebuild any
eliminated CAS air units during his own Replacement
Phase. Each replacement point permits the rebuilding
of one friendly eliminated CAS air unit, regardless of
the causality (air supply, a land combat result, or air
combat). When any CAS air unit is rebuilt, it will become available for
use again during that same game turn (until it is eliminated again).
Replacement points cannot be saved or accumulated from turn
to turn. They are only available during the Replacement Phase
of the turn indicated on the Replacement Chart. If some or any
of them are not used, they are simply forfeited permanently.
To resolve an attack, the attacking player’s must
follow the attack procedure, listed as follows.
1) Determine the Attack Odds
Count and add up all of the defending unit’s combat factors in the hex
where the attack has been declared. Then, count and add up all of the
combat factors of every eligible attacking unit that will be attacking that
hex (which may include stacks, if any). No unit is ever required to attack
(even if in the same stack), and so the attacking player may choose
to attack with some of his adjacent units and not others if he prefers.
However, every defending unit that is stacked together in the same hex
must be attacked as one combined total (the attacker may not choose
to only attack some of the defending units in a hex, but not others).
Note: Each land unit’s combat factor is always entirely retained
to itself. No land unit’s combat factor may ever be shared,
divided, loaned, or given to any other land unit than itself, or
assigned to any other hex than the hex it presently occupies.
Next, divide the attacker’s total combat factors (that will be attacking
the defender’s hex) by the defender’s total combat factors (round
down any fractions), and then multiply that value by 100; the net
result is the combat odds which is expressed as a percentage.
Remember that the combat factor of any unit that is marked with an Out
of Supply marker is halved (see 7.3) whether it is attacking or defending.
10.4 ULTRA Marker Irreplaceability
ULTRA markers, once used, cannot be replaced.
11.0 Combat
During a player’s own Combat Phase, that player may (but is never
required to) announce an attack with any of his own eligible land
unit(s) that are presently adjacent to any enemy land unit(s) that are
occupying any hex(es) on the map (if otherwise legal to do so). That
player may announce as many such attacks as he desires, but he is
not required to commit to all of his intended attacks at the outset of
his Combat; he may simply declare one attack at a time (in any order
he chooses). Indeed, when any attack is declared, the announcing
player must resolve that attack to completion before beginning the
next attack, if any. Moreover, a player may cease attacking at any time
during his own Combat Phase, at which time his Combat Phase ends.
Note: Any attack that has been announced can never be cancelled
once either player has committed any CAS or NGS to that attack or
once the attack die roll has been rolled, whichever occurs first.
To declare an attack, the attacking player declares which unit(s) from
his own side will be attacking and into which enemy-occupied hex. All
units that will be attacking an enemy-occupied hex must be currently
adjacent to that hex at the moment that the attack will occur, but any
particular enemy-occupied hex can be attacked by a combination of
any or all of the attacking units in any of the hexes that are next to
that enemy-occupied hex, assuming the attack is otherwise legal.
Note: Any friendly units of the same side may participate in the same
attack, except Soviet units, which may never participate in an attack
with any other nationality. Moreover, only the Soviet CAS and/or
NGS units may support a Soviet attack (or defense, for that matter).
Regardless of the actual combat odds (and shifts; see below), no attack
can ever be resolved at more than 600% (the 600% column) on the
Combat Table. Conversely, however, an attack is always resolved at 49%
(the 49% column) if the actual combat odds (and shifts) is less than that.
2) Declare Naval Gunfire Support
Once the combat odds have been determined, but only if the attack
is occurring in a coastal hex, the attacker and then the defender
may choose to add a single NGS naval unit from their off-map
inventory of naval units (if any remain) directly atop the land combat
coastal hex (whereupon the attack had been declared) provided
that the NGS naval unit has not already been used during that game
turn for any reason. The attacker must always decide before the
defender and he cannot alter his decision after the defender has
decided (see 12.0). If both players have added naval support to an
impending combat, naval combat must be resolved (see 12.2).
Next, if a naval unit from either side has survived that naval combat,
that surviving naval unit may shift the combat odds one column
in the favor of his compatriot land units (shift one column left if
the surviving naval unit is friendly to the defender, or shift one
column right if the surviving naval unit is friendly to the attacker).
This is known as the naval gunfire supported combat odds.
3) Declare Combat Air Support
Once the combat odds have been determined, the attacker and then
the defender may also choose to add a single CAS air unit from their
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off-map inventory of air units (if any remain) directly atop the land
combat hex (whereupon the attack had been declared) provided
that the CAS air unit has not already been used during that game
turn for any reason. The attacker must always decide before the
defender and he cannot alter his decision after the defender has
decided (see 13.0). If both players have added air support to an
impending combat, air combat must be resolved (see 13.1).
If there is only one air unit from either side present in the same coastal
hex as an enemy NGS naval unit (after air combat has been resolved in
that coastal hex, if any), that NGS unit is automatically and immediately
eliminated (it has been sunk by the air unit). A NGS naval unit that is
eliminated (sunk) is not eligible to be rebuilt with replacement points.
In any case, if an air unit from either side has survived air combat
(whether or not that air unit sank an NGS naval unit), that surviving
air unit may shift the combat odds one column in the favor of his
compatriot land units (shift one column left if the surviving air unit is
friendly to the defender, or shift one column right if the surviving air
unit is friendly to the attacker). This is known as the air supported
combat odds. If a coastal hex contains both a friendly air and naval unit,
then those two markers may combine their shifts in the favor of their
compatriot land units (shifting two columns left or right, respectively).
Note: An air unit, regardless of nationality, may be used to support
any other friendly nationalities land units with the exception of
Soviet units. Soviet air units may only support Soviet land units
and Soviet land units may only be supported by Soviet air units.
4) Terrain Combat Shift
After determining the supported combat odds, if any, the players
must determine what type of defensive terrain exists in the combat
hex. The type of terrain in that hex may impose leftward combat
shifts upon the attackers; consult the Terrain Key and crossreference the same terrain symbol row with the “Combat Shifts”
column to determine what additional leftward combat shifts must
be applied to the combat odds (or the supported combat odds, if
any surviving air unit is present in that combat hex). Use the single
most defensible terrain if there are multiple types of terrain within
the same hex. This is known as the terrain-adjusted combat odds.
Note: If there is also a river symbol between any attacking unit (even
only one attacking unit) and the defender’s hex, an additional leftward
column shift must be added to whatever terrain is in the defender’s hex.
5) Surrounded Shift
If there are at least two adjacent attacking units on exactly opposite
sides of a defender’s hex (and if it is legal to attack from both
sides), that defender is considered surrounded regardless of the
terrain, shifts, or combat factors. If the defender is surrounded,
the attacker automatically imposes a one-column rightward shift
(in addition to all other applicable shifts) to the Combat Table.
6) Blitzkrieg Bonus Shift
If the Blitzkrieg Bonus has not been lost following the raid on the
Goeben (see 17.0), the German player automatically imposes a
one-column rightward shift (in addition to all other applicable
R8
shifts) to the Combat Table when attacking. The Blitzkrieg
Bonus is only applicable during the first game turn, however.
The Blitzkrieg Bonus has no effect when the German player is defending.
7) ULTRA Shift
If the Allied player declares the usage of an ULTRA marker just prior to
resolving combat, the Allied player automatically imposes a one-column
shift (in addition to all other applicable shifts) to the Combat Table
when attacking (rightward) or defending (leftward); see 14.0. After
resolving that combat, that ULTRA marker is expended (permanently)
and removed from the game (regardless of the outcome of that combat).
8) Combined Arms Shift
After determining all other shifts (and regardless of any other shifts
such as terrain), if an attack involves at least three different types of
combat units (regardless of their types; for example, infantry, armor,
mechanized, mountain, airborne, marine, motorized, and/or cavalry), the
attacker automatically imposes a one-column rightward shift (in addition
to all other applicable shifts) to the Combat Table.
9) Resolve Combat
Once the final combat odds column has been determined, combat
is ready to be resolved. The attacking player now simply refers to
the Combat Results Table printed on the map, rolls a single sixsided die, and then cross-references that die roll result (as listed
along the leftmost column of the Combat Results Table) with the
final odds column. This cross-referenced letter code is known as
the combat result and it dictates the outcome of that attack. Each
type of letter code is different and each is explained by the chart
printed on the map to the right of the Combat Results Table.
Note: CAS and NGS are never affected by
land combat results except per 13.6.
10) After the Battle
When combat is concluded against a particular enemy-occupied hex,
after the results have been implemented, any surviving attacking
units are not eligible to conduct any further attacks during that same
game turn. Likewise any surviving defending units are not eligible
to be attacked again during that same game turn (not even by other
enemy units that had not yet conducted any attacks that turn). Any
retreats that were required by a combat result must be implemented
immediately (see 11.1), and any advances after combat that the attacker
intends to conduct must be implemented immediately after that. Then,
another combat elsewhere on the map, if any, can begin per 11.0.
Place a combat engagement marker atop any units that participated
in combat (as the attacker or defender) as a mnemonic.
11.1 Retreating
If the attacking or defending player is required (or permitted) to
retreat, that retreat must be to an adjacent hex (of the owning
player’s choice) immediately after the combat resolution. The
adjacent hex must be legally enterable by that unit (for example, it
must not be occupied by any enemy land unit, not into a hex that
will become over-stacked as a result of that retreat, not off the
map’s hex grid, and not into a hex within any enemy land unit’s
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ZOC even if a friendly ZOC is also present in that hex), and must be
into terrain that is not prohibited to that unit. A retreat requires no
movement expenditure; it is simply an automatic move into a legally
adjacent hex, but any unit that is unable to retreat for any reason—if
required to retreat—must be eliminated immediately instead.
If a stack of land units is retreating, that stack may retreat
together into the same hex or each land unit may retreat into a
separate hex, assuming each such hex is legally enterable.
11.3 Advance After Combat
In some cases when all of the defending units have been removed
from a combat hex (as a result of a DE result
elimination), any of the surviving attacking units (that
participated in the attack) may be eligible to enter
that combat hex as an advance after combat, thereby
possessing and controlling that hex (regardless of
enemy ZOC, if any). An advance after combat requires no movement
expenditure; it is simply a voluntary move into a vacant combat hex,
but it must occur immediately after that hex has been vacated.
Only as many surviving land units as could legally stack in that hex
may advance after combat there. No advance after combat is ever
required, but if a combat result allows an advance after combat, the
owning player always decides which of his units, if any, will advance
into the combat hex. If a player chooses not to advance some or
any of his units, he cannot subsequently change his mind later.
11.4 Armor Advance After Combat
Defender Retreat (DR) combat results permit the attacking side
to advance after combat normally, but only armor type units (that
participated in that combat) may advance after combat after a DR result.
Motorized type units (for example, the Grossdeutchland unit)
are not considered armored units at this time in the war.
12.0 NAVAL GUNFIRE SUPPORT (NGS)
Both sides are provided with Naval Gunfire Support (NGS) markers
that represent naval assets to support operations. The quantity of
NGS naval units that each side will receive at the beginning of the
game is determined by the scenario being played (see 18.0). Additional
NGS naval units will be received as replacements (see 10.2).
All NGS naval units are kept off the map until they are used. Whenever
a land combat is announced in a coastal hex by either player, both
players may choose to use one of their own NGS naval units (and
never more) to support that land combat on behalf of their own land
units there. The attacker must always decide first if he will be using
a NGS naval unit to support his attack, followed by the defender.
Note: NGS naval units, when they appear on the map,
do not affect stacking, nor do they project any ZOC.
When a particular land combat is announced upon an eligible coastal
hex (see 12.1), but before a land combat die roll is rolled, the attacker
and then the defender may choose to add a single NGS naval unit
from their off-map inventory of naval units (if any remain) directly
atop the land combat coastal hex (whereupon the attack has been
declared) provided that the NGS naval unit has not already been
used during that game turn for any reason. The NGS naval unit
does not move to that land combat hex per 9.0, and terrain has no
effect upon the placement of the NGS naval unit whatsoever.
Once both players have added a NGS naval unit to support a land
combat, naval combat must be resolved (see 12.2). If only one
player has added a NGS naval unit to a land combat, there is no
naval combat, and that sole NGS naval unit may contribute to
that land combat immediately as naval support (see 12.4).
Any NGS naval unit may support any friendly land combat, regardless of
its nationality. However, Soviet NGS units are an exception; no Soviet
NGS naval unit may ever support any other nationality nor may any other
nationality’s NGS naval unit ever support any Soviet land combat.
12.1 Sortie Restrictions
The usage of NGS markers are limited to coastal hexes, as
previously mentioned, as well as limited to specific seas,
depending on the nationality, listed as follows:
Marmara Sea coastal hexes are prohibited to all naval units
except the NGS Yavuz if it has not been seized or sunk per 17.0 (the
Marmara Sea is defined as any sea hex between 2605 and 2710).
The Soviet NGS is limited to Black Sea coastal hexes.
British and Italian NGS are limited to Aegean
and Mediterranean Sea hexes only.
If the Yavuz is seized by the German player, it may be used on any
coastal hex in any sea (even if the Germans do not control the straits).
12.2 Naval Combat
If two opposing NGS naval units are present in the same land
combat hex, naval combat must then be resolved before land
combat can begin. To resolve naval combat, both players must
simply roll one six-sided die; the higher rolling player wins naval
combat, and the lower rolling player must eliminate his own NGS
naval unit immediately. If both players have the same die roll
result, then both players must eliminate their NGS naval unit.
Note: ULTRA cannot affect naval combat.
12.3 Recall
Representing everything from inclement weather to
misadventures, if any player rolls a “1” during his naval combat
die roll, that player’s NGS naval unit is considered recalled
and returned to off the map (though unharmed) and is flipped
to its In Port side for the remainder of that game turn.
12.4 Naval Gunfire Support
If there is one remaining NGS naval unit supporting a particular land
combat (on a coastal hex), the owning player may shift the final
calculated land combat odds one column on the Combat Results
Table in his favor (shifted to the right if that surviving NGS naval unit
is supporting the attacking land units, or shifted to the left if that
surviving NGS naval unit is supporting the defending land units).
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If a naval unit was eliminated or recalled during naval combat, it
cannot support the instigating land combat one way or another.
12.5 Returning Off-Map (Recalled)
After a naval units has been used to support land combat, it is returned
off-map (assuming it survived) exactly as if it was recalled. As such, it
is flipped to its reverse In Port side, indicating that it is not available to
be used again during that same game turn (during the friendly or enemy
player’s turn), but will become available again automatically as of the
beginning of the next game turn (during the Administrative Phase).
12.6 Interdiction Prohibition
NGS markers cannot interdict like CAS markers even
in coastal hexes where a road is present.
Any CAS air unit may support any friendly land combat, regardless
of its nationality. However, Soviet CAS air units are an exception; no
Soviet CAS air unit may ever support any other nationality nor may any
other nationality’s CAS air unit ever support any Soviet land combat.
13.1 Air Combat
If two opposing CAS air units are present in the same land combat
hex, air combat must then be resolved before land combat can begin.
To resolve air combat, both players must simply roll one six-sided die,
and each must add the printed "+" number of their own CAS air unit to
their own die roll (in the case of an Experten dice roll, the printed "+"
number still only applies once (to one of the two Experten dice); the
higher rolling player wins air combat, and the lower rolling player must
eliminate his own CAS air unit immediately. If both players have the
same die roll result, then both players must eliminate their CAS air unit.
13.2 Experten (German Aces)
In some scenarios, the German player is provided with an “Experten”
marker which he may assign to one specific German CAS air unit of
his choice (before the scenario begins). That CAS air unit is thereafter
considered to be a geschwader of veteran and ace pilots throughout
the remainder of that scenario (or until that CAS air unit is eliminated).
13.0 COMBAT AIR SUPPORT (CAS)
Both sides are provided with Close Air Support (CAS) markers
that represent air combat assets to support operations. The
quantity of CAS air units that each side will receive at the
beginning of the game is listed under rule 3.1. Additional CAS
air units will be received as replacements (see 10.2).
All CAS air units are kept off the map until they are used (they have
no range limit because they are presumed to be operating from
forward airfields). Whenever a land combat is announced by either
player, both players may choose to use one of their own CAS air
units (and never more, simply representing the maximum tempo of
operations) to support that land combat on behalf of their own land
units there. The attacker must always decide first if he will be using
a CAS air unit to support his attack, followed by the defender.
Note: CAS air units, when they appear on the map, do
not affect stacking, nor do they project any ZOC.
When a particular land combat is announced, but before a land
combat die roll is rolled, the attacker and then the defender may
choose to add a single CAS air unit from their off-map inventory of air
units (if any remain) directly atop the land combat hex (whereupon
the attack has been declared) provided that the CAS air unit has not
already been used during that game turn for any reason. The CAS
air unit does not move to that land combat hex per 9.0, and terrain
has no effect upon the placement of the CAS air unit whatsoever.
Once both players have added a CAS air unit to support a
land combat, air combat must be resolved (see 13.1). If only
one player has added a CAS air unit to a land combat, there
is no air combat, and that sole CAS air unit may contribute to
that land combat immediately as air support (see 13.5).
R10
An “Experten” CAS air unit operates normally except that the German
player must roll two six-sided dice during any air combat involving that
air unit, per 13.1 above. An Experten marker may never be assigned
to any other CAS air unit and if that CAS air unit is eliminated, its
Experten marker is also eliminated (permanently), as well.
13.3 ULTRA
To represent the effects of ULTRA code-breaking, the British
player (only) may add an additional +1 to his air combat di(e
roll if he plays a valid ULTRA marker (that he expends from his
allotment) with his own air combat die roll. The British player may
never play more than one ULTRA marker per air combat, but he is
eligible to play one ULTRA marker during air combat, and another
ULTRA during the ensuing land combat in that same hex.
Regardless of the outcome of the air combat, any ULTRA
marker that had been played is expended nonetheless.
13.4 Aborts
Representing everything from inclement weather to misadventures,
if any player rolls a “1” during his air combat die roll, regardless of
ULTRA modifiers, that player’s CAS air unit is considered aborted
and returned to off the map (though unharmed), and is flipped to its
OOS (Out of Support) side for the remainder of that game turn.
Exception: An Experten air unit only aborts
if both of its dice are a roll of "1".
In such a case, any ULTRA marker that had been
played is expended nonetheless.
13.5 Air Support
If there is one remaining CAS air unit supporting a particular
land combat, the owning player may shift the final calculated
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land combat odds one column on the Combat Results Table in
his favor (shifted to the right if that surviving CAS air unit is
supporting the attacking land units, or shifted to the left if that
surviving CAS air unit is supporting the defending land units). If
an air unit was eliminated or aborted during air combat, it cannot
support the instigating land combat one way or another.
13.6 Returning Off-Map (Out of Support)
After an air unit has been used to support land combat, it is
returned off-map (assuming it survived) exactly as if it was
aborted. As such, it is flipped to its reverse OOS (Out of Support)
side, indicating that it is not available to be used again during
that same game turn (during the friendly or enemy player’s turn),
but will become available again automatically as of the beginning
of the next game turn (during the Administrative Phase).
13.7 Interdiction Missions
During a player’s own Interdiction Phase, he may assign available
(not OOS) CAS air units to specific enemy land units or stacks
present on the map, placing the air unit in that enemy land unit’s
or stack’s hex. In doing so, the enemy player is permitted to
assign his own available (not OOS) CAS air units to that same
land unit or stack (solely for the purpose of instigating air combat,
not to affect the interdiction attempt), exactly per 13.0.
After air combat has been resolved, if any, the interdicting CAS air
unit, assuming it survived air combat (neither eliminated nor aborted)
may conduct an interdiction attempt in the hex wherein it has been
placed. To resolve an interdiction attempt, the interdicting player must
roll one six-sided die; If that die roll is greater than (>) the Movement
Cost of the predominant terrain in that hex, all of the land units in
that hex have been successfully interdicted. Place an “Interdicted”
marker atop the units in that hex. The effect of interdiction is to
limit the movement of every unit in the interdicted hex to a onehex minimum move (regardless of terrain, if otherwise legal).
Note: The predominant terrain never includes roads or
rail lines. For example, the movement cost of a Rough
hex is 2 MP even if a road or rail line is in that hex.
Once an interdiction mission is complete, regardless of the results, all
surviving CAS air units that participated in that interdiction mission
are immediately returned off-map per 13.6 and marked OOS normally.
14.0 ULTRA
The Allied player is provided with four “ULTRA” markers that are
useable during any land combat and/or air combat (but not naval
combat) that occurs during play, but only if involving at least one beige
Allied game piece. The Allied player may only use one ULTRA marker
per each type of combat (only ever affecting one die roll at a time),
and the Allied player must announce his decision to use (or not to use)
an ULTRA marker just before a declared combat die roll is rolled.
The effect of an UTLRA marker is described under 11.0 (step 7) and 13.3.
After any ULTRA marker is used (regardless of the outcome
of the combat is it affecting), it is expended permanently
and never returned to play again during that scenario.
15.0 PARADROPS
Any unit that is an “Airborne” type may be moved (during the
owning player’s Movement Phase) directly to any land hex anywhere
on the map (but within Turkey only) ignoring terrain costs and
other units (although this movement, known as a “paradrop,”
uses all of an airborne unit’s movement for that game turn).
Note: If not conducting a paradrop, an airborne unit moves and
fights normally, and therefore the following rules do not apply in
such cases (an airborne unit is considered a normal unit per the
standard movement and combat rules when not paradropping).
When an airborne unit is placed in a hex as a paradrop, that airborne
unit must conduct an attack upon that hex during the Combat Phase
of that same player turn, even if that hex is unoccupied by any enemy
unit. If the paradrop hex is unoccupied, its attack is resolved as if
it was attacking an enemy unit with a combat strength of “1.” In
either case, combat is resolved normally (11.0). If there is no enemy
unit in the paradrop hex, simply ignore any results that affect the
defender, but any results that affect the attacker apply normally.
Now, if an airborne unit’s paradrop hex is occupied by an enemy
unit, that airborne unit’s combat strength must be combined with
the combat strength of any adjacent friendly units that are also
attacking that hex. In such a case, a combat result that affects
the attacker must be applied to the airborne unit before any other
friendly unit that also attacked that paradrop hex, if the combat
result does not apply to all of the attacking units equally.
Note: It is possible for other friendly units to be
combined with an airborne unit’s paradrop attack upon
an unoccupied hex, if otherwise eligible. Non-airborne
units may never attack an unoccupied enemy hex.
Combat results that disallow an Advance After Combat do not apply
to an airborne unit conducting a paradrop into a vacated hex, although
any combat result that leaves any enemy unit remaining in that
paradrop hex automatically eliminates the paradropping airborne unit.
A paradrop is eligible to be supported by NGS naval units (if in a
coastal hex) and CAS air units normally, and so a paradropping
airborne unit’s attack is subject to all other regular rules normally.
16.0 MOUNTAIN UNITS
Mountain units are printed with two different combat strength numbers.
The first, leftmost number is its combat strength whenever attacking
or defending in any non-rough or non-mountain terrain (like any normal
unit). The second, rightmost parenthetical number is its combat strength
when attacking or defending in a rough or mountain terrain type of hex.
All other rules apply to mountain units normally (for
example, mountain units do not possess any additional
movement in rough or mountain hexes).
17.0 RAID ON THE GOEBEN
The Turkish battleship Yavuz, formally the SMS Goeben (see Strategy
& Tactics issue #287), will become a major propaganda victory for
the Germans if they can recapture their former cruiser (or at least
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scuttle it) just before the invasion. Ordered by the Fuhrer himself,
the German player must attempt to conduct a paradrop (during
the Movement Phase) per 15.0 with the Kommando unit (only) into
hex 2611 where the Yavuz is berthed during the first game turn.
The raid on the Goeben will require the German player to roll
two six-sided dice (during the Combat Phase of the first game
turn) to determine the success or failure of the paradrop mission.
However, before the German player rolls the dice, he must decide
whether he will conduct a large raid with heavy weapons and
equipment or a small raid intended to be rapid and stealthy
Design Note: A large raid is more likely to secure and hold the hex,
but is less likely to capture the Goeben owing to more chances of
losing the element of surprise. Moreover, a large raid increases
the chances that the Goeben will be scuttled (instead of seized),
and is somewhat more likely to lose the Blitzkrieg Bonus.
Once the German player has decided the size of his raid, he must then roll
the dice, modifying his die roll as follows: Large raid +2 and Small raid -1.
If the German player has chosen to conduct a large raid, the Kommando
unit is placed in hex 2611 as a full-strength (two-step) unit. If the
German player has chosen to conduct a small raid, then the Kommando
unit is placed in hex 2611 as a reduced (one-step) unit instead.
Capture President Inonu: Place the Kommando unit in any
unoccupied hex adjacent to Ankara (2416) and roll one six-sided
die: if the die roll is a 1-2, the mission is successful; if the die roll is
a 3, the mission is a failure, but the Kommando unit is unaffected;
if the die roll is 4, the mission is a failure and the Kommando unit
is reduced; if the die roll is a 5, the mission is a failure and the
Kommando unit is eliminated; if the die roll is a 6, the mission is
a failure and the Kommando unit is eliminated permanently.
If the mission is successful, no Turkish units may move or
attack (though they defend normally), and no CAS or NGS is
available during that same game turn during the Turkish player’s
phases. This has no effect on Soviet units, however.
Raid Eskichekhir Airbase: Place the Kommando unit in any
unoccupied hex adjacent to Eskichekhir (2412) and roll one six-sided die:
if the die roll is a 1-2, the mission is successful; if the die roll is a 3, the
mission is a failure, but the Kommando unit is unaffected; if the die roll
is 4, the mission is a failure and the Kommando unit is reduced; if the
die roll is a 5, the Kommando unit is eliminated; if the die roll is a 6, the
mission is a failure and the Kommando unit is eliminated permanently.
+2
+1
+0
-1
-2
After rolling the modified dice roll, consult the Raid on the
Goeben Dice Roll Results Table printed on the map.
If the mission is successful, eliminate one Turkish CAS immediately.
17.1 Additional Kommando Missions
If the German Kommando is not eliminated, it may be used by
the German player to conduct additional missions throughout the
game (a maximum of one mission per game turn), provided that the
Kommando unit is occupying a friendly city at the beginning of the
German player’s movement phase of the turn when the additional
mission will be conducted. Furthermore, the German unit must
eliminate one German CAS air unit of his choice to conduct each
mission (although any CAS air unit is eligible to be rebuilt normally).
Note: No further raids on the Goeben may occur as an additional
mission regardless of the outcome of the original raid.
Each of the following additional missions are only eligible to be
attempted once, regardless of the outcome. The German player
must simply roll one six-sided die to determine the success of
each mission (described with each mission explanation) and its
consequences, but the German player must add a -1 bonus modifier
to his die roll during each mission if the Kommando unit is reduced
(not full-strength) when it attempts any additional mission.
R12
Furthermore, the German player may also voluntarily eliminate one
more German CAS air unit (maximum) during the execution of each
additional mission to allow him to add an another -1 bonus modifier to
his mission die roll (although any CAS air unit is eligible to be rebuilt
normally). The German player must announce his decision to add
one more CAS air unit or not before he rolls his mission die roll.
If the mission is a failure, add a two (+2) to the victory
check die roll when it occurs (cumulatively).
Next, the German player modifies the dice roll based
on the specific scenario being played:
Early 1941 scenario
Late 1941 scenario
Early 1942 scenario
Late 1942 scenario
Early 1943 scenario
Designer’s Note: The +1 bonus modifier for a smaller elite
unit represents the idea that smaller raids are easier
to insert, stealthier, faster, easier to extract, etc.
If the mission is a failure, add a one (+1) to the victory
check die roll when it occurs (cumulatively).
Raid Izmir Airbase: Place the Kommando unit in any unoccupied
hex adjacent to Izmir (2106) and roll one six-sided die: if the die roll
is a 1-2, the mission is successful; if the die roll is a 3, the mission
is a failure, but the Kommando unit is unaffected; if the die roll is 4,
the mission is a failure and the Kommando unit is reduced; if the die
roll is a 5, the Kommando unit is eliminated; if the die roll is a 6, the
mission is a failure and the Kommando unit is eliminated permanently.
If the mission is successful, eliminate one Turkish CAS immediately.
If the mission is a failure, add a one (+1) to the victory
check die roll when it occurs (cumulatively).
Destroy Road Bridge: Place the Kommando unit in any unoccupied
road hex that is adjacent to a river hexside and roll one six-sided die: if
the die roll is a 1-2, the mission is successful; if the die roll is a 3, the
mission is a failure, but the Kommando unit is unaffected; if the die roll
World at WAR 49 | AUG – SEP 2016
is 4, the mission is a failure and the Kommando unit is reduced; if the
die roll is a 5, the Kommando unit is eliminated; if the die roll is a 6, the
mission is a failure and the Kommando unit is eliminated permanently.
If the mission is successful, that river hexside is no longer
considered a bridged hex (meaning that no road rate movement
is permitted across that river hexside). Place an “X” marker
in that hex. Note that this does not affect rail movement
across that same hexside (that’s a different bridge).
If the mission is a failure, add a one (+1) to the victory
check die roll when it occurs (cumulatively).
Raid Enemy Barracks: Place the Kommando unit in any unoccupied
hex that is adjacent to an enemy land unit and roll one six-sided die: if
the die roll is a 1-2, the mission is successful; if the die roll is a 3, the
mission is a failure, but the Kommando unit is unaffected; if the die roll
is 4, the mission is a failure and the Kommando unit is reduced; if the
die roll is a 5, the Kommando unit is eliminated; if the die roll is a 6, the
mission is a failure and the Kommando unit is eliminated permanently.
If the mission is successful, that enemy unit is
reduced (or eliminated if already reduced).
Destroy Rail Bridge: Place the Kommando unit in any unoccupied
rail hex that is adjacent to a river hexside and roll one six-sided die: If
the die roll is a 1-2, the mission is successful; if the die roll is a 3, the
mission is a failure, but the Kommando unit is unaffected; if the die roll
is 4, the mission is a failure and the Kommando unit is reduced; if the
die roll is a 5, the Kommando unit is eliminated; if the die roll is a 6, the
mission is a failure and the Kommando unit is eliminated permanently.
If the mission is successful, that river hexside is no longer
considered a bridged hex (meaning that no rail rate movement
is permitted across that river hexside). Place an “X” marker
in that hex. Note that this does not affect road movement
across that same hexside (that’s a different bridge).
If the mission is a failure, add a one (+1) to the victory
check die roll when it occurs (cumulatively).
If the mission is a failure, add a one (+1) to the victory
check die roll when it occurs (cumulatively).
18.0 SCENARIOS
There are five scenarios included with the game, each
of them different only with regard to the starting units
and reinforcements available to both sides.
Note: ULTRA is available to the Allied player in all scenarios.
The set-ups refer to some units as “(reduced)”, which
indicate that the particular unit preceding that notation is
reduced (and it therefore set-up on its reverse side).
18.1 Early 1941 Scenario
This scenario occurs before the German-Turco non-aggression pact.
Mine the Bosporus: Place the Kommando unit in any unoccupied
hex that is adjacent to a crossing arrow (it doesn’t matter which
one) and roll one six-sided die: if the die roll is a 1-2, the mission
is successful; if the die roll is a 3, the mission is a failure, but the
Kommando unit is unaffected; if the die roll is 4, the mission is a
failure and the Kommando unit is reduced; if the die roll is a 5, the
Kommando unit is eliminated; if the die roll is a 6, the mission is
a failure and the Kommando unit is eliminated permanently.
If the mission is successful, no Turkish or Soviet land unit may
cross that crossing arrow for the entirety of the game (this has
no effect on Axis units). Place an “X” marker in that hex.
If the mission is a failure, add a two (+2) to the victory
check die roll when it occurs (cumulatively).
Mine the Dardanelles: Place the Kommando unit in any unoccupied
hex that is adjacent to a crossing arrow (it doesn’t matter which
one) and roll one six-sided die: if the die roll is a 1-2, the mission
is successful; if the die roll is a 3, the mission is a failure, but the
Kommando unit is unaffected; if the die roll is 4, the mission is a
failure and the Kommando unit is reduced; if the die roll is a 5, the
Kommando unit is eliminated; if the die roll is a 6, the mission is
a failure and the Kommando unit is eliminated permanently.
If the mission is successful, no Turkish or Soviet land unit may
cross that crossing arrow for the entirety of the game (this has
no effect on Axis units). Place an “X” marker in that hex.
If the mission is a failure, add a two (+2) to the victory
check die roll when it occurs (cumulatively).
German Set-up:
1) Place all German CAS off to the side (available for use).
2) Nominate one German CAS as an Experten (13.2).
3) Place the German Kommando off to the side (see 17.0).
4) Set up the “Kurd” unit in Turkey, within two hexes of the Iraqi border.
5) Set up the XLVI Corps (red icon) German units in
one unoccupied Bulgarian or Greek hex.
6) Set up the XLIX Corps (blue icon) German units in
one unoccupied Bulgarian or Greek hex.
7) Set up the LI Corps (green icon) German units in
one unoccupied Bulgarian or Greek hex.
8) Set up the LII Corps (brown icon) German unit in
one unoccupied Bulgarian or Greek hex.
9) Set up the XL Corps (yellow icon) German units in
one unoccupied Bulgarian or Greek hex.
10) Set up the XLI Corps (white icon) German units in
one unoccupied Bulgarian or Greek hex.
11) Set up the XIV Corps (purple icon) German units
in one unoccupied Bulgarian or Greek hex.
12) Set up the Armenian unit in hex 2533.
13) Set up the Muslim unit in hex any hex adjacent to Ankara (2416)
14) Set up the German 7th Flieger airborne unit off to the side (see 15.0).
Turkish Set-up:
1) Place two Turkish CAS and one NGS off to the side (available for use).
2) Set up the 2nd (Cavalry) division in any Turkish
hex bordering Bulgaria or Greece.
World at WAR 49 | AUG – SEP 2016
R13
3) Set up the 26th (Mountain) and IAB (Armor) brigades in
any Turkish hex(es) bordering Bulgaria or Greece.
4) Set up the 23rd, 24th, 33rd (reduced), and 52nd
(reduced) divisions in hex 2809.
5) Set up the 8 th, 22nd, 28 th (reduced), and 64th
(reduced) divisions in hex 2808.
6) Set up the Kirklareli brigade in hex 2807.
7) Set up the 1st, 61st, 46th (reduced), and 62nd
(reduced) division in hex 2708.
8) Set up the 11th division in hex 2709.
9) Set up the 4th, 69 th, 32nd (reduced), 66th (reduced),
and 72nd brigade in hex 2606.
10) Set up the 16th and 57th (reduced) division in hex 2505.
11) Set up the 5th, 6th (reduced), and 25th (reduced) division in hex 2509.
12) Set up the 70 th, 71st (reduced) and 63rd (reduced) division,
as well as the Antalya brigade in hex 2106.
13) Set up the 9 th, 3rd (reduced), 29 th (reduced), and 1st (Cavalry)
divisions in any Turkish hex(es) bordering the Soviet Union.
14) Set up the 12 th and 15th (reduced) divisions in hex 2621.
15) Set up the 2nd Infantry, 10 th (reduced), and 53rd (reduced)
divisions in any Turkish hexes bordering Syria.
16) Set up the 48 th division in hex 2633.
17) Set up the 51st (reduced) division in hex 2433.
18) Set up the 67th (reduced) division in hex 2532.
19) Set up the 7th Cavalry (reduced), 41st (reduced),
and 17th (reduced) divisions in hex 2711.
20) Set up the 20 th (reduced), 39 th (reduced), and 14th (Cavalry)
divisions, as well as the 68 th (Mountain) brigade in hex 1923.
21) Set up the Ankara brigade in hex 2416.
Reinforcements:
On game turn 3, place all Allied (British) CAS and NGS off to the side
(available for use that turn). Then place the Allied 2nd and 8 th Divisions in
any unoccupied Turkish coastal hex(es) within six hexes of Cypriot hex
1317, either together or separately, and/or in any hex(es) within Iraq.
Reinforcements:
On game turn 2, place the Italian San Marco brigade in any unoccupied
Turkish coastal hex within eight hexes of Rhodesian hex 1608.
On game turn 3, place all Allied (British) CAS and NGS off to the side
(available for use that turn). Then place the Allied 2nd and 8 th Divisions in
any unoccupied Turkish coastal hex(es) within six hexes of Cypriot hex
1317, either together or separately, and/or in any hex(es) within Iraq.
Replacements:
Germany = 2 per turn, Italy = 1 per turn, Turkey
= 2 per turn, Allied = 1 per turn.
18.3 Early 1942 Scenario
This scenario assumes a German invasion of Turkey as a prelude to the
impending invasion of the Soviet Union. However, the Allies will have
the availability of a US fleet (historically the Wasp carrier battlegroup)
until it is withdrawn to the Pacific after the end of this scenario.
German Set-up:
Same as 18.1, but set up eight (instead of all) CAS, and then add:
15) Place all Italian CAS and NGS off to
the side (available for use).
16) Set up the Ravena, Duca d' Aosta, and
Bergamo divisions in hex 2805.
17) Set up the Assietta, Pasubio, and Lombardia divisions in hex 2704.
Turkish Set-up:
Same as 18.1, except that Turkey places three (instead of two) CAS, and
the 33rd, 52nd, 28th, 64th, 46th, 62nd, 66th, 25th, 71st, 63rd, 3rd, 29th,
15th, 10th, 51st, and 67th divisions are not reduced in this scenario.
On game turn 1, the German Flieger airborne unit (reduced) may either
enter the map as a normal land unit (entering via the northernmost
hex row in Bulgaria), or as a paradrop anywhere in Turkey (per 15.0).
Replacements:
Germany = 2 per turn, Turkey = 2 per turn, Allied = 1 per turn.
On game turn 2, place the Italian San Marco brigade in any unoccupied
Turkish coastal hex within eight hexes of Rhodesian hex 1608.
18.2 Late 1941 Scenario
This scenario occurs after the conquest of Yugoslavia
and Greece, but presumes that no German invasion
of the Soviet Union will occur this year.
On game turn 3, place all beige (British and American) CAS
and NGS off to the side (available for use that turn). Then
place the Allied 2nd and 8 th Divisions in any unoccupied Turkish
coastal hex(es) within six hexes of Cypriot hex 1317, either
together or separately, and/or in any hex(es) within Iraq.
German Set-up:
Same as 18.1, but set up eight (instead of all) CAS,
and do not set up the 7th Flieger airborne (they've
been decimated on Crete), and then add:
14) Place all Italian CAS and NGS off to
the side (available for use).
15) Set up the Ravena, Duca d' Aosta, and
Bergamo divisions in hex 2805.
16) Set up the Assietta, Pasubio, and Lombardia divisions in hex 2704.
Replacements:
Germany = 1 per turn, Italy = 1 per turn, Turkey
= 1 per turn, Allied = 1 per turn.
18.4 Late 1942 Scenario
This scenario assumes a German invasion of Turkey after the invasion
of the Soviet Union, although losses in North Africa mean that fewer
Italians are available. The Royal Navy has been stretched, leaving only
a single British fleet and contingent available to reinforce the Turks.
Turkish Set-up:
Same as 18.1, except that the 52nd, 64th, 62nd, 63rd, and
29th divisions are not reduced in this scenario.
R14
World at WAR 49 | AUG – SEP 2016
German Set-up:
Same as 18.2, but only set up seven (instead of eight) CAS, and then add:
17) Place one Italian CAS and NGS off to
the side (available for use).
18) Set up the Ravena and Bergamo divisions in hex 2805.
19) Set up the Assietta and Lombardia divisions in hex 2704.
Turkish Set-up:
Same as 18.1, except that Turkey places three (instead of
two) CAS, and the 33rd, 52nd, 28th, 64th, 46th, 62nd, 32nd,
66th, 57th, 6th, 25th, 71st, 63rd, 3rd, 29th, 15th, 10th, 53rd,
51st, and 67th divisions are not reduced in this scenario.
Reinforcements:
On game turn 1, the German Flieger airborne unit may either enter
the map as a normal land unit (entering via the northernmost hex
row in Bulgaria), or as a paradrop anywhere in Turkey (per 15.0).
On game turn 2, place the Italian San Marco brigade in any unoccupied
Turkish coastal hex within eight hexes of Rhodesian hex 1608.
On game turn 3, place one Soviet CAS and NGS off to the side (available
for use), place the 20 th, 77th, and 17th (Cavalry) Divisions in any Soviet
hex bordering Turkey, place the 63rd, 76th, 236th, 6th (Armor), and 54th
(Armor) Divisions in any Soviet hex bordering Turkey, and place the
58 th, 83rd, and 4th (Cavalry) in any Soviet hex bordering Turkey.
On game turn 4, place one Allied (British) CAS and NGS off to
the side (available for use that turn). Then place the Allied 8 th
Division in any unoccupied Turkish coastal hex(es) within six
hexes of Cypriot hex 1317, and/or in any hex within Iraq.
Replacements:
Germany = 1 per turn, Italy = 1 per turn, Turkey
= 1 per turn, Soviet = 2 per turn.
18.5 Early 1943 Scenario
This scenario is a bold attempt by the Germans to threaten
the Middle East and/or the Caucasus region and potentially
turn the tide of the war back in the Axis’ favor.
German Set-up:
Same as 18.1, but set up six (instead of all) CAS.
Turkish Set-up:
Same as 18.1, except that Turkey places four (instead of two)
CAS, and no Turkish divisions are reduced in this scenario.
Soviet Set-up:
1) Place all Soviet CAS and NGS off to the side (available for use).
2) Set up the 20 th, 77th, and 17th (Cavalry) divisions
in any Soviet hex bordering Turkey.
3) Set up the 63rd, 76th, 236th, 6th (Armor), and 54th (Armor)
divisions in any Soviet hex bordering Turkey.
4) Set up the 58 th, 83rd, and 4th (Cavalry) in any
Soviet hex bordering Turkey.
Reinforcements:
On game turn 1, the German Flieger airborne unit may either enter
the map as a normal land unit (entering via the northernmost hex
row in Bulgaria), or as a paradrop anywhere in Turkey (per 15.0).
On game turn 3, place two non-American Allied (British) CAS and
two NGS off to the side (available for use that turn). Then place the
Allied 8 th Division in any unoccupied Turkish coastal hex(es) within
six hexes of Cypriot hex 1317, and/or in any hex within Iraq.
Replacements:
Germany = 1 per turn, Turkey = 1 per turn, Soviet
= 1 per turn, Allied = 1 per turn.
19.0 OPTIONAL SOVIET DUPLICITY
Even while the Germans were overrunning most of Europe, it was
actually the Soviets that the Turks feared most, and for good reason;
After all, the Soviets had been openly covetous of the Turkish Straits for
decades, and so, not surprisingly, the Turks would have been unnerved,
to say the least, by the presence of any Soviet armies within Turkey
proper, even as the country is being invaded by the Nazis. Under such
extreme circumstances, it’s difficult to know how the Turks would have
reacted to being invaded by the Germans on one front and encroached by
Soviet armies the other. Nevertheless, if the Germans were blitzing into
Turkey, the Turks would have had little option but to welcome the Soviets
(not that they could have done much about it, anyway) even if they
knew that the Soviets were not likely to leave…at least not entirely.
This is especially so when considering that there was no certainty that
the Soviets were even up to the task of expelling the Germans, and so
it would have simply become a case of the lesser of two evils, literally.
Paradoxically, things would have become particularly strange if the
Germans were successfully repulsed with Soviet help, or once it became
obvious that the Germans were going to ultimately lose the war. In other
words, while Soviet armies were still present in Turkey, Stalin would
have undoubtedly insisted that Turkey accommodate joint Soviet/Turkish
control of the Turkish Straits (which was something that he had been
demanding even before the war), and any refusal by the Turks would
have antagonized Stalin to action (anything from occupying Ankara and
overthrowing the seat of government, to outright war with Turkey) on
some contrivance. Taking all these things into consideration, this optional
rule is intended to simulate this delicate dynamic, explained as follows:
Whenever it is determined that Germany has lost the game, all
German units are removed from the map, although all other units in
the game remain in their current, present locations, and any units
that are eliminated remain eliminated. At that moment, the game
begins anew (reset the Game Turn marker to the first turn) except that
all Soviet units (in their current present hexes) are now controlled
by the former-German player. If the current scenario did not include
Soviet units, simply set up all of the Soviet units as follows:
1) Place all Soviet CAS and NGS off to the side (available for use).
2) Set up the 20th, 77th, and 17th (Cavalry) divisions
in any Soviet hex bordering Turkey.
3) Set up the 63rd, 76th, 236th, 6th (Armor), and 54th (Armor)
divisions in any Soviet hex bordering Turkey.
World at WAR 49 | AUG – SEP 2016
R15
4) Set up the 58th, 83rd, and 4th (Cavalry) in
any Soviet hex bordering Turkey.
In either case, all Soviet units are immediately controlled by
the German player who now has another opportunity to win the
game (as the Soviet player instead of as the German player). The
victory conditions remain exactly the same as explained under
4.0, although any objective hexes that were formerly controlled
by the Germans are now considered to be Turkish again (except
objective hexes that are presently controlled by Soviet units).
variant counter set represents them. Add them to the German
starting forces pool. However, remove the 17th SS Panzergrenadier
Division from the start pool. Place the 17th aside, then add it to the
German reinforcement bin the first time any German reinforcement
group is activated (Fuhrer Directive 61 or West Stellung).
The German 501st SS, 2/218 th and 3/653rd companies have silhouettes
instead of military symbols. Use them to replace the three corresponding
counters in the game. They otherwise have no additional rules.
The length of the game is the same, as are the victory
conditions; The reset game plays according to all of the
same and normal rules with the Soviets being substituted
for the Germans. Specific differences are as follows:
a) The Yavuz
If Turkey controls the Yavuz, the Allied player retains it for use.
b) Replacements
Turkish replacements = 1 per turn.
Soviet replacements = 2 per turn.
SUPPLEMENT to World at War #47
Crete 1941 Special RuleS
c) Victory
Victory modifiers do not apply, regardless of the scenario.
d) ULTRA
Ultra markers cannot ever be used by the Soviet (ex-German) player.
e) Experten
The Experten marker may not be used by the Soviet (ex-German) player.
German 22nd Airlanding Division
The 22nd Airlanding Division was trained to deploy by landing
on airfields captured by airborne troops. In May 1941, the
division was in Romania and not staged to Crete for reasons
of logistics. The variant counters assume that a kampfgruppe
from the division was deployed forward and was available for
the invasion. During initial setup, remove all 6th Mountain (6G)
units from play and replace them with the 22nd Air Landing.
Airlanding
Units of the 22nd are not airborne qualified. However, if any of the
units with an airlanding symbol (the crossbar) are involved in an
airlanding move onto an airfield with enemy units, the Allies do
not gain the +1 modifier they would normally get for defending
against an Airborne Landing (see the Combat Sequence).
SUPPLEMENT to World at War #43
Patton’s Third Army Special Rules
US
The 741st Heavy Tank Battalion assumes that the US put M-26
Pershing heavy tanks into mass production earlier in the war. The
player can recruit this unit on any turn that one or more US units
occupy any German fortress or entrenchment space. It costs 3 VP
per combat factor. If eliminated, it can be rebuilt at full VP cost.
German
The 40 th and 51st SS Panzergrenadier Brigades were cadres used
to rebuild the 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division. The unit in the
R16
The RAF Bomber Unit
This functions similar to the RAF fighter unit. Add the counter to the
Allied Reserve Display after all units have been placed on the map. The
instant the RAF Bomber is revealed, the counter fires at any German
ground units in the same space using its tactical strength of “2” (per
the Tactical Attack rule). This attack is executed immediately. If there
are no German ground units in the space or all German ground units
in the space are being air transported, there is no effect. The German
player can choose which of his units will be affected. Following
the attack, return the RAF Bomber to the Allied Reserve Box.
If the Germans have any fighter air units (Me-109 or Me-110) in a
Zone or any Flak (AAA) unit, and the RAF Bomber counter is revealed,
return the RAF Bomber counter to the Reserve Display without it
conducting an attack. A German fighter used for this can also conduct
tactical attacks against Allied units in the same Zone normally.
Note: The RAF Bomber does not affect German air units.
World at WAR 49 | AUG – SEP 2016
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