Planar 304/1, Planar 804/1, Planar 814/1 S5048

Planar 304/1, Planar 804/1, Planar 814/1 S5048
Planar 304/1, Planar 804/1, Planar 814/1
S5048, S7530
C1209 and C1220
Network Analyzer
Operating Manual
Software Version 3.51
October, 2015
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 8
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS ........................................................................................................... 9
1
2
GENERAL OVERVIEW ....................................................................................................... 11
1.1
Description ......................................................................................................................................11
1.2
Specifications .................................................................................................................................11
1.3
Measurement Capabilities .........................................................................................................11
1.4
Principle of Operation .................................................................................................................19
PREPARATION FOR USE .................................................................................................. 22
2.1
General Information .....................................................................................................................22
2.2
Software Installation ...................................................................................................................22
2.3 Front Panel ......................................................................................................................................24
2.3.1
Power Switch .........................................................................................................................27
2.3.2
Test Ports ................................................................................................................................27
2.3.3
Ground Terminal ...................................................................................................................28
2.3.4
Adjustable ports configurations (Planar 814/1 only) ...............................................28
2.4 Rear Panel .......................................................................................................................................28
2.4.1
Power Cable Receptacle ....................................................................................................31
2.4.2
External Trigger Signal Input Connector .....................................................................31
2.4.3
External Trigger Signal Output Connector (Cobalt models only) ........................31
2.4.4
External Reference Frequency Input Connector (Planar and Cobalt models) .31
2.4.5
Internal Reference Frequency Output Connector (Planar and Cobalt models)
32
2.4.6
Reference Frequency Input/Output Connector (S models) ....................................32
2.4.7
USB 2.0 High Speed .............................................................................................................32
2.4.8
Reserved Port (Planar 304/1) ...........................................................................................32
2.4.9
Auxiliary input ports (Cobalt models only) ..................................................................32
2.4.10 Fuse Holder (С1209 only) ..................................................................................................32
2.4.11 Ground terminal ....................................................................................................................33
3
GETTING STARTED ........................................................................................................... 34
3.1
Analyzer Preparation for Reflection Measurement ...........................................................35
3.2
Analyzer Presetting ......................................................................................................................35
3.3
Stimulus Setting ............................................................................................................................36
3.4
IF Bandwidth Setting ...................................................................................................................36
3.5
Number of Traces, Measured Parameter and Display Format Setting ......................37
3.6
Trace Scale Setting.......................................................................................................................38
3.7
Analyzer Calibration for Reflection Coefficient Measurement .....................................38
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
3.8
4
SWR and Reflection Coefficient Phase Analysis Using Markers ...................................40
SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS ........................................................................ 42
4.1 Screen Layout and Functions....................................................................................................42
4.1.1
Softkey Menu Bar .................................................................................................................42
4.1.2
Menu Bar .................................................................................................................................44
4.1.3
Instrument Status Bar .........................................................................................................45
4.2 Channel Window Layout and Functions ...............................................................................46
4.2.1
Channel Title Bar ..................................................................................................................47
4.2.2
Trace Status Field .................................................................................................................48
4.2.3
Graph Area ..............................................................................................................................51
4.2.4
Trace Layout in Channel Window ...................................................................................52
4.2.5
Markers.....................................................................................................................................53
4.2.6
Channel Status Bar...............................................................................................................54
4.3 Quick Channel Setting Using a Mouse ..................................................................................58
4.3.1
Active Channel Selection ...................................................................................................58
4.3.2
Active Trace Selection ........................................................................................................58
4.3.3
Measured Data Setting .......................................................................................................58
4.3.4
Display Format Setting .......................................................................................................58
4.3.5
Trace Scale Setting ..............................................................................................................59
4.3.6
Reference Level Setting .....................................................................................................59
4.3.7
Reference Level Position ...................................................................................................60
4.3.8
Sweep Start Setting .............................................................................................................60
4.3.9
Sweep Stop Setting .............................................................................................................60
4.3.10 Sweep Center Setting .........................................................................................................60
4.3.11 Sweep Span Setting .............................................................................................................61
4.3.12 Marker Stimulus Value Setting ........................................................................................61
4.3.13 Switching between Start/Center and Stop/Span Modes ........................................61
4.3.14 Start/Center Value Setting ................................................................................................61
4.3.15 Stop/Span Value Setting ....................................................................................................61
4.3.16 Sweep Points Number Setting .........................................................................................61
4.3.17 Sweep Type Setting .............................................................................................................62
4.3.18 IF Bandwidth Setting...........................................................................................................62
4.3.19 Power Level / CW Frequency Setting ............................................................................62
4.4 Channel and Trace Display Setting ........................................................................................63
4.4.1
Channel Allocation...............................................................................................................63
4.4.2
Number of Traces .................................................................................................................64
4.4.3
Trace Allocation ....................................................................................................................65
4.4.4
Selection of Active Trace/Channel .................................................................................68
4.4.5
Active Trace/Channel Window Maximizing.................................................................68
4.5 Stimulus Setting ............................................................................................................................70
4.5.1
Sweep Type Setting .............................................................................................................70
4.5.2
Sweep Span Setting .............................................................................................................70
4.5.3
Sweep Points Setting ..........................................................................................................71
4.5.4
Stimulus Power Setting ......................................................................................................71
4.5.5
Setting Power Level for Each Port Individually .........................................................71
4.5.6
Power Slope Feature ...........................................................................................................72
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.5.7
4.5.8
4.5.9
4.5.10
CW Frequency Setting.........................................................................................................72
RF Out Function ....................................................................................................................72
Segment Table Editing .......................................................................................................73
Measurement Delay .............................................................................................................75
4.6 Trigger Setting ...............................................................................................................................76
4.6.1
External Trigger (except Planar 304/1) ........................................................................78
4.6.2
Trigger Output (Cobalt models).......................................................................................81
4.7 Measurement Parameters Setting ...........................................................................................83
4.7.1
S-Parameters ..........................................................................................................................83
4.7.2
S-Parameter Setting ............................................................................................................84
4.7.3
Absolute Measurements .....................................................................................................84
4.7.4
Absolute Measurement Setting .......................................................................................85
4.8 Format Setting ...............................................................................................................................86
4.8.1
Rectangular Formats ...........................................................................................................86
4.8.2
Polar Format...........................................................................................................................88
4.8.3
Smith Chart Format .............................................................................................................89
4.8.4
Data Format Setting ............................................................................................................91
4.9 Scale Setting ...................................................................................................................................93
4.9.1
Rectangular Scale.................................................................................................................93
4.9.2
Rectangular Scale Setting .................................................................................................93
4.9.3
Circular Scale .........................................................................................................................94
4.9.4
Circular Scale Setting ..........................................................................................................94
4.9.5
Automatic Scaling ................................................................................................................95
4.9.6
Reference Level Automatic Selection ...........................................................................95
4.9.7
Electrical Delay Setting ......................................................................................................95
4.9.8
Phase Offset Setting ............................................................................................................96
4.10
Measurement Optimization...................................................................................................97
4.10.1 IF Bandwidth Setting...........................................................................................................97
4.10.2 Averaging Setting .................................................................................................................97
4.10.3 Smoothing Setting ...............................................................................................................98
4.11
Mixer Measurements ...............................................................................................................99
4.11.1 Mixer Measurement Methods...........................................................................................99
4.11.2 Frequency Offset Mode ................................................................................................... 100
4.11.3 Source/Receivers Frequency Offset Feature ............................................................ 102
4.11.4 Automatic Adjustment of Offset Frequency ............................................................. 103
5
CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT ........................................................................ 106
5.1 General Information .................................................................................................................. 106
5.1.1
Measurement Errors ......................................................................................................... 106
5.1.2
Systematic Errors ............................................................................................................... 107
5.1.3
Error Modeling .................................................................................................................... 108
5.1.4
Analyzer Test Port Definition ........................................................................................ 111
5.1.5
Calibration Steps ............................................................................................................... 112
5.1.6
Calibration Methods ......................................................................................................... 112
5.1.7
Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits .............................................................. 123
5.2
Calibration Procedures ............................................................................................................. 131
4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
5.2.7
5.2.8
5.2.9
5.2.10
5.2.11
5.2.12
5.2.13
5.2.14
5.2.15
Calibration Kit Selection ................................................................................................. 131
Reflection Normalization ................................................................................................ 132
Transmission Normalization .......................................................................................... 134
Full One-Port Calibration ............................................................................................... 135
One-Path Two-Port Calibration .................................................................................... 137
Full Two-Port Calibration ............................................................................................... 139
TRL Calibration (except Planar 304/1)....................................................................... 142
Calibration Using Subclasses ........................................................................................ 144
Calibration Using Sliding Load ..................................................................................... 147
Error Correction Disabling .............................................................................................. 147
Error Correction Status .................................................................................................... 148
System Impedance Z0 ....................................................................................................... 149
Port Extension .................................................................................................................... 150
Automatic Port Extension ............................................................................................... 152
Non-Insertable Device Measuring ............................................................................... 153
5.3 Calibration Kit Management .................................................................................................. 158
5.3.1
Table of Calibration Kits ................................................................................................. 158
5.3.2
Calibration Standard Definition.................................................................................... 161
5.3.3
Table of Calibration Standard S-Parameters ........................................................... 166
5.3.4
Calibration Standard Class Assignment ..................................................................... 168
5.4 Power Calibration ...................................................................................................................... 171
5.4.1
Loss Compensation Table............................................................................................... 171
5.4.2
Power Calibration Procedure......................................................................................... 172
5.4.3
Power Correction Setting................................................................................................ 172
5.4.4
Loss Compensation Table Editing ............................................................................... 172
5.5 Receiver Calibration .................................................................................................................. 174
5.5.1
Receiver Calibration Procedure .................................................................................... 175
5.5.2
Receiver Correction Setting ........................................................................................... 175
5.6
Scalar Mixer Calibration .......................................................................................................... 176
5.7 Vector Mixer Calibration.......................................................................................................... 181
5.7.1
Vector Mixer Calibration Procedure ............................................................................ 182
5.8 Automatic Calibration Module .............................................................................................. 184
5.8.1
Automatic Calibration Module Features .................................................................... 185
5.8.2
Automatic Calibration Procedure ................................................................................. 186
5.8.3
User Characterization Procedure ................................................................................. 187
5.8.4
Confidence Check Procedure ......................................................................................... 189
5.8.5
Erasing the User Characterization ............................................................................... 189
6
MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS................................................................................. 191
6.1 Markers .......................................................................................................................................... 191
6.1.1
Marker Adding .................................................................................................................... 193
6.1.2
Marker Deleting ................................................................................................................. 193
6.1.3
Marker Stimulus Value Setting ..................................................................................... 193
6.1.4
Marker Activating .............................................................................................................. 194
6.1.5
Reference Marker Feature .............................................................................................. 194
6.1.6
Marker Properties .............................................................................................................. 195
5
TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.1.7
6.1.8
6.1.9
Marker Position Search Functions ............................................................................... 199
Marker Math Functions .................................................................................................... 205
Marker Functions ............................................................................................................... 211
6.2 Memory Trace Function ........................................................................................................... 212
6.2.1
Saving Trace into Memory.............................................................................................. 214
6.2.2
Trace Display Setting ....................................................................................................... 215
6.2.3
Mathematical Operations ............................................................................................... 215
6.3 Fixture Simulation ..................................................................................................................... 216
6.3.1
Port Z Conversion .............................................................................................................. 216
6.3.2
De-embedding .................................................................................................................... 218
6.3.3
Embedding ........................................................................................................................... 219
6.4 Time Domain Transformation................................................................................................ 221
6.4.1
Time Domain Transformation Activating .................................................................. 223
6.4.2
Time Domain Transformation Span ............................................................................ 223
6.4.3
Time Domain Transformation Type ............................................................................ 223
6.4.4
Time Domain Transformation Window Shape Setting ......................................... 224
6.4.5
Frequency Harmonic Grid Setting................................................................................ 225
6.5 Time Domain Gating ................................................................................................................. 226
6.5.1
Time Domain Gate Activating ....................................................................................... 227
6.5.2
Time Domain Gate Span ................................................................................................. 227
6.5.3
Time Domain Gate Type.................................................................................................. 228
6.5.4
Time Domain Gate Shape Setting................................................................................ 228
6.6
S-Parameter Conversion .......................................................................................................... 229
6.7
General S-Parameter Conversion ......................................................................................... 231
6.8 Limit Test ...................................................................................................................................... 233
6.8.1
Limit Line Editing .............................................................................................................. 234
6.8.2
Limit Test Enabling/Disabling ...................................................................................... 236
6.8.3
Limit Test Display Management .................................................................................. 236
6.8.4
Limit Line Offset ................................................................................................................ 236
6.9 Ripple Limit Test ........................................................................................................................ 237
6.9.1
Ripple Limit Editing .......................................................................................................... 238
6.9.2
Ripple Limit Enabling/Disabling .................................................................................. 240
6.9.3
Ripple Limit Test Display Management .................................................................... 240
7
ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT ............................................................................................ 241
7.1 Analyzer State ............................................................................................................................. 241
7.1.1
Analyzer State Saving ...................................................................................................... 242
7.1.2
Analyzer State Recalling ................................................................................................. 243
7.1.3
Session Saving .................................................................................................................... 243
7.2 Channel State .............................................................................................................................. 244
7.2.1
Channel State Saving ....................................................................................................... 244
7.2.2
Channel State Recalling .................................................................................................. 244
7.3 Trace Data CSV File ................................................................................................................... 245
7.3.1
CSV File Saving/Recalling .............................................................................................. 245
6
TABLE OF CONTENTS
7.4 Trace Data Touchstone File ................................................................................................... 246
7.4.1
Touchstone File Saving/Recalling ............................................................................... 248
8
9
SYSTEM SETTINGS ......................................................................................................... 249
8.1
Analyzer Presetting ................................................................................................................... 249
8.2
Graph Printing ............................................................................................................................. 249
8.3
Reference Frequency Oscillator Selection ........................................................................ 250
8.4
System Correction Setting ...................................................................................................... 251
8.5
Beeper Setting ............................................................................................................................ 252
8.6
User Interface Setting .............................................................................................................. 253
8.7
Screen Update Setting ............................................................................................................. 257
8.8
Power Meter Setting ................................................................................................................. 258
8.9
Port Overload Indication (expect Planar 304/1) ............................................................. 260
8.10
Power Trip Function (expect Planar 304/1) ................................................................. 260
8.11
Port Switchover Delay Disabling ...................................................................................... 261
MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE ..................................................................................... 262
9.1 Maintenance Procedures ......................................................................................................... 262
9.1.1
Instrument Cleaning ......................................................................................................... 262
9.1.2
Factory Calibration ............................................................................................................ 263
9.1.3
Performance Test .............................................................................................................. 263
9.2
Storage Instructions .................................................................................................................. 263
Appendix 1 — Default Settings Table ................................................................................ 264
7
INTRODUCTION
This Operating Manual contains design, specifications, functional overview, and
detailed operation procedures for the Network Analyzer, to ensure effective and
safe use of its technical capabilities by the user.
Maintenance and operation of the Analyzer should be performed by qualified
engineers with basic experience in operating of microwave circuits and PC.
The following abbreviations are used in this Manual:
PC
– Personal Computer
DUT
– Device Under Test
IF
– Intermediate Frequency
CW
– Continuous Wave
SWR
– Standing Wave Ratio
CMT
– Copper Mountain Technologies
8
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Carefully read the following safety instructions before putting the Analyzer into
operation. Observe all the precautions and warnings provided in this Manual for
all the phases of operation, service, and repair of the Analyzer.
The Analyzer should be used only by skilled and thoroughly trained personnel
with the required skills and knowledge of safety precautions.
The Analyzer complies with INSTALLATION CATEGORY II as well as POLLUTION
DEGREE 2 as defined in IEC61010–1. The Analyzer is a MEASUREMENT CATEGORY
I (CAT I) device. Do not use the Analyzer as a CAT II, III, or IV device.
The Analyzer is for INDOOR USE only.
The Analyzer has been tested as a stand-alone device and in combination with
the accessories supplied by Copper Mountain Technologies, in accordance with
the requirements of the standards described in the Declaration of Conformity. If
the Analyzer is integrated with another system, compliance with related
regulations and safety requirements are to be confirmed by the builder of the
system.
Never operate the Analyzer in an environment containing flammable gasses or
fumes.
Operators must not remove the cover or any other part of the housing. The
Analyzer must not be repaired by the operator. Component replacement or
internal adjustment must be performed by qualified maintenance personnel only.
Never operate the Analyzer if the power cable is damaged. Never connect the test
ports to A/C power mains.
Electrostatic discharge can damage the Analyzer whether connected to or
disconnected from the DUT. Static charge can build up on your body and damage
sensitive internal components of both the Analyzer and the DUT. To avoid damage
from electric discharge, observe the following:


Always use a desktop anti-static mat under the DUT.
Always wear a grounding wrist strap connected to the desktop anti-static
mat via daisy-chained 1 MΩ resistor.

Connect the post marked
on the body of the Analyzer to the body of
the DUT before you start operation.
Observe all general safety precautions related to operation of electrically
energized equipment.
9
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
The definitions of safety symbols used on the instrument and in the Manual are
listed below.
Refers to the Manual if the instrument is marked with
this symbol.
Alternating current.
Direct current.
On (Supply).
Off (Supply).
A chassis terminal; a connection to the instrument’s
chassis, which includes all exposed metal surfaces.
WARNING
This sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a
procedure, practice, or condition that, if not correctly
performed or adhered to, could result in injury or death
to personnel.
CAUTION
This sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a
procedure, practice, or condition that, if not correctly
performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or
destruction of part or all of the instrument.
Note
This sign denotes important information. It calls
attention to a procedure, practice, or condition that is
essential for the user to understand.
10
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
1.1
Description
The Analyzer is designed for use in the process of development, adjustment and
testing of various electronic devices in industrial and laboratory facilities,
including operation as a component of an automated measurement system. The
Analyzer is designed for operation with an external PC, which is not supplied with
the Analyzer.
1.2
Specifications
The specifications of each Analyzer model can be found in its corresponding
datasheet.
1.3
Measurement Capabilities
Measured parameters
S11, S21, S12, S22
Number of
measurement
channels
Absolute power of the reference and received
signals at the port.
Up to 16 logical channels. Each logical channel is
represented on the screen as an individual
channel window. A logical channel is defined by
such stimulus signal settings as frequency range,
number of test points, power level, etc.
Data traces
Up to 16 data traces can be displayed in each
channel window. A data trace represents one of
the following parameters of the DUT: Sparameters, response in the time domain, or input
power response.
Memory traces
Each of the 16 data traces can be saved into
memory for further comparison with the current
values.
Data display formats
Logarithmic magnitude, linear magnitude, phase,
expanded phase, group delay, SWR, real part,
imaginary part, Smith chart format and polar
format.
11
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Sweep setup features
Sweep type
Linear frequency sweep, logarithmic frequency
sweep, and segment frequency sweep, when the
stimulus power is a fixed value; and linear power
sweep when frequency is a fixed value.
Measured points per
sweep
From 2 to the instrument maximum.
Segment sweep
A frequency sweep within several user-defined
segments. Frequency range, number of sweep
points, source power, and IF bandwidth can be set
for each segment.
Power settings
Source power from instrument minimum to
instrument maximum with resolution of 0.05 dB.
In frequency sweep mode the power slope can be
set to up to 2 dB/GHz to compensate high
frequency attenuation in cables.
Sweep trigger
Trigger modes: continuous, single, hold. Trigger
sources: internal, manual, external, bus.
Trace display functions
Trace display
Data trace, memory trace, or simultaneous data
and memory traces.
Trace math
Data trace modification by math operations:
addition, subtraction, multiplication or division of
measured complex values and memory data.
Autoscaling
Automatic selection of scale division and
reference level value to have the trace most
effectively displayed.
Electrical delay
Calibration plane compensation for delay in the
test setup, or for electrical delay in a DUT during
measurements of deviation from linear phase.
Phase offset
Phase offset in degrees.
12
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Accuracy enhancement
Calibration
Calibration methods
Calibration of a test setup (which includes the
Analyzer, cables, and adapters) significantly
increases the accuracy of measurements.
Calibration allows for correction of errors caused
by imperfections in the measurement system:
system directivity, source and load match,
tracking, and isolation.
The following calibration methods of various
sophistication and accuracy enhancement are
available:

reflection and transmission normalization;

full one-port calibration;

one-path two-port calibration

full two-port calibration;

TRL calibration (except Planar 304/1).
Reflection and
transmission
normalization
The simplest calibration method. It provides
limited accuracy.
Full one-port
calibration
Method of calibration performed for one-port
reflection measurements. It ensures high accuracy.
One-path two-port
calibration
Method of calibration performed for reflection and
one-way transmission measurements, for example
for measuring S11 and S21 only. It ensures high
accuracy for reflection measurements, and
reasonable
accuracy
for
transmission
measurements.
Full two-port
calibration
Method of calibration performed for full
S-parameter matrix measurement of a two-port
DUT. It ensures high accuracy.
TRL calibration
(except Planar 304/1)
Method of calibration performed for full
S-parameter matrix measurement of a two-port
DUT. LRL and LRM types of this calibration are
also supported. In ensures higher accuracy than a
two-port calibration.
13
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Mechanical calibration
kits
The user can select one of the predefined
calibration kits of various manufacturers or define
additional calibration kits.
Electronic calibration
modules
Copper Mountain Technologies’ automatic
calibration modules make the Analyzer calibration
faster and easier than traditional mechanical
calibration.
Sliding load
calibration standard
The use of sliding load calibration standard allows
significant increase in calibration accuracy at high
frequencies compared to a fixed load calibration
standard.
Unknown thru
calibration standard
(except Planar 304/1)
The use of an arbitrary reciprocal two-port device
instead of a zero-length thru during a full twoport calibration allows for calibration of the test
setup for measurements of non-insertable devices.
Defining of calibration
standards
Different methods of
definition are available:
Error correction
interpolation
calibration
standard

standard definition by polynomial model

standard definition by data (S-parameters).
When the user changes such settings as start/stop
frequencies and number of sweep points,
compared to the settings of calibration,
interpolation or extrapolation of the calibration
coefficients will be applied.
Supplemental calibration methods
Power calibration
Method of calibration which allows for
maintaining more stable power levels at the DUT
input. An external power meter should be
connected to the USB port directly or via
USB/GPIB adapter.
Receiver calibration
Method of calibration which calibrates the
receiver gain at absolute signal power
measurement.
14
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Marker functions
Data markers
Up to 16 markers for each trace. A marker
indicates the stimulus value and measurement
result at a given point of the trace.
Reference marker
Enables indication of any maker value as relative
to the reference marker.
Marker search
Search for max, min, peak, or target values on a
trace.
Marker search
additional features
User-definable search range. Available as either a
tracking marker, or as a one-time search.
Setting parameters by
markers
Setting of start, stop and center frequencies from
the marker frequency, and setting of reference
level by the measurement result of the marker.
Marker math functions
Statistics, bandwidth, flatness, RF filter.
Statistics
Calculation and display of mean, standard
deviation and peak-to-peak in a frequency range
limited by two markers on a trace.
Bandwidth
Determines bandwidth between cutoff frequency
points for an active marker or absolute maximum.
The bandwidth value, center frequency, lower
frequency, higher frequency, Q value, and insertion
loss are displayed.
Flatness
Displays gain, slope, and flatness between two
markers on a trace.
RF filter
Displays insertion loss and peak-to-peak ripple of
the passband, and the maximum signal magnitude
in the stopband. The passband and stopband are
defined by two pairs of markers.
15
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Data analysis
Port impedance
conversion
The function converts S-parameters measured at
the analyzer’s nominal port impedance into values
which would be found if measured at a test port
with arbitrary impedance.
De-embedding
The function allows mathematical exclusion of the
effects of the fixture circuit connected between
the calibration plane and the DUT. This circuit
should be described by an S-parameter matrix in a
Touchstone file.
Embedding
The function allows mathematical simulation of
the DUT parameters after virtual integration of a
fixture circuit between the calibration plane and
the DUT. This circuit should be described by an Sparameter matrix in a Touchstone file.
S-parameter
conversion
The function allows conversion of the measured Sparameters to the following parameters: reflection
impedance
and
admittance,
transmission
impedance and admittance, and inverse Sparameters.
Time domain
transformation
The function performs data transformation from
frequency domain into response of the DUT to
various stimulus types in time domain. Modeled
stimulus types: bandpass, lowpass impulse, and
lowpass step. Time domain span is set by the user
arbitrarily from zero to maximum, which is
determined by the frequency step. Various window
shapes allow optimizing the tradeoff between
resolution and level of spurious sidelobes.
Time domain gating
The function mathematically removes unwanted
responses in time domain, allowing for obtaining
frequency response without the influence of the
fixture elements. The function applies a reverse
transformation back to the frequency domain from
the user-defined span in the time domain. Gating
filter types: bandpass or notch. For better tradeoff
between gate resolution and level of spurious
sidelobes the following filter shapes are available:
maximum, wide, normal and minimum.
16
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Mixer / converter measurements
Scalar mixer /
The scalar method allows measurement of scalar
converter
transmission S-parameters of mixers and other
measurements
devices having different input and output
frequencies. No external mixers or other devices
are required. The scalar method employs port
frequency offset when there is a difference
between receiver frequency and source frequency.
Vector mixer /
converter
measurements
The vector method allows measuring of the mixer
transmission S-parameter magnitude and phase.
The method requires an external mixer and an LO
common to both the external mixer and the mixer
under test.
Scalar mixer /
converter calibration
The most accurate method of calibration applied
for measurements of mixers in frequency offset
mode. The OPEN, SHORT, and LOAD calibration
standards are used. An external power meter
should be connected to the USB port directly or
via USB/GPIB adapter.
Vector mixer
/converter calibration
Method of calibration applied for vector mixer
measurements. The OPEN, SHORT and LOAD
calibration standards are used.
Automatic adjustment
of frequency offset
The function performs automatic frequency offset
adjustment when scalar mixer / converter
measurements are performed to compensate for
LO frequency inaccuracies internal to the DUT.
Other features
Familiar graphical
user interface
Graphical user interface based on the Windows
operating system ensures fast and easy Analyzer
operation by the user.
Analyzer control
Using a personal computer.
Printout/saving of
traces
The traces and data printout function has a
preview feature. Previewing, saving and printing
can be performed using MS Word, Image Viewer
for Windows, or the Analyzer Print Wizard.
17
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Remote control
COM/DCOM
Remote control via COM/DCOM. COM automation
runs the user program on an Analyzer PC. DCOM
automation runs the user program on a LANnetworked PC. Automation of the instrument can
be achieved in any COM/DCOM-compatible
language or environment, including Python, C++,
C#, VB.NET, LabVIEW, MATLAB, Ocatve, VEE, Visual
Basic (Excel) and many others.
18
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
1.4
Principle of Operation
The block diagram of the Analyzer is represented in Figure 1.
The Analyzer Unit consists of a source oscillator, local oscillator, source power
attenuator, and a switch connecting the source signal to two directional couplers,
which are connected to the Port 1 and Port 2 connectors. The incident and
reflected waves from the directional couplers are passed into the mixers, where
they are converted to first IF (10.7 MHz for Planar models; 0.4 MHz for S models;
7.6 MHz for Cobalt models) and are passed further to the 4-Channel receiver. The
4-Channel receiver, after filtering, digitally encodes the signal and supplies it for
further processing (filtration, phase difference estimation, magnitude
measurement) by the signal processor. The IF measurement filters are digital and
have bandwidths of between the instrument minimum (1 Hz for Planar and Cobalt
models; 10 Hz for S models) to instrument maximum (30 kHz for Planar and S
models; 1MHz for Cobalt models). Either port of the Analyzer can be a source of
the tested signal as well as a receiver of the signal transferred thought the DUT. If
Port 1 is a source, Port 2 will be a receiver. The definition “incident and reflected”
wave is correct for the port when it is a source of the test signal. The combination
of the assemblies of directional couplers, mixers and 4-Channel receiver forms
four similar signal receivers.
An external PC controls the operation of the components of the Analyzer. To
perform S-parameter measurements, the Analyzer supplies the source signal of
the assigned frequency from one of the ports to the DUT, then measures
magnitude and phase of the signals transmitted through and reflected by the DUT,
and finally compares these results to the magnitude and phase of the source
signal.
19
Figure 1 Analyzer Block Diagram
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
20
1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Planar 814/1 has adjustable ports configurations with direct access to the
receivers. This adjustable port configuration with direct access to the receivers of
the VNA provides for a variety of test applications requiring wider dynamic and
power range. Direct receiver access enables testing of high power devices.
Additional amplifiers, attenuators, various filters and matching pads for each of
the ports can be introduced in reference oscillator and receiver path to ensure the
optimal operation mode of the receivers and the DUT, close to the real.
Figure 2 Adjustable port configuration with direct access to the receivers
21
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
2.1
General Information
Unpack the Analyzer and other accessories. Connect the Analyzer to a 100 VAC to
240 VAC 50/60 Hz power source by means of the external Power Supply (S models
models) or Power Cable (Planar and Cobalt models) supplied with the instrument.
Connect the USB-port of your Analyzer to the PC using the USB Cable supplied in
the package. Install the software from www.coppermountaintech.com onto your
PC. The software installation procedure is described in section 2.2.
Warm up the Analyzer for the time stated in its specifications.
Assemble the test setup using cables, connectors, fixtures, etc., which allow DUT
connection to the Analyzer.
Perform calibration of the Analyzer. Calibration procedures are described in
section 5.
2.2
Software Installation
Connect the Analyzer to your PC via USB interface and install the Analyzer
software from www.coppermountaintech.com.
Minimal system
requirements for
the PC
WINDOWS 2000/XP/VISTA/7
1.5 GHz Processor
1 GB RAM
USB 2.0 High Speed
22
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
Program and
other files
installation
Run the Setup_Analyzer_vX.X.exe installer file.
Follow the instructions of the installation
wizard.
Driver installation
Connect the Analyzer to your PC via the
supplied USB cable. It is allowed to connect the
USB cable to the running PC.
Turn on and boot the PC, if it is off.
Turn the Analyzer on by the Power key on the
front panel.
When you connect the Analyzer to the PC for
the first time, Windows will automatically
detect the new USB device and install the
drivers automatically.
Should automatic driver installation fail, open
the USB driver installation dialog as follows:
Start > Control Panel > Device Manager. Make the
right mouse click on the Unknown Device line
and select Update Drivers.
In the USB driver installation dialog, click on
Browse and specify the path to the driver files,
which are contained in the \DRIVER folder in
the Analyzer’s software folder.
When the driver is installed, a new USB device
(Network Analyzer) will appear in the system.
23
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
2.3
Front Panel
figuress below.
below. The front
The front view of the Analyzers are represented in the figure
panel is equipped with the following parts:

Power switch;

Test ports
ports;

LED indicators;

Ground terminal;

Adjustable ports configurations (Planar 814/1 only).
Figure 3 Planar 304/1 front panel
24
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
Figure 4 Planar 804/1 front panel
Figure 5 Planar 814/1 front panel
Figure 6 S5048 front panel
Figure 7 S7530 front panel
25
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
Figure 8 C1209 front panel
Figure 9 C1220 front panel
26
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
2.3.1 Power Switch
Switches the power supply of the Analyzer on and off.
You can turn your Analyzer on/off at any time. After
power-on of the Analyzer connected to PC, the
program will begin downloading embedded firmware
into the Analyzer. The process will take approximately
10 seconds, after which the Analyzer will be ready for
operation.
Note
When you turn on your Analyzer for the first time, the
USB driver will be installed onto the PC. The driver
installation procedure is described in section 2.2.
Some computers may require re-installation of the
driver in case of change of the USB port.
2.3.2 Test Ports
The Port 1 and test Port 2 are intended for DUT
connection. Planar and S models and C1209 have
type-N female test ports. C1220 has NMD 3.5 mm
male test ports.
Each test port has a LED indicator. A test port can be
used either as a source of the stimulus signal or as a
receiver of the response signal of the DUT. Only one
of the ports can be the source of the signal at a
particular moment of time.
If you connect the DUT to only one test port of the
Analyzer, you will be able to measure the reflection
parameters (e.g. S11 or S22) of the DUT.
If you connect the DUT to all test ports of the
Analyzer, you will be able to measure the full Sparameter matrix of the DUT.
Note
LED indicator identifies the test port which is
operating as a signal source.
27
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
CAUTION
Do not exceed the maximum allowed power of the
input RF signal (or maximum DC voltage) indicated on
the front panel. This may damage your Analyzer.
2.3.3 Ground Terminal
Use the terminal for grounding.
To avoid damage from electric discharge, connect
ground terminal on the body of the Analyzer to the
body of the DUT
2.3.4 Adjustable ports configurations (Planar 814/1 only)
Adjustable ports configurations with direct access to
the receivers of the VNA provides for a variety of test
applications requiring wider dynamic and power
range. Direct receiver access enables testing of high
power devices. Additional amplifiers, attenuators,
various filters and matching pads for each of the ports
can be introduced in reference oscillator and receiver
path to ensure the optimal operation mode of the
receivers and the DUT, close to the real.
2.4
Rear Panel
The rear view of the Analyzers are represented in the figures below. The rear
panel is equipped with the following parts:
 Power cable or power supply receptacle;
 External trigger input connector;
 External trigger output connector (Cobalt models only);
 Reference Frequency input connector;
 Reference Frequency output connector;
 USB 2.0 High Speed receptacle;
 Reserved port (Planar 304/1 only);
28
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
only);
 Auxiliary input ports (Cobalt models only)
 Fuse Holder (C1209 only);
 Ground terminal.
Figure 10 Planar 304/1 rear panel
Figure 11 Planar 804/1 rear panel
29
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
Figure 12 S models rear panel
Figure 13 C1209 rear panel
Figure 14 C1220 rear panel
30
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
2.4.1 Power Cable Receptacle
The power cable receptacle (Planar and Cobalt
models) is intended for 100 VAC to 240 VAC 50/60 Hz
power cable connection. The power supply receptacle
(S models) is intended for an external DC power
supply voltage from 9 to 15 V; alternatively the power
supply can be powered by a battery, including a
vehicle battery, through an appropriate vehicle power
cable.
2.4.2 External Trigger Signal Input Connector
This connector allows the user to connect an external
trigger source. Connector type is BNC female. Planar
and S models TTL compatible inputs of 3 V to 5 V
magnitude have up to 1 µs pulse width. Input
impedance at least 10 kΩ. Cobalt models TTL
compatible inputs of 0 V to 5 V magnitude have up to
2 µs pulse width. Input impedance at least 10 kΩ.
2.4.3 External Trigger Signal Output Connector (Cobalt models only)
The External Trigger Signal Output port can be used
to provide trigger to an external device. The port
outputs various waveforms depending on the setting
of the Output Trigger Function: before frequency
setup pulse, before sampling pulse, after sampling
pulse, ready for external trigger, end of sweep pulse,
measurement sweep.
2.4.4 External Reference Frequency Input Connector (Planar and
Cobalt models)
External reference frequency is 10 MHz, input level is
2 dBm ± 2 dB, input impedance at «Ref In» is 50 Ω.
Connector type is BNC female.
31
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
2.4.5 Internal Reference Frequency Output Connector (Planar and
Cobalt models)
Output reference signal level is 3 dBm ± 2 dB at 50 Ω
impedance. «Ref Out» connector type is BNC female.
2.4.6 Reference Frequency Input/Output Connector (S models)
External reference frequency is 10 MHz, input level is
2 dBm ± 3 dB, input impedance 50 Ω. Output
reference signal level is 3 dBm ± 2 dB into 50 Ω
impedance. Connector type is BNC female.
2.4.7 USB 2.0 High Speed
The USB port is intended for connection to a
computer.
2.4.8 Reserved Port (Planar 304/1)
Note
Do not use this port.
2.4.9 Auxiliary input ports (Cobalt models only)
Auxiliary input ports allow the user to input DC
signal for DC signal measurement. This is useful in
cases where the DUT works on a DC supply and it is
required to measure the DC supply along with other
measurements of the DUT using the Analyzer.
2.4.10 Fuse Holder (С1209 only)
Fuse protects the Analyzer from the
excessive current.
32
2 PREPARATION FOR USE
2.4.11 Ground terminal
To avoid electric shock, use the terminal for
grounding.
Ground terminal allows the user to directly
connect the body of the Analyzer to the
grounding bar in order to ensure electrical
safety.
33
3 GETTING STARTED
This section is organized as a sample session of the Analyzer. It describes the
main techniques of measurement of reflection coefficient parameters of the DUT.
SWR and reflection coefficient phase of the DUT will be analyzed.
For reflection coefficient measurement only one test port of the Analyzer is used.
The instrument sends the stimulus to the input of the DUT and then receives the
reflected wave. Generally in the process of this measurement the output of the
DUT should be terminated with a LOAD standard. The results of these
measurements can be represented in various formats.
Typical circuit of reflection coefficient measurement is shown in Figure 15.
DUT
Figure 15 Reflection measurement circuit
To measure SWR and reflection coefficient phases of the DUT, in the given
example you should go through the following steps:
 Prepare the Analyzer for reflection measurement;
 Set stimulus parameters (frequency range, number of sweep
points);
 Set IF bandwidth;
 Set the number of traces to 2, assign measured parameters
and display format to the traces;
 Set the scale of the traces;
34
3 GETTING STARTED
 Perform calibration of the Analyzer for reflection coefficient
measurement;
 Analyze SWR and reflection coefficient phase using markers.
Note
3.1
In this section the control over Analyzer is performed
by the softkeys located in the right-hand part of the
screen. The Analyzer also allows the user to perform
quick control by the mouse (See section 4.3).
Analyzer Preparation for Reflection Measurement
Turn on the Analyzer and warm it up for the period of time stated in its
specifications.
Ready state
features
The bottom line of the screen displays the instrument
status bar. It should read Ready. Above this bar, the
channel status bar is located. The sweep indicator in
the left-hand part of this bar should display a
progress.
Connect the DUT to Port 1 of the Analyzer. Use the appropriate cables and
adapters for connection of the DUT input to the Analyzer test port. If the DUT
input is type-N (male), you can connect the DUT directly to the port.
3.2
Analyzer Presetting
Before you start the measurement session, it is recommended to reset the
Analyzer into the initial (known) condition. The initial condition setting is
described in Appendix 1.
To restore the initial condition of the Analyzer, use
the following softkeys:
System > Preset > OK
35
3 GETTING STARTED
3.3
Stimulus Setting
After you have restored the preset state of the Analyzer, the stimulus parameters
will be as follows: full frequency range of the instrument, sweep type is linear,
number of sweep points is 201, and power level is 0 dBm.
For the current example, set the frequency range to from 10 MHz to 3 GHz.
To set the start frequency of the frequency range to
10 MHz, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Start
Then enter «1», «0» from the keyboard. Complete the
setting by pressing «M» key.
To set the stop frequency of the frequency range to 3
GHz, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Stop
Then enter «3» from the keyboard. Complete the
setting by pressing «G» key.
To return to the main menu, click the top softkey
(colored in blue).
3.4
IF Bandwidth Setting
For the current example, set the IF bandwidth to 3 kHz.
To set the IF bandwidth to 3 kHz, use the following
softkeys:
Average > IF Bandwidth
Then enter «3» from the keyboard and complete the
setting by pressing «k» key.
To return to the main menu, click the top softkey
(colored in blue).
36
3 GETTING STARTED
3.5
Number of Traces, Measured Parameter and Display Format
Setting
In the current example, two traces are used for simultaneous display of the two
parameters (SWR and reflection coefficient phase).
To set the number of traces, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Num of Traces > 2
To return to the main menu, click the top softkey
(colored in blue).
Before assigning the measurement parameters of a trace, first activate the trace.
To activate the second trace, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Active Trace/Channel > Active Trace > 2
To return to the main menu, click the top softkey
(colored in blue).
Assign S11-parameter to the second trace. To the first trace this parameter is
already assigned by default.
To assign a parameter to the trace, use the following
softkeys:
Measurement > S11
Then assign SWR display format to the first trace and reflection coefficient phase
display format to the second trace.
37
3 GETTING STARTED
To set the active trace display format, use the
following softkeys:
Format > SWR
(for the first trace),
Format > Phase
(for the second trace).
To return to the main menu, click the top softkey
(colored in blue).
3.6
Trace Scale Setting
For convenience of operation, change the trace scale using automatic scaling
function.
To set the scale of the active trace by the autoscaling
function, use the following softkeys:
Scale > Auto Scale
To return to the main menu, click the top softkey
(colored in blue).
3.7
Analyzer Calibration for Reflection Coefficient Measurement
Calibration of the whole measurement setup—which includes the Analyzer, cables
and other devices involved with connection to the DUT—allows for considerably
enhancing the accuracy of the measurement.
To perform full 1-port calibration, you need to prepare the kit of calibration
standards: OPEN, SHORT and LOAD. Such a kit has its description and
specifications of the standards. To perform proper calibration, you need to select
the correct kit type in the program.
To perform the process of full 1-port calibration, connect calibration standards to
the test port one after another, as shown in Figure 16.
38
3 GETTING STARTED
LOAD
OPEN
SHORT
Figure 16 Full 1-port calibration circuit
In the current example, an Agilent 85032E calibration kit is used.
To select the calibration kit, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > Cal Kit
Then select the kit you are using from the table at the
bottom of the screen.
To perform full 1-port calibration, you will execute measurements of the three
standards in turn. After completion, the table of calibration coefficients will be
calculated and saved into the memory of the Analyzer. Before you start
calibration, disconnect the DUT from the Analyzer.
39
3 GETTING STARTED
To perform full 1-port calibration, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > Full 1-Port Cal
Connect an OPEN standard and click Open.
Connect a SHORT standard and click Short.
Connect a LOAD standard and click Load.
To complete the calibration procedure and calculate
the table of calibration coefficients, click the Apply
softkey.
3.8
SWR and Reflection Coefficient Phase Analysis Using Markers
This section describes how to determine the measurement values at three
frequency points using markers. The Analyzer screen view is shown in Figure 17.
In the current example, a reflection standard of SWR = 1.2 is used as a DUT.
Figure 17 SWR and reflection coefficient phase measurement example
40
3 GETTING STARTED
To create a new marker, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Add Marker
Then enter the frequency value in the input field in
the graph, e.g. to enter frequency 200 MHz, press «2»,
«0», «0» and «M» keys on the keypad.
Repeat the above procedure three times to enable
three markers at different frequency points.
By default only active trace markers are displayed on the screen. To enable
display of two traces simultaneously, activate the marker table.
To open the marker table, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Properties > Marker Table
41
4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.1
Screen Layout and Functions
The screen layout is represented in Figure 18. In this section you will find detailed
descriptions of the softkey menu bar, menu bar, and instrument status bar. The
channel windows are described elsewhere in this manual.
Menu
bar
Softkey menu
bar
Channel
window
Instrument status
bar
Figure 18 Analyzer screen layout
4.1.1 Softkey Menu Bar
The softkey menu bar along the right side of the screen is the main menu of the
program.
Note
The top line of the screen contains the menu bar,
which provides direct access to certain submenus of
the softkey menu. This is a secondary menu which can
optionally be hidden.
42
4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
The softkey menu bar consists of a series of panels. Each panel represents one of
the submenus of the softkey menu. All the panels are integrated to form the
complete multilevel menu system, providing access to all the Analyzer functions.
You can navigate the menu softkeys using a mouse.
Alternatively you can navigate the menu using the «↑», «↓», «←», «→», «Enter», «Esc»,
and «Home» keys on an external keyboard.
The types of softkeys are described below:
The top softkey is the menu title key. It enables you
to return to a higher level of the menu. If it is
displayed in blue, you can use the keyboard to
navigate within the softkey menu.
If the softkey is highlighted in dark gray, pressing
«Enter» key on the keyboard will activate the function
of this softkey. You can shift the highlight from key to
key using «↑» and «↓» arrows on the keyboard.
A large dot on the softkey indicates the current
selection in a list of alternative settings.
A check mark in the left part of the softkey indicates
an active function, which you can switch on/off.
Softkeys with right arrows provide access to a lower
level menu.
A softkey with a text field allows for the selected
function indication.
Softkeys
with
a
value
field
allow
entering/selection of the numerical settings.
for
This navigation softkey appears when the softkey
menu overflows the menu screen area. Using this
softkey you can scroll down and up the softkey menu.
43
4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
To navigate in the softkey menu, you can also (additionally to «↑», «↓») use «←»,
«→», «Esc», «Home» keys of the keyboard:
key brings up the upper level of the menu;

«←»

«→»

«Esc»

«Home»
key brings up the lower level of the menu, if there is a
highlighted softkey with a right arrow;
Note
key functions similarly to the «←» key;
key brings up the main menu.
The above keys of the keyboard allow navigation
within the softkey menu only if there is no active
entry field. In this case the menu title softkey is
highlighted in blue.
4.1.2 Menu Bar
Figure 19 Menu bar
The menu bar is located at the top of the screen. This is a secondary menu
providing direct access to certain submenus of the main menu. It also contains the
most frequently used softkeys’ functions. You can optionally hide the menu bar to
gain more screen space for the graph area. The menu bar is controlled by mouse.
Note
To hide the menu bar, use the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Menu Bar
44
4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.1.3 Instrument Status Bar
Date and time
Messages
Figure 20 Instrument status bar
The instrument status bar is located at the bottom of the screen.
Table 1 Messages in the instrument status bar
Field Description
Message
Not Ready
DSP status
Sweep status
DSP program is loading.
Ready
DSP is running normally.
Meas
A sweep is in progress.
Hold
A sweep is on hold.
Ext
Waiting for “External” trigger.
Man
Waiting for “Manual” trigger.
Bus
Waiting for “Bus” trigger.
Calibration…
RF signal
RF output Off
System
correction status
No communication between DSP and
computer.
Loading
Calibration
External
reference
frequency
Display update
Instrument Status
ExtRef
Update Off
Calibration standard measurement is in
progress.
Stimulus signal output is turned off.
External reference frequency input (10
MHz) is turned on.
Display update is turned off.
Factory
calibration error
PC Error
System correction is turned off (see section
8.4).
ROM error of power calibration.
RC Error
ROM error of system calibration.
External power
meter status
Power Meter:
message
Sys Corr OFF
When external power meter is connected to
the Analyzer via USB the following
45
4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
messages are displayed: connection, connection
error, ready, measurement, zero setting, zero setting
error
4.2
Channel Window Layout and Functions
The channel windows display measurement results in the form of traces and
numerical values. The screen can display up to 16 channel windows
simultaneously. Each window corresponds to one logical channel. A logical
channel can be considered to be a separate analyzer with the following settings:

Stimulus signal settings (frequency range, power level, sweep
type);

IF bandwidth and averaging;

Calibration.
The physical analyzer processes the logical channels sequentially.
In turn, each channel window can display up to 16 trace of measured parameters.
The general view of the channel window is represented in Figure 21.
Figure 21 Channel window
46
4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.2.1 Channel Title Bar
The channel title feature allows you to enter your comment for each channel
window. You can hide the channel title bar to gain more screen space for graph
area.
Channel title bar
on/off switching
To show/hide the channel title bar, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Title Label
Channel title editing
You can access the channel title edit mode by
using the following softkeys:
Display > Edit Title Label
Alternatively, mouse click on the title area in the
channel title bar.
47
4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.2.2 Trace Status Field
Trace properties
Reference level value
Trace scale
Display format
Measured parameter
Trace name
Figure 22 Trace status field
The trace status field displays the name and parameters of a trace. The number of
lines in the field depends on the number of active traces in the channel.
Note
Using the trace status field you can easily modify the
trace parameters using the mouse (as described in
section 4.3).
Each line contains the data of one trace of the channel:

Trace name from «Tr1» to «Tr16». The active trace name is
highlighted in an inverted color;

Measured parameter: S11, S21, S12, S22, or absolute power
value: A(n), B(n), R1(n), R2(n);

Display format, e.g. «Log Mag»;

Trace scale in measurement units per scale division, e.g.
«10.0 dB/»;

Reference level value, e.g. «►0.00 dB», where «►» is the
symbol of the reference level;

Trace status is indicated as symbols in square brackets (See
Table 2).
48
4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
Table 2 Trace status symbols definition
Status
Error Correction
Definition
Symbols
RO
OPEN response calibration
RS
SHORT response calibration
RT
THRU response calibration
OP
One-path 2-port calibration
F1
Full 1-port calibration
F2
Full 2-port and TRL calibration
SMC
Scalar mixer calibration
Other
RC
Receiver calibration
Calibrations
PC
Power calibration
Z0
Port impedance conversion
FD
Fixture de-embedding
FE
Fixture embedding
Data Analysis
PExt
No indication
Trace Display
D&M
Port extension
Data trace
Data and memory traces
M
Memory trace
Off
Data and memory traces – off
D+M
Data + Memory
D–M
Data – Memory
D*M
Data * Memory
D/M
Data / Memory
Electrical Delay
Del
Electrical delay other than zero
Smoothing
Smo
Trace smoothing
Gating
Gat
Time domain gating
Zr
Reflection impedance
Zt
Transmission impedance
Yr
Reflection admittance
Yt
Transmission admittance
1/S
S-parameter inversion
Ztsh
Transmission-shunt impedance
Ytsh
Transmission-shunt admittance
Math Operations
Conversion
49
4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
Conj
Conjugation
50
4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.2.3 Graph Area
The graph area displays traces and numeric data.
Marker
Vertical
graticule
label
Reference
line position
Statistics
Current
stimulus
position
Horizontal
graticule
label
Trace number
Figure 23 Graph area
The graph area contains the following elements:

Vertical graticule label displays the vertical axis numeric data for
the active trace. You can set the display of data for all the traces
or hide the vertical graticule label to gain more screen space for
the trace display.

Horizontal graticule label displays stimulus axis numeric data
(frequency, power level or time). You can also hide the
horizontal graticule label to gain more screen space for the
trace display.

Reference level position indicates the reference level position of
the trace.

Markers indicate the measured values at points along the active
trace. You can simultaneous display of markers for all traces.

Marker functions: statistics, bandwidth, flatness, RF filter.
51
4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
Note

Trace number allows trace identification when printing in black
and white.

Current stimulus position indicator appears when sweep duration
exceeds 1.5 sec.
Using the graticule labels, you can easily modify all
the trace parameters using the mouse (as described in
section 4.3).
4.2.4 Trace Layout in Channel Window
If the number of the displayed traces is more than one, you can rearrange the
traces to suit your preference. You can allocate all the traces to one graph (See
Figure 23) or display of each trace in an individual graph (See Figure 24).
Figure 24 Two traces in one channel window (sample)
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.2.5 Markers
The markers indicate the stimulus values and the measured values at selected
points of the trace (See Figure 25).
Marker
data field
Indicator
on trace
Indicator on
stimulus axis
Figure 25 Markers
The markers are numbered from 1 to 15. The reference marker is indicated with
an R symbol. The active marker is indicated in the following manners: its number
is highlighted with inverse color, the indicator on the trace is located above the
trace, and the stimulus indicator is fully colored.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.2.6 Channel Status Bar
The channel status bar is located in the bottom part of the channel window. It
contains the following elements:
Stimulus stop
Averaging status (if enabled)
Power level
IF bandwidth
Sweep type
Sweep points
Stimulus start
Fixture simulation (if enabled)
Port extension (if enabled)
Power correction (if enabled)
Receiver correction (if enabled)
Error correction
Sweep progress
Figure 26 Channel status bar

Sweep progress field displays a progress bar when the channel
data are being updated.

Error correction field displays the integrated status of error
correction for S-parameter traces. The values of this field are
represented in Table 3.

Receiver correction field displays the integrated status of receiver
correction for absolute power measurement traces. The values
of this field are represented in Table 4.

Power correction field displays the integrated status of power
correction for all the traces. The values of this field are
represented in Table 5.

Port extension field displays the integrated status of execution
of this function for S-parameter traces. If the function is enabled
for all the traces, you will see black characters on a gray
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
background. If the function is enabled just for some of the
traces, you will see white characters on a red background.

Fixture simulation field displays the integrated status of
execution of this function for S-parameter traces. Fixture
simulation includes the following operations: Z0 conversion,
embedding, and de-embedding. If the function is enabled for all
the traces, you will see black characters on a gray background. If
the function is enabled just for some of the traces, you will see
white characters on a red background.

Stimulus start field allows for display and entry of the start
frequency or power, depending on the sweep type. This field can
be switched to indication of stimulus center frequency, in this
case the word Start will change to Center.

Sweep points field allows for display and entry of the number of
sweep points. The number of sweep points can be set from 2 to
the instrument maximum.

Sweep type field allows for display and selection of the sweep
type. The values of this field are represented in Table 6.

IF bandwidth field allows for display and setting of the IF
bandwidth. The values can be set from the instrument minimum
to 30 kHz.

Power level field allows for display and entry of the port output
power. In power sweep mode the field switches to indication of
CW frequency of the source.

Averaging status field displays the averaging status if this
function is enabled. The first number is the averaging current
counter value, the second one is the averaging factor.

Stimulus stop field allows for display and entry of the stop
frequency or power, depending on the sweep type. This field can
be switched to indication of stimulus span, in this case the word
Stop will change to Span.
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Table 3 Error correction field
Symbol
Cor
C?
C!
Off
---
Definition
Note
Error correction is enabled. The stimulus If the function is active
settings are the same for the for all the traces – black
measurement and the calibration.
characters on a gray
background.
Error correction is enabled. The stimulus
settings are not the same for the If the function is active
measurement and the calibration. only for some of the
traces (other traces are
Interpolation is applied.
not calibrated) – white
Error correction is enabled. The stimulus
characters on a red
settings are not the same for the
background.
measurement and the calibration.
Extrapolation is applied.
Error correction is turned off.
For all the traces. White
characters on a red
No calibration data. No calibration was background.
performed.
Table 4 Receiver correction field
Symbol
RC
RC?
RC!
Definition
Note
Receiver correction is enabled. The If the function is active
stimulus settings are the same for the for all the traces – black
measurement and the calibration.
characters on a gray
background.
Receiver correction is enabled. The
stimulus settings are not the same for If the function is active
the measurement and the calibration. only for some of the
traces (other traces are
Interpolation is applied.
not calibrated) – white
Receiver correction is enabled. The
characters on a red
stimulus settings are not the same for
background.
the measurement and the calibration.
Extrapolation is applied.
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Table 5 Power correction field
Symbol
PC
PC?
PC!
Definition
Note
Power correction is enabled. The If the function is active
stimulus settings are the same for the for all the traces – black
measurement and the calibration.
characters on a gray
background.
Power correction is enabled. The
stimulus settings are not the same for If the function is active
the measurement and the calibration. only for some of the
traces (other traces are
Interpolation is applied.
not calibrated) – white
Power correction is enabled. The
characters on a red
stimulus settings are not the same for
background.
the measurement and the calibration.
Extrapolation is applied.
Table 6 Sweep types
Symbol
Lin
Log
Segm
Pow
Definition
Linear frequency sweep.
Logarithmic frequency sweep.
Segment frequency sweep.
Power sweep.
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4.3
Quick Channel Setting Using a Mouse
This section describes mouse operations which enable you to set the channel
parameters quickly and easily. In a channel window, when hovering over the field
where a channel parameter can be modified, the mouse pointer will change its
icon to indicate edit mode. In text and numerical fields, edit mode will be
indicated by underline «underline» symbol appearance.
Note
The mouse operations described in this section will
help you adjust the most frequently used settings. The
complete set of channel functions can be accessed via
the softkey menu.
4.3.1 Active Channel Selection
You can select the active channel when two or more channel windows are open.
The border line of the active window will be highlighted in a light color. To
activate another window, click inside its area.
4.3.2 Active Trace Selection
You can select the active trace if the
active channel window contains two
or more traces. The active trace name
will be highlighted in inverted color. To activate a trace, click on the required
trace status line, or on the trace curve or the trace marker.
4.3.3 Measured Data Setting
To assign the measured parameters (S11, S21, S12 or S22) to a trace, click on the Sparameter name in the trace status line and
select the required parameter in the dropdown menu.
4.3.4 Display Format Setting
To select the trace display format, click on the
display format name in the trace status line and
select the desired format in the drop-down menu.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.3.5 Trace Scale Setting
The trace scale, also known as the vertical scale division value, can be set by
either of two methods.
The first method: click on the trace scale field
in the trace status line and enter the required
numerical value.
The second method: move the mouse pointer over the vertical scale
until the pointer icon becomes as shown in the figure. The pointer
should be placed in the top or bottom parts of the scale, at
approximately 10% of the scale height from the top or bottom of the
scale. Left click and drag away from the scale center to enlarge the
scale, or toward the scale center to reduce the scale.
4.3.6 Reference Level Setting
The value of the reference level, which is indicated on the vertical scale by the
«►» and «◄» symbols, can be set by either of two methods.
The first method: click on the reference level
field in the trace status line and enter the
required numerical value.
The second method: move the mouse pointer over the vertical scale
until the pointer icon becomes as shown in the figure. The pointer
should be placed in the center part of the scale. Left click and drag up
to increase the reference level value, or down to reduce the value.
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4.3.7 Reference Level Position
The reference level position, indicated on the vertical scale by «►» and
«◄» symbols, can be set in the following way. Locate the mouse pointer
on a reference level symbol until it becomes as shown in the figure.
Then drag and drop the reference level symbol to the desired position.
4.3.8 Sweep Start Setting
Move the mouse pointer over the stimulus
scale until it becomes as shown in the figure.
The pointer should be placed in the left part
of the scale, at approximately 10% of the scale length from the left. Left click and
drag right to increase the sweep start value, or left to reduce the value.
4.3.9 Sweep Stop Setting
Move the mouse pointer over the stimulus
scale until it becomes as shown in the figure.
The pointer should be placed in the right part
of the scale, at approximately 10% of the scale length from the right. Left click
and drag right to increase the sweep stop value, or left to reduce the value.
4.3.10 Sweep Center Setting
Move the mouse pointer over the stimulus
scale until it becomes as shown in the figure.
The pointer should be placed in the center
part of the scale. Left click and drag right to increase the sweep center value, or
left to reduce the value.
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4.3.11 Sweep Span Setting
Move the mouse pointer over the stimulus
scale until it becomes as shown in the figure.
The pointer should be placed in the center
part of the scale, at approximately 20% of the scale length from the right Left
click and drag to the right to increase the sweep span value, or to the left to
reduce the value.
4.3.12 Marker Stimulus Value Setting
The marker stimulus value can be set by either a click and drag operation, or by
entering the value using numerical keys of the keyboard.
To drag the marker, first move the mouse pointer on
one of the marker indicators until it becomes as shown
in the figures.
To enter the numerical value of the stimulus, first activate its field by clicking it in
the marker data line.
4.3.13 Switching between Start/Center and Stop/Span Modes
To switch between the modes Start/Center and
Stop/Span, click on the respective field of the
channel status bar. Clicking the label Start changes it to Center, and the label Stop
will change to Span. The layout of the stimulus scale will be changed
correspondingly.
4.3.14 Start/Center Value Setting
To enter the Start/Center values, activate the respective field in the
channel status bar by clicking the numerical value.
4.3.15 Stop/Span Value Setting
To enter the Stop/Span values, activate the respective field in the
channel status bar by clicking the numerical value.
4.3.16 Sweep Points Number Setting
To enter the number of sweep points, activate the respective field in
the channel status bar by clicking the numerical value.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.3.17 Sweep Type Setting
To set the sweep type, left click on the respective field in the
channel status bar and select the required type in the dropdown menu.
4.3.18 IF Bandwidth Setting
IF bandwidth can be set by selection in the drop-down menu or by entering the
value using numerical keys of the keyboard.
To activate the drop-down menu, right
click on the IF bandwidth field in the
channel status bar.
To enter the IF bandwidth, activate the respective field in the
channel status bar by left clicking.
4.3.19 Power Level / CW Frequency Setting
To enter the Power Level/CW Frequency, activate the respective field
in the channel status bar by clicking the numerical value. The
parameter displayed in the field depends on the current sweep
type: in frequency sweep mode you can enter the power level value, in power
sweep mode you can enter the CW frequency value.
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4.4
Channel and Trace Display Setting
The Analyzer supports 16 channels, each of which allows for measurements with
stimulus parameter settings different from the other channels. The parameters
related to a logical channel are listed in Table 7.
4.4.1 Channel Allocation
A channel is represented on the screen as an individual channel window. The
screen can display from 1 to 16 channel windows simultaneously. By default one
channel window opens. If you need to open two or more channel windows select
one of the layouts shown below.
To set the channel window layout, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Allocate Channels
Then select the required number and layout of the
channel windows in the menu.
The available options of number and layout of the channel windows on the screen
are as follows:
In accordance with the layouts, the channel windows do not overlap each other.
The channels open sequentially starting from the smaller numbers.
Note
For each open channel window, you should set the
stimulus parameters, adjust other settings, and
perform calibration.
Before you change a channel parameter setting or
perform calibration of a channel, you need to ensure
the channel is selected as active.
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The measurements are executed for open channel windows sequentially.
Measurements for any hidden channel windows are not performed.
4.4.2 Number of Traces
Each channel window can contain up to 16 different traces. Each trace is assigned
a measured parameter (S-parameter), display format and other parameters. The
parameters related to a trace are listed in Table 8.
Traces can be displayed in one graph, overlapping each other, or in separate
graphs within a channel window. The trace settings are made in two steps: trace
number and trace layout within the channel window. By default the channel
window contains one trace. If you need to enable two or more traces, set the
number of traces as described below.
To set the number of the traces, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Num Of Traces
Then select the number of traces from the menu.
All traces are assigned individual names, which cannot be changed. The trace
name contains its number. The trace names are as follows: Tr1, Tr2 ... Tr16.
Each trace is assigned some initial settings: measured parameter, format, scale,
and color, which can be modified by the user.

The measured parameters of the first four traces default to
the following values: S11, S21, S12, S22. After that the
measurement defaults repeat in cycles.

By default the display format for all the traces is set to
logarithmic magnitude (dB).

The scale parameters by default are set as follows:
division is set to 10 dB, reference level value is set to 0
dB, and the reference level position is in the middle of the
graph.

The trace color is determined by its number. You can
change the color for all the traces having the same
number.
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Note
The full cycle of trace update depends on the Sparameters measured and the calibration method. For
example, the full cycle might consist of a single
sweep with either Port 1 or Port 2 as the source, or
might include two successive sweeps, of Port 1 then
of Port 2. To have two traces (S11 and S22) measured,
two successive sweeps will be performed. Two
successive sweeps are also performed when full 2port calibration is employed, independently of the
number of the traces and S-parameters measured.
4.4.3 Trace Allocation
By default races are displayed overlapping one other in the channel window. If
you wish to display the traces in separate graphs, set the number and layout of
the graphs in the channel window as shown below.
To allocate the traces in a channel window, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Allocate Traces
Then select the desired number and layout of the
separate trace graphs in the menu.
The available options of number and layout of the
trace graphs of one channel window are as shown in
section 4.4.1.
Unlike channel windows, the number of traces and their allocation into a number
of graphs can be set independently.

If the number of traces and the number of graphs are
equal, all the traces will be displayed separately, each in
its individual graph.

If the number of traces is greater than the number of
graphs, traces will be assigned successively (beginning
from the smallest trace number) to the number of
available graphs. When all the graphs are utilized, the
process will continue from the first graph (the following
in succession traces will be added in the graphs).
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS

If the number of traces is smaller than the number of
graphs, empty graphs will be displayed.
If two or more traces are displayed in one graph, the vertical scale will be shown
for the active trace.
Note
The Analyzer can optionally show vertical graticule
labels for all the traces in the graph. By default this
feature is disabled. For details see section 8.6.
If two or more traces are displayed in one graph, markers data will be shown for
the active trace.
Note
To display the marker data for all the traces
simultaneously, there are two options: use the marker
table feature (See section 6.1.6.2) or deactivate
identification of the active trace marker only, which is
set by default (See section 6.1.6.4).
The stimulus axis is the same for all the traces of the channel, except for the case
when time domain transformation is applied to some of the traces. In this case the
displayed stimulus axis will correspond to the active trace.
Table 7 Channel parameters
N
Parameter Description
1
Sweep Type
2
Sweep Range
3
Number of Sweep Points
4
Stimulus Power Level
5
Power Slope Feature
6
CW Frequency
7
Segment Sweep Table
8
Trigger Mode
9
IF Bandwidth
10
Averaging
11
Calibration
12
Fixture Simulator
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Table 8 Trace parameters
N
Parameter Description
1
Measured Parameter (S–parameter)
2
Display Format
3
Reference Level Scale, Value and Position
4
Electrical Delay, Phase Offset
5
Memory Trace, Math Operation
6
Smoothing
7
Markers
8
Time Domain
9
Parameter Transformation
10
Limit Test
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4.4.4 Selection of Active Trace/Channel
The control commands selected by the user are applied to the active channel or
the active trace, respectively.
The boundary line of the active channel window is highlighted in a light color. The
active trace belongs to the active channel and its title is highlighted in an inverse
color.
Before you set the parameters of a channel or trace, first you need to activate that
channel or trace, respectively.
To activate a trace/channel, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Active Trace/Channel
Then activate the trace by entering the number in the
Active Trace softkey or using Previous Trace or Next Trace
softkeys.
The active channel can be selected in a similar way.
4.4.5 Active Trace/Channel Window Maximizing
When there are several channel windows displayed, you can temporarily maximize
the active channel window to full screen size. The other channel windows will not
be visible, but this will not interrupt measurements in those channels.
Similarly, when there are several traces displayed in a channel window, you can
temporarily maximize the active trace. The other traces will not be visible, but this
will not interrupt measurement of those traces.
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To enable/disable active channel maximizing function,
use the following softkeys:
Display > Active Trace/Channel > Active Channel
To enable/disable active trace maximizing function,
use the following softkeys:
Display > Active Trace/Channel > Active Trace
Note
Channel and trace maximization can also be
controlled achieved by a double click on the
channel/trace.
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4.5
Stimulus Setting
The stimulus parameter settings apply to each channel. Before you set the
stimulus parameters of a channel, make the channel active.
Note
To make maximize measurement accuracy, perform
measurements with the same stimulus settings as
were used for calibration.
4.5.1 Sweep Type Setting
To set the sweep type, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Sweep Type
Then select the sweep type:
■
Lin Freq:
Linear frequency sweep
■
Log Freq:
Logarithmic frequency sweep
■
Segment: Segment
■
Power Sweep: Power
frequency sweep
sweep
4.5.2 Sweep Span Setting
The sweep range should be set for linear and logarithmic frequency sweeps (Hz)
and for linear power sweep (dBm). The sweep range can be set as either Start /
Stop or Center / Span values of the range.
To enter the start and stop values of the sweep range,
use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Start | Stop
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To enter center and span values of the sweep range,
use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Center | Span
Note
If power sweep is activated, the values on the Start,
Stop, Center, and Span softkeys will be represented in
dBm.
4.5.3 Sweep Points Setting
The number of sweep points should be set for linear and logarithmic frequency
sweeps, and for linear power sweep.
To enter the number of sweep points, use the
following softkeys:
Stimulus > Points
4.5.4 Stimulus Power Setting
The stimulus power level should be set for linear and logarithmic frequency
sweeps. For the segment sweep type, the method of power level setting described
in this section can be used only if the same power level is set for all the segments
of the sweep. For setting of individual power levels for each segment see section
4.5.9.
To enter the power level value when port couple
feature is ON, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Power > Power
4.5.5 Setting Power Level for Each Port Individually
By default the power levels of all test ports are set to equal value. This function is
called Port Couple. The user can optionally disable this function and set the
power level of each port individually.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
To set the power level for each port individually, first
disable the Power Couple function:
Stimulus > Power > Power Couple [ON | OFF]
Then set the power level for each port:
Stimulus > Power > Port Power > [Port 1 | Port 2]
4.5.6 Power Slope Feature
The power slope feature allows for compensation of power attenuation with
frequency increase, for example in fixture cabling. The power slope can be set for
linear, logarithmic and segment frequency sweep types.
To enter the power slope value, use the following
softkeys:
Stimulus > Power > Slope (dB/GHz)
To enable/disable the power slope function, use the
following softkeys:
Stimulus > Power > Slope (On/Off)
4.5.7 CW Frequency Setting
CW frequency setting determines the source frequency for linear power sweeps.
To enter the CW frequency value, use the following
softkeys:
Stimulus > Power > CW Freq
4.5.8 RF Out Function
The RF Out function allows for temporary disabling of the stimulus signal. While
the stimulus is disabled, measurements cannot be performed.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
To disable/enable
softkeys:
stimulus,
use
the
following
Stimulus > Power > RF Out
Note
The RF Out function is applied to the whole Analyzer,
not to individual channels. Indication of RF Out status
appears in the instrument status bar (See section
4.1.3).
4.5.9 Segment Table Editing
The segment table determines the sweep parameters when segment sweep mode
is activated.
To open the segment table, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Segment Table
When you switch to the Segment Table submenu, the segment table will open in the
lower part of the application. When you exit the Segment Table submenu, the
segment table will be hidden.
The segment table layout is shown below. The table has three mandatory
columns: frequency range and number of sweep points, and three columns which
you can optionally enable/disable: IF bandwidth, power level and delay time.
Each row describes one segment. The table can contain one or more rows. The
number of segments is limited only by the instrument’s maximum number of
sweep points.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
To add a segment to the table, click Add softkey. The
new segment row will be entered below the
highlighted one.
To delete a segment, click Delete softkey. The
highlighted segment will be deleted.
For any segment it is necessary to set the mandatory parameters: frequency range
and number of sweep points. The frequency range can be set either as Start / Stop,
or as Center / Span.
To set the frequency range representation mode, click
Freq Mode softkey to select between Start/Stop and
Center/Span options.
For any segment you can enable the additional parameter columns: IF bandwidth,
power level, and delay time. If such a column is disabled, the corresponding value
set for linear sweep will be used (same for all the segments).
To enable the IF bandwidth column, click List IFBW
softkey.
To enable the power level column, click List Power
softkey.
To enable
softkey.
the delay time column, click List Delay
To set a parameter, make a mouse click on its value field and enter the value. To
navigate in the table you can use the keys of the keyboard.
Note
Adjacent segments must not overlap in the frequency
domain.
The segment table can be saved into *.lim file to a hard disk and later recalled.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
To save the segment table, click Save… softkey.
Then enter the file name in the appeared dialog.
To recall the segment table, click Recall… softkey.
Then select the file name in the appeared dialog.
The segment sweep graph has two methods of frequency axis representation. In
the first, the axis displays the frequencies of the measurement points. In some
cases it can be helpful to have the frequency axis displayed as sequential
numbers. The second method displays the number of the measurement points.
To set the frequency axis display mode, click Segment
Display softkey and select Freq Order or Base Order option.
4.5.10 Measurement Delay
Measurement delay function allows for adding an additional time interval at each
measurement point between the moment when the source output frequency
becomes stable and the start of the measurement. This capability can be useful for
measurements in narrowband circuits with transient periods longer than the
measurement time per point.
To set the measurement delay time, use the following
softkeys:
Stimulus > Meas Delay
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.6
Trigger Setting
The trigger mode determines the sweep actuation of the channel at a trigger signal
detection. A channel can operate in one of the following three trigger modes:

Continuous – a sweep actuation occurs every time a trigger
signal is detected;

Single – one sweep actuation occurs with trigger signal
detection after the mode has been enabled; after the sweep is
complete the channel modes changes to hold;

Hold – sweep actuation is off in the channel, trigger signals
do not affect the channel.
The trigger signal applies to the whole Analyzer and controls the trigging of all
the channels in the following manner. If more than one channel window are open,
the trigger activates successive measurements of all the channels which are not in
hold mode. Before measurement of all channels is complete, all additional triggers
are ignored. When measurement of all the channels is complete, if there is as least
one channel in continuous trigger mode, the Analyzer will enter waiting for a
trigger state.
The trigger source can be selected by the user from the following four available
options:

Internal – the next trigger signal is generated by the Analyzer
on completion of each sweep;

External – the external trigger input is used as a trigger
signal source;

Manual – the trigger signal is generated by pressing the
corresponding softkey.

Bus – the trigger signal is generated by a command
communicated from an external computer from a program
controlling the Analyzer via COM/DCOM.
The Trigger Scope specifies the scope of the triggering, whether it is for all
channels (default) or for the active channel. When this function is enabled with a
value of "ACTive", only active channel is triggered. When this function is enabled
with a value of "ALL", all channels of the analyzer are triggered.
For example, if Trigger Scope is set to "ACTive" when Trigger > Continuous is
selected for all channels, a measurement channel is automatically changed by
switching over the active channel.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
To set the trigger mode, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Trigger
Then select the required trigger mode:
■
Hold
■
Single
■
Continuous
and Continuous All Channels softkeys turn
all the channels to the respective mode.
Hold All Channels
softkey aborts the sweep and returns the trigger
system to the waiting for a trigger state.
Restart
Trigger
softkey generates the trigger in manual trigger
mode.
To set the trigger source, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Trigger > Trigger Source
Then select the required trigger source:
■
Internal
■
External
■
Manual
■
Bus
To set the trigger scope, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Trigger > Trigger Scope
The function changes between the values:
■
All Channels
■
Active Channel
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.6.1 External Trigger (except Planar 304/1)
4.6.1.1
Point Feature
By default the external trigger initiates a sweep measurement upon every trigger
event (See Figure 27 a, b). For the external trigger source, the point trigger feature
instead initiates a point measurement upon each trigger event (See Figure 27 c, d).
To enable the point trigger feature for external trigger
source, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Trigger > Ext Trigger > Event >
{ On Sweep | On Point }
4.6.1.2
External Trigger Polarity
To select the external trigger polarity, use the
following softkeys:
Stimulus > Trigger > Ext Trigger > Polarity
4.6.1.3
External Trigger Position
The external trigger position selects the position when Analyzer expects the
external trigger signal:
 Before sampling, when the frequency of the stimulus port have been set.
The frequency change of the stimulus port begins after sampling (See
Figure 27 a, c).
 Before the frequency setup and subsequent measurement. The frequency
change of the stimulus port begins when the external trigger arrives (See
Figure 27 b, d).
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
Depending on the Point Feature settings the external trigger is expected before
each point or before the first point of the full sweep cycle.
To select external trigger polarity, use the following
softkeys:
Stimulus > Trigger > Ext Trigger > Position > {Before Sampling |
Before Setup }
4.6.1.4
External Trigger Delay
The external trigger delay sets the response delay with respect to the external
trigger signal (see Figure 27). The delay value has range from 0 to 100 sec with
resolution 0.1 µsec.
To set the external trigger delay, use the following
softkeys:
Stimulus > Trigger > Ext Trigger > Delay
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
a. Before Sampling, Point trigger OFF
b. Before Setup, Point trigger OFF
c. Before Sampling, Point trigger ON
d. Before Setup, Point trigger ON
Figure 27 External Trigger
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.6.2 Trigger Output (Cobalt models)
The trigger output outputs various waveforms depending on the setting of the
Output Trigger Function:
 Before frequency setup pulse;
 Before sampling pulse;
 After sampling pulse;
 Ready for external trigger;
 End of sweep pulse;
 Measurement sweep.
Figure 28 Trigger Output (except Ready for Trigger)
a. External trigger set before sampling
b. External trigger set before setup
Figure 29 Trigger Output (Ready for Trigger)
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.6.2.1
Switching ON/OFF Trigger Output
To enable/disable the trigger output, use the
following softkeys:
Stimulus > Trigger > Trigger Output > Trigger Output
Note
4.6.2.2
When the Ready for Trigger function of the trigger
output is selected the trigger source must be set to
external to enable the output trigger.
Trigger Output Polarity
To select the polarity of the trigger output, use the
following softkeys:
Stimulus > Trigger > Trigger Output > Polarity
4.6.2.3
Trigger Output Function
To select the function of the trigger output (See Figure
28, Figure 29), use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Trigger > Trigger Output > Function
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.7
Measurement Parameters Setting
4.7.1 S-Parameters
For high-frequency network analysis the following terms are used: incident,
reflected, and transmitted waves (See Figure 30).
Figure 30
Measurement of the magnitude and phase of incident, reflected and transmitted
signals allow for determining the S-parameters (scattered parameters) of the DUT.
An S-parameter is a relation between the complex magnitudes of two waves:
S mn =
transmitted wave at Port m
incident wave at Port n
The Analyzer allows measurement of the full scattering matrix of a 2-port DUT:
 S11 S12 
S  

 S 21 S 22 
To measure the full scattering matrix, you do not need to change the connection
of the DUT to the Analyzer.
For the measurement of S11, S21 parameters, test Port 1 will operate as a signal
source. The incident and reflected waves will be measured by Port 1. The
transmitted wave will be measured by Port 2.
For the measurement of S12, S22 parameters, test Port 2 will operate as a signal
source. The incident and reflected waves will be measured by Port 2. The
transmitted wave will be measured by Port 1.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.7.2 S-Parameter Setting
A measured parameter (S11, S21, S12 , S22) is set for each trace. Before you select the
measured parameter, first activate the trace.
To set the measured parameter, use the following
softkey:
Measurement
Then select the desired
corresponding softkey.
parameter
by
the
4.7.3 Absolute Measurements
Absolute measurements are measurements of the absolute power of a signal at a
receiver input. Unlike relative measurements of S-parameters, which represent a
relation between the signals at inputs of two receivers, absolute measurements
determine the signal power at input of one receiver. A 2-port Analyzer has four
independent receivers: A, B, R1, R2 (See Figure 31).
R1
R2
A
B
Port 1
Port 2
Figure 31 Analyzer block diagram
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
R1 and R2 are reference signal receivers; A and B are test signal receivers. The A
and R1 receivers are located in Port 1; B and R2 receivers are located in Port 2.
There are six types of absolute measurements depending on the port number (See
Table 9):
Table 9 Absolute measurements
Symbols
Definition
A(1)
Test signal receiver A (Source Port 1)
A(2)
Test signal receiver A (Source Port 2)
B(1)
Test signal receiver B (Source Port 1)
B(2)
Test signal receiver B (Source Port 2)
R1(1)
Reference signal receiver R1 (Source Port 1)
R2(2)
Reference signal receiver R2 (Source Port 2)
4.7.4 Absolute Measurement Setting
To select absolute measurement, click softkeys:
Measurement > Absolute >
Receiver A, Source Port 1 |
Receiver B, Source Port 1 |
Receiver R1, Source Port 1 |
Receiver A, Source Port 2 |
Receiver B, Source Port 2 |
Receiver R2, Source Port 2
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
Note
4.8
In absolute measurement mode, dBm measurement units
are used for logarithmic magnitude format, W
measurement units are used for measurements in linear
magnitude format. Other formats are not applicable to
absolute measurements as power is measured in scalar
values.
Format Setting
The Analyzer offers three S-parameter measurement display types:

rectangular format;

polar format;

Smith chart format.
4.8.1 Rectangular Formats
In this format, stimulus values are plotted along X-axis and the measured data are
plotted along Y-axis (See Figure 32).
Y
Measurement
X
Stimulus
Figure 32 Rectangular format
To display complex-valued S-parameters along the scalar Y-axis, it must be
transformed into a real number. Rectangular formats involve various types of
transformation of an S-parameter S  a  j  b , where:

a – real part of S-parameter complex value;

b – imaginary part of S-parameter complex value.
There are eight types of rectangular formats depending on the measured value
plotted along Y-axis (See Table 10).
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
Table 10 Rectangular formats
Format Type
Description
Label
Logarithmic
Magnitude
Log Mag
Data Type (Y-axis)
S-parameter logarithmic
magnitude:
Measurement Unit
(Y-axis)
Decibel (dB)
20  log S ,
S  a2  b2
Voltage
Standing Wave
Ratio
SWR
Phase
Phase
1  S
Dimensionless
value
1  S
S-parameter phase from –
180 to +180:
180

Expanded
Phase
Expand Phase
Group
Delay
Group Delay
Linear
Magnitude
Lin Mag
 arctg
Degree ()
a
b
S-parameter phase,
measurement range
expanded to from below –
180 to over +180
Signal propagation delay
within the DUT:
d
,

d
a
  arctg ,   2  f
b
S-parameter linear
magnitude:
Degree ()
Second (sec.)
Dimensionless
value
a2  b2
Real Part
Real
S-parameter real part:
a  re(S )
Imaginary Part
Imag
S-parameter imaginary
part:
Dimensionless
value
Dimensionless
value
b  im (S )
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.8.2 Polar Format
Polar format represents the measurement results on the polar chart (See Figure
33). The distance of a measured point from the graph center corresponds to the
magnitude of its value. The counterclockwise angle from the positive horizontal
axis corresponds to the phase of the measured value.
Figure 33 Polar format
The polar graph does not have a frequency axis, so frequency is indicated by
markers. There are three types of polar formats corresponding to the data
displayed by the marker; the traces remain the same for all the format types.
Table 11 Polar formats
Format Type
Description
Label
Linear
Magnitude
and Phase
Polar (Lin)
Logarithmic
Magnitude
and Phase
Polar (Log)
Real and
Imaginary
Parts
Polar (Re/Im)
Data Displayed
by Marker
S-parameter linear
magnitude
Measurement Unit
(Y-axis)
Dimensionless
value
S-parameter phase
Degree ()
S-parameter logarithmic
magnitude
S-parameter phase
S-parameter real part
S-parameter imaginary part
Decibel (dB)
Degree ()
Dimensionless
value
Dimensionless
value
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.8.3 Smith Chart Format
Smith chart format is used for representation of impedance values for DUT
reflection measurements. In this format, the trace has the same points as in polar
format.
Figure 34 Smith chart format
The Smith chart does not have a frequency axis, so frequency is indicated by
markers. There are five types of Smith chart formats corresponding to the data
displayed by the marker; the traces remain the same for all the format types.
Table 12 Smith chart formats
Format Type
Description
Label
Linear
Magnitude and
Phase
Smith (Lin)
Logarithmic
Magnitude and
Phase
Smith (Log)
Real and
Imaginary Parts
Smith (Re/Im)
Data Displayed
by Marker
S-parameter linear
magnitude
Measurement Unit
(Y-axis)
Dimensionless
value
S-parameter phase
Degree ()
S-parameter logarithmic
magnitude
S-parameter phase
S-parameter real part
S-parameter imaginary part
Decibel (dB)
Degree ()
Dimensionless
value
Dimensionless
value
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
Table 12 Smith chart formats (continued)
Complex
Impedance
(at Input)
Smith (R + jX)
Resistance at input:
R  re( Z inp ) ,
Z inp  Z 0
Ohm (Ω)
1 S
1 S
Reactance at input:
X  im( Z inp )
Ohm (Ω)
Equivalent capacitance or
inductance:
1
,
X
C
L
Complex
admittance
(at Input)
Smith (G + jB)
X
,

X 0
X 0
Farad (F)
Henry (H)
Conductance at input:
G  re(Yinp ) ,
Yinp 
Siemens (S)
1 1 S

Z0 1 S
Susceptance at input:
B  im(Yinp )
Siemens (S)
Equivalent capacitance or
inductance:
C
L
B
, B0
Farad (F)
1
, B0
B
Henry (H)

Z0 – test port impedance. Z0 setting is described in section 5.2.12.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.8.4 Data Format Setting
You can select the format for each trace of the channel individually. Before you set
the format, first activate the trace.
To choose a rectangular format, use the following
softkey:
Format
Then select the desired format:
■
Logarithmic magnitude
■
SWR
■
Phase
■
Expanded phase
■
Group delay
■
Linear magnitude
■
Real part
■
Imaginary part
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
To choose a Smith chart format, use the following
softkeys:
Format > Smith
Then select the desired format:
■
Logarithmic magnitude and phase
■
Linear magnitude and phase
■
Real and imaginary parts
■
Complex impedance (at input)
■
Complex admittance (at input)
To choose a Polar format, use the following softkeys:
Format > Polar
Then select the desired format:
■
Logarithmic magnitude and phase
■
Linear magnitude and phase
■
Real and imaginary parts
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.9
Scale Setting
4.9.1 Rectangular Scale
For rectangular format you can set the following parameters (See Figure 35):

Scale division;

Reference level value;

Reference level position;

Number of scale divisions.
Scale
Divisions
10
9
Division
8
7
6
Reference
Level
5
Reference Level
Position
4
3
2
1
0
Figure 35 Rectangular scale
4.9.2 Rectangular Scale Setting
You can set the scale for each trace of a channel. Before you set the scale, first
activate the trace.
To set the scale of a trace, use the following softkeys:
Scale > Scale
To set the reference level, use the following softkeys:
Scale > Ref Value
To set the position of the reference level, use the
following softkeys:
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
Scale > Ref Position
To set the number of trace scale divisions, use the
following softkeys:
Scale > Divisions1
Note
Quick trace scale setting by the mouse is described in
section 4.3.
4.9.3 Circular Scale
For polar and Smith chart formats, you can set the outer circle value (See Figure
36).
Scale
Scale
Figure 36 Circular scale
4.9.4 Circular Scale Setting
To set the scale of the circular graphs, use the
following softkeys:
Scale > Scale
1
Number of the scale divisions affect all the graphs of the channel.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.9.5 Automatic Scaling
The automatic scaling function automatically adjusts the trace scale so that the
trace of the measured value fits into the graph entirely.
In rectangular format, two parameters are adjustable: scale division and reference
level position. In circular format, the outer circle value is adjusted.
To execute the automatic scaling, use the
following softkeys:
Scale > Auto Scale
4.9.6 Reference Level Automatic Selection
This function automatically selects the reference level in rectangular coordinates.
After the function, the trace of the measured value shifts vertically so that the
reference level crosses the graph in the middle. The scale division is unaffected.
To execute automatic selection of the reference level,
use the following softkeys:
Scale > Auto Ref Value
4.9.7 Electrical Delay Setting
The electrical delay function allows the user to define a compensation value for
the electrical delay of a device. This value is useful during measurements of phase
deviations from linear, for example. The electrical delay is set in seconds.
If the electrical delay setting is other than zero, the S-parameter value will vary in
accordance with the following formula:
S  S meas  e j 2  f t ,
where
f – frequency, Hz,
t – electrical delay, sec.
The electrical delay is set for each trace independently. Before you set the
electrical delay, first activate the trace.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
To set the electrical delay, use the following softkeys:
Scale > Electrical Delay
4.9.8 Phase Offset Setting
The phase offset function allows the user to define the constant phase offset of a
trace. The value of the phase offset is set in degrees for each trace independently.
Before you set the phase offset, first activate the trace.
To set the phase offset, use the following softkeys:
Scale > Phase Offset
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.10
Measurement Optimization
You can set IF bandwidth, averaging and smoothing parameters inside the Average
softkey submenu.
4.10.1 IF Bandwidth Setting
The IF bandwidth setting allows the user to define the bandwidth of the test
receiver. The IF bandwidth runs through the following sequence of numbers: 1,
1.5, 2, 3, 5, 7 within the range of the instrument capability.
Narrowing the IF bandwidth reduces self-noise and widens the dynamic range of
the Analyzer, but the sweep time increases. Narrowing the IF bandwidth by 10 will
nominally reduce receiver noise by 10 dB.
The IF bandwidth should be set for each channel independently. Before you set
the IF bandwidth, first activate the channel.
To set the IF bandwidth, use the following softkeys:
Average > IF Bandwidth
4.10.2 Averaging Setting
Averaging is performed at a measurement point over several previous sweeps. The
benefits of the averaging function are similar to IF bandwidth narrowing. It allows
for reduction of self-noise and widening the dynamic measurement range of the
Analyzer.
Averaging of each measurement point is made across multiple sweeps in
accordance with the following equation:
 M i  Si ,

Si

 1
M

1


M

,


i
i

1

n
 n

i0
i  0, n  min(i  1, N )
M i – i-sweep averaging result;
Si
– i-sweep measurement parameter (S-parameter) value;
N – averaging factor is set by the user from 1 to 999; the higher the factor
value the stronger the averaging effect.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
When the averaging function is enabled, the current number of iterations and the
averaging factor, e.g. «9/10», will appear in the channel status bar. The averaging
process is considered stable when the two numbers are equal.
The averaging should be set for each channel individually. Before you set the
averaging, first activate the channel.
To toggle the averaging function on/off, use the
following softkeys:
Average > Averaging
To set the averaging factor, use the following softkeys:
Averaging > Avg Factor
4.10.3 Smoothing Setting
Smoothing of the sweep result averages adjacent points of the trace as
determined by the moving aperture. The aperture is set by the user as a percent of
the total number of trace points.
Smoothing does not increase the dynamic range of the Analyzer, nor does it does
affect the average level of the trace. Smoothing helps to reduce noise bursts.
Smoothing is set for each trace independently. Before you configure smoothing,
first activate the trace.
To toggle the smoothing function on/off, use the
following softkeys:
Averaging > Smoothing
To set the smoothing aperture, use the following
softkeys:
Averaging > Smo Aperture
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.11
Mixer Measurements
4.11.1 Mixer Measurement Methods
The Analyzer allows you to perform measurements of mixers and other frequency
translating devices using scalar and vector methods.
The scalar method allows measurement of the scalar transmission S-parameters of
frequency translating devices. Phase and group delay measurements are not
accessible in this mode. The advantage of this method is the simplicity of
measurement setup (no additional equipment necessary). See Figure 37.
RF
IF
LO
Figure 37 Scalar mixer measurement setup
The scalar measurement method is based on frequency offset mode. Frequency
offset mode enables a frequency offset between the Analyzer test ports as
described in detail in section 4.11.2. Frequency offset mode can be combined with
various calibration methods.
When performing scalar measurements of a mixer, the most accurate method of
calibration is scalar mixer calibration (See section 5.6).
An easier but less accurate method is using absolute measurements in
combination with receiver calibration and power calibration (See sections 4.7.3,
5.5 and section 5.4). This method often results in transmission S-parameter ripples
due to mixer input and output mismatch. This can be partially compensated by
using matching attenuators of 3-10 dB at the mixer input and output.
The vector mixer calibration method allows for measurement of mixer
transmission complex S-parameters including phase and group delay. The method
requires additional equipment (See Figure 38): an external mixer with filter, which
is called calibration mixer, and a LO common for both the calibration mixer and the
mixer under test.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
Calibration
mixer/filter
Mixer under
test
LO
Figure 38 Vector mixer measurement setup
The vector mixer calibration method doesn’t use frequency offset. The vector
mixer calibration method ensures same frequency at the both test ports of the
Analyzer, in normal operation mode. The vector mixer calibration procedure is
described in the section 5.7.
4.11.2 Frequency Offset Mode
The Frequency Offset mode allows for S-parameter measurement of frequency
translating devices including vector reflection measurements and scalar
transmission measurements. In this context, frequency translating devices include
both frequency shifting devices such as mixers and converters, as well as devices
dividing or multiplying frequency.
This measurement mode is based on a frequency offset between the ports. The
frequency offset is defined for each port using three coefficients: multiplier,
divider, and offset. These coefficients allow for calculation of a port frequency
relative to the basic frequency range.
Fport 
M
Fbase  Fofs
D
M – multiplier,
D – divider,
Fofs – offset,
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
Fbase – basic frequency.
In most cases it is sufficient to apply an offset to only one of the ports, leaving the
other one at the basic frequency (M=1, D=1, Fofs=0).
Below are some examples of offset coefficient calculation for different types of
frequency conversion. Here the mixer RF input is connected to Port 1, and the
mixer IF output is connected to Port 2. The basic frequency range is set to the
mixer RF frequency range and the first port of the Analyzer does not use
frequency offset. The second port of the Analyzer is set to the IF frequency range
and use frequency offset mode as follows:
1. IF = RF – LO
Port 2: M = 1, D = 1, Fofs = – LO.
2. IF = LO – RF
Port 2: M = – 1, D = 1, Fofs = LO.
3. IF = RF + LO
Port 2: M = 1, D = 1, Fofs = LO.
In frequency offset mode, the bottom part of the channel window will indicate
each port’s frequency span (See Figure 39).
Figure 39 Channel window in frequency offset mode
User can set Start and Stop frequency for each port directly instead of using
Multiplier, Divider and Offset values. Using Start/Stop values will set Multiplier
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
and Offset, which can be determined from the specified frequency and the base
frequency, while maintaining the preset Divider.
To enable/disable frequency offset mode, use the
following softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Frequency Offset
The Offset Type must be set to Port1/Port2.
To enter offset coefficients for each Port, use the
following softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Port n > { Multiplier | Divider |
Offset }
Or set the port frequency range directly using the
following softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Port n > { Start | Stop }
4.11.3 Source/Receivers Frequency Offset Feature
Conventional frequency offset mode uses frequency offset between the ports,
while the source and receivers of each port operate at a common frequency.
Frequency offset between the ports allows for S-parameter measurement of
frequency translating devices including vector reflection measurements and scalar
transmission measurements.
The source/receivers frequency offset feature introduces a frequency offset
between the source and receivers within a single port. Frequency offset between
the source and receivers allows for absolute measurements only.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
To enable source/receivers frequency offset feature,
use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Type > Source/Receivers
4.11.4 Automatic Adjustment of Offset Frequency
When you perform mixer measurements in frequency offset mode, you need to set
the offset frequency equal to the LO frequency. The error of the offset frequency
setting must be less than IF filter bandwidth, otherwise, the receiver will not
receive the output signal from the mixer. In practice, there is always an LO
frequency setting error (unknown to the user) when the tested mixer has an
independent LO.
The Analyzer offers automatic adjustment of the offset frequency. This function
enables you to accurately set the offset frequency equal to the frequency of the
independent LO of the DUT.
Automatic adjustment of the offset frequency can be activated only for one port.
The value of the offset frequency automatic adjustment will be indicated in the
line of the respective port in the channel window (See Figure 40).
Automatic adjustment can be made within a ±500 kHz range from the offset
frequency set by the user. The function can be enabled/disabled by the user.
Adjustment can be performed upon key pressing, or periodically at a set time
interval.
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
Figure 40 Channel window in frequency offset mode with enabled automatic
adjustment function of the offset frequency
The typical error of automatic adjustment of the offset frequency depends on the
current IF filter bandwidth (See Table 13).
Table 13 Typical error of offset frequency automatic adjustment
IF Filter Bandwidth
Typical Error of Offset Frequency Automatic
Adjustment
10 kHz
500 Hz
3 kHz
50 Hz
1 kHz
15 Hz
300 Hz
5 Hz
100 Hz
2 Hz
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4 SETTING MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS
4.11.4.1
Setting of Offset Frequency Automatic Adjustment
To enable/disable automatic adjustment function of
the offset frequency, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Adjust > Offset Adjust
To select the port, use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Adjust > Select Port
Note: normally, it is the port with enabled frequency
offset.
To enter the adjustment value use the following
softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Adjust > Adjust Value
Note: or click Adjust Immediate, as described below.
To enable/disable continuous adjustment, use the
following softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Adjust > Continuous Adjust
To enter the time interval for continuous adjustment,
use the following softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Adjust > Adjust Period
To initiate a single adjustment, use the following
softkeys:
Stimulus > Frequency Offset > Offset Adjust > Adjust Immediate
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5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.1
General Information
5.1.1 Measurement Errors
S-parameter measurements are influenced by various measurement errors, which
can be broken down into two categories:

systematic errors, and

random errors.
Random errors comprise such errors as noise fluctuations and thermal drift in
electronic components, changes in the mechanical dimensions of cables and
connectors subject to temperature drift, repeatability of connections and cable
bends. Random errors are unpredictable and hence cannot be estimated and
eliminated in calibration. Random errors can be reduced by correct setting of the
source power, IF bandwidth narrowing, sweep averaging, maintaining a constant
environment temperature, observance of the Analyzer warm-up time, careful
connector handling, and avoidance of cable bending after calibration.
Random errors and related methods of correction are not mentioned further in this
section.
Systematic errors are errors caused by imperfections in the components of the
measurement system. Such errors occur repeatedly and their characteristics do not
change with time. Systematic errors can be determined and then reduced by
performing mathematical correction of the measurement results.
The process of measurement of precision devices with predefined parameters with
the purpose of determining systematic errors is called calibration, and such
precision devices are called calibration standards. The most commonly used
calibration standards are SHORT, OPEN, and LOAD.
The process of mathematical compensation (numerical
measurement systematic errors is called error correction.
reduction)
for
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5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
5.1.2 Systematic Errors
The systematic measurement errors of vector network analyzers are subdivided
into the following categories according to their source:

Directivity;

Source match;

Load match;

Isolation;

Reflection/transmission tracking.
The measurement results before error correction are called uncorrected.
The residual values of the measurement results after error correction are called
effective.
5.1.2.1
Directivity Error
A directivity error (Ed) is caused by incomplete separation of the incident signal
from the reflected signal by the directional coupler in the source port. In this case
part of the incident signal energy enters the receiver of the reflected signal.
Directivity errors do not depend on the characteristics of the DUT and usually have
a greater effect in reflection measurements.
5.1.2.2
Source Match Error
A source match error (Es) is caused by mismatch between the source port and the
input of the DUT. In this case part of the signal reflected by the DUT reflects at the
source port and re-enters the input of the DUT. The error occurs effects both
reflection measurement and transmission measurement. Source match errors
depend on the difference between the input impedance of the DUT and test port
impedance when it functions as a signal source.
Source match errors have strong effect in measurements of a DUT with poor input
matching.
5.1.2.3
Load Match Error
A load match error (El) is caused by mismatch between the receiver port and the
output of the DUT. In this case part of the signal transmitted through the DUT
reflects at the receiver port and returns to the output of the DUT. The error occurs
in transmission measurements and in reflection measurements (for a 2-port DUT).
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5 CALIBRATION AND CALIBRATION KIT
Load match errors depend on the difference between output impedance of the
DUT and test port impedance when used as a signal receiver.
In transmission measurements, the load match error has considerable influence if
the output of the DUT is poorly matched. In reflection measurements, the load
match error has considerable influence in case of poor output match and low
attenuation between the output and input of the DUT.
5.1.2.4
Isolation Error
Isolation error (Ex) is caused by a leakage of the signal from the source port to the
receiver port bypassing the DUT.
The Analyzer has very good isolation, which allows us to ignore this error for most
measurements. Isolation error measurement is an optional step in all types of
calibration.
5.1.2.5
Reflection Tracking Error
A reflection tracking error (Er) is caused by differences in frequency response
between the test receiver and the reference receiver of the source port in
reflection measurement.
5.1.2.6
Transmission Tracking Error
A transmission tracking error (Et) is caused by differences in frequency response
between the test receiver of the receiver port and the reference receiver of the
source port in transmission measurement.
5.1.3 Error Modeling
Error modeling and the methodology of signal flow graphs are applied to vector
network analyzers for analysis of systematic errors.
5.1.3.1
One-Port Error Model
In reflection measurement, only one port of the Analyzer is used. The signal flow
graph of errors for Port 1 is represented in Figure 41. For Port 2 the signal flow
graph of the errors will be similar.
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1
Ed1
S11m
Es1
S11a
Er1
Port 1
Figure 41 One-port error model
Where:

S11a – reflection coefficient true value;

S11m – reflection coefficient measured value.
The measurement result at Port 1 is affected by the following three systematic
error terms:

Ed1 – directivity;

Es1 – source match;

Er1 – reflection tracking.
For normalization the stimulus value is taken equal to 1. All the values used in the
model are complex.
After determining all the three error terms Ed1, Es1, Er1 for each measurement
frequency by means of a full 1-port calibration, it is possible to calculate
(mathematically subtract the errors from the measured value S11m) the true value
of the reflection coefficient S11a.
There are simplified methods, which eliminate the effects of only one or two of
the three systematic errors.
5.1.3.2
Two-Port Error Model
For two-port measurements, two signal flow graphs are considered. One of the
graphs describes the case where Port 1 is the stimulus source, the other graph
describes the case where Port 2 is the stimulus source.
The signal flow graphs of errors effect in a two-port system are represented in
Figure 42:
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Ex21
1
Et21
S21m
S21a
Es1
Ed1
S11m
S11a
El21
S22a
S12a
Er1
Port 1
Port 2
DUT
S22m
S21a
El12
S12m
Et12
S11a
Er2
S22a
Es2
Ed2
S12a
1
Ex12
Figure 42 Two-port error model
Where:

S11a, S21a, S12a, S22a – true values of the DUT parameters;

S11m, S21m, S12m, S22m – measured DUT parameter values.
For normalization the stimulus value is taken equal to 1. All the values used in the
model are complex. The measurement result in a two-port system is affected by
twelve systematic error terms.
Table 14 Systematic error terms
Description
Stimulus Source
Port 1
Port 2
Directivity
Ed1
Ed2
Source match
Es1
Es2,
Reflection tracking
Er1
Er2
Transmission tracking
Et1
Et2
Load match
El1
El2
Isolation
Ex1
Ex2
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After determination of all twelve error terms for each measurement frequency by
means of a 2-port calibration, it is possible to calculate the true value of the Sparameters: S11a, S21a, S12a, S22a.
There are simplified methods, which eliminate the effect of only one or several of
the twelve systematic error terms.
Note
If you use a 2-port calibration, to determine any of Sparameters you need to know all four measurements
S11m, S21m, S12m, S22m. That is why updating one or all of
the S-parameters necessitates two sweeps: first with
Port 1 as a signal source, and then with Port 2 as a
signal source.
5.1.4 Analyzer Test Port Definition
The test ports of the Analyzer are defined by means of calibration. The test port is
a connector accepting a calibration standard in the process of calibration.
A type-N connector on the front panel of the Analyzer will be the test port if
calibration standards are connected directly to it.
Sometimes it is necessary to connect coaxial cables and/or adapters to the
connector(s) on the front panel to interface with a DUT of a different connector
type. In such cases, calibration standards are connected to the connector of the
cable or adapter.
Figure 43 represents two cases of test port definition for 2-port measurements.
The use of cables and/or adapters does not affect the measurement results if they
are integrated into the process of calibration.
Port 1
Port 2
Adapters
Port 1
Port 2
Figure 43 Test port defining
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In some cases, the term calibration plane is used. Calibration plane is an imaginary
plane located at the ends of the connectors, which accept calibration standards
during calibration.
5.1.5 Calibration Steps
The process of calibration comprises the following steps:

Selection of a calibration kit matching the connector type of
the test port. The calibration kit includes such standards as
SHORT, OPEN, and LOAD with matched impedance.
Magnitude and phase responses i.e. S-parameters of the
standards are well known. The characteristics of the
standards are represented in the form of an equivalent circuit
model, as described below;

Selection of a calibration method (see section 5.1.6) is based
on the required accuracy of measurements. The calibration
method determines what error terms of the model (or all of
them) will be compensated;

Measurement of the standards within a specified frequency
range. The number of the measurements depends on the
type of calibration;

The Analyzer compares the measured parameters of the
standards against their predefined values. The difference is
used for calculation of the calibration coefficients (systematic
errors);

The table of calibration coefficients is saved into the memory
of the Analyzer and used for error correction of the measured
results of any DUT.
Calibration is always made for a specific channel, as it depends on the channel
stimulus settings, particularly on the frequency span. This means that a table of
calibration coefficients is being stored each for an individual channel.
5.1.6 Calibration Methods
The Analyzer supports several methods of one-port and two-port calibration. The
calibration methods vary by quantity and type of the standards being used, by type
of error correction, and accuracy. The table below presents an overview of
calibration methods.
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Table 15 Calibration methods
Calibration
Method
Reflection
Normalization
Parameters
Standards
S11

SHORT or OPEN
Er1, Ed11
or

LOAD 1
or
S21

THRU
Et1, Ex1 2
or

2 LOADs2
or
One-Path
Two-Port
Calibration
Full Two-Port
Calibration
TRL
Calibration
(except
Planar 304/1)
1
2
High
Low
Et2, Ex2 2
S12
Full One-Port
Calibration
Accuracy
Er2, Ed21
S22
Transmission
Normalization
Errors
S11

SHORT
Er1, Ed1, Es1
or

OPEN
or
S22

LOAD
Er2, Ed2, Es1
S11, S21

SHORT
or

OPEN
Er1, Ed1, Es1, Et1,
Ex1 2
S12, S22

LOAD

THRU

2 LOADs 2
S11, S21

SHORT
S12, S22

OPEN

LOAD

THRU

2 LOADs 2
S11, S21

THRU or LINE
S12, S22

REFLECT

LINE or 2 LOADs
High
Medium
or
Er1, Ed1, Es1, Et1,
Ex1 2
Er1, Ed1, Es1, Et1,
El1, Ex1 2
High
Er2, Ed2, Es2, Et2,
El2, Ex2 2
Er1, Ed1, Es1, Et1,
El1
Very
High
Er2, Ed2, Es2, Et2,
El2
If optional directivity calibration is performed.
If optional isolation calibration is performed.
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5.1.6.1
Normalization
Normalization is the simplest method of calibration as it involves measurement of
only one calibration standard for each S-parameter.

1-port (reflection) S-parameters (S11, S22) are calibrated by
means of a SHORT or an OPEN standard, estimating the
reflection tracking error term Er.

2-port (transmission) S-parameters (S21, S12) are calibrated by
means of a THRU standard, estimating the transmission
tracking error term Et.
This method is called normalization because the measured S-parameter at each
frequency point is divided (normalized) by the corresponding S-parameter of the
calibration standard.
Normalization eliminates frequency-dependent attenuation and phase offset in
the measurement circuit, but does not compensate for errors of directivity,
mismatch or isolation. This constrains the accuracy of the method.
Note
5.1.6.2
Normalization can also be referred to as response
open, response short or response thru calibration
depending on the standard being used: an OPEN,
SHORT or THRU respectively.
Directivity Calibration (Optional)
The Analyzer offers an optional directivity (Ed) calibration feature, which can be
used in combination with reflection normalization by means of measurement of a
LOAD standard. Auxiliary directivity correction increases the accuracy of
normalization.
5.1.6.3
Isolation Calibration (Optional)
The Analyzer offers optional isolation (Ex) calibration to be combined with the
following three methods of calibration:

transmission normalization,

one-path two-port calibration,

full two-port calibration.
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This calibration is performed by isolation measurement using LOAD standards
connected to both test ports of the Analyzer. Isolation calibration can be omitted
in most tests, as the signal leakage between the test ports of the Analyzer is
negligible.
Note
5.1.6.4
For isolation calibration, it is recommended to set a
narrow IF bandwidth and firmly fix the cables.
Full One-Port Calibration
Full one-port calibration involves connection of the following three standards to
one test port:

SHORT,

OPEN,

LOAD.
Measurement of the three standards allows for acquisition of all the three error
terms (Ed, Es, and Er) of a one-port model. Full 1-port calibration is a highly
accurate method for 1-port reflection measurements.
5.1.6.5
One-Path Two-Port Calibration
A one-path two-port calibration combines full one-port calibration with
transmission normalization. This method allows for a more accurate estimation of
transmission tracking error (Et) than using transmission normalization.
One-path two-port calibration involves connection of the three standards to the
source port of the Analyzer (as for one-port calibration) and a THRU standard
connection between the calibrated source port and the other receiver port.
One-path two-port calibration allows for correction of Ed, Es, and Er error terms of
the source port and a transmission tracking error term (Et). This method does not
derive source match error term (El) of a 2-port error model.
One-path two-port calibration is used for measurements of the parameters of a
DUT in one direction, e.g. S11 and S21.
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5.1.6.6
Full Two-Port Calibration
A full two-port calibration involves seven connections of standards. This
calibration combines two full 1-port calibrations for each port, and one THRU
connection, which provides transmission measurements with each test port as a
source. If optional isolation calibration is required, connect LOAD standards to the
both test ports of the Analyzer and perform isolation measurements for each
source port.
Full 2-port calibration allows for correction of all the twelve error terms of a 2port error model: Ed1, Ed2, Es1, Es2, Er1, Er2, Et1, Et2, El1, El2, Ex1, Ex2 (correction of Ex1, Ex2
can be omitted).
Full 2-port calibration is a highly accurate method of calibration for 2-port DUT
measurements.
5.1.6.7
Sliding Load Calibration
In full one-port and full two-port calibrations it is possible to employ a SLIDING
LOAD calibration standard instead of a fixed one. The use of the SLIDING LOAD
standard allows for significant increase in calibration accuracy at high frequencies
compared to the FIXED LOAD standard.
The sliding load calibration involves a series of measurements in different
positions of the sliding element to compensate for reflection from the dissipation
component.
To activate the sliding load calibration algorithm, the selected calibration kit
should contain a calibration standard of sliding load type, and it should be
assigned to the "load" class of the corresponding port. Calibration standard editing
and class assignment are further described in detail in section 5.2.14.
The sliding load calibration is not suitable for low frequencies. To eliminate this
limitation, use a FIXED LOAD standard in the lower part of the frequency range.
For combined calibration with SLIDING and FIXED LOADS, use the procedure of
standard subclasses assigning. This procedure is described in detail in section
5.3.4.
5.1.6.8
Unknown Thru Calibration (except Planar 304/1)
UNKNOWN THRU calibration standard is used only in full two-port calibration,
which is also known as SOLT (Short, Open, Load, Thru) calibration.
This calibration method involves connecting the test ports to each other, referred
to as the THRU. If the connectors’ gender or type prevent direct connection, a
DEFINED THRU is used. But it is not always possible to know the exact parameters
of the THRU, in this case UNKNOWN THRU calibration can be used.
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An arbitrary two-port device with unknown parameters can be used as an
UNKNOWN THRU. An UNKNOWN THRU should satisfy only two requirements.
The first requirement applies to the transmission coefficient of the THRU. It
should satisfy the reciprocity condition (S21 = S12), which holds for almost any
passive network. Furthermore, it is not recommended to use a THRU with the loss
higher than 20 dB as it can reduce the calibration accuracy.
The second requirement is knowledge of the approximate electrical length of the
UNKNOWN THRU within an accuracy of 1/4 of the wavelength at the maximum
calibration frequency. This requirement, however, can be omitted if the following
frequency step size condition is met:
F 
1
,
4  0
where τ 0 – delay of a two-port device.
In this case the Analyzer program will automatically determine the electrical
length (delay) of the two-port device.
In other words, you can perform calibration without specifying the delay of the
UNKNOWN THRU if the frequency increment is sufficiently small. For example,
with an UNKNOWN THRU having l 0  100 mm and delay coefficient 1 /   0 .7 , the
delay will be  0  477 ps . In this case the maximum frequency increment for
automatic estimation of the UNKNOWN THRU delay should be set to
 F  524 MHz ; equivalently the number of points within a sweep span of 8 GHz
should be no less than 16. To ensure reliable operation, set the frequency
increment, or equivalently the number of points, to provide at least double margin.
To use unknown thru calibration as part of full two-port calibration, the calibration
kit definition should include an UNKNOWN THRU standard, assigned to the THRU
class, for the two ports. The procedure of calibration standards editing and their
assignment to classes is further described in detail in section 5.2.14.
An UNKNOWN THRU is defined automatically if you set the delay to zero in the
calibration kit editing menu. Otherwise the user-defined delay value will be used.
This value should be set to within 1/4 wavelength of the true delay at the
maximum calibration frequency.
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5.1.6.9
TRL Calibration (except Planar 304/1)
TRL (Thru-Reflect-Line) calibration is the most accurate calibration method
described herein, as it uses airlines as calibration standards. The TRL calibration
requires the use of the following calibration standards:

THRU or REFERENCE LINE,

REFLECT (SHORT or OPEN),

Second LINE or two MATCHes.
TRL is a general name for a calibration family, which comprises such calibrations
as LRL, TRM, or LRM named depending on the calibration standards used.
If a zero-length THRU is used as the first standard, the method is called TRL
calibration. If a non-zero length LINE is used as the first standard, the calibration
method is called LRL (Line-Reflect-Line). To denote the first standard of the TRL
and LRL calibration, assign TRL-Thru class, which includes THRU and LINEs. A LINE
of TRL-Thru class is also called Reference Line.
An OPEN or SHORT is usually used as a second standard in TRL calibration. To
denote the second standard of the TRL calibration, assign TRL-Reflect class.
A second LINE is used as the third standard in TRL calibration. At low frequencies,
at which MATCHes work well, two MATCHes can be used, as they are an
equivalent of a matched line of infinite length. In the latter case, the calibration
method is called TRM (Thru-Reflect-Match) or LRM (Line-Reflect-Match)
respectively. To denote the third standard of the TRL calibration, assign TRLline/match class, which includes LINEs and MATCHes.
Frequency Range
TRL and LRL calibrations have a limited bandwidth, suitable for lower to upper
frequency ratios up to 1:8. The band limits depend on the LINE length in TRL
calibration or on the difference between the lengths of the two LINEs in LRL
calibration.
In theory TRM and LRM calibrations do not have limitations in frequency, however
their practical use at higher frequencies is limited by the quality of the MATCHes.
It is recommended to use the TRM and LRM calibrations up to 1 GHz.
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Impedance of LINEs and MATCHes
All the LINEs and MATCHes used for TRL calibration must have Z0 impedance
values as precise as possible. TRL calibration transfers the impedance of standards
into the calibrated system. Precise airlines with an accurate Z0 impedance of 50 Ω
are used as LINEs in coaxial paths.
REFERENCE LINE
A zero-length THRU is used as the first standard in TRL calibration. In LRL
calibration a LINE, which is called REFERENCE LINE, is used instead of a zerolength THRU. The shortest LINE is used as the REFERENCE LINE. Its length must to
be known, so that the calibration plane positions could be calculated exactly.
However, LRL calibration is also possible when the REFERENCE LINE length is not
known. In this case, its length is assumed to be equal to zero, the calibration plane
being in the middle of the LINE, and not at the ports’ edges.
TRL LINE
TRL LINE is an airline used in TRL calibration, or the second longest LINE used in
LRL calibration. The length of TRL LINE should be known just approximately. The
LINE length is used to determine the calibration bandwidth. Let ∆L be the
difference between the two LINEs in LRL calibration. In TRL calibration this
difference will be equal to the LINE length, as a zero-length THRU is used as a
REFERENCE LINE. Then the phase difference between the TRL LINE and
REFERENCE LINE or THRU should be no less than 20° at the lower frequency and
no more than 160° at the upper frequency of the calibration.
20 
L  L1  L0 ,
360  f  L
 160 ,
v
ν – wave velocity in LINE (for airline it is с =2.9979·108 м/с).
L0 – REFERENCE LINE length,
L1 – TRL LINE length,
So, the useful frequency range for TRL/LRL calibration is 1:8. Besides, TRL/LRL
calibration does not work at low frequencies, as it would require a very long LINE.
Two or more TRL LINEs are used to extend the calibration frequency. For example,
in case of using two TRL LINEs the frequency range can be increased up to 1:64.
TRL MATCH
Unlike TRL/LRL calibration, TRM/LRM calibration uses MATCHes, which are the
equivalent to the infinitely long LINE, instead of a TRL LINE. Theoretically
TRM/LRM calibration has no frequency limitations. However, the use of TRM/LRM
calibration at higher frequencies is limited by the quality of the MATCHes. As a
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rule, the TRM/LRM calibration is used at lower frequencies, as it is good starting
from zero frequency.
TRL REFLECT
There are no strict requirements to the TRL REFLECT standard. You should know
only approximate parameters of the TRL REFLECT standard. The REFLECT
standard should have high reflection coefficient, close to 1. The phase of the
standard must be known within ±90°. Normally, any OPEN or SHORT meets this
requirement. The next requirement is that the reflection coefficient must be the
same for all the ports. If one standard is used for all the ports by turns, then this
requirement is automatically fulfilled. If the ports have different genders or types
of connectors, use special standards with the identical electrical specifications,
which are available in pairs.
TRL Calibration Frequency Extension
To extend the frequency of TRL calibration a method of dividing into several nonoverlapping bands is applied. For each frequency band a separate TRL LINE of
different length is used. The phase difference between each TRL LINE and the
REFERENCE LINE must be from 20° to 160°, as indicated above. A MATCH
standard is used in the lowest frequency band.
The Analyzer software allows using up to 8 LINES for calibration frequency
extension. To achieve this, there are two steps of handling the calibration kits:
- defining frequency limits to calibration standards (see 5.3.2);
- assigning classes to calibration standards, where up to 8 calibration standards
can be assigned to one class (see section 5.3.4).
Perform the above mentioned dividing of the calibration band into sub-bands and
assign a separate TRL LINE to each of them in the calibration kit editing menu
before calibration.
5.1.6.10
Multiline TRL Calibration (except Planar 304/1)
Regular TRL calibration, described in the previous section uses several LINEs of
different lengths for frequency extension. It is provided by the method of dividing
the frequency band into separate sub-bands.
Multiline TRL calibration also uses several LINEs. But it does not divide the
frequency band into several sub-bands. Instead, all the LINEs are used
simultaneously over the whole calibration bandwidth. The redundancy of the
LINEs measurements allows for both extending the frequency range and
increasing the calibration accuracy. The number of LINEs should be no less than
three. The more LINEs you use, the higher the accuracy you will achieve.
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To employ multiple LINEs in the calibration procedure, use the same method of
standards subclasses assignment as in the regular TRL calibration (see section
5.2.8.1). Defining frequency limits to calibration standards is not necessary for
Multiline TRL calibration method. The procedure of switching between the normal
and Multiline TRL calibrations see in section 5.2.7.1.
The following table shows the differences between the regular and Multiline TRL
calibrations when entering the data into the calibration standards editing menu.
Calibration
Standard
Data in Calibration Kit Manager
TRL
REFERENCE LINE
or THRU
1. Type: THRU/LINE
1. Type: THRU/LINE
2. Min and max frequency
2. Delay
3. Delay
3. Class: TRL LINE/MATCH
or TRL THRU
4. Class: TRL THRU
LINE
Multiline TRL
1. Type: THRU/LINE
2. Min and max frequency
The total number of LINEs is
no less than 3.
3. Class: TRL LINE/MATCH
MATCH (optional)
1. Type: MATCH
1. Type: MATCH
2. Min and max frequency
2. Class: TRL LINE/MATCH
3. Class: TRL LINE/MATCH
REFLECT
1. Type: SHORT or OPEN
2. Min and max frequency
3. Model parameters, which allow calculating value of
phase response within ±90°.
4. Class: TRL REFLECT
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5.1.6.11
Waveguide Calibration
The Analyzer supports the following calibration methods in a waveguide
environment:

Reflection or Transmission Normalization

Full One-Port Calibration

One-Path Two-Port Calibration

Full Two-Port Calibration

TRL Calibration
The Analyzer further supports use of a sliding load standard in the
abovementioned calibrations, except TRL.
General use and features:

System Z0 should be set to 1 ohm before calibration. Offset Z0 and terminal
impedance in the calibration standard definition also should be set to 1 ohm.

Waveguide calibration uses two offset short standards instead of a combination of
short and open standards. Typically 1/8λ0 and 3/8λ0 offset sort standards are used,
where λ0 – wave length in waveguide at the mean frequency.
In waveguide calibration, one of two offset short
standards must be assigned to the open class (see
section 5.3.4 Calibration Standard Class Assignment).
Consequently the GUI will contain an Open button
with the label of this short standard.
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5.1.7 Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits
Calibration standards are precision physical devices used for determination of
errors in a measurement system.
A calibration kit is a set of calibration standards with a specific connector type and
specific impedance.
The Analyzer provides definitions of calibration kits produced by different
manufacturers. The user can add the definitions of own calibration kits or modify
the predefined kits. Calibration kits editing procedure is described in the section
5.2.14.
To ensure the required calibration accuracy, select the calibration kit being used
in the program menu. The procedure of calibration kit selection is described in
section 5.2.1.
5.1.7.1
Definitions and Classes of Calibration Standards
Each calibration standard has a definition and belongs to one or several classes.
Calibration standard definition is a mathematical description of its parameters.
Calibration standard class is an application of the standard in a specific calibration
method associated with a specific test port number. For example, "LOAD of Port 1"
in full two-port calibration.
5.1.7.2
Types of Calibration Standards
Calibration standard type is a category of physical devices used to define the
parameters of the standard. The Analyzer supports the following types of the
calibration standards:

OPEN,

SHORT,

FIXED LOAD,

SLIDING LOAD,

THRU/LINE,

UNKNOWN TRHU (except Planar 304/1),

Standard defined by data (S-parameters).
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Note
The type of a calibration standard should not be
confused with its class. Calibration standard type is a
part of the standard definition used for the calculation
of its parameters.
5.1.7.3
Gender of Calibration Standard
Gender of a calibration standard is typically denoted on the calibration standard
label. The label and the gender of calibration standard respectively, are not
accounted by the software and are used for user information only. Nevertheless, it
is recommended to follow some rules for calibration standard gender designation.
A calibration standard can be labeled either with:

the gender of a calibration standard itself, as –M– for male and –F– for
female type of standard; or

the gender of the analyzer port, which the calibration standard is mated to,
as (m) for male and (f) for female port types;
For example, same standard can be labeled as Short –F– or Short (m).
The Analyzer software uses the first type of designation: the gender of a
calibration standard itself denoted as –M– for male and –F– for female type of
standards.
5.1.7.4
Methods of Calibration Standard Defining
The Analyzer provides two methods of defining a calibration standard:

calibration standard model (See section 5.1.7.5),

table of S-parameters (See section 5.1.7.6).
The calibration standards defined by the table of S-parameters are called DataBased standards.
Besides, each calibration standard is characterized by lower and upper values of
the operating frequency. In the process of calibration, the measurements of the
calibration standards outside the specified frequency range are not used.
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5.1.7.5
Calibration Standard Model
A model of a calibration standard presented as an equivalent circuit is used for
determining S-parameters of the standard. The model is employed for standards of
OPEN, SHORT, FIXED LOAD, THRU/LINE types.
A One-port model is used for the standards OPEN, SHORT, and FIXED LOAD (See
5.1.6.4).
Calibration
plane
Offset (transmission line):
Lumped parameters:
 Z0 – impedance;
 OPEN – conductance C;
 T – propagation delay;
 SHORT – inductance L;
 Rloss – loss.
 LOAD – impedance RL.
Figure 44 One-port standard model
The Two-port model is used for the standard THRU/LINE (See Figure 45).
Calibration
plane
Calibration
plane
Offset (transmission line):
 Z0 – impedance;
 T – propagation delay;
 Rloss – loss.
Figure 45 Two-port standard model
The description of the numeric parameters of an equivalent circuit model of a
calibration standard is shown in Table 16.
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Table 16 Parameters of the calibration standard equivalent circuit model
Parameter
(as in the
program)
Z0
(Offset Z0)
Parameter Definition
The characteristic impedance of the transmission line [Ω],
serving as the offset.
For the coaxial line specified real value of characteristic
impedance, usually equal to 50 Ω or 75 Ω.
For waveguide calibration, the special value of 1 Ω is used.
T
(Offset Delay)
The offset delay. It is defined as one-way signal propagation
time in the transmission line [seconds]. The delay can be
measured or mathematically determined by dividing the exact
physical length by the propagation velocity in the line.
For waveguide, delay is conventionally taken to be equal to
the delay of a coaxial line of the same length. The actual
signal delay in waveguide is frequency dependent and is
calculated in the program.
Instead delay, one can specify the length of the offset [meters].
The software calculates the delay according to the formula for
a coaxial air line:
T
r 
c
,
where
 – line length [m],
c – light speed in free space 299792458 [m/s],
 r – relative permittivity of air 1.000649.
The length can be specified instead of the delay provided
offset of the calibration standard is a coaxial air line or a
waveguide. If the calibration standard manufacturer provides a
delay data it is better to specify delay.
Note: When the Multiline TRL calibration is used it is
recommended to always specify the length of TRL lines
independently of line type, dielectric, presence of propagation
speed dispersion. The Multiline TRL uses for calculations
physical length of lines.
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Table 17 Continued
Rloss
(Offset Loss)
The offset loss in one-way propagation due to the skin effect
[Ω/sec].
The loss in a coaxial transmission line is determined by
measuring the delay T [sec] and loss L [dB] at 1 GHz frequency.
The measured values are used in the following formula:
Rп / s  
LdB   Z 0 
4.3429dB   T s 
The loss in waveguide is typically set to 0 due to its very small
influence. However, the software supports a waveguide loss
model. If the calibration standard manufacturer provides loss
data, it is recommended to specify it.
Rload
Load impedance of fixed load calibration standard [Ω].
(Load
For the coaxial calibration standard specified real value of
characteristic impedance, usually equal to 50 Ω or 75 Ω.
Impedance)
For waveguide calibration, the special value of 1 Ω is used.
C
(С0, С1,
С2, С3)
The fringe capacitance of an OPEN standard, which causes a
phase offset of the reflection coefficient at high frequencies.
The fringe capacitance model is described as a function of
frequency, which is a polynomial of the third degree:
C = C0 + C1 f + C2 f 2 + C3 f 3 , where
f – frequency [Hz]
C0…C3 – polynomial coefficients
Units: C0[F], C1[F/Hz], C2[F/Hz2], C3[F/Hz3]
L
(L0, L1,
L2, L3)
The residual inductance of a SHORT standard, which causes a
phase offset of the reflection coefficient at high frequencies.
The residual inductance model is described as a function of
frequency, which is a polynomial of the third degree:
L = L0 + L1 f + L2 f 2 + L3 f 3 , where
f – frequency [Hz]
L0…L3 – polynomial coefficients
Units: L0[H], L1[H/Hz], L2[H/Hz2], L3[H/Hz3]
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Table 18 Continued
Media
The offset media. Allows to choose from:
Width to Height
Ratio

Coaxial;

Waveguide.
The waveguide width to height ratio. Used in the waveguide
loss model when the loss value is not zero.
(H/W)
Minimum and
Maximum
Frequency
(Fmin, Fmax)
The minimum and maximum standard operating frequency in
the coaxial. Are used for a calibration using several calibration
standards each of which does not cover entire frequency
range.
The cut off frequency and the doubled cut off frequency of the
waveguide. The cutoff frequency of the waveguide is achieved
at a wavelength in the waveguide equal to twice its width.
Take care not to confuse this with the minimum and maximum
operating frequency of the waveguide, which are usually given
by the manufacturer with a margin relative to the cut off
frequency.
5.1.7.6
Data-Based Calibration Standards
The calibration standards defined by data are set using the table of S-parameters.
Each line of the table contains frequency and S-parameters of the calibration
standard. For one-port standards the table contains the value of only one
parameter – S11, and for two-port standards the table contains the values of all the
four parameters – S11, S21, S12, S22.
The table of S-parameters can be filled in manually by the user or downloaded
from a file of Touchstone format. Files with *.s1p extension are used for one-port
standards, and files with *.s2p extension are used for two-port standards.
5.1.7.7
Scope of Calibration Standard Definition
Different methods of calibration apply either full or partial definitions of the
calibration standard kits.
The full two-port calibration, full one-port calibration, one-path two-port
calibration, and normalization use fully defined calibration standards, i.e. the
standards with known S-parameters. The S-parameters of OPEN, SHORT, LOAD,
and THRU/LINE must be defined by the model or by data.
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Note
The UNKNOWN THRU and SLIDING LOAD standards
are exceptional in the above calibrations. The
S-parameters of these standards are defined in the
process of calibration. UNKNOWN THRU is used only
in full two-port calibration.
TRL calibration and its modifications (TRM, LRL, LRM) apply partial definition of
the standards:
5.1.7.8

TRL THRU standards must have the required value of Z0
(S11=S22=0) and known length (delay),

TRL LINE/MATCH standard must have the same value of Z0
as the first standard,

TRL REFLECT standard must have the phase known as
accurately as ±90°.
Classes of Calibration Standards
Along with defining a calibration standard by a calibration model or data, the
standard should also be assigned a specific class. One calibration standard may
belong to several classes. The class assignment is performed for each particular
calibration kit. The procedure of class assignment to the calibration standards is
described in section 5.3.4.
Class assignment to a calibration standard is required for specifying such
properties as the calibration method, the role of a standard in the calibration, and
the number of the port(s). The Analyzer supports the following classes of the
calibration standards (See Table 19).
Table 19 Classes of the calibration standards
Calibration Methods
Class Label
Full Two-Port
Calibration
OPEN
Full One-Port Calibration
SHORT
One-Path Two-Port
Calibration
Port
1
2
1
2
LOAD
1
2
Transmission Normalization
THRU
1-2
Reflection Normalization
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TRL Calibration
TRL THRU
LRL Calibration
TRM Calibration
LRM Calibration
1-2
1
TRL REFLECT
2
TRL LINE/MATCH
1-2
For example, if you assign the class "OPEN of Port 1" to the OPEN -F- calibration
standard, it will indicate that this standard is used for calibrating the first port
using the following calibration methods: full two-port, full one-port, one-path
two-port, and normalization.
Note
5.1.7.9
Class assignment changes the labels of the
calibration standards on the calibration softkeys.
Subclasses of Calibration Standards
Subclasses are used for assignment of one class to several calibration standards.
The procedure of subclass assignment is mainly employed for calibration within a
wide frequency range by several calibration standards, each of which does not
cover the full frequency range. Each class of standards can contain up to 8
subclasses.
For example, suppose in your calibration kit the LOAD standard is defined as from
0 GHz to 2 GHz, and the sliding LOAD standard is defined as from 1.5 GHz to 12
GHz. To perform calibration within the full frequency range the fixed LOAD should
be assigned the subclass 1, and the sliding LOAD should assigned the subclass 2
of the “load" class.
If the standards have an overlapping frequency range (as in the example above,
from 1.5 GHz to 2 GHz), the last measured standard will be used.
Note
Subclass assignment changes the labels of the
calibration softkeys. The measurement softkey is
replaced by the key, which opens the subclass menu
containing the keys for measuring several calibration
standards.
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5.2
Calibration Procedures
5.2.1 Calibration Kit Selection
The calibration kit employed during a calibration should be selected according to
the following procedure. If it is not specified in the list of the predefined
calibration kits, you should add it. The procedure of adding and editing of the
calibration kits is described in the section 5.2.14.
To open the list of the calibration kits (See Figure 46),
use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Cal Kit
Figure 46 The list of calibration kits
Highlight the required line in the list of the calibration
kits and use the following softkey:
Select
Or click on the checkbox in the row "Select" by the
mouse.
Note
Make sure that the selected calibration kit is check
marked.
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5.2.2 Reflection Normalization
Reflection normalization is the simplest calibration method used for reflection
coefficient measurements (S11 or S22). Only one standard (SHORT or OPEN) is
measured (See Figure 47) in the process of this calibration. You can also perform
directivity calibration by measuring a LOAD standard.
Port
Port
SHORT or
OPEN
LOAD
(optional)
Figure 47 Reflection normalization
Before starting calibration perform the following settings: select active channel,
set the parameters of the channel (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc.), and select
the calibration kit.
To open reflection normalization submenu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > Response (Open) | Response (Short)
Select the test port to be calibrated using Select Port.
Clicking this softkey you can switch between the test
ports (measured parameters).
Connect an OPEN or a SHORT standard to the test port
as shown in Figure 47. Perform measurement using
Open or Short softkey respectively.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement, a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
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To perform the optional directivity calibration, connect
a LOAD standard to the test port as shown in Figure 47
and perform measurement using Load (Optional) softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The
error correction function will also be automatically
enabled.
To clear the measurement results of the standards,
click Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration. To
disable the current calibration turn off the error
correction function (See section 5.2.10).
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status
bar (See Table 20) or in trace status field (See Table
21).
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5.2.3 Transmission Normalization
Transmission normalization is the simplest calibration method used for
transmission coefficient measurements (S21 or S12). One THRU standard is
measured (See Figure 48) in the process of this calibration. You can also perform
isolation calibration by measuring two LOAD standards.
Port 1
Port 2
Port 1
Port 2
LOADs
(optional)
Figure 48 Transmission normalization
Before starting calibration perform the following settings: select active channel,
set the parameters of the channel (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc.), and select
the calibration kit.
To open transmission normalization submenu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > Response (Thru)
Select the direction of the calibration using Select Ports
softkey. The label on the softkey indicates the
following: receiver port – source port (measured
parameter).
Connect a THRU standard between the test ports. If
the port connectors allow through connection connect
them directly (zero electrical length thru). Perform
measurement using Thru softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
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To perform the optional isolation calibration, connect
two LOAD standards to the test ports as shown in
Figure 48 and enable measurement using Isolation
(Optional) softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The
error correction function will also be automatically
enabled.
To clear the measurement results of the standard,
click Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration.
To disable the current calibration, turn off the error
correction function (See section 5.2.10).
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status
bar (See Table 20) or in trace status field (See Table
21).
5.2.4 Full One-Port Calibration
Full one-port calibration is used for reflection coefficient measurements (S11 or S22).
The three calibration standards (SHORT, OPEN, LOAD) are measured (See Figure
49) in the process of this calibration.
Port
SHORT
OPEN
LOAD
Figure 49 Full one-port calibration
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Before starting calibration perform the following settings: select active channel,
set the parameters of the channel (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc.), and select
the calibration kit.
To open full one-port calibration submenu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > Full 1-Port Cal
Select the test port to be calibrated using Select Port.
Clicking this softkey you can switch between the test
ports (measured parameters).
Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to the
selected test port in any consequence as shown in
Figure 49. Perform measurements clicking the softkey
corresponding to the connected standard.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The
error correction function will also be automatically
enabled.
To clear the measurement results of the standards,
click Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration.
To disable the current calibration, turn off the error
correction function (See section 5.2.10).
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status
bar (See Table 20) or in trace status field (See Table
21).
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5.2.5 One-Path Two-Port Calibration
One-path two-port calibration is used for measurements of the DUT parameters in
one direction, e.g. S11 and S21. This method involves connection of the three
calibration standards to the source port, and connection of a THRU standard
between the calibrated source port and the other receiver port (See Figure 50). You
can also perform isolation calibration by measuring two LOAD standards.
Port
SHORT
Port 1
Port 2
OPEN
LOAD
Port 1
Port 2
LOADs
(optional)
Figure 50 One-path two-port calibration
Before starting calibration perform the following settings: select active channel,
set the parameters of the channel (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc.), and select
the calibration kit.
To open one-path two-port calibration submenu, use
the following softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > One Path 2-Port Cal
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Select the direction of the calibration using Select Ports
softkey. The label on the softkey indicates the
following: receiver port – source port (measured
parameters).
Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to the
source port in any consequence, as shown in Figure
50. Perform measurements clicking the softkey
corresponding to the connected standard.
Connect a THRU standard between the test ports. If
the port connectors allow through connection connect
them directly (zero electrical length thru). Perform
measurement using Thru softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
To perform the optional isolation calibration, connect
two LOAD standards to the test ports as shown in
Figure 50 and enable measurement using Isolation
(Optional) softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The
error correction function will also be automatically
enabled.
To clear the measurement results of the standards,
click Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration.
To disable the current calibration, turn off the error
correction function (See section 5.2.10).
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Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status
bar (See Table 20) or in trace status field (See Table
21).
5.2.6 Full Two-Port Calibration
Full two-port calibration combines two one-port calibrations for each test port
with measurement of transmission and reflection of a THRU standard in both
directions (See Figure 51). You can also perform isolation calibration by measuring
two LOAD standards.
SHORT
Port 1
Port 1
SHORT
OPEN
OPEN
LOAD
LOAD
Port 2
Port 2
Port 1
Port 2
LOADs
(optional)
Figure 51 Full two-port calibration
Before starting calibration perform the following settings: select active channel,
set the parameters of the channel (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc.), and select
the calibration kit.
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To open full two-port calibration submenu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > Full 2-Port Cal
Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to the 1
and 2 ports in any consequence, as shown in Figure 51.
Perform
measurements
clicking
the
softkey
corresponding to the connected standard.
Connect a THRU standard between the test ports. If
the port connectors allow through connection connect
them directly (zero electrical length thru). Perform
measurement using Port 1–2 Thru softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
progress...
To perform the optional isolation calibration, connect
two LOAD standards to the test ports as shown in
Figure 51 and enable measurement using Port 1–2 Isol
(Optional) softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The
error correction function will also be automatically
enabled.
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To clear the measurement results of the standards,
click Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration.
To disable the current calibration, turn off the error
correction function (See section 5.2.10).
Note
5.2.6.1
You can check the calibration status in channel status
bar (See Table 20) or in trace status field (See Table
21).
Unknown Thru Calibration (except Planar 304/1)
The unknown thru calibration procedure is same as the one for a full two-port
calibration described in the previous section.
To start unknown thru calibration, first add UNKNOWN THRU standard to the
description of the calibration kit and assign the class to it. After that, the unknown
thru measurement softkey will become available in the two-port calibration menu.
See section 5.3.2 for a calibration standard definition in a calibration kit. When
adding the unknown thru standard to a kit you should specify just two parameters:
UNKNOWN THRU type of the standard and approximate delay of propagation in
one direction. You can enter zero value for delay for it to be automatically
determined during calibration (See section 5.1.6.8).
See section 5.3.4 for the calibration standard class assignment. A newly added
UNKNOWN THRU standard is to be assigned to “Thru, Port 1-2” class.
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5.2.7 TRL Calibration (except Planar 304/1)
TRL calibration is the most accurate calibration method for two-port
measurements (See Figure 52):
Port 1
Port 2
THRU or LINE
Port 1
REFLECT
REFLECT
Port 1
Port 2
Port 2
LINE or 2 LOADs
Figure 52 TRL calibration
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Before starting calibration, perform the following settings: select active channel,
set the parameters of the channel (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc.), select the
calibration kit.
To open TRL calibration submenu, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > 2-Port TRL Cal
Connect a TRL THRU (THRU or LINE) standard between
the test ports. Perform measurement using 1–2
Thru/Line softkey.
Connect a TRL REFLECT standard to the test ports in
any order. Perform measurement using Port 1 Reflect and
Port 2 Reflect softkey.
Connect a TRL LINE/MATCH (LINE between the test
ports and 2 LOADs to each port). Perform
measurement using Port 1-2 Line/Match softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The
error correction function will also be automatically
enabled.
Note
System correction will turn automatically off when
you press Apply softkey to perform TRL calibration (See
section 8.4).
To clear the measurement results of the standards,
click Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration.
To disable the current calibration, turn off the error
correction function (See section 5.2.10).
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Note
5.2.7.1
You can check the calibration status in channel status
bar (See Table 20) or in trace status field (See Table
21).
Multiline Option of TRL Calibration (except Planar 304/1)
The procedure of Mulitline TRL calibration is the same as the procedure of TRL
calibration described above. The number of the LINEs of various lengths should be
no less than three.
First of all create and edit the calibration kit for the Multiline TRL calibration. For
details on the data to be entered for the normal and Multiline TRL calibrations see
section 5.1.6.10.
Switching between the normal and Multiline TRL calibrations is performed by a
specific button in TRL calibration menu.
To toggle between normal and Multiline TRL
calibrations, use Multiline softkey.
5.2.8 Calibration Using Subclasses
When several calibration standards of one class are used for calibration, you
should assign subclasses to these standards using the calibration kit editing
function. The procedure of subclass assignment is described in section 5.3.4.
When assigning two or more subclasses to one class of calibration standards, the
standard measurement softkey is replaced by the softkey, which opens the
subclass menu containing the list of all the standards of this class.
5.2.8.1 TRL Calibration
Planar 304/1)
Example
Using
Subclasses
(except
It describes an example of calibration using the calibration kit for TRL calibration,
in which the "TRL LINE/MATCH" class contains 3 subclasses: load (Lowband), line
2 (TRL Line2), and line 3 (TRL Line3).
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In the main menu of TRL calibration the 1-2 Line/Match
softkey will open the subclass menu (if the above
mentioned condition is met).
Connect the Lowband, Line2 and Line3 to the test
ports in any consequence and perform measurements
clicking the softkey corresponding to the connected
standard.
If two standards have an overlapping frequency range
the last measured standard will be used in the
overlapping region.
To view additional information about each standard
frequency range, in which its measurements are
applied (See Figure 53), press Info softkey.
Figure 53 Information on calibration standard measurements.
5.2.8.2 Sliding Load Calibration Example Using Subclasses
This section describes an example of calibration using the calibration kit 85054B,
in which the "load" class contains 3 subclasses: fixed low-frequency load
(Lowband), sliding load (Sliding), and fixed broadband load (Broadband). Only first
two standards are used for calibration.
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In the main calibration menu the Load softkey will
open the subclass menu (if the above mentioned
condition is met).
Connect Lowband and Sliding Load standards to the 1
port in any consequence and perform measurements
clicking the softkey corresponding to the connected
standard. To measure the Lowband, press Lowband
softkey, and to measure the Sliding Load, press Sliding
Load softkey. The procedure of sliding load
measurement is described in detail in section 5.2.8.2.
If two standards have an overlapping frequency range
the last measured standard will be used in the
overlapping region.
To view additional information about each standard
frequency range, in which its measurements are
applied (See Figure 55), press Info softkey.
Figure 54 Information on calibration standard measurements.
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5.2.9 Calibration Using Sliding Load
The SLIDING LOAD can be used instead of a FIXED LOAD in full one-port and twoport calibrations.
If a calibration kit contains a SLIDING LOAD, the standard measurement softkey is
replaced by the softkey, which opens the submenu containing the SLIDING LOAD
calibration logic.
The sliding load calibration involves a series of measurements in different
positions of the sliding element. The minimum number of measurements is 5, the
maximum number of measurements is 8.
In the main menu of one-port or two-port calibration
the Load softkey will open the sliding load menu (if the
above mentioned condition is met).
…
Note
Connect the SLIDING LOAD to a selected test ports and
perform a series of measurements in different positions
of the sliding element clicking the Position 1, Position 2 …
Position 8 softkeys.
The sliding load had a low cutoff frequency. To
perform calibration in the full frequency range, use two
loads: FIXED LOAD standard in the lower part of the
frequency range, and SLIDING LOAD in the upper
frequency range using subclasses (See section 5.2.8.2).
5.2.10 Error Correction Disabling
This feature allows the user to disable the error correction function, which
automatically becomes enabled after completion of calibration by any method.
To disable and enable again the error correction
function, use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Correction
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5.2.11 Error Correction Status
The error correction status is indicated for each trace individually. Also there is a
general status of error correction for all the traces of a channel.
The general error correction status for all the S-parameter traces of a channel is
indicted in the specific field on a channel status bar (See Table 20). For channel
status bar description, see section 4.2.6.
Table 20 General error correction status
Symbol
Cor
Definition
Note
Error correction is enabled. The stimulus If the function is active
settings are the same for the measurement for all the traces – black
and the calibration.
characters on a gray
background.
Error correction is enabled. The stimulus
settings are not the same for the If the function is active
measurement
and
the
calibration. only for some of the
traces (other traces are
Interpolation is applied.
Error correction is enabled. The stimulus
not calibrated) – white
settings are not the same for the
characters on a red
measurement
and
the
calibration.
background.
Extrapolation is applied.
C?
C!
Off
Error correction is turned off.
For all the traces. White
characters on a red
No calibration data. No calibration was background.
performed.
---
The error correction status for each individual trace is indicated in the trace status
field (See Table 21). For trace status field description, see section 4.2.2.
Table 21 Trace error correction status
Symbols
RO
Definition
OPEN response calibration
RS
SHORT response calibration
RT
THRU response calibration
OP
One-path 2-port calibration
F1
Full 1-port calibration
F2
Full 2-port or TRL calibration
SMC
Scalar mixer calibration
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5.2.12 System Impedance Z0
Z0 is the system impedance of a measurement path. Normally it is equal to the
impedance of the calibration standards, which are used for calibration. The Z0
value should be specified before calibration, as it is used for calibration coefficient
calculations.
For waveguide calibration, the system impedance must be set to 1 Ω.
The impedance of the both test ports is the same for most of measurement types.
The Analyzer can perform measurements when Z0 values of the test ports are
different, for example Type N50 – Waveguide. For such measurements, make
different impedance settings of the test ports, Z01 and Z02.
Note
5.2.12.1
To calibrate the Analyzer with different port
impedances Z01 and Z02, the following methods are
provided: Adapter Removal, Unknown Thru Addition
(described in Section 5.2.14).
Manual Z0 Setting
To set the system impedance Z0, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > System Zo > Port 1 Zo | Port 2 Zo
5.2.12.2
Automatic Z0 Selecting
The automatic system impedance selecting function sets Z0 in the process of
calibration standard measurement using data from the definition of the calibration
standard in a calibration kit. When measuring one-port standards, Z0 of the
corresponding port is set. When measuring two-port standards, Z0 of the two ports
is set. The UNKNOWN THRU standard does not make any changes in Z0 of the
ports. By default, the function is enabled. The user can disable it.
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To enable/disable the function of automatic selecting
of port impedance Z0, use the following softkeys:
Calibration > System Zo > Auto Select Zo > ON|OFF
5.2.13 Port Extension
The port extension function enables you to eliminate the fixture (with or without
losses) effects on the measurement results. The function virtually extends the test
ports moving the calibration plane to the terminals of the DUT (by the length of
the fixture). The fixture parameters are defined by the user for each port
individually (See Figure 55).
Figure 55 Port extension
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The phase incursion caused by electrical delay is compensated for, when a lossless
fixture needs to be removed:
e j 2   f t ,
where
f – frequency, Hz,
t – electrical delay, sec.
The feature of removing a lossless fixture is similar to the feature of electrical
delay setting for a trace (See section 4.9.7), but unlike the latter it applies to all
the traces of the channel. It compensates for a fixture length in transmission
measurements and for a double fixture length in reflection measurements.
To remove a fixture with losses, the following methods of loss defining (in one,
two or three frequency points) are applied:
1. Frequency-independent loss at DC - L0
L ( f )  L0
2. Frequency-dependent loss determined by the losses in two frequency points: L0
at DC, and L1 at frequency F1
L ( f )  L 0   L1  L 0 
f
F1
3. Frequency-dependent loss determined by the losses in three frequency points:
L0 at DC, L1 at frequency F1, and L2 at frequency F2
 f 

L ( f )  L 0  L1  L 0 
F
 1
n
,
L1
L2
n 
F1
log
F2
log
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5.2.14 Automatic Port Extension
The Auto Port Extension function allows for automatic calculation of Port
Extension parameters by measuring a SHORT or an OPEN standard. It is also
possible to measure both standards; in this case the average value will be used.
The Auto Port Extension function can be used simultaneously for any number of
ports from 1 to the number of actual instrument ports. The user should select the
number of ports and then connect a SHORT or an OPEN standard to the chosen
ports.
Inside the Auto Port Extension menu, the user should specify the frequency range
which will be taken into account for calculation of the Port Extension parameter.
There are three methods of setting the frequency range:

Current frequency range;

User-defined frequency range (within current range);

User-defined frequency point (selected with a marker).
The result of the Auto port extension function is calculation of the electrical delay
value. After Auto port extension completes, this delay value appears in the
corresponding field of the Port Extension menu, and the Port Extension function is
automatically enabled, if it was disabled.
If the option “Include Loss” is enabled prior to the Auto Port Extension function
running, the loss values L1, L2 at the respective frequency values F1, F2 will be
calculated and applied. The F1, F2 values are calculated as ¼ and ¾ of the
frequency range set by one of the following two methods: current or user-defined.
If the frequency range is defined by a marker, frequency point F2 is not calculated.
If the “Adjust Mismatch” option is enabled prior to the Auto Port Extension
function running, the frequency-independent loss at DC, the L0 value, is also set.
The value of loss at the lower frequency of the current range is used as the L0
value.
To open the menu of the Auto Port Extension function,
use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Port Extensions > Auto Port Extension
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Then select the number of ports:
Select Port(s)
Select the frequency range:
Method [Current Span | Active Marker | User Span]
Enable the Include Loss function L1, L2, if required:
Include Loss [ON | OFF]
Enable Adjust Mismatch function L0, if required:
Adjust Mismatch [ON | OFF]
Execute the Auto Port Extension function after
connecting a SHORT and/or an OPEN to the ports:
Measure Short | Measure Open
If both measurements have been performed, the result
will appear as the average value of the two.
5.2.15 Non-Insertable Device Measuring
In the simplest case, a non-insertable device has connectors of same type, for
example N50, and of same gender. In such case, it is appropriate to apply the
unknown thru calibration, described in Section 5.1.6.8. This Section explains more
complex cases of non-insertable device measurements: devices having ports of
different types and/or having different characteristic impedances, for example N50
– 3.5, N50 – N75, N50 – Waveguide.
The Analyzer offers two calibration methods of the setup used for measurements
of non-insertable devices with connectors of different types:
I.
Adapter Removal/Insertion method
II.
Unknown Thru Addition method
In the above-listed methods, the adapter and THRU parameters should be
specified:

Set delay or length of the adapter or THRU, or select AUTO setting the
value to zero. The uncertainty of the length setting is within an accuracy of
1/4 of the minimum wavelength in adapter or THRU media. The
uncertainty of the delay setting is within an accuracy of 1/2fmax. AUTO is
set by default.
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



Select the measurement units: for delay or length, set seconds or meters.
By default, the measurement units are set to seconds.
Set relative permittivity for converting length to delay. When delay or
AUTO are chosen, this setting is not required. By default, the value is set
for air.
Set the line type: TEM or Waveguide. TEM LINES are the LINES without
dispersion; they include coaxial lines. For waveguide-coaxial adapters, set
Waveguide type. The default setting is TEM.
Cutoff frequency must be set for a Waveguide.
5.2.15.1
Adapter Removal/Insertion
Figure 56
a) Adapter Removal
b) Adapter Insertion
The method of adapter removal (See Figure 48, a) allows removing an adapter
from the calibration plane of one of the test ports.
The method of adapter insertion (See Figure 48, b) allows inserting an adapter into
the calibration plane of one of the test ports.
To remove/insert an adapter, proceed as follows:
1. Perform full two-port calibration using any of the following methods: SOLT,
SOLR, TRL, AutoCal.
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2. Remove or insert the adapter.
3. Set the adapter parameters. If the length or delay settings are other than
AUTO, set the value with “minus” for removing, and with “plus” for
inserting.
4. Measure three standards: OPEN, SHORT, and LOAD, for the corresponding
test port.
Note
Note
Note
The Adapter Removal/Insertion function is accessible
when the status of the initial tow-port calibration is
[Cor], not [С?] or [C!].
Before starting adapter removal, select the appropriate
calibration kit.
When test ports have different Z0, it is recommended to
enable automatic Z0 selecting function (See Section
5.2.12.2).
To open the Adapter Removal/Insertion submenu, use
the following softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > Adapter Removal
Select the port number for Adapter Removal/Insertion
using Select Port.
Enter the adapter delay or length, or set 0 for AUTO
using Adapter Delay.
Select the Adapter media: TEM (coax) or Waveguide
using Adapter Media.
Select the desired measurement units for Delay
(Length): Seconds or Meters using Delay Unit.
When the measurement units Meters are selected,
enter the Permittivity value using Permittivity.
When the adapter media Waveguide is selected, enter
the Cutoff Frequency value using Cutoff Frequency.
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Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to the
selected port in any consequence as shown in Figure
49. Perform measurements clicking the softkey
corresponding to the connected standard.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the Adapter Remove/Insert procedure,
click Apply.
5.2.15.2
Unknown Thru Addition
The method of Unknown Thru Addition involves fewer standard connections than
Adapter Removal/Insertion method does. The number of standard connections is 7
as in SOLT calibration compared to 10 in Adapter Removal/Insertion method.
To add an UNKNOWN THRU, proceed as follows:
1. Perform full one-port calibration for each port. First, select in the program
the calibration kit being used.
2. Connect the ports directly using an appropriate adapter and perform the
measurements. Eventually the full two-port calibration coefficients will be
computed.
Note
The Unknown Thru Addition function is accessible
when the status of the one-port calibrations for each
port is [Cor], not [С?] or [C!].
To open the Unknown Thru Addition submenu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Calibrate > Unknown Thru Addition
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Enter the THRU delay or length, or set 0 for AUTO
using Thru Delay.
Select the THRU media: TEM (coax) or Waveguide
using Thru Media.
Select the desired measurement units for Delay
(Length): Seconds or Meters using Delay Unit.
When the measurement units Meters are selected,
enter the Permittivity value using Permittivity.
When the adapter media Waveguide is selected, enter
the Cutoff Frequency value using Cutoff Frequency.
To complete the Unknown Thru Addition procedure,
click Calibrate Unknown Thru.
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5.3
Calibration Kit Management
This section describes how to edit the calibration kit description, add and delete a
calibration kit.
The Analyzer provides a table for 50 calibration kits. The first part of the table
contains the predefined kits. The second part of the table is for calibration kit
added by the user.
A calibration kit redefining can be required for the following purposes:

To change the port assignment of a standard to ensure connector
type (male, female) matching;

To add a user-defined standard into the kit, e.g. a non-zero-length
thru;

To precise the standard parameters to improve the calibration
accuracy.
A new user-defined calibration kit adding can be added when a required kit is not
included in the list of the predefined kits.
Deleting function is available for user-defined calibration kits only.
Any changes made to the calibration kits are automatically saved into the
nonvolatile memory of the Analyzer. For the saving no clicking on the Save button
is required.
Note
Changes to a predefined calibration kit can be
cancelled any time and the initial state will be
restored.
5.3.1 Table of Calibration Kits
The table of calibration kits (See Figure 57) allows selecting and editing of the
calibration kits.
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Figure 57 Table of calibration kits
To open the table of calibration kits, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > Cal Kit
To edit a calibration kit, highlight its line in the table.
The calibration kit editing is comprised of two main procedures: defining of
calibration standard (sections 5.3.2 and 5.3.3) and assignment of classes to
calibration standards (section 5.3.4). First you need to perform defining of the
calibration standards, and then the assignment of classes to them. Defining of
calibration standards and assignment of classes to them is performed in different
tables.
The label of a calibration kit and its description can be edited in the table of the
calibration kits (Figure 57). The label appears on the calibration menu softkeys.
The description is just for information of the user.
The table also contains display-only fields: flags of predefined and modified
calibration kits and the counter of the calibration standards in a kit.
5.3.1.1
Calibration Kit Selection for Editing
Move the highlighting to the required line in the calibration kit (See Figure 57)
table using “↑” and “↓ “ arrows.
Note
The checkmark in the “Select” field does not matter
for the kit selection for editing, it selects the
calibration kit for calibration.
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5.3.1.2
Calibration Kit Label and Description Editing
Move the highlighting to the required line in the calibration kit (See Figure 57)
table using “↑” and “↓” arrows and click on the «Enter» softkey. Then enter the new
text in the table.
To activate the on-screen keyboard, click On-Screen
Keyboard softkey.
5.3.1.3
Predefined Calibration Kit Restoration
Move the highlighting to the required line in the calibration kit (See Figure
57Ошибка! Источник ссылки не найден.).
To cancel the user changes of a predefined
calibration kit, use the following softkeys:
Restore Cal Kit
Note
5.3.1.4
It is possible to restore only such calibration kits,
whose “Predefined” and “Modified” fields have “Yes”
labeling.
User-Defined Calibration Kit Deleting
Move the highlighting to the required line in the calibration kit (See Figure 57).
To delete a user-defined calibration kit from the table,
use the following softkey:
Erase Cal Kit
Note
It is possible to delete only such calibration kits,
whose “Predefined” field have “No” labeling.
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5.3.1.5
Calibration Kit Saving to File
Saving of a calibration kit to file is necessary for copying it to a different line of
the table or to a different Analyzer.
This command is not necessary for saving of changes made by the user to the
definitions of the kit as these changes are saved automatically.
Move the highlighting to the required line in the calibration kit (See Figure 57).
To save a calibration kit to file, click the following
softkey:
Save to File…
5.3.1.6
Calibration Kit Loading from File
You can load the calibration kit files created by the previous command.
Move the highlighting to the required line in the calibration kit (See Figure 57).
To load a calibration kit form file, click the following
softkey:
Load from File…
5.3.2 Calibration Standard Definition
The table of the calibration standards (See Figure 58) includes the full list of the
standards in one calibration kit. For the standards defined by the model, the table
contains the model parameters. For the data-based standards, the parameters of
the model remain blank; S-parameters of such standards are represented in a
different table (See section 5.3.3).
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Figure 58 Calibration standard definition table
To open the table of calibration standard definitions,
use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Cal Kit > Define STDs
5.3.2.1
Standard Adding to Calibration Kit
To add a calibration standard to the table of
calibration standard definition (See Figure 58), use the
following softkey:
Add STD
5.3.2.2
Standard Deleting from Calibration Kit
To delete a calibration standard from the table of
calibration standard definition (See Figure 58), use
the following softkey:
Delete STD
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5.3.2.3
Calibration Standard Editing
Moving in the table of calibration standard definitions (See Figure 58) using
navigation keys, enter the parameter values for a calibration kit:
Standard No.
The calibration standard number is specified in the
calibration kit data sheet (just for information).
Standard Type
Select the standard type:

Open,

Short,

Load,

Thru/Line,

Unknown Thru (except Planar 304/1),

Sliding Load,

Data-Based
Standard Label
Standard labels specified on the calibration menu
softkeys.
Freq. Min.
Minimum operating frequency of the coaxial
standard.
Lower cutoff frequency of the waveguide standard.
Freq. Max.
Maximum operating frequency of the coaxial
standard.
Upper cutoff frequency of the waveguide standard.
Offset Delay
Offset delay value in one direction (s).
switched to physical length (m).
Offset Z0
Offset characteristic impedance value (Ω).
Can be
For waveguide must be set to 1 Ω.
Offset Loss
Offset loss value (Ω/s).
Load Impedance
Lumped load impedance value (Ω).
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Media
Coaxial or Waveguide
H/W
Waveguide height to width ratio.
C0 10–15 F
For an OPEN standard, C0 coefficient in the
polynomial formula of the fringe capacitance:
C = C0 + C1 f + C2 f 2 + C3 f 3
C1 10–27 F/Hz
For an OPEN standard, C1 coefficient in the
polynomial formula of the fringe capacitance.
C2 10–36 F/Hz2
For an OPEN standard, C2 coefficient in the
polynomial formula of the fringe capacitance.
C2 10–45 F/Hz3
For an OPEN standard, C3 coefficient in the
polynomial formula of the fringe capacitance.
L0 10–12 H
For a SHORT standard, L0 coefficient in the
polynomial formula of the residual inductance:
L = L0 + L1 f + L2 f 2 + L3 f 3
L1 10–24 H/Hz
For a SHORT standard, L1 coefficient in the
polynomial formula of the residual inductance.
L2 10–33 H/Hz2
For a SHORT standard, L2 coefficient in the
polynomial formula of the residual inductance.
L2 10–42 H/Hz3
For a SHORT standard, L3 coefficient in the
polynomial formula of the residual inductance.
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5.3.2.4
Offset Delay Measurement Units Switching
To switch the offset delay measurement units in the
calibration standard definition table (See Figure 58),
click the following softkey:
Offset Unit > Seconds | Meters
To enter the offset permittivity, click the following
softkey:
Offset Permittivity
The offset permittivity is used only for the delay to
length conversion. Default value equals the
permittivity of air.
5.3.2.5
Calibration Standard Copy/Paste Function
To save a calibration standard into clipboard, highlight
the required line in the calibration standard definition
table (See Figure 58), and click the following softkey:
Copy STD
or
Copy All STDs
To paste the standard(s) from the clipboard, click the
following softkey:
Paste
5.3.2.6
Management of Sequence in Standard Table
To change the sequence in the table, use the
following softkeys:
STD Up
or
STD Down
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5.3.3 Table of Calibration Standard S-Parameters
The table of calibration standard S-parameters (See Figure 59) allows viewing and
editing of S-parameters of the calibration standards of the “Data-Based” type.
Figure 59 Table of calibration standard S-parameters
To open the table of calibration standard Sparameters, move the required line in the table (See
Figure 59), and click the following softkeys:
Define STD Data
Note
softkey is disabled if the type of the
standard is other than “Data-Based”.
Define STD Data
There are two different tables for one-port standards and for two-port standards.
The table contains one parameter (S11) for one-port standards, and four parameters
(S11, S21, S12, S22) for two-port standards. Before the user fills in the table, its type
will be defined: by the Touchstone format (s1p or s2p) if the data is downloaded
from a file, or the user will be requested to specify the type if the data is entered
by the user.
The data in the table can be represented in three formats according to the user
settings:

Real part and Imaginary part,

Linear magnitude and Phase (),

Logarithmic magnitude (dB) and Phase ().
The following rule is applied for the calibration of a two-port standard: the
standard is considered connected by Port 1 (S11) to the port with smallest number,
and by Port 2 (S22) to the port with the biggest number. If you need to reverse a
two-port standard, use the Port Reverse function (section 5.3.3.5).
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5.3.3.1
Line Adding to Table
To add a line to the table of the calibration standard
S-parameters (See Figure 59), use the following
softkeys:
Add Row
5.3.3.2
Line Deleting from Table
To delete a line from the table of the calibration
standard S-parameters (See Figure 59), use the
following softkey:
Delete Line
5.3.3.3
Table Clearing
To clear the entire table of the calibration standard Sparameters (See Figure 59), use the following softkey:
Clear Data
5.3.3.4
Table Format Selecting
To select the format of the table of the calibration
standard S-parameters (See Figure 59), use the
following softkey:
Format > Real/Imag | Magn/Angle | MLog/Angle
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5.3.3.5
Port Reversing
To enable/disable reversing of the ports of a two-port
standard, use the following softkey:
Reverse Ports
5.3.3.6
Data Opening from File
To open the data from Touchstone file, use the
following softkey:
Load Data from Touchstone file…
In the pop-up dialog select the file type (s1p or s2p)
and specify the file name.
5.3.4 Calibration Standard Class Assignment
The assignment of classes to the standards of the selected calibration kit is made
in the table of standard classes (See Figure 60).
Standard labels filled in the table cells by selecting them from the list of
calibration kit standards. Each row of the table corresponds to the standard class
specified in the two left columns of the table.
If a single standard is assigned to the class then it filled into the "Subclass 1"
column. If several standards are assigned to the class, as described in section
5.3.4, then "Subclass 2", “Subclass 3”, etc. columns are filled in.
Figure 60 Table of calibration standard classes
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To open the table of calibration standard classes, use
the following softkeys:
Calibration > Cal Kit > Specify CLSs
5.3.4.1
Standard Class Table Editing
Moving in the table of calibration standard classes (See Figure 60) using
navigation keys, click «Enter» in the required cell for the pop-up menu. Select the
standard label in the pop-up menu to assign it the class and port number
specified in the left part of the table.
5.3.4.2
Standard Deleting from Standard Class Table
Moving in the table of calibration standard classes (See Figure 60) using
navigation keys, click «Enter» in the required cell for the pop-up menu. Select the
line None in the pop-up menu to delete the standard contained in the cell.
To delete all the standards in the table of calibration
standard classes, use the following softkey:
Clear All CLSs
5.3.4.3
Strict Class Assignment Function
This function allows for limitation of the one standard type(s) available in each
class by the feature of strict correspondence (See
Table 22). If this function is disabled, any class can be assigned to the standard.
Table 22 Standard class and standard type correspondence
N
Standard Class
1
OPEN
2
SHORT
3
LOAD
Standard Type

Open,

Data-Based (One Port)

Short,

Data-Based (One Port)

Load,
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4
THRU
5
TRL THRU
(except Planar 304/1)
6
TRL REFLECT
(except Planar 304/1)
7
TRL LINE/MATCH
(expect Planar 304/1)

Sliding Load,

Data-Based (One Port)

Thru/Line,

Data-Based (Two Port)

Thru/Line,

Data-Based (Two Port)

Open,

Short,

Data-Based (One Port)

Load,

Thru/Line
To disable/enable the function of strict class
correspondence function, use the following softkey:
Strict Assign
5.3.4.4
Function of Group Assignment of Port Number
This function allows for automatic assignment of one standard to all the ports of a
specific class when assigned to at least one port.
To enable/disable the function of group assignment of
port number, use the following softkey:
Assign Same STDs to All Ports
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5.4
Power Calibration
The Analyzer ensures steady power level at the test port inputs with the specified
accuracy. The power level is defined by the user between the instrument’s
minimum and maximum output power level.
A DUT is connected to the Analyzer by cables, which have some losses. The power
calibration allows the user to maintain a more accurate power level at a DUT
input, adjusted to the use of the cables.
The power calibration is performed by an external power meter connected to the
cables’ ends, which will be later connected to the DUT. After the power
calibration is complete, power correction automatically turns on. Later the user
can disable or enable again the power correction function.
The power calibration is performed for each port and each channel individually.
Note
The power correction status is indicated in the trace
status field (See section 4.2.2) and in the channel
status bar (See section 4.2.6).
5.4.1 Loss Compensation Table
The loss compensation function allows the user to apply compensation for
unwanted losses produced between the power meter and the calibrated port in
the process of power calibration. Define the losses, which you need to
compensate in the table (See Figure 61) specifying frequency and losses.
Figure 61 Loss compensation table
Linear interpolation will be applied to the losses in the intermediary frequency
points. The loss compensation table is defined for each port individually.
Note
To have the losses compensated for, you need to
enable this function and fill out the table before you
start the power calibration procedure.
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5.4.2 Power Calibration Procedure
Perform connection and setting of an external power meter as described in
section 8.8. Connect the sensor to one of the test ports of the Analyzer and
perform calibration as described below. Then repeat the calibration for the other
test port.
To select the calibrated port number, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Select Port
To zero power meter, use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Power Sensor Zero Correction
Note
Power meter sensor can be connected to the port, as
during zero setting the output signal of the port is
turned off.
To execute power calibration, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Take Cal Sweep
Note
After the power calibration is complete, power
correction automatically turns on.
5.4.3 Power Correction Setting
To enable/disable power correction, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Correction
5.4.4 Loss Compensation Table Editing
If you need to apply the loss compensation, enable this function and fill out the
table before you start the power calibration procedure. Fill out the table for each
port individually.
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To add a new row to the loss compensation table, use
the following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Loss Compen > Add
A new row will appear under the highlighted one.
To delete a highlighted row, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Loss Compen > Delete
To clear all the table, use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Loss Compen > Clear Loss
Table
To save the table into a *.lct file on the hard, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Loss Compen > Export Loss
Table
To open the table from a *.lct file from the hard, use
the following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Loss Compen > Import Loss
Table
Enter frequency and loss values into the table,
scrolling by navigation keys.
To enable the loss compensation function, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Power Calibration > Loss Compen > Compensation
To select the source port number, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Receiver Calibration > Source Port
To execute receiver
following softkeys:
calibration,
use
the
Calibration > Receiver Calibration > Take Cal Sweep
Note
After the receiver calibration is complete,
receiver correction automatically turns on.
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5.5
Receiver Calibration
Receiver calibration is only used for absolute measurements. The receiver
calibration is divided into the test receiver (A, B) calibration and the reference
receiver (R1, R2) calibration (See Figure 31). The calibration procedure is different
for these receivers.
1. Test receiver calibration
When you perform absolute power measurements (See section 4.7.3), the gain of
receivers is factory calibrated to test port on the front panel.
In practice, the power is measured at test port inputs made by the fixture
producing losses. The test receiver calibration enables the user to measure the
power at port inputs with higher accuracy.
The receiver calibration is performed by sending the calibration signal from the
source port to the calibrated port input. The receiver calibration requires the
connection between the both test ports using THRU connection.
To make the receiver calibration most accurate, first perform power calibration on
the source port. If the source power calibration was not performed, to get good
results you need to connect the calibrated port to the source port on the front
panel.
2. Reference receiver calibration
Unlike test receivers, the reference receiver measures the output power of its port.
Supplying a signal from a different port is meaningless for a reference receiver.
That is why the power source in reference receiver calibration is the reference
receiver itself, no matter which port is assigned to be a source.
3. General comments
After the receiver calibration is complete, receiver correction automatically turns
on. Later the user can disable or enable again the receiver correction function.
The power calibration is performed for each port and each channel individually.
Note
The power correction status is indicated in the trace
status field (See section 4.2.2) and in the channel
status bar (See section 4.2.6).
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5.5.1 Receiver Calibration Procedure
Connect a THRU between the receiver port and the source port if test receiver
calibration is performed.
To select the calibrated port number, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Receiver Calibration > Select Port
To select the source port number, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Receiver Calibration > Source Port
Note: Source Port number is valid only for Test
Receiver Calibration.
To execute the test receiver calibration, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Receiver Calibration >
Receiver
Calibrate Test
To execute the reference receiver calibration,
use the following softkeys:
Calibration > Receiver Calibration > Calibrate Reference
Receiver
Use the Calibrate Both softkey to perform the
calibration of the test and reference port
receivers in succession.
Note
After the receiver calibration is complete,
receiver correction automatically turns on.
5.5.2 Receiver Correction Setting
To enable/disable receiver correction, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Receiver Calibration > Correction
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5.6
Scalar Mixer Calibration
Scalar mixer calibration is the most accurate method of calibration applied to
measurements of mixers in frequency offset mode.
The scalar mixer calibration requires OPEN, SHORT, and LOAD standards as well
as external power meter (See Figure 62). The power meter connection and setup
is described in section 8.8.
SHORT
Port 1
Port 1
SHORT
OPEN
OPEN
LOAD
LOAD
Port 2
Port 2
Port 1
Power
Meter
Port 2
Power
Meter
Figure 62 Scalar mixer calibration setup
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The scalar mixer calibration allows the following measurements:

reflection S11 and S22 parameters in vector form;

transmission S21 and S12 parameters in scalar form.
The power meter can be connected either one port or both ports. If power meter
was connected to port 1 than S21 transmission parameter will be calibrated. If
power meter was connected to port 2 than S12 transmission parameter will be
calibrated.
Before you start the calibration, perform the following settings: select active
channel and set its parameters (frequency span, IF bandwidth, etc.), and define the
calibration kit. Then enable the frequency offset mode and perform the port
settings.
Note
The scalar mixer calibration can be performed without
frequency offset. You can enable the frequency offset
mode later, during mixer measurements. In this case
the basic frequency range should cover the frequency
range of each port in offset mode. This procedure is
convenient but less accurate as involves interpolation.
To access the scalar mixer calibration menu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Mixer/Converter Calibration > Scalar Mixer
Calibration
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Click Reflection Port 1 softkey.
Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to Port 1
as shown in Figure 62. Perform two measurements
over two frequency ranges (Freq 1 and Freq 2) for each
standard using the respective standard softkeys.
If the frequency offset is disabled, after measurement
over one frequency range the result will be
automatically saved for the both frequency ranges.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement, a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
progress...
Click Reflection Port 2 softkey.
Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to Port 2
as shown in Figure 62. Perform two measurements
over two frequency ranges (Freq 1 and Freq 2) for each
standard using the respective standard softkeys.
If the frequency offset is disabled, after measurement
over one frequency range the result will be
automatically saved for the both frequency ranges.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement, a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
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Click Transmission softkey.
Connect a THRU standard between the test ports. If
the port connectors allow, connect the ports directly
together (through line with zero electrical length).
Perform two measurements over two frequency ranges
(Freq 1 and Freq 2).
If the frequency offset is disabled, after measurement
over one frequency range the result will be
automatically saved for the both frequency ranges.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement, a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
Click Power softkey.
If needed, zero power meter using Power Sensor Zero
Correction softkey.
Note
Power meter sensor can be connected to the port, as
during zero setting the output signal of the port is
turned off.
Connect the power meter to Port 1. Perform two
measurements over two frequency ranges (Freq 1 and
Freq 2).
If the frequency offset is disabled, after measurement
over one frequency range the result will be
automatically saved for the both frequency ranges.
Connect the power meter to Port 2. Perform two
measurements over two frequency ranges (Freq 1 and
Freq 2).
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement, a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
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To complete the calibration procedure, click Apply.
This will activate the process of calibration coefficient
table calculation and saving it into the memory. The
error correction function will also be automatically
enabled.
To clear the measurement results of the standards,
click Cancel.
This softkey does not cancel the current calibration.
To disable the current calibration turn off the error
correction function.
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status
bar (See table 18) or in trace status field (See Table
21) – SMC label.
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5.7
Vector Mixer Calibration
Vector scalar calibration is a calibration method applied for mixer measurements.
This method allows measurement of both reflection and transmission Sparameters in vector form, including phase and group delay of transmission
coefficient.
The vector mixer measurements require an additional mixer with filter, which is
called calibration mixer.
The filter separates the IF, which is the input frequency for the mixer under test:

RF + LO

RF – LO

LO – RF
Both calibration mixer and mixer under test are powered from one LO.
The vector mixer measurement is a combination of a 2-port calibration and a deembedding function (See Figure 63).
2-Port Calibration
De-embedding
RF
IF
Calibration
Mixer/Filter
Mixer Under
Test
LO
Figure 63 Vector mixer measurements
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The de-embedding function requires an S-parameter file of the circuit. Acquisition
of such a file for the calibration mixer/filter pair is called vector mixer calibration.
To obtain an S-parameter file of the calibration mixer/filter, you need to use
SHORT, OPEN, and LOAD calibration standards (See Figure 64).
2-Port Calibration
Vector
Calibration
SHORT
OPEN
LOAD
Calibration
Mixer/Filter
Mixer Under
Test
LO
Figure 64 Vector Mixer Calibration
5.7.1 Vector Mixer Calibration Procedure
Before you start the calibration, perform the following settings: activate a channel
and set its parameters (frequency span, IF bandwidth, etc.), and define the
calibration kit.

Perform 2-port calibration.

Assemble vector calibration setup.

Set frequency and power of the external LO.
To access the vector mixer calibration menu, use the
following softkeys:
Calibration > Mixer/Converter Calibration > Vector Mixer
Calibration
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To select the number of test port connected to the
calibration mixer, click Select Port.
Enter the LO frequency, using LO Frequency softkey.
Select the frequency to be separated by the filter,
using IF Frequency softkey:
■
RF + LO
■
RF – LO
■
LO – RF
Connect SHORT, OPEN and LOAD standards to IF filter
output as shown in Figure 64. Perform the
measurement using the respective standard softkey.
The instrument status bar will indicate Calibration in
progress... when the measurement is in progress. On
completion of the measurement, a check mark will
appear in the left part of the softkey.
To complete the calibration procedure, click Save To
Touchstone File.
This will activate calculation of the calibration
mixer/filter pair S-parameters, and saving those into a
Touchstone file. Enter the file name in the pop-up
dialog.
If Setup Option feature is enabled, S-parameter file will
be passed to the de-embedding function and this
function will be activated.
Note
You can check the calibration status in channel status
bar (See Table 20) – F2 and Dmb labels (2-port
calibration and de-embedding function).
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5.8
Automatic Calibration Module
Automatic calibration module (ACM) is a special device, which allows for
automating of the process of calibration. ACM is shown in Figure 65.
Figure 65 Automatic Calibration Module
ACM offers the following advantages over the traditional SOLT calibration, which
uses a mechanical calibration kit:

Reduces the number of connections of standards. Instead of
connecting seven standards, it requires connecting only two ACM
connectors;

Reduces the calibration time;

Reduces human error probability;

Provides higher accuracy potentially.
ACM has two RF connectors for connection to the Analyzer test ports and a USB
connector for control. ACM contains electronic switches, which switch between
different reflection and transmission impedance states, as well as memory, which
stores precise S-parameters of these impedance states.
After you connect the ACM to the Analyzer, the Analyzer software performs the
calibration procedure automatically, i.e. switches between different ACM states,
measures them, and computes calibration coefficients using the data stored in the
ACM memory.
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5.8.1 Automatic Calibration Module Features
Calibration Types:
ACM allows the Analyzer software to perform full two-port or full one-port
calibrations with the click of a button. We recommend that you terminate the
unusable ACM port with a load while performing one-port calibration.
Characterization:
Characterization is a table of S-parameters of all the states of the ACM switches,
stored in the ACM memory. There are two types of characterization: user
characterization and factory characterization. ACM has two memory sections. The
first one is write-protected and contains factory characterization. The second
memory section allows you to store up to three user characterizations. Before
calibration you can select the factory characterization or any of the user
characterizations stored in the ACM memory. The user characterization option is
provided for saving new S-parameters of the ACM after connecting adapters to the
ACM ports.
The software enables you to perform a user characterization and save the data to
ACM with the click of a button. To be able to do this, you should first calibrate the
Analyzer test ports in configuration compatible with the ACM ports.
Automatic Orientation:
Orientation means relating the ACM ports to the test ports of the Analyzer. While
the Analyzer test ports are indicated by numbers, the ACM ports are indicated by
letters A and B.
Orientation is defined either manually by the user, or automatically. The user is to
select the manual or automatic orientation method. In case of automatic
orientation, the Analyzer software determines the ACM orientation each time prior
to its calibration or characterization.
Unknown Thru (expect Planar 304/1):
The Thru implemented by the electronic switches inside the ACM introduces
losses. That is why you should know the exact parameters of the Thru or use an
Unknown Thru algorithm to achieve the specified calibration accuracy.
The software allows using the both options. ACM memory stores S-parameters of
the Thru, which are used to compute calibration coefficients. In case if an
Unknown Thru algorithm is applied, such parameters are disregarded.
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Thermal Compensation:
The most accurate calibration can be achieved if the ACM temperature is equal to
the temperature, at which it was characterized. When this temperature changes,
certain ACM state parameters may deviate from the parameters stored in the
memory. This results in reduction of the ACM calibration accuracy.
To compensate for the thermal error, the ACM features thermal compensation
function. Thermal compensation is a software function of the ACM S-parameter
correction based on its temperature dependence and the data from the
temperature sensor inside the ACM. The temperature dependence of each ACM is
determined at the factory and saved into its memory.
The function of thermal compensation can be enabled or disabled by the user.
Confidence Check:
ACM also implements an additional state – an attenuator, which is not used in
calibration. The attenuator is used to check the current calibration performed by
ACM or any other method. Such test is called a confidence check.
The confidence check consists in simultaneous display of the measured and stored
in memory S-parameters of the attenuator. The measured parameters are shown
as the data trace and the parameters saved in the ACM memory are shown as the
memory trace. You can compare the two traces, evaluate their differences and
determine the accuracy of the calibration performed.
For a detailed comparison you can use the math (division) function for data and
memory.
5.8.2 Automatic Calibration Procedure
Before calibrating the Analyzer with ACM, perform some settings, i.e. activate a
channel and set channel parameters (frequency range, IF bandwidth, etc.).
Connect the ACM to the Analyzer test ports, and connect the USB port of the ACM
to the USB port of the computer.
To start automatic calibration, use the following
softkeys:
Calibration > AutoCal
Select characterization using Characterization softkey.
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Select manual or automatic orientation of the ACM
using Orientation softkey.
It is recommended to select AUTO orientation.
(expect Planar 304/1): Enable or disable Unknown
Thru algorithm using Unkn. Thru softkey.
Enable or disable the thermal compensation using
Thermal Compensation softkey.
To display detailed information on characterization,
use Characterization Info softkey.
To perform full two-port calibration, use 2-Port AutoCal
softkey.
To perform full one-port calibration, use 1-Port AutoCal
softkey.
Then select the port number.
5.8.3 User Characterization Procedure
User characterization of ACM is required in case of ACM connectors modification
by the use of adapters. The characterization is performed for the new ACM
configuration, which includes adapters. To ensure calibration accuracy it is not
recommended to disconnect and reconnect the adapters back.
Before you perform the user characterization of the ACM, perform full two-port
calibration of the Analyzer in configuration of the test ports compatible with the
configuration of ACM ports.
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Connect the ACM to the Analyzer test ports, and connect the USB port of the ACM
to the USB port of the computer.
Select
user
characterization
Characterization softkey.
1
to
3
using
Select manual or automatic orientation of the ACM
using Orientation softkey.
It is recommended to select AUTO orientation.
Perform
softkey.
characterization
using
Characterize
ACM
After the ACM measurement is completed, the following dialog box will appear:
Fill in the following fields:

User name;

Analyzer name;

Characterization location;

Connectors (types of adapter connectors);

Adapter description (description of adapters).
Use Save softkey to complete the user characterization of the ACM.
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5.8.4 Confidence Check Procedure
In case you need to verify the reliability of the current calibration, perform the
confidence check. This function can be used to check the accuracy of either
calibration performed with an ACM or with a mechanical calibration kit.
Connect the ACM to the Analyzer test ports, and connect the USB port of the ACM
to the USB port of the computer.
Enable the display of the data trace for the needed parameter, for example S21. It
is possible to enable several data traces simultaneously, for example, S11, S22,
S21, S12.
Select characterization using Characterization softkey.
Select manual or automatic orientation of the ACM
using Orientation softkey.
It is recommended to select AUTO orientation.
Perform confidence check using Confidence Check
softkey.
After the measurement is completed, two traces for each S-parameter will be
displayed. The measured parameters will be shown as the data trace, and the ACM
parameters will be shown as the memory trace.
Compare the data trace and the memory trace of the same parameter, for example
S21. To perform more accurate comparison, enable the function of math
operations between data and memory traces. In the logarithmic magnitude or
phase format use the Data / Memory operation. In the linear magnitude format use
the Data – Memory operation.
The conclusion on whether the current calibration provides sufficient accuracy or
not is made by the user.
5.8.5 Erasing the User Characterization
In case you need to erase the user characterization in the ACM, there is possibility
to perform this. The procedure erases all data of selected user characterization
overwriting it by zeros. Factory characterization cannot be erased.
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Select the user characterization using Characterization
softkey.
Perform erase procedure using Erase Characterization
softkey.
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6.1
Markers
A marker is a tool for numerical readout of a stimulus value and value of the
measured parameter in a specific point on the trace. You can activate up to 16
markers on each trace. See a trace with two markers in Figure 66.
The markers allow the user to perform the following tasks:

Reading absolute values of a stimulus and a measured parameter
in selected points on the trace;

Reading relative values of a stimulus and a measured parameter
related to the reference point;

Search for specific points on the trace (minimum, maximum, target
level, etc.);

Determining trace parameters (statistics, bandwidth, etc.);

Editing stimulus parameters using markers.
Figure 66
Markers can have the following indicators:
1

symbol and number of the active marker on a trace,

2
symbol and number of the inactive marker on a trace,
▲
symbol of the active marker on a stimulus axis,

symbol of the inactive marker on a stimulus axis.
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The marker data field contains the marker number, stimulus value, and the
measured parameter value. The number of the active marker is highlighted in
inverse color.
The marker data field contents vary depending on the display format (rectangular
or circular).

In rectangular format, the marker shows the measurement
parameter value plotted along Y-axis in the active format (See
Table 8).

In circular format, the marker shows two or three values listed in
Table 23
Table 23 Marker readings in circular formats
Label
Marker Readings (Measurement Unit)
Reading 1
Reading 2
Reading 3
Smith (Lin)
Linear magnitude
Phase ()
–
Smith (Log)
Logarithmic
magnitude (dB)
Phase ()
–
Smith (Re/Im)
Real part
Imaginary part
–
Smith (R + jX)
Resistance (Ω)
Reactance (Ω)
Equivalent capacitance or
inductance (F/H)
Smith (G + jB)
Conductance (S)
Susceptance (S)
Equivalent capacitance or
inductance (F/H)
Polar (Lin)
Linear magnitude
Phase ()
–
Polar (Log)
Logarithmic
magnitude (dB)
Phase ()
–
Polar (Re/Im)
Real part
Imaginary part
–
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6.1.1 Marker Adding
To enable a new marker, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Add Marker
Note
The new marker appears as the active marker in the
middle of the stimulus axis. The marker stimulus
value entry field activates.
6.1.2 Marker Deleting
To delete a marker, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Delete Marker
To delete all the markers, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Delete All Markers
6.1.3 Marker Stimulus Value Setting
Before you set the marker stimulus value, you need to select the active marker.
You can set the stimulus value by entering the numerical value from the keyboard,
by arrows, or by dragging the marker using the mouse, or enabling the search
function. Drag-and-drop operation is described in section 4.3.12. Marker search
function is described in section 6.1.7.
To set the marker stimulus value, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Edit Stimulus
or make a mouse click on the stimulus value field.
Then enter the value using the numerical keys on the
keypad, by «↑», «↓» arrows.
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6.1.4 Marker Activating
To activate a marker by its number, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Select > Marker n
...
To activate a marker from the list of markers, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Select Next
Note
You can activate a marker by making a mouse click on
it.
6.1.5 Reference Marker Feature
Reference marker feature allows the user to view the data relative to the reference
marker. Other marker readings are represented as delta relative to the reference
marker. The reference marker shows the absolute data. The reference marker is
indicated with ∆ symbol instead of a number (See Figure 67). Enabling of a
reference marker turns all the other markers to relative display mode.
Figure 67
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Reference marker can be indicated on the trace as follows:
R


R
symbol of the active reference marker on a trace;
symbol of the inactive reference marker on a trace.
The reference marker displays the stimulus and measurement absolute values. All
the rest of the markers display the relative values:

stimulus value — difference between the absolute stimulus values
of this marker and the reference marker;

measured value — difference between the absolute measurement
values of this marker and the reference marker.
To enable/disable the reference marker, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Reference Marker
6.1.6 Marker Properties
6.1.6.1
Marker Coupling Feature
The marker coupling feature enables/disables dependence of the markers of the
same numbers on different traces. If the feature is turned on, the coupled markers
(markers with same numbers) will move along X-axis synchronously on all the
traces. If the coupling feature is off, the position of the markers with same
numbers along X-axis will be independent (See Figure 68).
Figure 68 Marker coupling feature
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To enable/disable the marker coupling feature, use
the following softkeys:
Markers > Properties > Marker Couple
6.1.6.2
Marker Table
The marker table enables you to view the values of the markers of all the traces
and all the channels (See Figure 69).
Figure 69 Marker table
To show/hide the marker table, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Properties > Marker Table
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6.1.6.3
Marker Value Indication Capacity
By default, the marker stimulus values are displayed with 8 decimal digits and
marker response values are displayed with 5 decimal digits. The user can change
these settings.
To set the marker value indication capacity, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Properties > Stimulus Digits
Markers > Properties > Response Digits
6.1.6.4
Multi Marker Data Display
If several overlapping traces are displayed in one graph, by default only active
marker data are displayed on the screen. The user can enable display of the
marker data of all the traces simultaneously. The markers of different traces will
be distinguished by the color. Each marker will have same color with its trace.
To enable/disable the multi marker data display,
toggle the softkey:
Markers > Marker Properties > Active Only
Note
6.1.6.5
When multi marker data display is enabled, to avoid
data overlapping on the screen, arrange the marker
data on the screen (See section 6.1.6.5).
Marker Data Arranging
By default, the marker data are displayed in the upper left corner of the screen.
The user can rearrange the marker data display on the screen. The marker data
position on the screen is described by two parameters: relative position on the X
and Y axes, in percent. Zero percent is upper left corner, 100% is lower right
corner. Marker data position for each trace is set separately. This allows the user
to avoid data overlapping on the screen.
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To arrange the marker data on the screen, enter the
relative position on the X and Y axes, using the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Properties > Data X Position
Markers > Marker Properties > Data Y Position
Note
You can also drag-and-drop the marker data by the
mouse.
6.1.6.6
Marker Data Alignment
By default, the marker data are displayed independently for each trace. The user
can align the marker data display on the screen. The alignment deactivates the
independent marker data layout. In this case, the relative position on the X and Y
axes is valid only for the first trace. The marker data of the other traces become
aligned relatively to the first trace. Two types of alignment are available:

Vertical – marker data of different traces are displayed one under
another;

Horizontal – marker data of different traces are displayed in line.
To set the marker data alignment, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Properties > Align >
Vertical | Horizontal | OFF
6.1.6.7
Memory Trace Value Display
By default, the marker values of the data traces (not memory traces) are displayed
on the screen. The user can enable the display of memory trace maker values, if a
memory trace is available.
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To enable/disable the display of memory trace marker
values, toggle the softkey:
Marker > Maker Properties > Memory Value
6.1.7 Marker Position Search Functions
Marker position search function enables you to find on a trace the following
values:
6.1.7.1

maximum value;

minimum value;

peak value;

target level.
Search for Maximum and Minimum
Maximum and minimum search functions enable you to determine the maximum
and minimum values of the measured parameter and move the marker to these
positions on the trace (See Figure 70).
Figure 70 Maximum and minimum search
To find the maximum or minimum values on a trace,
use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Maximum
Markers > Marker Search > Minimum
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Note
Before you start maximum or minimum search, first
activate the marker.
In Smith chart and polar formats the search is
executed for the first value of the marker.
6.1.7.2
Search for Peak
Peak search function enables you to determine the peak value of the measured
parameter and move the marker to this position on the trace (See Figure 71).
Peak is a local extreme of the trace.
Peak is called positive if the value in the peak is greater than the values of the
adjacent points.
Peak is called negative if the value in the peak is smaller than the values of the
adjacent points.
Peak excursion is the smallest of the absolute differences between the response
values in the peak point and the two adjoining peaks of the opposite polarity.
Figure 71 Positive and negative peaks
The peak search is executed only for the peaks meeting the following conditions:

The peaks must have the polarity (positive, negative, or both)
specified by the user;

The peaks must have the peak deviation not less than the
value assigned by the user.
The following options of the peak search are available:
 Search for nearest peak;
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 Search for greatest peak;
 Search for left peak;
 Search for right peak.
The nearest peak is a peak, which is located most near to the current position of
the marker along the stimulus axis.
The greatest peak is a peak with maximum or minimum value, depending on the
current polarity settings of the peak.
Note
The search for the greatest peak is deferent from the
search for maximum or minimum as the peak cannot
be located in the limiting points of the trace even if
these points have maximum or minimum values.
To set the polarity of the peak, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Peak > Peak Polarity > Positive |
Negative | Both
To enter the peak excursion value, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Peak > Peak Excursion
Then enter the value using numerical keypad, or «↑»,
«↓» arrows.
To activate the nearest peak search, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Peak > Search Peak
To activate the greatest peak search, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Peak > Search Max Peak
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To activate the left peak search, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Peak > Search Peak Left
To activate the left peak search, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Peak > Search Peak Right
Note
Before you start maximum or minimum search, first
activate the marker.
In Smith chart and polar formats the search is
executed for the first value of the marker.
6.1.7.3
Search for Target Level
Target level search function enables you to locate the marker with the given level
of the measured parameter (See Figure 72).
The trace can have two types of transition in the points where the target level
crosses the trace:

transition type is positive if the function derivative (trace
slope) is positive at the intersection point with the target
level;

transition type is negative if the function derivative (trace
slope) is negative at the intersection point with the target
level.
Figure 72 Target level search
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
The target level search is executed only for the intersection points, which have the
specific transition polarity selected by the user (positive, negative, or both).
The following options of the target level search are available:

Search for nearest target;

Search for left target;

Search for right target.
To set the transition polarity, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Target > Target Transition > Positive |
Negative | Both
To enter the target level value, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Target > Target Value
Then enter the value using numerical keypad, or «↑»,
«↓» arrows.
To activate the nearest target search, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Target > Search Target
To activate the left target search, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Target > Search Target Left
To activate the right target search, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Target > Search Target Right
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To enable/disable target level indication on the
screen, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Target > Target Line
Clear All Target Lines softkey
disables indication of target
level lines of all the markers.
Note
Before you start maximum or minimum search, first
activate the marker.
In Smith chart and polar formats the search is
executed for the first value of the marker.
6.1.7.4
Search Tracking
The marker position search function by default can be initiated by any search key
pressing. Search tracking mode allows you to perform continuous marker position
search, until this mode is disabled.
To enable/disable search tracking mode, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Tracking
6.1.7.5
Search Range
The user can set the search range for the marker position search by setting the
stimulus limits. This function involves the following additional features:

search range coupling, which allows the user to define the
same search range for all the traces of a channel;

vertical line indication of the search range limits.
To enable/disable the search range, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Search Range
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To set the search range limits, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Search Start
Markers > Marker Search > Search Stop
To enable/disable search range coupling, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Couple
To enable/disable search range limits indication, use
the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Search > Search Range Lines
6.1.8 Marker Math Functions
Marker math functions are the functions, which use markers for calculating of
various trace characteristics. Four marker math functions are available:
6.1.8.1

Statistics;

Bandwidth Search;

Flatness;

RF Filter.
Trace Statistics
The trace statistics feature allows the user to determine and view such trace
parameters as mean, standard deviation, and peak-to-peak. The trace statistics
range can be defined by two markers (See Figure 73).
Statistic Range: OFF
Statistic Range: ON
Figure 73 Trace statistics
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Table 24 Statistics parameters
Symbol
Definition
mean
Arithmetic mean
s.dev
Standard deviation
p-p
Peak-to-Peak: difference
between the maximum and
minimum values
Formula
M 
1 N
  xi
N i 1
N
1
  ( xi  M ) 2
N  1 i 1
Max – Min
To enable/disable trace statistics function, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Statistics > Statistics
To enable/disable trace statistics range, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Statistics > Statistic Range
To set the start/stop markers of the statistics range,
use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Statistics > Statistic Start
Markers > Marker Math > Statistics > Statistic Stop
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.1.8.2
Bandwidth Search
The bandwidth search function allows the user to determine and view the
following parameters of a passband or a stopband: bandwidth, center frequency,
lower frequency, higher frequency, Q value, and insertion loss (See Figure 74). In
the figure, F1 and F2 are the lower and higher cutoff frequencies of the band
respectively.
The bandwidth search is executed from the reference point. The user can select as
reference point the active marker or the maximum of the trace. The bandwidth
search function determines the lower and higher cutoff frequencies, which are
apart from the reference point response by bandwidth value defined by the user
(usually –3 dB).
Passband
Bandwidth
Value
F1
F2
Stopband
Bandwidth
Value
F1
F2
Figure 74 Bandwidth search
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Table 25 Bandwidth parameters
Parameter
Description
Symbol
Definition
Formula
Bandwidth
BW
The difference between the higher
and lower cutoff frequencies
F2 – F1
Center
Frequency
cent
The midpoint between the higher
and lower cutoff frequencies
(F1+F2)/2
Lower Cutoff
Frequency
low
The lower frequency point of the
intersection of the bandwidth
cutoff level and the trace
F1
Higher Cutoff
Frequency
high
The higher frequency point of the
intersection of the bandwidth
cutoff level and the trace
F2
Quality Factor
Q
The ratio of the center frequency
to the bandwidth
Cent/BW
Loss
loss
The trace measured value in the
reference point of the bandwidth
search
-
To enable/disable bandwidth search function, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Bandwidth Search > Bandwidth Search
Set the bandwidth search type by softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Bandwidth Search > Type
The type and the softkey label toggle between
Bandpass and Notch settings.
To set the search reference point, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Bandwidth Search > Search Ref To
The type and the softkey label toggle between Max
and Marker settings.
To enter the bandwidth value, use the following
softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Bandwidth Search > Bandwidth Value
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6.1.8.3
Flatness
The flatness search function allows the user to determine and view the following
trace parameters: gain, slope, and flatness. The user sets two markers to specify
the flatness search range (See Figure 75).
Flatness
Search Rage
Δ¯max
+
Δ
max
+
Flatness = Δ
max
+ Δ¯max
Figure 75 Flatness search
Table 26 Flatness parameters
Parameter
Description
Symbol
Definition
Gain
gain
Marker 1 value
Slope
slope
Difference between marker 2 and marker 1
values.
Flatness
flatness
Sum of “positive” and “negative” peaks of the
trace, which are measured from the line
connecting marker 1 and marker 2 (See Figure
75).
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To enable/disable the flatness search function, use
the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Flatness > Flatness
To select the markers specifying the flatness search
range, use softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > Flatness > Flatness Start
Markers > Marker Math > Flatness > Flatness Stop
6.1.8.4
RF Filter Statistics
The RF filter statistics function allows the user to determine and view the following
filter parameters: loss, peak-to-peak in a passband, and rejection in a stopband.
The passband is specified by the first pair of markers, the stopband is specified by
the second pair of markers (See Figure 76).
Passband
Stopband
Figure 76 RF filter statistics
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Table 27 RF filter statistics parameters
Parameter
Description
Symbol
Definition
Loss in
passband
loss
Minimum value in the passband
Peak-to-peak
in passband
p-p
Difference between maximum and minimum in the
passband
Reject
rej
Difference between maximum in stopband and
minimum in passband
To enable/disable the RF filter statistics function, use
the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > RF Filter Stats > RF Filter Stats
To select the markers specifying the passband, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > RF Filter Stats > Passband Start
Markers > Marker Math > RF Filter Stats > Passband Stop
To select the markers specifying the stopband, use the
following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Math > RF Filter Stats > Stopband Start
Markers > Marker Math > RF Filter Stats > Stopband Stop
6.1.9 Marker Functions
Using the current position of a marker you can perform settings of the following
parameters:

Stimulus start;

Stimulus stop;

Stimulus center;

Reference level;

Electrical delay.
Before performing the settings, first activate the marker.
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To set the stimulus start, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Functions > Marker–>Start
To set the stimulus stop, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Functions > Marker–>Stop
To set the stimulus center, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Functions > Marker–>Center
To set the reference level, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Functions > Marker–>Ref Value
To set the electrical delay, use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Functions > Marker–>Delay
To set reference marker to the active marker point,
use the following softkeys:
Markers > Marker Functions > Marker–>Ref Marker
6.2
Memory Trace Function
For each data trace displayed on the screen a so-called memory trace can be
created. The memory trace is displayed in the same color as the main data trace,
but its brightness is twice lower1.
The data trace shows the currently measured data and is continuously being
updated as the measurement goes on.
The memory trace is a data trace saved into the memory. It is created from the
current measurement when the user is clicking the corresponding softkey. After
that, the two traces become displayed on the screen – the data trace and the
memory trace. The user can customize the trace indication.
1
The color and brightness of the data and memory traces can be customized by the user (See
section 8.6).
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
The trace status field will indicate the following:

D&M

M

OFF

Empty field – only data trace is displayed.
– data trace and memory trace are displayed;
– only memory trace is displayed;
– both traces are not displayed
The memory trace bears the following features of the data trace (which if changed,
will clear the memory):
 frequency range,
 number of points,
 sweep type.
The memory trace has the following settings common with the data trace (which if
changed, modifies the both traces):
 format,
 scale,
 smoothing,
 electrical delay.
The following data trace settings (if changed after the memory trace creation) do
not influence the memory trace:
 power in frequency sweep mode,
 frequency in power sweep mode,
 measured parameter (S-parameter),
 IF bandwidth,
 averaging,
 calibration.
The memory trace can be used for math operations with the data trace. The
resulting trace of such an operation will replace the data trace. The math
operations with memory and data traces are performed in complex values.
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
The following four math operations are available:
Data / Memory
Divides the measured data by the data in the
memory trace.
The trace status field indicates: D/M.
Data * Memory
Multiplies the measured data by the memory trace.
The trace status field indicates: D*M.
Data – Memory
Subtracts a memory trace from the measured data.
The trace status field indicates: D–M.
Data + Memory
Adds the measured data to the data in the memory
trace.
The trace status field indicates: D+M.
6.2.1 Saving Trace into Memory
The memory trace function can be applied to the individual traces of the channel.
Before you enable this function, first activate the trace.
To save a trace into the memory, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Data->Memory
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.2.2 Trace Display Setting
To set the type of data to be displayed on the screen,
use the following softkeys:
Display > Display >
Data | Memory | Data & Memory | OFF
6.2.3 Mathematical Operations
To access math operations, use the following softkeys:
Display > Data Math
Data/Mem | Data * Mem | Data – Mem | Data + Mem | OFF
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.3
Fixture Simulation
The fixture simulation function enables you to emulate the measurement
conditions other than those of the real setup. The following conditions can be
simulated:
 Port Z conversion;
 De-embedding;
 Embedding.
Before starting the fixture simulation, first activate the channel. The simulation
function will affect all the traces of the channel.
To open the fixture simulation menu, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator
Note
The Fixture Simulator softkey label indicates the
following:
– at least one of the fixture simulation functions is
enabled,
ON
OFF
– all fixture simulation functions are disabled.
6.3.1 Port Z Conversion
Port Z conversion is a function of transformation of the S-parameters measured
during port wave impedance change simulation (See Figure 77).
Note
The value of the test port impedance is defined in the
process of calibration. It is determined by the
characteristic impedance of the calibration kit and the
value is entered by the user as described in section
5.2.12.
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Port 1
Port 2
System
impedance
DUT
System
impedance
Z0 = 50 Ω
(S)
Z0 = 50 Ω
Port impedance convesion
Port 1
Arbitrary
impedance
Z1 [Ω]
Port 2
DUT
( S’ )
Arbitrary
impedance
Z2 [Ω]
Figure 77 Port Z conversion
To enable/disable the port impedance conversion
function, toggle Port Z Conversion softkey.
To enter the value of the simulated impedance of Port
1, use Port 1 Z0 softkey.
To enter the value of the simulated impedance of Port
2, use Port 2 Z0 softkey.
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.3.2 De-embedding
De-embedding is a function of the S-parameter transformation by removing of
some circuit effect from the measurement results.
The circuit being removed should be defined in the data file containing Sparameters of this circuit. The circuit should be described as a 2-port in
Touchstone file (extension .s2p), which contains the S-parameter table: S11, S21, S12,
S22 for a number of frequencies.
The de-embedding function allows to mathematically exclude from the
measurement results the effect of the fixture circuit existing between the
calibration plane and the DUT in the real network. The fixture is used for the
DUTs, which cannot be directly connected to the test ports.
The de-embedding function shifts the calibration plane closer to the DUT, so as if
the calibration has been executed of the network with this circuit removed (See
Figure 78).
Port 1
Port 2
Circuit 1
Circuit 2
DUT
Touchstone
file
Touchstone
file
Calibration
plane
Calibration
plane
De-embedding
Port 1
Port 2
DUT
Calibration
plane
Calibration
plane
Figure 78 De-embedding
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To enable/disable the de-embedding function for Port
1, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > De-Embedding > Port 1.
To enter the file name of the de-embedded circuit Sparameters of Port 1, us the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > De-Embedding > S-parameters File
To enable/disable the de-embedding function for Port
2, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > De-Embedding > Port 2.
To enter the file name of the de-embedded circuit Sparameters of Port 2, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > De-Embedding > S-parameters File
Note
If S-parameters file is not specified, the softkey of the
function activation will be grayed out.
6.3.3 Embedding
Embedding is a function of the S-parameter transformation by integration of some
virtual circuit into the real network (See Figure 79). The embedding function is an
inverted de-embedding function.
The circuit being integrated should be defined in the data file containing Sparameters of this circuit. The circuit should be described as a 2-port in
Touchstone file (extension .s2p), which contains the S-parameter table: S11, S21, S12,
S22 for a number of frequencies.
The embedding function allows to mathematically simulate the DUT parameters
after adding of the fixture circuits.
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Port 1
Port 2
DUT
Measured S-parameters
Embedding
Port 1
Port 2
Circuit 1
DUT
Touchstone
file
Circuit 2
Touchstone
file
Simulated S-parameters
Figure 79 Embedding
To enable/disable the embedding function for Port 1,
use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > Embedding > Port 1.
To enter the file name of the embedded circuit Sparameters of Port 1, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > Embedding > S-parameters File
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To enable/disable the embedding function for Port 2,
use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > Embedding > Port 2.
To enter the file name of the embedded circuit Sparameters of Port 2, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Fixture Simulator > Embedding > S-parameters File
Note
6.4
If S-parameters file is not specified, the softkey of the
function activation will be grayed out.
Time Domain Transformation
The Analyzer measures and displays parameters of the DUT in frequency domain.
Time domain transformation is a function of mathematical modification of the
measured parameters in order to obtain the time domain representation.
For time domain transformation Z-transformation and frequency domain window
function are applied.
The time domain transformation can be activated for separate traces of a channel.
The current frequency parameters (S11, S21, S12, S22) of the trace will be transformed
into the time domain.
Note
Traces in frequency and time domains can
simultaneously belong to one channel. The stimulus
axis label will be displayed for the active trace, in
frequency or time units.
The transformation function allows for setting of the measurement range in time
domain within Z-transformation ambiguity range. The ambiguity range is
determined by the measurement step in the frequency domain:
T 
1
F max  F min
; F 
F
N 1
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
The time domain function allows to select the following transformation types:

Bandpass mode simulates the impulse bandpass response. It allows
the user to obtain the response for circuits incapable of direct
current passing. The frequency range is arbitrary in this mode. The
time domain resolution in this mode is twice lower than it is in the
lowpass mode;

Lowpass mode simulates lowpass impulse and lowpass step
responses. It is applied to the circuits passing direct current, and
the direct component (in point F=0 Hz) is interpolated from the
start frequency (Fmin) of the range. In this mode the frequency
range represents a harmonic grid where the frequency value at
each frequency point is an integer multiple of the start frequency
of the range Fmin. The time domain resolution is twice higher than
it is in the bandpass mode.
The time domain transformation function applies Kaiser window for initial data
processing in frequency domain. The window function allows to reduce the
ringing (side lobes) in the time domain. The ringing is caused by the abrupt
change of the data at the limits of the frequency domain. But while side lobes are
reduced, the main pulse or front edge of the lowpass step becomes wider.
The Kaiser window is described by β parameter, which smoothly fine-tune the
window shape from minimum (rectangular) to maximum. The user can fine-tune
the window shape or select one of the three preprogrammed windows:
 Minimum (rectangular);
 Normal;
 Maximum.
Table 28 Preprogrammed window types
Lowpass Impulse
Window
Lowpass Step
Side Lobes
Level
Pulse Width
Side Lobes
Level
Edge Width
Minimum
– 13 dB
0.6
Fmax  Fmin
– 21 dB
0.45
Fmax  Fmin
Normal
– 44 dB
0.98
Fmax  Fmin
– 60 dB
0.99
Fmax  Fmin
Maximum
– 75 dB
1.39
Fmax  Fmin
– 70 dB
1.48
Fmax  Fmin
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.4.1 Time Domain Transformation Activating
To enable/disable time domain
function, use the following softkeys:
transformation
Analysis > Time Domain > Time Domain
Note
Time domain transformation function is accessible
only in linear frequency sweep mode.
6.4.2 Time Domain Transformation Span
To define the span of time domain representation, you can set its start and stop, or
center and span values.
To set the start and stop limits of the time domain
range, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Start
Analysis > Time Domain > Stop
To set the center and span of the time domain, use
the following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Center
Analysis > Time Domain > Span
6.4.3 Time Domain Transformation Type
To set the time domain transformation type, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Type >
Bandpass | Lowpass Impulse | Lowpass Step
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.4.4 Time Domain Transformation Window Shape Setting
To set the window shape, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Window >
Minimum | Normal | Maximum
To set the window shape for the specific impulse
width or front edge width, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Window > Impulse Width
The setting values are limited by the specified
frequency range. The bottom limit corresponds to the
value implemented in the minimum (rectangular)
window. The top limit corresponds to the value
implemented in the maximum window.
To set the window shape for the specific β-parameter
of the Kaiser-Bessel filter, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Window > Kaiser Beta
The available β values are from 0 to 13. 0 corresponds
to minimum window, 6 corresponds to normal
window, 13 corresponds to maximum widow.
Note
The impulse width and β of the Kaiser-Bessel filter
are the dependent parameters. When you set one of
the parameters the other one will be adjusted
automatically.
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.4.5 Frequency Harmonic Grid Setting
If lowpass impulse or lowpass step transformation is enabled, the frequency range
will be represented as a harmonic grid. The frequency values in measurement
points are integer multiples of the start frequency Fmin. The Analyzer is capable
of creating a harmonic grid for the current frequency range automatically.
To create a harmonic grid for the current
frequency range, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Time Domain > Set Frequency Low Pass
Note
The frequency range will be transformed as
follows:
Fmax > N x 0.3 MHz
Fmax < N x 0.3 MHz
Fmin = Fmax / N
Fmin = 0.3 MHz,
Fmax = N x 0.3 MHz
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.5
Time Domain Gating
Time domain gating is a function, which mathematically removes the unwanted
responses in time domain. The function performs time domain transformation and
applies reverse transformation back to frequency domain to the user-defined span
in time domain. The function allows the user to remove spurious effects of the
fixture devices from the frequency response, if the useful signal and spurious
signal are separable in time domain.
Note
Use time domain function for viewing the layout of
useful and spurious responses. Then enable time
domain gating and set the gate span to remove as
much of spurious response as possible. After that
disable the time domain function and view the
response without spurious effects in frequency
domain.
The function involves two types of time domain gating:
 bandpass – removes the response outside the gate span,
 notch – removes the response inside the gate span.
The rectangular window shape in frequency domain leads to spurious sidelobes
due to sharp signal changes at the limits of the window. The following gate
shapes are offered to reduce the sidelobes:
 maximum;
 wide;
 normal;
 minimum.
The minimum window has the shape close to rectangular. The maximum window
has more smoothed shape. From minimum to maximum window shape, the
sidelobe level increases and the gate resolution reduces. The choice of the
window shape is always a trade-off between the gate resolution and the level of
spurious sidelobes. The parameters of different window shapes are represented in
Table 29.
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Table 29 Time domain gating window shapes
Window Shape
Bandpass
Sidelobe Level
Gate Resolution (Minimum Gate
Span)
Minimum
– 48 dB
2.8
Fmax  Fmin
Normal
– 68 dB
5.6
Fmax  Fmin
Wide
– 57 dB
8.8
Fmax  Fmin
Maximum
– 70 dB
25.4
Fmax  Fmin
6.5.1 Time Domain Gate Activating
To enable/disable the time domain gating function:
toggle the following softkey:
Analysis > Gating > Gating
Note
Time domain gating function is accessible only in
linear frequency sweep mode.
6.5.2 Time Domain Gate Span
To define the span of time domain gate, you can set its start and stop, or center
and span values.
To the start and stop of the time domain gate, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Gating > Start
Analysis > Gating > Stop
To set the center and span of the time domain gate,
use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Gating > Center
Analysis > Gating > Span
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.5.3 Time Domain Gate Type
To select the type of the time domain window, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Gating > Type
Toggle the type between Bandpass and Notch.
6.5.4 Time Domain Gate Shape Setting
To set the time domain gate shape, use the following
softkeys:
Analysis > Gating > Shape >
Minimum | Normal | Wide | Maximum
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.6
S-Parameter Conversion
S-parameter conversion function allows for conversion of measurement results
(Sab) to the following parameters:
Parameter
Equation
Impedance in reflection
measurement (Zr)
Z r  Z 0a 
Admittance in reflection
measurement (Yr)
Yr 
Impedance in transmission
measurement (Zt)
Zt 
S ab
Yt 
S-parameter complex conjugate
 ( Z 0 a  Z 0b ),
1
Zt
1
S ab
Inverse S-parameter
Equivalent impedance in
transmission shunt measurements
(Ztsh)
1
Zr
2  Z 0 a  Z 0b
Admittance in transmission
measurement (Yt)
Equivalent admittance in
transmission shunt measurements
(Ytsh)
1  S aa
,
1  S aa
Ytsh 
2  Y0 a  Y0b
S ab
Z tsh 
 (Y0 a  Y0b )
1
,
Ytsh
*
S ab
Z0a – characteristic impedance of Port a,
Z0b – characteristic impedance of Port b,
Sab – measured S-parameter (a and b are the port identifiers).
Y0 a 
1
,
Z 0a
Y0b 
1
Z 0b
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Note
Equations for Zr, Zt, Yr, Yt are approximate. The
general method of converting S - parameters to Z, Y,
H, T, ABCD - parameters is presented in the next
section. The reason for using the approximate method
is the measurement speed, as only one S – parameter
is used in the calculations, whereas the general
method requires measurement of the full matrix of Sparameters.
The S-parameter conversion function can be applied to an individual trace of a
channel. Before enabling the function, first activate the trace.
To enable/disable the conversion, use the following
softkeys:
Analysis > Conversion > Conversion
To select the conversion type, use the following
softkeys:
Analysis > Conversion > Function >
Zr: Reflection |
Zt: Transmission |
Yr: Reflection |
Yt: Transmission |
1/S: Inverse |
Ztsh: Trans-Shunt |
Ytsh: Trans-Shunt |
Conjugation
Note
All conversion types are indicated in the trace status
field, when enabled.
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.7
General S-Parameter Conversion
This section describes the most common method of transformation of the Sparameters to Z, Y, T, H, ABCD - parameters. The method is valid for complex and
unique values of the port impedances. Z, Y, H, ABCD - parameters can be presented
both in volume and in normalized form. The method is described in: Dean A.
Frickey’s "Conversions Between S, Z, Y, h, ABCD, and T Parameters which are Valid
for Complex Source and Load Impedances".
The function is applied to the channel as a whole. Before using this function,
select the active channel.
To enable/disable the general conversion, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > General Conversion > General Conversion
To enable/disable the normalization of Z, Y, H, ABCD parameters, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > General Conversion > Normalization
Set the real and imaginary parts of complex port
impedances using the following softkeys:
Analysis > General Conversion >
Port1 Z0 Real Part
Port1 Z0 Imag Part
Port2 Z0 Real Part
Port2 Z0 Imag Part
To select the conversion type, use the following
softkeys:
Analysis > General Conversion > Conversion Type >
Z - parameters |
Y - parameters |
T - parameters |
H - parameters |
ABCD - parameters
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Note
Conv is indicated in the trace status field, when
general conversion is enabled.
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.8
Limit Test
The limit test is a function of automatic pass/fail judgment for the trace of the
measurement result. The judgment is based on the comparison of the trace to the
limit line set by the user.
The limit line can consist of one or several segments (See Figure 80). Each
segment checks the measurement value for failing whether upper or lower limit.
The limit line segment is defined by specifying the coordinates of the beginning
(X0, Y0) and the end (X1, Y1) of the segment, and type of the limit. The MAX or MIN
limit types check if the trace falls outside of the upper or lower limit respectively.
MIN
MAX
MAX
Figure 80 Limit line
The limit line is set by the user in the limit table. Each row in the table describes
one segment of the line. Limit table editing is described below. The table can be
saved into a *.lim file.
The display of the limit lines on the screen can be turned on/off independently of
the status of the limit test function.
The result of the limit test is indicated in the upper right corner of the graph. If the
measurement result passed the limit test, you will see the trace number and the
result: Tr1: Pass.
If the measurement result failed, the result will be indicated in the following ways
(See Figure 81):

Tr1: Fail

Fail

The points of the trace, which failed the test will be highlighted
in red;

You will hear a beep.
will be displayed in upper right corner of the graph;
sign will be displayed in red in the center of the window;
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Fail sign and the beep can be disabled by the user. For beep deactivation see
section 8.5.
Figure 81 Test fail indication
6.8.1 Limit Line Editing
To access the limit line editing mode, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Limit Test > Edit Limit Line
In the editing mode the limit table will appear in the lower part of the screen (See
Figure 82). The limit table will be hidden when you quit the submenu.
Figure 82 Limit line table
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
To add a new row in the table, click Add. The new row
will appear below the highlighted one.
To delete a row from the table, click Delete. The
highlighted row will be deleted.
To clear the entire table, use Clear Limit Table softkey.
To save the table into *.lim file, use Save Limit Table
softkey.
To open the table from a *.lim file, use Restore Limit
Table softkey.
Navigating in the table to enter the values of the following parameters of a limit
test segment:
Type
Select the segment type among the following:
■
MAX
– upper limit
■
MIN
– lower limit
■
OFF
— segment not used for the limit test
Begin Stimulus
Stimulus value in the beginning point of the
segment.
End Stimulus
Stimulus value in the ending point of the segment.
Begin Response
Response value in the beginning point of the
segment.
End Response
Response value in the ending point of the segment.
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.8.2 Limit Test Enabling/Disabling
To enable/disable limit test function, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Limit Test > Limit Test
6.8.3 Limit Test Display Management
To enable/disable display of a limit line, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Limit Test > Limit Line
To enable/disable display of Fail sign in the center of
the graph, use Fail Sign softkey.
6.8.4 Limit Line Offset
Limit line offset function allows the user to shift the segments of the limit line by
the specified value along X and Y axes simultaneously.
To define the limit line offset along X-axis, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Limit Test > Limit Line Offsets > Stimulus Offset
To define the limit line offset along Y-axis, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Limit Test > Limit Line Offsets > Response Offset
Response offset can be set to the active marker
position, using the following softkeys:
Analysis > Limit Test > Limit Line Offsets > Marker – > Response
Ofs
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.9
Ripple Limit Test
Ripple limit test is an automatic pass/fail check of the measured trace data. The
trace is checked against the maximum ripple value (ripple limit) defined by the
user. The ripple value is the difference between the maximum and minimum
response of the trace in the trace frequency band.
The ripple limit can include one or more segments (See Figure 83). Each segment
provides the ripple limit for the specific frequency band. A segment is set by the
frequency band and the ripple limit value.
Band 1
2 dB
Band 2
1 dB
Band 3
2 dB
Figure 83 Ripple limits
The ripple limit settings are performed in the ripple limit table. Each row of the
table describes the frequency band the ripple limit value. The ripple limit table
editing is described below. The table can be saved into a *.lim file.
The display of the limit lines on the screen can be turned on/off by the user.
The result of the ripple limit test is indicated in the upper right corner of the
graph. If the measurement result passed the limit test, you will see the trace
number and the result: Ripl1: Pass.
If the measurement result failed, the result will be indicated in the following ways
(See Figure 84):
 Ripl1: Fail will be displayed in upper right corner of the graph;
 Fail sign will be displayed in red in the center of the window;
 You will hear a beep.
sign and the beep can be disabled by the user. For beep deactivation see
section 8.5.
Fail
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Figure 84 Test fail indication
The display of the ripple value can be enabled/disabled by the user in the ripple
limit test status line in the upper right corner of the graph (See Figure 85). The
ripple value is displayed for the band selected by the user. The ripple value can be
represented as an absolute value or as a margin to the limit.
Ripl1: Pass B1 1.0556 dB
Ripple value
Band number
Test result
Test name and trace number
Figure 85 Ripple limit test status line
6.9.1 Ripple Limit Editing
To access the ripple limit editing mode, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Ripple Limit > Edit Ripple Limit
In the editing mode the limit table will appear in the lower part of the screen (See
Figure 86). The limit table will be hidden when you quit the submenu.
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
Figure 86 Ripple limit table
To add a new row in the table, click Add. The new row
will appear below the highlighted one.
To delete a row from the table, click Delete. The
highlighted row will be deleted.
To clear the entire table, use Clear Ripple Limit Table
softkey.
To save the table into *.rlm file, use Save Ripple Limit
Table softkey.
To open the table from a *.rlm file, use Recall Ripple
Limit Table softkey.
Navigating in the table to enter the values of the following parameters of a ripple
limit test segment:
Type
Select the segment type among the following:
■
ON –
■
OFF
band used for the ripple limit test
— band not used for the limit test
Begin Stimulus
Stimulus value in the beginning point of the
segment.
End Stimulus
Stimulus value in the ending point of the segment.
Ripple Limit
Ripple limit value.
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6 MEASUREMENT DATA ANALYSIS
6.9.2 Ripple Limit Enabling/Disabling
To enable/disable ripple limit test function, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Ripple Limit > Ripple Test
6.9.3 Ripple Limit Test Display Management
To enable/disable display of the ripple limit line, use
the following softkeys:
Analysis > Ripple Limit > Ripple Limit
To enable/disable display of the Fail sign in the center
of the graph, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Ripple Limit > Fail Sign.
To enable/disable display of the ripple value, use the
following softkeys:
Analysis > Ripple Limit > Ripple Value >
OFF | Absolute | Margin
To enter the number of the band, whose ripple value
should be displayed, use the following softkeys:
Analysis > Ripple Limit > Ripple Value Band
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7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
7.1
Analyzer State
The Analyzer state, calibration and measured data can be saved on the hard disk
to an Analyzer state file and later uploaded back into the Analyzer program. The
following four types of saving are available:
State
The Analyzer settings.
State & Cal
The Analyzer settings and the table of calibration
coefficients.
State & Trace
The Analyzer settings and data traces1.
All
The Analyzer settings, table
coefficients, and data traces1.
of
calibration
The Analyzer settings that become saved into the Analyzer state file are the
parameters, which can be set in the following submenus of the softkey menu:
 All the parameters in Stimulus submenu;
 All the parameters in Measurement submenu;
 All the parameters in Format submenu;
 All the parameters in Scale submenu;
 All the parameters in Average submenu;
 All the parameters in Display submenu except for Properties;
 All the parameters of Markers submenu;
 All the parameters of Analysis submenu;
 Ref Source and System Correction parameters in System submenu.
To save and recall a state file, you can use ten softkeys labeled State01, ... State10.
Each of the softkeys correspond to a *.sta file having the same name.
1
When recalling the state with saved data traces, the trigger mode will be automatically set to
«Hold», so that the recalled traces are not erased by the currently measured data.
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7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
To have the Analyzer state automatically recalled after each start of the
instrument use Autorecall.sta file. Use Autorecall softkey to save the corresponding
file and thus enable this function.
To disable the automatic recall of the Analyzer state, delete the Autorecall.sta file
using the specific softkey.
You can save and recall the files with arbitrary names. For this purpose use File...
softkey, which will open the Save as dialog box.
7.1.1 Analyzer State Saving
To set the type of saving, use the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Type >
State |
State & Cal |
State & Trace |
All
To save the state, use the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save State
To save a state into one of the ten files, use
State01…State10 softkeys.
…
A check mark in the left part of the softkey indicates
that the state with the corresponding number is
already saved.
To save the state, which will be automatically recalled
after each start of the Analyzer, use Autorecall softkey.
A check mark on the softkey indicates that such a
state is already saved.
To save a state into the file with an arbitrary name
use File... softkey.
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7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
7.1.2 Analyzer State Recalling
To recall the state from a file of Analyzer state, use
the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Recall State
Click
required
State01…State10.
…
the
softkey
of
the
available
If the state with some number was not saved the
corresponding softkey will be grayed out.
You can select the state automatic recall file by
clicking Autorecall softkey.
To recall a state from the file with an arbitrary name,
use File... softkey.
7.1.3 Session Saving
When enabled, this function automatically saves a session on exit and resumes it
when the Analyzer is turned on next time. The stored session parameters include
the Analyzer settings, table of calibration coefficients, and data and memory
traces.
To enable the Save Session function, use the
following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Session
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7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
7.2
Channel State
A channel state can be saved into the Analyzer memory. The channel state saving
procedure is similar to saving of the Analyzer state saving, and the same saving
types (described in section 7.1) are applied to the channel state saving.
Unlike the Analyzer state, the channel state is saved into the Analyzer inner
volatile memory (not to the hard disk) and is cleared when the power to the
Analyzer is turned off. For channel state storage, there are four memory registers
A, B, C, D.
The channel state saving allows the user to easily copy the settings of one
channel to another one.
7.2.1 Channel State Saving
To save the active channel state, use the following
softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Channel
To save a state into one of the four memory registers,
use State A…State D softkeys.
…
A check mark in the left part of the softkey indicates
that the state with the corresponding number is
already saved.
7.2.2 Channel State Recalling
To recall the active channel state, use the following
softkeys:
Save/Recall > Recall Channel
Click the required softkey of the available State A…State
D.
…
If the state with some number was not saved the
corresponding softkey will be grayed out.
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7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
7.3
Trace Data CSV File
The Analyzer allows the use to save an individual trace data as a CSV file (comma
separated values). The *.CSV file contains digital data separated by commas. The
active trace stimulus and response values in current format are saved to *.CSV file.
Only one (active) trace data are saved to the file.
The trace data are saved to *.CSV in the following format:
F[0],
Data1,
Data2
F[1],
Data1,
Data2
...
F[N],
Data1,
Data2
F[n] –
frequency at measurement point n;
Data1 –
trace response in rectangular format, real part in Smith chart and polar
format;
Data2 –
zero in rectangular format, imaginary part in Smith chart and polar format.
7.3.1 CSV File Saving/Recalling
To save the trace data, first activate the trace.
To save the trace data, use the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Trace Data
Enter the file name in the dialog that appears.
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7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
7.4
Trace Data Touchstone File
The Analyzer allows the user to save S-parameters to a Touchstone file. The
Touchstone file contains the frequency values and S-parameters. The files of this
format are typical for most of circuit simulator programs.
The *.s2p files are used for saving all the four S-parameters of a 2-port device.
The *.s1p files are used for saving S11 and S22 parameters of a 1-port device.
Only one (active) trace data are saved to the file.
Note
If a channel does not have all the S-parameter traces,
only available S-parameter responses will be
represented. For example, if one S11 trace is enabled,
S21 response will be represented, and S12 and S22 will
not be represented. The missing S-parameters are
displayed as zeroes in the file.
If full 2-port calibration is active, all the four Sparameters in a channel are measured, independently
of the number of the traces.
The Touchstone file saving function is applied to individual channels. To use this
function, first activate the channel.
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7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
The Touchstone file contains comments, header, and trace data lines. Comments
start from «!» symbol. Header starts from «#» symbol.
The *.s1p Touchstone file for 1-port measurements:
! Comments
# Hz S FMT R Z0
F[0]
{S11}’
{S11}”
F[1]
{S11}’
{S11}”
...
F[N]
{S11}’
{S11}”
The *.s2p Touchstone file for 2-port measurements:
! Comments
# Hz S FMT R Z0
F[0]
{S11}’
{S11}”
{S21}’
{S21}”
{S12}’
{S12}”
{S22}’
{S22}”
F[1]
{S11}’
{S11}”
{S21}’
{S21}”
{S12}’
{S12}”
{S22}’
{S22}”
{S12}’
{S12}”
{S22}’
{S22}”
...
F[N]
{S11}’
{S11}”
{S21}’
{S21}”
Hz – frequency measurement units (kHz, MHz, GHz)
FMT – data format:
 RI – real and imaginary parts,
 MA – linear magnitude and phase in degrees,
 DB – logarithmic magnitude in dB and phase in degrees.
Z0 – reference impedance value
F[n] – frequency at measurement point n
{…}’ – {real part (RI) | linear magnitude (MA) | logarithmic magnitude (DB)}
{…}” – {imaginary part (RI) | phase in degrees (MA) | phase in degrees (DB)}
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7 ANALYZER DATA OUTPUT
7.4.1 Touchstone File Saving/Recalling
To select the saving type, use the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Data To Touchstone File > Type > 1-Port
(s1p) | 2-Port (s2p)
For 1-port saving type select the port number using
the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Data To Touchstone File > Select Port (s1p).
To select the data format, use the following softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Data To Touchstone File > Format > RI | MA |
DB
To save file to the hard disk, use the following
softkeys:
Save/Recall > Save Data To Touchstone File > Save File…
Enter the file name in the dialog that appears.
248
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.1
Analyzer Presetting
Analyzer presetting feature allows the user to restore the default settings of the
Analyzer.
The default settings of your Analyzer are specified in Appendix 1.
To preset the Analyzer, use the following softkeys:
System > Preset > OK
8.2
Graph Printing
This section describes the print/save procedures for the graph data.
The print function is provided with the preview feature, which allows the user to
view the image to be printed on the screen, and/or save it to a file.
You can print out the graphs using three different applications:
 MS Word;
 Image Viewer for Windows;
 Print Wizard of the Analyzer.
Note
MS Word application must be installed in Windows
system.
Note
The Print Wizard requires at least one printer to be
installed in Windows.
You can select the print color before the image is transferred to the printing
application:
 Color (no changes);
 Gray Scale;
 Black & White.
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8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
You can invert the image before it is transferred to the printing application.
You can add current date and time before the image is transferred to the printing
application.
To print a graph, use the following softkeys:
System > Print
Select the print color, using Print Color softkey:
■
Color
■
Gray Scale
■
Black & White
If necessary, invert the image by Invert Image softkey.
If necessary, select printing of date and time by Print
Date & Time softkey.
Then select the printing application, using one of the
following softkeys:
8.3
■
Print: MS Word
■
Print: Windows
■
Print: Embedded
Reference Frequency Oscillator Selection
The Analyzer can operate either with internal or with external reference frequency
(10 MHz) oscillator. Initially the Analyzer is set to operation with the internal
source of the reference frequency.
You can switch between these two modes in the softkey menu.
To select the reference frequency oscillator, use the
following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Ref Source
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8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.4
System Correction Setting
The Analyzer is supplied from the manufacturer calibrated with the calibration
coefficients stored in its non-volatile memory. The factory calibration is used by
default for initial correction of the measured S-parameters. Such calibration is
referred to as system calibration, and the error correction is referred to as system
correction.
The system correction ensures initial values of the measured S-parameters before
the Analyzer is calibrated by the user. The system calibration is performed at the
plane of the port physical connectors and leaves out of account the cables and
other fixture used to connect the DUT. The measurement accuracy of the Analyzer
without its calibration with the user setup is not rated.
Normally, the disabling of the system correction is not required for a calibration
and further measurements.
The system correction can be disabled only in case the user provided a proper
calibration for the Analyzer. The measurement accuracy is determined by user
calibration and does not depend on the system correction status. The only rule
that should be observes is to disable/enable the system correction before the user
calibration, so that the calibration and further measurement could be performed
under the same conditions.
If the system correction is disabled by the user, this is indicated in the instrument
status bar.
Note
TRL calibration (expect Planar 304/1) is not compatible
with system correction. The system correction will be
automatically turned off when TRL calibration is
performed.
To disable/enable the system correction, use the
following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > System Correction
251
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.5
Beeper Setting
The Analyzer features two settings of the beeper, which can be toggled on/off
independently from each other:
 operation complete beeper – informs the user about normal
completion of standard measurements during calibration;
 warning beeper – informs the user about an error or a fail
limit test result.
To toggle the beeper, use the following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Beeper > Beep Complete
System > Misc Setup > Beeper > Beep Warning
To test the beeper, use the following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Beeper > Test Beep Complete
System > Misc Setup > Beeper > Test Beep Warning
252
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.6
User Interface Setting
The Analyzer enables you to make the following user interface settings:

Toggle between full screen and window display

Set color of:


Note

Data traces

Memory traces

Background and grid of graph

Background and font of menu bar
Style and width of:

Data traces

Memory traces

Graph grid
Font size of:

Softkeys

Channel window

Channel status bar

Instrument status bar

Invert color of graph area

Hide/show menu bar

Hide/show stimulus graticule (X axis)

Set response graticule mode (Y axis)

off

on for active trace

on for all traces
The user interface settings are automatically saved
and will restore when you next time turn the Analyzer
on. No particular saving procedure is required. There
is a button for restoration of the default factory
settings for the user interface.
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8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
To toggle between full screen and window display,
use the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Full Screen
To change the color of the active data trace, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Color > Data Trace
Then select the rate (from 0 to 255) of color
components.
The changes made to the color of the active data
traces will affect all the traces with the same number
in other channels.
To change the color of the active memory trace, use
the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Color > Memory Trace
Then select the rate (from 0 to 255) of color
components.
The changes made to the color of the active memory
traces will affect all the traces with the same number
in other channels.
To change the color of the background of the graph,
use the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Color > Background
Then select the rate (from 0 to 255) of color
components.
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8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
To change the color of the grid of the graph, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Color >Grid
Then select the rate (from 0 to 255) of color
components.
To change the style and width of a data trace, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Lines > Data Trace Style
Display > Properties > Lines > Data Trace Width
To change the style and width of a memory trace, use
the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Lines > Mem Trace Style
Display > Properties > Lines > Mem Trace Width
To change the grid style, the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Lines > Grid Style
To change the font size on the softkeys, in the
channel window, in the channel status bar, or the
instrument status bar, use the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Font Size > Softkeys
Display > Properties > Font Size > Window Channel
Display > Properties > Font Size > Channel State
Display > Properties > Font Size > Instr State
Then select the font size from 10 to 13.
255
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
To invert the color of the graph area, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Invert Color
To hide/show the menu bar, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Properties > Menu Bar
To hide/show stimulus graticule (X axis), use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Frequency Label
To set the response graticule label mode (Y axis), use
the following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Graticule Label>
OFF | Active Trace | All Traces
To restore the default factory settings, use the
following softkeys:
Display > Properties > Set Defaults
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8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.7
Screen Update Setting
Screen updating can be disabled to reduce the sweep time. This function can be
useful during remote control over the Analyzer via COM/DCOM interfaces.
To disable the screen updating, use the following
softkeys:
Display > Update
Note
If the screen updating is off, this will be indicated in
the instrument status bar Update Off.
257
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.8
Power Meter Setting
An external power meter can be connected to the Analyzer to perform power
calibration of the test ports. Connect the power meter to PC directly to USB port or
via USB/GPIB adapter. Then install the power meter software. The list of the
power meters supported by the Analyzer is shown in Table 30.
USB
Sen
sor
USB
Power Meter
USB/
GPIB
GPIB
Sen
sor
Figure 87 Power meter setup example
258
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
Table 30 Supported power meters
Power Meter
Name in
Analyzer
Program
USB
Connection
Type
Rohde&Schwarz
NRP-Z series Sensors
(without Power
Meter)
R&S NRP-Z
sensors
R&S NRP-Z4
Adapter
Additional Software

Rohde&Schwarz NRP-Toolkit
(NRP-Toolkit)

Rohde&Schwarz RSNRPZ
Instrument driver
(rsnrpz_vxipnp)

GPIB/USB Adapter driver

VISA visa32.dll Library
NRP-Z51
(recommended)
Rohde&Schwarz
NRVS Power Meter
and NRV
-Z51, -Z4 , and -Z3
(75 Ohm) Sensors
R&S NRVS
GPIB/USB
Adapter
To select the power meter, use the following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Power Meter Setup > Power Meter > R&S
NRP-Z sensors (USB) | R&S NRVS (GPIB)
If the power meter has GPIB interface, set the GPIB
board address and the power meter address in the
bus, using the following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Power Meter Setup > GPIB Board
System > Misc Setup > Power Meter Setup > GPIB Address
Sensor Info… softkey
checks the connection and settings
of the power meter. It provides sensor type, if the
communication between the Analyzer and the power
meter has been successfully established.
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8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.9
Port Overload Indication (expect Planar 304/1)
Port overload indication function is used to inform the user when the input power
exceeds the capacity of the port such that the measurement accuracy does not
meet the instrument’s specification. Port overload can occur when testing active
devices. When testing passive devices overload cannot occur.
Overload indication is a message in the status bar of the instrument: "Port n
overload!", where n - number of the port. The message has a red background color.
When the overload condition is resolved, the overload indication disappears
automatically after 2 seconds. In the event of a transient overload, the 2 second
persistence enables the user to take notice.
Display of the overload warning cannot be disabled by the user.
8.10
Power Trip Function (expect Planar 304/1)
Power Trip function is a safety feature to protect analyzer’s port from over-input.
The Function disables the stimulus signal when the port safety power level is
exceeded. The safety threshold used by this function is above the overload
threshold, as described in the preceding paragraph.
Excessive port power level may occur when testing active devices.
When triggered, this function disables the stimulus signal and indicates the
message in the status bar of the instrument: "Port n Power Trip at Overload!",
where n - number of the port. Message has a red background color.
After the overload trips, the user must resolve the issue causing the overload, and
then manually re-enable the stimulus via the submenu Stimulus> Power> RF
output [On].
The power trip function can be enabled or disabled by the user. By default, it is
disabled. The ON / OFF state of this function is retained in subsequent sessions
and does not depend on the Preset button.
To enable the power trip function, use the following
softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Power Trip at Overload
260
8 SYSTEM SETTINGS
8.11
Port Switchover Delay Disabling
The function allows to disable the Port Switchover Delay. The Port Switchover
Delay occurs when the sweep direction changes. By default the Port Switchover
Delay value is 10 msec.
This delay affects on power transition and ensures more accurate power level
setting after the stimulus direction changes.
Anyway the power level deviation is small and is within the specification
regardless of on/off state of the delay state.
To improve performance the delay can be disabled when the S-parameters are
measured as S-parameters accuracy does not depend on small power level
deviation.
It is not recommended to disable the Port Switchover Delay when the Absolute
measurements are performed.
To disable the Port Switchover Delay, use the
following softkeys:
System > Misc Setup > Port Switchover Delay
.
261
9 MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE
9.1
Maintenance Procedures
This section describes the guidelines and procedures of maintenance, which will
ensure fault-free operation of your Analyzer.
The maintenance of the Analyzer consists in cleaning of the instrument, factory
calibrations, and regular performance tests.
9.1.1 Instrument Cleaning
This section provides the cleaning instructions required for maintaining the proper
operation of your Analyzer.
To remove contamination from parts other than test ports and any connectors of
the Analyzer, wipe them gently with a soft cloth that is dry or wetted with a small
amount of water and wrung tightly.
It is essential to keep the test ports always clean as any dust or stains on them can
significantly affect the measurement capabilities of the instrument. To clean the
test ports (as well as other connectors of the Analyzer), use the following
procedure:
– using compressed air remove or loosen the contamination particles;
– clean the connectors using a lint-free cleaning cloth wetted with a small
amount of ethanol and isopropyl alcohol (when cleaning a female connector,
avoid snagging the cloth on the center conductor contact fingers by using
short strokes);
– dry the connector with low-pressure compressed air.
Always completely dry a connector before using it.
Never use water or abrasives for cleaning any connectors of the Analyzer. Do not
allow contact of alcohol to the surface of the insulators of the connectors.
When connecting male-female coaxial connectors always use a calibrated torque
wrench.
Never perform cleaning of the instrument if the power
cable is connected to the power outlet.
WARNING
Never clean the internal components of the
instrument.
262
9 MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE
9.1.2 Factory Calibration
Factory calibration is a regular calibration performed by the manufacturer or an
authorized service center. We recommend you to send your Analyzer for factory
calibration every three years.
9.1.3 Performance Test
Performance test is the procedure of the Analyzer performance verification by
confirming that the behavior of the instrument meets the published specifications.
Performance test of the Analyzer should be performed in accordance with
Performance Test Instructions.
The Analyzer software is provided with System > Performance Test submenu for
automatic verification execution.
Performance test period is one year.
9.2
Storage Instructions
Before first use store your Analyzer in the factory package at environment
temperature from 0 to +40 ºС and relative humidity up to 80% (at 25 ºС).
After you have removed the factory package store the Analyzer at environment
temperature from +10 to +35 ºС and relative humidity up to 80% (at 25 ºС).
Ensure to keep the storage facilities free from dust, fumes of acids and alkaline,
volatile gases, and other chemicals, which can cause corrosion.
263
Appendix 1 — Default Settings Table
Default values defined in the process of the initial factory setup.
Parameter Description
Data Saving Type
Touchstone Data Format
Default Setting
State and
Calibration
Analyzer
Real-Imaginary
Analyzer
Analyzer
Allocation of Channels
Active Channel Number
Parameter
Setting Object
1
Analyzer
Marker Value Identification Capacity
(Stimulus)
7 digits
Analyzer
Marker Value Identification Capacity
(Response)
4 digits
Analyzer
OFF
Analyzer
Reference Frequency Source
Internal
Analyzer
Trigger Signal Source
Internal
Analyzer
Reference Channel Error Correction
ON
Analyzer
System Correction
ON
Analyzer
Marker Table
Channel
Allocation of Traces
Vertical Divisions
10
Channel
Channel Title Bar
OFF
Channel
Empty
Channel
OFF
Channel
Frequency Order
Channel
Traces per Channel
1
Channel
Active Trace Number
1
Channel
ON
Channel
Linear Frequency
Channel
Number of Sweep Points
201
Channel
Stimulus Start Frequency
Instrument min.
Channel
Stimulus Stop Frequency
Instrument max.
Channel
Stimulus CW Frequency
Instrument min.
Channel
Stimulus Start Power Level
Instrument min.
Channel
Channel Title
«FAIL» Label Display (Limit Test)
Segment Sweep Frequency Axis Display
Marker Coupling
Sweep Type
264
Appendix 1 – Default Settings Table
Stimulus Stop Power Level
Instrument max.
Channel
Stimulus Power Level
0 dBm
Channel
Stimulus Power Slope
0 dBm
Channel
Stimulus IF Bandwidth
10 kHz
Channel
Sweep Measurement Delay
0 sec.
Channel
Sweep Range Setting
Start / Stop
Channel
Number of Segments
1
Channel
Points per Segment
2
Channel
Segment Start Frequency
Instrument min.
Channel
Segment Stop Frequency
Instrument min.
Channel
Segment Sweep Power Level
0 dBm
Channel
Segment Sweep IF Bandwidth
10 kHz
Channel
Segment Sweep Measurement Delay
0 sec.
Channel
Segment Sweep Power Level (Table Display)
OFF
Channel
Segment Sweep IF Bandwidth (Table Display)
OFF
Channel
Segment Sweep Measurement Delay (Table
Display)
OFF
Channel
Start / Stop
Channel
OFF
Channel
10
Channel
Continuous
Channel
Empty
Channel
Error Correction
OFF
Channel
Port Z Conversion
OFF
Channel
Port 1 Simulated Impedance
Instrument
Nominal
Channel
Port 2 Simulated Impedance
Instrument
Nominal
Channel
Port 1 De-embedding
OFF
Channel
Port 2 De-embedding
OFF
Channel
Port 1 De-embedding S-parameter File
Empty
Channel
Port 2 De-embedding S-parameter File
Empty
Channel
Port 1 Embedding
OFF
Channel
Port 2 Embedding
OFF
Channel
Segment Sweep Range Setting
Averaging
Averaging Factor
Trigger Mode
Table of Calibration Coefficients
265
Appendix 1 – Default Settings Table
Port 1 Embedding User File
Empty
Channel
Port 2 Embedding User File
Empty
Channel
S11
Trace
10 dB / Div.
Trace
Reference Level Value
0 dB
Trace
Reference Level Position
5 Div.
Trace
OFF
Trace
0°
Trace
0 sec.
Trace
OFF
Trace
Z: Reflection
Trace
Logarithmic
Magnitude (dB)
Trace
OFF
Trace
Time Domain Transformation Start
–10 nsec.
Trace
Time Domain Transformation Stop
10 nsec.
Trace
6
Trace
Bandpass
Trace
ON
Trace
Time Domain Gate Start
–10 ns
Trace
Time Domain Gate Stop
10 ns
Trace
Time Domain Gate Type
Bandpass
Trace
Time Domain Gate Shape
Normal
Trace
Smoothing
OFF
Trace
Smoothing Aperture
1%
Trace
Trace Display Mode
Data
Trace
Limit Test
OFF
Trace
Limit Line Display
OFF
Trace
Defined Limit Lines
Empty
Trace
Number of Markers
0
Trace
Marker Position
Instrument min.
Trace
Marker Search
Maximum
Trace
Marker Tracking
OFF
Trace
Marker Search Target
0 dB
Trace
Measurement Parameter
Trace Scale
Data Math
Phase Offset
Electrical Delay
S-parameter Conversion
S-parameter Conversion Function
Trace Display Format
Time Domain Transformation
Time Domain Kaiser-Beta
Time Domain Transformation Type
Time Domain Gate
266
Appendix 1 – Default Settings Table
Marker Search Target Transition
Both
Trace
Positive
Trace
Marker Search Peak Excursion
3 dB
Trace
Bandwidth Parameter Search
OFF
Trace
–3 dB
Trace
OFF
Trace
Marker Search Start
0
Trace
Marker Search Stop
0
Trace
Marker Search Peak Polarity
Marker Search Bandwidth Value
Marker Search Range
267
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