Source and Measure Products
Technical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Selector Guide
Source and Measure Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Series 2600A
2601A
2602A
2611A
2612A
2635A
2636A
System SourceMeter®
Multi-Channel I-V Test Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Single-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(High Current)
Dual-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(High Current)
Single-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(200V)
Dual-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(200V)
Single-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(Low Current)
Dual-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument
(Low Current)
Series 2400
2400
2410
2420
2425
2430
2440
SourceMeter Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
General-Purpose SourceMeter Instrument
High Voltage SourceMeter Instrument
High Current SourceMeter Instrument
100W SourceMeter Instrument
1kW Pulse Mode SourceMeter Instrument
5A SourceMeter Instrument
6430
Sub-Femtoamp Remote SourceMeter Instrument . 216
4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System . . . . . . . . . 220
237
High Voltage Source-Measure Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
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SOURCE AND MEASURE
Side Text
Source and Measure Products
C O N F I D E N C E
183
Technical information:Side
Source
Textand measure products
Technical
Information
Source and Measure Products
All of Keithley’s source and measure products
(SMUs) can source voltage while measuring current and source current while measuring voltage. Some also measure resistance. All are fully
programmable instruments that can stand alone
as complete source, measurement, and automation solutions. They are also easy to integrate
into larger systems.
Keithley’s SMUs are faster, easier to use, and
more economical than using individual power
supplies and measurement instruments that are
harnessed together. Additionally, they provide
more accurate and repeatable results. Keithley’s
SMUs are ideal for production and automation,
yet precise and sensitive enough for laboratory
applications.
Keithley’s SMUs include our Series 2400
SourceMeter® instruments, Series 2600A System
SourceMeter instruments, Model 237 HighVoltage Source-Measure unit, and Model 4200SCS Semiconductor Characterization System.
How does an SMU work?
SMUs can be used as stand-alone constant voltage or constant current sources and as standalone voltmeters or ammeters. However, their
real strength is their ability to simultaneously
source and measure—applying voltage to a
device under test (load) and measuring the current flowing through it, or supplying current to a
load and measuring the voltage drop across it.
The SMU topology (Figure 1) protects the
device under test (DUT) from damage due to
accidental overloads, thermal runaway, and
other problems. Both the current and voltage
source are programmable with readback to
maximize device measurement integrity. If the
readback reaches a programmed compliance
limit, then the source is clamped at the limit,
providing fault protection.
Voltmeter Configuration
HI
Ileakage
Technical Tip: Use the lowest current range setting to
­minimize Ileakage.
V meter
I = 0A
LO
Source I = 0A, Measure V
Ammeter Configuration
+
I meter
V
V = 0V
HI
Technical Tip: Use the lowest voltage source range to
­minimize voltage burden.
Vburden
–
LO
Source V = 0V, Measure I
Ohmmeter Configuration
Technical Tip: The Auto
Ohms feature in Series 2400
SourceMeter instruments
automatically selects the
best test current and voltage
range for optimal resistance
measurements. Use 4-wire
remote sensing (Kelvin
sensing) for the best accuracy.
HI
I meter
Sense HI
I = test
current
V meter
Sense LO
LO
Source I = test current, Measure V and I, Remote Sense ON
Power Supply Configuration
HI
Sense HI
I meter/
limit
Technical Tip: Use 4-wire
remote sensing to deliver an
accurate voltage to the load at
high output current levels.
Load
V
Sense LO
LO
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Source V, Measure I, Remote Sense ON
Power Load Configuration
HI
I meter
V
I
Sense HI
V meter
V meter/
limit
Power
Source
Sense LO
LO
Sink I = Desired load current, Measure V, Remote Sense ON
Figure 1. Basic SMU topology
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I = desired
load
current
Technical Tip: Make sure the
voltage limit is set above the
maximum voltage output of
the power source. Use 4-wire
remote sensing to assure an
accurate voltage measurement
with a large sink current.
Figure 2. SMU configurations
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Technical
Information
Source and Measure Products
Typical Power Supply
Speed
0
Source/
Measure
Precision
1
2
3
4
ms
5
6
7
0
10µA measurement
uncertainty = 5nA
1
2
1µV
40V
1µV
3A
1pA
1mV
Current
Current
Source + Sink
6
7
40V
1mA
+I
II
I
–V
II
+V
IV
I
–V
+V
III
–I
SMUs offer a much broader range of voltage
and current resolution than conventional
power supplies. This allows you to use
SMUs in many more types of applications.
3A
Source Only
+I
III
5
Voltage
1pA
4 Quadrant
Operation
4
ms
10µA measurement
uncertainty = 2500nA
Voltage
Voltage and
Current
Resolution
3
SMUs are optimized for speed and
precision. In most models, both the source
voltages and source currents settle to within
0.01% of the specified accuracy in as little
as 50µs. This is 50 times faster than what a
conventional power supply can provide.
IV
–I
A conventional power supply sources
(supplies) voltage and/or current. An SMU
also sources power, but it can additionally
sink (dissipate) power. It provides fourquadrant operation. In quadrants I and III it
sources power to a load and in quadrants II
and IV it sinks power from a load. (Voltage,
current, and resistance can be measured
during source or sink operations.) A
conventional power supply only functions
in quadrant IV.
Technical information:Side
Source
Textand measure products
2602A SourceMeter Instrument
Figure 3. Precision power supplies vs. SMUs
• Supports faster test times with improved accuracy and repeatability
• Allows you to source voltage or current while
making time-stamped voltage, current, and
resistance measurements without changing
connections
• Eliminates many of the complex synchronization, connection, and programming issues
associated with using multiple instruments
• Minimizes the time required for test station
development, setup, and maintenance
• Lowers the overall cost of system ownership
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What are the most popular
SMU configurations?
The fully isolated, floating configuration of
Keithley’s SMUs provide maximum flexibility in
configuring test setups. SMUs can be configured
as many different instruments (Figure 2). This
makes them invaluable tools in flexible product
test racks and in R&D test bench tools.
How does an SMU compare to
a precision power supply?
The power supply capabilities of Keithley’s SMUs
surpass those provided by conventional power
supplies. This is illustrated in Figure 3. In addition to the highly stable DC power source, low
noise, and readback, Keithley’s SMUs include
other features not usually available on conventional power supplies. For example, most SMUs
offer a Pulse mode, include programmable
delays, and provide a test sequencer that allows
A
G R E A T E R
you to set up and execute tests without PC intervention. Figure 4 illustrates a typical precision
power supply test that uses an SMU.
I-V characterization and curve tracing
Keithley’s SMUs are core instruments for I-V
characterization tests. Their ability to source
voltage while simultaneously measuring current
or source current while simultaneously measuring voltage can be combined with both DC
and sweep operations to perform measurements
such as forward voltage (V F), reverse leakage,
and reverse breakdown voltage (V B) without
changing a single connection to the device under
test (Figure 5).
Built-in features allow multiple SMUs to be
synchronized for parametric measurements like
threshold voltage, beta, and transconductance.
Output interlocks provide controlled access to a
test fixture, which is particularly important for
M E A S U R E
O F
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Advantages
Many advantages are achieved by combining
source and measurement circuitry into a single
unit:
C O N F I D E N C E
185
Technical
Information
Source and Measure Products
SMU
I (Amps)
+I
SMU
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Technical information:Side
Source
Textand measure products
V
VD
Vbias
V
Test
Idd ON (5V)
IC
GND
Description
Power supply current,
V D = 5V, device active
Idd OFF (5V) Power supply current,
V D = 5V, device in standby
Idd ON (3.3V) Power supply current,
V D = 3.3V, device active
Idd ON (3.3V) Power supply current,
V D = 3.3V, device in standby
Input leakage current
IIL
+100
+V
Reading
14.294 mA
50.361 nA
–I
Figure 5. Typical diode curve trace tests
12.871 mA
c
42.198 nA
b
1.2358 µA
Figure 4. Typical precision power supply tests
the extended voltage range of the Model 237 (up
to 1100V). Guarded 4-wire connections provide
high quality measurements over a wide range
(1fA to 10A).
A family of semiconductor curves can be
obtained with just two SMUs (Figure 6). At each
step of base current from SMU1, SMU2 sweeps
VCE and measures IC. An SMU can store data from
a sweep in its buffer, thus reducing data transfer
time to a computer. A family of curves could
also be produced using pulse-sweeps to reduce
power dissipation within a device.
Built-In Sweeps
Keithley’s SMUs simplify capturing the data
needed to characterize a wide range of devices
with the SMUs’ built-in pulsed and DC sweeps,
including linear staircase, logarithmic staircase,
and custom sweeps (Figure 7). Sweeps coupled
with other throughput enhancements like builtin limit inspection, digital I/O, and a component
handling interface are ideal for high speed, nonstop production environments. All sweep configurations can be programmed for single-event
or continuous operation.
Instrumentation and software solutions
for I-V characterization
Figure 8 illustrates various hardware and software solutions for I-V characterization. In the
first example, Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments are connected to a PC.
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–100
–V
V meter
e
SMU
I source
IC
SMU
Ib = 3µA
I meter
V meter
Ib = 4µA
Ib = 2µA
V V Source
Ib = 1µA
VCE
Figure 6. Typical curve trace test for transistors
In the second example, Series 2600A Source­
Meter instruments are connected to a PC with
TSP-Link®. TSP-Link seamlessly integrates
multiple Series 2600A instruments into a single
system that can be programmed and controlled
as a single instrument through the master 2600A
instrument or the PC.
The third example is the Model 4200-SCS
Semiconductor Characterization System. This
system includes an embedded PC, Windows®
operating system, and mass storage. It is a complete DC characterization solution for semiconductor devices and test structures. It supports
up to eight SMU modules and provides an array
of Windows based software that is so intuitive
that even a novice can use the system with ease.
This point-and-click software supplies a full
range of functionality, including: managing tests,
generating reports, automating test sequencing,
and creating user libraries. The Model 4200-SCS
is a complete one box solution that combines
sub-femtoamp resolution with real-time plotting
and analysis. Key capabilities include instrument
and prober drivers, interfaces to popular model-
A
G R E A T E R
ing/circuit simulation software, and WLR test
capabilities.
High-Speed I-V Functional Testing
Keithey’s SMUs are designed for maximum
throughput on the production floor. Each SMU
provides high-speed measurements, an internal pass/fail comparator, programmable test
sequencing, and digital I/O to control material
handlers (Figure 9). Single- or multi-point pass/
fail testing can be performed on a wide range
of components, such as: network devices, circuit protection devices, active discrete devices,
and sensors. The onboard pass/fail comparator
simplifies high-speed pass/fail tests by avoiding
the delay caused by computer and GPIB bus
interaction. The buffer memory stores results,
again avoiding the computer/GPIB bus interaction delay.
Need more test pins?
Keithley’s new TSP-Link is a high speed interface
for system expansion. It allows you to connect
a virtually unlimited number of Series 2600A
SourceMeter instruments in a master/slave
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Source and Measure Products
Level
Bias
Bias
Fixed Level
LEVEL, COUNT (number of DELAYMEASURE cycles), DELAY, BIAS
A fixed level sweep outputs a single
level of voltage and ­current with
­multiple measurements to bias and/or
stress devices.
Stop
Step
Start
Bias
Bias
Linear Stair
The linear staircase sweep goes from
the start level to the stop level in equal
­linear steps.
START, STOP, STEP, DELAY, BIAS
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
START, STOP, POINTS/DECADE
(5, 10, 25, or 50), DELAY, BIAS
Logarithmic Stair
t off
The logarithmic staircase sweep is
­similar to the linear staircase sweep,
but it is done on a log scale with a
specified number of steps per decade.
t on
Level
Bias
Technical information:Side
Source
Textand measure products
Delay
Meas.
Delay
Meas.
Technical
Information
Bias
Pulse
Start
LEVEL, COUNT, ton , toff , BIAS
Stop
Step
Pulsed sweeps greatly reduce the
power dissipation within a device, so
the effects of temperature (drift, device
failure, etc.) are virtually eliminated.
Bias
Bias
Linear Stair Pulse
START, STOP, STEP, ton , toff , BIAS
Stop
Start
Bias
Logarithmic Stair Pulse
Custom
START, STOP, POINTS/DECADE
(5, 10, 25, or 50), ton , toff , BIAS
Custom sweeps allow the user to
program individual steps to create
waveforms
The custom sweep allows you to
­construct special sweeps by specifying
the number of measurement points and
the source level at each point.
Figure 7. Various sweeps supported by SMUs
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Bias
C O N F I D E N C E
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Technical
Information
Source and Measure Products
than from an external PC controller, so delays due to GPIB traffic congestion are eliminated (Figure 11). TSP test scripts allow throughput gains of
up to 10x over equivalent PC-based programs controlling the same instruments via GPIB. TSP test scripts can be loaded and run from the front panel
or over the system’s GPIB interface. A single TSP test script, running on the
master 2600A unit, can control all Series 2600A channels and acquire data
from any Series 2600A instrument connected to the system with TSP-Link.
Discrete instruments with
remote control capability
Technical information:Side
Source
Textand measure products
PC
Good +
Low Cost
Series 2400
Series 2400
Series 2400
Buy the SourceMeter
instrument(s)
Add your own PC
Use embedded
TSP Express or optional
ACS Basic Edition
software
A Series 2600A-based system can stand alone as a complete measurement
and automation solution for semiconductor device or component testing
with the master 2600A unit controlling sourcing, measurements, pass/fail
decisions, test sequence flow control, binning, the component handler,
prober, and much more.
Scalable instruments with
TSP-Link
PC
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Series 2600A
Better +
General Purpose
Series 2400 Source-Memory List
The Source-Memory List in Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments is a key
feature for production testing. This programmable sequencer lets you set
up a complete sequence of up to 100 tests. Each test can contain totally different test conditions, measurements, math, pass/fail, and binning criteria.
The tests are executed sequentially without additional external commands.
Conditional branching leads to different points on the test list, depending
on the results.
Buy the SourceMeter
instrument(s)
Add your own PC
Use embedded
TSP Express or optional
ACS Basic Edition
software
SMU systems with
built-in Graphical User Interface (GUI)
SMU
Modules
Model
4200-SCS
The Source-Memory Sweep feature allows you to store up to 100 unique
source and measure configurations in nonvolatile memory. This feature
makes it possible to sweep through a group of source memory locations
and execute a complete test sequence all at one time.
Best +
Performance +
Capability
Configure system
when you order
Ready to go
upon receipt
Digital I/O
Digital communication is one of the most common requirements of a production test system because of the need to communicate with handlers,
binning equipment, and user controls. The SMUs’ digital I/O can also be
used to interact with racks of instruments to trigger events, start readings,
and collect results. Digital triggering and response enable fast and reliable
results that are not dependent on the communication bus in use.
Figure 8. Examples of I-V characterization solutions
Contact check
c­onfiguration (Figure 10). All connected Series 2600A instruments can be
programmed and operated under the control of the master instrument.
TSP-Link provides an easy way to scale your system’s channel count up or
down to match changing application needs. There is no chassis involved.
The optional Contact Check function eliminates measurement errors and
false product failures by verifying good connections to the DUT quickly
and easily before testing begins. In just 350µs (Series 2400) or 1ms (Series
2600A), this function’s verification and notification routine ensures that
you have good contact to a device before sending energy through it and
spending time testing it (Figure 12).
SOURCE AND MEASURE
In Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments, Trigger Link can be used to coordinate multiple instruments with hardware triggers.
Parallel test capability
Series 2600A instruments support true parallel testing. Each 2600A in a
system can run its own test sequences, so the number of devices that can
be tested in parallel is equivalent to the number of 2600A instruments in
the system. Parallel testing coupled with the 20,000 rdgs/s of each 2600A
creates a system that offers extremely high throughput.
The Contact Check function was designed for high throughput 4-wire and
6-wire test applications. In Series 2400 SourceMeter instruments, three
reference value choices (2W, 15W, and 50W) are supplied. If the resistance
of good connections normally exceeds 50W, then the built-in contact check
function is not suitable for that application and alternative approaches
should be considered. Series 2600A instruments provide more flexibility
with programmable values.
Advanced automation for system throughput
Series 2600A TSP®
Any Series 2600A instrument or 2600A-based system can run high speed,
embedded test scripts with Test Script Processor (TSP). The test sequence
is processed and run on the embedded computer in the instrument, rather
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Some of the problems this function can detect while verifying connector,
fixture, and test harness integrity are contact fatigue, breakage, contamination, corrosion, loose or broken connections, and relay failures. If a bad
contact is detected, it can abort the measurement, protecting the DUT.
Three methods of fault notification are provided.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Technical
Information
Source and Measure Products
SMU
I
Test B
Test B
Test C
Test D
V
Test C
Test D
Description
Forward voltage
test at 0.1A
Forward voltage
test at 1.0A
Reverse leakage
current at –10V
bias
Breakdown
voltage
Reading
0.6534 V
0.7268 V
Test
Time If Passes Test
300 µs Go to Test B
If A Test Fails
Figure 10. Series 2600A back panel
300 µs Go to Test C
10.122 nA
5 ms
Go to Test D
146.12 V
1 ms
1.Bin part to good bin.
2.Transmit readings to
computer while handler
is placing new part.
3.Return to Test A.
1.Bin part to bad bin.
2.Transmit data to
computer while
handler is placing new
part.
3.Return to Test A.
Figure 9. Typical high speed I-V functional test
• Multi-channel
Source-Measure
capabilities
• Advanced calculations and
flow control
• Pass/Fail test
• Prober/Handler control
• Datalogging/Formatting
SMU
Guard
+
–
2600A
Test Script
Guard Sense
I meter
V or I
Source
350µs
Contact
Check
(optional)
V meter
Sense HI
In/Out LO
Figure 11. Series 2600A test script
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In/Out HI
Sense LO
DUT
Figure 12. Series 2400 contact check
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
Pass
Fail
DUT
Pass
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Test A
Pass/Fail Test
Check Vf(A) at 100mA
against pass/fail limits
Check Vf(B) at 1A
against pass/fail limits
Check leakage current,
Ir(C), at–10V and test
against pass/fail limits
Check Vbr(D)
Technical information:Side
Source
Textand measure products
Test A
V meter
C O N F I D E N C E
189
Selector Guide
MODEL
Page
Selector guide: Source
Side and
Text measure products
Description
Current Source/Sink
Voltage Source/Sink
POWER OUTPUT
CURRENT Capability
Min.
Max
VOLTAGE Capability
Min.
Max.
Ohms Range
Basic ACCURACY
I
V
W
Applications
2420
2420-C
2425
2425-C
2430
2430-C
2440
2440-C
208
208
208
208
208
208
High voltage
3A
High power
Pulse
5A
•
•
22 W
•
•
22 W
•
•
66 W
•
•
110W
•
•
1100 W*
•
•
55 W
±10 pA
±10 pA
±100 pA
±100 pA
±100 pA
±100 pA
±1.05 A
±1.05 A
±3.15 A
±3.15 A
±10.5 A*
±5.25 A
±1 µV
±21/±210 V
<0.2 W to >200 MW
±1 µV
±1100 V
<0.2 W to >200 MW
±1 µV
±63 V
<0.2 W to >200 MW
±1 µV
±105 V
<0.2 W to >200 MW
±1 µV
±105 V
<0.2 W to >200 MW
±1 µV
±42 V
<2.0 W to >200 MW
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.07 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
•Voltage coefficient
•Varistors
•High voltage diodes and
protection devices
•Airbag inflators
•Power resistors
•Thermistors
•Solar cells
•Batteries
•Diodes
•IDDQ testing
•Power semiconductors •High power pulse
testing
•DC/DC converters
•High power components •Varistors and other
circuit protection
•IDDQ testing
devices
•5A pump laser diodes
FEATURE Summary
Pulse Mode
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Linear/Log/Custom Sweeps
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Embedded Execution
Embedded Scripting
Contact Check
Selectable Front/Rear Inputs
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
Optional
Yes
Connections
Banana
Banana
Banana
Banana
Banana
Banana
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
SCPI
SCPI
SCPI
SCPI
SCPI
SCPI
Programming
IEEE-488, RS-232
Memory/Buffer
5000 point, 2500 point reading buffer
Trigger
Trigger Link with 6 In/Out
Guard
Ohms (high current) and cable
1 In/4 Out with built-in component handler interfaces.
Digital I/O
5½-digit measure capability. Handler interface. 500µs pass/fail test. Optional contact check capability.
Other
Compliance
* In pulse mode.
CE, UL
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2410
2410-C
General purpose
•Resistive devices
•Diodes
•Optoelectronic
components
•IDDQ testing
Limit Inspection
Selectable Output-Off
Impedance State
Remote or 4W Voltage Sense
Source Readback
Command Language
Protocol
SOURCE AND MEASURE
2400
2400-C
2400-LV
Source and Measure Products
CE
CE
A
G R E A T E R
CE
M E A S U R E
CE
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
CE
Selector Guide
Source and Measure Products
2635A
2636A
192
Scalable, high
throughput
•
•
40.4 W/channel
192
High voltage and
pulsed output
•
•
30.3 W/channel
192
Low current and
pulsed output
Ultra-low current
30.3 W/channel
±1 pA
±3.03 A DC and
pulsed/10 A pulsed
per channel
±1 pA
±1.5 A DC and
pulsed/10 A pulsed
per channel
±1 µV
±40.4 V/channel
0.02%
0.015%
6430
4200-SCS
216
•
•
2W
220, 293
Multi-channel I-V
characterization
•
•
Up to 96.8 W
±1 fA
±1.5 A DC and
pulsed/10 A pulsed
per channel
±10 aA**
±10 aA w/preamp**
±100 fA
±105 mA
±1 A w/4210-SMU
±100 mA
±1 µV
±202 V
±1 µV
±202 V
±1 µV
±210 V
<2.0 W to >20 TW
±1 µV
±210 V
±100 µV
±1100 V
0.02%
0.015%
0.02%
0.015%
0.035%
0.015%
0.06 %
0.05 %***
0.012%***
0.05%
0.03%
•Semiconductor laser diode
DC/CW characterization
•DC/CW characterization of
transceiver modules
•PIN and APD characterization
•Carbon nanotube
characterization
•Materials research
• Nanoelectronics
•Semiconductor laser diode
DC/CW characterization
•DC/CW characterization of
transceiver modules
•PIN and APD characterization
•Carbon nanotube
characterization
•Materials research
• Nanoelectronics
Yes
Yes (linear/log/pulse,
fixed, stair, custom)
No
No
No
Rear only
•I-V functional test and characterization
•Wafer level reliability test
•Testing integrated devices such as RFICs, ASICs, SOCs
•Testing opto devices such as LEDs, VCSELs, and displays
• Testing nano-devices and materials
• Particle beam
experiments
• SET (single electron
transistor) testing
• Ultra-high resistance
testing (up to 1015W)
• Nano materials testing
• Experimental
nanostructures
237
221
Low current, 1100 V
•
•
11 W
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Rear only
Yes
No
No
Rear and Preamp
Screw terminal, adapters for banana and triax
Triax
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Rear
Lemo triax, standard triax
in Preamp
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
ICL
3-lug triax
No
SCPI
SCPI in PXCI
DDC
Ethernet/LXI, IEEE-488, RS-232 communication with
embedded Test Script Processor (TSP) capability
IEEE-488, RS-232
Embedded GUI
IEEE-488
>100,000 rdgs/buffer
5000 point, 2500 point
reading buffer
Trigger Link with 6 In/Out
Ohms (high current) and
cable
1 In/4 Out with built-in
component handler
interfaces
5½-digit measure capability.
Handler interface. 500µs
pass/fail test.
CE
4096 sample memory per card
1000 pt.
Internal only
In/Out
Cable
Cable
N/A
No
14 digital I/O-trigger lines, 3 TSP-Link trigger lines
Cable
14 digital I/O-trigger lines
Scalable to 64+ channels with TSP-Link®
CE, UL
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Optimized for front panel
operation
CE
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
Selector guide: Source
Side and
Text measure products
2611A
2612A
CE
O F
SOURCE AND MEASURE
2601A
2602A
C O N F I D E N C E
191
Series 2600A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Scalable, integrated source
Side Text
and measure solutions
• Combines a power supply,
•
•
•
•
•
•
true current source, DMM,
arbitrary waveform generator,
V or I pulse generator with
measurement, electronic load,
and trigger controller – all in
one instrument
Family of products offers wide
dynamic range: 1fA to 10A and
1μV to 200V
20,000 rdg/s provides faster
test times and ability to capture
transient device behavior
Precision timing and channel
synchronization (<500ns)
USB port for saving data and
test scripts
LXI Class C compliance supports
high speed data transfer and
enables quick and easy remote
testing, monitoring, and
troubleshooting
Software:
– TSP® Express for quick and
easy I-V test (embedded)
– ACS Basic Edition for
semiconductor component
characterization (optional)
CONNECT DUT
Series 2600A System SourceMeter instruments are Keithley’s latest I-V source-measure instruments for
use as either bench-top I-V characterization tools or as building block components of multi-channel
I-V test systems. For bench-top use, Series 2600A instruments feature an embedded TSP Express
Software Tool that allows users to quickly and easily perform common I-V tests without programming or installing software. For system level applications, Series 2600A’s Test Script Processor (TSP)
architecture along with other new capabilities such as parallel test execution and precision timing
provides the highest throughput in the industry, lowering the cost of test. To simplify the testing,
verification, and analysis of semiconductor components, the optional ACS Basic Edition software
is also available.
Series 2600A System SourceMeter instruments replace the popular Series 2600 System SourceMeter
instruments with a superset of features. 2600A instruments readily execute all 2600 commands.
CONFIGURE Test
COLLECT Data
HI
SMU A
Step VG
Measure IG
SMU B
Sweep VD
Measure ID
LO
SOURCE AND MEASURE
LO
Performing nested sweeps to characterize a transistor with TSP Express is quick and easy. Data can be exported to a .csv file for use with
spreadsheet applications such as Excel.
Quick and Easy Lab and
Bench-Top Use
Each Series 2600A SourceMeter instrument
is a complete I-V measurement solution with
unmatched ease of use, capability, and flexibility.
They simplify the process of making high-performance measurements.
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The TSP Express Software Tool quickly sets up
and runs basic and advanced tests, including:
nested step/sweeps, pulse sweeps, and custom
sweeps for device characterization applications.
The resulting data can be viewed in graphical or
tabular format and exported to a .csv file for use
with spreadsheet applications.
A
G R E A T E R
TSP Express runs on a PC connected to the
SourceMeter instrument via an Ethernet cable
(provided with the instrument). The intuitive
user interface resides on the built-in LXI web
page, so no software installation is needed.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
System SourceMeter Instruments
Simplify Semiconductor Component
Test, Verification, and Analysis
The optional ACS Basic Edition software maximizes the
productivity of customers who perform packaged part characterization during development, quality verification, or failure
analysis, with:
• Rich set of easy-to-access test libraries
• Script editor for fast customization of existing tests
• Data tool for comparing results quickly
• Formulator tool that analyzes captured curves and provides
a wide range of math functions
For more information about the ACS Basic Edition software,
please refer to the ACS Basic Edition data sheet.
Unmatched Throughput and Flexibility
for High Performance I-V Test Systems
When you need to acquire data on a packaged part quickly, the wizard-based user
TSP technology provides remarkable capabilities when a Series interface of ACS Basic Edition makes it easy to find and run the test you want, like
this common FET curve trace test.
2600A is integrated as part of a multi-channel I-V test system.
For example, the embedded scripting capability allows test
PC instead of the instrument itself. Testing multiscripts to be run by the instrument. Test scripts are complete test programs based on an easy to use
ple devices at the same time means dramatically
but highly efficient and compact scripting language called Lua <www.lua.org>. Since test scripts
improved test throughput and reduced overall
can contain any sequence of routines that are executable by conventional programming languages
cost of test.
(including decision making algorithms), this feature allows entire tests to be managed by the instrument without sending readings back to a PC for decision making. This eliminates the delays caused
When all or some of your test requirements
by GPIB traffic congestion and greatly improves overall test times.
change, your Series 2600A system can be reconfigured via software without rewiring. The interAlso, TSP technology offers “mainframe-less channel expansion.” The TSP-Link channel expansion
bus (which uses a 100 Base T Ethernet cable) allows multiple Series 2600A and other TSP instruments nal software can match the different pin layouts
of the devices-under-test to the appropriate SMUto be connected in a master-slave configuration and behave as one integrated system. TSP-Link supper-pin configurations.
ports up to 32 units or 64 SMU channels per GPIB or IP address, making it easy to scale a system to
fit the particular requirements of an application.
Tight Timing and Synchronization
Parallel Test Capability
Today’s test engineers are challenged with
testing increasingly more complex and more
The Series 2600A takes system level performance to a new height with parallel testing capability. This
feature tests multiple devices in parallel to meet the high throughput requirements of production test sensitive devices that require precise timing
and ­synchronization. Whether you need to
and advanced semiconductor lab applications.
synchronize electrical and optical tests for an
This parallel testing capability enables each instrument in the system to run its own complete test
sequence, creating a fully multi-threaded test environment. Hence, the number of tests that can be
<500ns
running in parallel on a Series 2600A system can be as many as the number of instruments in the
­system. In contrast, most conventional test systems run a single thread test, usually on the ­controller
Test 1
running
Test 2
running
Test 3
running
SMU1
SMU2
SMU3
GPIB or Ethernet
TSP-Link
To
Device 1
To
Device 2
All channels in the system are synchronized
to under 500ns.
Parallel testing with the Series 2600A
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To
Device 3
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Scalable, integrated source
Side Text
and measure solutions
®
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Series 2600A
C O N F I D E N C E
193
Series 2600A
Ordering Information
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Scalable, integrated source
Side Text
and measure solutions
2601A
2602A
2611A
2612A
2635A
2636A
Single-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(3A DC, 10A Pulse)
Dual-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(3A DC, 10A Pulse)
Single-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(200V, 10A Pulse)
Dual-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(200V, 10A Pulse)
Single-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(1fA, 10A Pulse)
Dual-channel System
SourceMeter Instrument
(1fA, 10A Pulse)
Accessories Supplied
2600-ALG-2
Low Noise Triax Cable
with Alligator Clips,
2m (6.6 ft.) (two
supplied with 2636A,
one with 2635A)
2600-IAC
Safety Interlock Adapter
Connector (one supplied
with 2611A/2612A
and 2635A/2636A)
2600-Kit Mating Screw
Terminal Connectors
with strain relief
and covers (2601A/
2602A/2611A/2612A)
CA-180-3A
TSP-Link/Ethernet
Cable (two per unit)
TSP Express Software Tool
(embedded)
Test Script Builder Software
(supplied on CD)
ACS Basic Edition Software
(optional)
®
optoelectronic component or ensure that the same stress times are applied to the different pins of an
advanced semiconductor device, providing precision timing and synchronization between SMU channels (and external instruments) has become a critical requirement.
A high performance trigger model that is hardware driven allows timing at each source-measure step
to be tightly controlled. It also synchronizes the operations between SMU channels and/or external
instrumentation at hardware speeds of <500ns.
Third-generation SMU Design
Ensures Faster Test Times
Based on the proven architecture of earlier Series 2600 instruments,
the Series 2600A’s new SMU design enhances test speed in several
ways. For example, while earlier designs used a parallel current ranging topology, the Series 2600A uses a patented series ranging topology, which provides faster and smoother range changes and outputs
that settle more quickly.
The Series 2600A SMU design supports two modes of operation for
use with a variety of loads. In normal mode, the SMU provides high
bandwidth performance for maximum throughput. In high capacitance (high-C) mode, the SMU uses a slower bandwidth to provide
robust performance with higher capacitive loads.
Each Series 2600A SMU channel offers a highly flexible, four-quadrant source coupled with precision voltage and current meters. Each
channel can be configured as a:
• Precision power supply
• True current source
• DMM (DCV, DCI, ohms, and power with 5½-digit resolution)
• Electronic load (with sink mode capability)
• V or I pulse generator (Pulse width: 100μs and longer)
• V or I waveform generator
Current arbitrary waveforms
maximum output update
rates: 12,500 samples/
second.
Voltage arbitrary waveforms
maximum output update
rates: 20,000 samples/
second.
All analog-to-digital (A/D) converters in Series 2600A instruments are both high speed and high
precision for maximum flexibility. The two A/D converters per channel (one for I, one for V) can run
simultaneously, providing precise source-readback without sacrificing test throughput. These A/D
converters offer the versatility of programmable integration rates, allowing you to optimize for either
high speed (>20,000 rdgs/s at 0.001 NPLC setting) or for high resolution (up to 24 bits at 10 NPLC setting) measurements.
Digital I/O Interface
A back panel port on every Series 2600A instrument provides 14 bits of universal digital I/O to link
the instrument to a variety of popular component handlers and/or probe stations. These digital I/O
lines are compatible with the triggering technology of Keithley’s earlier Trigger-Link instruments.
These lines simplify integrating Series 2600A instruments into systems that employ other electrical,
mechanical, optical, or RF equipment.
TSP-Link Trigger Lines
The TSP-Link bus supports dedicated trigger lines that provide synchronous operations between multiple Series 2600A instruments (and other TSP instruments, such as Series 3700 DMM/Switch Systems)
without the need for additional trigger connections.
Built-in Contact Check Function
The Contact Check function makes it simple to verify good device-under-test connections quickly and
easily before an automated test sequence begins. This eliminates the measurement errors and false
product failures associated with contact fatigue, breakage, contamination, loose or broken connections, relay failures, etc.
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System SourceMeter Instruments
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®
Powerful Software Tools
In addition to the embedded TSP Express and optional ACS Basic
Edition software, the free Test Script Builder software tool is provided
to help users create, modify, debug, and store TSP test scripts. Table 1
describes key features of Series 2600A software tools.
Complete Automated System Solutions
While the ACS Basic Edition software only supports component characterization tests, wafer and cassette level testing can be performed
by Keithley’s ACS Integrated Test Systems. ACS systems are highly
configurable, instrument-based systems that generally include a
number of Series 2600A instruments. These systems are designed for
semiconductor device characterization, reliability/WLR, parametric,
and component functional testing.
Example ACS Integrated
Test System
Scalable, integrated source
Side Text
and measure solutions
Typical Applications
I-V functional test and
characterization of a
wide range of devices,
including:
• Discrete and passive
components
–Two-leaded –
Sensors, disk drive
heads, metal oxide
varistors (MOVs),
diodes, zener diodes,
sensors, capacitors,
thermistors
–Three-leaded –
Small signal bipolar
junction transistors
(BJTs), field-effect
transistors (FETs),
and more
• Simple ICs – Optos,
drivers, switches,
sensors
• Integrated devices –
small scale integrated
(SSI) and large scale
integrated (LSI)
–Analog ICs
–Radio frequency
integrated circuits
(RFICs)
–Application specific
integrated circuits (ASICs)
–System on a chip (SOC) devices
• Optoelectronic devices such as lightemitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes,
high brightness LEDs (HBLEDs), vertical
cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs),
displays
• Wafer level reliability
–NBTI, TDDB, HCI, electromigration
• Solar Cells
• Batteries
System SourceMeter Instruments
The flexible software architecture of ACS Basic Edition allows
configuring systems with a wide range of controllers and test
fixtures, as well as the exact number of SourceMeter instruments
the application requires.
Table 1. Series 2600A software tools
Feature/
Functionality
Description
Supported
hardware
Supported
buses
ACS Basic Edition
Semiconductor characterization
software for component test,
verification, and analysis
TSP Express
Test Script
Builder (TSB)
Quick Start Tool for fast and easy
Custom script
I-V testing, primarily for bench writing tool for TSP
and lab users
instruments
24xx, 26xx, 26xxA, 4200-SCS, 237
26xxA
26xx, 26xxA, 37xx
GPIB, Ethernet
Ethernet only
GPIB, RS-232,
Ethernet
Functionality
Intuitive, wizard-based GUI,
Rich set of test libraries
Data
management
Formulator tool with wide range
of math functions
Installation
Optional purchase
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
Linear/Log Sweeps, Pulsing,
Custom sweeps, Single point
source-measures. Note: Uses
new 2600A’s new API’s for
precision timing and channel
synchronization
.csv export, basic curve
tracing (no math formula or
analysis support)
Not necessary.
Embedded in the instrument.
O F
Custom scripts with
total flexibility
N/A
Free Download or
CD Install on PC.
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Series 2600A
C O N F I D E N C E
195
Series 2600A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
In the first and third quadrants, Series 2600A instruments operate as a
source, delivering power to a load. In the second and fourth quadrants,
they operate as a sink, dissipating power internally.
Cables and Connectors
2600-BAN
Banana Test Leads/Adapter Cable. For a single
2601A/2602A/2611A/2612A SMU channel
2600-KIT
Extra screw terminal connector, strain relief, and cover for a single SourceMeter
channel (one supplied with 2601A/2611A, two with 2602A/2612A)
2600-TRIAX
Triax Adapter. For a single 2601A/2602A/2611A/2612A SMU channel
7078-TRX-*
3-Slot, Low Noise Triax Cable. For use with 2600-TRIAX Adapter
7078-TRX-GND 3-Slot male triax to BNC adapter (guard removed)
8606
High Performance Modular Probe Kit. For use with 2600A-BAN
SC-200
Shielded Twisted Pair Cable. Recommended for general-purpose
use with Series 2600A System SourceMeter instruments
2600-IAC
Safety Interlock Adapter Connector (one supplied with 2611A/2612A/2635A/2636A)
+10A
Scalable, integrated source
Side Text
and measure solutions
+5A
+3A
+1.5A
+1A
DC
0A
Pulse
–1A
–1.5A
Digital I/O,
2600-TLINK
CA-126-1
CA-180-3A
–3A
–5A
GPIB Interfaces and Cables
7007-1
Double Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft.)
7007-2
Double Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft.)
KPCI-488LPA
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KPXI-488
IEEE-488 Interface Board for the PXI Bus
KUSB-488A
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
–10A
–40V
–35V
–20V
–6V 0V +6V
+20V
+35V
+40V
Models 2601A and 2602A I-V capability
Switching
Series 3700
707A
7001
7002-HD
+10A
+1.5A
+1A
+0.1A
0A
–0.1A
Pulse
Software
ACS-BASIC
–5V
0V
+5V
+20V
+180V +200V
Models 2611A and 2612A I-V capability
Calibration and Verification
2600-STD-RES Calibration Standard 1GW Resistor for Models 2635A and 2636A
+10A
Model 2602A/2612A
rear panel
(Single channels
2601A, 2611A, 2635A
not shown)
SOURCE AND MEASURE
+1.5A
+1A
+0.1A
0A
–0.1A
DC
Pulse
–1A
–1.5A
–10A
–200V –180V
–20V
–5V
0V
+5V
+20V
+180V +200V
Model 2636A rear panel
Models 2635A and 2636A I-V capability
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Component Characterization Software
Extended Warranties
2601A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2601A
2602A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2602A
2611A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2611A
2612A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2612A
2635A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2635A
2636A-EW
1 Year Extended Warranty for Model 2636A
–10A
–20V
DMM/Switch Systems
Semiconductor Switching Matrix Mainframe
Switch Control Mainframe
High Density Switch Mainframe
Rack Mount Kits
4299-1
Single Rack Mount Kit with front and rear support
4299-2
Dual Rack Mount Kit with front and rear support
4299-5
1U Vent Panel
DC
–1A
–1.5A
–200V –180V
Trigger Link, and TSP-Link
Digital I/O to TLINK Adapter Cable, 1m
Digital I/O and Trigger Cable, 1.5m
CAT5 Crossover Cable for TSP-Link and direct Ethernet connection (two supplied)
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
SPECIFICATION CONDITIONS
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: <70µs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90%
step change in load.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range.
100mV, 1V Ranges: <50µs typical.
6V Range: <100µs typical.
40V Range 10: <150µs typical.
CURRENT SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. Values below for Iout × R load = 1V
unless noted.
3A Range: <80µs typical (current less than 2.5A, R load >2W).
1A–10mA Ranges: <80µs typical (R load >6W).
1mA Range: <100µs typical.
100µA Range: <150µs typical.
10µA Range: <500µs typical.
1µA Range: <2.5ms typical.
100nA Range: <25ms typical.
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC from chassis ground.
REMOTE SENSE OPERATING RANGE 11:
Maximum voltage between HI and SENSE HI = 3V .
Maximum voltage between LO and SENSE LO = 3V .
VOLTAGE OUTPUT HEADROOM:
40V Range: Max. output voltage = 42V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum 1W
per source lead).
6V Range: Max. output voltage = 8V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum 1W per
source lead).
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
VOLTAGE SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <300mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into an 100kW load, 20MHz BW.
CURRENT SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <5% of larger range + 300mV/R load (typical
with source settling set to SETTLE_SMOOTH_100NA). See Current Source Output Settling Time
for additional test conditions.
This document contains specifications and supplemental information for the Models 2601A and
2602A System SourceMeter® instruments. Specifications are the standards against which the
Models 2601A and 2602A are tested. Upon leaving the factory, the 2601A and 2602A meet these
specifications. Supplemental and typical values are non-­warranted, apply at 23°C, and are provided
solely as useful information.
Accuracy specifications are applicable for both normal and high capacitance modes.
The source and measurement accuracies are specified at the SourceMeter CHANNEL A (2601A
and 2602A) or SourceMeter CHANNEL B (2602A) terminals under the following conditions:
1. 23°C ± 5°C, <70% relative humidity
2. After 2 hour warm-up
3. Speed normal (1 NPLC)
4. A/D auto-zero enabled
5. Remote sense operation or properly zeroed local operation
6. Calibration period = 1 year
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
Voltage Source Specifications
VOLTAGE PROGRAMMING ACCURACY1
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + volts)
100.000mV
   5 µV
0.02% + 250 µV
1.00000 V
  50 µV
0.02% +400 µV
6.00000 V
  50 µV
0.02% + 1.8 mV
40.0000 V
500 µV
0.02% + 12 mV
Typical Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
  20 µV
  50 µV
100 µV
500 µV
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 2: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 3: 40.4W per channel maximum.
±40.4V @ ±1.0A, ±6.06V @ ±3.0A, four quadrant source or sink operation.
VOLTAGE REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100µV).
NOISE 10Hz–20MHz: <20mV peak-peak (typical), <3mV RMS (typical), 6V range.
CURRENT LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 4: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value.
Minimum value is 10nA. Accuracy same as current source.
OVERSHOOT: <±(0.1% + 10mV) typical. Step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load,
maximum ­current limit/compliance.
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <4mV typical. Current <10mA.
NOTES
1. Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
2. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
3. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating
information.
4. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.06% of limit range to the corresponding current limit
accuracy specifications. Specifications apply with sink mode operation enabled.
5. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating
information.
6. 10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
7. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
8. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating
information.
9. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 10% of compliance range and ±0.02% of limit setting to
corresponding voltage source specification. For 100mV range add an additional 60mV of uncertainty.
10.Add 150μs when measuring on the 1A range.
11.Add 50μV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
Current Source Specifications
Typical Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
5 pA
25 pA
60 pA
3 nA
6 nA
200 nA
600 nA
70 µA
150 µA
SOURCE AND MEASURE
CURRENT PROGRAMMING ACCURACY
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + amps)
100.000 nA
1 pA
0.06% + 100 pA
1.00000 µA
10 pA
0.03% + 800 pA
10.0000 µA
100 pA
0.03% + 5 nA
100.000 µA
1 nA
0.03% + 60 nA
1.00000mA
10 nA
0.03% + 300 nA
10.0000mA
100 nA
0.03% + 6 µA
100.000mA
1 µA
0.03% + 30 µA
1.00000 A 5
10 µA
0.05% + 1.8mA
10 µA
0.06% + 4mA
3.00000 A 5
100 µA
0.5  % + 40mA (typical)
10.0000 A 5, 6
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 7: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 8: 40.4W per channel maximum.
±1.01A @ ±40.0V , ±3.03A @ ±6.0V , four quadrant source or sink operation.
CURRENT REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100pA).
VOLTAGE LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 9: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with a single value.
Minimum value is 10mV. Accuracy is the same as voltage source.
OVERSHOOT: <±0.1% typical (step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load; see Current Source
Output Settling Time for additional test conditions).
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Series 2600A
Side specifications
Text
2601A
2602A
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
197
2601A
2602A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
METER SPECIFICATIONS
VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 16, 17
PULSE SPECIFICATIONS
Series 2600A
Side specifications
Text
Region
1
1
2
3
4
Maximum
Current Limit
1 A @40 V
3 A @ 6 V
1.5 A @40 V
5 A @35 V
10 A @20 V
Maximum
Pulse Width 12
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
100 ms
4 ms
1.8 ms
Maximum
Duty Cycle 13
100%
100%
25%
4%
1%
Range
100.000 mV
1.00000 V
6.00000 V
40.0000 V
CURRENT MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 17
Range
4
3
3
+1.5A
+1A
2
2
0A
1
DC
Pulse
–1A
–1.5A
Pulse
2
2
3
–5A
4
–10A
–40V
–35V
–20V
–6V 0V +6V
+35V
+20V
Pulse Level
90%
Start toff
10%
t
SOURCE AND MEASURE
on
off
13.Thermally limited in sink mode (quadrants II and IV) and ambient temperatures above 30°C. See power equations in the reference manual for more information.
14.Typical performance for minimum settled pulse widths:
Source Settling
Source Value
Load
(% of range)
Min. Pulse Width
6V
20 V
35 V
40 V
1.5 A
3A
5A
10 A
2W
2W
7W
27 W
27 W
2W
7W
2W
150 µs
200 µs
500 µs
400 µs
1.5ms
150 µs
500 µs
200 µs
Bias Level
toff
1 (1.2) ms
5% + 10 W
4 (5) ms
36 (42) ms
5% + 1 W
5% + 0.3 W
1A–3A
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
1.1  %
18.Applies when in single channel display mode.
19.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable for 23°C ±5°C only.
20.Applies when in single channel display mode.
21.Four-wire remote sense only with current meter mode selected. Voltage measure set to 100mV or 1V range only.
22.10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
23.Compliance equal to 100mA.
24.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable for 23°C ±5°C only.
25.Includes measurement of SENSE HI to HI and SENSE LO to LO contact resistances.
10%
ton
MEDIUM
SLOW
16.Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
17. De-rate accuracy specifications for NPLC setting < 1 by increasing error term.
Add appropriate % of range term using table below.
100mV
1V–40V
100nA
1μA–100mA
NPLC Setting
Range
Ranges
Range
Ranges
0.1
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.01
0.08%
0.07%
0.1%
0.05%
0.001
0.8  %
0.6  %
1%
0.5  %
Start toff
10%
FAST
NOTES
90%
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198
0.2%
1%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.5%
0.5%
Pulse Level
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(%rdg. + ohms)
Maximum LOAD IMPEDANCE:
Normal Mode: 10nF (typical). High Capacitance Mode: 50µF (typical).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 250VDC.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: >1GW, <4500pF.
OVERRANGE: 101% of source range, 102% of measure range.
MAXIMUM SENSE LEAD RESISTANCE: 1kW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >10GW.
Typical tests were performed using remote operation, 4W sense, and best, fixed measurement range. For more
information on pulse scripts, see the Series 2600A Reference Manual.
15.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Start ton
0.05% + 100 pA
0.025% + 500 pA
0.025% + 1.5 nA
0.02% + 25 nA
0.02% + 200 nA
0.02% + 2.5 µA
0.02% + 20 µA
0.03% + 1.5 mA
0.05% + 3.5 mA
0.4% +
25 mA (typical)
ADDITIONAL METER SPECIFICATIONS
10%
t
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
Maximum Measurement
Time To Memory
For 60Hz (50Hz)
Speed
12.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Bias Level
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 µA
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
Contact Check 25
+40V
NOTES
Start ton
Voltage
Burden 21
Current Measure Settling Time (Time for measurement to settle after a Vstep) 23: Time
required to reach within 0.1% of final value after source level command is processed on a fixed
range. Values for Vout = 1V unless noted. Current Range: 1mA. Settling Time: <100μs (typical).
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 24: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
Pulse
3
–3A
Display
Resolution 20
100.000 nA
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A
3.00000 A
10.0000 A 22
+10A
+3A
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.015% +150 µV
0.015% +200 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 8 mV
Input
Resistance
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 19: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MINIMUM PROGRAMMABLE PULSE WIDTH 14, 15: 100µs. NOTE: Minimum pulse width for settled
source at a given I/V output and load can be longer than 100µs.
Pulse width programming resolution: 1µs.
Pulse width programming accuracy 15: ±5µs.
pulse width jitter: 2µs (typical).
Quadrant Diagram:
+5A
Display
Resolution 18
   1 µV
  10 µV
  10 µV
100 µV
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
2601A
2602A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Voltage Source Output Settling Time: Time required to reach 0.1% of final value after
source level command is processed on a fixed range. Current limit = 1A.
Voltage Source Range
Settling Time with Cload = 4.7μF
100mV
200 μs (typical)
1 V
200 μs (typical)
6 V
200 μs (typical)
40 V 7 ms (typical)
Current Measure Settling Time: Time required to reach 0.1% of final value after voltage
source is stabilized on a fixed range. Values below for Vout = 1V unless noted.
Current Measure Range
Settling Time
3 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load > 2W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<100 μs (typical)
1 mA
< 3 ms (typical)
100μA
< 3 ms (typical)
10μA
< 230 ms (typical)
1μA
< 230 ms (typical)
Capacitor Leakage Performance Using HIGH-C scripts 29: Load = 5μF||10MW.
Test: 5V step and measure. 200ms (typical) @ 50nA.
Mode Change Delay:
100μA Current Range and Above:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
1μA and 10μA Current Ranges:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 230ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Voltmeter Input Impedance: 10GW in parallel with 3300pF.
Noise, 10Hz–20MHz (6V Range): <30mV peak-peak (typical).
Voltage Source Range Change Overshoot: <400mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into a 100kW load, 20MHz BW.
NOTES
26.High Capacitance Mode specifications are for DC measurements only.
27.100nA range is not available in High Capacitance Mode.
28.High Capacitance Mode utilizes locked ranges. Auto Range is disabled.
29.Part of KI Factory scripts. See reference manual for details.
GENERAL
IEEE-488: IEEE-488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE-488.2 common commands and status model
topology.
RS-232: Baud rates from 300bps to 115200bps. Programmable number of data bits, ­parity
type, and flow control (RTS/CTS hardware or none). When not programmed as the active
host interface, the SourceMeter instrument can use the RS-232 interface to control other
­instrumentation.
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, LXI Class C, 10/100BT, no auto MDIX.
EXPANSION INTERFACE: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP enabled instruments to
trigger and communicate with each other.
Cable Type: Category 5e or higher LAN crossover cable.
Length: 3 meters maximum between each TSP enabled instrument.
LXI Compliance: LXI Class C 1.2.
LXI Timing: Total Output Trigger Response Time: 245μs min., 280μs typ., (not specified) max. Receive LAN[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown. Generate LAN[0-7] Event Delay:
Unknown.
DIGITAL I/O INTERFACE:
5.1kΩ
Digital I/O Pin
INTERLOCK Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
100Ω
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Chassis
Ground
*
To output stage
Rear Panel
USB: USB 1.0 Host Controller (Memory Stick I/O).
POWER SUPPLY: 100V to 250VAC, 50–60Hz (auto sensing), 240VA max.
COOLING: Forced air. Side intake and rear exhaust. One side must be unobstructed when rack
mounted.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EEC, EN 61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN 61010-1, and UL 61010-1.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 460mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 17½ in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 460mm deep (41⁄8 in ×
93⁄8 in × 17½ in).
WEIGHT: 2601A: 4.75kg (10.4 lbs). 2602A: 5.50kg (12.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: For indoor use only.
Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level.
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
Read by
firmware
Written by
firmware
GND Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Rear Panel
Connector: 25-pin female D.
Input/Output Pins: 14 open drain I/O bits.
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 5.25V.
Absolute Minimum Input Voltage: –0.25V.
Maximum Logic Low Input Voltage: 0.7V, +850µA max.
See pages 206 and 207 for measurement speeds and other specifications.
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Read by firmware
+220V Supply
–220V Supply
10kΩ
+5VDC
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Coil
Resistance
145Ω ±10%
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SOURCE AND MEASURE
+5V Pin
600mA
Solid State
Fuse
Minimum Logic High Input Voltage: 2.1V, +570µA.
Maximum Source Current (flowing out of Digital I/O bit): +960µA.
Maximum Sink Current @ Maximum Logic Low Voltage (0.7V): –5.0mA.
Absolute Maximum Sink Current (flowing into Digital I/O pin): –11mA.
5V Power Supply Pin: Limited to 600mA, solid state fuse protected.
Safety Interlock Pin: Active high input. >3.4V @ 24mA (absolute maximum of 6V) must be
externally applied to this pin to ensure 200V operation. This signal is pulled down to chassis ground with a 10kW resistor. 200V operation will be blocked when the INTERLOCK
signal is <0.4V (absolute minimum –0.4V). See figure below:
Series
Model
2600A
Side
specifications
specifications
Text
HIGH CAPACITANCE MODE 26, 27, 28
C O N F I D E N C E
199
2611A
2612A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Series 2600A
Side specifications
Text
SPECIFICATION CONDITIONS
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: <70µs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90%
step change in load.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to within reach 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range.
Range
Settling Time
200mV
<50 μs (typical)
2 V
<50 μs (typical)
20 V
<110 μs (typical)
200 V <700 μs (typical)
CURRENT SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value after
source level command is processed on a fixed range. Values below for Iout · R load = 2V unless noted.
Current Range
Settling Time
1.5 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load > 6W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<80 μs (typical)
1 mA
<100 μs (typical)
100μA
<150 μs (typical)
10μA
<500 μs (typical)
1μA
<2 ms (typical)
100 nA
<20 ms (typical)
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC from chassis ground.
REMOTE SENSE OPERATING RANGE 11: Maximum voltage between HI and SENSE HI = 3V .
Maximum voltage between LO and SENSE LO = 3V .
VOLTAGE OUTPUT HEADROOM:
200V Range: Max. output voltage = 202.3V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum
1W per source lead).
20V Range: Max. output voltage = 23.3V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum
1W per source lead).
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
VOLTAGE SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <300mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into a 200kW load, 20MHz BW.
CURRENT SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <5% of larger range + 300mV/R load (typical
– With source settling set to SETTLE_SMOOTH_100NA). See Current Source Output Settling
Time for additional test conditions.
This document contains specifications and supplemental information for the Models 2611A and
2612A System SourceMeter® instruments. Specifications are the standards against which the
Models 2611A and 2612A are tested. Upon leaving the factory the 2611A and 2612A meet these
specifications. Supplemental and typical values are non-­warranted, apply at 23°C, and are provided
solely as useful information.
Accuracy specifications are applicable for both normal and high capacitance modes.
The source and measurement accuracies are specified at the SourceMeter CHANNEL A (2611A and
2612A) or SourceMeter CHANNEL B (2612A) terminals under the following conditions:
1. 23°C ± 5°C, <70% relative humidity.
2. After 2 hour warm-up.
3. Speed normal (1 NPLC).
4. A/D auto-zero enabled.
5. Remote sense operation or properly zeroed local sense operation.
6. Calibration period = 1 year.
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
Voltage Source Specifications
VOLTAGE PROGRAMMING ACCURACY1
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + volts)
200.000mV
   5 µV
0.02% + 375 µV
2.00000 V
  50 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
20.0000 V
500 µV
0.02% + 5 mV
200.000 V
   5 mV
0.02% + 50 mV
Typical Noise
(Peak-Peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
20 µV
50 µV
300 µV
2 mV
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 2: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 3: 30.3W per channel maximum.
±20.2V @ ±1.5A, ±202V @ ±100mA, four quadrant source or sink operation.
VOLTAGE REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100µV).
NOISE 10Hz–20MHz: <20mV peak-peak (typical), <3mV RMS (typical), 20V range.
CURRENT LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 4: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value.
Minimum value is 10nA. Accuracy is the same as current source.
OVERSHOOT: <±(0.1% + 10mV) (typical). Step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load, maximum ­current limit/compliance.
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <4mV (current <10mA).
NOTES
1. Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
2. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
3. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
4. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.06% of limit range to the corresponding current limit
accuracy specifications. Specifications apply with sink mode operation enabled.
5. Accuracy specifications do not include connector leakage. Derate accuracy by Vout/2E11 per °C when operating
between 18°–28°C. Derate accuracy by Vout/2E11 + (0.15·Vout/2E11) per °C when operating <18°C and >28°C.
6. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
7. 10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
8. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
9. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
10.For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 10% of compliance range and ±0.02% of limit setting to
corresponding voltage source specification. For 200mV range add an additional 120mV of uncertainty.
11.Add 50μV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
Current Source Specifications
SOURCE AND MEASURE
CURRENT PROGRAMMING ACCURACY 5
Range
100.000 nA
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000 A 6
1.50000 A 6
10.0000 A 6, 7
Programming
Resolution
2 pA
20 pA
200 pA
2 nA
20 nA
200 nA
2 µA
20 µA
50 µA
200 µA
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.06% + 100 pA
0.03% +800 pA
0.03% + 5 nA
0.03% + 60 nA
0.03% +300 nA
0.03% + 6 µA
0.03% + 30 µA
0.05% + 1.8mA
0.06% + 4mA
0.5% + 40mA (typical)
PULSE SPECIFICATIONS
Region
1
1
2
3 14
4
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 8: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 9: 30.3W per channel maximum.
±1.515A @ ±20V , ±101mA @ ±200V , four quadrant source or sink operation.
CURRENT REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100pA).
VOLTAGE LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 10: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with a single value.
Minimum value is 20mV. Accuracy is the same as voltage source.
OVERSHOOT: <±0.1% (typical). Step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load; see Current
Source Output Settling Time for additional test conditions.
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200
Typical Noise
(Peak-Peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
5 pA
25 pA
60 pA
3 nA
6 nA
200 nA
600 nA
70 µA
150 µA
Maximum
Current Limit
100mA @200 V
1.5 A @ 20 V
1 A @180 V
1 A @200 V
10 A @ 5 V
Maximum
Pulse Width 12
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
8.5 ms
2.2 ms
1 ms
Maximum
Duty Cycle 13
100%
100%
1%
1%
2.2%
MINIMUM PROGRAMMABLE PULSE WIDTH 15, 16: 100µs. NOTE: Minimum pulse width for settled
source at a given I/V output and load can be longer than 100µs.
Pulse width programming resolution: 1µs.
Pulse width programming accuracy 16: ±5µs.
pulse width jitter: 2µs (typical).
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
2611A
2612A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
METER SPECIFICATIONS
PULSE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 17, 18
Quadrant Diagram:
+10A
Range
200.000mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
200.000 V
4
3
3
2
+0.1A
0A
–0.1A
2
Pulse
2
–1A
–1.5A
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 20: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
DC
1
2
3
Pulse
3
CURRENT MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 18, 21
Pulse
4
Range
100.000 nA
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000 A
1.50000 A
10.0000 A 24
–10A
–200V –180V
–20V
0V
–5V
+5V
+20V
+180V +200V
NOTES
12.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Pulse Level
90%
Start toff
Start ton
Bias Level
10%
toff
13.Thermally limited in sink mode (quadrants II and IV) and ambient temperatures above 30°C.
See power equations in the reference manual for more information.
14.Voltage source operation with 1.5 A current limit.
15.Typical performance for minimum settled pulse widths:
Source Settling
Source Value
Load
(% of range)
Min. Pulse Width
5V
20 V
180 V
200 V (1.5 A Limit)
100 mA
1A
1A
10 A
0.5 W
200 W
180 W
200 W
200 W
200 W
180 W
0.5 W
1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
1%
1%
0.2%
0.5%
300 μs
200 μs
5 ms
1.5 ms
200 μs
500 μs
5 ms
300 μs
Start toff
10%
toff
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1 (1.2) ms
5% + 10 W
MEDIUM
4 (5) ms
5% + 1 W
SLOW
36 (42) ms
5% + 0.3 W
SOURCE AND MEASURE
ton
FAST
Maximum LOAD IMPEDANCE:
Normal Mode: 10nF (typical). High Capacitance Mode: 50µF (typical).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 250VDC.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: >1GW, <4500pF.
OVERRANGE: 101% of source range, 102% of measure range.
MAXIMUM SENSE LEAD RESISTANCE: 1kW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >10GW.
90%
10%
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(%rdg. + ohms)
ADDITIONAL METER SPECIFICATIONS
Pulse Level
Bias Level
Maximum Measurement
Time to Memory
For 60Hz (50Hz)
Speed
16.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.06% + 100 pA
0.025% + 500 pA
0.025% + 1.5 nA
0.02% + 25 nA
0.02% + 200 nA
0.02% + 2.5 µA
0.02% + 20 µA
0.03% + 1.5mA
0.05% + 3.5mA
0.4% +
25mA (typical)
Voltage
Burden 23
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
Contact Check 27
Typical tests were performed using remote operation, 4W sense, and best, fixed measurement range. For more
information on pulse scripts, see the Series 2600A Reference Manual.
Start ton
Display
Resolution 22
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 µA
Current Measure Settling Time (Time for measurement to settle after a Vstep) 25: Time
required to reach 0.1% of final value after source level command is processed on a fixed range.
Values for Vout = 2V unless noted. Current Range: 1mA. Settling Time: <100μs (typical).
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 26: ±(0.15 × accuracy specfication)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
10%
ton
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.015% +225 µV
0.02% + 350 µV
0.015% + 5 mV
0.015% + 50 mV
Input
Resistance
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
>10 GW
Series 2600A
Side specifications
Text
+1.5A
+1A
Display
Resolution 19
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1mV
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
201
2611A
2612A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
METER SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
GENERAL
IEEE-488: IEEE-488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE-488.2 common commands and status model
topology.
RS-232: Baud rates from 300bps to 115200bps. Programmable number of data bits, ­parity
type, and flow control (RTS/CTS hardware or none). When not programmed as the active
host interface, the SourceMeter instrument can use the RS-232 interface to control other
­instrumentation.
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, LXI Class C, 10/100BT, no auto MDIX.
EXPANSION INTERFACE: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP enabled instruments
to trigger and communicate with each other.
Cable Type: Category 5e or higher LAN crossover cable.
Length: 3 meters maximum between each TSP enabled instrument.
LXI Compliance: LXI Class C 1.2.
LXI Timing: Total Output Trigger Response Time: 245μs min., 280μs typ., (not specified) max. Receive LAN[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown. Generate LAN[0-7] Event Delay:
Unknown.
DIGITAL I/O INTERFACE:
NOTES
17. Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
18.De-rate accuracy specifications for NPLC setting <1 by increasing error term. Add appropriate % of range term
using table below.
Series 2600A
Side specifications
Text
NPLC Setting
0.1
0.01
0.001
200mV
Range
0.01%
0.08%
0.8  %
2V–200V
Ranges
0.01%
0.07%
0.6  %
100nA
Range
0.01%
0.1%
1%
1μA–100mA
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
0.5  %
1A–1.5A
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
1.1  %
19.Applies when in single channel display mode.
20.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
21.Accuracy specifications do not include connector leakage. De-rate accuracy by Vout/2E11 per °C when operating
between 18°–28°C. Derate accuracy by Vout/2E11 + (0.15 * Vout/2E11) per °C when operating <18° and >28°C.
22.Applies when in single channel display mode.
23.Four-wire remote sense only and with current meter mode selected. Voltage measure set to 200mV or
2V range only.
24.10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
25.Compliance equal to 100mA.
26.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
27.Includes measurement of SENSE HI to HI and SENSE LO to LO contact resistances.
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Digital I/O Pin
100Ω
+5VDC
5.1kΩ
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Voltage Source Output Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. Current limit = 1A.
Voltage Source Range
Settling Time with Cload = 4.7μF
200mV
600 μs (typical)
2 V
600 μs (typical)
20 V
1.5 ms (typical)
200 V 20 ms (typical)
Current Measure Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value after
voltage source is stabilized on a fixed range. Values below for Vout = 2V unless noted.
Current Measure Range
Settling Time
1.5 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load >6W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<100 μs (typical)
1 mA
< 3 ms (typical)
100μA
< 3 ms (typical)
10μA
< 230 ms (typical)
1μA
< 230 ms (typical)
Capacitor Leakage Performance Using HIGH-C scripts 31: Load = 5μF||10MW.
Test: 5V step and measure. 200ms (typical) @ 50nA.
Mode Change Delay:
100μA Current Range and Above:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
1μA and 10μA Current Ranges:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 230ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Voltmeter Input Impedance: 30GW in parallel with 3300pF.
Noise, 10Hz–20MHz (20V Range): <30mV peak-peak (typical).
Voltage Source Range Change Overshoot (for 20V range and below): <400mV + 0.1%
of larger range (typical). Overshoot into a 200kW load, 20MHz BW.
Read by
firmware
Written by
firmware
GND Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Rear Panel
Connector: 25-pin female D.
Input/Output Pins: 14 open drain I/O bits.
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 5.25V.
Absolute Minimum Input Voltage: –0.25V.
Maximum Logic Low Input Voltage: 0.7V, +850µA max.
Minimum Logic High Input Voltage: 2.1V, +570µA.
Maximum Source Current (flowing out of Digital I/O bit): +960µA.
Maximum Sink Current @ Maximum Logic Low Voltage (0.7V): –5.0mA.
Absolute Maximum Sink Current (flowing into Digital I/O pin): –11mA.
5V Power Supply Pin: Limited to 600mA, solid state fuse protected.
Safety Interlock Pin: Active high input. >3.4V @ 24mA (absolute maximum of 6V) must
be externally applied to this pin to ensure 200V operation. This signal is pulled down
to chassis ground with a 10kW resistor. 200V operation will be blocked when the
INTERLOCK signal is <0.4V (absolute minimum –0.4V). See figure below:
Coil
Resistance
145Ω ±10%
INTERLOCK Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Read by firmware
+220V Supply
–220V Supply
10kΩ
Chassis
Ground
*
NOTES
202
600mA
Solid State
Fuse
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
HIGH CAPACITANCE MODE 28, 29, 30
To output stage
Rear Panel
USB: USB 1.0 Host Controller (Memory Stick I/O).
POWER SUPPLY: 100V to 250VAC, 50–60Hz (auto sensing), 240VA max.
COOLING: Forced air. Side intake and rear exhaust. One side must be unobstructed when
rack mounted.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EEC, EN 61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN 61010-1, and UL 61010-1.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 460mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 17½ in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 460mm deep (41⁄8 in
× 93⁄8 in × 17½ in).
WEIGHT: 2611A: 4.75kg (10.4 lbs). 2612A: 5.50kg (12.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: For indoor use only. Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level.
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
28.High Capacitance Mode specifications are for DC measurements only.
29.100nA range is not available in High Capacitance Mode.
30.High Capacitance Mode utilizes locked ranges. Auto Range is disabled.
31.Part of KI Factory scripts, See reference manual for details.
See pages 206 and 207 for measurement speeds and
other specifications.
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+5V Pin
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
SPECIFICATION CONDITIONS
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: <70µs for the output to recover to within 0.1% for a 10% to 90%
step change in load.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range.
Range
Settling Time
200mV
<50 μs (typical)
2 V
<50 μs (typical)
20 V
<110 μs (typical)
200 V <700 μs (typical)
CURRENT SOURCE OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value after
source level command is processed on a fixed range. Values below for Iout · R load = 2V unless noted.
Current Range
Settling Time
1.5 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load > 6W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<80 μs (typical)
1 mA
<100 μs (typical)
100μA
<150 μs (typical)
10μA
<500 μs (typical)
1μA
<2 ms (typical)
100 nA
<20 ms (typical)
10 nA
<40 ms (typical)
1 nA
<150 ms (typical)
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC.
REMOTE SENSE OPERATING RANGE 10:Maximum voltage between HI and SENSE HI = 3V .
Maximum voltage between LO and SENSE LO = 3V .
VOLTAGE OUTPUT HEADROOM:
200V Range: Max. output voltage = 202.3V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum
1W per source lead).
20V Range: Max. output voltage = 23.3V – total voltage drop across source leads (maximum
1W per source lead).
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
VOLTAGE SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <300mV + 0.1% of larger range (typical).
Overshoot into a 200kW load, 20MHz BW.
CURRENT SOURCE RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: <5% of larger range + 300mV/R load (typical
– With source settling set to SETTLE_SMOOTH_100NA). See Current Source Output Settling
Time for additional test condtions.
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
Voltage Source Specifications
VOLTAGE PROGRAMMING ACCURACY1
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + volts)
200.000mV
   5 µV
0.02% + 375 µV
2.00000 V
  50 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
20.0000 V
500 µV
0.02% + 5 mV
200.000 V
   5 mV
0.02% + 50 mV
Typical Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
20 µV
50 µV
300 µV
2 mV
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 2: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 3: 30.3W per channel maximum.
±20.2V @ ±1.5A, ±202V @ ±100mA, four quadrant source or sink operation.
VOLTAGE REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100µV).
NOISE 10Hz–20MHz: <20mV pk-pk (typical), <3mV rms (typical), 20V range.
CURRENT LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 4: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value.
Minimum value is 100pA. Accuracy is the same as current source.
OVERSHOOT: <±(0.1% + 10mV) typical (step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load,
maximum current limit/compliance).
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <4mV (current <10mA).
PULSE SPECIFICATIONS
Region
1
1
2
3 13
4
Current Source Specifications
CURRENT PROGRAMMING ACCURACY
Accuracy (1 Year)
Programming
23°C ±5°C
Range
Resolution
±(% rdg. + amps)
1.00000 nA 20 fA
0.15% + 2 pA
10.0000 nA 200 fA
0.15% + 5 pA
100.000 nA 2 pA
0.06% + 50 pA
1.00000 µA 20 pA
0.03% + 700 pA
10.0000 µA 200 pA
0.03% + 5 nA
100.000 µA 2 nA
0.03% + 60 nA
1.00000 mA 20 nA
0.03% + 300 nA
10.0000 mA 200 nA
0.03% + 6 µA
100.000 mA 2µA
0.03% + 30 µA
20µA
0.05% + 1.8mA
1.00000 A 5 50µA
0.06% + 4mA
1.50000 A 5 200µA
0.5  % + 40mA (typical)
10.0000 A 5, 6 Typical Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz–10Hz
800 fA
2 pA
5 pA
25 pA
60 pA
3 nA
6 nA
200 nA
600 nA
70µA
150µA
Maximum
Pulse Width 11
DC, no limit
DC, no limit
8.5 ms
2.2 ms
1 ms
Maximum
Duty Cycle 12
100%
100%
1%
1%
2.2%
MINIMUM PROGRAMMABLE PULSE WIDTH 14, 15: 100µs. NOTE: Minimum pulse width for
settled source at a given I/V output and load can be longer than 100µs.
Pulse width programming resolution: 1µs.
Pulse width programming accuracy 15: ±5µs.
pulse width jitter: 50µs (typical).
Quadrant Diagram:
+10A
4
+1.5A
+1A
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 7: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
MAXiMUM OUTPUT POWER AND SOURCE/SINK LIMITS 8: 30.3W per channel maximum.
±1.515A @ ±20V, ±101mA @ ±200V, four quadrant source or sink operation.
CURRENT REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: ±(0.01% of range + 100pA).
VOLTAGE LIMIT/COMPLIANCE 9: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with a single value.
Minimum value is 20mV. Accuracy is the same as voltage source.
OVERSHOOT: <±0.1% typical (step size = 10% to 90% of range, resistive load, maximum ­
current limit/compliance; see Current Source Output Settling Time for additional
test ­conditions).
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Maximum
Current Limit
100mA @200 V
1.5 A @ 20 V
1 A @180 V
1 A @200 V
10 A @ 5 V
Series 2600A
Side specifications
Text
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
This document contains specifications and supplemental information for the Models 2635A and
2636A System SourceMeter® instruments. Specifications are the standards against which the
Models 2635A and 2636A are tested. Upon leaving the factory the 2635A and 2636A meet these
specifications. Supplemental and typical values are non-­warranted, apply at 23°C, and are provided
solely as ­useful information.
Accuracy specifications are applicable for both normal and high capacitance modes.
The source and measurement accuracies are specified at the SourceMeter CHANNEL A (2635A
and 2636A) or SourceMeter CHANNEL B (2636A) terminals under the following conditions:
1. 23°C ± 5°C, <70% relative humidity.
2. After 2 hour warm-up
3. Speed normal (1 NPLC)
4. A/D auto-zero enabled
5. Remote sense operation or properly zeroed local sense operation
6. Calibration period = 1 year
3
+0.1A
0A
–0.1A
–1A
–1.5A
3
2
2
DC
1
Pulse
2
2
3
Pulse
3
4
–10A
–200V –180V
A
G R E A T E R
–20V
–5V
0V
M E A S U R E
+5V
O F
+20V
+180V +200V
Pulse
SOURCE AND MEASURE
2635A
2636A
C O N F I D E N C E
203
Series 2600A
Side specifications
Text
2635A
2636A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
METER SPECIFICATIONS
NOTES
VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 16, 17
1. Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
2. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
3. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation, refer
to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
4. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 0.06% of limit range to the corresponding current limit
accuracy specifications. Specifications apply with sink mode operation enabled.
5. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation, refer
to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power derating information.
6. 10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
7. High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
8. Full power source operation regardless of load to 30°C ambient. Above 30°C and/or power sink operation,
refer to “Operating Boundaries” in the Series 2600A Reference Manual for additional power
derating information.
9. For sink mode operation (quadrants II and IV), add 10% of compliance range and ±0.02% of limit setting to
corresponding voltage source specification. For 200mV range add an additional 120mV of uncertainty.
10.Add 50μV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
11.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Range
200.000mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
200.000 V
Range
100.00 pA 22, 23
1.00000 nA 22, 24
10.0000 nA
100.000 nA
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
1.00000 A
1.50000 A
10.0000 A 25
Start toff
10%
10%
ton
toff
12.Thermally limited in sink mode (quadrants II and IV) and ambient temperatures above 30°C. See power equations in the Reference Manual for more information.
13.Voltage source operation with 1.5 A current limit.
14.Typical performance for minimum settled pulse widths:
Source Settling
Source Value
Load
(% of range)
Min. Pulse Width
5V
20 V
180 V
200 V (1.5 A Limit)
100 mA
1A
1A
10 A
0.5 W
200 W
180 W
200 W
200 W
200 W
180 W
0.5 W
1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
1%
1%
0.2%
0.5%
300 μs
200 μs
5 ms
1.5 ms
200 μs
500 μs
5 ms
300 μs
Pulse Level
Maximum Measurement
Time to Memory
For 60Hz (50Hz)
Speed
90%
Start toff
10%
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.15% + 120 fA
0.15% + 240 fA
0.15% +
3 pA
0.06% + 40 pA
0.025% + 400 pA
0.025% + 1.5 nA
0.02% + 25 nA
0.02% + 200 nA
0.02% + 2.5 µA
0.02% + 20 µA
0.03% + 1.5mA
0.05% + 3.5mA
0.4  % + 25mA
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(%rdg. + ohms)
FAST
1 (1.2) ms
5% + 10 W
MEDIUM
4 (5) ms
5% + 1 W
SLOW
36 (42) ms
5% + 0.3 W
10%
ton
toff
ADDITIONAL METER SPECIFICATIONS
Maximum LOAD IMPEDANCE:
Normal Mode: 10nF (typical). High Capacitance Mode: 50µF (typical).
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 250VDC.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: >1GW, <4500pF.
OVERRANGE: 101% of source range, 102% of measure range.
MAXIMUM SENSE LEAD RESISTANCE: 1kW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >1014W.
SOURCE AND MEASURE
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204
Voltage
Burden 21
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
<1 mV
Contact Check 28
15.Times measured from the start of pulse to the start off-time; see figure below.
Bias Level
Display
Resolution 20
1 fA
10 fA
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1nA
10nA
100nA
1µA
10µA
10µA
100µA
Current Measure Settling Time (Time for measurement to settle after a Vstep) 26: Time
required to reach within 0.1% of final value after source level command is processed on a fixed
range. Values for Vout = 2V unless noted. Current Range: 1mA. Settling Time: <100μs (typical).
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 27: ±(0.15 × accuracy specfication)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
Typical tests were performed using remote operation, 4W sense, and best, fixed measurement range. For more
information on pulse scripts, see the Series 2600A Reference Manual.
Start ton
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.015% +225 µV
0.02% + 350 µV
0.015% + 5 mV
0.015% + 50 mV
CURRENT MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 17
90%
Bias Level
Input
Resistance
>1014 W
>1014 W
>1014 W
>1014 W
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C) 19: ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Applicable for normal mode only. Not applicable for high capacitance mode.
Pulse Level
Start ton
Display
Resolution 18
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1mV
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
2635A
2636A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
METER SPECIFICATIONS (continued)
IEEE-488: IEEE-488.1 compliant. Supports IEEE-488.2 common commands and status model
topology.
RS-232: Baud rates from 300bps to 115200bps. Programmable number of data bits, ­parity
type, and flow control (RTS/CTS hardware or none). When not programmed as the active
host interface, the SourceMeter instrument can use the RS-232 interface to control other
­instrumentation.
Ethernet: RJ-45 connector, LXI Class C, 10/100BT, no auto MDIX.
EXPANSION INTERFACE: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP enabled instruments
to trigger and communicate with each other.
Cable Type: Category 5e or higher LAN crossover cable.
Length: 3 meters maximum between each TSP enabled instrument.
LXI Compliance: LXI Class C 1.2.
LXI Timing: Total Output Trigger Response Time: 245μs min., 280μs typ., (not specified) max. Receive LAN[0-7] Event Delay: Unknown. Generate LAN[0-7] Event Delay:
Unknown.
DIGITAL I/O INTERFACE:
NOTES
16.Add 50µV to source accuracy specifications per volt of HI lead drop.
17. De-rate accuracy specifications for NPLC setting <1 by increasing error term. Add appropriate % of range term
using table below.
200mV
Range
0.01%
0.08%
0.8  %
2V–200V
Ranges
0.01%
0.07%
0.6  %
100nA
Range
0.01%
0.1%
1%
1μA–100mA
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
0.5  %
1A–1.5A
Ranges
0.01%
0.05%
1.1  %
18.Applies when in single channel display mode.
19.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
20.Applies when in single channel display mode.
21.Four-wire remote sense only and with current meter mode selected. Voltage measure set to 200mV or
2V range only.
22.10-NPLC, 11-Point Median Filter, <200V range, measurements made within 1 hour after zeroing. 23°C ± 1°C
23.Under default specification conditions: ±(0.15% + 750fA).
24.Under default specification conditions: ±(0.15% + 1pA).
25.10A range accessible only in pulse mode.
26.Delay factor set to 1. Compliance equal to 100mA.
27.High Capacitance Mode accuracy is applicable at 23°C ±5°C only.
28.Includes measurement of SENSE HI to HI and SENSE LO to LO contact resistances.
600mA
Solid State
Fuse
Digital I/O Pin
100Ω
+5VDC
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
HIGH CAPACITANCE MODE 29, 30, 31
5.1kΩ
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Voltage Source Output Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value
after source level command is processed on a fixed range. Current limit = 1A.
Voltage Source Range
Settling Time with Cload = 4.7μF
200mV
600 μs (typical)
2 V
600 μs (typical)
20 V
1.5 ms (typical)
200 V 20 ms (typical)
Current Measure Settling Time: Time required to reach within 0.1% of final value after
voltage source is stabilized on a fixed range. Values below for Vout = 2V unless noted.
Current Measure Range
Settling Time
1.5 A – 1 A
<120 μs (typical) (R load >6W)
100 mA – 10 mA
<100 μs (typical)
1 mA
< 3 ms (typical)
100μA
< 3 ms (typical)
10μA
< 230 ms (typical)
1μA
< 230 ms (typical)
Capacitor Leakage Performance Using HIGH-C scripts 32: Load = 5μF||10MW.
Test: 5V step and measure. 200ms (typical) @ 50nA.
Mode Change Delay:
100μA Current Range and Above:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
1μA and 10μA Current Ranges:
Delay into High Capacitance Mode: 230ms.
Delay out of High Capacitance Mode: 10ms.
Voltmeter Input Impedance: 30GW in parallel with 3300pF.
Noise, 10Hz–20MHz (20V Range): <30mV peak-peak (typical).
Voltage Source Range Change Overshoot (for 20V range and below): <400mV + 0.1%
of larger range (typical). Overshoot into a 200kW load, 20MHz BW.
Read by
firmware
Written by
firmware
GND Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Rear Panel
Connector: 25-pin female D.
Input/Output Pins: 14 open drain I/O bits.
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage: 5.25V.
Absolute Minimum Input Voltage: –0.25V.
Maximum Logic Low Input Voltage: 0.7V, +850µA max.
Minimum Logic High Input Voltage: 2.1V, +570µA.
Maximum Source Current (flowing out of Digital I/O bit): +960µA.
Maximum Sink Current @ Maximum Logic Low Voltage (0.7V): –5.0mA.
Absolute Maximum Sink Current (flowing into Digital I/O pin): –11mA.
5V Power Supply Pin: Limited to 600mA, solid state fuse protected.
Safety Interlock Pin: Active high input. >3.4V @ 24mA (absolute maximum of 6V) must
be externally applied to this pin to ensure 200V operation. This signal is pulled down
to chassis ground with a 10kW resistor. 200V operation will be blocked when the
INTERLOCK signal is <0.4V (absolute minimum –0.4V). See figure below:
Coil
Resistance
145Ω ±10%
INTERLOCK Pin
(on DIGITAL I/O
connector)
Read by firmware
+220V Supply
–220V Supply
10kΩ
Chassis
Ground
*
To output stage
Rear Panel
USB: USB 1.0 Host Controller (Memory Stick I/O).
POWER SUPPLY: 100V to 250VAC, 50–60Hz (auto sensing), 240VA max.
COOLING: Forced air. Side intake and rear exhaust. One side must be unobstructed when
rack mounted.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 2004/108/EEC, EN 61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN 61010-1, and UL 61010-1.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 460mm deep (3½ in × 83⁄8 in × 17½ in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 460mm deep (41⁄8 in
× 93⁄8 in × 17½ in).
WEIGHT: 2635A: 4.75kg (10.4 lbs). 2636A: 5.50kg (12.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: For indoor use only. Altitude: Maximum 2000 meters above sea level.
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
NOTES
29.High Capacitance Mode specifications are for DC measurements only.
30.100nA range and below are not available in high capacitance mode.
31.High Capacitance Mode utilizes locked ranges. Auto Range is disabled.
32.Part of KI Factory scripts. See reference manual for details.
See pages 206 and 207 for measurement speeds and
other specifications.
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+5V Pin
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SOURCE AND MEASURE
NPLC Setting
0.1
0.01
0.001
Series 2600A
Side specifications
Text
GENERAL
C O N F I D E N C E
205
Series 2600A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Applicable to Models
2601A, 2602A, 2611A, 2612A, 2635A, and 2636A
Measurement Speed Specifications 1, 2, 3
Series
Model
2600A
Side
specifications
specifications
Text
Maximum SWEEP OPERATION RATES (operations per second) FOR 60Hz (50Hz):
A/D Converter
Speed
0.001 NPLC
0.001 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
Trigger Origin
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Internal
Digital I/O
Measure
To Memory Using
User Scripts
20000 (20000)
8100 (8100)
5000 (4000)
3650 (3200)
580 (490)
560 (470)
59 (49)
58 (48)
Measure
To Gpib Using
User Scripts
10500 (10500)
7100 (7100)
4000 (3500)
3400 (3000)
560 (475)
450 (460)
59 (49)
58 (49)
Source Measure
To Memory Using
User Scripts
7000 (7000)
5500 (5500)
3400 (3000)
3000 (2700)
550 (465)
545 (460)
59 (49)
59 (49)
Source Measure
To Gpib Using
User Scripts
6200 (6200)
5100 (5100)
3200 (2900)
2900 (2600)
550 (460)
540 (450)
59 (49)
59 (49)
Source Measure
To Memory Using
Sweep API
12000 (12000)
11200 (11200)
4200 (3700)
4150 (3650)
575 (480)
570 (480)
59 (49)
59 (49)
Source Measure
To Gpib Using
Sweep API
5900 (5900)
5700 (5700)
3100 (2800)
3050 (2775)
545 (460)
545 (460)
59 (49)
59 (49)
Maximum SINGLE MEASUREMENT RATES (operations per second) FOR 60Hz (50Hz):
A/D Converter
Speed
0.001 NPLC
0.01 NPLC
0.1 NPLC
1.0 NPLC
Trigger Origin
Measure
To Gpib
Source Measure
To Gpib
Source Measure
Pass/Fail
To Gpib
Internal
Internal
Internal
Internal
1900 (1800)
1450 (1400)
450 (390)
58 (48)
1400 (1400)
1200 (1100)
425 (370)
57 (48)
1400 (1400)
1100 (1100)
425 (375)
57 (48)
Maximum Measurement RANGE CHANGE RATE: <150µs for ranges >10µA, typical. When changing to or from a range ≥1A, maximum rate is <450µs, typical.
Maximum SOURCE Range CHANGE RATE: <2.5ms for ranges >10µA, typical. When changing to or from a range ≥1A, maximum rate is <5.2ms, typical.
Maximum SOURCE FUNCTION CHANGE RATE: <1ms, typical.
COMMAND PROCESSING TIME: Maximum time required for the output to begin to change following the receipt of the smux.source.levelv or smux.source.leveli command. <1ms typical.
NOTES
1. Tests performed with a 2602A, 2612A, or 2636A on Channel A using the following equipment: PC Hardware (Pentium® 4 2.4GHz, 512MB RAM, National Instruments PCI-GPIB). Driver (NI-486.2 Version 2.2 PCI-GPIB). Software
(Microsoft® Windows® 2000, Microsoft Visual Studio 2005, VISA version 4.1).
2. Exclude current measurement ranges less than 1mA.
3. 2635A/2636A with default measurement delays and filters disabled.
TRIGGERING AND SYNCHRONIZATION
SPECIFICATIONS
Triggering:
Trigger in to trigger out: 0.5μs, typical.
Trigger in to source change:4 10 μs, typical.
Trigger Timer accuracy: ±2μs, typical.
Source change4 after LXI Trigger: 280μs, typical.
Synchronization:
Single-node synchronized source change:4 <0.5μs, typical.
Multi-node synchronized source change:4 <0.5μs, typical.
NOTES
SOURCE AND MEASURE
4. Fixed source range, with no polarity change.
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A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2600A
System SourceMeter Instruments
®
Applicable to Models
2601A, 2602A, 2611A, 2612A, 2635A, and 2636A
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION
FRONT PANEL INTERFACE: Two-line vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) with keypad and rotary knob.
Display:
• Show error messages and user defined messages
• Display source and limit settings
• Show current and voltage measurements
• View measurements stored in dedicated reading buffers
Keypad Operations:
• Change host interface settings
• Save and restore instrument setups
• Load and run factory and user defined test scripts (i.e. sequences) that prompt for input
and send results to the display
• Store measurements into dedicated reading buffers
PROGRAMMING: Embedded Test Script Processor (TSP) accessible from any host interface. Responds
to individual instrument control commands. Responds to high speed test scripts comprised of
instrument control commands and Test Script Language (TSL) statements (e.g. branching, looping,
math, etc.). Able to execute high speed test scripts stored in memory without host intervention.
Minimum Memory Available: 16MB (approximately 250,000 lines of TSL code).
Test Script Builder: Integrated development environment for building, running, and managing
TSP scripts. Includes an instrument console for communicating with any TSP enabled instrument in an interactive manner. Requires:
• VISA (NI-VISA included on CD)
• Microsoft .NET Framework (included on CD)
• Keithley I/O Layer (included on CD)
• Pentium III 800MHz or faster personal computer
• Microsoft Windows 98, NT, 2000, or XP
Software Interface: TSP Express (embedded), Direct GPIB/VISA, READ/WRITE for VB, VC/C++,
LabVIEW, LabWindows/CVI, etc.
READING BUFFERS: Dedicated storage area(s) reserved for measurement data. Reading buffers
are arrays of measurement elements. Each element can hold the following items:
• Measurement
• Measurement status
• Timestamp
• Source setting (at the time the measurement was taken)
• Range information
Two reading buffers are reserved for each SourceMeter channel. Reading buffers can be filled
using the front panel STORE key and retrieved using the RECALL key or host interface.
Buffer Size, with timestamp and source setting: >60,000 samples.
Buffer Size, without timestamp and source setting: >140,000 samples.
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Each SourceMeter instrument has two TSP-Link connectors to facilitate chaining instruments
together.
• Once SourceMeter instruments are interconnected via TSP-Link, a computer can access all
of the resources of each SourceMeter instrument via the host interface of any SourceMeter
instrument.
• A maximum of 32 TSP-Link nodes can be interconnected. Each SourceMeter instrument
consumes one TSP-Link node.
TIMER: Free running 47-bit counter with 1MHz clock input. Reset each time instrument powers
up. Rolls over every 4 years.
Timestamp: TIMER value automatically saved when each measurement is triggered.
Resolution: 1µs.
Accuracy: ±100ppm.
Series 2600A
Side specifications
Text
SYSTEM EXPANSION: The TSP-Link expansion interface allows TSP enabled instruments to
­trigger and communicate with each other. See figure below:
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207
Tightly coupled precision
Sidesourcing
Text
and measurement
Series 2400
• Five instruments in one
(IV Source, IVR Measure)
• Six models: 20–100W DC,
1000W pulsed, 1100V to 1µV,
10A to 10pA
• 0.012% basic measure accuracy
with 51⁄2 -digit resolution
• 2-, 4-, and 6-wire remote
V-source and measure sensing
• 1700 readings/second at
41⁄2 digits via GPIB
• Pass/Fail comparator for fast
sorting/binning
• Available high speed sense lead
contact check function
SOURCE AND MEASURE
®
Keithley’s SourceMeter family is designed specifically for test
applications that demand tightly coupled sourcing and measurement. All SourceMeter models provide precision voltage and
current sourcing as well as measurement capabilities. Each
SourceMeter instrument is both a highly stable DC power source
and a true instrument-grade 51⁄2 -digit multimeter. The power
source characteristics include low noise, precision, and readback.
The multimeter capabilities include high repeatability and low
noise. The result is a compact, single-channel, DC parametric
tester. In operation, these instruments can act as a voltage source,
a current source, a voltage meter, a current meter, and an ohmmeter. Manufacturers of components and modules for the communications, semiconductor, computer, automotive, and medical
industries will find the SourceMeter instruments invaluable for a
wide range of characterization and production test applications.
• Source and sink (4-quadrant)
operation
• Programmable DIO port for
automation/handler/prober
control
• Standard SCPI GPIB, RS-232 and
Keithley Trigger Link interfaces
• Keithley LabTracer 2.0 I-V curve
tracing application software
(download)
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SourceMeter Line
Advantages of a Tightly Integrated Instrument
By linking source and measurement circuitry in a single unit,
these instruments offer a variety of advantages over systems
configured with separate source and measurement instruments.
For example, they minimize the time required for test station
development, setup, and maintenance, while lowering the overall
cost of system ownership. They simplify the test process itself by
eliminating many of the complex synchronization and connection
issues associated with using multiple instruments. And, their compact half-rack size conserves precious “real estate” in the test rack or bench.
Power of Five Instruments in One (IV Source, IVR Measure)
The tightly coupled nature of a SourceMeter instrument provides many advantages over separate
instruments. For example, it provides faster test times by reducing GPIB traffic and simplifies the
remote programming interface. It also protects the device under test from damage due to accidental
overloads, thermal runaway, etc. Both the current and voltage source are programmable with readback to help maximize device measurement integrity. If the readback reaches a programmed compliance limit, then the source is clamped at the limit, providing fault protection.
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
TEST LEADS
1754
5804
5805
5808
5809
8607
CA-18-1
AND PROBES
2-Wire Universal 10-Piece Test Lead Kit
Kelvin (4-Wire) Universal 10-Piece Test Lead Kit
Kelvin (4-Wire) Spring-Loaded Probes
Low Cost Single-pin Kelvin Probe Set
Low Cost Kelvin Clip Lead Set
2-Wire, 1000V Banana Cables, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded Dual Banana Cable, 1.2m (4 ft)
SWITCHING
7001
7002
7019-C
7053
HARDWARE
Two-Slot Switch System
Ten-Slot Switch System
6-Wire Ohms Switch Card
High-Current Switch Card
CABLES/ADAPTERS
7007-1
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
7007-2
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
7009-5
RS-232 Cable
8620
Shorting Plug
A
G R E A T E R
Communication Interface
KPCI-488LPA IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
KUSB-488A
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
Triggering and Control
2499-DIGIO
Digital I/O Expander Assembly
8501-1
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 1m (3.3 ft)
8501-2
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-DIN, 2m (6.6 ft)
8502
Trigger Link to BNC Breakout Box
8503
Trigger Link Cable, DIN-to-Dual BNC, 1m (3.3 ft)
8505
Male to 2-Female Y-DIN Cable for Trigger Link
RACK MOUNT KITS
4288-1
Single Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-2
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-4
Dual Fixed Rack Mount Kit
4288-5
Shelf Type Side by Side Rack Mounting Kit
4288-9
Dual Fixed Rack Mounting Kit
Software
LabTracer 2.0 Curve Tracing Software (downloadable)
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
2400
200V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter
2400-C 200V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter with
Contact Check
2400-LV 20V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter
2410
1100V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter
2410-C 1100V, 1A, 20W
SourceMeter with
Contact Check
2420
60V, 3A, 60W
SourceMeter
2420-C 60V, 3A, 60W
SourceMeter with
Contact Check
2425
100V, 3A, 100W
SourceMeter
2425-C 100V, 3A, 100W
SourceMeter with
Contact Check
2430
100V, 10A, 1000W Pulse
Mode SourceMeter
2430-C 100V, 10A, 1000W Pulse
Mode SourceMeter
with Contact Check
2440
40V, 5A, 50W
SourceMeter
2440-C 40V, 5A, 50W
SourceMeter with
Contact Check
®
I-V Characteristics
All SourceMeter instruments provide four-quadrant operation. In the first and third quadrants they
­operate as a source, delivering power to a load. In the second and fourth quadrants they operate as a
sink, ­dissipating power internally. Voltage, current, and resistance can be measured during source or
sink ­operation.
Imeter
Local
IN/OUT HI
Remote
SENSE HI
Imeter/Compliance
Isource
IN/OUT HI
Remote
SENSE HI
Vmeter
Vsource
DUT
DUT
Feedback to
Adjust Vsource
Vmeter/Compliance
Remote
SENSE LO
Local
IN/OUT LO
Source I, Measure V, I, or W configuration
Remote
SENSE LO
Local
IN/OUT LO
Source V, Measure I, V, or W configuration
+1A
+1A
+200mA
+100mA
+20mA
–200V
–20V
+20V
2400
only
–1100V –200V
+200V
–20V
+20V
2400
only
+200V +1100V
–20mA
–100mA
–100mA
Duty cycle
limited
–1A
Model 2400 and 2400-LV SourceMeter
–1A
+3A
+3A
+1A
+1A
+100mA
–60V
–20V
+100mA
+20V +60V
–1A
–3A
Duty cycle
limited
Model 2410 High-Voltage SourceMeter
–100V –60 –20
+20 +60 +100V
–100mA
Accessories Supplied
Model 8605 Test Leads
LabVIEW Software Driver
­(downloadable)
LabTracer Software
­(downloadable)
Local
–100mA
–1A
Duty cycle
limited
–3A
Model 2420 3A SourceMeter
Duty cycle
limited
Model 2425 100W SourceMeter
+10A
5A
+3A
3A
+1A
1A
+100mA
–100V –60 –20
+20 +60 +100V
–40V
100mA
+10V
–10V
–1A
–3A
–10A
–1A
Duty cycle
limited
Pulse mode
only
Model 2430 1kW Pulse Mode SourceMeter
A
40V
–100mA
–100mA
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Tightly coupled precision
Sidesourcing
Text
and measurement
Ordering Info
SourceMeter Line
G R E A T E R
-–3A
-5A
Model 2440 5A SourceMeter
M E A S U R E
O F
Duty cycle
limited
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Series 2400
C O N F I D E N C E
209
Tightly coupled precision
Sidesourcing
Text
and measurement
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Automation for Speed
A SourceMeter instrument streamlines production testing. It sources voltage or current while making
measurements without needing to change connections. It is designed for reliable operation in nonstop production environments. To provide the throughput demanded by production applications,
the SourceMeter instrument offers many built-in features that allow it to run complex test sequences
without computer control or GPIB communications slowing things down.
Standard and Custom Sweeps
Sweep solutions greatly accelerate testing with
automation hooks. Three basic sweep waveforms
are provided that can be programmed for singleevent or continuous operation. They are ideal for
I/V, I/R, V/I, and V/R characterization.
• Linear Staircase Sweep: Moves from the start
level to the stop level in equal linear steps
• Logarithmic Staircase Sweep: Done on a log
scale with a specified number of steps per
decade
• Custom Sweep: Allows construction of special
sweeps by specifying the number of measurement points and the source level at each point
• Up to 1700 readings/second at 41⁄2 digits to the
GPIB bus
• 5000 51⁄2 -digit readings can be stored in the
non-volatile buffer memory
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
Linear staircase sweep
Stop
Start
Bias
Bias
Logarithmic staircase sweep
Stop
Start
User
defined
Built-In Test Sequencer
steps
(Source Memory List)
Bias
Bias
The Source Memory list provides faster and easier testing by allowing you to setup and execute
Custom sweep
up to 100 different tests that run without PC
intervention.
• Stores up to 100 instrument configurations, each containing source settings, measurement
­settings, pass/fail criteria, etc.
• Pass/fail limit test as fast as 500µs per point
• Onboard comparator eliminates the delay caused when sending data to the computer for analysis
• Built-in, user definable math functions to calculate derived parameters
Typical Applications
Devices:
• Discrete semiconductor devices
• Passive devices
• Transient suppression devices
• ICs, RFICs, MMICs
• Laser diodes, laser diode
modules, LEDs, photodetectors
• Circuit protection devices: TVS,
MOV, Fuses, etc.
• Airbags
• Connectors, switches, relays
Tests:
• Leakage
• Low voltage/resistances
• LIV
• IDDQ
• I-V characterization
• Isolation and trace resistance
• Temperature coefficient
• Forward voltage, reverse
breakdown, leakage current
• DC parametric test
• DC power source
• HIPOT
• Dielectric withstanding
Example Test Sequence
SOURCE AND MEASURE
I
VF2
IR
VF1
Test 2
Test 1
Test 3
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210
V
Test
Pass/Fail Test
If Passes Test
Test 1
Check V F1 at
100mA against
pass/fail limits
Go to Test 2
Test 2
Check V F2 at 1A
against pass/fail
limits
Go to Test 3
Test 3
Check leakage
­current at –500V
and test against
pass/fail limits
1.Bin part to good bin
2.Transmit readings to
computer while handler
is placing new part
3.Return to Test 1
A
M E A S U R E
G R E A T E R
If Fails Test
O F
1.Bin part to bad bin
2.Transmit data to
computer while
handler is placing
new part
3.Return to Test 1
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Digital I/O Interface
The digital I/O interface can link the SourceMeter instrument to many
popular component handlers, including Aetrium, Aeco, and Robotronics.
Other capabilities of the interface include:
• Tight systems integration for applications such as binning and sorting
• Built-in component handler interface
• Start of test and end of test signals
• 5V, 300mA power supply
• Optional expander accessory (Model 2499-DIGIO) adds 16 digital I/O lines
• Uses guard and guard sense leads in addition to the 4-wire sense and
source leads
• Locks out parallel current paths when measuring resistor networks or
hybrid ­circuits to isolate the component under test
• Allows users to configure and plot data easily from Series 2400
SourceMeter instruments, making characterization of two, three, and
four terminal devices a snap
Trigger Link Interface
All SourceMeter instruments include Keithley’s unique Trigger Link interface which provides high-speed, seamless communications with many of
Keithley’s other instruments. For example, use the Trigger Link interface
to connect a SourceMeter instrument with a Series 7000 Switching System
for a complete multi-point test solution. With Trigger Link, the 7000 Series
Switching Systems can be controlled by a SourceMeter during a high-speed
test sequence independent of a computer and GPIB.
+
GUARD SENSE
Imeter
IN/OUT HI
Optional Contact Check Function
The Contact Check function makes it simple to verify good connections
quickly and easily before an automated test sequence begins. This eliminates measurement errors and false product failures associated with contact fatigue, breakage, contamination, loose or broken connection, relay
failures, etc. Some capabilities of this function are:
• 350µs verification and notification process time
• The output of the SourceMeter instrument is automatically shut off after
a fault and is not re-activated until good contact is verified, protecting
the device under test from damage and the operator from potential
safety ­hazards
• 3 pass/fail threshold values: 2W, 15W, and 50W
• No energy passes through the device under test during the operation
• Enabled either from the front panel or remotely over the GPIB
• 3 fault notification methods
Isource
Vmeter
R1
R3
SENSE LO
IN/OUT LO
6-Wire Ohms Circuit. All test current flows through R1 because the
high current guard drives the voltage across R2 to 0V.
Pass
-
350µs
Contact Check
IN/OUT HI
Fail
(optional)
SENSE LO
Pass
IN/OUT LO
Contact check option for 4-wire or 6-wire applications
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Free LabTracer 2.0 device characterization software (downloadable)
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Vmeter
DUT
R2
GUARD SENSE
SENSE HI
V or I
Source
SENSE HI
GUARD
+
Imeter
GUARD
-
Tightly coupled precision
Sidesourcing
Text
and measurement
Unique 6-Wire Ohms Technique
SourceMeter instruments can make standard 4-wire, split Kelvin, and
6-wire, guarded ohms measurements and can be configured for either the
constant current or constant voltage method. The 6-wire ohms technique:
C O N F I D E N C E
211
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Voltage Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)
Model
Series 2400
Model
condensed
Side
specifications
Text specifications
2400, 2400-C
2400-LV
2410, 2410-C
2420, 2420-C
2425, 2425-C
2430, 2430-C
2440, 2440-C
Range
200.000 mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
200.000 V
200.000 mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
200.000 mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
1000.00 V
200.000 mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
60.0000 V
200.000 mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
100.0000 V
200.000 mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
100.0000 V
200.000 mV
2.00000 V
10.0000 V
40.0000 V
Programming
Resolution
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
5 mV
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
50 mV
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
1.5 mV
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
2.5 mV
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
2.5 mV
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
5 mV
Source1
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 24 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 100 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 7.2 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 12 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 12 mV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 1.2 mV
0.02% + 4.8 mV
Default
Measurement
Resolution
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
10 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1 mV
SOURCE AND MEASURE
0.08 V/µs
0.5 V/µs
±21 V @ ±1.05 A
±210 V @ ±105 mA
±21 V @ ±1.05 A
0.08 V/µs
0.15 V/µs
0.5 V/µs
0.08 V/µs
0.14 V/µs
0.08 V/µs
0.25 V/µs
±21 V @ ±1.05 A
±1100 V @ ±21 mA
±21 V @ ±3.15 A
±63 V @ ±1.05 A
±21 V @ ±3.15 A
±105 V @ ±1.05 A
±105 V @ ±1.05 A
0.08 V/µs
0.25 V/µs
0.08 V/µs
0.25 V/µs
±105 V @ ±10.5 A
(pulse mode only)
±10.5 V @ ±5.25 A
±42 V @ ±1.05 A
Maximum Duty Cycle: 8%, hardware limited, 10A range only. All other ranges 100%.
Maximum Pulse Width: 5ms from 90% rising to 90% falling edge, 2.5ms 10A range.
Minimum Pulse Width: 150µs.
Minimum Pulse Resolution: 50µs typical, 70µs max., limited by system ­jitter.
Source Accuracy: Determined by settling time and source range specifications.
Output Settling Time 0.1%:
800µs typ., source I = 10A into 10W, limited by voltage slew rate.
500µs typ., source I = 10A into 1W, limited by voltage slew rate.
Output Slew Rate:
Voltage (10W load): 0.25V/µs ±30% on 100V range. 0.08V/µs ±30% on 20V range, 10A range.
Current (0W load): 0.25A/µs ±30% on 100V range. 0.08A/µs ±30% on 20V range, 10A range.
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS (All Models)
212
Output Slew Rate
(±30%)
Source/Sink Limit
Additional Pulse Mode Source Specifications
(2430 and 2430-C only)
Temperature Coefficient (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Voltage Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 100µV.
Over Voltage Protection: User selectable values, 5% tolerance. Factory default = none.
Current Limit: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
Overshoot: <0.1% typical (full scale step, resistive load, 10mA range).
TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME: 30µs minimum for the output to recover to its spec. following a
step change in load.
COMMAND PROCESSING TIME: Maximum time required for the output to begin to change
following the receipt of :SOURce:VOLTage|CURRent <nrf> command. Autorange On: 10ms.
Autorange Off: 7ms.
OUTPUT SETTLING TIME: Time required to reach 0.1% of final value after command is processed. 100µs typical. Resistive load. 10µA to 100mA range.
DC FLOATING VOLTAGE: Output can be floated up to ±250VDC (Model 2440 ±40VDC) from
chassis ground.
REMOTE SENSE: Up to 1V drop per load lead.
COMPLIANCE ACCURACY: Add 0.3% of range and ±0.02% of reading to base specification.
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in
standby mode.
RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: Overshoot into a fully resistive 100kW load, 10Hz to 1MHz BW,
adjacent ranges: 100mV typical, except 20V/200V (20V/60V on Model 2420), 20V/100V on Model
2425 and 2430, range boundary, and Model 2440.
MINIMUM COMPLIANCE VALUE: 0.1% of range.
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Measurement 2, 3, 4
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.012% + 300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1.5 mV
0.015% + 10 mV
0.012% + 300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1.5 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 50 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 3 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 5 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 1 mV
0.015% + 5 mV
0.012% +300 µV
0.012% +300 µV
0.015% + 750 µV
0.015% + 3 mV
NOTES
1. 2400, 2410 Only: Specifications valid for continuous output currents below 105mA. For operation above 105mA
continuous for >1 minute, derate accuracy 10%/35mA above 105mA.
2. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A
ranges, add 0.05%. For 0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add
0.5%.
3. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
4. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Current Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)
2410, 2410-C
2420, 2420-C
2425, 2425-C
2430, 2430-C
2440, 2440-C
Programming
Resolution
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
50 µA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
50 µA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
500 µA
500 µA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
50 µA
50 µA
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±1.05A @ ±21 V
±105 mA @ ±210 V 8
±1.05A @ ±21 V
±21 mA @ ±1100 V
±3.15A @ ±21 V
±1.05 A @ ±63 V
±3.15A @ ±21 V
±1.05 A @ ±105 V
±1.05A @ ±105 V
±10.5 A @ ±105 V
(pulse mode only)
±5.25A @ ±10.5 V
±1.05 A @ ±42 V
1. 2400, 2410 Only: Specifications valid for continuous output currents below 105mA. For operation above 105mA
continuous for >1 minute, derate accuracy 10%/35mA above 105mA.
2. Full operation (1A) regardless of load to 30°C (50°C for Model 2420 and 2440). Above 30°C (50°C for Model
2420 and 2440) ambient, derate 35mA/°C and prorate 35mA/W load. 4-wire mode. For current sink operation
on 1A, 3A, or 5A ranges, maximum continuous power is limited to approximately 1/2 rated power or less,
depending on current, up to 30°C ambient. See power equations in the User’s Manual to calculate allowable
duty cycle for specific conditions.
3. For sink mode, 1µA to 100mA range, accuracy is:
Model 2400: ±(0.15% + offset*4). Models 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440: ±(0.5% + offset*3).
For 1A range, accuracy is:
Model 2400: ±(1.5% + offset*8). Models 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440: ±(1.5% + offset*3).
4. 10A range only in pulse mode. Limited to 2.5ms pulse width maximum. 10% duty cycle maximum.
5. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A
ranges, add 0.05%. For 0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add
0.5%.
6. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
7. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
8. Model 2400 and 2400-C only.
Contact Check Specifications (requires -C version)
15 W
<13.5 W
>16.5 W
Source/Sink Limit
NOTES
Temperature Coefficient (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
CURRENT Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range (except Model 2440
5A range 0.05%) + 100pA.
Voltage LIMIT: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
OVERSHOOT: <0.1% typical (1mA step, RL = 10kW, 20V range for Model 2400, 2410, 2420, 2425,
2430), (10V range for Model 2440).
Speed: 350µs for verification and notification.
Contact Check:
2 W
No contact check failure
<1.00 W
Always contact check failure
>3.00 W
Default Measurement
Resolution
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
10 µA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
10 µA
Series 2400
Model
condensed
Side
specifications
Text specifications
2400, 2400-C,
2400-LV
Range
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A 2
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
20.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A 2
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A 2
3.00000 A 2
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A 2
3.00000 A 2
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A
3.00000 A 2
10.00000 A4
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
1.00000 A
5.00000 A
Measurement5, 6, 7
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.029% + 300 pA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.22 % + 570 µA
0.029% + 300 pA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 1.2 µA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.22 % + 570 µA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.066% + 570 µA
0.052% + 1.71 mA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.060% + 570 µA
0.052% + 1.71 mA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.060% + 570 µA
0.052% + 1.71 mA
0.082% + 1.71 mA
0.027% + 700 pA
0.025% + 6 nA
0.027% + 60 nA
0.035% + 600 nA
0.055% + 6 µA
0.060% + 570 µA
0.10 % + 3.42 mA
50 W
<47.5 W
>52.5 W
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Model
Source1, 3
Accuracy
(1 Year) 3
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
0.035% + 600 pA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.27 % + 900 µA
0.035% + 600 pA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 4 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.27 % + 900 µA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.067% + 900 µA
0.059% + 2.7 mA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.067% + 900 µA
0.059% + 2.8 mA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.067% + 900 µA
0.059% + 2.8 mA
0.089% + 5.9 mA
0.033% + 2 nA
0.031% + 20 nA
0.034% + 200 nA
0.045% + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
0.067% + 900 µA
0.10 % + 5.4 mA
C O N F I D E N C E
213
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
Series 2400
Model
condensed
Side
specifications
Text specifications
Resistance Measurement Accuracy (Local or Remote Sense)1, 2, 5
Range
Default
Resolution
Default Test
Current
2400, 2410
<0.20000 W3
–
–
Enhanced Accuracy
(23°C ±5°C) 4
1 Year, ±(% rdg. + ohms)
Default Test
Current
2420, 2425,
2430, 2440
2400
2410
2420, 2425, 2430, 2440
2400
–
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Normal Accuracy (23°C ±5°C)
1 Year, ±(% rdg. + ohms)
2.00000 W3 10 µW
–
1 A
20.0000 W 100 µW
100mA
100mA
0.10% + 0.003W
0.11% + 0.006W
0.10% + 0.003 W
0.07% + 0.001
W
200.000 W 1 mW
10mA
10mA
0.08% + 0.03 W
0.09% + 0.1 W
0.08% + 0.03 W
0.05% + 0.01
W
2.00000 kW 10 mW
1mA
1mA
0.07% + 0.3 W
0.08% + 0.6 W
0.07% + 0.3
W
0.05% + 0.1
W
20.0000 kW 100 mW
100 µA
100 µA
0.06% + 3
W
0.07% + 6
W
0.06% + 3
W
0.04% + 1
W
W
0.07% + 60
W
0.07% + 30
W
0.05% + 10
W
200.000 kW Source I ACC + Meas VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC 0.17% + 0.0003W
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
1
W
10 µA
10 µA
0.07% + 30
2.00000MW6 10
W
1 µA
1 µA
0.11% +300
W
0.12% +600
W
0.11% +300
W
0.05% +100
W
20.0000MW7 100
W
1 µA
1 µA
0.11% + 1
kW
0.12% + 2.4 kW
0.11% + 1
kW
0.05% +500
W
1 kW
–
100 nA
–
200.000MW3 >200.000MW3
–
–
0.66% + 10 kW
0.66% + 24 kW
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy
specification)/°C.
Source I Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = I source accuracy + V measure accuracy (4-wire remote sense).
Source V Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = V source ­accuracy + I measure accuracy (4-wire remote sense).
6-wire ohms mode: Available using active ohms guard and guard sense. Max.
Guard Output Current: 50mA (except 1A range). Accuracy is load dependent.
Refer to White Paper no. 2033 for calculation ­formula.
Guard Output Impedance: <0.1W in ohms mode.
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
0.35% + 5
kW
Source I ACC + Meas. VACC
NOTES
1. Speed = Normal (1 PLC). For 0.1 PLC, add 0.005% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add 0.05%. For
0.01 PLC, add 0.05% of range to offset specifications, except 200mV, 1A, 10A ranges, add 0.5%.
2. Accuracies apply to 2- or 4-wire mode when properly zeroed.
3. Manual ohms only – except 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440 for 2W range and 2410 or 2400 for 200MW range.
4. Source readback enabled, offset compensation ON. Also available on 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, and 2440 with similar ­accuracy
enhancement.
5. In pulse mode, limited to 0.1 PLC measurement.
6. Except 2440; default test current is 5µA.
7. Except 2440; default test current is 0.5µA.
Services Available
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years from date of shipment
3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2400, 2400-C, 2400LV*
C/2410-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2410, 2410-C*
C/2420-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2420, 2420-C*
C/2425-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2425, 2425-C*
C/2430-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2430, 2430-C*
C/2440-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3 years of purchase for Models 2440, 2440-C*
TRN-2400-1-C Course: Unleashing the Power of Your SourceMeter Instrument
*Not available in all countries
SOURCE AND MEASURE
2400-3Y-EW
2400-C-3Y-EW
2400-LV-3Y-EW
2410-3Y-EW
2410-C-3Y-EW 2420-3Y-EW
2420-C-3Y-EW
2425-3Y-EW
2425-C-3Y-EW
2430-3Y-EW
2430-C-3Y-EW
2440-3Y-EW
2440-C-3Y-EW
C/2400-3Y-ISO
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214
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
Series 2400
SourceMeter Line
®
System Speeds
Measurement1
MAXIMUM RANGE CHANGE RATE: 75/second.
MAXIMUM MEASURE AUTORANGE TIME: 40ms (fixed source).2
Speed
Fast
IEEE-488.1 Mode
Fast
IEEE-488.2 Mode
Medium
IEEE-488.2 Mode
Normal
IEEE-488.2 Mode
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.01 / external
0.01 / internal
0.01 / external
0.10 / internal
0.10 / external
1.00 / internal
1.00 / external
Measure
To Mem.
To GPIB
2081 (2030) 1754
1239 (1200) 1254
2081 (2030) 1198 (1210)
1239 (1200) 1079 (1050)
510 (433)
509 (433)
438 (380)
438 (380)
59
(49)
59 (49)
57
(48)
57 (48)
Source-Measure
To Mem.
To GPIB
1551 (1515)
1369
1018 (990)
1035
1551 (1515)
1000 (900)
1018 (990)
916 (835)
470 (405)
470 (410)
409 (360)
409 (365)
58 (48)
58 (48)
57 (48)
57 (47)
Source-Measure5
Pass/Fail Test4, 5
To Mem.
To GPIB
902 (900)
981
830 (830)
886
902 (900)
809 (840)
830 (830)
756 (780)
389 (343)
388 (343)
374 (333)
374 (333)
56 (47)
56 (47)
56 (47)
56 (47)
Source-Memory4
To Mem.
To GPIB
165 (162)
165
163 (160)
163
165 (162)
164 (162)
163 (160)
162 (160)
133 (126)
132 (126)
131 (125)
131 (125)
44 (38)
44 (38)
44 (38)
44 (38)
Single Reading Operation Reading Rates (rdg./second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
Speed
Fast (488.1)
Fast (488.2)
Medium (488.2)
Normal (488.2)
Measure
To GPIB
537
256 (256)
167 (166)
49
(42)
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.01 / internal
0.10 / internal
1.00 / internal
Source-Measure5
To GPIB
140
79 (83)
72 (70)
34 (31)
Source-Measure Pass/Fail Test 4,5
To GPIB
135
79 (83)
69 (70)
35 (30)
Component for 60Hz (50Hz): 4, 6
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/Trigger Origin
0.01 / external
0.10 / external
1.00 / external
Measure To GPIB
1.04 ms (1.08 ms)
2.55 ms (2.9 ms)
17.53 ms (20.9 ms)
Source Pass/Fail Test
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
Source-Measure Pass/Fail Test5, 7
To GPIB
4.82 ms (5.3 ms)
6.27 ms (7.1 ms)
21.31 ms (25.0 ms)
Series 2400
Model
condensed
Side
specifications
Text specifications
Sweep Operation3 Reading Rates (rdg./second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
NOTES
Reading rates applicable for voltage or current measurements. Auto zero off, autorange off, filter off, display off,
trigger delay = 0, and binary reading format.
Purely resistive lead. 1µA and 10µA ranges <65ms.
3 1000 point sweep was characterized with the source on a fixed range.
Pass/Fail test performed using one high limit and one low math limit.
Includes time to re-program source to a new level before making ­measurement.
6 Time from falling edge of START OF TEST signal to falling edge of end of test signal.
7 Command processing time of :SOURce:VOLTage|CURRent:TRIGgered <nrf> command not included.
1
4
5
2
Noise Rejection:
Fast
Medium
Slow
1
NPLC
0.01
0.1
1
NMRR
—
—
60 dB
SOURCE MEMORY LIST: 100 points max.
Programmability: IEEE-488 (SCPI-1995.0), RS-232, 5 user-definable power-up states plus
factory default and *RST.
Digital Interface:
Interlock: Active low input.
Handler Interface: Start of test, end of test, 3 category bits. [email protected] 300mA supply.
Digital I/O: 1 trigger input, 4 TTL/Relay Drive outputs (33V @ 500mA, diode clamped).
Power Supply: 100V to 240V rms, 50–60Hz (automatically detected at power up). Model
2400: 190VA. Model 2410: 210VA. Model 2420: 220VA. Model 2425, 2430: 250VA. Model
2440: 240VA.
COOLING: (Model 2410, 2420, 2425, 2430, 2440): Forced air, variable speed.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC, EN 61326-1.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN61010-1.
Vibration: MIL-PRF-28800F Class 3 Random.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracies.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (31⁄2 in × 83⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet):104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm deep (41⁄8 in ×
93⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in).
WEIGHT: 3.21kg (7.08 lbs) (Model 2425, 2430, 2440: 4.1kg, 9.0 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C.
CMRR
80 dB
80 dB
100 dB1
Except lowest 2 current ranges = 90dB.
Load Impedance: Stable into 20,000pF typical.
Common mode voltage: 250V DC (40V DC for Model 2440).
Common Mode Isolation: >109W, <1000pF.
OVERRANGE: 105% of range, source and measure.
Max. Voltage Drop Between Input/Output and sense terminals: 5V.
Max. Sense Lead Resistance: 1MW for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT IMPEDANCE: >1010W.
GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: <150µV, typical (300µV for Models 2430, 2440).
Source Output modes:
Pulse (Model 2430 only)
Fixed DC level
Memory List (mixed function)
Stair (linear and log)
Memory Buffer: 5,000 readings @ 5 digits (two 2,500 point buffers). Includes selected measured
value(s) and time stamp. Lithium battery ­backup (3 yr+ battery life).
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G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
SOURCE AND MEASURE
general
C O N F I D E N C E
215
Combines broad functionality with
Side exceptional
Text
measurement integrity
6430
®
The Model 6430 Sub-Femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter combines the voltage and current
sourcing and measurement functions of
Keithley’s popular SourceMeter and SourceMeasure Unit (SMU) products with sensitivity,
noise, and input resistance specifications
superior to electrometers. This unique
combination of broad functionality and
exceptional measurement integrity is made
possible by the Model 6430’s Remote PreAmp,
which offers a very sensitive bi-directional
amplifier with sensitive feedback elements for
measuring or sourcing currents at the device
being tested. The high level signals output by
the Remote PreAmp are sent to the controlling
mainframe via a two-meter cable. This allows the
user to make a direct or very short connection to
the signal, minimizing the effects of cable noise.
• 0.4fA p-p (4E–16A) noise
• Remote PreAmp can be located
at the signal source to minimize
cable noise
• >1016W input resistance on
voltage measurements
• High speed — up to 2000
readings/second
• Up to 61⁄2 -digit resolution
• Fast characterization
of components with
programmable digital I/O and
interfaces
The Model 6430 makes voltage, current, and
resistance measurements at speeds no electrometer can match. It can read up to 2000 source/
measure readings per second into internal memory. Currents can be measured in as little as 5ms on
the 100nA range, decreasing to just a few hundred microseconds on the higher ranges.
The Model 6430’s distinguishing features include its excellent low current sensitivity and the Remote
PreAmp, which makes this sensitivity useful by eliminating long input cables. The Remote PreAmp
is an integral part of the Model 6430’s feedback measuring system that cannot be operated independently from the measurement mainframe, although it can be separated from the mainframe by up to
two meters of connection cable carrying high level signals.
Applications
The Model 6430’s capabilities make it equally
useful for research work and for evaluating
sophisticated components in test labs for lowcurrent, high-resistance, or sensitive semiconductor ­measurements made at higher levels with
other SourceMeter instruments or SMUs. The
low noise and drift performance of the Model
6430 also makes it well suited for research studies of high resistive nanowires and other high
resistance nanomaterials.
SOURCE AND MEASURE
High Speed Data Handling
The Model 6430 can read more than 2000 readings per second into its internal memory buffer.
The IEEE-488 bus output can transmit up to
75 source/measure readings per second to an
external computer controller, including pass/fail
­indication.
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Sub-femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter Instrument
A
G R E A T E R
+100mA
+10mA
–200V
–20V
+20V
+200V
–10mA
–100mA
The Model 6430 provides four-quadrant
­sourcing of up to 2.2W, as well as measurement ­sensitivity down to sub-femtoamp and
microvolt levels. It can measure currents from
the 1pA range (with just 0.4fA p-p noise) up
to the 100mA range at up to 20V. Voltage
ranges from 200mV to 200V are available.
Current and voltage range settings define the
maximum source or sink voltage or current.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
6430
Sub-Femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Typical applications:
6430
Sub-femtoamp
Remote SourceMeter
Accessories Available
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
3-slot, Low Noise, 0.15m (0.5 ft) Guarded
Triax Cable
Trigger Link Cable, 1m (3.3 ft.)
Trigger Link Cable, 2m (6.6 ft.)
Trigger Link Adapter Box
Trigger Link DIN-to-BNC Trigger Cable
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
IEEE-488 USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter
8501-1
8501-2
8502
8503
KPCI-488LPA
KUSB-488A
ID
A
D
Gate leakage or channel
D
I
leakage in FET-based comG
G
A
V
ponents can generate errors
+
in MOSFETs, JFETs, ­analog
V
switches, and many other
S
S
­circuits. By allowing researchModel 6430
Model 6430
ers to measure extremely
low-level ­currents and voltages, the Model 6430 can help
them understand the design
limitations of these components and investigate alternative device structures or materials.
G
Accessories Supplied
6430-322-1B
Low Noise Triax Cable,
3-slot triax to alligator
clips, 20cm (8 in)
8607
Safety High Voltage
Dual Test Leads
CA-176-1E
PreAmp Cable,
2m (6.6 ft)
CA-186-1B
Banana Lead to Screw
Terminal Adapter
CAP-31 3-lug Protective Cap (2)
Instruction Manual
7007-1
7007-2
7078-TRX-6IN
Measuring FET Gate Leakage and Channel Currents
Semiconductor
measurements
Services Available
TRN-2400-1-C
Course: Unleashing the Power of Your
SourceMeter Instrument
6430-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/6430-3Y-ISO 3 (ISO-17025 accredited) calibrations within 3
years of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
GS
SET research
The Model 6430’s superior low current measurement ability (<0.4fA p-p) makes it extremely useful
for single electron transistor (SET) and quantum-dot research. Using a technique similar to a lock-in,
the 6430 can measure currents with 1aA sensitivity (10 –18A = 6 electrons/second).
The Measurement Industry’s Lowest Noise and Drift
This data illustrates the Model 6430’s impressive ­stability over a five-hour period, as well as its low
short-term noise performance. This signal trace was acquired using the instrument’s AUTOFILTER
with a 5-­second rise time on the 1pA range. The inset close-up is a snapshot of the filtered signal,
showing the Model 6430’s low noise (just 200aA p-p) during the first 100-second period. The data
was taken in a laboratory environment where temperature varied about 1°C, with the instrument’s
IN/OUT HI and SENSE leads capped.
2x10–15A
1 fA
1x10–15A
0
–1x10–15A
–2x10–15A
0
1
2
3
–1x10–15A
20
30
40
50
Seconds
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SOURCE AND MEASURE
1 fA
0
10
4
Hours
1x10–15A
0
+
DS
Combines broad functionality with
Side exceptional
Text
measurement integrity
Ordering Information
60
70
80
90
100
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
217
6430
Sub-Femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Condensed Measure Specifications 1
Voltage Measurement Accuracy (4-wire sense) 3
Range
200.000 mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
200.000 V
Max. Resolution
Input 2
Resistance
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1mV
>1016W
>1016W
>1016W
>1016W
Current Measurement Accuracy (2- or 4-wire sense) 4
Accuracy (23°C ± 5°C)
1 Year, ±(%rdg + volts)
0.012% +350 µV
0.012% +350 µV
0.015% + 1.5mV
0.015% + 10 mV
Range
Model
Model
6430
Side
specifications
specifications
Text
Additional Measure Specifications
Output SETTLING Time (typical to 10% of final value): <2s, 1pA and 10pA ranges; <50ms,
100pA through 10nA ranges; <5ms, 100nA through 100mA ranges.
Current Noise: When observed over 1 minute intervals, peak to peak noise will be within
400aA during 90% of the intervals using Autofilter (5s 10% to 90% rise time), with triax connectors capped, Autozero OFF, Source Delay = 0, on the 1pA range for at least 3 minutes.
10 aA
100 aA
1 fA
10 fA
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
1.0
0.50
0.15
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.025
0.027
0.035
0.055
% + 7 fA
% + 7 fA
% + 30 fA
% + 200 fA
% + 2 pA
% + 20 pA
% + 300 pA
% + 2 nA
% + 6 nA
% + 60 nA
% + 600 nA
% + 6 µA
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±[(0.15 × accuracy specification) +
1fA]/°C.
Input Current: <3fA at 23°C, <40% RH; typically ±0.5fA/°C around 23°C, <40% RH.
Resistance Measurement Accuracy (4-wire sense with remote preamp)
Source I Mode, Auto Ohms
Max.
Default
Range
Resolution
Test Current
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Voltage
Burden5
1.00000 pA
10.0000 pA
100.000 pA
1.00000 nA
10.0000 nA
100.000 nA
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
<2.00000
20.0000
200.000
2.00000
20.0000
200.000
2.00000
20.0000
200.000
2.00000
20.0000
200.000
2.00000
20.0000
>20.0000
W 6
1
W
100
W
1
kW
10
kW
100
kW
1
MW
10
MW
100
MW
1
GW
10
GW
100
GW
1
TW
10
TW
100
TW6
Normal Accuracy
(23°C ± 5°C)
1 Year, ±(%rdg + ohms)
µW
—
µW
100 mA
mW
10 mA
mW
1 mA
mW
100 µA
W
10 µA
W
1 µA
W
1 µA
kW
100 nA
kW
10 nA
kW
1 nA
MW
100 pA
MW
10 pA
MW
1 pA
— —
Enhanced Accuracy
(23°C ± 5°C) 7
1 Year, ±(%rdg + ohms)
Source I ACC + Measure VACC
0.098% + 0.003 W
0.077% + 0.03 W
0.066% + 0.3 W
0.063% +
3 W
0.082% +
30 W
0.082% + 300 W
0.085% +
1 kW
0.085% +
10 kW
0.085% + 100 kW
0.085% +
1 MW
0.205% +
10 MW
0.822% + 100 MW
2.06% +
1 GW
Source I ACC + Measure VACC
Measure I ACC + Measure VACC
0.068% + 0.001 W
0.048% + 0.01 W
0.040% +
0.1 W
0.038% +
1 W
0.064% +
10 W
0.064% + 100 W
0.067% + 500 W
0.068% +
5 kW
0.070% +
50 kW
0.070% + 500 kW
0.185% +
5 MW
0.619% +
50 MW
1.54% + 500 MW
Measure I ACC + Measure VACC
NOTES
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Source I Mode, Manual Ohms: Total uncertainty = I source ­accuracy + V measure accuracy
(4-wire sense).
Source V Mode: Total uncertainty = V source accuracy + I measure accuracy (4-wire sense).
6-wire ohms mode: Available using active ohms guard and guard sense (mainframe rear panel
only). Max. Guard Output Current: 50 mA. Accuracy is load dependent. Refer to manual for
calculation formula.
Mainframe Guard Output Resistance: 0.1W in ohms mode.
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Max.
Resolution
Accuracy
(23°C ± 5°C)
1 Year
±(%rdg + amps)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Speed = 10 PLC, Autofilter ON, properly zeroed and settled.
Source I mode, I = 0.
Voltage measurement accuracy is not affected by the remote preamp.
Current measurement accuracy is not affected by the remote preamp; however, the 1pA through 100nA ranges
are available only when using a preamp.
5. 4-wire mode.
6. Manual ohms mode only.
7. Source readback enabled, offset compensation ON. Source delay must be pro­g rammed such that the source is
fully settled for each reading.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
6430
Sub-Femtoamp Remote
SourceMeter Instrument
®
Condensed System Speeds
Measurement1
NOTES
Maximum Range Change Rate: 75/second.
Single Reading operation reading rates (rdg/second) for 60Hz (50Hz):
SourceMeasure 3
To GPIB
83 (83)
73 (70)
35 (31)
Source-Measure
Pass/Fail Test 2, 3
To GPIB
83 (83)
73 (70)
34 (30)
General
Noise Rejection:
Fast
Medium
Normal
Condensed Source Specifications4
Voltage Programming Accuracy (4-wire sense) 5
Programming
Range
Resolution
200.000mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
200.000 V
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
5 mV
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + volts)
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4mV
0.02% + 24mV
Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz – 10Hz
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
5 mV
Current Programming Accuracy (with remote preamp)
1.00000 pA
10.0000 pA
100.000 pA
1.00000 nA
10.0000 nA
100.000 nA
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
50 aA
500 aA
5 fA
50 fA
500 fA
5 pA
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
Accuracy (1 Year) 4
23°C ±5°C
±(% rdg. + amps)
Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz – 10Hz
1.0 % + 10 fA
0.50 % + 30 fA
0.15 % + 40 fA
0.050 % + 200 f A
0.050 % + 2 pA
0.050 % + 20 pA
0.050 % + 300 pA
0.050 % + 2 nA
0.031 % + 20 nA
0.034 % +200 nA
0.045 % + 2 µA
0.066% + 20 µA
5 fA
10 fA
20 fA
50 fA
500 fA
3 pA
20 pA
200 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Max. output power: 2.2W (four quadrant source or sink operation).
Source/Sink Limits: ±10.5mA @ ±210V, ±105mA @ ±21V .
CURRENT Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 1fA.
VOLTAGE Limit: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
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NMRR
—
—
60 dB
CMRR
80 dB
80 dB
90 dB
Load Impedance: Stable into 20,000pF on the 100mA through 100µA ­ranges, 470pF on the
10µA and 1µA ranges, and 100pF on the nA and pA ranges. Refer to the User’s Manual for
details on measuring large capacitive loads.
Common mode voltage: ±42VDC maximum.
Common Mode Isolation: >10 9W, <1000pF.
Overrange: 105% of range, source and measure.
Max. Voltage Drop Between Input/Output and sense terminals: 5V. (To meet
specified accuracy with 4-wire sense, refer to the User’s Manual.)
Max. Sense Lead Resistance: 10 W for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT ResistANCE: 1MW.
Mainframe Guard Offset Voltage: 300µV, typical.
Preamp Guard Offset Voltage: 1mV, typical.
Preamp Guard Output Resistance: 110kW.
Source Output modes: Fixed DC level, Memory List (mixed function), Stair (linear
and log).
Source Memory List: 100 points max.
Memory Buffer: 5,000 readings @ 5½ digits (two 2,500 point buffers). Includes
selected measured value(s) and time stamp. Lithium battery backup (3 yr+ battery life).
Digital Interface:
Safety Interlock: Active low input.
Handler Interface: Start of test, end of test, 3 category bits. +5V @ 300mA supply.
Digital I/O: 1 trigger input, 4 TTL/Relay Drive outputs (33V @ 500mA sink, diode
clamped).
Programmability: IEEE-488 (SCPI-1995.0), RS-232, 5 user-definable power-up states plus
factory default and *RST.
Power Supply: 100V–240V rms, 50–60Hz (automatically detected at power up),
100VA max.
EMC: Conforms with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC EN 55011, EN 50082-1, EN 610003-2 and 61000-3-3, FCC part 15 class B.
Safety: Conforms with European Union Directive 73/23/EEC EN 61010-1.
Vibration: MIL-PRF-28800F, Class 3.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracies.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3½ in × 8 3⁄8 in × 14 9⁄16 in). Bench
Configuration (with handle and feet): 104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm deep (41 ⁄8 in
× 93⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in).
Amplifier: 20mm high × 57mm wide × 97mm deep (0.783 in × 2.225 in × 3.75 in).
WEIGHT: 5.9kg (13 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT: Operating: 0°–40°C, 60% R.H. (non-condensing) up to 35°C. Derate 5%
R.H./°C, 35°–40°C. Storage: –25°C to 65°C. Non-condensing humidity.
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Max. Output power: 2.2W (four quadrant source or sink operation).
Source/SINK Limits: ±21V @ ±105mA, ±210V @ ±10.5mA.
Voltage Regulation: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 100µV.
NOISE 10Hz–1MHz (p-p): 10mV.
Over Voltage Protection: User selectable values, 5% tolerance. Factory default = None.
Current Limit: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
Programming
Range
Resolution
NPLC
0.01
0.1
1
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
Model
Model
6430
Side
specifications
specifications
Text
Measure
To GPIB
256 (256)
181 (166)
49 (42)
SOURCE AND MEASURE
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/
Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.10 / internal
1.00 / internal
1. Reading rates applicable for voltage or current measurements. Auto zero off, autorange off, filter off, display
off, trigger delay = 0, source auto clear off, and ­binary reading format.
2. Pass/Fail test performed using one high limit and one low math limit.
3. Includes time to re-program source to a new level before making ­measurement.
4. For sink mode, 1pA to 100mA range, accuracy is ±(0.15% + offset*4).
5. Voltage source accuracies are not affected by the remote preamp.
C O N F I D E N C E
219
Lab grade DC Side
device
Text
characterization
4200-SCS
The easy-to-use Model 4200-SCS performs laboratory grade DC I-V, C-V, and pulse device characterization, real-time plotting, and analysis with
high precision and sub-femtoamp resolution. It
is the best tool available for interactive parametric analysis and device characterization. It offers
the most advanced capabilities available in a
fully integrated characterization system, including a complete, embedded PC with Windows
operating system and mass storage. Its self-­
documenting, point-and-click interface speeds
and simplifies the process of taking data, so
users can begin analyzing their results sooner.
• Characterize devices with up to 9
source-measure units
• Sub-femtoamp resolution
measurements with optional
preamps
• Pulse and pulse I-V capabilities for
advanced semiconductor testing
• C-V instrument makes C-V
measurements as easy as DC I-V
• Familiar, point-and-click Windows®
environment and intuitive GUI
• Easy to use for both interactive and
automated tests
SOURCE AND MEASURE
• Real-time plotting and analysis
allow users to view results before
a test has completed and to take
preemptive action as needed
• Embedded PC provides the
additional benefits of a networked
instrument including mapping
network drives and making test
results available to the corporate
network
• Simultaneously acquires data,
analyzes plots, and prints reports
• Ideal for device character­iza­tion,
device modeling, reliability testing,
and failure analysis
• Includes instrument and prober
drivers as well as interfaces to
popular modeling and circuit
simulation software
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Semiconductor Characterization System
Its Keithley Interactive Test Environment (KITE)
is so intuitive that even a novice can use the
­system with ease. This point-and-click software
offers a full range of functionality, from managing tests, organizing results, and generating
reports to creating user libraries. Sophisticated
and simple test sequencing and external instrument drivers make it simple to perform auto­
mated testing with combined DC I-V, pulse, and
C-V ­measurements.
APPLICATIONS:
Semiconductor Devices
• On-wafer parametric test
• Wafer level reliability
• Packaged device characterization
• High κ gate charge trapping
• Isothermal testing of devices
and materials subject to selfheating effects
• Charge pumping to characterize
interface state densities in
MOSFET devices
• Resistive or capacitive MEMS
drive characterization
Optoelectronic Devices
• Semiconductor laser diode DC/
CW characterization
• DC/CW characterization of
transceiver modules
• PIN and APD characterization
Technology Development
• Carbon nanotube
characterization
• Materials research
• Electrochemistry
A
G R E A T E R
The modular design of the Model 4200-SCS provides you with tremendous flexibility. It supports
up to nine internal Source-Measure Units (SMUs)
and optional Remote Pre-Amps that extend the
resolution of any SMU from 100fA
to 0.1fA. Its hardware options also include four
switch matrix configurations, meters, pulse
­generators, and more.
Optional instruments can be integrated into the
Model 4200-SCS, such as dual-channel pulse
generators, a dual-channel digital ­oscillo­scope,
and a C-V instrument, which is a capacitancevoltage instrument that performs capacitance
measurements from fF to nF at frequencies from
1kHz to 10MHz.
The C-V option includes the new C-V Power
package, which supports high power C-V
measurements up to 400V and 300mA, up to
60V of differential DC bias, and quasistatic C-V
­measurements.
The exceptional low current performance of the
Model 4200-SCS makes it the perfect solution
for research studies of single electron transistors (SETs), molecular electronic devices, and
other nanoelectronic devices that require I-V
characterization. The 4200-SCS can also be used
to make four-probe van der Pauw resistivity and
Hall ­voltage measurements.
For more information on the Model 4200-SCS,
see page 293.
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
• Four instruments in one (voltage
source, voltage measure, current
source, current measure)
• 10fA, 10µV measurement
sensitivity
• 1100V source and measure
• Standard and custom sweep
capability including pulse
• 1000 source/measurements
per second
• Four quadrant source operation
• Internal 1000-reading memory
Ordering Information
237
High Voltage
Source-Measure Unit
Accessories Supplied
7078-TRX-10 3-Slot Low Noise
Triax Cables, 3m (10 ft) (2)
236-ILC-3 Interlock Cable,
3m (10 ft)
237-ALG-2 Low Noise Triax
Cable, 2m (6.6 ft)
ACCESSORIES AVAILABLE
237-TRX-NG
1938
1939
7010
7007-1
7007-2
7078-TRX-3
7078-TRX-20
KPCI-488LPA
KUSB-488A
3-Slot Triax to 3-Lug Female Triax Connector
Fixed Rack Mount Kit
Slide Rack Mount Kit
GPIB Shielded Extender
Shielded GPIB Cable, 1m (3.3 ft.)
Shielded GPIB Cable, 2m (6.6 ft.)
3-Slot, Low Noise Triax Cable, 0.9m (3 ft)
3-Slot, Low Noise Triax Cable, 6m (20 ft)
IEEE-488 Interface/Controller for the PCI Bus
USB-to-GPIB Interface Adapter for USB Port
(requires 7010 Adapter)
Services Available
237-3Y-EW
1-year factory warranty extended to 3 years
from date of shipment
C/237-3Y-DATA 3 (Z540-1 compliant) calibrations within 3 years
of purchase*
*Not available in all countries
1.888.KEITHLEY (U.S. only)
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The Model 237 Source-Measure Unit (SMU) is a fully programmable instrument, capable of sourc­­­­ing
and measuring voltage or current simultaneously. This system is really four ­instruments in one: voltage source, ­current source, voltage measure, and ­current measure.
Applications
This instrument addresses a wide variety of applications, including the characteri­zation of semiconductor devices and the measurement of leakage currents or insulation resistance. It can be used
standalone on a bench, in a test rack with PC control, or integrated with our Model 4200-SCS for
high voltage semicconductor characterization.
Wide Dynamic Range
The Model 237 will source voltage from 100µV to 1100V, and current from 100fA to 100mA. It can
also measure voltage from 10µV to 110V and current from 10fA to 100mA. In the higher voltage
range, current source and measure is 10mA maximum.
Source and measure voltage
Side Text
and current simultaneously
High Voltage Source-Measure Unit
Selectable Sweeps of Voltage and Current
The Model 237 can be programmed to perform source-measurements as a function of a stepped
voltage or current. Voltage and current can be swept linearly, logarithmically, or pulsed. The START,
STOP, STEP method of setting sweep parameters allows operators to become proficient at using the
instru­ment very quickly. Sweep para­me­­ters may be appended (APPEND key) to obtain more complex
test sequences.
Creating custom sweeps of voltage or current is
facilitated by the use of three waveform oper­
a­tions: CREATE, APPEND, and MODIFY. These
allow the user to select waveform parameters,
com­­­­­­­­bine multiple waveforms, and select and
change any points in a waveform previously crea­­
t­­­ed or appended.
Fully-Guarded Four-Terminal
­Measurements
The Model 237 outputs and inputs are fully
guard­ed, and the units are configured to allow
four-terminal measurements. Two-terminal measurements are also available for more standard test
procedures. These outputs can be floated up to
±200V from ground.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
Model 237 Source Capability
±110V,
±100mA
100mA
±1100V at
±10mA
10mA
1mA
–1000V –100V –10V
–1V
1V
–1mA
–10mA
–100mA
O F
10V
100V
1000V
SOURCE AND MEASURE
237
C O N F I D E N C E
221
237
High Voltage Source-Measure Unit
VOLTAGE
SOURCE-DELAY-MEASURE CYCLE:
Source V
Source
Value
Source-Delay-Measure Cycle
Default
Delay
Delay
Measure
Integration Time
Default Delay: Fixed delay for instrument settling.
User Delay: Additional delay for device under test or system
capacitance.
Model 237
Sidespecifications
Text
MEASURE:
Integration Time
Fast
Medium
Line Cycle
416
4
16.67
20.00
µs
ms
ms (60 Hz)
ms (50 Hz)
4-digit resolution
5-digit resolution
5-digit resolution
EXECUTION SPEED
MINIMUM SOURCE-DELAY-MEASURE CYCLE TIME: 1ms.
RESPONSE TO IEEE-488 COMMAND (as a source): 25ms.
MEASUREMENT RATE: 1ms per point into internal buffer.
CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT SPEED (source DC value over
IEEE-488 bus): 110 readings per second.
TRIGGER LATENCY TIME: <2ms.
SOURCE AND MEASURE
GENERAL
LOAD CAPACITANCE: Stable into 20,000pF typical.
REMOTE SENSE: Corrects for up to 2V drop in each output lead. Maximum
1kW per sense lead for rated accuracy. Residual output resistance (as a voltage source) is 0.5W.
GUARD:Output Resistance: ≤12kW.
Maximum Output Current: ±2mA.
Offset Relative to Output HI: ±2mV max.
ISOLATION (Output LO to chassis): Typically >1010W in parallel with 500pF
(650pF on Model 238).
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: 200V.
CONNECTORS:Outputs: 3-lug triax.
Trigger Input/Output: BNC.
Interlock: 3-pin miniature DIN.
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C and 28°–50°C): ±(0.1 × applicable
accuracy specification)/°C.
ENVIRONMENT:
Operating: 0°–50°C, 70% relative humidity up to 35°C. Linearly derate 3%
R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage: –25° to 65°C.
EMC: Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC.
Safety: Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC (meets EN61010-1/
IEC 1010).
WARM-UP: One hour to rated accuracy.
COOLING: Internal fan forced air cooling.
POWER: 105–125 or 210–250V AC (external switch selectable), 90–110V and
180–220V version available. 100VA max. (120VA max. on Model 238).
DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT: 89mm high × 435mm wide × 448mm deep (31⁄2 in ×
171⁄8 in × 175⁄8 in). Net weight 9kg (19.75 lb).
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222
Range
(Max.
Value)
±1.1000 V
±11.000 V
±110.00 V
±1100.0 V
Measure V
Accuracy
(1 Year,
18°–28°C)
±(0.033% +650 µV)
±(0.033% + 2.4mV)
±(0.033% + 24mV)
±(0.04  % +240mV)
Step Size
100µV
1mV
10mV
100mV
Accuracy
(1 Year,
18°–28°C)
±(0.028% +300 µV)
±(0.025% + 1mV)
±(0.025% + 10mV)
±(0.035% +100mV)
Resolution
4-Digit 5-Digit
100 µV 10 µV
1mV 100 µV
10mV 1mV
100mV 10mV
COMPLIANCE: Bipolar current limit set with single value.
Maximum: ±100mA (except ±10mA on 1100V range).
Minimum: ±1% of range, except 0.5% of 1.1V range.
Accuracy, Step Size: Same as current source.
NOISE (p-p):
Range
110 V – 1100 V
11 V
1.1 V
0.1–10Hz
< 3 ppm of range
< 3 ppm of range
<10 ppm of range
DC–20MHz
40 mV
15 mV
15 mV
WIDEBAND NOISE: 0.1 to 20MHz, 8mV p-p typical.
OVERSHOOT: <0.01% (110V step, 10mA range).
SETTLING TIME: <500µs to 0.01% (110V step, 10mA range).
NMRR: >60dB at 50 or 60Hz (LINE CYCLE integration time ­selected).
CMRR: >120dB at DC, 50 or 60Hz (LINE CYCLE integration time selected).
INPUT IMPEDANCE (as a voltmeter): >1014W paralleled by <20pF.
CURRENT
Source I
Range
(Max.
Value)
±1.0000 nA
±10.000 nA
±100.00 nA
±1.0000 µA
±10.000 µA
±100.00 µA
±1.0000 mA
±10.000 mA
±100.00 mA
Step
Size
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
Measure I
Accuracy
(1 Year,
18°–28°C)
±(0.3 % + 450 fA)
±(0.3 % + 2 pA)
±(0.21% + 20 pA)
±(0.05% + 200 pA)
±(0.05% + 2 nA)
±(0.05% + 20 nA)
±(0.05% + 200 nA)
±(0.05% + 2 µA)
±(0.1 % + 20 µA)
Resolution
4-Digit
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
10 µA
5-Digit
10 fA
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
Accuracy
(1 Year,
18°–28°C)
±(0.3 % + 100 fA)1
±(0.3 % + 1 pA)
±(0.21 % + 6 pA)
±(0.04 % + 60 pA)
±(0.035% + 700 pA)
±(0.035% + 6 nA)
±(0.035% + 60 nA)
±(0.038% + 600 nA)
±(0.1 % + 6 µA)
COMPLIANCE: Bipolar voltage limit set with single value.
Maximum: ±1100V (except on 100mA range).
Minimum: ±0.1% of selected current range.
Accuracy, Step Size: Same as voltage source.
NOISE (p-p of range): 0.1–10Hz: <3ppm (<20ppm on 1nA and 10nA ranges).
OVERSHOOT: <0.01% typical (10mA step, R L = 10kW).
SETTLING TIME: <500µs to 0.01% (10mA step, R L = 10kW).
OUTPUT R, C: >1014W paralleled by <20pF (on 1nA range).
NOTES
1. Offset specification applies for 23°C ±1°C with suppression. Temperature coefficient 50fA/°C.
A
G R E A T E R
M E A S U R E
O F
C O N F I D E N C E
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