Bones and Joints
Study and Reference Manual
The Fundamentals
for the
Personal Trainer, CPT
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If you are reading this education manual so that you may better prepare for the NFPT
personal trainer certification exam, we recommend the additional reading of the ‘NFPT Exam
Content Outline’ as a checklist for your studies. This document is an outline of the specific
subject matter that you can expect to find on the NFPT - CPT exam; it is located within the
supplemental NFPT Study Guide for your convenience. Please note that this manual will cover
some of the many intricacies of the make-up, systems and functions of the human body so
that you may have a more well-rounded understanding of how our bodies work. This does
not mean that memorizing the higher level science concepts or fine prints of the provided
charts and tables will benefit you directly on the exam; but we do believe that a deeper
level approach to some of the more science-based subjects will give you a greater cognitive
understanding and appreciation for health, the human body and the respective successes of
your fitness conscious clients.
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%+6+50+$6"7
564%++56+"
NERVOUS SYSTEM
0+-)4%-)4%%
4+45+0))4"0+-4/
663$-"3$43$5
+U+$0-63+5U4
3)"65+%0-0+%$4
33"1--0+-)50)%$4
++0)4663)"3$
-30+44+3-)50)"-4
4++4540)"4-
+)40%36%%4%+"=
-+)4404+%0)+60)>
4-4"
-)4-+
-)4Q#R%3+5+/
6[0>+-4
40)%+
05+T55/
-)4QR%3++-
+#0)>6
4"$46
0300)T
0-4+-
)4QR3+5-)4
-5+"*6$+0++
+3)-3$%456
0)5+-)66"
17
How Nerve Cells Communicate
Each microscopic nerve cell (or
neuron) has a blob shaped main
part (the cell body) with thin
spider-like dendrites and one
much longer wire-like nerve
fiber (or axon). The axon's
branched ends have button
shaped axon bulbs which almost
touch other nerve cells at
junctions called synapses.
Electrical impulses, or nerve
signals, travel along the axon and
'jump' across synapses to other
nerve cells. This communication
occurs at speeds of more than
100 meters per second.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
5-3-%6)3$5)%34
03+"30$30)6-)4/
5-)50)0)++))4"
456-)46-+%60Q6)
4R640)"14%3
$0)%%3-
was-0)":>4$6-5+
1. Mouth: =0+355)3/
3"#36433)-4H-)6
4+"
2. Esophagus:56Q6R4+0"1$4
536+$4+"14-
0)3-4+++%+5"
3. Stomach:4++$4+33+++4
X55)5Y"4++6566
?+++$+4+3)%0$63/
-6"*56V)+4%4/
++$03G4364"4
4%0$34+,364
"
4. Pancreas: 666-+)4"1
6-)4%+4+$4+4$536-e
?+%+ed enzymes%0$34"
5. Gall Bladder: 406/$5+$-"1%+
bile%3+4-"44-4 %0
346060+"0+5/
+)6)"
6. Small Intestine: 5+30-)6U0S1
4%4C)4++4++$T34
05++")%465
6640"
+3)-0)505+%0"
7. Liver: .43-%+)6%-4L4/
%5+46"-4%+64
44%40++6 the
a+-0)"
8. Large Intestine: B0+-%+530)
4%006360+$0"
444/35+%+%04-4
0)"
9. Rectum and Anus: 6%+4%+3+
VC664+QR0)"
18
IMMUNE SYSTEM
6%+6Q"$""X64YR%+44-+
5+"4++5+-66%$0+-%+0
$%%30%+0)6+3"
3%$544)0+%3+-6-
++$%45$560+
+)4T0+6460)44)4%)
40+"
)%44)45-4)3+4
456"40)>4+4+
W $
W 65)6-563)
W 0/+65+
W 3+0+0
W )46+%4)456+
60)
0)>44)4+-$3+0%0)
%)45"3++$)645
0)"7++036
Lymph Nodes
8)45%03)60)%+U645"
)+030+%3+45)5)6-6
56"*64+%)455343
+XY56"+036)454)++
+0++"7))%)45C
565T0%6%)+6300660"
Thymus Gland
)46%+04%5+/
C65+X+Y/+Q/)45+)+R"/++/
)455+$660+56
++")464+-6+6
50)T0%6665+%33)$%-)66
))"
Spleen
5+?04+%"14$-/
$30+")%50+/
44)4++50)6+"
Tonsils and Adenoids
5+)45555")5
)60+033"4
5++-)%34"
19
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
+)4X46)4Y4+$-)4
+5%6-++4%+)4
4564)44+"
9%+4)60)%+4+46+
404":4564+%
55665++5%66-+
64U+4%5%63-54%metabolism"
5)%)6454+44)$3
+6"8$6+)4%65)
5)6+-)65+4U66
0C60)>55"45%545)U
5)6X4Y+6T?+3-
)4+)4+46)54%5
050+-464
60)"5)6%+04)54
00%+4+++$
$63%-546Q""-R%05
5%46++6T$)
63++3V+$)0)6)6404"
6)C45%+
Q"$""5555%5+-)R"
565+4
43+4+
Male
Female
5))4+5"
5+%65)6
6-+)4%
Pineal Gland
+6+
Pituitary Gland
46+60
66"+65
0+5+46
Thyroid Gland
05)6+equilibrium"B$
+6%+4
Thymus
04Q
6+R%+6%+
-)6%366
36+%+
5+-4
Adrenal Gland
0)3)+"
Pancreas
Ovary
Testis
20
=--3.)>'?)4
Muscular System: +$4+5++%54
4-4%5555+
Skeletal System: 5-0)>+555+
Circulatory System: 545040)%0)
6Q+45+-++5))4R
Respiratory System: 6)406%$%5
4-640+++
Nervous System: +44+4+-)46
0)530%5+-
Digestive System: $%0$3%5%5)4%
40+)+5-6)0+
63%4+5
Immune System: 5+0)4+$0)36-"
64)40)4
545)4
Endocrine System: )46+44+4
465++4+04
=)4
Integumentary System: 5+0)%+%$%
Reproductive System: )463$65+
Urinary System: $3)4%5543%
60-4L5L5:+-+)
40
21
#:G
________________
Anatomical Terms and
Biomechanics
(365555++++5
46-)453+4)++
5"
:4anatomy++)4+
40)"
Biomechanics%34++biology4%)
4++4-440)3+
+"
55%330-364)
4)04++$4+
)4"B644+4
$4+04++-4"+53
5-)3+44464++%
54%564-4"
22
Anatomical Positioning
7)50)%50)+
0)+%++46)"450+
5-+5030)5+44
465%64C)64
0)3++)+05+"
The position of structures, relative to the body or to other structures, respectively,
when standing upright with palms facing forward…
Anterior (Ventral):
Posterior (Dorsal):
30+$0)
\'8404+5
0-%35550)
\'845
03%3350)
\'804
+564+0)
\'8$54$
4564+0)
\'8$5
340)
\'8444
3)440)
\'84+
Superior:
Inferior:
Proximal:
Distal:
Medial:
Lateral:
30)
\'85+4?4+
GENERAL TERMINOLOGY
Bilateral: 00)
Unilateral: 0)
Peripheral: 34
Superficial: 3+
Deep Muscle: 30)
23
Biomechanical Movement
.4++%34++06)4%)4++
4-440)3++"
-)3644-4%>$6-$
(6).4++%046"
Kinesiology)4)%5)6)4++44-4%
$34$+"
Biology: the s++)-64%+6++"
Kinematics: a 0+04++5++)4$+)
+-)"
Biomechanics: $6)5506++44-4%
5++$+)++X+Y%
%44++%5+)$4+?+
+"
Movement Basics
0)+4$64-4%3+064-64+Q""
4-4)46RT0)+4$4-4%3+
44+45+Q""4-4)
36R"36+0+40)0)3+
44-4+06)56+0T4-6+
55%305+"+)64-40)
546+)6+5"
Abduction: 4-43)40)0)5>4T6)45
C5)
Adduction: 4-430)0)5>4T36)4
4C50+$3)
Flexion: 06?+6T0603
Extension: 66?+6T+6)4%
6603
Circumduction: 4++4-4%$6
$U%4-40+%+%
4-4
Rotation:4-40)506
33+L40)T4-4
0)5633)4+L40)
Protraction: 3QR4-40)5T6)6
+5$L+-+5Q"6"0++5R
Retraction: 0+$3Q5R4-40)5T6)6
+5$L+-+5Q"6"++5R
24
Hypoextension: 4%/T060
$0+646
Hyperextension: 0)44%-T0)5
?00+$3Q5)5/L)5/404%
+R
Gliding: '-4/6?-+
Deviation: *544
Movement specific to hands/palms and feet
Pronation: 546335534
3T3L++643$64
Supination: 546535343
T3%[/5>L+664
3$64
Inversion: 603++
Eversion: 603+3)4+
Dorsiflexion: Q$R5653
Plantarflexion: Q$R5633Q"6"6655R
Biomechanical Movement: Muscle Contraction and Function
5%++)0055)
5+504+++4+"65++)
4+++%$34)54+%$+%
++++++++"++36-4+
543$4-364Q='R%64
3+?+4-6%)66
"
Isometric contraction
)5++%34+66
%4-4$65+"-504++3$
"35534+4555L0?+
44-0%3)55)+56+"
55+0?4-4-64+)4"
Isokinetic contraction
)5++%34++++
5%34+66-)6='"1
V+$4+64+6%0VV54+
++565")5V54-)
5+C)5%)-)5-%+44)"
Isotonic contraction
40+)++433+6C0645++"
+++%34+6%
4-4$65+"-54++3$+0%
$3++)5656L0?+"
25
1+++3)5
+
Concentric contraction
#++4++++4++L6%
6?+"+X5-Y5
5"406--06")+-
-)+64-4"
+
Eccentric contraction
++++++4++L66%6
?+"+X6-Y55
3++65+"
+++0-)%45%-)%
5+?"
Planes of Motion
40)0$5QGR54)5%+%3+
656-0)56%
-"+++L36+0)
+04-455+5"+5
540)+504-66T
)-063+0)"
145+4-4/5%
4535+4U3-%3+06
4-4%+445++53+4-40/
4++)4"
SAGITTAL PLANE
*1;1*
6%-+)
'=1=
L
\'8
V%86%7$6
*PARASAGITTAL PLANE is any plane that runs parallel
to the sagittal plane
FRONTAL PLANE (a.k.a Coronal Plane):
*1;1*
'=1=
\'8
QR0+$
Q5R%-+)
0+L+
8%/3%.%
')
TRANSVERSE PLANE
*1;1*
'=1=
\'8
03QR0-Q5R
5%C)
1L
3Q"6"3666
+0000R%.+
Oblique4+064-4%)0L
+4035T6%++405%
5+0)4"
26
Basic Movement in “Plane” Context
=40+4-45+T646
Q0+5RV4663Q
65R"8>$4-46+5
4"
Flexion
++65%36?+"%
4?+630+$3"14+65%
$34-5)0+$3%35
34-$353"4-4++6?
0//+$?"
Extension++36+645"5/5Q
3)5R3%03%6?"
:)5++30)J]"+$)5
3+53+6340+$"455
3064+)503$%3++
+?)?"$
5%5+-)"
Abduction-Adduction, Circumduction, and Lateral Flexion
0+4-4403)445+
0)T4-45"+++306640
0+$45"3)440+%3)
066400+$34%)X6Y3+/)
566"
Circumduction++4-4?%+36++3
436"1+400+%+%
0//+$?"+X4++Y4-++
45"
Lateral flexion 4-4-0+53)4
4"1++34-33)3
603++63"
Internal and External Rotation
4-40)560
54?"8QR++35+
3%4QR++33"6
$%0660+$+4
"4-4++0//+$?0+0
?%++5"545%+506)
T%64)5%)30)6
+5"
Pronation supination ++033+0
+0$"6544
27
4+5+0+$3"65435"1)
30)03+5)503)3
056)3?"1-4-4
4)%3-)"455
$?"146
+$406%)30
56"
Protraction and Retraction
+4-4)-5"14+
++4-4+56364"
*63%55;/0+$3%)
30+6+5"'))5+0)-6+
0603?)6)64QR?"
4-+X5Y)6
+"
Anatomical Movement terms: single joint, single plane
P3+4+4)4-445++6?65
+44+5":34)4)+
)6"
Gliding 4)+3+6+65
"4444-4+++50
0%03+-+4"
Elevation 4405)%+63
66"*555%4-4/
564"
Opposition4-4V4034-36
546546"
.664345+++066-4-46
X4+-+0)Y"45%3546V%+
#$
%
&
:5%$$
#
$&
#
$&
:5/%$/%$/5"
#$
'
&
%5+)30+$%Q43664R%50)0+
+5"
28
Bones and Joints
5-)4%-H0Q34406
R"=+40)%05
5506+"6)+)+-
4%3+3)00-004)-00
L5".+0+-)46%36+
05+54"=+4+%3-%++
++"8$40)%0+5+4"
45%0+++%0$30T%+0%
05"
0+-35
Axial skeleton: $%+0)
Appendicular skeleton: 404
NUMBER of BONES
AXIAL SKELETON
;0#4
$
)=+Q4R
H
6
:)
04
@
APPENDICULAR SKELETON
B554
834
TOTAL NUMBER
[email protected]
HQHR
206
29
BONES
5%45)043%%4
+44)0?"P004)
+36
Axial Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
Consists of 80 bones of the
head and trunk, it is the medial
core of the body (Central Axis)
Consists of 126 bones, it is the
‘appendage’ of the axial skeleton
UPPER EXTREMITY
Shoulder Girdle:
Clavicle (collarbone)
Scapula (shoulder blade)
Skull:
Cranium
Mandible
Throat:
Hyoid (anterior midline of
neck)
Arm:
Humerus
Thoracic
Skeleton:
Ribs
Sternum
Forearm:
Radius (lateral)
Ulna (medial)
Wrist:
Carpals
Vertebral Column:
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar,
Sacrum, Coccyx (tailbone)
Hand:
Metacarpals
Phalanges
LOWER EXTREMITY
Pelvic Girdle:
Ilium, Ischium, Pubis
Thigh:
Femur
Knee:
Patella
Leg:
Fibula (lateral)
Tibia (medial)
Foot:
Calcaneus, Talus, Tarsals,
Metatarsals, Phalanges
30
Bone Classifications: [email protected])5
CLASSIFICATION
DESCRIPTION
Long Bones
8604$540L4++
0640)0)"+60
+X0)%Y5)%3++)+"86
0-++-)3%+45+
0"+-)4X0)YQ$3
4)+-)R+++0QX56)Y0
35R3056
04304"60
+Q330+R+
+4++4"56
0+55)"1+++
0)%+45+0"
Short Bones
0+5$
6+45+")5-
Examples: tarsals (in feet) 0)55%0-)44-4"
and carpals (in hands)
0+++%+-0))
+45+0+550)54Q
)++-60R"
Flat Bones
0-)0%5%$$
+5"0++03)
Examples: Cranium,
+45+3++0Q56)0R
scapula, sternum, ribs,
03")+4)5+5-
ilium (pelvis)
4++4"
Irregular bones are odd-shaped bones that don’t fit in the
Irregular Bones
other categories; 4)+5+4
Examples: vertebrae,
-4+35+-)4"
sacrum, coccyx, mandible, )46465
hyoid
5)0+%-5C%)
>)6%0+6"8$
60%)-++-)++L56)
0")0+45+
0"
Sesamoid Bones
4035-?T
040+
Examples: joint bones in
$%"0+>4++
hands, knee (patella), and -655+46
feet
?"
Examples: clavicle,
humerus, radius, ulna,
femur, tibia, fibula,
metacarpals, metatarsals,
phalanges
31
VERTEBRAL COLUMN (SPINE): STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
5+-0%5+4+++)Q4%6
005+4R"5+50
+03)"+-+405+-3%
$3++-%+34L060+$3"
++5+-6)3%$3$)5++-%+
34L063"75+-3)
-5%>$3+++-%+"5
/ +0)6%5+5+--
/ -)0%34/54-4
/ 0+4+55
Cervical Spine
I-0Q#/#IR
+-+46400)
(neck)
46+
Q3R+-
-0Q/R
-4+40+6%5+6-6
840)0)&+55
Thoracic Spine
(upper/mid back)
@-0Q8/[email protected]
-40)+55
+4^
/H-0
+4++530)Q
+0RT554+
5-550+$L535-
Lumbar Spine
(lower back)
Sacral Region
(bottom)
#++)Q0R^
G/@-0
++
+4
#++)5+4-64%
4+T-03636
PELVIC GIRDLE: 2 Coxal (Hip) Bones Made Up of 3 Fused Parts
Ilium65545-+0%-035%0)
364"0)4%06%++
+4++?"++?6)4-0
?5))-5)+6"36
446%+44)++Q
65)+6)$R
Ischium034050%43
0+$550650"
Pubis3650?"
1%5-+6++Q5R0%6%?
+4+455-"+0Q4%+450R%+4
34Q6R0+36/06+++4436
0)345++46"
32
JOINTS
?%+%++03300
+6"!4)04-044-0%403"0)
6)?64++3
06%3X6Y"45%
40?%+$5%
-X6Y64"=
%XY?%46
4?":3-%3464
+40)"45
0?364"46
4?56"
64-450?5
40+%+6
W)5+?
W+5+60%3+
4XY
W:300?64"664+6
4+4-4+60+"
W646+4+"
4++44)+64"
W4)440)?Q"6"%4034)
040)4adipose%4+%$4
554R"
W:45+%+3+54+
5+?5634++0"
!54)+0)++"+)%?
0)30+++"+)%)0)
645?+4-64"
QGR4++?%+0)40)
1) Ligamentous: 44-0
2) Cartilaginous: 6)4-0
3) Synovial: 6)4-0
33
RLigamentous/Fibrous
Q)%44-0R
?-?+-)
060)6%0
++-546
4-4
EXAMPLES:030$
Q5++)XY
?RT03+$
40
RCartilaginous
Q45%6)4-0R
?+0)+6
0/+63
)64-4
EXAMPLES:63644
60Q+RT+03
5-0
GRSynovial
Q%6)4-0R
?-5+03
+60%3
)-"+
0-+6+
0++"
)-+-)5+03
+60"+
+5+30
-4")4
4-0
Synovial membrane
Articular cartilage
Fibrous joint capsule
Joint cavity filled
w/synovial fluid
Ligaments
EXAMPLES:.+$QRT
-Q03R
34
SYNOVIAL JOINTS by FUNCTION
)-?+0)++%++
5++03?60%4-4)3"7
$?45)455+0)5
65%56446?)5-")-?
0636
Ball and Socket
Pivot
Gliding
:66
4+45
?
:6-? $3
-440)% [6>[5>
)$3 ?
[+)+>?
G6?%
46
4-G5 6?%4- 364-4
4
)5
5
++%
'%4
B%4
/
4-4- 4-4
4-4
%3
5L ++0
36
4)
:6
3%
?
T/
%
5
-Q
!()!
-T
RT5
5
5Q
5
RT6
50
of another bone
!()
%
'-440)
6?+5
!()-
* +
*
EXAMPLES:
EXAMPLES:
+$Q?
03+-+ +
:5Q+04
?034
++-+
5-R
-0R
03Q4?
6?034
R
$Q+?
636
4R
EXAMPLES:
:Q03+5R
Q03R
5Q03
+65+R
(
35
Saddle
Condyloid
44-4
5L
4-4Q4
+)?
+R
$3
[5>
EXAMPLE:
40
EXAMPLE:
6
4
4-43
5%6
3%
4-46
%+% 0+
++4+
3%
%
44
+%
4-4 0+%
++4+
!()
4-4
one bone fits the
!()
!
*
the other bone rests
that fits into an
+
another bone
Q+54+5%#'#%
Q4+556
?400 ?03
403R
5L4+5R
.
(/
!3
Q4540%
?%'!03
4045
0R
JOINTS: A Closer Look
8>$+$44[>?44-455)
4)66"=+%+45-?
40)T3-%?4+50?)0+
6)+-)"
Shoulder Joint: A Closer Look
Acromioclavicular (AC)
Joint
Clavicle
+5Q0R
Acromion
+-+Q+0R4$5
6"+5Q5
Bursa
4+5R+
Rotator Cuff
$0)454+
Muscles:
Tendons:
6455"
-Supraspinatus
3+04-4
-Subscapularis
-Teres Minor
550+$"5
-Infraspinatus (behind)
+5456
+65556
Humerus
4)+"4
Biceps
+-+Q+
Gleno40)R
humeral
Joint
+34"
Scapula
6>40)%3
554Q55
40R%6)5
?$3shoulder complex%3++45
36
1. +-+Q#R?)5)-?++03
+-+4"*
+
2. +4+-+Q#R?66)5)-?3+
+-++3+5"
3. 64Q9:R?0+$?344-4T
5+34?+5"
Shoulder ROM:
Abduction: J`%06453)
Adduction: @`%064340)
Horizontal Abduction [email protected]`%364C)
0+$3
Horizontal Adduction Q+-5RG`%364C)
3
Vertical Extension: H`Q460+$3R
Vertical Flexion: J`Q463R
Medial and Lateral Rotation-543
)
Circumduction: 5
36
Knee Joint: A Closer Look
$?640)"1+45+
604%00"4++3540Q""%
36R000"03660
36"04)0U304
-54)+0636"0+54
3430$"?03
04$304?"04?+
03+0+)4%35
Q$+5R"544-4$?%
06666"0%54%
+30?03-$?"
0+30"
+456$?6?%0++)?
045)66?54?%3+++
54"5+5+6+05
543"5405
QV+5R"+000)"
555+564-4
$"$)+$4-4554+%
664+435+
0%)4
0%+$6$4-4V
66%06$" +
64%++64menisciQ5
4[4+>R55-
+$
tibial (or medial) collateral ligament fibular (or lateral) collateral ligament 6
+)Q""%50+R
4+04
0"64
45+4"
3++64/anterior and
posterior cruciate ligaments/4%
364"++
64Q#8R)5
5++64Q#8R)5"
.+445+5+44
%5564
6+%%?"
#+864
#+
864
0#
864
0#
864
3+$%Q4RQRmenisci are
+6$+0+4?"4+++/
5+5)-?+-)"4+$5-
+6?+40"
37
8'+
''+
0)6)$?+64
4++?"$?4+44++
?"4-4$+554)
?)"
Knee ROM:
Flexion: G`%++46
Extension: @`%6$4+50
Internal rotation:`%33634
Wrist Joint
4304Q06R"
Q3)4+0)R%
0+43+$%46+5?%43?"
+5?0%+))5)-?"
4?)+?"
?5-)5)-?"045)46)
34)60"
Wrist ROM:
Flexion:J/N`%035434
Extension: I`%0355+
Radial deviation: `%0340
Ulnar deviation:G/@`%035$)6
Ankle Joint
$?%+?%6)534-4)5"
146304Q+[$
0>R%00")4+++)5
Q565R5Q563R"0
0060)600643+5++$
0)6)"$6464
3$64%3+5640-$5"
?%54060?Q3
++4R%?030+04-4
$?4-4-
0+"0?3
-Q63R-
Q63R"
Ankle ROM:
Dorsiflexion: `%0$55
Plantarflexion:@`%0$53
Foot ROM:
Inversion: G`%+
Eversion: `%+
38
6%4)?0)-04
+":3-%)0434?4-4
?)+)35563))
+544-4":4?%55+06)
%30+4-4
Neck:L%0+QRL+Q+R%
Shoulder Complex:
Acromioclavicular-%5
Glenohumeral%0+%+%/
Scapula5+L+
Elbow:
0)L
0L
15L5Q4R
Fingers: L%0+L+
Toes: L
Connective Tissue: Tendons, Ligaments, Fascia
#+-+
W +6
W .6550)
W #454C-+%$$4+
=5se%%++-4?
66)".+++-%-64?
5)40)"
6444++-54
+6+"Ligaments+005-6)
6%0)-?"8646
+")$)4663
-+".+)+%64456
"864+054)6$56
+554"
Tendons++$4+0%+6?64+Q+
345XYR"440%+05T
3-%)4+64+540"=%
4+0?046"
Fascia0%06%3+5-55
45+0)+64+%6"+66
+4+45+6"16+[>
60)%++65++4+65%36+0
6665")+4+345+
65"4%+-)4+++03+
544++564+"1+
5%0Q""%+$6+6++-R+++%+6
444"')+5)50$
+)++0)46+%45-603
6++4+"
39
Prime Movers: Major Skeletal Muscles
6%4?$4+54)504-4
+6-++prime mover%+44
04544-+"44-$3
XagonistsYQ)4400+X6Y366
+45%?$64+54)63$
4-4R"44-3$64+--+-
44+4??+455+-4-4%0)
>3$"16%34+++404-6
5+-?>='%)3$63
AGONISTS
(Prime Movers)
4++++='?%)
54)504-4
APPLIED TO:
Concentric ContractionU4+6
6%63$
Eccentric ContractionU4+66
6%63$+4+>
65+Q3+++%4
45)%6?5-?)R
ANTAGONISTS
4++4065+%)
554-46
APPLIED TO:
Muscle Groups
+L84*
*
86=0V
O+5L:46
.+5L+5
4L
SYNERGISTS
4+C446%
44CT)4$
+4-4++50
54
FIXATORS
4+5-0C55
0)65+-4-4%44
0C
03)4C)34+)4
54+65"'+65+-4++
5X4Y543$"
40
MUSCLE GROUPS
$?+>4-3%+U>3
4++45)"74+Q""++R%50
+%+64-4?"74-4
)?6)4+%0454-4"#-)%
34-44?64
4+L65%0+454-4"1+%33-3
4?4+0)%+4+%+
example+"P3$3453/
+564+45434?4++"
CHEST:
Pectorals: 8+6QR0)%
4+65544-+++56
4-4550)T+654)+%4)
4?"
Pectoralis Major: 6+L4+-+
+4T50+56-4
MAIN FUNCTION: +4
EXERCISE FOR THIS MUSCLE: #
Pectoralis Minor (under Pectoralis Major): 6
G%@0T5+L
45++5++5
MAIN FUNCTION: *55++5
EXERCISE FOR THIS MUSCLE: *5
ARMS & SHOULDERS:
Deltoids: 4+%+64
+-+4%45
QGR5UQR%4QR
0+$Q5R")544-
40+T666
0L5+-+6
555L50+5%)
64L+
4Q""0)R")3$3
+0+$4+0++
4%
?4")%35
4+4+%3$-56
4-4"
MAIN FUNCTION: 0+4T4
4
Posterior Deltoid: :C0+T%
0+?
4
EXERCISE FOR THESE MUSCLES: 8400
Anterior View
41
Rotator Cuff: .%65QR4+6
4+5++4"+4+
5+-+554%$5644)
+$%64-44+?"
Supraspinatusabducts the arm
Infraspinatusexternally rotates the arm
Teres Minorexternally rotates the arm
Subscapularisinternally rotates the humerus
Biceps & Triceps: 0+50+QX0+5Y%8X3/4+YR%
453QR04+064+5+6
33464++6L645
4%0)"13$544-54
03"+50+QX+5Y%8X/4+YR%
45QGR04++6%?654
03T)3$603Q=
+50+56R
Biceps
MAIN FUNCTION: 03
EXERCISE FOR THIS MUSCLE: #
Triceps
MAIN FUNCTION: 03
EXERCISE FOR THIS MUSCLE: +5
Forearms: 60303
3+454)4+3+3
4-46%033"1
6%44+
544+"
MAIN FUNCTION: Flexion, extension, radial and ulnar
deviation of wrist
EXERCISE FOR THIS MUSCLE: Wrist curls and reverse
wrist curls
44+3
.+
#5
#5B
*645+
486
#586
#5.-
#5B
*6'4
*64
+
Posterior View
42
LEGS and BUTTOCKS
Adductors:8+46%654++
+)5T$34+5"+6
50+40Q+L50R%4)64
5+4"+3++6%
+46%5+%6+"3+0-Q0
5++6R0Q+-+
35-%+565R
MAIN FUNCTION: Brings legs across midline of body
EXERCISE FOR THESE MUSCLES: Sumo squats
Quadriceps (Quads): 8+QR556%6
4+65454+
+4%-%-
4-4"
V+5544-
$?TV
4+644%
3+5+4"
+4+4%
6%64
4"4+
00)0%3
V+50+45
64"
-!23453"263)7
joint
78712(7461"07(7-5(97()(;
Anterior View
43
Hamstrings: 'G54+5Q0+$R
5560+54%4%4440"46
544-$?%06$36
6"44440060)
+4%30+54QR65+L
64T4444004
50%0+54Q06R
50"
MAIN FUNCTION: Flexion of the knee and aids in hip extension
EXERCISE FOR THESE MUSCLES: Hamstring curl with resistance band
Calves: 54+%6+4%0
++Q0R"6+45+4+5
454%3+6404T
54+4%65
50"
MAIN FUNCTION: Plantar flexion of the foot and stabilization of the ankle
EXERCISE FOR THESE MUSCLE: Calf raises
Gluteals (Glutes):
644+54)
5%364
44540+"
4+6+6
+4%40+
+4T54)6
0)4"
MAIN FUNCTION: Stabilization of the pelvis
EXERCISE FOR THESE MUSCLES:
Clams and side band walks
Lateral Rotator Group:
65QHR4+
5Q3R%66%
)45?"
8$+%)64
50"4+%54%
64564%
00%
V4%
5+4"
.
<
=
Posterior View
44
BACK:
Latissimuss Dorsi (Lats): 64++-60
0+$65"16%3453
4+0+$T50C3+6-+4
+40+40-0%G/0%6
+5+45-T-5)4
60+6-4"140
0C5456464"
MAIN FUNCTION: Extension, internal rotation and adduction of the shoulder joint
EXERCISE FOR THIS MUSCLE: Pull-ups or Lat pull-down
Teres Major: 4+550+$L4)3+4
++56)5+03+
4+%45"10
450+6-4"
MAIN FUNCTION: Extension, internal rotation and adduction of the shoulder
EXERCISE FOR THIS MUSCLE: Internal rotation with cable
Rhomboids (major, minor): 4054+64
+-+-0Q+$R64/++-0%
40+5"
-!23453"263)1
78712(7461"02(-5(97)(
;'
Trapezius (Traps): %64++-0+$+$%
T+3$%-+
+5U5%4"
MAIN FUNCTION:
Superior (Upper) Trapezius: Upward rotation, elevation; Bilaterally cervical spine extension; Unilaterally - cervical spine lateral flexion, cervical spine rotation
Middle Trapezius: Retraction
Inferior (Lower) Trapezius: Depression, Downward rotation
EXERCISE FOR THIS MUSCLE: High pull and depression exercises
Erector Spinae/Lower Back: '5-4+33
06QR0+$306QR%44+65
30+$+5"+5%3++44)
[30+$>%+)-0+46+-+%++
40645QGR+4+65+%
645"654+3$6+0+
+--5"+506+5
3+++44"6-
4+65550V)+5
-00"1+-+6%4++5+
0$"
MAIN FUNCTION: Lumbar extension
EXERCISE FOR THESE MUSCLES: Deadlifts and hyperextensions on a ball or bench
45
ABDOMINALS (ABS)QGR)654+3$6
544)450)+%+06%5+
6%555%4/+4-40)5"
Rectus (straight) abdominis: %64+66
04
MAIN FUNCTION: Lumbar spine flexion
External obliques:64Q5+R4+04
MAIN FUNCTION: Bilateral lumbar spine extension; Unilateral rotation to the opposite side (left
external oblique rotates to right), Lateral flexion
Internal obliques:03Q5R55+0V
MAIN FUNCTION: Bilateral lumbar spine flexion, Unilateral lumbar spine lateral flexion, Rotation to
the same side (left internal oblique rotates to the left)
Transversus (across) abdominis: 03Q5R0V%
44+04
MAIN FUNCTION: Stabilizes trunk
*Note: the exercises that have been recommended in this section offer only one example of the
suggested movements for the respective muscle/s/, there are many other productive exercises for
these areas.
46
ANTERIOR VIEW: major muscles
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
DELTOIDS
QR
8Q4R
Q0+$R
PECTORALS
+'?Q5+R
+'Q5R
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
'
>
Upper Arm
BICEPS
5Q55R
14Q4R
1Q3R
:
86:
BRACHIALIS
ABDOMINALS
*
+
+04
=0V
1=0V
FOREARM
*
;
+
.+ *
+
Anterior, Superficial
#5
486
#5B
-04
*;
+
SARTORIUS
QUADRICEPS
ADDUCTORS
+4
;14
+
+86
+'6
*1
4
+
;8
;'
*
%
<
=
+
9+
*
+
+.-
*
+
=0
*
+
47
POSTERIOR VIEW: major muscles
UPPER BACK
5CQ5R
40
*"
+
'?
Upper Arm
TRICEPS
ROTATOR
CUFF
8:
86:
':
55
15
'
0+5*+
FOREARM
Posterior,
Superficial/Intermediate
.+
#5
86
LATISSIMUS DORSI
(LATS)
LOWER BACK
*
+
+5
#5
.-
*"4
-?
)2
9
@(
+
*7
1
9
+
*64
*6'4
#5B
#5B
1+#
+40+
*+
GLUTES
9'
Q6+R
9'4
HAMSTRINGS
.+54
4
4440
CALVES
9+4
4
lateral head
48
The CORE
+340)>53-"15-
4-446"+406%-)4+0)%
+)6+)4-4+-44454+"
'40)4+4-6
5+++"1+45---666+
3$6++650C0)
+54"6)55%-+
6$0)44C54+5-?)%5+)
+-)-6"
++4?044+"1
+4++453%45-5+$
"044+3$64+45-++
+/0450C405")+3$
-)54$%30V
4+3$)6+))5"4++
+36+
Erector Spinae+%45QGR54+
65%51+%864%565"
Multifidus:*554+644+-+5Q#R +4")3%%6% 5-60)?-+5"
Interspinales, Intertransversarii, Rotatores (not shown): *5++) +5+4"-)454 0)"
49
External Obliques044++30%5-%
04+"
Internal Obliques044++30%+%
5-+40+Q00VR"
Transversus Abdominis044++30%5-%
+40+%+Q00VR"
Rectus Abdominis044++6-0%
34500"4+5%
+45604%4+)4
0V"=/+44+)553+"
Latissimus Dorsi1400C%54
56464"
Quadratus Lumborum+05540-0
5-"10C4055430C6
0"1+56465)$"
Thoracolumbar Fascia#+4%64+%
0V-04%5555405%
640++6"
Abdominal FasciaQGR)440+-54+
30+$"+0345)+5"1
++0V%+04%5+4?"+++
+44+4+55"
50
Postural Alignment
!)46)+>35554+%)46)
0)%)+>0)%55+6"V+$66+6C655
5$)+40-3Q6
5R%[email protected]/H3)"P+036066)
+3)65"P5%5+
63"8$5++4+40+
4555
Lateral Side View
/-K
/-5K440634
5%04"
/:5-$K45530+$5
00+"
/(-$K565+$?0
30+$5"
Lateral Side View: Against a Wall
.+$63%0+$+63K
)06+66$40+$L0+$63K
)360+$K
:330+$43KQ0/+R
:3+543KQ00+R
Anterior Front View
CK+-+0-
5CK8$5+45
563636)K16
)%)$4--$"
1)+44++5+6)+360)"
504%3-%5560)6"')3
++/560%0+)6+-)
3/+)%))5)654)654
+)"*6++/53++45
40+%3$5$636"9+633$
-++4++%+0+6)53)"$
$+445$%45":-)-)046
+K))604+%0V%
30+$4+3"45++546
/3-3/%34+3++
0CK
51
Here are a couple of postural scenarios and likely corrections:
Shoulders slump forward (Kyphotic posture) /6+4+%
4035C"6)+
640"10+663+6
"+5+5+-)0+
++6)+"++%555C%+4
"
Excessive curve in lumbar area (lordosis) /604%5%
5-+4+$4%V404%+4+$
+5%5+%46"+++$65
Q5R
Winging Scapula (shoulder blades stick out) /64%
40%%555+5T+
5+%3$+++"
Knees cave in during squat or lunging/6+3$6
4+T3++44+$0+$5"66
444%+6+"')4$
4$6+4+%6645++)"1)
-+3550)63$%0
4)6+)%$34V"
Eversion of one or both feet, or external rotation of a single leg/+
045%4$6++-44+
55"$545%3340+63$
54+/505)3$"'0C6
6654+%5+)+6+%)0
5+"
Note: none of the above corrections are guaranteed ways to correct for these issues, they
are only general remedies for the otherwise healthy client - if you notice more serious
concerns, then it is always best to refer your client to their physician. Chiropractors
and physical therapists should also be well versed in the area of corrective or
adaptive exercises to perform; it is important that you research local professionals for
recommendations in these areas when needed.
52
Stabilization of the Spine: Core Training
16)6%4++0+
0+0C5/0X+6Y"4
+64-44+45)"
++4+3+0C5-+6
--35%3-$+"73++
+6++564%0%3%>$5++
45++3564
1)33005+%++)%)306+
3)465-+6%45-+6405%5
6++56%6
550)Q%03%3%4+5?R)-00
65"#6655+%444
5$++4$50"8$3%)30%)
30+6555+0T%)33
550)444)+0+3
0"3%6+4-63+"
10+4+34$454-460)
-%+)65+0+-44C
4-4/4350C6+6"
500C06
+"1%3-+Q466R04%
-Q46+R04T%3-%
0V%intercostal 4+T%0+$%
-4+3+-4+00)+45+
5Q+454+L65V404R3+-
6+"
'))6+6564+-6-65+
+)0)30)":3-%4))654
06%)+0+66-5T4
+4-40+5636+-6
00)0+"3%454-$5V%6%
6665+6430+
+0)"%0)665V30)"
+0+%+$%3+465V/60+
4-430)+30+0+$
+40+$53$+$6$660+"160+3
%)3-"'+66)%64
-$3464-4%53
4"0+54$556/>?-
535643)+>0+-/5)4+)%0"
+6C5640663555%0+
0%0+%653%5+-)"
*-646[->5)+%)%$"
53
#:
________________
Skeletal Muscle:
Structure and Function
#-)0%-)04+
)64+-T+/
64b+0)%+)643
6044)4+/64/33%>
3++-)6)065+-)
+)S+-)5+4
+%6+-%3++)++6
4b5+%)+V+$)?345-)-
+0)-+0"3%554)Hc
+04++S
8$0)>)4%4+)4
4+%46+5545
0)"14+%34)3$65"1+
$4+%45%+4+-
64%V6%3%)6%+"6/
4554+%++5)
)4%0)+?00)"
#?4+>5%$4++0"1
)++++-$4+
+0%$%)3+-+45/
%+-65+++"7>$/5$
++45+%5+)myofibril
mitochondrial+45"
(54%4)++3
6)+-)%4)5+-)
630"
54
)6))+
-
+
-60)55)4"
+6)4%6%+0/4++)+
6"0++-T6++
%5/
+)$4+%34$)M6f45+
-f+/
--":>V+$54+56
Molecule4
+4++45%3)4
%
454
60)+4+04
46+66+
Sub-Cellular/Organelle)6/
CL5+C+3-/
6+Q"6"+%4+R
Cell$3[060+$
>%05)5+
4-%)4
++
-66"3)5+%5/
$)
+Q+%"6"0+R
$)
+Q+%"6"4L45R
Human (Animal) Eukaryotic Cell
Tissuea ++
4+446+
65+M+55
Organ65
?6+
5+M+55-664
Organ System 6563$66+
)4-6
64Q""6
-)4R
Organismt4+%3%)-66
140)%640)6Q5+0)3+40)4
-5R%3-56GfX64)Y+4Q)R%
44Q4)R%4Q)R"64)-)
60f
%60)+";)6)%
40+4-)4%6-0-3
5+"+40+4$+-6+"
440+44-)6+6$%++
-
%
4+
"
55
MUSCLE
TISSUE TYPES
)54+
1) Skeletal Muscle)54+
$4+)/
4U""%4+)+30436+Q"6"%0+5%
V+5%+"R"$4+-)+504-/
40)?"1+++353+%335+
+
V0)0)6-55")54++/
4+0+55+4++5%$65
0+34+>-0/5
6"
Skeletal Muscle Architecture
'+60)--)5++"+-/
0)4+34)4+M035
0%3
634-4":-)-
+%/4+6)46j)-)3652))K1%
$)56
665+6
3%3+4+M04+Q4+5R"%0%
4
/54+%364+%)6M4M0
6-"56506+454"
4%6%V4+j43")+
)44+40)405"'$4/
+45M0"
Skeletal Muscle Forms
-4%5%5
)+)$4+"
+4+5+M+55+
"f4
1) Fusiform: 4+55%3+343
0"3664
046"
2) Quadrate: 4+V5%35M0+)46
3) Triangular: 36+-63
40665
4) Longitudinal: 5M0+
6+
55+
+
M0
Pennate muscles
M00V)35+
5) Unipennate: M0
4
6) Bipennate: M00
+
7) !: +/
0+35
4+
56
2) Smooth Muscle: 44+-)%46X+++Y
-4+>++
"1%+4+-)4"
44+60)336+0
-"44+0-+
Q36R
Q3/
6R0-%3+++05%5+
-)"3/
6-30%36-%0+
V404-4"44+6
-+%4-6
k3+6-++
-6
"44+
55+
-%5)))4"
3) Cardiac Muscle: 8$$4+%++4+55++
)55)Q636R+6":3-%-)0/
)4+)++
%$44+"P340++4+#5/
@@(-
)(4"
#='1==SKELETAL, SMOOTHCARDIAC 'B#8
FUNCTION
SKELETAL
SMOOTH
CARDIAC
Attaches muscle to bone by
tendons
Surrounds hollow bodily
structures, such as arteries,
intestines and veins
Squeezes heart wall inward
Aids in locomotion and
movement
Maintains flow of fluids and
food along its structures
Works voluntarily
Only found in the heart and
cardiac ends of main blood
vessels
Involuntarily controlled
Involuntarily controlled
Stimulated by the nervous
system to work
APPEARANCE
Striated, arranged in regular
parallel muscle fiber bundles
Regulated by the autonomic
nervous system
Rhythmic contractions,
controlled by central
nervous system
Smooth, no regular arrangement
of muscle fiber bundles or
sheets
Striated, connects at
branching irregular angles
Striated appearance comes
from the alignment of actin
and myosin muscle fibers
PRESENCE OF MYOFIBRILS
Yes
No
No
SPEED OF:
CONTRACTION/
REFRACTION
Slow-Fast
Short
Slow
Long
Slow
Long
Capable of slow, small
contractions or fast, short
contractions
Maintains a slow rhythmic
contraction
Doesn’t fatigue
Fatigues more quickly than
Cardiac and Smooth muscle
Can maintain its function by
contracting for long periods;
fatigues slowly
SKELETAL MUSCLE: A Closer Look
$4++0-)++%++
5-55$/
%+
%+4
%0)>0)543$"4
+
$4+
;<=(
><@
Z<[
57
1) =(
4+++%245%3+
-"'-4++4
?34+6"45%30+50+55
4+
-%03kQ064R++0+0+55/
03?"13%0+50-03?"7
+5+
-%03Q664R++0+4+65
0+$%5%03?"
2) @
*644-4%-4+4+
-0C?4-6
++04-6?"75%45%4)5
4++
-655-5463"
3) [
0)5+%5+)6+":5+
6+
-)5+
+5"
SKELETAL MUSCLE STRUCTURE
Perimysium
*f4+4654)
Bone
-46Q
65R
0)3+44
Q65R"0+5/0+4/
%+5/0+%V+53
045+M6
3
%G%4+0%5+
-)%
++
6+44"
4+65%+0+5%/
0)++
-%M0
+
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ISOTONIC
ISOMETRIC
ISOKINETIC
WHAT STAYS CONSTANT
The weight/tension
The position of the joint
Speed of Movement
WHAT VARIES/MEASURABLE
Speed/repetitions
Tension (true max)
Force/Tension & Reps
PERFORMANCE GAINS
Strength and power
Strength
Power and Speed
62
Muscle Fiber Types
145-0+64++5)6))$3
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+>56406"+
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RRed, Slow Twitch (also known as Type I)*
RRed, Fast Twitch (also known as Type IIa)
GRWhite, Fast Twitch (also known as Type IIb)
q-64+))M0%)4
6
0)5-
W +)4+45%+5+45-)
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Muscle
Motor Unit
Red Slow
White Fast
Red Fast
Twitch
Twitch
Twitch
63
;)6400)54$5650%4"
46454+03+++"
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Difference between Fast and Slow Twitch Fiber Types
Myofibrils: +4$54+0"
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64
Contractile speed:1+35++
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++4)00-V+53%0"
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Practical Illustration of Muscle Fiber Types
553%3+4+0T%3+4+0%
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65
OVERVIEWS FOR UNDERSTANDING
METABOLIC AND STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF MUSCLE FIBER TYPES
Red, Slow/
Type I/
Slow Oxidative
Red, Fast/
Type IIa/
Fast Oxidative
White, Fast/
Type IIb/
Fast Glycolytic
Activity Example/s/
'L+
.$0LJ4/4
:6?45L5
Contraction Speed
3Q6R
QR
QR
Myoglobin (oxygen & iron
binding protein) Content
:6
:6
83
Glycogen (storage form for
converting glucose) Stores
83
14
:6
Rate of Fatigue
83Q6R
14
:6Q6V+$)R
# of Fibers/Motor Units
4
'86
86
Type of Fatigue
6)L'+
8+./5
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Color
Red
L$
7
Fiber Diameter
4
'4
86
Mitochondrial Capillaries
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3
ASSOCIATION OF MUSCLE FIBER TYPES TO
METABOLIC & PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
FIBER TYPE
MOTOR UNIT
PROPERTIES
FUEL SOURCE
OXYGEN NEEDED
INTENSITY
DURATION
SAMPLE ACTIVITY
White, Fast (IIb)
%86
/#
4
J/+
)%
/5%53
6
White Fast (IIb) &
Red, Fast (IIa)
%'/C
/#0
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Red, Slow (I) &
Red, Fast (IIa)
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+)+6%
6%
3446
Red, Slow (I)
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QUICK COMPARE:
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Greatest to Least
MUSCLE STRUCTURE: smallest to largest
66
MOTOR UNIT RECRUITMENT: The Size Principle
Immediate Recruitment
6%)444404V4-6-
363++543$"45%)5+$5-)60?+%
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Depleting Energy Recruitment
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A practical example: 5+)54+4%5+$-)
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Contractile Speed Recruitment
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Reflexes in the Motor Units
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Facilitation+6"=45+V++)V
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The Nervous System: its role in muscular movement
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68
Central Nervous System
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The Neuromuscular System
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69
Muscle Contraction Process: A Recap
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Neurologic Rest vs Aerobic Rest
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Dispelling a Couple of Common Myths
Motor Units and Depleting Energy Recruitment
0343++60+4
4++0)4%66+
Q-R"74%6+)45543-/
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“The Pump”: Swelling of the Working Muscle – is it a good thing?
+>0++6X45YC
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1+$645+5X45Y%
When size and strength is the goal,
+V)043%
avoid pre-workouts with excess of the
nonessential amino acid, L-Arginine.
+++3445-
Arginine causes vasodilation which in
%+454C6
turn causes an increase in peripheral
+"4X45Y0
blood flow to the extremities. When
0)4++44C54+
Arginine is mixed with high rep
6346Q-)R++0+
exercises, it results in a temporary
inflation of skeletal muscle, causing a
0363$64++0+$
constriction of the interstitial spaces
4-3+++"++44/
acting as a blockade.
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CONTRACTILE FAILURE
Cellular Energy Depletion
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Offsetting Energy Depletion
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1) Myofibril Failure
2) Intermediate Failure
3) Mitchondrial Failure
72
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3) Mitochondrial Failure
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RESISTANCE EXERCISE AND WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
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Cardiac & Smooth Muscle:
Structure and Function
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Links in the cardiac chain
Layers of the Heart Wall
The Heart: 54500)6
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These links are equally important – if one link is
weak, or missing, the whole system fails!
Pericardial CavityCavity
Pericardial
Fibrous
Fibrous
Pericardium
Pericardium
Perietal
Parietal
Pericardium
Pericardium
Myocardium
Myocardium
Myocardium
Visceral
Visceral
Pericardium
Pericardium
(Epicardium)
(Epicardium)
Like skeletal muscle, there are various layers to cardiac
muscle tissue. The outermost layer is the epicardium, or
visceral pericardium. This should not be confused with the
fluid-filled sack that protects the heart, known as the
pericardium, which is divided into the fibrous and parietal
pericardium. There is a fluid space in between the
pericardium and the epicardium, called the pericardial cavity.
The middle, and thickest, layer, is the myocardium, where the
cardiac muscle exists; and the inner most layer, the
endocardium. The greater the need for contraction, the
thicker the cardiac muscle. For example, the left ventricle
pumps blood to the entire body and is, therefore, thicker than
the right ventricle, which only pumps blood to the lungs.
54+/
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Endocardium
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Special Circulation for the Brain
)4+++5++)++)
-The Cerebrovascular System5+036%+pulmonary
The human brain accounts for 2% of body
circulation"4)++5+0)3+
mass, yet it consumes about 20% of the
oxygen at rest. The massive carotid artery
T+64
has such a strong pulse that it is the
3)6%3/+0%64
recommended site for taking someone’s
pulse rate. The jugular vein is also very
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large and carries a significant amount of
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blood. The carotid gets 70% of the
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cerebrovascular blood supply, and serves
the superior brain regions; and the
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vertebrobasilar artery gets 30% and supplies
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the inferior regions. The blood supply is
well-protected by the blood brain barrier.
654)-
When a blood clot stops blood flow, thus
4")6/+056
oxygen reaching a portion, a stroke may
result. A minor stroke-like event is called a
3)---+%35+)/
“transient ischemic attack”, it may last 1-2
4++++++6"$60
hours and does not have long-lasting
effects. This is often a warning sign of a
-)0+)%650
potential stroke. Because the brain must
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have oxygen and glucose at all times, it will
0)"%6%)coronary
cause changes to occur in the body to make
sure this happens.
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Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation: An Overview
Pulmonary Circulation
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EXERCISE AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
Cardiac Muscle: Resistance Exercise
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Understanding Blood Pressure
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82
SYSTOLE:
DIASTOLE:
Represents the time during which the left and right
ventricles contract and eject blood into the aorta and
pulmonary artery, respectively. During systole, the
aortic and pulmonic valves open to permit ejection into
the aorta and pulmonary artery. The atrioventricular
valves are closed during systole; therefore, no blood
is entering the ventricles. However, blood continues to
enter the atria though the vena cavae and pulmonary
veins.
Represents the period of time when the ventricles are
relaxed and blood is going from the left atrium and
right atrium into the left ventricle and right ventricle,
respectively. The blood flows through atrioventricular
valves (mitral and tricuspid) that separate the atria
from the ventricles. The right atrium receives venous
blood from the body through the superior vena cava
and inferior vena cava. The left atrium receives
oxygenated blood from lungs through four pulmonary
veins that enter the left atrium. At the end of diastole,
both atria will contract; this allows additional blood to
enter into the ventricles.
BLOOD PRESSURE
CATEGORY
Normal
Pre-hypertension
High Blood Pressure
(Hypertension) Stage 1
High Blood Pressure
(Hypertension) Stage 2
SYSTOLIC
mmHg (Upper#)
Less than 120
120-139
140-159
DIASTOLIC
mmHg (Lower#)
Less than 80
80-89
90-99
160 or higher
100 or higher
*Source: American Heart Association 2014
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84
Bodily Systems Coordinating to Get Oxygen to the Working Muscle
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How Aerobic Exercise Can Help Cardiovascular Conditions
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High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
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Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
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Dyslipidemia (high blood cholesterol levels)
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Physiology of
Nutrient Metabolism
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88
The Digestive Process
The Anatomy of the Gut
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Nutrient Review
Function of Nutrients:
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116
Vitamins and Minerals
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Water and Fat Soluble Classifications
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117
VITAMINS: AN OVERVIEW
VITAMINS
Fat Soluble
CHIEF FUNCTIONS DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS
SOURCES
Vitamin A - retinol
(beta-carotene)
Eyesight, epithelial
tissues (i.e. skin, linings)
Night blindness, xerophthalmia
(dry eyes)
Orange foods, spinach,
beef liver, milk
Vitamin D calciferol
(skin converts)
Bone Health, Calcium
absorption
Bone softening:
Rickets (in kids), osteomalacia (in
adults)
Salmon, shrimp, milk
Vitamin E alpha-tocopherol
Antioxidant, protects
white blood cells, Vit A
Red blood cell hemolysis- cell
breaks, liver & gallbladder
complications, viral diseases
Safflower, canola oils,
sunflower seeds, wheat
germ
Vitamin K menadione
(bacterial produced)
Clotting
Uncontrolled bleeding
Mostly synthesized by
colonic bacteria. Diet
sources: leafy greens
Vitamin B1 thiamin
Energy metabolism,
nerve and muscle health
Beriberi (effects of the cardio
and nervous systems, includes:
weakness, weight loss, emotional
and sensory impairment), Edema
Spinach, peas, ham, pork,
watermelon, black beans
Vitamin B2 riboflavin
Energy metabolism
Lack of flavin mononucleotide
(FMN) and flavin adenine
dinucleotide (FAD)
Spinach, milk, yogurt, egg,
liver, clams, mushrooms
Pellagra (diarrhea, dermatitis,
dementia and/or death)
Shrimp, chicken breast,
cod, tuna, spinach,
mushrooms
Water Soluble
Vitamin B3 - niacin Energy metabolism
(tryptophan)
Vitamin B6
(Pryridoxine)
Energy metabolism,
hemoglobin,
neurotransmitters, helps
immune and steroid
functions
irritability, neurological symptoms,
seizures
Sweet/ baked potato,
chicken, beef, banana
Vitamin B12
(cobalamin)
New cell, nerve cell
health (needs intrinsic
factor)
Anemia, fatigue
Cheeses, seafood, meats
Vitamin C
(ascorbic acid)
Collagen synth, reduces
colds, mild antioxidant,
nails, gums and hair (smokers need
helps E & iron absorption
more)
Greens, citrus fruits,
berries, bell peppers,
tomatoes, kiwi
Folate
(folic acid)
DNA synth, makes new
Neural tube defect (w/pregnancy),
cells, lower homocysteine heart disease
Asparagus, beets, enriched
cereal, pinto, lentils,
avocado
Pantothenic Acid
(Pantothenate)
Energy metabolism,
many functions
Lack of energy, fatigue (deficiency
is rare)
Most foods have small
amounts. High amounts
in: eggs, meat, yogurt,
avocado, lentils and whole
grains
Biotin
Energy metabolism, fat
synth
Rash, fine/brittle hair, anemia
(deficiency is rare)
Liver, berries, leafy
vegetables
Choline
Makes acetylcholine (a
neurotransmitter)
Fatty liver, kidney complications
Egg yokes, meats
Inositol
Cell membranes
Fruit (oranges, cantaloupe),
produced from glucose
Carnitine
Cell actions, Fat transport
biosynthesized from amino
acids
118
Vitamins and Metabolism
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This information is not intended for the purpose of ‘prescribing’ or otherwise recommending
vitamins or minerals to your clients. This is for your personal education and understanding only.
Minerals
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119
MINERALS: AN OVERVIEW
MACROMINERALS
CHIEF FUNCTION
DEFICIENCY
SYMPTOMS
SOURCES
Sodium
Nerve transmission, muscle
contraction, blood volume
Dizziness, muscle
cramps, nausea
Sea salt, Himalayan pink salt,
soy sauce
ChlorideChlorine
acid-base balance
Convulsions
Sea salt, Himalayan pink salt,
Soy sauce and unprocessed
foods
Potassium
Blood pressure regulation, nerve
transmission
Muscle cramps, irregular Almost all foods: meats,
heart beat,
milk, coconut water, bananas,
vegetables, grains, etc
Calcium
Bone growth/health, blood
clotting, nerve impulse
Osteoporosis, nerve
conduction impairments
Phosphorus
Bones, teeth, DNA/RNA growth,
ATP
Osteoporosis, brittle
Milk, cottage cheese, steak,
bones, muscle weakness, salmon, navy beans
impaired growth
Magnesium
Glucose metabolism, synthesis
of fat, protein, nucleic acids,
muscle contraction, blood clotting,
transport proteins, blood pressure,
lung function, & hundreds of
enzymes
Muscle weakness, nerve
problems, hallucinations
Sulfur
Insulin, stabilizes proteins
MICROMINERALS
CHIEF FUNCTION
DEFICIENCY
SYMPTOMS
SOURCES
Iron
Hemoglobin, myoglobin, need for
energy
Anemia, weakness,
impaired cognition
Protein containing foodsRed meats, fish, eggs,
legumes
Zinc
Antioxidant, insulin, immune
system, wound healing
Growth failure, sexual
dysfunction
Protein containing foods
Iodine
Thyroid function
Goiter, cretinism
Iodized salt, seafood,
seaweed, kelp, dulse
Selenium
Part of enzyme that defends
against oxidation
Keeshan disease, skin
Seafoods, organ meats, whole
rash, hair & nail damage, grains, vegetables (depending
fatigue, irritability, nerve on soil conditions)
disorders
Copper
Helps form Hemoglobin; part of
several enzymes
Anemia, vomiting,
diarrhea, liver damage
Seafood, nuts, legumes,
whole grains
Manganese
Cofactor for several enzymes
Nerve symptoms/
disorders
Nuts, whole grains, leafy
vegetables
Fluoride
Helps form bones and teeth:
confers decay resistance on teeth
Susceptible to tooth
decay, fluorosis, nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea,
Drinking water (if
fluoridated), tea, seafood
Chromium
Assoc w/ insulin; needed for
energy release from glucose
Abnormal glucose
metabolism
Meat, unrefined grains,
vegetables, oils, beer.
Molybdenum
Cofactor for several enzymes
Leafy greens, broccoli,
cheese, greens, sardines, tofu
Nuts, legumes, dark green
vegetables, seafoods,
chocolate
Protein containing foods
Legumes, cereal, organic
meats
120
Water: The Most Essential Nutrient
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124
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The Thirst Mechanism and Gastric Water Absorption
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Sport Drink Composition Comparisons
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Sports Drink CHO (%) / CHO Type
Brand (8 oz) CHO (g)
Sucrose, HFCS
Gatorade (02 6% / 18g
Perform)
6% / 19g
Org brown rice
Clif Shotsyrup, org evap
Electrolyte
Calories
Sodium
(mg)
Potassium
(%)
Protein
(mg)
50
110
1%
0
80
200
2%
0
cane juice
Powerade
5% / 14g
HFCS,
Maltodextrin
50
100
1%
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Accelerade
7% / 21g
Sugar, Trehalose
120
220
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________________
The Beginner Client
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A Summary of Terms: Fitness Concepts and Training Principles
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Muscular Strength vs. Muscular Endurance/60)
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131
Cardiorespiratory (metabolic) Endurance vs. Muscular endurance/3
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Dynamic Constant External Resistance (DCER) vs. Dynamic Variable External
Resistance (DVER) /44+06)"1
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Functional vs. Standard or Traditional Training /+
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Calisthenics vs. Aerobics – .4--3+6"+
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133
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Repetitions: 4045
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Speed of concentric phase, speed of eccentric phase:0+3
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+ The F.I.T.T. Principle
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the mode (type) of exercise
the speed of movement (intensity)
the range of motion and strength in a given ROM
the energy system utilized (intensity and duration)
the environmental surroundings and time of day
muscle recruitment patterns and muscle fiber development
134
- The Progressive Adaptation (Overload) Principle: 5+5
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THE BEGINNER AND…
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5 COMPONENTS OF GENERAL FITNESS
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Cardiorespiratory Conditioning
Muscular Endurance
Muscular Strength
Flexibility
Body Composition
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1. Cardiorespiratory Conditioning
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Progression and the Aerobic Phase
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The development of speed, agility, and
coordination will also enhance overall physical
performance. Exercise is “sport specific” to the
activity being performed. If you wish to grow
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Increasing Strength
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5. Body Composition
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The General Fitness Exercise Program
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Aerobic and
Low Level Activity
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208 - (0.7 x Age (in years)) = MaxHR
Check Pulse for 15 Seconds x 4 = RestHR
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6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Nothing at all
7 Very, very light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5 Very, very weak
revised
8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Very weak
5" 9 Very light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Weak
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Moderate
11 Fairly light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Somewhat strong
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Strong
13 Somewhat hard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Very strong
15 Hard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
17 Very hard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Very, very strong
18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Maximal
19 Very, very hard
20
162
Aerobic Training Program
75+644%0+65640+4
4456-0V+)%)%%)5/
+"3645+03)3+-0?
555++66"
Aerobics and the fat reduction client
54)++3++?"""+6"*5
56+-)%)5+)5+)-)+40C
C4+4"B)%3+440+-%)
-)+6+0)6)%3+-)+6
"%445++>0++
564645C404344/45C
+6+404"+++6+40/
4"
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-+0)404"%)066+>0+
65640;P3"14%3%56-
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40)(-4"56-++/
>50-"500+
05$+40)33$63QH/IcR)6"#/
+6%+5)+0++6306
)6"=0-)%+>+5)+45-%/
+)4)0+"
75++%+0+-)C.6+4/
60++)"++)$6V
6"B6.6+%++334
54-Q)6R"-5+6+6
+5+)0)5-+6)344C66)+6+/
-"
)5++440++-)[email protected]
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163
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+0544+4V)654/
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+3%)5++054)0Q4/
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V-543$"
REVIEW: Low Level and Aerobic Activity for the Fat Reduction Client
1
2
3
4
83)Q‡HIc%56-R
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5R
Aerobics and the General Fitness Client
')+4))0--4564"+
4)$-+6++45-6
-"5)-564+)+
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6+6)%%V+)%)5+4
+>6"
15-+45%+)43/45C
0+)4"734466%+
+446+3-0)0+)4
46"+6)V44
0++54++5))4>+0)
55)4+6)0+)"156
-0+++%46+6)30V"74%/
0+)43+60+4"756%
35%3044$+636
4)65+0+)4"6/
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+6)50+6)550)+5)
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164
++45-66-
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5-45%)?++6+>+-%
3+0.6+"6+-
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+4053$3V+-)03
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-503+
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depending upon current fitness levels%3-6603
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Note:656-+0++)0+%-
X06Y+C3$64+5+"++0+
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45+4-"164656
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165
REVIEW: Aerobics and the More Aggressive Fitness Client
1
2
3
4
'60+)[email protected]
'V+)[email protected]$R
'0++Q-6/G45R
#)-)5++-3++L
Aerobic Activity and Cellular Catalyst Function
0+546Ic;=F4%L4G
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++)5---+%4+5$5/
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Aerobics and the Endurance Athlete
+55++65"#+
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4)6-0+"55$6-+
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-654"
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166
45++064-5++%
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120 seconds / 0.80 = 150 second training interval
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200 BPM x 0.95 = 190 BPM Target Heart Rate
(54+6345-44)65$
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+-)444+)$6+-)444
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5" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " [email protected]
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REVIEW: the Endurance Athlete
1 '-)6)QIc44R
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168
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169
#:
________________
Cross Training and
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the Athlete
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170
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Strength and Power
Exclusively Training for Strength and Power
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171
Exercise Selection
40664+symmetrical
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Use Variety in Programming
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Vary Exercises:
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+Q5R++XY")
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Vary the Number of Repetitions:
7+650503)+-+%
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Note: Be certain that you have spent
considerable time building a Muscular
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before moving on to Muscular Strength
or Power rep ranges.
172
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Cardiorespiratory Training
Exclusively Cardio with No Weight Training
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5+5R+45"++4)V
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A Little About Steroids
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Common Adverse Effects with Steroid Use
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178
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Resistance Training
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5$+-)"
WHY RESISTANCE TRAINING?
GOAL
Hypertrophy (size)
& Strength
General Fitness
& Stamina
3-5x/week
Mod (4-6) rep,
1-6 sets w/
moderate rests
between
(1 - 2 min)
Low-Moderate
resistance
70-80% 1RM
2x/week
High (12-15) rep,
3-8 sets w/short
rests between
(45 sec - 1 min)
Low resistance,
Functional: whole
body type
Fat Loss &
Endurance
Power & Max
Strength/Athletes
2-3x/week
High (20-25) rep,
4-5 sets w/short
rests between
(45 sec - 1 min)
Low-Moderate
resistance:
body weight type
RESISTANCE TRAINING:
F.I.T.T. Goal-Oriented Methods
181
1x/week
Low (1-3) rep,
1-5 sets w/long
rests between
(3 - 5 min)
High Resistance
80-100% 1RM
Ex: Plyometric, jumping,
sprint (for power), power
lifting
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SOMATOTYPE
Endomorph
CHARACTERISTICS
Mesomorph
Increased capacity for muscle gain, viewed as ‘muscular’ and ‘healthy’,
narrow waist and solid torso, medium bone structure
Ectomorph
Difficulty storing fat and muscle, viewed as ‘thin’ or ‘skinny’, narrow limbs
and thin bone structure
Increased capacity for fat storage, viewed as ‘overweight’ or ‘big boned’,
wide waist and shoulders, larger bone structure
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Applications to Rep Range Training
4 to 6 Rep Sets
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12 to 15 Rep Sets
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Evaluating Recovery Based on Performance
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Between Set Recovery Considerations
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PERFORMANCE GOAL
MUSCLE
OUTCOME
ROUTINE
REP RANGE
(TARGET)
RPE
%1RM
# OF
SETS
RECOVERY
BETWEEN
SETS (in BPM)
SIZE/STRENGTH
Hypertrophy/Power
3 day split
4-6 (4)
Very hard to
Maximal
85-100%
1-6
100 RHR
GENERAL FITNESS
Wellness/Stamina
2 day split
12-15 (13)
Moderate
60-70%
3-8
115 RHR
FAT LOSS/ENDURANCE
Longevity/Definition
Circuit (3/week)
20-25 (22)
Moderate to
Hard
55-80%
4-5
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When a Client is Not Progressing
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65+4-)+-60+$4-4%+
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"
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+50C56536-)
6"4+066-)/
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6/%5$%5$%)5%+0+5%4+0%+"
Back Flexibility and Hip Mobility
50)453$55)5/
+-455"440%504-6
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6+33+3+3-))
30+$?)++"+564)060)
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650)00+034+$
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4+%0-)"4++60+$3+454
0)0C6+-)"145++34/
56+%06656/
+"4+30+$0C+63$
066-+%55+"
198
Posture, Posture, Posture
6445546)0+$%0)4
+%3)465"550++6
5%-63++)?)"15/
-?+356XY5%$+/
6"=-45+00640++"
+-5555%45)XY%46
+-)5)[0+>%6%04"5+/
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V+$)5%3-%$)4535"
7665%454-%0-)G4%
-$)5+5"54-053
0+5"3)4550
+-4-43%5+)"
Back Injuries
1+0+$?)%++44)55)+
?4+445+55+-)3
"156+)05++%)
45)+44)"
B5+>+564%35)+>+/
+05-%-40636+56/
Q56-)++)6+>5
R"-++40)%466+6
+5-66-6+"#555
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0)540)"166$)435)+4+
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199
Contraindications to Exercise: The Basics
44++++%3+
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4)-0)5+03
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+5554L6+564"4
++>5)+0)5-6V+/
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)6+6)+>3/06+34"
63)0554++44)
36-)3$665S
Contraindications to exercise include:
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
0-
?5
CC
6
rapid pulse
+-36
44+
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+5
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4+53)+%44)$33)
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200
201
#:G
________________
Program Design:
Charts & Tables
5646+0+530
0++)55)4)3$
5":3-%4?6
4%-6-)
+"73+-4+5%
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)3$5+-)6
566%04)
+"73+-Client Screening and Consultation
+53/0%3%>$0+
+44)55+6
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+4+"
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+456+64"
+%3645-0/
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)-6%++0"
202
General Exercise Recommendations
GOAL
REP RANGE ROUTINE
SET INTENSITY
DURATION
RECOVERY HR
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Strength/Size
4-6
3 Day Split
90-100 %
30-60 min
100 BPM
______________________________________________________________________________________________
General
Fitness/Stamina
12-15
2
Day
Split
85-95%
45-70
min
115
BPM
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Fat
Loss/Endurance
20-25
Total Body Circuit 60-90%
45-90 min
125 BPM
______________________________________________________________________________________________
)-+-)54++65+%0
00)+56446"-)0+445/
+%0045++3)+%03+/
-6":V+$0+0$3+45
Goal
+)+443)05+>6"8$
+4T66LC"1+>6%)
45)30+56454C6+"9/
L450+6T30+6)3+
+43Q""0%0$05)%0+$%+"R/
+066%465%364/
+"68L+"1)+
%+5)+4%+Q6/+/
%/)%+"R%+445+-+6)"
Rep Range
++40+555X56Y0
+-+6"656-040
+6)55V+--6"
Routine
+404+-054C
+>%-L+6"P-6
whG)5%)5%++"7-++/
+5%0>-0+5
On a 3 day split routine:-4?4+655G53$/
"'+6503-)36/H56%
6--)+-)006+)6"45%
4+3$)+-6))G"$)
44434)55"
On a 2 day split routine:-4?4+6555
3$436/@56"++46
+4+56%+-)4V5+)
64+6"'+3$)+-6)"$
)44434)55"
203
On a total-body circuit routine:54+++6636%
/@56%6G+454-4--64?4/
+65/6-))%G453$"+46
6563%35/
4+/0)++-)//)0"$
)44434)55"
Set Intensity
+4)%)5-)6+>
)4Hc"145[)>[-/
6)>"7>$)436+T3%
$3%)+06%H/[email protected]))66
6$3$64+"5)+/
304)5+0+)%
%66+-)5"1+)
+%4+%)+4c)"P
34)6)++6+4
0"
Duration
+403463$%5/
+++4"9)5$6%6)%
3$+0"#-)%3)%/
63$+0"
/1455)c/H5
N46Q6-4%-)6R%G)5
)[email protected])3$"45%*)Q')R%
*)Q)R%*)GQ7)R%*)Q)R%*)Q)RT%)
')6)%3*)G36')%"
4+-)40---)466%6-4
3$"+++0+3"
Recovery Heart Rate
+40+3+>05
546"6+-)%6+
+":-)+5553+$03%
5"B5+45%+%5%+
[email protected]+4545)404
5340054"+55+
%03%+44+-)56"
5%+)54"=++-[>
300%)00))++%
)36+)4")+4-4
+0)3))"
204
6+%+36C6%+-)
4350Q.'R"+36
%+4V64%6
+03++/+-)06)
[email protected]'R"8)%+34+-64+/
+%+-6++3464+%+
%+"%54-6+-)[email protected]'R"+
+546+4-4%4+4+3)
45C"
1)+>-5543)%+-)4
0+)34C5+-06+
?3)04-64++"4+5/
)%-%+++$3
)5+6)454"1+5+4++
+44+-)%3+-)45)
5+$55++>+45-"*4+3
4)454++%45)45C45+++)+5
+6"64%6+-)%+/
3006+36%
0-+4"33++
6)":3-%+++6)
+)5%6++%+3+
"%6+>+-)%6$
4+"
2 Key Elements to Optimizing Your Movement Selection
Key Element Number 1/1+)+366L
%4-40+--644+4
644+6)5"36
440C5$4+6)5+45/
5033$"%65+++3
++06L%454-4
--44+450"
45)5%06++%+44-+56
4-4%564-4%65V64-4"P+
544-4++-)[email protected]++"3
04+6+5+-++3
44+65+-)35-)6)
5"
++45-+63"
04+:61)1-6Q:11R5+5%
6%4)+03604+"9560)
/54-43++6)+46
205
%G/@+"%6?5
+3%0N/+%+50
0)"6)0-+-)40
+-+6"3+0)3/
6":115+5+055)56+53%6
+"0-453)6:115+545
++)"8656/55+5:11%L)
5++633+-%5+)++
4-T55433+-0+
3+6)$$360?+"
:11%66+%60+/
30)6)6[+->5")-4+%
)06+)-"
Key Element Number 2- )+36C6+%)
4-4+005+5-6-"
'+3634V+$)64-4364+0
0)6436504+>65
-6"1)+%$6+C6%+4363
+4354600+400+%0
54600+"45)4%45%+%0+5
4-46-)3634+-C6+
345464006636"145-
)++>6%4"1+4+6
%45%660+4)66/
3$5-?"1+45%
4$4++40+0)5)6+
0)60%400+0".))+53-)
3635%)44$)-554++
0$564"3+554-40
36-)36"
15)6+)45054+"5+5+++
364+65+046"'+03636
6%?3455+"4%
4+50"4++++33+
)54+65Q)6+)R"16%
0)64+"
206
Suggested Movements and Total Sets
3)43G7
1
0%4
4-(
-
"(
004?
4+65%+44054+4+65%
++4%>664-40+6"
)+-360%)5))55"
8>$%45T)3+6)%
3+44"45%+66+
/@56%6)%)54J6/
64-4"74+%3)%+4/
4"36)+5443)
6)0+4+46064+
3)"%+-5443)"
63$56+446L6)5
0)++-)+-4"4)-)4-6"
%4050)5%0%0
-)3"
Suggested Movements and Total Sets
MUSCLE
TOTAL SETS
TOTAL SET
CIRCUIT
SUGGESTED
GROUP
4 TO 6 REPS
12-15 REPS
20-25 REPS
MOVEMENTS
(HIGH
INTENSITY)
(LOW
INTENSITY)
___________________________________________________________________________________
Chest ____________________________________________________________________________________________
6 to 8 sets
8 to 10 sets
4 to 5 sets
Flat/Incline Bench Press/Push-Ups/Cable Pressing
Back (upper)
8 to 10 sets
10 to 12 sets
4 to 5 sets
Pull-Ups/Cable Rows/Pull-Downs
Back (lower)
4
to
6
sets
6
to
8
sets
4
to
5
sets
Hyperextensions
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Shoulders
4 to 6 sets
6 to 8 sets
Rear Fly, Dumbbell Side Raises*
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Triceps ______________________________________________________________________________________________
4 to 6 sets
6 to 8 sets
Shoulder Press/Tricep Extensions/Close Grip Bench
Biceps ______________________________________________________________________________________________
3 to 5 sets
5 to 7 sets
Curl w/Dumbbells or Bar
Traps**______________________________________________________________________________________________
3 sets
3 sets
High Pull and Hang Cleans
Quads ______________________________________________________________________________________________
8 to 10 sets
10 to 12 sets
4 to 5 sets
Squat/Leg Press/Deadlift/Lunges
Hams ______________________________________________________________________________________________
3 to 4 sets
3 to 4 sets
Stiff Leg Deadlifts/Supine Leg Ball Curl
Calves ______________________________________________________________________________________________
3 to 4 sets
3 to 4 sets
Standing/Seated Toe Raise
1
to
2
sets
1
to
2
sets
Ball
Crunch/Chop/Ab Wheel
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Abs
Forearms
2 to 4 sets
2 to 4 sets
Wrist Curl/Reverse Wrist Curl
______________________________________________________________________________________________
*Side raises, as with all exercises, are contraindicated when improperly performed. There is no need to raise the dumbbell past shoulder
height.
**Traps are best trained with some basic Olympic style lifts. NFPT does not recommend these exercises for most general fitness clients, do not
use these lifts without proper training. In most cases, there is no need to perform elevation exercises for traps with the general fitness client,
depression and posture exercises are usually best suited.
NOTE: NFPT does not recommend the barbell upright row because of the risk of shoulder injury. This exercise internally rotates and abducts
the shoulder which impinges the joint space and, over time, will irritate the soft tissue. In situations where its necessary, a High Pull is acceptable as long as the client has proper mobility and motor control; however, an entry level trainer should not determine if a client is clear to do
High Pulls, and, in most cases, it is unnecessary and actually harmful
7564+65%C4+65
44054"640%4
4+653V364+65"
207
NFPT Range Chart
0--36#3-)6++55+
5+5"+5-)340)3++/
-6+44++656)-5++
405+3600+65/
+"B6#+405+5/
4+56-)-)56"4/
5%36+%)3)+3Jc/
)@56%+3065336
+0H5"43+[5
>"45%3+666366
Ic)H56%30$36+
+6I5+++Q5-R"8%V+54
)5336"%c)55))
-%3+554"
Range Chart
Chart is only effective with proper diet and recovery
Intensity during set and effect on tissues
(4-6) REP RANGE
(12-15) REP RANGE
(20-25) REP RANGE
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Effect on Tissue at 70% Intensity
Maintain Strength
Maintain Stamina
Some Fat Conversion
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Effect
on Tissue at 80% Intensity
Increase Strength
Increase Stamina
Moderate Fat Conversion
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Effect
on Tissue at 90% Intensity
Maximize Strength
Maximize Stamina
Maximum Fat Conversion
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Effect
on Tissue at 100% Intensity
Build White Tissue
Build Red Fast Tissue
Build Red Slow Tissue
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Effect
on Tissue at 110% Intensity
Tissue Damage
Tissue Damage
Tissue Damage
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Rep Ranges: Relative to % Intensity and Point of Contraction Failure
RPE*
(4-6) REP RANGE/STRENGTH
(12-15) REP RANGE/STAMINA
(20-25) REP RANGE/ENDURANCE
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Somewhat Hard (Borg 4)
70%
Intensity
3 reps short of failure
6 reps short of failure
9 reps short of failure
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Hard (Borg 6)
80%
Intensity
2 reps short of failure
4 reps short of failure
6 reps short of failure
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Very hard (Borg 7-8)
90%
Intensity
1 rep short of failure
2 rep short of failure
3 rep short of failure
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Very, very hard (Borg 9)
100%
Intensity
Max; Unassisted failure (Good)
Max; Unassisted failure (Good)
Max; Unassisted failure (Good)
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Exhaustion
110%
Intensity
Past failure; Forced reps (Bad)
Past failure; Forced reps (Bad)
Past failure; Forced reps (Bad)
_________________________________________________________________________________________
*Rate-of-Perceived-Exertion
208
Total Activity Expenditure and Calorie Needs
#%)-46
34+3)5)+6"P+55+/
+564+%03645+5%
5643054)+-"14)%
440+356
+564)+44"
.3+40+V%.'0+Q.'RL6
'0+Q'R%3++60)%33$
0+-6343+-":!7)+V+$))4)+>65/
tures"
Activity Expenditure Chart
ADD TRAINING EXPENDITURE TO DAILY ACTIVITY EXPENDITURE
______________________________________________________________________________________________
100 BPM = Recovery Heart Rate (between sets)
500 Calories per Hour Training (Expenditure)
______________________________________________________________________________________________
115 BPM = Recovery Heart Rate (between sets)
750 Calories per Hour Training (Expenditure)
______________________________________________________________________________________________
125 BPM = Recovery Heart Rate (between sets)
1,000 Calories per Hour Training (Expenditure)
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Average person’s day-to-day activity requirement
500 Calories For Daily Activity (Approximate)
______________________________________________________________________________________________
[email protected]'+-):^[email protected]+56"1
3$G4%[email protected]+"
3)-065%[email protected]+/
%+6-65>)+-)5"663
64)+>)5"
3%$+++>40++6)06Ectomorph, Mesomorph%Endomorph"1++45Q-)404R+
[email protected]+T'45Q4404R)-
5"1+45Q+)636R$
3)@#"36-)estimatedX#+5Y%3+
4)+>)+"3%+'3
4++-45+6++5/
%0+
Total Caloric Expenditure = RMR + Activity Expenditure + Thermic Effect of Food
6)%3340+--6+
35-)3+54++66"
209
General Dietary Advice
34B"
"
+6/T45%
GH!8>555++5
565+5"45/36K1+
0%6445646+446
+"
P>+66+weight loss, weight maintenance and
weight gain"+63+44"
+445%+0)%5+6+%
64"P3+)+3+-64+-+
-"
ENERGY SOURCE
CALORIES PER GRAM
Fat
9
Proteins
4
Carbohydrates
4
GH!will 5-0+)5445
)55"
General Dietary Advice Chart
GOAL
=
WEIGHT LOSS
WEIGHT MAINTENANCE
WEIGHT GAIN
______________________________________________________________________________________________
TOTAL CALORIES =
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
- 500 CALORIES
+ 500 CALORIES
______________________________________________________________________________________________
% Protein =
25%
20%
15%
______________________________________________________________________________________________
% Carbs =
50%
55%
60%
______________________________________________________________________________________________
% Fats =
25%
25%
25%
______________________________________________________________________________________________
# of Meals/Day
4-5 Meals
4-5 Meals
5-6 Meals
______________________________________________________________________________________________
3%>55[#+5>40)++4
-++66%+66"=445
46+++645+5%0V)%)
+>+44%-+5+)40)36
Q8.7R%$30)4Q8.'R"766)5+$
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+>8.7%0)60)+4546-+5+-
+%)30)45++++$"
8.73)0++03$4"1)3+44
+$036%)305-6+55
36%0-)+6"+5+-6%36
%364+366%+)++4
210
++%+)30++++5+
5+-6"68.7+5)4)+>6'0+
"1)-+'"1)+3
665)+)%6'0+%+%
35-+)0)+"55%33$'
55.'%0+0-)4'+++04
6)%3.'++V4++55+"3)
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1
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03'%.'%+L5T0%)5+%
5+)5"+%6
54)+6636555
3$%+4436+++)@+5
)%+00++5%'"
6%[email protected]+436+>%)
3)5++-)[email protected]+"9/
)%)+544+-)4
+Q5+))+$64R"
4+444++6'6'/"!4
Q$345)X'4YR"')++-0
43+35-V+$++Q3-%0/
+4L466T
44C55%0560$36R"
'4
For Men: RMR = (10 x weight, in kg) + (6.25 x height, in cm) - (5 x age, years) + 5
For Women: RMR = (10 x weight, in kg) + (6.25 x height, in cm) - (5 x age, years) - 161
6$64+4%440+-
5Q0R^"@[email protected] $64
~0"@[email protected]^~$6
+^"@+4Q+4R
~+"@^~+4
=+)--'%40+0566V
#+5"440
Total Caloric Expenditure = RMR + Activity Expenditure + Thermic Effect of Food
7-+6V500)6'.'Q3+-)
46R%33)644++"
4++%0+)%4++6)%0-
'%6)000"7>
660+c++$4++T+
3-)56)566)+5"
211
8>$450'44-0
+0#+5"P-GH)4+3
[email protected]@>HY%'"
1) convert to kilograms and centimeters
0$6^~5"@[email protected]
$6^[email protected]"@[email protected]
$6^H"GN
inches to centimeters = # of inches x 2.54
5’6” = 66 in
66 x 2.54 = 167.64 cm
2) Plug in to Mifflin formula, for women
'^Q36%$6RbQH"@6%+4R/[email protected]%)R/H
'^QH"GNRbQH"@HI"HR/[email protected]/H
'^H"GNbI"[email protected]/J/H
RMR = 1319 caloriesQ340R
3) Plug into the equation for Total Caloric Expenditure /3+-)5
4++4+"45%>)3$/
6G4)+-)@.'T%
+-)[email protected]+"%+-65>)//)+-)
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333"
Total Caloric Expenditure^'b+-)5b4++
^[email protected]@RbQGNcR
^GN[email protected]"N
Total Caloric Expenditure = 2326Q340R
+%-4++6%46%-6+/
>640+"'46-65+
64+++#+5++
)%6-+-)-"445%)3+b+/
+03'#+5"0+%'%
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4"%6'+00)64
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'4"45VLBW x 11 = RMR"8>
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$38.7c%?568.74
LBW = Body Weight - (Body Weight x LBW%)
212
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%)$38.7"+00)60)+45
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%4+443+$+5%)30)cQsee
page 236-241R"%++64+!#+%
-6[)>0)c%66/)%J/Nc4%
/GGc34"66)[email protected])
34%4Jc4"=0-)%)35+0)c
5)++6-+-)+4)+%
5+-)"4%45%4)-)@c0)3
0+)0-"
(360)c3))V+$)8.7c3%3+3
3)8.75%0+LBW = Body Weight - (Body Weight x
LBW%)"%)%-3)8.7%43+3$
0)"766++6'%#+58.76
443+))+45"P+5+/
+%0)0-)4+"8>3+
33+456'4'V345
VRMR = LBW x 11"7>8.7655%)%
:44Q0%$54%8.7+00)60)+45/
4%"6"$/+54R
For Men: LBW^Q"GJ36%$6RbQ"GGNN6%+4R/N"@GGH
For Women: LBW^Q"[email protected]%$6RbQ"JG6%+4R/G"NGG
6%3>4454+%[email protected]
@>HY"7-)+-5$64L++4/
%>5666:448.7Q$6R"
LBW (for Women)^Q"[email protected]"GNRbQ"JGHI"HR/G"NGG
^J"[email protected]@[email protected]"[email protected]/G"NGG
^"[email protected]$6
To convert Kilograms to Pounds:
$6^"H0
"[email protected]$6"H0^NN5Q340R
3%$68.74'%645/
4
RMR = LBW x 11
'^NN
'^JN+
P3++03'4%3+6-
%GN+%4%3+6-%JN+%)G+/
"6%4404)+%%
+>+-)53%36'4++$
)+"+%+)5/
')+443'++$"
213
7-++-)5-06#+5
6065%0+-)%3-6
)//)[email protected]+".3)40)6
+-)+5-0)+-)0/'V"#
55+0+)+436
ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION
ACTIVITY FACTOR
Sedentary: little or no exercise
1.2
Lightly Active: light exercise/sports 1-3 days/week
1.375
Moderately Active: moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/week
1.55
Very Active: hard exercise/sports 6-7 days/week
1.725
Extremely Active: hard daily exercise/sports w/physical job demands
1.9
1)3+-)+45-'b+-)
5%'45)+-)+"45%6
44+33-++'%>)4)
+-"X')+-Y3-+-)+"@@%++6
+"%3'V%GN+Q5'VR%3+'
++-)+
'"@@^
GN"@@^Q340R
)+%4)3)6)++$%-
4#+5%)+"P3+30
+03-V%0
+-)+>)++$0+-/
)4)"43)0'%0/
V)%#+5"B)4-+++-+
5+++66%003)
46+)+44"440%never recommend a daily caloric intake that is below RMR"P+>'4)0+/
5)%45%0)66+5)46
+45))%0)++6'%)+03
3366+++$?4".%
)6'4$++?4%)36
Total Caloric ExpenditureQ'b++-)%@+%4+
+%3+0c'%R4$+44/
++)+44"
214
Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance and Weight Gain
8>$+6%)+44%+66
)-++44"
General Dietary Advice Chart
GOAL
=
WEIGHT LOSS
WEIGHT MAINTENANCE
WEIGHT GAIN
______________________________________________________________________________________________
TOTAL CALORIES =
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
- 500 CALORIES
+ 500 CALORIES
______________________________________________________________________________________________
%
Protein
=
25%
20%
15%
______________________________________________________________________________________________
% Carbs =
50%
55%
60%
______________________________________________________________________________________________
%
Fats
=
25%
25%
25%
______________________________________________________________________________________________
# of Meals/Day
4-5 Meals
4-5 Meals
5-6 Meals
______________________________________________________________________________________________
FOR ANY CLIENT - FIND RMR:
6)+>'%+-)5)+>
)++$"+%)+0)6!7
Chart5-%Q'b65b*)[email protected]
+RRT%)+0)6'45)6+-)+%5
'V"
FOR WEIGHT LOSS CLIENT:
$3)554)@+4)+>#+5"
436+>66+$"
+00$3555c4+/
"P4)0+--55+36%3-%
065+35-4+6+
5-4+%3+)5+)++456-"
554)G%@+5%[email protected]+
5)03+>#+533655/
4)553$"
FOR WEIGHT MAINTENANCE CLIENT:
++4)3++6'+-)5
6)+-6+>6364+"1%)
35-65+46)44+>
+36"++$%-6535+
64636"
FOR WEIGHT GAIN CLIENT:
@+5)364+%3+>
#[email protected]+"@++/
554+63"B660)+45633
)4$++?436+36
215
366-36++4"366++
[email protected]#L)RT
)366636553$"6
0)+4564++
0)3636"436464%
6$+5%+5464+
4+63+6%L44C60)++43
3666"
Metabolic Rate - the hidden factor
5-)+%e GH!+00?+-)55
-6)-":3-%346++$0
+6%4+-34$0$
+-46)5+T+>-40+-/
+3++"45%4)5%+5-)%35)4/
345+40+)46366"
40+)0356)+"
73$40+3+5%045
)%%+++)+/
>66"4$6666++$4)5%
)+4%++4566636%4)
+T45%36636%
33+-6+4436"
GH!%5%55455))-/
"[email protected]+5)?40T3-%
45)60-)66+6"P
34$)++?4++/0)/+0"'/
60)+4533)4$?4V++)"
P+-4$0++4503+>4)56+/
>60-0)5L55+"45%+3
+4640+554)+45+T
)6636%30$++
0+4+6+444)0+
+6"
Percentages of Nutrients
1$6+)665+6++445/
%+0%%-6%00
45$Q64R44"L+
++44+-)4+6+0)$"
+5%4$)+$3+
664+0)%36645%0N
+664"%6443++
216
664+0)5"665+6
+3+4500)>0+6
465Q5%+0)%R5444
+5$"
''.:
General Dietary Advice Chart
GOAL
=
WEIGHT LOSS
WEIGHT MAINTENANCE
WEIGHT GAIN
_________________________________________________________________________________________
TOTAL CALORIES =
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
- 500 CALORIES
+ 500 CALORIES
_________________________________________________________________________________________
% Protein =
25%
20%
15%
_________________________________________________________________________________________
% Carbs =
50%
55%
60%
_________________________________________________________________________________________
% Fats =
25%
25%
25%
_________________________________________________________________________________________
# of Meals/Day
4-5 Meals
4-5 Meals
5-6 Meals
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Number of Meals Per Day
-64446)%+General
H!%364%+0-"0)%
6+3$%43$)4$0)4
6)5%-6366"V)0$3+/
664044544
5+64"%$54%)+006
V)64%5+)3)%%-))-
)%0))666+40430+
06-6/4"7++%0)Q--4R
$-63+40)5/
+"
#-)%+64V446)%
0)$-63++$0)+/
%3$6446+6404
as we"V446464)06
-"
Supplements
7+44++%-%55/
4)5+56+T3C30
+35546)+44"
74%3640+5-0+$3/
65543+-0404-5/
5+>6"5540+5-6/
+44366%6%36%C6%
4+%+"+305-555
554%4+44)%5+-6"
217
Supplement Table
GOALS
WEIGHT
GENERAL
WEIGHT
SIZE AND
INTERMEDIATE
ENDURANCE
GAIN
FITNESS
LOSS
STRENGTH
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
BCAAs
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
FREE
FORM AMINOS
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
PROTEIN
DRINK
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
B-COMPLEX
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
MULTI-VITAMIN
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
CARB
LOAD DRINK
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
HCL (PEPSIN)
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
73+55+5540+-T4
366)+44554)+%045/
)45+6"45)4$+3
0++554%4+3)
3+54"
14)+0/+4+0++
-4?6V5--65>0)3
C)4+-)45+>")%)
-65>)/%5+5--
)40/+4+Q-44R"
)33)6%44>-[>3$3T
%5540+44456$
0":466$30+554)
)+>66"
BCAAs
.+#4+Q.#R -4+8+%
1+%;"[email protected]
4+%)404++54+
5")0$36+)0)-%+34
4+")++0)-$5
$4+00$3"0$3++65)+/
L+++C)4Q+)R6)5+
545664++"
.# +055435%6%56%
+%55+)"7+.#5
+0+)4%4+++0
40555)Q06564+R6)
5+"
Free Form Amino Acids
$644+34G5++4/
55+%3VX6+)VY+4/
04+5+QV4+5$R"
218
1)%3+5$%5%04"*
+56L3++0+4540)
55444+"0-0
Q0)55)6GH!R%05+
4+455"145-6%
646"#V)%646%6
5"
Protein Drink
V)3665$+++500++0%5%
"7)+-+3464%)55
$+05+4":3-%4$0%>
60)5$0
60"
1VX45+4Y55+30-)0-)+/
66"++5446%
++$%+45%+065+4
V)6+5$"
=%+-55+6+5$
-366+3-+0)64044
4"+3+4)0)+
6636T3+-6-0)4)
6+"%6+5$4)6
0366+>66+"145
4+0$3++45035-
366554Q5$R6534$-)
4"-6C+%06534$4/
040)3+554)+>+4+"
B-Complex
-4+/C)4556)5"
5+40+0)-)3-)+-"
Multi-Vitamin
554-5/'/;4"554>
-0)64%%554"1+44)-/
$0+4)5'/;43$3)44
4)+-60)646/554"'/;4
45)4+0+5-0)34-)/
6"
Carbohydrate Loading Drinks
8+0$+0)"440
46++6+44+)
4++0"+6+0++-)+44)4
219
-"6336+0$"
+%4606-60++-)
445+"%3)00+0)%3++4
06-%+4-))?5-6-"
+%$6+0$?53$30
+)4555)66)3$%+6)
+454)4+++"
:3-%-)55+0$)5+-)T
6)5+4"45)5%6)5+%53$+0/
)$+)546)+65/
-4+464-445/3$+-)6)
Q+04R"445$06+%6)56/
++%34+03++04Q0$
3R04Q06R"
“One Hand Washes the Other”
')04))43"""4%%
$+5-6?0"P+554%
45%03)6)V%5)+/
%>06$++"33)0530+03
)6$56+-%3-0+6
6//6-?0+-)%3"734
4)+3034-6%4)06%
4364+%>$34+44/
6[>%4[>++"
1) STICKING TO THE PLAN
FAILN/[email protected][email protected])"
0-)3+6%4c355
4%43V0)"
FIX'$+444)0"86436V+
/6+444"44$6+66)-+
+6554$+>+$":5)+0+0
63+6)+)45464)/
"44$64-5000+
5)+)0)4%+>55-6%-34%>6
+4443$4/60"
2) UNDERSTANDING METABOLISM
FAIL'+)++$4+40433"
365++0)+0)4++++
-)3+%+66++40+%53+
0)66/4Q4+R"5+
220
++$+-X5Y4+40)Q$))54+R
3+6+0)340+5"766
++36)5[)/)6>%3+
+)5+4$4+++"
FIX.43+>*)#+1$0
)@++5)[email protected]+4%56+
66R"%+-4+%+++45
03+-+-)5T35
40+%-+0+"P%5%
45C55)[6>0)45+
6"4)04)+%)4)$
+V0)%0>3)+454)"
0)3++66T3)+30+/
5+-6"
3) ENCOURAGE ATTAINABLE LIFESTYLE CHANGE
FAIL*-[5>%V06+63
)+%"%5+$5/
5+$6$L4+0V)%64%0+)>
)++0)3"36-50+)
%0+>?$55"
FIX86)6T5)60
4+))"+6+53-/4655)%
)+3>-+-)6)?)6%+045
45++646+450%00%3
)"%0+660-63$6/
>-0X46needs0Y0%%+0X46
)getY"++0?)0%6T%56
+46)+>3$".6%)+3)
6)3>6++4543)T)3-
XY3463$6?$"
+?5564%1564"1+%+/
6C0)4+#65'+%X+66
5+4636Y"53)3++4/
536+)646"1+%+$+
+53-)3+3)/)+)+%
-/+45Q""X6-Y3066L44
6+R-5"145+6CV+$)+/
+6how+366%53
+)+)3-66/4$3)3%%
+4%34%33)5+5)643
3$4%)43S
221
#:
________________
Client Screening
023)06f6+-+0)
6354++6$363V/
0$6M++
55/
4"6)%)3)66
)+55)+5
6
+6)
6+564"1
05555)4+#
Q#54)+
R&*Q4*M/
0R+
M+
"VM++
%
-+)fk+)355+
))+"
4)55650+)-
+6
4%-%33
++3)"%4+
4%)4)03$6
36)-%$)44)
$+6"3))5/5
+5
+"PM
))[k6>4)0
36))+3++$6
4+-
L-+3"1+5
33$3+)+)+%
3)0$664"
222
”'^(^!
%3>660+$5/60%036645C
3+)++3)+"1
)6)[k6>3)
+4M"4)30636
W *+-634)-4++
3+3+++ 4
W 1
)6-34)0$+6%
)454%55)++
3M00)5)+
W 1
)6-3+)5+
3+3
5
+5
4+)/5-564
W -6-35++
4)V)
2
+5+
643-5
3+)5/
+55+6%456446)+"73-
6---3$05+
+05+3"
=5+$5)-%+5V)-0)
)+>++"%3X5-6Y)-0
+-6M6U)35065)#;Q+/
+4-R4%463)+4)
+503$634)-$VT
+5
)5++
L+
M+
LL4)+44
)4$
63Q0+545R"-/
4
-4
/4+"4+
5+
)-%+4%02)64++5
M"*>4)+>$340)%
)$3))%)?0))-+%
?+%0--6":>3)<)-3)
5
+)+65?0/>-
X==5
Y)56++"
223
ORDER OF OPERATIONS
5++
Client’s Fitness Goals+3)3++45
Medical/Health Risk Assessment:
++
Business polices: dis+6
Major risk factor identification:
#-+Q#;*R$
Expectations of both parties3%
4055+-%664
Personal medical history: /Q
Training packages: 4)%3$)%5
Payment policies: 4)%3$)%5
Physician contraindications
If Yes, agreement to
train has been met
Refunds/Cancellations3
4%6)++, +"
4+
Current medications Q)+>
++V)+
05%++%06+
64+R
Chronic illnesses or biomechanical
problems
L'$/55+
Scheduling factors: V+)6%'
'%4Q3$)R%0)554
If Yes, passes
health risk screen
Time commitment: 564
+3$
Client General Screening:
gather 55+0 40)+
Goals vs. Limitations
GOALS for: C
((
Demographic Info: Age%9%:6%76
*++4506
Q%4%6R
Circumference: Q5, 0+44R
*+Q%55+0R+)3)
3066)4% +>4%%+"
#-5QR-
+>4V
Program Design and Training
Consistent Re-assessment
Addtnl information: 560%7$%=++5
Client Fitness Assessment: Q'@#45R
Client goals 4%4/6%64
Previous activity/history: +5Q)%%
+R
Client imitations: 4%04++5)6+%
+-0"
Identify contraindications to exercise: Q#
9R
224
Pre-exercise Screening and Risk Classification
3+)+5$+K%3
+6C+44%5/++60))+
+-)OQ/OR%56GI5
+4"-)45-)3-QIR%/V
3)6[6>U+0/+%XP4
VY%X=VY+%)5+
36530%6-35-0)5
+"V406
30)50+4$65)++-)
"
#-+$%#;*$%56GJ%3
5)4%0-+%)5+36
$5)+6"V454%
33+-434-6"9)5$6%
)433)65)+3%46
$+6)"
Low Risk4)544-6+5)+
04444
Moderate Risk4)544+0-635)+
55-%4)$044%044%;=F
High Risk-5)+>55-+
1)+%6$+6)%+44)0
5%+44+%3)+>54)+5)+"
Why?...
"""6404$)+>5)+$3)30
4546+564%3)%4+++%)-
05+-)65)+5)+4)+44+
++5
""")+>5)+3$3)+60)+4
4%)5+)+>%3++44+)
3$with4%around4
""")4)0663$6535)+
4)5)3+3045)+
-"
225
General Client Information and Risk Assessment
4)0++‹%0V)536
43[5>"P-00$-+>
)%?+"4?+T
4))5-)L)36664>
-+"14%335-)3#;*$
/O&PVT0%$54%4%
)-0%3+)4)3+6)45+
/+'+:OL'+O%3+
+-0)4")5+'+O
3++$0364+)%+54)
40+)4545+%+)$+%+5
--)0-"
Understanding Assessment Variables and How to Test for Them
4;0s
;0
4+
;0
:;0
Overall 7
8)L.-
/4+
;0
'+#
L80
PERFORMANCE VARIABLES
55%33++54+/54+-0
"4+-03+36
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Cardiorespiratory Condition
Muscular Endurance
Muscular Strength
Flexibility
Power
Speed
Agility
+54+-0%4+04
+-)+"=+%4)4
46)+>+5+)+-0T+33
665+5+-4"
qBClie-
24%[email protected]%+6+
54+3"04/4
226
Cardiorespiratory Condition: 5+4440++5+)
-+04-))0)-643$
"@4%+64":3-%
3)+L4)45430
4%G'533$34)00"76
364%453+
]^_` /6C5+l, RRU,
4Q?6T3
6--4R4)?6
33$%6%3665+"
3 Minute Step Test /363/0)454
40P'#+-+"$3
V+$))+-36+0"76)+%
)3+)+%V+$3
4+"%)3+5%0+0%
53+4"1+)++50)
54+6)45%5%3%3Q446
"NH0546)++
+05++R"53++)+
5564%+5+%G4"G4%
++54Q)4)35R"[email protected]
+4556+%54456
3+$%+4004Q36
4%+444)3R"+
53)-+4%+454Q.'R
MEN
Age
18-25
Age
26-35
Age
36-45
Age
46-55
Age
56-65
Excellent
50-76
51-76
49-76
56-82
60-77
Good
79-84
79-85
80-88
87-93
86-94
Above Avg
88-93
88-94
92-88
95-101
97-100
Average
95-100
96-102
100-105
103-111
103-109
Below Avg
102-107
104-110
108-113
113-119
111-117
Poor
111-119
114-121
116-124
121-126
119-128
Very Poor
124-157
126-161
130-163
131-159
131-154
WOMEN
Age
18-25
Age
26-35
Age
36-45
Age
46-55
Age
56-65
Excellent
52-81
58-80
51-84
63-91
60-92
Good
85-93
85-92
89-96
95-101
97-103
Above Avg
96-102
95-101
100-104
104-110
106-111
Average
104-110
104-110
107-112
113-118
116-121
Below Avg
113-120
113-119
115-120
120-124
119-127
Poor
122-131
122-129
124-132
126-132
129-135
Very Poor
135-169
134-171
137-169
137-171
141-174
227
Muscular Endurance: -)+054
44++"P+>4++0
550)%30)+"36
+44+T643)V0)36%
43V6)4V54/3)3)
+++)5+3546)54+-06"*4
55455+55+++"
5464V++)36
UPPER BODY
Push-up test /4+++%+5":
5+/35Q?R%3+5".
03456"40)
54":-)+54%3L
0$%+34)+54"++64+#6
5'+Q#'R%360+054+
MEN
Age
20-29
Age
30-39
Age
40-49
Age
50-59
Age
60+
WOMEN
Age
20-29
Age
30-39
Age
40-49
Age
50-59
Age
60+
Excellent
36
30
25
21
18
Excellent
30
27
24
21
17
Very Good
29 - 35
22 - 29
17 - 24
13 - 20
11 - 17
Very Good
21 - 29
20 - 26
15 - 23
11 - 20
12 - 16
Good
22 - 28
17 - 21
13 - 16
10 - 12
8 - 10
Good
15 - 20
13 - 19
11 - 14
7 - 10
5 - 11
Fair
17 - 21
12 - 16
10 - 12
7-9
5-7
Fair
10 - 14
8 - 12
5 - 10
2-6
2-4
Poor
16
11
9
6
4
Poor
9
7
4
1
1
Chin-up test / 4++0+5%
A pull-up is very much like a
+/50V":-)+650354
chin-up except that your palms
+64QL565RT5+40
are facing away from the body
(overhand/pronated grip);
335"P+%64%
chin-ups are often easier to
55+0-034
perform due to the grip
6L65"+5
position. Generally speaking,
these, 3L0$%)0+"40
chin-ups focus on
strengthening the biceps, while
+/5054300
pull-ups focus on strengthening
56";)6)5$6%4%J/+/53
the back (lats).
0+[6>T34%/H30+[6>"=
+%43%6430)
544+/555-3%-4"
LOWER BODY
Squat test/4++30)0+$T$+%
45$5554-?)Tnot+44
5V054%4-4)0540)
$?)4+6"*64V
30)4++%-)+$3+%
4+5+565
Q$6+R"4"=+$-
4N66%-+565"V
05463)+54)4"
228
++6#'V5+%36640
V54
MEN
Age
18-25
Age
26-35
Age
36-45
Age
46-55
Age
56-65
WOMEN
Age
18-25
Age
26-35
Age
36-45
Age
46-55
Age
56-65
Good
44 - 49
40 - 45
35 - 41
29 - 35
25 - 31
Good
37 - 43
33 - 39
27 - 33
22 - 27
18 - 24
Above Avg
39 - 43
35 - 39
30 - 34
25 - 28
19 - 21
Above Avg
33 - 36
29 - 32
23 - 26
18 - 21
13 - 17
Average
35 - 38
31 - 34
27 - 29
22 - 24
17 - 20
Average
29 - 32
25 - 28
19 - 22
14 - 17
10 - 12
Below Avg
31 - 34
29 - 30
23 - 26
18 - 21
13 - 16
Below Avg
25 - 28
21 - 24
15 - 18
10 - 13
7-9
Poor
25 - 30
22 - 28
17 - 22
13 - 17
9 - 12
Poor
18 - 24
13 - 20
7 - 14
5-9
3-6
CORE
B6++6+4
33$6++)6)+-":3)+0C
+45)3)6+
5"640+-
+60++++)4+
6T)646+"+44
4533$63066
+"+3))3$%+455
456"--355)55-4
3+?+3-+655++"7
+4464-+4)65+3$3
4+6655"
Plank test - assesses 4++0+$04Q+
5+04RT5$0)665553
034%35%
Q636550)4R"70)6
4%5+5350)36065
4%++45"666
044+Q4+5+5+R%06"
554$5554N66-"
7)+60$5554Q5R%
+"6+4%4)$4
4+-T)6-4+)%44+
6+"
Dead Bug test - 4+++
#55+6355
6$40")3655
5+0++"=+5%-+5+$5
6%66+406%$566
0350)":-)+)4
535G+"1+0+45%
)356+0)-64065$N6
+55$)46%3
460+5"[email protected]
+%)4)56-0)-6+$0
545546346
229
5"63)455)603
+>405"+5)665T
+450$65"7)04+-
))$5[65>5++%5"
Bent Knee Crunch test - 4++04+
4+Q54)+040VR"65
5%4L%-+0$36
654$N66-"74
5+63%44$5G+3
465Q6540?+4$RT5)
++4%)554G+4-466
5"1++++6)04+
4+$530+$46+"
+5Q0+65-R550+$465-
4$5":5-)0)
554"(55546435
6+":-++43"
+40535%+45+45-4
MEN
Age
20-29
Age
30-39
Age
40-49
Age
50-59
Age
60-69
WOMEN
Age
20-29
Age
30-39
Age
40-49
Age
50-59
Age
60-69
Excellent
75-93
65-81
63-79
61-77
58-74
Excellent
67-83
67-85
65-83
63-81
60-78
Good
64-74
56-60
54-62
52-60
49-57
Good
58-66
57-66
55-64
53-62
50-59
Average
55-63
48-55
46-53
44-51
41-48
Average
52-57
48-56
46-54
44-52
41-49
Below Avg
46-54
40-47
38-45
36-43
44-51
Below Avg
41-51
38-47
36-45
34-43
31-40
Poor
<46
<40
<38
<36
<33
Poor
<41
<38
<36
<34
<31
.36"7"
)(
"
*
+
%
H636"
4
"34B"
>
Muscular Strength: 4+63046
6L0+366+"1
+%+3600+54-433+
54+03H5%+4%+++Q5-R
3+"V
W"14)00%++06%
+54+%50+L43
364)5+$?)"6)55
4)+3646+"+
4+63+-)4+L4+6L
36+"+3+-)4
+4+L66L+3366+"
13)45-5-4363-50"
230
'04+336-4+"836V)
+36-5%3+0-)040
++6)6+6"6++
Dynamic Strength Determination /-550)66
5444Q'R0+50)364-6
Q+0546+45+3T60+
5+44)-6R"*'
406%6%36%)+"5-)
stated, on KQVYKQ$%'4)-+
+-+"1455+054'%6
.C)+$4"1RM = w ÷ [(1.0278) - (0.0278 x r)]"6+64%
46-66%300)53603"@
/"N5-)50)36"))+>'%-
400)0)36"45%6'0+
55%)[email protected]%5+630"NH
Q‰@^"NHR%3+3454+6"
<.90
.91 - .99
1.00 - 1.14
1.15 - 1.29
1.30 - 1.60
>1.60
Very Poor
Poor
Fair
Average
Good
Excellent
SCORE
DETERMINATION
Flexibility: -)45+45"145-6
0)3+$?)%+)3+0
54+)+-)%5+)"'+++-
055-+)T3%304+
64"-45+4+44+)%
55?)"
Modified Sit and Reach test /30)%5++)546%
0)"4+3?4C4$0
)+>406"0%-54+
":-)+544)4++345
30+$63T36)%5+
0604"1+)+5+5
43%$560+$63"
5503C4$+>65"#
3)03Q+43)43R36
6":-+45+3+45
+%30+6T++%+"
MEN (AGE)
Very Poor - Poor
Average
Above Average Good - Excellent
Under 25
<11 - 13 inches
14 - 17 inches
18 - 19 inches
20 - >22 inches
26-35
<10 - 12
13 - 16
17 - 18
19 - >20
36-45
<8 - 11
12 - 15
16 - 17
18 - >20
46-55+
<6 - 8
9 - 11
12 - 13
14 - >17
WOMEN (AGE)
Very Poor - Poor
Average
Under 25
<15 - 16 inches
17 - 19 inches
20 - 21 inches
22 - >23 inches
26-35
<14 - 17
18 - 19
20 - 21
22 - >23
36-45
<13 - 16
17 - 18
19 - 20
21 - >22
46-55+
<11 - 14
15 - 16
17 - 18
19 - >20
231
Above Average Good - Excellent
(54%++5++
+443+++/+546
65%4$654"=+)
6%)+4+654"B6
56%-C)5064++%6"
Reach Over (or, “Back Scratch”) test
/6
='"+$-30+$+$
+50340+$%35+64
00+$354+6365653"45
+-5460"C434
6++"-5%)%+6-+Q+-)%
6503465-40R":-)+5++
/G404"++"
MEN (AGE) Below Average
Average
Above Average
Under 64
> 6.5 inches
6.5 - 0 inches
< 0 inches
65 - 69
> 7.5
7.5 to -1
< -1.0
70 - 74
> 8.0
8.0 to -1
< -1.0
75+
> 9.5
9.5 to -2.5
< -2.5
WOMEN (AGE) Below Average
Average
Above Average
Under 64
> 3 inches
3 - 1.5 inches
< 1.5 inches
65 - 69
> 3.5
3.5 to 1.5
< 1.5
70 - 74
> 4.0
4.0 to 1.0
< 1.0
75+
> 5.5
5.5 to 0
<0
Power: +40334++4-"-+
?45%45%0)36"$%6?45"
Vertical Jump test/36+0-4
6%64++
6-)"6)455+0
++%0+064
30)53))%))6
%+)5"?45+040)
5-4%0)64546
463"43
-+Q54R%-
)++563%3$5
/+%4$65
6+"%-)+$
-?4545Q6
?45R4$65+
+46?45"'+%
+4+%03/+
56-+?454)
+>-+?4544"
232
MEN
Centimeters
Inches
Excellent
> 70cm
> 28in
Very Good
61 - 70
24 - 28
Above Avg
51 - 60
20 - 24
Average
41 - 50
16 - 20
Below Avg
31 - 40
12 - 16
Poor
< 21 - 30
< 8 - 12
WOMEN
Centimeters
Inches
Excellent
> 60cm
> 24in
Very Good
51 - 60
20 - 24
Above Avg
41 - 50
16 - 20
Average
31 - 40
12 - 16
Below Avg
21 - 30
8 - 12
Poor
< 11 - 20
<4-8
Speed: 54+0++)5"6
%-5Q‡4R3+++
"%4-6>0)365444-+)50
53-0"455+055+++%
0+366"
40 Yard Dash test /++%+)+>5"
6345%+>45)+T6)5$6%
0--645465)603
"G+4"@"I+34"
Agility: -)45$4)5"6)%0+)%+5+)
4-0)+5++"$--36
5)556%+66444+++66"4
36-)0)36%60)36%
60+%6+%3/++%6?"7
4-665)-++
55%0+60)55"6)655+
3+5)+6%+44
+3-55++6
Zig Zag test - 6)C6C6+
504"C6C6++5++
+6%0)H%[email protected])JR"80
+++6%663%+/++$3%0
++X#Y"306%65#%%G%
#%%0+$"+03+%40++54%
4)0T0+0660+4
46+"4+60-56-
54L+45-465L4440"
*NOTE: Power, Speed and Agility testing are advanced level assessments which are not used with
performance variables, are examples of commonly used tests which establish a baseline for assessing
of all applicable assessment tests. The tests, that have been summarized here, are examples of those
!
ther assessment training and education, that enable you to implement additional performance-based
and diagnostic tests into your client assessments. This additional training will lend to the overall quality, effectiveness and marketability of your personal training skills.
233
Blood Pressure (BP)0+054+)
+0)3+54+-030+%45)
$33$%3")+05+0
[$>"')553)5-C)-
"')%3C)-%35$64+0+
)%3++)04$".54
444+)Q44:6R"16%43)[email protected]
+-035)+>+"
P0)05+635)4[/$>T
+.63$5+5L++%65++
+6$55.6".6+0
+45)4)%34++5%34+.
-+".6++540++-)%)4
64+)+6"QGR56%0544
$"1)%)+Q0-R66)3+Q03R
6+64+)"1+%+
6)35%5)++64+)
5-X44Y5/+"
7 the)5-564053)4
+>+%4+55))35-0)5%6
5)%056$/6"$+)055
0)5$65%%605
6":3-%355++60
5+6%)V540445/+6"
)0546044+6%3+6)
$55++%33-44)
-)+45+5+"
1036+633056
6+-+456+-40365
6"13%!#)5%3+Jc
5444Q'R"-3$+6%!#
45-6+53)Ic'".)46
05%66%+456.6
+L45-60)%)3-0+0)+
+5%0+653!"6+
4)+)-+-%%+-605"
55++3)+5+
056+-)-6"
#44)%50544+040+
5+"-%3$.6)0%3
44"7)$.6%6+%)+
06330+$55%%40$%
6+%+40-"-
-+)03"-4
0V3"4++-4.
0+-)T55)++%4.64++"
234
NON-PERFORMANCE VARIABLES
/4+-0-3644
5)+-%5++)54+%)+"45%
++4++>354454+"
54+%%0+)%4444%
+6)/54+-0"36/54+-0
664$65+-446"
Body Composition: 40)+45Q0)-"4+R
VR$360)36%R$363550)
+4546-+Q6)$+5%4++R"
4)3)4C+450)"
86%6%03-44+45
0)44"444+4$C
5+"86)460)644564%$
455"94++4+%0
43"03)403+5"
.+0)44455+055%
3>-V+$--3-4)"
+5)4)4
V%06)0433-0"
R0
*5+#0+3)3
Q"N6L++R%4+6)Q"6L++R%%+%336
V+)3Q"6L++R%[>36
336+0++0))%3++0
++0)".+4+5%34)
0463%363V35+0)0)
-4"13%355036004
44+%340)3-60)-4
5+43Q"6"[email protected]
[email protected]"4+535+Q"6"5
[email protected]@03R"754
++)4++)50)+456T0$5
4-++6%6%+)5)++-)-+
+450)+45"B)%4
5-044%5++0+
54++)T"6"4)-3)035
366"
RB<B=$)+366+V%
.0))"135+4%5+4"
70)4$3436%0)-444
.65+345)+5%-5
"6.03%4+4"
6%++446+5+)+)-4".
-))54%0-)5-"
235
GRW2!
*2!+%!W2.1-+3/
-+++560)45+55
+34".+4+54+43%
0+3++++%400)3
0)+04"145+4+-06)45-+
+46"45++36)0)4"
:3-%3)5%)+$+++)"145-4)
+4V+6%6%)%+0+$6"
/145++4.144
+++)"/[email protected]
Q34R3645+4Q5+R"
V+40+3+3
-445++6"16+4++
++%4++"
444++%+%3+
/*$3
/*66-6+3
/4503L0+45)3G4
/*+4+%+%+54
/4%634+)+
R(W4)40)4554+44)
0)5".%440%$4%+
0-+034445"')
5+4>+++%65+%5
45++55+"1++)-+5++)5
+5-"6+)4+03
4+55++5%)$+V)
-+)+/-434$6%5+)+6
V+)3+)306"=-6%45%6
+-+%56+06-+5+
3%+0+03X$Y"440%444
+)45-+++)"1+0+3"
/--44T?440$64544
Q+4R00)45Q)%R64
+54%44C"
4044)-)0+4-5+
+":3-%4$44550)%4
0)%30)++":4+44
+
+
+
+
3 Site (women): +5%5/+%6Q!+$L+$%NJR
3 Site (men): +%0%6Q!+$L+$R
4 Site Q0434R+5%5/+%0%6Q!+$L+$R
7 Site Q0434R+%4/)%+5%0%0/+5%5/+%
6Q!+$L+$R
+ 9 SiteQ0434R+%0+5%+5%0/+5%4/)%0%5/
+%6%+QN/4%NNGR
236
SKIN-FOLD MEASUREMENT SITES
Chest
503Q45R55%650)"
34%$44LG+0355%4)-)45"
4%44+0$L+"
Pinch Orie65+%55
Bicep
4/503+45+5400
4/+4%-0+54+"
Pinch Ori354+63%-
+5+5644$
Tricep
Location4/503+45+5400Q
3)503?03?%+)-+5%5+4R
Pinch Orientation354+63%-+5+5644$
237
SubScapular
Location36L045+5"1+++00+$3
64%34%364-4+5
Pinch Orientation%65+6$%/+4036+5
MidAxillary
Location536L045+5"1+++00+$3
64%34%364-4+5
Pinch Orientation-+5+36L$QC5+44)0R
Abdominals
[email protected]+4QR?+40+Q0)/0R%6
Pinch Orientation-+5+QC5+44)0R
238
SupraIliac
(Crest)
Location?0-++Q550R%4
Pinch Orientation0V%)333
Quadricep
(Thigh)
Location4/5035Q$+5R+56"4/5036
+Q554+R45+)+0
Pinch Orientation-+%4$666$"100?+%4+0+
305"$6$445%66+54)5%04)
5+++)4%0)+454"$6443
0?++44)54
Calf
Location4QR++%56++4+
Pinch Orientation-+5+566
239
SKIN-FOLD MEASUREMENT STEPS
+446N/4M60)5+6"9/
)5$6%4445++430T3-%
G%%I44)05-++
4
0)
5+6Q.cR"7+-4%+
443//
6"P4)
C++)-$/44/
L4"')50j35M/0+45
5-+"
Parrillo 9-Site formula (uses body weight in pounds):
Body Fat % = [27 x (Sum of all sites)] ÷ Body Weight
HOW TO:
"+$3)64+%660)"
Q5+
5-+
R"*54j3$
3$3"
":-+k4+3+)5+6
63$Q4$)0)+44R"
G"++54$%033M65+6"1
+444$5++5+3$065%
6
6403++"
":5+3++5$$"=5+5
+45)+++Q6)4-+5R"
@"'44"'+3+
4M
340444f"446-0)
40
44"
7ple+5%@%@[email protected]@^"*-0)G^44"Q44-6
40+5R
H"7)--640+Q+%0%6%0+5%+5%0/
+5%5/+%30+$%+R%45"
7+5%5/[email protected][email protected]^N44"
*>-400)SP-)[email protected]"
5%)$64L4"
I"BN/4%M6
Body Fat % = [27 x (Sum of all sites)] ÷ Body Weight
Example)[email protected])4+30)36J5
44VG"%.c^…IG†‰J".c^J"Jc
B55465+44++
6.c54%
83%'
+ (page 241) +454"
J"'$3/4-)G/H3$"B6
0)+
4)5"Z6\K\Y\KV^=Y683%'_
240
$
6+34+)-+454+0)"
1)64+%$33"4f+
-
+64)++)636456"
+
/4%45456+)+
554)-)G/H3$Q5666564R"++6
0)600)4+#65'+%36
+45+>.cQ4.cV
%3
+>$/440)36T45%36
N/4R4$64
0)
6"
Bod}~
Rating (MEN)
Age 20-39
Age 40-59
Age 60-79
Rating (WOMEN)
Age 20-39
Age 40-59
Age 60-79
Underfat
< 8%
< 11%
< 13%
Underfat
< 21%
< 23%
< 24%
Healthy
8.1 - 20%
11.1 - 22%
13.1 - 25%
Healthy
21.1 - 33%
23.1 - 34%
24.1 - 36%
Overfat
20.1 - 25%
22.1 - 28%
25.1% - 30%
Overfat
33.1 - 39%
34.1 - 40%
36.1 - 42%
Obese
> 25%
> 28%
> 30%
Obese
> 39%
> 40%
> 42%
7-0)+45%4535++
+-+/46+"
5%$/+5+04-0)
5"6-+%6404%
4"70)5+64%)+4$
0V43"$+>3645)4
++5+60)%-+>36
Body Weight x BF% = Fat Weight
From ExampleJ0J"Jc^76
J"JJ^I"J5%76
0+636436)3--
+>36
Body Weight - Fat Weight = Lean Weight
From Example: J0/I"J^"5%876
3360%6+>.c0)36%
6'0+Q'R%+%+0645
V'Q!#=Y!K\R"
RMR = LBW x 11
'^"
'^G+
B4
555)+4464+6"
45%636%655-)6
+564%76M63+3+.c"
#+5%-6'+%03++0
454
6++$+44
-+6"
241
Anthropometric Measures
45++4+4+$%35Q34RT+$
3Q4R%636%366%35--)
++40)"B""')54+44
0)+45+344"
Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR)3506
4+00)54"435+
0)/0+'0+)4%*0%#*%3+
-+0)"%)3545535
44%+6%6465465
Q346)+04)%+$63/
SR
Waist:44453%?0-0)0Q0
+R
Hip:4355%350+$
63544%+%-344
0)5446)"45%I+3G+
54436-)35I‰G^"J"
++6')#++7:%66Q"J4
45R)6$504
=7='
='
Little/No
Risk
Moderate
Risk
At Risk
Very High
Risk
Little/No
Risk
Moderate
Risk
At Risk
Very High
Risk
< 0.75
0.75 - 0.79
0.80 - 0.86
> 0.86
< 0.85
0.85 - 0.89
0.90 - 0.95
> 0.95
Circumferences (Girths)')++4++$04+
-543"14564%0+4)55
4)%0)+45+64)04$"+
-36+++)++4+V-$44"
44+-0$04Q3%-6R%3%5%
6%36%6%-$"#+4+444+0
-)+45445))5+%44
-0-6"
#636+4)4))36+)
+++4+"5044
4)-++++4+565+
+564"1++4+6+6C
+45)5%4+0)
+63-0+56"+
3636%++4+06+34
+6++6&+5+5"
242
Commonly measured sites include:
Neck0?)654+%0-5C
Shoulders4%5%?+45+
Chest+)45%+/?
Abdomen4445%40+
Waist35030++%0+0--
Iliac+0)504Q0/+R
Hip35%)-36+
Thigh54%6%4/43)036+5T
%?5445+)
Calf36
Biceps44%4/503+4+5+
Forearm44464
Wrist)5+
++4+40$35%3+0
5+)+06++$++6"8$
54+44%504%06%
0)5%)0+4+63"5++
+440++43
++5+4465/-"4
$4$6+%053
++403%""355+$6
3)>0+3$KB)0?644+44
%)4)?5+)[4$>%++
4)+440++)544"
4+4436"55)643
)4)35)5+44+$%04%
3%56Q54R"55)664+4)4)3
5)5+44+$%3%56Q54RT
+%0+54Q4R"40)0-
44+"B)%C5
"00+55)3%6%)
6+++44)X++6Y"
Weight: 0)3640++)4+66%
0)3644%-+56-"#36+
4++)0463+0X5Y+"
+++)/-%$34)%+6
30)+36/"
+> w6+6+4-0+
46++564"55++
+36464063+60)+45
0+0)%4))0$36)5
5+"+Q6R%4+6)Q-)R+
6+6%3634$)+%45)"4)
++-3366"%060+++6
3654+64+36+
564>++"
243
Body Mass Index (BMI)7554554
4>X0)Y%554++30-
+".'130555)666-6+
+%[-)4+>"4+4336%
30-36-0655%3%+%
4)+)0-)"145$+>.'1+
++60+-".'15>0)36
$64-0)64%V"4++-+
4+)V%V0+-
5+
BMI = [(Weight (lbs) ÷ (Height (in)²] x 703
exa45%.'[email protected]>IYHH5%33
6+QHIRV40%HIŒ^JN"
6V
.'1^QHH‰JNRIG
^"GHNINJIG
BMI = 25.99
1)36++$
BMI Value
CLASSIFICATION
Risk to Health
< 18.5
18.5 - 24.9
25.0 - 29.9
30.0 - 34.9
35.0 - 39.9
> 40.0
Underweight
Normal Weight
Overweight
Obese - Class I
Obese - Class II
Obese - Class III
The lower the BMI, the greater risk
Very low risk
Increased/high risk
High to very high risk
Very high risk
Extreme high risk
.#06'RYYZ1
9L0++3606%6&[email protected]/@NR
Small
Medium
Large
Medium
Large
WOMEN Small
Frame
Frame
(Height, in) Frame (lbs) Frame
(Height, in) Frame (lbs) Frame
MEN
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
128 - 134
130 - 136
132 - 138
134 - 140
136 - 142
138 - 145
140 - 148
142 - 151
144 - 154
146 - 157
149 - 160
152 - 164
155 - 168
158 - 172
162 - 176
131 - 141
133 - 143
135 - 145
137 - 148
139 - 151
142 - 154
145 - 157
156 - 160
151 - 163
154 - 166
157 - 170
160 - 174
165 - 178
167 - 182
171 - 187
138 - 150
140 - 153
142 - 156
144 - 160
146 - 164
149 - 168
152 - 172
155 - 176
158 - 180
161 - 184
164 - 188
168 - 192
172 - 197
176 - 202
181 - 207
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
244
102 -111
103 - 113
104 - 115
106 - 118
108 - 121
111 - 124
114 - 127
117 - 130
120 - 133
123 - 136
126 - 139
129 - 142
132 - 145
135 - 148
138 - 151
109 - 121
111 - 123
113 - 126
115 - 129
118 - 132
124 - 138
124 - 138
127 - 141
130 - 144
133 - 144
136 - 150
139 - 153
142 - 156
145 - 159
148 - 162
118 - 131
120 - 134
122 - 137
125 - 140
128 - 143
134 - 151
134 - 151
137 - 155
140 - 159
143 - 163
146 - 167
149 - 170
152 - 173
155 - 176
158 - 176
Blood Chemistry7>+0)46)-)45
-5)05/+6
)3-54+5"=60
3$%3++)00)+>5)+"+44
0540)5555-
5+6505+0)":3-%
4+)-065+$45$)++0
-)5"P44$)$[#8155->Q#+80)
145-444%4+04#*
#30%333"++"6-R"045$+5-4)
04%+6+45+/555"9+
$+045))34"
1) Blood Sugar Analysis
/X9+YX9+4Y3+-)-))
04)06"-6>4/0664
I/46L+"364)+:)56)+4%3664)+
:)56)+4L*0"/5/+06464)5--0
?6)$6"
2) Ketone Testing
1+(6)+)55))-"1
65-6L4-055
/-0"7++36
45%0)5%)+)
6+++306+>"*6-6%
4+5)6%66/440+504"
(/3+34+0)Q4+R06+0C6)
3++40++%+4%-"-(-V
665++T%03366(/+3+
++%0+4CC"(/
/30+%V+V"
GRLipB
)5+553$504%5++))-+
+%+:*88*8+%36)+
-/44645+0Q46L8R":*8%6)55%
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SPECIFIC VARIABLES EMPHASIZED FOR SPECIFIC CLIENT TYPE:
VARIABLE and
Client Type
General Fitness
Client
Size Increase Client
(bodybuilders)
Client w/CVD Risk
Factors Present
ANTHROPOMETRICS
PERFORMANCE
BLOOD CHEMISTRY
Body Weight/BMI
Circumferences
Body Fat (impedance/calipers)
Blood Pressure
Strength Tests
Aerobic
Blood Sugar
Ketone (optional)
Lipids
MAJOR RISK FACTOR IDENTIFICATION
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*If your prospective client answers
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questions, you cannot train him or her
without a complete
physical, or signed
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form (refer to forms
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Has Client Been Advised Against Exercise?
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Summary of Physician Assistance
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Sleeping Habits
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Acquiring Informed Consent
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Client Programming,
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Movement Tests: +6+)+54
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4. TRAINING PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS
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5. AEROBIC AND CARDIORESPIRATORY TRAINING
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Acceptable Practices:
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7. BUILDING CLIENT/TRAINER RELATIONSHIPS
Frequent encouragement is a good start to a great relationship.14)0)6
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Let the fearful client know that you are working with them)
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8. RECOMMENDED STRETCHES
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STATIC STRETCH EXAMPLES
Upper Body, Lower Back &
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Forehand Stretch
Hook Shot Stretch
Backhand Stretch
Grab Elbow
Above Head
Rotator Cuff Stretch
Human Pretzel
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Lower Body Stretches
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The Beginner and General Fitness Client
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Raises
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Butt, Legs (Glutes, Quads, Adductors, Hip Extensors):V%*%86
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Rear Legs (Hamstrings):8)686#86*
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Abs (Rectus Abdominis): Ball Crunch, Cable Chop, Plank and Supine Cross Crawl
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Forearms (Wrist Flexors/Wrist Extensors): 7#L-7#
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10. POST WORKOUT CONSIDERATIONS
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Special
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271
#:I
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Injury Prevention and
Management
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Injury Prevention Measures
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Minimize ballistic training: 5+))V)V
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Properly maintained equipment: 5)4%455%V5/
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276
EMERGENCY MEDICAL SYSTEM
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Contraindications to Exercise
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278
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Troubleshooting
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280
Problem: How do you handle the weight loss client who isn’t losing weight?
Solution: 4%36++%)
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Problem: What do you say to the strength athlete who stops getting stronger
while on your program of performing sets of 4 to 6 reps?
Solution: 1506)+44%/
6%L+-)4"50)45)+
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6)"#@+L)++0%46
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281
Problem: What if the weight gain client stops, or isn’t, gaining weight?
Solution: 0-3)45)66")
4)+45)0%6)-4
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36+%@+L)%-)3$%+>%+/
546$/"760)+%4
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6654+V0++%4
366+)+"
Problem: How do you find out what type of sporting events a client is most
suited for?
Solution: 43-6-6-
5%4+45"X:+6+5Y%3+%
0+)%+6-)43/55++4/
5+5-%V)6+
40)45)+6456%
[email protected]@"'655%5++
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54+33+45+544-%
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[email protected]+%
3+4%3500)540+4Q+
0$05)%5)%0%0+$R"8)%+356/
[email protected])4$0+"
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3+65%6"
282
Problem: How do you answer a question like this, “I have been running for
months with no fat loss and I am already on a strict diet of only 1,200 calories
per day. Why can’t I lose this “spare tire”?
Solution: 66+504"P00
544)3"0)-34
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630)-34++--6)""""%
64%+>0)3+-+
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Problem: What can I do to convert a starvation dieter?
Solution: +4)636553$%
3++44"1++6-%03
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664+0)6)3-
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66-"3%6
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55+5-35+-+"+
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4+0)066)+6)+
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283
Problem: How do I get rid of the fat around my waist... sit-ups?
Solution: %+)550%+C/4+
05)6+450)"4%-)0/
"455-5-)60)%34
-44"6%4)
60)"+%3-)00)%45)
4+)6+4$/5%3+)6-)0
++"
=645+0-+
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755%++)0-564%)+
pe404+)+50)3;
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3-5%+046+45)0%
3+)3006+C4S454/
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Solution: 466++656%6-
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284
Problem: Is it safe for my 14 year old son or daughter to lift weights?
Solution: P"766%when properly administered and supervised, is
4))0+-)Q+6))R"1+%3
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Problem: How is someone, who is so much smaller than me, so much stronger?
Solution: =+6+3V"
34?6++46"+-6"
3)4+4Q?R%6-6"
6-6%436+0"+-0
5545+0)5"640
553%3+04%65+4+
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636%)+)606455-/
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Problem: How do I know if I’m overtraining?
Solution: 1))33$%5+++?/
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Factors that lead to negative effects of overtraining:
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Problem: I understand that the heavier you lift, the bigger you get; but why is
it that some people do high rep sets and still get bigger?
Solution: 6)4+%4)-0V5+
0+0C+"%5%+
4-44+0+36%65%6
3+045)C"-5434+4)
46C+Q-)6+R"/4C+%+/
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6R"14+)+++$%++/
0)6V+)-4+6%L066564
0++-)%)35+54+Q4+
3R"8664+6)6)-)6
355"
Problem: Is there any way I can speed up my metabolism?
Solution: 9)5$6%54+)5++
6/4/4+.'L'T30++-)
404)654+++-)34
3"
1+.ML'%6/4%4)5+/
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5+"*65+%0)+"+/4
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5-)4%0++-)404)6)
54++-)"%+)550%0+5/
4+0+%06+)404"
Problem: Can I do aerobics and still maintain muscle size?
Solution: =504++6V54+0++-)
6"+6)+4/
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34%)C554)44+)"74
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4+"
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3)5+4"
0++-)>6-+6+5/
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Ic)444%[email protected]$%0G4/
5"3)+54+"
Problem: Can I get bigger using electronic muscle stimulation?
Solution: 00)"-03+-3+4+
66++4+4Q'R+45+
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V+-)663$4+LL?)"
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287
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304/54++%+
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Problem: What kind of food should I eat to keep from getting fat?
Solution: %4/@c)++$+4
4"6453+0)+-4+6)%
3+46+06"5+56)
0+"+6+0)344C-/
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Marketing Your Personal Fitness Trainer Services
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Professional Documents: Samples
Fitness Participant Disclosure Agreement
This agreement is entered into between _____________________________(trainer name)
of ________________________________________(company name), herein referred to as
Trainer and Company; and ______________________________________ (fitness participant/client name), herein referred to as Participant; residing at:
___________________________________________________________________________
(Participant’s address)
1. Participant requests to participate in a fitness service offered by Trainer and Company.
As a condition of participation in the fitness program, Participant agrees to supply certain
information concerning Participant, including Participant’s contact information (address,
phone numbers, emergency phone numbers) and Participant’s physical and mental condition
(Health Data) to Trainer and Company.
2. Participant’s Health Data will be supplied to Trainer and Company for the purposes of:
(i) assessing whether the fitness program is suitable for the Participant; (ii) outlining a fitness
program for the Participant; and (iii) assessing the Participant’s fitness progress.
3. Trainer and Company agrees to hold the Participant’s Health Data confidential except as
may be required to disclose under any law or by order of a court, and except as stated below:
a. Participant agrees that trainer may provide such Health Data to 3rd parties in
a form that does not associate the Participant’s name or contact information with
the Participant’s Health Data.
b. Participant agrees that Trainer and Company may use and publish such Health
Data in connection with an assessment of the fitness program in a manner that
does not associate the name or address of the Participant with the Participant’s
Health Data.
4. Trainer and Company agrees that the Participant’s contact information will not be used
in a manner that subjects the Participant to solicitation for other products or services except
those offered by Trainer and Company.
x__________________________________
Trainer Signature
Date: ______________
x__________________________________
Participant Signature
Date: _______________
301
Informed Consent Waiver
I, the undersigned participant, am hereby enrolling in a program of strenuous physical activity including, but not limited to, aerobic/endurance activity, weight lifting, stationary bicycling, step and rowing machines, treadmill and the use of various aerobic conditioning machinery. I have been strongly
encouraged to consult with my physician prior to starting an exercise program, or increasing the intensity of an existing program, indicated both in this document and verbally in consultation with my personal trainer, __________________________________. I assume the responsibility, as indicated by
my below signature, of all risk associated with the exercise program that I will engage in. It has been
explained to me that no exercise program is without inherent risk of injury, and I fully understand that,
if I choose to participate, I may experience possible minor or major injury, and even death. I hereby
affirm that, to the best of my knowledge, I do not suffer from any condition that would prevent or
limit my participation in the fitness programming of my personal trainer, and I have not withheld any
related information regarding my current health condition.
In the event that, through the screening process with my personal trainer, I have been determined to
be other than apparently healthy, I have been given a physician’s release, as required by my personal
trainer, to exercise. I am taking no medications that may adversely affect my fitness activities; and,
with or without physician’s restrictions, this information has been given to my personal trainer, verbally or in writing. In addition, I acknowledge that if my health changes or if I do not feel comfortable
at any given time with any part of the fitness programming, it is my responsibility to recognize the
change, inform my personal trainer and seek medical advice to help me decide if my continued participation in the fitness program, or any part of the fitness program, is still right for me.
By signing below, I acknowledge the following:
" My participation in this fitness program is completely voluntary, and I understand that my participation in this fitness program does not guarantee the achievement of my fitness goals
" I understand that physical risks are possible, but I believe that the benefits of this fitness program
are greater than the associated risks
" I understand that certain physical touching, as is specific in respect to the exercise, may be necessary for the demonstration and correction of exercise technique and alignment
" I have been able to ask questions and receive answers to my questions from my trainer
" It has been recommended to me that I consult my physician regarding the implementation of this
fitness program
" I have no health condition that would impair me from exercise; and, if that changes or if I experience any discomfort, I will notify my personal trainer immediately
I hereby affirm that I have read, have been honest and fully understand the above information.
x________________________________________________ Date: ______________
Participant Signature
x________________________________________________
Trainer Signature
302
Date: _______________
Liability Waiver
This agreement applies to personal injury, which I understand may arise due to my voluntary participation in exercise activities, and any and all claims resulting from personal bodily
injury while utilizing the services of my personal trainer, _____________________________
__________ (trainer’s name), herein referred to as ‘My Trainer’.
I fully understand that I may injure myself as a result of my participation in the fitness program of My Trainer. Injuries may include, but are not limited to, heart attacks, death, muscle
strains, pulls or tears, broken bones, shin splints, heat prostration, knee/lower back/foot injuries, and any other illness, soreness, or injury, however caused, occurring during, or after, my
participation in the fitness program offered, unless caused by My Trainer’s recklessness or
intentional misconduct.
In consideration of my participation in My Trainer’s fitness program, I, for myself, my personal representatives, administrators, heirs and assigns, hereby holds harmless My Trainer,
its Board, employees and agents, from any claims, demands, and causes of action, to include
reasonable legal expenses and attorney’s fees arising from my participation in the fitness program, unless caused by My Trainer’s recklessness or intentional misconduct.
I hereby release My Trainer, its Board, employees and agents, from any liability now or in
the future for any injury that I may sustain as the result of participation in My Trainer’s fitness training programming.
x_______________________________________ Date: ________________
Participant Signature
303
Physician’s Exercise Release
I have examined__________________________________________________________
I have found the following:
$ The above named may participate fully in a progressive physical activity program
consisting of cardiorespiratory, strength, and flexibility training without limitation.
— or —
$ The above named may participate should NOT participate in a progressive physical
activity program consisting of cardiorespiratory, strength, and flexibility training without
limitation.
— or —
$ The above named may participate in a progressive physical activity program with the
following limitations:
Notes:
x_______________________________________
Physician’s Name (Print)
x_______________________________________
Physician’s Signature
304
Date: ______________
NFPT Consultation
Guidelines
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50?4+5640-3+/
"
Perform appropriate diagnostic tests and record progress: 05/
4+/54++%3-56%3
+$56"
Re-assess client goals: 5656%+$%+>
6+K1+36)+44K7
5-56%-54%)+3$
6-6K
Make adjustments:)+>+5644)?40
)/4"545+?4%
)+[3)>[3>-
)4)+636)+44"
For ease of use of these guidelines, feel free to use the forms to follow for a
quick and easy way to implement the applications of these recommendations.
309
Client Consultation Information
Name_____________________________________ Today's date:___________
__Female ___Male
Age:____
Phone (h)___________________(w)_________________
Address_________________________________________
Email___________________________
Medical Information:
When was your last complete physical examination?
What were the results?:
List any medications you are currently taking, or have taken in the past 6 months.
Provide the reason that these medications were/are prescribed:
List any operations that you have had (include date):
Are you on a special diet? Describe what kind of diet and why:
Have any member of your immediate family (mother, father, sister, brother)
had:
__Heart Disease
__Hypertension
__High Cholesterol
__Heart Attack
__Diabetes
__Stroke
__Obesity
310
Indicate any of the following which currently exist, or has ever existed, for
you:
__Anemia
__Joint Problems
__Arthritis
__Kidney Problems
__Asthma
__Liver Disease
__Back pain/injury
__Lung Disease
__Bursitis
__Shortness of Breath
__Cancer
__Ulcer
__Diabetes
__Weight Problems
__Epilepsy
__Chest Pains
__Frequent Dizziness
__High Blood Pressure
__Frequent Headaches
__Low Blood Pressure
__Heart problems
__Thyroid Problems
__Hernia
__High Cholesterol
__Hypoglycemia
__Osteoporosis
__Neurological Disorder
__Other (Explain:___________________)
Do you currently smoke? Y/N
If No, have you ever smoked? Y/N
At what age did you smoke: ____
Are you pregnant or trying to become pregnant? Y/N
Current Eating Habits
On average, how many times do you eat per day?_____
Do you eat breakfast? Y/N
List the approximate times & types of foods that you eat on a normal day:
Do you take any supplements? Y/N
If Yes, what types: ________________________________________
What kind of activity do you have on your average weekday? (i.e. sedentary
at a desk, or highly active, at work)
Hours per week that you work at your job______
How would you rate your daily stress level? (circle one)
High Stress Moderate Stress
Low Stress
Rate your daily energy level? (circle one)
High Energy Moderate Energy
Low Energy
311
Do you enjoy exercising? Y/N
How often do you perform resistance training?__________________________
How often do you perform moderate exercise?__________________________
Give an example of your moderate exercise:____________________________
How often do you perform vigorous exercise? __________________________
Give an example of your vigorous exercise:_____________________________
How would you rate your current fitness level? (circle one)
Poor
Below Average
Moderate Above Average
Excellent
Competitive Athlete
How many hours of sleep do you get on average?____
List any other factors which might affect your safe participation in a fitness
program:
Personal Goals: (check all that apply)
__Weight loss (by approx. how many pounds:_____)
__Improve strength
__General fitness
__Reduce risk of disease
__Improve flexibility
__Improve cardiovascular health
__Improve posture
__Tone and firm
__Injury rehabilitation
__Strengthen bones
__Improve balance and stability
__Specific sport training (type:_______________________)
__Other (explain:__________________________________)
Please list anything else that you think would help your fitness programming to
successfully reach your specific goal/s/:
312
Parrillo 9-Site Body Fat Composition
Measurement Form
Body Fat % = [27 x (Sum of all sites)] ÷ Body Weight
"+$3)64+%660)"
*
`?cW`dR+
":-+k4+3+)5+6
63$Q4$)0)+44R"
G"++54$%033M65+6"1
+444$5++5+3$065%
6
6403++"
":5+3++5$$"=5+5
+45)+++Q6)4-+5R"
@"'44"4443++G4/
45"446-0)G(if taking only 2 measurements, then divide by 2).
H"-644++%0%6%0+5%+5%0/+5%
5/+%30+$%+R%45"
I"BN/4%M6
Body Fat % = [27 x (Sum of all sites)] ÷ Body Weight
J"'$3/4-)G/H3$"
ƒ}~
Rating
(WOMEN)
Age 20-39
Age 40-59
Age 60-79
Underfat
< 21%
< 23%
< 24%
Healthy
21.1 - 33%
23.1 - 34%
24.1 - 36%
Overfat
33.1 - 39%
34.1 - 40%
36.1 - 42%
Obese
> 39%
> 40%
> 42%
Rating
(MEN)
Age 20-39
Age 40-59
Age 60-79
Underfat
< 8%
< 11%
< 13%
Healthy
8.1 - 20%
11.1 - 22%
13.1 - 25%
Overfat
20.1 - 25%
22.1 - 28%
25.1% - 30%
Obese
> 25%
> 28%
> 30%
313
Parrillo 9-Site Body Fat Composition
Measurement Form (cont.)
Body Fat% = [27 x (Sum of 9 Sites)] ÷ Body Weight
"#
’’’’’’b’’’’’’b’’’’’’^’’’’’’‰G^’’’’’’
".+5
’’’’’’b’’’’’’b’’’’’’^’’’’’’‰G^’’’’’’
G"+5
’’’’’’b’’’’’’b’’’’’’^’’’’’’‰G^’’’’’’
"0/+5 ’’’’’’b’’’’’’b’’’’’’^’’’’’’‰G^’’’’’’
@"'/) ’’’’’’b’’’’’’b’’’’’’^’’’’’’‰G^’’’’’’
H"04 ’’’’’’b’’’’’’b’’’’’’^’’’’’’‰G^’’’’’’
I"5/+
’’’’’’b’’’’’’b’’’’’’^’’’’’’‰G^’’’’’’
J"6
’’’’’’b’’’’’’b’’’’’’^’’’’’’‰G^’’’’’’
N"# ’’’’’’b’’’’’’b’’’’’’^’’’’’’‰G^’’’’’’
N/-6%B'=8^’’’’’’
Body Fat % = [27 x (______)] ÷ ______
body weight here
Body Fat % = [ ______ ] ÷ ______
Body Fat % = ______
DATE:_________
314
Client Measurement Information (Trainer’s Use Only)
Client’s Name: _____________________________________ Date: _______
DOB: ____________ Age: ______ Height:________ Weight:________
Lowest Weight:________ Highest Weight:________ Ideal Weight:________
LBW:_______ Body Fat%________
LBW (Male) = (0.32810 x weight, in kg) + (0.33929 x height, in cm) - 29.5336
= (0.32810 x _______) + (0.33929 x ________) - 29.5336
5Q0R^"@[email protected] $64
~0"@[email protected]^~$6
+^"@+4Q+4R
~+"@^~+4
LBW = (___________) + (___________) - 29.5336
Convert kg to lbs:
LBW (Female) = (0.29569 x weight, in kg) + (0.41813 x height, in cm) - 43.2933
# of kilograms x 2.2 = pounds
= (0.29569 x _______) + (0.41813 x ________) - 43.2933
LBW = (___________) + (___________) - 43.2933
Circumference Measurements: Waist______ Thigh______ Chest______ Arms______
Blood Pressure:____/____ (Time of Day/Activity Level:____________________)
RMR:________ (LBW x 11 = RMR estimate)
Rest HR ______ (15 Second Resting Pulse x 4)
Max HR ______ [208 - (0.7 x Age)]
PERFORMANCE VARIABLE ASSESSMENTS
Cardiorespiratory Condition:
VO2max TEST
(Male) = 108.844 - (weight in kg x 0.1636) - (time for one mile x 1.438) - (HR at end of mile x 0.1928)
= 108.844 - (______ x 0.1636) - (_______ x 1.438) - (______ x 0.1928)
= 108.844 - (________) - (________) - (________)
VO2max = _________
(Female) = 100.5 - (weight in kg x 0.1636) - (time for one mile x 1.438) - (HR at end of mile x 0.1928)
= 100.5 - (________ x 0.1636) - (_______ x 1.438) - (______ x 0.1928)
= 100.5 - (________) - (________) - (________)
VO2max = ________
3 MINUTE STEP TEST HR Results ___
Below Avg: ___ Avg: ___ Above Avg: ___ Good: ___ Excellent: ___
315
Client Measurement Information (cont.)
Muscular Endurance:
UPPER BODY (record # performed/check rating)
Push-ups: _____
Poor: ___ Fair: ___ Good: ___ Very Good: ___ Excellent: ___
Chin-ups: _____
Poor: ___ Fair: ___ Very Good: ___
LOWER BODY (record # performed/check rating)
Squats: _____
Poor: ___ Below Avg: ___ Average: ___ Above Avg: ___ Very Good:___
CORE
Plank: ______minutes
Poor: ___ Fair: ___ Good: ___ Excellent: ___
Bent Knee Crunch:_____
Poor: ___ Fair: ___ Good: ___ Excellent: ____
NOTES:
Muscular Strength
1RM = weight in pounds ÷ [{1.0278) - (0.0278 x reps)]
*starting weight for client varies
1RM = ____ ÷ [{1.0278) - (0.0278 x ____)]
1RM = ______
1RM divided by client’s body weight = dynamic strength score ( ______ ÷ ______ = _______)
SCORE = _____
Very Poor: ___ Poor: ___ Fair: ___ Average: ___ Good: ___ Excellent: ___
NOTES:
Flexibility
Modified Sit and Reach: ______inches
Poor: ___ Average: ___ Above Avg: ___ Good: ___
Reach Over: _____inches
Poor: ___ Average: ___ Above Avg: ___
NOTES:
316
Par - Q & You
Physical Activity Readiness
Questionnaire - PAR-Q(revised 1994)
(A Questionnaire for People Aged 15 to 69)
Regular physical activity is fun and healthy, and increasingly more people are starting to become more active every day.
Being more active is very safe for most people. However, some people should check with their doctor before they start becoming much
more physically active.
If you are planning to become much more physically active than you are now, start by answering the seven questions in the box below.
If you are between the ages of 15 and 69, the PAR-Q will tell you if you should check with your doctor before you start. If you are over 69
years of age, and you are not used to being very active, check with your doctor.
Common sense is your best guide when you answer these questions. Please read the questions carefully and answer each one
honestly: check YES or NO.
YES
NO
1. Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart condition and that you should only do physical activity
recommended by a doctor?
2. Do you feel pain in your chest when you do physical activity?
3. In the past month, have you had chest pain when you were not doing physical activity?
4. Do you lose your balance because of dizziness or do you ever lose consciousness?
5. Do you have a bone or joint problem that could be made worse by a change in your physical activity?
6. Is your doctor currently prescribing drugs (for example, water pills) for your blood pressure or heart condition?
condition?
7. Do you know of any other reason why you should not do physical activity?
If
you
answered
YES to one or more questions
Talk with your doctor by phone or in person BEFORE you start becoming much more physically active or BEFORE you
have a fitness appraisal. Tell your doctor about the PAR-O and which questions you answered YES.
x
You may be able to do any activity you want - as long as you start slowly and build up gradually. Or, you may need to
restrict your activities to those which are safe for you. Talk with your doctor about the kinds of activities you wish to
participate in and follow his/her advice.
x
Find out which community programs are safe and helpful for you.
DELAY BECOMING MUCH MORE ACTIVE:
NO to all questions
x
If you answered NO honestly to all PAR-Q questions, you can be
reasonably sure that you can:
x
start becoming much more physically active - begin slowly and
build up gradually. This is the safest and easiest way to go.
x
take part in a fitness appraisal - this is an excellent way to
determine your basic fitness so that you can plan the best way
for you to live actively.
x
If you are not feeling well because of temporary illness
such as a cold or a fever – wait until you feel better; or
If you are or may be pregnant – talk to your doctor
before you start becoming more active
Please note: If your health changes so that you then
answer YES to any of the above questions, tell your fitness
or health professional.
Ask whether you should change your physical activity plan.
Informed Use of the PAR-Q: The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, Health Canada, and their agents assume no liability for persons who
undertake physical activity, and if in doubt after completing this questionnaire, consult your doctor prior to physical activity.
I have read, understood and completed this questionnaire. Any questions I had were answered to my full satisfaction.
NAME: _______________________________________________________
SIGNATURE: __________________________________________________
SIGNATURE OF PARENT: ______________________________________
or GUARDIAN (for participants under the age of majority)
DATE: __________________________________
WITNESS: _______________________________
Note: If the PAR-Q is being given to a person before he or she participates in a physical activity program or a fitness appraisal, this
section may be used for legal or administrative purposes.
You are encouraged to copy the PAR-Q but only if you use the entire form
© Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Société. canadienne de physiologie de l’exercice
Santé
Canada
Health
Canada
317
318
BASIC MOVEMENT ASSESSMENTS
SQUAT
Start with feet shoulder width apart and squat down.
Check for the following indicators:
Knees caving in - tight adducters
Hyperpronation - weak intrinsic foot muscles
Can’t get to 90 degrees- tight hips and hamstrings
Leans forward - weak trunk/poor hip mobility
Hip drops - weak glute medius
Patella sheer - weak hips/quad dominant
Pelvic shift - poor hip stability
Poor balance - weak glute maximus
BASIC SUGGESTIONS:
NOTES:
Foam Roller Squat
Peterson Step Up
Glute Bridge
1 LEG STANCE
Pick 1 leg up off of the floor (do this test with eyes open and
eyes closed), check for the following indicators:
Pelvic shifting (hip dropping) - weak glute medius
Pelvic swaying - weak glute medius and core
Knee shaking - weak popliteus, calf, and quad
Hyperpronation of foot - weak peroneals, intrinsic foot muscle
*Weak glute muscle causes opposite side, low back pain
BASIC SUGGESTIONS:
NOTES:
Balance Boards
1 Leg Med Catch
Chops
PUSH-UP
When performing a push-up, check for the following
indicators:
Trap elevation - tight upper traps/weak lower
Scapular winging (medial border) - weak serratus
Scapular winging (inferior angle) - weak rhomboid
Scapular adduction - tight rhomboid/weak pec
Poor lumbopelvic stability - weak core
Delayed scapular movement - poor proprioception
BASIC SUGGESTIONS:
NOTES:
Serratus push-up
Knee push-up
Planks
319
SIDE BRIDGE ENDURANCE TEST
Perfrom a side bridge, check for the following indicators:
How long can it be held?
Hip dropping
Hypersextension of lower back
Shoulder shrugging
Inability to extend hip
Kyphosis
Shoulder pain
*this test will reveal shoulder/core weakness
BASIC SUGGESTIONS:
NOTES:
Knee Planks
Dead Bug on Roller
Corkscrew
CROSSOVERS
Start in a push-up position, legs spread wider than
shoulder width. With back straight, touch one hand
to another and return to starting position without
shifting your body. Immediately do the same thing
with the other hand and continue to alternate. Check
for the following indicators:
Can’t keep neutral spine
Trap hiking
Scapular winging
Hip rotation
*this tests trunk stability
BASIC SUGGESTIONS:
NOTES:
Planks
Disc Crunch
Low Chop
DEAD BUG w/FOAM ROLLER (NO ARMS)
Place roller along spine, plant feet on floor and hold
a neutral spine, then pick up one foot and stabilize
with the other. Check for the following indicators
(on each side):
Knee shaking
Trunk shaking
Can’t hold position
Inversion of foot
Eversion of foot
Back pain
BASIC SUGGESTIONS:
NOTES:
Glute Bridging
Clams
Planks
320
HIP HINGE
CORRECT: keep spine straight by hinging at the
hips
INCORRECT: spine bends forward, putting low
back in a harmful position.
Hold pole against back of head and tail bone; once
the pole ‘breaks’ away from the body, the hips are
not being used. Bend at the knees to get lower master this before using weights.
*this is not a test, it is a method for you to
visualize any poor bending mechanics
NOTES:
LUNGE
Start with feet shoulder width apart. Step forward
w/knee bent and lower back knee towards the
floor; keeping neutral spine, return to start. Check
for the following indicators:
Knee adduction/shaking/pain - tight adductors
Pronation of foot - weak intrinsic foot muscles
Leaning forward - weak core/glute max
Pause on return - overall lower body weakness
Can’t reach floor w/back knee - tight quad
Patella sheer - poor hip mobility
BASIC SUGGESTIONS:
1 Leg Balance Exercises
Supported Static Lunge
Split Squat
NOTES:
*A basic movement screening is an important part of assessing your client for his
or her needs and abilities so that you may effectively recommend exercises that will see
them safely to their goals. Use the chart to follow to keep track and note the current
abilities and the progress of your clients as you assess their performance of these basic
movements.
321
EXERCISE
REPS
SETS
TEMPO
322
REST WEIGHT
NOTES
NFPT Charts and Tables
General Exercise Recommendations
GOAL
REP RANGE ROUTINE
SET INTENSITY
DURATION
RECOVERY HR
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Strength/Size
4-6
3 Day Split
90-100 %
30-60 min
100 BPM
______________________________________________________________________________________________
General
Fitness/Stamina
12-15
2
Day
Split
85-95%
45-70
min
115
BPM
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Fat______________________________________________________________________________________________
Loss/Endurance
20-25
Total Body Circuit 60-90%
45-90 min
125 BPM
Suggested Movements and Total Sets
MUSCLE
TOTAL SETS
TOTAL SET
CIRCUIT
SUGGESTED
GROUP
4 TO 6 REPS
12-15 REPS
20-25 REPS
MOVEMENTS
(HIGH
INTENSITY)
(LOW
INTENSITY)
___________________________________________________________________________________
Chest ____________________________________________________________________________________________
6 to 8 sets
8 to 10 sets
4 to 5 sets
Flat/Incline Bench Press/Push-Ups/Cable Pressing
Back (upper)
8 to 10 sets
10 to 12 sets
4 to 5 sets
Pull-Ups/Cable Rows/Pull-Downs
Back (lower)
4
to
6
sets
6
to
8
sets
4
to
5
sets
Hyperextensions
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Shoulders
4 to 6 sets
6 to 8 sets
Rear Fly, Dumbbell Side Raises
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Triceps ______________________________________________________________________________________________
4 to 6 sets
6 to 8 sets
Shoulder Press/Tricep Extensions/Close Grip Bench
Biceps ______________________________________________________________________________________________
3 to 5 sets
5 to 7 sets
Curl w/Dumbbells or Bar
Traps ______________________________________________________________________________________________
3 sets
3 sets
High Pull and Hang Cleans
Quads ______________________________________________________________________________________________
8 to 10 sets
10 to 12 sets
4 to 5 sets
Squat/Leg Press/Deadlift/Lunges
Hams ______________________________________________________________________________________________
3 to 4 sets
3 to 4 sets
Stiff Leg Deadlifts/Supine Leg Ball Curl
Calves ______________________________________________________________________________________________
3 to 4 sets
3 to 4 sets
Standing/Seated Toe Raise
Abs ______________________________________________________________________________________________
1 to 2 sets
1 to 2 sets
Crunch/Chop/Ab Wheel
Forearms
2 to 4 sets
2 to 4 sets
Wrist Curl/Reverse Wrist Curl
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Range Chart
Chart is only effective with proper diet and recovery
Intensity during set and effect on tissues
(4-6) REP RANGE
(12-15) REP RANGE
(20-25) REP RANGE
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Effect on Tissue at 70% Intensity
Maintain Strength
Maintain Stamina
Some Fat Conversion
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Effect
on Tissue at 80% Intensity
Increase Strength
Increase Stamina
Moderate Fat Conversion
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Effect
on Tissue at 90% Intensity
Maximize Strength
Maximize Stamina
Maximum Fat Conversion
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Effect
on Tissue at 100% Intensity
Build White Tissue
Build Red Fast Tissue
Build Red Slow Tissue
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Effect
on Tissue at 110% Intensity
Tissue Damage
Tissue Damage
Tissue Damage
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Rep Ranges: Relative to % Intensity and Point of Contraction Failure
RPE*
(4-6) REP RANGE/STRENGTH
(12-15) REP RANGE/STAMINA
(20-25) REP RANGE/ENDURANCE
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Somewhat Hard (Borg 4)
70%
Intensity
3 reps short of failure
6 reps short of failure
9 reps short of failure
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Hard (Borg 6)
80%
Intensity
2 reps short of failure
4 reps short of failure
6 reps short of failure
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Very hard (Borg 7-8)
90%
Intensity
1 rep short of failure
2 rep short of failure
3 rep short of failure
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Very, very hard (Borg 9)
100%
Intensity
Max; Unassisted failure (Good)
Max; Unassisted failure (Good)
Max; Unassisted failure (Good)
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Exhaustion
110%
Intensity
Past failure; Forced reps (Bad)
Past failure; Forced reps (Bad)
Past failure; Forced reps (Bad)
_________________________________________________________________________________________
*Rate-of-Perceived-Exertion
323
Overload Training Principle
Example (4-6 reps): Select a weight that can be controlled throughout the entire range of
motion, in strict form, barely being able to complete 4 reps with absolutely no forced reps.
Sufficient between set recovery will allow for the performance of the same number of reps in
the following sets in this particular movement. When it is possible to perform 6 reps in strict
form in all the required sets of this movement, it will be appropriate to increase the weight
used until again only 4 reps can be performed
in each set using strict form with absolutely no forced reps.
Note: The Overload Principle explained above, applies to all rep ranges including the
(12-15) rep range and the (20-25) rep range. The Overload Principle applied in
each rep range, has a different effect on the target muscle group(s).
Activity Expenditure Chart
ADD TRAINING EXPENDITURE TO DAILY ACTIVITY EXPENDITURE
______________________________________________________________________________________________
100
BPM
=
Recovery
Heart
Rate
(between sets)
500 Calories per Hour Training (Expenditure)
______________________________________________________________________________________________
115 BPM = Recovery Heart Rate (between sets)
750 Calories per Hour Training (Expenditure)
______________________________________________________________________________________________
125
BPM
=
Recovery
Heart
Rate
(between
sets)
1,000
Calories per Hour Training (Expenditure)
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Average person’s day-to-day activity requirement
500 Calories For Daily Activity (Approximate)
______________________________________________________________________________________________
General Dietary Advice Chart
GOAL
=
WEIGHT LOSS
WEIGHT MAINTENANCE
WEIGHT GAIN
______________________________________________________________________________________________
TOTAL CALORIES =
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
- 500 CALORIES
+ 500 CALORIES
______________________________________________________________________________________________
%
Protein
=
25%
20%
15%
______________________________________________________________________________________________
% Carbs =
50%
55%
60%
______________________________________________________________________________________________
%
Fats
=
25%
25%
25%
______________________________________________________________________________________________
# of Meals/Day
4-5 Meals
4-5 Meals
5-6 Meals
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Supplement Table
GOALS
WEIGHT
GENERAL
WEIGHT
SIZE AND
INTERMEDIATE
ENDURANCE
GAIN
FITNESS
LOSS
STRENGTH
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
BCAAs
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
FREE
FORM AMINOS
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
PROTEIN
DRINK
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
B-COMPLEX
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
MULTI-VITAMIN
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
CARB
LOAD DRINK
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
HCL (PEPSIN)
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
*While NFPT does not advocate that the trainer use or recommend supplements, these supplements are
recognized as generally safe and effective for the respective goals stated, in the above chart
324
NFPT Master Food List
Sodium Potassium
GI
SUGARS
SERVING PROTEIN (g) CARB (g)
FAT (g)
FIBER (g)
Na (mg)
K (mg)
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
105
MALTOSE (CORN SYRUP)
1 cup
0
236
0
0
0
0
0
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
100
GLUCOSE (BLOOD SUGAR)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
87
HONEY
1T
0.1
17.3
0
0
1
11
64
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
59
SUCROSE (TABLE SUGAR)
1T
0
4
0
0
0
16
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
20 FRUCTOSE (FRUIT SUGAR)
1t
0
4
0
0
15
GI
BEVERAGES
SERVING PROTEIN
CARB
FAT
FIBER
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
COFFEE
6 oz
0
0
1.8
0
2
117
1.8
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TEA
8 oz
0
<1
0
0
19
48
2.4
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SODA (COLA)
12 oz
0
35
0
0
20
7
136
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
DIET SODA
11 oz
0
0.4
0
0
15
0
<1
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FRUIT-FLAVORED DRINK (V8 SPLASH) 8 oz
0
18
0
0
52
34
70.5
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
DIET FRUIT DRINK (V8 SPLASH)
8 oz
0
3
0
0
31
36
9.5
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
VEGETABLE JUICE
8 oz
2
10
0.2
0.8
481
469
51
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TOMATO JUICE (CAMPBELL’S)
8 oz
2
11
0
0
481
501
51
GI
CONDIMENTS
SERVING PROTEIN
CARB
FAT
FIBER
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BUTTER
1 oz (2T)
0.12
<1
11.5
0
90
5.2
101
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MARGARINE
1T
0
0
7
0
110
6
60
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
VEGETABLE OIL
1T
0
0
14
0
0
0
120
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
OLIVE OIL
1T
0
0
14
0
0
0
120
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
JAM
1T
<1
14
0
<1
<1
16
54
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
JELLY
1T
<1
15
0
0
6
13
56
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MOLASSES, Dark
1T
1
12
0
0
10
585
60
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MOLASSES, Reg
1T
0
19
0
0
3
183
50
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SYRUP, Regular Maple
1T
0
13
0
0
2
11
52
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SYRUP, Lite
1T
0
8
0
0
32
0
30
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
KETCHUP
1T
0.3
3.8
0.1
<1
156
58
16
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MUSTARD
1T
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.3
56
21
3
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MAYONNAISE
1T
0.2
0.4
11
0
73
2
103
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CAESAR DRESSING
1 oz
0
1
19
0
105
4
180
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
RANCH DRESSING
1 oz
0
1
14
0
135
4
120
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BLUE CHEESE DRESSING
1 oz
2
3
16
0
328
11
151
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SPAGHETTI SAUCE, Red
1/2 cup
2
18
3
3
525
404
110
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SPAGHETTI SAUCE, White
1/2 cup
5
11
13
0
443
200
184
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BARBECUE SAUCE
1 oz
0
17
0
0
290
40
70
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
GI
DAIRY
SERVING PROTEIN
CARB
FAT
FIBER
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
36
ICE CREAM
1 cup
7
39
24
1
116
257
269
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FROZEN YOGURT
1 cup
5
40
6
2
110
407
221
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
36
YOGURT, Plain
1 cup
13
17
7
0
171
351
154
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
YOGURT, Lowfat Plain
1 cup
13
17
3
0
159
531
144
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
YOGURT, Lowfat Fruit
1 cup
11
45
3
<1
142
475
225
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
34
MILK,Whole
8 oz
8
11
8
0
120
370
150
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
32
MILK,Skim
8oz
8
12
<1
0
126
206
86
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
EGG, Whole, fried
1 egg
6
0
7
0
94
65
90
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
EGG, White (prepared)
1 oz
3
<1
0
0
50
45
13
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHEDDAR CHEESE
1 oz
7
1
5
0
203
26
79
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
COLBY CHEESE
1 oz
7
<1
9
0
171
36
112
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SWISS CHEESE
1 oz
8
1
8
0
54
21
107
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MOZZARELLA, Whole Milk
1 oz
6
1
6
0
176
21
84
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Part Skim
1 oz
7
1
5
0
173
24
72
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
COTTAGE CHEESE, 2% Milkfat
1 cup
31
8.2
4.36
0
450
217
152
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
325
CREAM CHEESE
1 oz
2.14
0.75
9.9
0
84
34
99
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PARMESAN CHEESE, Grated
1T
2
0.19
1.5
0
93
5
23
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SOUR CREAM
1 cup
7.27
9.82
48.2
0
123
331
493
GI
FRUITS
SERVING PROTEIN
CARB
FAT
FIBER
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
64
RAISINS, Packed
1/2 cup
3
54.5
0
0.5
8.5
681
230
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
52
BANANA
1
1.18
26.7
0.55
0.57
1
451
105
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
46
ORANGE JUICE
8 oz
1.74
25.8
0.5
0.25
2
496
111
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
45
GRAPES
1 cup
1.06
28.4
0.92
0.72
3
269
114
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
48
ORANGE
1
1.23
15.4
0.16
0.56
0
237
62
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
39
APPLE, Golden Delicious
1
0.27
21
0.49
1.06
1
159
81
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
34
PEAR
1
0.65
25
0.66
2.32
1
208
98
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
29
PEACH
1
0.61
9.65
0.08
0.56
0
171
37
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
25
GRAPEFRUIT
1/2
0.75
9.7
0.12
0.24
0
167
38
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PLUM
1
0.52
8.59
0.41
0.4
0
113
36
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHERRIES
1 cup
1.74
24
1.39
0.58
1
325
104
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
STRAWBERRIES
1 cup
0.91
10.4
0.55
0.79
2
247
45
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BLUEBERRIES
1 cup
0.97
20.5
0.55
1.88
9
129
82
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
APRICOTS
5
1.5
26.3
0
1
3
482
105
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
DATES
10
1.63
61
0.37
1.83
2
541
228
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FIGS, Dried
10
5.7
109
2.18
8.97
20
1332
477
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PRUNES
10
2.19
52.7
0.43
1.72
3
626
201
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
AVOCADO
1
3.99
14.8
30.8
4.24
21
1204
324
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MELON, Cantaloupe
1 cup
1.34
14
0.74
0.97
23
437
54
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Honeydew
1 cup
1.18
15.5
0.26
1.54
26
388
61
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
72
WATERMELON
1 cup
0.99
11.5
0.68
0.48
3
186
50
GI
VEGETABLES
SERVING PROTEIN
CARB
FAT
FIBER
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
98
POTATO, Russet Baked
1
4
32.8
0.2
1.2
6
782
210
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
87
PARSNIPS
1 cup
2.3
23
0.8
3
12
587
102
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
47
CARROTS
1/2 cup
0.5
5.5
0.1
0.5
19
356
24
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
80
POTATO, Instant Mashed
1/2 cup
2
16
6
0
380
0
130
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
70
POTATO, White Boiled
1 cup
3.2
25.7
0.2
0.66
5
611
114
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
64
BEETS
1 cup
2
13.6
0.2
1
98
440
60
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
59
SWEET CORN
1 cup
4.96
29
1.8
1
23
416
132
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
51
PEAS, Frozen
1 cup
7.9
21
0.59
3.2
7
357
118
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
51
YAMS
1 cup
4.8
48.2
0.4
1.8
17
1508
210
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SWEET POTATO
1
2
32
0.38
1
17
265
136
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TOMATO SOUP
1 cup
2.06
16.6
1.92
0.49
872
263
86
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
GREEN BEANS
1 cup
2
8
0.01
1.2
6
230
34
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BROCCOLI
1 cup
2.6
4.6
0.3
0.9
24
286
24
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CAULIFLOWER
1 cup
1.98
4.9
0.18
0.82
14
356
24
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MUSHROOMS
1 cup
1.5
3
0.3
0.52
2
260
18
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PARSLEY
1 cup
2.2
5.1
0.4
0.9
27
436
26
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
LETTUCE; Iceburg
1 cup
0.7
2.2
0.12
0.35
7
131
10
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
LETTUCE; Romaine
1 cup
0.9
1.3
0.12
0.4
4
162
8
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
RADISH
10
0.27
1.6
0.24
0.24
11
104
7
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TOMATO
1
1.1
5.3
0.26
0.57
10
254
24
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SWEET PEPPER
1 cup
0.86
5.3
0.46
1.2
4
265
24
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SALAD (1 Tom, 2 Rad, 1/2 Car, 1c Let)
1
3.1
14.1
0.55
1.2
28
584
69
GI
DRIED LEGUMES
SERVING PROTEIN
CARB
FAT
FIBER
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
40
BAKED BEANS, Canned
8 oz
10
43
3
12
730
457
190
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
36
CHICK PEAS/GARBANZO BEANS
8 oz
41
122
9.6
10
52
1594
720
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
36
LIMA BEANS
1 cup
11.6
40
0.54
3.5
29
969
208
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
33
BLACK-EYED PEAS
1 cup
13.2
29.9
1.3
2
2
625
178
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
326
29_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
KIDNEY BEANS
1 cup
14.4
39.6
0.9
2.78
6
629
218
29_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
LENTILS
1 cup
15.6
38.6
<1
15
3
731
230
NAVY BEANS
1 cup
14.8
40.3
1.1
3
13
790
224
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PINTO BEANS
1 cup
13
40.8
1.4
9.6
636
1870
224
GI
CEREALS (no milk)
SERVING PROTEIN
CARB
FAT
FIBER
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
80_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CORNFLAKES, Kellogg's
1
1.84
19.5
0.08
0.24
281
26
88
67_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SHREDDED WHEAT, Quaker
2
5
31
1
0
0
154
160
WHEAT FLAKES, Quaker
1 cup
3.3
26
0.7
2.4
409
123
116
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHEAT GRANULES, Grapenuts
1/2 cup
7.2
46.5
0.1
5.1
317
195
208
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHEAT, Puffed
1 cup
1.8
9.5
0.1
0.4
0
42
44
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
66_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
MUESLIX, Kellog's Bran
1/2 cup
3
31
2
6
105
240
130
MUESLIX, Five Grain
1/2 cup
4
32
1
4
55
85
140
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
51_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ALL-BRAN, Kellog's
1/2 cup
4
22
1.1
10
75
316
81
RAISIN BRAN, Kellog's
1 cup
3
39
1
5
230
280
160
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
49_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
OATMEAL, Total Unckd
1/3c
4
19
2
2.1
5
132
100
OATMEAL, OATS, Puffed, Cheerios
1 cup
3.44
15.7
1.44
0.9
246
101
89
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CORN FLAKES, Kellogg's
1 cup
1.8
19.5
<1
0.2
281
26
88
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
RICE, Puffed
1 cup
<1
12.6
0.1
0.1
0
16
56
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
GRANOLA, NATURE VALLEY
1 cup
11.5
75.5
19.6
4.2
232
389
503
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHEAT GERM, Kretschmer
3T
9
13
3
3
0
201
110
GI
GRAINS (prepared)
SERVING PROTEIN
CARB
FAT
FIBER
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
72_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHITE RICE, Long Grain, Enriched
1 cup
4
45
0
1.4
7
56
205
66_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BROWN RICE, Long Grain
1 cup
5
45
2
4
10
84
216
71_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHOLE WHEAT BREAD
1 slice
4
12
<1
2
132
69
70
71_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHITE BREAD, Enriched
1 slice
2
15
1
1
204
30
80
51_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BUCKWHEAT FLOUR
1 cup
15
85
4
12
13
690
400
WHEAT FLOUR, Enriched
1 cup
11.6
83.7
1
<1
2
105
400
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHOLE WHEAT FLOUR
1 cup
16
85.2
2.4
2.8
4
444
400
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
50_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHITE SPAGHETTI, Dry
2 oz
7
42
1
0.2
5
85
210
42_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHOLE GRAIN RYE BREAD
1 slice
2.1
12
0.3
0.1
128
33
56
42_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
WHOLE WHEAT SPAGHETTI
1 oz
1.5
7.4
<1
1.3
4.2
12.3
35
GI
BISCUITS/MUFFINS/ROLLS SERVING PROTEIN
CARB
FAT
FIBER
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FLOUR BISCUITS, Enriched
1
6
30
1
1
255
33
146
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
72_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BAGEL, Plain
1
11
56
2.57
<1
360
42.7
296
ENGLISH MUFFIN, Enriched
1
7
27
1
1
248
67
130
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ROLL, Dinner, Enriched
1
3.1
20.1
2.2
0.1
192
36
113
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ROLL, Whole Wheat
1
3.5
18.3
1
0.6
197
102
90
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BUN, Hamburger/Hot Dog, Enriched
1
3.3
21.2
2.2
<1
202
38
119
GI
NUTS
SERVING PROTEIN
CARB
FAT
FIBER
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
15_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SOYBEANS, cooked
1 cup
19.8
19.4
10.3
3
4
972
234
SOYBEAN CURD, Tofu
3.5 oz
7.8
2.4
4.2
0.1
354
72
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
13_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PEANUTS
1 cup
37.7
29.7
70.1
3.89
7
1009
838
PEANUT BUTTER
1T
3.9
3.2
8.1
0.33
18
123
86
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SUNFLOWER SEEDS
1/2 cup
17.4
14.4
34.3
5.5
4
1334
406
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ALMONDS
1 cup
26.4
27.7
77
3.84
6
1098
849
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BRAZIL NUTS
1 cup
20
15.3
93.7
4.2
1
1001
916
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CASHEW NUTS
1 cup
24.1
41
64
1.96
21
650
785
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FILBERTS (Hazelnuts)
1 cup
17
22.5
84.5
1.05
3
950
856
327
GI
BEEF
SERVING
PRO
CARB
FAT
F
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HAMBURGER, Regular
8 oz
40.6
48.1
0
105
1070
608
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HAMBURGER, Lean
8 oz
46.95
22.7
0
147
406
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
STEAK, Sirloin
7 oz
31.1
49
0
124
569
576
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
STEAK, T-Bone
7 oz
25.8
73.5
0
103
473
698
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
STEAK, Porterhouse
8 oz
30.4
74
0
106
486
802
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ROAST BEEF
8 oz
33.5
43.7
0
117
536
580
GI
LUNCH MEAT
SERVING
PRO
CARB
FAT
F
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HAM
4 oz
19.9
3.5
12
0
1494
754
207
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BOLOGNA, Beef
1 oz
3.31
0.55
8.04
0
284
44
89
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BOLOGNA, Pork
1 oz
4.34
0.21
5.63
0
289
80
70
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SALAMI, Hard
1/16" sl
2.29
0.26
3.44
0
186
38
42
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PEPPERONI
1 slice
1.15
0.16
2.42
0
112
19
27
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
28
SAUSAGE, Italian
1 link
13.4
1
17.4
0
618
204
216
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SAUSAGE, Polish
1 oz
4
0.46
8.14
0
248
67
92
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SAUSAGE, Pork
1 link
3.31
0.29
11.4
0
228
58
118
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
BACON
4 oz
9.75
0.11
65.3
0
777
631
631
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PORK CHOP
1
20
29.2
0
63
346
345
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
VEAL CUTLET
4 oz
18.1
0
10.3
0
63
289
170
GI
POULTRY
SERVING
PRO
CARB
FAT
F
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHICKEN, White
4 oz
23.5
3.2
0
76
237
216
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHICKEN, White Skinned
4 oz
20.4
.36
0
60
210
100
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHICKEN, Dark
4 oz
26.7
7.33
0
117
285
379
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHICKEN, Dark Skinned
4 oz
21.9
1.18
0
93
241
136
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TURKEY, White
4 oz
39.0
3.3
0
106
489
286
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TURKEY, Dark
4 oz
28.7
3.33
0
108
396
243
GI
SEAFOOD
SERVING
PRO
CARB
FAT
F
Na
K
CAL
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SHRIMP
8 oz
41
3.4
1.8
0
318
499
207
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
LOBSTER
8 oz
38.35
1.15
4.3
0
678
589
207
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
COD
8 oz
39.9
1.66
0
159
866
177
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HADDOCK
8 oz
41.5
1.5
0
139
689
179
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
HALIBUT
8 oz
47.4
2.5
0
123
1018
227
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SALMON
8 oz
51
30.4
0
109
885
492
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SMELT
8 oz
42.2
4.75
0
1064
223
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TROUT
8 oz
48.75
25.85
0
89
1065
443
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TUNA, water packed
1/2 can
20
1.6
0
512
99
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
38
FISH STICKS, Mrs Paul’s
4
8
23
13
0
240
GI
SERVING
PRO
CARB
FAT
F
Na
K
CAL
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
___ MISC/‘JUNK’ FOODS
55
SNICKERS BAR (Reg Size)
1 (2 oz)
4
35
14
1
140
184
271
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
REESE’S PEANUT BUTTER CUP
1
2
9
5
1
53
58
88
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
59
PASTRY, Danish, cheese
1
6
26
16
1
320
70
266
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PASTRY, Doughnut, glazed
1
3
21
8
1
163
42
168
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
51
POTATO CHIPS, Plain, salted
1 bag (8 oz) 15
113
85
10
1192
3727
1242
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
POPCORN, microwaved, reg
1 cup
1
19.4
10
0
156
48
179
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PIZZA, Frozen cheese, cooked
8 oz
21
58
24
4
889
302
533
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FRENCH FRIES, McDonalds
1 Med
4
46
19
5
266
655
370
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
46
BURGER KING WHOPPER, w/cheese
1
35
53
48
3
1432
534
790
328
American Dietary Guidelines are updated every 5 years by the Department of Health and Human
Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture
(USDA). According to these Dietary Guidelines for
Americans, a healthy diet consists of:
" An emphasis on fruits, vegetables, whole grains
and fat-free or low-fat milk products
" The inclusion of lean meats, poultry, fish, beans,
eggs and nuts
" The avoidance of high saturated fats, trans fats,
cholesterol, sodium and added sugars
MyPlate, which is a recommendation for the general
public, age 2 years and older, is not meant for
individuals with chronic health conditions or those
who, for any reason, require a specialized diet for
specific health needs. According to the Dietary
Guidelines, which can be found at
www.choosemyplate.gov, the recommendations set
forth, as illustrated by the ‘MyPlate’ graphic, seen
below, helps individuals to:
" Make smart choices from every food group
" Find balances between food and physical activity
" Get the most nutrition out of calories
" Stay within daily calorie need
In June 2011, the traditional ‘Food Pyramid’ was
replaced with the MyPlate graphic in response
to criticism that the pyramid illustration was too
confusing.
GRAINS
VEGETABLES
FRUITS
MILK
MEAT & BEANS
Make half your grains
whole
Vary your veggies
Focus on fruits
Get your calcium rich
foods
Go lean with protein
Eat at least 3oz of
whole grains
cereals, breads,
crackers, rice or
pasta every day
Eat more dark
green vegetables
like broccoli,
spinach and other
leafy greens
Eat a variety of
fruit
Go low-fat or fatfree when you
choose milk,
yogurt, and other
milk products
Choose low-fat or
less meats and
poultry
1oz is about 1 cup
of breakfast
cereal, ½ cup of
cooked rice, cereal
or pasta
Eat more orange
vegetables like
sweet potatoes
Eat 6 ozs every day
Eat more dry
beans and peas
like pinto beans,
kidney beans and
lentils
Eat 2 ½ cups every day
Choose fresh,
frozen, canned or
dried fruit
Go easy on fruit
juices
Eat 2 cups every day
If you dont or
cant consume milk,
choose lactosefree products or
other calcium
sources such as
fortified foods
and beverages
Get 3 cups every day
For kids age 2-8,
2 cups
Bake it, broil it or
grill it
Vary your protein
routine – choose
more fish, beans,
peas, nuts and
seeds
Eat 5 ½ ozs every day
*United States Department of Agriculture
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1
abduction, 24, 26-28
adduction, 24, 26-28
acetate, 277
Acetyl Coenzyme (Acetyl CoA) 93, 106-107
actin, 59, 60-61, 70, 92, 177, 188
activity expenditure, 94, 209, 211-215, 221
adipose, 33, 39, 75, 95, 99, 108, 136, 161
ADP, Adenosine Diphosphate, 104, 106
adrenal, 58, 80, 91, 96, 107-108, 136, 169, 178
aerobic, 61, 64-65, 70, 72, 74, 76, 80, 85-86, 92, 95-96,
99, 105, 105-108, 110-111, 133, 137, 141, 143-145,
147, 153, 160-169, 173-175, 184, 219-221, 227,
234, 250, 257, 263
agonist, 40, 49, 133, 152, 154, 156
amino acids, 59, 71, 90, 95-96, 99-101, 106, 113, 115,
122, 161, 166, 169, 181, 218-219, 263
ammonia, 96, 100, 123
amylase, 95
anabolic, 108, 131, 138, 176, 188-189
anabolism, 93, 101, 108, 219-220, 263
anaerobic, 65, 74, 80, 92-93, 104-106, 108, 137, 144,
160, 161, 164-168, 174-176, 186, 257
antagonist, 40, 42, 49, 68, 152, 154, 186, 192,-193,
197-199
anterior, 23-28, 37, 40-53, 57, 108, 151, 237, 243, 260
arteries, 16, 76, 79, 84, 301
arterioles, 79
ATP, Adenosine Triphosphate, 61, 63-64, 66, 92, 104106, 108-110, 120, 174
axon, 17, 58, 63, 69
a-vo2 difference, 85
back strength, 198
ballistic, 68-69, 131, 134, 154, 173, 267, 272, 274
BCAA, Branched Chain Amino Acids, 218
B-Complex, 117, 219
beginner, 63, 69, 74, 131, 133, 136-137, 140, 176, 182186, 190, 193-194, 197, 204-205, 229-233, 255, 262
Beta Oxidation, 107-108
bile, 18, 99
blood pressure, 20, 56, 77, 82-86, 91, 119-120, 123,
125, 196, 224, 234, 246, 255, 267, 269, 296
cannibalism, 95-96, 169
blood sugar, 20, 91, 94, 96, 181, 217, 220, 245-247,
258, 267
digestive system, 18, 21
BMR, Basal Metabolic Rate, 209, 211
eccentric contraction, 26, 40, 62, 132
body composition, 9, 74, 97, 108, 122, 139, 143, 188,
202, 210, 213, 215-216, 235, 239, 241-243, 246,
249, 255
ectomorph, 182-183, 209, 216
body fat percentage, 122, 240-241
Borg Scales, 162, 166
brain function, 9, 95, 97, 121
Brzycki formula 184-185, 231
capillaries, 16-17, 63-64, 71-72, 77-81, 85-110, 276
carb load, 92-93, 219-220
carbohydrates, 93-100, 105-106, 113, 115-116, 126127, 136, 163, 169, 210, 216-217, 220, 258, 263,
267
carbohydrate metabolism, 94, 119, 163
cardiac muscle, 15, 56-57, 76-80
cardiorespiratory system, 15, 21, 54, 77, 85, 105, 140,
164, 167
cardiovascular (CVD) risk profile, 224-225, 247-248,
253
catabolism, 100, 104-108, 136-137, 139, 220
cellular catalyst, 100, 166, 177, 218
cerebrospinal fluid, 121, 196, 248
cholesterol, 86, 90, 98-99, 245-246, 255
Chylomicrons, 99
chymotrypsin, 99
circulatory system, 16, 18, 21, 77, 82
citric acid cycle, 93, 106-107
collateral circulation, 189, 263
compensatory acceleration, 68, 173
complex carbohydrate, 94
compound movement, 70, 72, 74, 142, 194, 204, 255
concentric, 25-26, 40, 62, 132, 134, 157, 208, 230
continuous tension, 104, 173, 188-190, 195
contraindication, 74, 137, 175, 200, 204-205, 224,
246-248, 251, 253, 255, 266-267, 273, 277
core, 27, 30, 49, 51, 53, 89, 125, 144-149, 186, 193,
196-199, 225, 228-233, 247-248, 255-256
CPR, 222, 265, 271, 277, 291
creatine, 92-93, 104
cross training, 168, 170-171, 173, 175-176
deamination, 97, 99, 103, 105, 169
dehydration, 121-122, 125-126, 157
diabetes, 13, 77, 84, 86, 94-95, 242, 245-246, 267-268
dieting, 95, 96, 99, 143, 211, 216-217, 220
DNA, Deoxyribonucleic acid, 58-59, 118, 120
electrolytes, 21, 90, 92, 113, 121-122, 124-125, 127
electronic muscle stimulation, 287
endocrine system, 18, 19-21, 90-92, 178
endomorph, 183, 209, 216
endomysium, 58, 280
331
endurance, 9, 53, 61, 65-66, 80, 85, 92-93, 108,
110, 127, 131-135, 139-144, 153, 165-168, 172,
174, 176, 181-182, 184-187, 190-191, 202-203,
205-206, 217-218, 220, 226-230, 249, 255-257,
269
intermediate failure, 73
interstitial space, 71-72, 81, 99
isolation, 71, 172, 206
isoleucine, 100, 113, 218
endurance training, 85, 142
isometric, 25, 62, 131-132, 142, 146-147, 152, 155-157,
198
enzyme, 18, 61, 63-64, 85, 90, 94, 96, 98-100, 105107, 110, 116-117, 119-120, 166, 169, 218-219
isotonic, 25-26, 62, 126, 132, 142
epimysium, 58
epinephrine, 20, 81, 91, 107
extension, 24-28, 37-47, 52, 57, 62, 195-196, 198,
229
joints, 9, 16, 25, 27-30, 33, 34-35, 36, 38-41, 49, 53, 56,
62, 73, 119, 133, 142, 151, 172, 182-183, 189, 195,
197, 233, 243, 247, 270
Karvonen formula, 111, 162, 163, 165, 175,
fat conversion, 72, 74
Keto-Acidosis, 277
Ketone, 115, 245, 255
fatty acids, 74, 96, 98, 105-107, 113, 116, 161, 167,
169, 174, 263
Krebs cycle, 106
flexibility, 9, 49, 52-53, 133, 135, 139, 142, 145,
147, 150-151, 154, 170-171, 173, 176, 195, 197199, 226, 231, 255, 273
Free Form Amino Acid, 218-219
functional training, 53, 132, 144, 146
glucagon, 91, 95, 107-109
gluconeogenesis, 90, 95, 105-107
glucose, 64, 66, 78, 90-97, 99, 105-110, 115, 119,
126, 136, 161-163, 168-169, 174, 181, 219-220,
245-246, 255, 263, 267-268
glycemic index, 96-97
glycemic load, 96-97
glycerol, 74, 98, 106-107, 110, 161
glycogen storage, 168
glycogenolysis, 90, 95
glycolysis, 64, 104, 106-108
Growth Hormone, 107, 248
HDL, high density lipoprotein, 86, 98, 245, 255
heart rate, 68, 81, 84-86, 91, 99-110, 122, 125, 137,
140-141, 154, 162, 163, 167, 197
health, 9-13, 241, 244-246, 248-250
high intensity, 140, 154, 161, 168, 174, 190, 205207, 257
hitting the wall, 168-169
holistic, 174
hormone, 16, 20-21, 33, 59, 76, 80-82, 90, 95-98,
108, 109, 136, 169, 177-178
hypoglycemia, 94, 96, 245
immune system, 19-21, 91-92, 113
informed consent, 251, 253, 291-293, 289
innervation, 64, 70, 206
insulin, 84, 91, 94-97, 107-108, 119, 139, 174, 267268
lactic acid, 67, 71-73, 93, 104-106, 110, 165-166, 168,
175, 186, 190-193
LDL, low density lipoprotein, 86, 98-99, 238-239, 249
Leucine, 101, 113, 218
liver, 18, 86, 90, 94-96, 98-99, 103, 105, 107, 161, 169,
177, 192, 219-220
low intensity, 108, 162, 164, 174-175, 184, 190, 207
low level activity, 136, 263
lymphatic vessels, 81
macro-nutrients, 94, 104, 106, 109, 113, 115, 119, 215
maximal oxygen uptake, 166, 167
maximum heart rate, 84, 109, 140-141, 144, 162, 165167
mesomorph, 182-183, 209
metabolic oxidation, 104-105
metabolic rate, 125, 209, 211, 216, 220-221, 251
metabolism, 20, 61, 64, 74, 85, 88, 92, 93-94, 99, 100,
106, 108-110, 119, 121, 132, 161, 163, 169, 182, 209,
217, 219, 220, 231, 257
micro-nutrients, 113, 115, 117
Mifflin formula, 209-213
minerals, 16, 18-19, 90, 92, 113-122, 218, 252
mitochondria, 54-55, 58, 61, 64, 66, 73, 85, 106-107,
111, 136, 174, 190
mitochondrial failure, 73
motor unit, 58, 63-70, 73, 137, 172
muscle cell, 54, 59, 61, 63-64, 71, 86, 95, 104, 151, 166,
174, 218-219
muscle fiber types, 59, 63-66, 92-93
muscle glycogen, 72, 94-95, 104, 110, 161, 181
muscular system, 15, 21, 54, 56, 69-70, 77
myofibril, 54, 57-61, 64, 66, 72-73, 92, 177, 189-190
myofibril failure, 72-73
332
myosin, 57, 59-64, 92, 177, 188
nervous relaxation, 192
nervous system, 15, 17, 20-21, 31, 55-57, 68-69,
80-81, 96, 107-108, 118, 121, 137, 139, 153, 191
neuron, 17, 58, 63-65, 68-70, 151-152, 157-158
neurotransmitter, 107, 118
nitrogen balance, 103, 191
norepinephrine, 20, 81, 91, 107
nuclei, 58
overload principle, 140, 187-188, 190, 192, 250
overtraining, 61, 101, 165, 167, 191, 207
oxidation, 104-106, 108-109, 221
oxidative phosphorylation, 106
pancreas, 18, 20, 91, 95-96
pepsin, 99
peptide, 99
perimysium, 58
phospholipids, 99
planes of motion, 26-27, 49-50, 147
posture, 15, 21, 36, 51-53, 151, 198-199
pre-workout meal, 161
PRICE, 274-276
prime movers, 40-44, 62, 145, 172, 189, 193-194, 276
protease, 89, 99
protein, 18, 33, 59-60, 65-66, 70, 77, 82, 85-86, 89,
92-108, 113, 115, 119, 123, 126-127, 136, 139,
161, 166, 169, 181, 190-191, 210, 216-219, 245,
248, 258
protein drink, 219
protein synthesis, 59, 60, 100-101, 166, 218
pulmonary circulation, 78, 79, 81-82
the pump, 71-72
pyruvate, 100, 104-108
receptor sites, 95, 97-98
recovery, 60-61, 72, 74, 93, 98, 101, 105, 135, 137,
139, 165, 167-168, 172, 174, 177, 181, 187, 189,
190-193, 197, 203-209, 212, 214, 220, 248, 250,
257, 263, 265
respiratory system, 15, 17, 21, 77
ribosomes, 59, 177
Rough Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, 59
RMR, Resting Metabolic Rate, 209, 211-214
RPE, Rating of Perceived Exertion, 162-163, 184,
191, 257
Sarcolemma, 58, 60-61, 70
simple sugar, 94-97
skeletal muscle, 15, 38-39, 54-60, 63, 69, 71, 76, 80,
86, 92
skeletal system, 16, 21
smooth muscle, 57, 76-77, 80
soft tissue, 33, 39, 73, 150, 154, 189, 197, 207
split routine, 144, 193, 203-204
starvation diet, 215, 245
steady state, 74, 99, 139, 140, 175,
strength 9, 25, 31, 33, 39, 49, 51, 56, 59, 62, 64-66, 68,
69-74, 80, 85, 92, 100, 114, 131, 133-135, 137, 138140, 142, 144-145, 147-148, 150, 152, 155, 163, 168,
171-173, 176, 181-182, 184, 186-187, 188-189, 193,
194-198, 203, 205-206, 217, 226-228, 229, 231, 234,
242, 249, 255, 256, 274
strength test, 188-189, 230-231, 246, 255
stress hormones, 81, 96, 109, 136, 169
stretching, 68-69, 133-1345, 141-145, 149-158, 171,
176, 182, 184, 188, 190, 198, 199, 243, 260, 263,
275-276
stroke volume, 84, 91
target heart rate, 109, 133, 140, 146, 167, 175-176
tendons, 15, 27, 31-33, 39, 42, 57, 69, 119, 195
triglycerides, 74-75, 99, 249
trypsin, 100
urea, 90, 100, 103,
UUN, Urinary Urea Nitrogen, 103
Valine, 101, 113, 218
Valsalva Maneuver, 196, 267
vascular tissue, 76, 80,
vasoconstriction, 57, 91, 139
vasodialation, 57
veins, 16, 57, 77, 78-79, 81, 83-84
vitamins, 18, 89-90, 113-120, 218-219, 258
VLDL, 98-99
;=FMax, 108-109, 162, 166, 175
warm up, 110, 135, 143, 144, 150, 152-154, 165, 182,
184, 188-189, 197, 231, 233, 260
water, 82, 89, 90, 94, 106, 113, 115-117, 121-128, 143,
150, 177, 235-236, 248
weight gain, 128, 171, 210, 215, 216, 217, 219, 230,
249-250, 258, 268-269
weight loss, 125, 143, 185, 205, 210-211, 215, 217, 220,
221, 230-231, 241, 243, 258,
weight management, 13, 74, 216, 243
wellness, 8-13, 181, 226, 249, 256
333
9)
Abduction:4-44)3)440)
Acetate:6+0+5+0)-06)6+0C4+T
++60--T4-+0
Actin: 43++43+46655+5
6046)55)4)0
Acute:5-)454+++T)6?)
Adipose: )T6
Adduction4-44)340)
ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate)4+566)%6
AerobicV)6V)46)4
Aerobic Metabolism6)4+0)%54%5+)6
Agonists (Prime Movers)4++++='?%)54)50
4-4
Amino acid6++$645+)
Amylase:+0)6-C)4-5++%+-+6)+6
456
Anaerobic60+)6
Anaerobic Glycolysis5+0+)6
Androgenic: +0644L4+++
Anemia: +3+)650)0++
Anabolism: 6404346065
Anatomy++)4+40)
Angina: 5+-5+%634%/
)5+50)5)+4
Antagonists4++4065+%)554-46
Antagonistic Multi-set: 3X5Y--654+34-4%0+$0+$%66
6+4+65
Anterior30)
Arteriole:-)4)
Artery:-63+053)4-50)
ATP (A55R+)+)+4+5+4+6)3+
404
Atrium+355+4043+05-+%+-6+40
Atrophy:363)4C+%%6%5
Ballistic:?$)5?+-4-4%$3[536>[=)45+6>
Beta Oxidation: 6)5+65+--60$36+)+3+04/
+3+40+53)5+
Bilateral00)
Bile: 4T0$3)40C5
Biology++)-64%+6++
Biomechanics: )4++4-440)3++
Blood sugar:++66+3+-+)4
Blood vessel0++)6066T-%)%+5)
Cannibalism:0$30)6)0+
Capillary0-43$03-%3)6
0)+%+035+04
Cartilage: 6)0++-++)?4?0
Catabolism: 40+5+0$34+46)
334
Catalyst: 0+3++6+0455+
Cell$3[060+$>%05)5+4-%)4+
+-66
Cell Respiration$30+404%5++6+6)%++64+
Cerebrospinal Fluid: 3+++6+-)4
Circumduction4++4-440
Citric Acid Cycle$65+4+%+)+4$55+--
40+++4++66)0+64
Collateral Circulation: Q0R4-44+-+
Compensatory Acceleration:+55-645-
Compound: )345++454$
Concentric Contraction: +++++64+0650T5-5
Contraindication: 36)+%-0)+-)
#)#+++00-4+Q4)+4R
Cortisol:5+540)6645)+5)6+%
40C4-+0C6C)404
Cholesterol0+00Q5R%6440)+5+
4+-40+53)
Chronic: 6-)3+-)%)?)3+6
Chylomicrons:5+$64)0+6046-)45+)4
Creatine Phosphate: +66)554+
Cytosol+45+)54+3-65+5
Deamination: 00$34+6)%540)-%
+44T0$3+
Deep Muscle: 4+30)
Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS): 6)+++++46%5/
5+3%)3%++4+
Deviation: 544
Diastole: 405%5543-+066
4464-+6-+%5+-)"1+6relax/
4+
Dilation:555T)0-
Distal4564+0)
Dorsiflexion5653
Dynamic Constant External Resistance (DCER)+63?++3+
5T++6"
Dynamic Variable External Resistance (DVER): +63+-0
Eccentric Contraction: +++4+06504)++
65T++66%6-5
Ectomorph:0))5++C0)-+)4-)
Edema:5+04)6-45+0)
Endomorph: 0))5++C0)-+)4-)0
Endomysium: ++-6-4++0
Enzyme: 0+5+0)64++)0605++0+4++
Epimysium:++-4+65%$35+
Equilibrium:64043465++6T+
Ergometer: -+4)0440+-Q+0$R
Eversion603+3)4+
335
Exogenous: 456+0)4-4
Extension:66?+6
Extracellular: +3T)64+
Fascia0+64+6
Fascicle04+0
Fatty acids:0)>+6)6)0++-)%3-+-)T
5+4+6+-)6)+654
Fixators:4+5-0C550)65+-4-4%
440C
Flexion: 06?+6
Forced Rep: 5465+0)+++3+5
Gliding4-4/6?-+
Glucagon:45306-T4-6)+6
46+04%606-4
Glucometer: /6-+406+
Gluconeogenesis:46+4+0)++5)+
Glucose: 5+506
Glucose polymers: +6+4+$6
Gluco-Stix:006+$+?+36+46
Glycemic Index: 40+35+)5+>45+5>
06+-"40)5+)[email protected]"=4+40
556+
Glycemic Load66-4V)+0)
Glycerol:+456)++50+-6+
Glycogen:54)46+
Glycogenolysis46)+64-606%54)0
+
Glycolysis:6)5+66+
Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO)55+5-)-6404605/
-4+++?+4+?)4-
Gonadotrophic hormones:5)4+6
Growth Hormone (GH)$34545%4++
6+)+"1463%+5+6
Gynecomastia: 6404445
Hormones6)0+545++++5++0)
5+
Hydrolysis: 30+45
Hyperextension0)44%-
Hyperplasia:+C4+664+40+4/
+L6+
Hypertension: 04)6T)605
Hypertonic:-64+5633++45
Hypertrophic Protein Synthesis5+0)3++4)5
Hypertrophy:64-635+C+
Hypoextension4%/
Hypoglycemia:++6+00344
Hypotonic:-64+5333++45
Internal rotation:4-43++4Q554R334/
0)"
336
Impermeable:54656T)
Inferior03%3350)
Innervation:-55)44++66+%6
+5+4>++
Insertion: 5++44+03+4-T++4+4
0)
Insulin:46606-%+%50+60
64-646+5$6-0)+4/
+
Insulin Receptor Sites:63)+-0)%3+5+%3/
5+
Intracellular:+
Intramuscular: 3+)34+65
Intercostal:4+030
Interstitial: 56%%6503
Inversion603++
Isokinetic contraction4++++5
Isometric Contraction: +++T++4+6666
the tissues
Isolation:6-555)
Joint+3+340+464-44++55T+/
0
Keto acid++6$65+65
Keto-Stix: /+$4-+%$
Ketones: 0)/5+6)%5+0)0)36+06)T
64+0+
Kinematics0+04++5++)4$+)+-)"
Kinesiology)4)%5)6)%4++44-4%$34$+
Kyphosis+-3+-5
Lactic acid: 5)-++44+060+6)+)%+
0+45)06++T+4-%+0+-0+$6)0)-
Lateral3)440)
Leverage: 643++5564+++
Ligament: 6+)06%0?6
Lipolytic enzymes:6-C)4
Lipolysis0$350))))+
Lordosis+-3+-5
Lymphatic vessels:3$-540+$04
Lypase: 35+506C)4
Medial340)
Menisci++5+5)-?+-)%5-+6?>+
Mesomorph: 0))5++C0)a-+)4L554+4436
Metabolic Oxidation+4+6)064-0)40+4C
40+4+
Metabolism: +4++V46-6+64"1the
4+4+5)++6$5+0)0+63+6
Minerals)++66+0+04T+0)C0)0)
Mitochondria:$3[53+>%+6$0$43
+6)+
337
Molecule4+4++45%3)4%45460)
+4+040)6+66+
Motor Unit:6504++4)5+5Q+R
+)5-)
Myocyte$3-muscle fiber%+4++4+
Myofibril:++5++45+4)
Myosin: 63++44$654)0
Neuron: -+464536++4
Nucleolus:+
Nucleus: +6640+440*
Organ65?6+5++55-664
Organelle)6CL5+C+3-6+Q"6"+%4+R
Organism4+%3%)-66
Organ System6563$66+)4-664
Origin: +44+++0)
Oxidative Phosphorylation: 40+53)%++6+5+%36)
0)+4++456++++)+4
Peptides: +4+4+$6
Peripheral34
Perfusion:5606-+4+5+
Perimysium: ++-6+4
Phospholipids5+66)+03)+5565T)45
0)+440
Plantar Flexion633
Plateau:563+560-
Posterior30+$0)
Prime Mover: 4+65+)504-4+6-+
Pronation5463355343T3
L++643$64
Protease:566C)4
Protraction3QR4-40)5
Proximal+564+0)
Pulmonary circulation5++-+)40)3+0303
6
Pyruvate:+-4+6+5+66)3)6
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)+564460T5)6+04
the tissues
Retraction0+$3Q5R4-40)5
Ribosomes: 4+64)03++4+5+4)
Rotation4-40)53)4+0)T/
4-40)53+0)
Rough Sarcoplasmic Reticulum:044)0
Sarcolemma4404)0355
Sarcomere++$4+%++65664664)0
Sarcoplasma6-+4+-4+0
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum)40%6+4)0%4++45[+>
+444406++4+-6++T++4
64+++006
338
Scoliosis04+-5
Sliding Filament Theory5-+)+46-+$4%66
4+%66+43+64+0%
06++
Stress Hormones0)466+)4%5)6
"4%++55%40C6)464+%+6
05+640+445+
Supination546535343T3
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0)
Superior0-%35550)
Symmetrical:550)+563+T)4+-54
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Synovial Fluid-+5+)-?Q+$?R"5-
0?4+++3+%4+
Synthesis:+406544+453
Systemic Circulation5++-+)43++)603)4
0)%)600+$
Systole405%5463+6-+++?+
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Tendon: 0+++-3+4+%34++0
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Triglycerides+45446)+)+65T)4+45
Tropic:666+6+
Tubercles%63%06)-4+
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Urinary Urea Nitrogen (UUN) test: 40)3+64
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Vasoconstriction++%36%0-3++05
Vasodialation%36%0-3++05
Vein:-63+0-
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Vessels30+Q"6")%-)45+R3+0)+++
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339
.065)
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