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NTC’s
Super-Mini
ENGLISH
Dictionary
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NTC’s
Super-Mini
ENGLISH
Dictionary
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DOI: 10.1036/0071434062
For more information about this title, click here.
Contents
Introduction
vii
Useful Spelling Rules
Pronunciation
ix
xiv
Terms, Abbreviations, and Symbols
Entries
xvii
1
Important Lists of Words
595
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v
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Introduction
NTC’s Super-Mini English Dictionary is for persons who are
seeking to improve their ability to speak, read, write, and
understand American English. It is a small, portable dictionary that will help with spelling, pronunciation, part of
speech, meaning, irregular forms, and the appropriate use
of 8,200 senses of 7,600 common words. This dictionary
defines words using the smallest possible vocabulary, but
when necessary, uses additional words to define difficult
concepts. In many cases, more than one definition is given
to help in figuring out the meaning of a word or expression.
Many of the entry words in the dictionary have more than
one sense. Please study all the relevant senses to make sure
you have found the right one.
Nominals (n.) that do not follow the regular spelling or
pronunciation rules in the formation of the plural are
marked irreg., and the form of the plural is given in the
entry. Verbs (tv., iv.) that do not follow the regular rules for
the formation of the past tense and past participle are
marked irreg., and the proper forms are given in the entry.
The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives (adj.)
and adverbs (adv.) are listed when there are forms—as with
red, redder, reddest—that replace, or that exist in addition
to, the comparatives and superlatives formed with more and
most. After many of the definitions, you will find comments,
enclosed in parentheses, containing further information
about the entry word.
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vii
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Useful Spelling Rules
The following basic spelling rules equip the learner to create
and identify the most important derived and inflected forms
of regular English nouns and verbs. Words that have important irregular forms that do not follow these rules are identified in the dictionary.
Regular Verb Forms
Note: Many verbs that have irregular past-tense forms or
irregular past participles nevertheless form the present tense
and the present participle regularly.
For the third-person singular (the form used with he, she, it,
and singular nouns) in the present tense:
■ Add -s to the bare verb. If the bare verb ends in y preceded
by a consonant, change y to ie and then add -s. If the bare
verb ends in s, z, x, ch, or sh, add -es.
like > Bill likes
cry > the baby cries
walk > Anne walks
buy > the man buys
carry > a truck carries
fix > she fixes
pass > it passes
notify > he notifies
catch > she catches
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ix
Useful Spelling Rules
For the past tense and the past participle:
■ Add -ed to the bare verb. If the bare verb ends in y preceded by a consonant, change y to i before adding -ed. If
the bare verb ends in e, just add -d.
walk > walked
like > liked
judge > judged
try > tried
carry > carried
measure > measured
For the present participle:
■ Add -ing to the bare verb. If the bare verb ends in a single e preceded either by a consonant or by u, drop the e
before adding -ing. If the bare verb ends in ie, change ie
to y before adding -ing.
judge > judging
take > taking
ask > asking
carry > carrying
pay > paying
pursue > pursuing
hoe > hoeing
see > seeing
go > going
lie > lying
x
Useful Spelling Rules
Doubling of consonants in participles and past-tense forms:
■ When -ed or -ing is added to a word that ends in a consonant (other than h, w, x, or y) preceded by a single
vowel, and the final syllable is stressed, then the consonant is normally doubled. Thus commit and control,
which are accented on the last syllable, become committed and controlling, but limit and cancel, which are
accented on the first syllable, become limited and canceling. Similarly, stop becomes stopping, but look, in which
the consonant is preceded by two vowels, becomes
looking.
Within the dictionary, forms that do not follow these
doubling rules are noted in individual entries. The most
typical exceptions to the doubling rules are words with a
final c that becomes ck rather than doubling (e.g., picnicking), verbs that are compounds, and verbs with closely
related noun senses or more than one pronunciation. Outside the dictionary, learners will encounter other exceptions. Variation also occurs, because sometimes another
option is correct, although less familiar in American
English than the option given here.
xi
Useful Spelling Rules
Regular Noun Plurals
To form the plural of a regular noun:
■ If the singular form ends in s, z, x, ch, or sh, add -es.
kiss > kisses
box > boxes
match > matches
dish > dishes
bus > buses
■ If the singular form ends in y preceded by a consonant,
change y to ie and then add -s.
baby > babies
library > libraries
university > universities
butterfly > butterflies
■ For nouns ending in o, the regular plural form may be
formed by adding -es or by adding -s. For some words,
both spellings are possible. In this dictionary, each entry
for a noun ending in o specifies the correct plural form or
forms for that word.
radio > radios
potato > potatoes
tornado > tornados or tornadoes
xii
Useful Spelling Rules
■ For all other regular nouns, add -s to the singular form to
make the plural.
table > tables
boy > boys
television > televisions
valley > valleys
An Important Note on the English Plural
The English plural makes English very difficult for adults to
learn. Many English nouns cannot be made plural, unlike
their counterparts in other languages. Nothing sounds more
“non-English” than advice, information, or baggage with the
plural s on the end. Among the American English nouns in
this dictionary, there are many that the learner should not
attempt to make plural—ever! In addition, many of the
nouns that can be followed by the plural s seem to be plural
but really refer to kinds or types of the noun in question. For
example, when the word margarine has an s on the end, it
refers to different kinds, types, or varieties of margarine.
margarine ["mar [email protected] rIn] n. a food made from
animal or vegetable fats, used in place of butter;
a spread for bread. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
Many American English nouns can take the plural s while
only referring to different kinds, types, instances, or varieties of the noun.
xiii
Pronunciation
The symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet are used
to show the pronunciation of the words in this dictionary.
The speech represented here is that of educated people, but
it is not formal or overly precise. It is more representative of
the West and the middle of the country than of the East,
South, or upper Midwest.
Pronunciation of American English is variable in different regions of the country, but most native speakers of
American English can understand one another quite well.
The goal of the pronunciation scheme is to provide the
student with one acceptable model of pronunciation for each
entry. Where the numbered senses of an entry are all pronounced the same way, the phonetic representation follows
the main entry word. In entries where even one of the numbered senses is pronounced differently from the rest, all the
senses are provided with a phonetic representation.
Sounds represented here as [or] are often pronounced as
[Or] in some parts of the East. Similarly, the sequence [Er]
is often pronounced [Ar] in parts of the East. One heavy
stress is marked for most words. The dictionary user should
expect to hear variation in the pronunciation of most of the
words listed in this or any dictionary, but should remain
confident that the model provided here is understood and
accepted in all parts of the country.
The chart on the next page shows the symbols used here
and what they correspond to in some simple English words.
xiv
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Pronunciation
{
[] {
[ɑυ] {
[ɑ] {
[b] {
[d] {
[ð] {
[d] {
[e] {
[ε] {
[ə] {
[ɑ]
stop
top
sat
track
cow
now
bite
my
beet
bubble
dead
body
that
those
jail
judge
date
sail
get
set
above
around
{
[] {
[f] {
[] {
[h] {
[i] {
[] {
[j] {
[k] {
[l] {
[m] {
[]
nut
shut
bird
turtle
feel
if
get
frog
hat
who
feet
leak
bit
hiss
yellow
you
can
keep
lawn
yellow
family
slam
{
[ŋ] {
[o] {
[o] {
[ɔ] {
[p] {
[r] {
[s] {
[ʃ] {
[t] {
[tʃ] {
[n]
new
funny
bring
thing
coat
wrote
spoil
boy
caught
yawn
tip
pat
rat
berry
sun
fast
fish
sure
{
[u] {
[υ] {
[v] {
[w] {
[#] {
[z] {
[] {
[%] {
[θ]
thin
faith
food
blue
put
look
save
van
well
wind
wheel
while
fuzzy
zoo
pleasure
treasure
%water
ho%tel
top
pot
cheese
pitcher
xv
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Terms, Abbreviations,
and Symbols
Q, W, E, etc. a number within a circle refers to the sense
number of a word. The circled number by itself refers to
a sense within the entry in which the circled number is
found.
the swung dash stands for the entryhead at the beginning
of the entryblock in which the swung dash was found.
acronym a word made from the initial letters of a phrase,
such as SCUBA, self-contained underwater breathing
apparatus
adj. adjective; adjectival
adv. adverb; adverbial
aux. auxiliary
colloquial of a word or phrase that is more appropriate for
speech rather than formal writing
comp comparative
conj. conjunction
cont. contraction
e.g. for example, by way of example
emphasis intensity, force, or special importance as shown
by a word
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xvii
Terms, Abbreviations, and Symbols
euphemistic of a word or phrase that is better, more pleas-
ing, or more polite than a word or phrase it is used as a
replacement for
fig. figurative
interj. interjection
interrog. interrogative
irreg. irregular
iv. intransitive verb
n. noun; nominal
objective of the form of a pronoun that serves as the
object of a verb or preposition
part. participle
phr. phrase
pl plural
pp past participle
prep. preposition
pres. present
pron. pronoun
pt past tense
reflexive of a sense of transitive verb that requires an
object that refers to the same being as the subject refers
to, as in one must apply oneself
xviii
Terms, Abbreviations, and Symbols
sg singular
subjective of the form of a pronoun that serves as the sub-
ject of a verb
sup superlative
taboo of an offensive word or phrase usually avoided in
polite speaking or writing
tv. transitive verb
xix
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A
a 1. ["e] n. the first in a series; the highest grade. (Capitalized. Note:
Use a before words that begin with a consonant sound; use an before
words that begin with a vowel sound.) 2. ["e, @] article one; any. (See
also an.) 3. ["e, @] prep. each; every; per. (See also an.)
abandon [@ "bAn [email protected]] tv. to leave someone or something and not
return; to desert someone or something.
abbreviation [@ bri vi "e [email protected]] n. a shortened word or phrase that takes
the place of a longer word or phrase.
abdomen ["Ab [email protected] [email protected]] n. the part of the body between the chest and
the legs and the internal organs within it.
ability [@ "bIl @ ti] n. the power, capacity, or skill to do something.
able ["e [email protected]] adj. skilled; well qualified; capable. (Adv: ably.)
abode [@ "bod] n. the place where one lives.
about [@ "baUt] 1. prep. regarding someone or something; concerning
someone or something; having to do with someone or something.
2. adv. approximately; nearly. 3. adv. almost; not quite. 4. to do
almost ready to do something.
above [@ "b^v] 1. prep. over—but not touching—someone or something. 2. prep. greater than something; higher than something; more
than something. 3. adv. [written about or presented] previously [in
the same written work or on the same page]. 4. adv. in or at a higher
place; over. 5. adv. of a greater amount or quantity. 6. average
higher or better than the general level of quality. 7. par better than
average or normal.
abroad [@ "brOd] adv. in another country; overseas.
absence ["Ab [email protected]] 1. n. the quality of [someone’s] not being present.
(No pl.) 2. n. a period of time when someone is not present. 3. n. a
lack; a deficiency. (No pl.)
absent ["Ab [email protected]] 1. adj. not present at a place; away from a place.
2. adj. not in existence; not evident; not present or visible. 3. adj.
[appearing] vague or not interested. (Adv: absently.)
absorb [@b "zorb] 1. tv. to soak up a liquid. 2. tv. to learn something;
to take in new information; to learn something easily. (Fig. on Q.)
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1
absorbent
absorbent [@b "zor [email protected]] adj. able to soak up liquids. (Adv:
absorbently.)
abundant [@ "b^n [email protected]] adj. full; brimming; in large amounts. (Adv:
abundantly.)
abuse 1. [@ "bjuz] tv. to harm someone in some way, such as physically
or emotionally; to use something in a way that damages it. 2. [@ "bjuz]
tv. to use something badly or improperly. 3. [@ "bjus] n. unfair or
cruel treatment of someone; action that damages something. (No pl
form in this sense.) 4. [@ "bjus] n. improper use. (No pl form in this
sense.)
accent ["Ak sEnt] 1. n. the force or stress put on a word or a part of a
word during speech. 2. n. a mark written over a letter of the alphabet that gives the letter a special pronunciation or stress. 3. n. a way
of speaking a language, and especially of pronouncing a language.
4. tv. to emphasize something, especially to put Q on a word or a
part of a word during speech.
accept [Ak "sEpt] tv. to take something that is offered. (Compare this
with except. The object can be a clause with that U.)
acceptable [Ak "sEp [email protected] [email protected]] adj. worth accepting; satisfactory; good
enough. (Adv: acceptably.)
accident ["Ak sI [email protected]] n. an unexpected event, usually involving harm
to someone or something.
accidental [Ak sI "dEn [email protected]] adj. not on purpose; done or happening by
mistake. (Adv: accidentally.)
accomplish [@ "kam plIS] tv. to finish something; to successfully complete something.
accomplishment [@ "kam plIS [email protected]] n. something that has been completed or achieved; a success.
according to [@ "kord IN tu] 1. as stated by someone; as indicated by
something. 2. in proportion to something.
account [@ "kaUnt] 1. n. a report; a description; one’s version of what
happened in an event. 2. n. a record of income [or money received]
and expenses [or money paid out] assigned to a particular person,
business, or class of transactions.
accountant [@ "kaUnt nt] n. someone who is responsible for maintaining financial records or accounts; someone who prepares tax
records.
2
actual
accuracy ["Ak [email protected] [email protected] si] n. correctness; the degree of freedom from
errors. (No pl.)
accurate ["Ak [email protected] [email protected]] adj. correct; exact; without error. (Adv: accurately.)
accuse [@ "kjuz] tv. to claim or charge that someone has done something, usually something wrong or illegal.
accustom to [@ "k^s [email protected] tu] to cause someone or something to
become familiar with something.
ache ["ek] 1. n. a pain; a soreness. 2. iv. to hurt; to be sore.
achieve [@ "tSiv] 1. tv. to accomplish what was intended; to gain or get
something. 2. iv. to advance; to get ahead.
acknowledgment [Ak "nal IdZ [email protected]] 1. n. admission; stating that
something is so. (No pl.) 2. n. the recognition given to someone for
doing something well. 3. n. a report of having received something.
acquire [@ "kwaIr] tv. to get something; to receive something.
across [@ "krOs] 1. prep. from one side of something to the other side.
2. prep. on the other side of something. 3. adv. to the other side of
something.
act ["Akt] 1. n. a division of a play or musical. 2. n. one of many short
performances within a longer program. 3. n. something that is done;
an instance of doing something. 4. n. a law. 5. iv. to perform in a play,
film, TV program, or similar performance. 6. iv. to behave in a certain way; to behave as if one is or feels a certain way. 7. up [for a
thing or a person] to behave badly.
action ["Ak [email protected]] 1. n. activity; movement. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. the plot of a story; the events that happen in a story.
(No pl.)
active ["Ak tIv] 1. adj. moving; functioning; operating. (Adv: actively.)
2. adj. lively; moving at a rapid, steady pace; busy. (Adv: actively.)
3. adj. of or about sentences in which the subject does the action that
is expressed in the verb. (The opposite of passive W. Adv: actively.)
activity [Ak "tIv @ ti] n. action; movement; doing something.
actor ["Ak t#] n. a performer, male or female, in a play, musical, or
movie. (See also actress.)
actress ["Ak [email protected]] n. a female performer in a play, musical, or movie.
(See also actor.)
actual ["Ak tSu @l] adj. real; existing. (Adv: actually.)
3
actually
actually ["Ak tS(u) @ li] adv. in fact; really.
ad ["Ad] n. an advertisement.
adapt [@ "dApt] 1. iv. to change or modify to fit in; to adjust to new
conditions. 2. tv. to change or modify something to fit with something else; to adjust something to new conditions.
add ["Ad] tv. to join something to something else; to include something
with something else.
addition [@ "dI [email protected]] 1. n. the adding together of two or more numbers.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. putting someone or something
into something else. (Pl only for types and instances.)
additional [@ "dIS @ [email protected]] adj. extra; [something] further; more; added.
(Adv: additionally.)
address 1. ["A drEs, @ "drEs] n. the street name and number, city, state,
and other information telling the location of something, such as a
building or house. 2. [@ "drEs] n. a formal speech. 3. [@ "drEs] tv. to
write the street name, number, city, state, and other information on
an envelope or package. 4. [@ "drEs] tv. to speak directly to a person
or a group of people. 5. [@ "drEs] tv. to respond to a question; to say
something about an issue or problem.
adequate ["Ad @ kwIt] adj. just enough but not more than enough;
good enough. (Adv: adequately.)
adhesive [Ad "hi sIv] 1. adj. sticky; designed to stick to things. (Adv:
adhesively.) 2. n. glue; paste. (Pl only for types and instances.)
adj. an abbreviation of adjective.
adjective ["A dZEk tIv] n. a word that describes or modifies a noun or
nominal.
adjust [@ "dZ^st] 1. tv. to change something in a small way in order to
try to make it work or fit better. 2. iv. to become used to someone or
something; to adapt to someone or something.
adjustable [@ "dZ^st @ [email protected]] adj. changeable; able to be changed in small
amounts. (Adv: adjustably.)
administer [Ad "mIn Is t#] 1. tv. to manage something. 2. tv. to give
or dispense something, such as medicine, medical care, or justice, to
someone.
administration [Ad mIn I "stre [email protected]] 1. n. the work of managing and
directing. (No pl.) 2. n. the office and staff of a high-ranking elected
official, such as a president, governor, or mayor. 3. n. a group of people who manage something.
4
advantage
admiration [Ad [email protected] "re [email protected]] n. a feeling of pride, pleasure, and respect
for someone or something. (No pl.)
admire [Ad "maI#] tv. to regard someone or something with pride,
pleasure, and respect.
admit [Ad "mIt] 1. tv. to allow someone or something to enter into
someplace. 2. tv. to allow someone to become a member of a club or
organization. 3. tv. to say that one has done something one is accused
of; to say that something is true. (The object can be a clause with that
U.)
adolescence [Ad @ "lEs @ns] n. the period of time between being a
child and being an adult; the teenage years.
adolescent [Ad @ "lEs @nt] 1. n. a teenager; someone who is older than
a child but not yet an adult. 2. the adj. use of Q.
adopt [@ "dapt] 1. iv. to become the parent or parents of a child
through legal proceedings. 2. tv. to gain possession of and become
responsible for the child of someone else, through the legal system.
3. tv. to acquire a new practice, belief, or habit.
adoption [@ "dap [email protected]] 1. n. acquiring and becoming responsible for
the child of someone else, through the legal system. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. n. acquiring a new practice, belief, or habit. (No
pl.)
adorable [@ "dor @ [email protected]] adj. very cute; worthy of being adored. (Adv:
adorably.)
adore [@ "dor] tv. to admire and be fond of someone or something.
adult [@ "d^lt] 1. adj. mature; fully grown; fully developed. 2. adj.
showing the behavior of a mature person. 3. adj. intended for persons who are mature. (Often used referring to sex and violence in
entertainment.) 4. n. someone or something that is fully grown.
adv. an abbreviation of adverb.
advance [Ad "vAns] 1. n. a forward motion. 2. n. money that is given
to someone ahead of schedule or before it is earned; a loan taken
against money that is to be paid at a later time. 3. iv. to progress or
move forward; to move to a higher or better level. 4. tv. to move
someone or something forward or to a higher level. 5. tv. to give
someone money ahead of schedule or before it is earned. 6. adj. prior;
before the event. (Prenominal only.)
advantage [Ad "vAn tIdZ] n. something good or useful that will help
someone with something; a benefit.
5
adventure
adventure [Ad "vEn tS#] n. excitement; challenge. (Pl only for types
and instances.)
adverb ["Ad v#b] n. a word that modifies or describes a verb, a verb
phrase, an adjective, a sentence, or another adverb. (Abbreviated adv.
here.)
advertise ["Ad v# taIz] 1. iv. to make [something] known to the public, especially through signs, television, radio, newspapers, or magazines. 2. tv. to make something known to the public through signs,
television, radio, newspapers, magazines, or other means; to publicize something. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
advertisement [Ad v# "taIz [email protected]] n. a commercial; a notice about
something, displayed to the public.
advice [Ad "vaIs] n. recommendations or suggestions provided to help
someone. (Compare this with advise . No pl. Number is expressed
with piece(s) or bit(s) of advice.)
advise [Ad "vaIz] tv. to give [someone] a particular kind of advice; to
suggest doing something. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
advocate 1. ["Ad vo ket] tv. to be in favor of something and argue for
it. 2. ["Ad [email protected] [email protected]] n. someone who does Q.
affair [@ "fer] 1. n. a matter that needs attention; business. 2. n. a temporary, intimate relationship between two people who are not married to each other. 3. n. a party; a social function.
affect [@ "fEkt] 1. tv. to influence someone or something; to have an
effect on someone or something. (Compare this with effect.) 2. tv.
to display or exhibit a kind of behavior, especially by pretending or
imitating.
affection [@ "fEk [email protected]] n. love, caring, or fondness. (No pl.)
affirmative [@ "f# [email protected] tIv] adj. meaning yes.
afford [@ "ford] tv. to be able to buy something.
afraid [@ "fred] adj. fearful of someone or something; scared of someone or something. (Not prenominal.)
after ["Af t#] 1. conj. later in time than when something happens;
when something has finished happening. 2. prep. at a later time than
something; later in time than something. 3. prep. further along in a
sequence or series than someone or something. 4. prep. in the name
of someone; in honor of someone; for someone. 5. adv. behind; to
the rear; following.
6
agree
afternoon [Af t# "nun] 1. n. the time of day from noon until the evening. 2. the adj. use of Q. 3. s adv. every afternoon.
afterward(s) ["Af t# w#d(z)] adv. after; following; later.
again [@ "gEn] 1. adv. once more; another time. 2. adv. as [something
was] before.
against [@ "gEnst] 1. prep. in opposition to someone or something; as
an opponent of someone or something. 2. prep. in a direction opposite to something. 3. prep. coming toward and meeting someone or
something. 4. prep. [leaning or tilting and] in contact with someone
or something.
age ["edZ] 1. n. the amount of time that someone or something has
been alive or in existence. (No pl.) 2. n. advanced Q; evidence of
much Q; oldness. (No pl.) 3. n. the specific Q of a person, usually
given as a number of years; the specific Q of something. 4. n. [for a
person] the condition of having a certain E; the time when a person
has a certain E. (The number comes after age and refers to years,
unless some other measure is given, such as months, weeks, or days.)
5. n. a period or stage of life. 6. n. a period of history; a generation;
an era. 7. iv. to become old; to show increasing Q. 8. iv. [for cheese,
wine, whiskey, beef, etc.] to mature; to reach a peak of quality, taste,
and strength. 9. tv. to cause someone or something to grow old or
appear old.
agent ["e [email protected]] 1. n. someone who represents someone else; someone who sells certain things such as insurance, travel, tickets, land,
buildings, etc. 2. n. something that causes someone or something else
to do something; something that causes some result to happen. 3. n.
a spy.
ago [@ "go] adj. in the past; [time] already gone by. (After a noun that
expresses a length of time.)
agony ["Ag @ ni] n. an intense, deep pain in the mind or the body; a
deep suffering. (Pl only for types and instances.)
agree [@ "gri] 1. iv. [for people] to be in harmony or have the same
opinion; [for people] to have no conflict of opinion or desire. 2. iv.
[for facts or things] to be consistent or to harmonize. 3. iv. [for a
form of a word] to match the form of another word grammatically.
4. tv. to decide together that something is true or should happen; to
accept someone’s opinion that something is true or should happen.
(The object can be a clause with that U.) 5. to to consent to something; to approve something. 6. (up)on to agree to the choice of
someone or something. 7. with to hold the same opinion as some7
agreeable
one else. 8. with to look good or go well with; to be in accord
with.
agreeable [@ "gri @ [email protected]] 1. adj. pleasant; satisfactory. (Adv: agreeably.)
2. adj. acceptable.
agreement [@ "gri [email protected]] n. a state of agreeing; holding the same opinion as someone else; a state of accepting a proposal.
ahead [@ "hEd] 1. adv. into the future; [preparing] for the future.
2. adv. forward; continuing in the same direction. 3. adv. into an
advanced position; into a better position. 4. of at a place in front
of or in advance of; earlier than.
aid ["ed] 1. n. help; assistance; support. (No pl.) 2. n. something that
helps someone or something else. 3. tv. to provide someone or something with Q.
aim ["em] 1. tv. to point something toward a target or a goal. 2. n. a
goal; a purpose; an intention. 3. n. the accurate pointing or directing
of something. (No pl.) 4. at to point or direct at.
air ["er] 1. n. the mixture of gases that surrounds the earth; the mixture of gases that people normally breathe. (No pl.) 2. n. a mood or
atmosphere. (No pl.) 3. tv. to express a view or an opinion in public;
to make something known.
air conditioner ["er [email protected] dI [email protected] #] n. a machine that cools indoor air.
aircraft ["er krAft] n., irreg. a machine, such as an airplane or a helicopter, that flies in the air. (Pl: aircraft.)
airline ["er laIn] n. a company that operates a number of aircraft for
passengers or cargo.
airmail ["er mel] 1. n. a system for sending international mail by airplane. (No pl.) 2. adv. [sending mail] by Q. 3. tv. to send something
by Q.
airplane ["er plen] n. a heavier-than-air vehicle that flies through the
air.
airport ["er port] n. a place where airplanes land and take off.
aisle ["aIl] n. a walkway between rows of seats, as in a theater, or
between rows of shelves, as in a supermarket.
alarm [@ "larm] 1. n. a warning sound or signal. 2. n. a device that
makes a warning sound or signal. 3. n. excitement, anxiety, or shock.
(No pl.) 4. n. a clock that has a bell or other signal that is sounded to
wake someone up. 5. tv. to frighten or scare someone; to make someone afraid or fearful of danger.
8
along
alcohol ["Al [email protected] hOl] 1. n. a liquid chemical used to make wounds and
skin very clean or sterile or to dissolve substances. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. n. the substance found in beer, wine, and hard
liquors that causes someone to be drunk. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 3. n. beer, wine, whiskey, spirits; drinks that contain W.
(No pl.)
alert [@ "l#t] 1. adj. wary; aware; watchful. (Adv: alertly.) 2. tv. to warn
someone about something, especially danger.
algebra ["Al [email protected] [email protected]] n. a branch of mathematics using letters and
other symbols to represent numbers or sets of numbers in equations.
(No pl.)
alike [@ "laIk] 1. adj. similar; the same or almost the same. (Not
prenominal.) 2. adv. in the same way. 3. adv. equally; in the same
amount or degree.
alive [@ "laIv] 1. adj. living; not dead. (Not prenominal.) 2. adj. active,
lively, or full of energy. (Fig. on Q. Not prenominal.)
all ["Ol] 1. adj. each and every one [of the people or things]; the full
amount [of something]; the whole extent of [something]. 2. adj. the
greatest amount possible [of something]. 3. pron. everything or
everyone mentioned earlier in the conversation or writing. (Treated
as sg or pl.) 4. pron. everything. (Treated as sg.) 5. adv. completely.
allergy ["Al # dZi] n. a physical response to a substance—an allergen—
causing sneezing, itching, a rash, or other symptoms.
alley ["Al i] 1. n. a narrow road or pathway behind or between buildings. 2. n. a place where bowling is done, a bowling alley.
alligator ["Al @ get #] n. a large reptile of the crocodile family.
allow [@ "laU] tv. to make sure that there is a certain amount of time
for something to be done.
allowance [@ "laU @ns] 1. n. an amount of something, such as money,
given to someone. 2. n. an amount of something—time, forgiveness,
tolerance—that is provided or allowed for someone or something.
almost ["Ol most] adv. nearly, but not quite.
aloft [@ "lOft] 1. adj. in a higher place; in the air. (Not prenominal.)
2. adv. to a higher place; into the air.
alone [@ "lon] 1. adj. by oneself; having no one else nearby. (Not
prenominal.) 2. adv. by oneself; with no help.
along [@ "lON] 1. prep. next to something for a distance; in a path next
to something. 2. with in addition to; together with.
9
aloof
aloof [@ "luf] adj. unfriendly; reserved; unsympathetic. (Adv: aloofly.)
aloud [@ "laUd] adv. audibly; [of speech] spoken so that it can be heard.
alphabet ["Al [email protected] bEt] n. the list of letters—in proper order—used to
write a language.
alphabetical [Al [email protected] "bEt I [email protected]] adj. arranged in the order of the letters
in the alphabet. (Adv: alphabetically [...Ik li].)
alphabetize ["Al [email protected] [email protected] taIz] tv. to place words in the same order as the
letters of the alphabet.
already [Ol "rEd i] adv. by now; by this point in time; previously. (This
is different from all ready.)
also ["Ol so] adv. as well; too; in addition.
altar ["Ol t#] n. a table used in religious ceremonies. (Compare with
alter.)
alter ["Ol t#] tv. to change something; to make something different.
(Compare with altar.)
alteration [Ol [email protected] "re [email protected]] 1. n. change caused intentionally. (No pl form
in this sense.) 2. n. the result of a change.
although [Ol "Do] conj. even though; despite; in spite of.
altogether ["Ol [email protected] gED #] adv. completely. (Different from all together.)
aluminum [@ "lum @ [email protected]] 1. n. a metal that is lightweight and does
not rust easily. (No pl.) 2. adj. made of Q.
always ["Ol wez] 1. adv. every time; each time. 2. adv. forever; without end.
am ["Am] iv., irreg. the first-person present sg form of be. (Reduced to
’m in the contraction I’m.)
amaze [@ "mez] tv. to cause wonder in someone; to astound or astonish someone.
ambulance ["Am [email protected] [email protected]] n. a vehicle for taking sick or injured people to the hospital.
amend [@ "mEnd] tv. to change something; to modify something (especially laws).
amendment [@ "mEnd [email protected]] n. a change made by correcting or adding
to something.
America [@ "mEr I [email protected]] 1. n. the continents of the New World. 2. n. the
United States of America. 3. the s n. North and South America.
(Treated as pl.)
10
ancient
amid [@ "mId] prep. in the midst of; during.
among [@ "m^N] 1. prep. in the midst of people or things; surrounded
by things or people. 2. prep. within a group; within a set of choices.
(Use between with two people or things. Use among with more than
two.)
amount [@ "maUnt] 1. n. how much there is of something; the quantity. 2. iv. to be equal to a numerical figure; to total up to something.
3. to to become worthwhile or valuable.
amphibian [Am "fIb i @n] n. a kind of animal, such as a frog, that lives
in water and on land.
ample ["Am [email protected]] adj. large enough; sufficient and adequate. (Adv:
amply. Comp: ampler; sup: amplest.)
amputation [Am [email protected] "te [email protected]] n. the removal of all or part of an arm,
a leg, a finger, or a toe. (Pl only for types and instances.)
amuse [@ "mjuz] tv. to make someone laugh or smile; to give someone
pleasure.
amusement [@ "mjuz [email protected]] 1. n. happiness; pleasure; enjoyment. (No
pl.) 2. n. something that makes someone happy; entertainment.
an ["An] 1. article one; any. (Note: Use a before words that begin with
a consonant sound; use an before words that begin with a vowel
sound.) 2. prep. each; per. (See note at Q.)
analyses [@ "nAl @ siz] pl of analysis.
analysis [@ "nAl @ sIs] 1. n. the process of analyzing or of examining
something very closely. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n., irreg. an indepth examination of an issue or topic. (Pl: analyses.) 3. n. psychoanalysis. (No pl form in this sense.)
analyze ["An @ laIz] tv. to examine the details of something.
ancestor ["An sEs t#] n. a person, usually no longer living, from whom
a person descends.
anchor ["AN k#] 1. n. a heavy object, attached to a ship or boat, that
catches on the sea bottom to keep the ship or boat from drifting away.
2. n. something that holds something else in place. 3. n. a newscaster;
a central newscaster who introduces news reports from other people. 4. tv. to keep a ship in place by lowering Q into the water. 5. tv.
to secure something; to hold something in place. 6. iv. [for a ship] to
remain in a place by dropping Q.
ancient ["en [email protected]] 1. adj. from long ago in history. 2. adj. very old.
3. n. someone who lived long ago.
11
and
and ["And] 1. conj. in addition to; plus; also. 2. conj. then; as a result.
angel ["en [email protected]] 1. n. a heavenly being; a messenger of God. 2. n. a very
kind, sweet person. (Fig. on Q.)
anger ["AN g#] 1. n. strong feelings of annoyance and being upset. (No
pl.) 2. tv. to upset someone; to annoy someone very much.
angle ["AN [email protected]] 1. n. a figure formed where two lines or surfaces come
together. 2. n. a point of view; a way of looking at an issue or idea.
(Informal.) 3. tv. to place two surfaces or lines so that they intersect.
4. iv. to turn, perhaps sharply.
angry ["AN gri] adj. irate; upset; annoyed. (Adv: angrily. Comp: angrier;
sup: angriest.)
anguish ["AN gwIS] n. mental pain or suffering; grief. (No pl.)
animal ["An @ [email protected]] 1. n. a living creature that is not a plant. 2. adj.
from or containing Q. 3. adj. relating to functions of the body
instead of the mind.
ankle ["AN [email protected]] n. the joint that connects the foot with the leg.
anklebone ["AN [email protected] bon] n. the main bone of the ankle.
anniversary [An @ "v# [email protected] ri] n. the annual commemoration of the date
of an event that occurred in the past.
announce [@ "naUns] 1. tv. to make something known to people. (The
object can be a clause with that U.) 2. tv. to speak out the name of
someone or something that is arriving.
announcement [@ "naUns [email protected]] n. a declaration; a public statement.
annoy [@ "noI] tv. to bother or pester someone.
annual ["An ju @l] adj. happening once a year; happening every year;
happening yearly. (Adv: annually.)
anonymous [@ "nan @ [email protected]] adj. unnamed; from an unknown source;
created or done without revealing the name or identity of the creator
or doer. (Adv: anonymously.)
another [@ "n^D #] 1. pron. an additional one; a different one. 2. adj.
consisting of one more of the same kind; [an] additional [one].
(Prenominal only.)
answer ["An s#] 1. n. a reply; a response to a question; a solution to
a problem on a test. 2. n. a response to a situation; a way of solving
a problem. 3. tv. to give a response to something, such as a test question or a letter. 4. tv. to reply to someone. (The object can be a clause
with that U.) 5. iv. to give a reply.
12
anymore
ant ["Ant] n. a small insect that lives in a colony.
antenna [An "tEn @] 1. n. a device that collects or receives electromagnetic signals that have been broadcast, such as for radio or television. (Pl: antennas.) 2. n., irreg. one of the sensitive feelers found
in pairs on the heads of insects and some sea creatures. (Pl: antennae
or antennas.)
antennae [An "tEn i] a pl of antenna W.
antic ["An tIk] 1. n. a playful or silly act. (Often pl.) 2. adj. silly; playful. (Adv: anticly or antically [...Ik li].)
anticipate [An "tIs @ pet] tv. to expect something to happen; to prepare for something that is expected to happen. (The object can be a
clause with that U.)
antique [An "tik] 1. adj. old, especially if valuable; belonging to a time
long ago. 2. n. an object that was made long ago.
antonym ["An [email protected] nIm] n. a word that means the opposite of another
word.
anxiety [AN "zaI @ ti] n. nervousness; worry. (Sg or pl with the same
meaning. Not countable.)
anxious ["ANk [email protected]] 1. adj. nervous; worried; troubled, especially with
a feeling of dread or concern. (Adv: anxiously.) 2. adj. eager to do
something; excited about doing something.
any ["En i] 1. pron. whichever one or ones. (To point out one from a
group of two, use either.) 2. pron. even the smallest amount or number. (Always in the negative or questions. Use some in affirmative
statements or commands.) 3. adj. whichever [one or ones]. (To point
out one from a group of two, use either.) 4. adj. even the smallest
amount or number [of something]. (Always in the negative or questions. Use some in affirmative statements or commands.) 5. adv. even
the smallest amount.
anybody ["En i bad i] 1. pron. some person; any person; anyone; even
one person. (Always in the negative or questions. Use somebody in
affirmative statements or commands. No pl.) 2. n. an important person. (Used in the negative or questions; use somebody in affirmative
statements or commands. No pl.) 3. n. any random person; whoever;
no matter who. (No pl.)
anyhow ["En i haU] adv. in any case; anyway; at any rate.
anymore [An i "mor] 1. adv. at the present time in contrast to an earlier time. (This is different from any more. Usually in negative sen13
anyone
tences.) 2. adv. nowadays; recently. (This is different from any more.
Common but not standard English when used in affirmative sentences.)
anyone ["En i [email protected]] 1. pron. some person; any person; anybody.
(Always in the negative or questions. Use someone in the affirmative.
No pl.) 2. n. just any person; whoever; no matter who. (No pl.)
anyplace ["En i ples] 1. adv. no matter where; in, at, or to a place;
wherever. 2. adv. [not] in, at, or to any place; [not] in, at, or to even
one place. (Always in the negative or questions. Use someplace in the
affirmative.)
anything ["En i TIN] 1. n. any thing, object, or event. (No pl.) 2. n. [not]
a single thing; [not] even one thing, object, or event. (Always in the
negative or questions. Use something in the affirmative. No pl.) 3. adv.
in any way. (Always in the negative or questions.)
anytime ["En i taIm] adv. whenever; at any time; no matter when.
anyway ["En i we] adv. in any case; anyhow; nevertheless; at any rate.
anywhere ["En i WEr] 1. adv. anyplace; wherever; in, at, or to any place;
in, at, or to an unnamed place; in, at, or to whatever place. 2. adv.
[not] somewhere; [not] in, at, or to even one place. (Always in the
negative or questions. Use somewhere in affirmative statements and
commands.)
apart [@ "part] 1. adv. not together; separately. 2. adv. in pieces; into
pieces.
apartment [@ "part [email protected]] n. a place to live within a large building; living quarters.
ape ["ep] 1. n. a large monkeylike mammal without a tail. 2. tv. to copy
or mock someone or something; to imitate someone or something.
apologize [@ "pal @ dZaIz] iv. to make an apology; to say that one is
sorry.
apology [@ "pal @ dZi] n. a statement of regret for having done something.
apostrophe [@ "pas [email protected] fi] 1. n. the mark of punctuation (’) showing
where one or more letters have been omitted. 2. n. the mark of punctuation (’) used to show possession in nouns. (In regular sg nouns,
add the apostrophe plus an s. In regular pl nouns, add the apostrophe after the pl s.)
apparatus [Ap @ "rAt @s] n. a device; equipment. (No pl form in this
sense. Number is expressed with piece(s) of apparatus.)
14
apply
appeal [@ "pil] 1. n. a plea for help; a request. 2. n. a legal request that
a court decision be examined by a higher judge or court. 3. n. attraction; something that draws someone or something closer. (No pl.)
4. tv. to request that a court decision be examined by a higher judge
or court. 5. iv. to be attractive to someone.
appear [@ "pIr] 1. iv. to become visible; to come into sight. 2. iv. to
seem to be a certain way; to look a certain way.
appearance [@ "pIr @ns] 1. n. the way someone or something looks.
(No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. an act of becoming a visible presence; becoming seen.
appendices [@ "pEn [email protected] siz] a pl of appendix W.
appendix [@ "pEn dIks] 1. n. a small growth at the end of the large
intestine. (Pl: appendixes.) 2. n., irreg. a section at the end of a book
or document that gives additional information. (Pl: appendices or
appendixes.)
appetite ["Ap @ taIt] n. a desire for something, especially food or
drink.
applaud [@ "plOd] 1. iv. to clap the hands together to show appreciation or approval. 2. tv. to show appreciation for someone or something by clapping one’s hands together.
applause [@ "plOz] n. a show of approval by clapping one’s hands
together. (No pl.)
apple ["Ap @l] n. a firm, round fruit that has red, green, or yellow skin
and is white inside.
appliance [@ "plaI @ns] n. a machine, usually found in the home, with
a specific function.
application [A [email protected] "ke [email protected]] 1. n. applying for something. (No pl form
in this sense.) 2. n. an instance of Q. 3. n. a printed form used in
applying for something, such as a job. 4. n. spreading something on
something else. (No pl form in this sense.) 5. n. a specific use for
something.
apply [@ "plaI] 1. tv. to put or spread something on something else.
2. tv. to use something; to make use of something. 3. tv. to cause oneself to work or study hard. (Takes a reflexive object.) 4. iv. to request
something that requires approval—such as a loan, a job, or admission to a school—usually in writing or through some other formal
process. 5. iv. to be appropriate or relevant to someone or something.
15
appoint
appoint [@ "poInt] 1. tv. to choose someone for a job or position; to
assign someone to a position. 2. tv. to fill a vacant office, position, or
job; to determine who will serve in an office, position, or job. 3. tv.
to set a time. 4. to to select or assign to serve in a particular role.
appointment [@ "poInt [email protected]] 1. n. choosing someone to fill a position or to take a job. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. an
arranged meeting; an agreement to meet at a specific time and place.
appreciate [@ "pri Si et] 1. tv. to be grateful for someone or something;
to value someone or something. (The object can be a clause with that
U.) 2. iv. to increase in value.
appreciation [@ pri Si "e [email protected]] 1. n. a feeling of being grateful for someone or something. (No pl.) 2. n. the recognition of the value of something. (No pl.) 3. n. a rise in value; an increase in value. (No pl.)
approach [@ "protS] 1. tv. to go near someone or something; to get
closer to someone or something in time or space. 2. iv. [for someone
or something] to come closer in time or space. 3. n. a way of solving
a problem. 4. n. an entrance; a path to something. 5. n. an instance
of [someone or something] coming closer.
appropriate 1. [@ "pro pri It] adj. correct; suitable; proper. (Adv:
appropriately.) 2. [@ "pro pri et] tv. to take something for one’s own
use; to steal something. 3. [@ "pro pri et] tv. to set aside money for a
specific purpose; to budget funds.
approve [@ "pruv] 1. iv. to judge [someone or something] to be satisfactory or agreeable. 2. tv. to grant approval of someone or something.
approximate 1. [@ "prak [email protected] [email protected]] adj. estimated; not exact. (Adv:
approximately.) 2. [@ "prak [email protected] met] tv. to estimate something; to guess
the amount of something. 3. [@ "prak [email protected] met] tv. to be similar to
someone or something; to appear to be almost the same as someone
or something.
apricot ["e [email protected] kat] 1. n. a soft, fuzzy, yellowish fruit that is smaller
than a peach and has a large pit. 2. adj. made with Q.
April ["e [email protected]] Go to month.
apron ["e [email protected]] 1. n. a protective skirt worn over one’s clothing; a protective covering for the front of one’s clothing. 2. n. the part of a theater stage that is in front of where the curtain hangs.
apt ["Apt] 1. adj. likely to do something; prone to doing something.
2. adj. clever; easily taught. 3. adj. suitable; appropriate; fitting. (Adv:
aptly.)
16
argument
aquaria [@ "kwEr i @] a pl of aquarium.
aquarium [@ "kwEr i @m] 1. n., irreg. a container for plants and animals that live in the water. (Pl: aquariums or aquaria.) 2. n., irreg. a
public building containing Q for public viewing.
Arabic numeral ["Er @ bIk "num @ [email protected]] n. the most usual form of number, such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. (These forms come from Arabic script.)
arc ["ark] 1. n. a curve; a portion of a circle. 2. iv. to form a curve; to
take the shape of a curve.
arch ["artS] 1. n. a curved structure over an opening, usually holding
the weight of the wall above it. 2. n. the curved part of the bottom
of the foot. 3. iv. to bend in the shape of Q; to curve like Q.
archery ["artS @ ri] n. the sport or skill of shooting with a bow and
arrow. (No pl.)
architect ["ark @ tEkt] n. someone who designs buildings.
architecture ["ark I tEk tS#] 1. n. the designing of buildings; the study
of building design. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. the particular design of a building. (No pl.)
arctic ["ark tIk] 1. adj. relating to the Arctic. (Sometimes capitalized.)
2. adj. very cold; freezing. (Adv: arctically [...Ik li].)
Arctic n. the area around the Arctic Ocean, near the North Pole. (No
pl. Treated as sg.)
are ["ar] iv., irreg. a form of the verb be used in the second-person sg
present and in all three persons in the present-tense pl. (Reduced to
’re in contractions.)
area ["Er i @] 1. n. a space; a section. 2. n. a measure of a section of a
flat surface, determined, for instance, by multiplying the length of
the surface by its width. 3. n. a subject; a field of interest or study.
arena [@ "rin @] n. a large open space surrounded by tiers of seats, where
performances and sporting events take place.
aren’t ["arnt] cont. are not.
aren’t I? cont. am I not. (Used in the asking of certain questions.)
argue ["ar gju] 1. iv. to disagree [with someone] verbally; to quarrel
[with someone] verbally. 2. tv. to debate a point or issue by means of
an argument. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
argument ["ar [email protected] [email protected]] 1. n. a quarrel, especially if spoken; a dispute. 2. n. a debate or discussion of an issue on which people disagree.
17
arise
arise [@ "raIz] 1. iv., irreg. to get up; to rise; to stand up. (Pt: arose; pp:
arisen.) 2. iv., irreg. to develop; to happen.
arisen [@ "rIz @n] pp of arise.
arithmetic 1. [@ "rIT [email protected] tIk] n. the part of mathematics using numbers to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. 2. [Er IT "mEt Ik] the adj.
use of Q. (Adv: arithmetically [...Ik li].)
arm ["arm] 1. n. one of the upper limbs of a human being. 2. n. one
of the two parts of a chair that support the arms of someone who sits
in the chair. 3. tv. to equip someone or something with weapons.
armchair ["arm tSEr] n. a seat, usually cushioned, with supports for
the arms.
armed ["armd] 1. adj. carrying a gun or other weapons. 2. adj. ready
for war; prepared for battle.
armistice ["ar mIs tIs] n. a truce.
armpit ["arm pIt] n. the hollow underneath the place where the arm
joins the shoulder.
armrest ["arm rEst] n. the part of a chair or seat that supports someone’s arm.
arms n. guns; weapons.
army ["arm i] n. a large group of land-based soldiers.
aroma [@ "rom @] n. an odor, especially one that is pleasant or agreeable.
arose [@ "roz] pt of arise.
around [@ "raUnd] 1. prep. enclosing someone or something all about;
surrounding someone or something. 2. prep. close to a certain time
or location. 3. prep. [traveling or touring] in various places in something; at different locations within something. (With verbs such as
run, walk, go, crawl, travel, and drive.) 4. prep. moving in a curved or
circular pathway with relation to someone or something. 5. adv. on
every side; on all sides. 6. adv. following a circle or a curve.
arouse [@ "raUz] 1. tv. to wake someone up. 2. tv. to awaken someone’s
interest, causing curiosity, anger, sexual stimulation, or general interest.
arrange [@ "rendZ] 1. tv. to put things in a particular order; to put
things in specific locations. 2. tv. to prepare plans for something; to
plan details for something. 3. tv. to adapt a piece of music in a particular way.
18
artwork
arrangement [@ "rendZ [email protected]] 1. n. the order or positions in which
things have been put or placed. 2. n. a group of flowers arranged in
a pleasing way. 3. n. a piece of music that has been altered for a particular purpose.
arrangements [@ "rendZ [email protected]] n. plans; provisions for something.
arrest [@ "rEst] 1. n. the taking and holding of someone using the
authority of the law. 2. tv. to take someone to the police station for
breaking a law. 3. tv. to stop something from moving or working; to
bring something to an end.
arrival [@ "raI [email protected]] n. the reaching of the place that one is going to; coming to a place.
arrive [@ "raIv] iv. to reach the place that one is going to.
arrogance ["Er @ [email protected]] n. an unpleasant attitude of superiority; excessive pride. (No pl.)
arrogant ["Er @ [email protected]] adj. with an unpleasant attitude of superiority;
showing arrogance. (Adv: arrogantly.)
arrow ["Er o] 1. n. a thin, sharply pointed stick that is shot from a bow.
2. n. a pointed symbol, indicating direction or position.
art ["art] 1. n. the skilled creation of things of beauty or significant
interest. (No pl. Typically painting, drawing, sculpture, fiction,
poetry, theater, dance, music, film, and photography.) 2. n. the product of Q, such as a painting, drawing, or sculpture. (No pl. Number
is expressed with work(s) of art.) 3. n. the skill required to do or to
make something creative; a creative craft.
article ["ar tI [email protected]] 1. n. a small part or section of a written document,
especially an official document such as a contract. 2. n. a specific
item; a piece of something. 3. n. a word like a, an, and the in English.
4. n. a small section of writing in a larger work, as in a newspaper or
an encyclopedia.
artificial [ar [email protected] "fIS @l] adj. not authentic; not occurring in nature.
(Adv: artificially.)
artist ["ar tIst] n. someone who creates art W or practices art Q.
artistic [ar "tIs tIk] adj. creatively pleasing; showing creativity. (Adv:
artistically [...Ik li].)
arts n. areas of activity associated with a kind of art. (Treated as pl.)
artwork ["art w#k] 1. n. one or more pieces of art, such as a painting
or a sculpture. (No pl.) 2. n. the pictures or illustrations that appear
with written text. (No pl.)
19
as
as ["Az] 1. conj. to the same amount or degree; equally; in the same
way. 2. conj. while; during; at the same time. 3. conj. in the way that.
4. conj. because; since. 5. prep. in the role or function of something.
as if and as though conj. in the same way that it would be if [something were to happen].
as long as and so long as 1. provided that...; on the condition that....
2. since...; given the fact that.... 3. during or throughout the period
of time that....
as though Go to as if.
ash ["AS] 1. n. what remains after matter has burned or exploded. (The
pl form is used when referring to the individual particles and pieces.)
2. n. a tree of the olive family. 3. n. the wood of W. (Pl only for types
and instances.)
ashamed [@ "Semd] adj. having shame [about something]. (Adv:
ashamedly [@ "Sem @d li].)
ashore [@ "Sor] 1. adv. to or onto the shore [from the water]. 2. adv.
on the beach or on land next to water, as opposed to in or on the
water.
aside [@ "saId] 1. n. something said that is not meant to be heard by
all present; a remark made by an actor to the audience. 2. adv. to the
side; to one side; apart from someone or something. 3. adv. away
from oneself; to the side of oneself.
ask ["Ask] 1. tv. to put a question to someone. 2. tv. to request information by stating a question. (The object can be a clause with that
U.) 3. tv. to request that someone do something or give one something. 4. tv. to question someone about someone or something. 5. tv.
to invite someone to do something; to suggest that someone do something.
asleep [@ "slip] 1. adj. sleeping; not awake. (Not prenominal.) 2. adj.
[of arms, legs, hands, feet] temporarily not feeling anything. (Not
prenominal.)
aspersion [As "p# [email protected]] n. a critical or derogatory remark.
asphalt ["As fOlt] 1. n. a black, tarlike substance used for pavement.
(No pl form in this sense.) 2. tv. to cover the surface of something
with Q.
aspirin ["As prIn] 1. n. a medication for relieving pain, used especially
for headaches. (No pl.) 2. a tablet of Q. (Sg or pl with the same
meaning.)
20
ate
assail [@ "sel] 1. tv. to attack someone or something. 2. tv. to criticize
someone or something strongly.
assault [@ "sOlt] 1. tv. to attack someone. 2. tv. to attack someone sexually. 3. n. an act of attacking someone or something. 4. the adj. use
of E.
assemble [@ "sEm [email protected]] 1. tv. to bring things or people into a collection
or group. 2. tv. to put something together; to construct something
from its parts. 3. iv. [for a group of people] to come together.
asset ["A sEt] 1. n. an item of value; an item of someone’s property.
2. n. a useful skill; a useful quality. (Fig. on Q.)
assist [@ "sIst] 1. tv. to help someone or something; to help someone
with something. 2. n. an act of assistance.
assistance [@ "sIs [email protected]] n. help; aid; cooperation. (No pl.)
assistant [@ "sIs [email protected]] n. someone who helps someone; someone whose
job is to help someone.
associate 1. [@ "so si @t] n. a colleague; someone who works with
someone else. 2. [@ "so si @t] adj. [of a job or position] not at the highest level, but typically at a higher level than an assistant. 3. [@ "so si
et] iv. to make social contact with someone.
association [@ so si "e [email protected]] 1. n. a connection or link between two
things, people, or thoughts. 2. n. a club, society, or organization; an
alliance. 3. n. a friendship; a relationship.
assume [@ "sum] 1. tv. to believe that something really is as one thinks
it is; to suppose something is true. (The object can be a clause with
that U.) 2. tv. to take control of something; to move into a role of
leadership or responsibility for something.
assure [@ "SUr] tv. to promise someone something; to say something
encouraging and positive to someone.
asterisk ["As [email protected] rIsk] n. a starlike symbol (*) that is typically used to
highlight something or to direct the reader’s attention to a related
note.
at ["At] 1. prep. located on a point or in a place. 2. prep. in the direction of someone or something; toward someone or something.
3. prep. engaged in something; being in a certain state or process.
4. prep. toward someone or something. 5. last finally; after a long
wait.
ate ["et] pt of eat.
21
athlete
athlete ["AT lit] n. someone who participates in sports actively, especially a team member.
athletic [AT "lEt Ik] 1. adj. strong; active; in good physical condition.
(Adv: athletically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. relating to athletes; in or for athletics. (Adv: athletically [...Ik li].)
athletics n. active sports; exercise and training for sports. (Treated as
sg or pl. Not countable.)
atlas ["At [email protected]] n. a book of maps.
atmosphere ["At [email protected] fIr] 1. n. the mixture of gases that surrounds a
planet, especially the air that surrounds the earth. 2. n. the air that is
nearby; the air that one is breathing. (No pl.) 3. n. the mood or feeling in a particular place. (No pl.)
atom ["At @m] n. the smallest part of an element that has all the chemical properties of the element.
attach [@ "tAtS] 1. tv. to fasten something to something else. 2. tv. to
associate a quality with someone or something; to think of a quality
as belonging to someone or something.
attack [@ "tAk] 1. tv. to try to harm someone or something, physically
or verbally. 2. tv. to begin work on a problem. (Fig. on Q.) 3. n. an
act of physical or verbal violence against someone or something. 4. n.
a sudden period of sickness or disease.
attempt [@ "tEmpt] 1. n. an effort to do something; a try at doing
something. 2. tv. to try to do something.
attend [@ "tEnd] 1. tv. to be present at a place or event; to be present
somewhere over a period of time. 2. iv. to deal with someone or
something; to manage something.
attendance [@ "tEn [email protected]] 1. n. someone’s presence at a location or
event. (No pl.) 2. n. the number of people present; the identity of the
people attending something. (No pl.)
attendant [@ "tEn [email protected]] n. someone who assists or helps someone else,
especially someone important.
attention [@ "tEn [email protected]] n. care in doing something; careful and watchful awareness. (No pl.)
attic ["At Ik] n. the room at the top of a house, just under the roof.
attitude ["At @ tud] 1. n. a way of thinking, behaving, and feeling. 2. n.
a particular position or angle, especially of an aircraft.
attorney [@ "t# ni] n. a lawyer.
22
aux.
attractive [@ "trAk tIv] adj. pretty; pleasing to the eye; handsome; creating interest. (Adv: attractively.)
auction ["Ok [email protected]] n. a sale where each item is sold to the person offering to pay the highest price.
audience ["O di @ns] 1. n. a group of spectators who watch and listen
to someone or something. 2. n. the group of people who see a particular film, TV show, etc. 3. n. a formal interview or meeting with
a very important person.
audio ["O di o] 1. n. broadcast or recorded sound, not video; the part
of television that can be heard. (No pl.) 2. the adj. use of Q.
auditorium [O dI "tor i @m] 1. n. the part of a performance hall where
the audience sits. 2. n. a large room or building used for public meetings, lectures, and similar things.
August ["Og @st] Go to month.
aunt ["Ant] n. the sister of one’s mother or father; the wife of the
brother of one’s mother or father; the wife of one’s uncle.
authentic [O "TEn tIk] adj. real; genuine; known to be real or true.
(Adv: authentically [...Ik li].)
author ["O T#] 1. n. someone who writes books, poems, plays, articles,
or similar compositions. 2. tv. to write something; to compose something.
authorities n. members of a group who have the authority Q to do
something, such as to make rules; the police; the government.
authority [@ "Tor @ ti] 1. n. the power and right to do something; control and managing in general. (No pl.) 2. n. an expert.
auto ["Ot o] n. a car; an automobile.
autograph ["Ot @ grAf] 1. n. someone’s signature, especially the signature of a famous person. 2. the adj. use of Q. 3. tv. to sign one’s
name on something.
automatic [Ot @ "mAt Ik] 1. adj. [of a machine] acting by itself; not
needing outside help to perform a process. (Adv: automatically [...Ik
li].) 2. adj. done without thinking; done out of habit or by instinct.
(Adv: automatically [...Ik li].)
automobile [Ot @ mo "bil] n. a car; a vehicle that can carry a small
number of passengers.
autumn ["Ot @m] n. fall; the season after summer and before winter.
aux. an abbreviation of auxiliary verb.
23
auxiliary
auxiliary [Og "zIl [email protected] ri] 1. adj. secondary; supplementary; substitute.
2. n. an auxiliary verb. (Abbreviated aux. here.)
auxiliary verb and verbal auxiliary [Og "zIl [email protected] ri v#b, "v#b @l Og "zIl
[email protected] ri] n. a word that is used before a verb to affect its tense, aspect, or
mood.
available [@ "vel @ [email protected]] adj. ready; accessible and not assigned or committed to something else.
avenue ["Av @ nu] 1. n. a wide street in a city, sometimes lined with
trees. 2. n. a figurative pathway, representing a route to success.
average ["Av (@) rIdZ] 1. n. an amount obtained by adding several
numbers together and then dividing that total by the quantity of
numbers that were added. 2. n. something that is usual, typical, or
normal. (No pl.) 3. tv. to add several figures and then divide that total
by the number of figures that were added. 4. adj. usual; typical; normal; ordinary. (Adv: averagely.) 5. out to even out ultimately.
aviation [ev i "e [email protected]] n. the flying of aircraft; the management of flying aircraft. (No pl.)
avocado [av @ "kad o] 1. n. a tropical fruit with rough green, black,
or purple skin, soft green flesh, and a large pit. (Pl ends in -s.) 2. n.
the edible part of Q. (No pl.) 3. adj. made from W.
avoid [@ "voId] 1. tv. to elude contact with someone or something; to
manage not to make contact with someone or something. 2. tv. to
prevent something from occurring.
await [@ "wet] tv. to expect someone or something to arrive; to wait
for the arrival of someone or something.
awake [@ "wek] 1. adj. not asleep; alert. (Not prenominal.) 2. iv., irreg.
to stop sleeping; to wake. (Pt: awoke; pp: awoken. See also awaken.)
3. tv., irreg. to make someone or something stop sleeping; to wake
someone or something up. (See also awaken.) 4. tv., irreg. to bring
back memories of someone or something into one’s thoughts.
awaken [@ "wek @n] 1. iv. to stop sleeping; to wake. (See also awake.)
2. tv. to make someone or something stop sleeping; to wake someone
or something up. (See also awake.) 3. tv. to bring back memories of
someone or something into one’s thoughts; to arouse in someone a
new or hidden feeling, interest, talent, awareness, or emotion.
award [@ "word] 1. n. something given to someone as repayment;
something given to someone as a prize. 2. tv. to give something to
someone as the result of an official legal decision; to order the pay24
axle
ment of money in a court of law. 3. tv. to give a prize to someone; to
give someone something as the result of an official decision.
aware [@ "wEr] 1. adj. alert; conscious; having control of one’s senses.
(Not usually prenominal.) 2. adj. knowledgeable; in a state of knowing something. (Takes a clause with that U.) 3. adj. conscious of
someone or something.
away [@ "we] 1. adj. at some distance; apart in distance. (Not prenominal.) 2. adj. [of a game] not played on the home team’s court or field.
3. adv. at a distance from one position or direction to another; from
one state or position to another. 4. adv. without stopping; continuously.
awe ["O] 1. n. a strong feeling of wonder and respect. (No pl.) 2. tv. to
fill someone with wonder and respect.
awful ["O fUl] adj. horrible; terrible; very bad. (Adv: awfully.)
awfully ["Of (@) li] 1. adv. terribly; horribly; badly. 2. adv. very; really.
awhile [@ "WaIl] adv. for a short length of time; for a little bit of time.
awkward ["Ok w#d] 1. adj. clumsy; not graceful. (Adv: awkwardly.)
2. adj. hard to manage; hard to control; not easily used. (Adv: awkwardly.) 3. adj. embarrassing; embarrassed. (Adv: awkwardly.)
awning ["O nIN] n. a covering, extending over a walkway, door, or window.
awoke [@ "wok] pt of awake.
awoken [@ "wok @n] pp of awake.
ax(e) ["Aks] n. a tool that consists of a heavy metal wedge attached to
a handle, used to chop wood. (Pl: axes.)
axes 1. ["Ak siz] pl of axis. 2. ["Ak sIz] pl of ax(e).
axis ["Aks Is] n., irreg. an imaginary line that goes through the center
point of a sphere or a ball. (Pl: axes.)
axle ["Ak [email protected]] n. the rod that connects a pair of wheels.
25
B
baby ["be bi] 1. n. an infant; a newly born child. 2. tv. to treat someone or something like Q. 3. the adj. use of Q.
babysat ["beb i sAt] pt/pp of babysit.
babysit ["be bi sIt] 1. iv., irreg. to care for someone’s children. (Pt/pp:
babysat.) 2. tv., irreg. to take care of children whose parents are away.
babysitter ["be bi sIt #] n. someone who takes care of children whose
parents are away.
back ["bAk] 1. n. the part of a body along the spine. 2. n. the rear part
of something. 3. n. the part of a chair that supports Q. 4. iv. to move
backward out of something. 5. tv. to support someone or something
with money. 6. adj. rear; opposite the front. (Prenominal only.)
7. adv. to or toward the rear; backward. 8. adv. earlier; in or to the
past. 9. out to move backward out of something. 10. out [for
someone] to withdraw from something.
backbone ["bAk bon] n. the spine.
background ["bAk graUnd] 1. n. [in a picture] the scene behind the
main subject. 2. n. the events leading up to something. (No pl.) 3. n.
the past training, education, and experience of someone.
backrest ["bAk rEst] n. the vertical part of a chair that supports someone’s back.
back-to-back 1. adj. adjacent and touching backs. 2. adj. following
immediately. (Said of things or events. In this case, the events are figuratively back-to-front.)
backup ["bAk @p] 1. n. a substitute or replacement for someone or
something. 2. n. [in computers] a copy of a computer file or document. 3. adj. spare; extra.
backward ["bAk w#d] 1. adv. toward the rear; with the back part
going first. (Also backwards.) 2. adv. in a way that is the opposite
of the normal way; in a way that reverses the order or direction of
something. 3. adj. directed toward the back or the starting point.
4. adj. in a worse or earlier state; not modern. (Adv: backwardly.) 5.
adj. hesitant or shy. (Adv: backwardly.)
backyard ["bAk "jard] n. the lawn or area behind a house.
26
Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc.
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baker
bacon ["bek @n] n. meat from the back and sides of a hog. (Pl only for
types and instances.)
bacteria [bAk "tIr i @] n. a group of tiny, one-celled organisms. (Bacteria is pl. The sg is bacterium.)
bad ["bAd] 1. adj., irreg. wicked; evil; not good. (Adv: badly. Comp:
worse; sup: worst.) 2. adj., irreg. of poor quality; inferior; worthless;
defective; not good. (Adv: badly. Comp: worse; sup: worst.) 3. adj.,
irreg. serious; severe. (Adv: badly. Comp: worse; sup: worst.) 4. adj.,
irreg. harmful; not healthful. (Adv: badly. Comp: worse; sup: worst.)
5. adj., irreg. [of a person, a creature, or a part of one’s body feeling
or appearing] sick, hurt, or unwell. 6. adj., irreg. unpleasant; disagreeable; not nice. (Adv: badly. Comp: worse; sup: worst.) 7. adj. [of
food] decayed or spoiled. 8. adv. very much. (Colloquial.)
badge ["bAdZ] n. a pin or medal worn to show membership in an organization.
badly ["bAd li] 1. adv. in an inferior or defective manner; poorly; not
well. 2. adv. unpleasantly; disagreeably; not well. 3. adv. seriously;
severely. 4. adv. very much; to a great extent. (Fig. on E.)
bag ["bAg] 1. n. a sack; a pouchlike container. 2. n. the contents of Q.
3. tv. to put items into Q. 4. tv. to kill wild game.
baggage ["bAg IdZ] n. luggage or suitcases. (No pl. Treated as sg. Number is expressed with piece(s) of baggage.)
baggy ["bAg i] adj. puffy; having extra material that hangs in loose
folds. (Adv: baggily. Comp: baggier; sup: baggiest.)
bail out 1. to parachute out of an airplane. 2. to escape from or abandon something. 3. to pay bail or bond money to get a person out of
jail.
bait ["bet] 1. n. someone or something used as a lure or temptation.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. tv. to put a worm or some kind
of food on a hook in order to attract fish. 3. tv. to put a lure into a
trap.
bake ["bek] 1. tv. to cook something using dry heat, usually in an oven.
2. tv. [for the sun or hot, dry weather] to make someone or something very hot. (Fig. on Q.) 3. iv. to cook food by placing it in a hot
oven.
baker ["bek #] n. someone who bakes foods, usually breads or pastries.
27
bakery
bakery ["bek ri] n. a store or place where bread products and pastries
are prepared and sold.
balance ["bAl @ns] 1. n. an even placement of weight; a stable position with weight placed evenly; the ability to stay in such a position.
(No pl.) 2. n. a device that compares the weights of two objects. 3.
n. an equality in weight, proportion, or value; harmony. (No pl.) 4. n.
the amount of money remaining on a bill after part of the bill has
been paid; the amount of money remaining in an account after a
transaction. 5. tv. to place something in such a way that it is stable.
6. tv. to apply credits and debits to an account to determine the correct amount of money in the account. 7. tv. to make something have
symmetry in appearance or character.
balcony ["bAl [email protected] ni] 1. n. a platform that extends outward from a
room that is higher than ground level. 2. n. [in a hall or auditorium]
an upper level of seats that extends over the main floor.
bald ["bOld] adj. having no hair on the head; without hair. (Comp:
balder; sup: baldest.)
ball ["bOl] 1. n. a round object; a sphere. 2. n. a toy that is a round
object. 3. n. an elegant dance or party.
ballet [bA "le] n. a form of graceful and precise dance that tells a story
without using speech or singing. (Pl only for types and instances.)
balloon [[email protected] "lun] n. a container of rubber, fabric, or some other material that can be filled with air or gas.
ballot ["bAl @t] 1. n. a method of voting involving pieces of paper or
machines. 2. n. a piece of paper on which one’s vote is marked.
bamboo [bAm "bu] 1. n. a type of very tall, woody grass typically
found in warm countries. (No pl.) 2. adj. made from the stems or
wood of Q.
banana [[email protected] "nAn @] 1. n. a long, tropical fruit with a yellow skin
around a soft, white edible pulp. 2. adj. made of or flavored with Q.
band ["bAnd] 1. n. a group of musicians, often including singers. 2. n.
a tribe; a group of people. 3. n. a flat, thin strip of some material that
is used to hold objects together. 4. n. a stripe. 5. together to unite
in opposition to someone or something; to unite against someone or
something.
bandage ["bAn dIdZ] 1. n. a wrapping used to cover and protect a
wound against dirt, germs, and infection. 2. tv. to place Q on someone or something.
28
barbeque
bandit ["bAn dIt] n. a robber, especially one belonging to a band of
outlaws.
bandwagon ["bAnd wAg @n] 1. n. a wagon or large cart that carries a
band, as in a parade or circus. (Old.) 2. n. [in idioms] an imaginary
vehicle on which people following a particular trend or fad can ride.
bang ["bAN] 1. n. a sudden, loud noise; the sound of an explosion. 2. tv.
to hit something against something else, making a loud noise. 3. iv.
to hit [something]; to make loud noises by striking something.
bangs n. hair that hangs down over the forehead or eyes rather than
being combed back. (Treated as pl, but not countable.)
banish ["bAn IS] 1. tv. to expel someone from a certain place; to forbid someone to return to a certain place. 2. tv. to send or drive something, such as a problem, away. (Fig. on Q.)
bank ["bANk] 1. n. a corporation that lends, saves, and protects money.
2. n. the building where money is loaned, saved, and protected. 3. n.
a place where certain objects are stored. 4. n. the land along the side
of a river, stream, or canal. 5. n. a row or set of objects. 6. iv. to do
business with Q. 7. on to count on something; to rely on something.
banker ["bAN k#] n. someone who is an owner of or an important officer in a bank.
banquet ["bAN kwIt] 1. n. a dinner and speeches, usually connected
with a celebration or an event. 2. n. a special dinner with a large
menu; a feast.
bar ["bar] 1. n. a counter or flat surface that someone stands behind to
prepare and serve drinks or food to people. 2. n. a counter or flat surface where different kinds of food items are kept, from which people
choose whatever they would like to eat. 3. n. a place where people can
buy alcoholic drinks. 4. n. a rigid rod of metal, wood, or some other
material. 5. n. a rectangular object made of certain kinds of material, such as soap or various metals. 6. n. a measure in a piece of
music. 7. tv. to secure a door or window by placing R across it.
barbecue and barbeque ["bar [email protected] kju] 1. n. an outdoor grill used to
cook food. 2. n. a party or meal where people eat food cooked on a
grill. 3. n. the food that is prepared on an outdoor grill, especially
food cooked with a spicy tomato sauce. 4. tv. to cook food on a grill,
often with a spicy tomato sauce. 5. iv. [for food] to cook on an outdoor grill, often with a spicy tomato sauce.
barbeque Go to barbecue.
29
barber
barber ["bar b#] n. someone who cuts or styles hair, especially men’s
hair.
bare ["bEr] 1. tv. to uncover. 2. adj. naked; exposed. (Adv: barely.
Comp: barer; sup: barest.) 3. adj. empty. (Adv: barely. Comp: barer;
sup: barest.)
barefoot(ed) ["bEr fUt(@d)] 1. adv. without shoes or socks; with nothing on the feet. 2. adj. not wearing shoes or socks; having nothing on
the feet.
barely ["bEr li] adv. hardly; only just; not quite.
bargain ["bar [email protected]] 1. n. something that was bought for less money
than it would normally cost. 2. n. an agreement. 3. for to expect
or anticipate something; to foresee something. 4. with to set the
terms of an agreement or a sale with someone.
bark ["bark] 1. n. the outer surface of a tree. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. the sound that is made by a dog. 3. iv. to make the
noise of a dog.
barn ["barn] 1. n. a large farm building for keeping livestock and storing supplies and equipment. 2. n. a large building where trucks and
buses are kept and serviced.
barnyard ["barn jard] n. the fenced area surrounding a barn; a farmyard.
barometer [[email protected] "ram @ t#] 1. n. a device that measures the air pressure
that is all around us. 2. n. something that indicates possible changes.
(Fig. on Q.)
barrel ["bEr @l] 1. n. a large, rounded wooden container with a flat top
and bottom. 2. n. the contents of Q. 3. n. the standard measurement
of oil, equal to 42 U.S. gallons. 4. n. the part of a gun through which
the bullets travel.
barren ["bEr @n] 1. adj. [of a female] not capable of producing offspring; [of a female] sterile. 2. adj. not capable of supporting plant
life.
barricade ["bEr @ ked] 1. n. something that blocks the way. 2. tv. to
block off a passageway or a pathway.
barrier ["bEr i #] 1. n. something that physically separates people or
things. 2. n. something that emotionally or spiritually separates people or things. (Fig. on Q.)
base ["bes] 1. n. the bottom, supporting part of something. 2. n. a
starting point; the foundation from which other things develop. 3. n.
30
bathe
a center of operations; the main site of a business or organization.
4. n. the center of operations and living quarters of a military unit.
5. n. a chemical that is the opposite of an acid. 6. n. [in baseball] one
of the four “points” of the baseball diamond. 7. adj. forming or serving as Q or W; acting as a foundation.
baseball ["bes bOl] 1. n. a team sport played with two teams of nine
members each. (No pl.) 2. n. the white, leather-covered ball used in
Q.
basement ["bes [email protected]] n. a space within the foundations of a building, tall enough to permit a person to stand.
bases 1. ["be siz] pl of basis. 2. ["be sIz] pl of base.
bashful ["bAS fUl] adj. easily embarrassed; shy. (Adv: bashfully.)
basic ["bes Ik] 1. adj. fundamental; simple and required. (Adv: basically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. simple. (Adv: basically [...Ik li].)
basin ["be [email protected]] 1. n. a large, shallow bowl or similar structure. 2. n.
the contents of Q. 3. n. the area of land that is drained by a river or
a system of rivers.
basis ["be sIs] 1. n., irreg. the foundation of something; the part of
something from which other things develop. (Pl: bases ["be siz].)
2. n., irreg. an agreed-upon standard or status.
basket ["bAs kIt] 1. n. a container woven of strips of wood, twigs, or
similar material. 2. n. the contents of Q. 3. n. [in basketball] the net,
and the hoop to which it is attached, that are part of a basketball goal.
4. n. a goal or score in the game of basketball.
basketball ["bAs kIt bOl] 1. n. a team sport where points are scored
by sending a ball through a basket E. (No pl.) 2. n. a ball used in Q.
bat ["bAt] 1. n. a mouselike mammal that has large wings and usually
flies at night. 2. n. a wooden or metal club used in the game of baseball. 3. tv. to hit a ball with W. 4. tv. to hit something; to slap at something.
batch ["bAtS] 1. n. a group of things processed at the same time. 2. tv.
to group things together.
bath ["bAT] 1. n., irreg. the washing of someone or something. (Pl:
["bADz] or ["bATs].) 2. n., irreg. water for bathing. 3. n., irreg. a bathtub; a tub used for bathing. 4. n., irreg. a bathroom; a room with a
bathtub or shower.
bathe ["beD] 1. iv. to take a bath; to wash. (The pres. part. is bathing
for all senses.) 2. tv. to clean or wash someone; to give someone a
31
bathrobe
bath. 3. tv. to put water on something; to make something wet or
moist.
bathrobe ["bAT rob] n. a loose, coatlike garment worn before or after
bathing or over pajamas. (See also robe.)
bathroom ["bAT rum] n. a room having at least a toilet and a sink, and
usually also a bathtub or a shower.
bathtub ["bAT [email protected]] n. a large tub for bathing.
bathwater ["bAT wat #] n. water for bathing; the water contained in
a bathtub. (No pl.)
batter ["bAt #] 1. n. a mixture—thinner than dough—of flour, eggs,
sugar, water, etc., which, when baked, becomes cake, cookies, etc.
(No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. a mixture of flour, water, and other
ingredients into which meat, fish, or vegetables are dipped and then
fried. (No pl form in this sense.) 3. n. [in baseball] a player with a
bat who tries to hit balls thrown by a pitcher. 4. tv. to hit someone or
something many times; to physically abuse someone or something.
battery ["bAt @ ri] 1. n. a cylinder-shaped or square object inserted
into flashlights, portable radios, cameras, etc., to provide electrical
power. 2. n. beating someone; striking and harming someone. (No
pl.) 3. n. a group of many large guns or other weapons. 4. n. a series
of tests or examinations.
battle ["bAt @l] 1. n. a fight between two opposing forces during a war.
2. n. a fight or crusade against someone or something. (Fig. on Q.)
3. tv. to fight someone or something.
bawl ["bOl] iv. to cry very loudly; to sob.
bay ["be] 1. n. an opening in the shoreline of an ocean, sea, or lake,
capable of sheltering ships. 2. iv. to make a long, deep howl like a dog,
wolf, etc.
be ["bi] 1. iv., irreg. to exist in a certain way or as a certain thing; to
exist in a certain state or condition. (Present tense: I am, you are, he
is, she is, it is, we are, you are, they are. Pt: I was, you were, he was, she
was, it was, we were, you were, they were. Pp: been. Pres. part.: being.)
2. iv., irreg. to occur; to happen. 3. iv., irreg. to have a location; to
exist at a specific place. 4. iv., irreg. to exist. (Usually with there E.)
5. iv., irreg. to be Q in the process of doing something.
beach ["bitS] 1. n. a shore covered with sand, pebbles, or stones. 2. tv.
to run or drive something onto the shore.
32
beaten
bead ["bid] 1. n. a small piece of wood, metal, glass, plastic, stone,
gemstone, or other material, usually with a hole through it for a string
or a thread. 2. n. a droplet of a liquid.
beak ["bik] n. the bill of a bird; the hard mouth structure of a bird or
a turtle.
beam ["bim] 1. n. a long, flat piece of wood, concrete, or metal. 2. n.
a ray of light; a stream of light; a stream of laser energy. 3. iv. to radiate light; to make or give light. 4. iv. to smile brightly; to look very
happy.
bean ["bin] n. a seed of certain kinds of plants, and sometimes also the
pod, used as food.
bear ["bEr] 1. n. a powerful, furry animal with a short tail and claws.
2. n. someone who believes that prices on stocks or bonds will fall.
3. tv., irreg. to carry or transport something. (Pt: bore; pp: borne.)
4. tv., irreg. to accept the consequences of something; to take responsibility for something. 5. tv., irreg. to manage to support someone or
something; to carry the weight of someone or something. 6. tv., irreg.
to produce offspring; to give birth to a child. (When this sense is used
in the passive voice and focuses on the child, as in Jimmy was born in
1996, the pp is born; otherwise, the pp is borne.) 7. tv., irreg. [for a
plant] to produce or yield something, such as fruit, flowers, or leaves.
8. down to put pressure or weight on someone or something.
9. up to remain brave under a mental or emotional burden.
beard ["bIrd] n. hair that grows on the side of the face, the chin, and
the neck, usually of a male.
beast ["bist] 1. n. a monster; a scary creature. 2. n. an animal, especially one with four feet.
beat ["bit] 1. n. the rhythm of poetry or music. 2. n. one unit of a
musical measure. 3. n. the area or route that someone, especially a
police officer, walks on a regular basis. 4. tv., irreg. to hit someone or
something, especially repeatedly. (Pt: beat; pp: beaten.) 5. tv., irreg.
to mix food ingredients with a kitchen tool. 6. tv., irreg. to win a
game against someone or something; to triumph over someone or
something in a competition. 7. iv., irreg. to hit against someone or
something again and again. 8. iv., irreg. [for a heart] to throb; [for a
heart] to pulse over and over. 9. the pt and a pp of R. 10. up to
strike someone as in beat R; to hit someone repeatedly, typically with
the fists. 11. up to mix something, such as an egg, as in T; to
damage something.
beaten ["bit n] pp of beat.
33
beautiful
beautiful ["bju [email protected] fUl] adj. having great beauty; very pretty. (Adv:
beautifully ["bju [email protected] fli].)
beauty ["bju ti] 1. n. the quality that makes someone or something
very pleasing to look at; the quality that makes something very pleasing to hear or to think about. (No pl.) 2. n. someone or something
that is beautiful or excellent. 3. n. excellence; suitability; cleverness.
(No pl.)
beaver ["bi v#] n., irreg. a furry, plant-eating animal that dams up
streams to form a pond in which it builds its dwelling or lodge. (Pl:
beaver or beavers.)
became [bI "kem] pt of become.
because [bI "kOz] conj. for the reason that.
become [bI "k^m] 1. pp of W. 2. iv., irreg. to come to be something;
to grow to be something. (Pt: became; pp: become.) 3. iv., irreg. to turn
into something; to change into something. 4. tv., irreg. [for clothing,
a haircut, etc.] to look good on someone; to make someone look
attractive.
bed ["bEd] 1. n. a piece of furniture used to sleep on, usually raised
and with a mattress, sheets, and blankets. 2. n. a flat base; a foundation; a bottom layer of support. 3. n. the soil at the bottom of a body
of water. 4. n. an area of soil where flowers and other plants grow.
5. down to lie down to sleep for a period of time.
bedclothes ["bEd klo(D)z] n. sheets and a blanket; the cloth coverings
for a bed. (Treated as pl, but not countable.)
bedding ["bEd IN] n. the mattress coverings, sheets, and blankets used
on a bed. (No pl.)
bedroom ["bEd rum] n. a room in a dwelling place where someone
sleeps.
bedside ["bEd saId] n. the side of a bed; the area beside a bed.
bedtime ["bEd taIm] n. the time when someone usually goes to bed.
bee ["bi] n. a small insect that can sting and that makes honey.
beef ["bif] n. the meat of a cow, steer, or bull. (No pl.)
beefsteak ["bif stek] n. a slice of the flesh of a cow, steer, or bull, eaten
as food. (Usually steak.)
beehive ["bi haIv] n. a place where bees live, reproduce, and make
honey.
34
being
beeline ["bi laIn] n. the direct line of flight that a bee follows between
its home and a food source.
been [bIn] pp of be.
beer ["bIr] 1. n. a beverage (containing alcohol) made from grain and
flavored with hops. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a glass or
can of Q; a serving of Q.
beet ["bit] n. a plant with a large, dark red root that is eaten as a vegetable.
beetle ["bit @l] n. a small insect whose wings are hard and protect its
body.
before [bI "for] 1. conj. at an earlier time than; previous to the time
when [something happens]. 2. prep. earlier than something; previous to something. 3. prep. in front of someone or something. 4. adv.
earlier; previously. 5. adv. until this moment in time; in the past.
beg ["bEg] 1. iv. to plead for something; to ask for something very
humbly. 2. off to make excuses for not doing something.
began [bI "gAn] pt of begin.
beggar ["bEg #] n. someone who asks for charity, especially money or
food; a panhandler.
begin [bI "gIn] 1. iv., irreg. [for something] to start [happening]; for
someone or something to start [doing something]. (Pt: began; pp:
begun .) 2. iv., irreg. to start to do something. 3. tv., irreg. to start
something; to commence something.
beginner [bI "gIn #] n. someone just learning to do something; an
amateur.
beginning [bI "gIn IN] 1. n. the start; the origin. (No pl form in this
sense.) 2. s n. the earliest stage of the origin of someone or something.
begun [bI "g^n] pp of begin.
behavior [bI "hev j#] n. the manner in which someone acts or behaves;
conduct; manners. (Pl only for types and instances.)
behind [bI "haInd] 1. prep. in or to a place farther back than someone
or something else; at the rear of someone or something. 2. prep. later
than someone or something; coming after someone or something;
not current with something. 3. prep. serving as the reason for something. 4. prep. in support of someone or something. 5. adv. toward
the back; further back in place or time.
being ["bi IN] n. a living thing; a living creature.
35
belch
belch 1. n. an audible release of stomach gas through the mouth. 2. n.
a puff of smoke or other vapors released or pushed out. 3. iv. to make
Q.
belief [bI "lif] 1. n. something that is thought to be true; an opinion.
2. n. a rule or principle of a religion or faith. (Often pl.)
believe [bI "liv] 1. tv. to accept that someone or something is true or
real. (The object can be a clause with that U.) 2. tv. to have an opinion about something; to suppose something. (The object is a clause
with that U.)
bell ["bEl] 1. n. a cupped metal shell that makes a ringing sound when
struck. 2. n. the sound made by Q to mark the start or the finish of
a period of time.
belly ["bEl i] 1. n. the stomach area of the body; a large, and sometimes
rounded front part of the body. (Informal.) 2. n. the inside of certain things. 3. n. the underside of certain things.
belong [bI "lON] iv. [for someone or something] to have a proper or
appropriate place or typical location.
belongings [bI "lON INz] n. the things that one owns; one’s possessions.
(Treated as pl, but not countable.)
below [bI "lo] 1. prep. beneath someone or something; under someone or something; lower than someone or something. 2. prep. lower
in status or rank than someone or something. 3. adv. to a lower deck
on a ship. 4. adv. later [in a book or other written work]; after or following [on the same page or within the same written work].
belt ["bElt] 1. n. a strip of leather or similar material fastened around
the waist, to hold up trousers. 2. n. a long, continuous loop of strong,
flexible material used in machinery to transfer power. 3. n. a seat belt;
a strap in a car that holds people securely in the seat.
bench ["bEntS] 1. n. a seat—often unpadded—for two or more people. 2. n. a place where players on a sports team sit when they are not
playing. 3. n. the seat a judge sits on. 4. n. a judge or a group of judges
in a court of law.
bend ["bEnd] 1. n. a curve; a turn. 2. iv., irreg. to become curved or
crooked; to go in a direction away from a straight line. (Pt/pp: bent.)
3. iv., irreg. to change one’s mind; to yield. 4. tv., irreg. to cause an
object to curve; to change the shape of a flexible object.
beneath [bI "niT] 1. prep. under someone or something; below someone or something; lower than someone or something. 2. prep. inferior to someone or something; worse than someone or something.
36
beware
benefit ["bEn @ fIt] 1. n. an advantage; something that is helpful or has
a good effect. 2. n. the sum of money paid to someone under the
terms of an insurance or retirement contract. (Often pl.) 3. n. something that one receives—in addition to a salary—for working, such
as health insurance, life insurance, etc. 4. n. an event with special
entertainment, given to raise money for a worthy cause. 5. tv. to serve
to the good of someone or something. 6. from to improve or to
profit from something; to be better because of something.
bent ["bEnt] 1. pt/pp of bend. 2. adj. crooked or curved; not straight.
berry ["bEr i] n. the small, juicy fruit of a bush or shrub.
beside [bI "saId] prep. at, by, or to the side of someone or something;
next to someone or something.
besides [bI "saIdz] 1. prep. in addition to someone or something; as
well as someone or something. 2. adv. also; furthermore; in any case;
at any rate.
best ["bEst] 1. adj. the most excellent [thing]. (The sup. form of good.
See also better.) 2. adv. most excellently. (The sup. form of well. See
also better.) 3. tv. to defeat someone; to do [something] much better than someone; to outwit someone.
bet ["bEt] 1. n. an amount of money gambled on something; a wager.
2. tv., irreg. to make a wager. (Pt/pp: bet.) 3. tv., irreg. to predict
something; to make a guess that something will happen. (The object
is a clause with that U.)
betray [bI "tre] 1. tv. to do something that shows that one is not loyal
to a person; to be unfaithful to someone or something. 2. tv. to show
a sign of something; to reveal something.
better ["bEt #] 1. adj. of more goodness; of greater benefit. (The comp.
form of good. See also best.) 2. adj. healthier than before; improved
in health; having recovered from an illness; in good health again.
(Not prenominal.) 3. adv. with more quality; with greater benefit.
(The comp. form of well. See also best.) 4. tv. to improve oneself;
[for something] to improve itself.
between [bI "twin] 1. prep. in the middle of two people or things; with
something on both sides. 2. prep. both together; in combination with
the two. 3. prep. in comparing two people or things.
beverage ["bEv rIdZ] n. a drink other than water.
beware [bI "wEr] 1. tv. to be cautious with something; to be alert to a
problem. (Almost always a command.) 2. to be cautious of someone
or something. (Almost always a command. More common than Q.)
37
bewildered
bewildered [bI "wIl d#d] adj. confused; puzzled; perplexed. (Adv:
bewilderedly.)
beyond [bi "jand] 1. prep. farther than someone or something; on the
other side of someone or something. 2. prep. past someone’s ability
to understand or comprehend. 3. adv. past; further; on the other side
of someone or something.
bias ["baI @s] 1. n. a prejudice. 2. tv. to prejudice someone.
biased ["baI @st] adj. prejudiced; favoring one over another. (Adv:
biasedly.)
bib ["bIb] n. a napkin or piece of cloth worn around the neck.
bible ["baIb @l] 1. n. the holy writings of the Jewish religion; the
Hebrew Scriptures. (Capitalized.) 2. n. the holy writings of the Christian religion. (Capitalized.) 3. n. a manual; a guidebook; a book of
authority.
biblical ["bIb lI [email protected]] adj. relating to the Bible. (Adv: biblically [...Ik li].)
bicycle ["baI sI [email protected]] 1. n. a vehicle with a metal frame and two wheels,
operated by foot pedals. 2. iv. to travel by Q.
bid ["bId] 1. n. an offer of an amount of money for something for sale,
especially at an auction. 2. n. the presentation of the price for one’s
services, especially in a competition joined by others to do the same
work. 3. n. an attempt to seek or take power or control of something.
4. tv., irreg. to offer an amount of money for something, especially at
an auction. (Pt/pp: bid.)
big ["bIg] 1. adj. large; great in amount or size. (Comp: bigger; sup:
biggest.) 2. adj. important. (Comp: bigger; sup: biggest.) 3. adj. adult;
grown-up. (Comp: bigger; sup: biggest.)
bike ["baIk] 1. n. a bicycle. 2. n. a motorcycle. 3. iv. to ride a bicycle
or motorcycle.
bilingual [baI "lIN [email protected]] 1. adj. [of a person] able to speak two languages. (Adv: bilingually.) 2. adj. referring to two languages. (Adv:
bilingually.)
bill ["bIl] 1. n. a written notice of money owed. 2. n. a legal draft of a
proposed law. 3. n. a piece of printed money that is different from a
coin. 4. n. the hard part of a bird’s mouth. 5. n. the visor of a cap;
the part of a cap that extends from the head and shields the eyes from
the sun. 6. tv. to present a notice of charges to someone or something.
38
bite
billion ["bIl [email protected]] 1. n. 1,000,000,000; a thousand million of something,
usually units of money. (A British billion is a million million.) 2. adj.
amounting to or equal to 1,000,000,000 of something.
bin ["bIn] n. a container or enclosed space used for storage.
bind ["baInd] tv., irreg. to secure something to something else with a
tie or band; to tie something together with something else. (Pt/pp:
bound.)
binocular [[email protected] "nak [email protected] l#] adj. relating to both eyes; involving both
eyes.
binoculars n. a viewing device made of two small telescopes, side by
side. (Treated as a pl. Number is expressed with pair(s) of binoculars.)
biology [baI "al @ dZi] n. the scientific study of living animals and
plants. (No pl.)
bird ["b#d] n. an animal that has feathers and wings.
birth ["b#T] 1. n. the process of being born. 2. n. the origin of something; the way something has come into being. (Fig. on Q.)
birthday ["b#T de] n. the date on which someone was born; a date of
birth.
birthmark ["b#T mark] n. a pigmented mark on the skin, usually red,
brown, black, or purple, present from birth.
birthplace ["b#T ples] n. the city and country where someone was
born; the place of someone’s birth.
biscuit ["bIs kIt] n. a round, flat cake of bread, made with baking powder.
bisect ["baI sEkt] tv. to cut something into two equal parts; to split
something down the middle.
bit ["bIt] 1. pt of bite. 2. n. a small amount of something; a tiny piece
of something. 3. n. the mouthpiece on a bridle, used to control a
horse. 4. n. the basic unit of information in a computer; a binary
digit. 5. n. the end of a drilling tool that bores or cuts holes.
bite ["baIt] 1. n. a mouthful of food; the amount of food taken in at
one time. 2. n. a light meal; a snack; a small amount of food. 3. n.
the mark or wound made on the skin when someone is bitten as in
R by an animal or stung by an insect. 4. tv., irreg. to grip or tear
something with the teeth; to close the teeth around an object. (Pt: bit;
pp: bitten.) 5. iv., irreg. [for a creature] to be able to pierce skin with
its teeth; [for a creature] to have a habit of attacking people or other
creatures with its teeth.
39
bitten
bitten ["bIt n] pp of bite.
bitter ["bIt #] 1. adj. very sharp or harsh in taste; not sweet, salty, or
sour. (Adv: bitterly.) 2. adj. [of wind or weather] extremely cold.
(Adv: bitterly.) 3. adj. emotionally painful; distressful. (Adv: bitterly.)
4. adj. resentful; hateful. (Adv: bitterly.)
bizarre [bI "zar] adj. very strange; eccentric; weird. (Adv: bizarrely.)
black ["blAk] 1. adj. the color of coal; the color of the darkest night;
the opposite of white. (Comp: blacker; sup: blackest.) 2. adj. [of coffee served] without cream or milk. 3. adj. evil; wicked. (Adv: blackly.
Comp: blacker; sup: blackest.) 4. adj. [of people, usually of African
decent] having dark-colored skin. (Occasionally capitalized.) 5. adv.
[of coffee served] without cream or milk. 6. n. someone who is of
African descent having dark-colored skin. (Sometimes capitalized.)
blacken ["blAk @n] 1. tv. to make something black; to cause something
to become black. 2. iv. to become very dark or black; to turn black.
blackness ["blAk [email protected]] n. the state of being black. (No pl.)
blackout ["blAk aUt] 1. n. a complete loss of all electricity or power;
a situation of complete darkness, especially caused by a loss of electrical power. 2. n. a state of not being conscious.
blade ["bled] 1. n. the flat, sharpened edge of a knife or tool. 2. n. the
flat, wide part of an oar or propeller. 3. n. a long, flat leaf of grass or
other plant. 4. n. the metal part of an ice skate that makes contact
with the ice.
blame ["blem] 1. n. the responsibility for causing something that is
bad or wrong. (No pl.) 2. tv. to place the responsibility for doing
something wrong on a person. 3. for to hold someone responsible for something; to name someone as the cause of something. 4. on to say that something is someone’s fault; to place the guilt for
something on someone.
blank ["blANk] 1. n. an empty line or a space on a form. 2. adj. without marks; having no writing. (Comp: blanker; sup: blankest.) 3. adj.
[of a facial expression] not showing recognition or response. (Adv:
blankly. Comp: blanker; sup: blankest.)
blanket ["blAN kIt] 1. n. a piece of thick fabric, used to keep someone
warm. 2. n. a layer of something that covers something else. (Fig. on
Q.) 3. tv. [for something as in W] to cover something.
blare ["blEr] 1. n. a loud, harsh noise. 2. iv. to make a loud, harsh noise.
40
bliss
blast ["blAst] 1. n. a strong, sudden gust of air; a sudden, heavy wind.
2. n. the noise and violent gust of air created by an explosion. 3. n.
an explosion. 4. tv. to blow something up; to explode something.
5. off [for a rocket ship] to take off and head toward a destination.
blaze ["blez] 1. n. a fire; a flame. 2. iv. to burn brightly; to burn with
bright flames.
bleach ["blitS] 1. n. a substance that removes color or stains. (Pl only
for types and instances.) 2. iv. to become white or lighter; to turn
white or lighter. 3. tv. to turn something white or lighter; to cause
something to become white or lighter.
bled ["blEd] pt/pp of bleed.
bleed ["blid] 1. iv., irreg. to lose blood, as from a wound. (Pt/pp: bled.)
2. iv., irreg. [for color, ink, or dye] to seep or soak into other colors
or dyes.
blend ["blEnd] 1. n. a mixture. 2. tv. to combine something with something else. 3. iv. to mix well or attractively with people or things.
4. in to mix well with someone or something; to combine with
someone or something.
bless ["blEs] 1. tv. to make someone or something holy through a religious ritual. 2. tv. to ask God to place favor on the food that is to be
eaten or on people or things.
blessing ["blEs IN] 1. n. a prayer calling for God’s favor or protection.
2. n. God’s favor or good fortune given to someone or something.
3. n. approval.
blew ["blu] pt of blow.
blind ["blaInd] 1. adj. unable to see; sightless. (Adv: blindly. Comp:
blinder; sup: blindest.) 2. adj. [of anger] irrational. (Adv: blindly.
Comp: blinder; sup: blindest.) 3. tv. to take away someone’s or something’s sight permanently or temporarily.
blinds n. a kind of window shade made of horizontal, or sometimes
vertical, slats that can be tilted to block vision or shut out light.
(Treated as pl.)
blink ["blINk] 1. n. a quick closing and opening of the eyes. 2. iv. [for
a light] to flash on and off quickly. 3. tv. to close and open one’s eyes
quickly. 4. iv. [for one’s eyelids] to close and open quickly. 5. tv. to
turn a light on and off quickly; to flash a light.
bliss ["blIs] n. complete happiness; joy. (No pl.)
41
blister
blister ["blIs t#] 1. n. a bubble of fluid under the skin, formed by a
burn or irritation. 2. iv. [for a part of the skin] to raise up and fill
with fluid in response to a burn or irritation. 3. tv. to cause Q to form
on someone or something.
blizzard ["blIz #d] n. a snowstorm with strong winds, heavy snow, and
possible thunder and lightning.
block ["blak] 1. n. a solid piece of something, such as wood, stone, or
ice. 2. n. a large, flat piece of stone or wood on which items are cut,
chopped, or split. 3. n. the distance along a street from one intersection to the next. 4. n. a group of seats or tickets for seats that are next
to each other, as with the theater, an airline flight, or a sporting event.
5. tv. to be or get in the way of something.
blond ["bland] 1. adj. [of hair] fair or light in color. (Comp: blonder;
sup: blondest.) 2. n. someone with light-colored hair. (Blonde is
sometimes used for females.)
blonde ["bland] n. a woman or a girl with light-colored hair. (See also
blond.)
blood ["bl^d] n. a red fluid moving through the bodies of animals. (No
pl.)
bloodshed ["bl^d SEd] n. injury or death caused by violence. (No pl.)
bloody adj. covered with blood.
bloom ["blum] 1. iv. [for a plant] to produce flowers or blossoms. 2. iv.
[for a flower bud] to open.
blossom ["blas @m] 1. n. a flower. 2. iv. to produce flowers; to bloom.
3. iv. [for a flower bud] to open.
blot ["blat] 1. n. a spot or smeared area of ink. 2. tv. to remove an
excess amount of moisture by placing an absorbent paper over it and
pressing. 3. tv. to dry or clean something by placing an absorbent
paper over it and pressing.
blouse ["blaUs] n. a woman’s shirt.
blow ["blo] 1. iv., irreg. [for wind or air] to be in motion. (Pt: blew; pp:
blown.) 2. iv., irreg. [for something] to be lifted by or carried in the
air or wind. 3. iv., irreg. [for a sound-producing device, such as a
horn] to make sound. 4. iv., irreg. [for a fuse] to burn out. 5. tv., irreg.
to exhale air or smoke. 6. tv., irreg. to sound a whistle or a horn,
trumpet, or similar instrument. 7. n. a hard hit or knock. 8. up to
inflate something. 9. up to enlarge a photograph.
blown ["blon] pp of blow.
42
boil
blue ["blu] 1. n. the color of a clear sky on a bright day; the color of a
deep, clear ocean. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. the adj. use of
Q. (Comp: bluer; sup: bluest.) 3. adj. sad. (Adv: bluely. Comp: bluer;
sup: bluest.)
bluff ["bl^f] 1. n. a steep hill or cliff with a wide front. 2. n. a harmless deception; a trick that will not result in harm. 3. tv. to deceive
someone or some creature; to mislead someone or some creature into
doing something.
blunder ["bl^n d#] 1. n. a stupid mistake; a clumsy error. 2. iv. to
make a stupid mistake.
blunt ["bl^nt] 1. adj. without a sharp edge or point. (Adv: bluntly.
Comp: blunter; sup: bluntest.) 2. adj. to the point; frank; not subtle.
(Adv: bluntly. Comp: blunter; sup: bluntest.) 3. tv. to make something
dull; to make something less sharp.
board ["bord] 1. n. a flat, thin piece of wood; a plank. 2. n. a flat piece
of wood or other rigid material, used for a specific purpose. 3. n.
daily meals [when associated with one’s lodging]. (No pl. Treated as
sg.) 4. n. a group of people who manage a company or other organization. 5. n. a flat, sturdy piece of material on which a game is played.
6. tv. to get on a ship, bus, train, or plane. 7. iv. to receive meals and
living space in exchange for money or work.
boast ["bost] 1. n. a bragging statement. 2. iv. to brag or exaggerate.
3. tv. [for something] to offer or have a particular characteristic.
boat ["bot] n. a floating means of transportation, smaller than a ship,
that carries people and cargo.
bob ["bab] 1. n. a quick up-and-down movement. 2. iv. to move up
and down quickly, as with something floating on water. 3. tv. to cut
something, especially hair, short.
body ["bad i] 1. n. the whole physical structure of a living creature or
plant. 2. n. a dead human or animal; a corpse. 3. n. the main part of
something. 4. n. a collection of people or things taken as a group; a
group; a collection. 5. n. a large mass of something; an object.
bodyguard ["bad i gard] n. someone who guards and protects someone else.
boil ["boIl] 1. n. a painful sore place surrounding an infection. 2. n.
the condition of something that boils as in T. (No pl.) 3. tv. to make
a liquid so hot that it bubbles and turns into vapor. 4. tv. to cook
something by putting it in a liquid that is very hot as in T. 5. iv. [for
a liquid] to become so hot that it bubbles and turns into vapor. 6. iv.
43
boiler
[for something] to cook in a liquid that is very hot as in T. 7. down [for a liquid] to be condensed to something by boiling as in
Y. 8. down [for a complex situation] to be reduced to its essentials. 9. out to remove something from something by boiling as in
T.
boiler ["boIl #] n. a large, heated tank that makes hot water or steam.
bold ["bold] 1. adj. confident; sure of oneself; courageous. (Adv: boldly.
Comp: bolder; sup: boldest.) 2. adj. without shame; rude; not shy.
(Adv: boldly. Comp: bolder; sup: boldest.) 3. adj. [of printing] darker
and thicker. (Comp: bolder; sup: boldest.)
bolt ["bolt] 1. n. a metal pin or rod, with threads, used to connect or
attach things. 2. n. a rod that fastens a door, window, or gate. 3. n. a
flash or streak of lightning. 4. n. a sudden, quick movement; an unexpected, quick movement. 5. n. a roll of cloth. 6. tv. to fasten two or
more objects together with Q. 7. tv. to lock a door, gate, or window
by sliding a metal W into place. 8. iv. to run away from someone or
something; to move away from someone or something quickly and
suddenly.
bomb ["bam] 1. n. an explosive weapon or device. 2. tv. to attack an
area by dropping Q on it from planes. 3. tv. to use Q to cause damage or injury to someone or something.
bond ["band] 1. n. a link or something in common that brings together
two people or two groups of people. 2. n. something that causes two
objects to stick together. 3. n. an agreement in which someone or a
company promises, as an investment, to pay back a certain sum of
money by a particular date. 4. iv. [for an adhesive or paint] to become
firmly attached.
bone ["bon] 1. n. any one of the many parts of an animal’s skeleton.
2. n. the hard substance of which Q is made. (No pl.) 3. tv. to remove
Q from meat before cooking it.
bonfire ["ban faI#] n. a large, controlled outdoor fire.
bonnet ["bab @t] n. a cloth hat for women or girls; any hat for women
or girls.
bonus ["bon @s] 1. n. something extra. 2. the adj. use of Q.
book ["bUk] 1. n. a stack of pages, held within a cover. 2. n. a subdivision of a longer written work. 3. n. a set of objects that are held
together under a cover. 4. tv. to process a charge against someone
who has been arrested for committing a crime. 5. tv. to reserve space
in advance for something, such as a play, an airplane flight, a room
44
border
in a hotel, or a table in a restaurant. 6. tv. to reserve the services of a
performer in advance.
bookcase ["bUk kes] n. a set of shelves for books.
bookkeeper ["bUk kip #] n. someone who keeps track of the accounts
of a company or an organization.
bookkeeping ["bUk kip IN] n. the job of keeping track of the accounts
of a company or an organization. (No pl.)
booklet ["bUk [email protected]] n. a thin book; a pamphlet.
bookmark ["bUk mark] n. something placed between the pages of a
book to keep the reader’s place.
books n. the records of the money spent and earned by a company or
organization. (Treated as pl, but not countable.)
bookshelf ["bUk SElf] n., irreg. a horizontal board for holding and displaying books, as in a bookcase. (Pl: bookshelves.)
bookshelves ["bUk SElvz] pl of bookshelf.
bookshop ["bUk Sap] n. a store where books are sold.
bookstore ["bUk stor] n. a store where books are sold.
boom ["bum] 1. n. a large, echoing noise made when something
explodes or crashes. 2. n. a time of strong economic growth. 3. n. a
large, horizontal pole or beam used for support or in the lifting of a
weight. 4. iv. to make a large, echoing noise like an explosion or a
crash.
boost ["bust] 1. n. an upward push; an upward movement. 2. tv. to
push someone or something upward from beneath. 3. tv. to increase
something; to raise something.
boot ["but] 1. n. a heavy shoe, often waterproof. 2. tv. to kick someone or something. 3. tv. to start a computer, causing it to make a
series of checks and set up its operating system. 4. out to force
someone to leave something or someplace.
booth ["buT] 1. n., irreg. a seating area in a restaurant having bench
seats with backs, placed on two sides of the table or around the table.
(Pl: ["buDz] or ["buTs].) 2. n., irreg. a small, enclosed space, such as
the enclosure containing a public telephone. 3. n., irreg. a display
table or area—possibly enclosed—at a fair or a market.
border ["bor d#] 1. n. a decorated area at the edge of something, and
the edge itself. 2. n. the dividing line between two countries, states,
or other political units. 3. tv. to adjoin or be next to a particular area.
45
borderline
borderline ["bor d# laIn] n. the line that marks a border—not clearly
on either side of the border.
bore ["bor] 1. pt of bear. 2. tv. to drill a hole in something. 3. tv. to
make someone tired by being dull. 4. iv. to drill; to make a hole. 5. n.
someone or something that is boring; someone or something that is
dull.
boredom ["bor [email protected]] n. a state or condition where one is bored and
finds everything dull and uninteresting.
boring ["bor IN] adj. dull; not entertaining; causing people to lose interest and perhaps become sleepy. (Adv: boringly.)
born ["born] 1. a pp of bear . 2. adj. possessing a certain quality or
character since birth; by birth; natural. (Prenominal only.) 3. adj.
having a particular place of birth or national heritage. (Usually in
hyphenated combinations.)
borne ["born] a pp of bear.
borrow ["bar o] 1. tv. to ask for, accept, and use something from someone with the intention of returning or replacing it. 2. tv. to take something, such as a custom, trait, or idea, and use it as one’s own.
bosom ["bUz @m] 1. n. the chest of a human. (Formal or literary.) 2. n.
the center of feeling in a human. (Literary.) 3. n. the [pair of] breasts
of a woman. (No pl form in this sense.)
boss ["bOs] n. someone who is in charge of other people’s work or of
other workers.
botany ["bat n i] 1. n. the study of plants. (No pl form in this sense.)
2. n. the description of plant life in a certain area. (No pl form in this
sense.)
both ["boT] 1. adj. one and one other; the two [people or things]. (See
also each and every.) 2. pron. one thing or person and another thing
or person; the two things or people.
bother ["baD #] 1. n. something that is time-consuming or annoying
to do. 2. tv. to annoy someone or something; to upset someone or
something. 3. tv. to interrupt or disturb someone.
bottle ["bat @l] 1. n. a container, usually glass or plastic, with an opening at the end of a short or long neck. 2. n. the contents of Q. 3. tv.
to put something in Q, usually for future use or sale. 4. up [for
someone] to keep serious emotions within and not express them.
bottleneck ["bat l nEk] n. a narrow or crowded passage, like the neck
of a bottle.
46
bowels
bottom ["bat @m] 1. n. the lowest level of something; the deepest point
of something. 2. n. the underside of something; the lowest surface of
something. 3. n. land underneath water; the ground under a body of
water. 4. n. the part of the body on which one sits; the buttocks.
5. adj. relating to the lowest part of something; relating to the underneath part of something.
bought ["bOt] pt/pp of buy.
boulder ["bol d#] n. a huge stone.
boulevard ["bUl @ vard] n. a wide city street, usually lined with trees.
bounce ["baUns] 1. n. the return movement of an object when it hits
a surface. 2. iv. to spring up or away after hitting a surface. 3. tv. to
toss someone upward gently, causing an upward movement as in W.
4. tv. to cause something to hit against a surface and spring back.
5. off to rebound from something. 6. out to rebound out of
or away from something.
bound ["baUnd] 1. pt/pp of bind. 2. adj. tied up; fastened; glued into
covers. 3. iv. to jump; to leap forward; to bounce up. 4. n. an upward
jump; a forward jump.
boundary ["baUn dri] n. a border; a line that marks the edge of a thing
or a place.
bouquet [bo "ke] n. an arrangement of cut flowers; a grouping of cut
flowers that can be held in one hand.
bout ["baUt] 1. n. an attack of a disease. 2. n. a specific contest or
event, especially a boxing match.
bow 1. ["bo] n. a pretty knot, usually with two or more large loops.
2. ["bo] n. a weapon that shoots arrows. 3. ["bo] n. a stick with strings
of hair stretched from end to end, used to play a stringed instrument,
such as a violin. 4. ["baU] n. an act of bending the body to show
respect or in response to applause. 5. ["baU] n. the front part of a ship
or a boat. 6. ["bo] iv. to bend into a curve, similar to W; to form a
curve. 7. ["baU] iv. to bend the body when greeting or honoring someone. 8. ["bo] tv. to cause something to bend into a curve, like the
curve of W; to cause something straight to form a curve. 9. out
["baU aUt] to withdraw from something.
bowel ["baU @l] n. the upper or lower intestine; the upper and lower
intestine.
bowels n. the inner part of something; the inner workings of something.
47
bowl
bowl ["bol] 1. n. a deep, rounded dish; a deep, rounded container. 2. n.
the contents of Q. 3. n. the part of a pipe that holds the tobacco. 4. iv.
to play the game of bowling.
bowling ["bo lIN] n. a game where a player rolls a large, hard ball along
a narrow wooden floor in order to knock down as many as possible
of the ten pins at the other end. (No pl.)
box ["baks] 1. n. a rigid, cube-shaped container, used for storage or
delivery. 2. n. the contents of Q. 3. n. a private seating area in a
sports stadium, theater, etc. 4. n. an empty square printed on a piece
of paper or on a form. 5. n. a square or rectangular container or
receptacle designed for any of a number of special functions.
boy ["boI] n. a male human, not yet fully matured.
brace ["bres] 1. n. a support; something that holds something else in
place. 2. tv. to prepare oneself for an impact or some other strong
force. 3. tv. to prepare oneself for bad news.
bracelet ["bres lIt] n. a piece of jewelry worn around the wrist.
braces n. metal wires or bands attached to teeth to straighten them.
(Treated as pl, but not countable.)
bracket ["brAk It] 1. n. an L-shaped object attached to a wall to support a shelf. 2. n. a printed character used to set off items or to
enclose a set of words. 3. tv. to enclose words in W, [such as these
words].
brag ["brAg] 1. iv. to boast; to say too many good things about oneself. 2. tv. to claim something in a boastful manner. (The object is a
clause with that U.)
braggart ["brAg #t] n. someone who brags; someone who boasts.
braid ["bred] 1. tv. to interweave three or more strands of rope or bundles of hair, string, etc., into one ropelike band. 2. n. a ropelike band
made of woven strands.
brain ["bren] n. the part of the body inside the head that is the center
of thinking and feeling and that controls the movement and operation of the body.
brake ["brek] 1. n. a device that slows or stops a machine or vehicle.
(Often pl. Compare this with break.) 2. tv. to cause something to stop
or slow down. (Pt/pp: braked.) 3. iv. to stop or slow down.
branch ["brAntS] 1. n. a part of a tree that grows out of the trunk; an
armlike part of a tree. 2. n. a small stream or river that joins to a
larger river. 3. n. a division of a company; a smaller part of a larger
48
break
organization or structure. 4. off to separate off from something;
to divide away from something. 5. out [for a branch] to grow out
of a tree branch or trunk. 6. out [for someone] to expand away
from something; to diversify away from narrower interests.
brand ["brAnd] 1. n. a trade name; the name of a product by which
the product is widely recognized. 2. n. a special kind or type of something. 3. n. a mark burned into the skin of cattle. 4. tv. to mark cattle by burning a unique mark into their skin.
brass ["brAs] 1. n. a metal made from copper and zinc. (Pl only for
types and instances.) 2. n. the family of wind instruments made of
Q or some other metal, including the trumpet, trombone, and tuba.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 3. the adj. use of Q or W.
brave ["brev] 1. tv. to withstand something; to face something without fear. 2. adj. showing courage; willing to face danger. (Adv:
bravely. Comp: braver; sup: bravest.)
bread ["brEd] 1. n. a type of food made by baking a mixture of flour,
water, and other ingredients, often including yeast. (No pl. Treated as
sg. Number is expressed with piece(s), slice(s), or loaves of bread.)
2. tv. to cover food with crumbs or meal before cooking it.
breadth ["brEdT] 1. n. width; the measurement of something from
side to side. 2. n. extent.
break ["brek] 1. n. a fracture; a place where something—especially a
bone—has been broken. (Compare this with brake .) 2. n. a short
period of rest from work. 3. n. the period of time between school
terms. 4. n. an escape from jail or prison. 5. n. the ending of a relationship with someone or something; the ending of an association
with someone or something. 6. n. a stop in a continuous action; an
interruption. 7. n. a chance to do something; an opportunity to do
something. 8. tv., irreg. to cause something to fall apart; to crush
something. (Pt: broke; pp: broken.) 9. tv., irreg. to damage something;
to make something not work correctly; to make something unusable.
10. tv., irreg. to crack something; to fracture something, especially a
bone. 11. tv., irreg. to violate an agreement or promise by failing to
do what was promised. 12. tv., irreg. to exchange a large unit of
money for the same amount of money in smaller units. 13. iv., irreg.
to shatter; to smash; to fall apart. 14. iv., irreg. to fail to operate; to
stop functioning properly. 15. iv., irreg. to crack; to fracture. 16. in
to burst into a place and violate someone’s privacy. 17. in to interrupt someone’s conversation. 18. into to enter a closed area by
force. 19. off [for a piece of something] to become separated from
49
breakfast
the whole. 20. out to get out of a confining place or situation; to
escape from something or someplace. 21. out [for the skin] to
erupt with a specific disease such as measles, chicken pox, rubella,
etc. 22. up to break something into smaller pieces.
breakfast ["brEk [email protected]] 1. n. the first meal of the day. 2. iv. to eat Q
[somewhere or at some time].
breast ["brEst] 1. n. the chest; the part of the body between the neck
and the stomach. 2. n. the edible upper body of a fowl. 3. n. one of
the two milk-producing parts on the chest of the human female; a
mammary gland.
breath ["brET] 1. n. the air that moves in and out of the body when
someone or something inhales or exhales. 2. n. someone’s exhaled
air, especially if felt or smelled.
breathe ["briD] 1. iv. to suck air into the lungs and push air out of the
lungs. 2. tv. to inhale or exhale something; to take something into the
lungs or expel something from the lungs or throat.
bred ["brEd] pt/pp of breed.
breed ["brid] 1. n. a group of creatures representing a unique or different kind or type; a subgroup of a certain species. 2. n. a kind of
something; a class of something. 3. iv., irreg. to reproduce; to mate.
(Pt/pp: bred.) 4. tv., irreg. to cause selected members of some kind
of animal to reproduce, often for specific characteristics.
breeze ["briz] 1. n. a light wind; a gentle wind. 2. in to enter a place
quickly, in a happy and carefree manner. 3. through to complete
some task rapidly and easily. 4. through to travel through a place
rapidly.
brew ["bru] 1. n. a liquid drink made by heating various ingredients
in water. 2. tv. to make a liquid drink by mixing and heating various
ingredients in water. 3. tv. to make beer or ale. 4. iv. to develop; to
gather; to form. 5. iv. [for a liquid drink] to develop into its final
form.
bribe ["braIb] 1. n. an offer of something, especially money, in
exchange for a favor from someone. 2. tv. to offer someone something, especially money, in exchange for a favor.
brick ["brIk] 1. n. a rectangular block—used in building things—made
of cement or baked clay. 2. the adj. use of Q.
bride ["braId] n. a woman who is about to be married or has just been
married.
50
brittle
bridegroom ["braId grum] n. a groom; a man who is about to be married or has just been married.
bridesmaid ["braIdz med] n. a woman who attends the bride at a wedding.
bridge ["brIdZ] 1. n. a raised way over a river, street, train tracks, etc.
2. n. something that links people or things. (Fig. on Q.) 3. n. the
navigation and control center of a ship. 4. n. the upper part of the
nose; the part of the nose between the eyes. 5. n. the part of a pair of
eyeglasses that rests on the nose. 6. n. a type of card game for four
people. (No pl.)
brief ["brif] 1. adj. short in time; to the point. (Adv: briefly. Comp:
briefer; sup: briefest.) 2. n. [in law] a document that describes certain
facts or information about a legal case. 3. tv. to acquaint someone
with certain facts or information.
briefs n. short and close-fitting underpants. (Treated as pl. Number
can be expressed with pair(s) of briefs. Also countable.)
bright ["braIt] 1. adj. shiny; full of light; reflecting much light. (Adv:
brightly. Comp: brighter; sup: brightest.) 2. adj. smart; intelligent.
(Adv: brightly. Comp: brighter; sup: brightest.) 3. adj. vivid; brilliant.
(Adv: brightly. Comp: brighter; sup: brightest.)
brilliant ["brIl [email protected]] 1. adj. bright; shiny. (Adv: brilliantly.) 2. adj. intelligent; smart; talented. (Adv: brilliantly.) 3. adj. excellent. (Adv: brilliantly.)
brim ["brIm] 1. n. the top edge of something, such as a cup. 2. n. the
circular, flat edge of a hat.
bring ["brIN] 1. tv., irreg. to carry or escort someone or something from
a more distant place to a closer place. (Pt/pp: brought.) 2. tv., irreg.
to cause something to happen; to result in something. 3. tv., irreg. to
cause something to enter into a different state. 4. back to remind
someone of something.
brisk ["brIsk] 1. adj. [of movement, actions, activity, or rhythm] quick,
rapid, or swift; [of rhythm, music, or activity] lively. (Adv: briskly.
Comp: brisker; sup: briskest.) 2. adj. stimulating; chilly. (Adv: briskly.
Comp: brisker; sup: briskest.)
bristle ["brIs @l] n. a short, stiff hair, as on a brush or on the back of a
hog.
brittle ["brIt @l] adj. hard, but easily cracked or broken. (Comp: brittler; sup: brittlest.)
51
broad
broad ["brOd] 1. adj. wide; vast; extensive; far-reaching. (Adv: broadly.
Comp: broader; sup: broadest.) 2. adj. main; general. (Adv: broadly.
Comp: broader; sup: broadest.
broadcast ["brOd kAst] 1. n. a television or radio program. 2. tv. to
transmit a radio or television signal or program. 3. tv. to make news
widely known; to tell something to many people. 4. iv. to transmit or
send out radio waves.
broccoli ["brak @ li] n. a green vegetable that grows in branched stalks
ending in clumps of buds. (No pl.)
broil ["broIl] 1. tv. to cook something by placing it over or under an
open flame. 2. iv. [for food] to cook over or under an open flame.
broke ["brok] 1. pt of break . 2. adj. having no money; completely
without money; penniless.
broken ["brok @n] 1. pp of break. 2. adj. not working; not functioning; not operating; out of order.
bronze ["branz] 1. n. a brownish metal made from copper and tin. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. n. a third-place medal; an award for
coming in third place in a competition. 3. adj. made from Q.
brook ["brUk] n. a stream; a creek; a small river.
broom ["brum] n. a long-handled brush that is used to sweep floors.
broth ["brOT] n. the liquid part of soup. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
brother ["br^D #] n. a male sibling.
brought ["brOt] pt/pp of bring.
brow ["braU] n. the forehead; the area around the eyebrows.
brown ["braUn] 1. n. a deep, reddish tan color similar to the color of
dirt or wood. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. adj. of the color of
Q. (Comp: browner; sup: brownest.) 3. tv. to cook something until
it turns dark or gets crisp. 4. iv. [for food] to cook until it becomes
W.
browse ["braUz] 1. iv. to look at goods casually when shopping.
2. through to examine the contents of something, such as a book.
bruise ["bruz] 1. n. a colored mark on the skin caused by being struck.
2. tv. to cause Q by striking the body.
brunt ["br^nt] n. the main force or impact of an attack.
brush ["br^S] 1. n. a device used for cleaning, combing, or painting—
made of hard bristles attached to a handle. 2. tv. to clean something,
52
buffalo
such as one’s teeth, with Q. 3. tv. to arrange or groom hair with Q.
4. away to remove something from something by brushing; to get
dirt or crumbs off something by brushing. 5. off to remove something from someone or something by brushing. 6. up on to
improve one’s knowledge of something or one’s ability to do something.
brute ["brut] 1. n. any animal except a human; a beast. 2. n. a bully;
someone who is cruel. 3. adj. great [strength]; powerful [force].
bubble ["b^b @l] 1. n. a thin, spherical film of liquid that encloses a
pocket of gas or air. 2. n. a sphere of air within a solid or a liquid.
3. iv. [for moving liquid] to make a sound that includes the popping
or collapsing of Q or W.
buck ["b^k] 1. n. the male of certain kinds of animals, such as deer
and rabbits. 2. n. one American dollar bill; a dollar. (Slang.) 3. iv. [for
an animal that is being ridden] to jump in an attempt to throw its
rider.
bucket ["b^k It] 1. n. a pail; an open-topped container with a curved
wire handle. 2. n. the contents of Q.
buckle ["b^k @l] 1. n. a fastener for securing a belt or strap. 2. tv. to
fasten a shoe, belt, etc., by using Q. 3. tv. to cause pavement to bend
and rise up. 4. iv. [for pavement] to rise, fold, or break due to a force
such as an earthquake or because of excessive heat. 5. iv. [for someone’s knees] to fold or collapse.
bud ["b^d] 1. n. the part of a plant that becomes a leaf or a flower. 2. n.
a flower that has not opened all the way; a flower whose petals are
still wrapped together. 3. iv. [for a plant] to develop and open the
parts that become leaves or flowers.
buddy ["b^d i] 1. n. a friend; a pal. 2. up to to become overly familiar or friendly with someone. 3. up with to join with another person to form a pair that will do something together or share
something.
budget ["b^dZ @t] 1. n. a financial plan; an estimate of how much
money will be earned and spent during a period of time. 2. n. an
amount of money allocated for a particular purpose. 3. tv. to provide
or reserve an amount of money for a particular purpose. 4. adj.
cheap; economical.
buffalo ["b^f @ lo] n., irreg. a type of wild ox native to Asia, Africa, and
the Americas. (Pl: buffalo, buffalos, or buffaloes.)
53
buffet
buffet [[email protected] "fe] 1. n. a large cabinet for holding utensils for serving and
eating as well as tablecloths and napkins. 2. n. a table or counter having bowls of food that diners can serve for themselves. 3. the adj. use
of Q or W.
bug ["b^g] 1. n. any small insect or creature like an insect; any annoying insect. 2. n. the flu; any minor sickness. (Informal.) 3. n. an electronic device that permits someone to listen in secret to someone’s
private conversation. 4. n. a problem; something that is wrong with
a system, especially in a computer program. 5. tv. to equip a room,
telephone, etc., with E. 6. iv. [for someone’s eyes] to open up wide
and become very apparent.
build ["bIld] 1. tv., irreg. to make something from separate pieces; to
construct something. (Pt/pp: built.) 2. tv., irreg. to develop something; to establish something a little bit at a time. 3. iv., irreg. [for
something] to increase. 4. n. the form of the body; the shape of the
body; the muscle structure of the body. 5. in to make someone or
something an integral part of an organization or a structure. 6. up
to prepare someone for something; to lead a person into a proper
state of mind to receive some information.
builder ["bIld #] n. someone who builds buildings for a living.
building ["bIl dIN] 1. n. a structure where people live, work, or play.
2. n. the business of constructing Q. (No pl.) 3. the adj. use of Q or
W.
built ["bIlt] pt/pp of build.
bulb ["b^lb] 1. n. any rounded or globe-shaped object. 2. n. a glass
globe, with a special wire inside, that is used to create light from electricity. 3. n. a swelling between the stem and roots of some plants,
used for storing food for the plant.
bulk ["b^lk] 1. n. a great amount; a large amount of something. (No
pl.) 2. n. the major portion of something; the largest and most important part. (No pl.) 3. adj. [containing] large [quantities or amounts].
bull ["bUl] 1. n. the male animal corresponding to a cow, if it is able to
breed. 2. n. someone who believes that prices on stocks or bonds will
rise. 3. adj. [of certain animals] male.
bulldozer ["bUl doz #] n. a powerful tractor equipped with a strong
blade that can push dirt and rocks.
bullet ["bUl It] n. a small piece of lead fired from a gun.
54
burden
bulletin ["bUl @ [email protected]] 1. n. a special news report; a piece of news; official information. 2. n. a journal or newsletter published by a specific
group.
bully ["bUl i] 1. n. someone, usually a male, who is mean or threatening. 2. tv. to threaten someone; to be mean to someone.
bumblebee ["b^m [email protected] bi] n. a large, hairy, black and yellow bee.
bump ["b^mp] 1. n. a lump or swelling in an otherwise flat area. 2. n.
a knock; a blow; a hit; a forceful contact. 3. tv. to make forceful contact with someone or something. 4. tv. [for an airline] to cancel
someone’s airplane reservation without warning. 5. into to have
a surprise meeting with someone. 6. into to crash into someone
or something.
bumper ["b^m p#] 1. n. a strong, protective metal or fiberglass bar on
the front and back of a vehicle. 2. n. any device designed to protect
someone or something from an impact. 3. adj. large; abundant; plentiful.
bun ["b^n] 1. n. a bread product, such as that used to hold cooked
hamburger meat or a wiener. 2. n. a sweetened bread roll, sometimes
with fruit or other fillings.
bunch ["b^ntS] 1. n. a group of things that grow together or are placed
together. 2. n. a group of people or things; a large number of things
or people.
bundle ["b^n [email protected]] 1. n. a group of things gathered together. 2. tv. to
include a selection of software with the sale of computer hardware.
3. up to wrap up in protective clothing or bedding as protection
against the cold.
bunk ["b^Nk] 1. n. a narrow bed. 2. n. nonsense. (Informal. No pl form
in this sense.) 3. down to lie down to sleep. 4. with to share a
bedroom or sleeping area.
bunny ["b^n i] n. a rabbit; a hare.
buoy ["bOI, "bu i] 1. n. a floating aid to navigation, used to display
warnings or directions. 2. n. a floating ring that can support a person in the water.
burden ["b#d n] 1. n. a heavy load. 2. n. a heavy responsibility that
strains a person. (Fig. on Q.) 3. tv. to give someone or something a
heavy load.
55
bureau
bureau ["bjUr o] 1. n. a department or agency, especially one relating
to government. (From French.) 2. n. a chest of drawers; a piece of
furniture that clothes are kept in.
burglar ["b#g l#] n. a criminal who enters someplace illegally to steal
things.
burial ["bEr i @l] n. the burying of something, especially a dead body.
burn ["b#n] 1. n. the mark caused by a flame or something that is very
hot. 2. n. an injury caused to someone who has been harmed by high
heat. 3. tv., irreg. to set fire to something; to destroy something by
fire. (Pt/pp: usually burned, but sometimes burnt .) 4. tv., irreg. to
damage someone or something with too much heat. 5. tv., irreg. to
consume a fuel or an energy source. 6. tv., irreg. to sting something;
to cause something to have a sharp feeling of heat. 7. iv., irreg. to provide light; to give off light. 8. iv., irreg. [for an injury] to sting. 9. iv.,
irreg. to be on fire. 10. iv., irreg. [for food] to become scorched from
overcooking.
burner ["b# n#] n. a device that makes a controlled flame for cooking
or heating.
burnt ["b#nt] a pt/pp of burn.
burrow ["b# o] 1. n. a hole that an animal digs in the ground for a
place to live. 2. iv. [for a small animal] to work its way, digging, into
soil, leaves, snow, etc.
burst ["b#st] 1. tv., irreg. to break something open; to cause something to explode. (Pt/pp: burst.) 2. iv., irreg. to explode; to suddenly
break open. 3. n. a sudden outbreak; a violent outbreak; a barrage.
4. n. a spurt; a quick, intense event. 5. in to intrude or come in
thoughtlessly and suddenly and interrupt someone or something.
6. out [for people] to come out of a place rapidly.
bury ["bEr i] 1. tv. to put something in the ground, to cover something
with dirt or soil. 2. tv. to place a dead person or other creature in the
ground. 3. tv. to conceal someone or something; to hide someone or
something.
bus ["b^s] 1. n. an enclosed motor vehicle that carries many passengers. 2. n. [in a computer] a circuit that allows new devices and
equipment to be connected to the main computer. 3. tv. to transport
someone using Q. 4. tv. to remove dirty dishes from a table after a
meal in a restaurant or cafeteria.
bush ["bUS] n. a plant with several woody branches.
56
buttocks
bushel ["bUS @l] 1. n. a unit of measurement of dry goods, especially
crops, equal to 64 pints or 32 quarts. 2. adj. holding or containing
Q.
bushy ["bUS i] adj. [of hair or fur] thick, dense, and shaggy. (Adv:
bushily. Comp: bushier; sup: bushiest.)
business ["bIz [email protected]] 1. n. a profession; an occupation. 2. n. buying,
selling, or trading. (No pl.) 3. n. a corporation; a company. 4. n.
affair; concern; a matter of interest. (No pl.)
busy ["bIz i] 1. adj. working; at work; having things to do. (Adv: busily.
Comp: busier; sup: busiest.) 2. adj. [of a telephone connection] in use.
(Comp: busier; sup: busiest.) 3. adj. occupied with something else at
the time. (Comp: busier; sup: busiest.) 4. adj. distracting to look at
because of clashing patterns; having too much detail. (Adv: busily.
Comp: busier; sup: busiest.) 5. tv. to make work for oneself; to occupy
oneself with something.
but ["b^t, [email protected]] 1. conj. on the contrary; however. 2. conj. except.
3. prep. except someone or something; except for someone or something; other than someone or something; besides someone or something. 4. adv. only; merely; just.
butcher ["bUtS #] 1. n. someone who kills animals that will be used
for meat. 2. n. someone who cuts up and sells the meat of animals.
3. tv. to kill and cut up an animal for food. 4. tv. to kill someone or
something with great cruelty.
butt ["b^t] 1. n. the end or base of something. 2. n. the leftover end of
a cigar or cigarette. 3. n. part of the body on which one sits; the buttocks. (Informal.) 4. n. someone who is the victim of ridicule or the
object of jokes or rudeness. 5. tv. to strike or push hard against someone or something with the head. (Said especially of animals with
horns.) 6. in to interrupt someone or something. 7. into to
intrude upon something; to break into a conversation.
butter ["b^t #] 1. n. the fatty part of milk left after it has been stirred
and mixed over and over. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. certain foods mashed into a spreadable substance. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 3. tv. to put Q on something, usually bread.
butterfly ["b^t # flaI] n. an insect with large, brightly colored wings.
buttermilk ["b^t # mIlk] n. a drink made from milk to which certain
kinds of bacteria have been added. (No pl.)
buttocks ["b^t ^ks] n. the part of the human body upon which one
sits.
57
button
button ["b^t n] 1. n. a small, hard disc, used to fasten clothes or fabric. 2. n. a small disc or similar device that is pressed to close an electrical circuit. 3. n. a badge bearing a message, worn on the clothing.
4. tv. to fasten or close two pieces of fabric together with Q.
buy ["baI] 1. tv., irreg. to purchase something; to pay money in
exchange for something. (Pt/pp: bought .) 2. tv., irreg. to acquire
something, such as time. (Fig. on Q.) 3. tv., irreg. to believe something. (Informal.) 4. n. something that is offered for sale at a very
good price.
buzz ["b^z] 1. n. the sound that bees make; a rapid humming sound.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. iv. to make a loud humming
sound as bees do. 3. n. a telephone call.
by ["baI] 1. prep. near someone or something; next to someone or
something; alongside someone or something; beside someone or
something. 2. prep. [passing] near someone or something. 3. prep.
through the use of someone or something. 4. prep. [done] through
the process of doing something. 5. prep. a word used in indicating
the dimensions of something, especially the dimensions of a square
area. (See also multiply Q.) 6. prep. before some time; not later than
some time. 7. prep. [surpassing someone or something] according to
a specific amount. 8. prep. allotted according to something; in units
of something. 9. adv. past; beyond.
Bye (-bye) ["baI ("baI)] interj. Good-bye; Farewell.
byte ["baIt] n. a unit of computer data, made up of eight bits.
58
C
cab ["kAb] n. a taxi; a taxicab.
cabbage ["kAb IdZ] n. a large, round vegetable with green or purple
leaves. (Not usually pl unless referring to different kinds, types, or
varieties. Number is expressed with head(s) of cabbage.)
cabin ["kAb @n] 1. n. a small house made of wood, especially in a faraway area. 2. n. a private room on a ship. 3. n. the part of an airplane
where the passengers sit.
cabinet ["kAb (@) [email protected]] 1. n. a piece of furniture with shelves, used for
storing or displaying something; a small storage unit with a door, as
found in a kitchen. 2. n. the group of people who advise a president,
prime minister, etc.
cable ["keb @l] 1. n. a thick, heavy, strong length of wire or rope. 2. n.
a telegram. (These were once sent over a telegraph cable.) 3. (television) n. television programming received over a cable. (No pl form
in this sense.)
cacti ["kAk taI] a pl of cactus.
cactus ["kAk [email protected]] n., irreg. a desert plant with pulp on the inside and
needles on the outside. (Pl: cacti or cactuses.)
café [kA "fe] n. a place to buy simple meals; a small restaurant.
cafeteria [kAf @ "tIr i @] n. a restaurant where one can choose from
many selections, usually by passing by the items and placing one’s
choice of food on a tray.
cage ["kedZ] 1. n. an enclosure with bars or wires, where living creatures are kept. 2. tv. to put someone or something in Q.
caged ["kedZd] adj. enclosed; not free.
cake ["kek] 1. n. a sweet, baked, breadlike food. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. a single, complete unit of Q.
calculate ["kAl [email protected] let] 1. iv. to estimate; to figure out values. 2. tv. to
add, subtract, multiply, or divide numbers; to figure out the value of
something. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
calculator ["kAl [email protected] let #] n. a machine that adds, subtracts, multiplies, and divides figures and performs other mathematical functions.
Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc.
Click Here for Terms of Use.
59
calculus
calculus ["kAl [email protected] [email protected]] n. a branch of higher mathematics using special symbols and operations. (No pl.)
calendar ["kAl @n d#] 1. n. a system for keeping track of years and the
divisions of years. 2. n. a chart or table showing days, weeks, and
months. 3. n. a schedule of events; a list of events.
calf ["kAf] 1. n., irreg. a young cow or bull. (Pl: calves.) 2. n., irreg. the
back of the leg from the knee to the ankle.
call ["kOl] 1. n. a shout; a cry. 2. n. an instance of someone contacting
someone by telephone; a message or a conversation using the telephone; a telephone call; a phone call. 3. n. a decision; a choice. 4. tv.
to try to contact someone by telephone; to telephone someone. 5. tv.
to demand someone’s presence. 6. tv. to name someone or something;
to refer to or address someone or something as something. 7. tv. [for
an umpire] to make a decision in a ball game. 8. up to call someone, a group, or a company on the telephone. 9. off to cancel
something, especially an event that has been planned for a certain
date.
caller ["kO l#] 1. n. someone who makes a telephone call. 2. n. a visitor.
calm ["kam] 1. adj. quiet; serene; at peace. (Adv: calmly. Comp: calmer;
sup: calmest.) 2. n. a time or feeling of peace and quiet. (No pl.)
3. down to relax; to become less busy or active.
calorie ["kAl @ ri] n. a unit of energy supplied by food.
calves ["kAvz] pl of calf.
came ["kem] pt of come.
camel ["kAm @l] n. a large desert animal with one or two fatty humps
on its back.
camera ["kAm (@) [email protected]] 1. n. a device that takes pictures; a device that
makes photographs. 2. n. a device that records live action for television or movies.
camp ["kAmp] 1. n. a remote or rural temporary residence, such as for
soldiers, pioneers, refugees, people on vacation, etc. 2. n. a remote or
rural place where children are sent in the summer. 3. n. a permanent
living area for training and retraining members of various military
organizations. 4. iv. to take a vacation in a natural setting; to stay outside in a remote or rural area, sleeping in a tent or a camper instead
of a hotel.
60
candy
campaign [kAm "pen] 1. n. the period of time before an election when
the candidates try to persuade people to vote for them. 2. n. a coordinated series of events with a specific goal or purpose.
camper ["kAm p#] 1. n. someone who camps R; someone who takes
a vacation in a rural or remote area. 2. n. a special vehicle, designed
for camping.
campfire ["kAmp faI#] n. a fire that campers cook on and sit around
at night to keep warm while telling stories and enjoying the outdoors.
campsite ["kAmp saIt] n. the area where campers set up their tents.
campus ["kAmp @s] 1. n. the buildings, lawns, and other areas of a
school, college, or university. 2. n. the buildings and surrounding
areas of a large company. 3. the adj. use of Q or W.
can ["kAn, [email protected]] 1. aux. a word indicating ability to do something. (See
also could.) 2. aux. a form indicating permission to do something.
(In general use but considered informal. In more formal English, may
is used for this function. See also could.) 3. tv. to preserve food by
sealing it in an airtight container. (Pt/pp: canned.) 4. n. a container
shaped like a tube with a top and a bottom, usually made of metal.
5. n. the contents of R.
canal [[email protected] "nAl] n. a long waterway—usually man-made—that is not a
river.
canary [[email protected] "nEr i] n. a small, yellow bird that sings.
cancel ["kAn [email protected]] 1. tv. to end or stop something that is occurring or
planned. 2. tv. to place a mark on a postage stamp, check, ticket, etc.,
so that it cannot be used again.
cancer ["kAn s#] 1. n. a disease characterized by a tumor or tumors
growing and spreading throughout the body. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. something evil or horrible that spreads out over an
area. (Fig. on Q.)
candidate ["kAn dI det] 1. n. someone who is seeking a public office
or other job. 2. n. a recommended or possible choice of a thing or
person.
candle ["kAn [email protected]] n. an object made of wax molded around a string or
wick. (The wick burns and gives off light.)
candlestick ["kAn [email protected] stIk] n. a holder for a candle.
candy ["kAn di] 1. n. a sweet food made with sugar and additional flavors. (Pl only for types and instances. Number is expressed by piece(s)
of candy.) 2. n. a piece or a serving of Q.
61
cane
cane ["ken] n. a stick used as an aid in walking.
canned ["kAnd] adj. preserved; sealed into a container.
cannon ["kAn @n] n., irreg. a large gun. (Pl: cannon or cannons.)
cannot [[email protected] "nat] aux. the negative form of can. (See also can’t.)
canoe [[email protected] "nu] 1. n. a small boat that is moved by paddling. 2. iv. to
travel by Q.
canopy ["kAn @ pi] n. a fabric cover that hangs over something.
can’t [kAnt] cont. cannot.
canvas ["kAn [email protected]] 1. n. a heavy, sturdy fabric made from cotton or
another strong fiber. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a panel
of fabric—usually stretched on a frame—that painters paint on. 3. n.
a painting that has been painted on W.
canyon ["kAn [email protected]] n. a deep, narrow valley, often with a river running
through it.
cap ["kAp] 1. n. a (round) cover for the head, often with a shade for
the eyes. 2. n. the cover or the top of a bottle or small jar; a small lid.
3. tv. to close something with W; to put W on something. 4. tv. to
limit something at a specific point.
capable ["ke [email protected] [email protected]] 1. adj. able; having the power or ability to do
something. (Adv: capably.) 2. of having the ability to do something or the capacity for doing something.
capacity [[email protected] "pAs @ ti] 1. n. the amount of something that a space or
container will hold; the amount of space in something. 2. n. the ability to do something. (No pl.) 3. n. a job, role, or function; a set of
responsibilities.
cape ["kep] 1. n. a long, sleeveless garment worn over clothes. 2. n. a
piece of land that sticks out into a body of water.
capital ["kAp I [email protected]] 1. n. a city that is the center of a government.
(Compare this with capitol.) 2. n. any special or central city, with
reference to a certain feature or attribute. 3. n. an uppercase letter of
the alphabet. 4. n. money that is invested with the hope that it will
earn more money. (No pl.) 5. adj. [of a crime] punishable by death.
capitol ["kAp I [email protected]] n. the building where legislators do their work.
(Compare this with capital.)
capsule ["kAp [email protected]] 1. n. a dose of medicine in a gelatin shell that dissolves when swallowed. 2. n. the part of a spaceship where astronauts
live and work.
62
carelessness
captain ["kAp [email protected]] 1. n. someone in charge of a ship, boat, or airplane.
2. n. an officer in the military or the police. 3. n. the leader of a team.
capture ["kAp tS#] 1. tv. to catch someone or something; to make
someone or something a captive. 2. tv. to take something by force; to
take control of something. 3. tv. to accurately show a feeling or atmosphere through artistic expression.
car ["kar] 1. n. an automobile; a vehicle that can carry a small number
of passengers. 2. n. one unit of a train. 3. n. any of a number of different structures used to carry goods or people.
caramel ["kAr @ [email protected], "kar [email protected]] 1. n. a kind of candy made by heating
sugar. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. adj. made with or flavored
with Q.
carbon ["kar [email protected]] n. a chemical element occurring in nature as coal,
graphite, and diamonds. (No pl.)
card ["kard] 1. n. a stiff, rectangular piece of paper. 2. n. a rectangle
of stiff paper used in games, such as bridge or poker.
cardboard ["kard bord] 1. n. a kind of heavy, thick, stiff paper. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. adj. made of Q.
cardinal ["kard [email protected]] 1. n. a bird—the males of which are bright red—
with a crest on its head. 2. n. a high-ranking official of the Roman
Catholic Church.
cardinal number and cardinal numeral a number used in counting, such as one, two, three. (Can be shortened to cardinal. See also
ordinal number.)
cardinal numeral Go to cardinal number.
care ["kEr] 1. n. serious attention; focused thought; caution. (No pl.)
2. n. the responsibility of providing for, protecting, or medically
treating someone. (No pl.) 3. n. a worry; a source of anxiety; a concern.
career [[email protected] "rIr] 1. n. one’s chosen work; what one does to earn money.
2. the adj. use of Q.
careful ["kEr fUl] 1. adj. cautious; avoiding danger or damage. (Adv:
carefully.) 2. adj. detailed; thorough. (Adv: carefully.)
careless ["kEr [email protected]] adj. without care; clumsy; done without thought.
(Adv: carelessly.)
carelessness ["kEr [email protected] [email protected]] n. a lack of concern; a lack of care. (No
pl.)
63
caretaker
caretaker ["kEr tek #] 1. n. someone who watches over and protects
a building or property. 2. n. someone who takes care of someone else.
cargo ["kar go] n. goods being carried by a vehicle; freight. (Pl only for
types and instances. Pl: cargoes or cargos.)
carnival ["kar [email protected] [email protected]] n. a circus; a traveling amusement show having
rides R.
carol ["kEr @l] n. a song of joy, especially a Christmas song.
carpenter ["kar [email protected] t#] n. someone who builds things with wood.
carpet ["kar pIt] 1. n. a rug; a thick floor covering made out of fabric.
2. tv. to cover a floor with Q.
carriage ["kEr IdZ] n. a car or vehicle pulled by horses.
carrot ["kEr @t] n. a vegetable with a long, thin, edible orange root.
carry ["kEr i] 1. tv. to pick up and take someone or something somewhere. 2. tv. to support the weight of something. 3. tv. to spread a
disease or sickness. 4. tv. to win the vote of a state or district. 5. tv.
[when adding a column of numbers, if the result is greater than 9] to
transfer units of ten to the next column to the left as units of one.
6. tv. [for a store] to have an item available for sale. 7. iv. [for a voice
or sound] to travel far. 8. off to take someone or something some
distance away. 9. on to cry; to act rowdy. 10. out to complete
a deed. 11. out to take something out with one.
cart ["kart] 1. n. a vehicle pulled by a horse, mule, dog, etc. 2. n. a large
basket on wheels, such as those found in grocery stores and other
shops.
carton ["kart n] 1. n. a cardboard or plastic container or package. 2. n.
Q considered as a measurement of something.
cartoon [kar "tun] 1. n. a drawing or series of drawings that is usually
intended to be funny. 2. n. a film in which each frame is a drawing.
(Also an animated cartoon.)
carve ["karv] 1. tv. to cut or sculpt wood, ivory, soap, or some other
substance into a shape. 2. tv. to slice or cut up cooked meat for serving at a meal.
case ["kes] 1. n. a crate; a box. 2. n. an instance; an occurrence. 3. n.
a legal action or lawsuit.
cash ["kAS] 1. n. money; currency, but not a check or a credit card.
(No pl.) 2. tv. to exchange a check for currency. 3. tv. to give money
in exchange for a check.
64
catcher
cashier [kA "SIr] n. someone who handles the paying out and taking
in of money, especially at a store or bank.
cassette [[email protected] "sEt] 1. n. a plastic case containing a pair of reels of magnetic audiotape or videotape. 2. player a device that plays back
sound recorded on a cassette. 3. recorder a device that records
sound onto a cassette and plays it back.
cast ["kAst] 1. n. all of the performers in a play, musical, opera, TV
show, or movie. 2. n. a protective support for a broken bone, often
made from plaster. 3. tv., irreg. to throw something. (Pt/pp: cast.)
4. tv., irreg. to throw a fishing lure into the water; to drop a fishing
net into the water. 5. tv., irreg. to create a shadow on something.
6. tv., irreg. to move and aim one’s eyes or line of sight at someone or
something. 7. tv., irreg. to select the performers for a play, film, opera,
etc. 8. tv., irreg. to create an object by pouring a soft substance into
a mold and letting it harden into the shape of the mold.
castle ["kAs @l] 1. n. a large fortress where a country’s king and queen
live. 2. n. a game piece in chess, usually shaped like Q.
casual ["kAZ ju @l] 1. adj. [of someone] relaxed and free; [of an event]
not formal. (Adv: casually.) 2. adj. done without thought or planning.
(Adv: casually.)
cat ["kAt] 1. n. one of a member of the family of mammals that
includes W, lions, leopards, tigers, jaguars, and lynxes. 2. n. a small
mammal, with claws, sharp teeth, and whiskers, often kept as a pet.
catalog and catalogue ["kAt @ lOg] 1. n. a book or list containing
descriptions of things, often of things that are for sale. 2. (card) catalog n. the files of cards listing the books and publications in a library
and their locations within the library—or the equivalent information
stored in computer files. 3. tv. to arrange or categorize items on a list
or in Q or W.
catch ["kAtS] 1. tv., irreg. to seize and hold someone or something.
(Pt/pp: caught .) 2. tv., irreg. to find someone in the act of doing
something. 3. tv., irreg. to get a disease caused by bacteria or viruses.
4. tv., irreg. to reach or make contact with someone or something just
in time. 5. tv., irreg. to experience something through one of the
senses; to understand someone or something. 6. tv., irreg. [for something] to snare or entangle someone or something. 7. n. a game or
pastime where people throw and receive a ball back and forth. 8. n.
an act of grasping or receiving something as in Q. 9. n. a fastener; a
locking or latching device.
catcher ["kAtS #] n. [in baseball] the player who is behind the batter.
65
caterpillar
caterpillar ["kAt @ pIl #] n. the creature, somewhat like a worm, that
is the young form of a butterfly or a moth.
cathedral [[email protected] "Ti [email protected]] n. a large, important church, especially a major,
ancient church.
catholic ["kAT (@) lIk] 1. adj. universal; wide ranging. (Adv: catholically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. of or about the Roman Catholic Church or religion. (Capitalized.) 3. n. a member of the Roman Catholic Church.
(Capitalized.)
Catholicism [[email protected] "Tal @ sIz @m] n. the religion and teachings of the
Roman Catholic Church. (No pl.)
catsup Go to ketchup.
cattle ["kAt @l] n. cows and bulls in general. (No pl. Treated as pl, but
not countable. Number is expressed with head of cattle, as in 10 head
of cattle.)
Caucasian [kO "ke [email protected]] 1. adj. [of a person, usually of European
descent] having light-colored skin; white Y. (In common, but not
technical, use.) 2. n. a Caucasian as in Q person; a person having
white Y skin.
caught ["kOt] pt/pp of catch.
cause ["kOz] 1. tv. to make something happen. 2. n. someone or something that makes something happen; someone or something that produces an effect. 3. n. a philosophy or a charity; a political or social
movement.
caution ["kOSn] n. care; being careful.
cave ["kev] n. a natural chamber or tunnel inside a mountain or under
the earth.
cavern ["kAv #n] n. a large cave; a large chamber in a cave.
cavity ["kAv I ti] 1. n. a hole; a hollow, enclosed space. 2. n. a rotten
place on a tooth.
cease ["sis] 1. tv. to stop doing something; to quit doing something.
2. iv. to stop; to finish.
ceiling ["si lIN] 1. n. the underside of a roof; a surface that forms the
overhead part of a room. 2. n. the upper limit of something, especially of costs. (Fig. on Q.)
celebrate ["sEl @ bret] 1. tv. to have a festive event or a party on a special day or for a special season. 2. tv. to perform a specific procedure
or a ritual. 3. tv. to praise someone or something. 4. iv. to be festive
for a certain reason.
66
center
celebration [sEl @ "bre [email protected]] n. a festival; a festive event.
celery ["sEl (@) ri] n. a light-green vegetable with long, crisp stalks and
leafy ends. (No pl. Number is expressed with stick(s) or stalk(s) of celery.)
cell ["sEl] 1. n. the basic biological unit of living tissue. 2. n. a subdivision of certain things, such as in a beehive or as with zones for
portable wireless telephones. 3. n. a cagelike room for keeping prisoners. 4. n. a battery; one of the sections of a battery.
cellar ["sEl #] n. a basement; an underground room.
cello ["tSEl o] n. a stringed instrument, similar to a violin but larger.
(It stands on the floor between the player’s knees. Pl ends in -s.)
cellular ["sEl [email protected] l#] 1. the adj. form of cell Q or W. (Adv: cellularly.)
2. telephone a portable telephone using radio-wave transmission
within a large area that is divided into smaller cells, allowing the same
radio frequency to be used in different cells by different users. (Often
shortened to cell phone.)
Celsius ["sel si @s] 1. n. the metric system of measuring temperature.
(No pl form in this sense. Named for the Swedish astronomer Anders
Celsius. The same as centigrade. Abbreviated C.) 2. the adj. use of
Q. (W follows degrees. Abbreviated C.)
cement [sI "mEnt] 1. n. a gluelike substance that joins things together.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a gray powder made of clay
and limestone that hardens when mixed with water. (No pl.) 3. tv. to
join two things together.
cemetery ["sEm @ tEr i] n. a graveyard; a place where dead people are
buried.
censor ["sEn s#] 1. n. someone who seeks to remove offensive words
and pictures from material seen by the public. 2. tv. to suppress the
publication or performance of offensive material.
census ["sEn [email protected]] 1. n. the process of counting the number of people
who live in an area. 2. n. the official number of people who live in an
area; a report of what was found in collecting information for Q.
cent ["sEnt] n. a penny; one one-hundredth of a dollar.
center ["sEn t#] 1. n. the point in the middle of a circle or sphere that
is the same distance from all points on the circle or on the surface of
the sphere; a place that is in the middle of something. 2. n. a major
site or focus of an activity. 3. adj. middle. (Prenominal only.) 4. tv.
to place someone or something in the middle of something.
67
Centigrade
Centigrade ["sEnt @ gred] n. the metric system of measuring temperature. (No pl. The same as celsius. Abbreviated C.)
centimeter ["sEnt @ mit #] n. a measure of length, equal to one onehundredth of a meter. (An inch is 2.54 centimeters.)
central ["sEn [email protected]] 1. adj. near the center. (Adv: centrally.) 2. adj. primary; essential. (Adv: centrally.)
century ["sEn [email protected] ri] 1. n. one hundred years. 2. n. a block of time that
begins every one hundred years, starting sometime close to the birth
of Jesus Christ or some other specific event.
ceramic [[email protected] "rAm Ik] adj. made of hard, baked clay, able to withstand
great heat.
ceramics n. the making of pottery by shaping clay and baking it until
it hardens. (Treated as sg.)
cereal ["sIr i @l] 1. n. one of a number of plants that provide grain. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. n. a food product made from grains,
usually served at breakfast with milk. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
ceremony ["sEr @ mon i] 1. n. a tradition or ritual associated with a
particular event. 2. n. the formal behavior seen in certain religious,
social, or political events. (No pl.)
certain ["s#t n] 1. adj. definite or known, but not stated; particular
and specific, but not identified. (Prenominal only.) 2. adj. sure; confident; having no doubt (about something).
certainly ["s#t n li] 1. adv. definitely; surely; positively. 2. adv. yes, by
all means. (An answer to a question.)
certainty ["s#t n ti] 1. n. the state of being sure or certain. (No pl.)
2. n. something that is known to be true.
certificate [s# "tIf @ kIt] 1. n. an official document pledging that the
statements written on it are true. 2. n. an official document that
shows that someone has achieved a certain kind of training or education.
chain ["tSen] 1. n. links or rings, especially made of metal, that are
joined together in a row. 2. n. a group of stores or businesses with
the same name, owned by the same company or person. (A chain
store.) 3. tv. to bind someone or something with Q.
chair ["tSEr] 1. n. a piece of furniture for sitting, sometimes with arms;
a piece of furniture for one person to sit on. 2. n. a person who presides over a committee or a meeting. 3. n. the head of a department,
68
change
especially in a university. 4. tv. to lead or preside over a meeting,
department, or committee.
chairman ["tSEr [email protected]] n., irreg. the head of a department or committee; the person in charge of a meeting. (Either male or female. See
also chair. Pl: chairmen.)
chairmen ["tSEr [email protected]] pl of chairman.
chalk ["tSOk] 1. n. a soft, white limestone. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. a stick of Q used for writing, as on a chalkboard.
(No pl. Number is expressed with piece(s) or stick(s) of chalk.)
challenge ["tSAl IndZ] 1. n. a dare; an invitation to a competition. 2. n.
a difficult task. 3. tv. [for a difficult task] to test someone or something.
chamber ["tSem b#] 1. n. a room. 2. n. a division of government, such
as the House of Representatives or the Senate of the United States
Congress, separately; certain organizations, such as the chamber of
commerce of an area. 3. n. a compartment within something; an
enclosed space inside the body.
chameleon [[email protected] "mil (i )[email protected]] 1. n. a lizard that changes the color of its
skin to match its surroundings. 2. n. someone who is very changeable.
champ ["tSAmp] n. a champion; a winner.
champagne [SAm "pen] n. a sparkling white wine made in the Champagne area of France, or similar wines made elsewhere. (Pl only for
types and instances.)
champion ["tSAmp i @n] 1. n. a winner; someone who has won a contest or competition. 2. n. someone who supports or argues in favor
of someone or something; someone who advocates something. 3. tv.
to support someone or something; to speak in favor of someone or
something.
chance ["tSAns] 1. n. fate; fortune. (No pl.) 2. n. the probability that
something might happen. (No pl.) 3. n. an opportunity. 4. tv. to risk
something.
change ["tSendZ] 1. n. the process of becoming something different.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. something new or different;
something that replaces something else. 3. n. bills or coins of lower
value given in exchange for bills or coins of a higher value; the money
returned to someone who has paid a sum higher than the price. (No
pl. Treated as sg.) 4. n. loose coins. (No pl. Treated as sg.) 5. tv. to
replace something. 6. tv. to cause something to become different.
69
channel
7. tv. to remove clothing and put on different clothing. 8. tv. to
replace a baby’s dirty diaper with a clean one. 9. iv. to become different. 10. iv. to take off one set of clothes and put on another.
channel ["tSAn l] 1. n. a deeper passage through a harbor, where vessels can sail safely; the deepest part of a river or stream. 2. n. the frequencies assigned to a particular television station.
chaos ["ke as] n. complete confusion; complete disorder; anarchy. (No
pl.)
chapel ["tSAp @l] n. a place of worship that is smaller than a sanctuary.
chapter ["tSAp t#] 1. n. a division within a book; a section of a book.
2. n. a division of an organization or society.
character ["kEr Ik t#] 1. n. a person in a book, movie, play, television
show, etc. 2. n. the nature of someone or something; the essential
qualities of someone or something, especially someone’s moral qualities. 3. n. high personal quality; integrity; moral goodness. (No pl.)
4. n. an unusual or eccentric person. 5. n. a symbol used in writing,
such as a letter, number, or other symbol.
characteristic [kEr Ik [email protected] "rIs tIk] 1. n. a single feature; a special quality of someone or something. 2. adj. relating to the features or qualities of something. (Adv: characteristically [...Ik li].)
charcoal ["tSar kol] n. a carbon-based fuel made by burning wood partially. (Pl only for types and instances.)
charge ["tSardZ] 1. n. the cost of something; the amount of money
needed to pay for something. (Often pl.) 2. n. control [of someone
or something]. (No pl.) 3. n. someone or something that must be
watched over. 4. n. an accusation; a statement that someone has done
something criminal. 5. n. a sudden, moving attack. 6. n. the amount
of electrical energy stored in a battery or a particle of matter. 7. n.
the explosive material used in one explosion. 8. tv. to present a claim
of a sum of money for goods or services. 9. tv. to place Q on an
account instead of paying cash. 10. tv. to rush toward and attack
someone or something. 11. tv. to provide a battery with energy; to
send electricity through something, such as a circuit. 12. tv. to ask
for pay at a certain rate.
charity ["tSEr I ti] 1. n. love, kindness, and generosity shown toward
other people. (No pl.) 2. n. an organization that helps people in need.
charm ["tSarm] 1. n. a pleasing, attractive personality trait. (Pl only
for types and instances.) 2. n. a small toy or trinket worn on a neck70
cheer
lace or bracelet. 3. n. something that has magical powers. 4. tv. to
influence someone by using Q.
chart ["tSart] 1. n. a statistical table; a graph, table, or diagram. 2. n.
a map, especially a map for navigation on water. 3. tv. to plan one’s
route on a map. 4. tv. to arrange a set of figures or statistics on Q.
chase ["tSes] 1. n. an act of running after someone or something. 2. tv.
to run after someone or something.
chat ["tSAt] 1. iv. to talk; to have a friendly talk. 2. n. a pleasant conversation; a friendly talk.
chatter ["tSAt #] 1. iv. to talk about unimportant things. 2. iv. [for
one’s teeth] to click together because of fear or coldness. 3. n. unimportant talk. (No pl.)
cheap ["tSip] 1. adj. inexpensive; not costing a lot of money. (Adv:
cheaply. Comp: cheaper; sup: cheapest.) 2. adj. poorly made; of poor
quality; of poor value. (Adv: cheaply. Comp: cheaper; sup: cheapest.)
cheat ["tSit] 1. tv. to deceive someone in a game or in commerce, as a
means of gaining money or some other advantage. 2. iv. to succeed
by doing something that is not fair or honest. 3. n. someone who
cheats as in Q or W; someone who does not play fairly.
check ["tSEk] 1. n. a written order to a bank to pay an amount of
money to someone or something. 2. n. the mark (✓). 3. n. the bill
for a meal in a restaurant. 4. n. something that stops or restrains
someone or something. 5. n. a brief look at someone or something;
an inspection of someone or something. 6. tv. to examine something;
to look at something closely but quickly. 7. tv. to put one’s belongings
into the care of someone and receive a receipt for the property. 8. tv.
to restrain someone or something; to stop someone or something.
checkup ["tSEk @p] n. a physical examination done by a physician; a
mechanical inspection done by a mechanic.
cheek ["tSik] n. the part of the face below the eye.
cheekbone ["tSik bon] n. the bone just below the eye.
cheer ["tSIr] 1. n. an encouraging yell; some applause and shouting
meant to encourage someone. 2. n. happiness; a good state of mind.
(No pl.) 3. iv. to yell and shout in support of someone or something;
to yell in encouragement. 4. tv. to encourage someone by shouts of
support. 5. up [for a sad person] to become happy.
71
cheerful
cheerful ["tSIr fUl] 1. adj. in good spirits; full of cheer; happy. (Adv:
cheerfully.) 2. adj. pleasant; [of something] bright and pleasing. (Adv:
cheerfully.)
cheery ["tSIr i] 1. adj. full of cheer; showing cheer. (Adv: cheerily.
Comp: cheerier; sup: cheeriest.) 2. adj. bright and cheerful; causing
cheer. (Adv: cheerily. Comp: cheerier; sup: cheeriest.)
cheese ["tSiz] 1. n. a food made from the solid parts of processed milk.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. the adj. use of Q.
chef ["SEf] 1. n. a professional cook. 2. n. any cook; whoever is doing
the cooking.
chemical ["kEm I [email protected]] 1. n. an element or a mixture of basic elements.
2. the adj. use of Q. (Adv: chemically [...Ik li].)
chemist ["kEm Ist] n. a scientist whose specialty is the theory and use
of substances.
cherish ["tSEr IS] 1. tv. to treat someone or something very lovingly;
to have great fondness for someone or something. 2. tv. to keep the
idea of someone or something in one’s mind.
cherry ["tSEr i] 1. n. a tree that produces small, round, bright red fruits
with one pit. 2. n. wood from Q. (Pl only for types and instances.)
3. n. the fruit of Q. 4. adj. made with or flavored with E. 5. adj.
made from W.
chess ["tSEs] n. a game played by two people on a special board, with
32 pieces. (No pl.)
chest ["tSEst] 1. n. the upper front part of the body. 2. n. a piece of
furniture with drawers, used to store clothes, linen, and other items.
(Often chest of drawers.) 3. n. a large, wooden storage box.
chew ["tSu] 1. tv. to crush food with the teeth before swallowing it.
2. iv. to bite down with the teeth.
chick ["tSIk] n. a baby chicken or other baby bird.
chicken ["tSIk @n] 1. n. a bird raised on a farm for meat and eggs; a
hen or a rooster. 2. n. the meat of Q. (No pl.) 3. adj. made with or
flavored with W.
chief ["tSif] 1. n. the head of an organization or group; the leader.
2. adj. most important; principal; main. (Adv: chiefly.)
child ["tSaIld] n., irreg. a young person; a boy or a girl; someone’s son
or daughter. (Pl: children.)
childhood ["tSaIld hUd] n. the time period during which one is a child.
72
choke
children ["tSIl drIn] pl of child.
chill ["tSIl] 1. n. a coldness, especially a damp coldness. 2. n. a cold
feeling; a lasting cold feeling caused by being in the cold too long.
3. n. a coldness of manner; an unpleasant attitude; an unfriendly attitude. (Fig. on Q. No pl.) 4. n. a sense of severe fright, possibly
accompanied by the feeling of W. 5. tv. to cool something. 6. iv. to
become cool or cold.
chilly ["tSIl i] adj. cold; cool. (Comp: chillier; sup: chilliest.)
chimney ["tSIm ni] n. the structure that carries smoke to the outside
and above a building.
chimpanzee [tSIm "pAn zi] n. an African ape, closely related to
humans.
chin ["tSIn] n. the part of the face below the lower lip.
china ["tSaIn @] n. high-quality dishes, cups, and saucers made of fine,
thin ceramic material. (No pl.)
chip ["tSIp] 1. n. a small piece that has broken off a larger object. 2. n.
the dent that is left where a small piece of something has broken off.
3. n. a flat, crunchy, fried or baked snack made of starch. (Usually
made from potatoes or corn. Also short for potato chip.) 4. tv. to
break off a small piece of something. 5. tv. to shape something by
picking away or cutting away at it piece by piece. 6. iv. [for something] to lose a small bit, through chipping as in R.
chisel ["tSIz @l] 1. n. a sharp-edged tool for removing pieces from
wood or stone. 2. tv. to shape something with Q.
chocolate ["tSak (@) [email protected]] 1. n. a tasty, sweet food made from roasted
cacao beans, usually in the form of candy, syrup, a brewed beverage,
or a flavor in cooking. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a piece
of Q. 3. adj. made with or flavored with Q.
choice ["tSoIs] 1. n. a selection from which one can choose. (Pl only
for types and instances.) 2. n. the actual selection; someone or something chosen or selected. 3. adj. of very high quality; excellent; best;
optimal. (Adv: choicely.)
choir ["kwaI#] n. a singing group, especially one in a church.
choke ["tSok] 1. n. the part of an engine that controls the amount of
air that goes into the engine. 2. tv. to cut off someone’s or some creature’s air supply. 3. iv. to react to having one’s air supply cut off.
73
choose
choose ["tSuz] 1. tv., irreg. to pick or select someone or something
from a group. (Pt: chose; pp: chosen.) 2. iv., irreg. to do the process
of selection.
choosy ["tSu zi] adj. hard to please; hard to make happy; particular.
(Adv: choosily. Comp: choosier; sup: choosiest.)
chop ["tSap] 1. n. a movement with an axe or blade that cuts into
something; a blow that cuts into something. 2. n. a slice of meat,
including some bone, especially lamb or pork. 3. tv. to cut something
by hitting it with something sharp.
chord ["kord] n. two or more musical tones played at the same time.
chore ["tSor] n. a regular task; a duty.
chorus ["kor @s] 1. n. a group of people who sing together; a choir.
2. n. the part of a song that is repeated after each verse. 3. n. words
or noises that are said together or at the same time.
chose ["tSoz] pt of choose.
chosen ["tSo [email protected]] pp of choose.
Christian ["krIs [email protected]] n. a member of the Christian religion.
Christian religion and Christianity ["krIs [email protected] rI "lIdZ @n, krIs tSi
"An @ ti] n. a religion whose basis is in the teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christianity [krIs tSi "An @ ti] Go to Christian religion.
Christmas ["krIs [email protected]] n. December 25; the day on which the birth of
Christ is celebrated by many Christians.
chrome ["krom] 1. n. chromium or metal plated with chromium. (No
pl form in this sense.) 2. adj. covered or plated with chromium.
chromium ["krom i @m] n. a brittle metallic element. (No pl form in
this sense.)
chromosome ["krom @ som] n. one of many very tiny cellular structures containing genes.
chuckle ["tS^k @l] 1. n. a soft, happy laugh. 2. iv. to laugh softly and
happily.
chum ["tS^m] n. a good friend; a buddy.
chunk ["tS^Nk] n. a thick, irregularly shaped piece of something.
church ["tS#tS] 1. n. a building where Christians gather to worship.
2. n. the worship service celebrated within Q. (No pl.) 3. n. the
members of a particular religious organization. 4. n. the institutional
organization of a religious body, its policies, and its practices. (No
pl.)
74
citrus
cider ["saI d#] n. apple juice; juice pressed from apples. (Pl only for
types and instances.)
cigar [sI "gar] n. a carefully packed roll of dried tobacco leaves, used
for smoking.
cigarette [sIg @ "rEt] n. a small roll of cut tobacco wrapped in paper,
used for smoking.
cinema ["sIn @ [email protected]] 1. n. the business of making motion pictures; the
movies. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. a movie theater.
circle ["s# [email protected]] 1. n. a curved line where every point on the line is the
same distance from a center point. 2. n. anything shaped like Q; a
ring. 3. n. a group of people with related interests. 4. tv. to form a
ring around someone or something. 5. tv. to draw a ring around
something that is written or printed.
circuit ["s# kIt] 1. n. a complete trip around something. 2. n. the path
that the flow of electricity follows.
circular ["s# [email protected] l#] 1. n. a printed sheet that is sent to many people.
2. adj. in the shape of a circle; round; ringlike. (Adv: circularly.)
circulate ["s# [email protected] let] 1. tv. to send something from person to person;
to send something from place to place. 2. tv. to carry something, such
as medicine, by way of the circulation of blood. 3. iv. to go around
from person to person. 4. iv. [for blood] to flow from the heart
through the body and back to the heart.
circulation [s#k [email protected] "le [email protected]] n. the process of circulating.
circus ["s# [email protected]] n. a traveling show featuring clowns, acrobats, animals, magicians, and other similar acts.
cite ["saIt] 1. tv. to use someone or something as a reference to support a claim or statement of fact. 2. tv. to refer to or list a citation.
3. tv. to recognize someone for having done an exceptional deed.
4. tv. to give someone an order to appear in court.
citizen ["sIt @ [email protected]] n. someone who is a legal resident of a specific political region; someone who has full rights of membership in a state or
country.
citizenship ["sIt @ [email protected] SIp] 1. n. the state of being an official citizen.
(No pl.) 2. n. the behavior expected of a citizen. (No pl.)
citrus ["sI [email protected]] 1. n. a family of fruit including oranges, tangerines,
grapefruit, limes, lemons, etc. (No pl.) 2. the adj. use of Q.
75
city
city ["sIt i] 1. n. a large town; a large residential and business center.
2. the adj. use of Q. 3. hall n. the administrative building for a
city government. (Sometimes capitalized.)
civil ["sIv @l] 1. adj. of or about citizens and their government, activities, rights, and responsibilities. 2. adj. polite; courteous; behaving
properly. (Adv: civilly.) 3. adj. relating to a legal action that does not
deal with criminal law.
civilian [sI "vIl [email protected]] n. a citizen who is not in the military.
civilize ["sIv @ laIz] tv. to make someone or a culture more organized
and less primitive.
claim ["klem] 1. n. a document or statement requesting that a payment
be made. 2. n. a statement presented as fact; a statement that something is true. 3. tv. to assert one’s right to own something. 4. tv. to
say a statement as fact; to state that something is true. (The object
can be a clause with that U.)
clam ["klAm] 1. n. an edible marine animal having a pair of shells that
open like a book. 2. the adj. use of Q.
clamp ["klAmp] 1. n. a device that holds things together with pressure.
2. tv. to hold things together with pressure.
clap ["klAp] 1. n. the sound made when one brings one’s palms
together, as in applause. 2. n. a loud burst of thunder. 3. iv. to make
applause.
clarinet [klEr @ "nEt] n. a tube-shaped musical instrument of the
woodwind family.
clash ["klAS] 1. n. a fight; a battle; a skirmish. 2. with to quarrel or
fight with someone. 3. with to be in conflict with something else.
clasp ["klAsp] 1. n. a hook or fastener that holds something closed.
2. n. a firm grasp; the holding of something tightly. 3. tv. to take hold
of someone or something firmly; to hold someone or something
tightly.
class ["klAs] 1. n. a group of similar things. 2. n. someone’s social and
economic ranking. 3. n. a course that is taught; a subject that is
taught. 4. n. a specific session of learning; a period of time spent in
instruction. 5. n. all the people in a certain grade or year of schooling. 6. n. a term of address for a group of students in a classroom.
(No pl.) 7. n. the ability to behave properly, politely, or elegantly. (No
pl.)
76
clear
classic ["klAs Ik] 1. n. something, especially art, music, or writing,
that is of very high quality and will be or is remembered through history. 2. adj. of high quality; the best; of great and lasting importance;
serving as a standard for others of its kind. 3. adj. typical; just as one
would anticipate.
classical ["klAs I [email protected]] 1. adj. of or about ancient Greece and Rome.
(Adv: classically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. [of music, such as symphonies and
operas, dance, and other art forms] serious and requiring a high
degree of training and skill.
classmate ["klAs met] n. someone in the same class at school.
classroom ["klAs rum] n. a room in a school or building where classes
are held.
clause ["klOz] 1. n. a phrase that has a subject and a verb. 2. n. a single provision in a legal document.
claw ["klO] 1. n. a sharp, hard, curved nail on the foot of an animal or
a bird. 2. n. the pinchers of a lobster, crab, or other shellfish. 3. n. the
part of the hammer that is used for removing nails. 4. tv. to scratch
or tear someone or something with Q.
clay ["kle] 1. n. a kind of sticky soil, used for pottery. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. adj. made of or concerning Q.
clean ["klin] 1. adj. tidy; not dirty. (Adv: cleanly.) 2. adj. new; fresh;
unused. 3. adj. morally pure; not dirty W. (Adv: cleanly.) 4. adj.
smooth; even; not rough. (Adv: cleanly.) 5. tv. to make something Q.
6. tv. to prepare an animal for cooking and eating by removing the
parts that cannot be eaten.
cleaner ["kli n#] 1. n. soap, bleach, or some other product that cleans.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. someone who cleans clothing
and fabric for a living.
cleaners n. a business that launders or cleans clothing and other items.
(Treated as sg or pl.)
cleanse ["klEnz] tv. to clean something well; to make something more
pure.
clear ["klIr] 1. adj. transparent; allowing light through. (Adv: clearly.
Comp: clearer; sup: clearest.) 2. adj. bright; free from clouds or fog.
(Adv: clearly. Comp: clearer; sup: clearest.) 3. adj. without marks or
blemishes; without defects. (Comp: clearer; sup: clearest.) 4. adj. easy
to understand; making perfect sense. (Adv: clearly. Comp: clearer;
sup: clearest.) 5. adj. easy to hear or see. (Adv: clearly. Comp: clearer;
sup: clearest.) 6. adj. certain; easy to understand. (Adv: clearly. Comp:
77
clergy
clearer; sup: clearest.) 7. adj. without anything in the way. (Comp:
clearer; sup: clearest.) 8. adv. completely; all the way. 9. tv. to move
someone or something so that the way is open. 10. tv. to make an
area empty by removing people or things. 11. tv. to chop down trees
and remove stones from the land. 12. tv. to remove blame or guilt
from someone or something. 13. tv. [for a bank] to send a check successfully through procedures necessary to have the check paid. 14. iv.
[for a check] to successfully travel through the procedures necessary
to assure payment. 15. iv. [for the sky] to become free of clouds.
16. up [for something] to become more understandable. 17. up
[for a disease] to improve or become cured. 18. up [for the sky]
to become clearer.
clergy ["kl# dZi] n. ministers; priests; pastors. (No pl. Number is
expressed by the phrase member(s) of the clergy.)
clerk ["kl#k] 1. n. an office worker, especially one who keeps track of
records, files, and information. 2. n. someone who helps customers
with goods and sales; someone who works behind a counter and helps
customers.
clever ["klEv #] adj. [of someone or a creature] capable of interesting,
creative activities. (Adv: cleverly. Comp: cleverer; sup: cleverest.)
cliché [kli "she] n. an expression that is trite and tiresome and is used
too often.
click ["klIk] 1. n. a short, quick noise; a snapping sound. 2. tv. to make
a noise by snapping things together. 3. iv. to snap; to make a snapping noise.
client ["klaI @nt] n. someone served by a company or by a professional
such as a lawyer.
cliff ["klIf] n. a high, steep wall of rock or earth.
climate ["klaI [email protected]] 1. n. the typical weather conditions of a certain
area. 2. n. the general atmosphere, mood, attitude, or feeling.
climax ["klaI mAks] 1. n. the most exciting point in an event; the most
intense part of an event; the most dramatic point of a story. 2. iv. to
reach the most exciting point in an event.
climb ["klaIm] 1. n. the process of going up something, especially
through much effort or using the hands and feet. 2. tv. to go up something, especially through much effort or using the hands and feet.
3. iv. to go to a higher level.
climber ["klaIm #] 1. n. someone who hikes or climbs up mountains,
cliffs, slopes, etc. 2. n. a plant that grows up something.
78
clothes
clinic ["klIn Ik] n. a medical office where minor medical problems are
treated.
clip ["klIp] 1. n. a device that holds sheets of paper together; a small
device for gripping or holding things together. 2. n. a brief part of a
film, book, magazine, or newspaper. 3. tv. to hold things together
with Q.
cloak ["klok] 1. n. a long coat without sleeves; an outer garment like a
cape. 2. tv. to cover something up; to obscure something.
clock ["klak] 1. n. a machine that keeps track of the time of day; a
timepiece. 2. tv. to measure the length of time it takes for someone
or something to do something; to measure a rate of speed. 3. in
to record one’s time of arrival, usually by punching a time clock.
4. out to record one’s time of departure, usually by punching a
time clock.
clockwork ["klak w#k] n. the moving parts inside a clock or mechanical device, such as a wind-up toy.
clogged ["klOgd] adj. blocked.
close 1. ["klos] adj. near in space or time. (Adv: closely. Comp: closer;
sup: closest.) 2. ["klos] adj. near in spirit; dear; intimate; confidential.
(Adv: closely. Comp: closer; sup: closest.) 3. ["klos] adj. careful; strict.
(Adv: closely. Comp: closer; sup: closest.) 4. ["klos] adj. almost equal;
almost the same. (Adv: closely. Comp: closer; sup: closest.) 5. ["klos]
adv. near in space or time. 6. ["kloz] tv. to shut something. 7. ["kloz]
tv. to bring something to an end; to conclude something. 8. ["kloz]
tv. to complete an electrical circuit. 9. ["kloz] iv. to shut. 10. ["kloz]
iv. to end; to finish; to bring to an end; to conclude. 11. ["kloz] n. the
end; the finish; the conclusion. 12. up [for an opening] to close
completely.
closed ["klozd] adj. not open; shut.
closet ["klOz It] 1. n. a small room where clothing and personal objects
are kept. 2. adj. secret; hiding; covert.
cloth ["klOT] 1. n. woven material; woven fabric. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n., irreg. a piece of woven material or fabric. (Pl:
[klODz].)
clothe ["kloD] tv. to put garments on someone or something; to dress
someone or something.
clothes ["klo(D)z] n. clothing; garments; something to wear, such as a
shirt, a sweater, pants, or socks. (Treated as pl, but not countable.)
79
clothesline
clothesline ["kloz laIn] n. a length of rope on which clothes and other
laundry can be hung to dry.
clothespin ["kloz pIn] n. a wooden or plastic clip used to attach damp
clothes to a clothesline.
clothing ["klo DIN] n. clothes; garments. (No pl. Treated as sg.)
cloud ["klaUd] 1. n. a large white or gray mass in the sky, made of
water vapor. 2. n. a large puff of smoke or dust; a visible mass of gas
or particles that is still or moves in the air. 3. tv. to obscure something; to hide something. 4. up [for the sky] to fill with clouds.
cloudy ["klaU di] 1. adj. [of sky] having clouds. (Adv: cloudily. Comp:
cloudier; sup: cloudiest.) 2. adj. not able to be seen through clearly.
(Fig. on Q. Adv: cloudily. Comp: cloudier; sup: cloudiest.)
clown ["klaUn] 1. n. a performer who wears a funny costume and
makeup and tries to make people laugh. 2. n. someone who is always
making jokes and trying to make other people laugh.
club ["kl^b] 1. n. a large, thick, blunt wooden stick. 2. n. a nightclub;
a place where liquor is served or where people can dance. 3. n. an
organization or group of people who meet to pursue a specific activity. 4. n. one of four different symbols found in a deck of playing
cards; the symbol (2). 5. n. the stick with a metal end used to hit a
golf ball. (Short for golf club.) 6. tv. to beat someone or something
with Q.
clue ["klu] n. a hint; some information that will help to solve a problem.
clump ["kl^mp] 1. n. a group of something; a mass of something. 2. tv.
to group things together; to gather something into Q.
clumsy ["kl^m zi] adj. awkward; likely to trip or stumble on something. (Adv: clumsily. Comp: clumsier; sup: clumsiest.)
clutch ["[email protected]] tv. to grasp something; to hold onto something.
clutches ["[email protected] @z] n. one’s grasp; a person’s holding onto someone or
something.
coach ["kotS] 1. n. someone who is in charge of a team; someone who
trains players on a team. 2. n. someone who trains someone else. 3. n.
an enclosed carriage, typically pulled by horses. 4. n. a railway car
where passengers ride in seats. (As opposed to railway cars where
people can eat or can lie down to sleep.) 5. n. a cross-country bus; a
bus used for touring or carrying people over a long distance. 6. n. the
tourist section of an airplane; the cheapest kind of air travel. (No pl.)
80
coffin
7. adv. [traveling] in or by Y. 8. tv. to instruct someone in a sport,
skill, or craft.
coal ["kol] 1. n. a black mineral made of carbon, used as fuel. (Pl only
for types and instances.) 2. n. a hot, glowing chunk of burning Q or
charcoal.
coarse ["kors] 1. adj. having a rough texture; not smooth. (Adv:
coarsely. Comp: coarser; sup: coarsest.) 2. adj. vulgar; crude. (Adv:
coarsely. Comp: coarser; sup: coarsest.)
coast ["kost] 1. n. land along and beside the sea. 2. iv. to glide without using energy.
coastal ["kos [email protected]] adj. along the coast; on the coast. (Adv: coastally.)
coat ["kot] 1. n. a heavy item of clothing, worn over one’s other clothes
during cold weather. 2. n. the fur of an animal; the pelt of an animal.
3. n. a layer of something, such as paint, that covers a surface. 4. tv.
to cover the surface of something with a layer of something.
cob ["kab] n. the central core of an ear of corn. (Short for corncob.)
cobweb ["kab wEb] n. a spider’s web, especially when old and filled
with dust.
cocoa ["ko ko] 1. n. a powder made by processing cacao seeds; powdered chocolate. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. a drink made by
mixing powdered chocolate with milk and sugar. (No pl form in this
sense.)
cocoon [[email protected] "kun] n. the protective shell in which a caterpillar wraps
itself while it transforms into a butterfly or a moth.
cod ["kad] 1. n., irreg. a kind of edible fish that lives in cold water. (Pl:
cod.) 2. n. the flesh of Q, eaten as food. (No pl.)
code ["kod] 1. n. a secret writing system; a system of symbols used for
communication. 2. n. a set of laws; a set of rules. 3. tv. to translate a
message into Q. 4. tv. to mark an object with a special number or
symbol.
coffee ["kOf i] 1. n. the roasted beans of a kind of tree. (Either whole
or ground. Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a drink made from
roasted, ground Q. (No pl.) 3. break n. a rest period during
which coffee or some other refreshment is enjoyed.
coffeepot ["kOf i pat] n. a pot used to brew and serve coffee.
coffin ["kOf @n] n. a box in which the body of a dead person is placed
for burial.
81
coil
coil ["koIl] 1. n. a length of something, such as rope, wound into a
stack of circular loops. 2. n. a circular loop. 3. tv. to wrap something
around and around into a circle. 4. iv. to form into a circular loop.
coin ["koIn] 1. n. a piece of money made from metal. 2. tv. to press
metal into Q; to make money from metal. 3. tv. to invent a new
word; to make up a new word.
coke ["kok] 1. n. the substance that is left after gas has been removed
from coal, which—when burned—gives off very strong heat. (No pl
form in this sense.) 2. Coke n. Coca-Cola™, the protected trade
name of a soft drink. 3. n. a generic name for cola drinks. (Never capitalized. Objected to as an infringement of the Coca-Cola™ trade
name.) 4. n. cocaine. (Slang. No pl form in this sense.)
cold ["kold] 1. n. a physical state or property of something having relatively less heat. (No pl.) 2. n. weather that is characterized by Q; a
lack of warmth in the outside temperature. (No pl.) 3. n. a common
illness that causes sneezing, a runny nose, a sore throat, etc. 4. adj.
not hot; not having heat. (Comp: colder; sup: coldest.) 5. adj. [of a living creature] uncomfortable from not having heat. (Adv: coldly.
Comp: colder; sup: coldest.) 6. adj. mean; unfriendly; unpleasant.
(Adv: coldly. Comp: colder; sup: coldest.)
collapse [[email protected] "lAps] 1. n. an instance of falling down; a loss of the air
contained in something. (No pl.) 2. n. the total ruin of something.
3. iv. to fall down; to become ruined. 4. iv. to fail; to break down
completely.
collar ["kal #] 1. n. the part of a piece of clothing that wraps around
the neck. 2. n. a band around the neck of an animal.
collect [[email protected] "lEkt] 1. tv. to ask for or to receive money that is owed. 2. tv.
to gather items together; to bring items together. 3. tv. to find and
take, get, or buy something or a class of things as a hobby. 4. adj. [of
a telephone call] charged to the person or number called. 5. adv.
charging a telephone call to the person or telephone number called.
collection [[email protected] "lEk [email protected]] 1. n. the collecting of things. (No pl form in
this sense.) 2. n. the donation of money during a church service or
some other types of meetings. 3. n. a group of similar objects gathered together. 4. n. a group of people. 5. n. the (amount of ) money
donated during a church service or in a similar setting.
college ["kal IdZ] n. a school of higher education; an undergraduate
division within a university.
82
come
colon ["ko [email protected]] 1. n. the punctuation mark “:” used to introduce a list
of things. 2. n. the lower part of the large intestine.
colonial [[email protected] "lon i @l] 1. adj. of or about a colony. (Adv: colonially.)
2. adj. of or about the original thirteen colonies of the United States.
(Adv: colonially.) 3. n. a person who lives or lived in a colony.
colony ["kal @ ni] 1. n. an area that is settled and ruled by a country
but is located apart from it. 2. n. the place where a social group of
ants or termites lives and breeds.
color ["k^l #] 1. n. the quality of light that causes people to see the differences among red, orange, yellow, blue, green, purple, etc.; a hue; a
tint. 2. tv. to give something Q; to paint or draw with something that
has Q. 3. tv. to affect something; to influence something. (Fig. on
W.) 4. iv. to draw with crayons or markers. 5. adj. [of film or video
recording] using all the colors, not just black and white.
colt ["kolt] n. a young male horse.
column ["kal @m] 1. n. a supporting pillar or a thick post. 2. n. a series
of words or symbols arranged in a line from top to bottom. 3. n. a
newspaper article, especially one written by a columnist.
coma ["ko [email protected]] n. a state of complete unconsciousness, often due to illness.
comb ["kom] 1. n. a toothed strip of plastic or something similar, used
for arranging hair. 2. n. the red growth on top of the heads of chickens and turkeys. 3. tv. to arrange one’s hair with Q. 4. tv. to thoroughly look through an area for something; to search a place for
something.
combat 1. ["kam bAt] n. war; conflict; battle. (No pl.) 2. ["kam bAt]
the adj. use of Q. 3. [[email protected] "bAt] tv. to fight someone or something;
to battle someone or something. (Pt/pp: combated.)
combination [kam bI "ne [email protected]] 1. n. the process of combining. (Pl only
for types and instances.) 2. n. something that is made by an act of
combining. 3. n. the sequence of numbers needed to open a combination lock as in R. 4. lock n. a lock that is opened by turning a
dial to a secret combination E of numbers or by pressing numbered
buttons in the proper sequence, instead of with a key.
combine [[email protected] "baIn] 1. tv. to join two or more things together. 2. iv.
to unite; to join.
come ["k^m] 1. iv., irreg. to move toward someone or something; to
move toward the location of the person who is speaking. (Pt: came;
pp: come.) 2. iv., irreg. to arrive; to get somewhere. 3. iv., irreg. [for
83
comedy
goods that have been purchased] to arrive or be available equipped
in a certain way. 4. around to agree in the end; to agree finally.
5. around to return to consciousness. 6. back to return to a
place or to an advantageous or favorable state or condition. 7. in
to enter. (Often a command or polite request.) 8. in to arrive; [for
a shipment of something] to arrive. 9. on to hurry along after
someone. (Usually a command.) 10. on [for electricity or some
other device] to start operating. 11. on to walk out and appear on
stage. 12. on [for a pain] to begin hurting; [for a disease] to attack
someone. 13. on to yield; to agree. (Usually a command.)
14. on [for a program] to be broadcast on radio or television.
15. out to exit; to leave the inside of a place. 16. out to result;
to succeed; to happen. 17. out to come before the public; to be
published; to be made public. 18. to to become conscious; to
return to consciousness.
comedy ["kam @ di] 1. n. a funny play or movie; the opposite of a
tragedy. 2. n. the element of movies or plays that makes people laugh;
the opposite of tragedy. (No pl.)
comfort ["k^m f#t] n. the quality of relief, ease, satisfaction.
comfortable ["k^m f#t @ bl] adj. giving comfort, ease, or rest.
comic ["kam Ik] 1. adj. funny; humorous. (Adv: comically [...Ik li].)
2. n. a pamphlet printed in color on cheap paper where stories are
told in colorful drawings. (From comic book.) 3. n. someone who tells
jokes and funny stories.
comics n. the newspaper pages containing cartoons and comic strips.
(Treated as pl.)
command [[email protected] "mAnd] 1. n. an order; a statement that tells someone
what to do; a direction; an instruction. 2. tv. to give an order to someone. 3. tv. to control someone or something. 4. tv. [for someone or
someone’s character] to deserve and receive respect and attention.
commencement [[email protected] "mEns [email protected]] 1. n. the start of something; the
beginning of something. (More formal than start. No pl form in this
sense.) 2. n. the graduation ceremony where diplomas are awarded.
comment ["kam Ent] 1. n. a remark about something; a statement
about something. 2. tv. to state an opinion; to make a remark. (The
object is a clause with that U.)
commercial [[email protected] "m# [email protected]] 1. adj. of or about commerce. (Adv: commercially.) 2. n. an advertisement on television or radio. (From commercial announcement.)
84
compass
commit [[email protected] "mIt] 1. tv. to do a crime; to do something illegal. 2. tv. to
place someone [in a mental institution].
committee [[email protected] "mIt i] n. a group of people who meet to perform a
specific duty, usually as part of a larger organization.
common ["kam @n] 1. adj. usual; typical; frequently encountered;
widespread. (Adv: commonly. Comp: commoner; sup: commonest.)
2. adj. shared or used by two or more people. (Adv: commonly.)
3. adj. without distinction; ordinary. (Adv: commonly. Comp: commoner; sup: commonest.)
commotion [[email protected] "mo [email protected]] n. a disturbance; a clamor; a noisy interruption.
communication [[email protected] mjun I "ke [email protected]] 1. n. sending and receiving information. (No pl.) 2. n. an announcement or statement in written or
spoken form.
communications n. the means or media for communication.
community [[email protected] "mjun @ ti] 1. n. an area or region where people live
and communicate with each other; a neighborhood or town. 2. n. a
group of people who have a common interest, occupation, or background. 3. the adj. use of Q or W.
companion [[email protected] "pAn [email protected]] 1. n. someone with whom time is spent.
2. n. something that matches something else; something that is part
of a set.
company ["k^m [email protected] ni] 1. n. a business organization; a business. 2. n.
guests; visitors. (No pl. Treated as sg.)
comparative [[email protected] "pEr @ tIv] 1. adj. of or about studies based on
comparison. (Adv: comparatively.) 2. adj. of or about a form of an
adverb or adjective that typically has an -er suffix or is a combination of the adverb or adjective and the word more. (Some adverbs and
adjectives have irregular comparatives R, however.) 3. adj. as compared with others. (Adv: comparatively.) 4. n. a form of an adjective
or adverb as described in W. (Abbreviated comp. here.)
compare [[email protected] "pEr] tv. to determine or show how two things are the
same or different.
comparison [[email protected] "pEr @ [email protected]] n. showing how things are the same or
different. (Pl only for types and instances.)
compass ["k^m [email protected]] 1. n. a device that points to the north and indicates direction for the purposes of travel or finding out where one is
located. 2. n. a simple device used to draw circles or parts of circles.
85
compete
compete [[email protected] "pit] iv. to participate in a game, contest, or rivalry, with
the hope of winning; to take part in a game or contest.
competition [kam pI "tI [email protected]] 1. n. a contest. 2. n. the state that exists
between rivals. (No pl.) 3. n. a rival or a group of rivals. (No pl.)
competitive [[email protected] "pEt I tIv] 1. adj. eager to compete; aggressive in
competition. (Adv: competitively.) 2. adj. low in price; [of a low price]
able to compete. (Adv: competitively.) 3. adj. involving competition.
(Adv: competitively.)
complain [[email protected] "plen] iv. to say that one is unhappy, angry, or annoyed.
complaint [[email protected] "plent] 1. n. a statement expressing annoyance or
anger about something. 2. n. a statement that a crime has been committed. 3. n. a sickness; an illness.
complete [[email protected] "plit] 1. adj. entire; whole; with all the necessary parts.
(Adv: completely.) 2. tv. to finish something; to end something; to do
something until it is done. 3. tv. to make something whole; to fill in
all the parts of something.
complex 1. ["kam plEks] n. a set of related buildings. 2. ["kam plEks]
n. a psychological condition. 3. [[email protected] "plEks, "kam plEks] adj. difficult; complicated; hard to understand. (Adv: complexly.)
compliment ["kam plI [email protected]] n. a statement of praise.
composition [kam [email protected] "zI [email protected]] 1. n. the process of putting things
together to form one whole thing. (No pl.) 2. n. the arrangement of
the parts of something. (No pl.) 3. n. a piece of music, a symphony;
a piece of writing, such as an essay or a poem. 4. n. the process of
writing a piece of music or an essay, narrative, research paper, etc.
(No pl.) 5. n. the things that make up something; the ingredients of
something; the parts of something. (No pl.)
comprehend [kam prI "hEnd] tv. to understand something.
comprehension [kam prI "hEn [email protected]] n. understanding; the ability to
understand someone or something. (No pl form in this sense.)
compromise ["kam [email protected] maIz] 1. n. an agreement to settle an argument where both sides yield a little. 2. iv. to come to an agreement
by which both sides yield a little. 3. tv. to endanger someone’s reputation, position, or morals.
computer [[email protected] "pjut #] 1. n. an electronic machine that processes
data at high speeds. 2. the adj. use of Q.
comrade ["kam rAd] n. a friend; a companion.
conceal [[email protected] "sil] tv. to hide someone or something.
86
conduct
concept ["kan sEpt] n. a thought; an idea; a notion.
concern [[email protected] "s#n] 1. tv. to matter to someone; to be important to
someone; to worry someone. 2. tv. to be about something; to have to
do with something; to deal with something. 3. n. a matter of interest; a matter of importance; something that is of interest. 4. n. care;
worry; anxiety. (Pl only for types and instances.)
concert ["kan s#t] 1. n. a musical performance by one or more musicians. 2. the adj. use of Q.
conclude [[email protected] "klud] 1. tv. to finish something; to come to the end of
something. 2. tv. to reach an opinion by thinking about something.
(The object is a clause with that U.) 3. iv. [for a process or activity]
to finish or end.
conclusion [[email protected] "klu [email protected]] 1. n. the end of something. 2. n. the final
decision reached by thinking about something.
concrete 1. ["kan krit] n. a stonelike material made from cement,
sand, gravel, and water, used in construction and paving. (No pl.)
2. ["kan krit] adj. made from Q. 3. [kan "krit] adj. actual; existing;
real; definite; not abstract. (Adv: concretely.)
condense [[email protected] "dEns] 1. tv. to cause a gas or vapor to become a liquid by cooling it. 2. tv. to make a document or speech shorter. 3. tv.
to make a liquid more dense. 4. iv. to change from vapor to liquid.
condition [[email protected] "dI [email protected]] 1. n. a state of being; a situation that someone
or something is in. (No pl.) 2. conditions n. a group of related states
or situations, as with the weather or the state of the economy. 3. n.
the state of someone’s health. (No pl.) 4. n. something that is necessary before something else can happen. 5. tv. to shape someone’s or
something’s behavior; to train someone or something. 6. tv. to cause
someone to become more physically fit.
condo Go to condominium.
condominium and condo [kan [email protected] "mIn i @m, "kan do] 1. n. a building containing dwellings that are owned by different individuals. 2. n.
an individually owned apartment in a building where all apartments
are similarly owned.
conduct 1. ["kan [email protected]] n. behavior; the way someone behaves. (No pl.)
2. [[email protected] "d^kt] tv. to lead someone or something; to guide someone
or something. 3. [[email protected] "d^kt] tv. to behave [oneself] in a particular
manner. (Takes a reflexive object.) 4. [[email protected] "d^kt] tv. to provide a path
for electricity or heat to travel.
87
conductor
conductor [[email protected] "d^k t#] 1. n. someone who directs an orchestra,
band, choir, or other musical group. 2. n. someone who checks tickets and collects fares on a train. 3. n. a substance electricity or heat
can travel through.
cone ["kon] 1. n. a solid form that changes from a circle at one end to
a point at the other end. 2. n. a crisp, thin, Q-shaped pastry, used for
holding ice cream. 3. n. the seed-bearing fruit of a pine tree.
conference ["kan [email protected]] n. a meeting to discuss a specific topic.
confess [[email protected] "fEs] tv. to admit something; to state that one has done
something wrong. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
confession [[email protected] "fE [email protected]] n. the process or activity of confessing or
admitting something. (Pl only for types and instances.)
confidence ["kan fI [email protected]] 1. n. a strong trust in someone or something; a strong belief in someone or something. (No pl.) 2. n. a feeling of assurance; a belief in oneself and one’s abilities. (No pl.)
confidential [kan fI "dEn [email protected]] 1. adj. secret; kept as secret. (Adv: confidentially.) 2. adj. [of someone] trusted with secrets.
confine [[email protected] "faIn] 1. tv. to keep someone or a creature in a small
space; to enclose someone or some creature in a small space. 2. tv. to
restrict or limit conversation or statements to a particular subject.
confirm [[email protected] "f#m] 1. tv. to check something to make certain it is true,
accurate, complete, or still in effect. (The object can be a clause with
that U.) 2. tv. to approve and agree that someone should be officially
chosen for office. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
confirmed [[email protected] "f#md] 1. adj. shown to be true, accurate, complete,
or still in effect. 2. adj. determined to remain in a particular state.
conflict 1. ["kan flIkt] n. disagreement; fighting. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. [[email protected] "flIkt] iv. [for things] to differ or disagree.
confuse [[email protected] "fjuz] tv. to puzzle someone; to make someone wonder
about something.
confusion [[email protected] "fju [email protected]] 1. n. a feeling of being confused or puzzled.
(No pl.) 2. n. a noisy lack of order. (No pl.)
congratulate [[email protected] "grAtS @ let] tv. to extend one’s good wishes to
someone.
congregation [kaN [email protected] "ge [email protected]] n. a group of people, especially in a
church service.
congress ["kaN [email protected]] 1. n. the group of people elected to make laws.
2. n. a meeting of representatives to or members of an organization.
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consider
3. n. the House of Representatives and the Senate of the United
States. (Capitalized. No pl.)
conj. an abbreviation of conjunction.
conjugate ["kan [email protected] get] tv. to tell the forms of a verb in a language.
conjunction [[email protected] "dZ^Nk [email protected]] n. a part of speech that connects words,
phrases, and clauses. (Abbreviated conj. here.)
connect [[email protected] "nEkt] 1. tv. to serve as a link between two things. 2. tv.
to join or attach certain electronic devices. 3. tv. to link someone to
someone or something through an electronic means. 4. tv. to relate
something to something else; to associate one thought with another.
5. iv. to link with something; to link to something.
connection [[email protected] "nEk [email protected]] 1. n. the physical link among or between
things. 2. n. the relationship among or between thoughts. 3. n. the
electronic link that connects two people by telephone. 4. n. an airplane flight that one boards at an intermediate stop. 5. n. someone
who is a social or business contact.
conquer ["kaN k#] 1. tv. to defeat someone in war; to subdue a people, army, or land. 2. tv. to overcome a difficulty.
conquest ["kaN kwEst] 1. n. the attempt to subdue, defeat, or conquer
a people or a country. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. the
object or target of Q. (Fig. on Q.) 3. n. someone who is the target
of a romantic or sexual quest.
conscious ["kan [email protected]] 1. adj. awake, alert, and aware of immediate surroundings. (Adv: consciously.) 2. adj. intentional; intended. (Adv: consciously.)
consent [[email protected] "sEnt] n. permission; approval. (No pl.)
consequence ["kan [email protected] kwEns] 1. n. a result; an outcome. 2. n. importance; something having important significance. (No pl form in this
sense.)
conservation [kan s# "ve [email protected]] n. the practice of conserving, protecting, or preserving something, such as water, the state of the land, or
other resources. (No pl.)
consider [[email protected] "sId #] 1. tv. to think carefully about something. (The
object can be a clause with that U.) 2. tv. to think of someone or
something in a certain way. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
3. tv. to take something into account. (The object can be a clause with
that U.)
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considerable
considerable [[email protected] "sId # @ [email protected]] adj. rather large; not small or minimal. (Adv: considerably.)
considerate [[email protected] "sId @ rIt] adj. thoughtful of other people. (Adv: considerately.)
consideration [[email protected] sId @ "re [email protected]] 1. n. the thought given toward a
decision. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. something to be kept in
mind when making a decision. 3. n. respect for other people’s feelings and opinions. (No pl form in this sense.)
consignment [[email protected] "saIn [email protected]] n. a shipment of goods.
consonant ["kan [email protected] [email protected]] 1. n. a speech sound that is made by restricting the flow of sound or air in the vocal tract; a speech sound that is
not a vowel. (The word has different meanings depending on whether
one is talking about sounds or spelling letters. These are the IPA symbols for the American English consonants: p, t, k, b, d, g, f, h, s, m,
n, N, v, z, Z, S, T, D, l, r, w, j.) 2. n. a letter of an alphabet that represents Q. (These are the individual letters that represent American
English consonants: p, t, k, b, d, g, f, h, s, m, n, v, z, l, r, w, j, y, c, q,
x.)
constant ["kan [email protected]] 1. adj. continuous; continuing without stopping. (Adv: constantly.) 2. adj. loyal; faithful; unchanging. (Adv: constantly.) 3. n. a figure, quality, or measurement that stays the same.
constellation [kan [email protected] "le [email protected]] n. a particular group of stars.
constrict [[email protected] "strIkt] tv. to tighten something; to make something
narrower; to make something contract.
construct 1. [[email protected] "str^kt] tv. to build something; to put something
together. 2. ["kan str^kt] n. a theory; a made-up idea.
construction [[email protected] "str^k [email protected]] 1. n. the process of building. (No pl.)
2. n. the business of building buildings; the business of constructing
buildings. (No pl.)
consult [[email protected] "s^lt] 1. tv. to seek advice or information from someone
or something. 2. iv. to offer and supply technical business advice as
a profession.
consultant [[email protected] "s^l [email protected]] n. someone who consults; someone who is
hired by a company to give advice.
consume [[email protected] "sum] 1. tv. to eat or drink something. 2. tv. to use
something; to use all of something.
consumer [[email protected] "su m#] n. someone who buys a product or a service.
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continent
consummate 1. ["kan [email protected] [email protected]] adj. perfect; total and ideal. (Adv: consummately.) 2. ["kan [email protected] met] tv. to fulfill something; to complete
something; to make something complete.
cont. an abbreviation of contraction E.
contact ["kan tAkt] 1. tv. to communicate with someone; to get in
touch with someone. 2. tv. to touch someone or something. 3. n.
touching; coming together. (No pl.) 4. n. a person inside an organization through whom one can get needed information or favors. 5. n.
a metal part that touches another metal part, closing an electrical circuit.
contagious [[email protected] "te [email protected]] adj. [of a disease] easily passed from person to person. (Adv: contagiously.)
contain [[email protected] "ten] 1. tv. to hold someone or something; to have, hold,
or include someone or something as a part of a larger thing. 2. tv. to
hold back something; to restrain something; to keep something under
control.
container [[email protected] "te n#] n. something that contains something.
contamination [[email protected] tAm @ "ne [email protected]] 1. n. making something impure;
polluting something. (No pl.) 2. n. a substance that causes Q. (No
pl.)
contemplation [kan [email protected] "ple [email protected]] n. serious thought. (No pl.)
contempt [[email protected] "tempt] n. hatred; loathing. (No pl.)
content 1. [[email protected] "tEnt] adj. satisfied; pleased. (Adv: contently.) 2. ["kan
tEnt] n. something that is contained within something, such as the
text of a book or the ingredients of food. (No pl.)
contention [[email protected] "tEn [email protected]] 1. n. a claim. 2. n. struggling together;
competition. (No pl form.)
contents n. the ingredients that make up something; everything that
is contained within something. (Treated as pl. Sometimes sg.)
contest 1. ["kan tEst] n. a competition that will determine a winner.
2. [[email protected] "tEst] tv. to challenge something, especially in a court of law.
contestant [[email protected] "tEs [email protected]] n. someone who competes in a contest; a
competitor.
context ["kan tEkst] n. the words before and after another word that
help determine its meaning.
continent ["kan [email protected] [email protected]] n. one of the large landmasses of earth:
Africa, Australia, North America, South America, Antarctica,
Europe, and Asia.
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continental
continental [kan [email protected] "nEn [email protected]] 1. adj. of or about a continent; contained
within a continent. (Adv: continentally.) 2. adj. of or about the continent of Europe and the cultures and people found there. (England
is sometimes included.)
continual [[email protected] "tIn ju @l] adj. happening again and again; repeated;
over and over. (Compare this with continuous. Adv: continually.)
continue [[email protected] "tIn ju] 1. tv. to make something keep on happening.
(Takes a gerund as an object.) 2. tv. to resume something after an
interruption. 3. tv. to postpone a trial until a later time. 4. iv. to go
on happening; to remain the same way. 5. iv. to resume after being
stopped.
continuous [[email protected] "tIn ju @s] adj. without stopping; without an interruption; ongoing. (See also continual. Adv: continuously.)
contract 1. ["kan trAkt] n. a legal document that describes an agreement between two or more people or companies. 2. [[email protected] "trAkt] tv.
to hire someone under Q for a specific project. 3. [[email protected] "trAkt] tv. to
catch a disease. 4. [[email protected] "trAkt] iv. to enter into an agreement with
someone; to agree to do something by Q. 5. [[email protected] "trAkt] iv. to
shrink; to shorten; to come together; to become narrow.
contraction [[email protected] "trAk [email protected]] 1. n. an amount of shrinking. (Pl only
for types and instances.) 2. n. the tensing of a muscle, especially of
the uterus during childbirth. 3. n. a shortened word, made by replacing a letter or letters with an apostrophe (’); the shortening of one or
more spoken words by removing a sound or sounds. (Abbreviated
cont. here.)
contradict [kan [email protected] "dIkt] tv. to say something that is contrary to what
someone else has said; to correct or argue with an alleged error of
fact.
contradiction [kan [email protected] "dIk [email protected]] n. a statement that is the opposite of
something that has been said.
contrary 1. ["kan trEr i] adj. completely opposite; opposed. (Adv: contrarily [kan "trEr @ li].) 2. [[email protected] "trEr i, "kan trEr i] adj. stubborn; refusing to do what is wanted. (Adv: contrarily [kan "trEr @ li].)
contrast 1. ["kan trAst] n. a noticeable difference; an obvious difference. 2. ["kan trAst] n. noticeable differences between the light and
dark parts of an image. (No pl.) 3. [[email protected] "trAst] tv. to compare the
differences found in two or more things. 4. [[email protected] "trAst] iv. to be
noticeably different.
92
cool
contribute [[email protected] "trIb jut] 1. tv. to give money, time, or labor, usually
for a good cause. 2. iv. to give [something] to someone or something.
control [[email protected] "trol] 1. n. authority; the power to direct someone or
something. 2. n. a lever or other device used to operate machinery or
something like a radio or television set. (Often pl.) 3. tv. to have
power over something; to have authority over something; to direct
someone or something; to rule someone or something. 4. tv. to exercise the power to restrain, regulate, steer, guide, or command someone or something.
convenient [[email protected] "vin [email protected]] 1. adj. suitable. (Adv: conveniently.) 2. adj.
available; within reach. (Adv: conveniently.)
convention [[email protected] "vEn [email protected]] 1. n. a large meeting; a group of people
gathered together for a specific purpose. 2. n. a formal agreement
between countries. 3. n. the way things are typically done; the way
things are expected to be done.
conventional [[email protected] "vEn [email protected] [email protected]] adj. usual and typical; basic and standard. (Adv: conventionally.)
conversation [kan v# "se [email protected]] n. discussion; talk between people. (Pl
only for types and instances.)
convey [[email protected] "ve] 1. tv. to take someone or something from one place
to another. 2. tv. to express something; to communicate something.
(Fig. on Q.)
convince [[email protected] "vIns] tv. to persuade someone about something; to persuade someone that something is true.
convincing [[email protected] "vIn sIN] 1. adj. acting to persuade someone of something. (Adv: convincingly.) 2. adj. realistic; like the real thing. (Adv:
convincingly.)
convulsion [[email protected] "v^l [email protected]] n. an uncontrollable, violent jerking of muscles.
cook ["kUk] 1. n. someone who prepares food to be eaten. 2. tv. to prepare food for eating by heating it. 3. iv. to prepare food; to work as
Q.
cookbook ["kUk bUk] n. a book that gives detailed instructions on how
to prepare different kinds of food; a book of recipes.
cookie ["kUk i] n. a small, sweet cake made of flour, sugar, eggs, and
other ingredients.
cool ["kul] 1. adj. between warm and cold; somewhat cold but not very
cold. (Adv: coolly. Comp: cooler; sup: coolest.) 2. adj. calm, not
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cooperate
excited; relaxed. (Informal. Adv: coolly. Comp: cooler; sup: coolest.)
3. adj. less than friendly; unfriendly; reserved. (Adv: coolly. Comp:
cooler; sup: coolest.) 4. adj. admirable; very good. (Informal. Comp:
cooler; sup: coolest.) 5. tv. to make something less warm. 6. iv. to
become less warm.
cooperate [ko "ap @ ret] iv. to work together with someone to get
something done; to unite in order to get something done more easily.
cop ["kap] n. a police officer. (Informal.)
copier ["kap i #] n. a machine that makes copies of documents.
copper ["kap #] n. a soft, reddish tan metallic element. (No pl.)
copulate ["kap [email protected] let] iv. [for two creatures] to join together sexually,
usually in order to breed.
copulation [kap [email protected] "le [email protected]] n. sexual intercourse; joining together sexually. (Pl only for types and instances.)
copy ["kap i] 1. n. one item made to look like or work like another item;
a duplicate; a replica. 2. n. a single issue of a newspaper, book, or
magazine. 3. n. written material that is ready to be edited or rewritten. (No pl.) 4. tv. to make a duplicate of something. 5. tv. to imitate
someone’s actions. 6. tv. to reproduce written material by writing it
by hand. 7. tv. to cheat on a test by writing the answers from someone else’s paper.
copyright ["kap i raIt] 1. n. the legal right to produce, publish, or sell
a book, play, song, movie, or other work of music or literature. 2. tv.
to protect one’s exclusive right to publish a work of music or literature by registering one’s ownership with the government copyright
office.
cord ["kord] 1. n. a thick string; a thin rope. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. a wire with a protective covering, especially those
that connect an electrical appliance to an electrical outlet.
cordless ["kord [email protected]] adj. not having or needing an electrical power
cord; operated by battery. (Adv: cordlessly.)
core ["kor] 1. n. the center of something; the heart of something; the
important part. 2. n. the hard part of the inside of a fruit, especially
of an apple or a pear. 3. tv. to cut W from a piece of fruit.
cork ["kork] 1. n. the light, soft bark of the cork oak tree, used in many
products. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. the piece of shaped
Q that fits in the neck of a bottle. 3. adj. made of Q. 4. tv. to seal a
bottle by putting W into the neck of the bottle.
94
corridor
corn ["korn] 1. n. a tall cereal plant producing large grains on corncobs, sometimes called maize. (No pl. Number is expressed with corn
stalk(s).) 2. n. the soft and tender young grains of Q eaten by humans
as a vegetable. (No pl. Number is expressed with kernel(s) of corn for
the individual grains. Ear(s) of corn refers to grains of Q still attached
to the corncob they grow on.) 3. n. hard grains of Q, eaten by livestock or processed into other foods. (No pl. Number is expressed with
ear(s) of corn or kernel(s) of corn as in W.) 4. n. a hard, painful patch
of skin on the foot or toe. 5. adj. made from E; having E as an
ingredient.
corncob ["korn kab] n. the cylinder of fiber that corn grows on.
corner ["kor n#] 1. n. the point where two lines meet; the line formed
where two surfaces meet. 2. n. the space where two walls meet. 3. n.
one of the four squared areas nearest to the intersection of two
streets. 4. tv. to trap someone or some creature in a place or situation from which it is difficult or impossible to escape.
cornfield ["korn fild] n. a field where corn is grown; a field of corn
plants.
cornflakes ["korn fleks] n. a breakfast cereal of toasted flakes of corn.
(Treated as sg or pl.)
corporation [kor [email protected] "re [email protected]] n. a business, firm, or company.
corpse ["korps] n. a dead body.
corral [[email protected] "rAl] 1. n. a fenced area where horses and cattle are kept.
2. tv. to put livestock into Q.
correct [[email protected] "rEkt] 1. adj. right; without error; true. (Adv: correctly.)
2. adj. proper; acceptable. (Adv: correctly.) 3. tv. to mark answers on
a test as right or wrong; to point out the mistakes. 4. tv. to fix a mistake; to change a wrong answer to the right answer; to make something right.
correction [[email protected] "rEkt [email protected]] n. a change that is made when something
wrong is replaced with something right.
correspondence [kor @ "span [email protected]] 1. between the similarity
between two things; the likeness of two things; the resemblance of
two things. 2. n. letters; records of communication. (No pl form in
this sense.)
corridor ["kor @ d#] 1. n. a hallway; a passage between two rows of
rooms. 2. n. a narrow strip of land allowing a city or country to be
connected to the sea or to distant parts of the same city or country.
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corrupt
corrupt [[email protected] "r^pt] 1. adj. not honest; [of politicians] easily influenced
by the payment of money. (Adv: corruptly.) 2. tv. to make someone
become bad; to make a good person become bad; to make a moral
person become immoral. 3. tv. to ruin something in the execution of
a process.
cost ["kOst] 1. n. the price of something; the amount of money that
one must pay to buy something. (Pl only for types and instances.)
2. n. a sacrifice; the loss of something in order to achieve something.
3. tv., irreg. to require a specific amount of money for purchase.
(Pt/pp: cost.) 4. tv., irreg. to cause the loss of something; to sacrifice
something. 5. tv., irreg. to require the expenditure of time, work, or
energy.
costly ["kOst li] 1. adj. costing a lot of money; expensive. (Comp: costlier; sup: costliest.) 2. adj. serious; troublesome; unfortunate. (Comp:
costlier; sup: costliest.)
costume ["kas tum] n. clothes that are worn when someone is pretending to be someone else or from another time or place; clothes that
represent another culture, time period, or person, as used in the theater.
cot ["kat] n. a narrow bed made of a piece of canvas stretched over a
frame, used especially for camping.
cottage ["kat IdZ] n. a small house, especially a small home in the
country; a vacation house.
cotton ["kat n] 1. n. a soft white fiber used to make yarn, thread, and
fabric. (No pl. Number is expressed with bale(s) of cotton.) 2. n. cloth
woven of Q. (Pl only for types and instances.) 3. n. the plant that
produces Q. (Pl only for types and instances.) 4. adj. made out of Q
or W.
couch ["kaUtS] n. a long piece of furniture that two or more people can
sit on or that someone can lie down on; a sofa.
cougar ["ku g#] n. a large, tan, wild cat; a mountain lion.
cough ["kOf] 1. n. the act or sound of forcing air from the lungs quickly
and with force, sending a dry, rough noise through the throat. 2. iv.
to force air out of the lungs as in Q.
could ["kUd] 1. aux. the past form of can Q, expressing ability. 2. aux.
the past form of can W, expressing permission. 3. aux. a form of can
W, used in making polite requests. 4. aux. a form of can Q, expressing possibility or an explanation.
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courageous
couldn’t ["kUd nt] 1. cont. could not; was not able [to do something].
2. cont. could not?; wouldn’t you please?
could’ve ["kUd @v] cont. could have. (Where have is an auxiliary.)
council ["kaUn [email protected]] n. a group of people who are appointed or elected
to make laws for a city, school, church, or other organization. (Compare this with counsel.)
counsel ["kaUn [email protected]] 1. tv. to advise someone; to give someone advice.
(Compare this with council.) 2. n. advice; a piece of advice. (No pl.)
counselor ["kaUn [email protected] l#] 1. n. someone who advises people; someone
who gives advice. 2. n. someone who is in charge of children at a
camp. 3. n. a lawyer. (Also a term of address for a lawyer.)
count ["kaUnt] 1. n. the total of people or things obtained after one
has figured out how many there are. 2. tv. to figure out how many; to
determine how many.
countable ["kaUnt @ [email protected]] adj. able to be counted or enumerated; subject to being counted.
counter ["kaUn t#] 1. n. a flat surface at which customers sit or stand
to be served in a fast-food store, bank, or other establishment. 2. n.
[in a kitchen] a flat surface where food is prepared. 3. n. a device that
is used to count objects or people; a device that keeps track of the
number of objects or people.
counterfeit ["kaUn t# fIt] 1. adj. fake; imitation; not genuine. 2. n.
an illegal copy; a fake. 3. tv. to make an illegal copy of something,
especially money.
countless ["kaUnt [email protected]] adj. not capable of being counted; too numerous to be counted. (Adv: countlessly.)
country ["k^n tri] 1. n. a nation, including its land and its people; a
political subdivision. 2. n. land without many people or buildings;
the opposite of city. (No pl.) 3. the adj. use of Q or W.
county ["kaUn ti] n. a political division of most U.S. states.
couple ["k^p @l] n. two people, usually male and female, who share a
romantic interest. (Treated as sg when referring to a unit and pl when
referring to the individuals.)
coupon ["ku pan, "kju pan] n. a printed form that offers a discount for
a product or service.
courage ["k# IdZ] n. bravery; a lack of fear. (No pl.)
courageous [[email protected] "re [email protected]] adj. fearless; facing danger in spite of fear.
(Adv: courageously.)
97
courier
courier ["k# i #] n. a messenger; someone who transports documents
or other valuable items.
course ["kors] 1. n. the pathway or route of someone or something.
2. n. a sequence of actions. 3. n. a class offered by a school or an
instructor. 4. n. one of the parts of a meal in which parts are served
separately. 5. iv. [for water] to flow in a river; [for tears] to run down
one’s face.
court ["kort] 1. n. the place where legal matters are decided and the
people who are present there, such as a judge and other officials. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. n. the space where certain games
such as basketball and tennis are played.
courteous ["k# ti @s] adj. showing courtesy; polite; well mannered.
(Adv: courteously.)
courtesy ["k# tIs i] 1. n. a state of being polite and showing good
manners. (No pl.) 2. n. an act of kindness; a favor; a thoughtful act.
courthouse ["kort haUs] 1. n., irreg. a building containing the rooms
where court is held. (Pl: [...haU [email protected]].) 2. n. the building that houses
the government offices—including the county court—of a particular county.
courtroom ["kort rum] n. a room where a session of court is held.
cousin ["k^z @n] n. the child of one’s aunt or uncle; the nephew or niece
of one’s parent.
cove ["kov] n. a small bay along the coast.
cover ["k^v #] 1. n. the protective top—like a lid—for something. 2. n.
the front and back of a book or magazine. 3. n. a blanket. 4. n. something that is hiding a secret; a legal business that is operating as a disguise for an illegal business. 5. tv. to place something on top of
something else to protect or hide it; to spread something on top of
something else to protect or hide it. 6. tv. to coat the surface of something; to spread over something. 7. tv. to amount to enough money
to pay for something. 8. tv. to include something; to discuss or reveal
something. 9. tv. to travel a certain distance. 10. tv. to occupy a certain area; to extend over a certain area. 11. tv. to shelter someone or
something; to provide shelter for someone or something.
cow ["kaU] 1. n. an adult female of a kind of very large animal that
provides milk and is eaten for meat. 2. n. the female of certain animals, including the elephant.
coward ["kaU #d] n. someone who has no courage; someone who runs
away from danger.
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cram
cowardice ["kaU # dIs] n. lack of courage. (No pl.)
cowboy ["kaU boI] n. someone, usually a male, who works on a cattle
ranch.
coworker ["ko w# k#] n. a fellow worker; someone with whom one
works.
coyote [kaI "ot (i)] n. an animal, similar to a large, skinny dog, that
lives in western North America.
cozy ["ko zi] adj. snug; warm and comfortable. (Adv: cozily. Comp:
cozier; sup: coziest.)
crab ["krAb] 1. n. an edible sea creature with a hard shell, four pairs
of legs, and one pair of claws. 2. n. the meat of Q eaten as food. (No
pl.) 3. n. an unhappy person who complains a lot.
crabby ["krAb i] adj. unhappy and making complaints. (Adv: crabbily.
Comp: crabbier; sup: crabbiest.)
crack ["krAk] 1. n. the line that is made in something when it splits or
breaks; a narrow opening in something or between two things. 2. n.
a short, sharp noise like the noise of a powerful slap. 3. n. a remark
that is intended to hurt or make someone feel bad. 4. tv. to break
something without separating it into pieces; to fracture something.
5. tv. to strike someone; to hit someone somewhere. 6. iv. [for something] to break without separating into pieces.
cracker ["krAk #] n. a flat, thin, square, unsweetened biscuit, often
salted.
cradle ["kred l] 1. n. a small, rocking bed for a baby or a doll. 2. n. the
place where something begins; the origin of something. 3. tv. to hold
a baby in one’s arms while rocking it back and forth; to hold something carefully.
craft ["krAft] 1. n. a special skill for creating something; a special talent. 2. n., irreg. a boat, especially a small one. (Pl: craft.) 3. tv. to build
or create something that requires skill or talent.
craftsman ["krAfts [email protected]] n., irreg. someone who builds something by
hand. (Pl: craftsmen.)
craftsmen ["krAfts [email protected]] pl of craftsman.
cram ["krAm] 1. tv. to force someone or something into a small space.
2. tv. to fill a space too full; to put too many people or things into a
space.
99
crane
crane ["kren] 1. n. a bird with long legs and a long neck—usually feeding on fish, frogs, etc. 2. n. a large machine with a movable arm that
lifts and moves very heavy things.
crank ["krANk] 1. n. an arm or lever that transfers rotating motion to
a shaft or axle. 2. tv. to make something work by turning Q.
crash ["krAS] 1. n. the loud sound of something hitting something else.
2. n. a sudden economic disaster; a time when the stock market falls
rapidly. 3. n. a vehicle accident; a loud collision of vehicles. 4. tv. to
cause a loud collision of a vehicle and something else. 5. iv. to make
a sudden, loud noise. 6. iv. [for a computer] to stop working.
crate ["kret] n. a rough wooden or plastic shipping box.
crave ["krev] tv. to have a very strong desire for something; to want
something very badly.
crawl ["krOl] 1. iv. to move on one’s hands and knees; to move forward
in a horizontal position. 2. iv. [for something] to move very slowly.
(Fig. on Q.)
crayon ["kre an] n. a colored stick of wax, used for drawing on paper
or making pictures.
crazy ["krez i] 1. adj. insane; mentally ill. (Adv: crazily. Comp: crazier;
sup: craziest.) 2. adj. stupid; foolish. (Adv: crazily. Comp: crazier; sup:
craziest.) 3. adj. wild; bizarre. (Adv: crazily. Comp: crazier; sup: craziest.)
cream ["krim] 1. n. the fatty part of cow’s milk that rises to the top.
(No pl.) 2. n. a soft, thick substance used to benefit or carry medicine to the skin. 3. tv. to mash something to a creamy texture.
creamy ["krim i] adj. containing a lot of cream; as smooth as cream.
(Adv: creamily. Comp: creamier; sup: creamiest.)
crease ["kris] 1. n. a deep fold; a line made in something by folding it
and pressing down along the fold. 2. tv. to make a line in something,
such as paper or fabric, by folding it and pressing down.
create [kri "et] 1. tv. to bring something new into being; to invent
something. 2. tv. to cause something to happen; to bring about something.
creation [kri "e [email protected]] 1. n. bringing something new into being. (No pl.)
2. n. the process of bringing the universe into being. (No pl.) 3. n.
the universe; everything created by God. (No pl. Often capitalized.)
4. n. something that is invented; something that is produced or made
for the first time.
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crime
creative [kri "e tIv] adj. able to think of new ideas or new ways to solve
problems; able to develop works of art. (Adv: creatively.)
creator [kri "et #] 1. n. someone who creates something; an inventor.
2. the Creator n. the deity; God. (No pl form in this sense. Treated
as sg.)
creature ["kri tS#] n. a living animal; a living being.
credible ["krEd @ [email protected]] adj. believable; worthy of belief; worthy of trust.
(Adv: credibly.)
credit ["krEd It] 1. n. an arrangement allowing a person to purchase
goods or services now and pay later, or to borrow money now and
pay it back later. (No pl.) 2. n. the amount of money in an account;
an account balance greater than zero. 3. n. an amount of money that
is added to an account. 4. n. recognition given to someone for having done something. (No pl.) 5. n. mention of someone’s work on a
book, movie, or performance appearing in a list of similar writers,
artists, or technicians. 6. card n. a plastic card that allows someone to use credit Q extended by a bank.
creek ["krik] n. a small, narrow river; a small stream.
creep ["krip] 1. iv., irreg. to move slowly, with the body close to the
ground. (Pt/pp: creeped or crept.) 2. iv., irreg. to grow along a surface; to grow up a wall. 3. n. a very slow movement. (No pl.)
crept ["krEpt] a pt/pp of creep.
crest ["krEst] 1. n. the top of something; the top of a mountain; the
top of a wave; the high point of a flood. 2. n. a tuft of feathers on the
head of a bird; a tuft of fur on the head of an animal. 3. n. a particular decoration that a family uses on stationery and other personal
objects. (Often alluding to one’s ancestors.) 4. iv. [for a flood or a
wave] to reach its high point.
crew ["kru] 1. n. a group of people who work together, especially on
a ship, a plane, at a theater, etc. 2. n. the people on a team that competes in boat races.
crib ["krIb] 1. n. a baby’s bed that has sides so the baby can’t fall out.
2. n. a storage shed for grain.
cricket ["krIk It] 1. n. a small, long-legged insect, the male of which
makes a chirping noise by rubbing his front wings together. 2. n. an
outdoor sport played in England with a (flat) bat and a ball. (No pl.)
crime ["kraIm] n. the breaking of laws in general. (Pl only for types
and instances.)
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criminal
criminal ["krIm @ [email protected]] n. someone who commits a crime; someone who
breaks a law.
crises ["kraI siz] pl of crisis.
crisis ["kraI sIs] n., irreg. a serious and threatening situation, the resolution of which will determine the future. (Pl: crises.)
crisp ["krIsp] 1. adj. easily broken; easily snapped into parts. (Adv:
crisply. Comp: crisper; sup: crispest.) 2. adj. fresh; firm. (Adv: crisply.
Comp: crisper; sup: crispest.) 3. adj. [of air] cool and refreshing. (Adv:
crisply. Comp: crisper; sup: crispest.)
critic ["krIt Ik] 1. n. someone who writes evaluations of artistic works
or performances. 2. n. someone who finds fault with people or things.
criticism ["krIt @ sIz @m] 1. n. the process of evaluating and presenting statements that analyze and make judgments about something or
someone’s performance. (No pl.) 2. n. a critical remark or statement.
(Usually negative unless specifically positive.)
criticize ["krIt @ saIz] 1. tv. to find fault with someone or something.
2. iv. to judge the good and bad points of something. (Usually negative unless specifically positive.)
croak ["krok] 1. n. the noise that a frog makes. 2. iv. to make the characteristic sound of a frog. 3. iv. to make a noise like Q.
crocodile ["krak @ daIl] 1. n. a large, dangerous reptile with many
teeth and a powerful tail. 2. adj. made from the skin of Q.
crook ["krUk] 1. n. a criminal; a thief. 2. n. a bent part of something;
a hooked part of something. 3. tv. to bend something; to make a bend
or a hook in something. 4. iv. to bend.
crooked ["krUk @d] 1. adj. bent; not straight; twisted. (Adv: crookedly.)
2. adj. not honest; thieving; criminal. (Adv: crookedly.)
crop ["krap] 1. n. a plant or food product grown and harvested by a
farmer. 2. tv. to cut or trim something.
cross ["krOs] 1. n. a sign or structure in a form similar to an X. 2. n. a
vertical post with a horizontal post attached to it near the top, which
people were hung on as a punishment in ancient times. 3. n. the shape
of the Christian symbol on which Jesus died. 4. n. a combination or
blend; a hybrid. 5. tv. to move from one side of something to the
other; to go across something. 6. tv. to form an intersection with
something else. 7. tv. to anger someone; to upset someone. 8. tv. to
breed species or varieties of animals in such a way as to give yet a dif102
crusade
ferent creature. 9. iv. to make an intersection; to form the shape of
W.
crow ["kro] 1. n. a large, black bird. 2. iv. [for a rooster] to make its
loud noise.
crowd ["kraUd] 1. n. a large group of people; a gathering of people.
2. iv. [for many people or creatures] to gather closely together.
crown ["kraUn] 1. n. the circular metal object worn on the heads of
royal persons. 2. n. something that is worn around the head like Q.
3. n. the office or authority of a monarch. (No pl.) 4. n. the top part
of something, especially a tooth, a hat, or a mountain. 5. tv. to make
someone king or queen.
crude ["krud] 1. adj. in a natural state; not refined; raw. (Adv: crudely.
Comp: cruder; sup: crudest.) 2. adj. vulgar; without manners. (Adv:
crudely. Comp: cruder; sup: crudest.) 3. adj. not expertly done; rough;
awkward. (Adv: crudely. Comp: cruder; sup: crudest.)
cruel ["kru @l] 1. adj. evil; wicked; fond of causing pain. (Adv: cruelly.
Comp: crueler; sup: cruelest.) 2. adj. causing pain; causing suffering.
(Adv: cruelly. Comp: crueler; sup: cruelest.)
cruelty ["kru @l ti] n. harshness; the quality of causing pain and distress. (Pl only for types and instances.)
cruise ["kruz] 1. n. a trip on a boat for pleasure; a vacation on a boat
or ship. 2. iv. to travel at a constant speed.
crumb ["kr^m] n. a particle of bread or cake.
crumble ["kr^m [email protected]] 1. tv. to cause something to fall apart into tiny
pieces; to break something up into tiny pieces. 2. iv. to fall apart into
tiny pieces.
crumple ["kr^m [email protected]] 1. iv. to collapse as if undergoing the action of
Q. 2. up to make random folds in something while crushing it.
crunch ["kr^ntS] 1. n. the sound of something snapping and breaking,
especially of something being chewed. 2. n. the pressure felt when
many deadlines happen at the same time.
crunchy ["kr^n tSi] adj. making a breaking noise when chewed. (Adv:
crunchily. Comp: crunchier; sup: crunchiest.)
crusade [kru "sed] 1. n. a fight against something bad; a fight for
something good. 2. iv. to fight against something bad; to fight for
something good. 3. The s n. the religious expeditions of the Christians against the Muslims in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
(Capitalized. Treated as pl.)
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crush
crush ["kr^S] 1. tv. to squeeze or press on something with great force
and collapse it. 2. tv. to break something into small pieces by pressing or pounding. 3. tv. to force juice out of fruit by squeezing it. 4. n.
a strong desire for someone; an infatuation with someone.
crust ["kr^st] n. the hard outside layer of something, including the
earth, a pie, a loaf of bread, etc.
crutch ["kr^tS] n. a support under the arms that helps a lame person
walk.
cry ["kraI] 1. n. an expression of pain or anger; a loud expression of
emotion. 2. n. a shout; a call. 3. n. a period of weeping. 4. iv. to weep;
to sob; to shed tears.
crystal ["krIs [email protected]] 1. n. a solid chemical compound occurring in a regular shape, such as a square or rectangle. 2. n. a hard, clear substance
like glass that contains a lot of lead. (Pl only for types and instances.)
3. n. clear, expensive drinking vessels made of W. (No pl.) 4. n. the
clear cover over the face of a watch. 5. adj. made from W. 6. adj.
clear; transparent.
cub ["k^b] n. one of the young of certain animals, including bears,
lions, and foxes.
cube ["kjub] 1. n. a solid object having six square sides all the same
size. 2. n. the number that is the result of multiplying some other
number by itself two times. 3. tv. to multiply a number by itself two
times, that is, number number number. 4. tv. to cut up food into
little cubes as in Q.
cucumber ["kju [email protected] b#] n. a long, green vegetable, eaten raw in salads or pickled.
cud ["k^d] n. a lump of chewed food that an animal, such as a cow,
brings back into its mouth from its stomach in order to chew on it
some more.
cuddle ["k^d l] tv. to hold someone with love and affection; to hug
someone for a while.
cue ["kju] 1. n. a long, narrow stick used to hit balls in billiards and
similar games. 2. n. something that is a signal for someone to do or
say something; a line that prompts an actor to say the next line or do
the next action. 3. tv. to signal something to do or say something; to
give someone W.
cuff ["k^f] 1. n. the turned-up edge of cloth near the ankles on
trousers; the thicker material near the wrists on shirts. 2. tv. to hit
someone with one’s hand.
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curl
cuisine [kwI "zin] 1. n. a particular way—usually national or cultural—of preparing food. 2. n. food, especially the food of a particular country or region.
cult ["k^lt] 1. n. members of a strange or radical system of worship or
admiration. 2. adj. attracting a small number of fans, who seem like
Q.
cultivate ["k^l [email protected] vet] 1. tv. to grow plants or crops. 2. tv. to develop
an interest (in someone or something); to nurture an interest (in
someone or something). (Fig. on Q.)
culture ["k^l tS#] 1. n. the social patterns of the people in a particular domain. 2. n. the artistic and social tastes of a society. (No pl.)
3. n. a growth of bacteria in a container in a laboratory.
cunning ["k^n IN] 1. adj. clever; sly; tricky. (Adv: cunningly.) 2. n. cleverness; slyness. (No pl form in this sense.)
cup ["k^p] 1. n. a drinking container having a loop-shaped handle.
2. n. the contents of Q. 3. n. a standard unit of measurement equal
to eight ounces. 4. n. an award; a trophy. (Often shaped like Q or a
larger vessel.)
cupboard ["k^b #d] n. a cabinet lined with shelves, used to store
plates, cups, food, or kitchen supplies.
cupcake ["k^p kek] n. a small cake, shaped as if it had been cooked in
a cup.
curb ["k#b] 1. n. the raised edge or rim of a road. 2. n. a restraint; a
control. 3. tv. to restrain something; to control something; to keep
something back.
cure ["kjUr] 1. n. a medicine that will make a sick person better; a remedy. 2. tv. to make someone well again; to get rid of a disease or a bad
habit. 3. tv. to preserve meat by salting, smoking, or drying it.
curiosity [kjUr i "as @ ti] n. the quality of wanting to know something;
wondering about something.
curious ["kjUr i @s] 1. adj. inquisitive; wanting to learn about something. (Adv: curiously.) 2. adj. weird; odd; strange; unusual. (Adv:
curiously.)
curl ["k#l] 1. n. a group of hairs that are looped or twisted. 2. n. twist;
an amount of twisting. (No pl.) 3. n. something that is shaped like a
loop or a spiral. 4. tv. to cause a bunch of hairs to twist into loops or
coils. 5. tv. to cause something to wind around an object; to wind
something around an object. 6. iv. to twist into loops or coils.
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currency
currency ["k# @n si] 1. n. the kind of money that is used in a particular country. 2. n. the quality of being in general use. (No pl.)
current ["k# @nt] 1. adj. up-to-date; recent; of or about the present
time. (Adv: currently.) 2. n. a moving stream of air or water; a flow.
3. n. the flow of electricity; the rate of the flow of electricity.
curse ["k#s] 1. n. a word or statement asking a powerful being to bring
evil or harm to someone or something. 2. n. a word used when saying Q. 3. tv. to utter W against someone or something. (Pt/pp: cursed
["k#st].) 4. iv. to utter W.
curt ["k#t] adj. rudely brief; short (with someone or something) in a
rude way. (Adv: curtly.)
curtain ["k#t n] n. a piece of fabric hung as a barrier to sight.
curve ["k#v] 1. n. a smooth bend; a continuously bending line. 2. tv.
to make something bend; to bend something into Q. 3. iv. to bend
in the shape of Q.
cushion ["kUS @n] 1. n. a padded pillow for sitting. 2. tv. to soften
something from shock or impact.
custodian [[email protected] "stod i @n] 1. n. someone who has custody over someone else; someone who is in charge of someone or something. 2. n. a
janitor; someone who keeps someplace clean and makes small repairs.
custody ["k^s [email protected] di] n. care; guardianship.
custom ["k^s [email protected]] 1. n. a tradition; a social tradition; a socially
expected practice. 2. n. a habit; a regular practice; a usual event.
3. adj. made to order; specially made for a customer.
customer ["k^s [email protected] m#] n. someone who buys a product or a service
from a person or a business.
customs ["k^s [email protected]] n. a government department authorized to control the importation of goods into a country.
cut ["k^t] 1. n. an opening made in the skin accidentally. 2. n. a reduction in an amount of money; the taking away of funds for something.
3. n. a piece of something that has been cut as in R from something;
a piece [of meat]. 4. tv., irreg. to separate something from something
else with a sharp object; to sever something from something else.
(Pt/pp: cut.) 5. tv., irreg. to make an opening in something with a
sharp object. 6. tv., irreg. to shorten something with a sharp object;
to trim something with a sharp object. 7. tv., irreg. to reduce something; to decrease something. 8. tv., irreg. to dissolve something; to
dilute something. 9. iv., irreg. to slice into something. 10. down
106
czar
on to reduce the amount of something or of doing something; to use
or buy less of something.
cute ["kjut] adj. clever and pretty; simple and attractive. (Adv: cutely.
Comp: cuter; sup: cutest.)
cycle ["saI [email protected]] 1. n. one instance of a process that repeats over and
over. 2. iv. to ride a bicycle.
cyclist ["saI klIst] n. someone who rides a bicycle or motorcycle, especially as a regular activity.
cyclone ["saI klon] n. a tornado; a strong, violent wind that moves in
a circle.
cylinder ["sIl @n d#] 1. n. a tube; a solid or hollow object with a circular top and bottom and long, curved sides. 2. n. the part of a car
engine in which a piston moves back and forth.
cymbal ["sIm [email protected]] n. one of a pair of brass discs that are struck together
to make a loud, ringing noise in orchestras and bands.
cynic ["sIn Ik] n. someone who believes the worst about everything and
everybody.
cynical ["sIn I [email protected]] adj. believing the worst about everything and everybody. (Adv: cynically [...Ik li].)
czar and tsar ["zar] 1. n. the male leader of Russia; a Russian king.
(Until 1917.) 2. n. a leader; someone who is in charge of something.
(Fig. on Q.)
107
D
dad ["dAd] n. a father. (Also a term of address.)
daddy ["dAd i] n. a familiar nickname for a father. (Capitalized when
written as a proper noun.)
daffodil ["dAf @ dIl] n. a kind of flower with large, typically yellow,
trumpet-shaped blossoms.
dagger ["dAg #] n. a short, sharp knife carried as a weapon.
daily ["de li] 1. adj. done or occurring every day. 2. adj. suitable for a
single day. 3. adv. on every day.
dairy ["dEr i] 1. n. a company that processes milk products. 2. the adj.
use of Q.
daisy ["de zi] n. a long-stemmed plant bearing circular flowers, typically white with yellow centers.
dam ["dAm] n. a solid barrier in a river or stream that holds back the
flow of water.
damage ["dAm IdZ] 1. n. harm; an act that causes loss or pain. (No
pl.) 2. tv. to harm something.
damages n. charges or costs for harm or loss, usually considered to be
a punishment.
damn ["dAm] 1. adj. cursed; declared to be bad as in E. (Prenominal
only. A curse word. Use only with caution.) 2. interj. I am angry!; I
am frustrated! (A curse word. Use only with caution.) 3. tv. to declare
something to be bad.
damp ["dAmp] adj. moist; slightly wet. (Adv: damply. Comp: damper;
sup: dampest.)
dance ["dAns] 1. tv. to perform a type of movement of the body, usually with music. 2. iv. to move one’s body in a rhythm, usually to
music, usually with another person. 3. n. the art and study of the
movement of the body, in rhythm, especially to music. (No pl.) 4. n.
a set series of body movements done to music. 5. n. an act or session
of W. 6. n. a social event where music is played and people dance as
in W.
danger ["den dZ#] 1. n. the possibility of harm. (No pl.) 2. n. someone or something that could cause harm, injury, or death.
108
Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc.
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daylight
dangerous ["den dZ# @s] adj. risky; having the potential for causing
harm. (Adv: dangerously.)
dare ["dEr] 1. n. a challenge; a statement that challenges someone to
take a risk. 2. aux. to have enough courage or boldness [to do something]. (Usually used in negative sentences and questions.)
dark ["dark] 1. adj. without light. (Adv: darkly. Comp: darker; sup:
darkest.) 2. adj. not light in color; having little brightness or color.
(Adv: darkly. Comp: darker; sup: darkest.) 3. n. the absence of light;
darkness; nighttime. (No pl.)
darken ["dar [email protected]] 1. tv. to make something darker. 2. iv. to become
darker.
darkness ["dark [email protected]] n. the quality of having no light. (No pl.)
data ["det @, "dAt @] n. information; pieces of information; facts; a set
of facts. (The Latin pl of datum. Treated as sg or pl in English.)
date ["det] 1. n. the number of the day of a month, often including
the name of the month or the name of the month and the year; the
name of a month and the year; the year. (Q refers to the number of
the day of a month; the day of the week is called the day .) 2. n. a
brown, fleshy fruit with a long pit, grown on certain palm trees. 3. n.
a social meeting between two people, typically male and female, who
have planned to go somewhere or do something together. 4. n. a person with whom one has a date as in E. 5. tv. to mark something with
Q; to show the Q of something. 6. tv. to show or signal that someone or something is out-of-date or old-fashioned. 7. tv. to have dates
as in E with a particular person. 8. iv. to go out on dates as in E frequently or habitually.
daughter ["dO t#] n. a female child.
dawn ["dOn] 1. n. the period of morning when light is first seen in the
eastern sky; sunrise. 2. n. the beginning of something. (Fig. on Q.)
3. iv. [for the day] to become bright or light.
day ["de] 1. n. a period of 24 hours, especially from midnight to midnight; one of the seven divisions of the week. (The days of the week,
in order, are Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday,
Sunday. ) 2. n. the period of time between sunrise and sunset; the
opposite of night. 3. n. the time spent at work; the hours of work.
4. n. a time; a period.
daybreak ["de brek] n. dawn; the first light of day. (No pl.)
daylight ["de laIt] n. the light of day. (No pl.)
109
days
days adv. during the daytime; during each day.
dead ["dEd] 1. adj. no longer living. 2. adj. not having the electrical
energy to work. (Fig. on Q.) 3. adj. not active; dull. (Fig. on Q.
Comp: deader; sup: deadest.) 4. adv. completely; exactly; absolutely.
5. n. the time when it is the darkest, coldest, etc. (No pl.) 6. the n. dead people; people who have died. (No pl. Treated as pl, but not
countable.) 7. end the end of a route or passage with no way to
get elsewhere except to return.
deadline ["dEd laIn] n. the date when something is due; the time by
which something must be finished.
deaf ["dEf] 1. adj. not able to hear. (Adv: deafly. Comp: deafer; sup:
deafest.) 2. adj. unwilling to hear; heedless. (Fig. on Q. Adv: deafly.
Comp: deafer; sup: deafest.) 3. the n. people who are deaf Q. (No
pl. Treated as pl, but not countable.)
deal ["dil] 1. tv., irreg. to pass out cards in a card game. (Pt/pp: dealt.)
2. tv., irreg. to deliver something, such as a blow. 3. iv., irreg. to pass
out cards in a card game. 4. n. a bargain; an agreement for the purchase of goods or services, especially if at a cost lower than expected.
dealer ["di l#] 1. n. someone who passes out cards in a card game. 2. n.
someone who is in the business of trade; someone who buys and sells
certain products. (Usually a retail merchant.)
dealt ["dElt] pt/pp of deal.
dean ["din] n. the head of a teaching division within a university, a college, or a private school.
dear ["dIr] 1. adj. loved very much. (Adv: dearly. Comp: dearer; sup:
dearest.) 2. adj. a form of address used at the beginning of a letter.
3. n. a treasured person; a person who is loved very much. (Also a
term of address.)
death ["dET] 1. n. the state of being dead. (No pl.) 2. n. the act of
dying; the end of life.
debate [dI "bet] 1. n. an event where two or more people with different points of view talk about an issue. 2. n. a formal, structured argument where the two sides of an issue are presented in an orderly
fashion by opposing speakers. 3. n. formal, structured arguing done
as a school activity. (No pl.) 4. tv. to discuss and argue something
with someone. 5. iv. [for two people or groups] to speak for the opposite sides of an issue.
debit ["dEb It] 1. n. a record of an amount that is owed or must be subtracted from the balance in an account. (Compare this with debt.)
110
decorate
2. tv. to charge an amount of money against someone’s account. 3. tv.
to charge someone’s account for a sum of money.
debt ["dEt] n. the condition of owing something to someone. (Pl only
for types and instances.)
decade ["dEk ed] 1. n. a period of ten years. 2. n. one of the ten equal
divisions of a century, such as 1950–1959.
decay [dI "ke] 1. n. rot; the rotting of something. (No pl.) 2. iv. to rot.
3. tv. to cause something to rot.
deceive [dI "siv] tv. to make someone believe something that is not
true.
December [dI "sEm b#] Go to month.
decent ["di [email protected]] 1. adj. proper; well behaved; well mannered; modest. (Adv: decently.) 2. adj. kind; nice. (Adv: decently.) 3. adj. good
enough; pretty good; adequate. (Informal. Adv: decently.)
deception [dI "sEp [email protected]] n. deceiving, cheating, or defrauding. (No pl
form in this sense.)
decide [dI "saId] 1. tv. to determine the outcome of something. 2. tv.
to make a choice; to reach a decision about something. (The object
can be a clause with that U.) 3. on to choose something; to pick
something out.
decimal point ["dEs (@) [email protected] poInt] n. a period (.) that separates whole
numbers from fractions.
decision [dI "sI [email protected]] n. a choice; a selection; a judgment; a resolution.
deck ["dEk] 1. n. a set of cards; a pack of cards. 2. n. the floor of a ship.
3. n. a raised wooden patio, attached to the back door of a house.
declare [dI "klEr] tv. to proclaim something; to make something
known; to say something publicly. (The object can be a clause with
that U.)
decline [dI "klaIn] 1. iv. to move from good to bad; to move from high
to low; to go from better to worse. 2. iv. to turn [something] down;
to refuse [something]. 3. tv. to list the different case endings of a
noun or adjective. (Compare this with conjugate .) 4. tv. to turn
something down; to refuse an offer. 5. n. the gradual change from
high to low; the loss of power, strength, or health.
decorate ["dEk @ ret] 1. tv. to put up decorations. 2. tv. to honor a soldier with a medal. 3. iv. to paint a room, put up wallpaper, hang
drapes, lay carpet, or add furniture to a room.
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decoration
decoration [dEk @ "re [email protected]] 1. n. an object or things used to make
something or a place look pretty. 2. n. an award or honor given to a
soldier.
decorative ["dEk @ [email protected] tIv] adj. pretty; used for decorating. (Adv: decoratively.)
decrease 1. ["di kris] n. a drop; a fall; a lessening; a reduction.
2. ["di kris] n. the amount that something has been reduced or lessened. 3. [dI "kris] iv. to become less; to become smaller in size or
strength. 4. [dI "kris] tv. to cause something to become less; to cause
something to become smaller in size or strength.
deduct [dI "d^kt] 1. tv. to subtract something from a larger amount.
2. tv. to subtract the cost of something from one’s taxable income.
deed ["did] 1. n. something that is performed; an act; an action. 2. n.
a legal document that officially transfers the ownership of land or
buildings to someone. (Compare this with title R.)
deep ["dip] 1. adj. extending far down from the top or far back from
the front. (Adv: deeply. Comp: deeper; sup: deepest.) 2. adj. reaching
a certain depth; extending a certain distance down, in, or back. (Follows a measure of depth. Comp: deeper.) 3. adj. [of a sound] lowpitched and strong. (Adv: deeply. Comp: deeper; sup: deepest.) 4. adj.
[of a color] intense or strong. (Adv: deeply. Comp: deeper; sup: deepest.) 5. adj. intense; strong; extreme. (Adv: deeply. Comp: deeper; sup:
deepest.) 6. adj. difficult to understand; past one’s understanding.
(Comp: deeper; sup: deepest.)
deer ["dIr] n., irreg. a fast, hoofed animal, the males of which have
antlers. (Pl: deer.)
defeat [dI "fit] 1. tv. to cause someone to lose; to beat someone in a
contest. 2. n. loss [of a contest]; failure to win. (No pl.) 3. n. an
instance of winning as in Q. 4. n. a loss of a contest.
defect 1. ["di fEkt, dI "fEkt] n. a flaw. 2. [dI "fEkt] iv. to go over to the
other side of a conflict; to join up with one’s enemies.
defend [dI "fEnd] tv. to fight for someone or something physically or
verbally; to protect someone or something.
defendant [dI "fEn [email protected]] n. someone who is the target of legal action
in a court of law.
defense [dI "fEns] 1. n. protection against someone or something;
defending someone or something; preparation to defend against
someone or something. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. the
skill of a sports team in protecting its goal or in preventing the other
112
deluxe
team from scoring points. (Pl only for types and instances.) 3. n. the
lawyer or lawyers who defend someone in court. (No pl.) 4. n. the
way that a lawyer argues a case in favor of a defendant; an argument
used to defend oneself. (No pl.)
defensive [dI "fEn sIv] adj. protective; used for defense. (Adv: defensively.)
define [dI "faIn] tv. to explain the meaning of a word or expression.
definite ["dEf @ nIt] adj. certain; sure. (Adv: definitely.)
defy [dI "faI] tv. to resist authority; to go against a rule or a regulation.
degree [dI "gri] 1. n. a unit of measurement, as used for measuring
temperature or angles. 2. n. the extent of something; the level of
something. 3. n. a title awarded by a university or college to a student who has met certain requirements. 4. n. a level in the comparison of adjectives or adverbs.
delete [dI "lit] tv. to remove something from something, especially
from a list or a piece of writing.
delicate ["dEl @ kIt] 1. adj. fragile; easily damaged. (Adv: delicately.)
2. adj. subtly flavored. (Adv: delicately.)
delicious [dI "lIS @s] adj. pleasing to the senses, especially taste and
smell. (Adv: deliciously.)
delight [dI "laIt] 1. n. pleasure; joy. 2. n. something that is pleasing;
something that causes joy. 3. tv. to give someone pleasure; to cause
someone joy; to please someone.
delightful [dI "laIt fUl] adj. causing delight; giving pleasure. (Adv:
delightfully.)
deliver [dI "lIv #] 1. tv. to take something [to someone or someplace].
2. tv. [for a woman] to give birth to a baby. 3. tv. [for a doctor or
someone else] to assist a baby in being born. 4. tv. to give a speech;
to read something out loud.
delivery [dI "lIv @ ri] 1. n. the act of taking something to someone.
2. n. something that is taken to someone. 3. n. the process of giving
birth. 4. n. the style or manner of speaking; the style used when giving a speech. (No pl.)
deluge ["dEl judZ] 1. n. a great flood. 2. n. a violent rainstorm. 3. n. a
great abundance of something. (Fig. on W.) 4. tv. to overwhelm
someone with a flood of something.
deluxe [[email protected] "l^ks] adj. of very good quality; of great luxury. (Adv:
deluxely.)
113
demand
demand [dI "mAnd] 1. n. an urgent request; a strong order. 2. n. [buyers’] strength of desire for a product or service. (No pl.) 3. tv. to ask
urgently for something; [for an authority] to request something
firmly. (The object can be a clause with that U.) 4. tv. to require
something; to need something. (The object can be a clause with that
U.)
democracy [dI "ma [email protected] si] 1. n. the system of government ultimately
controlled by the people who are governed. (No pl.) 2. n. a country
whose system of government is Q.
demolish [dI "mal IS] tv. to destroy something; to tear something
down.
demon ["di [email protected]] n. an evil spirit; a devil.
demonstrate ["dEm @n stret] 1. tv. to show how something is done;
to show how something works. 2. tv. to show one’s emotions; to show
one’s feelings. 3. iv. to protest by marching, chanting, or rallying in
public.
den ["dEn] 1. n. the lair or home of a wild animal. 2. n. a center of bad
or illegal activities. 3. n. a room in a house used for studying or working.
denial [dI "naI @l] n. insisting that something does not exist or is not
true; denying that something exists or is true. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
dense ["dEns] adj. thick; tightly packed together. (Adv: densely. Comp:
denser; sup: densest.)
dent ["dEnt] 1. n. a shallow hollow in a surface; an indentation; a place
where a small part of a surface has been pressed down or pressed
inward. 2. tv. to make a small hollow in something.
dental ["dEn [email protected]] adj. of or about the teeth or their care. (Adv: dentally.)
dentist ["dEn tIst] n. a health-care professional who specializes in the
care of the teeth.
deny [dI "naI] 1. tv. to declare that something is not true. (The object
can be a clause with that U.) 2. tv. to refuse to grant someone or
something permission to do something; to refuse to allow someone
or something to have something.
depart [dI "part] 1. iv. to go away; to start a journey by leaving a place.
2. tv. to go away from a place; to leave a state or status.
114
desert
department [dI "part [email protected]] 1. n. a unit within an organization. 2. the
adj. use of Q. 3. store n. a large store where merchandise is sold
in various departments.
dependent [dI "pEn [email protected]] 1. adj. relying on someone else for support
or care. (Adv: dependently.) 2. n. someone who relies on someone else
for support. 3. n. someone who can be listed on a wage earner’s
income-tax form as W and thereby reduce the wage earner’s taxes.
deposit [dI "paz It] 1. n. an amount of money paid toward a product
or service. 2. n. an amount of money paid as security on a rented
dwelling. 3. n. something that is put down; something that is laid
down. 4. n. money that is put in a monetary account. 5. tv. to place
money in a monetary account. 6. tv. to put something down in a specific place.
depository [dI "paz I tor i] 1. n. a place where things are kept safe; a
place where things are deposited and kept safe. 2. n. a warehouse.
depression [dI "prE [email protected]] 1. n. a part of a surface that is lower than the
rest of the surface. 2. n. a time of general economic weakness; a time
of high unemployment and weak demand for goods and services.
(When capitalized, it refers to the (U.S.) Great Depression, which
lasted from October 29, 1929, until the late 1930s.) 3. n. a state of
mind where someone is hopelessly sad.
depth ["dEpT] n. the distance from top to bottom or front to back. (Pl
only for types and instances.)
derogatory [dI "rag @ tor i] adj. showing contempt; rude; very negative and critical. (Adv: derogatorily [dI rag @ "tor @ li].)
descend [dI "sEnd] 1. tv. to move from a higher part to a lower part
on or along something; to climb down something. 2. iv. to go down;
to go from a high place to a lower place; to move downward. 3. iv. to
come from an earlier time.
descendant [dI "sEn [email protected]] n. someone’s child, grandchild, greatgrandchild, and so on.
describe [dI "skraIb] tv. to tell about someone or something in written or spoken words.
description [dI "skrIp [email protected]] n. a statement that describes someone or
something.
desert 1. ["dEz #t] n. an area of land with little rainfall and little or no
human population. (Compare this with dessert.) 2. ["dEz #t] the adj.
use of Q. 3. [dI "z#t] tv. to abandon someone or something; to go
away and leave someone or something behind. 4. [dI "z#t] tv. to leave
115
deserve
a place and make it empty. 5. [dI "z#t] iv. to be absent from military
duty without permission.
deserve [dI "z#v] tv. to be worthy of something; to merit something.
design [dI "zaIn] 1. n. a plan showing how something will be made;
the way something is arranged; the layout of something. 2. n. a
(visual) pattern; drawings or markings. 3. tv. to make the plans for
building or decorating something. 4. tv. to plan and execute an
arrangement of pictures, images, diagrams, lines, circles, etc.
designer [dI "zaI n#] n. someone who makes designs; someone who
plans how buildings, clothing, rooms, or works of graphic art will
look.
desire [dI "zaI#] 1. n. a strong wish for something; a request for something. 2. n. someone or something that is wished for. 3. tv. to want
something very much.
desk ["dEsk] n. a piece of furniture with a flat top—often with drawers on the lower part.
desolate ["dEs @ lIt] adj. barren; without people. (Adv: desolately.)
desperate ["dEs [email protected] rIt] adj. willing to try anything because nothing
has worked. (Adv: desperately.)
dessert [dI "z#t] n. a special, often sweet, food served at the end of a
meal. (Compare this with desert.)
destiny ["dEs [email protected] ni] n. the force that determines future events. (Pl only
for types and instances.)
destroy [dI "stroI] tv. to make someone or something completely useless; to do away with someone or something.
destruction [dI "str^k [email protected]] 1. n. ruining or destroying something. (No
pl.) 2. n. ruins; the result of destroying. (No pl.)
detail 1. ["di tel, dI "tel] n. a small fact about something. 2. ["di tel] n.
a drawing that shows all of the fine or small parts of something. 3. [dI
"tel] tv. to give all the facts of a story or issue.
detain [dI "ten] 1. tv. to delay someone or something; to keep someone or something from leaving. 2. tv. [for the police] to keep or hold
someone.
detect [dI "tEkt] tv. to become aware of something; to discover something.
detective [dI "tEk tIv] n. a police officer or other licensed person who
searches for information about crimes.
116
diagonal
detention [dI "tEn [email protected]] n. keeping someone from leaving; holding
someone in a place such as a jail or a classroom. (Pl only for types
and instances.)
determine [dI "t# mIn] tv. to figure something out. (The object can
be a clause with that U.)
determined [dI "t# mInd] adj. intending to do something; driven to
do something; having the will to do something. (Adv: determinedly.)
deterrent [dI "t# @nt] n. something that keeps someone or something
from doing something; something that encourages someone or something not to do something.
detest [dI "tEst] tv. to hate someone or something very much. (The
object can be a clause with that U.)
detour ["di tu #] 1. n. a route that turns away from the regular route
and is taken to avoid someone or something. 2. iv. to use Q; to travel
the long way around something.
develop [dI "vEl @p] 1. tv. to create something and attempt to cause it
to flourish. 2. tv. [in photography] to cause images to appear on film
through chemical processes. 3. tv. [for someone or some creature] to
begin to show signs of something or experience something. 4. tv. to
build houses, buildings, and stores on empty land. 5. iv. to grow and
mature. 6. iv. to grow and prosper; to strengthen; to mature.
device [dI "vaIs] n. a tool or machine meant to be used for a specific
purpose.
devil ["dEv @l] 1. n. an evil spirit; a demon. 2. n. Satan; the supreme
spirit of evil. (Sometimes capitalized.) 3. n. someone who is mischievous.
devout [dI "vaUt] 1. adj. actively religious. (Adv: devoutly.) 2. adj. sincere; deeply committed to someone or something. (Fig. on Q. Adv:
devoutly.) 3. the n. religious people. (No pl. Treated as pl, but not
countable.)
dew ["du] n. tiny drops of water that have fallen from cooling, moist
air. (Pl only for types and instances.)
diabetes [daI @ "bit Is] n. a disease where there is too much sugar in
the blood and urine. (Treated as sg.)
diagonal [daI "Ag @ [email protected]] 1. adj. at an angle, but not perpendicular.
(Adv: diagonally.) 2. n. a line that goes from one corner of a foursided figure to the opposite corner.
117
diagram
diagram ["daI @ grAm] 1. n. a drawing that helps explain something.
2. tv. to make a drawing to help explain something. 3. tv. to make a
drawing that shows the relationships between the parts of a sentence.
dial ["daIl] 1. n. on an older telephone, the wheel—with holes for one’s
finger—that is turned in order to make a telephone call. 2. n. the part
of a watch or a clock that has the numbers on it; the face of a watch
or clock. 3. tv. to place a telephone call to someone or to some number, either by rotating Q of a telephone or by pushing the buttons of
a telephone. 4. iv. to operate a telephone by turning Q or pushing
buttons. 5. tone n. the sound heard when one picks up a telephone
receiver, indicating that a telephone call can be made.
dialect ["daI @ lEkt] n. a variety of a language.
dialogue and dialog ["daI @ lOg] 1. n. speech between two or more
people. (No pl.) 2. n. a discussion between two or more people who
express differences of opinion.
diameter [daI "Am I t#] n. the length of a straight line within a circle
and going through the center of the circle.
diamond ["daI (@) [email protected]] 1. n. a figure with four sides of equal length
that is viewed as standing on one of its points. 2. n. a playing card
that has one or more shapes like (3) on it. 3. n. a clear gem formed
from carbon. 4. n. [in baseball] the space defined by the four bases.
diaper ["daI (@) p#] 1. n. a piece of cloth or other fiber that a baby
wears between its legs before the baby has learned to use a toilet. 2. tv.
to put Q on a baby.
diary ["daI (@) ri] n. a journal; a book in which one records the events
in one’s life.
dice ["daIs] 1. pl of die E. 2. tv. to chop a food up into tiny cubes.
dictate ["dIk tet] 1. s n. directions; orders that must be obeyed. 2. tv.
to determine the outcome of some process. 3. tv. to speak a message
that is recorded in shorthand or electronically for later transcription.
4. iv. to say something that is being recorded for later transcription.
dictation [dIk "te [email protected]] 1. n. speaking something aloud for someone to
write down or type, as for students to write down as a classroom exercise or for a secretary to type on a typewriter or computer. (The
speech is sometimes recorded and then transcribed later. No pl form
in this sense.) 2. n. the words that are spoken, recorded, or transcribed as in Q. (No pl form in this sense.)
dictionary ["dIk [email protected] nEr i] n. a book that explains the meanings of
words.
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digital
did [dId] pt of do.
didn’t ["dId nt] cont. did not.
die ["daI] 1. iv. to stop living; to become dead. (Pres. part.: dying.) 2. iv.
[for a machine] to stop working. (Fig. on Q.) 3. n., irreg. a small cube
that has a different number of spots on each side. (Pl: dice. Usually
pl.) 4. away; down to fade away. 5. back [for vegetation]
to die as in Q part of the way back to the roots. 6. out [for a
species or family] to perish totally because of the failure to produce
offspring. 7. out [for an idea, practice, style, etc.] to fade away
through time.
diet ["daI It] 1. n. the food that a person or an animal usually and typically eats. 2. n. a controlled or prescribed selection of foods. 3. iv.
to control one’s choice of foods for the purpose of losing weight.
differ ["dIf #] 1. from to be different from something else.
2. with to disagree with someone.
difference ["dIf [email protected]] 1. n. a way that two people or things are not
alike. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. the amount remaining
when one amount is subtracted from another. (No pl.)
different ["dIf [email protected]] adj. not the same. (Adv: differently.)
difficult ["dIf @ [email protected]] adj. hard to do; hard to understand. (Adv: difficultly.)
difficulty ["dIf @ [email protected] ti] n. the quality of being hard to do or understand. (Pl only for types and instances.)
dig ["dIg] tv., irreg. to make a hole in something by removing part of
it, as with removing soil with a shovel. (Pt/pp: dug.)
digest 1. ["daI dZEst] n. a short version of a long piece of writing; a
summary or a collection of summaries. 2. [dI "dZEst] tv. to dissolve
food in the stomach so that it can be changed into a form that the
body can use. 3. [dI "dZEst] tv. to take thoughts into the mind; to
think about something very deeply and make it part of one’s thinking. (Fig. on W.)
digestion [dI "dZEs [email protected]] n. the process of breaking down food in the
stomach so that it can be changed into a form that will give nourishment to the rest of the body. (No pl.)
digit ["dIdZ It] 1. n. a number from 0 through 9. 2. n. a finger or a toe.
digital ["dIdZ I [email protected]] 1. adj. [of a clock or watch] using numbers rather
than hands. (Adv: digitally.) 2. adj. of or about storing, retrieving,
119
dignified
and working with information that is stored electronically using the
digits 0 and 1. (Adv: digitally.)
dignified ["dIg [email protected] faId] adj. noble; showing decorum. (Adv: dignifiedly.)
dignity ["dIg [email protected] ti] n. self-respect; personal worth. (No pl.)
dilemma [dI "lEm @] n. a difficult choice between two options.
dilute [dI "lut] 1. tv. to weaken something by the addition of a fluid.
2. tv. to make something weaker; to make something less severe. (Fig.
on Q.)
dim ["dIm] 1. adj. barely lit; not bright. (Adv: dimly. Comp: dimmer;
sup: dimmest.) 2. adj. vague; unclear in the mind; hard to remember.
(Adv: dimly. Comp: dimmer; sup: dimmest.)
dime ["daIm] n. a coin worth 10 U.S. cents.
dimension [dI "mEn [email protected]] n. the measurement of something in one
direction; the length, the width, or the depth of something.
diminish [dI "mIn IS] 1. tv. to cause something to become smaller; to
cause something to become less important; to reduce something.
2. iv. to become smaller; to become less important; to decrease.
dine ["daIn] iv. to eat a meal, especially to eat dinner.
dingy ["dIn dZi] adj. old-looking; dirty; faded; drab; discolored. (Adv:
dingily. Comp: dingier; sup: dingiest.)
dining room ["daIn IN rum] n. in a house, building, or apartment, the
room where meals are served.
dinner ["dIn #] 1. n. the main meal of the day; either a large midday
meal or a large evening meal. 2. n. a formal event where an evening
meal is served.
dinosaur ["daI [email protected] sor] n. a large, prehistoric reptile that is now extinct.
dip ["dIp] 1. n. a sharp slope downward. 2. n. a quick plunge into water
or other liquid; a quick swim in water. 3. n. a creamy mixture of
foods or a thick sauce that is eaten with crackers, potato chips, or vegetables. (Pl only for types and instances.) 4. tv. to lower and raise
something quickly.
diploma [dI "plom @] n. a certificate of graduation from a school or
college.
diplomacy [dI "plo [email protected] si] 1. n. tact; skill used in dealing with people.
(No pl.) 2. n. the business of maintaining good relationships between
countries. (No pl.)
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disappear
direct [dI "rEkt] 1. adj. going from one place to another place without
leaving the path; going the straightest or shortest way. (Adv: directly.)
2. adj. exact; to the point; forthright. (Adv: directly.) 3. tv. to guide
someone or something; to be in charge of someone or something.
4. tv. to establish and oversee the design and execution of a play or a
film, particularly overseeing the actors’ performances; to instruct
actors how to perform in a particular play, opera, film, etc.
5. object n. a noun, pronoun, or phrase that receives the action
of a transitive verb; a noun, pronoun, or phrase on which the verb
operates.
direction [dI "rEk [email protected]] 1. n. the guidance or control of something. (No
pl.) 2. n. the path taken by something that moves; movement. 3. n.
the way that someone or something faces, such as to the north, south,
east, or west.
directions 1. n. instructions. 2. n. a statement of how to get to a place.
director [dI "rEk t#] 1. n. someone who leads a group of musicians as
they perform; a conductor; someone who directs R actors, films,
plays, etc. 2. n. someone who is in charge of an institution, company,
school, or department.
directory [dI "rEk [email protected] ri] 1. n. a list of names arranged in the order of
the alphabet, usually including addresses and telephone numbers.
2. n. any list that shows where to find someone or something.
dirt ["d#t] 1. n. soil; earth. (No pl.) 2. n. dust, grime, mud; filth. (No
pl.)
dirty ["d# ti] 1. adj. not clean. (Adv: dirtily. Comp: dirtier; sup: dirtiest.) 2. adj. of or about sex or excrement in a crude way. (Adv: dirtily. Comp: dirtier; sup: dirtiest.) 3. tv. to cause something to become
unclean.
disable [dIs "e [email protected]] tv. to make something not work; to make someone
or something powerless.
disagree [dIs @ "gri] iv. not to agree with someone; to have an opinion
different from someone else’s opinion.
disagreeable [dIs @ "gri @ [email protected]] adj. not pleasant; unpleasant. (Adv: disagreeably.)
disagreement [dIs @ "gri [email protected]] n. a difference in opinion; a failure to
agree. (Pl only for types and instances.)
disappear [dIs @ "pi#] 1. iv. to vanish; to cease to appear; to go out of
sight. 2. iv. to cease to exist in a place; to be no longer in a place.
121
disappoint
disappoint [dIs @ "poInt] tv. to fail to please someone; to make someone unhappy by not doing something that was expected or desired;
to make someone unhappy by not being or happening as expected or
desired.
disapproval [dIs @ "pruv @l] n. rejection; the failure to give approval
to someone or something; unfavorable opinion. (No pl.)
disc Go to disk.
discharge 1. ["dIs tSardZ] n. the sound of an explosion; the firing of a
gun. 2. ["dIs tSardZ] n. the release of someone or something, especially when this requires official approval. 3. ["dIs tSardZ] n. the carrying out of one’s duties; the performance of one’s duties. (No pl.)
4. ["dIs tSardZ] n. giving something off; releasing something.
5. ["dIs tSardZ] n. something that is given off; something that is
let out. 6. [dIs "tSardZ] tv. to fire a gun; to cause an explosion.
7. [dIs "tSardZ] tv. to dismiss someone from employment.
8. [dIs "tSardZ] tv. to let something out; to pour something out.
9. [dIs "tSardZ] tv. to do one’s duty; to keep a promise; to repay a debt.
discipline ["dIs @ plIn] 1. n. controlled behavior achieved as the result
of training; order. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a field or
branch of learning. 3. tv. to punish someone. 4. tv. to train someone
or something to behave properly; to train someone or something to
be obedient.
discomfort [dIs "k^m f#t] 1. n. an uncomfortable feeling. (Pl only for
types and instances.) 2. n. something that causes an uncomfortable
feeling.
discount 1. ["dIs kaUnt] n. an amount subtracted from the price of a
product or service; a savings in price. 2. ["dIs kaUnt] tv. to subtract
an amount from the cost of a product or service. 3. [dIs "kaUnt] tv.
to disregard someone or something; to disregard what someone says
or does; to not believe something.
discourage [dI "sk# IdZ] 1. tv. to cause someone to feel dejected; to
take away someone’s interest or excitement in something. 2. tv. to try
to talk someone out of doing something; to try to persuade someone
not to do something.
discover [dI "sk^v #] tv. to find something for the first time; to become
aware of something for the first time; to find out for the first time
how something functions or happens. (The object can be a clause
with that U.)
122
disobey
discovery [dI "sk^v @ ri] 1. n. an instance of discovering something.
2. n. someone or something that has been discovered; something not
known of before.
discreet [dI "skrit] adj. very cautious, so as not to draw anyone’s attention; keeping something a secret; able to keep a secret. (Adv: discreetly.)
discuss [dI "sk^s] tv. to talk about something; to have a conversation
about something.
discussion [dI "sk^ [email protected]] n. a conversation, often with more than two
people.
disease [dI "ziz] n. an illness; a sickness.
disgrace [dIs "gres] 1. n. shame; the loss of honor. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. tv. to bring shame upon someone.
disguise [dIs "gaIz] 1. n. something that conceals who someone really
is; something that conceals what something really is. 2. tv. to change
the appearance of a thing or a person to make identification difficult.
disgust [dIs "g^st] 1. n. a strong feeling of dislike; a loathing for someone or something. (No pl.) 2. tv. to revolt someone; to offend someone.
disgusting [dIs "k^s tIN] adj. causing disgust; offensive; sickening.
(Adv: disgustingly.)
dish ["dIS] 1. n. a plate; a flat, circular object used to serve food or to
eat from. 2. n. a particular food that is served at a meal.
dishonest [dIs "an Ist] adj. not honest. (Adv: dishonestly.)
dishwater ["dIS wat #] n. the water that dishes are to be washed in;
water that dishes have been washed in. (No pl.)
disillusioned [dIs @ "lu [email protected]] adj. freed from illusion.
disk and disc ["dIsk] 1. n. a thin, flat, and circular object. 2. drive
n. a device inside a computer, used for reading and storing digital
information on a spinning disk. (Can be shortened to drive.)
diskette [dI "skEt] n. a device—usually held in a square of plastic—
for storing digital computer information. (Can be shortened to disk.)
dismal ["dIz [email protected]] adj. dull and filled with gloom. (Adv: dismally.)
dismiss [dIs "mIs] 1. tv. to allow people to leave; to send people away.
2. tv. to end someone’s employment. 3. tv. to refuse to consider something; to refuse to listen to someone or something.
disobey [dIs @ "be] tv. to ignore someone’s direct orders.
123
display
display [dI "sple] 1. tv. to show something; to exhibit something. 2. n.
something that is shown; something that is exhibited.
dispute [dI "spjut] 1. n. a disagreement; a debate; a fight. 2. tv. to question something; to doubt something is true; to disagree with something.
dissolve [dI "zalv] 1. tv. to melt a solid, such as sugar, into a liquid.
2. tv. to break up a union or a bond; to end an association. 3. iv. [for
a solid] to become mixed in a liquid.
distance ["dIs [email protected]] n. the length of the space between two things.
distant ["dIs [email protected]] 1. adj. far away; not near in space or time. (Adv:
distantly.) 2. adj. not very friendly; aloof. (Adv: distantly.)
distinct [dI "stINkt] 1. adj. different; separate; able to be seen as
unique. (Adv: distinctly.) 2. adj. obvious; easy to notice. (Adv: distinctly.)
distress [dI "strEs] 1. n. grief; anxiety. (No pl.) 2. tv. to trouble someone; to cause someone to feel anxiety, discomfort, or suffering.
distribute [dI "strIb jut] tv. to give or sell something [to someone]; to
divide something among several people.
district ["dIs trIkt] n. an area; a region; a part of a country, state,
county, or city.
distrust [dIs "tr^st] 1. n. a lack of trust. (No pl.) 2. tv. not to trust
someone or something; not to put one’s trust in someone or something.
disturb [dI "st#b] 1. tv. to bother or annoy someone or something; to
interrupt someone or something. 2. tv. to change, handle, or move
something.
disturbance [dI "st#b @ns] n. a bother; an annoyance.
ditch ["dItS] 1. n. a long, low, narrow deep place in the ground, where
water can flow. 2. tv. to land an airplane in the water and abandon it.
3. tv. to abandon or get rid of someone or something.
dive ["daIv] 1. n. a jump into something, especially water, usually with
one’s hands or head first. 2. n. an underwater swim, as with scuba
diving; time spent underwater. 3. n. a plunge; a quick movement
down. 4. iv., irreg. to jump into deep water, entering smoothly, leading with the feet or with the hands raised above the head. (Pt: dived
or dove; pp: dived.) 5. iv., irreg. to spend time underwater, as with
scuba diving. 6. iv., irreg. to go down quickly; to plunge down. 7. iv.,
irreg. to move away and hide quickly.
124
dock
diver ["daI v#] 1. n. someone who dives into water, especially in a contest with other divers. 2. n. someone who swims underwater, as with
scuba diving.
divert [dI "v#t] 1. tv. to cause someone or something to change direction. 2. tv. to embezzle money; to intercept money that belongs to
someone else. 3. tv. to distract or gain the interest of someone or
some creature.
divide [dI "vaId] 1. tv. to split something into smaller portions. 2. iv.
to separate; to split up.
dividend ["dIv @ dEnd] 1. n. a number that is divided by another number. 2. n. a part of the profit of a company given to the shareholders
of the company. 3. n. a benefit; something that is gained from doing
something.
divine [dI "vaIn] 1. adj. of or about God; holy; sacred. (Adv: divinely.)
2. adj. fabulous; excellent; wonderful. (Fig. on Q. Adv: divinely.)
division [dI "vI [email protected]] 1. n. the process of dividing one number by
another number. (No pl.) 2. n. a split; a dividing line. 3. n. a major
part of a very large company. 4. n. dividing into portions. (Pl only
for types and instances.)
divisor [dI "vaI z#] n. a number that is divided into another number.
divorce [dI "vors] 1. n. the legal ending of a marriage. (Pl only for
types and instances.) 2. tv. to end one’s marriage to someone. 3. tv.
to grant Q to a husband and wife.
dizzy ["dIz i] 1. adj. feeling like everything is spinning around; not
steady. (Adv: dizzily. Comp: dizzier; sup: dizziest.) 2. adj. confusing;
hectic. (Informal. Adv: dizzily. Comp: dizzier; sup: dizziest.)
do ["du] 1. tv. to perform an action; to finish an action; to end an
action. (Pt: did; pp: done. See also does.) 2. tv. to solve something; to
find an answer. 3. tv. to cover a distance; to go at a certain speed. 4. iv.
to be OK; to suit one’s needs. 5. iv. to get along; to function or exist.
(Used to ask if someone is feeling all right, to inquire of someone’s
health.) 6. aux. a question word in the pres. and pt. (In the future
tense, will is used.) 7. aux. a form used to make negative constructions. 8. aux. a form used to emphasize a verb. 9. aux. a particle used
to repeat a verb that has already been said or written.
dock ["dak] 1. n. a pier; a platform built for moving things and people on and off boats and ships. 2. n. a platform for loading and
unloading goods. 3. tv. to bring a ship or boat up to Q. 4. iv. [for a
boat or ship] to arrive at Q; [for a boat or ship] to tie up to Q.
125
doctor
doctor ["dak t#] 1. n. someone who has received the highest degree
from a university. (Abbreviated Dr.) 2. n. someone who is licensed
to practice medicine; a medical Q. (Abbreviated Dr. when used as a
title.)
document ["dak [email protected] [email protected]] 1. n. a piece of paper or an electronic file
with information (usually writing or printing) on it; a text. 2. tv. to
make and keep written records about something. 3. tv. to list the evidence that will support what one has written. 4. tv. to record something in detail over time.
dodge ["dadZ] 1. tv. to get out of the way of someone or something.
2. tv. to avoid something; to evade something. (Fig. on Q.)
doe ["do] n. a female of certain animals, such as the deer.
does ["d^z] aux. the third-person present sg of do.
doesn’t ["d^z @nt] cont. does not.
dog ["dOg] 1. n. a common pet found in many homes and sometimes
used in hunting. 2. tv. to follow someone closely; to pursue someone
eagerly.
doghouse ["dOg haUs] n., irreg. a small outdoor shelter for a dog to
sleep in. (Pl: [...haU [email protected]].)
doldrums ["dol [email protected]] 1. n. an area of light winds, at sea, north of the
equator. (Treated as pl.) 2. n. inactivity; gloominess; boredom.
(Treated as pl.)
doll ["dal] 1. n. a figure of a human or animal, often a baby, used as a
toy. 2. n. an attractive or cute male or female of any age. (Informal.)
dollar ["dal #] n. the main unit of money in the United States; 100
cents; $1. (The dollar is also the name of the main unit of money in
several other countries, but each is worth a value different from that
of the U.S. dollar.)
domain [do "men] 1. n. the area where someone or something is typically found. 2. n. the area under the control of a ruler.
dome ["dom] n. a rounded roof; the top of a building shaped like an
upside-down bowl.
domestic [[email protected] "mEs tIk] 1. adj. of or about the home; of, about, or
within the family. (Adv: domestically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. not imported;
not foreign. (Adv: domestically [...Ik li].) 3. adj. tame; not wild. (Adv:
domestically [...Ik li].)
126
double
dominate ["dam @ net] tv. to control someone or something; to be the
most important person or thing among certain other people or
things.
donate ["do net] tv. to give something to a charity or other organization.
done ["d^n] 1. pp of do. 2. adj. completed; finished. (Not compared.
Not prenominal.) 3. adj. [of food] having been cooked fully or
enough. (Can be compared.)
donkey ["dON ki] n. an animal that has four feet and hooves, is smaller
than a horse, and is used to carry people or things.
don’t ["dont] cont. do not.
donut Go to doughnut.
doom ["dum] 1. n. a horrible fate; a death that cannot be avoided. (No
pl.) 2. tv. to cause someone or something to fail; to cause something
to be ruined or destroyed. 3. tv. [for something] to condemn someone to an unpleasant future.
door ["dor] 1. n. a movable panel of wood, glass, or metal that fits into
an opening through which someone or something may pass. 2. n. the
opening into which Q fits. 3. n. the (figurative) route or pathway to
something, such as opportunity. (Fig. on W.)
doorstep ["dor stEp] n. a step just outside a door.
doorway ["dor we] n. the opening in a wall through which a person
can walk to enter or exit a room; the opening into which a door fits.
dorm ["dorm] n. a dormitory; a building in which students live on a
college campus.
dormitory ["dorm I tor i] 1. n. a building or room containing beds for
a number of people, especially on a college campus. (Abbreviated as
dorm.) 2. n. a room housing sleeping facilities for a number of people.
dose ["dos] 1. n. the amount of medicine that is to be taken at one
time. 2. tv. to give someone or something a specific amount of medicine.
dot ["dat] n. a small spot; a small, round mark.
double ["d^b @l] 1. adj. having twice the amount as something else.
(Adv: doubly.) 2. tv. to cause something to become twice the amount
that it previously was. 3. iv. to become twice the amount that something was previously.
127
doubt
doubt ["daUt] 1. n. lack of belief; a state of not being certain. (No pl.)
2. n. a feeling of disbelief about something; a feeling of not being certain about something. (Often pl.) 3. tv. not to believe or trust something; to be uncertain about something; to consider something
unlikely.
dough ["do] n. a soft mixture of flour, water, and possibly other ingredients. (Pl only for types and instances.)
doughnut and donut ["do [email protected]] n. a small, deep-fried cake shaped in
a ring.
dove 1. ["dov] a pt of dive. 2. ["d^v] n. a gray or white bird, a little
smaller than a pigeon. (Often thought of as a symbol of peace.)
down ["daUn] 1. adj. aimed toward a lower place or level; associated
with a place or area that is lower than where one is at the moment.
2. adj. sad; unhappy. 3. adj. finished; completed. (Not prenominal.)
4. adv. from a higher place to a lower place; in a direction from a
higher place to a lower place. 5. adv. from an earlier time to a later
time. 6. adv. [moving] toward the south; [moving] to a place that
corresponds to south on a map. 7. adv. onto paper; into writing.
8. adv. as an advance payment against the purchase price. 9. adv.
toward having less energy, strength, production, volume, or intensity. 10. adv. over [to someplace]; in a specific direction. (Informal.)
11. prep. on or along something to a lower place. 12. prep. to the end
of something; along the length of something. 13. tv. to make someone fall to the ground; to knock someone over. (Informal.) 14. tv. to
eat or swallow something very quickly and without much chewing.
15. n. soft feathers, used inside pillows, quilts, etc. (No pl.)
downpour ["daUn por] n. a very heavy rainfall.
downtown ["daUn "taUn] 1. adv. [moving] toward the center of a
town or city; [moving] into the center of a town or city. 2. adv. at the
center of a town or city. 3. adj. in the center of a town or city; in the
business district of a town or city. 4. n. the center of a town or city;
the business district of a town or city. (No pl.)
downward ["daUn w#d] adj. moving or directed toward a lower position; moving toward a lower level. (Adv: downwardly.)
downward(s) adv. toward a lower position; toward a lower level.
doze ["doz] 1. n. a nap; a small amount of sleep. 2. iv. to take a nap;
to sleep for a short period of time.
dozen ["d^z @n] 1. n. a set of twelve things. 2. adj. twelve; a set or total
of twelve.
128
drawing
drab ["drAb] adj. dull; gray; boring; not exciting. (Adv: drably. Comp:
drabber; sup: drabbest.)
draft ["drAft] 1. n. a current of air—usually cold—inside an enclosed
space. 2. n. a roughly drawn plan; an early version of a document
before the final copy is written. 3. tv. to force someone to serve in the
military. 4. tv. to choose someone to do a job or a task. (Fig. on E.)
drag ["drAg] 1. tv. to pull someone or something along on the ground.
2. tv. to force someone or something to come along. 3. iv. [for someone or something] to touch the ground while being moved.
drain ["dren] 1. n. a pipe or ditch that takes liquids away from an area.
2. n. something that takes away something else a little bit at a time;
something that slowly takes something else away. 3. tv. to draw liquid away from a place. 4. tv. to empty a container of a liquid. 5. tv.
to take something away slowly, a bit at a time. (Fig. on R.) 6. tv. to
drink all the contents of a glass or container. 7. tv. to empty something by drinking all the liquid from it. (Informal.) 8. tv. to remove
someone’s energy, endurance, or other quality. 9. iv. [for something]
to lose liquid slowly.
drainage ["dren IdZ] 1. n. removing liquid from something or someplace. (No pl.) 2. n. the ability of an area to drain properly. (No pl.)
drama ["dram @] 1. n. the study of plays and the theater. (No pl.) 2. n.
a serious play or movie; a play or movie that is not a comedy. 3. n.
emotional, exciting, or thrilling events. (No pl. Treated as sg.)
drank ["drANk] pt of drink.
drape ["drep] 1. n. a heavy curtain. (Often pl.) 2. n. the particular way
that fabric hangs. (No pl.) 3. tv. to cover someone or something with
fabric that hangs down in a decorative way.
drapery ["drep ri] n. pleated fabric panels that hang in front of windows. (Sometimes pl with the same meaning.)
draw ["drO] 1. n. an attraction; a reason people go to a particular place.
2. iv., irreg. to make pictures using pen, pencil, crayon, etc. (Pt: drew;
pp: drawn.) 3. tv., irreg. to make a picture of something with a pen,
pencil, crayon, marker, etc. 4. tv., irreg. to attract someone or something. 5. tv., irreg. to take a breath; to take in air. 6. a n. a tie; a
game where both teams have the same score.
drawer ["dror] n. a storage box or compartment that slides in and out
of a desk, dresser, etc.
drawing ["drO IN] 1. n. making pictures with a pen, pencil, crayon, etc.
(No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. a picture that is drawn; a sketch.
129
drawn
drawn ["drOn] pp of draw.
dread ["drEd] 1. n. strong fear that something [bad] might happen or
fear of something that is going to happen. (No pl.) 2. tv. to approach
something in the future with fear, wishing that it would not happen.
dreadful ["drEd fUl] adj. horrible; terrible. (Adv: dreadfully.)
dream ["drim] 1. iv., irreg. to have thoughts and images while one
sleeps. (Pt/pp: dreamed or dreamt.) 2. tv., irreg. to see something in
one’s dreams as in E. (The object can be a clause with that U.) 3. n.
the thoughts and images one has while sleeping. 4. n. a desire; a wish.
dreamt ["drEmt] a pt/pp of dream.
drench ["drEntS] tv. to cover someone or something with liquid—water
unless some other liquid is mentioned.
dress ["drEs] 1. n. an item of women’s clothing covering an area from
the shoulders to somewhere along the legs. 2. n. clothing in general.
(No pl.) 3. adj. [of clothing, shoes, etc.] formal. (Prenominal only.)
4. tv. to put clothes on someone. 5. tv. to bandage a wound or cut.
6. tv. to prepare an animal’s body for cooking or for market. 7. iv. to
put clothes on oneself as in R.
dresser ["drEs #] n. a piece of furniture with several drawers that
clothes are kept in; a chest of drawers.
dressing-down a scolding.
drew ["dru] pt of draw.
drift ["drIft] 1. n. a mass of snow or sand that is moved by the wind.
2. n. a gradual movement toward someone or something, especially
in air or water. (No pl.) 3. iv. to move toward something or away from
something gradually; to move gradually in some direction. 4. iv. [for
someone] to move from place to place without a purpose or established plan.
drill ["drIl] 1. n. a machine that is used to make a hole in something.
2. n. a classroom practice exercise. 3. n. an event where people practice what they would do in a real emergency. 4. tv. to make a hole in
something with Q. 5. tv. to train people by having them practice.
6. iv. to make holes with Q.
drink ["drINk] 1. tv., irreg. to swallow a liquid. (Pt: drank; pp: drunk.)
2. iv., irreg. to use or consume [alcohol]. 3. n. a liquid meant to be
swallowed. 4. n. a container filled with a liquid that is meant to be
swallowed. 5. n. a kind of E that contains alcohol.
130
druggist
drip ["drIp] 1. n. the action of liquid falling one drop at a time. 2. n.
the sound of a liquid falling one drop at a time. 3. tv. to cause something to fall one drop at a time. 4. iv. to fall one drop at a time; to
leak; to release one drop at a time.
drive ["draIv] 1. tv., irreg. to cause a car or other vehicle to move, and
to direct its movement. (Pt: drove; pp: driven.) 2. tv., irreg. to take
someone in a vehicle to someplace. 3. tv., irreg. to ram or force something into or through something else. 4. iv., irreg. to ride in and steer
or direct [a vehicle]. 5. n. a trip in a car or other vehicle; the act of
traveling as in R. 6. n. the energy and desire to do something. (No
pl.) 7. n. a place to guide or park a car between a road and a house or
garage. 8. n. an electronic device inside a computer, used for storing
and reading computer files and programs. (Short for disk drive.)
driven ["drIv @n] pp of drive.
driver ["draI v#] n. someone who drives a car or other vehicle.
driveway ["draIv we] n. a short length of road from the street to a
house or garage.
droop ["drup] iv. to sag; to wilt; to hang down.
drop ["drap] 1. n. a small ball of liquid; a small amount of liquid. 2. n.
a sudden fall; a sudden downward movement. 3. n. the length of a
fall; the distance between something and the ground. 4. tv. to let
someone or something fall, either by accident or on purpose. 5. tv.
to leave something out; to omit something. 6. tv. to stop something;
to end something; to stop talking about something. 7. iv. to fall; to
go lower; to sink. 8. out of [for someone] to resign from or cease
being a member of something; [for someone] to leave school.
drought ["draUt] n. a long period of time without any rain; a long dry
period; a lack of rain.
drove ["drov] pt of drive.
drown ["draUn] 1. tv. to kill someone or something by suffocating the
person or thing underwater. 2. tv. to flood an area with a liquid. 3. iv.
to die underwater as in Q.
drowsy ["draU zi] adj. tired; sleepy. (Adv: drowsily. Comp: drowsier;
sup: drowsiest.)
drug ["dr^g] 1. n. a medicine. 2. n. a substance used illegally for the
pleasure it creates. 3. tv. to give someone Q.
druggist ["dr^g Ist] n. someone who is licensed to package and sell
medicine.
131
drugstore
drugstore ["dr^g stor] n. a place where medicine is sold, along with
makeup, toothpaste, and many other items.
drum ["dr^m] 1. n. a musical instrument, usually shaped like a cylinder, with a flexible cover stretched over one or both ends. 2. n. a container shaped like Q.
drummer ["dr^m #] n. someone who plays a drum or a number of
them.
drumstick ["dr^m stIk] 1. n. the stick or mallet used to play a drum.
2. n. the leg of a chicken or a turkey when served as food. (Fig. on
Q.)
drunk ["dr^Nk] 1. pp of drink. 2. n. a person who has taken too much
alcohol. 3. adj. concerning a person who has taken too much alcohol. (Also drunken. Comp: drunker; sup: drunkest.)
drunken ["dr^Nk @n] drunk E.
dry ["draI] 1. adj. not wet; not moist; without water. (Adv: dryly.
Comp: drier; sup: driest.) 2. adj. not allowing alcohol to be sold; without alcohol. 3. adj. boring; not interesting. (Adv: dryly. Comp: drier;
sup: driest.) 4. tv. to cause something to be Q; to remove all the moisture from something. 5. iv. to become Q; to completely lose moisture. 6. out [for someone or something wet] to become dry.
7. out to recover from too much alcohol and the effects of drunkenness.
dryer ["draI #] n. a machine that dries clothes.
dual ["du @l] adj. having two parts; having two purposes. (Adv: dually.)
duck ["d^k] 1. n. a kind of fowl that lives near water, has a bill, and
has webbed feet for swimming. 2. n. the meat of Q. (No pl.) 3. n. a
sturdy kind of cotton cloth. (Pl only for types and instances.) 4. iv.
to stoop down so that one doesn’t get hit by something; to dip one’s
head so one doesn’t bump it into something. 5. iv. to avoid being seen
by moving quickly somewhere. 6. tv. to dip one’s head down so that
it is not hit against something.
due ["du] 1. adj. owing; having to be paid. (Not prenominal.) 2. adv.
directly; in the exact direction; straight.
duel ["du @l] 1. n. a formal battle between two men, once fought with
guns or swords, to settle a quarrel of honor. 2. tv. [for two men] to
fight each other in a formalistic battle to avenge an insult to one of
them. 3. iv. [for two men] to fight a battle of honor according to a
formal code.
132
dust
dues n. a sum of money owed by each member of an organization.
(Treated as pl. Rarely countable.)
duet [du "Et] n. music to be performed by two people.
dug ["d^g] pt/pp of dig.
dull ["d^l] 1. adj. not sharp; blunt. (Adv: dully. Comp: duller; sup:
dullest.) 2. adj. not exciting; boring. (Adv: dully. Comp: duller; sup:
dullest.) 3. adj. not shiny. (Adv: dully. Comp: duller; sup: dullest.)
4. adj. not smart; somewhat stupid. (Adv: dully. Comp: duller; sup:
dullest.) 5. tv. to make something less sharp. 6. tv. to lessen physical
or emotional pain.
dumb ["d^m] 1. adj. stupid; foolish; not smart. (Adv: dumbly. Comp:
dumber; sup: dumbest.) 2. adj. [of animals] not able to speak. (Can
be offensive when applied to humans. Adv: dumbly. Comp: dumber;
sup: dumbest.)
dummy ["d^m i] 1. n. something that takes the place of the real thing;
a substitute. 2. n. a mannequin; a store display model having a human
form. 3. n. a large doll with a movable mouth used by a ventriloquist
in performances. 4. n. someone who acts stupid. (Derogatory.)
dump ["d^mp] 1. n. a place where trash is taken. 2. tv. to unload something into a pile; to empty something into a pile.
dunce ["d^ns] n. a stupid-acting person; someone who learns things
slowly.
dung ["d^N] n. feces, especially from animals. (No pl.)
dunk ["d^Nk] tv. to push someone or something underwater for a few
moments.
duration [d# "e [email protected]] n. the amount of time that something lasts. (No
pl form.)
during ["d# IN] 1. prep. throughout an event that lasts a period of time;
all through a period of time. 2. prep. at some point in a period of
time; at some time within a period of time.
dusk ["d^sk] n. the period of the day after the sun sets but before it is
completely dark; twilight.
dust ["d^st] 1. n. a fine powder of dried earth. (No pl.) 2. n. a fine
powder, especially particles that settle from the air and coat indoor
surfaces. (No pl.) 3. tv. to clean a surface or a place by removing W.
4. tv. to cover something with Q or W. 5. tv. to spray crops with an
insect killer or a weed killer. (Referred originally to powdered chem133
dusty
icals.) 6. iv. to remove W from something or from a place as a part
of cleaning.
dusty ["d^s ti] 1. adj. covered with dust; full of dust. (Adv: dustily.
Comp: dustier; sup: dustiest.) 2. adj. like dust; [of a color] somewhat
gray, as if mixed with dust. (Comp: dustier; sup: dustiest.)
duty ["du ti] 1. n. a task; an obligation; a responsibility. 2. n. a tax
placed on products from another country.
dwarf ["dworf] 1. n., irreg. someone or something that is smaller than
normal or typical. (Pl: dwarves or dwarfs.) 2. adj. smaller than
expected; smaller than normally found. (Prenominal only.) 3. tv. [for
someone or something large] to make someone or something appear
even smaller in a comparison.
dwarves ["dworvz] a pl of dwarf.
dwell ["dwEl] 1. iv., irreg. to live someplace; to live in a place. (Pt/pp:
dwelled or dwelt.) 2. on to linger on something; to keep thinking
about an idea.
dwelling ["dwEl IN] n. a residence; a place where someone lives.
dwelt ["dwElt] a pt/pp of dwell.
dwindle ["dwInd l] iv. to decrease piece by piece; to get smaller gradually.
dye ["daI] 1. n. a liquid that is used to color fabric or hair. 2. tv. to color
something by placing it in Q; to color something with Q. (Pres.
part.: dyeing.)
dying ["daI IN] 1. the pres. part. of die. 2. adj. in the process of becoming dead.
dynamite ["daI [email protected] maIt] 1. n. a chemical that is meant to explode, usually ammonium nitrate. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. someone or something that causes a great shock or surprise; someone or
something exciting that attracts a lot of attention or interest. (Fig. on
Q. Informal.) 3. tv. to destroy something by an explosion with Q.
134
E
each ["itS] 1. adj. every [one]. 2. pron. every one [of those mentioned
before]; every individual person or thing [of those mentioned
before]. 3. adv. for every one.
eager ["i g#] adj. acting very willing and ready to do something. (Adv:
eagerly.)
eagle ["i [email protected]] n. a strong bird of prey of the hawk family, having excellent vision.
ear ["Ir] 1. n. the organ of hearing, one of which is located on either
side of the head. 2. n. the external, visible part of the organ of hearing. 3. n. a corncob and the corn growing on it.
earache ["Ir ek] n. a pain in the inner part of the ear.
eardrum ["Ir [email protected]] n. a very thin bit of tissue inside the ear that
vibrates when struck by sound waves.
early ["# li] 1. adj. happening toward the first part of something; happening toward the beginning of something. (Comp: earlier; sup: earliest.) 2. adj. arriving before the expected time. (Comp: earlier; sup:
earliest.) 3. adj. ancient; happening long ago in time. (Comp: earlier;
sup: earliest.) 4. adv. during or toward the first part of something.
(Comp: earlier; sup: earliest.) 5. adv. before the expected time.
(Comp: earlier; sup: earliest.)
earn ["#n] 1. tv. to gain a sum of money or something else of value,
especially by working. 2. tv. to merit something; to deserve something. (Fig. on Q.)
earnest ["# [email protected]] adj. very serious; wishing to do [something] very
well. (Adv: earnestly.)
earring ["Ir rIN] n. a piece of jewelry worn on the ear.
earth ["#T] 1. n. the planet we live on; the third planet from the sun.
(Often capitalized. No pl.) 2. n. soil; land. (No pl.) 3. n. the surface
of Q. (No pl.)
earthly ["#T li] adj. of or on the earth; of a part of life on earth rather
than in heaven.
earthquake and quake ["#T kwek, "kwek] n. a violent shaking of the
ground by natural forces.
Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc.
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135
earthworm
earthworm ["#T w#m] n. a worm that lives in the soil.
ease ["iz] 1. tv. to make something less hard to do; to make something
easier. 2. tv. to make something become less strong or have less pain.
3. tv. to move something [somewhere] gently and carefully. 4. iv. to
become less hard or less difficult. 5. n. freedom from problems or
bother; peaceful rest. (No pl.)
easel ["iz @l] n. a stand that holds an artist’s canvas.
east ["ist] 1. n. the direction to the right of someone or something facing north; the direction where the sun appears to rise. (No pl.) 2. n.
the eastern region of a country. (Capitalized when referring to a specific region of the United States.) 3. adj. in Q; from Q; toward Q;
of or about Q. (Prenominal only.) 4. adv. at, facing, or toward Q.
easy ["i zi] 1. adj. simple; not hard; not difficult. (Adv: easily. Comp:
easier; sup: easiest.) 2. adv. without stress; without worry; relaxed.
Comp: easier; sup: easiest.)
eat ["it] 1. tv., irreg. to put food in one’s mouth, chew, and swallow it.
(Pt: ate; pp: eaten.) 2. tv., irreg. to create a hole by chewing or wearing something away. 3. iv., irreg. to take food into the body. 4. up
to eat everything; to eat eagerly.
eaten ["it n] pp of eat.
echo ["Ek o] 1. n. a sound that is heard twice because the sound waves
have bounced off a surface and returned. (Pl ends in -es.) 2. iv. [for
a sound] to reflect back. 3. tv. to reflect sound; to repeat a sound.
4. tv. to repeat something that someone has said.
eclipse [I "klIps] 1. n. the darkening of a celestial body when another
body passes between it and the star that gives it light. 2. tv. to block
the light from the sun or the moon. 3. tv. to surpass someone; to
make someone become less important than oneself. (Fig. on W.)
economic [Ek @ "nam Ik] 1. adj. of or about economics. (Adv: economically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. saving money; using money wisely. (Also
economical. Adv: economically [...Ik li].)
economics 1. n. financial matters or issues. (Usually treated as sg.)
2. n. the study of the production and use of goods and services in a
society. (Treated as sg.)
edge ["EdZ] 1. n. the rim of something; the outer border of something.
2. n. the cutting part of a cutting tool or instrument. 3. n. an advantage. (No pl.) 4. tv. to provide something with a border.
136
ego
edgewise ["EdZ waIz] adv. leading with an edge; with the edge going
first.
edible ["Ed @ [email protected]] adj. able to be eaten. (Adv: edibly.)
edit ["Ed It] tv. to prepare text, video, or audio for publication or production.
edition [I "dI [email protected]] n. the copies of one book made in one printing or
series of printings until the text is changed or revised.
editor ["Ed I t#] 1. n. someone who prepares text for publication;
someone who prepares film, video, or audio for production. 2. n.
someone who works for a newspaper, a magazine, or a book publisher, arranging for new material, editing, and production.
educate ["EdZ @ ket] tv. to teach someone something; to instruct someone how to do something.
education [EdZ @ "ke [email protected]] 1. n. the teaching of knowledge and skills;
a system for teaching knowledge and skills. (No pl.) 2. n. the learning or knowledge that is obtained by studying or being taught. (No
pl.)
eel ["il] 1. n. a long, snakelike fish not having fins. 2. n. the edible flesh
of Q. (No pl.)
effect [I "fEkt] 1. n. a result; something that happens because of something else. (Compare this with affect.) 2. tv. to cause a result; to produce a result.
effective [I "fEk tIv] adj. good at producing or causing results. (Adv:
effectively.)
efficient [I "fI [email protected]] adj. organized; using time, energy, and money
without waste. (Adv: efficiently.)
effigy ["Ef @ dZi] n. a crude representation of a disliked person, usually
made for ridicule or mocking.
effort ["Ef #t] n. the use of physical or mental energy to do hard work.
egg ["Eg] 1. n. the female reproductive cell. 2. n. a round object, containing Q, covered with a shell, produced by a female bird or reptile
and often used for food. 3. n. the edible part of W. 4. n. some amount
of E. (No pl. Treated as sg.)
eggshell ["Eg SEl] n. the hard, protective outside layer of a bird’s egg.
ego ["i go] 1. n. one’s sense of oneself and one’s value. (Pl ends in -s.)
2. n. an overly large sense of self-esteem; a view of oneself that makes
one seem far more important than one really is. (Pl ends in -s.)
137
eight
eight ["et] 8. (See four for more information.)
eighteen ["et tin] 18. (See four for more information.)
eighteenth [et "tinT] 18th. (See fourth for more information.)
eighth ["etT] 8th. (See fourth for more information.)
eightieth ["Et i @T] 80th. (See fourth for more information.)
eighty ["et i] 80. (See forty for further information.)
either ["i D#] 1. adj. one or the other [choosing between two people
or things]; no matter which [of two]. 2. adj. both; each of two; one
and the other. 3. pron. one person or thing, or the other person or
thing; one person or thing from a choice of two people or things.
(Treated as sg.) 4. adv. as well; in addition; also. (Only in negative
constructions. Use too in the affirmative.)
either....or conj. one or the other from a choice of two things.
elaborate 1. [I "lAb (@) rIt] adj. having many details; complex. (Adv:
elaborately.) 2. [I "lAb @ ret] iv. to explain [something], using many
details.
elastic [@ "lAs tIk] 1. adj. [of something that is] able to return to its
original shape after being stretched. (Adv: elastically [...Ik li].) 2. n.
[in clothing] a band of fabric and rubber that can stretch.
elbow ["El bo] 1. n. the joint where the arm bends in the middle. 2. n.
a pipe that is bent, curved, or shaped like the angle of Q.
elder ["Eld #] 1. n. someone who is considered to be among the older
members of a group or society. 2. n. the leader of certain churches,
ethnic groups, or communities. 3. adj. older. (Used especially with
kinship terms.)
elect [I "lEkt] tv. [for a group of voters] to choose someone by voting.
election [I "lEk [email protected]] n. the process of voting to choose between two or
more options.
electric [I "lEk trIk] 1. adj. carrying electricity; of or about electricity.
(Also electrical. Adv: electrically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. producing electricity. (Adv: electrically [...Ik li].) 3. adj. powered by electricity. (Adv:
electrically [...Ik li].) 4. adj. exciting; full of excitement; thrilling.
(Adv: electrically [...Ik li].)
electrical [I "lEk trI [email protected]] adj. electric; producing or carrying electricity; of or about electricity. (Adv: electrically [...Ik li].)
138
elsewhere
electricity [I lEk "trIs @ ti] n. a source of power that comes from batteries, electric companies, and natural occurrences like friction and
lightning. (No pl.)
electromagnetic [E lEk tro mAg "nEt Ik] adj. concerning electric and
magnetic waves, especially as used in broadcasting. (Adv: electromagnetically [...Ik li].)
electron [I "lEk tran] n. a negatively charged particle, smaller than an
atom.
electronic [I lEk "tran Ik] adj. of or about modern electrical circuits
as found in radios and television sets. (Adv: electronically [...Ik li].)
electronics n. the study and design of the electrical circuits used in
computers, radios, televisions, etc. (Treated as sg.)
elegance ["El @ [email protected]] n. fine style, grace, and beauty. (No pl.)
elegant ["El @ [email protected]] adj. beautiful; having or showing good taste. (Adv:
elegantly.)
element ["El @ [email protected]] 1. n. one of several kinds of basic matter that
cannot be broken down further into other kinds of basic matter. 2. n.
a piece of a larger theme.
elementary [El @ "mEn tri] adj. basic; introductory.
elephant ["El @ [email protected]] n. a large land mammal of Africa and Asia, with
tough gray skin, large ears, and a long trunk.
elevator ["El @ ve t#] n. a moving cage or chamber that carries people
and things from floor to floor in a building with more than one story.
eleven [I "lEv @n] 11. (See four for more information.)
eleventh [I "lEv @ntT] 11th. (See fourth for more information.)
elf ["Elf] n., irreg. a small humanlike creature—full of mischief—of
fairy tales and myths. (Pl: elves.)
elk ["Elk] 1. n., irreg. [in North America] a large deer, the males of
which have large, spreading horns. (Pl: elk or elks.) 2. n., irreg. [in
Europe] a moose.
elm ["Elm] 1. n. a large tree that loses its leaves each fall and is planted
to make shade. 2. n. wood from Q. (Pl only for types and instances.)
3. adj. made of W.
else ["Els] 1. adj. otherwise; apart from someone or something;
instead. 2. adj. in addition to someone or something; as well.
elsewhere ["Els WEr] adv. in some other place.
139
elude
elude [I "lud] 1. tv. to evade or avoid capture, often by being clever.
2. tv. [for a concept] to be hard to remember or understand.
elusive [I "lu sIv] adj. [of someone or something that is] hard to find
or hard to catch. (Adv: elusively.)
elves ["Elvz] pl of elf.
embarrass [Em "bEr @s] tv. to make someone feel ashamed or uncomfortable by making something visible or known in public.
embrace [Em "bres] 1. tv. to hug someone closely; to take someone
into one’s arms. 2. tv. to accept something, such as a belief, tenet, or
policy. 3. iv. for two people to hug one another.
emerge [I "m#dZ] 1. iv. to come out from someplace; to come into
view from someplace. 2. iv. to become apparent.
emergency [I "m# [email protected] si] 1. n. a time when urgent action is needed;
a dangerous situation that must be taken care of at once. 2. the adj.
use of Q. 3. room n. the place in a hospital where injuries and
sudden illnesses are cared for.
emotion [I "mo [email protected]] 1. n. feeling—other than with the physical
senses—or a show of feeling. (No pl.) 2. n. a feeling, such as sadness,
joy, anxiety, etc.
emperor ["Emp # r#] n. someone, especially a male, who rules an
empire.
emphases ["Em [email protected] siz] pl of emphasis.
emphasis ["Em [email protected] sIs] 1. n. importance that is placed on or given to
something. (No pl.) 2. n., irreg. something that has received or should
receive Q. (Pl: emphases.) 3. n. increased loudness or (voice) stress
given to particular syllables, words, or phrases. (No pl.)
emphasize ["Em [email protected] saIz] 1. tv. to place special importance on something. 2. tv. to stress something, especially a syllable, word, or phrase.
empire ["Em paIr] n. a group of countries ruled by an emperor or
empress.
employ [Em "ploI] 1. tv. to hire someone to do work for pay. 2. tv. to
use something for a particular purpose.
employable [Em "ploI @ [email protected]] adj. suitable for employment. (Adv:
employably.)
employee [Em "ploI i] n. someone who works for a company or a person for pay.
employer [Em "ploI #] n. a person or company that employs people.
140
end
employment [Em "ploI [email protected]] 1. n. the condition of holding a job. (No
pl.) 2. n. the work that one does; one’s job. (No pl.)
empress ["Em [email protected]] n. a woman who rules an empire.
empty ["Emp ti] 1. adj. having nothing or no one within; vacant.
(Comp: emptier; sup: emptiest.) 2. adj. without meaning; without
purpose; senseless. (Fig. on Q. Adv: emptily. Comp: emptier; sup:
emptiest.) 3. tv. to cause something to be Q by removing all the contents. 4. iv. [for something] to become Q.
enable [En "e [email protected]] tv. to give someone or something the capability of
doing something.
enact [En "Akt] 1. tv. to make a bill into a law; to pass a law. 2. tv. to
perform a part in a play or a movie; to act something out.
enamel [I "nAm @l] 1. n. a paint that dries to make a hard protective
glaze or coat. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. a hard surface coating,
usually made of porcelain. (No pl form in this sense.) 3. n. the hard
outer layer of teeth. (No pl form in this sense.) 4. tv. to cover something with Q.
enclose [En "kloz] 1. tv. to put something in an envelope, box, etc.
2. tv. to close something in on all sides; to put walls up around something.
enclosed [En "klozd] 1. adj. included in an envelope or a package.
2. adj. shut in on all sides; surrounded; having walls around on all
sides.
encore ["aN kor] 1. n. the performance of an additional piece of music,
or a repeat of a piece of music, after the end of a concert, at the
demand of the audience. 2. adj. repeated.
encounter [En "kaUn t#] 1. tv. to meet someone or something by
chance. 2. n. a meeting, especially by chance.
encourage [En "k# IdZ] tv. to give someone the courage or confidence
to do something.
encouragement [En "k# IdZ [email protected]] n. words or actions that encourage someone. (No pl.)
encyclopedia [En saI [email protected] "pid i @] n. a collection of books that provides detailed information on many subjects.
end ["End] 1. n. the final stopping point of a continuing process. (No
pl.) 2. n. the last part of something. 3. n. death. (A euphemism.) 4. n.
a purpose; an intended outcome; a result. 5. iv. to stop; to finish; to
141
endeavor
exist no longer. 6. tv. to stop something; to finish something. 7. up
to come to an end.
endeavor [En "dEv #] 1. n. an attempt to do something; a struggle to
do something. 2. to do to try to do something; to try very hard
to do something.
endless ["End [email protected]] adj. without end; continuous; without stopping.
(Adv: endlessly.)
endurance [En "dur @ns] n. the ability to keep going; the ability to
endure. (No pl.)
endure [En "dur] 1. tv. to withstand something; to put up with something; to tolerate something. 2. iv. to last; to keep going.
enemy ["En @ mi] 1. n. an opponent of someone or something; someone who fights against someone or something. 2. n. a country that
another country fights against during a war; an army that another
army fights against during a war.
energy ["En # dZi] n. the power needed to do something; the force that
powers people or machines. (No pl.)
engage [En "gedZ] 1. tv. to take up someone’s time; to keep someone
busy. 2. tv. to obtain the services of someone. 3. tv. to rent something
or a place. 4. iv. [for mechanical parts] to move into operating position with one another.
engine ["En [email protected]] 1. n. a machine that uses power from gas, electricity, water pressure, steam, etc., to create power or motion. 2. n. a
powered train car that pulls or pushes the other train cars; a locomotive.
engineer [En [email protected] "nIr] 1. n. someone who drives a locomotive. 2. n.
someone who has training in a branch of engineering. 3. tv. [for W]
to do the designing and planning of something, such as a building,
bridge, computer, automobile, etc.
England ["IN [email protected]] n. the island country northwest of the rest of
Europe.
English ["IN glIS] 1. the n. the citizens of England, considered as a
group. (No pl form in this sense. Treated as pl.) 2. n. the primary language spoken by the people of the United States of America, England
and the rest of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, as well as one of the official languages of South Africa and India.
(No pl form in this sense.) 3. adj. of or about the English people and
their culture.
142
entry
enjoy [En "dZoI] tv. to have something that is good; to feel fortunate to
have something; to take pleasure in something.
enjoyment [En "dZoI [email protected]] n. joy; pleasure; happiness. (Pl only for
types and instances.)
enlarge [En "lardZ] 1. tv. to make something larger; to make something bigger. 2. iv. to become larger; to become bigger.
enormous [I "nor [email protected]] adj. huge; large; very big. (Adv: enormously.)
enough [I "n^f] 1. adj. as much as is needed; as much as is necessary;
adequate. 2. pron. a necessary amount; an adequate amount. 3. adv.
to an adequate degree. (Follows an adjective or a verb.)
enroll and enrol [En "rol] tv. to sign someone up for a club, school, or
other group.
ensure [En "SUr] tv. to make sure that something happens; to make
something certain to happen. (Compare this with insure.)
enter ["En t#] 1. tv. to go into a place; to come into a place. 2. tv. to
join something; to begin a career or course of study. 3. tv. to write
down something in a journal, log, or record book. 4. tv. to type data
or other information into a computer. 5. n. the key labeled enter on
a computer keyboard.
entertain [En t# "ten] 1. tv. to amuse someone; to provide an audience with amusement. 2. tv. to provide guests or associates with food,
amusement, and hospitality. 3. tv. to consider something; to think
about something.
entertainment [En t# "ten [email protected]] n. amusement; an entertaining performance. (A pl form is rare.)
enthusiasm [En "Tuz I Az @m] n. excited interest; zeal. (No pl form in
this sense.)
enthusiastic [En Tuz I "As tIk] adj. full of enthusiasm; excited; interested. (Adv: enthusiastically [...Ik li].)
entire [En "taI#] adj. whole; including everyone or everything. (Adv:
entirely.)
entirety [En "taIr @ ti] n. a state of completeness.
entrance 1. ["En [email protected]] n. the right to go into a place; the right to enter
a place. (No pl.) 2. ["En [email protected]] n. an instance of entering. 3. ["En
[email protected]] n. the way into a room or place; the door to a room or other
place. 4. [En "trAns] tv. to charm someone.
entry ["En tri] 1. n. going into a place or a room. 2. n. an entrance; the
way into a room or a place. 3. n. a piece of information or data that
143
envelop
is put into a computer, journal, database, dictionary, encyclopedia,
or record book, or is put on a list.
envelop [En "vEl @p] tv. to wrap around someone or something; to
completely cover someone or something.
envelope ["En [email protected] lop] n. a paper cover that letters and documents are
placed in for mailing.
envious ["En vi @s] adj. feeling envy; wanting something that someone
else has. (Adv: enviously.)
environment [En "vaI #n [email protected]] n. the state and nature of the immediate area.
envy ["En vi] 1. n. a negative, greedy feeling toward someone who has
someone or something that one wants. (No pl.) 2. tv. to have a negative feeling toward someone who has someone or something that
one wants.
epidemic [Ep @ "dEm Ik] 1. n. a disease that spreads very rapidly from
person to person. 2. the adj. use of Q. (Adv: epidemically [...Ik li].)
3. adj. spreading rapidly, as Q. (Fig. on W. Adv: epidemically [...Ik
li].)
equal ["i [email protected]] 1. adj. the same as someone or something; in the same
amount or degree. (Adv: equally.) 2. tv. to be the same as someone or
something else; to have the same amount or degree of something as
someone or something else. 3. n. a person who is on the same level
as someone else—in social standing, ability, rank, etc.
equality [I "kwal @ ti] n. the condition of having the same amount or
degree of something as someone or something else. (No pl.)
equalize ["i [email protected] laIz] tv. to cause something to equal something else.
equation [I "kwe [email protected]] n. a statement showing that two amounts are
equal.
equator [I "kwet #] n. the imaginary line around the middle of the
earth (or any planet) halfway between the north and south poles.
equip with [I "kwIp wIT] 1. to provide someone with the necessary
supplies. 2. to provide something with accessories or attachments.
equipment [I "kwIp [email protected]] n. things that are furnished or supplied,
especially the tools and supplies needed to do a job. (No pl. Number
is expressed with piece(s) of equipment.)
equivalent [I "kwIv @ [email protected]] adj. same; equal in level or degree. (Adv:
equivalently.)
144
essay
erase [I "res] 1. tv. to remove something written or drawn in pencil,
ink, or chalk by rubbing it with an eraser. 2. tv. to wipe something
clean by removing the writing—especially chalk or pencil writing—
on it. 3. tv. to remove something completely. (Fig. on Q.)
eraser [I "res #] n. a small rubber object that erases pencil markings;
a rectangular block of felt that rubs out chalk markings.
erect [I "rEkt] 1. adj. standing straight up in a vertical position. (Adv:
erectly.) 2. adj. upright; straight up. 3. tv. to build something. 4. tv.
to cause something to stand in a vertical position.
erode [I "rod] 1. tv. to wear something away gradually; to rub something away gradually. 2. iv. to become worn away; to become rubbed
away.
erosion [I "ro [email protected]] 1. n. the gradual destruction of rock or land by the
action of wind and water. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. the breaking down or diminishing of something gradually. (No pl form in this
sense. Fig. on Q.)
err [Er, #] iv. to make a mistake; to be wrong.
errand ["Er @nd] n. a short trip to do something useful or helpful.
error ["Er #] 1. n. a mistake; something that is wrong. 2. n. a bad play
by someone on a baseball team.
erupt [I "r^pt] 1. iv. [for a volcano] to explode. 2. iv. [for anger, violence, arguments, etc.] to be released suddenly.
eruption [I "r^p [email protected]] 1. n. an explosion of a volcano; a flowing out of
material from a volcano. 2. n. a bursting forth of anger, violence,
fighting, etc.
escalator ["Es [email protected] le t#] n. a moving staircase that carries people to a
higher or lower floor of a building.
escape [E "skep] 1. n. fleeing a dangerous place, an enclosed place, or
a bad situation. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. iv. to become
free; to get away. 3. iv. to leak from a container. 4. iv. to elude being
caught; to avoid being caught. 5. tv. to (seem to) avoid being seen,
heard, remembered, etc.
escort 1. ["E skort] n. someone who accompanies someone else as a
companion. 2. [E "skort] tv. to accompany someone else; to guide
someone; to lead someone; to guard someone.
especially [E "spES @ li] adv. mainly; primarily; particularly.
essay ["Es e] n. a written work about a specific topic.
145
essence
essence ["Es @ns] 1. n. the most important part of something; the
important features that make up someone or something. 2. n. a perfume or similar substance.
essential [I "sEn [email protected]] 1. adj. necessary; needed. (Adv: essentially.)
2. adj. basic; constituting the nature or foundation of something.
(Adv: essentially.) 3. s n. the basic and necessary elements.
establish [E "stAb lIS] 1. tv. to start an organization; to found an organization. 2. tv. to start something, such as a policy or plan. 3. tv. to
place oneself or itself as something or in a specific role. (Takes a
reflexive object.) 4. tv. to prove something; to determine the truth of
something. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
establishment [E "stAb lIS [email protected]] 1. n. establishing something. (No
pl.) 2. n. a company or organization.
estate [E "stet] 1. n. everything that someone owns; the property of
someone who has just died. 2. n. a house and related buildings set on
a large piece of property.
esteem [E "stim] n. opinion or regard, favorable unless indicated otherwise. (No pl.)
estimate 1. ["Est @ [email protected]] n. a statement that shows about how much
someone will charge to do a certain amount of work; an approximate
calculation of an amount of money, intended to represent the
final cost fairly closely. 2. n. ["Est @ [email protected]] n. a guess or projection.
3. ["Est @ met] tv. to calculate how much something will cost; to
determine an approximate amount of money. (The object can be
a clause with that U.) 4. ["Est @ met] tv. to guess or project an
outcome.
estimation [est @ "me [email protected]] n. one’s opinion or judgment. (No pl.)
et cetera ["Et "sEt @ [email protected]] and other similar things; and so forth; and other
things like those just named. (Abbreviated as etc.)
etc. an abbreviation of et cetera.
eternal [I "t# [email protected]] adj. without ending; existing forever. (Adv: eternally.)
eternity [I "t# [email protected] ti] n. time without beginning or end. (No pl.)
ethic ["ET Ik] n. the body of morals governing a person or a group. (No
pl.)
ethics 1. n. standards of right and wrong within a society. (Treated as
pl, but not countable.) 2. n. the study of the standards of right and
wrong; the study of morals. (Treated as sg.)
146
everybody
ethnic ["ET nIk] adj. of or about a particular variety, group, or subgroup of people, such as divisions according to race, language, country, etc. (Adv: ethnically [...Ik li].)
euphemism ["ju [email protected] mIz @m] n. a word or phrase that replaces a less
polite or more harsh word or expression.
Europe ["j# @p] n. the countries located to the north of the Mediterranean Sea.
evade [I "ved] tv. to avoid doing something; to avoid the consequences
of something.
evaluate [I "vAl ju et] tv. to study and make a judgment about the
value of someone or something.
evaluation [I vAl ju "e [email protected]] 1. n. studying the worth, value, or status
of something. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a judgment or
statement about the status or quality of someone or something.
eve ["iv] n. the night or day before an important day.
even ["i [email protected]] 1. adj. smooth; not rough; level; on the same level; uniform. (Adv: evenly.) 2. adj. [of a number] able to be divided by 2 with
nothing left over. (Adv: evenly.) 3. adj. equal. (Adv: evenly.) 4. adv.
still [more]; yet [more]. (Used to make a comparison stronger.)
5. adv. more than expected; in a way that would not be expected.
6. tv. to smooth something out; to make something smooth; to make
something level.
evening ["iv nIN] 1. n. the last part of the day; the period of the day
after the afternoon and before the night. 2. the adj. use of Q.
evenings adv. every evening; happening every evening.
event [@ "vEnt] n. something that happens; an occurrence.
eventual [@ "vEn tSu @l] adj. at some time in the future. (Adv: eventually.)
eventually [@ "vEn tSu @ li] adv. ultimately; at some later time.
ever ["Ev #] 1. adv. at any time. (Used especially in negative sentences,
questions, and sentences with if, and after comparatives with than,
after superlatives, or after as.) 2. adv. always; forever.
every ["Ev ri] 1. adj. all; each. (For two people or things, use both.)
2. adj. per; once during each unit. 3. adj. all possible.
everybody ["Ev ri bad i] pron. every person; everyone.
147
everyday
everyday ["Ev ri de] 1. adj. happening every day. (Prenominal only.)
2. adj. common; ordinary; not special. (Compare this with every day
(adv.), meaning “each day.”)
everyone ["Ev ri [email protected]] pron. every person; all; everybody. (Treated as
sg.)
everything ["Ev ri TIN] 1. pron. each thing. 2. pron. the only thing that
is important; the only goal or value.
everywhere ["Ev ri WEr] adv. in all places; in every location; at every
point.
evidence ["Ev @ [email protected]] n. something that proves a claim or statement.
(No pl.)
evil ["i [email protected]] 1. adj. very bad; capable of doing very bad things. (Adv:
evilly.) 2. n. badness. (Pl only for types and instances.)
evolution [Ev @ "lu [email protected]] 1. n. the changes of something from an early
stage to a more advanced stage. (No pl.) 2. n. the scientific theory
that all living creatures developed from simpler forms of life over millions of years. (No pl.)
exact [Ig "zAkt] adj. without mistakes; precise; completely correct.
(Adv: exactly.)
exactly [Ig "zAkt li] 1. adv. precisely; accurately; only as requested or
ordered. 2. interj. That is quite right!
exaggerate [Ig "zAdZ @ ret] 1. tv. to make something seem larger or
more severe than it really is. 2. iv. to claim that something is more or
less than it really is.
exam [Ig "zAm] n. an examination.
examination [Ig zAm I "ne [email protected]] 1. n. examining, studying, or observing someone or something. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a
test; a series of questions given to test someone’s knowledge of a certain topic.
examine [Ig "zAm In] 1. tv. to look at someone or something very
closely. 2. tv. to make a medical study of the state of someone’s body.
example [Ig "zAm [email protected]] 1. n. something that clarifies what one is talking about; a sample of what is being talked about. 2. n. someone or
something that should be imitated; a model.
exceed [Ek "sid] 1. tv. to go beyond the limits of something; to surpass the upper boundary of something. 2. tv. to surpass something.
excel [Ek "sEl] iv. to do very well at something; to be outstanding at
something.
148
excuse
excellence ["Ek [email protected] [email protected]] n. a superior quality; the best quality possible; an extremely good quality. (No pl.)
excellent ["Ek [email protected] [email protected]] adj. superior; extremely good; outstanding; of
very high quality. (Adv: excellently.)
except [Ek "sEpt] tv. to exclude someone or something; to omit someone or something. (Compare this with accept.)
excess 1. ["Ek sEs] n. the amount that is over a certain limit or boundary; the part of something that is too much. (No pl.) 2. ["Ek sEs] adj.
extra; beyond the proper limit; beyond what is needed.
excesses [Ek "sEs @s] n. spending for expensive things; wasting money
by spending it on things that cost a lot of money.
excessive [Ek "sEs Iv] adj. extra; beyond the proper limit; beyond what
is needed; too much. (Adv: excessively.)
exchange [Eks "tSendZ] 1. tv. to trade something for something else;
to trade someone for someone else. 2. n. an instance of giving someone something for something else; an instance of trading something
for something else. 3. n. a conversation; a short dialogue. 4. n. a place
where things, such as stocks, are bought and sold. 5. n. a particular
part of the telephone switching system, represented in the United
States by the first three digits of a local telephone number.
excite [Ek "saIt] tv. to interest or stimulate someone or something.
excited [Ek "saIt Id] adj. aroused; stimulated; caused to be very interested. (Adv: excitedly.)
excitement [Ek "saIt [email protected]] n. the feeling of great interest, eagerness,
and stimulation. (A pl form is rare and is not countable.)
exciting [Ek "saI tIN] adj. causing excitement; very interesting; stimulating. (Adv: excitingly.)
exclaim [Ek "sklem] tv. to shout something; to say something with
strong feeling. (The object is a clause with that U.)
exclamation [Ek [email protected] "me [email protected]] n. a loud statement; a statement made
with strong feeling or emotion.
excrement ["Ek [email protected] [email protected]] n. feces; solid waste from the bowels. (No
pl.)
excuse 1. [Ek "skjus] n. a reason that attempts to explain or justify
something that is wrong. 2. [Ek "skjuz] tv. to forgive someone for bad
manners; to pardon someone. 3. [Ek "skjuz] tv. to give someone permission to leave. 4. oneself to make polite apologies or explanations before leaving a place.
149
excused
excused [Ek "skjuzd] adj. pardoned; condoned, forgiven.
execute ["Eks @ kjut] 1. tv. to do something as ordered; to carry out
something; to perform an act. 2. tv. to kill someone as a punishment;
to punish someone with death. 3. tv. to make a document effective
as of a certain date by signing it.
execution [Eks @ "kju [email protected]] 1. n. the doing of something; the carrying
out of an order. (No pl.) 2. n. the killing of someone as a punishment.
executive [Eg "zEk [email protected] tIv] 1. n. someone who manages an organization in business or government. 2. adj. in the manner of Q; firm and
authoritative. 3. adj. of or about the branch of government that manages, but not the branches that make laws and run the courts.
exempt [Eg "zEmpt] 1. tv. to free someone from a duty or obligation.
2. adj. free from a duty or obligation.
exercise ["Ek s# saIz] 1. n. active use of the muscles of the body. (No
pl form in this sense.) 2. n. a specific act of Q. 3. n. a question or
problem designed to train someone in problem solving. 4. n. an
activity designed to train someone for a military task. 5. tv. to actively
use one or more muscles or areas of the body. 6. tv. to actively use
something, such as a power, right, privilege, or option. 7. iv. to be
physically active in order to strengthen the heart and muscles or to
lose weight.
exhale [Eks "hel] 1. iv. to breathe out; to push air out from the lungs.
2. tv. to breathe air or smoke out of the body.
exhaust [Eg "zOst] 1. n. steam, gas, or vapor that is the waste product
of burning. (No pl.) 2. tv. to use up all of someone’s or something’s
resources or energy. 3. tv. to cause someone to become very tired.
exhausted [Eg "zOs [email protected]] 1. adj. very tired. 2. adj. [of a supply] used
up.
exhibit [Eg "zIb @t] 1. tv. to show signs of something; to indicate something. 2. tv. to display one’s works of art in a public place. 3. n. a show
of one’s artwork, as in an exhibition. 4. n. a piece of evidence used
in a court trial.
exhibition [Ek [email protected] "bIS @n] n. the public display of something, usually
works of art.
exile ["Eg zaIl] 1. n. forcing one out of one’s home country. (No pl form
in this sense.) 2. n. someone who has been banished. 3. tv. to banish
someone; to force one from one’s homeland.
150
experiment
exist [Eg "zIst] 1. iv. to be; to be in reality. 2. iv. to last through time;
to continue to be. 3. iv. to manage to live with only the minimum of
physical needs met.
existence [Eg "zIs [email protected]] 1. n. being; the condition of actually being or
existing. (No pl.) 2. n. living; continuing to be; a way of living. (No
pl.)
exit ["Eg zIt] 1. n. the way out, especially from a place or room. 2. n.
the roadway leading off a highway. 3. n. leaving someplace, especially
a stage. 4. iv. to leave [a place, such as a stage or a highway]. 5. tv. to
leave a place.
expand [Ek "spAnd] 1. tv. to enlarge something; to make something
wider or longer; to cause something to grow bigger. 2. iv. to enlarge;
to make wider or longer; to swell up; to grow bigger. 3. on to
explain something by using more details.
expect [Ek "spEkt] tv. to anticipate the arrival of something; to anticipate the birth of a baby; to anticipate that something will happen.
(The object can be a clause with that U.)
expedition [Ek spI "dI [email protected]] n. a trip; a journey; a specific course of
travel to a certain place.
expel [Ek "spEl] 1. tv. to force someone or something out of a place.
2. tv. to order that someone not attend a school, usually because of
bad behavior or bad grades; to end someone’s membership in an
organization.
expend [Ek "spEnd] tv. to spend something, such as time or energy; to
use something up.
expense [Ek "spEns] n. the amount of money that a product or service costs; an item of cost, as in a budget.
expensive [Ek "spEn sIv] adj. costing a lot of money; high-priced;
costly. (Adv: expensively.)
experience [Ek "spIr i @ns] 1. n. knowledge gained from remembering past events and the results of one’s actions during those events;
skills gained from living one’s life. (No pl.) 2. n. something that happens to someone; an event that gives someone Q. 3. tv. to learn about
something by being involved in it when it happens; to feel or
encounter something.
experiment [Ek "spEr @ [email protected]] 1. n. a test that is carried out to prove
an idea or theory or show that it is wrong. 2. iv. to try something in
order to find out about it.
151
expert
expert ["Ek sp#t] 1. n. someone who is an authority on something;
someone who knows a lot about a certain topic. 2. adj. having a lot
of knowledge or skill. (Adv: expertly.)
expire [Ek "spaIr] 1. iv. to end; to terminate; to be valid no longer. 2. iv.
to die. (Euphemistic.)
explain [Ek "splen] 1. tv. to make something easier to understand; to
talk in detail about something; to make something clear. 2. tv. to give
an excuse for something. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
explanation [Ek [email protected] "ne [email protected]] n. information that makes something
easier to understand; a description. (Pl only for types and instances.)
explode [Ek "splod] 1. iv. to blow up, as with a bomb; to burst. 2. iv.
to get very angry. (Fig. on Q.) 3. tv. to cause something to explode
as in Q.
explore [Ek "splor] 1. tv. to study and examine a place that has not
been examined before. 2. tv. to examine or consider a plan or idea
carefully. (Fig. on Q.)
explosion [Ek "splo [email protected]] n. a loud, violent burst; an act of exploding;
the blowing up of something.
explosive [Ek "splo sIv] 1. adj. likely to explode; capable of exploding.
(Adv: explosively.) 2. adj. dangerous; having the potential for leading
to violence or disorder. (Fig. on Q. Adv: explosively.) 3. n. something
that is used to blow something up, such as dynamite; a material that
will explode.
export 1. ["Ek sport] n. a product that is shipped to another country;
a product that is sold to another country. 2. ["Ek sport] the adj. use
of Q. 3. [Ek "sport] tv. to ship a product to another country for sale;
to sell a product in another country.
expose [Ek "spoz] 1. tv. to cause something to be open to public
knowledge; to remove something from hiding; to make something
known. 2. tv. to unmask someone; to cause someone’s faults or
wrongdoing to be revealed. 3. tv. to allow photographic film to be
touched by light rays.
exposure [Ek "spo Z#] 1. n. showing something to the public; showing something that was hidden. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n.
attention given to someone or something by newspapers, television,
magazines, etc. (No pl.) 3. n. a section of film [used in photography]
that will produce a single image.
express [Ek "sprEs] 1. tv. [for someone] to put a thought or idea into
words; to speak about an idea. 2. tv. [for someone] to convey a feel152
eye
ing or emotion through words, signs, gestures, or writing. 3. tv. [for
something] to indicate something; to show something. 4. adj. [of
transportation] traveling without stopping or with fewer stops. 5. adj.
of or about a rapid means of shipment or delivery.
expression [Ek "sprE [email protected]] 1. n. the look on one’s face that indicates
how one feels. 2. n. the process of expressing oneself in some way.
3. n. a phrase or clause that is used to express an idea; an idiom.
expressway [Ek "sprEs we] n. a highway that does not intersect with
any roads, but has ramps that allow one to get on and off at junctions.
extend [Ek "stEnd] 1. tv. to stretch something, making it longer. 2. tv.
to make something last longer in time. (Fig. on Q.) 3. tv. to present
an offer; to utter an offer or a wish. 4. iv. to increase in length. 5. iv.
to spread out in all directions. 6. iv. to continue in space or time.
extension [Ek "stEn [email protected]] 1. n. something that is added to something
to make it longer or larger; an additional part. 2. n. extra time given
beyond a deadline. 3. n. an electric cord that acts to extend the distance between an electric receptacle and the device that needs to be
plugged in. (Short for extension cord.)
extent [Ek "stEnt] n. the distance or degree to which something
extends or reaches; the degree to which something is covered or
accounted for.
exterior [Ek "stIr i #] 1. n. the outside of something. 2. the adj. use of
Q.
external [Ek "st# [email protected]] 1. adj. outside; outer. (Adv: externally.) 2. adj.
coming from the outside; being affected by someone or something
on the outside. (Adv: externally.)
extinct [Ek "stINkt] 1. adj. [of a plant or animal species that is] no
longer in existence. 2. adj. [of a volcano] no longer capable of erupting.
extra ["Ek [email protected]] 1. adj. more or greater than is expected; more or greater
than usual; additional. 2. adv. more than usual; additionally. 3. n. an
actor who is hired to be part of the background or part of a crowd.
extreme [Ek "strim] 1. adj. to the greatest degree; to the furthest point
possible in any direction; furthest. (Adv: extremely.) 2. n. one of two
things that are as far apart from each other as possible. 3. n. the greatest degree of a measure of something.
eye ["aI] 1. n. one of the two organs of sight; an eyeball. 2. n. the ring
of color on someone’s eye; the iris. 3. tv. to glance at or look at some153
eyeball
one or something; to watch someone or something. (The pres. part.
is eying or eyeing.)
eyeball ["aI bOl] n. the round part of the eye that sits in the socket.
(The same as eye Q.)
eyebrow ["aI braU] n. the curved ridge of hair on one’s forehead, just
above the eye.
eyeful ["aI fUl] the full vision of a shocking or surprising sight.
eyeglasses ["aI glAs @z] n. two lenses held together by a frame and
worn in front of the eyes to improve vision. (Treated as pl. Usually
shortened to glasses.)
eyelash ["aI lAS] n. one of the many small, thin hairs that grow on the
edge of the eyelid.
eyelid ["aI lId] n. the fold of skin that moves over the eye.
eyesight ["aI saIt] n. vision; the ability to see. (No pl form in this
sense.)
eyewitness ["aI "wIt [email protected]] n. someone who sees an event happen;
someone who sees an accident or crime take place.
154
F
F Go to Fahrenheit.
fable ["fe [email protected]] 1. n. a story that teaches a lesson, often using animals
as the characters of the story. 2. n. a lie; a story about an event that
did not really happen.
fabric ["fAb rIk] n. material or cloth made by weaving threads together.
(Pl only for types and instances.)
fabricate ["fAb rI ket] 1. tv. to build something. 2. tv. to make up a
story or a lie; to invent an excuse. (Fig. on Q.)
face ["fes] 1. n. the front part of the head from the hair to the chin.
2. n. a look; an expression; the way someone’s Q looks. 3. n. the front
part or surface of something. 4. tv. to look at someone or something
or toward a particular direction. 5. tv. to deal with someone or something. 6. tv. to cover the front part of something or the edges of
something with a decoration.
facilities n. a bathroom; a restroom. (Euphemistic. Treated as pl, but
not countable.)
facility [[email protected] "sIl @ ti] n. something—especially a building or equipment—built, provided, or established for a specific purpose; a building or site used by a company for its business, especially for a factory
or offices. (Often pl.)
fact ["fAkt] n. something that is true; something that really happened.
factor ["fAk t#] n. one of a number of elements that contribute to a
result.
factory ["fAk [email protected] ri] n. a building where products are made, usually with
machines.
faculty ["fAk @l ti] 1. n. the teachers at a school, college, or university,
as a group. 2. n. a skill; an ability, especially a mental ability. 3. the
adj. use of Q.
fad ["fAd] n. a very popular thing that everyone does or has for a short
period of time.
fade ["fed] 1. iv. to lose color; to become pale; to become less bright.
2. iv. to become weak; to lose energy. (Fig. on Q.) 3. tv. to cause
something to lose color or become pale as in Q.
Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc.
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155
Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit ["fEr @n haIt] 1. n. a system of measuring temperature that
is not metric. (No pl. From Gabriel Fahrenheit, a German physicist
who invented the Fahrenheit scale.) 2. the adj. use of Q. (Follows
degree(s). Abbreviated F.)
fail ["fel] 1. tv. not to succeed at something, especially a course or an
examination in school. 2. tv. to give a student a grade that means failure. 3. tv. not to help someone; to let someone down. 4. iv. [for part
of a person’s body] to become weak; [for something] to stop working; [for something] not to succeed. 5. iv. [for a business] not to succeed. 6. iv. not to succeed in a task that one has tried to do; not to
pass a school course.
failing ["fel IN] 1. n. a fault; a weakness of character. 2. prep. lacking
something; without something.
failure ["fel j#] 1. n. failing; not succeeding. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. someone whose life has had almost no success.
faint ["fent] 1. adj. barely noticeable; dim; not clear. (Adv: faintly.
Comp: fainter; sup: faintest.) 2. adj. [of someone] temporarily weak
or dizzy; [of someone] about to pass out. (Adv: faintly. Comp: fainter;
sup: faintest.) 3. iv. to pass out; to lose consciousness.
fair ["fEr] 1. n. a yearly event held in a town, state, or county. 2. adj.
just; honest; giving good judgments; not favoring one thing or person over another. (Adv: fairly. Comp: fairer; sup: fairest.) 3. adj. [of
skin or hair] very light in color. (Adv: fairly. Comp: fairer; sup:
fairest.) 4. adj. [of someone] having light hair or skin as in E.
(Comp: fairer; sup: fairest.) 5. adj. considerable; ample. (Adv: fairly.)
6. adj. not too bad; pretty good; adequate. (Adv: fairly. Comp: fairer;
sup: fairest.)
fairy ["fEr i] n. a small mythical being that looks human, does magic,
and sometimes has wings.
faith ["feT] 1. n. a strong belief in something that cannot be proved; a
strong belief in someone or in a god. (No pl.) 2. n. a particular religion. 3. n. loyalty; trust. (No pl.)
faithful ["feT fUl] adj. loyal.
fake ["fek] 1. tv. to make a copy of something with the purpose of
deceiving someone. 2. tv. to pretend to do something or have something in order to deceive someone. 3. n. something that is made to
take the place of an original in order to deceive someone. 4. n. someone who is a fraud. 5. adj. false; not genuine; made in order to deceive
someone.
156
fancy
fall ["fOl] 1. iv., irreg. to drop to a lower level from a higher level. (Pt:
fell; pp: fallen.) 2. iv., irreg. to lose power; to be defeated. (Fig. on
Q.) 3. iv., irreg. [for vision] to aim downward. 4. iv., irreg. to go from
a standing position to a lying position in one quick movement; to collapse. 5. iv., irreg. [for an event] to happen on a particular day of the
week or in a particular month of the year. 6. n. the autumn; the season between summer and winter. 7. n. suddenly going from a standing position to a lying position. 8. n. a decrease; a drop; a lowering.
9. n. the collapse of a political unit; a defeat, especially when at war.
10. apart to break into pieces; to disassemble. (Both literal and
figurative uses.) 11. down to drop or topple.
fallen ["fOl @n] pp of fall.
fallow ["fAl o] adj. [of land] not farmed for a period of time, usually
in order to help replenish the soil with nutrients.
falls n. a waterfall. (Treated as pl.)
false ["fOls] 1. adj. not true; wrong; incorrect. (Adv: falsely. Comp:
falser; sup: falsest.) 2. adj. not loyal; not faithful. (Adv: falsely. Comp:
falser; sup: falsest.) 3. adj. not real; artificial; fake. (Comp: falser; sup:
falsest.)
fame ["fem] n. the quality of being very well known. (No pl.)
familiar [[email protected] "mIl j#] 1. adj. known; well known; common. (Adv: familiarly.) 2. adj. friendly; overly friendly. (Adv: familiarly.)
family ["fAm (@) li] 1. n. a group of people related to each other. 2. n.
a mother, father, and one child or more; a parent and one child or
more. 3. n. a group of things that are related in some way or share
common features, such as animals, plants, languages, etc. 4. the adj.
use of Q, W, or E.
famine ["fAm @n] n. a period of time when there is little or no food.
famous ["fe [email protected]] adj. very well known.
fan ["fAn] 1. n. someone who admires someone or something very
much. (A shortening of fanatic.) 2. n. a device or machine used to
move air in order to cool someone or something. 3. tv. to move air
onto something.
fanatic [[email protected] "nAt Ik] n. someone who is too eager about and devoted to
someone or something.
fancy ["fAn si] 1. adj. elegant; stylish; nicely decorated. (Adv: fancily.
Comp: fancier; sup: fanciest.) 2. n. the imagination; the ability to cre157
fang
ate imaginative ideas or images. 3. n. something that is imagined; a
notion.
fang ["fAN] n. a long, sharp tooth.
fantasy ["fAn [email protected] si] n. interesting thoughts and visions in the mind,
somewhat like a dream. (Pl only for types and instances.)
far ["far] 1. adj., irreg. more distant; not as close as something else.
(Comp: farther or further; sup: farthest or furthest.) 2. adv., irreg.
at or to a distant time or place; a long way away in time or space.
(Comp: farther or further; sup: farthest or furthest.) 3. adv. much;
many; a lot. (Used before a comp. such as more, less, or longer.)
fare ["fEr] 1. n. the amount of money required to ride a bus, train,
plane, subway, taxi, etc. 2. n. the food that is served at a meal. (No
pl.)
farewell [fEr "wEl] 1. n. an act of leaving and saying good-bye. 2. the
adj. use of Q. 3. interj. good-bye.
farm ["farm] 1. n. a parcel of land used to grow crops or to raise animals. 2. tv. to work on the land to make it grow plants, especially
food; to plow land. 3. iv. to grow crops and raise animals as a living.
4. the adj. use of Q.
farmer ["far m#] n. someone who grows crops and raises animals on
a farm.
farsighted ["far saIt Id] 1. adj. able to see things that are farther away
better than things that are close. (Adv: farsightedly.) 2. adj. wisely
looking into the future. (Adv: farsightedly.)
fart ["fart] 1. iv. to release gas from the bowels through the anus.
(Potentially offensive. The topic and the word are not heard in polite
company. Use with caution.) 2. n. the sound or odor of the release of
gas from the bowels. 3. n. a stupid and annoying person.
farther ["far D#] 1. adj. more distant in space or time. (One of the
comp. forms of far, along with further.) 2. adv. more distant in space
or time. (One of the comp. forms of far, along with further.)
farthest ["far [email protected]] adj. the most distant in space or time. (One of the
sup. forms of far, along with furthest.)
fashion ["fA [email protected]] 1. n. the current, typical styles of dress or behavior
within a society. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. the manner
or way in which something is done; a method. (No pl.) 3. tv. to form
or shape something; to form something by hand.
158
faulty
fast ["fAst] 1. adv. quickly; rapidly. (Comp: faster; sup: fastest.) 2. adv.
tight(ly); without moving; securely. 3. adj. quick; rapid; speedy; not
slow. (Comp: faster; sup: fastest.) 4. adj. [of a clock or watch] showing a time that is later than the real time. (Comp: faster; sup: fastest.)
5. iv. to go without food. 6. n. a period of time when someone does
not eat, for religious, health, or political reasons.
fasten ["fAs @n] 1. tv. to tie, lock, or hook something closed. 2. tv. to
attach something to someone or something.
fastener ["fAs @n #] n. a device that secures or fastens something shut.
fastidious [fA "stId i @s] 1. adj. hard to please; choosing carefully.
(Adv: fastidiously.) 2. adj. preferring cleanliness and orderliness.
(Adv: fastidiously.)
fat ["fAt] 1. n. animal tissue filled with oil. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. loose flesh filled with Q. (No pl.) 3. adj. overweight;
having too much W. (Adv: fatly. Comp: fatter; sup: fattest.)
fatal ["fet @l] adj. causing death; resulting in death. (Adv: fatally.)
fate ["fet] 1. n. a force that is said to control what happens. (Pl only
for types and instances.) 2. n. the destiny of someone or something;
what will happen to someone or something. 3. tv. [for Q] to determine what happens to someone or something. (Usually passive.)
father ["fa D#] 1. n. the male parent of a child. (Also a term of address.
Capitalized when written as a proper noun.) 2. n. the inventor of
something; the founder of something; the leader of something. (Fig.
on Q.) 3. tv. [for a male creature] to fertilize an egg, which will lead
to the development of a child.
fatigue [[email protected] "tig] 1. n. a state of being very tired from too much mental or physical work. (No pl.) 2. tv. to tire someone or something; to
make someone or something tired.
fatten ["fAt n] 1. tv. to cause someone or something to grow larger.
2. tv. to increase the size or value of an offer. (Fig. on Q.)
fatty ["fAt i] adj. full of or containing fat. (Comp: fattier; sup: fattiest.)
faucet ["fOs It] n. a device that controls the flow of water or some other
liquid from a pipe or container; a tap.
fault ["fOlt] 1. n. a personal shortcoming; a flaw in someone’s personality. 2. n. the responsibility for causing something bad to happen.
(No pl.) 3. n. a crack in the surface of the earth.
faulty ["fOl ti] adj. flawed; incorrect; having an error or mistake. (Adv:
faultily. Comp: faultier; sup: faultiest.)
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favor
favor ["fe v#] 1. n. a state of being valuable or worthy in someone else’s
view. (No pl.) 2. n. an act of kindness; something nice that is done
for someone else. 3. tv. to prefer someone or something; to like someone or something at the expense of someone or something else. 4. tv.
to support someone or something; to support an issue, a plan, a theory, an option, etc. 5. tv. to expect someone or something to win.
favorable ["fev @ [email protected] [email protected]] 1. adj. approving; supporting. (Adv: favorably.) 2. adj. beneficial; being to one’s advantage; advantageous; helpful. (Adv: favorably.)
favorite ["fev (@) rIt] 1. adj. preferred over every other choice; liked
better than everything or everyone else. 2. n. someone or something
that is preferred over every other choice; someone or something that
is liked better than everyone or everything else.
fax ["fAks] 1. n. a machine that sends an exact copy of a piece of paper
to another machine, over telephone lines. 2. n. something that has
been sent or received by way of Q. 3. the adj. use of Q or W. 4. tv.
to send a document to someone by using Q.
fear ["fIr] 1. n. the feeling of being afraid; the feeling of being in danger. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a specific source of Q and
the feeling caused by that source. 3. tv. to be afraid of someone or
something. 4. tv. to feel that something unpleasant is the case or may
happen. (Often used as a polite way of expressing regret that one
must say something unpleasant. The object is a clause with that U.)
fearless ["fIr [email protected]] adj. without fear; brave; courageous. (Adv: fearlessly.)
feast ["fist] 1. n. a large meal, especially one for a special occasion; a
banquet. 2. iv. to eat a lot of food, often in the company of others,
especially as part of a celebration.
feat ["fit] n. a remarkable accomplishment; an act or deed that shows
skill or talent.
feather ["fED #] n. one of many hard stems bearing soft fibers that
cover the body of a bird.
feature ["fi tS#] 1. n. an important aspect of something; a quality of
something that stands out. 2. n. a part of the face. 3. n. a special article in a newspaper; an important news story. 4. tv. to present or focus
on an important element of something. 5. tv. to present someone special as an actor in a movie, play, or television show.
February ["fEb ru Er I] Go to month.
feces ["fi siz] n. excrement; animal waste. (From Latin. Treated as pl,
but not countable.)
160
fell
fed ["fEd] pt/pp of feed.
federal ["fEd (@) [email protected]] 1. adj. of or about the organization of a group of
states. (Adv: federally.) 2. adj. of or about the United States government. (Adv: federally.)
federation [fEd @ "re [email protected]] 1. n. the formation of a governmental body
by smaller governments that join together while still governing their
own internal affairs. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. a government
formed by smaller governments that join together while each governs
its own internal affairs. 3. n. a league or union of people or nations.
fee ["fi] n. money that is paid in exchange for a service or privilege.
feeble ["fi [email protected]] adj. weak; frail; lacking force; lacking strength. (Adv:
feebly. Comp: feebler; sup: feeblest.)
feed ["fid] 1. tv., irreg. to nourish someone or something with food;
to give food to someone or something. (Pt/pp: fed.) 2. tv., irreg. to
supply something without stopping; to provide something without
stopping. (Fig. on Q.) 3. n. food that is given to animals, especially
on a farm. (Pl only for types and instances.)
feel ["fil] 1. tv., irreg. to touch someone or something. (Pt/pp: felt.)
2. tv., irreg. to experience or sense being touched by someone or
something. 3. tv., irreg. to receive information by touching. 4. tv.,
irreg. to experience an emotion; to experience something in one’s
mind. (The object can be a clause with that U.) 5. tv., irreg. to consider something; to have an opinion about something. (The object is
a clause with that U.) 6. iv., irreg. to experience [an emotion]; to
experience [something in one’s mind]. 7. n. a kind of shape or texture that is sensed by touching. (No pl.)
feeler ["fi l#] 1. n. an antenna; a part of the body of an insect or shellfish that is used for touching or sensing. 2. n. an inquiry or suggestion that is made to determine what other people are thinking or
feeling.
feeling ["fi lIN] 1. n. sensation produced by touching something or by
being touched by something; the ability to feel things. (No pl.) 2. n.
a sensation that is a response to touch, pressure, heat, cold, or pain.
3. n. an emotion. 4. n. an idea based on what one feels or suspects.
feelings ["fil INz] n. an emotion; the ability to feel emotions.
feet ["fit] pl of foot.
fell ["fEl] pt of fall.
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fellow
fellow ["fEl o] 1. n. a man; a male. 2. n. a position of rank or status at
a school or university, usually without teaching responsibilities. (For
either sex.) 3. adj. similar; alike; sharing a common interest or occupation. (For either sex. Prenominal only.)
fellowship ["fEl o SIp] 1. n. a group; a social organization. (Not
restricted to males.) 2. n. friendly discussion and activity with other
people; friendship. (No pl.) 3. n. money that is given to an advanced
student to pay for schooling.
felt ["fElt] 1. pt/pp of feel. 2. n. a thick cloth made of pressed fibers.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 3. adj. made of W.
female ["fi mel] 1. adj. of or about women or girls; of or about animals of the sex that can bear young or lay eggs. 2. n. a woman; a girl;
an animal of the sex that bears young or lays eggs.
feminine ["fEm @ nIn] 1. adj. of or about the characteristics of women;
of or about the qualities of women. (Adv: femininely.) 2. adj. of or
about the one of the three grammatical genders that is neither masculine nor neuter.
fence ["fEns] n. a barrier that encloses a space to keep people or things
from coming into or leaving that space.
fender ["fEn d#] n. a part of a vehicle’s body that forms a protective
shield over a wheel.
ferryboat ["fEr i "bot] n. a boat that takes cars and people across a river
or a lake.
fertile ["f#t @l] 1. adj. able to reproduce or develop new life easily.
(Adv: fertilely.) 2. adj. [of soil] rich in (plant) food that helps reproduction and growth. (Adv: fertilely.) 3. adj. creative; able to produce
good ideas. (Fig. on Q. Adv: fertilely.)
fertilize ["f# [email protected] laIz] 1. tv. to provide nutrients to the land so that
crops will grow well. 2. tv. [for a male reproductive cell] to join with
a female reproductive cell; [for a male’s sperm] to join with a female’s
ovum (egg). 3. tv. to cause a male reproductive cell to join with a
female reproductive cell, as in W.
fervor ["f# v#] n. passion; excitement; strong emotion. (No pl.)
festival ["fEs [email protected] [email protected]] n. a public celebration, especially in honor of a
certain occasion.
festive ["fEs tIv] adj. merry; exciting; like a celebration; joyous. (Adv:
festively.)
162
fig
fetch ["fEtS] 1. tv. to bring something to someone; to go somewhere
and get something for someone. 2. tv. [for something] to bring in a
certain amount of money when sold.
fever ["fi v#] n. a state of sickness where the temperature of the body
rises above normal.
feverish ["fi v# IS] 1. adj. having a higher body temperature than normal. (Adv: feverishly.) 2. adj. excited and fast; restless. (Fig. on Q.
Adv: feverishly.)
few ["fju] 1. adj. not many; a smaller number than expected. (Used
with items that can be counted. Compare this with little. Used without a. Comp: fewer; sup: fewest.) 2. a n. a small number [of those
items previously mentioned]. (Treated as pl. Use a little for things that
cannot be counted.)
fiber ["faI b#] 1. n. one of many threads, strands, or rigid cellular
structures that form many plant, animal, and artificial substances.
2. n. edible plant fibers as in Q. (Pl only for types and instances.)
fiction ["fIk [email protected]] 1. n. literature that is written about imaginary events
and not about real events. (No pl.) 2. n. information that is not true
but instead has been created by someone. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
fiddle ["fId l] 1. n. a violin. (Informal.) 2. iv. to play Q.
field ["fild] 1. n. a large area of land used for a specific purpose, such
as growing crops, raising cattle, playing certain sports, fighting a battle, landing airplanes, etc. 2. n. an area of knowledge; an area of
study.
fierce ["fIrs] adj. violent; cruel; untamed; wild. (Adv: fiercely. Comp:
fiercer; sup: fiercest.)
fiery ["faI# i] 1. adj. burning; flaming. (Comp: fierier; sup: fieriest.)
2. adj. very emotional; passionate; full of passion. (Fig. on Q. Comp:
fierier; sup: fieriest.)
fifteen ["fIf "tin] 15. Go to four.
fifteenth ["fIf "tinT] 15th. Go to fourth.
fifth ["fIfT] 1. 5th. Go to fourth. 2. n. 20 percent of a full gallon of
liquor.
fiftieth ["fIf ti @T] 50th. Go to fourth.
fifty ["fIf ti] 50. Go to forty.
fig ["fIg] n. a soft, sweet fruit with many seeds.
163
fight
fight ["faIt] 1. n. a struggle; a battle. 2. tv., irreg. to battle someone; to
make combat against someone. (Pt/pp: fought.) 3. iv., irreg. to do
battle; to argue.
figure ["fIg j#] 1. n. a human body; the form of a human body. 2. n.
a person, usually well known or important. 3. n. a digit; one of the
numbers from 0 to 9. 4. n. a total; a sum; an amount. 5. n. a chart or
diagram in a book that explains information in the text. 6. tv. to consider something; to believe something. (The object is a clause with
that U.)
file ["faIl] 1. n. a metal tool that is scraped over rough surfaces to make
them smooth and even. 2. n. a folder or other container used for
holding and storing papers in an organized way. 3. n. the papers
within W; the information contained in W. 4. n. a computer file; a
unit of data or information in digital form, such as is stored on a
floppy disk or disk drive. 5. tv. to smooth something with Q. 6. tv.
to organize papers by putting them into the appropriate W; to put a
piece of paper in the appropriate W. 7. iv. to move in a line, going
into or out of a place.
fill ["fIl] 1. tv. to provide what is requested; to supply a product when
it is requested; to meet someone’s demand for something. 2. iv. to
become full.
filling ["fIl IN] 1. a repaired cavity in a tooth. 2. a substance put inside
a pie or pastry.
film ["fIlm] 1. n. the material that photographs or movies are recorded
on. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a movie; a motion picture.
3. n. a thin layer of something; a coating. 4. tv. to record someone or
something on Q in a particular place or manner.
filter ["fIl t#] 1. n. a device that strains fluids or gases to separate solids
from them; a device that cleans a fluid or gas that passes through it.
2. tv. to pass a substance through Q.
filth ["fIlT] n. grime; dirt that is difficult to clean off. (No pl.)
filthy ["fIl Ti] the adj. form of filth.
fin ["fIn] 1. n. a flat organ—like a small fan—on a fish that allows it to
control its movement in the water. 2. n. one of a pair of rubber or
plastic shoes with flat projections, used by divers to move themselves
through the water.
final ["faI [email protected]] 1. adj. last; at the end; ultimate. (Adv: finally.) 2. n. the
last examination in a school course. (Often pl, referring to the last
examinations in all of one’s courses for the term or semester.)
164
firecracker
finally ["faIn @ li] adv. at last, after much asking, waiting, or delay.
financial [[email protected] "nAn [email protected]] adj. of or about business matters dealing with
money. (Adv: financially.)
find ["faInd] 1. tv., irreg. to discover or locate someone or something
that one was looking for. (Pt/pp: found.) 2. tv., irreg. to recover something; to discover something. 3. tv., irreg. to decide that someone or
something has a certain quality; to consider someone or something
to be a certain way. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
fine ["faIn] 1. n. an amount of money that must be paid as a punishment; a penalty. 2. adj. acceptable or suitable; very good; excellent.
(Adv: finely. Comp: finer; sup: finest.) 3. adj. of high quality; very delicate and of high quality. (Adv: finely. Comp: finer; sup: finest.) 4. adj.
not coarse; consisting of small particles; in the form of a powder.
(Adv: finely. Comp: finer; sup: finest.) 5. adj. very thin; very small.
(Adv: finely. Comp: finer; sup: finest.) 6. adv. well; nicely; excellently.
7. tv. to charge someone or something an amount of money as a punishment or penalty.
finger ["fIN g#] n. one of the five extensions or digits at the end of the
hand.
fingernail ["fIN g# nel] n. the hard, flat covering at the end of each finger.
fingerprint ["fIN g# prInt] n. the light, oily mark left by the ridges on
the skin of one’s fingers.
fingertip ["fIN g# tIp] n. the end of a finger.
finish ["fIn IS] 1. tv. to bring something to an end; to complete or conclude something. 2. tv. to use all of something; to eat or drink all of
something. 3. tv. to cover something made out of wood with a protective coat of varnish, paint, or something similar. 4. iv. [for someone] to reach the end of doing something. 5. n. the end; the
conclusion; the final part of something. 6. n. a protective coating of
paint, varnish, lacquer, or stain on a wooden surface; a protective
coating on any surface.
fire ["faI#] 1. n. heat, flames, and light made by burning something.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. an area of burning with Q.
3. n. passion; strong emotion; fervor. (Fig. on Q. No pl.) 4. n. the
shooting of weapons; the noise made by shooting guns. (No pl.) 5. tv.
to get rid of an employee; to end someone’s employment.
firecracker ["faI# krAk #] n. a small device that explodes when set
afire, making a lot of noise.
165
firefighter
firefighter ["faI# faIt #] n. someone who is trained to put out fires
and rescue people.
fireplace ["faI# ples] n. a place in a house or building where a fire can
be built to provide heat.
fireproof ["faI# pruf] 1. adj. not able to catch fire; hard to burn. 2. tv.
to make something so it is able to resist to fire.
fireworks ["faI# w#ks] n. explosives that make loud noises and beautiful displays of light and smoke when lit. (Treated as pl. Rarely sg.)
firm ["f#m] 1. adj. solid; hard. (Adv: firmly. Comp: firmer; sup:
firmest.) 2. adj. not easily moved; steady. (Adv: firmly. Comp: firmer;
sup: firmest.) 3. adj. final and not to be changed. (Adv: firmly. Comp:
firmer; sup: firmest.) 4. n. a company; a business.
first ["f#st] 1. adj. before everything or everyone else; at the beginning. (The ordinal number for one. Adv: firstly.) 2. adv. before anything else; before another event. 3. adv. never having happened
before. 4. n. someone or something that is the Q thing or person.
(No pl.)
firsthand ["f#st "hAnd] 1. adj. direct; coming from the source directly;
witnessed. 2. adv. directly; from the source.
fish ["fIS] 1. n., irreg. any of various animals without legs that live
underwater and typically have fins and scales. (Pl: fish unless referring to a number of species.) 2. n. the meat of Q used as food. (No
pl.) 3. iv. to try to catch Q.
fishbowl ["fIS bol] n. a container that fish are kept in; a small aquarium.
fisherman ["fIS # [email protected]] n., irreg. someone who catches fish for a living; a man who fishes. (Pl: fishermen.)
fishermen ["fIS # [email protected]] pl of fisherman.
fishhook ["fIS hUk] n. a sharp hook used to catch fish.
fist ["fIst] n. the hand with the fingers closed tightly.
fit ["fIt] 1. iv., irreg. to be the right size for something. (Pt/pp: fit or fitted.) 2. tv., irreg. to suit someone or something; to be matched to
someone or something. 3. tv., irreg. [for something] to be the right
size for someone or something. 4. tv., irreg. to make something match
something else in some way. 5. adj. suitable; having the things that
are needed. (Adv: fitly. Comp: fitter; sup: fittest.) 6. adj. healthy; in
good condition. (Comp: fitter; sup: fittest.) 7. n. the way that something fits as in Q.
166
flat
five ["faIv] 1. 5. (See four for more information.) 2. n. a bill E or note
E worth 5 dollars.
fix ["fIks] 1. tv. to repair something; to make something work again.
2. tv. to make something firm; to place something firmly into something. 3. tv. to prepare food or drink. 4. tv. to choose a date and time;
to determine a date, time, or place.
fixings ["fIks INz] n. all the condiments that accompany a certain kind
of food.
flag ["flAg] 1. n. a piece of cloth of a certain color pattern that represents a country, state, city, school, or organization, or is used as a signal. 2. iv. to become tired; to weaken.
flagpole ["flAg pol] n. a pole on which a flag is mounted or attached.
flake ["flek] n. a loose piece of something; a bit of something; a thin,
light piece of something.
flame ["flem] 1. n. a tongue of fire; a segment of yellow, white, blue,
or red light that shoots out from a fire. 2. n. an angry e-mail message.
3. tv. to criticize someone sharply in a message on the Internet.
(Slang.)
flammable ["flAm @ [email protected]] adj. inflammable; likely to catch fire; easily set
on fire. (Adv: flammably.)
flap ["flAp] 1. n. a cover, placed over an opening, that is hinged or
attached at one end. 2. iv. to move back and forth, as with the movement of birds’ wings. 3. tv. to move something back and forth, as
with the movement of birds’ wings.
flare ["flEr] 1. n. a bright flame. 2. n. something that provides a bright
light, used as a signal or as a warning of danger.
flash ["flAS] 1. n. a quick, strong burst of light. 2. iv. to give off a burst
of light for a brief moment. 3. tv. to make something give off a burst
of light for a brief moment.
flashlight ["flAS laIt] n. a small, portable light that typically uses batteries for power.
flat ["flAt] 1. adj. [of a surface] level, even, and smooth. (Adv: flatly.
Comp: flatter; sup: flattest.) 2. adj. having lost air; not filled with air.
(Adv: flatly. Comp: flatter; sup: flattest.) 3. adj. stable; not moving
higher or lower. (Comp: flatter; sup: flattest.) 4. adj. dull; not exciting. (Adv: flatly. Comp: flatter; sup: flattest.) 5. adj. [sounding a musical sound] lower in pitch than what something is supposed to be.
(Adv: flatly. Comp: flatter; sup: flattest.) 6. n. an apartment. 7. n. a
167
flatter
note that is one-half step lower in pitch than a natural note. 8. n. a
tire with no air in it.
flatter ["flAt #] 1. tv. to attempt to influence someone with praise,
possibly insincere praise. 2. tv. to cause someone to feel pleased or
honored. 3. tv. [for an article of clothing] to make a person look
good.
flavor ["fle v#] 1. n. a specific taste; the way something tastes. 2. n.
something that is added to a food to give it a specific taste. 3. n. a special quality or characteristic.
flaw ["flO] n. a fault; a defect; an indication of damage.
flea ["fli] n. a tiny insect that lives on an animal’s skin, sucking blood
and eating dead skin.
fled ["flEd] pt/pp of flee.
flee ["fli] 1. tv., irreg. to escape from danger. (Pt/pp: fled.) 2. iv., irreg.
to run quickly away from something or toward something.
flesh ["flES] 1. n. the soft part of the body covered by skin; meat. (No
pl.) 2. n. the soft part of a fruit or vegetable that can be eaten. (No
pl.)
flew ["flu] pt of fly.
flexible ["flEk [email protected] [email protected]] 1. adj. able to bend easily; not rigid. (Adv: flexibly.) 2. adj. able to be changed; able to serve a number of purposes.
(Fig. on Q. Adv: flexibly.)
flicker ["flIk #] 1. n. a light or flame that is not steady; a light or flame
that wavers. 2. n. a short burst of energy or excitement that dies out
quickly. (Fig. on Q.) 3. iv. to burn unsteadily; to burn as a flame.
flight ["flaIt] 1. n. flying; flying through the air. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. running away from someone or something; an escape
from danger. (No pl.) 3. n. a set of stairs.
flimsy ["flIm zi] adj. likely to fall apart; not very durable; poorly made.
(Adv: flimsily. Comp: flimsier; sup: flimsiest.)
fling ["flIN] tv., irreg. to throw; to toss, especially to get rid of something. (Pt/pp: flung.)
flint ["flInt] n. a kind of hard stone that makes sparks when struck. (No
pl form in this sense.)
flip ["flIp] 1. n. a throw that tosses something into the air; a tossing
action that moves something. 2. n. a kind of jump where one turns
one’s body in the air. 3. tv. to cause something to turn about or spin
through the air.
168
fluffy
flirt ["fl#t] n. someone who tries to attract someone’s attention romantically or sexually.
float ["flot] 1. iv. to remain on top of water or a liquid; to stay above
water. 2. iv. to hover; to remain in the air. (Fig. on Q.) 3. tv. to release
something so it can move as in Q.
flood ["fl^d] 1. n. a large amount of water lying on land that is normally dry. 2. n. a powerful surge of water moving over the land. 3. n.
a large amount of something. (Fig. on W.) 4. tv. to cover an area with
water; to cover something with water. 5. iv. to spill or overflow with
great volumes of water; to become covered with a great amount of
water.
floor ["flor] 1. n. the surface of a room that is walked on; the inside
bottom surface of a room. 2. n. one level of a building; a story.
flop ["flap] 1. tv. to cause something flat to fall heavily somewhere.
2. iv. [for someone or something] to fall heavily into or onto something. 3. iv. to fail. (Informal.) 4. n. a failure.
florist ["flor Ist] n. someone who arranges and sells flowers for a living.
flour ["flaU #] n. a powder made from grinding wheat, corn, or other
grain, used in cooking. (Compare this with flower. Pl only for types
and instances.)
flow ["flo] 1. n. the movement of running water; the movement of
a fluid. (No pl.) 2. n. the even and ordered movement of things in a
series. (No pl. Fig. on Q.) 3. iv. to move like running water; to move
smoothly along a route. 4. iv. to move easily and in an orderly fashion.
flower ["flaU #] 1. n. a plant that produces blossoms. 2. n. a blossom;
the brightly colored petals of a plant. 3. iv. to bloom; [for a plant] to
produce W.
flown ["flon] pp of fly.
fluent ["flu @nt] adj. able to speak, read, write, or understand a language as well as a native speaker of that language. (Adv: fluently.)
fluff ["fl^f] 1. n. soft, light fiber, such as wool, cotton, or hair. (No pl
form in this sense.) 2. n. a mass or tuft of Q. 3. n. something that is
not important and without much meaning. (Fig. on Q. No pl form
in this sense.) 4. up to puff up a pillow; to make something fluffy.
fluffy ["fl^f i] adj. soft, light, and airy. (Adv: fluffily. Comp: fluffier; sup:
fluffiest.)
169
fluid
fluid ["flu Id] 1. n. a liquid or a gas; a substance that can flow. (Technically, a gas is a fluid.) 2. adj. moving freely; flowing freely as with
a liquid or a gas. (Adv: fluidly.)
flung ["fl^N] pt/pp of fling.
flunk ["fl^Nk] 1. tv. to give a student a failing grade; [for a teacher] to
make a judgment that prevents a student from going on to a higher
grade. 2. tv. [for a student] to fail to pass a test or to fail to qualify
for promotion. 3. iv. to fail to pass [a test]; to fail [to be promoted to
the next academic level].
flush ["fl^S] 1. n. an act of releasing water to cleanse a toilet bowl. 2. tv.
to clean something, especially a toilet bowl, with a stream of water.
flute ["flut] n. a musical instrument that is shaped like a long, thin pipe.
flutter ["fl^t #] 1. iv. [for birds, moths, butterflies, etc.] to fly though
the air, moving their wings. 2. around; about to move back
and forth quickly. (Fig. on Q.) 3. iv. to beat irregularly; to pulse
irregularly. 4. n. a quick but gentle movement, as with the movement
of a bird’s wings.
fly ["flaI] 1. tv., irreg. to “drive” an airplane; to guide something that
moves through the air. (Pt: flew; pp: flown.) 2. tv., irreg. to raise or
otherwise display a flag. 3. iv., irreg. to move through the air; to move
in the air. 4. iv., irreg. to travel by airplane. 5. iv., irreg. [for time] to
pass quickly. (Fig. on E.) 6. n. a small insect; a bug; a mosquito. 7. n.
the flap of material that covers a zipper in trousers.
foam ["fom] n. a mass of small bubbles; froth. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
foci ["fo saI] a pl of focus.
focus ["fok @s] 1. n. the position or setting of a lens that provides the
clearest image. (No pl.) 2. n., irreg. the center of attention; the center of interest. (Fig. on Q. Pl: focuses or foci.) 3. tv. to adjust a lens,
or the eyes, so that the image that passes through them is sharp and
clear.
foe ["fo] n. the enemy in general; an enemy.
fog ["fOg] n. water vapor suspended in the air; a heavy mist. (No pl.)
foggy ["fOg i] adj. covered or filled with fog; [of weather] having much
fog. (Adv: foggily. Comp: foggier; sup: foggiest.)
foil ["foIl] 1. n. a very thin, light sheet of metal, usually aluminum,
used to wrap food or as a decoration. (Pl only for types and
170
foot
instances.) 2. tv. to spoil someone’s plans; to prevent something from
happening.
fold ["fold] 1. tv. to bend something so that part of it lies on top of the
rest of it; to double something over onto itself. 2. up [for something] to close by folding as in Q. 3. up [for a business] to cease
operating.
folder ["fol d#] n. a holder made of heavy paper used for filing, organizing, or storing papers.
foliage ["fo li IdZ] n. leaves. (No pl form in this sense.)
folk ["fok] 1. n. a group of people. (No pl. Treated as pl. See also folks.)
2. adj. of or about the common people; traditional.
folklore ["fok lor] n. traditions, stories, customs, and beliefs that are
passed down from generation to generation within a culture. (No pl.)
folks n. people in general, often relatives. (Treated as pl. Informal.)
follow ["fal o] 1. tv. to come after someone or something in space or
time. 2. tv. to pursue someone or something; to go after someone or
something. 3. tv. to obey a set of rules or instructions. 4. tv. to understand a person is who leading one through an explanation; to understand an explanation as someone explains it. 5. tv. to study or pay
attention to or have a continuing interest in something, such as a
sport. 6. iv. [for something] to happen as a logical or typical result
of something.
folly ["fal i] 1. n. stupid behavior; foolishness. (No pl form in this
sense.) 2. n. a silly thing to do.
fond ["fand] adj. loving; tender. (Adv: fondly. Comp: fonder; sup: fondest.)
food ["fud] n. something that is eaten by animals and plants. (Pl only
for types and instances.)
fool ["ful] 1. n. an idiot; a stupid person; someone who has no common sense. 2. tv. to trick someone; to play a joke on someone.
3. around to waste time doing something unnecessary or doing
something amateurishly.
foolish ["ful IS] adj. silly; lacking sense; stupid; ridiculous. (Adv: foolishly.)
foolproof ["ful pruf] adj. not capable of failing; so simple that a fool
could use it without problems.
foot ["fUt] 1. n., irreg. the end of a leg; the part of a human or animal
body that touches the ground and supports the body. (Pl: feet.) 2. n.
171
football
the bottom or lower end of a bed, mountain, cliff, ladder, hill, page,
etc. (No pl.) 3. n., irreg. a unit of measurement equal to 12 inches or
just over 30 centimeters.
football ["fUt bOl] 1. n. a sport played between two teams of eleven
players each, on a field having a goal on each end, using W. (No pl.
Compare this with soccer .) 2. n. the leather, oval ball used in Q.
3. the adj. use of Q or W.
foothold ["fUt hold] n. a space for one’s foot that helps one climb up
or down something. (Pl: footholds.)
footnote ["fUt not] 1. n. a note at the bottom of a page that clarifies
or provides a source for something that appears higher on the page.
2. tv. to provide Q for a piece of information.
footpath ["fUt pAT] n., irreg. a path that is made for walking. (Pl: ["fUt
pADz].)
footprint ["fUt prInt] 1. n. the mark made by pressing a foot in soft
earth or snow. 2. n. the mark made by tracking dirt from a muddy
area onto a clean floor.
footstep ["fUt stEp] 1. n. a step made while walking. 2. n. the sound
made by a person’s step.
for [for] 1. prep. meant to be used by someone or something; meant to
belong to someone; meant to be given to someone. (Indicates who or
what will benefit.) 2. prep. meant to be used in doing something; with
a function or purpose connected with something. 3. prep. instead of
someone or something; in place of someone or something. 4. prep.
in favor of someone or something; in support of someone or something. 5. prep. in search of someone or something. (Indicates the target of the search.) 6. prep. in a certain amount; by the exchange of a
certain amount. 7. prep. during something; throughout a period of
time. 8. conj. because; since; as. (Formal.)
forbade and forbad [for "bed, for "bAd] pt of forbid.
forbid [for "bId] 1. tv., irreg. to prohibit something. (Pt: forbad or forbade; pp: forbidden.) 2. tv., irreg. to state that someone must not do
something; to prohibit someone from doing something.
forbidden [for "bId n] 1. pp of forbid. 2. adj. prohibited; banned; not
allowed.
force ["fors] 1. n. power; physical strength. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. military strength. (No pl.) 3. n. an influence; someone or something that is an influence. 4. n. a group of soldiers, police
172
forgot
officers, etc. 5. tv. to push or move something using Q. 6. tv. to make
someone do something, especially by the use of Q.
forearm 1. ["for arm] n. the lower part of the arm, between the elbow
and the wrist. 2. against [for "arm...] to prepare oneself for something before it happens. (Takes a reflexive object.)
forefront ["for [email protected]] in the place of greatest activity and visibility.
forehead ["for hEd] n. the part of the face between the eyebrows and
the hair.
foreign ["for In] adj. not native to one’s country; of or about a country other than one’s own. (Adv: foreignly.)
foreigner ["for @n #] n. someone who comes from another country;
someone who was born in another country.
foremost ["for most] 1. adj. first; most important. 2. adv. first; most
importantly.
foresaw [for "sO] pt of foresee.
foresee [for "si] tv., irreg. to be aware of something before it happens;
to imagine or predict that something will happen. (Pt: foresaw; pp:
foreseen. The object can be a clause with that U.)
foreseen [for "sin] pp of foresee.
forest ["for @st] n. a large area of land covered with trees.
forever [for "Ev #] adv. always; with no beginning and no end;
throughout all time.
foreword ["for w#d] n. the introduction to a book or speech; a preface. (Compare with forward.)
forfeit ["for fIt] tv. to give up something; to lose something as a punishment.
forgave [for "gev] pt of forgive.
forget [for "gEt] 1. tv., irreg. to lose a piece of information from one’s
memory. (Pt: forgot; pp: forgot or forgotten. The object can be a
clause with that U.) 2. tv., irreg. to leave someone or something
behind; not to take someone or something with oneself.
forgive [for "gIv] 1. tv., irreg. to pardon someone for an error or
wrongdoing. (Pt: forgave; pp: forgiven.) 2. tv., irreg. to cancel payment of a debt; to relieve someone of a debt before it is paid back.
forgiven [for "gIv @n] pp of forgive.
forgot [for "gat] pt of forget; a pp of forget.
173
forgotten
forgotten [for "gat n] a pp of forget.
fork ["fork] 1. n. an eating tool with a handle and two, three, or four
spikes, used to gather and hold food when eating. 2. n. the place
where something splits into two branches. 3. n. one of the two
branches that something splits into. 4. iv. to split into two branches.
form ["form] 1. n. a shape; the shape of someone or something; the
way someone or something is shaped. 2. n. a kind; a sort; a type. 3. n.
a document that has blank spaces on it that need to be filled with
information. 4. n. a word or part of a word. 5. iv. to come into being;
to be created. 6. tv. to develop something; to develop into something;
to cause something to come into being. 7. tv. to make up something;
to be a part of something.
formal ["form @l] 1. adj. according to custom; according to rules. (Adv:
formally.) 2. adj. [of behavior, language use, clothes, etc.] serious and
proper; [of a person or situation] having serious and proper behavior, dress, etc. (Adv: formally. See also informal.) 3. adj. [of clothing]
of the highest level or style prescribed by the rules of manners. (Adv:
formally.) 4. adj. [of an event] where fancy clothing as in E is
expected or required. (Adv: formally.) 5. n. a woman’s (usually long)
gown suitable for an event that is R.
format ["for mAt] 1. n. the way events are ordered or arranged; the
way things are placed on a page. 2. tv. to arrange something to look
a certain way, as with the order and arrangement in the pages of a
book or other document. (Pt/pp: formatted. Pres. part.: formatting.)
3. tv. to make a computer disk ready to accept information. (Pt/pp:
formatted. Pres. part.: formatting.)
former ["for m#] 1. adj. past; previous. (Prenominal only. Adv: formerly.) 2. the n. the first of two things mentioned. (No pl. Treated
as sg or pl, but not countable.)
formula ["form [email protected] [email protected]] 1. n., irreg. a series of symbols that show the
chemical ingredients of a substance. (Pl: formulas or formulae.) 2. n.,
irreg. a mathematical rule that is expressed with numbers or symbols.
(Pl: formulas or formulae.) 3. n. a pattern or a standard set of parts
or actions. (Fig. on W.) 4. n. animal milk or another milk substitute
for feeding babies. (No pl.)
formulae ["form [email protected] laI] a pl of formula.
forsake [for "sek] tv., irreg. to abandon someone or something; to give
someone or something up. (Pt: forsook; pp: forsaken.)
forsaken [for "sek @n] pp of forsake.
174
foul
forsook [for "sUk] pt of forsake.
fort ["fort] 1. n. a structure or building used for defense that can withstand enemy attack; a number of strong buildings behind a barrier.
2. n. a permanent military base.
forth ["forT] adv. forward; onward; outward.
forties n. the decade beginning in 1940; the 1940s. (Similar definitions
for twenties, thirties, fifties, sixties, seventies, eighties, nineties.)
fortieth ["for ti @T] 40th. Go to fourth.
fortress ["for trIs] n. a very strong building built to resist attacks. (See
also fort.)
fortunate ["for [email protected] nIt] 1. adj. lucky; bringing good results; representing good fortune. (Adv: fortunately.) 2. adj. having had good
luck. (Adv: fortunately.)
fortune ["for [email protected]] 1. n. good luck; success. (No pl.) 2. n. everything
that will happen to someone in the future. 3. n. a lot of money and
property that someone owns.
forty ["for ti] 1. n. the cardinal number 40; the number between 39
and 41. (No pl. Similar definitions for twenty, thirty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety. ) 2. adj. 40; consisting of 40 things; having 40
things. (Similar definitions for twenty, thirty, fifty, sixty, seventy,
eighty, ninety.) 3. pron. 40 people or things already mentioned or able
to be determined by context. (Similar definitions for twenty, thirty,
fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety.)
forum ["for @m] n. a meeting where someone can discuss something;
a place where someone can talk about something, especially items of
public interest.
forward ["for w#d] 1. adv. ahead; toward the front; into the future.
(Also forwards.) 2. adj. [moving] toward the front; [looking] into
the future. 3. tv. to have mail sent onward to a new address when one
moves.
fought ["fOt] pt/pp of fight.
foul ["faUl] 1. adj. dirty; nasty and rotten. (Adv: foully. Comp: fouler;
sup: foulest.) 2. adj. nasty; rude and unpleasant. (Adv: foully. Comp:
fouler; sup: foulest.) 3. adj. evil; really bad. (Fig. on Q. Adv: foully.
Comp: fouler; sup: foulest.) 4. adj. [of a ball] going outside the proper
playing area. (Sports.) 5. adj. [of weather] bad. (Adv: foully. Comp:
fouler; sup: foulest.) 6. tv. to make something dirty. 7. n. an action in
a game that is against the rules. 8. n. [in baseball] a ball that is hit
175
found
outside the proper playing area. 9. up to make an error. (Informal.)
found ["faUnd] 1. pt/pp of find. 2. tv. to establish an organization; to
provide money or support to help start an organization. (Pt/pp:
founded.)
foundation [faUn "de [email protected]] 1. n. the base of a building. (Rarely pl.)
2. n. the base of a custom or tradition; a basis. (Fig. on Q.) 3. n. an
institution that gives out money or grants to special causes.
fountain ["faUnt n] 1. n. a stream of water that sprays up into the air.
2. n. a structure—designed and built by humans—that sprays a
stream of water into the air.
four ["for] 1. n. the cardinal number 4; the number between 3 and 5.
(No pl. The ordinal form is fourth. Similar definitions for one, two,
three, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen.) 2. adj. 4; consisting of 4 things; having 4 things. (The ordinal form is fourth. This
covers other terms as in Q.) 3. pron. 4 people or things already mentioned or able to be determined by context. (The ordinal form is
fourth. This covers other terms as in Q.)
fourteen ["fort "tin] 14. Go to four.
fourteenth ["fort "tinT] 1. n. one of 14 equal parts. 2. adj. of the 14th
item in a series of things; of the item between the 13th and 15th in a
series; between the 13th and 15th. 3. pron. the 14th item in a series
of people or things already mentioned or able to be determined by
context.
fourth ["forT] 1. n. 4th; one of 4 equal parts; a quarter; a half of a half.
(Similar definitions for third, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth,
eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, twentieth, thirtieth, fortieth, fiftieth,
sixtieth, seventieth, eightieth, ninetieth, [one] hundredth, [one] thousandth, [one] millionth, [one] billionth, and [one] trillionth. See also
first, second.) 2. n. the 4th item in a series of people or things already
mentioned or able to be determined by context. (This covers other
terms as in Q. See also first, second.) 3. adj. of the 4th item in a series
of things; of the item between the 3rd and 5th in a series. (This covers other terms as in Q. See also first, second.) 4. adv. in the 4th position or rank. (This covers other terms as in Q. See also first, second.)
176
fray
fowl ["faUl] 1. n., irreg. one of a number of various kinds of birds of
limited flight, kept for their eggs or meat, such as the chicken, duck,
turkey, etc. (Pl: fowl or fowls.) 2. n. the meat of Q. (No pl.)
fox ["faks] 1. n. a wild animal related to the dog, having a bushy tail.
2. n. the fur or pelt of Q. (No pl.) 3. adj. made of W.
fraction ["frAk [email protected]] 1. n. a part of a whole number. 2. n. a small piece
or portion of something. (No pl.)
fracture ["frAk tS#] 1. n. a break or crack, especially a break in a bone.
2. tv. to break something by creating a crack in it. 3. iv. to break; to
crack.
fragile ["frAdZ @l] adj. easily broken; delicate. (Adv: fragilely.)
fragment ["frAg [email protected]] 1. n. a small piece of something. 2. iv. to break
into pieces or sections. 3. tv. to break something into pieces or sections.
fragrance ["fre [email protected]] n. a smell or scent that is pleasant.
fragrant ["fre [email protected]] adj. smelling good; having a nice smell. (Adv: fragrantly.)
frail ["frel] adj. thin and weak; not strong; easily hurt. (Adv: frailly.)
frame ["frem] 1. n. a structure that provides support for something.
2. n. a firm border that something, such as a door, a window, or a
picture, is set into. 3. n. the shape or form of a human body; the
structure of the body. 4. tv. to place something in W; to build W for
something. 5. tv. to cause someone to appear guilty of a crime by
manipulating evidence or lying.
frank ["frANk] adj. straightforward; truthful; honest; [of someone]
speaking the truth even if it “hurts.” (Adv: frankly. Comp: franker;
sup: frankest.)
frankfurter ["frANk f# t#] n. a meat-filled sausage named for Frankfurt, Germany; a hot dog.
frantic ["frAn tIk] adj. very excited; wild with emotion. (Adv: frantically [...Ik li].)
fraud ["frOd] 1. n. cheating; something done to deceive someone. (No
pl.) 2. n. a false or deceiving thing or act. 3. n. someone who pretends to be someone or something else.
fray ["fre] 1. tv. to cause a rope or string to unravel; to separate the
threads that make up string or rope. 2. iv. to unravel; to become worn
at the edges. 3. n. an argument; a brawl.
177
freak
freak ["frik] 1. n. someone or something that is not normally developed. (Not polite for humans.) 2. adj. very unusual. (Prenominal
only.)
freckle ["frEk @l] 1. n. one of many small dark dots on the skin. 2. iv.
to become covered with Q, usually because of exposure to the sun.
free ["fri] 1. adj. independent; not someone’s slave; not ruled by a bad
ruler. (Adv: freely. Comp: freer; sup: freest.) 2. adj. costing no money;
without cost. 3. adj. not limited; not restricted; not bound by rules.
(Adv: freely. Comp: freer; sup: freest.) 4. adj. not busy; available.
(Comp: freer; sup: freest.) 5. adj. generous; lavish; giving. (Adv: freely.
Comp: freer; sup: freest.) 6. adj. having an open path; having nothing in one’s way. 7. adv. without cost; without having to pay money.
8. tv. to release someone or something.
freedom ["fri [email protected]] 1. n. liberty; a state where one is free from constraint. (No pl.) 2. n. a right.
freeze ["friz] 1. iv., irreg. to become solid as the temperature gets
colder. (Pt: froze; pp: frozen.) 2. iv., irreg. [for someone or some creature] to become very cold in cold weather. 3. iv., irreg. to become
completely still; to stop all movement. (Fig. on Q.) 4. tv., irreg. to
turn something into ice; to cause something to harden as the temperature gets colder. 5. tv., irreg. to place food in a freezer so that it
stays fresh; to preserve something at an extremely low temperature.
6. tv., irreg. to cause someone or something to become completely
still. 7. tv., irreg. to keep the price of something at a certain level; not
to allow an amount to change. 8. n. a time when the temperature is
32 degrees Fahrenheit, 0 degrees centigrade, or below. 9. over [for
a body of water] to get cold and form a layer of ice on top. 10. up
[for something] to freeze as in E and stop functioning.
freezer ["friz #] n. an appliance that remains at a temperature below
32 degrees Fahrenheit in order to store and preserve food and other
things.
freight ["fret] 1. n. cargo; products that are carried by truck, plane,
train, etc. (No pl.) 2. n. the cost of shipping something as Q. 3. the
adj. use of Q or W.
French fry ["frEntS fraI] n. a long, narrow piece of potato that has been
fried in deep fat. (Usually pl. Can be shortened to fries.)
frenzy ["frEn zi] n. a wild fury; an excited state.
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frisk
frequency ["fri [email protected] si] 1. n. the rate of [something] happening; how
often an event occurs. (No pl.) 2. n. the number of times that something occurs within a given period of time.
frequent ["fri [email protected]] 1. adj. happening often; occurring often; common. (Adv: frequently.) 2. tv. to go to a certain place often.
fresh ["frES] 1. adj. new; newly or recently made, done, obtained, etc.,
especially if not yet used or changed. (Adv: freshly. Comp: fresher;
sup: freshest.) 2. adj. not stale; not spoiled; [of foods] not canned,
frozen, dried, or preserved in another way; [of fruits or vegetables]
recently picked or harvested. (Adv: freshly. Comp: fresher; sup: freshest.)
fret ["frEt] iv. to worry about something; to be upset.
friction ["frIk [email protected]] 1. n. rubbing against something that resists the rubbing. (No pl.) 2. n. the resistance that prevents one object from easily sliding over another object. (No pl.) 3. n. a disagreement because
of differences in opinions.
Friday [fraI de] Go to day.
friend ["frEnd] 1. n. someone whom someone else knows well and
likes. 2. n. someone or something that supports or helps someone or
something.
friendly ["frEnd li] adj. like a friend; nice, kind, or pleasant. (Comp:
friendlier; sup: friendliest.)
friendship ["frEnd SIp] n. being friends with someone. (Pl only for
types and instances.)
fries ["fraIz] n. French fries. (Treated as pl.)
fright ["fraIt] n. fear; terror; the condition of being scared. (No pl.)
frightened ["fraIt nd] adj. scared; afraid. (Adv: frightenedly.)
frightening ["fraIt n IN] adj. scary; filling one with fear; causing fear.
(Adv: frighteningly.)
frill ["frIl] 1. n. a decorative edge on cloth. 2. n. something that is an
added bonus but is not necessary. (Usually pl.)
fringe ["frIndZ] 1. n. a border for clothing or material, made of a row
of threads or strings hanging loose. 2. n. the edge of something;
something that is far away from the center. (Fig. on Q. Sometimes
pl with the same meaning.) 3. tv. to enclose something and serve as
its border.
frisk ["frIsk] tv. to pat and press on the body in a search for weapons,
drugs, evidence, or stolen property.
179
frog
frog ["frOg] n. a small creature, living in water and on land, that hops
and has special feet for swimming.
frolic ["fral Ik] 1. iv., irreg. to play; to have fun; to run and jump
around. (Pt/pp: frolicked. Pres. part. is frolicking.) 2. n. fun; fun entertainment. (No pl form in this sense.)
from ["fr^m] 1. prep. starting at a particular time or place; originating
at a particular time or place. 2. prep. a word indicating separation or
difference. 3. prep. out of someone or something. 4. prep. sent by
someone or something; given by someone or something. 5. prep.
because of something; owing to something.
front ["fr^nt] 1. n. the part of something that faces forward. 2. n. a
border between two masses of air of different temperatures or pressures. 3. n. the way one appears to other people; the way one seems
to be when around other people; an outward appearance. 4. iv. to face
in a certain direction. 5. adj. closest to Q. (Prenominal only.)
frontier [[email protected] "tIr] 1. n. a border; a line separating two states or countries. 2. n. the line separating settled areas from wild areas; the edge
of an undeveloped area.
frost ["frOst] 1. n. frozen moisture on the surface of something, especially the ground; small ice crystals on the surface of something. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. iv. to be covered with small ice crystals; to be covered with frozen moisture. 3. tv. to put frosting on a
cake or dessert.
frostbite ["frOst baIt] n. an injury caused by exposing skin to
extremely cold weather without protection. (No pl.)
frosting ["frOs tIN] n. a mixture of sugar and other things that is spread
on top of a cake or pastry. (Pl only for types and instances.)
froth ["frOT] n. foam; a mass of white bubbles that forms on top of liquids or around the mouth. (No pl.)
frown ["fraUn] 1. n. the opposite of a smile; the look on one’s face
made by pulling the eyebrows together and squinting the eyes. 2. iv.
to pull one’s eyebrows together and squint the eyes; to scowl; to look
angry.
froze ["froz] pt of freeze.
frozen ["froz @n] pp of freeze.
fruit ["frut] n. the part of a plant that contains seeds and can be eaten
as food. (Pl only for types and instances. Number is expressed with
piece(s) of fruit.)
180
funds
fruitcake ["frut kek] n. a cake that has dried fruit and spices in it.
fruitful ["frut fUl] adj. producing good results; beneficial; useful. (Adv:
fruitfully.)
frustrated ["[email protected] tre [email protected]] adj. disappointed and dissatisfied.
fry ["fraI] tv. to cook something in hot fat.
fuck ["f^k] 1. tv. to copulate [with] someone or some creature. (Taboo.
Potentially offensive. Use only with discretion. A highly offensive
word to many people. There are many additional meanings and constructions with the word.) 2. iv. to copulate. (Comments as with Q.)
fudge ["f^dZ] 1. n. a thick, rich chocolate candy. (No pl.) 2. iv. to
attempt to lie to or deceive someone. (Informal.)
fuel ["fjul] 1. n. material that is burned to make heat or energy. 2. tv.
to supply something with Q. 3. tv. to provide someone or something
with energy or encouragement. (Fig. on W.)
fugitive ["fjudZ I tIv] 1. n. someone who has run away from or is hiding from the law. 2. adj. hiding or escaping from the law; fleeing.
fulfill [fUl "fIl] 1. tv. to carry out an order, plan, or promise. 2. tv. to
satisfy a demand or a need.
full ["fUl] 1. adj. completely filled; having no empty space. (Adv: fully.
Comp: fuller; sup: fullest.) 2. adj. entire; complete; whole. (Adv: fully.)
3. adj. at the highest or greatest extent or amount possible.
full-time ["fUl "taIm] 1. adj. all the time; 24 hours a day. 2. adj. [of a
job that] takes up the working day, usually 8 hours a day, 5 days a
week. 3. adv. throughout the normal workweek.
fully ["fUl i] adv. completely; entirely; wholly.
fun ["f^n] 1. n. enjoyment, especially from play or amusement. (No
pl.) 2. adj. entertaining; playful. (Colloquial.)
function ["f^Nk [email protected]] 1. n. the proper use of something; the purpose
of something. 2. n. a social gathering; an event where people get
together and do things such as talk, drink, or celebrate. 3. iv. to work
properly; to operate; to be in proper use.
fund ["f^nd] 1. n. an amount of money that is reserved for a specific
reason. 2. n. an investment that is really a combination of other
investments, such as stocks and bonds. (Short for mutual fund.) 3. tv.
to provide someone or something with money; to provide money for
something.
funds n. money; an amount or supply of money. (Treated as pl, but not
countable.)
181
funeral
funeral ["fjun (@) [email protected]] 1. n. a ceremony performed when someone is
buried. 2. the adj. use of Q.
fungi ["f^n dZaI] a pl of fungus.
fungus ["f^N [email protected]] n., irreg. a plant that does not have leaves and is not
green, such as the mushroom. (Pl: fungi or funguses.)
funnel ["f^n @l] n. a cone-shaped device with a wide mouth and a narrow spout on the bottom, used when pouring liquids from one container into another.
funny ["f^n i] 1. adj. amusing; causing laughter. (Comp: funnier; sup:
funniest.) 2. adj. strange; weird; unusual; odd. (Comp: funnier; sup:
funniest.)
fur ["f#] 1. n. the short, soft hair that grows on many mammals. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. n. a coat or other garment made
from animal skin covered with Q. 3. adj. made from animal skin
covered with Q.
furious ["fj# i @s] adj. very angry; violently angry; very upset. (Adv:
furiously.)
furnace ["f# [email protected]] n. an oven that can be heated at very high temperatures to melt metal, heat a building, etc.
furnish ["f# nIS] 1. tv. to provide something; to supply something.
2. tv. to supply and arrange furniture in a place.
furniture ["f# nI tS#] n. the objects in a house, apartment, or office
that can be moved, such as tables, chairs, desks, etc. (No pl. Number
is expressed with piece(s) of furniture.)
furry ["f# i] adj. covered with fur; having fur. (Adv: furrily. Comp: furrier; sup: furriest.)
further ["f# D#] 1. adj. more distant in space or time. (One of the
comp. forms of far, along with farther.) 2. adv. more distant in space
or time. (One of the comp. forms of far, along with farther.) 3. adv.
to a greater degree or extent; to a more advanced level. (One of the
comp. forms of far, along with farther.) 4. tv. to advance or promote
someone or something.
furthermore ["f# D# mor] adv. also; in addition to what has been said
or stated.
furthest ["f# [email protected]] adj. the most distant in space or time. (One of the
sup. forms of far, along with farthest.)
fury ["fj# i] 1. n. violent anger; rage. (No pl.) 2. n. power or force.
182
fuzzy
fuse ["fjuz] 1. tv. to melt something together with something else; to
melt two things together. 2. iv. [for two or more things] to melt
together. 3. n. a part of an electrical circuit that melts and stops the
flow of electricity when there is a dangerous amount of electricity
flowing through the circuit.
fuss ["f^s] 1. iv. to whine and cry. 2. n. argument; complaining. (Informal.)
fussy ["f^s i] adj. hard to please; likely to complain about everything.
(Adv: fussily. Comp: fussier; sup: fussiest.)
futile ["fjut @l] adj. hopeless; useless; worthless. (Adv: futilely.)
future ["fju tS#] 1. adj. coming; yet to come; later. (Prenominal only.)
2. n. the time that is to come; events that will happen. (No pl.) 3. n.
the things that are planned for one’s life. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 4. n. the tense of verbs that describe actions that are to
happen or actions that will happen.
fuzz ["f^z] n. short, soft, light hairs. (No pl.)
fuzzy ["f^z i] adj. having fuzz; covered with fuzz. (Adv: fuzzily. Comp:
fuzzier; sup: fuzziest.)
183
G
gadget ["gAdZ It] n. any small, practical device, tool, or appliance.
gain ["gen] 1. tv. to get something; to obtain something; to acquire
something. 2. tv. [for a clock or watch] to reach a later time than it
should have. 3. tv. to earn or save time. 4. iv. to earn, get, or acquire
something of value. 5. n. a profit. (Often pl.) 6. n. an increase in
something.
galaxy ["gAl @k si] n. a large mass or cluster of stars and their solar systems in space.
gale ["gel] 1. n. a very strong wind. 2. n. an outburst, especially of
laughter. (Often pl.)
gall ["gOl] 1. n. bile, a bitter liquid made by the liver. (Especially of animals. No pl form.) 2. n. a sore spot on the hide of an animal, usually
caused by rubbing or chafing. 3. n. rudeness; impudence. (No pl
form.) 4. tv. to cause a sore to develop by rubbing or chafing. 5. tv.
to annoy or bother someone severely; to irritate someone. (Fig. on
R.)
gallant ["gAl @nt] adj. honorable and brave; very polite. (Refers especially to men who are very polite toward women. Adv: gallantly.)
gallery ["gAl @ ri] 1. n. a balcony, often running along a wall or outside a window. 2. n. a room or building where art is displayed.
gallon ["gAl @n] n. a unit of liquid measure, equal to 4 quarts, 8 pints,
or almost 3.8 liters.
gallop ["gAl @p] 1. n. a fast way that a horse runs. (In a gallop, all four
of the horse’s feet are off the ground at once during each stride.) 2. iv.
to move quickly; [for a horse] to run fast.
gambit ["gAm bIt] an initial movement or statement made to secure a
position that is to one’s advantage.
game ["gem] 1. n. a kind of contest, sporting event, or pastime played
according to a set of rules. 2. n. an instance of playing Q. 3. n. wild
animals that are hunted for sport or food. (No pl. Treated as a sg.)
gamut ["gAm @t] n. the entire range of something from one extreme
to the other. (No pl form.)
184
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gate
gang ["gAN] 1. n. a group of people who work, play, or do things
together. 2. n. a group of young criminals.
gangster ["gAN st#] n. a member of a gang of criminals; a thug.
gap ["gAp] 1. n. an opening created by a crack; an opening created
where two objects or structures do not meet. 2. n. an interruption in
time; a period of time between two events or the parts of an event.
3. n. an easily seen difference between two things or groups of people.
garage [[email protected] "raZ] n. a building, or a part of a building, used to store a
car or other motor vehicle.
garbage ["gar bIdZ] n. trash; rubbish; useless things that are thrown
away. (No pl.)
garden ["gard n] 1. n. a piece of land where plants, flowers, or vegetables are grown. 2. iv. to raise and take care of plants grown in Q.
gardener ["gard n#] n. someone who takes care of a garden; someone
who plants and nourishes plants in a garden.
garlic ["gar lIk] 1. n. a strong-smelling plant whose bulb is made of
small segments, used as a flavoring in cooking. (No pl form in this
sense.) 2. adj. made from or with Q.
garment ["gar [email protected]] n. an article of clothing; a piece of clothing.
gas ["gAs] 1. n. vapor; a substance that is not in a liquid or solid state
at a temperature that is comfortable for people. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. a naturally occurring vapor that will burn and is used
for cooking and heating. (No pl.) 3. n. gasoline, the liquid that is
made from petroleum and is used to operate motors and engines. (Pl
only for types and instances.)
gash ["gAS] 1. n. a large or deep cut or wound; a slash. 2. tv. to slash
or cut something.
gasoline [gAs @ "lin] n. a liquid that is made from oil and is used to
operate motors and engines. (Pl only for types and instances.)
gasp ["gAsp] 1. n. a quick, short inward breath; a quick breathing in
of air. 2. iv. to breathe in suddenly as in surprise, shock, fear, etc.
gate ["get] 1. n. a barrier that can be opened or closed at an opening
in a fence or wall. 2. n. a decorative structure, including Q, serving
as a formal entrance to a park, cemetery, street, etc. 3. n. the place
where people enter a stadium, arena, etc. 4. n. the entrance to the
passage to an airplane in an airport.
185
gather
gather ["gAD #] 1. tv. to bring something together; to collect something together; to bring people together. 2. tv. to gain or increase in
something, especially speed or intensity. 3. iv. to come together into
a big group.
gathering ["gAD # IN] n. a group of people; a group of people who
have come together for a specific purpose.
gauge ["gedZ] 1. n. a device or instrument for displaying a measurement. 2. n. a measurement of the scope or range of something. 3. n.
the diameter of the barrel of a shotgun or of a wire or the thickness
of a sheet of metal. 4. n. the distance between the two rails of a track
or between the two wheels on an axle. 5. tv. to estimate a distance.
gauze ["gOz] n. a thin, loosely woven cloth. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
gave ["gev] pt of give.
gay ["ge] 1. adj. happy; cheerful; brightly colored. (Adv: gaily. Comp:
gayer; sup: gayest.) 2. adj. [of someone, usually a male] attracted to
people of the same sex. (Comp: gayer; sup: gayest.) 3. n. a person who
is W, usually a male.
gaze ["gez] n. an intent stare.
gear ["gIr] 1. n. a wheel, with teeth along its edge, that moves similar
wheels of differing diameters. 2. n. equipment; tools; the things
required to do a certain activity. (No pl. Treated as sg.)
geese ["gis] pl of goose.
gem ["dZEm] 1. n. a jewel; a precious stone, especially one used in jewelry. 2. n. someone or something that is very beautiful or wonderful;
a perfect example of someone or something. (Fig. on Q.)
gender ["dZEn d#] 1. n. [in grammar] a subdivision of nouns into
masculine, feminine, and, sometimes, neuter categories. 2. n. sex E;
the condition of being male or female.
gene ["dZin] n. a part of a chromosome within every living cell that
determines a characteristic of a plant or animal.
general ["dZEn @ [email protected]] 1. adj. widespread; commonly known, understood, believed, or experienced. (Adv: generally.) 2. adj. not specific;
not specialized. (Adv: generally.) 3. adj. usual; regular; appropriate
to most situations. (Adv: generally.) 4. n. a high-ranking army or air
force officer.
generally ["dZEn (@) [email protected] li] 1. adv. usually; commonly. 2. adv. by almost
everyone. 3. adv. in a way that does not consider details or specifics.
186
get
generate ["dZEn @ ret] tv. to cause something to come into being.
generation [dZEn @ "re [email protected]] 1. n. producing or creating something.
(No pl.) 2. n. one stage in the history of a family. 3. n. all the people
of the same culture who were born around the same time, taken as a
group.
generous ["dZEn @ [email protected]] 1. adj. not selfish; giving freely. (Adv: generously.) 2. adj. [of an amount] more than is needed; [of an amount]
large. (Adv: generously.)
genius ["dZin [email protected]] 1. n. someone who is very smart, especially someone who is much smarter than most of the population. 2. n. someone who has a very impressive talent or skill in a specific area. (Fig.
on Q.) 3. n. the talent or skill of W. (No pl form in this sense.)
gentle ["dZEn [email protected]] adj. pleasantly mild; not rough; tame; kind. (Adv:
gently ["dZEnt li]. Comp: gentler; sup: gentlest.)
gentleman ["dZEn tl [email protected]] 1. n., irreg. a man who is refined, polite, and
well mannered. (The male counterpart of lady. Pl: gentlemen.) 2. n.,
irreg. a polite term for man Q.
gentlemen ["dZEn tl [email protected]] pl of gentleman.
gently ["dZEnt li] 1. adv. in a kind way; in a way that does not cause
pain or worry. 2. adv. smoothly; mildly; not roughly.
genuine ["dZEn ju In] 1. adj. real; actual; not fake; not artificial. (Adv:
genuinely.) 2. adj. sincere. (Adv: genuinely.)
geography [dZi "a [email protected] fi] n. the study of the features of the surface of
earth, including the land and climate, countries, and the people and
cultures of the countries. (No pl.)
geology [dZi "al @ dZi] n. the study of the origin and the structure of
earth. (No pl.)
geometry [dZi "am I tri] 1. n. the part of mathematics that deals with
the relationships and properties of points, lines, curves, angles, surfaces, and solids. (No pl.) 2. the adj. use of Q.
germ ["dZ#m] n. a very small organism that causes disease.
gesture ["dZEs tS#] 1. n. a movement made with a part of the body to
communicate or to emphasize a statement, emotion, or feeling. 2. n.
an act of kindness or courtesy; an act that demonstrates friendship.
3. iv. to use hand motions and facial movements when communicating; to make Q.
get ["gEt] 1. tv., irreg. to obtain something; to receive something. (Pt:
got; pp: got or gotten .) 2. tv., irreg. to bring something; to fetch
187
ghost
something. 3. tv., irreg. to understand something; to comprehend
something. 4. tv., irreg. to cause something to happen to someone or
something; to cause someone or something to be a certain way. 5. iv.,
irreg. to become. 6. iv., irreg. to arrive somewhere; to reach a certain
point or place. (Followed by an adverb such as home, there, or somewhere or by a prepositional phrase.)
ghost ["gost] n. an apparent image of a dead person, moving among
the living.
giant ["dZaI @nt] 1. n. a fictional or mythical humanlike creature who
is very, very large. 2. n. an unusually large person or animal. 3. n. a
person who is very important or known to be excellent at something.
4. adj. very large; enormous. (Prenominal only.)
gift ["gIft] 1. n. a present; something that is given to someone without
expecting anything in return. 2. n. a special skill or talent.
giraffe [[email protected] "rAf] n. an African animal that has long legs and a very
long neck.
girder ["g#d #] n. a large metal support beam used in building bridges
and buildings.
girl ["g#l] 1. n. a female child. 2. n. a woman. (Informal. Considered
derogatory by some.) 3. n. a man’s girlfriend. (Informal.)
girlfriend ["g#l frEnd] 1. n. a woman with whom someone is romantically involved. 2. n. a female friend.
give ["gIv] 1. tv., irreg. to cause someone or something to have or
receive something; to cause something to become owned by someone. (Pt: gave; pp: given.) 2. tv., irreg. to supply something; to provide something. 3. tv., irreg. to make some sort of a sound with the
mouth. 4. iv., irreg. to be flexible; to be elastic; not to break when
pushed or pulled. 5. up to quit. 6. in to yield; to agree finally.
7. out to stop functioning; to wear out.
given ["gIv @n] pp of give.
glad ["glAd] 1. adj. happy; content; pleased; joyful. (Adv: gladly. Comp:
gladder; sup: gladdest.) 2. adj. causing happiness, pleasure, or joy.
(Adv: gladly. Comp: gladder; sup: gladdest.)
glamour ["glAm #] n. charm and beauty. (No pl.)
glance ["glAns] n. a brief look toward someone or something.
glare ["glE#] 1. n. a harsh, angry stare. 2. n. strong, bright light. (No
pl.) 3. iv. to stare angrily.
188
glove
glass ["glAs] 1. n. a hard, stiff, easily broken, usually clear substance,
used to make windows, drinking glasses as in W, eyeglasses, etc. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. n. a container that is used to drink
from, usually made of Q. (The glass for drinking does not have a
handle.) 3. n. the contents of W.
glasses n. eyeglasses. (Treated as pl. Short for eyeglasses. Number is
expressed with pair(s) of glasses.)
glee ["gli] n. great happiness. (No pl.)
gleeful ["gli fUl] adj. very happy; joyful. (Adv: gleefully.)
glide ["glaId] 1. iv. to move smoothly. 2. iv. to move through the air
without engine power.
glimmer ["glIm #] 1. n. a brief flicker of light; a faint light that glows
and then fades. 2. n. a tiny bit of certain abstract things. (Fig. on Q.)
3. iv. to briefly flicker; to give off a faint light that glows and subsides.
4. iv. [for an abstract quality] to appear only for a very short time.
glisten ["glIs @n] iv. to shine with reflected light; to sparkle with
reflected light.
global ["glob @l] adj. of or about the whole world; worldwide. (Adv:
globally.)
globe ["glob] 1. n. a ball; a sphere. 2. n. a ball or sphere with a map of
the world on it. 3. n. the earth; the world.
gloom ["glum] n. the feeling of sadness and dullness. (No pl.)
gloomy ["glum i] adj. dark; dim; sad; depressing. (Adv: gloomily.
Comp: gloomier; sup: gloomiest.)
glorify ["glor @ faI] 1. tv. to honor or worship someone; to praise someone or something. 2. tv. to exaggerate the importance of someone or
something.
glorious ["glor i @s] adj. beautiful; splendid; wonderful. (Adv: gloriously.)
glory ["glor i] 1. n. praise and honor. (No pl.) 2. n. something of great
beauty or wonder.
glossary ["glOs @ ri] n. a list of words and their definitions, as used
within a particular book or article.
glove ["gl^v] n. one of a pair of fitted coverings for the hand, typically
made of fabric or leather and having individual “pockets” for each
finger and thumb.
189
glow
glow ["glo] 1. iv. to shine; to give off a weak light. 2. iv. to be very hot;
to be so hot as to be red, yellow, or white with heat. 3. iv. to be very
excited with emotion or energy. 4. iv. to show a healthy appearance;
to have bright red cheeks. 5. n. a weak light.
glue ["glu] 1. n. a thick, sticky liquid that is used to make something
stick to something else; an adhesive. (Pl only for types and instances.)
2. tv. to stick something to something else using Q.
glum ["gl^m] adj. sad; disappointed. (Adv: glumly. Comp: glummer;
sup: glummest.)
glut ["gl^t] 1. n. too much of something. 2. tv. to supply someone or
something with too much of something.
glutton ["gl^t n] n. someone who eats or drinks too much.
gnash ["nAS] tv. to bite and slash with the teeth.
gnat ["nAt] n. a small fly that bites.
gnaw ["nO] 1. tv. to bite or chew away at something piece by piece.
2. at; on to bite or chew away at something piece by piece.
3. at; on (Fig. on W.) to cause constant pain or worry.
go ["go] 1. iv., irreg. to move from one place to another; [for time] to
progress or pass. 2. tv., irreg. to practice or perform certain sports
activities, such as running, swimming, canoeing, fencing, jogging,
skiing, walking, or other activities expressed with words ending in
-ing. (Pt: went; pp: gone . The third-person sg pres. tense is goes. )
3. iv., irreg. to leave. 4. iv., irreg. to reach a certain time or place; to
extend to a certain time or place. 5. iv., irreg. to work; to function.
6. iv., irreg. to become. 7. iv., irreg. to become worn-out; to weaken.
8. iv., irreg. to belong in a certain place. 9. iv., irreg. [for the activities in a period of time] to unfold in some way, good or bad. 10. iv.,
irreg. to progress through a series of words or musical notes.
goal ["gol] 1. n. an aim; a purpose; a result that one would like to
achieve from doing something. 2. n. [in sports] a place where players try to send a ball in order to score points. 3. n. [in sports] an
instance of sending a ball through or past W, and the points earned
by doing this. 4. n. the finish line; the end point of a race.
goalie ["go li] n. a goalkeeper. (A shortening of goalkeeper.)
goalkeeper ["gol kip #] n. [in sports] the player whose position is in
front of the team’s goal and who tries to prevent players on the other
team from scoring.
goat ["got] n. an animal with horns, similar to a sheep.
190
good-bye
gobble ["gab @l] 1. down; up to eat all of one’s food very quickly.
2. iv. [for a turkey] to make a noise; to make a noise like a turkey.
3. n. the noise that a turkey makes.
god ["gad] 1. n. a male spiritual being who is worshiped. (Compare
this with goddess.) 2. n. someone or something admired as Q. 3. n.
[in religions such as Christianity, Islam, and Judaism] the one spiritual being that is worshiped as the creator and ruler of everything.
(Capitalized. No pl.)
goddess ["gad @s] n. a female spiritual being who is worshiped.
goes ["goz] the third-person sg, pres. tense of go.
goggles ["gOg @lz] n. a pair of protective lenses that are worn during
swimming, skiing, biking, and other activities. (Treated as pl. Number is expressed with pair(s) of goggles.)
gold ["gold] 1. n. a chemical element that is a soft, yellow metal, is very
valuable, and is the standard for money in many countries. (No pl.)
2. n. coins or jewelry made of Q. (No pl.) 3. n. a deep yellow color.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 4. adj. made of Q. 5. adj. deep yellow in color. (Comp: golder; sup: goldest.)
golden ["gol [email protected]] 1. adj. made from gold; yellowish as if made from
gold. 2. adj. [of anniversaries] the fiftieth.
goldfish ["gold fIS] n., irreg. a kind of small fish, typically orange or
gold, commonly kept as a pet. (Pl: goldfish.)
golf ["gOlf] 1. n. a game played on a large area of land, where players
use a club to hit a small ball into a hole, using as few strokes as possible. (No pl.) 2. iv. to play Q.
gone ["gOn] pp of go.
good ["gUd] 1. adj., irreg. having positive qualities; satisfactory; suitable; not negative. (Adv: well. Comp: better; sup: best.) 2. adj., irreg.
having proper morals; moral; not evil. 3. adj., irreg. enjoyable; pleasant; satisfying. (Adv: well. Comp: better; sup: best .) 4. adj., irreg.
complete; thorough; full. (Adv: well. Comp: better; sup: best.) 5. adj.,
irreg. skillful; talented; able to do something right. (Adv: well. Comp:
better; sup: best.) 6. adj., irreg. properly behaved; obedient. (Comp:
better; sup: best .) 7. adj. ripe; edible; not spoiled; not rotten. 8. n.
excellence; virtue; goodness. (No pl.)
good-bye [gUd "baI] 1. interj. farewell, as said when someone leaves.
2. adj. of or about leaving; of or about a departure.
191
goodness
goodness ["gUd [email protected]] n. being good, ethical, and right. (No pl form in
this sense.)
goods n. items for sale; products that are made to be sold. (Treated as
pl, but not countable.)
goose ["gus] n., irreg. a bird having a long neck and similar to a large
duck. (Pl: geese.)
gorilla [[email protected] "rIl @] n. the largest kind of ape.
Gospel ["gas [email protected]] n. one of the first four books of the New Testament
of the Bible.
gossip ["gas @p] 1. n. talk about other people, which may or may not
be true; rumors about other people. (No pl.) 2. n. someone who often
talks about other people and other people’s private lives. 3. iv. to talk
about other people and their private lives; to spread rumors about
other people.
got ["gat] pt and a pp of get.
gotten ["gat n] a pp of get.
gourmet [gor "me] 1. n. someone who enjoys fine foods and wine.
2. adj. [of food and drink] produced according to the highest cooking standards.
govern ["g^v #n] 1. iv. to rule [over someone or something]; to be the
leader of a group of people. 2. tv. to rule or lead a group of people.
3. tv. to guide, control, or regulate something.
government ["g^v #n [email protected]] 1. n. the system of rule over a country
and its people. (No pl.) 2. n. the political organization ruling in a particular area. 3. the adj. use of Q or W. (Also governmental.)
governor ["g^v # n#] 1. n. the title of the executive officer of each
state of the United States. 2. n. someone who governs or rules certain organizations. 3. n. a device that controls the speed of a car or
other vehicle, either keeping it at a constant speed or not allowing it
to go over a certain speed.
gown ["gaUn] 1. n. a formal dress for a woman. 2. n. a nightgown. 3. n.
a type of loose ceremonial covering or robe such as is worn at graduation ceremonies.
grab ["grAb] 1. tv. to seize and hold someone or something; to snatch
someone or something; to take something rudely. 2. tv. to get and
bring something; to fetch something. (Informal.) 3. n. an act of seizing as in Q.
192
grammar
grace ["gres] 1. n. elegance, smoothness, or attractiveness of form or
motion. (No pl.) 2. n. calm and tolerant elegance. (No pl.) 3. n. favor;
mercy; favorable regard. (No pl.) 4. n. a prayer said before eating.
(No pl.) 5. tv. to make something more beautiful or elegant; to add
beauty or elegance to something.
graceful ["gres fUl] adj. moving with smoothness and grace; elegant
in appearance. (Adv: gracefully.)
gracious ["gre [email protected]] 1. adj. kind; courteous; pleasant. (Adv: graciously.)
2. adj. of or about great comfort and good taste. (Adv: graciously.)
3. adj. merciful; showing love and mercy. (Adv: graciously.) 4. interj.
a mild expression of wonder or surprise.
grade ["gred] 1. n. a level in school corresponding to a year of study.
2. n. a mark, given to a student for a class, test, paper, or assignment,
that shows how well or how poorly the student did. 3. n. a degree of
quality. 4. n. the slope of a road, roof, terrace, etc. 5. tv. to give W
for the work of a student.
gradual ["grA dZu @l] adj. moving, happening, or changing a little bit
at a time; slow. (Adv: gradually.)
graduate 1. ["grA dZu @t] n. someone who has completed high school,
college, or university. 2. ["grA dZu et] tv. to depart from a school, college, or university with a degree.
graduation [grA dZu "e [email protected]] 1. n. the ceremony where students
become graduates Q. 2. n. one of a series of marks on something,
showing the units of measurement.
grain ["gren] 1. n. grass or cereal plants grown for their edible seeds.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. seeds of Q. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 3. n. an individual seed of Q. 4. n. a tiny particle of
something, such as sand or salt. 5. n. a very small unit of weight,
equal to about 64.8 milligrams. 6. n. the pattern or direction of the
fibers of wood. (Pl only for types and instances.)
gram ["grAm] n. the basic unit for measuring weight in the metric system, equal to ¹⁄₁ of a kilogram or about ¹⁄₂₈ of an ounce.
grammar ["grAm #] 1. n. a system of rules and principles in a language that determines how sentences are formed; the study of sentence structure and the relationships between words within
sentences. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a statement of the
rules of a language that accounts for how sentences are formed, especially the description of what the standard form of the language is
193
grand
like. 3. n. following the rules of W in the use of written and spoken
language. (No pl.)
grand ["grAnd] 1. adj. impressive; magnificent. (Adv: grandly. Comp:
grander; sup: grandest.) 2. n. a thousand dollars. (Slang. No pl.)
grandchild ["grAn(d) tSaIld] n., irreg. a child of one’s child. (Pl: grandchildren.)
grandchildren ["grAn(d) tSIl [email protected]] pl of grandchild.
granddad ["grAn dAd] n. grandfather; the father of one’s mother or
father. (Also a term of address. Capitalized when written as a proper
noun.)
granddaughter ["grAn dOt #] n. the daughter of one’s son or daughter.
grandfather ["grAn(d) fa D#] n. the father of one’s mother or father.
(Also a term of address. Capitalized when written as a proper noun.)
grandma ["grAm ma] n. grandmother; the mother of one’s mother or
father. (Also a term of address. Capitalized when written as a proper
noun.)
grandmother ["grAn(d) [email protected] #] n. the mother of one’s mother or
father. (Also a term of address. Capitalized when written as a proper
noun.)
grandpa ["grAm pa] n. grandfather; the father of one’s mother or
father. (Also a term of address. Capitalized when written as a proper
noun.)
grandparent ["grAn(d) pEr @nt] n. a grandmother or a grandfather;
the parent of one’s parent. (The pl usually refers to one or more pairs
consisting of a grandmother and a grandfather.)
grandson ["grAn(d) [email protected]] n. the son of one’s child.
grandstand ["grAn(d) stAnd] n. the area where people sit at a racetrack, ball field, and the like.
grant ["grAnt] 1. n. money that is given by a government or a private
agency for a worthy purpose. 2. tv. to give something formally to
someone. 3. tv. to give permission for something to someone; to give
someone permission for something. 4. tv. to concede that something
is true; to admit to someone that something is true. (The object is a
clause with that U.)
grape ["grep] 1. n. a red, green, or purple fruit that grows in bunches
on vines. 2. adj. made of or flavored with Q.
194
greasy
graph ["grAf] 1. n. a drawing that shows the difference between two
or more amounts or the changes in amounts through time. 2. tv. to
place information on Q; to make Q.
graphic arts and graphics ["grAf Ik "arts] n. the arts that involve
painting, drawing, and images displayed by various means. (Treated
as sg or pl.)
graphics Go to graphic arts.
grass ["grAs] n. a plant with thin blades instead of leaves. (Pl only for
types and instances.)
grateful ["gret fUl] adj. feeling or showing gratitude toward someone
or something; feeling or showing appreciation; thankful. (Adv: gratefully.)
gratitude ["grAt @ tud] n. the quality of being thankful; a feeling or
expression of thanks. (No pl.)
grave ["grev] 1. n. the place where someone is buried; a burial site.
2. n. the actual hole that someone is buried in. 3. adj. very serious;
dire. (Adv: gravely.)
gravel ["grAv @l] n. crushed rock; pebbles about the size of peas. (Pl
only for types and instances.)
graveyard ["grev jard] n. a cemetery; a place where dead people are
buried.
gravity ["grAv @ ti] 1. n. the force that pulls things toward the center
of planets, stars, moons, etc.; the force that pulls things toward the
center of the earth. (No pl.) 2. n. seriousness; importance. (No pl.)
gravy ["gre vi] 1. n. the juice that drips from meat when it cooks. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. n. a sauce made from Q, often
thickened with flour or something similar. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
gray ["gre] 1. n. the color made when white is mixed with black. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. n. the color gray as in Q, when
found in the hair. (No pl.) 3. the adj. form of Q. (Adv: grayly. Comp:
grayer; sup: grayest.) 4. iv. [for hair] to become E; [for someone] to
develop W.
grease 1. ["gris] n. melted animal fat or any similarly oily substance.
(No pl.) 2. ["gris, "griz] tv. to coat something with Q.
greasy ["gris i] adj. oily; like grease; coated with grease. (Adv: greasily.
Comp: greasier; sup: greasiest.)
195
great
great ["gret] 1. adj. large in size or importance. (Adv: greatly. Comp:
greater; sup: greatest.) 2. adj. good; very good. (Adv: greatly. Comp:
greater; sup: greatest.) 3. interj. Super!; Wonderful! (Sometimes used
sarcastically.)
greatly ["gret li] adv. very much.
greed ["grid] n. a strong desire for money, possessions, or power. (No
pl.)
greedy ["gri di] adj. showing greed; desiring money, possessions, or
power too strongly. (Adv: greedily. Comp: greedier; sup: greediest.)
green ["grin] 1. n. the color of grass or of the leaves of trees in the summer; the color made when blue and yellow are mixed together. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. n. a grassy area. 3. adj. of the color
of grass. (Comp: greener; sup: greenest.) 4. adj. unripe; not yet ripe
or mature. (Comp: greener; sup: greenest.) 5. adj. without experience;
young. (Fig. on R. Comp: greener; sup: greenest.)
greenhouse ["grin haUs] n., irreg. a building with a glass roof and glass
walls where the temperature is controlled so that plants can grow
inside all year round. (Pl: [...haU [email protected]].)
greens n. the leaves of certain plants eaten as food. (Treated as pl.)
greet ["grit] tv. to welcome someone; to address someone, especially
upon meeting or arrival.
greeting ["gri tIN] n. a word, phrase, or action—such as Hello—said
or done when meeting someone or when answering the telephone.
grew ["gru] pt of grow.
grid ["grId] 1. n. a series of lines arranged vertically and horizontally
forming squares, especially as found on maps or graphs. 2. n. a series
of rods, bars, or wires arranged as in Q. 3. n. a network of electrical
lines spread over a large area; a network of roads.
grief ["grif] n. sorrow; distress. (No pl.)
grill ["grIl] 1. n. a grid of metal rods set over a fire, on which food is
placed to cook; a barbecue Q. 2. n. an outdoor stove that cooks food
placed on a framework of rows of metal bars. 3. tv. to cook food on
Q or W. 4. tv. to question someone forcefully and thoroughly. 5. iv.
[for food] to be cooked on Q or W.
grille ["grIl] 1. n. a grate above the front bumper of a car in front of
the radiator. (Compare this with grill .) 2. n. a grid of metal bars
placed in a door or window.
196
ground
grim ["grIm] 1. adj. not likely to turn out well. (Adv: grimly. Comp:
grimmer; sup: grimmest.) 2. adj. [looking] stern and harsh. (Adv:
grimly. Comp: grimmer; sup: grimmest.)
grime ["graIm] n. thick, oily dirt. (No pl.)
grin ["grIn] 1. n. a big smile. 2. iv. to smile widely so that one’s teeth
show.
grind ["graInd] 1. tv., irreg. to make something into a powder or tiny
chunks, by crushing or pounding it. (Pt/pp: ground.) 2. tv., irreg. to
rub things together with force.
grindstone ["graInd ston] n. a thick, round wheel of stone that is used
to sharpen knives.
grip ["grIp] 1. tv. to hold someone or something tightly with one’s
hands. 2. n. a tight hold on someone or something.
gripe ["graIp] n. a complaint.
groan ["gron] 1. n. a loud, deep noise of pain, disappointment, or disapproval. 2. iv. to make a loud, deep noise of pain, disappointment,
or disapproval. 3. iv. [for an enormous bulk] to make a deep noise or
creak.
grocer ["gro s#] n. someone who owns or runs a grocery store; someone who sells food and basic supplies.
groceries ["gros riz] n. items bought at a grocery store. (Treated as pl,
but not countable.)
grocery ["gros ri] adj. having to do with food bought and sold at a
store.
groom ["grum] 1. n. a man who is getting married. 2. tv. to clean and
comb a horse. 3. tv. to make someone’s hair neat. 4. tv. to prepare
someone for a specific duty.
groove ["gruv] 1. n. a long, narrow channel cut into a surface. 2. n.
the continuous, circular channel on a phonograph record in which
the needle rests. 3. tv. to cut Q into something.
grope ["grop] 1. iv. to search with one’s hands. 2. for to search for
something with one’s hands.
ground ["graUnd] 1. pt/pp of grind. 2. adj. broken or chopped into
powder or into tiny chunks by grinding. 3. n. the surface of the earth.
(No pl.) 4. tv. to cause a pilot, airplane, or bird to stay on the surface
of the earth. (Pt/pp: grounded.) 5. tv. to make someone stay in a certain place as punishment. (Fig. on R. Pt/pp: grounded.) 6. tv. to
197
grounds
make an electrical device safer by extending a wire into E. (Pt/pp:
grounded.)
grounds n. the remains of powdered coffee beans after coffee has been
made from them. (Treated as pl, but not countable.)
group ["grup] 1. n. a number of people or things considered as a unit;
a category. 2. tv. to arrange people or things into categories; to place
things or people together in Q.
grove ["grov] n. a small forest; woods; a group of trees.
grow ["gro] 1. tv., irreg. to care for plants, causing them to mature. (Pt:
grew; pp: grown.) 2. iv., irreg. to become bigger, larger, or more powerful; to increase. 3. iv., irreg. to become a certain way.
growl ["graUl] 1. n. a deep, threatening sound, especially one made in
anger. 2. iv. to make a deep, threatening sound; to say something in
a deep, threatening way, especially when angry or irritated.
grown ["gron] 1. pp of grow. 2. adj. fully developed; adult; mature;
ripe.
growth ["groT] 1. n. development; the amount someone or something
develops in a certain period of time. (No pl.) 2. n. an increase; the
process of becoming bigger, larger, or more powerful. (No pl.) 3. n.
an unnatural or unhealthy lump of tissue; a tumor.
grudge ["gr^dZ] n. a resentment held toward someone.
gruff ["gr^f] 1. adj. rough in behavior; surly. (Adv: gruffly. Comp:
gruffer; sup: gruffest.) 2. adj. [of a voice or sound] deep and hoarse.
(Adv: gruffly. Comp: gruffer; sup: gruffest.)
grumble ["gr^m [email protected]] 1. iv. to speak with a low, indistinct, and possibly complaining voice. 2. iv. [for something] to make a low rumbling
noise, indicating stress or heaviness. (Fig. on Q.) 3. n. a low, indistinct voice.
guarantee [gEr @n "ti] 1. n. a written document that promises that a
certain product will operate properly for a certain amount of time.
2. n. a written or verbal promise that one will be responsible for
something, especially for certain debts or actions. 3. tv. to promise
that something will be done. (The object can be a clause with that
U.) 4. tv. to promise to be responsible for certain debts, actions, or
results. 5. tv. to provide Q, promising that a product will work properly for a period of time.
guard ["gard] 1. n. someone or some creature that watches and protects someone or something. 2. the adj. use of Q. 3. tv. to protect
198
gust
someone or something; to keep someone or something from escaping.
guess ["gEs] 1. n. an opinion or statement that is given without really
knowing what is true. 2. tv. to make a successful try at figuring out
the right answer to a question. (The object can be a clause with that
U.) 3. tv. to think that something will probably happen; to suppose
that something will happen. (The object is a clause with that U.)
guest ["gEst] 1. n. someone who visits another person’s home because
of an invitation. 2. n. someone who is taken to dinner or to a place
of entertainment by someone else, who is paying for it. 3. n. someone who is invited by an organization or government to make a visit.
4. n. a customer of a hotel, motel, etc.
guide ["gaId] 1. n. someone who shows someone else the way. 2. n.
someone who leads tours. 3. n. a book or chart of information about
a thing or a place. 4. tv. to lead someone to the right place. 5. tv. to
lead a tour. 6. tv. to direct the business of something; to control
something. 7. tv. to advise someone.
guilt ["gIlt] 1. n. the feeling that one has done something wrong or bad.
(No pl.) 2. n. the burden or responsibility of having done something
wrong or bad. (No pl.)
guilty ["gIl ti] adj. having broken a rule or done something wrong;
judged in a court to have done a crime; not innocent. (Adv: guiltily.
Comp: guiltier; sup: guiltiest.)
gulf ["g^lf] 1. n. an area of sea, larger than a bay, surrounded by land
on two or three sides. 2. n. a large or wide separation. (Fig. on Q.)
gulp ["g^lp] 1. n. the swallowing of a large amount of food, drink, or
air. 2. n. a large mouthful; a large breath of air; a large bite of food
or drink. 3. down to swallow food, drink, or air quickly.
gum ["g^m] 1. n. a soft, sticky, flavored substance that people chew.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. the upper or lower ridge of
flesh that covers the jaw bones and surrounds the bases of the teeth.
gun ["g^n] 1. n. a weapon that shoots bullets. 2. n. a device or tool that
has a handle and trigger like Q, used for applying or installing something.
gush ["g^S] 1. n. a large flow of a fluid. 2. iv. to flow out rapidly and
in large amounts. 3. tv. to allow a fluid to flow; to make fluid flow.
gust ["g^st] 1. n. a strong rush of wind or smoke. 2. iv. [for the wind]
to move in short, strong bursts.
199
gut
gut ["g^t] 1. n. the area of the intestine or stomach. (No pl.) 2. tv. to
take the intestines and organs out of an animal.
guts 1. n. the intestines. (Treated as pl, but not countable. Colloquial.)
2. n. courage. (Treated as pl, but not countable. Colloquial.)
gutter ["g^t #] 1. n. a metal channel hanging on the edge of a roof to
carry away water when it rains. 2. n. the wide, wooden channel on
either side of a bowling lane. 3. n. on a street, a lower, formed channel that leads water and other waste to the entrance of a sewer.
guy ["gaI] 1. n. a man; a boy. (Informal.) 2. n. a person, male or female,
especially in the pl. (Informal.)
gym ["dZIm] 1. n. a gymnasium. 2. the adj. use of Q.
gymnasium [dZIm "nez i @m] n. a large room or building for physical
education, physical training, or certain sports events such as basketball and wrestling. (Can be shortened to gym.)
200
H
habit ["hAb It] 1. n. an action that is done over and over, usually without thinking about it. 2. n. an addiction; a strong need for drugs,
tobacco, alcohol, etc. 3. n. the uniform worn by a monk or a nun.
had ["hAd] 1. pt/pp of have. 2. aux. the pt form of have T, used in
forming the past perfect verb form. (Used before the pp of a verb.
Reduced to ’d in contractions. See also has.)
hadn’t ["hAd nt] cont. had not.
hag ["hAg] n. an ugly old woman; a witch.
hail ["hel] 1. n. round pellets of ice that fall from the sky like rain. (No
pl. Number is expressed with hailstone(s).) 2. n. a group of things
that come in small, sharp units. 3. n. a continual series of demands,
objections, questions, etc. 4. tv. to greet or welcome someone with
cheers, joy, and approval. 5. tv. to honor and praise someone or something; to praise and approve something eagerly. 6. iv. [for Q] to fall
from the sky.
hailstone ["hel ston] n. a small, round ball of ice that falls from the
sky like rain.
hailstorm ["hel storm] n. a storm that produces or includes hail.
hair ["hEr] 1. n. the strands or fibers that grow on the body of an animal, especially the ones that grow on top of the heads of humans.
(No pl. Treated as sg.) 2. n. one of the strands or fibers that grow on
the body of an animal as in Q.
hairbrush ["hEr [email protected]] n. a brush used for smoothing hair and making
it look orderly.
haircut ["hEr [email protected]] 1. n. an act or instance of cutting hair, especially the
hair on top of someone’s head. 2. n. the particular way that one’s hair
has been cut; a hairstyle.
hairdo ["hEr du] n. the style of one’s hair; the way one’s hair has been
cut or shaped. (Pl in -s.)
hairdresser ["hEr drEs #] n. someone who cuts and styles hair; a hair
stylist.
hairy ["hEr i] adj. covered with hair; having a lot of hair. (Comp:
hairier; sup: hairiest.)
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201
half
half ["hAf] 1. n., irreg. either of two equal parts that form a complete
thing. (Pl: halves .) 2. n. a portion—as described in Q—of the
amount of people or things already mentioned or referred to. (Treated
as sg or pl.) 3. adj. being Q of an amount; being one of two equal
parts. 4. adv. part of the way; not completely.
halfhearted ["hAf "hart Id] adj. not too enthusiastic; without excitement. (Adv: halfheartedly.)
halfway ["hAf "we] 1. adj. at the middle; in the middle. 2. adv. to the
point that is Q.
hall ["hOl] 1. n. a passage that connects rooms and stairways inside a
house or building. (See also hallway.) 2. n. a large room for big meetings, lectures, dances, etc. 3. n. a building where college students live,
sleep, study, or have classes.
hallway ["hOl we] n. a hall; a passage that connects rooms and stairways inside a house or building.
halt ["hOlt] 1. iv. to stop. 2. tv. to cause someone or something to stop.
halve ["hAv] 1. tv. to cut something into two halves; to split something
into two equal halves. 2. tv. to reduce something by half.
halves ["hAvz] pl of half.
ham ["hAm] 1. n. the upper part of a hog’s rear hip and thigh, preserved by salt and a special kind of wood smoke. 2. n. Q eaten as
food. (Pl only for types and instances.)
hamburger ["hAm b# g#] 1. n. beef that has been ground into tiny
bits. (No pl.) 2. n. a sandwich made of cooked ground beef and a specially shaped bun.
hammer ["hAm #] 1. n. a tool with a heavy metal head that is used to
pound nails or to break things. 2. tv. to hit something with Q.
hand ["hAnd] 1. n. the structure at the end of the arm, used for grasping; the most distant part of the arm, below the wrist. 2. n. the cards
given or dealt to someone in a card game; one session in a game of
cards. 3. n. side; direction. (No pl.) 4. n. one of the pointers on a
clock or watch. 5. tv. to give something to someone by using one’s Q.
6. the adj. use of Q or R. 7. out to pass something, usually
papers, out to people.
handbag ["hAnd bAg] n. a purse; a container that serves as a purse.
handful ["hAnd fUl] n. the amount of something that can be held in
the hand.
202
happiness
handicap ["hAn di kAp] 1. n. a disability; a disadvantage; something
that hinders someone from doing something in the usual way. 2. n.
[in sports or games] a restriction placed on a better player in order
to make the event more competitive. 3. tv. to prevent someone from
doing something in the usual way; to hinder someone.
handkerchief ["hAN k# tSIf] n. a square of soft fabric used to wipe
one’s nose or face.
handle ["hAn [email protected]] 1. n. the part of an object that is held on to so that
the object can be used, moved, picked up, pushed, pulled, opened, or
closed. 2. tv. to feel someone or something with one’s hands; to use
one’s hands on someone or something. 3. iv. [for something] to work
in a certain way while being used; [for a vehicle or boat] to be guided,
driven, or steered.
handlebar ["hAn [email protected] bar] n. the curved metal tube by which one steers
a bicycle or motorcycle. (Usually pl.)
handsome ["hAn [email protected]] 1. adj. very attractive; [of a male] very goodlooking. (Adv: handsomely. Comp: handsomer; sup: handsomest.)
2. adj. ample; generous; more than enough. (Adv: handsomely. Comp:
handsomer; sup: handsomest.)
handwriting ["hAnd raIt IN] 1. n. writing done by hand with a pen or
pencil instead of with a typewriter or computer. (No pl form.) 2. n.
one’s own style of writing; a sample of one’s own Q. (No pl form.)
hang ["hAN] 1. tv., irreg. to suspend something from a higher place,
using a rope, chain, etc. (Pt/pp: hung.) 2. tv., irreg. to attach something to a wall. 3. tv. to execute a person by suspending the person
by the neck. (Pt/pp: hanged for this sense.) 4. iv., irreg. to be suspended over something; to remain above someplace or thing.
5. around to loiter someplace; to be in a place or in an area, doing
nothing in particular.
hangar ["hAN #] n. a large building where airplanes are stored and
serviced.
hanger ["hAN #] n. a wooden, metal, or plastic frame for suspending
clothing inside a closet.
haphazard ["hAp "hAz #d] adj. random; without being planned. (Adv:
haphazardly.)
happen ["hAp @n] iv. to occur; to take place.
happiness ["hAp i [email protected]] n. being happy; being glad or joyful. (No pl.)
203
happy
happy ["hAp i] 1. adj. [of someone or some creature] feeling or showing joy or being in a good mood; [of someone] glad, pleased, or willing. (Adv: happily. Comp: happier; sup: happiest.) 2. adj. causing joy;
joyful. (Adv: happily. Comp: happier; sup: happiest.)
harbor ["har b#] 1. n. a sheltered port where ships and boats can
anchor safely. 2. tv. to keep something in one’s mind, especially bad
feelings toward someone.
hard ["hard] 1. adj. firm; solid; not soft. (Comp: harder; sup: hardest.)
2. adj. difficult; not easy to do. (Comp: harder; sup: hardest.) 3. adj.
severe; harsh; demanding. (Comp: harder; sup: hardest.) 4. adj. forceful; violent; not gentle. (Comp: harder; sup: hardest.) 5. adj. [of
water] having a high mineral content. (Comp: harder; sup: hardest.)
6. adv. with great force or energy. (Comp: harder; sup: hardest.)
hardly ["hard li] adv. barely; almost not at all.
hardware ["hard wEr] 1. n. tools, nails, screws, door handles, electrical supplies, brackets, buckets, utensils, and similar things used in
building and maintenance. (No pl form.) 2. n. computer equipment;
the machinery of a computer, as opposed to software programs. (No
pl form.)
hardy ["hard i] 1. adj. robust; able to live under difficult conditions.
(Adv: hardily. Comp: hardier; sup: hardiest.) 2. adj. [of a plant] able
to survive a severe winter freeze. (Adv: hardily. Comp: hardier; sup:
hardiest.)
hare ["he #] n. an animal, such as the jackrabbit, that is very similar to
a rabbit, but larger.
harm ["harm] 1. n. mental or physical damage to someone or something. (No pl.) 2. tv. to damage someone or something.
harmful ["harm fUl] adj. causing damage or harm to someone or something. (Adv: harmfully.)
harmless ["harm [email protected]] adj. not causing damage or harm. (Adv: harmlessly.)
harmony ["har [email protected] ni] 1. n. the effect of different musical notes that
are played or sung together, creating a pleasant sound. (Pl only for
types and instances.) 2. n. agreement; peace. (No pl. Fig. on Q.)
harp ["harp] n. a musical instrument having strings attached to a frame
of wood.
harsh ["harS] 1. adj. rough; unpleasant to look at or listen to; unpleasant to touch, taste, or smell. (Adv: harshly. Comp: harsher; sup: harsh204
haunt
est.) 2. adj. mean; cruel; severe. (Adv: harshly. Comp: harsher; sup:
harshest.)
harvest ["har [email protected]] 1. n. the gathering of a crop of grain, fiber, fruit,
vegetables, etc. 2. n. the total amount of grain, fiber, fruit, or vegetables produced in an area. 3. tv. to collect a crop of grain, fiber,
fruit, or vegetables when it is ready.
has ["hAz] 1. tv. the present-tense form of have used for the thirdperson sg, that is, with he, she, it, and sg nouns. 2. aux. the presenttense form of have T used for the third-person sg, that is, with he,
she, it, and sg nouns, in forming the present perfect verb form. (Used
before the pp of a verb. Reduced to ’s in contractions.)
hasn’t ["hAz @nt] cont. has not.
haste ["hest] n. speed; hurry. (No pl form in this sense.)
hasten ["hes @n] 1. tv. to cause someone or something to hurry; to
cause something to happen sooner. 2. to do to hurry to do something.
hasty ["he sti] 1. adj. quick; speedy. (Adv: hastily. Comp: hastier; sup:
hastiest.) 2. adj. carelessly fast; without proper thought. (Adv: hastily.
Comp: hastier; sup: hastiest.)
hat ["hAt] n. an article of clothing shaped to cover the head.
hatch ["hAtS] 1. n. an opening in a wall, ceiling, or floor. 2. iv. [for a
baby bird or reptile] to break an eggshell from the inside and come
out.
hatchet ["hAtS It] n. a short axe.
hate ["het] 1. n. intense dislike. (No pl.) 2. tv. to dislike someone or
something intensely.
hatred ["he trId] n. intense dislike; hate. (No pl form in this sense.)
haul ["hOl] 1. tv. to carry something, using force; to drag something
heavy. 2. tv. to carry or bring someone or something by truck or other
vehicle. 3. n. an instance of traveling from one place to another, and
the distance, time, or effort involved.
haunt ["hOnt] 1. tv. [for a ghost or spirit] to remain in a certain place
and appear occasionally. 2. tv. [for someone or something annoying
or disquieting] to remain in one’s thoughts. (Fig. on Q.) 3. tv. to visit
a place often; to be in a place for long periods. (Fig. on Q.) 4. n. a
place that is visited by a certain person often; a place where someone
goes frequently.
205
haunted
haunted ["hOnt Id] adj. bothered by a ghost or an evil spirit; frequented by a ghost.
have ["hAv] 1. tv., irreg. to own something; to possess something; to
possess a quality. (Pt/pp: had; in the pres. tense, the third-person sg
form is has.) 2. tv., irreg. to undergo something; [for something] to
happen to oneself; to experience something. 3. tv., irreg. to eat or
drink something; to consume something. 4. tv., irreg. to cause something to be done; to cause someone or something to do something.
5. aux. a verb that is used to form the perfect verb forms, which show
that an action is completed. (Used before the pp of a verb.)
hawk ["hOk] 1. n. a bird of prey, similar to a falcon, with strong beak
and claws, a long tail, and good eyesight. 2. tv. to sell something,
especially in the street.
hay ["he] n. grass or plants cut, dried, and used as food for cattle,
horses, etc. (No pl.)
haystack ["he stAk] n. a large amount of hay that is piled together to
dry.
hazard ["hAz #d] 1. n. the risk of something bad happening. 2. tv. to
risk something; to put something in danger. 3. at risked; in danger; at risk.
he ["hi] 1. pron. a third-person sg masculine pronoun. (Refers to male
creatures. Used as a subject of a sentence or a clause. See also him,
himself, and his.) 2. pron. a third-person sg pronoun. (Used when the
sex of a grammatical subject is unimportant, indeterminate, undetermined, or irrelevant. Objected to by some as actually referring only
to males in this sense. See also they W.) 3. n. a male person or creature.
head ["hEd] 1. n. the part of the body of humans and animals above
the neck, including the face, eyes, nose, mouth, ears, brain, and skull.
2. n. the brain; the mind. 3. n. an individual animal, used especially
in counting cows, horses, and sheep. (No pl. Always a sg form preceded by words that tell how many.) 4. n. the leader of a company,
country, organization, group, etc.; a chief; someone who is in charge.
5. n. the top, front, or upper part of something, such as a table, a
page, a sheet of paper, a line [of people], or a [school] class. 6. adj.
primary; chief; foremost. (Prenominal only.) 7. tv. to lead a group of
people; to be in charge of a group of people or part of a company.
8. iv. to move in a certain direction. 9. a ; per for each person;
for each individual.
206
heater
headache ["hEd ek] 1. n. a pain in the head, especially one that lasts
a long time. 2. n. a problem; a bother; a worry. (Fig. on Q.)
headline ["hEd laIn] 1. n. the title of a newspaper article, especially at
the top of the front page. 2. tv. to have a major part in a play or
movie, and thus have one’s name written in large print, like Q, in the
advertising for the play or movie.
health ["hElT] 1. n. freedom from diseases of the mind or the body.
(No pl.) 2. n. vigor; general condition. (No pl. Fig. on Q.) 3. the adj.
use of Q or W.
heap ["hip] n. a large pile of things; a stack of things piled together.
hear ["hIr] 1. iv., irreg. to be able to sense or experience sounds by
means of the ears. (Pt/pp: heard.) 2. tv., irreg. to sense or receive a
certain sound or a certain utterance. 3. tv., irreg. to learn that something has happened. (The object can be a clause with that U.) 4. tv.,
irreg. [for a court of law] to listen to the two sides of a court case.
5. tv., irreg. to pay attention to someone or something; to listen to
someone or something. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
heard ["h#d] pt/pp of hear.
hearing ["hIr IN] 1. n. the sense that allows one to recognize sound;
the ability to hear. (No pl form.) 2. n. an examination of basic evidence in a court of law. 3. the adj. use of Q.
heart ["hart] 1. n. a large, four-chambered muscle that pumps blood
throughout the body. 2. n. Q considered as a symbol of the center of
a person’s emotions, thoughts, and love. (Fig. on Q.) 3. n. the shape
1. 4. n. [in a deck of playing cards] one card of a group of cards that
bears a red 1.
heartbeat ["hart bit] 1. n. one full pulse of the heart. 2. n. a moment;
a second or two.
hearty ["har ti] 1. adj. energetic; vigorous; strong and lively. (Adv:
heartily. Comp: heartier; sup: heartiest.) 2. adj. [of a meal] large and
satisfying. (Adv: heartily. Comp: heartier; sup: heartiest.)
heat ["hit] 1. n. hotness; the quality that is felt as a higher temperature. (No pl.) 2. n. hot weather. (No pl.) 3. n. a grouping of contestants in a sporting event. (The winners of groups compete in other
heats or the final event.) 4. tv. to cause something to become hotter.
5. iv. to become hotter or warmer.
heater ["hit #] n. a device that provides heat for heating a room, usually electric or powered by a liquid fuel.
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heaven
heaven ["hEv @n] n. [in certain religions] the place where God resides
and where the souls of good people go after death. (Usually associated with the sky. No pl.)
heavy ["hEv i] 1. adj. weighing a lot; of great weight. (Adv: heavily.
Comp: heavier; sup: heaviest.) 2. adj. [of sound] strong, deep, and
ponderous. (Adv: heavily. Comp: heavier; sup: heaviest.) 3. adj. great
in amount; dense; intense; thick. (Adv: heavily. Comp: heavier; sup:
heaviest.) 4. adj. serious; requiring a lot of thought to understand.
(Adv: heavily. Comp: heavier; sup: heaviest.)
hectic ["hEk tIk] adj. very active; very excited; very busy. (Adv: hectically [...Ik li].)
he’d ["hid] 1. cont. he would. 2. cont. he had, where had is an auxiliary.
hedge ["hEdZ] 1. n. a row of bushes planted closely together, separating two parcels of land. 2. n. a statement that protects against a risk
or danger; a statement that equivocates. 3. tv. to make a statement in
an evasive way to avoid committing oneself to a certain belief or decision. 4. in to enclose or surround something with a hedge. 5. in
to restrict or contain someone; to limit someone. (Fig. on R.) 6. iv.
to speak in an evasive way, avoiding the risks of being more specific.
heed ["hid] tv. to pay close attention to something, such as advice.
heel ["hil] 1. n. the back part of the foot; the part of the foot that bears
the weight of the body. 2. n. the part of a shoe or sock that covers the
back part of the foot. 3. n. the part of a shoe that supports the back
part of the foot.
heels n. shoes with a tall heel E, worn by women, usually on formal
occasions. (Short for high heels. Treated as pl, but not countable.
Number is expressed with pair(s) of heels.)
height ["haIt] 1. n. the amount that someone or something is tall; vertical length [of a person or of a vertical object]. (No pl.) 2. n. the
length of something from bottom to top; the distance to a higher
point from a lower level.
heighten ["haIt n] 1. tv. to cause something to become more intense
or exciting. 2. iv. to become more intense or exciting.
heir ["Er] n. someone, male or female, who inherits something from its
owner; someone who receives something when the owner dies.
heiress ["Er Is] n. the feminine form of heir; a female who has inherited a fortune.
held ["hEld] pt/pp of hold.
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herd
helicopter ["hEl @ kap t#] n. an aircraft with large, rotating blades that
can lift and hold the aircraft in the air.
he’ll ["hil] cont. he will.
hell ["hEl] 1. n. [in certain religions] the place where the devil resides
and where the souls of wicked people go after death. (No pl. Sometimes capitalized.) 2. n. suffering, misery, and despair. (Fig. on Q.
No pl.) 3. interj. a word used to indicate anger or surprise. (Colloquial.)
hello [hE "lo] 1. n. an act of greeting someone; an act of saying W. (Pl
ends in -s.) 2. interj. a word used in greeting someone or in answering the telephone.
helm ["hElm] n. the wheel or lever used to control the direction of a
ship. (No pl form.)
helmet ["hEl [email protected]] n. a protective covering for the head; a covering for
the head, worn for protection.
help ["hElp] 1. n. aid; assistance. (No pl. Treated as sg.) 2. n. someone
or a group hired to do a job, usually a service job. (No pl. Treated as
sg or pl, but not counted.) 3. iv. to give assistance. 4. tv. to give assistance to someone or something; to aid someone or something. 5. tv.
to relieve an illness or condition; to ease the discomfort caused by
something; to make a sickness or discomfort less severe. 6. interj. a
cry used when one needs aid or assistance.
hem ["hEm] 1. n. the folded and sewn edge of a piece of cloth. 2. tv.
to make a nice, even edge on a piece of cloth by folding and sewing.
hemisphere ["hEm @s fIr] 1. n. half of a sphere; half of a ball. 2. n.
one of two halves of the earth.
hen ["hEn] n. a female bird, especially a female chicken.
her ["h#] 1. pron. an objective form of she, referring to females. (Used
after prepositions and as the object of verbs.) 2. pron. an objective
form of she , referring to ships and certain countries. (Also other
informal uses.) 3. pron. a possessive form of she, referring to females.
(Used as a modifier before a noun. Compare this with hers.)
herb ["#b] n. a plant whose seeds or leaves are used for flavoring food
or for medicines.
herd ["h#d] 1. n. a large group of cattle or other similar large animals
such as elk, buffalo, zebra, elephants, etc. 2. tv. to cause a large group
of people or animals to move together. 3. tv. to take care of cattle,
209
here
sheep, or other groups of animals. 4. iv. to form into a group; to move
as a group.
here ["hIr] 1. adv. in, at, to, or from the location of the speaker or
writer who uses this word. 2. adv. now; at this point in time or in a
process. 3. adv. a form that begins a sentence and is followed by a
verb, which then is followed by the subject of the sentence. (Often
used to point out or offer something. Takes be, go, stand, rest, or a
similar verb.) 4. n. this place.
heritage ["hEr I tIdZ] n. the cultural background of a group of people.
(No pl.)
hermit ["h# mIt] n. someone who moves away from society and who
lives alone.
hero ["hIr o] 1. n. someone who is honored and respected for bravery
or courage. (Compare this with heroine . Pl ends in -es.) 2. n. the
main male character in a story, movie, or play. (See also heroine. Pl
ends in -es.)
heroic [hI "ro Ik] adj. courageous; brave; valiant. (Adv: heroically [...Ik
li].)
heroine ["hEr o In] 1. n. a brave and courageous woman; a woman who
does heroic actions. (Compare this with hero.) 2. n. the main female
character in a story, movie, or play. (See also hero.)
heroism ["hEr o Iz @m] 1. n. a heroic act; a brave or courageous act.
(No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. the quality of being a hero or a heroine. (No pl form in this sense.)
hers ["h#z] pron. a possessive form of she. (Used in place of a noun.
Compare this with her.)
herself [h# "sElf] 1. pron. the reflexive form of she. (Used after a verb
or a preposition when the subject of the sentence is the same female
to which the pronoun refers.) 2. pron. an emphatic form of she. (Follows the nominal that is being emphasized.)
he’s ["hiz] 1. cont. he is. 2. cont. he has. (Where has is an auxiliary.)
hesitate ["hEz @ tet] 1. iv. to waver; to pause for a moment before
doing something, especially because one is unsure of something. 2. iv.
to be unwilling to do something; to be reluctant to do something.
hid ["hId] pt of hide.
hidden ["hId n] pp of hide.
hide ["haId] 1. tv., irreg. to place something out of view; to place something so that it cannot be seen; to conceal something. (Pt: hid; pp:
210
himself
hidden.) 2. iv., irreg. to place oneself so that one cannot be seen; to
conceal oneself. 3. n. the skin of an animal, especially when used to
make leather.
high ["haI] 1. adj. far above the ground; further above than average;
not low. (Comp: higher; sup: highest.) 2. adj. extending a certain distance upward; at or reaching a particular distance above the ground
or above sea level. (Follows the measure of height. Comp: higher; sup:
highest.) 3. adj. great in power, rank, or importance. (Adv: highly.
Comp: higher; sup: highest.) 4. adj. [of heat, number, pitch, price,
velocity, intelligence, standards, etc.] great or strong, or greater or
stronger than what is normal or average. (Adv: highly. Comp: higher;
sup: highest.) 5. n. the top point; a peak. 6. adv. to or at a place that
is far up. (Comp: higher; sup: highest.)
highly ["haI li] the adv. form of high E; very much. (Comp: higher;
sup: highest.)
highway ["haI we] n. a main road—especially one designed for high
speed—used to get from one city to another.
hike ["haIk] 1. n. a long walk, especially in the woods, mountains, etc.
2. iv. to travel or walk as in Q.
hiker ["haIk #] n. someone who hikes.
hill ["hIl] 1. n. a raised part of the earth’s surface, smaller than a mountain. 2. n. a heap or mound of soil, especially one made by an animal.
hilltop ["hIl tap] n. the top of a hill.
him ["hIm] 1. pron. an objective form of he Q. (The pronoun used to
refer to males. Used after prepositions and as the object of verbs.)
2. pron. an objective form of he W. (Used when the sex of a grammatical object of a verb or preposition is unimportant, indeterminate, undetermined, or irrelevant. Objected to by some as actually
referring only to males in this sense. See also them W.)
himself [hIm "sElf] 1. pron. the reflexive form of he Q. (Used after a
verb or a preposition when the subject of the sentence is the same
male to which the pronoun refers.) 2. pron. the reflexive form of he
W. (Used after a verb or a preposition when the sex of the subject of
the sentence is unimportant, indeterminate, undetermined, or irrelevant. This sense is objected to by some as actually referring only to
males.) 3. pron. an emphatic form of him. (Follows the nominal being
emphasized.)
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hind
hind ["haInd] adj. positioned at the rear or back of something.
(Prenominal only.)
hinder ["hIn d#] 1. tv. to attempt to prevent someone or something
from doing something; to block someone or something from doing
something. 2. tv. to attempt to prevent something from happening,
progressing, or succeeding; to make it difficult for something to happen, progress, or succeed.
hinge ["hIndZ] n. a jointed device that fits two things together so that
one of the things, such as a door or gate, can move.
hint ["hInt] 1. n. a clue; a suggestion that helps solve a puzzle or answer
a question. 2. n. a small trace; a little bit of something; a small
amount. 3. tv. to suggest Q; to provide Q. (The object is a clause
with that U.)
hip ["hIp] 1. n. the joint that connects the leg with the body; the area
on each side of the body, below the waist, where the leg joins the
trunk of the body. 2. adj. in style; fashionable. (Older slang. Comp:
hipper; sup: hippest.)
hippopotami [hIp @ "pat @ maI] a pl of hippopotamus.
hippopotamus [hIp @ "pat @ [email protected]] n., irreg. a large, round-shaped
African mammal that lives in and near rivers, having thick skin and
very little hair. (Pl: hippopotamuses or hippopotami.)
hire ["haI#] tv. to employ someone at a job; to pay someone to do
work.
his ["hIz] 1. pron. the possessive form of he, referring to a male who
has already been mentioned. (Comes before a noun.) 2. pron. the
possessive form of he, referring to a male who has already been mentioned. (Used in place of a noun.) 3. pron. the possessive form of he,
referring to a person who has already been mentioned. (Used when
the sex of the person referred to is unimportant, indeterminate,
undetermined, or irrelevant. Objected to by some as referring only
to males in this sense. See also their W.) 4. pron. the possessive form
of he, referring to a person who has already been mentioned. (Used
in place of a noun. Used when the sex of the person referred to is
unimportant, indeterminate, undetermined, or irrelevant. Objected
to by some as actually referring only to males in this sense.)
hiss ["hIs] 1. n. the sound that a snake makes; a long s sound. 2. iv. to
make Q.
historian [hI "stor i @n] n. someone who studies history; someone who
writes about history.
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hold
history ["hIs [email protected] ri] 1. n. the study of events that have happened. (No
pl.) 2. n. a record of events that have happened. 3. n. background;
facts about the past of someone or something.
hit ["hIt] 1. tv., irreg. to strike someone or something; to contact someone or something violently or with force. (Pt/pp: hit.) 2. tv., irreg. to
reach something. 3. n. someone or something that is very successful.
4. n. [in baseball] a play where the batter hits as in Q the ball with a
bat and is able to get to a base safely. 5. adj. [of music or performances] popular. (Prenominal only.)
hive ["haIv] n. the box, container, or structure that bees live in. (See
also beehive, hives.)
hives n. any one of various skin diseases characterized by a rash.
(Treated as sg or pl, but not countable. See also hive.)
hoard ["hord] 1. tv. to store a large amount of something secretly for
future use. 2. n. a large amount of something that has been secretly
stored for future use.
hoarse ["hors] 1. adj. [of a voice] rough and raspy sounding from illness or misuse. (Adv: hoarsely. Comp: hoarser; sup: hoarsest.) 2. adj.
[of a person] having a voice that is rough and raspy sounding from
illness or misuse. (Adv: hoarsely. Comp: hoarser; sup: hoarsest.)
hobby ["hab i] n. an activity that is done in one’s spare time; an activity that one likes to do.
hobo ["ho bo] n. a tramp; someone who travels from city to city looking for food or work. (Usually male. Pl ends in -s or -es.)
hockey ["hak i] n. a game, played on ice, where skaters try to hit a rubber disk into a goal area. (No pl.)
hoe ["ho] 1. n. a garden tool consisting of a small blade attached to a
long handle, used to remove weeds or to break up soil. 2. tv. to use
Q on something; to remove weeds or break up soil with Q.
hog ["hOg] 1. n. a full-grown pig, especially one raised for food or to
produce young. 2. n. someone who is very greedy or messy. (Fig. on
Q.) 3. tv. to take more than one’s fair share of something. (Informal.)
hoist ["hoIst] 1. n. a device for lifting heavy things. 2. tv. to raise something using ropes or chains.
hold ["hold] 1. tv., irreg. to keep someone or something in one’s arms
or hands. (Pt/pp: held.) 2. tv., irreg. to support the weight of someone or something; to bear the weight of someone or something. 3. tv.,
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holder
irreg. to grasp something so it remains in a certain position. 4. tv.,
irreg. to reserve something; to set something aside, waiting for further action. 5. tv., irreg. to contain something; to have enough room
for something. 6. tv., irreg. to cause an event to take place. 7. tv., irreg.
to retain a certain position or condition. 8. tv., irreg. to restrain someone or something; to keep someone or something under control.
9. iv., irreg. to withstand a strain; not to break under pressure. 10. iv.,
irreg. to remain connected to a telephone line while one’s call has
been temporarily suspended—so the caller or the person who was
called can talk on another telephone line. 11. n. a grasp; a grip. 12. n.
a good or secure grasp of something. 13. n. the place in a ship or
plane where cargo is stored.
holder ["hold #] n. something that holds something; something that
keeps something in a certain position.
holdup ["hold @p] 1. n. a robbery, especially one committed with a
gun; a stickup. 2. n. a delay; the reason that something is not moving properly.
hole ["hol] n. an opening made in or through a solid object; an opening in the surface of something.
holiday ["hal @ de] 1. n. a period of time when most businesses and
schools are closed in honor of someone or something. 2. n. a holy
day; a religious celebration.
hollow ["hal o] 1. n. an open space inside an object; a cavity. 2. n. a
small valley; a sunken area of land. 3. adj. having an open space
inside; not solid. (Adv: hollowly. Comp: hollower; sup: hollowest.)
4. adj. sunken. (Adv: hollowly. Comp: hollower; sup: hollowest.) 5. adj.
empty; without meaning or substance. (Adv: hollowly. Comp: hollower; sup: hollowest.) 6. out to scoop something out; to form an
open space inside an object.
holster ["hol st#] n. a fabric or leather case for a gun, worn on the
body or attached to a saddle.
holy ["hol i] adj. sacred; associated with divine matters. (Comp: holier;
sup: holiest.)
homage ["am IdZ] praise, respect, and honor.
home ["hom] 1. n. the place where one lives; one’s house or apartment.
2. n. the place where someone was born; the place that someone
comes from; the place where someone grew up. 3. n. an institution
or building where people who need special care live. 4. n. a place
where something is found, based, or located; a place where something
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hood
originated or was invented. 5. the adj. use of Q, W, E, or R. 6. adv.
at Q or W; to Q or W.
homemaker ["hom mek #] n. a person who manages a home, especially a married woman who manages her home and, possibly, children.
homeowner ["hom o n#] n. someone who owns a home.
homesick ["hom sIk] adj. sad and depressed because one is away from
one’s home.
homework ["hom w#k] 1. n. schoolwork that is to be completed at
home or elsewhere outside the school building. (No pl.) 2. n. preparation that should be done before a meeting or discussion. (Fig. on
Q. No pl.)
honest ["an @st] 1. adj. always telling the truth; not lying; able to be
trusted. (Adv: honestly.) 2. adj. obtained fairly and legally; not stolen.
(Adv: honestly.) 3. adj. sincere; appearing fair and Q. (Adv: honestly.)
honesty ["an Is ti] n. the quality of being honest; truthfulness. (No pl.)
honey ["h^n i] n. a sweet, sticky substance made by bees. (Pl only for
types and instances.)
honeymoon ["h^n i mun] 1. n. the vacation that two newly married
people take after the wedding. 2. n. a calm period of good business
or political relations, especially right after someone new has come to
power.
honk ["hONk] 1. n. the sound made by a horn or a goose. 2. iv. to make
the sound of a horn or a goose. 3. tv. to sound a horn; to cause a horn
to make a noise.
honor ["an #] 1. n. the respect or regard shown to someone or something. (No pl.) 2. n. character and integrity; honesty and fairness; a
way of being that earns trust. (No pl.) 3. n. a pleasure; a privilege.
4. tv. to hold someone in high regard; to respect someone. 5. tv. to
make a payment as agreed; for a bank to accept a check and pay out
the money that the check was written for.
honorable ["an # @ [email protected]] adj. worthy of honor; deserving honor. (Adv:
honorably.)
honors ["an #z] praise, awards, and recognition.
hood ["hUd] 1. n. a covering for the head and neck, sometimes attached
to a coat and sometimes also covering the face. 2. n. the metal panel
that covers the top of the front of a car.
215
hoof
hoof ["hUf, "huf] n., irreg. the hard part on the bottom of the foot of a
horse, deer, and certain other animals. (Pl: hooves.)
hook ["hUk] 1. n. a bent or curved piece of plastic, wood, wire, or
metal, used to catch, pull, or hold something. 2. n. [in boxing] a short
blow given while one’s elbow is bent. 3. tv. to catch and pull something with Q.
hoot ["hut] 1. n. the noise that an owl makes. 2. iv. to make Q; to make
a noise like Q.
hooves ["huvz] pl of hoof.
hop ["hap] 1. n. a small movement upward, like a jump. 2. n. an airplane flight, especially a short one. 3. iv. to jump up and down; to
jump forward a small distance. 4. iv. [for frogs, rabbits, kangaroos,
etc.] to move by jumping.
hope ["hop] 1. n. the happy feeling that something one wants to happen will actually happen. (No pl.) 2. n. something that is desired;
something that one wants to happen; an expectation. 3. tv. to feel
happy about and wish for something that one wants to happen in the
future. (The object is a clause with that U.)
hopeful ["hop fUl] 1. adj. full of hope; showing hope; optimistic. (Adv:
hopefully.) 2. adj. causing hope; seeming as if what is hoped for will
happen.
horizon [[email protected] "raI [email protected]] n. the line in the distance where the sky seems
to meet the earth.
horizontal [hor @ "zan [email protected]] adj. flat; parallel to flat ground; not up and
down. (Adv: horizontally.)
horn ["horn] 1. n. a hard, usually pointed growth on the heads of cattle, goats, antelope, sheep, etc. 2. n. the hard substance that an animal’s hoof or horn as in Q is made of. (No pl.) 3. n. a device that
makes noise, as in a car or other vehicle. 4. n. one of the brass musical instruments, such as the trumpet, the cornet, the tuba, the French
horn, and the trombone, played by blowing air through a shaped
tube. (Often in compounds.)
hornet ["hor nIt] n. a large kind of stinging wasp.
horrible ["hor @ [email protected]] 1. adj. causing horror or terror. (Adv: horribly.)
2. adj. awful; bad. (Adv: horribly.)
horrify ["hor @ faI] tv. to frighten someone very badly; to terrify someone.
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hound
horror ["hor #] 1. n. intense dread or fear; fright. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. n. someone or something that causes fear or fright;
an experience of Q.
horse ["hors] n. an animal, larger than a donkey, that is used for carrying people and pulling heavy things, especially on farms.
hose ["hoz] 1. n. a flexible tube used to direct water or some other liquid. (Treated as sg. Pl: hoses.) 2. n. men’s socks, especially to go with
formal clothing. (No pl. Treated as pl, but not countable. Number is
expressed with pair(s) of hose.) 3. n. women’s long, sheer stockings,
made of silk or nylon. (No pl. Treated as pl, but not countable. Number is expressed with pair(s) of hose.) 4. n. pantyhose. (No pl. Treated
as pl, but not countable.)
hospital ["has pIt @l] n. a building where medical care for serious diseases and illnesses is provided.
host ["host] 1. n. someone who receives and welcomes guests. (Male
or female. Sometimes hostess is used for a female.) 2. n. the person
arranging a party or gathering, especially where food is served. (Male
or female. Sometimes hostess is used for a female.) 3. n. someone who
introduces people on a television show; someone who has a talk show
on television. 4. n. a large number of people or things. 5. tv. to be E
on a television show. 6. tv. to be Q or W at a party.
hostage ["has tIdZ] 1. n. someone or something held by force, to be
released only when stated demands are met. 2. the adj. use of Q.
hostile ["has [email protected]] 1. adj. easily angered; unfriendly; antagonistic. (Adv:
hostilely.) 2. adj. acting like an enemy; aggressive and threatening.
(Adv: hostilely.)
hot ["hat] 1. adj. having a high temperature; not cold or warm. (Adv:
hotly. Comp: hotter; sup: hottest.) 2. adj. [of food] very spicy, causing a burning feeling in the mouth. (Adv: hotly. Comp: hotter; sup:
hottest.) 3. adj. very intense; excited or angry. (Fig. on Q. Adv: hotly.
Comp: hotter; sup: hottest.) 4. adj. currently popular. (Informal.
Comp: hotter; sup: hottest.)
hotel [ho "tEl] n. a building where people can rent a place to stay while
away from home on business or vacation.
hound ["haUnd] 1. n. a dog, especially one used for hunting. 2. n. a
fan; someone who is very excited about a hobby or activity. (Informal.) 3. tv. to chase someone; to worry someone; to harass someone.
217
hour
hour ["aU #] 1. n. a unit of time measurement equal to 60 minutes or
¹⁄₂₄ of a day. 2. n. a period of time set aside for some activity. 3. n.
the distance that can be traveled in Q.
hourly ["aU # li] 1. adj. happening every hour; happening once an
hour. 2. adv. every hour; once an hour.
house 1. ["haUs] n., irreg. a building where a person or a family lives;
a home. (Pl: ["haU [email protected]] or ["haU [email protected]].) 2. ["haUs] n. a household; all
the people who live in Q. (No pl.) 3. ["haUs] n., irreg. a legislature;
a legislative body. 4. ["haUs] n., irreg. the part of a theater where the
audience sits. 5. ["haUz] tv. to provide shelter to someone or some
creature.
housebreak ["haUs brek] tv., irreg. to train a pet not to defecate or urinate in the house, or in the case of a cat, outside its special place. (Pt:
housebroke; pp: housebroken.)
housebroke ["haUs brok] pt of housebreak.
housebroken ["haUs brok @n] pp of housebreak.
household ["haUs hold] 1. n. the group of people who live in a house
or apartment. 2. adj. found in Q; associated with Q.
housekeeper ["haUs kip #] 1. n. someone who is paid to manage
household chores. 2. n. someone who manages the cleaning in a
hotel, resort, hospital, or large building. 3. n. a person who is paid to
clean someone’s house. (Euphemistic.)
houseplant ["haUs plAnt] n. a plant usually grown indoors.
housework ["haUs w#k] n. cooking, cleaning, washing, and other
household tasks. (No pl.)
hover ["h^v #] 1. iv. to stay in one place in the air; to float in place over
someone or something. 2. iv. to linger somewhere; to stay near someone or something.
how [haU] 1. interrog. in what way?; by what means? 2. interrog. to
what extent?; to what degree? 3. interrog. in what condition? 4. conj.
the way in which; the manner in which.
however [haU "Ev #] 1. adv. but; nevertheless; in spite of something.
2. adv. no matter how. (Followed by an adjective or adverb.) 3. conj.
in whatever way; by whatever means.
howl ["haUl] 1. n. a long wail, as with the cry of a wolf or the sound of
a high wind. 2. iv. to make Q.
huddle ["h^d l] 1. n. a group of people crowded together. 2. n. [in
football] a group of players close together, planning the next play.
218
hunch
3. iv. [for a number of people] to stand closely together in a small
space, especially to keep warm. 4. iv. [for a creature] to curl up somewhere; to bring one’s arms and legs close to the body, as if to keep
warm.
hue ["hju] n. color; a variety, shade, or intensity of a color.
hug ["h^g] 1. n. an act of holding someone or something in one’s arms
in a friendly or loving way. 2. tv. to hold someone as in Q. 3. tv. to
stay close to a curb, railing, wall, or some other object as one moves
along.
huge ["hjudZ] 1. adj. [of size] very large or enormous. (Adv: hugely.
Comp: huger; sup: hugest.) 2. adj. of a notable extent; [of extent,
degree, or amount] notably large. (Adv: hugely. Comp: huger; sup:
hugest.)
hum ["h^m] 1. n. a long, vibrating sound, like a long “mmmmmmm”;
a low murmur; a quiet buzzing sound. (No pl.) 2. iv. to make a long,
vibrating sound, like a long “mmmmmmmmm”; to sing with one’s
mouth closed. 3. tv. to sing musical notes with one’s mouth closed,
as in W.
human ["hju [email protected]] 1. n. a person. 2. the adj. use of Q. (Adv: humanly.)
3. adj. showing feelings that people normally show. (Adv: humanly.)
4. being a human creature; a person.
humble ["h^m [email protected]] 1. adj. aware of one’s faults; modest. (Adv: humbly.
Comp: humbler; sup: humblest.) 2. adj. simple; lowly; not elegant.
(Adv: humbly. Comp: humbler; sup: humblest.) 3. tv. to lower the
position of someone; to cause someone to become Q.
humid ["hju mId] adj. [of weather] damp; [of air] containing much
moisture. (Adv: humidly.)
humidity [hju "mId @ ti] n. moisture in air; water vapor carried in the
air. (No pl form in this sense.)
humility [hju "mIl @ ti] n. being humble; modesty. (No pl form in this
sense.)
humor ["hju m#] 1. n. the quality of being funny. (No pl.) 2. tv. to tolerate someone who behaves oddly; to accept someone who has
strange whims or desires.
humorous ["hju [email protected] [email protected]] adj. funny; amusing; having humor. (Adv:
humorously.)
hump ["h^mp] n. a large, rounded bump or swelling.
hunch ["h^ntS] n. a guess based on how one feels.
219
hundred
hundred ["h^n [email protected]] 1. n. the number 100; the number between 99
and 101. (Additional forms as with two hundred, three hundred, four
hundred, etc.) 2. n. 100 people or things.
hung ["h^N] 1. a pt/pp of hang. 2. adj. [of a jury] unable to reach a
decision; [of a jury] not having a majority.
hunger ["h^N g#] 1. n. a general lack of food. (No pl.) 2. n. the feeling of a need for something. (Fig. on Q. No pl.)
hungry ["h^N gri] adj. wanting food; lacking food; having an empty
stomach. (Adv: hungrily. Comp: hungrier; sup: hungriest.)
hunk ["h^Nk] n. a large, solid amount of something.
hunt ["h^nt] 1. tv. to search for and kill animals for food or for sport.
2. iv. to search for and kill animals as in Q.
hunter ["h^n t#] n. someone who hunts; someone who searches for
and kills animals for food or sport.
hurl ["h#l] 1. tv. to throw someone or something with force. 2. tv. to
shout something negative, such as an insult or bad words.
hurry ["h# i] 1. iv. to move quickly or briskly. 2. tv. to cause someone
or something to move quickly or briskly. 3. n. a rush; an effort to be
fast or faster. 4. up; on to move faster.
hurt ["h#t] 1. n. pain of the body or emotions; an ache. (Pl only for
types and instances.) 2. tv., irreg. to injure a part of the body; to harm
one’s mental processes or emotional well-being. (Pt/pp: hurt.) 3. tv.,
irreg. to have a bad effect on someone or something; to be bad for
someone or something. 4. tv., irreg. to cause pain in something; to
give someone pain. 5. iv., irreg. to feel pain.
husband ["h^z [email protected]] n. a married man; the man that a woman is married to.
hush ["h^S] 1. n. silence; quiet; calm. (No pl.) 2. tv. to cause someone
or something to be calm and quiet. 3. iv. to become calm and quiet.
husky ["h^s ki] 1. adj. [of a voice] low sounding as if the speaker has
a sore throat. (Adv: huskily. Comp: huskier; sup: huskiest.) 2. adj. big
and strong; muscular. (Adv: huskily. Comp: huskier; sup: huskiest.)
3. n. a kind of dog that pulls sleds in the far north.
hustle ["h^s @l] 1. tv. to move someone or something to someplace
quickly. 2. tv. to sell something in an aggressive manner. 3. iv. to
move quickly. (Informal.)
hut ["h^t] n. a small shelter; a humble dwelling.
220
hypothesis
hutch ["h^tS] 1. n. a cage for rabbits or other small animals. 2. n. a
cupboard or cabinet with shelves.
hyena [haI "i [email protected]] n. a wild, doglike animal of Africa that eats meat and
has a loud cry that sounds like laughter.
hymn ["hIm] n. a religious song of praise meant to be sung by worshipers.
hype ["haIp] 1. n. an extreme amount of publicity; exaggerated praise
used for publicity. (No pl.) 2. tv. to provide Q for someone or something.
hyphen ["haI [email protected]] n. the mark of punctuation (-). (It is placed between
the parts of some compound words, between the words in certain
phrases, or between syllables where a word has been split between
two lines of print.)
hypnotism ["hIp [email protected] tIz @m] 1. n. hypnotizing people as a method of
exploring and influencing the mind. (No pl.) 2. n. the process of hypnotizing someone. (No pl.)
hypnotize ["hIp [email protected] taIz] tv. to place someone in a sleeplike condition.
hypotheses [haI "paT @ siz] pl of hypothesis.
hypothesis [haI "paT @ sIs] n., irreg. a conjecture; a possible explanation; an idea that has not been proved but that explains the facts about
something. (Pl: hypotheses.)
221
I
I ["aI] pron. the first-person sg pronoun—in writing, it refers to the
writer, and in speaking, it refers to the speaker. (Used as the subject
of a sentence or a clause. Compare this with me.)
ice ["aIs] 1. n. frozen water. (No pl. Number is expressed with piece(s)
or cube(s) of ice.) 2. tv. to cover a cake with icing or frosting. (See also
icing.)
iceberg ["aIs b#g] n. an enormous piece of ice floating in the sea.
icicle ["aIs sI [email protected]] n. a pointed spike of ice that hangs from something
such as a tree branch.
icing ["aI sIN] n. cake frosting; a sweet coating for cakes, cookies, and
other desserts. (No pl.)
icy ["aI si] 1. adj. covered with or made of ice. (Adv: icily. Comp: icier;
sup: iciest.) 2. adj. very cold; freezing cold. (Adv: icily. Comp: icier;
sup: iciest.)
I’d ["aId] 1. cont. I would. 2. cont. I had. (Where had is an auxiliary.)
idea [aI "di @] 1. n. a thought produced by the mind; an opinion. 2. n.
a picture of something produced by the mind; a mental picture. 3. n.
a suggestion; a plan.
ideal [aI "dil] adj. perfect; perfectly suitable. (Adv: ideally.)
ideals n. high moral standards; strong moral beliefs.
identical [aI "dEn tI [email protected]] adj. equal; exactly alike. (Adv: identically [...Ik
li].)
identification [aI dEn [email protected] [email protected] "ke [email protected]] 1. n. identifying someone or
something; the condition of being identified. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. some kind of document that identifies someone;
something that proves who someone is. (No pl.)
identify [aI "dEn [email protected] faI] 1. tv. to state who or what someone or something is; to allow the identification of someone or something. 2. tv.
to reveal someone’s identity.
identity [aI "dEn [email protected] ti] n. who or what a certain person or thing is. (No
pl form.)
222
Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc.
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illustrate
idiom ["Id i @m] 1. n. a phrase whose meaning is different from the
combined literal meanings of the separate words that make up the
phrase. 2. n. a mode of expression or design.
idiot ["Id i @t] n. a foolish person; a stupid person.
idle ["aId l] 1. adj. not working; unemployed; not kept busy; [of
machinery] not operating or not being used. (Adv: idly. Comp: idler;
sup: idlest.) 2. adj. habitually lazy; not liking work. (Adv: idly. Comp:
idler; sup: idlest.) 3. adj. not having a purpose or result; of little significance; useless; pointless. (Adv: idly.) 4. tv. to run an engine at low
speed in neutral.
idol ["aId l] 1. n. something that is worshiped as sacred in an organized
religion. 2. n. someone who is extremely popular; someone whom
people honor or praise. (Fig. on Q.)
if ["If] 1. conj. in the event [that something is the case]; on the condition [that something is the case]. 2. conj. whether. (Often introduces
an indirect question.) 3. conj. although; even though.
ignite [Ig "naIt] 1. tv. to set fire to something; to cause something to
start to burn. 2. iv. to start to burn.
ignorant ["Ig [email protected] [email protected]] 1. adj. without knowledge; without information; uninformed. (Adv: ignorantly.) 2. adj. caused by a lack of
knowledge; resulting from a lack of knowledge. (Adv: ignorantly.)
ignore [Ig "nor] tv. to pay no attention to someone or something.
I’ll ["aIl] cont. I will.
ill ["Il] 1. adj. sick; not well; not healthy. 2. adv. badly. (Before a participle or certain adjectives. Usually hyphenated.) 3. n. harm. (No
pl.)
illegal [I "li [email protected]] adj. not legal; against the law. (Adv: illegally.)
illness ["Il [email protected]] 1. n. a sickness; a disease. 2. n. a period of being sick.
ills n. troubles.
illuminate [I "lum @ net] 1. tv. to spread light on someone or something; to spread light throughout a place. 2. tv. to make something
clearer or easier to understand. (Fig. on Q.)
illusion [I "lu [email protected]] 1. n. a vision of something that is not really there;
a false image. 2. n. a false belief; something that seems to be true but
is not true.
illustrate ["Il @ stret] 1. tv. to decorate a book with pictures. 2. tv. to
use an example to explain something.
223
illustration
illustration [Il @ "stre [email protected]] 1. n. a picture or drawing in a book, magazine, newspaper, etc. 2. n. an example that explains something; a
demonstration of something.
I’m ["aIm] cont. I am.
image ["Im IdZ] 1. n. that which is seen in a mirror or similar surface.
2. n. a sculpture, painting, or other form of art that represents someone or something; a picture or photograph of someone or something.
3. n. a picture of something in one’s mind; a mental picture. 4. n. the
opinion that people have about a certain person or thing; someone’s
or something’s reputation.
imagery ["Im IdZ ri] n. words, music, or pictures that represent or create images, often making one think about situations or feelings. (No
pl. Treated as sg.)
imaginary [I "mAdZ @ nEr i] adj. existing only in the mind; not real.
(Adv: imaginarily [I mAdZ @ "nEr @ li].)
imagination [I mAdZ @ "ne [email protected]] 1. n. the part of the mind that produces thoughts and images that are not real or not experienced; the
part of the mind that imagines things. (No pl.) 2. n. the ability to
think of new and interesting ideas; the ability to imagine something.
(No pl.)
imagine [I "mAdZ In] 1. tv. to think of someone or something; to form
an image of someone or something in one’s mind. (The object can be
a clause with that U.) 2. tv. to think something; to believe something;
to suppose something; to guess something. (The object is a clause
with that U.)
imitate ["Im @ tet] 1. tv. to attempt to copy the style, behavior, or success of someone whom one admires or wants to be like. 2. tv. to copy
the behavior, speech, and movement of someone for amusement.
imitation [Im @ "te [email protected]] 1. n. copying someone’s actions or deeds;
copying something. (No pl.) 2. n. a copy; a duplicate. 3. n. an act of
imitating someone or something. 4. adj. fake; artificial; resembling
something.
immaculate [I "mAk [email protected] lIt] adj. pure; absolutely clean; spotless. (Adv:
immaculately.)
immaterial [Im @ "tIr i @l] adj. not relevant; having nothing to do with
something. (Adv: immaterially.)
immediate [I "mid i It] 1. adj. happening now; happening at once.
(Adv: immediately.) 2. adj. closest to someone or something in space
or time; next to someone or something. (Adv: immediately.)
224
importance
immediately [I "mid i It li] adv. at this very time; at this instance.
immemorial [Im [email protected] "mor i @l] adj. [since a time] so long ago that no
one can remember the details, origin, date, issues, etc.
immense [I "mEns] adj. very large; huge; enormous. (Adv: immensely.)
immersion [I "m# [email protected]] 1. n. placing something under water or in a
liquid. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. being completely
involved in something. (Fig. on Q. No pl.)
immigrate ["Im @ gret] iv. to come into a new country to live.
immodest [I "mad @st] 1. adj. not modest; revealing; shameless. (Adv:
immodestly.) 2. adj. not modest about oneself; often bragging. (Adv:
immodestly.)
immoral [I "mor @l] adj. without morals; not moral; breaking moral
rules. (Adv: immorally.)
immortal [I "mor [email protected]] 1. adj. everlasting; lasting forever; never dying;
living forever. (Adv: immortally.) 2. adj. continuing to be remembered forever; never forgotten. (Adv: immortally.)
impact 1. ["Im pAkt] n. the crash of objects striking one another with
force. 2. ["Im pAkt] n. the influence or effect of someone or something. (Fig. on Q.) 3. [Im "pAkt] tv. to crash into something.
impasse ["Im pAs] n. a place where movement or progress is blocked
by something; a deadlock. (No pl form.)
impatient [Im "pe [email protected]] adj. not patient; not able to wait for someone
or something. (Adv: impatiently.)
implement 1. ["Im [email protected] [email protected]] n. a tool; a utensil; a piece of equipment;
an instrument. 2. ["Im [email protected] mEnt] tv. to put something in action; to
carry out something, such as a plan.
implore to do [Im "plor tu] to beg someone to do something.
imply [Im "plaI] tv. to suggest something; to indicate something without actually saying it. (The object is a clause with that U.)
impolite [Im [email protected] "laIt] adj. rude; not polite; not courteous. (Adv: impolitely.)
import 1. [Im "port] tv. to bring in (to one country) a product from a
foreign country. 2. ["Im port] n. a product that is brought into one
country from another country.
importance [Im "port ns] 1. n. the condition of being important. (No
pl.) 2. n. the relative position or rank of someone or something. (No
pl.)
225
important
important [Im "port nt] adj. having a great effect, value, or influence.
(Adv: importantly.)
impossible [Im "pas @ [email protected]] 1. adj. not possible; not able to happen.
(Adv: impossibly.) 2. adj. unpleasant; unendurable. (Adv: impossibly.)
impress [Im "prEs] 1. tv. to make a good impression on someone; to
have a strong effect on someone; to cause someone to feel admiration. 2. upon to stress the importance of something to someone.
3. into to press something, such as a design, into something.
impressive [Im "prEs Iv] adj. [of someone or something notably] large,
strong, excellent, or important; [of someone or something] arousing
admiration. (Adv: impressively.)
improve [Im "pruv] 1. tv. to cause someone or something to become
better. 2. iv. to become better.
improvement [Im "pruv [email protected]] 1. n. getting better; improving. (No pl
form in this sense.) 2. n. something that makes someone or something better.
impulse ["Im [email protected]] 1. n. a short burst of electrical energy. 2. n. the sudden desire to do something; a whim. (Fig. on Q.)
impure [Im "pjUr] 1. adj. not pure; dirty; mixed with other things.
(Adv: impurely.) 2. adj. not morally pure. (Adv: impurely.)
in [In] 1. prep. inside something; within something; surrounded by
something else. 2. prep. into something; entering into a space; going
through a boundary and to a position that is surrounded by something else. 3. prep. at some point during a certain time period.
4. prep. after a certain period of time. 5. prep. with something or
using something, especially a language or a way of writing or expressing something. 6. adv. inward; indoors; going into something; in a
way that someone or something will be in a position that is surrounded by something else. 7. adv. at home; at one’s office; available.
inaccurate [In "Ak [email protected] rIt] adj. not accurate; incorrect. (Adv: inaccurately.)
inactive [In "Ak tIv] 1. adj. not active; not moving. (Adv: inactively.)
2. adj. [of someone] not or no longer working actively or being
actively involved. (Adv: inactively.) 3. adj. having no effect; [of a
chemical] not reacting. (Adv: inactively.)
inadequate [In "Ad @ kwIt] adj. not adequate; not enough; not good
enough. (Adv: inadequately.)
226
independent
inch ["IntS] 1. n. a unit of measurement of distance, equal to ¹⁄₁₂ of a
foot or approximately 2.54 centimeters. 2. iv. to move very slowly; to
move a distance equal to Q at a time.
incident ["In sI [email protected]] 1. n. an event; something that happens. 2. n. a
disturbance; an accident.
incline 1. ["In klaIn] n. a slant; a slope; a surface that is on an angle to
flat ground. 2. [In "klaIn] iv. to slant; to slope. 3. d to do to tend
to do something; to “lean toward” doing something.
include [In "klud] 1. tv. [for something] to contain something or to
have something among its parts. 2. tv. [for someone] to cause someone or something to be a part of something; to add something to
something else.
income ["In [email protected]] n. the amount of money received as wages, interest,
or similar payments; money received in exchange for goods or services.
incorrect [In [email protected] "rEkt] adj. not correct; wrong; false. (Adv: incorrectly.)
increase 1. ["In kris] n. growth; becoming larger. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. [In "kris] iv. to become larger, faster, or more powerful; to become larger in number or amount. 3. [In "kris] tv. to cause
something to become larger, faster, or more powerful; to cause something to become larger in number or amount.
incubator ["IN [email protected] bet #] 1. n. a container that keeps eggs warm until
they hatch. 2. n. a special container or device in which babies that
are born too early are kept for warmth and care.
indeed [In "did] 1. adv. very much so; quite. 2. adv. in fact; actually.
3. interj. Amazing!
indent [In "dEnt] tv. [in writing or typing] to begin a line a few spaces
farther from the edge or margin than the other lines, as at the beginning of a paragraph.
indentation [In dEn "te [email protected]] 1. n. a notch; a dent; a cut. 2. n. indenting lines of type or writing. (Pl only for types and instances.)
independence [In dI "pEn [email protected]] n. freedom from someone or some
government; liberty. (No pl.)
independent [In dI "pEn [email protected]] 1. adj. not dependent on someone or
something; not controlled by others; not ruled by other people or
countries. (Adv: independently.) 2. adj. not needing the support of
others; self-supporting. (Adv: independently.) 3. adj. separate; dis227
index
tinct from other things. (Adv: independently.) 4. n. a politician or a
voter who does not belong to a political party.
index ["In dEks] 1. n., irreg. an alphabetical list of topics showing
where each topic can be found in the main part of a book, report,
magazine, journal, etc. (Pl: indexes or indices .) 2. n., irreg. a scale
where prices or amounts of certain things are compared with the
prices or amounts of those same things at an earlier date. 3. tv. to
locate important topics and list them and their locations, as in Q.
indicate ["In [email protected] ket] 1. tv. to point something out verbally; to state a
fact. (The object is a clause with that U.) 2. tv. to make something
known; to draw someone’s attention to something. (The object can
be a clause with that U.) 3. tv. [for a meter, chart, signal] to show
specific information. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
indices ["In dI siz] a pl of index.
indigestion [In [email protected] "dZEs [email protected]] n. an upset stomach; the digestion of
food that causes pain. (No pl.)
indignant [In "dIg [email protected]] adj. feeling anger or resentment at something.
(Adv: indignantly.)
individual [In [email protected] "vI dZu @l] 1. n. a person; one person. 2. adj. separate; single. (Adv: individually.)
indoor ["In dor] adj. inside a building; kept within walls and under a
roof. (Prenominal only.)
indoors [In "dorz] adv. in or into a building.
industry ["In [email protected] stri] 1. n. the production of goods; the manufacture
of products. (No pl.) 2. n. the business activity concerning a specific
kind of product or service. 3. n. hard work or labor.
inedible [In "Ed @ [email protected]] adj. not able to be eaten; not good for eating.
(Adv: inedibly.)
inf. an abbreviation of infinitive form.
infant ["In [email protected]] 1. n. a baby; a young child. 2. the adj. use of Q.
infect [In "fEkt] tv. to contaminate someone or something with an
organism that causes disease.
infection [In "fEk [email protected]] 1. n. the entrance and growth of disease-producing organisms in the body. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n.
a disease caused by Q.
inferior [In "fIr i #] 1. adj. lower in amount, rank, power, quality, or
strength than someone or something else. (Adv: inferiorly.) 2. n.
someone who has a lower-ranking job than someone else.
228
inject
inferno [In "f# no] 1. n. a large, fierce fire. (Pl ends in -s.) 2. n. a place
that is very hot. (Fig. on Q. Pl ends in -s.)
infinity [In "fIn @ ti] 1. n. infiniteness; boundlessness; limitlessness.
(No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. an endless amount of time or space.
(No pl form in this sense.)
inflammable [In "flAm @ [email protected]] adj. able to catch fire; flammable; not
fireproof. (The opposite is nonflammable. Adv: inflammably. This in
shows emphasis, not negativeness.)
inflation [In "fle [email protected]] 1. n. the process of putting air or gas into something; blowing something up. (No pl.) 2. n. an economic condition
in which too much money is available for purchasing too few goods.
(No pl.)
inflict (up)on [In "flIkt (@p) "On] to impose something on someone.
influence ["In flu @ns] 1. n. the power or ability to cause certain results
or to affect what happens. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a
cause of some behavior. 3. tv. to affect someone or something.
influenza [In flu "En [email protected]] n. the flu; an easily spread sickness caused by
a virus. (No pl.)
informal [In "form @l] 1. adj. not formal, official, or final. (Adv: informally.) 2. adj. [of words, language, or speech] used every day but a
little more relaxed than more formal speech. (Adv: informally.) 3. adj.
[of dress] not formal; casual. (Adv: informally.)
information [In f# "me [email protected]] n. news; knowledge about something;
facts. (No pl. Number is expressed by piece(s) or bit(s) of information.)
ingredient [In "grid i @nt] n. something that is part of a mixture.
inhale [In "hel] 1. iv. to breathe in. 2. tv. to breathe something in.
inherit [In "hEr It] 1. tv. to receive the assets of a person when the person dies. 2. tv. to receive a characteristic or feature from one’s parents or ancestors.
initial [I "nIS @l] 1. n. the first letter of a word or name when standing
alone, representing the whole word or name. (Used also for a series
of first letters taken from a series of words.) 2. adj. first; occurring
or appearing at the beginning of something. (Adv: initially.) 3. tv. to
sign something with the Q of each word in one’s name rather than
with one’s full name.
inject [In "dZEkt] 1. tv. to put a liquid into a living body through a hollow needle. 2. tv. to introduce a fluid into something under pressure.
229
injection
injection [In "dZEk [email protected]] n. injecting something. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
injure ["In dZ#] tv. to harm someone or something; to damage someone or something.
injury ["In [email protected] ri] n. physical or mental damage or harm; a specific
instance of damage or harm.
ink ["INk] 1. n. a colored liquid used for writing or printing. (Pl only
for types and instances.) 2. n. a liquid that is injected into the water
by an octopus—and by some other sea animals—to confuse pursuers. (No pl.)
inn ["In] n. a small hotel; a place that offers rooms to rent for travelers.
inner ["In #] adj. on the inside; nearer to the center; further inside.
inning ["In IN] n. [in baseball] a period of playing time that ends after
the two teams have received three outs each during their turns batting.
innocent ["In @ [email protected]] 1. adj. free from guilt or sin; not guilty. (Adv:
innocently.) 2. adj. harmless; not meant to cause harm. (Adv: innocently.) 3. adj. too trusting; not recognizing things that are evil; inexperienced. (Adv: innocently.)
inoculate [I "nak [email protected] let] tv. to inject someone or something with a
weakened or dead disease-causing agent in order to stimulate antibodies against the disease.
input ["In pUt] 1. n. addition; the act of putting something into something. (No pl.) 2. n. advice; opinions; ideas or suggestions. (Informal.
No pl.) 3. n. information; data; information that is put into a computer. (No pl.) 4. n. an electronic signal that is fed into a circuit. 5. tv.,
irreg. to put data into a computer. (Pt/pp: inputted or input.)
inquire [In "kwaI#] iv. to ask someone about something. (Also spelled
enquire.)
inquiry [In "kwaI# i] 1. n. a question. (Also spelled enquiry.) 2. n. an
investigation; a search for truth; a search for an answer.
inquisitive [In "kwIz I tIv] adj. asking a lot of questions; curious; eager
to learn. (Adv: inquisitively.)
insane [In "sen] 1. adj. crazy; not sane. (Adv: insanely.) 2. adj. owing
to insanity; done because of insanity. (Adv: insanely.) 3. adj. very stupid; very foolish; very idiotic. (Informal. Adv: insanely.)
insanity [In "sAn @ ti] n. the state or condition of being insane. (No
pl.)
230
instruct
insect ["In sEkt] 1. n. a small creature with wings and six legs. 2. n. a
bug; any creature similar to Q.
inside 1. ["In "saId] n. the interior of a building or an object; the part
of an object that is within something. 2. [In "saId, "In saId] adj. interior; in, of, or about Q. 3. [In "saId] adv. in or into a room or building; in or into an object. 4. [In "saId, "In saId] prep. within a room or
building; within an object; within the interior; in an interior position.
insight ["In saIt] 1. n. wisdom; the ability to observe and identify
things that are important. (No pl.) 2. n. a statement showing that one
has observed and identified something important.
insipid [In "sIp Id] adj. boring; dull; bland; uninteresting. (Adv:
insipidly.)
inspect [In "spEkt] tv. to examine someone or something carefully.
inspection [In "spEk [email protected]] n. study; inspecting and reviewing. (Pl only
for types and instances.)
inspire [In "spaIr] 1. tv. to influence someone to do something. 2. tv.
to fill someone with a certain spiritual emotion or feeling; to arouse
a certain emotion in someone.
install [In "stOl] 1. tv. to set up a piece of equipment for use; to make
something ready for use. 2. tv. to put someone in a certain job or
position.
installment [In "stOl [email protected]] 1. n. an episode; one part of a series of stories or reports. 2. n. one of a series of payments on a debt.
instance ["In [email protected]] n. an example; a case; an occurrence.
instant ["In [email protected]] 1. n. one moment in time; a very short amount of
time. 2. adj. immediate; without delay. (Adv: instantly.) 3. adj. [of
food or drink] easily and quickly prepared.
instantly ["In [email protected] li] adv. right now; at this very moment.
instead [In "stEd] adv. in place of something; as another choice.
instinct ["In stINkt] n. an ability someone or some creature is born
with to act or respond in a particular way.
institution [In stI "tu [email protected]] 1. n. an organization that serves a special
purpose. 2. n. an established tradition; a habit; a custom.
instruct [In "str^kt] tv. to teach someone something; to educate someone about something.
231
instruction
instruction [In "str^k [email protected]] 1. n. education; teaching. (No pl.) 2. n. an
order or set of orders; a direction or set of directions. (Usually pl.)
instructor [In "str^k t#] n. a teacher; someone who instructs people
about something.
instrument ["In [email protected] [email protected]] 1. n. a thing that is used to help someone
do something; a tool; a device. 2. n. something that shows a measurement. 3. n. an object that produces musical notes when played.
insulate ["In [email protected] let] 1. tv. to cover something with a material that prevents the passage of electricity, heat, or sound. 2. from to separate someone or something from other things or people by distance
or a barrier. (Fig. on Q.)
insulation [In [email protected] "le [email protected]] n. material that prevents the passage of electricity, heat, or sound. (No pl form in this sense.)
insult [In "s^lt] 1. n. an offensive remark; a rude statement that offends
someone. 2. tv. to offend someone; to say something rude or offensive to someone.
insurance [In "S# @ns] 1. n. a contract that pays a sum of money in
the case of a loss or injury. (No pl. Number is expressed with insurance policy or insurance policies.) 2. n. something that protects against
a loss or an injury. (No pl.) 3. n. the business of writing and selling
Q. (No pl.) 4. the adj. use of Q, W, or E.
insure [In "S#] 1. tv. to purchase insurance for someone or something.
(Compare this with ensure.) 2. tv. [for an insurance company] to sell
insurance on someone or something.
intelligence [In "tEl I [email protected]] 1. n. the level of someone’s ability to learn
and understand. (No pl.) 2. n. information about an enemy and the
enemy’s plans. (No pl.) 3. n. a department within a military service
that gathers W. (No pl.)
intelligent [In "tEl @ [email protected]] adj. smart; able to learn and understand
things well. (Adv: intelligently.)
intensity [In "tEn [email protected] ti] n. the degree or amount of power or strength.
(Pl only for types and instances.)
intention [In "tEn [email protected]] n. a purpose; a plan.
intercourse ["In t# kors] n. copulation, usually human copulation.
(Short for sexual intercourse.)
interest ["In [email protected]] 1. n. the attention or concern shown toward someone or something. (No pl.) 2. n. something that causes Q; something
that attracts one’s curiosity or attention as in T. 3. n. the money—
232
internal
usually a percentage of the amount borrowed—that a lender charges
to someone who borrows money. (No pl.) 4. n. the money—usually
a percentage of the amount held—that a bank or other financial institution pays for holding someone’s money for a period of time. (No
pl.) 5. tv. to capture the attention or curiosity of someone or something.
interested ["In [email protected] tId] 1. adj. involved; [of someone] dependent on
the outcome or decision. 2. (in) curious about something; willing
to hear or learn more information; willing to participate; willing to
purchase.
interesting ["In [email protected] tIN] adj. causing interest or curiosity; worthy of
interest; keeping someone’s interest. (Adv: interestingly.)
interestingly ["In [email protected] tIN li] 1. adv. in a way that causes or keeps
someone’s interest. 2. adv. strangely; curiously.
interfere [In t# "fIr] iv. to get involved [with something that is private
or restricted].
interference [In t# "fIr @ns] 1. n. interfering; serving as a problem;
getting involved and making oneself a bother. (No pl.) 2. n. an electronic disturbance that prevents the clear reception of a radio or television signal. (No pl.)
interim ["In t# @m] n. the time in between events; the meantime; the
meanwhile; an interval.
interior [In "tIr i #] 1. n. a part or surface that is within something; a
part or surface that is inside of something. 2. n. the area within something; the space that is inside something. 3. the adj. use of Q or W.
interj. an abbreviation of interjection.
interjection [In t# "dZEk [email protected]] n. a word, expression, or phrase that is
used to express something with force or emotion. (Abbreviated interj.
here.)
intermediate [In t# "mid i It] adj. between two stages, levels, sizes,
weights, etc. (Adv: intermediately.)
intermission [In t# "mI [email protected]] n. a pause between the parts of a play,
movie, opera, or other performance.
internal [In "t# [email protected]] 1. adj. inside; inner. (Adv: internally.) 2. adj. coming from within. (Adv: internally.) 3. adj. domestic; not foreign. (Adv:
internally.)
233
international
international [In t# "nAS @ [email protected]] 1. adj. of or about two or more countries; between two countries; among three or more countries. (Adv:
internationally.) 2. adj. global; in all nations. (Adv: internationally.)
Internet ["In t# nEt] n. a digital system of high-speed global communication and data transfer. (No pl. Not a proper noun, but usually
capitalized. Can be shortened to Net.)
interpret [In "t# [email protected]] 1. tv. to explain the meaning of something.
2. tv. to translate what someone is saying in one language into
another language.
interrog. an abbreviation of interrogative.
interrogative [In [email protected] "rag @ tIv] n. a word or expression used to ask a
question. (Who, what, when, where, why, and how are the most common interrogatives. Abbreviated interrog. here.)
interrupt [In [email protected] "r^pt] 1. iv. to break into a conversation; to start talking while someone else is talking. 2. tv. to stop the flow or movement
of something; to stop something temporarily.
interruption [In [email protected] "r^p [email protected]] 1. n. interrupting; stopping and interfering in a conversation or an activity. 2. n. a break in the flow of
something.
intersection [In t# "sEk [email protected]] 1. n. a junction of two or more roads,
streets, highways, etc.; a place where roads or streets come together
or cross. 2. n. the point at which two or more things join.
interval ["In t# [email protected]] 1. n. a period of time between two events. 2. n.
the distance between two points in a series of points. 3. n. the distance between two musical tones.
interview ["In t# vju] 1. n. a meeting between an employer and a job
seeker, where the employer asks questions of the job seeker. 2. n. a
meeting where a reporter asks questions of someone. 3. tv. to ask
questions of someone, possibly about employment; to make direct
inquiries of someone. 4. tv. to ask questions of someone for a television or radio program, a newspaper or magazine article, etc.
intestine [In "tEs tIn] n. the tube or channel between the stomach and
the rectum. (Often pl with the same meaning.)
intimate 1. ["In [email protected] mIt] adj. close; very personal; private. (Adv: intimately.) 2. ["In [email protected] mIt] adj. [of a place] quiet, private, friendly, and
inviting. (Adv: intimately.) 3. ["In [email protected] met] tv. to hint something; to
suggest something. (Takes a clause.)
234
invitation
into ["In tu] 1. prep. to the inner part of something; to the interior of
something. 2. prep. up against someone or something. 3. prep. interested in something. (Informal.)
introduce [In [email protected] "dus] tv. to establish something; to bring something
into use; to make something known or familiar to someone.
introduction [In [email protected] "d^k [email protected]] 1. n. an instance of presenting one person to another person. 2. n. making the availability of something
known to people. 3. n. the part of a book, chapter, or lecture that
comes at the beginning and explains its purpose. 4. n. the basic and
important information about a subject.
intrusion [In "tru [email protected]] 1. n. entering into a situation where one is not
wanted; a visit that is not welcome. 2. n. breaking into a house or
other building.
invalid 1. ["In [email protected] lId] n. someone who is weak because of sickness.
2. ["In [email protected] lId] adj. the adj. use of Q. 3. [In "vAl Id] adj. not valid; useless; worthless. (Adv: invalidly.)
invasion [In "ve [email protected]] 1. n. a military attack. 2. n. the attack and spread
of something bad or dangerous. (Fig. on Q.)
invent [In "vEnt] 1. tv. to create something that has never been made
before. 2. tv. to make up a story, an excuse, or a lie. (Fig. on Q.)
invention [In "vEn [email protected]] 1. n. the creation of a new device; the production of a new machine or a new process. (No pl.) 2. n. a new
device; something that has been created for the first time.
inventor [In "vEn t#] n. someone who invents Q something; someone
who has invented something.
inventory ["In [email protected] tor i] 1. n. goods and supplies on hand or stored in
a warehouse; stock waiting to be sold. (No pl form.) 2. n. a list showing the number of each item that has been packed, received, shipped,
etc.
investigate [In "vEs [email protected] get] tv. to conduct an investigation; to try to
find the facts of something.
investment [In "vEst [email protected]] n. money that is assigned to a project,
stocks, a bank account, etc., with the hope and expectation of profit.
investor [In "vEs t#] n. someone who puts money into an investment.
invisible [In "vIz @ [email protected]] adj. not visible; unable to be seen; not seen and
imaginary. (Adv: invisibly.)
invitation [In vI "te [email protected]] n. a written, printed, or spoken statement asking someone to attend an event or to do something.
235
invite
invite [In "vaIt] 1. tv. to request someone to attend an event; to ask
someone to come for a visit; to ask someone to join in doing something. 2. tv. to tempt something to happen; to provoke something to
happen, especially disaster or trouble. (Fig. on Q.)
invoice ["In voIs] 1. n. a bill; a document showing how much money
is owed for goods or services. 2. tv. to present someone or a business
firm with Q.
involve [In "vOlv] tv. to include someone or something; to make someone or something a part of something.
irk ["#k] tv. to annoy, upset, or irritate someone.
iron ["aI#n] 1. n. an element that is a common metal, used to make
steel. (No pl.) 2. n. a small device with a flat metal bottom, heated
and used to press the wrinkles out of cloth. 3. adj. made from Q.
4. tv. to smooth the wrinkles out of clothes with W.
irony ["aI [email protected] ni] 1. n. using words in a funny or sarcastic way to create
a meaning opposite from their combined literal meaning. (No pl.)
2. n. an event that has the opposite result of what was planned or
expected.
irradiate [I "red i et] tv. to treat something with radiation; to treat food
with radiation to keep it from spoiling.
irreg. an abbreviation of irregular R.
irregular [Ir "rEg [email protected] l#] 1. adj. not regular; oddly shaped; uneven. (Adv:
irregularly.) 2. adj. happening at differing intervals of time; not happening regularly. (Adv: irregularly.) 3. adj. different from what is normal, and therefore unacceptable. (Euphemistic.) 4. adj. [of the form
of a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb] not regular in the way it changes
form, such as with the pl, pt, comp, or sup. (Abbreviated irreg. here.
Adv: irregularly.)
irrigate ["Ir @ get] tv. to supply land or crops with water; to bring water
to land or crops.
irritate ["Ir I tet] 1. tv. to cause a part of the body to become red or
swollen. 2. tv. to bother or annoy someone or something.
irritation [Ir I "te [email protected]] 1. n. a bother; something that irritates. 2. n. the
condition of being sore or itchy; soreness or tenderness of skin or
other body tissues. (Pl only for types and instances.)
is [Iz] iv. a form of be, used in the pres. tense of the third-person sg,
that is, with he, she, it, and sg nouns. (Reduced to ’s in contractions.)
236
its
island ["aI [email protected]] 1. n. a piece of land surrounded by water and smaller
than a continent. 2. n. something that is completely surrounded by
something else. (Fig. on Q.)
isle ["aIl] n. an island.
isn’t ["Iz @nt] cont. is not.
isolate ["aI [email protected] let] tv. to keep someone or something separate from
other people or things; to separate someone or something from other
people or things.
isolation [aI [email protected] "le [email protected]] n. the state of being isolated; keeping someone
or something away from other people or things. (No pl.)
issue ["I Su] 1. n. one of a set of publications that are available regularly. 2. n. the number of stamps or magazines printed at one time.
3. n. a topic; the topic being discussed; a concern. 4. tv. to assign
something to someone; to supply something to someone. 5. tv. to
speak or utter a command; to deliver or publish a written command
or order. 6. tv. to publish a magazine, bulletin, newsletter, or newspaper.
it [It] 1. pron. a form referring to something that is not human; a form
referring to a plant, an animal, or something that is not living. (However, it is sometimes used to refer to a baby or a small child. See also
its and itself. The pl is they.) 2. pron. a form used as the subject of a
sentence where there is no real actor or doer. (Usually with the verb
be , but with others also.) 3. n. the player who must find or chase
everyone else in various children’s games.
italic [I "tAl Ik] 1. adj. [of letters] slanted; printed with slanted letters.
2. s n. slanted printing. (Treated as sg or pl.)
itch ["ItS] 1. n. a feeling on the skin that makes one want to scratch.
2. iv. [for the skin] to have Q.
itchy ["ItS i] adj. with the feeling of itching; constantly itching. (Comp:
itchier; sup: itchiest.)
it ’d ["It Id] 1. cont. it would. 2. cont. it had, where had is an auxiliary.
item ["aI [email protected]] n. one thing that is part of a list or a series; a unit; a piece
of information; a piece of news.
it ’ll ["It @l] cont. it will.
it ’s ["Its] 1. cont. it is. (Compare this with its.) 2. cont. it has. (This has
is an auxiliary. Compare this with its.)
its ["Its] pron. the possessive form of it; belonging to it. (Compare this
with it’s.)
237
itself
itself [It "sElf] 1. pron. the reflexive form of it. 2. pron. an emphatic
form of it. (Follows the nominal that is being emphasized.)
iv. an abbreviation of intransitive verb.
I’ve ["aIv] cont. I have. (This have is an auxiliary.)
ivory ["aI vri] 1. n. the hard, white substance of which an elephant’s
tusk is made. (No pl.) 2. n. the color of Q. 3. the adj. use of Q or
W.
ivy ["aIv i] n. a plant that holds onto walls, trees, etc., and climbs as it
grows. (Pl only for types and instances.)
238
J
jack ["dZAk] 1. n. a device used to lift heavy things off the ground,
especially to push up a car wheel in order to change a tire. 2. n. [in a
deck of playing cards] a card that has a picture of a young man on it
and is signified by the letter J.
jacket ["dZAk It] 1. n. a light coat; the light coat that is part of a suit.
2. n. a covering for a book or a sound recording.
jail ["dZel] 1. n. a building where criminals are locked up or where people are locked up while waiting for a trial. 2. tv. to put someone in
Q; to order someone to spend time in Q.
jam ["dZAm] 1. n. a sweet food made by boiling fruit and sugar until
it is thick. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. tv. to cause something
to become stuck; to force something to fit someplace. 3. iv. to become
stuck; to be unable to work properly because something is stuck; to
be unable to move because something is stuck.
janitor ["dZAn I t#] n. someone who cleans and takes care of a building.
January ["dZAn ju Er I] Go to month.
jar ["dZar] 1. n. a container with a wide, circular top, usually made of
glass or clay, and usually without handles. 2. n. the contents of Q.
3. tv. to hit (lightly) or shake someone or something.
jaw ["dZO] 1. n. the upper or lower bones that form the mouth and support the teeth. 2. n. one of the two parts of a device that holds something tight, such as a vise or pliers.
jawbone ["dZO bon] n. the upper or especially, the lower bones that
form the mouth and support the teeth.
jazz ["dZAz] 1. n. a style of music characterized by its rhythms, harmony, and the creative ways its players work together while it is being
played. (No pl.) 2. the adj. use of Q.
jealous ["dZEl @s] adj. not liking anyone who, one believes, might try
to take away one’s things or the people one loves. (Adv: jealously.)
jealousy ["dZEl @ si] n. the condition of being jealous; not liking someone who has something one wants. (No pl.)
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239
jeans
jeans ["dZinz] n. a pair of cloth pants, often dark blue, made of sturdy
material. (Treated as pl. Number is expressed by pair(s) of jeans.)
jelly ["dZEl i] 1. n. a soft food that is made by boiling fruit juice and
sugar together and is often spread on bread. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. adj. made with Q.
jeopardy ["dZEp # di] n. a state of risk or hazard.
jerk ["dZ#k] 1. n. a sudden push or pull of the muscles; a movement
made when something starts or stops quickly. 2. tv. to push or pull
someone or something suddenly. 3. iv. to move with Q; make a
movement like Q.
jest ["dZEst] 1. n. a joke; a statement or action said or done in fun. 2. iv.
to make jokes.
jet ["dZEt] 1. n. a stream of air, water, steam, or another fluid that is
shot out from a small opening at high pressure. 2. n. an airplane that
moves at high speed using engines similar to a rocket. (Short for jet
plane.) 3. iv. [for water, steam, or another fluid] to form a stream by
being forced out of a small opening under pressure. 4. iv. to travel by
W. 5. tv. to cause water, steam, or another fluid to form a stream by
forcing it out of a small opening under pressure.
jet-black ["dZEt "blAk] adj. deep, shiny black in color.
jewel ["dZu @l] n. a gem; a valuable stone; a piece of jewelry.
jeweler ["dZu (@) l#] n. someone who deals in watches, valuable gems,
and precious metals.
jewelry ["dZu (@)l ri] n. objects usually made of valuable metals or
stones, such as rings, earrings, necklaces, bracelets, and pins. (No pl.
Treated as sg. Number is expressed with piece(s) of jewelry.)
jiggle ["dZIg @l] 1. tv. to move someone or something up and down or
from side to side. 2. iv. to move up and down or from side to side.
jingle ["dZIN [email protected]] 1. n. the ringing noise of metal objects gently hitting
together; the noise of a small bell being struck. 2. n. a tune or song
used in advertising. 3. tv. to make ringing noises by hitting metal
objects together. 4. iv. [for metal objects] to make noises when struck
together; [for a small bell] to make a noise when shaken.
job ["dZab] 1. n. a career; an occupation; regular employment. 2. n. a
task; a duty; a responsibility; a piece of work. 3. n. the performance
or result of one’s work.
240
judge
jog ["dZOg] 1. n. a slow, gentle run usually done for exercise; a [human]
trot. 2. n. a bend to the right or the left; something that causes a line
not to be straight. 3. iv. to exercise by running slowly.
jogger ["dZOg #] n. someone who exercises by jogging.
join ["dZoIn] 1. iv. to come together; to connect; to unite. 2. tv. to connect someone or something to someone or something else; to unite
people or things into a single unit. 3. tv. to enroll in a club, class, the
military, or some other organization; to become a member of an
organization.
joint ["dZoInt] 1. n. a place where two things, especially bones, join.
2. adj. done or owned together; joined; united. (Adv: jointly.)
joke ["dZok] 1. n. something said or done to make people laugh, especially a short story told to make people laugh. 2. tv. to say something
in a teasing or playful manner; to say something that is meant to be
funny. (The object is a clause with that U.) 3. iv. to tell Q; to kid or
tease [someone]; to say or do things that are meant to be funny.
jolly ["dZal i] adj. very happy; very cheerful. (Comp: jollier; sup: jolliest.)
jostle ["dZas @l] 1. tv. to bump into someone, especially in a crowd.
2. iv. to move somewhere quickly, especially through a crowded area,
while bumping into people or pushing people out of the way.
journal ["dZ# nl] 1. n. a diary; a book where one writes down one’s
feelings, thoughts, or activities. 2. n. a magazine, periodical, or scholarly publication.
journey ["dZ#n i] 1. n. a trip; a voyage. 2. iv. to travel.
joy ["dZoI] 1. n. extreme pleasure or happiness. (No pl.) 2. n. someone
or something that causes extreme pleasure or happiness.
joyful ["dZoI [email protected]] 1. adj. [of someone] full of joy; extremely happy; very
glad. (Adv: joyfully.) 2. adj. [for something] causing joy; causing
extreme happiness.
joyous ["dZoI @s] adj. full of joy; extremely happy; very glad. (Adv: joyously.)
judge ["dZ^dZ] 1. n. an official who hears and settles cases in a court
of law and who presides over trials. 2. n. someone who helps decide
the winner of a contest or competition. 3. tv. to hear and settle a case
in a court of law; to preside over a trial in a court of law. 4. tv. to help
decide the winner of a contest or competition. 5. tv. to state an opinion about someone or something; to evaluate someone or something.
241
judgment
6. tv. to estimate something; to make a guess that something will happen. (The object is a clause with that U.)
judgment ["dZ^dZ [email protected]] 1. n. the ability to make the proper decisions;
the ability to judge. (No pl.) 2. n. the result of judging; the decision
made by a judge or a jury. 3. n. an opinion. (No pl.)
juggle ["dZ^g @l] 1. tv. to keep three or more objects moving through
the air by catching and throwing them in a circle. 2. tv. to deal with
several things at the same time. 3. iv. to toss objects in the air as in
Q.
juice ["dZus] n. the liquid part of fruit, vegetables, or meat. (Pl only for
types and instances.)
July [[email protected] "laI] Go to month.
jumble ["dZ^m [email protected]] 1. tv. to mix things up; to cause things to be out
of order. 2. n. a group of things that are mixed up; a group of things
that are out of order.
jumbo ["dZ^m bo] adj. extra large; larger than regular.
jump ["dZ^mp] 1. iv. to leap up; to spring up; to push off the ground
with one’s legs. 2. iv. to move suddenly, as if surprised or scared. 3. iv.
to go up sharply; to increase sharply; to rise sharply. (Fig. on Q.)
4. tv. to start a car by connecting its battery to another car’s battery.
5. n. a leap off the ground; a leap off the ground and over, through,
or across something. 6. n. a sudden rise; an increase. (Fig. on T.)
junction ["dZ^Nk [email protected]] n. a place where two or more things come
together, especially the place where roads or train tracks come
together or cross.
June ["dZun] Go to month.
jungle ["dZ^N [email protected]] n. a tropical forest of thick, lush plant growth, usually near the equator.
junior ["dZun j#] 1. n. someone who is younger or who has a lower
rank or position than someone else. 2. n. a student in the third year
of high school (11th grade) or the third year of college. 3. adj. of or
about someone who is younger or who has a lower rank or position.
4. adj. of or about the third year of high school or college. (Prenominal only.)
junk ["dZ^Nk] 1. n. things that are worthless; things that should be
thrown away. (No pl.) 2. tv. to throw something away.
242
juvenile
jury ["dZ# i] 1. n. a group of people who listen to evidence at a trial in
a court of law and make a decision about the truth of the facts of the
case. 2. the adj. use of Q.
just ["dZ^st] 1. adj. fair; not biased; honest; right; in accordance with
the law. (Adv: justly.) 2. adj. as someone deserves; appropriate. (Adv:
justly.) 3. adv. only. 4. adv. barely; by a small amount. 5. adv. exactly
[the right amount and no more].
justice ["dZ^s tIs] 1. n. the quality or condition of being just; fairness,
especially in a court of law. (No pl.) 2. n. the administration of law;
the practice of law within the court system. (No pl.) 3. n. a judge.
(Also a title and term of address.)
justify ["dZ^s tI faI] tv. to explain why one did something; to give a
good reason for something.
jut out ["dZ^t aUt] to stick out from something.
juvenile ["dZu [email protected] naIl] 1. n. a child [from a legal point of view]. 2. n.
a young animal. 3. adj. youthful; for young people.
243
K
kangaroo [kAN [email protected] "ru] n. a large animal of Australia that hops on its
hind legs. (Pl ends in -s.)
keel ["kil] n. the main beam along the bottom of a boat or ship on
which the frame is built.
keen ["kin] 1. adj. [of a cutting edge] sharp. (Adv: keenly. Comp:
keener; sup: keenest.) 2. adj. [of a sense of taste, vision, hearing,
touch, or smell] very sensitive or sharp. (Fig. on Q. Adv: keenly.
Comp: keener; sup: keenest.)
keep ["kip] 1. tv., irreg. to cause someone or something to remain
somewhere. (Pt/pp: kept.) 2. tv., irreg. to have something for a period
of time; to continue to have something. 3. iv. to continue to do something.
keeper ["kip #] n. someone who keeps someone or something; a protector; a guard; someone who cares for animals in a zoo. (See also
zookeeper.)
keepsake ["kip sek] n. something that is kept to remind the owner of
someone or something; a memento.
keg ["kEg] 1. n. a small wooden barrel, especially one that holds 100
pounds of nails. 2. n. a small metal barrel, especially one that holds
beer.
kennel ["kEn @l] n. a place where dogs are kept.
kept ["kEpt] pt/pp of keep.
ketchup and catsup ["kEtS @p, "ket [email protected]] n. a thick liquid, made from
tomatoes, that is put on food for flavoring. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
kettle ["kEt @l] n. a large cooking pot; a pot for heating liquids.
key ["ki] 1. n. a device that unlocks or locks a lock; something that
unlocks something that is locked. 2. n. something that gives access to
an answer or a solution; something that provides the answers or solutions for something. (Fig. on Q.) 3. n. a part of a machine or instrument that is pressed down to make something happen, as on a
computer keyboard, a typewriter, or a piano. 4. n. a musical scale
that begins on a particular note; a set of related musical notes. 5. adj.
important; essential; basic.
244
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kind
keyboard ["ki bord] 1. n. a row of keys that make a certain musical
sound when pressed. 2. n. an electronic device that creates music.
3. n. the rows of keys standing for letters, symbols, and numbers as
found on typewriters, computers, etc.
keynote ["ki not] adj. [of a speech or a speaker] primary or main.
(Prenominal only.)
keypad ["ki pAd] 1. n. [on a computer] a special, separate set of number keys arranged as on a calculator. 2. n. any small control panel
having an arrangement of push buttons, as found on a telephone or
a calculator.
kick ["kIk] 1. tv. to strike someone or something with the foot, usually
the toe of a shoe or boot. 2. iv. to move one’s legs back and forth as
if kicking something as in Q. 3. n. an act of striking someone or
something with the foot, as in Q.
kid ["kId] 1. n. a child; a youngster. (Informal.) 2. n. a baby goat. 3. n.
the skin of W. (No pl.) 4. tv. to tease someone; to joke with someone; to trick someone. 5. adj. [of a brother or sister] younger. (Informal. Prenominal only.)
kidnap ["kId nAp] tv. to take someone away by force, especially in
order to make a demand for something; to abduct someone. (Pt/pp:
kidnapped.)
kidney ["kId ni] 1. n. one of the two organs that separate waste and
water from the bloodstream, creating urine. 2. the adj. use of Q.
kill ["kIl] 1. tv. to cause the death of someone or something directly.
2. tv. to end something; to cause something to end. (Fig. on Q.) 3. iv.
to cause death. 4. n. an animal that is hunted and killed as in Q. (No
pl.)
killer ["kIl #] n. someone or something that kills; someone or something that causes death.
kilogram ["kIl @ grAm] n. a metric unit of weight, equal to 1,000 grams
or about 2.2 pounds.
kilometer [kI "lam @ t#] n. a metric unit of distance, equal to 1,000
meters or about ⅝ of a mile.
kilowatt ["kIl @ wat] n. a metric unit of electrical power, equal to 1,000
watts per hour.
kin ["kIn] n. family; relatives. (No pl form. Treated as pl.)
kind ["kaInd] 1. n. a sort; a type; a variety. 2. adj. thoughtful; helpful.
(Adv: kindly. Comp: kinder; sup: kindest.)
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kindergarten
kindergarten ["kIn d# gard n] n. the grade before first grade, usually
for children between the ages of 4 and 6.
kindle ["kInd @l] 1. tv. to set fire to something; to set something on
fire. 2. tv. to cause something to happen; to bring something into
action. (Fig. on Q.) 3. iv. to catch fire.
kindness ["[email protected]] n. the quality of being kind; politeness and caring.
king ["kIN] 1. n. the male ruler of a nation where the head of the country inherits his office from a previous ruler. 2. n. a playing card with
a picture of Q on it. 3. n. a playing piece in chess that can move one
space in any direction.
kingdom ["kIN [email protected]] 1. n. a country ruled by a king or queen. 2. n. one
of three kinds of life forms—such as the animal or plant kingdom.
kiss ["kIs] 1. n. a touching of one’s lips to someone or something, especially someone else’s lips. 2. tv. to touch one’s lips to someone or
something, especially someone else’s lips. 3. iv. [for two people] to
kiss each other on the lips, as in W.
kit ["kIt] 1. n. a container or carrying device that holds tools, equipment, or supplies for a specific purpose. 2. n. the parts and instructions needed to build a particular thing, such as a model airplane.
kitchen ["kItS @n] 1. n. a room where food is stored and cooked. 2. the
adj. use of Q.
kite ["kaIt] n. a small wooden frame covered with cloth, paper, or plastic and attached to a long string—flown in the wind for amusement.
kitten ["kIt n] n. a baby cat; a young cat.
knead ["nid] 1. tv. to mix something together by squeezing it with
one’s hands. 2. tv. to massage a muscle. (Fig. on Q.)
knee ["ni] 1. n. the front part of the joint in the middle of the leg. 2. n.
the part of a pants leg that covers Q.
kneecap ["ni kAp] n. the flat bone at the front of the knee.
kneel ["nil] iv., irreg. to put the weight of one’s body on one or both
knees. (Pt/pp: kneeled or knelt.)
knelt ["nElt] a pt/pp of kneel.
knew ["nu] pt of know.
knife ["naIf] 1. n., irreg. a long, flat utensil or tool that has a handle
and a sharp edge used for cutting. (Pl: knives.) 2. tv. to stab someone
or something.
246
knuckle
knit ["nIt] tv. to make a fabric or clothing by using long needles to loop
yarn or thread together.
knives ["naIvz] pl of knife.
knob ["nab] n. a round handle or control button.
knock ["nak] 1. iv. to hit one’s knuckles against something. 2. n. the
noise made by rapping or tapping as with Q. 3. n. a sharp hit; a rap;
a thump. 4. tv. to hit or bump something and make it move or fall;
to hit something against someone or something.
knot ["nat] 1. n. a tight lump made where pieces of rope, cord, hair,
string, etc., are tied together. 2. n. a hard circle of wood in a board,
where a small branch was joined. 3. n. a unit of speed equal to 1.15
miles per hour, used to measure the movement of ships and wind at
sea. 4. tv. to tie something in Q; to fasten something with Q. 5. iv.
to become tied or twisted into Q.
know ["no] 1. tv., irreg. to have met and become familiar with someone. (Pt: knew; pp: known.) 2. tv., irreg. to understand something; to
have had experience with something. 3. tv., irreg. to recognize someone or something. 4. tv., irreg. to have knowledge about someone or
something; to have information about someone or something. (The
object can be a clause with that U.)
know-how knowledge and skill. (Informal.)
knowledge ["nal IdZ] n. the information that is known about someone or something. (No pl.)
known ["non] pp of know.
knuckle ["n^k @l] n. the joint between the bones of a finger or the joint
between a finger and the hand.
247
L
lab ["lAb] n. laboratory.
label ["leb @l] 1. n. a small notice bearing important information. 2.
tv. to attach Q to something.
labor ["leb #] 1. n. a kind of work, especially hard, physical work. (No
pl.) 2. n. workers, especially in contrast to people in management.
(No pl. Treated as sg.) 3. n. the work a woman’s body does to bring
about birth; the contractions of the womb in the process of giving
birth. (No pl.) 4. the adj. use of Q, W, or E. 5. iv. to work hard.
laboratory ["lAb [email protected] tor i] 1. n. a room or building that contains scientific equipment for experiments, tests, manufacture, or instruction.
(Often shortened to lab.) 2. the adj. use of Q.
lace ["les] 1. n. a delicate web of cotton or other thread woven into a
design or pattern. (No pl.) 2. n. a string used for tying something
closed, especially for tying one’s shoes closed; a shoelace. 3. adj. made
of Q.
lack ["lAk] 1. n. a shortage of something; the condition of not having
any of something. 2. tv. to need something; not to have enough of
something; to be without something.
lacy ["les i] 1. adj. made of lace. (Adv: lacily. Comp: lacier; sup: laciest.) 2. adj. delicate and complex like lace; having a delicate pattern.
(Fig. on Q. Adv: lacily. Comp: lacier; sup: laciest.)
ladder ["lAd #] n. a set of steps attached to two side pieces, used for
climbing up to reach something or climbing down from something.
ladle ["led l] 1. n. a large, deep spoon with a long handle, used for serving a liquid from a bowl. 2. tv. to serve a liquid using Q.
lady ["led i] 1. n. a refined woman. (Compare this with gentleman.)
2. n. a woman. (Also a term of address.)
lag ["lAg] n. a delay; the period of time between the end of one event
and the start of another.
laid ["led] pt/pp of lay.
lain ["len] a pp of lie E.
lair ["lEr] n. an animal’s shelter; the place where an animal sleeps.
lake ["lek] n. a large body of water surrounded by land.
248
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language
lamb ["lAm] 1. n. a young sheep. 2. n. the meat of Q used as food. (No
pl.)
lame ["lem] adj. not able to walk properly; limping; crippled. (Adv:
lamely. Comp: lamer; sup: lamest.)
lamp ["lAmp] 1. n. a device that makes light; an electric light bulb. 2. n.
a stand—often ornamental—that holds an electric light bulb.
lamppost ["lAmp post] n. a post that supports a street light.
lampshade ["lAmp Sed] n. a cover that fits over the electric light bulb
in a lamp to soften the glare of the light.
land ["lAnd] 1. n. the dry, solid part of the earth’s surface; the part of
the earth’s surface that is not covered with water. (No pl.) 2. n.
ground; dirt; soil. (No pl.) 3. n. a portion of Q; an area of ground.
(No pl.) 4. n. a country. 5. iv. [for someone or something that is moving or falling through the air] to stop and come to rest somewhere,
especially on the ground. 6. iv. [for an airplane] to return to the
ground safely. 7. tv. [for a pilot] to return an airplane to the ground
safely.
landing ["lAn dIN] n. [an airplane’s] coming to earth; [a pilot’s] act of
bringing a plane to earth.
landlady ["lAnd led i] n. a woman who owns and rents out space where
people can live, such as houses and apartments; a woman who manages residential rental property. (See also landlord.)
landlord ["lAnd lord] n. a person or a company that manages and collects rent for houses, apartments, and offices.
landscape ["lAnd skep] 1. n. the land and the things visible on it, such
as trees, bodies of water, rocks, hills, etc. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. a painting or drawing of the land or other outdoor
scenes. 3. tv. to arrange flowers, trees, bushes, hills, rocks, and other
objects to make a yard or park look beautiful.
lane ["len] 1. n. a road, path, or route. 2. n. a section of a road wide
enough for one line of traffic; a section of a running track wide
enough for one person to run; a division of a swimming pool wide
enough for one person to swim.
language ["lAN gwIdZ] 1. n. the system of spoken and written symbols used by people to express thoughts, meaning, and emotions. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. n. any system of symbols used in a
computer program. 3. n. a specific style of expression. (No pl.)
249
lantern
lantern ["lAn t#n] n. a protective case with clear sides, containing a
source of light.
lap ["lAp] 1. n. the flat surface formed by the tops of the upper legs
when someone is sitting. 2. n. one trip around a track; two lengths
of a swimming pool. 3. iv. [for water] to move in small waves, making a gently splashing noise.
lapel [[email protected] "pEl] n. on a coat or jacket, one of the flaps that is folded back
toward the shoulders, just below the collar.
lapse ["lAps] 1. n. a brief failure; a small mistake. 2. n. the period of
time it takes for something to happen; the passing of time. 3. n. the
return to one’s bad habits or actions after a period of not doing them.
4. iv. [for something to expire] because it was not used or renewed
by a certain time. 5. iv. to fail at an attempt to reform (oneself ) and
return to one’s old bad habits or actions.
large ["lardZ] 1. adj. greater in size than average; more than average;
big. (Comp: larger; sup: largest.) 2. n. an object, especially one for
sale, that is Q in size.
largely ["lardZ li] adv. primarily; mainly.
lash ["lAS] 1. n. a blow from a whip. 2. n. an eyelash. 3. tv. to hit someone or something with a whip. 4. tv. to tie someone or something [to
something]; to bind someone or something.
last ["lAst] 1. adj. final; at the end; after all other people or things.
(Adv: lastly.) 2. adj. the most recent; nearest in the past; latest. 3. adj.
least likely; least appropriate. 4. iv. to continue for a length of time;
to remain; to endure.
latch ["lAtS] 1. n. a device for holding a door or window closed; a lock
for a door or window that can be locked and unlocked with a key.
2. tv. to close a door or window so that the latch as in Q seizes and
holds the door or window closed firmly. 3. iv. [for Q] to seize and
hold [something]; [for something] to close firmly with Q.
late ["let] 1. adj. not on time; past the time that something is supposed
to happen; past the time that someone or something is to be in a
place. (Comp: later; sup: latest.) 2. adj. far into a certain period of
time; toward the end of a certain period of time. 3. adj. no longer living; dead, especially having died recently; now dead. (Prenominal
only.) 4. adv. after the time that something is supposed to happen.
lately ["let li] adv. recently.
later ["let #] adv. at a time after the present time; at a future time.
250
lay
lather ["lAD #] 1. n. white foam that is made by mixing soap with
water. (No pl.) 2. tv. to cover something with Q.
laugh ["lAf] 1. iv. to express pleasure or amusement by making short,
happy sounds with the voice. 2. n. the noise that someone makes
when amused, as in Q.
laughter ["lAf t#] n. the sound(s) made when people laugh. (No pl.
Treated as sg.)
launch ["lOntS] 1. tv. to set a new boat or ship into the water for the
first time. 2. tv. to send a rocket or its cargo into the air. 3. tv. to begin
a project; to start carrying out a plan. (Fig. on Q.) 4. n. an instance
of sending something as in Q or W.
launder ["lOn d#] tv. to wash clothes or fabric; to wash and iron clothes
or fabric.
laundry ["lOn dri] 1. n. clothes that need to be washed; clothes that
have just been washed and dried. (No pl.) 2. n. a business where
clothes can be taken to be washed. 3. n. a location in a house or apartment building where clothes are washed.
lavatory ["lAv @ tor i] 1. n. a sink used for washing one’s hands; a wash
basin with running water available. 2. n. a bathroom; a room with a
toilet. (Euphemistic.)
lavish ["lAv IS] adj. in or involving large amounts; grand and excessive.
(Adv: lavishly.)
law ["lO] 1. n. a rule; a statement of obligation within a legal system.
2. n. a principle that describes something that happens as a regularity in mathematics or the natural world. 3. n. the study of the system
of laws as in Q. (No pl.)
lawful ["lO fUl] adj. legal; permitted by law; sanctioned by law. (Adv:
lawfully.)
lawn ["lOn] n. an area of ground with cut grass; a yard.
lawsuit ["lO sut] n. a claim or complaint brought into a court of law.
(Can be shortened to suit.)
lawyer ["lO j#] n. someone who is trained in law and is a member of
the bar.
lax ["lAks] adj. loose; not strict; not demanding. (Adv: laxly. Comp:
laxer; sup: laxest.)
lay ["le] 1. a pt of lie. 2. adj. not trained in a profession, such as law or
medicine; not ordained as a religious leader. 3. tv., irreg. to place
something on a surface or in a flat position. (Compare this with R
251
layer
and lie E. Pt/pp: laid.) 4. tv., irreg. [for a hen] to produce and deposit
an egg.
layer ["le #] n. a level; one level of thickness that is placed on a surface.
lazy ["lez i] 1. adj. doing almost no work; avoiding work. (Adv: lazily.
Comp: lazier; sup: laziest.) 2. adj. moving slowly. (Fig. on Q. Adv:
lazily. Comp: lazier; sup: laziest.)
lead 1. ["lEd] n. a heavy, soft, grayish metallic element. (No pl.) 2. ["lid]
n. a clue; a hint; information that can be used to help solve a crime.
3. ["lid] n. the distance or amount by which someone or something
is ahead of someone or something else, especially in a race or contest. 4. ["lid] n. the main role in a movie or play. 5. ["lid] tv., irreg. to
guide someone or something; to show someone or something the
way. (Pt/pp: led.) 6. ["lid] tv., irreg. to be the leader of someone or
something; to be in charge of someone or something. 7. ["lid] tv.,
irreg. to be ahead of another team or other players in a competition.
8. ["lid] iv., irreg. to guide; to show the way.
leader ["lid #] n. a ruler; someone who leads or is in charge of a group
of people.
leaf ["lif] 1. n., irreg. the flat, usually green, part of a tree or plant that
is attached to a branch or stem. (Pl: leaves.) 2. n., irreg. an extra section that can be placed in the top of a table to make it larger.
leafy ["lif i] adj. having a lot of leaves; covered with leaves. (Comp:
leafier; sup: leafiest.)
league ["lig] 1. n. a group of people, organizations, or countries that
work together because they have a common interest or goal. 2. n. a
group of sports teams that play against each other.
leak ["lik] 1. n. an opening in a channel, pipe, tire, container, etc., that
allows something to escape. 2. n. an instance of something escaping
from an opening as in Q. 3. n. an instance of secret information
being revealed secretly. (Fig. on W.) 4. iv. [for a container] to have
an opening as in Q that allows water, air, or something else to escape.
5. tv. [for a container with an opening as in Q] to allow water, air,
or something else to escape or enter. 6. tv. to secretly reveal secret
information. (Fig. on T.)
leakage ["lik IdZ] 1. n. the process of leaking. (No pl.) 2. n. something
that is leaked. (No pl.)
leaky ["lik i] adj. tending to leak; likely to leak. (Comp: leakier; sup:
leakiest.)
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leer
lean ["lin] 1. iv. to be slanting; to be sloped. 2. adj. [of someone or
something] very thin or skinny. (Adv: leanly. Comp: leaner; sup: leanest.) 3. adj. [of meat] having almost no fat. (Adv: leanly. Comp:
leaner; sup: leanest.)
leap ["lip] 1. iv., irreg. to jump from one place to another. (Pt/pp:
leaped or leapt.) 2. tv., irreg. to jump over something. 3. n. a jump;
an instance of leaping.
leapt ["lEpt] a pt/pp of leap.
learn ["l#n] tv. to receive knowledge; to gain a particular piece of
knowledge. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
lease ["lis] n. a rental contract.
least ["list] 1. adj. a sup. form of little; the smallest [amount]. 2. adv.
in the smallest amount; to the smallest degree; the opposite of most.
3. pron. the smallest amount.
leather ["lED #] 1. n. a material made from the skin of an animal, used
to make shoes, coats, belts, gloves, etc. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. adj. made of Q.
leave ["liv] 1. iv., irreg. to go away; to exit from a place. (Pt/pp: left.)
2. tv., irreg. to depart from a place. 3. tv., irreg. to depart [from a
place], letting someone or something remain in the place. 4. tv., irreg.
to depart from and abandon someone, such as a husband or wife.
5. tv., irreg. to cause someone or something to be in a certain condition. 6. tv., irreg. to will something to someone or something; to give
something to someone or something after one dies. 7. n. an extended
period of time away from one’s duties.
leaves ["livz] pl of leaf.
lecture ["lEk tS#] 1. n. a long talk about a certain subject; a speech.
2. n. a speech that warns or scolds. 3. iv. to give Q; to talk about a
certain subject. 4. tv. to talk to people about a certain subject, especially to talk to an audience or a class. 5. tv. to scold someone about
something; to give Q to someone.
lecturer ["lEk tS# #] 1. n. someone who gives a lecture. 2. n. someone
who gives lectures; especially someone below the rank of professor
or instructor who teaches at a university or college.
led ["lEd] pt/pp of lead.
ledge ["lEdZ] n. a narrow surface that sticks out along a wall or under
a window; a shelf.
leer ["lIr] n. a look of sexual desire or interest.
253
left
left ["lEft] 1. pt/pp of leave. 2. n. the direction to the west when you
are facing north. (No pl.) 3. adj. toward W; located at W. 4. adv.
toward W.
left-hand ["lEft hAnd] adj. left; on, to, or at one’s left side. (Prenominal only.)
left-handed ["lEft hAn dId] 1. adj. favoring the use of the left hand.
(Adv: left-handed or left-handedly.) 2. adj. designed for people who
are Q. 3. adv. [of writing] done with the left hand.
leftover ["lEft ov #] adj. remaining; unused and therefore extra.
(Prenominal only.)
leftovers ["lEft ov #z] n. portions of food left over from a meal; portions of food remaining after a meal. (Treated as pl. Rarely countable.)
leg ["lEg] 1. n. one of the two body parts that support a human; one of
the four body parts that support most other mammals, or similar
parts that support certain other animals, such as insects. 2. n. the part
of a piece of clothing that wraps around Q. 3. n. [in furniture or
other structures] a vertical piece that supports weight. 4. n. a part of
a trip; a part of a distance to be covered.
legal ["lig @l] 1. adj. lawful; according to the law. (Adv: legally.) 2. adj.
of or about law. (Adv: legally.)
legend ["lEdZ @nd] 1. n. an old and often repeated story; a fable; a
myth. 2. n. an explanation of symbols used on a map, plan, chart,
etc.
legislate ["lEdZ I slet] 1. tv. to make laws. 2. tv. to pass a law about
something. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
legislation [lEdZ I "sle [email protected]] 1. n. writing and making laws. (No pl.)
2. n. laws that have been made; a set of laws. (No pl. Number is
expressed with piece(s) of legislation.)
legislative ["lEdZ I sle tIv] adj. of or about making laws or the people
who make laws. (Adv: legislatively.)
legislator ["lEdZ I sle t#] n. someone who makes laws; a member of a
legislature.
legislature ["lEdZ I sle tS#] n. the group of people who are elected or
appointed to make laws.
legitimate [lI "dZIt @ [email protected]] 1. adj. lawful; according to the law. (Adv:
legitimately.) 2. adj. correct; valid; reasonable. (Adv: legitimately.)
254
lesson
3. adj. [of a person] born to legally married parents; [of the birth of
a person] legal. (Adv: legitimately.)
leisure ["li Z#] 1. n. free time; time that is not spent at work or sleeping; time when one can do what one wants. (No pl.) 2. the adj. use
of Q.
lemon ["lEm @n] 1. n. a sour, yellow citrus fruit. 2. n. a product, such
as a car, that does not work properly and cannot be repaired. (Informal.) 3. adj. made or flavored with Q.
lemonade [lEm @n "ed] n. a drink made from the juice of lemons,
sugar, and water. (No pl.)
lend ["lEnd] 1. tv., irreg. to grant someone permission to use or borrow something for a period of time. (Pt/pp: lent.) 2. tv., irreg. to contribute an effect to something; to add a quality to something. (Fig.
on Q.)
length ["lENkT] 1. n. the measurement of something from end to end;
the amount of time that has passed. (The opposite of width. Pl only
for types and instances.) 2. n. a piece of something of a certain or
known Q.
lengthen ["lENk [email protected]] 1. tv. to make something longer. 2. iv. to become
longer.
lens ["lEnz] 1. n. a piece of curved glass, or some other clear material,
that bends rays of light. 2. n. the clear, curved part of the eye—
located behind the pupil—that focuses light rays on the retina.
lent ["lEnt] pt/pp of lend.
leopard ["lEp #d] n. a large animal in the cat family, typically having
yellowish fur with black spots.
less ["lEs] 1. adj. the comp. form of little; a smaller amount. (Used
with things that are measured in quantities. Compare this with fewer,
at few, which is used with things that can be counted.) 2. adv. to a
smaller extent or degree; not as much. 3. suffix a form meaning without that can be added to nouns and to adjectives that have come from
verbs. (The resulting adjectives can be made into nouns with the -ness
suffix and into adverbs with the suffix -ly.)
lessen ["lEs @n] 1. iv. to become less; to decrease in size, amount, or
power. 2. tv. to cause something to become less.
lesson ["lEs @n] 1. n. a session of instruction with a teacher; the material to be covered in one session of instruction; something, such as a
school assignment, that is to be learned, studied, or prepared. 2. n.
255
let
something that one learns from an experience; an experience that one
learns something from.
let ["lEt] 1. tv., irreg. to allow someone or something to do something;
to allow something to happen. (Pt/pp: let.) 2. tv., irreg. to rent an
apartment or room (to someone).
let’s ["lEts] cont. let us; we will [do something]. (A gentle command or
request. A response is usually expected.)
letter ["lEt #] 1. n. a written or printed symbol in an alphabet. 2. n. a
written message sent to a person or a group.
lettuce ["lEt Is] n. a leafy, green vegetable, often used in salads. (No
pl. Number is expressed with leaf or leaves of lettuce and head(s) of
lettuce.)
level ["lEv @l] 1. n. a flat surface; a horizontal plane. 2. n. one of the
floors of a building or other structure. 3. n. a layer; a step or a stage.
4. n. the amount of a measurement; a position on a scale of measurement. 5. n. a tool or device that shows when a surface is exactly
horizontal or vertical. 6. adj. [of a surface] exactly horizontal, so
every point is the same height. 7. adj. [of a measurement] steady; not
changing. (Fig. on Y.) 8. tv. to knock down trees, buildings, or other
objects until the land is flat; to clear land by knocking down trees or
buildings.
lever ["lEv #] 1. n. a bar of metal or wood, positioned so that it
increases one’s power in lifting or moving heavy objects. 2. n. a bar
or handle that serves as a control device.
liability [laI @ "bIl @ ti] 1. n. a kind of danger to people that could cause
a lawsuit against whoever is responsible for creating the danger. (No
pl form.) 2. n. a cost or [monetary] charge; a potential cost; a negative consideration. (No pl form.)
liar ["laI #] n. someone who tells lies; someone who does not tell the
truth.
liberal ["lIb (@) [email protected]] 1. adj. tolerant; broad-minded; progressive. (Adv:
liberally.) 2. adj. generous; abundant; plenty; ample. (Adv: liberally.)
3. adj. of or about political views that favor social and economic
progress, very often through government control and management.
(Adv: liberally.) 4. n. someone who has liberal E viewpoints.
liberate ["lIb @ ret] tv. to set someone or something free; to release
someone or something from control.
256
lifeguard
liberty ["lIb # ti] 1. n. the freedom from control; the freedom to think
or act for oneself. (No pl.) 2. n. the permission to do something; a
right or a privilege that one has been given.
librarian [laI "brEr i @n] n. someone who manages or helps operate a
library.
library ["laI brEr i] 1. n. a building or room that has a supply of books
or similar materials available for use by a number of people. 2. n. a
collection of books, records, videotapes, etc.
license ["laI [email protected]] 1. n. a document that proves that someone has official permission to do or own something. 2. n. a freedom to do something. (No pl.) 3. tv. to give or sell someone a Q for something; to
authorize someone or something; to permit someone or something.
lick ["lIk] 1. tv. to move the tongue along someone or something; to
taste something by moving one’s tongue along it; to make something
wet by moving one’s tongue along it. 2. n. the movement of the
tongue along the surface of something as in Q. 3. n. a small amount
of something that one gets by moving the tongue as in Q.
lid ["lId] 1. n. a cover for a container, surface, hole, etc. 2. n. the fold
of skin over the eye; an eyelid.
lie ["laI] 1. n. a statement that is not true and that the speaker knows
is not true; a false statement. 2. iv. to say something that is not true;
to tell Q. (Pt/pp: lied. Pres. part.: lying.) 3. iv., irreg. to be in a flat
position; to place oneself in a flat position. (Pt: lay; pp: lain. See also
lay. Pres. part.: lying.) 4. iv., irreg. to be located; to be in a certain
place. 5. iv., irreg. to remain in a place or condition; to stay in a certain condition or position.
lied ["laId] pt/pp of lie W.
life ["laIf] 1. n. the power that causes plants and animals to exist, in
general. (No pl.) 2. n., irreg. an individual instance of Q that can be
lived, lost, saved, spent, wasted, etc.; the period of time between the
time of one’s birth and one’s death or between the time of one’s birth
and the present. (Pl: lives.) 3. n., irreg. the activities, experiences, and
habits of a person. 4. n. excitement; vigor. (No pl.) 5. n. a kind of living; a quality of living. (No pl.)
lifeboat ["laIf bot] n. a boat used to carry people away from a sinking
ship; a boat used to save people in danger of drowning.
lifeguard ["laIf gard] n. someone who works at a beach or swimming
pool to encourage water safety and rescue people from danger in the
water.
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lifesaver
lifesaver ["laIf sev #] 1. n. someone or something that saves someone’s life. 2. n. something that serves well in an emergency. (Fig. on
Q.)
lifetime ["laIf taIm] 1. n. the time that a person or animal is living.
2. n. the period of time that something works or can be used. (Fig.
on Q.)
lift ["lIft] 1. tv. to pick someone or something up from the ground; to
raise someone or something to a higher level. 2. iv. [for clouds, fog,
smoke, smog] to rise or go away. 3. n. a free ride in a car or truck.
(Informal.) 4. n. something that makes someone feel happier,
stronger, or more awake.
light ["laIt] 1. n. a form of radiation or energy that makes things visible. (No pl.) 2. n. something that produces Q, such as a lamp or a
flame. 3. n. something, such as a match, that produces fire. (No pl.)
4. n. the period of time when the sun is in the sky; daytime. (No pl.)
5. n. a traffic signal that uses W that are red, yellow, and green to control people and vehicles. (Short for traffic light.) 6. n. a view; the way
that something is seen or thought of. (No pl.) 7. adj. pale in color;
not dark or deep; mixed with white. (Adv: lightly.) 8. adj. not heavy;
not weighing much; easy to carry. (Adv: lightly.) 9. adj. not having
much force; gentle. (Fig. on I. Adv: lightly.) 10. iv., irreg. [for a creature] to land on a surface after flight. (Pt/pp: lighted or lit.) 11. tv.,
irreg. to set something on fire; to cause something to begin to burn.
lighter ["laIt #] n. a device that makes a flame to light cigarettes or
cigars.
lighthouse ["laIt haUs] n., irreg. a tall structure near the sea, with a
bright light near the top that warns ships away from danger. (Pl:
[...haU [email protected]].)
lighting ["laIt IN] 1. n. light that makes things and people visible; illumination; the type or quality of light in a room or other place. (No
pl.) 2. n. the equipment that directs light, especially for effect in a
television or movie studio or on a stage. (No pl.)
lightning ["laIt nIN] n. a flash or streak of light in the sky, especially
during a thunderstorm. (No pl. Number is expressed with bolt(s) or
flash(es) of lightning.)
likable ["laIk @ [email protected]] adj. easy to like; pleasant. (Adv: likably.)
like ["laIk] 1. tv. to enjoy someone or something; to find someone or
something pleasant. 2. n. a desire; something that one enjoys having
or doing. 3. adj. similar; same. (Prenominal only.) 4. prep. similar to
258
lining
someone or something; in the same way as someone or something.
5. prep. for instance, the following people or things; such as the following people or things. 6. conj. in the same way as someone or something does; similar to the way someone or something is. (Viewed as
incorrect by some people.) 7. conj. as though; as if. (Viewed as incorrect by some people.)
likelihood ["laIk li hUd] n. the chance of being likely; the state of something being probable. (No pl.)
likely ["laIk li] 1. adj. probable. 2. adj. suitable; apt.
limb ["lIm] 1. n. a large tree branch. 2. n. an arm, leg, or wing.
lime ["laIm] 1. n. a small, green citrus fruit. 2. n. a white substance,
made by burning a kind of rock, which is used to make plaster,
cement, and mortar. (No pl.) 3. adj. made or flavored with Q.
limit ["lIm It] 1. n. a boundary; the edge; the farthest point of something; the greatest amount allowed or possible. 2. tv. to prevent someone or something from passing a certain point or amount; to restrict
something to a certain amount of space or time; to restrict choices.
limp ["lImp] 1. n. an uneven walk; a way of walking where one’s foot
drags or moves as if it is injured. 2. iv. to walk to somewhere showing Q. 3. adj. not stiff; having no resistance. (Adv: limply. Comp:
limper; sup: limpest.)
line ["laIn] 1. n. a thin mark, straight or curved, made on the surface
of something. 2. n. a border; a mark that shows the limit, border, or
end of something. 3. n. a wide band; a stripe. 4. n. a string, rope, or
cord. (On boats and ships, ropes are called lines.) 5. n. a wire, pipe,
or cable that carries a public utility company’s product, such as electricity, water, gas, telephone, etc. 6. n. a telephone connection. 7. n.
a row or series of people standing and waiting for a turn to do something. 8. n. a row of words in printing or writing. 9. n. something
that is said by an actor onstage or in a film. 10. tv. to put a lining in
something; to cover the inside of something with something else.
linen ["lIn @n] 1. n. a fabric made from flax. (No pl form.) 2. n. tablecloths and sheets made of Q or some other fabric; underwear. (Sometimes pl with the same meaning.) 3. the adj. use of Q or W.
linger ["lIN g#] iv. to remain someplace; to loiter; to be slow in moving or leaving.
lining ["laIn IN] n. a fabric or other material put on the inside surface
of something for protection, warmth, etc.
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link
link ["lINk] 1. n. one of the loops or circles that make up a chain. 2. n.
someone or something that connects someone or something to
someone or something else. (Fig. on Q.) 3. tv. to connect someone
or something to someone or something else.
lint ["lInt] n. a tiny piece of thread; a small cluster of threads, dirt, hair,
etc. (No pl.)
lion ["laI @n] n. a large, tan-colored wild animal in the cat family, native
to Africa.
lioness ["laI @n @s] n. a female lion.
lip ["lIp] 1. n. one of the two ridges of flesh on the outside of the
mouth. 2. n. a rim; an edge, especially a part of an edge of a container.
lipstick ["lIp stIk] n. makeup that is put on the lips to give them a different color. (No pl form in this sense.)
liquid ["lIk wId] 1. n. a flowing substance, such as water, that is not a
gas or a solid. 2. adj. in the form of Q. 3. adj. [of an asset that can
be] easily converted to cash.
liquor ["lIk #] 1. n. broth or juices from cooking. (No pl.) 2. n. alcohol for drinking. (Pl only for types and instances.)
list ["lIst] 1. n. a printed or written series of words, names, or items.
2. n. a slant or tilt to one side, as with a ship. 3. tv. to write things on
Q. 4. iv. to lean to one side.
listen ["lIs @n] iv. to pay attention to a source of sound.
lit ["lIt] a pt/pp of light.
liter ["lit #] n. a metric unit of liquid measurement equal to 1.06
quarts.
literacy ["lIt @ [email protected] si] n. the ability to read and write. (No pl.)
literal ["lIt @ [email protected]] 1. adj. [of the meaning of a word or phrase] basic
instead of secondary or figurative. (Adv: literally.) 2. adj. exact, especially pertaining to translations; translating or interpreting one word
at a time. (Adv: literally.)
literature ["lIt @ [email protected] tS#] 1. n. writing considered as art, such as fiction,
plays, and poetry. (No pl.) 2. n. all the written material of a specific
subject or region. (No pl.) 3. n. information; a brochure or small
book that has information about something. (No pl.)
litter ["lIt #] 1. n. bits of trash; rubbish; things that are thrown away.
(No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. all the babies that an animal has from
one pregnancy. 3. n. a sandlike substance that is placed in a box for
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loaf
domestic cats to excrete wastes into. (No pl form in this sense.) 4. tv.
to throw bits of trash on the floor or ground. 5. iv. to throw bits of
trash on the ground as a habit.
little ["lIt @l] 1. adj. small in size. (Comp: littler; sup: littlest.) 2. adj.,
irreg. not much. (Without a. Comp: less; sup: least. Used with items
that cannot be counted. Compare this with few Q.) 3. adj., irreg.
some; a small amount. (With a. Comp: less; sup: least . Used with
items that cannot be counted. Compare this with few W.) 4. adv.,
irreg. not much; not a lot. (Comp: less; sup: least.)
livable ["lIv @ [email protected]] adj. suitable to be lived in or with. (Adv: livably.)
live 1. ["laIv] adj. not dead; having life. 2. ["laIv] adj. carrying electricity; electrically charged. (Fig. on Q.) 3. ["laIv] adj. on the air; not
taped; broadcast at the same time something is happening. 4. ["laIv]
adv. while something is really happening; broadcast at the moment
that something is happening. 5. ["lIv] iv. to be; to exist; to be alive; to
survive. 6. ["lIv] iv. to reside at a certain address; to reside in or at a
certain place. 7. ["lIv] iv. to exist in a certain way.
lively ["laIv li] adj. showing energy or excitement; cheerful; active.
(Comp: livelier; sup: liveliest.)
liver ["lIv #] 1. n. an organ, in the body of an animal, that produces
fluids used in digestion and performs other important functions. 2. n.
a whole Q, eaten as food. 3. n. Q, eaten as food. (No pl.)
lives 1. ["laIvz] pl of life. 2. ["lIvz] the third-person sg of live.
livestock ["laIv stak] n. animals that are kept on a farm or ranch, usually for the production of food. (No pl. Treated as sg or pl, but not
countable.)
living room ["lIv IN rum] n. the main room of a house or apartment,
large enough to hold a number of people.
lizard ["lIz #d] n. a reptile with legs, scaly skin, and a tail.
load ["lod] 1. n. something that is carried; a burden; a weight. 2. n. the
amount of something that can be carried; one large portion of something for carrying. 3. n. the amount of electricity used by an electrical device. 4. tv. to put bullets into a gun; to put film or videotape
into a camera; to install computer software into a computer. 5. tv. to
fill something with something.
loaf ["lof] 1. n., irreg. a mass of bread dough baked in one piece. (Pl:
loaves.) 2. n., irreg. a mass of food cooked in a shape like Q. (Often
part of a compound.) 3. iv. to waste time.
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loan
loan ["lon] 1. n. something, especially money, that is lent to someone.
2. tv. to lend something to someone; to let someone borrow something. (Some people object to the use of loan in this sense rather than
lend, reserving loan for the lending of money.)
loathe ["loD] tv. to hate someone or something very much.
loaves ["lovz] pl of loaf.
lobby ["lab i] 1. n. the entrance room of a building. 2. tv. to try to
influence someone who makes laws or regulations to vote a certain
way.
lobster ["lab st#] 1. n. an edible sea animal with six legs and (possibly) two large claws. 2. n. the meat of Q used as food. (No pl.) 3. adj.
made or flavored with W.
local ["lok @l] 1. adj. of or about the nearby area. (Adv: locally.) 2. n.
a bus or train that stops at every station. 3. n. a person who lives in
the area that something is in. (Often pl.)
locate ["lo ket] 1. tv. to find someone or something; to learn where
someone or something is. 2. tv. to place someone or something in a
particular place.
location [lo "ke [email protected]] n. the place where someone or something is; the
place where someone or something is found.
lock ["lak] 1. n. a device on a door opening that prevents the door from
being opened without a key. 2. n. a device similar to a Q that controls access to something. 3. n. a part of a canal or river between two
heavy, watertight gates where the level of the water can be raised or
lowered, allowing boats to move from one level of water to another.
4. n. a small bundle of [head] hair; a strand or curl of hair.
locker ["lak #] n. a cabinet like a tiny closet that can be locked, where
clothes and valuables are kept.
locomotive [lok @ "mot Iv] 1. n. a train engine. 2. the adj. use of Q.
locust ["lok @st] n. a kind of insect that travels in large swarms and
destroys crops.
lodge ["ladZ] 1. n. a small, privately owned cabin for campers, hunters,
skiers, and others who like to stay in the country. 2. n. the place where
a men’s organization meets. 3. n. the structure that beavers build to
live in. 4. iv. to become stuck somewhere; to become wedged in
something.
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loop
loft ["lOft] 1. n. an upper level in a barn or stable, where hay is kept.
2. n. a large apartment with high ceilings and few walls, usually renovated from an old warehouse.
lofty ["lOf ti] 1. adj. high; very tall. (Adv: loftily. Comp: loftier; sup:
loftiest.) 2. adj. noble; dignified. (Fig. on Q. Adv: loftily. Comp:
loftier; sup: loftiest.)
log ["lOg] 1. n. a length of the trunk or main branch of a tree with all
of the branches removed. 2. n. a detailed record of a trip, written by
the captain of a ship, plane, train, etc. 3. tv. to note something in W.
logic ["ladZ Ik] 1. n. the science of reasoning; the part of philosophy
that deals with reason. (No pl.) 2. n. a method of argument or reasoning. (No pl.) 3. n. sense; rational thought; the ability to reason.
(No pl.)
logical ["ladZ I [email protected]] adj. making sense; according to the rules of logic.
(Adv: logically [...Ik li].)
lollipop ["lal i pap] n. a piece of hard candy on the end of a stick.
lone ["lon] adj. only; alone; without others. (Prenominal only. See also
alone. No comp. or sup.)
lonely ["lon li] 1. adj. sad because one is alone; lonesome. (Comp: lonelier; sup: loneliest.) 2. adj. isolated; away from other people. (Comp:
lonelier; sup: loneliest.)
lonesome ["lon [email protected]] adj. lonely; sad because one is alone. (Adv: lonesomely.)
long ["lON] 1. adj. great in length or in amount of time. (Comp: longer;
sup: longest.) 2. adj. having a certain length; lasting a certain amount
of time. (Follows the measure of length or time. Comp: longer.)
3. adv. for a great extent of time before or after the time indicated.
4. adj. seeming to take more time than normal; seeming to be farther
than normal. (Comp: longer; sup: longest.)
look ["lUk] 1. n. an act of seeing [someone or something]; an act of
trying to see someone or something. 2. n. a manner or style of
appearing. 3. n. an expression on the face. 4. iv. to seem; to appear
[to be]. 5. iv. to face a certain direction; to be positioned in a certain
direction.
loom ["lum] 1. n. a machine used for weaving cloth, blankets, or rugs.
2. iv. to appear somewhere in a threatening or unfriendly way.
loop ["lup] n. anything that looks like a circular figure formed by a line
that curves and possibly crosses itself.
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loose
loose ["lus] 1. adj. not tight; having room to move. (Adv: loosely.
Comp: looser; sup: loosest.) 2. adj. free; escaped and not confined.
3. adj. not exact. (Fig. on Q. Adv: loosely. Comp: looser; sup: loosest.)
4. adj. [of morals] lax or not restrained. (Adv: loosely. Comp: looser;
sup: loosest.) 5. adv. freely.
loosen ["lus @n] 1. tv. to cause something to be less tight or restraining; to untie someone or something. 2. iv. to become less tight or
restraining; to unfasten.
loot ["lut] 1. n. stolen money or objects. (No pl.) 2. tv. to rob things
or places, especially during a war or a riot. 3. iv. to steal [something],
especially during a war or riot.
lose ["luz] 1. tv., irreg. to permit someone or something to “escape”
from one’s care, ownership, or possession. (Pt/pp: lost.) 2. tv., irreg.
to have less of something after doing something or after something
happens. 3. tv., irreg. not to win something; not to gain or receive
something. 4. iv., irreg. not to win; to be defeated.
loss ["lOs] 1. n. an instance of losing something. 2. n. the value of
something that was lost; how much something lost costs; money that
is lost or never earned. 3. n. the death of someone; the death of a
loved one. 4. n. a defeat; the failure to win.
lost ["lOst] 1. pt/pp of lose. 2. adj. unable to be found. 3. adj. no longer
owned; no longer in one’s possession. 4. adj. not knowing where one
is; not knowing how to get to where one wants to be.
lot ["lat] 1. n. a part of the available goods; a group of goods. 2. n. fate;
destiny; the kind of life that one has been granted. 3. n. an area of
land; a share of land; a piece of property. 4. a ; s n. many of the
people or things already mentioned; much of something already
mentioned. (Treated as sg or pl, but not countable.) 5. a ; s adv.
much; often.
lotion ["lo [email protected]] n. a creamy liquid that is rubbed on the body to soothe,
add moisture, or clean the skin. (Pl only for types and instances.)
loud ["laUd] 1. adj. [of sound] having much volume or intensity; not
quiet. (Adv: loudly. Comp: louder; sup: loudest.) 2. adj. too bright;
showy. (Fig. on Q. Adv: loudly. Comp: louder; sup: loudest.) 3. adv.
sounding as in Q. (Comp: louder; sup: loudest.)
lovable ["l^v @ [email protected]] adj. able to be loved; deserving of being loved.
(Adv: lovably.)
love ["l^v] 1. n. a strong emotion of attraction, care, romance, or desire
toward someone. (No pl.) 2. n. a strong interest in something. (No
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luck
pl.) 3. n. [in tennis] a score of zero. 4. tv. to care deeply for someone
romantically. 5. tv. to care deeply for someone; to care very much
about someone. 6. tv. to care about or like something very much.
lovely ["l^v li] adj. beautiful; pretty; attractive. (Comp: lovelier; sup:
loveliest.)
lover ["l^v #] 1. n. one of two people who love each other in a romantic way. 2. n. someone whom one loves in a romantic way; a mate to
whom one may or may not be married. 3. n. someone who enjoys
something; someone who enjoys doing something.
low ["lo] 1. adj. only a little way above the ground or sea level; not high.
(Comp: lower; sup: lowest.) 2. adj. near the bottom of something.
(Comp: lower; sup: lowest.) 3. adj. less than average in amount,
power, volume, height, intensity, cost, etc. (Comp: lower; sup: lowest.) 4. adj. [feeling] weak or unhappy. (Comp: lower; sup: lowest.)
5. adj. mean; unkind; cruel. (Comp: lower; sup: lowest.) 6. adj. [of a
supply or of strength] inadequate or not enough. (Comp: lower; sup:
lowest.) 7. adv. to or at a position below or near the bottom of something.
lower ["lo #] 1. iv. [for something] to go from a high level to a low
level. 2. tv. to cause something to go from a high level to a low level;
to move something down.
lowercase ["lo # "kes] adj. [of a letter or letters] in the smaller size as
with i in Bill; not capitalized. (Compare this with uppercase.)
lowly ["lo li] adj. humble; low in rank; simple; meek. (Comp: lowlier;
sup: lowliest.)
loyal ["loI @l] adj. true to one’s friends, country, or promises. (Adv: loyally.)
loyalty ["loI @l ti] n. the quality of being loyal. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
lubricate ["lu [email protected] ket] tv. to put oil or another lubricant on something
so that it can move against something else smoothly.
lubrication [lu [email protected] "ke [email protected]] 1. n. applying something that will make
things slippery; applying oil or grease. (No pl.) 2. n. something like
oil or grease that makes things slippery. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
luck ["l^k] 1. n. random chance; fortune; chance. (No pl.) 2. n. good
or bad fortune; success or failure. (No pl.)
265
lucky
lucky ["l^k i] 1. adj. [of someone] having good luck; fortunate. (Comp:
luckier; sup: luckiest.) 2. adj. causing good luck; bringing good fortune. (Comp: luckier; sup: luckiest.) 3. adj. showing, having, or being
good luck. (Adv: luckily. Comp: luckier; sup: luckiest.)
lug ["l^g] 1. n. a small piece that sticks out of something. 2. tv. to carry
or move someone or something heavy.
luggage ["l^g IdZ] n. baggage; suitcases. (No pl. Number is expressed
with piece(s) of luggage.)
lukewarm ["luk "worm] 1. adj. slightly warm. 2. adj. without excitement; without enthusiasm. (Fig. on Q. Adv: lukewarmly.)
lull ["l^l] n. a quiet moment between long periods of noise or activity;
a temporary calm.
lullaby ["l^l @ baI] n. a quiet song that is sung to help someone fall
asleep.
lumber ["l^m b#] 1. n. timber, logs, and boards used for building. (No
pl.) 2. iv. to move in a heavy or clumsy way.
lump ["l^mp] n. a hard mass of some substance having no specific
shape.
lunar ["lun #] adj. of or about the moon.
lunatic ["lun @ tIk] 1. n. someone who is insane; someone who is crazy
Q. (No longer commonly used for a mental patient.) 2. n. someone
who acts wild and crazy W. (Fig. on Q.)
lunch ["l^ntS] 1. n. a meal eaten around noon; a meal eaten in the middle of the day. 2. iv. to eat a meal around noon; to eat Q.
luncheon ["l^n [email protected]] n. a formal meal in the middle of the day.
(Fancier than a lunch, and usually involving a number of people.)
lunchroom ["l^ntS rum] n. a room where people in a school, office, or
factory eat lunch.
lung ["l^N] n. one of a pair of organs in the body that are used when
breathing.
lunge ["l^ndZ] 1. iv. to move forward suddenly with force. 2. n. a sudden forward movement with force.
lurch ["l#tS] 1. n. a sudden movement like a jerk or a jump. 2. iv. to
move in a way that is out of control; to move without control.
lure ["lUr] 1. tv. to try to attract or catch a person or an animal by offering something the person or animal wants; to tempt someone or
266
lyrics
something. 2. n. someone or something that attracts; something that
is used to attract a person or animal.
lurk ["l#k] 1. iv. to hang out someplace without being noticed; to be
someplace without being noticed. 2. iv. to connect to an Internet discussion and just read messages without ever sending any.
lush ["l^S] 1. adj. [of a place] very comfortable; [of a place] richly
comfortable. (Adv: lushly. Comp: lusher; sup: lushest.) 2. adj. covered
with plants and thick vegetation. (Adv: lushly. Comp: lusher; sup:
lushest.)
luxury ["l^g [email protected] ri] 1. n. expensive comfort; elegance; the very best of
things. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. something that is not
necessary but is desired.
lying ["laI IN] pres. part. of lie.
lynch ["lIntS] tv. to capture and hang someone who is thought to have
committed a crime. (Outside the legal system.)
lynx ["lINks] n. a type of wild cat with a short tail, long legs, and ears
that have fluffy fur at the tips.
lyric ["lIr Ik] 1. adj. of or about poetry that expresses the feelings of the
poet. (Adv: lyrically [...Ik li].) 2. n. a short poem.
lyrics n. the words of a song. (Treated as pl.)
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M
ma’am ["mAm] cont. a polite form of address for a woman. (A contraction of madam.)
macaroni [mAk @ "ron i] n. pasta in the shape of curved tubes. (No pl.)
machine [[email protected] "Sin] n. a device created to do some kind of work.
machinery [[email protected] "Sin (@) ri] n. machines and parts of machines, in general. (No pl.)
mad ["mAd] 1. adj. crazy; insane; mentally ill. (Adv: madly. Comp:
madder; sup: maddest.) 2. adj. angry; upset. (Comp: madder; sup:
maddest. Not prenominal.)
made ["med] pt/pp of make.
magazine [mAg @ "zin] n. a booklet that is published at regular intervals of time.
maggot ["mAg @t] n. the larva of a fly; a fly before it develops into an
adult fly.
magic ["mAdZ Ik] 1. n. sorcery or the use of special, unnatural, or evil
powers. (No pl.) 2. n. the art of performing tricks that use illusion to
fool an audience. (No pl.) 3. n. a special quality or power that lures
or interests people. (Fig. on Q. No pl.) 4. the adj. use of Q, W, or
E. (Adv: magically [...Ik li].)
magical ["mAdZ I [email protected]] 1. adj. having or using magic Q. (Adv: magically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. exciting and interesting; romantic. (Adv: magically [...Ik li].)
magician [[email protected] "dZI [email protected]] 1. n. someone who practices magic or sorcery.
2. n. a performer who entertains by creating illusions.
magnet ["mAg [email protected]] 1. n. an iron or steel object that draws other iron
or steel objects toward it. 2. n. someone or something that people or
things are attracted toward. (Informal. Fig. on Q.)
magnetic [mAg "nEt Ik] 1. adj. able to draw or attract iron or steel in
the way that a magnet does. (Adv: magnetically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. able
to be affected or harmed by magnetism. (Adv: magnetically [...Ik li].)
3. adj. [of someone’s personality] attracting or drawing people [to
oneself].
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major
magnetism ["mAg [email protected] tIz @m] 1. n. the physical laws of how magnets
attract metal. (No pl.) 2. n. a charm or attraction that draws people
toward someone. (Fig. on Q. No pl.)
magnificent [mAg "nIf I [email protected]] 1. adj. impressive; grand; splendid;
stately. (Adv: magnificently.) 2. adj. excellent; superb; brilliant. (Adv:
magnificently.)
magnify ["mAg [email protected] faI] 1. tv. to cause someone or something to seem
or look larger, especially by looking through a lens. 2. tv. to exaggerate something; to make something seem better or worse than it is.
(Fig. on Q.)
maid ["med] n. a woman who is paid to cook, clean, and do other work
around the house.
mail ["mel] 1. n. letters and packages that are delivered by the post
office. (No pl. Number is expressed with piece(s) of mail.) 2. tv. to
send (someone) a letter or package by Q.
mailbox ["mel baks] 1. n. a place where mail is put so it can be picked
up and taken to the post office and then delivered. 2. n. a container
into which a mail carrier delivers mail. 3. n. the electronic version of
W, where e-mail is received.
main ["men] 1. adj. most important; primary; chief. (Prenominal only.
Adv: mainly.) 2. n. an important pipe that carries water, sewage, gas,
etc.
maintain [men "ten] 1. tv. to continue something as before; to keep
doing something. 2. tv. to take care of something; to make sure that
something works properly. 3. tv. to support someone or something,
especially with money. 4. tv. to assert an opinion; to defend one’s
opinion and continue to assert it when someone argues against it.
(The object can be a clause with that U.)
maintenance ["men [email protected] [email protected]] n. keeping equipment and supplies in
good condition. (No pl.)
majesty ["mAdZ @ sti] n. dignity; greatness and importance, especially
of royalty. (No pl.)
major ["me dZ#] 1. adj. large in size or amount; great; important; serious. 2. adj. primary; more important. (Prenominal only.) 3. n. an
officer in the army, air force, or marines who is above a captain and
below a lieutenant colonel. (Sometimes a term of address. Capitalized when written as a proper noun.) 4. n. a student’s primary area
of study. 5. n. someone whose R is in a certain subject.
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majority
majority [[email protected] "dZor @ ti] 1. n. those people who are part of the largest
group or division of people, considered as a single group. (No pl.
Treated as sg.) 2. n. [in a group] a number of people or things equal
to more than half of the whole group, considered as individuals. (No
pl.) 3. n. the largest number of votes; a number of votes equal to a
specific proportion of all the votes. (No pl.)
make ["mek] 1. tv., irreg. to bring something into being; to put something together from other parts; to form something; to build something; to produce something. (Pt/pp: made .) 2. tv., irreg. to cause
someone or something to be in a certain condition. 3. tv., irreg. to
cause someone or something [to] do something; to force someone or
something [to] do something. 4. tv., irreg. to assign someone to a job;
to appoint someone to a position. 5. tv., irreg. to earn money; to
acquire something. 6. tv., irreg. to arrive at a place; to arrive at a place
in time for something; to reach something; to manage to get to something. 7. tv., irreg. to become something; to assume a certain status
or job. 8. n. a brand; a certain style or kind.
makeup ["mek @p] 1. n. substances applied to the face to improve its
appearance. (No pl. Treated as sg.) 2. n. the contents of something;
the parts or substances that form something. (No pl. Treated as sg.)
3. the adj. use of Q.
malaria [[email protected] "lEr i @] n. a parasitic disease carried by infected mosquitoes in tropical areas, causing chills and fever. (No pl form in this
sense.)
male ["mel] 1. adj. of or about men or boys; of or about animals of the
sex that is, at maturity, capable of causing a female to become pregnant. 2. adj. [of an electrical or electronic connector] having short
metal rods to be inserted into or between electrical contacts. 3. n. a
human or animal that is Q.
malice ["mAl Is] n. the desire to harm someone or something; the
desire to do something evil. (No pl.)
mall ["mOl] 1. n. a large building with many stores inside; a shopping
center. 2. n. a wide, formal walkway, usually lined with trees.
mallet ["mAl @t] n. a tool shaped like a hammer with a large head.
mammal ["mAm @l] n. one of a large class of warm-blooded animals
whose females are able to produce milk to feed their young.
man ["mAn] 1. n., irreg. an adult male person. (Pl: men .) 2. n. the
human race; all people. (No pl. Treated as sg.) 3. n., irreg. a strong
270
manure
and brave human male. 4. tv. to provide a business or organization
with one’s services or labor.
manage ["mAn IdZ] tv. to be in charge of someone or something; to
guide someone or something.
manager ["mAn I dZ#] n. someone who manages or controls someone
or something.
mangle ["mAN [email protected]] tv. to crush something; to mutilate something; to
cut or tear something.
maniac ["men i Ak] 1. n. someone who has a dangerous, sometimes
violent, mental illness. 2. n. someone who is wild, foolish, and too
eager. (Fig. on Q.)
manicure ["mAn @ kj#] 1. n. a beauty treatment of the hands and fingernails. 2. tv. to give someone Q. 3. tv. to trim something, especially trees, shrubs, grass, or hedges. (Fig. on W.)
mankind ["mAn "kaInd] n. the human race; all people. (No pl. Treated
as sg.)
manner ["mAn #] n. a method; a style; a way of doing something; a
way of being.
mannerism ["mAn @ rIz @m] n. a gesture or movement of a certain person; a habit or trait of a certain person.
manners n. the elements of proper and polite behavior.
mansion ["mAn [email protected]] n. a very large house; a large, elegant house.
mantel ["mAn [email protected]] n. the frame around a fireplace, and especially the
shelf above the fireplace.
mantle ["mAn [email protected]] n. something that completely covers or weighs
down someone or something, such as a heavy coat.
manual ["mAn j(u )@l] 1. n. a book that explains how to do or use
something; an instruction book; a book of information about something. 2. adj. of or about the hand or hands. (Adv: manually.)
manufacture [mAn [email protected] "fAk tS#] 1. n. the science and business of making products in factories or industry. (No pl.) 2. tv. to make something in large amounts in a factory or by using machines.
manufacturer [mAn [email protected] "fAk tS# #] n. a person, business, or company
that manufactures products.
manure [[email protected] "nu #] n. animal feces, especially when used as fertilizer.
(No pl form in this sense.)
271
manuscript
manuscript ["mAn [email protected] skrIpt] 1. n. a book or text that is written by
hand. 2. n. the original copy of a book or article that is sent to a publisher.
many ["mEn i] 1. adj., irreg. numerous; of a large number. (See also
more and most for the comp. and sup. Many is used with things that
can be counted. Compare this with much.) 2. pron. a large number
of people; a large number of people or things already referred to.
map ["mAp] 1. n. a drawing that shows certain features of the earth’s
surface; a sketch or drawing that shows locations or the relations
between things or places. 2. tv. to draw Q.
marble ["mar [email protected]] 1. n. a kind of stone that can be cut, shaped, and
polished. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a small, solid ball of
colored glass, used in marbles. 3. adj. made of Q.
marbles n. a game that involves directing one marble W into a group
of them.
march ["martS] 1. iv. to walk in rigid steps, in the manner of a soldier.
2. iv. to walk someplace with a certain goal in mind; to walk someplace for a certain reason. 3. tv. to force someone to move or walk.
4. n. an act of walking in a line, like soldiers. 5. n. a demonstration
or protest where people are walking with signs or chanting. 6. n.
music that has a strong beat and is used in parades or while soldiers
march as in Q. 7. Go to month. (Capitalized.)
margarine ["mar [email protected] rIn] n. a food made from animal or vegetable
fats, used in place of butter; a spread for bread. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
margin ["mar dZIn] 1. n. the space between the edge of a text and the
edge of the page. 2. n. an extra amount; the amount that is more than
what is needed.
marine [[email protected] "rin] 1. adj. of or about salt water and the creatures that
live in salt water. 2. adj. of, about, from, or concerning the sea. 3. adj.
of or about ships and shipping on the sea. 4. n. someone who is a
member of the U.S. Marine Corps, a branch of the United States military services that serves on land and sea and in the air.
mark ["mark] 1. n. a spot; a stain; a dent; something that spoils a clear
or clean surface. 2. n. a line or figure made by a pencil, crayon, pen,
or other writing device. 3. n. something that is a sign of something;
something that stands for something else. 4. iv. to draw or make Q.
5. tv. to put a spot on something; to stain something; to spoil an otherwise clear or clean surface with Q. 6. tv. to indicate something; to
272
mason
show something; to symbolize or represent something; to stand for
something.
market ["mar kIt] 1. n. a place or building where people gather to buy
and sell things. 2. n. the business, building, or system through which
company shares are traded. (Short for stock market.) 3. n. an area or
a country where a product is needed or used; a certain group of people for which a product is needed or by which a product is used. 4. n.
the demand for a certain product. 5. tv. to advertise a product; to
promote a product; to make a plan for selling a product.
marketplace ["mar kIt ples] 1. n. a place, usually outside, where things
are bought and sold. 2. n. trade; buying and selling. (No pl.)
markup ["mark @p] n. a price increase; the amount a price is raised.
marriage ["mEr IdZ] 1. n. the religious or legal union of a husband and
a wife. 2. n. the ceremony that joins a man and a woman in Q; a wedding.
marry ["mEr i] 1. iv. to unite with someone in a marriage. 2. tv. to unite
two people in a marriage; to perform a wedding ceremony. 3. tv. to
take someone as a husband or a wife.
marsh ["marS] n. a low area of land sometimes covered with water.
marshmallow ["marS mEl o] n. a soft, spongy candy made from sugar.
(Originally made from the roots of a flower called the marsh mallow.)
marshy ["mar Si] adj. low and moist, like a marsh.
marvel ["mar [email protected]] n. someone or something that is amazing or surprising.
marvelous ["mar [email protected] [email protected]] adj. wonderful; super; great; fantastic; excellent. (Adv: marvelously.)
masculine ["mAs [email protected] lIn] 1. adj. having features usually associated
with a male; manly. (Adv: masculinely.) 2. adj. a grammar term
describing a certain class of nouns, some of which refer to males. (See
also gender.)
mash ["mAS] tv. to crush something until it is a soft paste; to beat
something into a pulp or paste.
mask ["mAsk] 1. n. a covering that disguises the face. 2. n. a covering
that protects the face, eyes, nose, or mouth. 3. tv. to conceal something; to hide something; to put W on someone or something.
mason ["me [email protected]] n. someone who makes walls of stones or bricks for
a living.
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mass
mass ["mAs] 1. n. an amount of something with no specific shape; a
lump; a heap. 2. n. the scientific term for the amount of matter that
makes up an object. (No pl.) 3. adj. suitable for many people or
things; involving many people or things. (Prenominal only.) 4. n. a
Christian church service with communion. (Capitalized.)
massacre ["mAs @ k#] 1. n. the brutal killing of many people in one
battle or instance. 2. tv. to brutally kill many people in one battle or
instance.
massive ["mAs Iv] adj. very large; enormous; powerful. (Adv: massively.)
mast ["mAst] n. [on a ship] an upright beam or pole to which sails are
attached.
master ["mAst #] 1. n. a person who has authority over people, animals, or things; a man who has authority over people, animals, or
things. 2. n. someone who is very skilled at something. 3. n. an original page or document that copies are made from. 4. the adj. use of
Q, W, or E. (Prenominal only.) 5. adj. primary; main; chief; controlling everything else. (Prenominal only.) 6. adj. of professional
standing or quality. (Prenominal only.) 7. tv. to become skilled in
something; to learn how to do something well; to gain control of an
ability.
mat ["mAt] 1. n. a piece of material for covering part of a floor, especially in front of a door. 2. n. a piece of thick, padded material used
to cushion falls in certain sports. 3. n. a tangled mass of hair, weeds,
strings, or other things.
match ["mAtS] 1. n. a sporting event; a competition. 2. n. someone or
something that is the equal of or just like someone or something else;
two people or things that are equal or alike. 3. n. a thin stick with a
chemical substance on one end, which, when struck against a hard
surface, creates fire. 4. tv. [for something] to be exactly like something else; to fit something exactly; to go with something well. 5. iv.
to be exactly alike; to go together well; to fit together well.
mate ["met] 1. n. the sexual partner of a living creature. 2. n. a spouse;
a husband or a wife. 3. n. one of a pair. 4. n. a friend or colleague; a
person who shares someplace or some activity with someone. 5. iv.
to have sex; to breed. (Used primarily of animals.) 6. tv. to bring a
male and female animal together so that breeding will result.
material [[email protected] "tIr i @l] 1. n. a substance that an object is made of; a substance that can be used to make things. 2. n. cloth; fabric. (No pl.)
3. n. information, knowledge, experience, or imagination used to
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mayor
develop a story, movie, book, program, etc. (No pl.) 4. adj. of or
about the physical world. (Adv: materially.) 5. adj. of importance or
relevance. (Adv: materially.)
maternal [[email protected] "t# [email protected]] 1. adj. of or about mothers or motherhood.
(Adv: maternally.) 2. adj. related through the mother’s side of the
family. (Adv: maternally.)
math ["mAT] 1. n. mathematics. (No pl. Treated as sg.) 2. the adj. use
of Q.
mathematic [mAT @ "mAt Ik] adj. having the exactness or precision of
mathematics. (See also mathematics.)
mathematics [mAT @ "mAt Iks] n. the science that studies the properties and relationships of numbers and shapes. (Treated as sg.)
matter ["mAt #] 1. n. anything that takes up space. (No pl.) 2. n. a
certain kind of substance. (No pl.) 3. n. a concern; an issue; an affair.
4. iv. to be important; to have meaning.
mattress ["mA trIs] n. a large, rectangular pad that is used to sleep on.
mature [[email protected] "tSUr] 1. adj. [of someone] adult or fully grown; [of fruit
or vegetables] ripe or ready to eat. (Adv: maturely.) 2. adj. characteristic of an adult; sensible; responsible. (Adv: maturely.) 3. tv. to
cause someone or something to become Q or W. 4. iv. to become Q.
5. iv. [for a bond] to reach full value; [for a payment] to be due.
maturity [[email protected] "tSUr @ ti] 1. n. the state of being mature or developed;
the degree to which someone or something is mature. (No pl.) 2. n.
human wisdom; adult thinking. (No pl.) 3. n. the date when an
amount of money becomes due and must be paid.
maximum ["mAk [email protected] [email protected]] 1. n. the highest amount or degree possible; the upper limit or boundary. 2. adj. greatest; highest; most.
may ["me] 1. aux. be allowed to do something; have permission to do
something. (Often can is used in place of may, even though, in standard English, can refers to ability, and may refers to permission. See
also might.) 2. aux. be possible. (See also might.) 3. aux. a form used
to extend a wish or express a hope; let it be that.... 4. Go to month.
(Capitalized.)
maybe ["me bi] adv. perhaps; possibly yes, possibly no.
mayonnaise [me @ "nez] n. a creamy sauce for salads and sandwiches;
a sauce made from eggs, oil, and vinegar. (No pl.)
mayor ["me #] n. the elected leader of a city, town, or village.
275
maze
maze ["mez] 1. n. a network of connected passages, arranged so that
it is hard to get from one place to another because most of the paths
are blocked. 2. n. something that is as confusing as Q. (Fig. on Q.)
me ["mi] 1. pron. the objective form of I, the first-person sg pronoun.
(Used after prepositions and transitive verbs and as an indirect object.
2. pron. a first-person sg form. (Used after a shortened form of be to
refer to the speaker or writer. Usually, either “It’s me” or the more
formal “It is I.” Rarely, if ever, “It’s I” or “It is me.”)
meadow ["mEd o] n. an area of grass-covered land; an area of land
where cows, sheep, or goats can eat.
meal ["mil] 1. n. a regular occasion where food is eaten, especially
breakfast, lunch, or dinner. 2. n. the food that is eaten at Q. 3. n.
crushed grain; flour. (Pl only for types and instances.)
mean ["min] 1. adj. cruel; not kind; selfish. (Adv: meanly. Comp:
meaner; sup: meanest.) 2. adj. average. (Prenominal only.) 3. n. an
average; the average of a group of numbers. 4. tv., irreg. [for language] to represent, indicate, or express something; [for someone] to
indicate, express, or intend something by words or actions. (Pt/pp:
meant.) 5. tv., irreg. [for something] to indicate or signal something.
6. iv., irreg. to intend to do something.
meaning ["min IN] n. the sense of a word, statement, or symbol; what
a word, statement, or symbol means.
means ["minz] n. one’s [financial] ability to accomplish something.
meant ["mEnt] pt/pp of mean.
meantime ["min taIm] the period of time between two things; the
period of time between now and when something is supposed to happen.
meanwhile ["min WaIl] adv. at the same time; during the same time.
measles ["mi [email protected]] n. an easily spread disease common in children,
characterized by fever and red spots on the skin. (Treated as sg or pl,
but not countable. Often preceded by the.)
measure ["mE Z#] 1. n. a unit in a system that determines the amount
of something. 2. n. one of the series of groups of musical notes that
makes up a piece of music. 3. n. the extent, amount, or quantity of
something. 4. n. a course of action; a plan. 5. n. a law; a proposed
law; a resolution. 6. tv. to determine the size, extent, amount, degree,
etc., of something. 7. iv. to be a certain size, extent, amount, degree,
etc.
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mediocre
measurement ["mE Z# [email protected]] 1. n. a system of measuring. (No pl.)
2. n. the process of measuring. (No pl.) 3. n. the size, length, weight,
or amount of something, as determined by measuring.
meat ["mit] 1. n. the flesh of animals used as food. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. n. the main idea or content of something. (Fig. on
Q. No pl.)
meatloaf ["mit lof] 1. n. a dish of chopped meat shaped like a loaf of
bread and baked. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a unit or loaf
of Q.
medal ["mEd l] n. a small piece of metal—usually flat and having a
design or words on it—that is given to someone as an honor.
medallion [[email protected] "dAl [email protected]] 1. n. a large medal. 2. n. a large design or
decorative element; a decorative element resembling a large coin or
medal.
meddle ["mEd l] 1. (in) to interfere in someone’s business; to involve
oneself in someone’s business when one is not wanted. 2. with to
play with and interfere with something.
media ["mid i @] 1. n. the Latin pl of medium Q. (Although it is a Latin
pl, media can be treated as sg or pl in English. Not countable.) 2. n.
the Latin pl of medium W. (Often treated as sg. Not countable.) 3. n.
the Latin pl of medium E. (Often treated as sg. Not countable.)
mediator ["mid i et #] n. someone who helps negotiate the settlement
of a disagreement.
medical ["mEd @ [email protected]] adj. of or about medicine or the study and practice of medicine. (Adv: medically [...Ik li].)
medicate ["mEd @ ket] tv. to put medicine on or in someone or something; to treat someone or something with medicine or drugs.
medication [mEd @ "ke [email protected]] 1. n. the use or application of medicine.
(No pl.) 2. n. a kind of medicine; a dose of medicine.
medicine ["mEd @ [email protected]] 1. n. the science and study of preventing, identifying, and curing diseases in the body. (No pl.) 2. n. something that
is used to treat a disease, especially something that is taken by the
mouth or injected into the body. (Pl only for types and instances.)
medieval [mid i "i [email protected]] adj. of or about the Middle Ages in Europe,
from about a.d. 500 to 1450. (Adv: medievally.)
mediocre [mi di "o k#] adj. only average; halfway between good and
bad; just acceptable.
277
medium
medium ["mid i @m] 1. n., irreg. a channel or pathway for sending
information—such as newspapers, radio, television, print advertising, etc. (The Latin pl is media, and the English pl is mediums.) 2. n.,
irreg. a substance in which organisms such as bacteria can be grown
and kept alive. (Rarely used in the sg. Pl: media.) 3. n., irreg. the [different kinds of] materials used by an artist. (The Latin pl is media,
and the English pl is mediums.) 4. n. the middle size of an object for
sale that comes in different sizes. (Pl: mediums.)
meek ["mik] adj. letting others do as they want; not protesting. (Adv:
meekly. Comp: meeker; sup: meekest.)
meet ["mit] 1. tv., irreg. to come together with someone either by
chance or on purpose; to encounter someone. (Pt/pp: met .) 2. tv.,
irreg. [for something] to touch someone or something; to come into
contact with someone or something. 3. tv., irreg. to be introduced to
someone. 4. iv., irreg. to come together; to join; to connect; to make
contact; to touch.
meeting ["mit IN] 1. n. a group of people who have come together for
a specific reason. 2. n. an instance of people coming together, perhaps by accident.
megabyte ["mEg @ baIt] n. a unit consisting of about one million bytes.
(The abbreviation is MB, and the word can be shortened to meg.)
mellow ["mEl o] 1. adj. [of colors, sounds, textures, or tastes that are]
soft, deep, relaxing, or muted. (Adv: mellowly. Comp: mellower; sup:
mellowest.) 2. adj. relaxed and quiet. (Informal. Fig. on Q. Adv: mellowly. Comp: mellower; sup: mellowest.) 3. tv. to cause someone or a
group to become W. 4. iv. to become W.
melody ["mEl @ di] n. the series of notes that make up the tune of a
song; a song; a tune.
melon ["mEl @n] 1. n. one of a family of large round or oval fruits with
thick rinds and juicy, edible insides. 2. n. the edible part of Q; Q
used as food. (No pl. Number is expressed with piece(s) or slice(s) of
melon.)
melt ["mElt] 1. iv. [for a solid] to become liquid; to turn into a liquid.
2. tv. to cause something solid to become liquid; to cause something
solid to turn into a liquid. 3. tv. to cause something to disappear or
fade. (Fig. on W.) 4. n. an instance of turning into a liquid as in Q.
member ["mEm b#] n. someone who belongs to a group or an organization.
278
mention
membership ["mEm b# SIp] 1. n. the connection between one person
and an organization to which the person belongs. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. n. all of the members of a group or organization.
(No pl.)
memento and momento [[email protected] "mEn to] n. a souvenir; something that
reminds one of someone else or of a place that one has been to.
memo ["mEm o] n. a note or announcement, especially in an office. (A
shortened form of the word memorandum. Pl ends in -s.)
memorable ["mEm @ [email protected] [email protected]] adj. worth remembering; easy to remember. (Adv: memorably.)
memorial [[email protected] "mor i @l] 1. adj. [of something] used to remind someone of a person, thing, place, or event. (Prenominal only.) 2. n. something that is a reminder of an event in the past or of a person no
longer living.
memory ["mEm @ ri] 1. n. the brain or mind, thought of as a place
where ideas, words, images, and past events reside. (No pl.) 2. n. the
functioning or quality of Q; the ability of Q to function. 3. n. an
instance of remembering a past event, experience, person, or sensation; someone or something that is remembered. 4. n. the part of a
computer where information is kept until it is needed. (No pl.)
men ["mEn] pl of man.
menace ["mEn Is] 1. n. a threat; someone or something that threatens
harm, violence, or danger. 2. tv. to threaten someone or something
with harm, violence, or danger.
mend ["mEnd] 1. tv. to fix something; to repair something. 2. iv. to
become healthy; to become well.
menstrual ["mEn str(u )@l] adj. associated with menstruation. (Adv:
menstrually.)
menstruate ["mEn stru et] iv. to experience menstruation; to have a
menstrual period.
menstruation [mEn stru "e [email protected]] n. the monthly process in sexually
mature women who are not pregnant in which the lining of the uterus
is shed. (No pl.)
mental ["mEn [email protected]] 1. adj. of or about the mind; done by the mind.
(Adv: mentally.) 2. adj. of or about illness of the mind.
mention ["mEn [email protected]] 1. tv. to say or write something; to tell about
something briefly. (The object can be a clause with that U.) 2. tv. to
279
menu
refer to someone or something. 3. n. an instance of saying or writing
something as in W; a brief statement; a reference.
menu ["mEn ju] 1. n. a list of food and drink available at a restaurant.
2. n. a list of options or functions available in a computer program.
(Fig. on Q.)
meow [mi "aU] 1. n. the sound a cat makes. 2. iv. [for a cat] to make
its characteristic sound.
merchandise ["m# [email protected] daIs] n. products for sale or trade; things that
are for sale. (No pl. Treated as sg.)
merchant ["m# [email protected]] n. someone who buys and sells products in
order to make money; a retailer.
mercury ["m# [email protected] ri] 1. n. a silver-gray element that is liquid at room
temperature. (No pl.) 2. n. the closest planet to the sun in our solar
system. (Capitalized.)
mercy ["m# si] n. kindness; pity; compassion. (No pl except when
referring to God’s mercies.)
mere ["mIr] adj. only; nothing more than. (Prenominal only. Adv:
merely. Comp: none; sup: merest.)
merely ["mIr li] adv. this only; only this and nothing else; just.
merge ["m#dZ] 1. iv. to join with something else. 2. iv. to enter the
flow of traffic. 3. tv. to cause two or more things to come together
and become one.
merger ["m#dZ #] n. an act or process of joining two organizations
into one.
merit ["mEr It] 1. n. worth; value. (No pl.) 2. n. a good point; a virtue.
(Usually pl.) 3. tv. to deserve something; to be worthy of something.
merry ["mEr i] adj. happy; cheerful; joyful. (Adv: merrily. Comp: merrier; sup: merriest.)
mesh ["mES] n. material that is woven in such a way that there are holes
between the threads or wires. (Pl only for types and instances.)
mess ["mEs] 1. n. something or someplace that is dirty or untidy. 2. n.
a group of things that are not in order; a situation that is not organized; confusion. 3. n. [in the military services] a meal, eaten by a
group.
message ["mEs IdZ] 1. n. a communication between two or more people; a piece of written or spoken information for someone. 2. n. the
moral of a story; a lesson that is to be learned from a story.
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messenger ["mEs @n dZ#] n. someone who delivers messages, documents, parcels, or flowers.
messy ["mEs i] adj. dirty or not organized; not clean and tidy. (Adv:
messily. Comp: messier; sup: messiest.)
met ["mEt] pt/pp of meet.
metal ["mEt @l] 1. n. a solid mineral substance that can be cast or
beaten into different shapes. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. adj.
made from Q.
metallic [[email protected] "tAl Ik] adj. associated with metal; made of metal.
meteor ["mit i #] n. a large rock from space that enters the earth’s
atmosphere.
meter ["mit #] 1. n. the basic unit of the measurement of length in the
metric system, equal to 39.37 inches. 2. n. a device that measures and
displays the amount of something that is used. 3. n. the rhythms
caused by accents in poetry and music. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 4. tv. to measure the flow of something with W.
method ["mET @d] n. a way of doing something; a system; a procedure.
metric ["mE trIk] adj. of or about the system of measurement based on
the meter. (Adv: metrically [...Ik li].)
mice ["maIs] a pl of mouse.
microphone ["maI [email protected] fon] n. a device that changes sound waves into
electrical waves so that the sound can be broadcast, recorded, or
made louder. (Can be shortened to mike.)
microscope ["maI [email protected] skop] n. a device that makes very small objects
appear much larger.
microwave ["maI kro wev] 1. n. a very short radio wave, used in sending radio messages, radar, and cooking. 2. n. an oven that uses Q to
cook or heat food quickly. 3. the adj. use of Q. 4. tv. to cook or heat
something in W.
midair ["mId "Er] adj. in the air; not touching the ground.
midday 1. ["mId "de] n. noon; the middle of the day. (No pl.) 2. ["mId
de] adj. happening in the middle of the day; happening at noon.
(Prenominal only.)
middle ["mId l] 1. n. a place or time halfway between two ends or sides;
the center. 2. n. the area of the waist; halfway along the body of a
human or other creature. 3. adj. central; at the same distance from
either end; halfway between the beginning and the end. (Prenominal
only.)
281
midnight
midnight ["mId naIt] 1. n. 12:00 at night; twelve o’clock at night.
2. adj. happening at Q; beginning at Q. (Prenominal only.)
Midwest ["mId "wEst] 1. n. the middle part of the United States. (No
pl.) 2. the adj. use of Q.
might ["maIt] 1. n. power; strength. (No pl.) 2. aux. a form that
expresses possibility. (See also may and could.) 3. aux. a form expressing permission. (See also may and could.)
mighty ["maIt i] adj. powerful; strong; very great. (Adv: mightily.
Comp: mightier; sup: mightiest.)
migration [maI "gre [email protected]] n. the movement of numbers of people or
creatures from place to place.
mike ["maIk] n. a device for converting sounds to electronic audio signals. (Short for microphone.)
mild ["maIld] 1. adj. gentle or calm; not extreme, powerful, or severe.
(Adv: mildly. Comp: milder; sup: mildest.) 2. adj. [of food] plain and
not spicy. (Adv: mildly. Comp: milder; sup: mildest.) 3. adj. light; not
severe or harsh. (Adv: mildly. Comp: milder; sup: mildest.)
mile ["maIl] n. a unit of measurement of length, equal to 5,280 feet or
about 1.6 kilometers.
mileage ["maIl IdZ] 1. n. a distance expressed in miles. (Pl only for
types and instances.) 2. n. the total number of miles that can be traveled using one gallon of gasoline. (No pl.)
military ["mIl @ tEr i] adj. having to do with the armed forces. (Adv:
militarily [mIl @ "tEr @ li].)
militia [[email protected] "lIS @] n. a group of citizens who are not part of the professional army but who are trained as soldiers.
milk ["mIlk] 1. n. the white liquid made by female mammals to feed
their young. (Usually refers to cows’ milk used as food. No pl.) 2. n.
a white liquid from certain plants. (No pl.) 3. tv. to take Q from an
animal.
mill ["mIl] 1. n. a building containing the machinery needed to turn
grain into meal. 2. n. a machine or device that crushes grains, seeds,
or coffee beans.
milligram ["mIl @ grAm] n. a unit of measurement of weight; one onethousandth (¹⁄₁₀₀₀) of a gram.
millimeter ["mIl @ mit #] n. a unit of measurement of length; one onethousandth (¹⁄₁₀₀₀) of a meter.
282
minimum
million ["mIl [email protected]] 1. n. the number 1,000,000. (Additional numbers
are formed as with two million, three million, four million, etc.) 2. adj.
1,000,000; consisting of 1,000,000 things; having 1,000,000 things.
millionaire [mIl [email protected] "nEr] n. someone who has $1,000,000 in assets after
debt is subtracted.
mincemeat ["mIns mit] 1. n. a mixture of fruit, spices, and sometimes
chopped meat, as a filling for pies. (No pl form.) 2. the adj. use of Q.
mind ["maInd] 1. n. the part of humans that thinks and has feelings.
2. n. the center of intelligence and memory; the imagination; the creative part of humans. 3. tv. to care for someone or something; to tend
to someone or something. 4. tv. to be opposed to something; to care
if someone does something. 5. iv. to be opposed [to something]; to
object.
mine ["maIn] 1. n. an opening into the earth from which precious metals, minerals, or gems are recovered. 2. n. a source of something in
large amounts; someone, something, or someplace that supplies large
amounts of something. (Fig. on Q.) 3. n. a bomb that is placed under
the surface of the soil or water and explodes when it is touched. 4. tv.
to remove precious metals, minerals, or gems from the earth. 5. tv.
to place bombs under the surface of the soil or water at a particular
location. 6. pron. the first-person sg possessive pronoun. (Used in
place of a noun.)
miner ["maIn #] n. someone who digs underground for precious metals, minerals, or gemstones; someone who works in a mine.
mineral ["mIn (@) [email protected]] 1. n. one of many kinds of crystallike substances
dug from the earth; a substance that is gotten by mining. 2. n. an element that plants and animals need in order to function properly.
3. the adj. use of Q.
mingle ["mIN [email protected]] 1. iv. to blend or mix. 2. tv. to blend or mix things
together. 3. (with) to talk to different people; to associate with
different people.
miniature ["mIn i @ tS#] 1. adj. small; on a small scale; smaller than
other things of the same kind. 2. n. something that is small; something that is smaller than other things of the same kind.
minimal ["mIn @ [email protected]] adj. smallest possible [amount]. (Adv: minimally.)
minimum ["mIn @ [email protected]] 1. n. the least amount or degree possible; the
smallest amount or degree possible. 2. adj. minimal; smallest; lowest; least.
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minister
minister ["mIn I st#] 1. n. a pastor; a preacher; the leader of a Christian church. 2. n. [in many countries] someone who is the head of a
government department.
mink ["mINk] 1. n., irreg. a small, long, furry animal similar to the
weasel or ferret. (Pl: mink or minks.) 2. n. the fur of Q. (No pl.) 3. n.
a coat made from W. 4. adj. made from W.
minnow ["mIn o] n. a kind of very small, thin fish that lives in fresh
water.
minor ["maIn #] 1. adj. small in size or amount; not serious; not very
important. 2. the adj. use of Q. 3. n. a student’s secondary area of
study. 4. n. someone who is younger than the legal age of responsibility.
minority [maI "nor @ ti] 1. n. a smaller part of a group of people or
things; a subgroup of things or people that are less than half of the
whole amount. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. someone who is a
member of a different race, religion, or ethnic group from the majority of a population. 3. n. the state of being younger than the legal age
of responsibility. (No pl form in this sense.) 4. adj. the adj. use of W.
mint ["mInt] 1. n. a small plant with leaves that have a fresh, strong
flavor, and the leaves themselves. (No pl.) 2. n. a candy that is flavored with Q. 3. n. a building where the government makes coins
and paper money. 4. adj. tasting like Q; flavored with Q. 5. adj. perfect; in excellent condition. 6. tv. to make something, especially coins,
from metal.
minus ["maIn @s] 1. prep. reduced by some amount; decreased by some
amount; made less by some amount; with something omitted or subtracted. (Symbolized by “”.) 2. adj. below zero; less than zero; [of
a number] negative. (Precedes the amount. Symbolized by “”.)
3. adj. [of a school letter grade] less than the full grade. (Follows the
letter. Symbolized by “”.) 4. n. a negative factor; a lack.
minute 1. ["mIn It] n. a unit of the measurement of time, equal to 60
seconds or ¹⁄₆₀ hour. 2. [maI "nut] adj. very small. (Adv: minutely.)
minutes ["mIn Its] n. a written account of what happened at a meeting. (Treated as pl, but not countable.)
miracle ["mIr @ [email protected]] 1. n. a remarkable event that cannot be explained
by the laws of nature. 2. n. an unexpected, lucky event. (Fig. on Q.)
miraculous [mI "rAk [email protected] [email protected]] 1. adj. not able to be explained by the laws
of science or nature. (Adv: miraculously.) 2. adj. unexpectedly excellent. (Fig. on Q. Adv: miraculously.)
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misplace
mirage [mI "raZ] n. an image of something that does not really exist,
especially an image of water in the desert; something that fools one’s
vision.
mirror ["mIr #] 1. n. a piece of polished glass, treated in a way that
makes it reflect images perfectly. 2. n. someone or something that
shows what someone or something thinks, looks like, acts like, or is.
(Fig. on Q.) 3. tv. to show something as though it were seen in Q;
to represent something.
mirth ["m#T] n. fun and laughter. (No pl.)
mischief ["mIs tSIf] 1. n. playful trouble; slightly bad tricks or deeds.
(No pl.) 2. n. someone—usually a child—who is a source of trouble
or problems.
misconduct [mIs "kan [email protected]] n. bad behavior; behavior that is not good
or moral. (No pl.)
miser ["maIz #] n. someone who is very selfish and has a lot of money.
miserable ["mIz @ [email protected] [email protected]] 1. adj. unhappy; very sad; depressed. (Adv:
miserably.) 2. adj. unpleasant; depressing. (Adv: miserably.) 3. adj.
poor; squalid; wretched. (Adv: miserably.)
misery ["mIz @ ri] 1. n. a state of unhappiness, depression, and suffering. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. something that causes unhappiness, depression, and suffering. (No pl form in this sense.)
misfit ["mIs fIt] n. someone who does not seem to belong with other
people or fit a situation.
misfortune [mIs "for [email protected]] n. bad luck; bad fortune. (Pl only for types
and instances.)
mishap ["mIs hAp] n. an unlucky event or accident; bad luck; an unfortunate accident.
misjudge [mIs "dZ^dZ] tv. to make the wrong judgment about someone or something.
mislaid [mIs "led] pt/pp of mislay.
mislay [mIs "le] tv., irreg. to put something in a location that is later
forgotten. (Pt/pp: mislaid.)
mismanage [mIs "mAn IdZ] tv. to manage someone or something
badly; to deal with someone or something badly.
misplace [mIs "ples] tv. to put something someplace and then forget
where it is.
285
miss
miss ["mIs] 1. tv. to fail to hit, catch, meet, or reach someone or something. 2. tv. to fail to locate or observe people or things that are where
they are meant to be. 3. tv. to notice the absence of someone or something. 4. tv. to feel sad about the loss, departure, or absence of someone or something. 5. tv. to avoid or escape something; to avoid doing
something. 6. tv. to lack something; to fail to acquire or experience
something that is available. 7. n. a failure to hit, reach, catch, or do
something. 8. n. a polite form of address for girls and young women.
9. n. a title for a girl or unmarried woman. (Capitalized when written as a proper noun.)
missile ["mIs @l] 1. n. something that is thrown, shot, or fired at a target. 2. n. a rocket carrying bombs or weapons that can be shot at a
target very far away.
mission ["mI [email protected]] 1. n. a journey to a place to do an important task.
2. n. a specific task or duty; a specific aim or objective.
misspell [mIs "spEl] tv. to spell something wrongly.
mist ["mIst] 1. n. a light spray of water or other liquid; a small cloud
formed by spraying water or other liquid. 2. tv. to spray someone or
something with water or other liquid; to cover something with Q or
water vapor.
mistake [mI "stek] 1. n. an error; something that is wrong; something
that is not correct. 2. tv., irreg. to have the wrong idea about something. (Pt: mistook; pp: mistaken.)
mistaken [mI "stek @n] pp of mistake.
mister ["mIs t#] n. a title for an adult male; a form of address for men.
(The abbreviation, Mr., is used in writing.)
mistook [mIs "tUk] pt of mistake.
mistreat [mIs "trit] tv. to treat someone or something badly; to abuse
someone or something.
mistrust [mIs "tr^st] 1. tv. not to trust someone or something; to
doubt someone or something. 2. n. lack of trust; doubts about someone or something; distrust. (No pl.)
misty ["mIs ti] adj. [of a surface] covered with mist; [of air] filled with
mist. (Adv: mistily. Comp: mistier; sup: mistiest.)
misunderstand [mIs @n d# "stAnd] tv., irreg. to understand someone
or something incorrectly. (Pt/pp: misunderstood.)
286
mockingbird
misunderstanding [mIs @n d# "stAnd IN] 1. n. the failure to understand something. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. an argument; a disagreement.
misunderstood [mIs @n d# "stUd] pt/pp of misunderstand.
misuse 1. [mIs "jus] n. incorrect use; improper use; using something
wrongly. (No pl.) 2. [mIs "juz] tv. to use something the wrong way;
to use something for a purpose for which it was not meant to be used.
mitten ["mIt n] n. a piece of clothing for one’s hand, without separate
parts for each finger but with a separate area for the thumb.
mix ["mIks] 1. n. a mixture; a combination of different people or
things. 2. n. a combination of different foods that is ready to be
cooked or used in cooking. 3. tv. to combine or blend different things
so that they form one thing. 4. tv. to do two things at the same time.
5. iv. to be friendly and comfortable with other people; to be with
other people. 6. up with to confuse one person or thing with
another.
mixed ["mIkst] 1. adj. combined; blended. 2. adj. [of the thoughts or
feelings that someone has about someone or something] combining
very different things, such as liking and disliking. 3. adj. having both
males and females; for both sexes.
mixture ["mIks tS#] n. a combination or blend of different people or
things.
moan ["mon] 1. n. a deep, long cry of sadness, suffering, pain, or grief.
2. iv. to make a deep, long cry of sadness, suffering, pain, or grief.
mob ["mab] 1. n. a large group of people crowded around someone or
something. 2. tv. [for a large group of people] to crowd around someone or something.
mobile 1. ["mob @l] adj. able to move easily; able to be moved easily;
movable. 2. ["mo bil] n. a hanging arrangement of balanced objects
that move with air currents. (Refers to decorations, works of art, or
devices to entertain infants.)
mock ["mak] 1. tv. to make fun of someone; to laugh at or ridicule
someone, especially by copying how that person speaks or acts. 2. tv.
to copy or imitate someone or something. 3. adj. not real.
mockery ["mak @ ri] n. something that is a poor substitute for the real
thing or person.
mockingbird ["mak IN b#d] n. a bird native to the Americas, so called
because it imitates the calls or songs of other birds.
287
mode
mode ["mod] 1. n. a way of doing something; a method; a manner. 2.
n. a feature of a verb that shows whether it is a statement, command,
or wish; mood W.
model ["mad l] 1. n. a copy of an object, usually made smaller than
the original. 2. n. someone or something that is the perfect example
of something; someone or something that is to be copied or imitated;
a standard. 3. n. someone who is paid to wear and show off clothing
that is available for sale. 4. n. someone who poses for artists and photographers. 5. n. one style of a certain product in a series of styles.
6. adj. perfect; worthy of imitation; regarded as the perfect example.
(Prenominal only.) 7. adj. built to a smaller scale than normal.
(Prenominal only.) 8. iv. to work as E or R. 9. tv. [for E] to wear
and show off clothing.
modem ["mod @m] n. a device that connects a computer with a telephone line or a television cable system so that information can be sent
or received over that line.
moderate 1. ["mad @ rIt] adj. not extreme; in the center; average or
medium. (Adv: moderately.) 2. ["mad @ rIt] n. someone whose political or social views are not extreme. 3. ["mad @ ret] tv. to reduce
something; to cause something to be less strong. 4. ["mad @ ret] tv.
to lead a discussion; to lead a meeting.
moderation [mad @ "re [email protected]] n. being moderate; [doing things] within
reasonable limits. (No pl.)
modern ["mad #n] adj. up-to-date; new; of or about the present or
very recent time. (Adv: modernly.)
modest ["mad Ist] 1. adj. shy; humble; not bragging about oneself.
(Adv: modestly.) 2. adj. not excessive; moderate; not large. (Adv: modestly.) 3. adj. decent; not revealing too much of one’s body. (Adv:
modestly.)
moist ["moIst] adj. damp; a little bit wet. (Adv: moistly. Comp: moister;
sup: moistest.)
moisten ["moI [email protected]] tv. to make something moist; to make something
damp.
moisture ["moIs tS#] n. wetness; water in the air; vapor. (No pl.)
molar ["mol #] n. one of the teeth in the back of the mouth, used for
grinding food.
molasses [[email protected] "lAs Iz] n. a sweet, dark, sticky liquid made in the process of making sugar. (This is sg. No pl.)
288
monopoly
mold ["mold] 1. n. a fuzzy or slimy growth that forms on animal or
plant matter. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a hollow object
that has a certain shape. (Certain liquids—such as clay, resin, cement,
rubber, etc.—are poured into it, and when the liquid hardens, it will
have the same shape as the mold.) 3. n. something that was shaped
by or made in W. 4. tv. to shape something; to form something into
a certain shape; to shape something using W. 5. iv. to be covered with
Q.
mole ["mol] n. a small, furry mammal that lives underground, eats
worms and bugs, and cannot see well.
molecule ["mal @ kjul] n. the smallest part into which a chemical compound can be divided without changing its chemical composition.
molt ["molt] 1. tv. [for an animal] to shed feathers, skin, or fur. 2. iv.
[for animals] to shed [something], as with Q.
molten ["molt n] adj. melted; made into liquid. (Adv: moltenly.)
mom ["mam] n. mother. (Informal. Also a term of address. Capitalized when written as a proper noun.)
moment ["mo [email protected]] 1. n. an instant in time; a brief period of time.
2. n. a certain point in time.
momento [[email protected] "mEn to] Go to memento.
momentum [mo "mEn [email protected]] n. the force and speed of movement or
progress. (No pl.)
monarch ["man ark] n. a king or a queen.
Monday ["m^n de] Go to day.
monetary ["man @ tEr i] adj. of or about money. (Adv: monetarily [man
@ "tEr @ li].)
money ["m^n i] 1. n. currency; coins and bills issued by a government.
(No pl.) 2. n. wealth; riches. (No pl.)
monitor ["man @ t#] 1. n. a device that looks somewhat like a television set and is used to display computer information. 2. n. a measuring device that keeps a record of something. 3. tv. to watch, listen
to, or keep a record of something.
monk ["m^Nk] n. a man who devotes his life to religion as part of an
all-male religious organization.
monkey ["m^N ki] n. a small, hairy primate with a long tail.
monopoly [[email protected] "nap @ li] 1. n. the condition existing when someone
or something has complete control over something. 2. n. a business
289
monster
that is the only provider of a service or product. 3. n. the right to be
the only provider of a service or product, as authorized by a government.
monster ["man st#] n. a large creature that scares people.
monstrosity [man "stras @ ti] n. someone or something that is huge
and very ugly.
month ["m^nT] 1. n. one of the 12 divisions of a year. (The months of
the year, in order, are January, February, March, April, May, June, July,
August, September, October, November, December.) 2. n. a period of
about 30 or 31 days; a period of four weeks.
monthly ["m^nT li] 1. adj. happening every month; happening once a
month. 2. adv. every month; once a month.
monument ["man [email protected] [email protected]] 1. n. a structure that is built in memory
of a person or event. 2. n. something that preserves the memory of a
person, culture, or event. (Fig. on Q.)
mood ["mud] 1. n. a state of mind; the way one is feeling. 2. n. a feature of a verb that shows whether it is a statement, a command, or a
wish; mode W.
moon ["mun] 1. n. a large natural satellite that orbits around a planet.
2. n. the natural satellite that orbits around the earth.
moonlight ["mun laIt] 1. n. the light from a moon. (No pl.) 2. adj.
done at night, while the moon is shining; happening while the moon
is shining. (Prenominal only.) 3. iv. to have a second job in the evening or at night in addition to the job one has during the day. (Pt/pp:
moonlighted.)
moose ["mus] n., irreg. a northern animal—similar to a large deer—
the males of which have wide, flat horns on their heads. (Pl: moose.
See also elk W.)
mop ["map] n. a group of thick, heavy strings or a sponge, attached to
a pole, used wet or dry for cleaning floors.
moral ["mor @l] 1. adj. of or about good and bad, according to society’s standards of right and wrong. (Adv: morally.) 2. adj. showing
or representing good behavior and values. (Adv: morally.) 3. n. the
lesson that can be learned from a story.
morale [[email protected] "rAl] n. confidence; the amount of confidence felt by a person or group of people. (No pl.)
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moss
morality [[email protected] "rAl @ ti] n. the goodness or rightness of someone’s
behavior; good behavior measured by society’s standards of right and
wrong. (No pl.)
morals n. a person’s moral Q principles of behavior, especially concerning sex. (Treated as pl, but not countable.)
more ["mor] 1. adj. the comp. form of much or many; a greater amount
or number. (Prenominal only.) 2. pron. the comp. form of much or
many ; a greater amount or number. 3. n. an additional amount or
number. (No pl.) 4. adv. a word used to form the comp. form of some
adjectives and adverbs; to a greater extent. 5. adv. of a greater
amount.
morning ["mor nIN] 1. n. the period of the day from midnight to noon.
2. n. dawn; sunrise. 3. adj. happening during Q. (Prenominal only.)
mornings adv. every morning Q.
morsel ["mor [email protected]] n. a small piece of something, especially food.
mortal ["mor [email protected]] 1. n. a human being; someone or something that
must die; someone or something that will not live forever. 2. adj.
unable to live forever; having to die at some time. (Adv: mortally.)
mortar ["mor t#] 1. n. a kind of cement that binds bricks or stones to
each other, especially when a wall is being built. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. n. a short, wide cannon that shoots shells in a high
arc. 3. n. a hard bowl used to hold substances being ground into powder.
mortgage ["mor gIdZ] 1. n. an agreement by which a borrower grants
a lender the ownership of an asset in exchange for a loan of money,
thus protecting the loan with the asset. (When the loan is repaid, the
ownership of the property is returned to the borrower. If the borrower is unable to pay the loan, the asset then belongs to the lender.)
2. tv. to use an asset to secure a loan.
mosaic [mo "ze Ik] n. a design made from many pieces of colored substances, especially glass or stone.
mosque ["mask] n. an Islamic building of worship; a building where
Muslims worship.
mosquito [[email protected] "skit o] n. a small insect, the female of which sucks
blood from warm-blooded creatures. (Pl ends in -s or -es.)
moss ["mOs] n. a small, soft green plant without flowers that grows in
masses on rocks and other surfaces. (Pl only for types and instances.)
291
most
most ["most] 1. adj. the sup. form of much or many ; the greatest
amount or number. (Prenominal only.) 2. adj. over half; almost all.
(Prenominal only. Adv: mostly.) 3. n. over half or almost all of a certain group of things or people; over half or almost all of something.
(No pl. Treated as sg or pl, but not countable.) 4. adv. a word used to
form the sup. form of some adjectives and adverbs; to the greatest
extent. (Usually with the.) 5. adv. very. (Used for emphasis.)
mostly ["most li] 1. adv. more than half; for the most part. 2. adv. most
of the time; usually.
motel [mo "tEl] n. a hotel for people traveling by car; a hotel alongside
a highway.
moth ["mOT] n., irreg. a small insect with large, broad wings and antennae, similar to a butterfly, but usually not as colorful. (Pl: ["mODz].)
mothball ["mOT bOl] n. a small ball made of a substance that keeps
moths away from clothes.
mother ["m^D #] 1. n. a female who has given birth to a child or offspring. 2. n. a term of address used with one’s own Q. (Capitalized
when written as a proper noun.) 3. adj. [of one’s language or country] native. (Prenominal only.) 4. tv. to take care of someone in the
manner of Q.
motherhood ["m^D # hUd] n. the state of being a mother. (No pl.)
motion ["mo [email protected]] 1. n. movement; moving. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. a formal proposal that something be done, made
during a meeting. 3. tv. to direct someone by moving a part of one’s
body, usually the hands. 4. iv. to point or indicate by moving a part
of one’s body, usually the hands.
motive ["mot Iv] n. a reason for doing something; something—such
as an idea, a need, or a way of thinking—that causes a person to do
something.
motor ["mot #] n. an engine; a machine that changes some kind of fuel
into power that can lift, turn, or move things.
motorboat ["mot # bot] n. a boat that is powered by a motor or
engine.
motorcycle ["mot # saI [email protected]] n. a vehicle that has two wheels and a
frame larger and heavier than a bicycle, and that is powered by a
motor.
motorist ["mot @ rIst] n. someone who drives a car.
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mouthwash
motto ["mat o] n. a short statement that expresses a belief or a rule of
behavior. (Pl ends in -s or -es.)
mound ["maUnd] n. a small hill or pile.
mount ["maUnt] 1. n. a support; an object that something is attached
to or hung from. 2. n. a (particular) mountain. (Abbreviated Mt.)
3. tv. to get on an animal or vehicle that one must ride with one leg
on either side of the animal or vehicle. 4. tv. to climb something; to
go up something. 5. tv. to hang something to a fixed support; to
attach something to a fixed support.
mountain ["maUnt n] 1. n. a very tall mass of land that pushes up from
the surface of the earth; a very tall hill. 2. n. a very tall pile of something; a very large amount of something. (Fig. on Q.)
mourn ["morn] 1. tv. to feel sorrow or sadness about the death or loss
of someone or something. (E.g., to mourn the death of someone.) 2. tv.
to feel sorrow or sadness about someone who has died. (E.g., to
mourn someone.) 3. iv. to feel sorrow or sadness, especially about
someone’s death. (E.g., to mourn because of a death.)
mourner ["mor n#] n. someone who mourns; someone who attends a
funeral.
mouse ["maUs] 1. n., irreg. a small, furry rodent with tiny eyes and a
long tail, like a rat but smaller. (Pl: mice.) 2. n., irreg. a device that
can be moved around by one hand to control the movements of a
pointer on a computer screen. (Pl: mice or mouses.)
mousetrap ["maUs trAp] n. a simple device that is used to trap mice
that are indoor pests.
mousse ["mus] n. a rich, creamy dessert made from cream, eggs, and
fruit or chocolate. (Pl only for types and instances.)
mouth 1. ["maUT] n., irreg. the opening on the faces of animals where
food and air enter the body. (Pl: ["maUDz].) 2. ["maUT] n., irreg. an
opening of something; the entrance to something. (Fig. on Q.)
3. ["maUT] n., irreg. the place where a river joins a lake, sea, or ocean.
4. ["maUD] tv. to move Q as if one were speaking but without producing actual speech.
mouthpiece ["maUT pis] 1. n. the part of a musical instrument that
is blown into; the part of a musical instrument that is put on or
between one’s lips. 2. n. the part of a machine or device that is placed
on or next to someone or something’s mouth.
mouthwash ["maUT waS] n. a liquid that is used to rinse one’s mouth
in order to make the breath smell better or to kill germs in the mouth.
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move
move ["muv] 1. iv. to go to a different time or space; to change position in time or space. 2. iv. to be in motion. 3. iv. to change where
one lives or works. 4. tv. to transport someone or something to a different time or space; to cause someone or something to change position. 5. tv. to cause someone or something to remain in motion. 6. tv.
to affect someone’s emotions or feelings. 7. tv. to formally make a suggestion at a meeting; to formally propose something. (The object is
a clause with that U.) 8. n. an instance of changing position as in Q;
a movement. 9. n. the act of going to a new house to live. 10. n. one
step in a plan; an action that has a specific result. 11. n. a player’s turn
in a game.
movement ["muv [email protected]] 1. n. moving; changing position in time or
space. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a division of a symphony or other classical work of music. 3. n. a common social or
political goal and the people who work together to promote it.
movie ["muv i] 1. n. a film; a motion picture; a story on film. 2. the
adj. use of Q.
mow ["mo] tv., irreg. to cut grass. (Pp: mowed or mown.)
mower ["mo #] n. a machine used to cut grass evenly. (Short for lawn
mower.)
mown ["mon] a pp of mow.
Mr. ["mIst #] n. a title for an adult male. (The abbreviation of mister.)
Mrs. ["mIs @z] n. a title for a married woman.
Ms. ["mIz] n. a title for an adult female.
much ["m^tS] 1. adv., irreg. to a great extent; to a great degree; a lot.
(Comp: more; sup: most.) 2. adj., irreg. a lot; to quite an extent or
degree. (Comp: more; sup: most.) 3. n. a large extent; a large degree;
a large amount. (No pl.)
mucus ["mju [email protected]] n. the slimy substance secreted by the body to protect and moisten certain tissues. (No pl.)
mud ["m^d] n. a mixture of dirt and water; very wet soil. (No pl.)
muddle ["m^d l] 1. n. a confused mess; a condition of confusion. 2. tv.
to confuse something; to get things out of order. 3. iv. to progress or
move along in a confused or disorganized fashion.
muddy ["m^d i] 1. adj. covered with mud. (Adv: muddily. Comp: muddier; sup: muddiest.) 2. adj. not clear; cloudy. (Said especially of colors or liquids. Fig. on Q. Adv: muddily. Comp: muddier; sup:
muddiest.)
294
murmur
muffler ["m^f l#] 1. n. part of the exhaust system of a car that softens the noises of the engine. 2. n. a scarf that can be wrapped around
the neck for warmth.
mug ["m^g] 1. n. a drinking cup with a handle. 2. n. the contents of
Q. 3. tv. to attack and rob someone.
mugger ["m^g #] n. someone who attacks and robs people on the
street.
muggy ["m^g i] adj. hot and humid. (Adv: muggily. Comp: muggier;
sup: muggiest.)
mulch ["m^ltS] 1. n. plant matter or other material spread on plants to
protect them and to retain the moisture in the soil. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. tv. to spread Q around plants in a garden.
mule ["mjul] n. the offspring of one horse and one donkey.
multiple ["m^l [email protected] [email protected]] 1. adj. involving many parts; consisting of many
parts. (Adv: multiply ["m^l [email protected] pli].) 2. n. a number that can be divided
by another number without a remainder; a number that can be
divided evenly by another number.
multiply ["m^l [email protected] plaI] 1. tv. to increase something. 2. iv. to reproduce;
to have offspring; to breed. 3. iv. to increase. 4. by to add an
amount to itself the number of times shown by another number; to
perform multiplication.
mumble ["m^m [email protected]] 1. iv. to speak in an unclear manner; to speak
softly with poor pronunciation. 2. tv. to say something that cannot
be heard clearly. 3. n. speech that cannot be heard clearly.
munch ["m^ntS] 1. tv. to eat a crisp food that makes a noise; to eat
something noisily. 2. on to eat something; to chew on something.
municipal [mju "nIs @ [email protected]] adj. of, for, or serving a city, town, or village. (Adv: municipally.)
mural ["mjUr @l] n. a picture or scene that is painted on the surface of
a wall.
murder ["m# d#] 1. n. the killing of a human, done on purpose and
against the law. 2. tv. to kill someone on purpose and against the law.
murderer ["m# d# #] n. someone who kills someone else; someone
who is found guilty of murder.
murmur ["m# m#] 1. n. a low, quiet sound. 2. n. an irregular sound
made by the heart, caused by defects in the heart. 3. iv. to make low,
quiet sounds; to speak very quietly. 4. tv. to say something very quietly. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
295
muscle
muscle ["m^s @l] 1. n. a group of long tissues in the body that can be
shortened to make parts of the body move. 2. n. strength; power. (No
pl. Fig. on Q.)
muscular ["m^s [email protected] l#] 1. adj. in or of the muscles. 2. adj. having
muscles that are strong and well developed. (Adv: muscularly.)
museum [mju "zi @m] n. a building where art or things of or about science, history, or some other subject are placed on display for the public to see and learn about.
mushroom ["m^S rum] 1. n. a kind of fungus that is often used as
food. 2. iv. to grow very quickly or suddenly.
mushy ["m^S i] adj. soft and pulpy. (Adv: mushily. Comp: mushier; sup:
mushiest.)
music ["mju zIk] 1. n. the sounds of the voice or of instruments making pleasant tones in a series or a series of groups. (No pl in standard
English. Number is expressed with piece(s) of music.) 2. n. a piece of
paper that shows the notes of a particular song or melody. (No pl.)
musical ["mju zI [email protected]] 1. adj. causing music to be made; producing
notes or tones. (Adv: musically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. of or about music.
(Adv: musically [...Ik li].) 3. n. a play or movie in which the actors
sing songs, usually as a way of moving the story forward.
musician [mju "zI [email protected]] n. someone who plays a musical instrument;
someone who writes music; someone who is in a band or an orchestra.
muss up ["m^s @p] to make something messy, especially one’s hair; to
move someone’s hair out of place.
mussel ["m^s @l] n. a kind of shellfish, usually having very dark shells,
that can be eaten as food.
must ["m^st] 1. aux. a form showing a requirement to do something;
[to] have to [do something]. (Uses had to for a pt.) 2. aux. a form
indicating probability or likelihood. (Uses the form has to have plus
the pp or must have plus the pp for a pt.) 3. n. something that is necessary or essential.
mustache ["m^s tAS] n. hair that grows on the upper lip.
mustard ["m^s t#d] 1. n. a plant with a bright yellow flower. (No pl.)
2. n. a seasoning or sauce made from the powdered seeds of Q, water
or vinegar, and spices. (Pl only for types and instances.)
mustn’t ["m^s @nt] cont. must not. (Indicates what one is not allowed
to do or what one may not do.)
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mythology
musty ["m^s ti] adj. smelling old and stale; smelling like mold. (Adv:
mustily. Comp: mustier; sup: mustiest.)
mutiny ["mjut n ni] 1. n. rebellion against someone in power, especially by sailors or soldiers. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. iv. to be part
of Q.
mutter ["m^t #] 1. iv. to speak in a low, grumbling way that is hard to
understand. 2. tv. to say something as in Q.
mutual ["mju tSu @l] 1. adj. shared by two or more people; equally felt
or done by each person toward the other. (Adv: mutually.) 2. adj.
common to two or more people; known to two or more people. (Adv:
mutually.)
muzzle ["m^z @l] 1. n. [in certain animals] the part of the face that
sticks out. 2. n. a cover put over the mouth of an animal so that it will
not bite someone or something. 3. n. the front end of a gun; the barrel of a gun. 4. tv. to put W on an animal.
my ["maI] 1. pron. the first-person sg possessive pronoun. (Describes
people or things belonging to the speaker or writer. Used as a modifier before a noun. Compare this with mine Y.) 2. interj. a word used
to show surprise.
myself [maI "sElf] 1. pron. the first-person sg reflexive pronoun.
2. pron. Q used to emphasize the speaker or the writer as subject of
the sentence.
mystery ["mIs [email protected] ri] 1. n. the quality of not being explained, known,
or understood; the quality of being hidden or secret. (Pl only for
types and instances.) 2. n. a book that involves a crime or murder
that is solved in the story. 3. the adj. use of Q.
myth ["mIT] 1. n. a fable; a story that explains a mystery of nature or
tells how something came into existence. 2. n. someone or something
that is imaginary or invented; something that is not based in fact.
(Fig. on Q.)
mythical ["mIT @ [email protected]] adj. imaginary; [of a character, story, or situation] invented. (Adv: mythically [...Ik li].)
mythology [mIT "al @ dZi] 1. n. the study of myths. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. n. a collection of myths about someone, something, or some culture.
297
N
n. an abbreviation of nominal.
nag ["nAg] 1. tv. to continue to bother someone; to demand, by complaining all the time, that someone do something. 2. iv. to continue
to be a bother and a pest by making demands.
nail ["nel] 1. n. a thin rod of metal, pointed on one end. 2. n. one of
the hard, flat tips at the ends of fingers and toes. 3. tv. to attach or
secure something with Q.
naked ["nek @d] adj. nude; wearing no clothes.
name ["nem] 1. n. the word that indicates someone, something, or
someplace. 2. n. [someone’s] fame or reputation. 3. n. someone who
is famous or important. 4. tv. to give or apply a name as in Q to
someone, something, or someplace. 5. tv. to state or recite the Q of
someone or something. 6. tv. to appoint someone; to choose someone or something.
nanny ["nAn i] n. a woman whose job is to take care of someone else’s
children.
nap ["nAp] 1. iv. to sleep for a short period of time, especially during
the day. 2. n. a short amount of sleep, especially during the day. 3. n.
the upright threads of a carpet or of a piece of material, such as velvet. (No pl.)
nape ["nep] n. the back [of the neck].
napkin ["nAp kIn] n. a square of fabric or paper used for protecting
one’s clothes and keeping tidy at meals.
narrate ["nEr et] 1. tv. to tell a story. 2. iv. to tell about events that are
being shown in a film, a slide show, on television, or in some other
performance setting.
narrative ["nEr @ tIv] 1. n. telling a story or giving an account of something that happened; narration. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. an
instance of Q.
narrow ["nEr o] 1. adj. not wide; short from side to side in comparison with the length of something from one end to the other. (Adv:
narrowly. Comp: narrower; sup: narrowest.) 2. adj. limited; not broad.
(Fig. on Q. Adv: narrowly. Comp: narrower; sup: narrowest.) 3. tv.
298
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nature
to cause something to become Q. 4. iv. to become Q. 5. iv. to
become W.
nasal ["nez @l] 1. adj. of or about the nose. (Adv: nasally.) 2. adj. of
the quality of sound heard when making the speech sounds [m], [n],
or [N]. (Adv: nasally.) 3. n. a speech sound, such as [m] or [n], made
by opening the passage to the nose at the back of the throat.
nasty ["nAs ti] 1. adj. mean; angry; unpleasant. (Adv: nastily. Comp:
nastier; sup: nastiest.) 2. adj. dirty-minded; offensive to one’s morals.
(Adv: nastily. Comp: nastier; sup: nastiest.) 3. adj. very serious; bad;
dangerous. (Adv: nastily. Comp: nastier; sup: nastiest.) 4. adj. not
pleasant to see, hear, smell, taste, or touch. (Adv: nastily. Comp: nastier; sup: nastiest.)
nation ["ne [email protected]] 1. n. a country; a country that governs itself. 2. n. the
people of a country; a group of people who are ruled by the same government.
national ["nAS @ [email protected]] 1. adj. of or about a nation; belonging to a nation;
throughout a nation. (Adv: nationally.) 2. n. a citizen of a specific
nation or a particular group of nations.
nationality [nAS @ "nAl @ ti] n. the status that arises from having citizenship in a particular country or being born in a particular country.
native ["ne tIv] 1. n. something that comes from a certain country or
region. 2. n. someone born in a particular place. 3. adj. born or raised
in a certain country or region; belonging to a certain country or
region. (Adv: natively.)
natural ["nAtS @ [email protected]] 1. adj. made by nature; existing in nature; not
artificial; not made by people; not affected by people. (Adv: naturally.) 2. adj. existing since birth; not learned. (Adv: naturally.) 3. n.
someone who is thought of as perfect for a certain job; someone who
does something very well, especially through inborn ability. 4. n. a
musical note that is not a sharp or a flat; one of the white keys on the
piano.
nature ["ne tS#] 1. n. everything in the world except the material products of human work and thought: people, animals, plants, rocks, land,
water, the weather, etc. (No pl.) 2. n. land that has not been affected
by humans. (No pl.) 3. n. [someone’s or something’s] character; the
essential qualities of someone or something; what someone or something really is.
299
naughty
naughty ["nO ti] 1. adj. bad; behaving badly; not obeying rules. (Usually used to describe the behavior of children. Adv: naughtily. Comp:
naughtier; sup: naughtiest.) 2. adj. vulgar; indecent. (Adv: naughtily.
Comp: naughtier; sup: naughtiest.)
nausea ["nO zi @] n. a feeling of sickness; the feeling that one has to
vomit. (No pl.)
nauseous ["nO [email protected], "nO zi @s] 1. adj. causing nausea; sickening; causing someone to feel sick. (Adv: nauseously.) 2. adj. experiencing nausea; sickened. (Adv: nauseously.)
nautical ["nOt I [email protected]] adj. of or about ships, shipping, or sailors. (Adv:
nautically [...Ik li].)
naval ["ne [email protected]] adj. of or about a navy.
navel ["ne [email protected]] n. the depression in the center of the belly where a baby
is attached to its mother until shortly after birth.
navigate ["nAv @ get] 1. tv. to steer a ship, airplane, or other vehicle
in some direction. 2. tv. to travel or follow a route on the water, over
land, or in the air. 3. iv. to determine the proper direction or route.
navigation [nAv @ "ge [email protected]] n. the rules, skills, and science of navigating. (No pl.)
navy ["nev i] n. the branch of the military that deals with protecting
the sea or fighting at sea.
near ["nIr] 1. prep. at a place that is not far away from someone or
something; at a time that is not far away from something. 2. adj. close
in distance, time, relationship, or effect. (Comp: nearer; sup: nearest.) 3. adv. at or to a place that is not far away; at or to a time that is
not too distant. (Comp: nearer; sup: nearest.) 4. tv. to come closer to
someone or something; to approach someone or something. 5. iv. to
come closer in time or space; to approach.
nearby ["nIr "baI] 1. adv. near; close; not far away. 2. adj. near; close;
not far away.
nearly ["nIr li] adv. almost; not quite.
nearsighted ["nIr saIt Id] adj. unable to see things in the distance
clearly; myopic. (Adv: nearsightedly.)
neat ["nit] adj. clean; tidy; orderly. (Adv: neatly. Comp: neater; sup:
neatest.)
necessary ["nEs @ sEr i] adj. required; needed. (Adv: necessarily [nEs @
"sEr @ li].)
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negative
necessity [[email protected] "sEs @ ti] 1. n. the quality of being necessary or needed.
(No pl.) 2. n. something that is required; something that is needed
or necessary.
neck ["nEk] 1. n. the narrow part of the body that connects the head
to the rest of the body; the outside of the throat. 2. n. the narrowest
part of something; something narrow that connects two things. (Fig.
on Q.)
necklace ["nEk [email protected]] n. a decorative band, chain, or similar object that
is worn around the neck.
necktie ["nEk taI] n. a specially made strip of decorative cloth, typically worn under the collar of a man’s shirt. (Also a tie. Originally
served the purpose of keeping the collar closed.)
need ["nid] 1. n. something that is required or necessary; something
that must be done or had; a requirement. 2. tv. to require something;
to have to have something; to want something for a certain reason.
needle ["nid l] 1. n. a thin, pointed spike of metal having a narrow slit
that thread fits through, used for sewing. 2. n. a thin, hollow, pointed
spike of metal used for injecting and removing body fluids. 3. n. a
thin, pointed spike used to show a position on a scale or meter. 4. n.
the part of a record player that “rides” on a (vinyl) record as it is
played. 5. n. a long, thin, sharply pointed leaf of a pine tree. 6. n. a
long, thin, sharp thorn as found on a cactus. 7. tv. to annoy someone.
needlework ["nid l w#k] n. crafts that are done with a needle, such
as sewing. (No pl.)
needy ["nid i] adj. [of someone] very poor; [of someone] needing the
basic things in life. (Adv: needily. Comp: needier; sup: neediest.)
negative ["nEg @ tIv] 1. adj. meaning “not” or “no”; expressing “not”
or “no”; showing refusal or denial. (Adv: negatively.) 2. adj. not positive; the opposite of positive; lacking something that makes a thing
positive; not good. (Adv: negatively.) 3. adj. less than zero; minus;
below the number zero. 4. adj. cynical; not having hope; having a sad
or gloomy outlook. (Adv: negatively.) 5. adj. showing that a certain
disease or condition is not present. (Adv: negatively.) 6. adj. [of some
part of an electrical circuit] lower in electrical charge than other
points in the same circuit, allowing electrical energy to flow from
other parts of the circuit. (Adv: negatively.) 7. n. a word or statement
that means “not” or “no.” 8. n. a piece of film (for photography). 9. n.
a quality or factor that is W.
301
neglect
neglect [nI "glEkt] 1. tv. not to take care of someone or something;
not to pay attention to someone or something; to ignore someone or
something. 2. n. the lack of taking care of someone or something; a
lack of paying attention to someone or something. (No pl.)
negotiate [[email protected] "go Si et] 1. iv. to discuss the matters that need to be settled before reaching an agreement. 2. tv. to make an agreement
through discussions as in Q. 3. tv. to move around or through a difficult route successfully.
neighbor ["ne b#] 1. n. someone who lives very close by. 2. n. someone who is sitting or standing next to oneself.
neighborhood ["ne b# hUd] 1. n. a specific area within a larger city
or town where people live. 2. n. the people who live in a certain area
of the city.
neighboring ["ne b# IN] adj. adjacent; bordering.
neither ["ni D#] 1. adj. not either; not one person or thing nor the
other; not either of two people or things. 2. pron. not either; not
either one (of two people or things). (Treated as sg.) 3. conj. not.
(Used before a sequence of two words or phrases connected by nor.)
nephew ["nEf ju] n. the son of one’s brother or sister; the son of one’s
spouse’s brother or sister.
nerve ["n#v] 1. n. a fiber in the body that carries messages to and from
the brain. 2. n. courage; bravery. (No pl.)
nervous ["n#v @s] 1. adj. apprehensive; worried; jumpy; edgy. (Adv:
nervously.) 2. adj. of or about the nerves.
-ness [[email protected]] suffix a form that can be added freely to adjectives to create a noun with a parallel meaning.
nest ["nEst] 1. n. a structure made of twigs that is built by a bird as a
shelter for its eggs and that is typically rounded and bowl-shaped.
2. n. a place where certain animals live with their young. 3. iv. to
build or live in Q or W.
net ["nEt] 1. n. a piece of mesh fabric—made of string, wire, or cord
and sometimes attached to something—that is typically used to
catch, trap, or block something. 2. n. a system for fast electronic communication connecting people, businesses, and institutions. (Short
for Internet. Usually capitalized.) 3. adj. remaining after all factors
have been considered, deducted, or added, as with weight, income,
cost, effect, results, outcome, etc.
302
news
network ["nEt w#k] 1. n. a pattern of crossing lines, paths, or similar
structures; a system of lines, paths, or similar structures that are connected together. 2. n. a group of computers connected to each other
and the systems that connect them. 3. n. a group of radio or television stations that broadcast the same programs. 4. n. a collection of
friends or business contacts. 5. iv. to make social and business contacts; to talk with people in one’s area of business or interest.
neurotic [nU "rat Ik] 1. adj. of or about a mild psychological problem
or illness, such as having obsessions or irrational fears; affected by
such a problem or illness. (Adv: neurotically [...Ik li].) 2. n. someone
who has irrational fears or obsessions or some other mild psychological problem or illness.
neuter ["nut #] 1. adj. neither masculine nor feminine; not having a
sex E. 2. adj. [of a class of words] not masculine or feminine.
neutral ["nu [email protected]] 1. adj. not joining with either side in a war, conflict,
or argument. (Adv: neutrally.) 2. adj. at neither extreme; in the middle of a scale. (Adv: neutrally.)
neutron ["nu tran] n. in the nucleus of an atom, a particle that has no
electrical charge.
never ["nEv #] adv. not ever; at no time.
new ["nu] 1. adj. recently done, made, bought, acquired, discovered,
or built; not existing or known of before. (Adv: newly. Comp: newer;
sup: newest. See also news.) 2. adj. the more recent of two or more
things. (Comp: newer; sup: newest.) 3. adj. not familiar; strange;
unknown. (Adv: newly. Comp: newer; sup: newest.) 4. adj. different;
changed. (Adv: newly. Comp: newer; sup: newest.) 5. adj. beginning
again; starting over. (Adv: newly. Comp: newer; sup: newest.)
newborn ["nu born] 1. n. an infant; a baby that has just been born.
2. adj. having just been born.
newcomer ["nu [email protected] #] n. someone who has recently arrived at a certain place.
newly ["nu li] adv. recently; as of late; just.
newlywed ["nu li wEd] n. someone who has recently married.
news ["nuz] 1. n. information, particularly current information about
a person or a recent event. (Treated as sg. No other sg form in this
sense.) 2. n. a television or radio program where information about
recent events is broadcast. (Treated as sg. No other sg form in this
sense.)
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newspaper
newspaper ["nuz pe p#] n. a daily or weekly publication consisting of
news, articles, and advertisements printed on large sheets of paper.
newt ["nut] n. a small amphibian with four legs and a tail.
next ["nEkst] 1. adj. following; nearest in sequence after; soonest after.
2. adj. located in the nearest position to something; [of someone or
something] beside someone or something [else]. 3. adv. at the soonest time after now; in the nearest place or position after this one.
nibble ["nIb @l] 1. n. a small bite of something; a little taste of something. 2. iv. to eat only a tiny bit. 3. tv. to eat a tiny bite of something;
to eat something in tiny bites; to bite something gently with tiny bites.
nice ["naIs] 1. adj. pleasant; agreeable; enjoyable. (Adv: nicely. Comp:
nicer; sup: nicest.) 2. adj. kind; friendly. (Adv: nicely. Comp: nicer;
sup: nicest.) 3. adj. good; clever; well done. (Informal. Adv: nicely.
Comp: nicer; sup: nicest.)
nick ["nIk] 1. n. a small dent or chip on the surface of something. 2. tv.
to put or cause a small dent or chip on the surface of something.
nickel ["nIk @l] 1. n. a metallic element that does not rust easily. (No
pl.) 2. n. a U.S. coin worth five cents.
nickname ["nIk nem] 1. n. a secondary, familiar, or intimate name for
someone or something. 2. tv. to give someone, something, or someplace a nickname as in Q.
niece ["nis] n. the daughter of one’s brother or sister; the daughter of
one’s spouse’s brother or sister.
night ["naIt] 1. n. the time between sunset and sunrise; the darkness
between sunset and sunrise; nighttime. (No pl.) 2. n. the period of
time between sunset and midnight. 3. n. a specific Q or W when
something happens or is planned. 4. n. a unit of measure based on
the number of nights Q but also including the period of time
between nights Q. (E.g., stay at a hotel for seven nights.) 5. adj. happening during Q or W.
nightclub ["naIt [email protected]] n. a bar or club open at night where there is
entertainment, dancing, performances, etc.
nightgown ["naIt gaUn] n. an item of clothing like a dress, usually for
women, that is worn in bed.
nightlife ["naIt laIf] n. entertainment and social activities that take
place during the night. (No pl.)
nightmare ["naIt mEr] 1. n. a frightening dream. 2. n. a real event that
is frightening or awful. (Fig. on Q.)
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noise
nights adv. every night; during every night; only at night.
nighttime ["naIt taIm] 1. n. the time during the night; the time from
after sunset until sunrise. (No pl.) 2. the adj. use of Q.
nimble ["nIm [email protected]] adj. able to move quickly and easily; agile. (Adv:
nimbly. Comp: nimbler; sup: nimblest.)
nine ["naIn] 9. Go to four.
nineteen ["naIn "tin] 19. Go to four.
nineteenth ["naIn "tinT] 19th. Go to fourth.
ninetieth ["naIn ti @T] 90th. Go to fourth.
ninety ["naIn ti] 90. Go to forty.
ninth ["naInT] 9th. Go to fourth.
nip ["nIp] 1. tv. to pinch or bite someone or something. 2. tv. to remove
something by pinching or biting.
nitwit ["nIt wIt] n. an idiot; someone who is foolish or stupid.
nix ["nIks] tv. to put a stop to something; to end something; to reject
something.
no ["no] 1. adj. not any; not a; not one; not any amount of. 2. adv. a
word that is used as an answer to show that one does not agree. 3. adv.
a word that is used to stress a negative statement. 4. n. a negative
answer. (Pl ends in -s or -es.)
nobility [no "bIl @ ti] n. dignity; the quality of being noble. (No pl.)
noble ["nob @l] 1. adj. refined; moral; showing dignity. (Adv: nobly.
Comp: nobler; sup: noblest.) 2. the adj. use of Q. (Adv: nobly. Comp:
nobler; sup: noblest.) 3. adj. [of a chemical element] not able to mix
with other elements; [of a chemical element] not able to react with
other elements.
nobody ["no bad i] 1. pron. no person; no one; not anybody. (No pl.)
2. n. someone who is not important; someone who has no power.
nod ["nad] 1. n. a quick downward or up-and-down movement of the
head, usually to show agreement. 2. tv. to express something by moving one’s head as in R. 3. tv. to move one’s head in agreement as in
R. 4. iv. to move one’s head down, or up and down, quickly, especially to show agreement or approval, or as a greeting. 5. iv. to let
one’s head jerk down as one begins to fall asleep. 6. iv. [for one’s head]
to jerk down as one begins to fall asleep while sitting or standing.
noise ["noIz] n. annoying or unwanted sound. (Pl only for types and
instances.)
305
noisy
noisy ["noIz i] adj. [of a sound or of someone or something making
sounds] loud; [of someone or something] making much noise. (Adv:
noisily. Comp: noisier; sup: noisiest.)
nominal ["nam @ [email protected]] 1. n. a noun or expression that can serve as the
subject of a sentence, the direct or indirect object of a verb, or the
object of a preposition. (Abbreviated n. here.) 2. adj. functioning as
Q. (Adv: nominally.) 3. adj. in name only; in theory, but not in reality. (Adv: nominally.) 4. adj. [of a fee or charge] very small, especially
as compared with what something is worth. (Adv: nominally.)
nominate ["nam @ net] 1. tv. to formally propose someone for a job
or an office. 2. tv. to propose that someone or something receive an
award.
none ["n^n] 1. pron. not one; not any; no person; no thing. 2. pron.
not one part; no part.
nonflammable [nan "flAm @ [email protected]] adj. difficult to burn; impossible to
burn; not flammable. (Adv: nonflammably.)
nonprofit [nan "praf It] adj. not making a profit; not organized or
established for the purpose of making money.
nonsense ["nan sEns] n. something that does not make sense; something that is foolish. (No pl.)
nonstop ["nan "stap] 1. adj. without stopping or pausing; continuous.
2. adv. without stopping; continuously.
noodle ["nud l] n. a strip or piece of pasta.
noon ["nun] n. the time in the middle of the day between morning and
afternoon; 12:00 in the daytime; midday. (No pl.)
noonday ["nun de] adj. happening at noon; happening in the middle
of the day. (Prenominal only.)
noontime ["nun taIm] 1. n. noon; the middle of the day. (No pl.)
2. adj. happening at noon; happening in the middle of the day.
(Prenominal only.)
noose ["nus] n. a loop tied at the end of a rope, used to trap or hang
someone or something.
nor ["nor] conj. a word used to connect a series of persons or things
that are not options or possibilities.
normal ["nor [email protected]] 1. adj. regular; typical; usual; expected. (Adv: normally.) 2. adj. sane; not sick in the mind. (Adv: normally.)
north ["norT] 1. n. the direction to the left of someone or something
facing the rising sun. (No pl.) 2. n. the northern part of a region,
306
not
country, or planet. (No pl form. Capitalized when referring to a specific region of the United States.) 3. adj. at Q; in W; on the side
toward Q; facing toward Q. 4. adj. from Q. (Used especially to
describe wind.) 5. adv. toward Q; into the northern part of something.
northeast [norT "ist] 1. n. a direction halfway between north and east.
(No pl.) 2. n. an area in the northeastern part of a city, region, or
country. (No pl. Capitalized when referring to a specific region of the
United States.) 3. adj. in W; toward Q; facing Q. 4. adj. [of wind]
blowing from Q. 5. adv. toward Q.
northeastern [norT "ist #n] adj. in the northeast; toward the northeast; facing northeast.
northern ["nor D#n] 1. adj. in the north; toward the north; facing the
north. 2. adj. [of wind] blowing from the north.
northwest [norT "wEst] 1. n. a direction halfway between north and
west. (No pl.) 2. n. an area in the northwestern part of a country. (No
pl. Capitalized when referring to a region of the United States.) 3. adj.
in W; toward Q; facing Q. 4. adj. [of wind] blowing from Q. 5. adv.
toward Q.
northwestern [norT "wEs t#n] adj. in the northwest; toward the
northwest; facing northwest.
nose ["noz] 1. n. the structure between the mouth and the eyes in
humans, being the organ used for smelling and breathing, and a similar structure in other animals. 2. n. the sense of smell; Q used for
smelling something. 3. n. the front end of an airplane, a rocket, a
ship, or some other similar thing. (Fig. on Q.)
nosedive ["noz daIv] 1. n. a sudden drop or decline, especially the
sudden fall of an airplane with the nose pointing downward. 2. iv. to
plunge with the nose pointing downward. 3. iv. [for a measurement]
to decline or drop suddenly. (Fig. on W.)
nostril ["nas [email protected]] n. one of the two outside holes of the nose.
nosy ["noz i] adj. trying to find out (private) things about people or
things; snooping; prying. (Adv: nosily. Comp: nosier; sup: nosiest.)
not ["nat] 1. adv. a negative particle used with verbs, adverbs, participles, prepositions, nominals, and adjectives. (Contracted to n’t.)
2. adv. a negative particle that stands for a part of a sentence that is
being refused, denied, or negated.
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notable
notable ["not @ [email protected]] 1. adj. deserving to be noted; noteworthy; remarkable. (Adv: notably.) 2. n. someone who is worth noting; someone
who is remarkable.
notation [no "te [email protected]] n. a set of signs or symbols that is used to represent something.
notch ["natS] 1. n. a V-shaped cut in a surface, made for a specific reason. 2. n. a degree of quality or quantity. (Fig. on Q.) 3. tv. to make
a V-shaped cut for a specific reason.
note ["not] 1. n. a short written message. 2. n. a comment (on the bottom of a page or at the end of a book) that explains, clarifies, or provides the source of something in the text. (See also footnote.) 3. n.
a piece of paper money; a bill. 4. n. the written symbol for a specific
musical tone. 5. n. a specific musical tone; one sound made by singing
or playing a musical instrument. 6. n. a sign of something; a hint of
something. 7. tv. to write something as a short message. (The object
can be a clause with that U.) 8. tv. to remark about something; to
state something; to observe something. (The object is a clause with
that U.) 9. tv. to pay attention to something; to remember something. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
notebook ["not bUk] n. a book in which notes are written.
notepaper ["not pe p#] n. paper that notes, such as thank-you notes,
are written on. (Pl only for types and instances.)
notes n. information that is written down by someone while listening
to a lecture or reading a book.
nothing ["n^T IN] 1. pron. not one thing; not a thing; not anything. (No
pl. Treated as sg.) 2. n. something that is without meaning; something
that is not significant or important; not anything that is significant or
important. (No pl. Treated as sg.) 3. n. zero; no amount. (No pl.)
notice ["not Is] 1. tv. to see, hear, taste, or smell someone or something; to be aware of someone or something. (The object can be a
clause with that U.) 2. n. an announcement; a sign that warns or
informs; a warning. 3. n. attention; a state of awareness [about something]. (No pl.)
noticeable ["not Is @ [email protected]] adj. able to be seen; easily seen; easily
noticed. (Adv: noticeably.)
notify ["not @ faI] tv. to inform someone about something; to tell
someone officially about something.
notion ["no [email protected]] 1. n. an opinion; a belief. 2. n. a whim; an intention.
308
numb
noun ["naUn] n. a word that refers to a person, place, thing, or idea.
(See also nominal.)
nourish ["n# IS] 1. tv. to feed someone or something; to give someone
or something the things necessary for life and health. 2. tv. to encourage something; to support something as it develops. (Fig. on Q. Used
especially with feelings and emotions.)
novel ["nav @l] 1. n. a relatively long, written story. 2. adj. new; original; not known before.
novelty ["nav @l ti] 1. n. the quality of being novel; the quality of being
new or original. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a small item,
often inexpensive and usually interesting or amusing. 3. the adj. use
of Q or W. (Prenominal only.)
November [no "vEm b#] Go to month.
novice ["nav Is] 1. n. someone who is new at a job or responsibility.
2. n. someone who has just joined a religious order and will become
a monk or a nun. 3. adj. [of someone] new to a task or activity.
(Prenominal only.)
now ["naU] 1. adv. at this moment; at this point in time; immediately.
2. adv. in these days; in modern times; in present times. 3. adv. a
word used for emphasis, to get someone’s attention, with commands,
and to move on to the next topic. 4. n. the present; this time. (No pl.)
nowhere ["no WEr] adv. at no place; to or toward no place; not to or
at any place.
nuclear ["nu kli #] adj. of or about the nucleus of an atom or the
energy created by splitting or fusing the nuclei of atoms.
nuclei ["nu kli aI] pl of nucleus.
nucleus ["nu kli @s] 1. n., irreg. the center of something; the core of
something. (Pl: nuclei.) 2. n., irreg. the core of an atom, consisting
of protons and neutrons. 3. n., irreg. the control center of a living
cell.
nude ["nud] 1. adj. naked; not wearing any clothes. 2. n. someone who
is not wearing any clothes; a statue or a painting of someone who is
not wearing any clothes.
nuisance ["nu [email protected]] n. a bother; someone or something that is annoying.
numb ["n^m] 1. adj. unable to feel anything; unable to sense anything.
(Adv: numbly ["n^m li]. Comp: number ["n^m #]; sup: numbest ["n^m
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number
@st].) 2. tv. to cause someone or something to be unable to feel any-
thing.
number ["n^m b#] 1. n. a symbol or a word that expresses an amount;
a symbol or a word that shows how many; a digit or series of digits
that has an assigned significance. 2. n. a specific Q that identifies
someone or something in a series. (Also appears as the symbol “#”.)
3. n. a song; a piece of music. 4. n. a grammatical category showing
whether one or more than one person or thing is being referred to.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 5. tv. to assign something a Q.
(Refers especially to things in a series.) 6. tv. to reach a total of a certain amount; to be a certain amount.
numeral ["num @ [email protected]] n. the symbol or figure that represents a number.
numerous ["num @ [email protected]] adj. many; several; a lot. (Adv: numerously.)
nun ["n^n] n. a woman who is a member of a religious order.
nurse ["n#s] 1. n. someone, usually a woman, trained to provide medical care, often under the supervision of a physician. 2. n. a woman
who raises other people’s children; a woman who helps a family raise
its children. 3. tv. to feed a baby milk from one’s breast. 4. tv. [for
anyone] to treat a disease or a sick person. 5. iv. [for a female mammal] to feed a baby mammal as in E. 6. iv. [for a baby mammal] to
suck or take milk from a female mammal.
nursery ["n#s (@) ri] 1. n. a room for babies in a hospital or residence.
2. n. a place where children are watched while their parents are busy
at something else. 3. n. a place where plants are grown and sold.
nut ["n^t] 1. n. a hard, woody shell containing an edible part. 2. n. the
edible part of Q, used as food. 3. n. someone who is crazy, insane,
or foolish. (Slang.)
nutrition [nu "trI [email protected]] n. the science of providing people with information about healthy food. (No pl.)
nutshell ["n^t SEl] n. the hard, woody shell around the edible part of
a nut.
nutty ["n^t i] 1. adj. tasting like a nut; made from nuts. (Adv: nuttily.
Comp: nuttier; sup: nuttiest.) 2. adj. crazy; insane. (Slang. Adv: nuttily. Comp: nuttier; sup: nuttiest.)
nylon ["naI lan] 1. n. a very strong but light, often flexible fiber made
from chemicals, that is used especially to make clothes and fabric.
(No pl.) 2. adj. made from Q.
310
O
oak ["ok] 1. n. a kind of strong tree that produces an edible nut. 2. n.
wood from Q. (Pl only for types and instances.) 3. adj. made from
W.
oar ["or] n. a long pole with one wide, flat end—similar to a paddle—
used to steer and row boats.
oases [o "e siz] pl of oasis.
oasis [o "e sIs] 1. n., irreg. in a desert, a place that has water and trees.
(Pl: oases.) 2. n., irreg. a place that is free of problems or difficulties.
(Fig. on Q.)
oat ["ot] 1. n. a cereal grain used as food for humans and cattle. 2. n.
a single grain of Q. 3. adj. made of Q.
oath ["oT] n., irreg. a promise that one will speak only the truth; a
promise that one will do something. (Pl: ["oDz].)
oatmeal ["ot mil] 1. n. crushed oats. (No pl.) 2. n. cooked Q, usually
eaten with milk and sugar. (No pl.) 3. adj. made with crushed oats.
oats n. a cereal grain used as food for humans and cattle. (Treated as
pl, but not countable.)
obedience [o "bid i @ns] n. the condition of being obedient. (No pl.)
obedient [o "bid i @nt] adj. obeying; following orders. (Adv: obediently.)
obey [o "be] 1. tv. to yield to someone and do as one has been
instructed; to follow instructions, commands, or rules. 2. iv. to do as
one is told.
object 1. ["ab dZEkt] n. a thing; something that can be seen or touched.
2. ["ab dZEkt] n. a goal; an aim; someone or something that a thought
or an action is directed toward. 3. ["ab dZEkt] n. a noun or nominal
that is affected by the action or condition of a verb; a noun or nominal within a prepositional phrase. 4. to [@b "dZEkt tu] to oppose
something; to argue against something; to make an objection about
something.
objection [@b "dZEk [email protected]] n. a stated reason for not wanting to do something.
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311
oblige
oblige [@ "blaIdZ] 1. iv. to do something nice for someone; to do someone a favor. 2. to do to require someone to do something.
oblong ["ab lON] adj. [especially of a circle or a rectangle] long and a
little narrow. (Adv: oblongly.)
obnoxious [@b "nak [email protected]] adj. very annoying; very irritating. (Adv:
obnoxiously.)
oboe ["o bo] n. a musical instrument that has a long, thin wooden body
and a mouthpiece holding a double reed.
obscure [@b "skjUr] 1. adj. [of reasoning or explanation] hard to
understand or not clearly stated. (Adv: obscurely.) 2. adj. not well
known; not famous. (Adv: obscurely.) 3. adj. hard to see; hidden,
especially by darkness. (Adv: obscurely.) 4. tv. to make something
hard to see; to keep something from view; to dim or darken something. 5. tv. to make something difficult to understand; to cloud one’s
meaning. (Fig. on R.)
observe [@b "z#v] 1. tv. to watch something; to see something; to
notice something. 2. tv. to obey a law or custom; to pay attention to
a law or custom. (The object can be a clause with that U.) 3. tv. to
celebrate a holiday. 4. tv. to make a comment or a remark; to state
something. (The object is a clause with that U.)
obsessed [@b "sEst] adj. thinking about someone or something too
much, as if one were forced to do so.
obstacle ["ab [email protected] [email protected]] n. something that is in the way of someone,
something, or some action; a hindrance; a block.
obstinate ["ab [email protected] nIt] adj. stubborn; not willing to change one’s mind;
not willing to listen to other people’s ideas. (Adv: obstinately.)
obstruct [@b "str^kt] tv. to get in the way of someone or something;
to block someone or something.
obstruction [@b "str^k [email protected]] n. something that is in the way; something
that is blocking the way.
obtain [@b "ten] tv. to get something; to gain possession of something;
to come to own something.
obvious ["ab vi @s] adj. easily recognized; easily seen or understood;
plain; clear. (Adv: obviously.)
occasion [@ "ke [email protected]] 1. n. a time when something happens; a time
when something occurs; an instance. 2. n. a special event.
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odd
occasional [@ "ke [email protected] [email protected]] adj. happening from time to time; happening once in a while; not happening all the time or regularly. (Adv:
occasionally.)
occult [@ "k^lt] adj. hidden from regular knowledge; filled with mystery.
occupancy ["ak [email protected] [email protected] si] 1. n. occupying a house, building, or other
piece of property. (No pl.) 2. n. the number of people that a room or
building is allowed to hold. (No pl.)
occupant ["ak [email protected] [email protected]] n. someone who lives in a certain place; a business that occupies a certain building or space.
occupation [ak [email protected] "pe [email protected]] 1. n. a job; a career; what one does for a
living. 2. n. taking or keeping possession of a region or a country.
occupy ["ak [email protected] paI] 1. tv. to use or consume time by doing something.
2. tv. to keep someone busy doing something. 3. tv. to be in a certain
place; to take up the space in a certain place; to live in a certain place;
to have one’s business in a certain place. 4. tv. to move into and take
control of another country.
occur [@ "k#] 1. iv. to happen; to take place. 2. iv. to be; to exist; to be
found.
occurrence [@ "k# @ns] n. an event; something that happens; an incident.
ocean ["o [email protected]] n. a large body of salt water that covers ¾ of the earth’s
surface, or one of that body’s four divisions: the Arctic Ocean, the
Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean.
o’clock [@ "klak] adv. a word used to indicate the time of day. (It follows a number from 1 to 12 and means that it is that time exactly, or
zero minutes past the hour. Literally, of the clock.)
octagon ["ak [email protected] gan] n. a flat figure or shape with eight sides.
octave ["ak tIv] n. a musical interval of two notes where the higher
note is twelve half tones above the lower note; [on a piano] the first
and eighth key in a row of eight white keys.
October [ak "to b#] Go to month.
octopi ["ak [email protected] paI] a pl of octopus.
octopus ["ak [email protected] [email protected]] n., irreg. a boneless sea creature with eight legs.
(Greek for “eight-footed.” The English pl is octopuses or octopi.)
odd ["ad] 1. adj. strange; different; unusual; out of place. (Adv: oddly.
Comp: odder; sup: oddest.) 2. adj. not even; [of a number] not able
to be divided by two without an amount (one) being left over. 3. adj.
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oddity
not regular; [of occasions or events] random; occasional. (Prenominal only. Comp: odder; sup: oddest.)
oddity ["ad @ ti] 1. n. the state of being unusual or strange. (No pl.)
2. n. something that is odd; something that is unusual or strange.
odor ["o d#] n. a smell; a scent; an aroma.
of [@v] 1. prep. belonging to someone; owned by someone; closely associated with someone. (Takes a nominal in the possessive form. Pronouns that can follow of in this sense are mine, yours, his, hers, ours,
and theirs.) 2. prep. connected to someone or something; relating to
someone or something; associated with someone or something; representing someone or something; being a portion or part from something. 3. prep. made from something. 4. prep. containing something;
including someone or something; having people or things as the
members or parts. 5. prep. a preposition expressing a measurement
or an amount. 6. prep. a preposition linking a type of location to the
name of a location. 7. prep. referring to someone or something; about
someone or something; concerning someone or something. 8. prep.
having a certain quality or aspect. 9. prep. before a certain hour.
off ["Of] 1. prep. away from someone or something; not on someone or
something. (Q through R are often off of, a construction objected
to by some.) 2. prep. less than something; deducted from something.
3. prep. leading away from a place or path; turning from a place or
path; connecting to a place or path. 4. prep. in or over the water near
land. 5. adj. stopped; not being used; causing something not to function or operate, especially by stopping the flow of electricity. (Not
prenominal.) 6. adj. wrong; not accurate. (Not prenominal.) 7. adj.
canceled. (Not prenominal.) 8. adj. [of a time period] free of work.
(Not prenominal.)
offend [@ "fEnd] tv. to shock someone, especially through one’s actions,
attitude, or behavior.
offense 1. [@ "fEns] n. the breaking of a law; a crime; an illegal act.
2. [@ "fEns] n. something that is shocking or disgusting. 3. ["O fEns]
n. a way of attacking; an attack.
offensive 1. [@ "fEn sIv] adj. shocking; annoying; offending someone.
(Adv: offensively.) 2. ["O fEn sIv] adj. of or about attacking. (Adv:
offensively.) 3. [@ "fEn sIv] n. an attack.
offer ["Of #] 1. tv. to present something that can be taken or refused.
2. tv. to propose a price for something that is being sold. 3. n. something that is offered as in Q. 4. n. a price or amount that is offered
as in W.
314
okay
offering ["Of # IN] n. something that is offered, especially to a church,
to a charity, or as part of a religious ceremony.
office ["Of Is] 1. n. a room—usually assigned to one person—where
business is done. 2. n. the combined workplaces of a number of people. 3. n. a position of power and responsibility, especially in a government or an organization.
officer ["O [email protected] s#] n. someone in a position of authority, especially in
the military, the government, or some other organization.
official [@ "fI [email protected]] 1. n. an officer; someone in a position of authority.
2. adj. of or about the power, authority, and responsibility of an office
or an officer. (Adv: officially.)
offshore ["Of "Sor] adj. located or occurring in, on, or over the water
away from the shore.
offspring ["Of sprIN] n. [a person’s] child or children; [an animal’s]
young. (No pl. Treated as sg or pl.)
offstage ["Of "stedZ] 1. adj. next to the visible part of the stage of a
theater, but not visible to the audience. 2. adv. at, to, or toward the
area next to the visible part of the stage.
often ["Of @n] adv. frequently; happening many times.
oh ["o] interj. a form expressing surprise or other feelings.
oil ["oIl] 1. n. a slick, greasy liquid that does not dissolve in water. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. tv. to put lubrication on something
using Q; to make something slippery by putting Q on it; to put Q
on something.
oilcan ["oIl kAn] n. a can that is used to apply oil as lubrication.
oily ["oIl i] adj. made of oil; containing oil; soaked with oil. (Comp:
oilier; sup: oiliest.)
oink ["oINk] 1. n. the sound made by a pig. 2. iv. to make the sound of
a pig.
ointment ["oInt [email protected]] n. a substance that is put on the skin to heal it,
soothe it, or soften it.
OK Go to okay.
okay and OK [o "ke] 1. adv. all right; adequately. 2. adv. to a degree
of intensity below “very good” but above “poor.” 3. adj. just good,
but not excellent. 4. interj. a word used to confirm that one understands something. 5. n. approval. 6. tv. to approve something.
315
old
old ["old] 1. adj. having been alive for a long time; not recently born;
not young. (Comp: older; sup: oldest.) 2. adj. having existed for a long
time; not recently made; not new. (Comp: older; sup: oldest.) 3. adj.
of a certain age. (Follows the age. Comp: older.) 4. adj. previous; former. (Comp: older; sup: oldest.)
old-fashioned ["old "fAS @nd] adj. belonging to the style, actions,
behavior, or rules of the past. (Adv: old-fashionedly.)
olive ["a lIv] 1. n. a tree grown in warm climates for its fruit. 2. n. the
fruit of Q, used for food.
omelet ["am lIt] n. a dish made of beaten eggs, cooked flat and folded
over, sometimes stuffed with other foods.
omission [o "mIS @n] 1. n. not listing or not including someone or
something; omitting someone or something. 2. n. something that has
been left out; something that has been omitted.
omit [o "mIt] tv. to leave someone or something out; to forget to list or
include something.
on ["On] 1. prep. above and supported by someone or something; covering or partially covering someone or something; touching the surface of someone or something. 2. prep. traveling by [plane, train,
boat, bus, motorcycle, bicycle, etc.]. (But one travels in an automobile.) 3. prep. near something; at the edge of [a body of water].
4. prep. about someone or something. 5. prep. [happening] at a specific time, identified by the date or the day. 6. prep. as a member or
part of some group. 7. adj. operating; turned on as in O. 8. adj. still
happening; not canceled; continuing as scheduled. 9. adv. so that
something operates; so that something has the power to operate.
once ["w^ns] 1. adv. one time. 2. adv. at a time in the past; formerly.
oncoming ["On [email protected] IN] adj. coming toward [oneself]; approaching.
one ["w^n] 1. 1. Go to four. 2. n. a bill E or note E worth a single
dollar. 3. adj. happening on or at a particular time. (Prenominal
only.) 4. adj. united; together; joined. (Not prenominal.) 5. pron. a
person or thing that is referred to. 6. pron. you; anybody; a person.
oneself [[email protected] "sElf] pron. the reflexive form of the pronoun one Y.
(Used when one is the subject of the sentence.)
onion ["^n [email protected]] 1. n. a plant with a large, round edible bulb and thin
green stalks. 2. n. the edible bulb of Q, sometimes sliced or chopped.
3. adj. made with or flavored with W.
316
operation
only ["on li] 1. adj. sole; single. 2. adv. [this and] nothing more. 3. conj.
except that.
onset ["On sEt] n. the beginning of something; the start of something.
onstage [On "stedZ] 1. adj. located or happening on a part of a stage
that an audience can see. 2. adv. on, to, or toward a part of the stage
that an audience can see.
onto ["On tu] prep. to a position that is on something.
onward ["On w#d] adv. further in space or time; forward in space or
time.
ooze ["uz] 1. n. mud; slime; a thick liquid. (No pl.) 2. iv. to flow slowly,
like mud or a very thick liquid; to seep out of a hole slowly.
opaque [o "pek] 1. adj. not able to be seen through; not allowing light
to pass through; not clear. (Adv: opaquely.) 2. adj. hard to understand. (Fig. on Q. Adv: opaquely.)
open ["o [email protected]] 1. adj. not shut; not closed; not sealed. 2. adj. allowing
customers to enter; ready for business. 3. adj. not decided. 4. adj.
available; free and not restricted. (Adv: openly.) 5. adj. sincere; honest about one’s feelings. (Adv: openly.) 6. tv. to cause something to
become Q; to allow a place to be entered into or exited from. 7. tv.
to establish the beginning of something; to cause something to start.
8. iv. to be accessible; to become ready for business or use.
opener ["o [email protected] n#] n. someone or something that opens something.
opening ["o [email protected] nIN] 1. n. a way into a container, compartment, or
room; a way through a wall or barrier. 2. n. something that is available; a job that is available. 3. n. an opportunity to do something or
say something. (Fig. on Q.) 4. adj. at the beginning; the first; the earliest.
opera ["a [email protected]] 1. n. the branch of theater or music in which lengthy
performances include solo and choral singing, orchestra music, and
sometimes dance. (No pl.) 2. n. a presentation or performance of a
musical production as in Q.
operate ["ap @ ret] 1. iv. [for a machine or device] to work or function. 2. iv. to perform surgery; to perform an operation. 3. tv. to
cause something to work or function; to direct or manage something.
operation [a [email protected] "re [email protected]] 1. n. surgery; a medical procedure where
something is done to the body, usually involving cutting. 2. n. the
way something works; the way something is used.
317
operator
operator ["ap @ ret #] 1. n. someone who operates a machine. 2. n.
someone who handles telephone calls; the person one talks to when
one dials “0” on a telephone.
opinion [@ "pIn [email protected]] 1. n. thoughts, ideas, or attitudes concerning
someone or something. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. advice
from a professional or an expert.
opossum [@ "pas @m] n. a small, gray, furry animal with a hairless,
flexible tail.
opponent [@ "pon @nt] n. someone who is on the opposite side in a
contest, fight, or argument.
opportunity [ap # "tu [email protected] ti] n. a good chance for doing something; a
favorable time for doing something.
oppose [@ "poz] tv. to be against someone or something; to fight
against someone or something; to argue against someone or something. (Often passive.)
opposite ["ap @ sIt] 1. adj. completely different in at least one major
respect. (Adv: oppositely.) 2. adj. of or about a location that is the farthest point away within a defined area. (Adv: oppositely.) 3. prep.
across from someone or something; facing someone or something.
4. n. someone or something that is opposite as in Q as compared to
someone or something else.
opposition [ap @ "zI [email protected]] 1. n. a state of being against someone or
something; resistance. (No pl.) 2. n. the people who are against something. (No pl.)
oppress [@ "prEs] tv. to rule someone or a group of people harshly or
cruelly; to keep someone from succeeding.
optic ["ap tIk] adj. of or about the eye or vision. (Adv: optically [...Ik
li].)
optical ["ap tI [email protected]] adj. of or about the eye or vision. (Adv: optically
[...Ik li].)
optimist ["ap tI [email protected]] n. someone who believes that everything will
be fine; someone who looks on the positive side of everything.
option ["ap [email protected]] n. a choice; something [else] that is available for
choosing.
or ["or] 1. conj. a word used in a list of items to show a choice or difference. 2. conj. otherwise; if not. 3. conj. that is to say.
oral ["or @l] 1. adj. of or about the mouth. (Adv: orally.) 2. adj. spoken. (Adv: orally.)
318
organism
orange ["or IndZ] 1. n. a color of the rainbow between red and yellow,
and the color of W. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. a round,
juicy citrus fruit—of the color Q—that grows on a tree. 3. adj. of
the color Q. 4. adj. made with W; flavored with W.
orbit ["or bIt] 1. n. a pathway around a planet or a star, such as that
taken by a planet, a moon, or a rocket. 2. tv. to move in a circle
around a star or planet. 3. iv. to move in a circle around a star or
planet.
orchard ["or tS#d] n. a farm of fruit or nut trees.
orchestra ["or [email protected] [email protected]] n. a group of several musicians and the instruments they play, usually including strings.
orchid ["or kId] n. a flower with unusually shaped and brightly colored
petals.
ordain [or "den] 1. tv. to confer the status of being a priest or a minister on someone. 2. tv. to order something; to make something a law.
(The object can be a clause with that U.)
ordeal [or "dil] n. a very difficult experience.
order ["or d#] 1. n. the sequence in which a series of things is
arranged. 2. n. a state of everything being in its proper place. (No pl.)
3. n. a state of being able to be used; condition. (No pl.) 4. n. a state
wherein people are following rules and behaving properly. (No pl.)
5. n. a command. 6. n. a request for certain goods or services. 7. n.
one serving of a kind of food. 8. tv. to request goods or services. 9. tv.
to request a serving of food or a full meal. 10. tv. to arrange someone or something into a certain sequence.
orderly ["or d# li] 1. adj. neat; in order. 2. n. a hospital worker who
assists doctors and nurses in caring for patients.
ordinal number Go to ordinal numeral.
ordinal number and ordinal numeral ["or dI [email protected] "n^m b#, "or dI [email protected]
"nu [email protected] [email protected]] n. the number used to show rank or position in a series,
such as first, second, third, etc. (See also cardinal number.)
ordinary ["ord n nEr i] adj. usual; common; typical; regular. (Adv: ordinarily [ord n "nEr @ li].)
organ ["or [email protected]] 1. n. a part of an animal that performs a specific function. 2. n. a musical instrument with keyboards that control the air
flow into many pipes of different lengths, each sounding a different
note. (Also pipe organ.)
organism ["or [email protected] nIz @m] n. a plant or an animal; a living thing.
319
organization
organization [or [email protected] [email protected] "ze [email protected]] n. a group of people, such as those in
a club or society; a company; a department of government.
organize ["or [email protected] naIz] 1. tv. to arrange different parts in a way so that
they work properly; to arrange different parts into a system. 2. tv. to
form an organization or meeting.
oriental [or i "En [email protected]] adj. of or about the peoples and cultures of eastern Asia and the islands to the south and east. (Adv: orientally.
Objected to by some. Asian is often substituted for this term.)
origin ["or @ [email protected]] n. the starting point; something that other things
develop from.
original [@ "rIdZ @ [email protected]] 1. adj. not copied or based on something else.
2. adj. first; earliest. (Adv: originally.) 3. n. something that copies are
made from; the first example of something that other examples are
based on.
originate [@ "rIdZ @ net] 1. tv. to cause something to exist; to found
something; to establish something, such as an organization. 2. iv. to
start; to begin.
ornament ["or [email protected] [email protected]] 1. n. decorations, in general. (No pl form in
this sense.) 2. n. a decoration; something that makes someone or
something look prettier. 3. tv. to add Q to something; to put W on
something; to adorn something.
ornamental [or [email protected] "mEn [email protected]] adj. used as an ornament; decorative.
(Adv: ornamentally.)
orphan ["or [email protected]] 1. n. a young child whose parents are dead or missing. 2. tv. to cause someone to become Q. (Typically passive.)
ostrich ["as trItS] n. a large bird that runs very quickly but cannot fly.
other ["^D #] 1. pron. the second of two people or things; the remaining person or things. 2. the adj. use of Q. 3. adj. more of the same
or similar kind of thing or people.
otherwise ["^D # waIz] 1. conj. or else; or it is that. 2. adv. in another
way; in a different way; differently. 3. adv. in every regard except [this
one]; in every way except [this one].
otter ["at #] 1. n. a long, thin, furry animal that lives in and near water,
and eats fish. 2. n. the skin and fur of Q. (No pl.) 3. adj. made from
W.
ought to ["Ot tu] 1. have to do something; obliged to do something.
2. likely to happen; should happen.
320
outgrew
ounce ["aUns] 1. n. a unit of measurement of weight equal to ¹⁄₁₆ of a
pound or about 28 grams. 2. n. a unit of measurement of liquid equal
to ¹⁄₁₆ of a pint or ⅛ of a cup.
our ["a#] pron. the first-person pl possessive pronoun including the
speaker or writer. (Used as a modifier before a noun.)
ours pron. the first-person pl possessive pronoun. (Used in place of a
noun.)
ourselves ["a# "sElvz] 1. pron. the first-person pl reflexive pronoun.
2. pron. a form used to emphasize we.
oust ["aUst] tv. to get rid of someone or something; to remove someone or something by force.
out ["aUt] 1. adv. away from a place; not in a place; not in the usual
condition; not at the usual position; to a point beyond a limit. 2. adv.
in the open air; into the open air; outside; not inside. 3. adj. not at
the usual position; to a point beyond a limit; not at home; not at work.
(Not prenominal.) 4. adj. no longer in style; old-fashioned. (Not
prenominal.) 5. adj. not a possible choice. (Not prenominal. Informal.) 6. adj. no longer burning; no longer giving off light. (Not
prenominal.) 7. adj. not working; not functioning properly. (Not
prenominal.) 8. adj. [in baseball, of someone] no longer permitted
to play in a particular turn. (Not prenominal.) 9. adj. used up; no
longer having more of a substance. (Not prenominal.) 10. adj.
unconscious; not aware; not awake. (Not prenominal.)
outcast ["aUt kAst] n. someone who has been rejected, abandoned, or
deserted.
outcome ["aUt [email protected]] n. the final result; the effect of something.
outcry ["aUt kraI] 1. n. a strong protest; an uproar. 2. n. a loud cry.
outdoor [aUt "dor] adj. not inside; not in a building; used or done outdoors.
outdoors ["aUt "dorz] adv. in or into the open air; not inside a building.
outer ["aU t#] 1. adj. farther away from the center. 2. adj. exterior; on
the outside.
outfit ["aUt fIt] 1. n. different items of clothing that are worn together.
2. n. equipment needed for a certain job or activity. 3. n. a group of
people; a company or organization. (Informal.) 4. tv. to provide
someone with W.
outgrew [aUt "gru] pt of outgrow.
321
outgrow
outgrow [aUt "gro] 1. tv., irreg. to no longer fit into one’s clothes
because one has grown. (Pt: outgrew; pp: outgrown.) 2. tv., irreg. to
become too mature to do certain things meant for younger children.
(Fig. on Q.) 3. tv., irreg. to grow to be taller or to grow faster than
someone else.
outgrown [aUt "gron] pp of outgrow.
outlaw ["aUt lO] 1. tv. to make something illegal; to declare that something is against the law. 2. n. a criminal.
outlay ["aUt le] n. money spent for a certain reason; time or energy
spent for a certain reason.
outlet ["aUt lEt] 1. n. the socket in a wall where something can be
plugged in for electrical power. 2. n. a way out for something. 3. n.
a way to let one’s feelings out; a way to use one’s creativity. (Fig. on
W.)
outline ["aUt laIn] 1. n. the shape of someone or something; the border of someone or something. 2. n. a list of the main topics of a
speech or text; a plan. 3. tv. to draw the shape of someone or something; to draw the border of someone or something. 4. tv. to list the
main topics of a speech or text. 5. tv. to describe a plan.
outlive [aUt "lIv] tv. to live longer than someone else; to work, function, or last longer than something else.
outlook ["aUt lUk] 1. n. an imagined view of the future course that
something may take. (No pl.) 2. n. a way of looking at things that
happen.
output ["aUt pUt] 1. n. the amount of something that is made; production. (No pl.) 2. n. something that is produced. (No pl.) 3. n. the
energy that is produced by a machine. (No pl.) 4. n. information that
is produced by a computer. (No pl.)
outrage ["aUt redZ] 1. n. a very cruel or horrible deed. 2. n. anger
caused by a very cruel or horrible action. (No pl.) 3. tv. to anger
someone greatly by doing a very cruel or horrible deed.
outright ["aUt raIt] 1. adj. complete; direct; openly and without delay.
2. adj. [of money given] without limitations. 3. adv. without limitations.
outside ["aUt "saId] 1. n. the part of something that faces away from
the center of something; the surface of something that is out. (Also
pl with the same meaning, but not countable.) 2. adj. on Q; external; not inside a building. 3. adj. farther from the center than something else. 4. adj. not associated with the inner group. (Prenominal
322
overcoat
only.) 5. adv. to or toward Q; on or at Q; in or into the outdoors. 6.
prep. past the limit of something; beyond something; on or toward
the exterior of something.
outward ["aUt w#d] 1. adv. away; away from someplace; toward the
outside. 2. adj. of or about one’s appearance instead of one’s feelings
or thoughts. (Adv: outwardly.)
outweigh [aUt "we] 1. tv. to weigh more than someone or something
else. 2. tv. to be more important than someone or something else.
(Fig. on Q.)
outwit [aUt "wIt] tv. to be more clever than someone and therefore win
at something.
oval ["o [email protected]] 1. adj. shaped like an egg; almost shaped like a circle, but
flatter. (Adv: ovally.) 2. n. a shape like that of an egg; the shape of a
flattened circle.
oven ["^v @n] 1. n. an appliance or enclosed space within an appliance
that can be heated to cook food. 2. n. an appliance that is heated to
dry and harden pottery or other objects.
over ["o v#] 1. prep. above someone or something; higher than someone or something. 2. prep. on someone or something; covering someone or something. 3. prep. across something; from one side of
something to the other; above and to the other side of something.
4. prep. off and down from something. 5. prep. during something;
throughout some period of time. 6. prep. more than a certain measurement; greater than something. (Some people prefer more than to
over in this sense.) 7. prep. with something noisy in the background.
8. prep. from [the radio, the Internet, or a telephone]. 9. prep. covering the surface of someone or something. 10. adv. at some other
place; on the other side of something. 11. adv. down; so that a surface faces down. 12. adv. again. 13. prefix too; too much. (Usually in
a compound.) 14. adj. done; finished; at the end. (Not prenominal.)
overate [o v# "et] pt of overeat.
overboard ["ov # bord] adv. [falling, dropping, or being thrown] from
a boat or ship into the water.
overcame [o v# "kem] pt of overcome.
overcharge [o v# "tSardZ] tv. to charge someone more money for
something than it really costs.
overcoat ["o v# kot] n. a heavy coat that is worn over other clothes.
323
overcome
overcome [o v# "k^m] 1. tv., irreg. to defeat someone or something;
to fight and win against someone or something. (Pt: overcame; pp:
overcome.) 2. tv., irreg. to cause someone to become helpless, especially because of emotion.
overdose ["o v# dos] 1. n. a large dose of a drug that causes someone
to faint or die. 2. iv. to become unconscious or die because one has
taken too many drugs or too much medicine.
overeat [o v# "it] iv., irreg. to eat too much. (Pt: overate; pp:
overeaten.)
overeaten [o v# "it n] pp of overeat.
overhead 1. ["o v# hEd] n. the costs of running a business; business
expenses. (No pl. Treated as sg.) 2. ["o v# hEd] the adj. use of
Q. 3. ["o v# hEd] adj. above one’s head. (Prenominal only.)
4. ["o v# "hEd] adv. above one’s head; in the air; passing through the
air.
overheat [o v# "hit] 1. iv. to become too hot; to break or stop working because of being worked too hard. 2. tv. to cause something to
become too hot.
overkill ["o v# kIl] n. the condition of having or doing more than is
necessary. (No pl.)
overlap 1. [o v# "lAp] iv. [for parts of two or more things] to happen
at the same time. 2. [o v# "lAp] iv. [for parts of two or more things]
to cover the same space. 3. [o v# "lAp] tv. [for something] to partially cover something [else]. 4. [o v# "lAp] tv. [for something] to
begin before something else finishes; to place the beginning of something over the end of something else. 5. ["o v# lAp] n. the extra part
of something that extends over something else. (No pl.) 6. ["o v# lAp]
n. the amount by which something extends over something else. (No
pl.)
overlook 1. ["o v# lUk] n. a high place that provides a good view of a
lower place. 2. [o v# "lUk] tv. to forget or neglect something.
3. [o v# "lUk] tv. to ignore something.
overnight 1. ["o v# naIt] adj. done during the night; lasting through
the night. 2. [o v# "naIt] adv. through the night; during the night.
3. [o v# "naIt] adv. in just one night.
oversaw [o v# "sO] pt of oversee.
overseas [o v# "siz] 1. adv. across the sea; on the other side of the
ocean. 2. adj. done, used, or about a place on the other side of the
ocean.
324
ownership
oversee [o v# "si] tv., irreg. to supervise someone or something; to
watch over someone or something so that something is done properly. (Pt: oversaw; pp: overseen.)
overseen [o v# "sin] pp of oversee.
oversight ["o v# saIt] n. something that is not noticed or thought of.
oversleep [o v# "slip] iv., irreg. to sleep longer than one wanted to; to
sleep too long. (Pt/pp: overslept.)
overslept [o v# "slEpt] pt/pp of oversleep.
overtake [ov # "tek] tv., irreg. to catch up to and pass someone or
something else. (Pt: overtook; pp: overtaken.)
overtaken [ov # "tek @n] pp of overtake.
overthrew [o v# "Tru] pt of overthrow.
overthrow [o v# "Tro] tv., irreg. to remove someone or something
from power; to seize power from a government. (Pt: overthrew; pp:
overthrown.)
overthrown [o v# "Tron] pp of overthrow.
overtime ["o v# taIm] 1. n. time at work past the time when one normally finishes. (No pl.) 2. n. money earned by working past the time
when one normally finishes. (No pl.) 3. n. [in a sporting event] an
extra amount of playing time allowed in order to break a tie score.
(No pl.) 4. adv. past the hours when one normally finishes. 5. adj. of
or about working extra as in Q.
overtook [ov # "tUk] pt of overtake.
overture ["o v# tS#] 1. n. the piece of music at the beginning of an
opera, symphony, ballet, etc., that introduces key melodies and
themes. 2. n. the communication of an intention to make an offer of
something.
owe ["o] 1. tv. to be in debt for a sum of money; to have to pay someone for something. 2. tv. to be obliged to give someone something.
owl ["aUl] n. a bird that has large eyes that face the front and a short,
curved beak, and is active at night.
own ["on] 1. tv. to possess something; to have something as a belonging. 2. adj. belonging to oneself or itself. 3. adj. a form indicating
something already mentioned as belonging to oneself or itself.
owner ["o n#] n. someone who owns something.
ownership ["o n# SIp] n. the state of being an owner; the right one
has to own something. (No pl.)
325
ox
ox ["aks] n., irreg. an adult male of a kind of cattle. (An ox has been
made unable to breed. Pl: oxen.)
oxen ["ak [email protected]] pl of ox.
oxygen ["aks I [email protected]] n. a gas that makes up about 20 percent of the air
we breathe. (No pl.)
oyster ["oIs t#] 1. n. a small sea creature that lives between two hinged
shells and sometimes produces pearls. 2. n. Q used as food.
ozone ["o zon] n. a kind of oxygen produced when an electrical spark,
such as lightning, passes through the air. (No pl.)
326
P
pace ["pes] 1. n. the speed at which someone or something moves. (No
pl.) 2. n. a distance of one step when running or walking. 3. iv. to
walk back and forth slowly and regularly.
pack ["pAk] 1. n. a group of things that have been placed together—
in a case, for example—so they can be carried. 2. n. a group of animals that live, hunt, and travel together. 3. tv. to fill a container
completely. 4. tv. to gather, assemble, and arrange things and place
them in a space or container.
package ["pAk IdZ] 1. n. a group of things that are wrapped together
or boxed; a container in which goods are sold or shipped. 2. n. a parcel, especially one that is wrapped in paper or something similar. 3.
tv. to place something in a container, especially to make it available
for sale.
pact ["pAkt] n. an agreement; a treaty.
pad ["pAd] 1. n. a small cushion or mass of soft material used to protect something, make something comfortable, absorb fluid, or give
something a certain shape. 2. n. a tablet of paper; a stack of pieces of
paper that are glued together along one edge. 3. iv. to walk softly and
very quietly. 4. tv. to make a movie, book, program, etc., longer by
adding extra words, longer pauses, extra performance material, etc.
paddle ["pAd l] 1. n. a kind of oar used to steer and move a canoe or
other small boat. 2. n. a round or long flat object used to spank someone. 3. tv. to move a canoe with Q. 4. tv. to spank someone with W
or with the hand. 5. iv. to propel [something] with Q.
pagan ["pe [email protected]] 1. n. someone whose religion is not Christianity,
Islam, or Judaism; someone who has no religion. 2. adj. of, by, for,
or about Q.
page ["pedZ] 1. n. one sheet of paper in a book. 2. n. one side of one
sheet of paper in a book. 3. n. a sheet of paper suitable for writing or
printing or having writing or printing. 4. n. a signal that someone
has a waiting message or telephone call, especially a beep from a
pager. 5. tv. to alert someone that a message or telephone call is waiting.
pager ["pe dZ#] n. an electronic device that makes a signal to alert
someone to a waiting message or telephone call.
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327
paid
paid ["ped] 1. pt/pp of pay. 2. adj. hired; employed; receiving money.
pail ["pel] 1. n. a bucket; a container without a lid and with a curved
handle that connects to opposite sides of the rim. 2. n. the contents
of Q.
pain ["pen] n. hurt or ache caused by injury, sickness, or mental distress. (Pl only for types and instances.)
painful ["pen fUl] adj. causing pain; hurting. (Adv: painfully.)
painkiller ["pen kIl #] n. a type of a medicine or drug that ends or
relieves pain.
paint ["pent] 1. n. a colored liquid that is spread on a surface to give
the surface color and protection and that gets hard when it dries. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. tv. to cover something with Q, using
a brush or something similar. 3. tv. to make a picture of someone or
something using Q. 4. iv. to cover walls or other objects with Q.
5. iv. to make pictures with Q.
paintbrush ["pent "br^S] n. a brush used to apply paint to a surface.
painting ["pen tIN] 1. n. the art and study of making pictures with
paint. (No pl.) 2. n. a picture that is made with paint.
pair ["pEr] 1. n. a set of two similar or matching things; two people or
two things. 2. n. [in card games] two cards with the same number or
value. 3. tv. to sort or order people or things into sets of two.
pajama adj. of, by, for, or about pajamas.
pajamas [[email protected] "dZa [email protected]] n. clothes worn in bed or worn at night before
one goes to bed. (Treated as pl. Number is expressed by pair(s) of
pajamas.)
pal ["pAl] n. a friend; a chum. (Informal.)
palace ["pAl Is] n. a very large, luxurious house, especially one where
a king, queen, or important political leader lives or once lived.
pale ["pel] 1. adj. having a lighter color than usual; faded. (Adv: palely.
Comp: paler; sup: palest.) 2. iv. to become lighter in color; to whiten
or weaken in color; to fade. 3. iv. [for someone] to become Q and
appear faint. 4. iv. [for something] to appear to be weak or inadequate.
palm ["pam] 1. n. the front of the hand between the wrist and the bottom of the fingers. 2. n. a tree with a long trunk and long, pointed
leaves at the top, attached to a hard stem. (Short for palm tree.) 3. tv.
to hide something in one’s Q.
328
papers
pan ["pAn] 1. n. a wide, shallow vessel used for cooking. 2. tv. to give
a bad review about a movie, book, or play; to criticize something
harshly. 3. iv. [for a camera] to move while filming, traveling over a
scene as one’s eyes might move.
pancake ["pAn kek] n. a thin, round cake (made of flour, eggs, and
milk) that is cooked on both sides.
pane ["pen] n. a section of glass in a window or door.
panel ["pAn @l] 1. n. a thin, flat square or rectangular section of hard
material. 2. n. a group of people who are selected to talk about something or judge someone or something. 3. tv. to cover the walls of a
room with Q.
panic ["pAn Ik] 1. n. a fear that is out of control; a sense of terror. (No
pl.) 2. iv., irreg. to feel Q; to experience fear that is frantic and out of
control. (Pt/pp: panicked. Pres. part.: panicking.) 3. tv., irreg. to cause
someone or some creature to experience Q.
panicked ["pAn Ikt] pt/pp of panic.
pant ["pAnt] 1. iv. to make quick, shallow breaths, as an overheated
dog does. 2. n. a gasp; a quick, shallow breath.
panties n. a pair of women’s underpants. (Treated as pl. Number is
expressed with pair(s) of panties. Also countable.)
pantry ["pAn tri] n. a small room near a kitchen, where pots, pans,
dishes, silverware, tablecloths, food, and other kitchen items are kept.
pants n. trousers; clothing worn below the waist, having a separate
tube, hole, or compartment for each leg. (Treated as pl. Number is
expressed with pair(s) of pants. Also countable.)
pantyhose ["pAn ti hoz] n. a garment that is made of sheer stockings
extending from a pair of panties. (No pl. Treated as pl, but not countable. Number is expressed with pair(s) of pantyhose.)
paper ["pe p#] 1. n. processed fiber and other substances, pressed into
sheets, used for writing, printing, drawing on, and other things. (No
pl. Number is usually expressed with piece(s) or sheet(s) of paper.)
2. n. wallpaper; decorated Q that is glued to walls. (No pl.) 3. n. a
newspaper. 4. n. an article; an essay. 5. adj. made from Q. 6. tv. to
cover something with wallpaper.
papers 1. n. documents; sheets of paper Q in groups or stacks, bearing information. (Treated as pl, but not countable.) 2. n. documents
that prove who one is; one’s passport or visa, carried while visiting a
foreign country. (Treated as pl, but not countable.)
329
paperweight
paperweight ["pe p# wet] n. a heavy object placed on a stack of
papers to keep them from blowing away.
par ["par] n. [in golf] the normal number of strokes that it takes to get
the golf ball from the tee into the hole. (No pl form. A number may
follow par.)
parable ["pEr @ [email protected]] n. a story in the form of an analogy that presents
a moral lesson.
parachute ["pEr @ Sut] 1. n. a large bowl-shaped piece of fabric
attached to and supporting someone who jumps from an airplane or
some other very high place. 2. iv. to drift downward, wearing Q.
parade [[email protected] "red] 1. n. a public event where people march or ride down
a street with people watching from both sides. 2. iv. to march somewhere in Q. 3. tv. to make someone march in front of people.
paradise ["pEr @ daIs] 1. n. heaven. (No pl.) 2. n. somewhere on earth
that seems as lovely and wonderful as Q. (No pl.)
paragraph ["pEr @ grAf] n. a sentence or group of sentences usually
related some way in meaning.
parallel ["pEr @ lEl] 1. adj. [lines or plane surfaces] at the same distance
apart or at an equal distance apart everywhere. 2. adj. similar; like [a
situation]; analogous. 3. tv. to go or be on a route or in a direction
that is beside something else as in Q. (E.g., a road that parallels the
railroad tracks.)
paralyzed ["pEr @ laIzd] adj. unable to move, as if frozen.
paraphrase ["pEr @ frez] 1. n. something that someone has said or has
written in a different way. 2. tv. to restate something as in Q.
parasite ["pEr @ saIt] 1. n. a plant or animal completely dependent on
another species of plant or animal for food or support. (Parasites on
humans and animals cause diseases or health disorders.) 2. n. someone who depends on other people for food and shelter; a useless person who is supported by other people. (Fig. on Q.)
parcel ["par [email protected]] 1. n. a package, especially one that is mailed or delivered; something that is wrapped up. 2. n. an amount of land that is
sold as a unit.
pardon ["par dn] 1. n. forgiving someone. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. an act that keeps someone from being punished
under the law. 3. tv. to forgive someone; to excuse someone. 4. tv. to
release someone from jail; to order that someone not be executed; to
keep someone from being punished.
330
participle
parent ["pEr @nt] 1. n. the father or the mother of a living creature.
2. n. a business that owns another business; the main office of one or
more businesses or other organizations. 3. adj. serving as a W.
parentheses [[email protected] "rEn [email protected] siz] pl of parenthesis.
parenthesis [[email protected] "rEn [email protected] sIs] n., irreg. either of the pair of symbols “(”
and “)” used to enclose information of secondary importance in writing or printing. (Pl: parentheses.)
park ["park] 1. n. a piece of land set aside by a city, state, county, or
nation for use by the public, usually having trees, grass, and other
natural features. 2. tv. to stop a car or other vehicle and leave it in a
certain place for a period of time. 3. iv. to leave a car or other vehicle in a certain place for a period of time.
parliament ["par [email protected] [email protected]] n. a government body that makes the laws
for a country.
parlor ["par l#] 1. n. a living room; a place in a home where guests can
sit and talk. (Old-fashioned.) 2. n. a store that sells a certain product
or service, such as hair care, ice cream, or funerals.
parrot ["pEr @t] 1. n. a kind of tropical bird, often brightly colored,
that can copy human speech. 2. tv. to repeat someone else’s words or
ideas without thinking. (Fig. on Q. The object can be a clause with
that U.)
parsley ["pars li] n. an herb used in cooking to add flavor to food or
as a decoration. (No pl. Number is expressed with sprig(s) of parsley.)
part ["part] 1. n. one piece of the whole; one section of the entire
amount. 2. n. one of a set of equal divisions. 3. n. an actor’s role in
a play or movie. 4. n. the line between two sections of hair on the
head, established when combing it. 5. tv. to make a pathway or an
opening through a group of people or things. 6. tv. to separate one’s
hair along a line, especially when combing it into two sides. 7. iv. to
divide or separate, making an opening.
partial ["par [email protected]] 1. adj. not complete; only part of the entire thing.
(Adv: partially.) 2. adj. favoring someone or something; biased. (Not
prenominal. Adv: partially.) 3. to favoring or preferring something.
participation [par tIs @ "pe [email protected]] n. joining in and doing something
with other people. (No pl.)
participle ["part @ sIp @l] n. either the pres. part. (the -ing form) or the
pp.
331
particle
particle ["part I [email protected]] 1. n. a small piece of something. 2. n. a kind of
short, basic word or a part of a word—such as a conjunction, article,
or preposition—that affects the meaning of another word. 3. n. a
basic unit of matter, such as a proton, neutron, or electron.
particular [par "tIk [email protected] l#] 1. adj. specific; distinct [from others]. (Adv:
particularly.) 2. adj. unusual; noticeable; worth noticing. (Adv: particularly.) 3. adj. hard to please. (Adv: particularly.)
particularly [par "tIk [email protected] l# li] adv. especially; in a way that is worth
mentioning.
partition [par "tI [email protected]] 1. n. a divider; something that separates two
spaces; a wall. 2. tv. to split something into two or more parts.
partner ["part n#] 1. n. someone with whom one shares a business;
one of the owners of a business. 2. n. someone who shares an activity with someone else.
part-time ["part "taIm] 1. adj. for only part of the time and not fulltime. 2. adv. [working] only part of the workweek; not as full-time.
party ["par ti] 1. n. a social gathering of people; a gathering of people
who are having fun. 2. n. a group of people who are together for a
specific reason. 3. n. a group of people united with a common goal
or with common ideas, especially in politics. 4. n. a person. 5. the
adj. use of Q or E. 6. iv. to celebrate; to have fun with other people.
(Informal.)
pass ["pAs] 1. tv. to reach someone or something and go beyond.
2. tv. to succeed in a [school] course or examination; to have a medical examination where no problems are discovered. 3. tv. to use up
a period of time [doing something]; to occupy a period of time
[doing something]. 4. tv. to approve or agree to something, such as
a motion, law, or regulation, by means of a vote. 5. tv. to hand something over to someone; to give something to someone. 6. tv. to throw
a ball to someone in a game. 7. iv. to reach and go beyond. 8. iv. to
meet the requirements for successfully completing a [school] course.
9. iv. [for a motion or law] to be approved by means of a vote. 10. iv.
[for time] to progress or proceed. 11. n. a ticket or document showing that one is allowed to go somewhere. 12. n. the transfer of a ball
or something similar in various sports. 13. n. a narrow road or pathway, especially through mountains.
passable ["pAs @ [email protected]] 1. adj. able to be crossed or passed through; able
to be traveled over. 2. adj. [a motion or proposition] likely to get
enough votes to pass. 3. adj. only adequate; fair; okay. (Adv: passably.)
332
pastor
passage ["pAs IdZ] 1. n. a path or hallway. 2. n. the progress or movement of time. (No pl.) 3. n. the approval of a law or motion, usually
by a vote. (No pl.) 4. n. a short section of a piece of music, a speech,
or a written work.
passbook ["pAs bUk] n. a book for keeping track of one’s savings
account in a bank.
passenger ["pAs @n dZ#] n. someone who is riding in a vehicle but is
not driving it.
passion ["pAS @n] 1. n. strong romantic and sexual feeling. (Pl only
for types and instances.) 2. n. a very strong interest in something.
passive ["pAs Iv] 1. adj. not resisting; not active; letting others take
charge or control a situation. (The opposite of active W. Adv: passively.) 2. adj. of or about a grammatical state where the verb acts on
the subject of the sentence. (The opposite of active E. Adv: passively.)
3. n. a verb phrase that is W.
passport ["pAs port] n. a document shaped like a small book, showing what country one is a citizen of. (It is needed to enter certain
countries.)
password ["pAs w#d] n. a secret word, phrase, or set of symbols that
allows someone access to something.
past ["pAst] 1. n. a time that has gone by; things that have happened;
history. (No pl.) 2. adj. most recent; occurring in the time just before
this time. 3. adj. occurring or completed at some previous time.
4. the adj. use of Q. 5. adv. by; toward or alongside someone or
something and then beyond. 6. prep. farther [in space, time, ability,
or quality] than someone or something; beyond [in space, time, ability, or quality] someone or something.
pasta ["pas [email protected]] n. a food prepared by mixing flour, water, and sometimes egg to make a dough or paste, and then shaping it into different forms; noodles. (Pl only for types and instances.)
paste ["pest] 1. n. a soft mixture that is easily spread. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. n. a soft mixture that causes objects to stick
together. (Pl only for types and instances.) 3. tv. to cause something
to stick to something else with W.
pastime ["pAs taIm] n. an activity that one enjoys; an enjoyable activity that is done to pass the time.
pastor ["pAs t#] n. a minister in a Christian church.
333
pastry
pastry ["pe stri] 1. n. rich dough that is made with flour and butter or
fat and is baked. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. baked foods,
typically sweet, usually made with Q. (Pl only for types and
instances. Number is expressed with piece(s) of pastry.) 3. n. a piece
or item of W; a sweet roll, small cake, or other sweetened, baked food,
often with fruit or with a sweet coating or filling.
pasture ["pAs tS#] n. a field of grass, especially one where animals eat.
pat ["pAt] 1. n. a gentle tap, especially with the palm of one’s hand.
2. tv. to touch or tap someone or something gently a few times, especially with the palm of the hand. 3. adj. perfectly, as if rehearsed or
from memory. (Adv: patly.)
patch ["pAtS] 1. n. a piece of cloth or other material used to repair a
hole or a tear or to cover something. 2. n. a small area of land. 3. n.
a small area on a surface that is different from the area around it.
patent ["pAt nt] 1. n. the exclusive right, registered with the government, to benefit from the ownership of a process or invention. 2. tv.
to seek and gain Q on something.
path ["pAT] 1. n., irreg. a track or trail along the earth. (Pl: ["pADz] or
["pATs].) 2. n., irreg. the route someone or something takes to achieve
a result. (Fig. on Q.)
pathway ["pAT we] n. a path Q or W.
patience ["pe [email protected]] n. the quality of being patient and not becoming
anxious or annoyed. (No pl.)
patient ["pe [email protected]] 1. adj. able to wait for something to happen without complaining or becoming anxious or annoyed. (Adv: patiently.)
2. n. someone who is getting medical help from a doctor, nurse, or
hospital.
patio ["pAt i o] n. a paved surface connected to one’s house where one
can relax, gather with others, barbecue food, etc. (From Spanish. Pl
ends in -s.)
patrol [[email protected] "trol] 1. tv. to watch over an area by walking or driving
around. 2. iv. to watch over [an area] by walking or driving around.
3. n. people who watch over an area as in Q.
patronize ["pe [email protected] naIz] 1. tv. to be a regular customer of a store,
restaurant, hotel, or other business. 2. tv. to act as if one is superior
to someone else.
334
peace
patter ["pAt #] 1. n. a series of quick tapping sounds. (No pl.) 2. iv.
[for falling rain] to make quick tapping sounds as it strikes something.
pattern ["pAt #n] 1. n. a design; an arrangement of shapes and colors, especially one that is repeated. 2. n. a repeated element in a series
of events. 3. n. a printed or drawn outline of the parts of a garment
or something that is to be built.
patty ["pAt i] n. a thin, flat disk of ground or mashed food, especially
one formed of ground meat.
pause ["pOz] 1. n. a brief delay; a moment in which someone or something stops talking, moving, or working. 2. iv. to stop for a moment;
to stop moving or talking for a moment.
pave ["pev] tv. to build or cover a road, street, driveway, highway, etc.,
with cement, concrete, or some other hard surface.
pavement ["pev [email protected]] n. a flat surface of concrete, cement, or some
other hard material covering an area, especially covering a street or
sidewalk. (No pl.)
paw ["pO] 1. n. the foot of a clawed animal. 2. tv. to handle someone
or something with hands or Q.
pay ["pe] 1. tv., irreg. to give money (to someone) in exchange for a
product or a service or to settle a debt. (E.g., to pay twelve dollars.
Pt/pp: paid .) 2. tv., irreg. to give someone an amount of money in
exchange for a product or service or to settle a debt. (E.g., to pay
someone.) 3. tv., irreg. to settle a bill or a debt. 4. tv., irreg. [for something] to yield a certain amount of money or a certain benefit. 5. n.
wages; salary; the amount of money that one earns from a job. (No
pl. Treated as sg.) 6. adj. requiring money in order to be used.
payday ["pe de] n. the day on which a company pays its workers.
payment ["pe [email protected]] 1. n. transferring money [to someone]. (Pl only
for types and instances.) 2. n. an amount of money paid or to be paid;
something that is paid [to someone or something].
payroll ["pe rol] n. the list of a company’s employees and their salaries.
pea ["pi] 1. n. a small, round, green vegetable that grows in a pod on
a vinelike plant. 2. n. the plant that Q grows on. (No sg in this sense.
Number is expressed with pea plant(s).)
peace ["pis] 1. n. a condition where there is no war or fighting; a time
when there is order and harmony. (No pl.) 2. n. silence; freedom
from anxiety. (No pl.)
335
peaceful
peaceful ["pis fUl] 1. adj. without war or fighting; not at war; orderly.
(Adv: peacefully.) 2. adj. happy and calm; free from anxiety. (Adv:
peacefully.)
peach ["pitS] 1. n. a soft, sweet, juicy, round fruit with a fuzzy skin,
yellow-orange pulp, and a large pit in the middle. 2. adj. made with
Q; tasting like Q.
peacock ["pi kak] 1. n. a large male peafowl having a large, beautifully colored tail that fans out. 2. n. any peafowl.
peafowl ["pi faUl] n., irreg. a large bird from Southeast Asia, the males
of which have large, showy tails. (Pl: peafowl or peafowls.)
peahen ["pi hEn] n. a female peafowl.
peak ["pik] 1. n. the top of something, especially a mountain; the highest point of something. 2. n. the maximum amount of effort or
accomplishment. 3. iv. to form or rise to Q. 4. iv. to reach W.
peal ["pil] 1. n. the [loud], ringing sound that bells make. 2. n. a long,
loud sound, such as with laughter. 3. iv. to ring loudly; to sound
loudly.
peanut ["pi [email protected]] 1. n. a plant with seedpods that grow underground.
2. n. the nut meat of Q; the nut meat and shell of Q.
pear ["per] n. a yellow, brown, or green fruit that is rounded at the bottom and narrower toward the top.
pearl ["p#l] n. a hard, white, round substance formed inside an oyster, usually used in jewelry.
pebble ["pEb @l] n. a small stone.
pecan [pI "kan] 1. n. a tall tree native to the southern United States
and Mexico. 2. n. the edible part of Q; the nutmeat and shell of Q.
3. n. the wood of Q. (Pl only for types and instances.) 4. adj. made
with W. 5. adj. made from E.
peculiar [pI "kjul j#] adj. odd; strange; unusual. (Adv: peculiarly.)
pedal ["pEd l] 1. n. a device that controls something and is operated
with the feet. 2. tv. to ride a bicycle. 3. iv. to ride [a bicycle] somewhere.
pedestal ["pEd @ [email protected]] n. a base that supports a statue, vase, column,
etc.
pedestrian [[email protected] "dEs tri @n] 1. n. someone who walks as a means of
travel; someone who is walking. 2. adj. designed for Q; serving Q.
3. adj. boring; unimaginative. (Adv: pedestrianly.)
336
penthouse
peek ["pik] 1. n. a quick, sly look; a quick look at something that one
is not supposed to look at. 2. iv. to look quickly at something that one
is not supposed to look at.
peel ["pil] 1. n. the outer skin of certain fruits and vegetables. (No pl.
See also peeling.) 2. tv. to remove Q. 3. tv. to remove an outer layer
from something. (Fig. on W.) 4. iv. [for an outer layer] to come off.
peeling ["pi lIN] n. a part of something, especially fruits and vegetables, that has been peeled off. (Often pl.)
peep ["pip] 1. n. a high noise, such as that made by a baby chicken or
other birds. 2. iv. to have a quick look at something, especially in
secret; a peek. 3. iv. to make a noise, as with Q.
peeve ["piv] n. something that irritates or annoys someone.
peg ["pEg] 1. n. a thick wooden or plastic pin used to hold objects
together. 2. tv. to attach something to something with Q.
pelican ["pEl I [email protected]] n. a bird that lives on or near the water and that
has a bill with a large scoop on the lower part.
pellet ["pEl It] n. a hard, small ball of something, such as ice, wax, dirt,
or metal.
pelt ["pElt] 1. n. the complete fur-covered skin of an animal. 2. with
to target someone or something with something. 3. tv. to hit against
someone or something repeatedly with force.
pen ["pEn] 1. n. a thin writing instrument that uses ink. 2. n. a confined area where certain animals are kept. 3. tv. to write something,
usually with Q.
penalty ["pEn @l ti] n. a punishment for breaking a rule or law.
pencil ["pEn [email protected]] 1. n. a thin writing instrument with a pointed core
made of a soft black material. 2. tv. to write something with Q.
(pencil) sharpener ["pEn [email protected] "Sar [email protected] #] n. a machine that sharpens
things, usually pencils.
penny ["pEn i] n. a cent; ¹⁄₁₀₀ of a dollar in the United States and various other nations.
pension ["pEn [email protected]] n. money that is paid to a former employee, from
retirement until death, or some other period of time, to replace a
salary.
penthouse ["pEnt haUs] n., irreg. a special apartment on the top floor
of a building. (Pl: [...haU [email protected]].)
337
people
people ["pip @l] 1. n. persons. (No pl. Treated as a pl. Used as a pl of
person.) 2. n. a specific group of Q; a race or ethnic group of Q. (Sg
or pl with the same meaning.)
pep ["pEp] n. energy; vigor. (No pl.)
pepper ["pEp #] 1. n. a vegetable, often green or red, that is mostly
hollow and often very hot and spicy. 2. n. the dried berries of various plants, usually ground, used to season food. (Usually black in the
United States and white in Europe. Pl only for types and instances.)
3. tv. to sprinkle W on food as a seasoning. 4. tv. [for many tiny
things] to strike something lightly.
peppy ["pEp i] adj. full of energy; active; excited. (Adv: peppily. Comp:
peppier; sup: peppiest.)
per ["p#] prep. for each; for every.
per head Go to a head.
perceive [p# "siv] tv. to be aware of someone or something with one’s
mind; to be aware of someone or something through one’s senses.
percent [p# "sEnt] n. a one-hundredth part. (No pl. Usually expressed
with a number ranging from 0 through 100. Also expressed as “%”.)
percentage [p# "sEn tIdZ] n. a part that is less than the whole amount.
perch ["p#tS] 1. n. a branch or rod that a bird grasps with its feet when
it is at rest. 2. n. a place to sit that is high off the floor or ground; a
high ledge. (Fig. on Q.) 3. n., irreg. any one of several species of edible fish. (Pl: perch, except when referring to a number of species.)
4. iv. to sit on top of something; to stand on top of something, as does
a bird.
percussion [p# "k^S @n] 1. n. the impact of the hitting of one object
against another. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. musical instruments
that are struck, such as drums, bells, and xylophones, as a group in a
band or orchestra. (No pl form in this sense.)
perfect 1. ["p# fIkt] adj. being the best; completely correct; without
flaws. (Adv: perfectly.) 2. ["p# fIkt] adj. exactly suitable; exactly what
is needed. (Adv: perfectly.) 3. ["p# fIkt] adj. complete; total. (Adv:
perfectly.) 4. ["p# fIkt] n. a grammatical construction showing a completed action or condition; a form of the verb that shows that something was completed, is completed, or will be completed. (In English,
it consists of the pp of the verb that follows a form of have T. No pl.)
5. [p# "fEkt] tv. to make something without flaws as in Q.
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permission
perfection [p# "fEk [email protected]] 1. n. the condition of being perfect. (No pl.)
2. n. becoming perfect; making something perfect. (No pl.)
perform [p# "form] 1. tv. to do something; to do an action. 2. tv. to
present a play, sing a song, play a piece of music, do a dance, etc., for
an audience. 3. iv. to act, sing, dance, or play music, especially in
front of people. 4. iv. to function; to do what is expected or has been
assigned.
performance [p# "for [email protected]] 1. n. a presentation of a play, a piece of
music, a song, a dance, etc. 2. n. the quality of performing or functioning; how well someone or something performs. (Pl only for types
and instances.)
performer [p# "for m#] n. someone who performs, such as an actor,
a singer, a musician, a dancer.
perfume 1. ["p# fjum, p# "fjum] n. a mixture of pleasant-smelling
natural or artificial oils and alcohol that is put on people’s skin. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. [p# "fjum] tv. to place a pleasantsmelling substance on someone; to add a pleasant-smelling substance
to the air in a room.
perhaps [p# "hAps] adv. maybe; possibly; maybe yes, maybe no.
peril ["pEr @l] 1. n. great danger. (No pl form in this sense.) 2. n. something that causes danger; a great danger.
period ["pIr i @d] 1. n. a punctuation mark (.) used at the end of a sentence or at the end of an abbreviation. 2. n. a certain length of time,
including certain times in history. 3. n. a section or part of certain
games, such as basketball. 4. n. a division of the school day. 5. n. the
time during the month when a woman menstruates. (Short for menstrual period.) 6. adj. [of art, architecture, crafts, or literature] having to do with a certain time in history.
perish ["pEr IS] 1. iv. to die. 2. iv. [for something] to go away or fade
away.
perjury ["p# [email protected] ri] n. lying in court after one has taken an oath promising not to lie. (No pl.)
permanent ["p# [email protected] [email protected]] 1. adj. intended or designed to last forever
or for a long time; not temporary. (Adv: permanently.) 2. n. a type of
hair treatment where the hair is caused to stay in a particular arrangement for a long time. (From permanent wave.)
permission [p# "mI [email protected]] n. consent; agreement that something may
be done. (No pl.)
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permit
permit 1. ["p# mIt] n. an official document that allows someone to do
something. 2. [p# "mIt] tv. to allow someone to do something; to let
someone do something.
persecute ["p# [email protected] kjut] tv. to oppress or harass someone or some
group of people, especially because of race, religion, or some other
belief or status.
persevere [p# [email protected] "vIr] iv. to continue working to reach a goal, even
though it is difficult; to struggle with a problem or difficulty.
persist [p# "sIst] 1. iv. to continue to do something; not to give up,
even if the task is difficult or if one faces opposition. 2. iv. to continue to exist.
person ["p# [email protected]] 1. n. a human being; a man, a woman, a boy, or a
girl. (People is sometimes used as the pl.) 2. n. a grammar term, used
to show the relationship of the speaker or writer to the receiver of the
message.
personal ["p# [email protected] @l] 1. adj. of or about the private affairs of a particular person; belonging to or used by a particular person. (Adv: personally.) 2. adj. done by a certain person, instead of by someone else.
(Adv: personally.)
personality [p# [email protected] "nAl @ ti] 1. n. aspects of one’s thinking and behavior that make one different from everyone else. 2. n. someone who is
well known; a famous person.
personnel [p# [email protected] "nEl] n. the people who work for a company or organization. (No pl.)
perspire [p# "spaI#] iv. to sweat.
persuade [p# "swed] tv. to use argument or discussion to cause someone to do or think something.
persuasion [p# "swe [email protected]] n. efforts to persuade someone of something. (No pl.)
pesky ["pEs ki] adj. being a pest Q or W; irritating; annoying; troublesome. (Adv: peskily. Comp: peskier; sup: peskiest.)
pest ["pEst] 1. n. any animal or insect that destroys crops, spreads disease, or enters people’s homes. 2. n. someone or something that
causes trouble; someone or something that is a nuisance.
pester ["pEs t#] tv. to bother someone; to annoy someone.
pet ["pEt] 1. n. an animal that is kept in one’s home or yard as a companion. 2. adj. [of an animal] kept as Q. (Prenominal only.) 3. adj.
340
phrase
special; particular; favorite. (Prenominal only.) 4. tv. to stroke or pat
someone or some creature.
petal ["pEt @l] n. one of the colored sections of the blossom of a flower.
petite [[email protected] "tit] 1. adj. [of a woman] small; [of a woman] short. (From
French. Adv: petitely.) 2. adj. [of a clothing size or range of sizes] fitting women who are Q.
petition [[email protected] "tI [email protected]] 1. n. a document signed by many people who are
demanding something from someone. 2. tv. to request something
formally of a government or of an authority, often through the use
of Q. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
petroleum [[email protected] "tro li @m] n. oil that is pumped from under the ground,
used to make gasoline and other substances. (No pl.)
phantom ["fAn [email protected]] 1. n. a ghost; an image or memory that is “seen”
by the mind in a dream or in a vision, but is not real. 2. adj. like a
ghost; unreal; apparent, but not real.
phase ["fez] 1. n. a stage in the development of someone or something;
a stage in a sequence of events. 2. n. any of the stages of the appearance of the moon as seen from earth.
philosophy [fI "las @ fi] 1. n. the science and study of the meaning of
truth, knowledge, reality, and existence. (No pl.) 2. n. the way one
looks at life; the principles one uses to live one’s life. (Pl only for types
and instances.)
phobia ["fob i @] n. an unreasonable fear; a strong dread. (Also in combinations, such as claustrophobia, hydrophobia.)
phone ["fon] 1. n. a telephone. 2. tv. to call someone by Q; to telephone someone.
photo ["fo to] n. a photograph; a snapshot; a picture made by a camera.
photograph ["fo [email protected] grAf] 1. n. a picture made by a camera; a photo;
a snapshot. (Can be shortened to photo.) 2. tv. to take a picture, with
a camera, of someone or something.
photographer [[email protected] "ta [email protected] f#] n. someone who takes pictures with a
camera, especially for a living.
photography [[email protected] "ta [email protected] fi] n. the science, study, art, or act of taking
a picture with a camera. (No pl.)
phr. an abbreviation of phrase Q and W.
phrase ["frez] 1. n. a group of words that functions as a unit of grammar within a sentence. 2. n. an expression usually including several
341
physical
words. 3. n. a series of notes that is a part of a piece of music. 4. tv.
to put communication into words. 5. tv. to perform music, grouping
into a series the notes that belong to E.
physical ["fIz I [email protected]] 1. adj. of or about the body; of the body. (Adv:
physically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. of or about the laws of nature; of or about
the study of physics. 3. adj. of or about real objects; of or about matter. (Adv: physically [...Ik li].) 4. n. a thorough examination by a doctor. (Short for physical examination.)
physician [fI "zI [email protected]] n. a medical doctor.
physics ["fIz Iks] n. the science and study of the properties of and relationships between matter and energy. (Treated as sg.)
pianist ["pi @ nIst] n. someone who plays the piano, especially a professional piano player.
piano [pi "A no] n. a large musical instrument in which small, soft
hammers connected to a keyboard strike tuned metal strings. (Pl
ends in -s.)
pick ["pIk] 1. n. a tool that is a heavy, pointed metal bar attached to a
handle, used for breaking apart ice, rocks, and other objects. 2. n. a
choice; a selection. (Pl only for types and instances.) 3. tv. to choose
a particular person or thing. 4. tv. to remove something from someplace, especially using one’s fingers or a pointed tool. 5. tv. to gather
or harvest flowers, fruit, cotton, peas, beans, etc.
pickle ["pIk @l] 1. n. a cucumber—whole, sliced, chopped, or in sections—that has been preserved in salt water or vinegar. 2. tv. to preserve food, especially vegetables, in salt water or vinegar.
picnic ["pIk nIk] 1. n. a meal prepared to be eaten informally outdoors.
2. iv., irreg. to have Q. (Pt/pp: picnicked . Pres. part.: picnicking .)
3. adj. used for Q.
picnicked ["pIk nIkt] pt/pp of picnic.
picnicking ["pIk nIk IN] pres. part. of picnic.
picture ["pIk tS#] 1. n. a drawing, a painting, or a photograph; an
image of someone or something. 2. n. a movie; a motion picture.
3. n. the image on a television screen. 4. tv. to think of someone or
something; to make a mental image of someone or something; to
imagine something. 5. tv. to show someone or something in Q.
pie ["paI] 1. n. a kind of food that has a crust of pastry or something
similar and is filled with meat, fruit, or some sweet substance. (The
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pillowcase
crust can be on the bottom or on both the bottom and top. Pl only
for types and instances.) 2. n. a single, complete, round unit of Q.
piece ["pis] 1. n. a part of something; a part broken off of or removed
from something; an object that is put together with other objects to
make something. 2. n. an example of something, especially of an art
or craft, such as music. 3. n. [in games such as chess or checkers that
are played on a special board] an object that is placed on the board
and, typically, moved to different places on the board according to
the rules of the particular game.
piecrust ["paI [email protected]] n. a piece of pastry found on the bottom and
often the top of a pie.
pier ["pIr] n. a dock; a structure like a bridge that extends into the water
from the shore, supported by posts or columns.
pierce ["pIrs] tv. to make a hole through someone or something; to
cause something to go through something else.
pig ["pIg] 1. n. a farm animal with short legs and a curled tail, raised
for food, especially bacon, ham, and pork. (Thought of as greedy and
messy.) 2. n. someone who eats a lot of food. (Fig. on Q.) 3. n. someone who is dirty or messy. (Fig. on Q.)
pigeon ["pIdZ @n] n. a bird, commonly found in cities, with short legs
and a heavy body, whose head bobs as it walks.
pigment ["pIg [email protected]] n. a substance that causes paint, skin, dye, or
plant tissue to have a certain color. (Pl only for types and instances.)
pile ["paIl] 1. n. a mound, stack, or heap of something, such as clothing, leaves, dirt. 2. n. a beam of wood or steel that is driven into the
ground to support a building, bridge, or other structure. 3. tv. to
place or form things or matter into a shape like Q.
pilgrim ["pIl grIm] 1. n. someone who travels, especially to a holy
place, as a religious act. 2. n. one of the settlers of Plymouth Colony
in 1620. (Capitalized.)
pill ["pIl] n. a small, formed mass containing vitamins, medicine, or
some other drug that is swallowed.
pillar ["pIl #] n. a column; a strong upright structure used to support
something or as decoration.
pillow ["pIl o] n. a cloth bag filled with feathers or a similar soft material, typically used to support one’s head while sleeping, or for decoration.
pillowcase ["pIl o kes] n. a fabric cover for a pillow.
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pilot
pilot ["paI [email protected]] 1. n. someone who flies a plane; someone who guides a
boat along a channel. 2. tv. to fly an airplane; to guide a boat through
a channel. 3. adj. experimental; serving as a test.
pimple ["pIm [email protected]] n. a small, round infection on the skin.
pin ["pIn] 1. n. a thin, stiff, pointed wire occurring in a variety of
forms, such as with a flat top, a plastic end, a safety cover on the end,
etc. (The simple Q is also called a straight pin.) 2. n. a piece of jewelry that is attached to clothing with a variety of Q. 3. tv. to attach
something to something else with some variety of Q. 4. tv. to press
someone or something against something.
pinch ["pIntS] 1. n. an act of squeezing a fold of skin, usually causing
pain. 2. n. a small amount of something, such as a spice, that can be
held between one’s first finger and one’s thumb. 3. tv. to squeeze or
hold something, such as a fold of flesh, between two surfaces.
pine ["paIn] 1. n. a kind of tree that has long, thin, sharp needles for
leaves. 2. n. wood from Q. (Pl only for types and instances.) 3. adj.
made from W; composed of W.
pineapple ["paIn Ap @l] 1. n. a large, juicy tropical fruit that is yellow
on the inside and has a very rough skin. 2. n. the edible part of Q.
(No pl.) 3. adj. made from W; containing or flavored with W.
pink ["pINk] 1. n. the color of red mixed with white; a light, pale red.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. the adj. use of Q. (Comp: pinker;
sup: pinkest.)
pint ["paInt] 1. n. a unit of liquid measure, equal to half a quart or ⅛
of a gallon or 16 fluid ounces. 2. n. a unit of dry measure, equal to
half a quart or ¹⁄₆₄ of a bushel. 3. the adj. use of Q or W.
pioneer [paI @ "nIr] 1. n. someone who is one of the first of a particular group of people to settle a new area. (From the point of view of
the particular group.) 2. n. someone who is one of the first to investigate an area of science that has never been examined; someone who
is one of the first people to do something, preparing the way for other
people to do the same. 3. tv. to prepare the way for other people to
do something; to help develop something for other people.
pious ["paI @s] adj. very religious; expressing respect for God. (Adv:
piously.)
pipe ["paIp] 1. n. a hollow tube that is used to carry a fluid from one
place to another. 2. n. a tube connected to a small bowl, used to
smoke tobacco.
344
pizza
pirate ["paI [email protected]] 1. n. someone who robs ships at sea. 2. tv. to steal or
capture something, especially while at sea. 3. tv. to take something;
to use something when one does not have the right to use it. (Fig. on
W.) 4. tv. to duplicate and sell copies of books, records, videos, and
software without the permission of the original publisher. (Fig. on
W.)
piss ["pIs] 1. iv. to urinate. (Potentially offensive. The topic and the
word are not heard in polite company. Use with caution.) 2. n. urine.
(Offensive as with Q.)
pistol ["pIs [email protected]] n. a small gun that can be held and shot with one hand.
piston ["pIs [email protected]] n. a solid cylinder that is moved up and down inside
a tube by some force, such as that found in an engine.
pit ["pIt] 1. n. a large hole in the ground. 2. n. a large, hard seed at the
center of some kinds of fruit. 3. tv. to remove W from fruit.
pitch ["pItS] 1. tv. to toss something toward someone or something.
2. tv. [in baseball] to toss or throw a ball toward the batter. 3. tv. to
toss or throw someone or something. 4. iv. [in baseball] to throw a
baseball toward a batter. 5. iv. [for a ship] to plunge up and down;
[for the front of a ship] to rise and fall in rough water. 6. n. [in baseball] the movement of the ball from the pitcher toward the batter or
the throw that moves the ball toward the batter. 7. n. slope; the
amount that something is slanted. (Pl only for types and instances.)
8. n. the measure of the highness or lowness of a sound. (Pl only for
types and instances.) 9. n. the standard number of vibrations each
second that makes a certain tone; the standard musical sound for a
given note. 10. n. tar.
pitch-dark adj. very dark; as dark as pitch (tar).
pitcher ["pItS #] 1. n. the baseball player who pitches the baseball
toward the other team’s players, who then may strike it with the bat.
2. n. a tall container with a handle, used for serving liquids. 3. n. the
contents of W.
pitiful ["pIt @ fUl] 1. adj. causing pity; worthy of pity; piteous. (Adv:
pitifully.) 2. adj. worthless; worthy of contempt. (Adv: pitifully.)
pity ["pIt i] 1. n. a feeling of sorrow caused by seeing or learning about
the suffering of other people; sympathy. (No pl.) 2. tv. to be sorry for
someone or something; to feel Q for someone or something.
pizza ["pit [email protected]] n. a food made of a baked disk of dough covered with
spicy tomato sauce, cheese, and perhaps other foods. (Pl only for
types and instances.)
345
pl
pl the abbreviation of plural.
place ["ples] 1. n. a position in space; a location; a certain area. 2. n.
a house or apartment; a location where one lives. 3. n. a position in
relation to other positions in a numbered series. 4. tv. to put something in a certain position; to put something on a certain surface.
5. tv. to remember when and where one has met someone or something in the past.
plague ["pleg] n. a disease that kills people and is quickly spread. (No
pl. Treated as sg.)
plaid ["plAd] 1. n. a design of stripes that cross each other at right
angles. 2. the adj. use of Q.
plain ["plen] 1. n. a flat area of land; a prairie. (Often pl with the same
meaning, but not countable.) 2. adj. obvious; easy to see or understand. (Adv: plainly. Comp: plainer; sup: plainest.) 3. adj. simple; not
complex; not decorated. (Adv: plainly. Comp: plainer; sup: plainest.)
4. adj. not attractive; average looking. (Adv: plainly. Comp: plainer;
sup: plainest.) 5. adv. simply; clearly; obviously. (Colloquial.)
plaintiff ["plen tIf] n. someone who sues someone else; someone who
brings a lawsuit against someone else; someone who charges a defendant with doing wrong.
plan ["plAn] 1. n. the ideas for a future action or event; a detailed
schedule for doing something. 2. n. a program or structure that provides a benefit to workers. 3. tv. to make Q for an event. 4. iv. to
arrange [something] in advance.
plane ["plen] 1. n. a flat surface. 2. n. an airplane. 3. n. a tool equipped
with a blade that is scraped over wood to make it flat or smooth. 4. tv.
to make something flat or smooth by using E.
planet ["plAn It] n. a huge sphere of matter that circles a single star in
a permanent orbit.
plank ["plANk] 1. n. a board; a long, thin, narrow, flat piece of wood.
2. n. an issue or policy that a political party officially supports. (A
figurative Q in the party platform E.)
plans n. a set of drawings of a house or building before it is built, used
to help someone build the building. (Treated as pl.)
plant ["plAnt] 1. n. a stationary living thing that makes its own food
using sunlight and material from the soil or other substance that supports it. 2. n. a factory. 3. tv. to put a seed or a small Q in the ground
so that it will grow; to place [the seeds or young Q of] a crop into
346
play
the soil. 4. tv. to place someone or something firmly in position. (Fig.
on E.)
plaster ["plAs t#] 1. n. a mixture of lime, water, and sand, which hardens when it dries. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. tv. to apply Q
to something.
plastic ["plAs tIk] 1. n. an artificial material, made from a variety of
chemicals, that can be formed into different shapes. (Pl only for types
and instances.) 2. adj. made of Q. 3. adj. [of something] easily
molded or shaped. (Adv: plastically [...Ik li].)
plate ["plet] 1. n. an almost flat, round dish for holding food. 2. n. a
sheet of metal or glass. 3. n. a metal plate that goes on the back of a
vehicle, showing the license number of the vehicle. (Short for license
plate.) 4. tv. to give one sort of metal a thin outer layer of a more valuable metal.
plateau [plA "to] 1. n. a flat area of land that is raised up higher than
the surrounding land. 2. iv. [for a number or a measurement] to reach
a higher level and then remain unchanged.
platform ["plAt form] 1. n. a flat structure that is higher than the area
around it, especially one that people can occupy standing or sitting.
2. n. the flat surface next to a railroad track where people get on and
off trains. 3. n. a formal statement of the ideas and policies of a political party. (See also plank W.)
platter ["plAt #] 1. n. a large plate used for serving food. 2. n. the contents of Q.
play ["ple] 1. n. fun; recreation; something that is done for fun or
amusement. (No pl.) 2. n. one movement or action in a game or
sport. 3. n. a piece of writing that is written as a series of lines that
people say, for performance in a theater. 4. n. a performance of E.
5. iv. [for a sound-making device] to operate or reproduce sounds
that have been recorded. 6. iv. to perform on the stage or in public;
to perform. 7. iv. [for a performance] to be performed; [for a movie]
to be shown. 8. iv. to take one’s turn in a game; to lay down a card in
a card game. 9. iv. to perform [on a musical instrument as in q].
10. iv. to have fun; to amuse oneself; to be active in a sport or game.
11. tv. to perform a role in the theater or in a movie. 12. tv. to take
part in a certain game, sport, or activity; to participate in a certain
game, sport, or activity. 13. tv. to make music with a musical instrument; to perform a particular piece of music on an instrument. (E.g.,
to play a song.) 14. tv. to perform on a musical instrument. (E.g., to
play a violin.) 15. tv. [for an electronic device] to process tapes,
347
player
records, or CDs in a way that produces the sounds or pictures that
have been recorded. 16. tv. [for someone] to cause an electronic
device to produce sounds and pictures as in e.
player ["ple #] 1. n. someone who plays a game or sport. 2. n. someone who plays a particular musical instrument. 3. n. something that
plays a recording. (Compare this with recorder E.)
playful ["ple fUl] 1. adj. liking to play; full of fun. (Adv: playfully.)
2. adj. funny; humorous; not serious. (Adv: playfully.)
playground ["ple graUnd] 1. n. an outdoor place for children to play.
2. the adj. use of Q.
playmate ["ple met] n. a child with whom another child plays.
plaything ["ple TIN] n. a toy; something that is played with.
plea ["pli] 1. n. a request; an appeal. 2. n. a statement in court in which
one declares that one is guilty or innocent.
plead ["plid] 1. tv., irreg. to declare in court that one is guilty or not
guilty before the trial actually begins. (Pt/pp: pleaded or pled.) 2. tv.,
irreg. to claim something as an excuse. (The object can be a clause
with that U. Pt/pp: pleaded or pled.)
pleasant ["plEz @nt] 1. adj. [of something] bringing or causing enjoyment and pleasure. (Adv: pleasantly.) 2. adj. [of someone] friendly
and nice. (Adv: pleasantly.)
please ["pliz] 1. adv. a word used to make requests or commands more
polite. 2. tv. to cause someone to be happy or satisfied.
pleasure ["plEZ #] n. a feeling of happiness because of something that
one likes; enjoyment; a pleasing feeling or emotion. (Pl only for types
and instances.)
pleat ["plit] n. a flat fold in a fabric, especially one fold in a series of
folds, as found in skirts, draperies, and curtains.
pled ["plEd] a pt/pp of plead.
pledge ["plEdZ] 1. n. a promise; a vow; a statement that one will do
something. 2. tv. to promise something. (The object can be a clause
with that U.)
plentiful ["plEn tI fUl] adj. having enough or more than enough; ample.
(Adv: plentifully.)
plenty ["plEn ti] 1. n. a full supply; more than enough. (No pl.) 2. adj.
enough; almost too much. (Not prenominal.)
348
plump
pliers ["plaI #z] n. a tool with rough jaws, used to grasp objects. (Usually treated as pl. Number is expressed with pair(s) of pliers. Also
countable.)
plot ["plat] 1. n. the story of a movie, book, opera, television show,
play, etc. 2. n. a secret plan to do something wrong or illegal. 3. n. a
small garden or part of a garden; a small area of land. 4. iv. to plan
in secret. 5. iv. to make plans to do something, especially secretly.
6. tv. to plan in secret to do something. 7. tv. to determine the position of something on a map, chart, or graph.
plotter ["plat #] n. a machine that marks points, lines, or curves on a
graph.
plow ["plaU] 1. n. a farm tool made of a heavy metal blade used to
break up and turn over soil. 2. n. a large, curved blade in front of a
vehicle that is used to move snow off a road or path. 3. n. a vehicle
equipped with W. 4. iv. to use Q. 5. tv. to cut into land, making rows
for planting crops, with Q. 6. tv. to clear a road or path of snow with
W.
pluck ["pl^k] 1. tv. to remove the feathers from a bird; to remove hairs
from the body of a person or an animal. 2. tv. to clean a bird of its
feathers. 3. tv. to pull something from someplace.
plug ["pl^g] 1. n. a small device for closing a hole, drain, or other opening. 2. n. the connector that is pushed into an electric receptacle.
(Short for electric plug.) 3. n. a statement made while speaking on
television or radio that encourages people to buy something or do
something. 4. tv. to mention a product and to encourage people to
buy it.
plum ["pl^m] 1. n. a fruit with a smooth skin and a soft, sweet, juicy
pulp with a large pit. 2. n. a deep purple color. 3. adj. deep purple in
color.
plumber ["pl^m #] n. someone who is trained to install and repair
sewer pipes, water pipes, and fixtures such as sinks, toilets, bathtubs,
and drains.
plumbing ["pl^m IN] 1. n. the work that a plumber does. (No pl.) 2. n.
water pipes, sewer pipes, gas pipes, and related fixtures. (No pl.)
plume ["plum] 1. n. a feather, especially a bright, colorful one. 2. n.
something that looks like a feather, especially a cloud of smoke or a
jet of water.
plump ["pl^mp] adj. a little fat or swollen.
349
plunder
plunder ["pl^n d#] 1. tv. to rob someone or some place. 2. n. loot;
things that are stolen. (No pl form in this sense.) 3. n. stealing; robbery. (No pl form in this sense.)
plunge ["pl^ndZ] 1. n. a dive; a jump into water. 2. iv. to dive into a
liquid.
plural ["pl# @l] 1. n. a form of a word that refers to more than one
thing or person. 2. the adj. use of Q.
plus ["pl^s] 1. prep. in addition to someone or something; added to
someone or something. (Symbolized by “”.) 2. conj. and also.
3. adj. above zero; [marking a number] greater than zero. (Symbolized as “”.) 4. n. an advantage; an extra.
ply ["plaI] 1. n. a layer of something. (Hyphenated after a number.)
2. tv. to work doing one’s job, especially at one’s trade.
plywood ["plaI wUd] n. a wooden panel made of several thin sheets of
wood that are glued together. (No pl.)
pneumonia [[email protected] "mon [email protected]] n. an infection of the lungs involving fluid
in the lungs. (No pl form in this sense.)
pocket ["pak It] 1. n. a small cloth bag that is sewn into clothing and
is used to hold things, such as a wallet or keys. 2. n. a small amount
of something that is separated from other amounts of it; an isolated
amount of something. 3. adj. small enough to fit in Q; meant to be
put in Q. 4. tv. to put something in one’s Q. 5. tv. to steal something
by putting it in one’s Q.
pod ["pad] n. a long, soft, narrow shell that holds the seeds of certain
plants, such as peas and beans.
poem ["po @m] n. a piece of writing in a form that sometimes rhymes
and often has a rhythm, usually expressing feelings, emotions, or
imagination.
poet ["po It] n. someone who writes poetry.
poetic [po "Et Ik] 1. adj. [of thoughts] expressed as a poem. (Adv: poetically [...Ik li].) 2. the adj. form of poetry.
poetry ["po @ tri] 1. n. a poem; poems; a collection of poems. (No pl.
Treated as sg.) 2. n. the art of writing poems. (No pl.)
point ["poInt] 1. n. the sharp end of something. 2. n. the main idea of
something; the purpose of something. 3. n. one idea, argument, or
statement in a series of ideas, arguments, or statements. 4. n. a certain position in space or moment in time; a certain degree or position of something. 5. n. [in geometry] the place where two lines cross
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each other. 6. n. a dot; a decimal point. 7. n. a feature, trait, or ability of someone or something. 8. n. a unit of scoring in a game. 9. n.
a helpful hint; a piece of advice. 10. tv. to aim someone at someone
or something; to direct someone to someone or something. 11. iv. to
indicate the location of someone or something by directing one’s finger toward the location. 12. iv. to be facing in a certain direction.
pointed ["poIn tId] 1. adj. having a point; sharp; sharpened to a point.
2. adj. straightforward; directed in an obvious way. (Adv: pointedly.)
poison ["poI [email protected]] 1. n. a substance that can injure or kill a living creature, especially if eaten, drunk, breathed in, or absorbed through the
skin. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. tv. to kill or harm someone or something with Q. 3. tv. to put Q in something, especially
food, in order to kill or harm someone or something. 4. tv. to have a
harmful effect on someone or something; to corrupt someone or
something. (Fig. on W.)
poisonous ["poI [email protected] @s] adj. toxic; containing poison. (Adv: poisonously.)
poke ["pok] 1. n. a push with one’s finger, fist, or elbow, or with a blunt
object. 2. tv. to push someone or something with one’s finger, fist, or
elbow, or with a blunt object.
poker ["pok #] 1. n. a long, narrow metal rod that is used to move logs
or coal in a fire. 2. n. a card game where players win by having cards
with the highest value. (No pl.)
polar ["po l#] adj. of or about the areas near the north or south pole.
pole ["pol] 1. n. a long, thin, solid tube of wood, steel, plastic, or other
material. 2. n. one of the two places where the imaginary axis on
which a planet spins meets the surface of the planet—at the north
and south ends of the planet. 3. n. either side of a magnet; either end
of a magnet; one of the two strongest points of a magnet that either
pulls or pushes metal objects.
police [[email protected] "lis] 1. tv. to patrol an area; to control, regulate, or protect
an area. 2. tv. to regulate or control people, their behavior, or their
actions.
policeman [[email protected] "lis [email protected]] n., irreg. a police officer; a male member of a
police force. (Pl: policemen or police officers.)
policemen [[email protected] "lis [email protected]] pl of policeman.
policewoman [[email protected] "lis wUm @n] n., irreg. a female police officer; a
female member of a police force. (Pl: policewomen or police officers.)
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policewomen
policewomen [[email protected] "lis wIm @n] pl of policewoman.
policy ["pal @ si] n. a plan of action used by management or government; a regulation.
polish ["pal IS] 1. n. a substance that is used to make something shiny.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. tv. to make a surface shiny or
glossy, especially by rubbing it. 3. tv. to improve something; to make
something better or perfect; to refine something. (Fig. on W.)
Polish ["po lIS] adj. of or about Poland; describing a person born in
Poland.
polite [[email protected] "laIt] adj. courteous; having good behavior; having good
manners; doing things in a helpful and kind way. (Adv: politely.)
political [[email protected] "lI tI [email protected]] adj. of or about politics, politicians, or government. (Adv: politically [...Ik li].)
politician [pal @ "tI [email protected]] n. a person whose business is politics, especially someone holding or seeking a government office.
politics ["pal @ tIks] 1. n. the business or operation of government; the
study of the management of government. (Treated as sg or pl, but not
countable.) 2. n. someone’s beliefs about political issues. (Treated as
sg or pl, but not countable.)
poll ["pol] 1. n. a survey that determines the popular opinion about an
issue. 2. tv. to ask someone questions as part of a survey.
pollen ["pal @n] n. a yellow powder made by flowers that is part of the
process of making seeds. (Pl only for types and instances.)
polls n. the places where people vote. (Treated as pl.)
pollute [[email protected] "lut] 1. tv. to cause something to become dirty or impure.
2. iv. to make something dirty or impure.
pompous ["pamp @s] adj. arrogant; too formal; too grand. (Adv:
pompously.)
pond ["pand] n. a small body of water; a body of water smaller than a
lake.
ponder ["pan d#] 1. iv. to think carefully; to consider. 2. tv. to think
about something carefully; to consider something.
ponderous ["pan d# @s] adj. slow and awkward, especially because of
being large or heavy. (Adv: ponderously.)
pony ["pon i] n. a small horse.
ponytail ["pon i tel] n. a bunch of hair pulled toward the back of the
head and tied.
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poodle ["pud l] n. a kind of dog that has very curly fur.
pool ["pul] 1. n. a puddle of water or other liquid. 2. n. a game played
with a number of hard balls on a felt-covered table having six pockets and raised sides. 3. tv. to put money or things together for common use.
poor ["por] 1. adj. not rich; having very little money; not owning many
things. (Comp: poorer; sup: poorest.) 2. adj. below a certain level of
quality; inferior in operation or function. (Adv: poorly. Comp: poorer;
sup: poorest.) 3. adj. worthy of pity or sympathy.
pop ["pap] 1. n. a quick, loud noise, like an explosion. 2. n. father.
(Informal. Also a term of address. Capitalized when written as a
proper noun.) 3. n. popular music. (No pl.) 4. n. a fizzy drink; a soft
drink. (Informal. No pl.) 5. adj. popular; well liked; favored. 6. iv. to
make a sound as in Q; [for something with air in it] to burst suddenly. 7. tv. to cause something to make Q; to cause something with
air in it to burst suddenly.
popcorn ["pap korn] 1. n. seeds of various kinds of corn that explode
into a soft, white, fluffy mass when heated. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. n. exploded and puffed-up kernels of Q eaten as food.
(No pl. Treated as sg.)
poplar ["pap l#] 1. n. a kind of tall, thin tree that grows quickly. 2. n.
wood from Q. (Pl only for types and instances.) 3. adj. made from
W.
poppy ["pap i] n. a flowering herb with large red blossoms.
popular ["pap [email protected] l#] adj. liked by many people; favored by many people; well liked. (Adv: popularly.)
populate ["pap [email protected] let] tv. [for living creatures] to occupy an area. (Usually passive.)
population [pap [email protected] "le [email protected]] 1. n. the living creatures of one kind that
live in a certain area. 2. n. the number of people or creatures living
in a certain place. (No pl.)
porch ["portS] n. a covered structure built in front of a house, usually
at a doorway.
porcupine ["por [email protected] paIn] n. a large rodent covered with sharp needles or spines that it uses to defend itself.
pore ["por] n. a tiny opening in the skin of plants and animals.
pork ["pork] n. the meat of a pig, eaten as food. (No pl.)
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porpoise ["por [email protected]] n. a mammal that lives in the sea, swimming in
groups.
port ["port] 1. n. a city on an ocean, sea, or lake that has a harbor
where ships can be loaded and unloaded. 2. n. a harbor. 3. adj. on,
at, or toward the left side of a ship or aircraft when one is facing the
front of the ship or aircraft.
portable ["port @ [email protected]] adj. able to be moved from place to place; able
to be carried; not permanently placed in one position. (Adv:
portably.)
porter ["por t#] n. someone who carries luggage for other people, especially at a hotel, airport, or train station.
portion ["por [email protected]] 1. n. a part of something; a section. 2. n. the
amount of food given to someone at one time.
portrait ["por trIt] n. a painting, especially of a person or a person’s
face.
pose ["poz] 1. n. a certain way that someone sits or stands, especially
when one is getting one’s picture taken or painted. 2. iv. to sit or stand
in a certain way when someone is taking or painting one’s picture.
3. tv. to place someone or something, as in Q.
posh ["paS] adj. very lavish; elegant; full of style. (Adv: poshly. Comp:
posher; sup: poshest.)
position [[email protected] "zI [email protected]] 1. n. the place where someone or something is or
where someone or something belongs. 2. n. the way that someone or
something is placed or situated. 3. n. a point of view; an opinion; the
way someone thinks about a certain subject or issue. 4. n. a job. 5. tv.
to put someone or something in a certain place.
positive ["paz I tIv] 1. adj. meaning “yes.” 2. adj. certain. (Adv: positively.) 3. adj. in favor of something; accepting something. (Adv: positively.) 4. adj. greater than zero; plus; above zero. (Adv: positively.)
5. adj. optimistic; having a happy or confident outlook. (Adv: positively.) 6. adj. practical; helpful. (Adv: positively.) 7. adj. [of some
part of an electrical circuit] higher in electrical charge than other
points in the same circuit, allowing electrical energy to flow to other
parts of the circuit. (Adv: positively.) 8. n. the simple form of an
adjective or adverb. 9. n. an image, especially a photograph, where
dark and light are the same in the picture as they are in reality. 10. n.
an advantage; a good quality; a benefit. 11. n. a quantity greater than
zero.
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possess [[email protected] "zEs] 1. tv. to have something; to own something. 2. tv.
to influence someone or something completely; [for someone or
something, especially an evil spirit or the devil] to control someone
or something completely.
possession [[email protected] "zE [email protected]] 1. n. ownership. (No pl.) 2. n. a belonging;
something that belongs to someone; something that is owned by
someone.
possessive [[email protected] "zEs Iv] 1. adj. selfish; unwilling to share. (Adv: possessively.) 2. adj. [of a word] showing possession or belonging [to
someone or something]. (Adv: possessively.) 3. n. the form of a word
that shows possession.
possible ["pas @ [email protected]] adj. able to be done; able to exist; able to happen;
able to be true, but not necessarily true. (Adv: possibly.)
possibly ["pas @ bli] adv. perhaps; maybe.
post ["post] 1. n. an upright, thick length of wood, steel, or other
material. 2. n. a job; a position in a company or a government. 3. tv.
to place a written notice where people can see it. 4. tv. to mail something; to send something by mail.
postage ["pos tIdZ] 1. n. the cost of sending something through the
mail, usually paid for with stamps. (No pl.) 2. n. the stamp or stamps
that are placed on something that is mailed. (No pl. Number is
expressed with postage stamp(s).)
postal ["pos [email protected]] adj. of or about mail or the post office.
postcard ["post kard] n. a card that is thicker than paper, sometimes
has a picture on one side of it, and is used to mail someone a short
letter, especially when one is traveling.
poster ["pos t#] n. a large sheet of thick paper carrying a message or
a picture.
postmaster ["post mA st#] n. someone who is in charge of a post
office; the head of a post office.
posture ["pas tS#] 1. n. the way that one sits, stands, or moves; the
position of the body. (Pl only for types and instances.) 2. iv. to sit or
stand in a certain way; to strike a pose.
pot ["pat] 1. n. a large, deep, round container, usually used to cook or
hold food or liquid. 2. n. a round container that holds soil and a
flower or plant. 3. n. the contents of Q or W. 4. tv. to put a plant in
soil in W.
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potato
potato [[email protected] "te to] 1. n. a vegetable root shaped like a large egg. (Pl ends
in -es.) 2. n. the plant that produces Q. (Pl ends in -es.) 3. adj. made
of or with Q.
potent ["pot nt] 1. adj. powerful; having a strong effect. (Adv:
potently.) 2. adj. [of a male] able to copulate. (Adv: potently.)
pottery ["pat @ ri] 1. n. dishes, bowls, vases, and other objects that are
made from baked clay. (No pl.) 2. n. the craft or art of making objects
out of clay and baking them so that the clay hardens. (No pl.)
pouch ["paUtS] n. a small bag that is used to hold a small amount of
something.
poultry ["pol tri] n. chickens, ducks, geese, and other birds that are
used as meat or for providing eggs for humans to eat. (No pl.)
pound ["paUnd] 1. n. a unit of measure of weight, equal to 16 ounces
or about 0.454 kilogram. 2. n. the basic unit of money in the United
Kingdom. (Symbolized as £.) 3. n. a place where stray animals are
kept. 4. tv. to hit someone or something very hard again and again;
to beat something into a certain shape by hitting it very hard again
and again. 5. iv. [for the heart or blood pressure] to beat very hard.
pour ["por] 1. iv. to flow from a place; to come out of a place quickly
and continuously. 2. tv. to cause something to pour as in Q out of a
place quickly and continuously.
poverty ["pav # ti] n. the lack of the necessities for life. (No pl.)
powder ["paU d#] 1. n. a substance that consists of tiny particles. (Pl
only for types and instances.) 2. tv. to cover or dust something with
Q or a substance that has been crushed or ground into Q.
power ["paU #] 1. n. the ability to do something; strength. (Pl only for
types and instances. Typically sg or pl with the same meaning.) 2. n.
the authority to do something; control. (Pl only for types and
instances. Sg or pl with the same meaning.) 3. n. the number of times
that a number is multiplied by itself. 4. tv. to supply energy to a
machine or other device that uses energy.
powerful ["paU # fUl] adj. having a lot of power, energy, or force; full
of strength or influence. (Adv: powerfully.)
practical ["prAk tI [email protected]] 1. adj. useful; able to be used; of or about
actions and results, as opposed to ideas or theories. (Adv: practically
[...Ik li].) 2. adj. sensible; having common sense. (Adv: practically
[...Ik li].)
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precision
practice ["prAk tIs] 1. n. doing an action many times so that one will
do it better and better. (No pl.) 2. n. a custom; a tradition; the way
something is usually done; a habit. 3. n. the business of a doctor or
a lawyer. 4. iv. to rehearse. 5. tv. to work at a skill over and over in
order to become better at it. 6. tv. to do something; to make a habit
of something. 7. tv. to work in medicine or law.
prairie ["prEr i] n. a very large area of land that is covered with different kinds of grasses and other plants.
praise ["prez] 1. n. saying that someone or something is good; the use
of words to express satisfaction or a favorable judgment. (Sg or pl
with the same meaning, but not countable.) 2. tv. to express satisfaction with someone or something; to talk about the good things
someone or something does or how good someone or something is.
3. tv. to worship someone or God with words or songs.
prank ["prANk] n. a trick or joke that is played on someone.
prankster ["prANk st#] n. someone who plays a trick or joke on someone.
pray ["pre] 1. iv. to give thanks to God; to say a prayer to God; to ask
God or some religious being or figure for something. 2. tv. to pray as
in Q, asking that something will happen the way one wants. (The
object is a clause with that U.)
prayer ["prEr] 1. n. communication with God or some other religious
being or figure. 2. n. the words one uses when worshiping or praying
to God.
preach ["pritS] 1. iv. to give a sermon; to talk about something religious. 2. tv. to deliver a sermon; to deliver a particular message
through a sermon. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
preacher ["pritS #] n. someone who preaches; the leader of a church;
a minister. (Less formal than minister.)
precious ["prES @s] 1. adj. very valuable; worth a lot of money. (Adv:
preciously.) 2. adj. very much loved; very dear to someone; cherished.
(Fig. on Q. Adv: preciously.) 3. adj. charming and cute. (Adv: preciously.)
precise [prI "saIs] adj. exact; carefully and accurately detailed. (Adv:
precisely.)
precision [prI "sI [email protected]] n. accuracy; the quality of being precise; doing
something precisely. (No pl.)
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predict
predict [prI "dIkt] tv. to say that something is going to happen before
it happens; to prophesy that something will happen. (The object can
be a clause with that U.)
prediction [prI "dIk [email protected]] n. a statement made about something that is
going to happen in the future; a prophecy.
preface ["prEf Is] 1. n. an introduction to a speech or to something
that is written. 2. tv. to begin a speech or written piece with an introduction.
prefer [prI "f#] tv. to like someone or something better than one likes
someone or something else. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
preferable ["prEf @ [email protected] [email protected]] adj. more preferred; more desirable. (Adv:
preferably.)
preference ["prEf @ [email protected]] 1. n. special attention that is given to certain people or things; favor. (No pl.) 2. n. someone or something that
is preferred over someone or something else.
prefix ["pri fIks] n. a letter or a group of letters at the beginning of a
word that usually changes the meaning of the word.
pregnant ["prEg [email protected]] adj. [of a woman or female creature] carrying
developing offspring within.
prehistoric [pri hI "stor Ik] adj. happening before history was first
recorded. (Adv: prehistorically [...Ik li].)
prejudice ["prEdZ @ dIs] 1. n. opinion formed about someone or something before learning all the facts. (Pl only for types and instances.)
2. tv. to cause someone to have Q.
preliminary [prI "lIm @ nEr i] 1. adj. happening before something else;
being an introduction to something that is more important or more
difficult. (Adv: preliminarily [prI lIm @ "nEr @ li].) 2. n. an action or a
preparation that is done before something that is more difficult or
more important.
prelude ["pre lud] n. an introduction, especially a short piece of music
that comes before a longer work of music.
premier [prI "mIr] 1. adj. best; most respected. (Prenominal only.)
2. n. the prime minister of a country.
premiere [prI "mIr] 1. n. the first performance or presentation of a
play, film, symphony, etc. 2. iv. [for a play, film, symphony, etc.] to
be performed for the first time.
premise ["prEm Is] 1. n. a statement that an argument or another statement is based on; a statement that is assumed to be true and on which
358
presence
another statement is based. 2. n. a basic theme that is developed or
built on. 3. s n. a location; a piece of property, including the buildings that are built on it. (Treated as pl.)
premium ["prim i @m] 1. n. a regular payment to an insurance company for some kind of protection. 2. n. an additional cost in addition
to the regular cost. 3. n. a small prize or reward that is given to someone to buy something or use a service. 4. adj. of high quality; costing more; of greater value.
prenominal [pri "nam @ [email protected]] adj. [of an adjective] occurring before the
noun it modifies. (Adv: prenominally.)
prep. an abbreviation of preposition.
prepaid [pri "ped] pt/pp of prepay.
prepare [prI "pEr] 1. tv. to make something ready for someone or
something; to make something ready for use. 2. iv. to make oneself
ready to do something.
prepay [pri "pe] tv., irreg. to pay some amount before it is due; to pay
for something in advance; to pay for something before one receives
it. (Pt/pp: prepaid.)
preposition [prEp @ "zI [email protected]] n. a word that is used to show the relationship of one word or phrase to another word or phrase. (Abbreviated prep. here.)
preschool ["pri skul] n. a school for small children before they are old
enough to go to kindergarten.
prescribe [prI "skraIb] 1. tv. [for a physician] to recommend or order
that a certain medication be sold to and taken by a patient. 2. tv. [for
a doctor] to advise a patient to do something to become or stay
healthy. (The object can be a clause with that U.) 3. tv. to state something as a law; to establish something as a law. (The object can be a
clause with that U.)
prescription [prI "skrIp [email protected]] 1. n. ordering or prescribing something,
especially medicine or medical treatment. 2. n. an order to do something or take medicine, especially a written order for medicine given
to a patient by a doctor. 3. n. the actual medicine that is ordered by
W.
presence ["prEz @ns] 1. n. the state of being present; being in the same
place as someone or something else. (No pl.) 2. n. the power or influence one has in a group of people or in an institution. 3. n. something that can be felt or sensed but not seen, such as a spirit.
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present
present 1. ["prEz @nt] adj. being in the same room or place as someone or something else; not absent. 2. ["prEz @nt] adj. now; at this time;
happening now. (Adv: presently.) 3. ["prEz @nt] n. now; this time; this
moment in time. (No pl.) 4. ["prEz @nt] n. a gift; something that is
given to someone else. 5. ["prEz @nt] n. the state of a verb that indicates that something is happening now. (Short for present tense.)
6. [prI "zEnt] tv. to give something to someone, especially as part of
a ceremony. 7. [prI "zEnt] tv. to make something available for the public to see; to bring something to someone’s attention. 8. [prI "zEnt] tv.
to introduce someone to someone else.
presentation [prEz @n "te [email protected]] 1. n. the way that something is shown
to other people; the manner or style in which something is shown to
other people. (No pl.) 2. n. a session of showing or explaining something to other people. 3. n. the ceremony of giving something to
someone else.
present-day ["prEz @nt "de] adj. current; happening now; of or about
the present time.
presently ["prEz @nt li] 1. adv. now; at this time. 2. adv. soon. (Formal.)
preservation [prE z# "ve [email protected]] n. the process of preserving something;
keeping something safe or in good condition. (No pl.)
preserve [prI "z#v] 1. tv. to keep someone or something alive, healthy,
safe, or in good condition. 2. tv. to do something or add something
to something to keep it from spoiling or decaying. 3. n. an area of
land where plants and animals are protected.
preserves n. fruit cooked in sugar and sealed in a jar. (Treated as pl,
but not countable.)
preside [prI "zaId] 1. iv. to be in charge of a meeting or a business; to
be in control. 2. over to oversee something, such as a meeting.
president ["prEz @ [email protected]] 1. n. the leader of the government of a republic, including the leader of the government of the United States of
America. 2. n. the leader or head officer of an organization, club,
company, university, etc. 3. n. the office and position of power occupied by Q or W.
presidential [prEz @ "dEn [email protected]] adj. of or about a president; associated
with a president. (Adv: presidentially.)
press ["prEs] 1. n. a machine that prints letters and pictures on paper
for newspapers, magazines, books, etc. (Short for printing press.) 2. n.
the coverage of an action or event by newspapers and other media.
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price
(No pl.) 3. tv. to push something against something else; to push
something with force; to weigh down heavily on something. 4. tv. to
move a hot iron over wrinkled clothing or fabric in order to make it
smooth. 5. iv. to push against something else; to push with force; to
weigh down heavily; to push forward.
pressure ["prES #] 1. n. the effect of a force or a weight that is pushed
against someone or something. (No pl.) 2. n. strong influence; strong
persuasion. (Fig. on Q.)
pretend [prI "tEnd] 1. iv. to act [as if something were so]. 2. iv. to act
as if one were doing something; to try to look as if one were doing
something. 3. tv. to act as if something were so; to play by acting as
if something were so. (The object is a clause with that U.)
pretty ["prIt i] 1. adj. attractive; pleasing; beautiful. (Adv: prettily.
Comp: prettier; sup: prettiest.) 2. adv. rather; quite; very.
pretzel ["prEt [email protected]] n. a salted, baked stick of bread, often twisted in the
shape of a loose knot.
prevail [prI "vel] 1. iv. to exist in many places; to be widespread.
2. (over) to triumph [over someone or something]; to win [beating someone or something].
prevent from [prI "vEnt [email protected]] tv. not to allow something to happen;
not to allow someone to do something; to keep something from happening; to keep someone from doing something; to stop something
before it begins.
preventable [prI "vEnt @ [email protected]] adj. able to be prevented. (Adv: preventably.)
prevention [prI "vEn [email protected]] n. preventing something. (No pl.)
preview ["pri vju] 1. n. an opportunity to see something before it is
available to the public. 2. iv. [for something] to be shown as Q. 3. tv.
to watch or listen to something as Q.
previous ["pri vi @s] adj. earlier; happening before something else;
coming before. (Adv: previously.)
prey ["pre] 1. n. an animal that is hunted, killed, or eaten by another
animal. (No pl. Compare this with pray.) 2. n. someone who is a victim of someone else. (No pl. Fig. on Q.)
price ["praIs] 1. n. the amount of money that something costs; the
amount of money that something will be sold for. 2. tv. to determine
how much something will cost; to set the amount of money that
something will cost.
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pride
pride ["praId] 1. n. the pleasure that one feels when one does something well; the feeling one has when one does something good. (No
pl.) 2. n. someone or something for which one has Q. (No pl.) 3. n.
a good opinion of oneself; too high an opinion of oneself. (No pl.)
priest ["prist] n. someone who is trained to perform religious duties.
(In the United States, especially in the Roman Catholic, Orthodox
Catholic, and Episcopal Churches.)
prim ["prIm] adj. very proper; very formal; very exact; very precise; easily shocked by rude or rough behavior. (Adv: primly. Comp: primmer; sup: primmest.)
primary ["praI mEr i] 1. adj. the most important; chief; main; principal. (Adv: primarily [praI "mEr @ li].) 2. n. an election that is held to
determine who will represent a political party in the election for a
political office.
prime ["praIm] 1. adj. [of a state or condition] best or excellent; of the
highest quality. 2. adj. most important; chief; first in time, order, or
importance. 3. tv. to add water or liquid to a pump to replace the air
that is inside so that the pump is able to draw fluid. 4. tv. to make
someone or something ready for something. 5. tv. to cover a surface
with primer before painting it.
primer ["praIm #] n. a liquid that is spread over wood before one covers the wood with paint. (Pl only for types and instances.)
primitive ["prIm @ tIv] 1. adj. early in the development of something;
early in the history of humans. (Adv: primitively.) 2. adj. very simple; not complicated. (Adv: primitively.)
primp ["prImp] iv. to dress and get ready for a social event very carefully.
prince ["prIns] 1. n. the son or grandson of a king or a queen. 2. n. the
husband of a woman who inherits the throne and becomes queen.
princely ["prIns li] 1. adj. like a prince; having great charm and manners. 2. adj. elegant; refined; noble. (Fig. on Q.)
princess ["prIns Es] 1. n. the daughter or granddaughter of a king or
queen. 2. n. the wife of a prince.
principal ["prIns @ [email protected]] 1. n. the head of an elementary, middle, or high
school. (Compare this with principle.) 2. n. an amount of borrowed
money on which the borrower must pay interest. 3. n. the most
important or major person in a group. 4. adj. main; chief; primary;
most important. (Adv: principally ["prIns @ pli].)
362
private
principle ["prIns @ [email protected]] 1. n. obedience to W and E; honor. (No pl.
Compare this with principal.) 2. n. a general or fundamental law or
rule. 3. n. a rule of behavior or conduct.
print ["prInt] 1. tv. to make letters of the alphabet by hand so that each
letter is separate. 2. tv. to put words or pictures on a blank piece of
paper, one page at a time, using some kind of machine. 3. tv. to publish a book, magazine, or newspaper using a printing press or a computer printer. 4. tv. to publish something that is written in a book,
newspaper, magazine, etc. 5. tv. to make a photograph from film.
6. tv. to cause a computer to print something as in W. 7. iv. to make
letters of the alphabet so that each letter is separate. 8. iv. to make
books, magazines, newspapers, etc., with a printing press. 9. iv. [for
a computer printer] to operate as in W. 10. n. fabric that has a pattern on it. 11. n. a photograph that is made from film; a photograph.
12. n. a fingerprint.
printer ["prIn t#] 1. n. a business or person that prints books, magazines, and other materials. 2. n. a machine that causes computer
information to be put onto paper.
printing ["prIn tIN] 1. n. letters or words that are printed by hand; letters that are put on paper so that the letters are separate and distinct.
(No pl.) 2. n. letters that are put on a page by a press or a computer.
(No pl.) 3. n. all the copies of a book printed by machine at one time.
printout ["prInt aUt] n. a copy of information from a computer,
printed on paper.
prison ["prIz @n] 1. n. a building that criminals are kept in; a large jail.
2. n. a place where someone is not allowed to leave; a place where
someone has no freedom. (Fig. on Q.)
prisoner ["prIz n#] 1. n. someone who is kept in a prison. 2. n. someone or a creature that is not free to go. (Fig. on Q.)
pristine ["prIs tin] adj. as fresh and clean as when it was new; spotless.
(Adv: pristinely.)
privacy ["praIv @ si] n. a state of being away from other people or away
from the attention of the public. (No pl.)
private ["praIv It] 1. adj. not shared among everyone; meant only for
a small number of people; not public. (Adv: privately.) 2. adj. individual; concerning only one person. (Adv: privately.) 3. adj. secluded;
isolated; quiet; away from other people. (Adv: privately.) 4. adj. not
owned, controlled, or managed by the government. (Adv: privately.)
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privilege
privilege ["prIv (@) lIdZ] n. special rights; special and honored status.
(Pl only for types and instances.)
prize ["praIz] 1. n. an award that is given to a winner; an award that
is given to someone who does well in a competition. 2. tv. to consider
something to be worth very much; to place a great value on something.
pro ["pro] n. a professional; having great skill or training. (Pl ends in
-s.)
probable ["prab @ [email protected]] adj. having a great chance of happening; likely
to happen; likely to be true. (Adv: probably.)
probably ["prab @ bli] adv. very likely; likely to happen or likely to be
true.
probation [pro "be [email protected]] 1. n. a situation where an offender remains
out of jail and just under observation as long as no further crimes are
committed. (No pl form.) 2. n. a trial period. (Fig. on Q. No pl
form.)
probe ["prob] 1. n. a complete examination or detailed search for facts.
2. n. a thin rod with a rounded end that is used to examine the inside
of a hole, wound, or cavity. 3. n. a rocket or satellite that is sent into
space to relay information about space or other planets to scientists
on earth. 4. tv. to examine a hole, wound, or cavity, using W or a similar object. 5. iv. to examine; to search.
problem ["prab [email protected]] 1. n. a question that must be answered; a difficulty. 2. n. a question put forward for solving, as in a school exercise
or test. 3. adj. difficult to deal with; difficult to work with; causing
difficulty.
procedure [[email protected] "si dZ#] n. the way that something is done; the way
that a process is done; a method.
proceed [[email protected] "sid] iv. to begin to do something.
proceeds ["pro sidz] n. money that is collected or received from someone or something. (Treated as pl, but not countable.)
process ["pra sEs] 1. n. a series of actions; a set of procedures used to
do, make, achieve, prepare, or develop something. 2. tv. to do a series
of actions to something; to prepare, achieve, or develop something.
procession [[email protected] "sE [email protected]] n. a moving line of people or things; a steady
movement of people or things in a line.
proclaim [[email protected] "klem] tv. to declare something officially; to make something public knowledge. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
364
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procure [pro "kjUr] tv. to get something by work or effort.
produce 1. ["pro dus] n. food or food products that are farmed or
grown; fruits and vegetables. (No pl.) 2. [[email protected] "dus] tv. to grow something; to create something. 3. [[email protected] "dus] tv. to cause something to be;
to create a result. 4. [[email protected] "dus] tv. to make something from parts or
materials. 5. [[email protected] "dus] tv. to coordinate and organize the details
involved in making or presenting a movie, play, or other performance. 6. [[email protected] "dus] iv. to do what is expected or required, especially
in terms of business goals.
producer [[email protected] "dus #] 1. n. someone or something that produces
something. 2. n. someone who coordinates and organizes the details
involved in making or presenting a movie, television show, play, or
other performance.
product ["pra [email protected]] 1. n. something that is produced; something that
is made, created, or grown. 2. n. someone or something that is the
result of certain conditions; a result. 3. n. the number that is determined by multiplying two or more numbers together.
production [[email protected] "d^k [email protected]] 1. n. producing something; making something. (No pl.) 2. n. the amount of or rate of Q. (No pl.) 3. n. a
movie, television show, play, or other performance.
profess [[email protected] "fEs] tv. to declare something; to claim something. (The
object can be a clause with that U.)
profession [[email protected] "fE [email protected]] 1. n. a job or career, especially one that
requires education or training. 2. n. all or most of the people who
work in a certain Q.
professional [[email protected] "fES @ [email protected]] 1. the adj. form of profession Q. (Adv:
professionally.) 2. adj. showing the skill and standards of E. (Adv:
professionally.) 3. n. someone who works in a profession. (Shortened
to pro informally.)
professor [[email protected] "fEs #] n. someone who holds a faculty position in a
university or college. (Also a term of address.)
profile ["pro faIl] 1. n. a side view of someone or something, especially
of someone’s face. 2. n. a short description of someone or something.
profit ["praf It] 1. n. the amount of money made by a person or business after all expenses are paid. 2. tv. to benefit someone or something.
program ["pro grAm] 1. n. a broadcast show, such as on radio or television. 2. n. a booklet provided to members of an audience, giving
365
programmer
information about the performance. 3. n. a schedule of the parts of
a performance. 4. n. a set of coded instructions given to a computer.
programmer ["pro grAm #] n. someone who writes a computer program.
progress 1. ["pra grEs] n. the movement made toward a result or goal.
(No pl.) 2. ["pra grEs] n. the improvement that someone or something makes when moving toward a goal. (No pl.) 3. [[email protected] "grEs] iv.
to move forward; to advance. 4. [[email protected] "grEs] iv. to develop; to become
better.
prohibit [pro "hIb It] tv. to forbid something.
prohibition [pro @ "bI [email protected]] 1. n. forbidding or not allowing something.
(Pl only for types and instances.) 2. n. the period of time in U.S. history when it was illegal to make, sell, or transport alcohol. (Capitalized. No pl.)
project 1. ["pra dZEkt] n. an assignment or task that must be planned,
researched, and executed. 2. [[email protected] "dZEkt] tv. to cast a light onto something. 3. [[email protected] "dZEkt] tv. to make one’s voice or words louder and
carry farther. 4. [[email protected] "dZEkt] tv. to forecast something; to estimate
something. 5. [[email protected] "dZEkt] iv. to be louder when speaking. 6. [[email protected]
"dZEkt] iv. to stick out; to extend from a surface.
projection [[email protected] "dZEk [email protected]] 1. n. something that sticks out or projects.
2. n. a prediction; an estimate of a future state.
projector [[email protected] "dZEk t#] n. a machine that casts an image on a screen,
wall, etc. (The image may have been recorded on film or digitally on
tape.)
prolong [pro "lON] tv. to cause something to last longer than it normally would; to lengthen the time it takes to do something.
prominent ["pram @ [email protected]] 1. adj. famous; well known; respected.
(Adv: prominently.) 2. adj. noticeable; easy to see. (Adv: prominently.)
promise ["pram Is] 1. n. a sign that someone will be successful or do
good work. (No pl.) 2. n. a pledge to do something. 3. tv. to pledge
to do something; to vow that one will do something. (The object is a
clause with that U.) 4. tv. to cause someone to expect something.
promote [[email protected] "mot] 1. tv. to work for the acceptance of someone or
something through advertising and other public contacts. 2. tv. to
raise someone to a new and higher level in employment or schooling.
promotion [[email protected] "mo [email protected]] 1. n. the movement of someone to a higher
level of employment or schooling. (Pl only for types and instances.)
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2. n. advertising and other activity intended to sell something. (No
pl.)
prompt ["prampt] 1. adj. doing something, such as arriving, at the
right time; on time. (Adv: promptly.) 2. tv. to encourage or cause
someone to do something. 3. tv. to give someone a quiet reminder of
what is to be said next. (Especially in stage performances.) 4. n. a
symbol on a computer screen that shows that the computer is ready
to receive information.
pron. an abbreviation of pronoun.
pronoun ["pro naUn] n. a word that takes the place of a noun or nominal and refers to someone or something already mentioned. (Abbreviated pron. here.)
pronounce [[email protected] "naUns] 1. tv. to speak the sound of a letter or a word;
to make the sound of a letter or a word. 2. tv. to declare something
about someone or something officially.
pronunciation [[email protected] [email protected] si "e [email protected]] n. the way a letter, group of letters,
or a word sounds when spoken; the way someone says things. (Pl only
for types and instances.)
proof ["pruf] 1. n. something that shows that something is definitely
true. (No pl.) 2. n. a printed copy of something that is checked for
mistakes before the final copy is printed; a first or sample version of
a photograph. 3. tv. to proofread something.
proofread ["pruf rid] 1. tv., irreg. to read something very carefully to
look for and correct mistakes. (Pt/pp: proofread ["pruf rEd].) 2. iv.,
irreg. to read very carefully to look for mistakes.
prop ["prap] n. an object that is used in a play or in a movie by an actor.
propaganda [prap @ "gAn [email protected]] n. information that tries to influence or
change how people think. (No pl.)
propel [pro "pEl] tv. to cause someone or something to move ahead; to
cause someone or something to move forward; to move something
ahead.
propeller [pro "pEl #] n. a set of blades that rotate very fast in air or
water, used to push or move a boat or an airplane.
proper ["prap #] 1. adj. right; suitable; correct; appropriate. (Adv:
properly.) 2. adj. [in grammar, of a noun] referring to a person or
place. (Such nouns are capitalized.) 3. adj. referring to a particular
place itself, and not an area outside of that place. (Not prenominal.
Adv: properly.)
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properly
properly ["prap # li] 1. adv. in the right way; suitably; appropriately;
according to what is expected. 2. adv. strictly.
property ["prap # ti] 1. n. something that is owned. (No pl.) 2. n. an
amount of land and any structures that have been built on it. (No pl.)
prophecy ["praf @ si] n. the ability to foresee the future. (Pl only for
types and instances.)
prophesy ["praf @ saI] tv. to predict what will happen in the future; to
say that something is going to happen. (The object can be a clause
with that U.)
prophet ["praf It] 1. n. someone who has the talent of being able to
see into the future. 2. n. [in some religions] a person chosen to speak
for God.
proportion [[email protected] "por [email protected]] 1. n. the relationship between the sizes of
different parts of someone or something. 2. tv. to adjust the amount,
degree, or size of something in comparison to something else.
proposal [p[email protected] "poz @l] 1. n. a suggestion; a plan. 2. n. an offer of marriage made to someone.
propose [[email protected] "poz] tv. to suggest something; to say something so that
it is considered. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
proposition [prap @ "zI [email protected]] 1. n. a proposal; something that is being
considered; a suggestion. 2. n. a statement; a statement that is to be
proved either true or false.
propulsion [[email protected] "p^l [email protected]] n. a force that causes something to move forward. (No pl form.)
prose ["proz] n. the usual form of written language; writing that is not
in verse. (No pl.)
prosecute ["pras @ kjut] tv. to seek to enforce a law against someone
or some group in a court of law.
prospect ["pras pEkt] 1. n. something that is probable; something that
is likely; a possibility; a likelihood. 2. n. the likelihood that something
will be successful; the possibility that something will be successful.
3. n. someone who will probably use a product or a service; someone who could become a customer. 4. for to search for minerals,
oil, gold, silver, or precious stones in the earth.
prosper ["pras p#] iv. to become successful; to earn enough money so
that one can live well; to thrive.
prosperity [pras "pEr @ ti] n. the condition of being prosperous; success; monetary success. (No pl.)
368
province
prosperous ["pras [email protected] [email protected]] adj. thriving; earning or having enough
money so that one can live well. (Adv: prosperously.)
protect [[email protected] "tEkt] tv. to keep someone or something safe; to guard
someone or something.
protection [[email protected] "tEk [email protected]] n. keeping someone or something safe; the
quality offered by someone or something that protects. (Pl only for
types and instances.)
protective [[email protected] "tEk tIv] adj. protecting; giving protection; defending;
keeping someone or something safe. (Adv: protectively.)
protein ["pro tin] n. one of many chemical substances important to
the cells of all living plants and animals. (Usually thought of in terms
of food.)
protest 1. ["pro tEst] n. a group of people displaying opposition or
anger. 2. ["pro tEst] n. a complaint. 3. [[email protected] "tEst] tv. to complain
about something; to show disapproval of something. (The object can
be a clause with that U.) 4. [[email protected] "tEst] iv. to complain about something.
proton ["pro tan] n. a particle in the nucleus W of an atom that carries a positive electrical charge.
prototype ["pro [email protected] taIp] n. the original example of something from
which later examples are developed.
proud ["praUd] 1. adj. showing or feeling pride; having a good opinion about oneself and what one has accomplished. (Adv: proudly.
Comp: prouder; sup: proudest.) 2. adj. causing someone to feel pride.
(Adv: proudly. Comp: prouder; sup: proudest.) 3. adj. having too high
an opinion about oneself; arrogant. (Adv: proudly. Comp: prouder;
sup: proudest.)
prove ["pruv] tv., irreg. to provide proof of something; to be the proof
of something. (Pp: proved or proven. The object can be a clause with
that U.)
proven ["pruv @n] a pp of prove.
proverb ["pra v#b] n. a short saying that makes a wise comment.
provide [[email protected] "vaId] 1. tv. to furnish or supply someone or something
with something. 2. tv. to state or tell something.
province ["pra vIns] 1. n. one of the main divisions of a country, such
as Canada, similar to a state. 2. n. an area of study, knowledge, or
activity.
369
provincial
provincial [[email protected] "vIn [email protected]] 1. adj. of or about a province or provinces of
a country. (Adv: provincially.) 2. adj. of limited, local experience;
rural in attitude and outlook. (Usually derogatory. Adv: provincially.)
provision [[email protected] "vI [email protected]] 1. n. a condition; a detail or statement. 2. n.
an arrangement that is made ahead of time. (Often pl.)
provisions n. food and supplies needed for everyday living. (Treated
as pl, but not countable.)
provoke [[email protected] "vok] 1. tv. to make someone angry; to irritate someone.
2. tv. to cause an action to start or to happen. (Usually leading to negative results.)
prowl ["praUl] iv. to sneak around quietly, like an animal hunting for
food or a thief looking for something to steal.
prowler ["praUl #] n. a thief; a burglar who sneaks about in the night.
prude ["prud] n. someone who is easily offended or shocked; someone
who is overly modest or proper.
prudence ["prud ns] n. wisdom; care in thought and action; thoughtful judgment. (No pl.)
prudent ["prud nt] adj. wise; thinking carefully before one does something. (Adv: prudently.)
prudish ["prud IS] adj. too easily shocked or offended; too modest.
(Adv: prudishly.)
prune ["prun] 1. n. a dried plum, eaten as food. 2. iv. to remove extra
branches or leaves from a plant; to trim a tree, flower, bush, or shrub
so that it has a nice, even shape. 3. tv. to make a plant look nice by
removing extra branches or leaves.
pry ["praI] iv. to be too curious; to ask personal questions about things
that should not concern one.
psychiatrist [sI "kaI @ trIst] n. a doctor who treats people who have
sicknesses of the mind.
psychiatry [sI "kaI @ tri] n. the science of treating people who have
sicknesses of the mind. (No pl.)
psychological [saI [email protected] "ladZ I [email protected]] 1. the adj. form of psychology Q.
(Adv: psychologically [...Ik li].) 2. the adj. form of psychology W.
(Adv: psychologically [...Ik li].)
psychologist [saI "kal @ dZIst] n. someone who is trained in psychology; a specialist in behavior.
370
pulse
psychology [saI "kal @ dZi] 1. n. the study and science of the mind
and the behavior of individuals. (No pl.) 2. n. the way people behave,
think, and feel; the way a person behaves, thinks, and feels. (No pl.)
public ["p^b lIk] adj. available to everyone; available to people in general; not restricted; not private. (Adv: publicly.)
publication [[email protected] [email protected] "ke [email protected]] 1. n. making information in written form,
such as in a book, magazine, or newspaper, available to the public.
(No pl.) 2. n. any written document that is published.
publicity [[email protected] "lIs @ ti] n. information that is brought to everyone’s
attention. (No pl.)
publicly ["p^b lIk li] adv. [done] in public; [done] where people can
see.
publish ["p^b lIS] 1. tv. to assemble, print, and sell books, magazines,
newspapers, or other printed materials. 2. tv. to make something well
known.
publisher ["p^b lI S#] n. someone or a company that assembles, prints,
and makes written materials available for sale.
pudding ["pUd IN] n. a soft, sweet, creamy food, usually eaten as a
dessert. (Pl only for types and instances.)
puddle ["p^d l] n. a collection of water or other liquid on the ground
or the surface of something.
puff ["p^f] 1. n. a short blast of air, smoke, steam, gas, etc., that is
blown out from something. 2. tv. to blow air, steam, smoke, etc., out
a little bit at a time. 3. iv. to pull smoke from a cigarette or a cigar
with small breaths. 4. iv. to breathe when one is out of breath; to
breathe with short, quick breaths.
pull ["pUl] 1. tv. to move someone or something in some direction.
2. tv. to drag someone or something behind oneself; to move someone or something behind oneself while one is moving. 3. n. a tug.
pulp ["p^lp] 1. n. the soft part inside a fruit, vegetable, or plant. (No
pl.) 2. n. any soft, partially solid, wet substance. (No pl.) 3. tv. to
make W from something.
pulpit ["pUl pIt] n. a raised platform that a preacher, priest, minister,
etc., stands on when preaching.
pulse ["p^ls] 1. n. the rhythm of the flow of blood through one’s body,
caused by the beating of the heart. (No pl.) 2. n. a rhythm with a
regular beat; a movement of something with regular stops and starts.
3. iv. to beat regularly, like the beating of the heart; to beat in rhythm.
371
pump
pump ["p^mp] 1. n. a device that forces air, liquid, or gas through a
tube or pipe. 2. tv. to force air, liquid, or gas through a tube or pipe.
pumpkin ["p^mp kIn] 1. n. a large, round, heavy orange fruit that
grows on a vine. 2. adj. made with Q.
punch ["p^ntS] 1. n. a sweet drink made by mixing many different
things, usually including some kind of fruit juice. (No pl.) 2. n. a tool
or machine that pierces holes through objects or that stamps designs
on objects. 3. n. a quick, powerful hit. 4. n. impact; effective power;
strength. (Fig. on E.) 5. tv. to hit someone or something powerfully
with one’s fist.
punctuate ["p^Nk tSu et] 1. tv. to use punctuation marks in something
that one writes. 2. tv. to emphasize something; to stress something.
punctuation [[email protected] tSu "e [email protected]] n. the use of special marks to make
writing easier to understand. (No pl.)
puncture ["p^nk tS#] 1. n. a hole in the surface of something made
by a sharp or pointed object. 2. tv. to make a hole in the surface of
something by using a sharp or pointed object.
punish ["p^n IS] 1. tv. to give someone a penalty for doing something
wrong. 2. tv. to use or handle something roughly. (Fig. on Q.)
punishment ["p^n IS [email protected]] 1. n. punishing; the practice of giving
penalties for doing something wrong. (No pl.) 2. n. rough treatment.
(Fig. on Q. No pl.)
punk ["p^Nk] 1. n. a young criminal; a young person who gets into
trouble a lot. 2. n. a loud, harsh style of music first made popular in
the late 1970s by young people. (No pl.) 3. the adj. use of Q or W.
puny ["pju ni] adj. smaller and weaker than average. (Adv: punily.
Comp: punier; sup: puniest.)
pup ["p^p] n. a young dog; a puppy; the young of certain animals,
including the seal.
pupil ["pju [email protected]] 1. n. a student; someone who studies in school; someone who is taught by a teacher. 2. n. the round, black opening in the
middle of the colored part of the eye that allows light into the eye.
puppy ["p^p i] n. a young dog.
purchase ["p# [email protected]] 1. n. an instance of buying something. 2. n. something that is bought. 3. tv. to buy something.
purchaser ["p# [email protected] s#] n. a buyer; someone who buys something.
pure ["pjUr] 1. adj. completely made from only one thing; not mixed
with anything. (Adv: purely. Comp: purer; sup: purest.) 2. adj. [of a
372
put
color] clear and not cloudy. (Adv: purely. Comp: purer; sup: purest.)
3. adj. mere; absolute; nothing but. (Adv: purely. Comp: purer; sup:
purest.) 4. adj. without sin; without evil. (Adv: purely. Comp: purer;
sup: purest.) 5. adj. not having had sex. (Adv: purely. Comp: purer;
sup: purest.)
purge ["p#dZ] 1. n. an instance of forcing unwanted people to leave a
government, university, society, or other group. 2. tv. to make something clean by getting rid of what is dirty; to clean something out.
3. tv. to destroy records or files.
purity ["pjUr @ ti] n. the quality of being pure; the degree to which
something is pure. (No pl.)
purple ["p# [email protected]] 1. n. the color made by mixing blue and red; the color
of ripe grapes that are not green or red. (Pl only for types and
instances.) 2. adj. of the color Q.
purpose ["p# [email protected]] n. an intention; the reason that someone does
something; a kind of goal.
purse ["p#s] 1. n. a bag used, especially by women, to hold money and
other personal items. 2. n. an amount of money that is offered as a
prize.
pursue [p# "su] 1. tv. to chase someone or something; to follow and
attempt to catch someone or something. 2. tv. to continue to work
toward something; to seek something. 3. tv. to follow a plan of action.
pursuit [p# "sut] 1. n. pursuing someone or something; chasing after
someone or something. (No pl.) 2. n. a hobby or job that fills one’s
time.
push ["pUS] 1. iv. to force movement in a certain direction. 2. tv. to
apply pressure to something, as if to move it. 3. tv. to move something or someone by applying pressure. 4. n. a shove; a powerful
movement that causes something to move. (No pl.)
put ["pUt] 1. tv., irreg. to place something in a certain position; to cause
something to be in a certain place or position; to move something to
a certain place or position. (Pt/pp: put.) 2. tv., irreg. to express something; to say something in a certain way. 3. off to postpone or
delay something until something happens or until some future time.
4. away to store something; to put something where it can be
found again. 5. on to dress in a particular garment. 6. up with
to endure; to tolerate. 7. out to send someone or something out.
8. over to do something convincingly.
373
putty
putty ["p^t i] n. a soft, oily substance used to seal pipe connections, to
seal the edges of glass in window frames, and to fill uneven surfaces.
(No pl form.)
puzzle ["p^z @l] 1. n. something that confuses people; a problem that
is confusing or difficult to solve. 2. n. something similar to Q that
people try to understand or solve for entertainment. 3. tv. to confuse
someone.
pyramid ["pIr @ mId] 1. n. a four-sided structure with sides that are
shaped like triangles and meet at one point on top. 2. n. one of a
group of large Egyptian tombs—shaped like Q—in which Egyptian
kings and queens were once buried.
python ["paI [email protected]] n. a large snake found in tropical areas of Asia,
southeast India, Africa, and Australia that uses its powerful muscles
to constrict and kill its prey.
374
Q
quack ["kwAk] 1. iv. to make the characteristic noise of a duck. 2. n.
the noise that a duck makes. 3. n. someone who claims to be a doctor but who is not trained to be a doctor.
quadruped ["kwa [email protected] pEd] an animal having four feet.
quaint ["kwent] adj. strange in an interesting or funny way; charming
in an old-fashioned way. (Adv: quaintly. Comp: quainter; sup: quaintest.)
quake ["kwek] 1. n. a shaking of the earth; an earthquake. (Short for
earthquake.) 2. iv. to shake; to tremble.
qualify ["kwal @ faI] 1. tv. to limit something; to restrict something;
to narrow the meaning of something. 2. iv. to meet the requirements
for something.
quality ["kwal I ti] 1. n. a characteristic property of someone or something. 2. n. a degree or level of excellence. (No pl.) 3. adj. of W that
is good.
quantity ["kwan [email protected] ti] n. an amount; a certain number of something
that can be counted or measured.
quarantine ["kwar @n tin] 1. tv. to isolate a living thing that has a disease or has been around another creature with a disease. 2. n. a period
of isolation of living things that have an illness or have been exposed
to an illness. (Pl only for types and instances.)
quarrel ["kwar @l] 1. n. an angry argument; an angry disagreement.
2. iv. to argue with someone angrily; for two or more people to argue
angrily.
quarry ["kwar i] 1. n. a place where marble, granite, and other kinds
of stone are removed from the earth. 2. n. the object of a hunt or
search. 3. tv. to remove stone from Q.
quart ["kwort] n. a unit of measure of liquids, equal to one-fourth gallon, 32 ounces, or about 0.95 liter.
quarter ["kwor t#] 1. n. one-fourth of something; one of four equal
parts; one of four parts. 2. n. a coin equal to 25 cents or one-fourth
of a dollar. 3. n. fifteen minutes; one-fourth of an hour. (Limited to
quarter to, quarter till, quarter of, quarter after, and quarter past. No
pl.) 4. n. three months; one-fourth of a year. 5. n. one of the four
Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, I nc.
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375
quarters
periods in professional football, basketball, and other games. 6. n. a
neighborhood; a section of a town; a district. 7. n. a period equal to
one-quarter of the school or academic year. 8. tv. to divide something into four parts; to cut something into four parts; to split something into four parts. 9. tv. to give someone, especially soldiers, a
place to stay or live.
quarters n. the place where someone lives. (Treated as pl.)
queasy ["kwiz i] adj. feeling sick, nauseated, or uneasy. (Adv: queasily.
Comp: queasier; sup: queasiest.)
queen ["kwin] 1. n. the female ruler of a country or the wife of a king.
2. n. the sole egg-laying female in a colony or hive of certain species
of insects, such as bees, termites, or ants. 3. n. a playing card that has
a picture of Q on it. 4. n. a chess piece that can move any number of
spaces in a straight line in any direction.
queer ["kwIr] adj. odd; strange; unusual; weird. (Adv: queerly. Comp:
queerer; sup: queerest.)
quell ["kwEl] tv. to calm or put an end to chaos, confusion, or some
other problem.
quench ["kwEntS] 1. tv. to put out a fire by using water. 2. tv. to ease
or eliminate one’s thirst by drinking something.
quest ["kwEst] n. a search for someone or something.
question ["kwEs [email protected]] 1. n. an inquiry; a speech utterance used to
make an inquiry. 2. n. a doubt; a concern; something that one is not
sure about. (No pl.) 3. n. a matter to be considered; a problem for
solving. 4. tv. to ask Q of someone. 5. tv. to doubt something; to
express one’s doubts or concerns about something.
questionable ["kwEs [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]] 1. adj. in doubt; inviting questions
or scrutiny. (Adv: questionably.) 2. adj. possibly not honest or true.
(Adv: questionably.)
questionnaire [kwEs [email protected] "nEr] n. a printed set of questions.
quick ["kwIk] 1. adj. fast; rapid; swift. (Adv: quickly. Comp: quicker;
sup: quickest.) 2. adj. lasting only for a short period of time; beginning and ending in a short period of time. (Adv: quickly. Comp:
quicker; sup: quickest.) 3. adj. able to understand or learn things in a
short amount of time. (Adv: quickly. Comp: quicker; sup: quickest.)
4. n. the flesh under one’s fingernails or toenails. (No pl.) 5. adv. very
rapidly; with great speed. (Colloquial. Comp: quicker; sup: quickest.)
376
quote
quicken ["kwIk @n] 1. iv. to become faster; to move more quickly; to
do something more quickly; to increase the speed of something. 2. tv.
to cause something to become faster; to cause something to occur
more quickly.
quickness ["kwIk [email protected]] n. the quality of being quick. (No pl.)
quicksand ["kwIk sAnd] n. wet sand, often under water, into which
living creatures can sink. (No pl.)
quiet ["kwaI It] 1. adj. not loud; making only a small amount of sound.
(Adv: quietly. Comp: quieter; sup: quietest.) 2. adj. [of a person] shy
and not talkative. (Adv: quietly. Comp: quieter; sup: quietest.) 3. adj.
not active; not moving; calm; still. (Adv: quietly. Comp: quieter; sup:
quietest.) 4. adj. peaceful; restful. (Adv: quietly. Comp: quieter; sup:
quietest.) 5. tv. to cause someone or something to become Q. 6. n.
silence. (No pl.)
quilt ["kwIlt] 1. n. a bed covering made from a soft pad between two
layers of decorative cloth, stitched together. 2. iv. to work at making
Q.
quip ["kwIp] n. a clever, witty, or sarcastic remark.
quirk ["kw#k] n. a strange habit; a strange characteristic.
quit ["kwIt] 1. tv., irreg. to stop doing something. (Pt/pp: quit.) 2. tv.,
irreg. to leave a job; to resign from a job. 3. iv., irreg. [for someone or
something] to cease [doing something].
quite ["kwaIt] adv. very; rather; completely.
quiz ["kwIz] 1. n. a small test; an informal test. (Pl: quizzes.) 2. tv. to
test someone on or about something; to ask someone questions about
someone or something.
quota ["kwot @] n. a required amount of something; a required number of things or people.
quotation [kwo "te [email protected]] n. a statement that was said or written, used
again by someone else; a statement that is quoted from someone or
from someone’s writing.
quote ["kwot] 1. tv. to use a quotation; to repeat part of something
that someone else has said or written, at the same time telling who
said or wrote it. 2. tv. to cite someone or a written source as the origin of a quotation. 3. n. a quotation; a statement that was said or written by someone else. 4. n. an estimate of the price of something.
377
R
rabbi ["rAb aI] n. the leader of a Jewish synagogue; a Jewish religious
leader. (Also a term of address. Capitalized when written as a proper
noun.)
rabbit ["rAb @t] n. a small animal with soft fur, long ears, and a fluffy
tail.
race ["res] 1. n. a contest that has to do with speed; a contest that has
to do with how fast people, animals, or machines can move. 2. n. a
political election, and the time during the campaign leading up to the
election. 3. n. the physical differences among humans that have to do
with dividing people into different groups, especially groups based
on the color of skin. (Pl only for types and instances.) 4. iv. to run
rapidly, as if in a race; to move or operate very fast. 5. tv. to cause
someone or something to take part in Q. 6. tv. to cause an engine to
run very rapidly. 7. tv. to compete against someone to reach a specific goal.
racetrack ["res trAk] n. the place, usually a large oval, where a race
takes place, and the stadium or arena that contains it.
racial ["reS @l] adj. of or about race E. (Adv: racially.)
racism ["res Iz @m] n. prejudice, hatred, or violence shown against
someone of a particular race. (No pl.)
racist ["res Ist] 1. n. someone who believes one race is better than
another. 2. adj. exhibiting racism; showing prejudice against someone’s race.
rack ["rAk] n. a frame with shelves, rods, hooks, or pegs that is used to
hang things from or put things on.
racket ["rAk @t] 1. and racquet n. a device used to hit a ball or something similar back and forth, usually over a net. 2. n. a dishonest or
illegal activity, such as fraud, done to make money.
racquet ["rAk @t] Go to racket.
radar ["re dar] n. a device that uses radio waves to detect an object,
usually a car or an aircraft, and to determine that object’s location,
distance, and speed. (An acronym for radio detecting and ranging. No
pl.)
378
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rafter
radiant ["re di @nt] 1. adj. bright; shining; giving off light. (Adv: radiantly.) 2. adj. looking very happy; glowing. (Fig. on Q. Adv: radiantly.)
radiate ["re di et] tv. to cause something to spread out in all directions
from a center point; to give off rays of something such as heat or light.
radiation [re di "e [email protected]] 1. n. the release of heat, light, or other energy.
(No pl.) 2. n. radioactive particles and energy used in medical treatment. (No pl.)
radiator ["re di et #] 1. n. a device that sends out radiation, usually in
the form of heat. 2. n. the part of an automobile that transfers engine
heat to the surrounding air.
radical ["rAd I [email protected]] 1. adj. complete and thorough; extreme. (Adv: radically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. [of someone] favoring extreme change. (Adv:
radically [...Ik li].) 3. n. someone who favors complete change; someone who favors extreme change.
radii ["re di aI] a pl of radius.
radio ["re di o] 1. n. the sending and receiving of sound through the
air by using electromagnetic waves. (No pl.) 2. n. a device that is used
to receive electromagnetic waves and turn them into sound. (Pl ends
in -s.) 3. the adj. use of Q or W. 4. tv. to send a message by Q. 5. tv.
to send [a message] to someone using W. 6. iv. to use W to send a
message.
radioactive [re di o "Ak tIv] adj. of or about an element, or its compounds, that releases energy as the result of naturally occurring
changes in the nuclear structure of the atoms of the element. (Adv:
radioactively.)
radius ["re di @s] 1. n., irreg. the distance from the center of a circle to
any point on the circle. (Pl: radii or radiuses.) 2. n., irreg. a line that
goes from the center of a circle to any point on the circle.
raffle ["rAf @l] n. a way of raising money where people buy tickets to
win items or prizes that have been donated. (The winning ticket is
chosen at random.)
raft ["rAft] 1. n. boards or logs that are tied together so they will float
on water; a rubber boat that is filled with air and floats on water. 2. iv.
to travel across water on Q.
rafter ["rAf t#] n. one of a series of parallel boards or beams that support a roof.
379
rag
rag ["rAg] n. a piece of cloth, especially one that has no value or is used
for cleaning.
rage ["redZ] 1. n. extreme, violent anger. 2. iv. to show extreme, violent anger toward something.
ragged ["rAg @d] adj. torn; [of cloth] torn or damaged. (Adv: raggedly.)
raid ["red] 1. n. a surprise attack, especially by police or soldiers. 2. tv.
to enter someone’s property or space and attack quickly, suddenly,
and by surprise.
rail ["rel] 1. n. a thick strip of wood or metal, usually used to support
or guide someone or something. 2. n. one of a pair of metal strips on
which a train travels.
railing ["rel IN] n. a thick strip, rail, or tube of wood or metal that people can hold on to for support, usually found on a staircase.
railroad ["rel rod] 1. n. two parallel metal rails on which a train travels. 2. n. a network or system of train tracks, train stations, and
trains. 3. n. a business that operates trains. 4. tv. to move something
quickly and forcefully; to force someone to do something quickly.
5. the adj. use of Q, W, or E.
railway ["rel we] 1. n. a railroad; a railroad of a short length. 2. the
adj. use of Q.
rain ["ren] 1. n. water that falls down from the sky in drops. (No pl.)
2. n. an instance or period of Q. (The pl usually indicates a season
of rain that occurs annually.) 3. iv. [for drops of water] to fall from
the sky. (The subject must be it .) 4. tv. to cause something to fall
from the sky like Q.
rainbow ["ren bo] 1. n. an arch of different colors of light that appears
in the sky, caused by rays of sunlight passing through rain or mist.
2. adj. consisting of the colors of Q; from the group of colors of Q.
raincoat ["ren kot] n. a waterproof coat that people wear when it rains
to keep their clothes dry.
raindrop ["ren drap] n. one drop of rain.
rainfall ["ren fOl] 1. n. the drops of rain that fall when it rains; a period
of falling rain. (No pl.) 2. n. the amount of rain that falls in a certain
place over a certain length of time. (No pl.)
rainstorm ["ren storm] n. a storm that has a large amount of rain.
rainy ["re ni] adj. having a lot of rain. (Adv: rainily. Comp: rainier; sup:
rainiest.)
380
ranch
raise ["rez] 1. tv. to lift someone or something up; to move someone
or something to a higher level; to move someone or something
upward; to cause someone or something to rise. (Compare this with
rise .) 2. tv. to increase the amount of something; to increase the
degree of something; to increase the force of something. 3. tv. to
cause plants to grow; to breed animals. 4. tv. to bring up a child; to
rear a child. 5. tv. to collect or gather a certain amount of money.
6. tv. to bring up a subject or issue; to mention something; to address
a subject or an issue; to begin talking about something. 7. n. an
increase in one’s salary; an increase in the amount of money one earns
at a job.
raisin ["re zIn] n. a dried grape, eaten as food.
rake ["rek] 1. n. a tool that has a long handle that is attached to a row
of curved metal or plastic “fingers,” used to collect fallen leaves, loose
grass, etc. 2. tv. to collect something, especially leaves, hay, grass, or
other objects on the ground, using Q or something similar. 3. tv. to
smooth or clean something by using Q. 4. iv. to use Q; to scrape
with Q.
rally ["rAl i] 1. tv. to bring people together for a certain reason or cause.
2. n. a large meeting, especially a large political meeting, held for a
special reason.
ram ["rAm] 1. n. a male sheep. 2. n. a heavy pole or beam, the end of
which is thrust against something. 3. tv. to hit someone or something;
to crash into someone or something.
ramble ["rAm [email protected]] 1. iv. to talk or write about many different things
with no connection between the different ideas; to talk or write in a
way that is not organized. 2. iv. to wander around in no particular
direction; to go on a relaxing walk. 3. iv. [for a pathway or road] to
wander about, taking an indirect route.
ramp ["rAmp] 1. n. a slanted path that is built or made to connect two
surfaces with different heights. 2. n. a road that is an entrance or exit
to an expressway or tollway.
rampage ["rAm pedZ] n. a period of wild, angry, or violent behavior.
rampant ["rAm [email protected]] adj. growing, moving, or spreading out of control. (Adv: rampantly.)
ran ["rAn] pt of run.
ranch ["rAntS] n. a very large farm where cattle or other animals are
raised.
381
rancher
rancher ["rAntS #] n. someone who works on a ranch; someone who
owns a ranch.
random ["rAn [email protected]] adj. selected by chance. (Adv: randomly.)
rang ["rAN] pt of ring.
range ["rendZ] 1. n. the area between two extremes; the choices, possibilities, or selections available. 2. n. the distance that something can
operate or be used in, especially the distance that someone can see or
hear, that a weapon can fire, or that something can travel without
needing more fuel. (No pl.) 3. n. a field where cattle or other animals
can walk about and look for food. (No pl.) 4. n. a stove with one or
more ovens attached. 5. iv. to vary between two limits or extremes;
to be located between an upper limit and a lower limit.
rank ["rANk] 1. n. one level in a series of levels; one level on a scale of
authority, value, or importance. 2. iv. to occupy a certain position on
a scale of authority, value, or importance; to be on a list in a certain
position. 3. tv. to place someone or something on a list in its proper
order or place. 4. adj. smelling or tasting very bad or unpleasant.
(Adv: rankly.) 5. adj. [of vegetation] growing thickly or coarsely.
ransom ["rAn [email protected]] 1. n. money demanded by kidnappers in exchange
for releasing a hostage or someone who has been kidnapped. (No pl
form in this sense.) 2. tv. to pay money in order to release a hostage
or someone who has been kidnapped. 3. tv. [for a kidnapper] to offer
to release someone who has been kidnapped upon payment of Q.
rant ["rAnt] to talk in a loud, violent way, about someone or something.
rap ["rAp] 1. n. a style of music where the words of the song are spoken in a strong rhythm instead of being sung. (No pl.) 2. n. the sound
made by a quick, strong knock or hit.
rape ["rep] 1. n. the act and crime of forcing someone to have sex. 2. tv.
to force someone to have sex.
rapid ["rAp Id] adj. quick; swift; moving fast; done quickly; happening quickly. (Adv: rapidly.)
rapidity [[email protected] "pId @ ti] n. quickness; speed. (No pl.)
rapids n. the part of a river where the water moves very fast and is very
active. (Treated as pl.)
rapture ["rAp tS#] n. a feeling or expression of complete joy or delight.
(No pl.)
382
rattle
rare ["rEr] 1. adj. not common; not often found, seen, or done. (Adv:
rarely. Comp: rarer; sup: rarest.) 2. adj. [of meat] cooked only a little. (Comp: rarer; sup: rarest.)
rascal ["rAs [email protected]] 1. n. someone who is bad or not honest; a villain. 2. n.
a playful or mischievous child. (Fig. on Q.)
rash ["rAS] 1. n. a disease or condition of the skin, making it red, itchy,
and bumpy. 2. adj. not thinking about something carefully or long
enough; done without careful thought. (Adv: rashly. Comp: rasher;
sup: rashest.)
raspberry ["rAz bEr i] 1. n. a small, sweet, usually red or purple fruit
that grows on a bush, and the bush itself. 2. adj. made or flavored
with Q.
rat ["rAt] 1. n. a small rodent with a long tail. 2. n. someone who is
mean, worthless, not honest, or not loyal. (Fig. on Q.)
rate ["ret] 1. n. the relation of an amount to another amount, such as
speed in relation to time. 2. n. a price [for each unit of something].
3. tv. to assign a value or rank to someone or something. 4. tv. to
deserve something; to be worthy of something.
rather ["rAD #] 1. adv. instead; on the contrary. 2. adv. to an extent;
to a degree; too; very; quite.
ratify ["rAt @ faI] tv. to approve something officially; to make something be valid officially.
ratio ["re Si o] n. the relationship between one amount as compared to
another amount; a proportion. (Pl in -s.)
ration ["rA [email protected]] 1. n. an amount of something; an amount of something as prescribed by policy, rule, or law. 2. tv. to make a substance
available to people only in certain small amounts.
rational ["rAS @ [email protected]] 1. adj. using the mind or the brain; sensible; reasonable; logical. (Adv: rationally.) 2. adj. able to use sense or reason;
aware. (Adv: rationally.)
rationale [rAS @ "nAl] n. a reason; the reason for doing something; reasoning or explanation. (No pl.)
rattle ["rAt @l] 1. n. a noisemaking device, usually a toy for babies, consisting of a small container with bits of hard matter inside. 2. n. the
noise made when a number of small things tap against something, as
with Q. 3. iv. to make a quick set of short noises. 4. tv. to cause
something to make a quick set of short noises.
383
rattlesnake
rattlesnake ["rAt @l snek] n. a venomous snake with hard rings of skin
on its tail that make a rattling sound when it shakes its tail.
raw ["rO] 1. adj. not cooked. (Comp: rawer; sup: rawest.) 2. adj. [of
something that has been] rubbed until sore; having a layer of skin
rubbed off. (Adv: rawly. Comp: rawer; sup: rawest.)
ray ["re] n. a beam of something that comes from a source, especially
a beam of light, heat, or radiation.
raze ["rez] tv. to tear down a building completely.
razor ["re z#] 1. n. a tool that holds a sharp blade that is used to shave
whiskers or hair. 2. the adj. use of Q.
reach ["ritS] 1. tv. to arrive at someplace; to get to someplace. 2. tv. to
get hold of someone by some means of communication; to contact
someone. 3. tv. to stretch out to a certain place in space or time; to
extend to a certain place in space or time. 4. tv. to affect or influence
someone; to make someone else understand something. 5. tv. to total
a certain amount. 6. iv. to extend all the way. 7. n. the distance that
someone or something is able to stretch or extend; the range or capacity of someone or something.
react [ri "Akt] 1. iv. to show a response [to something]; to make a
response [to someone or something]. 2. iv. [for a chemical] to do
something when it touches another substance; [for two chemicals] to
do something when they are brought together.
reaction [ri "Ak [email protected]] 1. n. a response to someone or something; an
action that is done in response to someone or something; a feeling
that is felt in response to someone or something. 2. n. the result of a
chemical touching another substance; the result when two chemicals
are brought together.
read 1. ["rid] tv., irreg. to understand what is meant by written words;
to get meaning from written words. (Pt/pp: read ["rEd].) 2. ["rid] tv.,
irreg. to say written words out loud. 3. ["rid] iv., irreg. to be able to
understand writing and printing. 4. ["rid] iv., irreg. to say written
words aloud. 5. through to look through some reading material.
readily ["rEd @ li] 1. adv. without difficulty or problems; easily. 2. adv.
without delay or doubt; eagerly.
readiness ["rEd i [email protected]] n. the state of being ready; the state of being prepared. (No pl.)
reading ["rid IN] 1. n. something written that is meant to be read. 2. n.
a measurement shown on a meter or other similar device. 3. the adj.
use of Q or W.
384
rearrange
readjust [ri @ "dZ^st] tv. to adjust something again; to put something
back where it belongs.
readjustment [ri @ "dZ^st [email protected]] 1. n. the process of getting used to
something again. (No pl.) 2. n. an act of readjusting something; a
movement or change that is made when putting something back
where it belongs.
ready ["rEd i] 1. adj. [of something] able to be used right now. (Comp:
readier; sup: readiest.) 2. tv. to prepare something for use.
real ["ril] 1. adj. existing; actual; true. (Adv: really.) 2. adj. genuine;
not fake. (Adv: really.) 3. adv. really; very; extremely. (Colloquial.)
realism ["ri @ lIz @m] n. the point of view concerned with reality in life
and art. (No pl.)
realistic [ri @ "lIs tIk] 1. adj. appearing or seeming to be real or authentic. (Adv: realistically [...Ik li].) 2. adj. accepting life as it really is;
practical. (Adv: realistically [...Ik li].)
reality [ri "Al @ ti] n. everything that is real; something that is real; that
which exists. (Pl only for types and instances.)
realization [ri @l @ "ze [email protected]] n. an understanding that something exists
or has happened.
realize ["ri @ laIz] 1. tv. to understand something; to be aware of something. (The object can be a clause with that U.) 2. tv. to make something real; to cause something to exist.
really ["ri (@) li] 1. adv. actually; truly; in reality. 2. adv. very; completely.
realm ["rElm] 1. n. an area that someone rules over; an area where a
certain person is the most powerful. 2. n. domain; category. (Fig. on
Q.)
reap ["rip] 1. tv. to cut and gather crops from a field. 2. tv. to get something in return for doing something. (Fig. on Q.)
reappear [ri @ "pIr] 1. iv. to appear again. 2. iv. to occur again.
rear ["rIr] 1. n. the part of the body one sits on. (Euphemistic.) 2. adj.
in back; hind. 3. tv. to raise offspring. 4. iv. to rise up, especially for
a horse to stand on its back legs.
rearrange [ri @ "rendZ] tv. to arrange something again or in a different way, especially to place people or things in a different order or in
different positions with respect to each other.
385
rearrangement
rearrangement [ri @ "rendZ [email protected]] n. creating a new or different
arrangement; changing the way that people or things are ordered or
positioned with respect to each other. (No pl.)
reason ["ri [email protected]] 1. n. the power or ability to think, understand, and
form opinions and conclusions from facts. (No pl.) 2. n. a cause; a
motive; an explanation; a rationale. 3. iv. to think; to be able to think;
to use the power or ability to think, understand, and form opinions
and conclusions. 4. tv. to have an opinion or conclusion based on Q.
(The object is a clause with that U.) 5. with to persuade someone by using Q; to argue with someone by using Q.
reasonable ["ri [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]] 1. adj. sensible; making sense; according to
reason. (Adv: reasonably.) 2. adj. not expensive; having an acceptable
cost. (Adv: reasonably.)
reasoning ["ri [email protected] nIN] n. the process or ability of thinking and forming conclusions from facts and evidence. (No pl.)
reassure [ri @ "SUr] tv. to restore someone’s courage or confidence.
rebel 1. ["rEb @l] n. someone who fights or resists power, authority, or
government. 2. [rI "bEl] iv. to fight or resist power, authority, or government.
rebellion [rI "bEl [email protected]] n. rebelling; challenging authority. (Pl only for
types and instances.)
rebirth [ri "b#T] n. seeming to be born again. (No pl.)
rebound 1. ["ri baUnd] n. the return movement of something that
bounced off something. 2. [rI "baUnd] iv. to bounce back after hitting something. 3. [rI "baUnd] iv. to recover. (Fig. on W.)
rebuild [rI "bIld] tv., irreg. to build something again. (Pt/pp: rebuilt.)
rebuilt [rI "bIlt] pt/pp of rebuild.
rebuke [rI "bjuk] 1. n. scolding; disapproval; chiding. (No pl form in
this sense.) 2. n. a scolding. 3. tv. to scold someone or some creature.
receipt [rI "sit] 1. n. a state of having been received. (No pl.) 2. n. a
document that proves that something has been received or paid for.
receipts n. money that a business receives from customers; money that
is collected by a business or at a performance. (Treated as pl, but not
countable.)
receive [rI "siv] 1. tv. to get something; to take something that is given.
2. tv. to accept someone as a member of a group or organization; to
welcome someone as a visitor.
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reckon
receiver [rI "siv #] 1. n. someone or something that receives something. 2. n. the part of a telephone that one holds while one is talking. 3. n. a radio or television set; something that receives broadcast
signals.
recent ["ri [email protected]] adj. happening only a short time ago; having existed
for only a short time; not long ago. (Adv: recently.)
receptacle [rI "sEp [email protected] [email protected]] 1. n. a container designed to receive something. 2. n. a place to plug in an electric cord. (Short for electric receptacle.)
reception [rI "sEp [email protected]] 1. n. receiving or welcoming someone. 2. n.
the quality of broadcast signals that are received by a television set,
a radio, or other receiver. (No pl.) 3. n. a party, gathering, or celebration where people are welcomed.
receptionist [rI "sEp [email protected] [email protected]] n. someone who sits at the desk near the
front door of an office, answers phone calls, and greets, helps, or
directs clients or patients.
recess 1. ["ri sEs] n. a period of time during the school day when the
children are allowed to play, usually outside. 2. ["ri sEs] n. a period
of time during the workday when someone stops working for a few
minutes and takes a break; a break W. 3. ["ri sEs] n. a space cut or
built into a wall; a space that is set back from a wall. 4. [rI "sEs] iv. to
take a break; to stop working for a short time.
recipe ["rEs @ pi] 1. n. a set of directions for making something to eat.
2. n. a set of directions for preparing or causing anything. (Fig. on
Q.)
recipient [rI "sIp i @nt] n. someone who or something that receives
something.
recital [rI "saIt @l] 1. n. the telling of a story; a verbal account of something. 2. n. a concert or performance, often by a single performer
playing an instrument, singing, or reading poetry.
recite [rI "saIt] tv. to verbally deliver an answer in school; to repeat
something, such as a poem, from memory.
reckless ["rEk [email protected]] adj. careless; not concerned about safety or danger.
(Adv: recklessly.)
recklessness ["rEk [email protected] [email protected]] n. being reckless; taking risks on purpose.
(No pl.)
reckon ["rEk @n] 1. tv. to calculate something; to figure the amount of
something; to determine the cost or the amount of something. 2. tv.
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reclaim
to think something; to suppose something. (Colloquial. Takes a
clause.)
reclaim [rI "klem] 1. tv. to save or reuse something that would otherwise be thrown away. 2. tv. to demand or claim the return of something that has been given away or taken away.
recognition [rEk Ig "nIS @n] 1. n. realization. (No pl.) 2. n. acknowledgment of the existence of someone or something. (No pl.) 3. n.
acknowledgment of service or excellence. (No pl.)
recognizable ["rEk Ig naIz @ [email protected]] adj. in adequate amount or degree
to be noticed or identified. (Adv: recognizably.)
recognize ["rEk Ig naIz] 1. tv. to identify someone or something. 2. tv.
to make an acknowledgment that something exists. (The object can
be a clause with that U.) 3. tv. to give someone the right to speak,
especially at a meeting.
recollect [rEk @ "lEkt] tv. to remember someone or something; to bring
something back into one’s mind; to recall something.
recommend [rEk @ "mEnd] 1. tv. to suggest [making] a particular
choice from a range of choices. 2. tv. to suggest a particular course
of action. (The object can be a clause with that U.)
recommendation [rEk @ mEn "de [email protected]] n. a suggestion of which selection someone should choose from a range of choices; someone or
something that is recommended.
reconcile ["rEk @n saIl] 1. tv. to make peace between people or groups
of people by solving problems and ending disagreements. 2. tv. to
bring accounts into balance. 3. with to make up with someone;
to bring a disagreement with someone to an end.
reconsider [ri [email protected] "sId #] 1. tv. to consider something again; to think
about something again. 2. iv. to consider again; to think about again.
record 1. ["rEk #d] n. a written account of facts or information about
someone or something. 2. ["rEk #d] n. a flat plastic disk that has
sound stored on it and is played on a machine that makes the
recorded sounds able to be heard. 3. ["rEk #d] n. the most extreme
example of something; the highest, lowest, fastest, slowest, longest,
shortest, or any other extreme example of something. 4. [rI "kord] tv.
to write down information about someone or something so that other
people will be able to read the information. 5. [rI "kord] tv. to store
sound on audiotape or to store images on film or videotape; to put a
sound or an image into a permanent form.
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rectify
recorded [rI "kor dId] 1. adj. written down; having information about
someone or something written down; known. 2. adj. stored on cassette, film, or videotape; stored in a permanent form.
recorder [rI "kor d#] 1. n. someone who writes down and stores information. 2. n. a musical instrument, consisting of a hollow tube of
wood that has holes down one side. 3. n. a machine that records
sounds or images and usually is able to play the sounds and images
back.
recording [rI "kor dIN] n. a record; music, speech, or other sound that
has been recorded.
recount 1. ["ri kaUnt] n. another counting; a second count; another
count, especially in an election when the votes are counted for a second time because the first count is thought to be faulty. 2. [ri "kaUnt]
tv. to tell a story; to tell the story of something that happened.
3. ["ri "kaUnt] tv. to count something again.
recover [ri "k^v #] 1. iv. to get better after a sickness or injury; to
return to good health. 2. tv. to get something back that went away or
was lost, stolen, or taken away. 3. tv. to reclaim something; to pull
out something useful from something that is not useful.
recovery [ri "k^v @ ri] 1. n. the process of getting something back that
went away or was lost, stolen, or taken; receiving someone or something that went away or was lost, stolen, or taken. (No pl.) 2. n. the
return to someone’s or something’s regular condition, especially the
return of good health after sickness or injury or the return of a good
economy after a bad period of time. (No pl.)
recreation [rEk ri "e [email protected]] n. amusement; play; activities that are done
for pleasure, enjoyment, or fun. (No pl.)
recreational [rEk ri "e [email protected] [email protected]] adj. of or about recreation. (Adv: recreationally.)
recruit [rI "krut] 1. tv. to cause or persuade someone to become a new
member of a group, or organization such as the military. 2. n. someone who has just joined a group or organization, especially the military.
rectangle ["rEk tAN [email protected]] n. a four-sided figure with four right angles,
having opposite sides that are parallel and the same length.
rectangular [rEk "tAN [email protected] l#] adj. shaped like a rectangle. (Adv: rectangularly.)
rectify ["rEk [email protected] faI] tv. to make something right; to correct something.
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rectum
rectum ["rEk [email protected]] n. the end of the lower intestine, through which
waste passes.
recuperate [ri "kup @ ret] to recover from something; to be cured or
to heal after something.
recur [ri "k#] iv. to repeat; to happen again; to continue to happen.
recycle [ri "saIk @l] 1. tv. to change glass, plastic, paper, or other material into a form that can be used again; to recover a resource; to find
a further use for something that might otherwise be wasted. 2. tv. to
collect or set aside used glass, plastic, paper, or other material so