Facts about Banks in India

Facts about Banks in India
BANKING AWARENESS 2014 SBI IBPS PO
CLERK – Facts about Banks in India
Welcome to edugeeks.in. Getting a job is very toughest
parts in the life today, that too getting a government job is becoming more competitive. Banking sector is the
one of the largest sectors in India and lots of candidates are interested to get into this system for leading a
sophisticated life by enjoying good allowances and perks. Every candidate who are going to enter into banking
sector most know all this Facts about banking which is very important for your IBPS SBI RRB PO and Clerk
examinations and also for interviews.
Here we come up with set of facts, inventions and discoveries of banks and its products you are recommended
to go through this for your better performance in banking related examinations and interviews. Be tuned to our
site you will learn lot of new things here in coming days. All the best.
Study about Fund Transfer Systems here
First bank established in India: Bank of Hindustan in 1770
Second bank: General Bank of India, 1786
Oldest bank in India originated in the Bank of Calcutta in June 1806 which was still in existence – State Bank
of India
State Bank of India merged with three banks namely Bank of Bengal, Bank of Bombay and Bank of Madras in
1921 to form the Imperial bank of India which was converted as State Bank of India
First Indian bank got ISO: Canara Bank
First India bank started solely with Indian capital investment is PNB (Punjab National Bank)
Founder of Punjab National Bank is Lala Lajpat Rai
Reserve bank of India (RBI) was instituted in 1935
First governor of RBI: Mr.Osborne Smith
First Indian Governor of RBI: Mr. C D Deshmukh
First bank to introduce savings account in India: Presidency Bank in 1833
First bank to introduce cheque system in India: Bengal Bank in 1833
Study about Banks in India here
First bank to introduce internet banking: ICICI bank
First bank to introduce mutual fund: State Bank of India
First bank to introduce credit card in India: Central Bank of India
Which cards are known as plastic money – Credit Cards.
Open market operations are carried out by – RBI
Capital market regulator is – SEBI
Largest Commercial bank in India – State Bank of India
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is known as – World Bank
India’s First Financial Archive has been set up at – Kolkata
CRR, SLR, Repo Rate, Reverse Repo rate are decide by RBI
Savings banks interest rates, fixed deposit interest rates, Loan Rates etc. are decided by individual banks
The bank which has launched Mobile Bank Accounts in association with Vodafone’s m –paisa – HDFC Bank
Minimum money transfer limit through RTGS: 2 Lakhs
Maximum money transfer limit through RTGS: No Limit
Minimum & Maximum money transfer limit through NEFT: No Limit
NABARD was established in – July, 1982
Largest Public sector bank in India – SBI
Largest Private sector bank in India – ICICI Bank
Largest Foreign bank in India – Standard Chartered Bank
First Indian bank to open branch outside India i.e. London in 1946: Bank of India
First RRB named Prathama Grameen Bank was started by: Syndicate Bank
Study about Financial and Banking sector reforms in
India here
First Bank to introduce ATM in India: HSBC in1987, Mumbai
Bank of Baroda has the maximum number of overseas branches
SBI holds the second position with maximum number of overseas branches
Premium credit cards exclusively for women launched recently by – HDFC bank
Private Sector Bank that recently launched a product of Personal loan called “SWIFT” – HDFC
The bank which approved loan of $500mn to help India improve Rail services – Asian Development Bank
FDI limit for new banks – 49%
FDI limit for private banks: 74%
Computer Basics for Bank online Aptitude Tests
Welcome to edugeeks.in. Nowadays computer knowledge is quite essential to
everybody. Any educated person without Computer Knowledge will be treated as Computer-illiterate. One
must know the basic fundamentals to understand the functioning of a computer. If you are interested to know
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capability and scoring capacity.
COMPUTER
Computer is an electronic device or programmable machine that manipulates information or data
(input) and produces the result (output). It has the ability of storing, retrieving and processing the
data. It is composed of hardware and software in it.
Functioning
Input Devices – Access the data
Central Processing Unit (CPU) – Process the data
Output Devices- Produces the result
Storage Devices (RAM) – Stores the result
Hope!! You understood this concept how computer access the data (input) and provides the
output using some major components. Explanation is given for each and every component at
below
HARDWARE
Term hardware refers to physical components or elements of the computer like keyboard,
Mouse, Monitor, Printer, Disk and Chips
SOFTWARE


Term Software refers to set of instructions that tell the hardware what to do.
Software will be loaded from Disk to RAM (Random Access Memory)
Some of the examples are Games, web browsers and word processors such as Microsoft
word
Can a computer run without software???

— Yes, it is possible .But if u wants to create some documents and power points you need
some software’s.
 — For example if you want to create a document you need word processor
 — Software will give some additional capabilities to your computer
Confused????????
To prepare the Food, Vegetables are required and to preserve the Vegetables, a Refrigerator is
essential. Similarly to run a program Software is required and to establish the Software,
Hardware is essential.
Hope you understood this. Let’s move to hardware components
HARDWARE COMPONENTS
Internal hardware components
 — CPU
 — Mother Board
 — RAM
 — Sound Card
 — Video Card
 — Hard Drive
 — DVD
External Hardware components
 — Keyboard
 — Mouse
 — Printer
 — Scanner
 — Monitor
 — Speakers
Input Devices (accesses the data)
Devices which helps us to interact with computer is nothing but input devices
Ex: Keyboard and Mouse
Output Devices (provides the output)
Devices which sends back the information to you is nothing but Output Devices
Ex: Monitor and Printer




Central Processing Unit (processes the data)
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Central Processing Unit is also called as the “Brain of the Computer” or Main Processor
which controls all the systems inner functions.
It is very easy to replace because it is inserted into the socket and is not soldered onto the
motherboard
A computer may contain more than one CPU which is nothing but MULTIPROCESSING
Two main parts of CPU are
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Control Unit (CU).
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): ALU is also called as basic building blocks of Central
Processing Unit, which performs all arithmetic and logical operations like addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division
Control Unit (CU): Control Unit controls the entire processing. It helps in the communication
between Memory and ALU
Memory (stores the result)
A place where we can store the data or set of instructions to access them while performing the
operations
There are two types of memories (storage devices)

RAM (Random Access Memory)

ROM (Read Only Memory)
RAM (Random Access Memory
Memory)
RAM (Random Access Memory) is one of the storage devices which performs both read and
write operations. But RAM is Volatile in nature it loses the data when there is no power supply.
It is fast while programming when compared to ROM
There are two types of RAM
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DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)
SRAM ( Static Random Access Memory)
ROM (Read Only Memory)
Main advantage of ROM is that we can easily alter the data or reprogrammable. Advantage of
ROM is Non –Volatile in nature which does not loses any data when there is no power supply.
Motherboard may consist of more than one ROM chips.
Types of ROM
ROM- Read only Memory
PROM- Programmable Read only Memory
EPROM- Erasable Programmable Read only Memory
EEPROM- Electrically Erasable Programmable Read only Memory
Flash EEPROM memory
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY(RAM)
READ ONLY MEMORY(ROM)
Volatile
Non-Volatile
Both Read and Write
Only Read
Data is Temporary
Data is Permanent(Reusable)
Faster While Programming
Slower
High Cost
Low Cost
Larger in Size
Smaller in Size
OPERATING SYSTEMS (OS)
Operating System is a type of software that allows computer hardware to communicate with
software. A computer without OS is a mere machine
Ex: DOS (Disk Operating System), Linux, Solaris
Types of operating systems
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
GUI is an interface, which allows us to interact with electronic devices like mobiles, gaming
devicesand Mp3 players using some graphical icons
Ex:Windows 98, Windows CE, System 7.X
Multi-user operating system
Application software which allows multiple users to access the computer with time sharing
system
Ex: Linux, UNIX, Windows 2000
Multiprocessor operating system
An operating system which supports the utilization of two or more processors on single computer
Ex: Linux, UNIX, Windows 2000
Multi-Tasking
An operating system which supports multiple processes at the time Ex: Unix, Windows 2000
Multithreading
This operating system will allows the software to perform some parts of program to run
concurrently
Ex: Linux, UNIX, Windows 2000
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Computer Knowledge for Bank Online Aptitude
Tests
Welcome to edugeeks.in online aptitude tests. Good number of
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providing you good number of abbreviations regarding Computer knowledge for Bank exams. You will be asked
questions from architectures, computer network and its components in Computer knowledge for Bank exams. I hope
these Computer knowledge abbreviations will be useful for your online aptitude tests. For more Updates regarding
online aptitude tests for Bank exams keep visiting our edugeeks.in online aptitude tests.
A
AAL- ATM Adaption Layer
ACL- Access Control List
ADO- ActiveX Data Objects
ADSL-Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
ADT- Abstract Data Type
ALGOL- Algorithmic Language
ALU- Arithmetic and Logical Unit
ANSI- American National Standard Institute
ARP- Address Resolution Protocol
ARPA- Address and Routing Parameter Area
ARPA- Advanced Research Projects Agency
ARPANET- Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
AS- Access Server
ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASM- Algorithmic State Machine
ASP- Active Server Pages
ASP- Application Server Provider
AT- Access Time
AT- Active Terminology
ATM- Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AVC- Advanced Video Coding
AVI- Audio Video Interleaved
AWT- Abstract Window Toolkit
B
BAL- Basic Assembly Language
BASIC- Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BCD- Binary Coded Decimal
BCNF- Boyce-codd Normal Form
BER- Bit Error Rate
BIN- Binary
BINAC- Binary Automatic Computer
BIOS- Basic Input Output System
BLOB- Binary Large Object
BNC- Bayonet Neill-Concelman
BPS- Bits per Second
C
CAD- Computer Aided Design
CAM- Computer Aided Manufacturing
CAT- Computer Aided Translation
CASE- Computer-Aided Software Engineering
CDMA- Code Division Multiple Access
CD-ROM- CD Read Only Memory
CIFS- Common Internet File System
CISC- Complex Instruction Set Computer
CLR- Common Language Runtime
CMOS- Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
COBOL- Common Business Oriented Language
COM- Component Object Model
CORBA- Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CPS- Characters per Second
CPU- Central Processing Unit
CRC- Cyclic Redundancy Check
D
DAC- Digital to Analog Converter
DAO- Data Access Objects
DAP- Directory access protocol
DBA- Data Base Administrator
DCCP- Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
DCL- Data Control Language
DCOM- Distributed Component Object Model
DDE- Dynamic Data Exchange
DES- Data Encryption Standard
DFD- Data Flow Diagram
DFS- Distributed File System
DHCP- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHTML- Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language
DMA- Direct Memory Access
DML- Data Manipulation Language
DNS- Domain Name System
DOM- Document Object Model
DoS- Denial of Service
DRAM- Dynamic Random Access Memory
DSDL- Document Schema Definition Languages
DSL- Digital Subscriber Line
DSL- Domain Specific Language
DVD- Digital Video Disc
DVD-ROM – DVD Read Only Memory
DVI- Digital Video Interface
DVR- Digital Video Recorder
E
EAI- Extensible Authentication Protocol
EBML- Extensible Binary Meta Language
EEPROM- Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
EFI- Extensible Firmware Interface
ELM- Electronic Mail
EOF- End of File
EOL- End of Line
EUC- Extended UNIX Code
EXT- Extended File System
F
FAP- FORTRAN Assembly Program
FAT- File Allocation Table
FAQ- Frequently Asked Questions
FDD- Floppy Disk Drive
FDDI- Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDMA- Frequency Division Multiple Access
FEC- Forward Error Correction
FHS- File system Hierarchy Standard
FIFO- First in First out
FORTRAN- Formula Translation
FPS- Floating Point System
FSM- Finite State Machine
FTTP- Fiber to the Premises
FTP- File Transfer Protocol
FXP- File Exchange Protocol
G
GB- Giga Byte
GIF- Graphic Interchange Format
GIGO- Garbage in Garbage Out
GIMP- GNU Image Manipulation Program
GML- Geography Markup Language
GUI- Graphical User Interface
GWT- Google Web Toolkit
Go ahead with confidence prepare well and win the race
H
HBA- Host Bus Adaptor
HDD- Hard Disk Drive
HD DVD- High Definition DVD
HDL- Hardware Description Language
HID- Human Interface Device
HP- Hewlett-Packard
HPFS- High Performance File System
HTM- Hierarchical Temporal Memory
HTML- Hyper Text Markup language
HTTP- Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Hz- Hertz
I
IC- Integrated Circuit
ICE- In circuit Emulator
ICMP- Internet Control Message Protocol
ICP- Internet Cache Protocol
IDE- Integrated Development Environment
IDL- Interface Definition Language
IEEE- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
IGRP- Integrated Gateway Routing Protocol
IL- Intermediate Language
IM- Instant Messenger
IMAP- Internet Message Access Protocol
IP- Internet Protocol
IPC- Inter Process Communication
IPL- Initial Program Load
IPP- Internet Printing Protocol
IPX- Internet Packet Exchange
ISA- Instruction Set Architecture
ISDN- Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO- International Organization for Standardization
ISP- Internet Service Provider
J
J2EE- Java 2 Enterprise Edition
J2SE- Java 2 standard Edition
JDBC- Java Database Connectivity
JDK- Java Development Kit
JFC- Java Foundation Classes
JMS- Java Message Service
JNDI- Java Naming and Directory Interface
JNI- Java Native Interface
JPEG- Joint Photographic Experts Group
JRE- Java Runtime Environment
JS- Java Script
JSP- Java Server Pages
JVM- Java Virtual Machine
K
KB- Kilo Byte
KHz- Kilo Hertz
KBPS- Kilo Bytes Per Second
L
LAN- Local Area Network
LCD- Liquid Crystal Display
LCR- Least Cost Routing
LED- Light Emitting Diode
LIFO- Last in First Out
LOC- Lines of Code
M
MAC- Media Access Control
MAN- Metropolitan Area Network
MANET- Mobile Ad-Hoc Network
MDA- Mail Delivery Agent
MIB- Management Information Base
MICR- Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
MIDI- Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIMD- Multiple Instruction Multiple Data
MIMO- Multiple Input Multiple Output
MIPS- Million Instructions Per Second
MOSFET- Metal-Oxide Semi-conductor Field Effect Transistor
MPEG- Motion Pictures Expert Group
MTA- Mail Transfer Agent
MX- Mail Exchange
N
NACK- Negative Acknowledgement
NAT- Network Address Translation
NFS- Network File System
NOS- Network Operating System
NUMA- Non-Uniform Memory Access
NVR- Network Video Recorder
NVRAM- Non-Volatile Random Access Memory
O
OASIS- Organization for the advancement of Structured Information Standards
ODBC- Open Data Base Connectivity
OLAP- Online Analytical Processing
OLE- Object Linking and Embedding
OLTP- Online Transaction Processing
OOP- Object Oriented Programming
OPML- Outline Processor Markup Language
ORB- Object Request Broker
OSI- Open Systems Interconnection
P
PAN- Personal Area Network
PAP- Password Authentication Protocol
PDA- Personal Digital Assistant
PDF- Portable Document Format
PERL- Practical Extraction and Reporting Language
PHP- PHP-Hypertext Preprocessor
PPI- Pixels per Inch
PVR- Personal Video Recorder
Q
QA- Quality Assurance
QOS- Quality of Service
R
RAM- Random Access Memory
RDBMS- Relational Data Base Connectivity
RDM- Relational Data Model
RDS- Remote Data Service
RIP- Routing Information Protocol
RMI- Remote Method Invocationn
ROM- Read Only Memory
RPC- Remote Procedure Call
Click here For Computer Abbreviations List-2
S
SaaS- Software as a Service
SAN- Storage Area Network
SAX- Simple Area for XML
SCADA- Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SCID- Source Code in Data Base
SDH- Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDK- Software Development Kit
SMS- Short Message Service
SMT- Simultaneous Multithreading
SNTP- Simple Network Time Protocol
SOA- Service-Oriented Architecture
SOAP- Simple Object Access Protocol
SPARC- Scalable Process Architecture
SQL- Structured Query Language
T
TCP- Transmission Control Protocol
TCP/IP- Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol
TDMA- Time Division Multiple Access
U
UDP- User Datagram Protocol
UHF- Ultra High Frequency
UI- User Interface
UML- Unified Modeling Language
UPS-Uninterruptible Power Supply
URL- Uniform Resource Locator
USB- Universal Serial Bus
V
VBA- Virtual Basic For Application
VBS- Visual Basic Script
VFS- Virtual File System
VHF- Very High Frequency
VLAN- Virtual Local Area Network
VLF- Very Low Frequency
VM- Virtual Machine
VoIP- Video over Internet Protocol
VPU- Virtual Processing Unit
VSAM- Virtual Storage Access Method
W
WAFS- Web Area File Services
WAN- Wide Area Network
WAP- Wireless Access Point
WiMAX- World Wide Interoperability for Microwave Access
WLAN- Wireless Local Area Network
WMV- Windows Media Video
WPA- Wi-Fi Protected Access
WWW- World Wide Web
X
XAML- Extensible Application Mark-up Language
XHTML-Extensible Hyper Text Mark-up Language
XSL- Extensible Style sheet Language
Z
ZIF- Zero Insertion Force
ZOI- Zero One Infinity
Click here for Computer knowledge Online Aptitude Tests
FAQ Computer Abbreviations
ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol
BIT: Binary Digit
BIOS: Basic Input Output System
CPU: Central Processing Unit
CAD: Computer Aided Design
CAM: Computer Aided Manufacturing
CDAC: Centre for Development of Advanced Parallel Computing
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
COBOL: Common Business Oriented Language
DOS: Disk Operating Systems
DNS: Domain Name System
E-MAIL: Electronic Mail
FAX: Far Away Xerox
FDD: Floppy Disk Drive
FORTRAN: Formula Translation
FTP: File Transfer Protocol
GIF: Graphics Interchange Format
HDD: Hard Disk Drive
HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language
HTTP: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
HTTPS: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure
IC: Integrated Circuit
ISP: Internet Service Provider
JPEG: Joint photographic Experts Group
MAC: Media Access Control
MIPS: Millions of Instructions Per Second
MPEG: Motion Picture Experts group
MAN: Metropolitan Area Network
MODEM: Modulation Demodulation
MS-DOS: Micro Soft Disk Operating system
NIC: Network Interface Card
OMR: Optical Mark Reader
RAM: Random Access Memory
ROM: Read Only Memory
SMS: System Management Server
SAP: Service Access Point
SONET: Synchronous Optical Network
UDP: User Datagram Protocol
URL: Uniform Resource Locator
VLSI: Very Large scale Integrated
WWW: World Wide Web
Wi-Fi: Wireless Fidelity
WAN: Wide Area Network
WiMAX: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
ZIP: Zone Improvement Plan

Inventors of Computer Accessories
Inventor of Computer– Charles Babbage
First Modern Computer in the World- ENIAC
First Commercial Computer – Univac
First Programmable Digital Computer – SEAC (Standards Eastern Automatic Computer)
ENIAC was developed by – John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert
Inventor of Punch Cards in Computer – Hollerith
First Computer Programming Languages- FORTRAN, LISP and COBOL
Computer Graphics was developed by – William Fetter
ARPANET was developed by – DARPA
First Compiler was developed by – Dr. Grace Murray Hopper
Father of Computer Animations- John Whitney
First movie to use Digital Image Processing- West World in 1973
Computer Mouse was invented by- Douglas Engel Bart
Computer Keyboard was invented by- Christopher Latham Sholes
Laptop Computer was invented by – Adam Osborne
First Graphical Computer Game was invented by- A.S. Douglas
Computer BIOS was invented by – Gary Kildall
Inventor of Computer Bug- Dr. Grace Murray Hopper
Inventors of Computer Chip (IC) – Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce
Father of Computer Hard Disk- Reynold Johnson
Inventor of First Data Base – Dr. Edgar Frank Codd
Inventor of Ethernet Computer Networking- David Boggs, Chuck Thacker and Butler
Lampson in Xerox PARC
Inventor of Computer Scanner – Ray Kurzweil
Inventor of Computer Speakers- Abinawan Puracchidas
Inventor of MS-DOS Operating Systems- Microsoft
Inventors of first computer Microprocessors – Faggin , Hoff & Mazor
Inventor of Spacewar computer Game – Steve Russell & MIT
UNIVAC was developed by – John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert
Inventor of Z1 computer- Konrad Zuse
Inventor of ABC computer – John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry

Founders and Their Inventions
Founder of Apple Computers – Steve Jobs
Founder of Artificial Intelligence – John McCarthy
Founder of Bluetooth – Ericsson
Father of Computer – Charles Babbage
Father of ‘C’ Language – Dennis Ritchie
Father of ‘C++’ language – Bjarne Stroustrup
Founder of Email – Shiva Ayyadurai
Founder of Google – Larry Page and Sergey Brin
Founder of Internet – Vint Cerf
Father of ‘Java’- James Gosling
Father of JQuery – John Resig
Founder of Keyboard – Christoper Latham Sholes
Founder of Linux – Linus Torvalds
Founder of Microsoft – Bill Gates and Paul Allen
Founder of Mobile Phones – Martin Cooper
Founder of Mouse – Douglas Engelbart
Founders of Oracle – Ed Oates, Larry Ellison, Bob Miner
Founder of Php – Rasmus Lerdorf
Founder of USB – Ajay V.Bhatt
Founder of WWW – Tim Berners-Lee
Founder of Yahoo – Jurry Yang and David Filo
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GENERATIONS
Sl.
No.
Description
1
GENERATIONS
FIRST
SECOND
THIRD
FOURTH
F
Period
1946-1959
1959-1965
1965-1971
1971-1980
1
2
Memory
Magnetic
Drum
Magnetic Core
Micro Chip
Semi
Conductor
S
C
3
Components used
Vacuum
Tubes
Transistors
Integrated
Circuits (ICs)
VLSI
Micro U
Processor
P
4
Languages
Machine
COBOL,
FORTRAN,
C, C++, Dbase
A
5
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

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
Examples
ENIAC,
EDVAC,
EDSAC,
UNIVAC,
IBM-701,
IBM – 650
FORTRAN
PASCAL,
ALGOL, BASIC,
COBOL
IBM 1620, IBM
1401, CDC 3600
IBM 370,
UNIVAC
1108, UNIVAC
AC 9000
i
Apple
D
Macintosh, IBM L
PC
N
FIRST GENERATION: (Vaccum Tubes)
In First Generation of computers Vaccum tubes were used to store data in the form of
propagating sound waves.
Memory: Magnetic Core is used as memory
Storage Place: Punch Cards
Language Used: Machine Level
ADVANTAGES:
Calculates the data in milliseconds
DISADVANTAGES
High power consumption
Large Size with less storage capacity
Generates heat very soon because of more number of vaccum tubes
Slow processing
Non-Portable
Some of the computers from first generation are ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC, IBM –
701, IBM – 650
Characteristics of Computer:
Computer is one of the major component’s that human being is depending now, do you know why human
beings are depending upon this computer? Let see some characteristics of computers
Speed: The difference between our memory and computers is speed, it is very fast in performing calculations
we can say within seconds.
Speed of the computer = (10-6 MS) or (10-9 NS)
Study Basics of Computer here
Accuracy: Computer will give the accurate results with any errors or bugs, if there is any error given by
computer it means the error is due to the human or inaccurate data, as output depends on input given by user.
Storage capacity:
Data sent by the user will be stored in the CPU which is primary storage area CPU reads all the instructions
sent by the user and executes them as required.
In earlier days computers used delay lines, William tubes, or rotating magnetic drums, but these are unreliable
in nature.
This led to modern RAM (Random access memory) which holds the information when power is off and also it
is small in size, light but quite expensive at the same time
There are some more storage devices you are recommended study about them here
Study Storage Devices Material here
Reliability: Reliability is the main key factor of computer. Reliability is the advanced feature of the
computer, it helps to avoid, detect and repair hardware faults. This reliable system does not continue to gives
the results which is incorrect it detects and if possible it will the correct the corruption happened over there.
Availability or Diligence: Computer is free form tiredness. It can work for minute, hours even for a day
without creating any error.
Some more characteristics are
Serviceability
Maintainability
SECOND GENERATION (Transistors)
In second generation of computers, vaccum tubes are replaced with transistors
Memory: Magnetic Cores
Storage Place: Magnetic Tape
Languages Used: FORTRON, COBOL
ADVANTAGES:
 Small in size (By replacing vaccum tubes with transistors)
 Calculates data in micro seconds

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

Portability
Reliability compared to first
Required Less Energy
Less Power Consumption
DISADVANTAGES:
 High Cost
 Punch cards are used
Some of second generation computers are IBM 1620, IBM 1401, CDC 3600
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THIRD GENERATION (Integrated Circuits)
In this generation, Integrated Circuits are placed containing transistors, capacitors, resistors.
Microprogramming, Parallel Processing, Multiprogramming, time sharing was introduced in
this generation
Memory: Microchip
Languages used: FORTRAN, PASCAL, ALGOL, BASIC, COBOL
ADVANTAGES:
Smaller in Size
Better Speed
Low Cost
Input devices like Mouse and Keyboards are used
DISADVANTAGES:
Air Conditioner is required
Some of third generation computers are IBM 370, UNIVAC 1108, and UNIVAC AC 9000
FOURTH GENERATION (VLSI Microprocessor)
In this generation VLSI Very Large Scale Integration were designed which reduces the size of
the computer. It consists of millions of integrated circuits in it.
Graphical User Interface (GUI), LAN, WAN was introduced in this generation
Languages Used: C, C++, Dbase
ADVANTAGES:


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
Low Cost
VLSI Technology
Internet Technology
Pipelining Process
DISADVANTAGES:
 Latest Technology is required for manufacturing Microprocessors
 Some of the fourth generation computers are Apple Macintosh and IBM PC




FIFTH GENERATION (ULSI Microprocessor)
In this generation Artificial Intelligence technology is used. This computers work like a human
behavior. Scientists are working still on this stage. Computers of this generation will think like a
human brain.
ADVANTAGES:
World Wide Web is introduced with some of applications like Email
Notebook Computers were introduced
New Operating Systems like Windows 95/98/XP and Linux are introduced
Some of the fifth generation computers are Desktops, Laptop, Notebook
 STORAGE DEVICES


We can simply say that the storage devices
are the places where the computer stores the data. If we want to save the files, they can
also be saved in hard disks. If you want to store the information in another computer,
what is the storage device used?? Let’s start our topic storage devices.
Storage Devices are basically divided into three categories-Primary,
Secondary and Tertiary Devices. One of the Primary storage devices is Random Access
memory (RAM) and it cannot store data permanently (Volatile in Nature). Hard disks
are secondary storage devices, which are used to store the data permanently (NonVolatile in nature). Tertiary storage devices are removable mass storage devices that are
used to transfer the data on different computers (Portable in Nature). Best example is
Universal serial Bus (USB). Let see the detailed explanation of storage devices
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
Primary storage Devices: Primary Storage Device is small in capacity, located inside the
computer and lost its storage when the Computer is turned off. RAM is the main type of
memory in Primary Storage Device.
Random Access memory (RAM): RAM is often called as “Primary storage device”. It
is volatile because data is wiped out when power is turned off. Access rate in Ram is very
high as it is located very nearer to CPU. RAM is very expensive device. Main advantage
is it performs both read and writes operations. Data moved from secondary storage to
primary storage is nothing but Internal Memory or Main Memory.
Example: Suppose if you open a program or a file, data stored in the secondary memory
will be moved to primary memory. While you turned off your computer, data will be
wiped off. You can say best example as Browsing. While you are browsing, data will be
stored temporarily in primary storage devices and you may lose the entire data while
Computer is turned off.
Read only Memory (ROM): ROM performs only read operations. Data stored in ROM
is permanent and it cannot be edited. This devise is used for storing the data for life time
without any modifications.
BIOS and Cache is also other Primary Storage Device.
Cache Memory: One of the primary storage devices with high speed data access.
Binary Input Output System (BIOS): BIOS is one of the important devices stored on
the ROM. BIOS is responsible for checking the devices at Power on Time called POST (
Power On Self-Test). Any malfunctioning in computer will receive the error messages.
Secondary Storage Devices: Secondary Storage Device is higher in capacity than
Primary Device, located in the computer and stores the data permanently such as
software. Hard Disk Drive is one of the main types of memory in Secondary Storage
Devices. Secondary storage is also called as External Memory or Auxiliary Storage.
Hard Disk: Hard disk is a Secondary storage device which is abbreviated as HD or
HDD. This is the main storage device that stores the data permanently, until it is deleted.
Disk controller is responsible for performing all actions in hard disk. These hard disks are
made up of Aluminum coated on both sides with magnetic material. Compared to
primary storage devices, these devices are much costlier to use. Nowadays these devices
are used to store personal data.
Tertiary Storage Devices are removable mass storage devices mainly useful for storing
the data in other computers, with portability in nature. We can USB as great example
which accesses and saves the data very easily. Storage capacity varies for based on the
device used. External Hard Drive, Floppy Disk, CD/DVD Disk and SD Card are also
considered as Tertiary Storage Devices. These types of devices are also called as offline storage devices.
YPES OF COMPUTERS
An Electronic Device that accepts (INPUT), processes, produces
(OUTPUT) and Stores (STORAGE) the data is called COMPUTER and this can be used to
type documents, browse the Internet and to send e-mails in addition to attend specific
operations required from time to time. It can store, retrieve and process the data. It can
also
be
treated
as Common Operational Machine Purposefully Used
for Teaching,Entertainment and Research.
Computers are basically classified into 2 categories based on their Principle
of Operation and Nature of Configuration. The computers categorized on Operational Principle
can be further divided into 3 categories such as Analog, Digital and Hybrid Computers.
Similarly, the computers classified on Configuration nature can also be categorized into 4
Categories such as Micro, Mini, Mainframe and Super Computers.
ANALOG COMPUTERS
Analog Computer works on continuous range of varied values of Physical quantities
like Temperature, Speed, Voltage, Pressure etc. and generates approximate results.
DIGITAL COMPUTERS
The Digital computer is designed with digital circuits in which there are two levels (logic 0 and
logic 1) for an input and output signal. This computer is very much useful to solve complex
problems in Engineering and Technology and hence it has increasing use in the field of design,
research and data processing. If this digital computer is used for any type of application, then it is
called as General Purpose Computer and Special Purpose Computer when it is used for specific
application/program.
HYBRID COMPUTERS
A computer used for automatic operations of complicated physical processes to transform the
data into suitable form is called Hybrid Computer. The conversion of analog data as digital and
vice-versa is the advantage of this computer.
MICRO COMPUTERS
The most commonly used computer by everybody at any place is called Micro
Computer, in which Microprocessor is the major source of operation. Desktop Computers,
Laptops, notebook computers, Palmtop computers, In-car Computers (Carputers), Handheld
Game Consoles, Programme Calculators, Table Computers, Smart Phones, Smart Books,
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) etc. are the examples for this computer.
DESKTOP COMPUTER
LAPTOP
COMPUTER
IPAD
COMPUTER
MINI COMPUTER
The multi-user midrange Computer that works in between smallest multi-user systems and
largest single-user system is called as Mini Computer.
MINI COMPUTER
MAINFRAME COMPUTER
The computer capable for processing large amount of data very quickly to service multiple users
from the smaller and single user machine is called as Mainframe Computer. These computers are
used in Large Organizations/Establishments such as Government, Banks, Corporations etc. They
respond to upto 100s of millions of users at a time and measured in MIPS (Million Instructions
per Second).
C
O
M
P
U
T
E
R
S
PRINCIPLE OF
OPERATION
ANALOG
COMPUTERS
—
Computers used to measure
variable
quantities
like
Voltage,
Temperature,
Pressure, Speed etc.
DIGITAL
GENERAL PURPOSE Computer used to process
COMPUTERS COMPUTER
general programs/applications.
SPECIAL PURPOSE Computer used to process
COMPUTER
data
for
a specific purpose/application
HYBRID
COMPUTERS
—
NATURE OF
MICRO
DESKTOP
CONFIGURATION COMPUTERS COMPUTER
Computer used to convert
analog-to-digital and digital-toanalog data for a specialized
task.
A
Single-user
Personal
Computer for individual use of
small
application
requirements.
LAPTOP COMPUTER A Single-user Portable Note
Book Computer allowed to use
anywhere because of its small
size.
HANDHELD
COMPUTER
A Single-user Small pen based
Personal Digital Assistant
(PDA) with touch screen
facility.
MINI
COMPUTERS
—
Multi-user Computers with
less Speed and Storage
Capacity.
MAINFRAME
COMPUTERS
—
An expensive very high speed
Computers used in Railways,
Banks, Airlines etc.
SUPER
COMPUTERS
—
An Advanced and most
expensive Computers used for
intensive
numerical
computations such as Weather
Forecasting, Stock Market
Analysis etc.
MAINFRAME COMPUTER
SUPER COMPUTER
An extremely fast computer capable to perform hundreds of millions of
instructions per second is called Super Computer. These computers are used for applications of
intensive numerical computations such as Weather forecasting, Stock Market Analysis, Scientific
Calculations, Animated Graphics, Research Analysis etc.
SUPER COMPUTER
The entire description is abridged here under for ready reference:
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