Oracle Database Upgrade Guide

Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Oracle® Database
Upgrade Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2)
E23633-11
May 2014
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2)
E23633-11
Copyright © 2002, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Cathy Shea
Contributors: Toshinori Ami, Vickie Carbonneau, Ian Dai, Mike Dietrich, Joseph Errede, Ayako Ito,
Masakazu Ito, Cindy Lim, Brian McCarthy, Tony Morales, Carol Palmer, Satish Panchumarthy, Ravi
Pattabhi, Kathy Rich, Mark Richwine, Craig Santelman, Viv Schupmann, Janet Stern, Carol Tagliaferri,
Venkateshwaran Venkataramani, Douglas Williams
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Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................................................. xi
Audience....................................................................................................................................................... xi
Documentation Accessibility .................................................................................................................... xii
Related Documentation ............................................................................................................................. xii
Conventions ................................................................................................................................................ xii
1
Introduction to the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database
Where to Find the Latest Information About Upgrading Oracle Database.................................. 1-1
Overview of Oracle Database Upgrade Tools and Processes .......................................................... 1-2
Major Steps in the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database................................................................ 1-2
About Oracle Database Release Numbers .......................................................................................... 1-5
Convention for Referring to Release Numbers in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.................... 1-5
About Running Multiple Oracle Releases ...................................................................................... 1-6
Databases in Multiple Oracle Homes on the Same Computer............................................. 1-6
Databases in Multiple Oracle Homes on Separate Computers ............................................ 1-7
About Earlier Oracle Database Releases and Upgrading to the Current Release ............. 1-7
About Upgrading Clients to the Current Release of Oracle Database................................ 1-7
Compatibility and Interoperability Between Oracle Database Releases...................................... 1-7
What Is Compatibility for Oracle Database?.................................................................................. 1-7
The COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter in Oracle Database ........................................ 1-8
Default, Minimum, and Maximum Values of the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter
for Oracle 1-8
Considerations for Downgrading Oracle Database and Compatibility ............................. 1-8
How the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter Operates in Oracle Database............... 1-9
Checking the Compatibility Level of Oracle Database ......................................................... 1-9
When to Set the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter in Oracle Database ................ 1-10
What Is Interoperability for Oracle Database?............................................................................ 1-10
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) in Oracle Database ............................................................ 1-10
Converting Databases to 64-bit Oracle Database Software .......................................................... 1-11
About Rolling Upgrades for Oracle Database................................................................................. 1-11
Summary of Methods for Performing Rolling Upgrades for Oracle Database...................... 1-12
Moving From Standard Edition to Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database ............................... 1-13
Known Issue with the Deinstallation Tool for Release 11.2.0.4................................................ 1-14
About Moving From Enterprise Edition to Standard Edition of Oracle Database .................. 1-14
About Upgrading from Oracle Database Express Edition to Oracle Database......................... 1-15
iii
2
Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
The Main Steps for Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database ........................................................... 2-1
Become Familiar with New Oracle Database Features for Upgrading ...................................... 2-1
Determine the Upgrade Path for Upgrading Oracle Database ................................................... 2-2
Choose an Upgrade Method for Upgrading Oracle Database .................................................... 2-3
Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA)...................................................................................... 2-3
Manual Upgrade ......................................................................................................................... 2-3
Oracle Data Pump Export and Import and Oracle Database Upgrade .............................. 2-4
Choose a Location for the New Oracle Home for Upgrading Oracle Database ....................... 2-5
Develop a Testing Plan to Upgrade Oracle Database................................................................... 2-6
Oracle Database Upgrade Testing ............................................................................................ 2-6
Minimal Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database.................................................................. 2-6
Functional Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database .............................................................. 2-6
High Availability Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database .................................................. 2-6
Integration Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database ............................................................. 2-7
Performance Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database .......................................................... 2-7
Volume and Load Stress Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database................................... 2-10
Prepare a Backup Strategy for Upgrading Oracle Database..................................................... 2-10
Testing the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database .......................................................................... 2-10
Testing the Upgraded Test Oracle Database .................................................................................... 2-11
3
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
System Considerations and Requirements for Upgrading Oracle Database ............................... 3-1
Relocating Existing Data Files to the New Oracle Database Environment ............................... 3-2
About Upgrading PL/SQL Packages That Are Not Installed by Default ................................. 3-2
About Upgrading Oracle ASM Installed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure................................ 3-3
Considerations for Upgrading Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM Instances ...................... 3-3
Determining If Oracle ASM is Included in the Current Database Configuration............. 3-4
About Upgrading an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) Database ............. 3-4
About Requirements for Time Synchronization on Oracle RAC......................................... 3-4
Considerations for Upgrading Oracle RAC and Databases That Use Oracle ASM.......... 3-4
About Upgrading System Authentication for Oracle ASM Instances ................................ 3-5
Considerations for Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance ...................................................... 3-5
About Upgrading with Read-Only and Offline Tablespaces ...................................................... 3-6
About Upgrading Using Standby Databases ................................................................................. 3-6
About Upgrading Your Operating System .................................................................................... 3-7
Migrating Data to a Different Operating System .......................................................................... 3-7
About Upgrading Databases That Use Oracle Streams Downstream Capture ........................ 3-8
About Upgrading Databases That Use Oracle Database Vault................................................... 3-8
Installing the New Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade ..................................................... 3-8
About the Latest Patch Set Updates and Any Required Patches ................................................. 3-10
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool ......................................................................................... 3-10
Pre-Upgrade Information Tool Miscellaneous Warnings ......................................................... 3-16
Updating the CONNECT Role from Earlier Releases ........................................................ 3-16
Managing and Updating Access Control Lists and Network Utility Packages ............. 3-16
Assessing Dependencies and Adding ACLs for Network Utility Packages................... 3-17
About Downgrading and Database Links from Earlier Releases ..................................... 3-18
iv
About Warnings for TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Data Type.................................
Decreasing Downtime for Gathering Optimizer Statistics (Optional).............................
Identifying Invalid Objects .....................................................................................................
Saving Database Control Files and Data with the emdwgrd Utility................................
Verifying That Materialized View Refreshes Have Completed........................................
Ensuring That No Files Need Media Recovery ...................................................................
Ensuring That No Files Are in Backup Mode......................................................................
Resolving Outstanding Distributed Transactions...............................................................
Synchronizing a Standby Database with the Primary Database.......................................
Purging the Database Recycle Bin .........................................................................................
Configuring the Listener When Upgrading from Oracle9i...........................................................
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows........................
Considerations for Using DBUA ..................................................................................................
About the DBUA Graphical User Interface.................................................................................
Checks Performed by Oracle DBUA .....................................................................................
Upgrade Scripts Invoked by Oracle DBUA .........................................................................
Using DBUA to Upgrade the Database on Linux, UNIX, and Windows Systems................
Optionally Performing an In-Place Upgrade (Into the Same Oracle Home).............................
In-Place Upgrade on Windows .....................................................................................................
Considerations for In-Place Upgrade of Oracle Database on Windows Platforms .......
Performing an In-Place Upgrade of Oracle Database on Windows .................................
Using DBUA in Silent Mode to Upgrade Oracle Database.......................................................
Oracle DBUA Command Line Options for Silent Mode....................................................
DBUA Command Line Syntax for Silent Mode...................................................................
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually .............................................................................................
Backing Up Oracle Database for a Manual Upgrade.................................................................
Preparing the New Oracle Home for a Manual Upgrade .........................................................
Manually Upgrading Oracle Database ........................................................................................
About the Post-Upgrade Status Tool ....................................................................................
Troubleshooting the Upgrade of Oracle Database .........................................................................
Pre-Upgrade Oracle Home Removal on Oracle RAC................................................................
Resource Limits and Oracle Database Upgrade .........................................................................
COMPATIBLE Parameter Not Set................................................................................................
Edition Session Startup Error ........................................................................................................
Manual Workaround for ORA-01408...........................................................................................
Running the DBMS_DST Package After Upgrade Can Result in ORA-01822 ......................
Understanding Component Status ...............................................................................................
DBUA May Mark Invalid Components with an X Before Entire Upgrade is Done..............
Rerunning the Upgrade for Oracle Database ..................................................................................
Cancelling the Upgrade for Oracle Database ..................................................................................
About Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance .....................................................................................
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Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database
How to Show the Current State of the Oracle Data Dictionary ......................................................
About OPatch Commands After Upgrading Oracle Database ........................................................
Required Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database ....................................................
Setting Environment Variables on Linux and UNIX Systems After Manual Upgrades .........
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-2
v
Setting oratab and Scripts to Point to the New Oracle Home After Upgrading Oracle Database.
4-3
Upgrading the Recovery Catalog After Upgrading Oracle Database........................................ 4-3
Upgrading the Time Zone File Version After Upgrading Oracle Database.............................. 4-3
Upgrading Statistics Tables Created by the DBMS_STATS Package After Upgrading Oracle
Database 4-3
Upgrading Externally Authenticated SSL Users After Upgrading Oracle Database............... 4-4
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases After Upgrading Oracle Database ........... 4-4
Updating Your Oracle Application Express Configuration After Upgrading Oracle Database....
4-4
Configuring Fine-Grained Access to External Network Services After Upgrading Oracle
Database 4-5
Enabling Oracle Database Vault and Revoking the DV_PATCH_ADMIN Role After
Upgrading Oracle Database 4-6
Recommended Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database.......................................... 4-6
Recommended Tasks to Perform After All Database Upgrades................................................. 4-6
Back Up the Database ................................................................................................................ 4-7
Reset Passwords to Enforce Case-Sensitivity ......................................................................... 4-7
Understand Changes with Oracle Grid Infrastructure ......................................................... 4-7
Understand Oracle ASM and Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation and Upgrade ....... 4-8
Add New Features as Appropriate .......................................................................................... 4-8
Develop New Administrative Procedures as Needed .......................................................... 4-8
Set Threshold Values for Tablespace Alerts............................................................................ 4-9
Migrate From Rollback Segments to Automatic Undo Mode.............................................. 4-9
Configure Oracle Data Guard Broker ................................................................................... 4-10
Migrate Tables from the LONG Data Type to the LOB Data Type .................................. 4-10
Test the Upgraded Production Database ............................................................................. 4-10
Recommended Tasks After Upgrading an Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) Database 4-11
Upgrade Change Data Capture ............................................................................................. 4-11
Configure Secure HTTP .......................................................................................................... 4-11
Provide Anonymous Access to XML DB Repository Data Through HTTP.................... 4-12
Recommended Tasks After Upgrading an Oracle Express Edition Database ....................... 4-12
Recommended Tasks After Upgrading an Oracle RAC Database .......................................... 4-12
Tasks to Complete Only After Manually Upgrading Oracle Database ...................................... 4-13
Change Passwords for Oracle Supplied Accounts..................................................................... 4-13
Create Password File with ORAPWD.......................................................................................... 4-13
Migrate Your Initialization Parameter File to a Server Parameter File ................................... 4-14
Upgrade Oracle Text....................................................................................................................... 4-14
Upgrade the Oracle Clusterware Configuration ........................................................................ 4-15
Adjust the Initialization Parameter File for the New Release .................................................. 4-15
Setting the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter ........................................................... 4-15
Configuring tnsnames.ora and Listener Parameters .......................................................... 4-17
Configure Enterprise Manager...................................................................................................... 4-17
Set CLUSTER_DATABASE Initialization Parameter For Oracle RAC ................................... 4-17
Required Tasks After Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades ........................................................ 4-17
Using Environment Variables for Grid Infrastructure Installations........................................ 4-18
Upgrading An Earlier Release of Oracle ASM to Oracle Grid Infrastructure........................ 4-18
Preparing to Upgrade Oracle ASM ....................................................................................... 4-19
vi
Upgrading Oracle ASM..................................................................................................................
Required Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades..................................................................................
Set Environment Variables ............................................................................................................
Single-Instance Oracle ASM Upgrade .........................................................................................
Cluster Oracle ASM Upgrade........................................................................................................
Additional Considerations After Oracle ASM Upgrades .........................................................
Role-Allocated Software Owners and Database Upgrade After Oracle ASM Upgrade
Keeping the Existing User as the Oracle ASM Operating System User ..........................
Changing the Operating System User for Single-Instance Oracle ASM..........................
Changing the Operating System User for an Oracle RAC Database ...............................
Recommended Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades........................................................................
Reset Oracle ASM Passwords to Enforce Case-Sensitivity .......................................................
Advance the Oracle ASM and Oracle Database Disk Group Compatibility..........................
Set Up Oracle ASM Preferred Read Failure Groups..................................................................
5
Upgrading Applications After Upgrading Oracle Database
Overview of Upgrading Applications..................................................................................................
Compatibility Issues for Applications When Upgrading ................................................................
Upgrading Precompiler and OCI Applications..................................................................................
Understanding Software Upgrades and Your Client/Server Configuration............................
Types of Software Upgrades for Oracle Database .................................................................
Possible Client/Server Configurations....................................................................................
Compatibility Rules for Applications When Upgrading Client/Server Software ...................
Upgrading the Oracle Database Server Software...................................................................
Upgrading the Oracle Database Client Software ...................................................................
Upgrading Options for Your Precompiler and OCI Applications..............................................
Option 1: Leave the Application Unchanged .........................................................................
Option 2: Precompile or Compile the Application Using the New Software ....................
Option 3: Change the Application Code to Use New Oracle Database 11g Features.......
Upgrading SQL*Plus Scripts and PL/SQL ..........................................................................................
Change to Evaluation of Numeric Literals.....................................................................................
Upgrading Oracle Forms or Oracle Developer Applications ..........................................................
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Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release
Supported Releases for Downgrading Oracle Database .................................................................. 6-1
Check for Incompatibilities Between Oracle Database Releases ................................................... 6-2
Remove Unsupported Parameters from Server Parameter File (SPFILE) ..................................... 6-2
Perform a Full Backup of Oracle Database Before Downgrading.................................................. 6-3
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release ....................................................................... 6-3
Post-Downgrade Tasks for Oracle Database....................................................................................... 6-9
Re-creating the Network Listener When Downgrading to Oracle Database Releases 10.2 or 11.1
6-10
Restoring Oracle Enterprise Manager after Downgrading Oracle Database ......................... 6-10
Re-enabling Oracle Database Vault after Downgrading Oracle Database ............................. 6-14
Restoration of the Configuration for Oracle Clusterware after Downgrading...................... 6-14
Downgrading and Database Links from Earlier Releases ........................................................ 6-14
vii
Troubleshooting the Downgrade of Oracle Database.................................................................... 6-15
7
Moving Data Using Oracle Data Pump
About Data Pump Export and Import for Upgrading Oracle Database ........................................
When to Use the Original EXP and IMP Utilities..........................................................................
Export and Import Requirements for Oracle Database Upgrades..................................................
About Export Dump Files and Upgrading.....................................................................................
Export and Import Requirements for Downgrades ......................................................................
Export/Import Usage on Data Incompatible with a Previous Release......................................
Upgrading the Database Using Data Pump Export/Import .............................................................
Importing a Full Database Using a Network Link........................................................................
A
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Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).................. A-1
Deprecation of Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control ................................................... A-2
Deprecation of SNMP Support in Oracle Net Listener................................................................ A-2
Changes to PL/SQL Procedures ..................................................................................................... A-2
JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES Parameter and Scheduling Jobs ...................................................... A-2
Deprecated XML DB Constructs..................................................................................................... A-3
Cursor_sharing=similar Obsolete in Oracle Database................................................................. A-3
Planned Desupport of Change Data Capture ............................................................................... A-3
Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)........................ A-3
Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) ............................ A-4
Static Data Dictionary Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) ................ A-4
Dynamic Performance Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) ............... A-4
Deprecated Features in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) .................................................... A-4
Changes to LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Parameters ...................................................................... A-4
Deprecation of -checkpasswd for QOSCTL Quality of Service (QoS) Command................... A-5
Desupport of -cleanupOBase Flag of the Deinstallation Tool .................................................... A-5
Desupport of the DES, RC4, and MD5 Algorithms...................................................................... A-5
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).................. A-5
Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)........................ A-6
Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) ............................ A-6
Static Data Dictionary Views with Dropped Columns in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) ...
A-7
Deprecated Features in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) .................................................... A-7
Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management................................................................................ A-7
New SYSASM Privilege and OSASM Group for ASM Administration ................................... A-8
ASM Disk Group Compatibility ..................................................................................................... A-8
COMPUTE STATISTICS and ESTIMATE STATISTICS Clauses .............................................. A-8
Oracle Data Mining Models and the DMSYS Schema Objects................................................... A-9
Oracle Data Mining Scoring Engine ............................................................................................... A-9
SQL Plan Management and Control of SQL Plan Baselines ....................................................... A-9
Binary XML Support for Oracle XML Database......................................................................... A-10
When Upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) ................................................ A-10
PL/SQL Native Compilation and Access Control for Network Utility Packages ................ A-11
PL/SQL Native Compilation ................................................................................................. A-11
viii
Access Control for Network Utility Packages ..................................................................... A-11
PL/SQL Control Parameters ......................................................................................................... A-11
Change in WebDAV ACL Evaluation Rules in Oracle XML DB ............................................. A-12
Summary Management and SQL Access Advisor ..................................................................... A-12
SQL Access Advisor Tasks............................................................................................................. A-12
Standard Edition Starter Database ............................................................................................... A-13
Core Dump Location ...................................................................................................................... A-13
New Default Value for UNDO_MANAGEMENT..................................................................... A-13
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Parameters ......................................................................................... A-13
SHARED_POOL_SIZE Parameter ................................................................................................ A-13
JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES Parameter New Default Setting.................................................... A-14
Automatic Diagnostic Repository................................................................................................. A-14
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) ............... A-15
Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)...................... A-15
Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) .......................... A-15
Static Data Dictionary Views with Dropped Columns in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) ...
A-16
SQL .................................................................................................................................................... A-16
CONNECT Role .............................................................................................................................. A-16
Time Zone Files ............................................................................................................................... A-16
New Limit for FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS ............................................................................ A-16
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) ............... A-16
Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)...................... A-17
Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) .......................... A-18
Static Data Dictionary Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) .............. A-18
Static Data Dictionary Views Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) ................... A-19
Dynamic Performance Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) ............. A-19
Dynamic Performance Views Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) .................. A-19
SQL Optimizer................................................................................................................................. A-19
Rule-Based Optimizer Desupported ..................................................................................... A-19
Optimizer Statistics.................................................................................................................. A-20
COMPUTE STATISTICS Clause of CREATE INDEX......................................................... A-20
SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES ................................................................................................ A-20
SQL Changes.................................................................................................................................... A-20
Invalid Synonyms After an Upgrade ........................................................................................... A-20
Manageability .................................................................................................................................. A-20
Transaction and Space.................................................................................................................... A-21
Recovery and Data Guard ............................................................................................................. A-21
RMAN............................................................................................................................................... A-22
CREATE DATABASE..................................................................................................................... A-22
Oracle Real Application Clusters.................................................................................................. A-22
Materialized Views ......................................................................................................................... A-22
Change Data Capture ..................................................................................................................... A-23
Change in the Default Archival Processing to Remote Archive Destinations ....................... A-23
Limitations on NCHAR Data Types............................................................................................. A-24
PL/SQL Native Compilation ........................................................................................................ A-24
Evaluation of Numeric Literals ..................................................................................................... A-24
ix
Change in Behavior for SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS.........................................................
New Default Value for DB_BLOCK_SIZE...................................................................................
OPTIMIZER_MAX_PERMUTATIONS and OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE................
Change in Behavior for LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT .................................................................
New Default Value for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET ............................................................
Change in Behavior for SHARED_POOL_SIZE .........................................................................
Shared Server Parameters ..............................................................................................................
New Default Value for DISPATCHERS ...............................................................................
New Default Value for SHARED_SERVERS .......................................................................
New Default Value for MAX_SHARED_SERVERS............................................................
New Default Value for SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS.....................................................
New Default Value for CIRCUITS ........................................................................................
New Default Value for MAX_DISPATCHERS....................................................................
B
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Gathering Optimizer Statistics for Upgrading Oracle Database
Collecting Statistics for System Component Schemas .................................................................... B-1
Creating a Statistics Table...................................................................................................................... B-2
Index
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Preface
This manual guides you through the process of planning and executing Oracle
Database upgrades. In addition, this manual provides information about compatibility,
upgrading applications, and important changes in the new Oracle Database release,
such as initialization parameter changes and data dictionary changes.
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide contains information that describes the features and
functions of Oracle Database (also known as the standard edition) and Oracle
Database Enterprise Edition products. Oracle Database and Oracle Database
Enterprise Edition have the same basic features. However, several advanced features
are available only with the Enterprise Edition, and some of these are optional. For
example, to use application failover, you must have the Enterprise Edition with the
Oracle Real Application Clusters option.
See Also: Oracle Database New Features Guide for information about
the differences between Oracle Database and Oracle Database
Enterprise Edition and the features and options that are available to
you.
This preface contains these topics:
■
Audience
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Related Documentation
■
Conventions
Audience
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide is intended for database administrators (DBAs),
application developers, security administrators, system operators, and anyone who
plans or executes Oracle Database upgrades.
To use this document, you must be familiar with the following:
■
Relational database concepts
■
Your current release of Oracle Database
■
Your operating system environment
xi
Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle
Accessibility Program website at
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For
information, visit
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are
hearing impaired.
Related Documentation
For more information, see these Oracle resources:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
"Oracle Upgrade Companion" Note ID 785351.1 on My Oracle Support at
https://support.oracle.com.
Oracle Database Concepts for a comprehensive introduction to the concepts and
terminology used in this manual
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about administering Oracle
Database
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for information on Oracle Database SQL
commands and functions
Oracle Database Utilities for information about utilities bundled with Oracle
Database, including Data Pump, Export, Import, and SQL*Loader
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for information about Oracle Net
Services
Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide for information about
Oracle Label Security
Oracle Database High Availability Best Practices for Oracle operational best practices
and help choosing an upgrade method that minimizes downtime.
Many of the examples in this guide use the sample schemas, which are installed by
default when you select the Basic Installation option with an Oracle Database
installation. Refer to Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information on how these
schemas were created and how you can use them yourself.
Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
xii
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
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1
1
Introduction to the Upgrade Process for
Oracle Database
Oracle provides upgrade options that are tailored to your database environment and
tools that automate the process for upgrading Oracle Database.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Where to Find the Latest Information About Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Overview of Oracle Database Upgrade Tools and Processes
■
About Oracle Database Release Numbers
■
Compatibility and Interoperability Between Oracle Database Releases
■
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) in Oracle Database
■
Converting Databases to 64-bit Oracle Database Software
■
About Rolling Upgrades for Oracle Database
■
Moving From Standard Edition to Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database
■
About Moving From Enterprise Edition to Standard Edition of Oracle Database
■
About Upgrading from Oracle Database Express Edition to Oracle Database
Where to Find the Latest Information About Upgrading Oracle Database
Oracle provides late-breaking updates, discussions, and best practices about
pre-upgrade, post-upgrade, compatibility, and interoperability on the My Oracle
Support Web site at https://support.oracle.com. You can search on note IDs or
key words like "Database Upgrade."
■
■
■
For the complete knowledge base and latest information about patch sets, go to
My Oracle Support at https://support.oracle.com and enter your search
criteria.
For information about upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 2, see Oracle
Upgrade Companion ID 785351.1 at My Oracle Support at
https://support.oracle.com. Other upgrade companions are also available
for upgrading to earlier releases.
For information about downloading and running the pre-upgrade information
tool, see Oracle Database Pre-Upgrade Utility ID 884522.1 at My Oracle Support at
https://support.oracle.com.
Introduction to the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database 1-1
Overview of Oracle Database Upgrade Tools and Processes
Overview of Oracle Database Upgrade Tools and Processes
The upgrade procedure transforms an existing Oracle Database system (including
associated applications) into an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) system. The
upgrade steps apply to all operating systems, with the possible exception of a few
operating system-specific details identified in your operating system-specific Oracle
documentation.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) supports the following tools and methods for
upgrading a database to the new release:
■
Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA)
Provides a graphical user interface that guides you through the upgrade of a
database. DBUA can be launched during installation with the Oracle Universal
Installer, or you can launch DBUA as a standalone tool at any time in the future.
DBUA is the recommended method for performing a major
release upgrade or patch release upgrade.
Note:
■
Manual upgrade using SQL scripts and utilities
Enables upgrades to be performed at the command line with SQL scripts and
utilities.
■
Export and Import utilities
Uses Oracle Data Pump utilities, or the native Export and Import features within
Oracle Database. These utilities perform a full or partial export from your
database, followed by a full or partial import into the new Oracle Database 11g.
Export/Import can copy a subset of the data, leaving the database unchanged.
■
CREATE TABLE AS SQL statement
Copies data from a database into a new Oracle Database 11g database. Data
copying can copy a subset of the data, leaving the database unchanged.
See Also: "Choose an Upgrade Method for Upgrading Oracle
Database" on page 2-3 for more details about the upgrade tools and
methods
Major Steps in the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database
Detailed instructions for upgrading an existing Oracle database to the new Oracle
Database 11g release are provided in the appropriate chapters in Oracle Database
Upgrade Guide.
The following steps outline the major procedures performed during the upgrade
process:
■
Step 1: Prepare to Upgrade
■
Step 2: Test the Upgrade Process
■
Step 3: Test the Upgraded Test Database
■
Step 4: Prepare and Preserve the Production Database
■
Step 5: Upgrade the Production Database
■
Step 6: Tune and Adjust the New Production Database
1-2 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Major Steps in the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database
Step 1: Prepare to Upgrade
■
Become familiar with the features of the new Oracle Database 11g release.
■
Determine the upgrade path to the new release.
■
Choose an upgrade method.
■
Choose an Oracle home directory for the new release.
■
Develop a testing plan.
■
Prepare a backup strategy.
During the upgrade, consider running multiple releases of the
database software so you can use the existing release as your
production environment while you test the new release. See "About
Running Multiple Oracle Releases" on page 6.
Note:
Step 2: Test the Upgrade Process
■
Perform a test upgrade using a test database. The test upgrade should be
conducted in an environment created for testing and should not interfere with the
actual production database.
Step 3: Test the Upgraded Test Database
■
■
■
■
Perform the tests you planned in Step 1 on the test database and on the test
database that was upgraded to the new Oracle Database 11g release.
Compare results, noting anomalies between test results on the test database and
on the upgraded database.
Investigate ways to correct any anomalies you find and then implement the
corrections.
Repeat Step 1, Step 2, and the first parts of Step 3, as necessary, until the test
upgrade is completely successful and works with any required applications.
Chapter 2, "Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database" provides detailed information
about Steps 1 through 3.
Step 4: Prepare and Preserve the Production Database
■
■
■
Prepare the current production database as appropriate to ensure the upgrade to
the new Oracle Database 11g release is successful.
Schedule the downtime required for backing up and upgrading the production
database.
Back up the current production database. Perform a full or an incremental backup,
as necessary, to ensure your database is protected against data loss.
Step 5: Upgrade the Production Database
■
■
Upgrade the production database to the new Oracle Database 11g release.
After the upgrade, perform a full backup of the production database and perform
other post-upgrade tasks.
Chapter 3, "Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database" describes Steps 4 and 5
when using DBUA or when performing a manual upgrade. Chapter 4, "Post-Upgrade
Tasks for Oracle Database" describes the backup procedure for Step 5 after the
upgrade, and other post-upgrade tasks for Step 6.
Introduction to the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database 1-3
Major Steps in the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database
Step 6: Tune and Adjust the New Production Database
■
Tune the new Oracle Database 11g production database. The new production
database should perform to the same standards, or better than, the database before
the upgrade.
Chapter 4, "Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database" describes these adjustments.
■
■
■
Determine which features of the new Oracle Database 11g release you want to use,
and update your applications accordingly.
Develop new database administration procedures as needed.
Do not upgrade production users to the new release until all applications have
been tested and operate properly.
Chapter 5, "Upgrading Applications After Upgrading Oracle Database" describes
considerations for updating applications.
Figure 1–1 illustrates the major steps in the upgrade process.
Figure 1–1 Upgrade Steps
Step 1:
Prepare to Upgrade
Step 2:
Test the Upgrade Process
Step 3:
Test the Upgraded
Test Database
Step 4:
Prepare and Preserve the
Production Database
Step 5:
Upgrade the
Production Database
Step 6:
Tune and Adjust the New
Production Database
The following list describes the upgrade steps shown in upgrd001.gif:
1.
Prepare to upgrade.
2.
Test the upgrade process.
1-4 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
About Oracle Database Release Numbers
3.
Test the upgraded test database.
4.
Prepare and preserve the production database.
5.
Upgrade the production database.
6.
Tune and adjust the new Oracle production database.
***********************************************************************************************
About Oracle Database Release Numbers
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide describes moving between different releases of Oracle
Database. Starting with Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2), maintenance releases of Oracle
Database are denoted by a change to the second digit of a release number. In earlier
releases, the third digit indicated a particular maintenance release.
Figure 1–2 illustrates each part of a release number and what it represents.
Figure 1–2 Example of an Oracle Release Number
11.1.0.1.0
Major database
release number
Database maintenance
release number
Platform specific
release number
Component specific
release number
Application server
release number
The release number 11.1.0.1.0 is displayed. The significance of each number (reading
from left to right) is described in the following list:
■
11 Major database release number
■
1 Database maintenance release number
■
0 Application server release number
■
1 Component specific release number (or patch set release)
■
0 Platform specific release number
***********************************************************************************************
More information about release numbers are contained in these topics:
■
Convention for Referring to Release Numbers in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
■
About Running Multiple Oracle Releases
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information
about Oracle release numbers
Convention for Referring to Release Numbers in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
When a statement is made in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide about a major database
release number, the statement applies to all releases within that major database release.
References to Oracle Database 11g include Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) and
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). References to Oracle Database 10g include Oracle
Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), and references
to Oracle9i include Oracle9i Release 1 (9.0.1) and Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) and so forth.
Introduction to the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database 1-5
About Oracle Database Release Numbers
Similarly, when a statement is made in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide about a
maintenance release, the statement applies to all component-specific and
platform-specific releases (also referred to as patchset releases) within that
maintenance release. Therefore, a statement about Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
applies to releases 11.2.0.1, 11.2.0.2, and 11.2.0.3, and all other platform-specific releases
within Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).
About Running Multiple Oracle Releases
You can run different releases of Oracle Database on the same computer at the same
time. However, you must observe the following conditions when simultaneously
using multiple releases:
■
An Oracle Database release must be installed in a new Oracle home that is
separate from earlier releases of Oracle.
There cannot be multiple releases for each Oracle home. Oracle recommends that
you adopt an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) when creating multiple Oracle
homes.
See Also: "Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) in Oracle Database"
on page 10
■
Each database server can access only a database that is consistent with its release
number.
For example, if you have Oracle9i and Oracle Database 11g installed on the same
computer, then the Oracle9i database server can access Oracle9i databases but not
Oracle Database 11g databases, and the Oracle Database 11g database server can
access Oracle Database 11g databases but not Oracle9i databases.
See Also: Your operating system-specific Oracle documentation for
more information about running multiple releases of Oracle Database
on your operating system and any restrictions that may apply
The following topics provide general information about running multiple releases of
Oracle Database:
■
Databases in Multiple Oracle Homes on the Same Computer
■
Databases in Multiple Oracle Homes on Separate Computers
■
About Earlier Oracle Database Releases and Upgrading to the Current Release
■
About Upgrading Clients to the Current Release of Oracle Database
Databases in Multiple Oracle Homes on the Same Computer
You may not be able to install earlier releases of Oracle Database on the same
computer system and have clients connect to these databases. For example, you cannot
have Oracle8i, Oracle9i, Oracle Database 10g, and Oracle Database 11g databases in
multiple (or separate) Oracle homes on the same computer and have Oracle8i,
Oracle9i, Oracle Database 10g, and Oracle Database 11g clients connecting to any or all
of the databases. You may be able to have a combination of some releases on one
system. However, be sure to obtain the latest information on compatibility and
supported configurations.
1-6 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Between Oracle Database Releases
See Also: Note 207303.1 "Client / Server / Interoperability Support
Between Different Oracle Versions" on My Oracle Support at
https://support.oracle.com
Databases in Multiple Oracle Homes on Separate Computers
You can install Oracle8i, Oracle9i, Oracle Database 10g, and Oracle Database 11g
databases in multiple (separate) Oracle homes on separate computers and have
Oracle8i, Oracle9i, Oracle Database 10g, and Oracle Database 11g clients connecting to
any or all of the databases.
About Earlier Oracle Database Releases and Upgrading to the Current Release
You can upgrade an Oracle8i, Oracle9i, Oracle Database 10g, or Oracle Database 11g
database to the new Oracle Database 11g release and have Oracle8i, Oracle9i, Oracle
Database 10g, and Oracle Database 11g clients connecting to the upgraded database. Be
sure to obtain the latest information on compatibility and supported configurations.
About Upgrading Clients to the Current Release of Oracle Database
You can upgrade any or all of your Oracle8i, Oracle9i, Oracle Database 10g, or Oracle
Database 11g clients to the new Oracle Database 11g release. The new Oracle Database
11g release client can access your Oracle8i, Oracle9i, Oracle Database 10g, and Oracle
Database 11g databases.
Compatibility and Interoperability Between Oracle Database Releases
Compatibility and interoperability issues may arise because of differences between
Oracle Database releases. These differences might affect general database
administration and existing applications.
The following topics discuss compatibility and interoperability:
■
What Is Compatibility for Oracle Database?
■
What Is Interoperability for Oracle Database?
See Also: Appendix A, "Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle
Database" for more information on compatibility and interoperability
for specific releases
What Is Compatibility for Oracle Database?
Databases from different releases of Oracle Database software are compatible if they
support the same features and those features perform the same way. When you
upgrade to a new release of Oracle Database, certain new features might make your
database incompatible with your earlier release.
Your upgraded database becomes incompatible with your earlier release under the
following conditions:
■
■
A new feature stores any data on disk (including data dictionary changes) that
cannot be processed with your earlier release.
An existing feature behaves differently in the new environment as compared to the
old environment.
The following topics contain more information about compatibility:
■
The COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter in Oracle Database
Introduction to the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database 1-7
Compatibility and Interoperability Between Oracle Database Releases
■
Default, Minimum, and Maximum Values of the COMPATIBLE Initialization
Parameter for Oracle
■
Considerations for Downgrading Oracle Database and Compatibility
■
How the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter Operates in Oracle Database
■
Checking the Compatibility Level of Oracle Database
■
When to Set the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter in Oracle Database
The COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter in Oracle Database
Oracle Database enables you to control the compatibility of your database with the
COMPATIBLE initialization parameter. By default, when the COMPATIBLE initialization
parameter is not set in your parameter file, it defaults to 11.2.0 for Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2). You cannot use new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) features
that would make your upgraded database incompatible unless the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter is set to this value.
Note:
■
■
Before upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), the
COMPATIBLE initialization parameter must be set to at least
10.0.0, which is the lowest possible setting for Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2).
Oracle recommends increasing the COMPATIBLE parameter only
after thorough testing of the upgraded database has been
performed.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information
about managing initialization parameters
Default, Minimum, and Maximum Values of the COMPATIBLE Initialization
Parameter for Oracle
Table 1–1 lists the default, minimum, and maximum values of the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) and in each release
supported for upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).
Table 1–1
The COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter
Oracle Database Release
Default Value
Minimum Value
Maximum Value
Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2)
8.1.0
8.1.0.0.0
9.2.0.n.n
Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
10.0.0
9.2.0.0.0
10.1.0.n.n
Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)
10.2.0
9.2.0.0.0
10.2.0.n.n
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
11.0.0
10.0.0.0.0
11.1.0.n.n
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
11.2.0
10.0.0.0.0
11.2.0.n.n
Considerations for Downgrading Oracle Database and Compatibility
Before upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter must be set to at least 10.0.0. Only a subset of Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) features are available while the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter is set to this value.
1-8 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Between Oracle Database Releases
After upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you can set the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter to match the release number of the new release. Doing so
enables you to use all features of the new release, but prevents you from downgrading
to your earlier release.
If, after upgrading, you want to downgrade, then the COMPATIBLE initialization
parameter must be set as follows after the upgrade:
■
■
■
Keep the setting at 10.1.0 if you upgraded from Oracle Database 10g Release 1
(10.1)
Set to 10.2.0 or 10.1.0 if you upgraded from Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)
Set to 11.1.0, 10.2.0, or 10.1.0 if you upgraded from Oracle Database 11g
Release 1 (11.1)
After you increase the COMPATIBLE parameter, the
database cannot subsequently be downgraded to releases earlier than
what is set for compatibility.
Important:
See Also: Chapter 6, "Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier
Release" for more information about downgrading
How the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter Operates in Oracle Database
The COMPATIBLE initialization parameter operates in the following way:
■
■
It controls the behavior of your database. For example, if you run an Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database with the COMPATIBLE initialization
parameter set to 10.1.0, then it generates database structures on disk that are
compatible with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1). Therefore, the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter enables or disables the use of features. If you try to use
any new features that make the database incompatible with the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter, then an error is displayed. However, any new features
that do not make incompatible changes on disk are enabled.
It makes sure that the database is compatible with its setting. If the database
becomes incompatible with its setting, then the database does not start and
terminates with an error. If this happens, then you must set the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter to an appropriate value for the database.
Oracle Database Concepts for more information about
database structures
See Also:
Checking the Compatibility Level of Oracle Database
The compatibility level of your database corresponds to the value of the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter. For example, if you set the COMPATIBLE initialization
parameter to 11.2.0, then the database runs at release 11.2.0 compatibility level.
To check the current value of the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter
■
Enter the following SQL statement:
SQL> SELECT name, value FROM v$parameter
WHERE name = 'compatible';
Introduction to the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database 1-9
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) in Oracle Database
When to Set the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter in Oracle Database
Oracle recommends increasing the COMPATIBLE parameter only after complete testing
of the upgraded database has been performed. After the upgrade is complete, you can
increase the setting of the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter to the maximum level
for the new Oracle Database 11g release. However, after you increase the COMPATIBLE
parameter, the database cannot subsequently be downgraded.
What Is Interoperability for Oracle Database?
In Oracle Database, interoperability is the ability of different releases of Oracle Database
to communicate and work in a distributed environment. A distributed database
system can comprise different releases of Oracle Database, and all supported releases
of Oracle Database can participate in the distributed database system. However, the
applications that work with a distributed database must also be able to interoperate
with the features and functions that are available at each node in the system.
Interoperability across disperate operating systems and operating system versions
might be a problem (especially during rolling upgrades) because the minimum
requirements for the new Oracle Database 11g release might require you to upgrade
the operating systems on some or all of your hosts. Therefore, you must check for
compatibilities between drivers, network, and storage for all the interim states of the
system during the rolling upgrade.
Note: Because Oracle Database Upgrade Guide discusses upgrading
and downgrading between different releases of Oracle Database, the
definition of interoperability is for Oracle Database releases. Other
Oracle documentation might use a broader definition of the term
interoperability. For example interoperability might in some cases
describe communication between different hardware platforms and
operating systems.
See Also: Note ID 207303.1 "Client / Server / Interoperability
Support Between Different Oracle Versions" on My Oracle Support at
https://support.oracle.com
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) in Oracle Database
Oracle recommends the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) standard for Oracle
Database installations. The OFA standard is a set of configuration guidelines for
efficient and reliable Oracle databases, which results in more streamlined maintenance.
OFA provides the following benefits:
■
■
Organizes large amounts of complicated software and data on disk to avoid device
bottlenecks and poor performance
Facilitates routine administrative tasks, such as software and data backup
functions, which are often vulnerable to data corruption
■
Alleviates switching among multiple Oracle databases
■
Adequately manages and administers database growth
■
Helps to eliminate fragmentation of free space in the data dictionary, isolates other
fragmentation, and minimizes resource contention
1-10 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
About Rolling Upgrades for Oracle Database
If you are not currently using the OFA standard, then switching to the OFA standard
involves modifying your directory structure and relocating your database files.
See Also:
■
■
Your operating system-specific Oracle documentation for more
information about OFA
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about
modifying your directory structure and relocating database files
Converting Databases to 64-bit Oracle Database Software
If you are installing 64-bit Oracle Database 11g software but were previously using a
32-bit Oracle Database installation, the database is automatically converted to 64-bit
during a patch release or major release upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g
release.
To complete the conversion, you must manually perform the following post-upgrade
tasks:
■
■
Increase initialization parameters affecting the system global area, such as SGA_
TARGET and SHARED_POOL_SIZE, to support 64-bit operations.
Reconnect after starting up the database so that a new session is created with the
appropriate 64-bit initialization. For example:
CONNECT AS SYSDBA
STARTUP UPGRADE
CONNECT AS SYSDBA
SPOOL UPGRADE.LOG
@catupgrd.sql
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform-specific
information about 64-bit software installations
Note 341880.1 "How to convert a 32-bit database to a 64-bit
database on Linux" on My Oracle Support at
http://support.oracle.com
Troubleshooting 32-bit to 64-bit Conversion for Oracle Database
When migrating a 32-bit database to 64-bit, when running the utlrp.sql script, there
is a known error, ORA-07445.
ORA-07445: exception encountered: core dump [_intel_new_memcpy()+2132]
[ACCESS_VIOLATION] [ADDR:0x11D1F0F67] [PC:0x621BEA4] [UNABLE_TO_
READ] []
The utlrp.sql script, which is located in the ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin
directory, is used to recompile stored PL/SQL and Java code. This error and
workaround are described in Note 341880.1 "How to convert a 32-bit database to a
64-bit database on Linux" on My Oracle Support at http://support.oracle.com.
About Rolling Upgrades for Oracle Database
The rolling upgrade process supports Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
ASM) instances in an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environment one
at a time, without stopping the database. Depending on the method you choose to
Introduction to the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database
1-11
About Rolling Upgrades for Oracle Database
perform a rolling upgrade, you can upgrade the Oracle Database software or Oracle
ASM instances, apply patchsets, or apply individual patches (sometimes referred to as
one-off patches), incurring little or no database downtime. Database instance rolling
upgrade is not supported.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database High Availability Best Practices for help choosing a
method to perform database upgrades
"Summary of Methods for Performing Rolling Upgrades for
Oracle Database" on page 12
Summary of Methods for Performing Rolling Upgrades for Oracle Database
Oracle provides different methods and options for performing rolling upgrades
depending on your environment and applications. Table 1–2 summarizes the various
methods for performing rolling upgrades and provides cross-references to the
appropriate documentation.
Table 1–2
Methods for Performing Rolling Upgrades for Oracle Database
Method
Description
Reference
Oracle Data
Use SQL Apply and logical standby databases to upgrade Oracle
Guard SQL Apply Database software and patchsets.
"About Upgrading
Using Standby
Databases" on
page 3-6
Oracle Data
Guard Physical
Standby Database
Use an existing physical standby database to perform a rolling database
upgrade by temporarily converting it to a logical standby database.
"About Upgrading
Using Standby
Databases" on
page 3-6
Oracle Streams
By using Oracle Streams source and destination databases, you can
Oracle Streams
upgrade to a new release of Oracle Database software, migrate an Oracle Concepts and
database to a different operating system and/or character set, upgrade
Administration
user-created applications, and apply Oracle Database patches.
1-12 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Moving From Standard Edition to Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database
Table 1–2 (Cont.) Methods for Performing Rolling Upgrades for Oracle Database
Method
Description
Reference
Oracle RAC with
the OPatch Utility
Use the OPatch Utility to perform rolling patch upgrades with Oracle
RAC. You can use the OPatch utility only to apply individual patches,
not patchset releases.
Oracle Universal
Installer and OPatch
User's Guide for
Windows and UNIX
This method enables some instances of the Oracle RAC to remain
available during the patch upgrade. Only the Oracle RAC instance being Oracle Database
High Availability
patched must be brought down; the other instances can continue to
Best Practices
remain available. The OPatch Utility enables you to apply the patch
successively to the different instances of Oracle RAC.
Oracle
Clusterware and
Oracle Universal
Installer (OUI)
Oracle Automatic
Storage
Management
(Oracle ASM)
Use OUI and Oracle Clusterware to perform a rolling upgrade to apply
patchset releases of Oracle Clusterware.
This method enables some instances of the Oracle RAC to remain
available during the patchset upgrades. Only the node that is currently
being patched must be brought down; the other instances remain
available. OUI enables you to apply the patchset successively to the
different instances of the cluster.
Oracle Grid
Infrastructure
Installation Guide
Oracle Universal
Installer and OPatch
User's Guide for
Windows and UNIX
Oracle Grid
Use Oracle ASM to independently upgrade or patch clustered Oracle
ASM instances. This method allows all of the features of a clustered
Infrastructure
Oracle ASM environment to continue to function even while one or more Installation Guide
Oracle ASM instances run different software versions.
"Using Oracle ASM
Rolling Upgrade"
Note: An Oracle ASM rolling upgrade to Oracle Database 11g Release 2
in Oracle Database
(11.2) moves the Oracle ASM instance to an Oracle Grid Infrastructure
home.
Storage
Administrator's
Guide
Moving From Standard Edition to Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database
If you have Oracle Database Standard Edition at a release earlier than the new Oracle
Database 11g release, then you can change it to Oracle Database Enterprise Edition by
installing Oracle Enterprise Edition software and subsequently following the normal
upgrade procedures, as described in Chapter 3, "Upgrading to the New Release of
Oracle Database.".
Caution: Performing this procedure deinstalls the Standard
Edition software and results in deleting database files that exist
under the Oracle home. Therefore, you must back up any database
files under the current Oracle home that you need to keep. This is
explained in steps 4 and 5. Also refer to "Known Issue with the
Deinstallation Tool for Release 11.2.0.4" on page 14.
To change your existing Standard Edition database to an Enterprise Edition database
1.
Ensure that the release number of your Standard Edition server software is the
same release as Enterprise Edition server software.
For example, if your Standard Edition server software is release 11.1.0.6, then you
must upgrade to release 11.1.0.6 of Enterprise Edition.
2.
Shut down your database.
3.
If your operating system is Windows, then stop all Oracle services, including the
OracleServiceSID Oracle service, where SID is the instance name.
Introduction to the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database
1-13
About Moving From Enterprise Edition to Standard Edition of Oracle Database
4.
Make a backup copy of files under $Oracle_Home/network/admin. This
ensures that the listener is configured after you complete the steps in this
procedure.
5.
Back up all database files and data under the current Oracle home that you need to
keep.
■
On Linux, back up $Oracle_Home/dbs/.
■
On Windows, back up $Oracle_Home/database/.
6.
Edit the orabase_cleanup.lst file found in the Oracle_Home/utl directory
and remove the "oradata" and "admin" entries. Refer to "Deinstallation of the
Oracle home in the earlier release of Oracle Database may result in the deletion of
the old Oracle base that was associated with it" on page 14.
7.
Deinstall the Standard Edition server software.
Run the deinstall tool from the Oracle home. The deinstall tool is located in the
$ORACLE_HOME/deinstall directory for UNIX platforms, and in the ORACLE_
HOME\deinstall directory for Windows platforms.
The deinstall tool deletes all existing database files
that reside under Oracle home, including data in the database.
Therefore, Oracle recommends that you retain a current backup of
your data.
IMPORTANT:
8.
Install Enterprise Edition server software using Oracle Universal Installer (OUI).
Select the same Oracle home that was used for the Standard Edition that you
uninstalled. During the installation, be sure to select Enterprise Edition. When
prompted, choose Software Only from the Database Configuration screen.
9.
Start up your database.
Your database is now upgraded to Enterprise Edition.
Known Issue with the Deinstallation Tool for Release 11.2.0.4
Deinstallation of the Oracle home in the earlier release of Oracle Database may
result in the deletion of the old Oracle base that was associated with it
Cause: After upgrading from Oracle Database release 11.2.0.1 or 11.2.0.2 to release
11.2.0.4, deinstallation of the Oracle home in the earlier release of Oracle Database
may result in the deletion of the old Oracle base that was associated with it. This
may also result in the deletion of data files, audit files, etc., which are stored under
the old Oracle base. Important Note: This issue is applicable for upgrades from
release 11.2.0.1 or 11.2.0.2 to 11.2.0.4, but is not applicable for upgrading from
release 11.2.0.3 to 11.2.0.4.
Action: Before deinstalling the Oracle home in the earlier release, edit the
orabase_cleanup.lst file found in the $Oracle_Home/utl directory and
remove the "oradata" and "admin" entries. Then proceed with the deinstallation.
About Moving From Enterprise Edition to Standard Edition of Oracle
Database
To properly convert from an Enterprise Edition database to a Standard Edition
database you must perform an Export/Import operation. Oracle recommends using
1-14 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
About Upgrading from Oracle Database Express Edition to Oracle Database
the Standard Edition Export utility to export the data. If you only install Standard
Edition software, then some data dictionary objects become invalid and create
problems when maintaining the database.
Enterprise Edition contains data dictionary objects that are not available in Standard
Edition. The Export/Import operation does not introduce data dictionary objects
specific to the Enterprise Edition, because the SYS schema objects are not exported.
After the Import in the Standard Edition database, you are only required to drop user
schemas related to Enterprise Edition features.
See Also:
Chapter 7, "Moving Data Using Oracle Data Pump"
About Upgrading from Oracle Database Express Edition to Oracle
Database
To upgrade Oracle Database 10g Express Edition (Oracle Database XE) to Oracle
Database 11g, you must install Oracle Database 11g on the same system as Oracle
Database XE and use DBUA to perform the upgrade.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and
UNIX
Chapter 3, "Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database"
Introduction to the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database
1-15
About Upgrading from Oracle Database Express Edition to Oracle Database
1-16 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
2
2
Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
The process of upgrading Oracle Database includes understanding system
considerations and requirements and troubleshooting various issues before actually
performing the upgrade steps. Before you upgrade Oracle Database, you must become
familiar with the new features and behavior changes. In preparation for upgrading
you install the new Oracle software. The new Oracle software for this release provides
the latest Pre-Upgrade Information Tool to help you understand requirements and
complete pre-upgrade tasks.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
The Main Steps for Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
■
Testing the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database
■
Testing the Upgraded Test Oracle Database
The Main Steps for Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
In preparation for upgrading Oracle Database, you review the new features, determine
the best upgrade path and method. Oracle recommends that you test the upgrade
process and prepare a backup strategy.
Complete the following tasks to prepare to upgrade:
■
Become Familiar with New Oracle Database Features for Upgrading
■
Determine the Upgrade Path for Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Choose an Upgrade Method for Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Choose a Location for the New Oracle Home for Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Develop a Testing Plan to Upgrade Oracle Database
■
Prepare a Backup Strategy for Upgrading Oracle Database
Become Familiar with New Oracle Database Features for Upgrading
Before you plan the upgrade process, become familiar with the features of the new
Oracle Database 11g release. Oracle Database New Features Guide is a good starting point
for learning the differences between Oracle Database releases. Also, check specific
guides in the Oracle Database 11g documentation library to find information about
new features for a certain component. For example, see Oracle Real Application Clusters
Administration and Deployment Guide for changes in Oracle Real Application Clusters.
Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database 2-1
The Main Steps for Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
Note:
■
■
Oracle Database training classes are an excellent way to learn how
to take full advantage of the features and functions available with
Oracle Database. More information can be found at
http://education.oracle.com/
My Oracle Support provides detailed notes on how to obtain the
latest patches, plus tools for lifecycle management and automated
patching. For information about getting started with My Oracle
Support, go to
http://www.oracle.com/us/support/software/premier
/my-oracle-support-068523.html
See Also: My Oracle Support Note ID 854428.1, "Patch Set Updates
for Oracle Products" at https://support.oracle.com
Determine the Upgrade Path for Upgrading Oracle Database
The path that you must take to upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release
depends on the release number of your current database. It might not be possible to
directly upgrade from your current release of Oracle Database to the latest release.
Depending on your current release, you might be required to upgrade through one or
more intermediate releases to upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release.
For example, if the current database is running release 9i, then follow these steps:
1.
Upgrade release 9.0.1.4 to release 10.2.0.4 using the instructions in Oracle Database
Upgrade Guide Release 2 (10.2).
2.
Upgrade release 10.2.0.4 to the new Oracle Database 11g release using the
instructions in this guide.
Table 2–1 contains the required upgrade path for each release of Oracle Database. Use
the upgrade path and the specified documentation to upgrade your database.
Table 2–1
Supported Upgrade Paths for Upgrading Oracle Database
Current Release
Upgrade Path
9.0.1.3 (or earlier)
Direct upgrade is not supported. Upgrade to an intermediate Oracle Database release
before you can upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release, as follows:
■
9.0.1.3 (or earlier) -> 9.0.1.4 -> 10.2.0.4 -> 11.2
When upgrading to an intermediate Oracle Database release, follow the instructions in
the intermediate release's documentation. Then, upgrade the intermediate release
database to the new Oracle Database 11g release using the instructions in Chapter 3,
"Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database".
9.2.0.8
10.1.0.5
10.2.0.2
11.1.0.6
Direct upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release is supported from 9.2.0.8 or higher,
10.1.0.5 or higher, 10.2.0.2 or higher, and 11.1.0.6 or higher. Note that Oracle Clusterware
release 10.2.0.n must be at release 10.2.0.3 (or higher), before you attempt to upgrade it to
Oracle Clusterware 11g. See "About Upgrading an Oracle Real Application Clusters
(Oracle RAC) Database" on page 3-4.
For release 9.2.0.3, you must first upgrade to an intermediate Oracle Database release, as
follows:
9.2.0.3 (or earlier) -> 9.2.0.8 -> 11.2
To upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release, follow the instructions in Chapter 3,
"Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database".
2-2 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
The Main Steps for Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
"Supported Releases for Downgrading Oracle Database"
on page 6-1 for information related to downgrading your database
See Also:
Choose an Upgrade Method for Upgrading Oracle Database
The upgrade methods you can use to upgrade your database to the new Oracle
Database 11g release are:
■
Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA)
■
Manual Upgrade
■
Oracle Data Pump Export and Import and Oracle Database Upgrade
Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA)
Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) interactively steps you through the upgrade
process and configures the database for the new Oracle Database 11g release. DBUA
automates the upgrade process by performing all of the tasks normally performed
manually. DBUA makes appropriate recommendations for configuration options such
as tablespaces and redo logs. You can then act on these recommendations.
DBUA provides support for Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC). In an
Oracle RAC environment, DBUA upgrades all the database and configuration files on
all nodes in the cluster.
Manual Upgrade
A manual upgrade consists of running SQL scripts and utilities from a command line
to upgrade a database to the new Oracle Database 11g release.
While a manual upgrade gives you finer control over the upgrade process, it is more
susceptible to error if any of the upgrade or pre-upgrade steps are either not followed
or are performed out of order.
Before the Upgrade The following list provides a high-level summary of the manual
upgrade steps:
■
Analyze the database using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool. The Pre-Upgrade
Information Tool is a SQL script that is supplied with the new Oracle Database 11g
release, and DBUA uses this script as part of its upgrade process. Run the script on
the database you are upgrading.
The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool displays warnings about possible upgrade
issues with the database. It also displays information about required initialization
parameters for the new Oracle Database 11g release.
■
Prepare the new Oracle home.
See Also: "Choose a Location for the New Oracle Home for
Upgrading Oracle Database" on page 5 for more information
■
Perform a backup of the database.
Depending on the release of the database being upgraded, you might be required to
perform additional pre-upgrade steps:
■
Adjust the parameter file for the upgrade.
■
Remove obsolete initialization parameters.
■
Adjust initialization parameters that might cause upgrade problems.
Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database 2-3
The Main Steps for Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
■
Set the COMPATIBLE parameter if not already explicitly set.
See Also: "Setting the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter" on
page 4-15 for information about setting the COMPATIBLE initialization
parameter
After the Upgrade Review the upgrade spool log file and use the Post-Upgrade Status
Tool. The Post-Upgrade Status Tool is a SQL script that ships with the new Oracle
Database 11g release. You run the Post-Upgrade Status Tool in the environment of the
new release. The Post-Upgrade Status Tool can be run any time after upgrading the
database.
See Also:
"Upgrading Oracle Database Manually" on page 3-48
Oracle Data Pump Export and Import and Oracle Database Upgrade
Unlike DBUA or a manual upgrade, the Oracle Data Pump Export and Import utilities
physically copy data from your current database to a new database. When upgrading
from Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) or higher, Data Pump Export and Import are
recommended for higher performance and to ensure support for new datatypes.
The Export utility of the current database copies specified parts of the database into an
export dump file. Then, the Import utility of the new Oracle Database 11g release loads
the exported data into a new database. However, the new Oracle Database 11g
database must currently exist before it can be loaded from the export dump file.
When importing data from an earlier release, the Import utility of the new Oracle
Database 11g release makes appropriate changes to data definitions as it reads export
dump files from earlier releases.
The following sections highlight aspects of Export/Import that might help you to
decide whether to use Export/Import to upgrade your database.
Note:
■
■
If your database is earlier than Oracle Database release 10.1, then
you can use the original Export and Import utilities to perform a
full or partial export from your database, followed by a full or
partial import into a new Oracle Database 11g database.
Export/Import can copy a subset of the data in a database, leaving
the original database unchanged.
The original Export utility is no longer being updated to support
new datatypes.
Export/Import Effects on Upgraded Databases The Export/Import upgrade method does
not change the current database, which enables the database to remain available
throughout the upgrade process. However, if a consistent snapshot of the database is
required (for data integrity or other purposes), then the database must run in restricted
mode or must otherwise be protected from changes during the export procedure.
Because the current database can remain available, you can, for example, keep an
existing production database running while the new Oracle Database 11g database is
being built at the same time by Export/Import. During the upgrade, to maintain
complete database consistency, changes to the data in the database cannot be
2-4 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
The Main Steps for Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
permitted without the same changes to the data in the new Oracle Database 11g
database.
Most importantly, the Export/Import operation results in a completely new database.
Although the current database ultimately contains a copy of the specified data, the
upgraded database might perform differently from the original database. For example,
although Export/Import creates an identical copy of the database, other factors, such
as disk placement of data and unset tuning parameters, might cause unexpected
performance problems.
Export/Import Benefits Upgrading using Data Pump Export/Import:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Defragments the data. You can compress the imported data to improve
performance.
Restructures the database. You can create new tablespaces or modify existing
tables, tablespaces, or partitions to be populated by imported data.
Facilitates side-by-side testing of the old and new versions of Oracle Database
because an entirely new database is created.
Enables the copying of specified database objects or users. Importing only the
objects, users, and other items you need is useful for establishing a test
environment for the new software on only a subset of the production data. Data
Pump Export / Import provides flexible data subsetting capabilities.
Serves as a backup archive - you can use a full database export as an archive of the
current database.
Enables the upgraded database to be established on an operating system or
hardware platform that is different from that which is supporting the database
being upgraded.
Network-based Data Pump Import allows the new Oracle database to be directly
loaded across the network from the old database being upgraded. Thus, no
intervening dump files are required.
Time Requirements for Export/Import Upgrading an entire database by using
Export/Import can take a long time, especially compared to using DBUA or
performing a manual upgrade. Therefore, you might be required to schedule the
upgrade during non-peak hours or make provisions for propagating to the new
database any changes that are made to the current database during the upgrade.
See Also:
Chapter 7, "Moving Data Using Oracle Data Pump"
Choose a Location for the New Oracle Home for Upgrading Oracle Database
You must choose a location for Oracle home on the new Oracle Database 11g release
that is separate from the Oracle home of your current release. You cannot install the
new software into the same location for Oracle home as your current release, unless
you are installing an Oracle Database 11g patchset release. For a patchset release, you
can use the same Oracle Database 11g Oracle home.
Using separate installation directories enables you to keep your existing software
installed along with the new software. This method enables you to test the upgrade
process on a test database before replacing your production environment entirely.
Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database 2-5
The Main Steps for Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
Develop a Testing Plan to Upgrade Oracle Database
You need a series of carefully designed tests to validate all stages of the upgrade
process. Executed rigorously and completed successfully, these tests ensure that the
process of upgrading the production database is well understood, predictable, and
successful. Perform as much testing as possible before upgrading the production
database. Do not underestimate the importance of a complete and repeatable testing
process.
The types of tests to perform are the same whether you use Real Application Testing
features like Database Replay or SQL Performance Analyzer, or perform testing
manually.
Your test plan must include these types of tests:
■
Oracle Database Upgrade Testing
■
Minimal Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Functional Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database
■
High Availability Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Integration Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Performance Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Volume and Load Stress Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database
Oracle Database Upgrade Testing
Upgrade testing entails planning and testing the upgrade path from your current
software to the new Oracle Database 11g release, whether you use DBUA, perform a
manual upgrade, or use Export/Import or other data-copying methods. Regardless of
the upgrade method you choose, you must establish, test, and validate an upgrade
plan.
Minimal Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database
Minimal testing entails moving all or part of an application from the current database
to the new database and running the application without enabling any new database
features. Minimal testing might not reveal problems that would appear in an actual
production environment. However, minimal testing immediately reveals any
application startup or invocation problems.
Functional Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database
Functional testing is a set of tests in which new and existing features and functions of
the system are tested after the upgrade. Functional testing includes all database,
networking, and application components. The objective of functional testing is to
verify that each component of the system functions as it did before upgrading and to
verify that new functions are working properly.
High Availability Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database
High availability testing entails:
■
■
Ensuring that Recovery Time Objective (RTO) and Recovery Point Objective (RPO)
business requirements are still met by the upgraded system. For example, in an
Oracle RAC environment, injecting node or instance failures during stress testing
help evaluate if the Oracle RAC recovery capability has changed.
Testing your fallback plans and procedures.
2-6 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
The Main Steps for Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
■
Checking the database performance and stability, and resolving performance
problems.
See Also: The Oracle Database High Availability Overview and "The
Upgrade Companion" Web site available in Note 785351.1 on My
Oracle Support at http://support.oracle.com/.
Integration Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database
Integration testing examines the interactions among components of the system.
Consider the following factors when you plan your integration testing:
■
■
■
■
Pro*C/C++ applications running against a new Oracle Database 11g instance
should be tested to ensure that there are no problems with the new software.
Graphical user interfaces should be tested with other components.
Subtle changes in the new Oracle Database 11g release, such as data types, data in
the data dictionary (additional rows in the data dictionary, object type changes,
and so on) can have an effect all the way up to the front-end application, even if
the application is not directly connected to a new Oracle Database 11g instance.
If the connection between two components involves Oracle Net or Oracle Net
Services, then those connections should also be tested and stress tested.
Performance Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database
Performance testing of the new database compares the performance of various SQL
statements in the new database with the performance of those same statements in the
current database. Before upgrading, you should understand the performance profile of
the application under the current database. Specifically, you should understand the
calls the application makes to the database server.
This section describes the following types of performance testing:
■
Database Replay
■
SQL Performance Analyzer
■
SQL Plan Management
Database Replay Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you can use the new
Database Replay feature to perform real-world testing of a database upgrade on your
site's production workload before actually upgrading the production database. This
feature captures the actual database workload on the production system and replays it
on the test system. It also provides analysis and reporting to highlight potential
problems—for example, errors encountered, divergence in performance, and so forth.
In addition, all the regular Enterprise Manager performance monitoring and reporting
tools such as Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor, Automatic Workload
Repository (AWR), and Activity Session History are available to address any
problems.
You can change the stored procedure logic in the database but
the stored PL/SQL procedures that implement the application logic
must maintain the same interfaces as before the upgrade. If an
upgrade affects the stored procedures of an application, then the
workload might not be replayable. By using the Database Replay tool
in this way, you have good diagnostics to see if the new application
logic in the server is performing as expected after the upgrade.
Note:
Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database 2-7
The Main Steps for Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
See Also: Oracle Database Real Application Testing User's Guide for
complete information about how to capture and replay workloads
SQL Performance Analyzer Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you can
use the SQL Performance Analyzer to forecast the impact of system changes on a SQL
workload. SQL Performance Analyzer enables evaluating the impact of a change such
as database upgrade by identifying the SQL statements impacted by the upgrade and
measuring their performance divergence. The analysis enables you to assess the
overall effect of the upgrade on SQL performance and makes it possible to avoid any
negative outcome before users can be impacted.
See Also: Oracle Database Real Application Testing User's Guide for
complete information and examples using the SQL Performance
Analyzer to perform what-if analysis on potential database changes
SQL Plan Management SQL plan management prevents performance regressions
resulting from sudden changes to the execution plan of a SQL statement by providing
components for capturing, selecting, and evolving SQL plan information. SQL plan
management is a preventative mechanism that records and evaluates the execution
plans of SQL statements over time, and builds SQL plan baselines composed of a set of
existing plans known to be efficient. The SQL plan baselines are then used to preserve
performance of corresponding SQL statements, regardless of changes occurring in the
system.
A database upgrade that installs a new optimizer version usually results in plan
changes for a small percentage of SQL statements, with most of the plan changes
resulting in either no performance change or improvement. However, certain plan
changes may cause performance regressions.
SQL plan management prevents performance regressions resulting from sudden
changes to the execution plan of a SQL statement by providing components for
capturing, selecting, and evolving SQL plan information. If you are performing a
database upgrade that installs a new optimizer version, then it can result in plan
changes for a small percentage of SQL statements, with most of the plan changes
resulting in either no performance change or improvement. However, certain plan
changes may cause performance regressions.
With SQL plan management, the optimizer automatically manages execution plans
and ensures that only known or verified plans are used. When a new plan is found for
a SQL statement, the plan is not used until it has been verified by the database to have
comparable or better performance than the current plan. Therefore, if you seed SQL
plan management with your current (pre-Oracle Database 11g) execution plan, which
is to become the SQL plan baseline for each statement, then the optimizer uses these
plans after the upgrade. If the Oracle Database 11g optimizer determines that a
different plan is necessary, then the new plan is queued for verification and is not used
until it has been confirmed to have comparable or better performance than the current
plan.
There are two ways to seed or populate a SQL Management Base (SMB) with
execution plans:
■
Automatic capture of execution plans (available starting with Oracle Database 11g)
■
Bulk load execution plans or preexisting SQL plan baselines
Bulk loading of execution plans or SQL plan baselines is especially useful when
upgrading a database from a previous release to Oracle Database 11g. SQL plans that
2-8 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
The Main Steps for Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
are bulk loaded are automatically accepted and added to existing or new plan histories
as SQL plan baselines.
To bulk load the SQL Management Base as part of an upgrade:
■
Populate the execution plans for a given SQL Tuning Set (STS), as described in
"Bulk Loading a SQL Management Base with a SQL Tuning Set (STS)" on page 2-9.
Or
■
Unpack existing SQL plan baselines from a staging table, as described in
"Unpacking Existing Oracle Database SQL Plan Baselines from a Staging Table" on
page 2-9.
Bulk Loading a SQL Management Base with a SQL Tuning Set (STS)
To bulk load the SQL Management Base with an execution plan from an STS
1.
In Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), create an STS that includes the execution
plan for each of the SQL statements.
2.
Load the STS into a staging table and export the staging table into a dump file.
3.
Import the staging table from a dump file into Oracle Database 11g and unload the
STS.
4.
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager or DBMS_SPM.LOAD_PLANS_FROM_SQLSET to
load the execution plans into the SQL Management Base.
Unpacking Existing Oracle Database SQL Plan Baselines from a Staging Table
Perform the steps in this procedure to test and tune all of your critical SQL queries on
an Oracle Database 11g test environment and then move those exact SQL execution
plans to your Oracle Database 11g production environment.
To test and tune your critical SQL queries on an Oracle Database 11g test environment
1.
On the Oracle Database 11g test system, after completing all testing and tuning,
use the DBMS_SPM.LOAD_PLAN_FROM_CURSOR_CACHE procedure or Enterprise
Manager to load all of the execution plans in the cursor cache into the SQL
Management Base.
2.
Create a staging table using the DBMS_SPM.CREATE_STGTAB_BASELINE
procedure.
3.
Pack the SQL plan baselines you created in step 1 into the staging table using the
DBMS_SPM.PACK_STGTAB_BASELINE function.
4.
Export the staging table into a flat file using the Export command or Data Pump.
5.
Transfer this flat file to the target system.
6.
Import the staging table from the flat file using the Import command or Data
Pump.
7.
Unpack the SQL plan baselines from the staging table into the SQL Management
Base on the target system using the DBMS_SPM.UNPACK_STGTAB_BASELINE
function.
See Also: Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for more
information about using SQL Plan Management
Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database 2-9
Testing the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database
Volume and Load Stress Testing for Upgrading Oracle Database
Volume and load stress testing tests the entire upgraded database under high volume
and loads. Volume describes the amount of data being manipulated. Load describes
the level of concurrent demand on the system. The objective of volume and load
testing is to emulate how a production system might behave under various volumes
and loads.
Volume and load stress testing is crucial, but is commonly overlooked. Oracle has
found that customers often do not conduct any kind of volume or load stress testing.
Instead, customers often rely on benchmarks that do not characterize business
applications. Benchmarks of the application should be conducted to uncover problems
relating to functions, performance, and integration, but they cannot replace volume
and load stress testing.
Load testing involves running an application load against the new release of the
database to ensure that the application does not encounter problems such as new
errors or performance issues under load conditions likely to be encountered in
production. Many times, problems manifest under certain load conditions and are
normally not seen in functional testing. The Database Replay feature is ideal for such
load testing as it enables capturing the system workload from a production
environment and replay it in identical fashion on the test system.
Prepare a Backup Strategy for Upgrading Oracle Database
The ultimate success of your upgrade depends heavily on the design and execution of
an appropriate backup strategy.
To develop a backup strategy, consider the following questions:
■
How long can the production database remain inoperable before business
consequences become intolerable?
■
What backup strategy is necessary to meet your availability requirements?
■
Are backups archived in a safe, offsite location?
■
How quickly can backups be restored (including backups in offsite storage)?
■
Have recovery procedures been tested successfully?
Your backup strategy should answer all of these questions and include procedures for
successfully backing up and recovering your database.
See Also: Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for
information on database backups
Testing the Upgrade Process for Oracle Database
Create a test environment that does not interfere with the current production database.
Your test environment depends on the upgrade method you have chosen:
■
■
If you plan to use DBUA or perform a manual upgrade, then create a test version
(typically a subset) of the current production database to test the upgrade.
If you plan to use Export/Import, then export and import small test pieces of the
current production database.
Practice upgrading the database using the test environment. The best upgrade test, if
possible for you to create, is performed on an exact copy of the database to be
upgraded, rather than on a downsized copy or test data. If for some reason an exact
2-10 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Testing the Upgraded Test Oracle Database
copy is impractical, then carefully chose a representative subset of your data to move
over to your test environment and test the upgrade on that data.
Ensure that you upgrade any OCI and precompiler applications that you plan to use
with your new Oracle database. Then, you can test these applications on a sample
database before upgrading your current production database.
See Also: "Upgrading Precompiler and OCI Applications" on
page 5-2 for more information
Testing the Upgraded Test Oracle Database
Perform the planned tests on the current database and on the test database that you
upgraded to the new Oracle Database 11g release. Compare the results, noting
anomalies. Repeat the test upgrade as many times as necessary.
Test the newly upgraded test database with existing applications to verify that they
operate properly with a new Oracle database. You also might test enhanced functions
by adding available Oracle Database features. However, first ensure that the
applications operate in the same manner as they did in the current database.
See Also: Chapter 5, "Upgrading Applications After Upgrading
Oracle Database" for more information on using applications with
Oracle Database
Preparing to Upgrade Oracle Database
2-11
Testing the Upgraded Test Oracle Database
2-12 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
3
3
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle
Database
Upgrading to a new release of Oracle Database is a basic part of database maintenance
and administration. Oracle provides the Database Upgrade Assistant and specialized
scripts and tools to assist with the upgrade process and to automate many steps. This
chapter discusses important information and requirements and guides you through
the process of upgrading a database to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
System Considerations and Requirements for Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Installing the New Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade
■
About the Latest Patch Set Updates and Any Required Patches
■
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
■
Configuring the Listener When Upgrading from Oracle9i
■
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
■
Optionally Performing an In-Place Upgrade (Into the Same Oracle Home)
■
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually
■
Troubleshooting the Upgrade of Oracle Database
■
Rerunning the Upgrade for Oracle Database
■
Cancelling the Upgrade for Oracle Database
■
About Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance
Caution: If you retain the old Oracle software, then never start the
upgraded database with the old Oracle software. Only start the
database with the executables in the new Oracle Database
installation.
System Considerations and Requirements for Upgrading Oracle Database
When you upgrade to a new release of Oracle Database, typically there are new or
changed system requirements. The following topics describe the various checks and
considerations to perform before starting an upgrade of Oracle Database:
■
Relocating Existing Data Files to the New Oracle Database Environment
■
About Upgrading PL/SQL Packages That Are Not Installed by Default
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database 3-1
System Considerations and Requirements for Upgrading Oracle Database
■
About Upgrading Oracle ASM Installed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure
■
Considerations for Upgrading Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM Instances
■
About Upgrading with Read-Only and Offline Tablespaces
■
About Upgrading Using Standby Databases
■
About Upgrading Your Operating System
■
Migrating Data to a Different Operating System
■
About Upgrading Databases That Use Oracle Streams Downstream Capture
■
About Upgrading Databases That Use Oracle Database Vault
To upgrade to this release, you must install the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database software into a new Oracle
home instead of applying a patch set to the existing Oracle home. This
is referred to as an out-of-place upgrade and is different from patch set
releases for earlier releases of Oracle Database, where the patch set
was always installed in place.
Important:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure does not support in-place upgrade.
Only out-of-place upgrade into a new grid intrastructure home is
supported.
Note:
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for information
about upgrade considerations for Oracle Net Services
Your operating system-specific Oracle documentation for
additional information about preparing to upgrade
"About Rolling Upgrades for Oracle Database" on page 1-11 for
information about rolling upgrades
Relocating Existing Data Files to the New Oracle Database Environment
Before you remove the old Oracle environment, you must relocate any data files in that
environment to the new Oracle Database environment.
To relocate data files to the new Oracle Database environment
■
Use Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) and select the Move Database Files
option during the upgrade.
See Also:
"Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and
Windows" on page 24 for more information
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide, if you perform a manual
upgrade, for information about relocating data files
About Upgrading PL/SQL Packages That Are Not Installed by Default
Packages that were previously installed on the database for which you are preparing
to upgrade to the current release may not be upgraded automatically. You may need to
3-2 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
System Considerations and Requirements for Upgrading Oracle Database
separately check if the package is available in the current release and reinstall that
package to ensure you have the latest version.
See Also: "Managing and Updating Access Control Lists and
Network Utility Packages" on page 16
About Upgrading Oracle ASM Installed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Oracle ASM is upgraded as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. You cannot
upgrade Oracle ASM before you upgrade Oracle Grid Infrastucture.
See Also:
■
"About Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance" on page 62
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
Considerations for Upgrading Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM Instances
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1), Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) must be installed into a separate, new home
from the existing installation. This reduces the downtime required to upgrade a node
in the cluster and facilitates the provisioning of clusters within an enterprise. The
reduction in planned outage time required for cluster upgrades helps in meeting
availability service levels and also makes it easier to provide a standard installation
across the enterprise.
The following considerations pertain to upgrading Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
ASM instances:
■
■
■
■
■
For releases earlier than Oracle Database 11g, either all Oracle software
installations were owned by the Oracle user, typically oracle, or Oracle Database
software was owned by the user oracle, and Oracle Clusterware software was
owned by a separate user, typically crsuser.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g, the user account that is designated as owner of
the release 10g Cluster Ready Services (CRS) software must perform the Oracle
Clusterware 11g upgrade. The user account that is performing this upgrade must
also be the user that owns the ASM home of the earlier release (that is, previous to
release 11.2). If the pre-11.2 ASM home has a different owner, then the owner
account must be changed before performing the upgrade.
As of Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2), the Oracle Clusterware software must
be upgraded to a new home location in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
Additionally, Oracle ASM and Oracle Clusterware (and Oracle Restart for
single-instance databases) must run in the same Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
When upgrading Oracle Clusterware to release 11.2, OUI automatically calls
Oracle ASM Cluster Assistant (ASMCA) to perform the upgrade into the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure home.
To upgrade to Oracle Database release 11.2.0.3, you must install the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Database software into a new Oracle home instead of
into the existing Oracle home.
For a single-instance configuration, Oracle ASM and Oracle Restart run from the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home, and the cluster synchronization services daemon
(CSS) runs from this same home. Thus, Oracle ASM and CSS are upgraded to
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) at the same time.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database 3-3
System Considerations and Requirements for Upgrading Oracle Database
■
For Oracle Database release 11.1 and earlier releases, if your configuration does
not include Oracle ASM, then you must shut down the CSS daemon and delete the
CSS service from the system by running the localconfig command with the
delete option. For example:
ORACLE_HOME/bin/localconfig delete
■
You must ensure that the database compatibility attribute for Oracle ASM disk
groups matches the compatibility parameter that is set in init.ora.
Determining If Oracle ASM is Included in the Current Database Configuration
If you do not know whether or not your configuration includes Oracle ASM, then
issue the following SQL statement on the database instance:
select count(*) from v$asm_client where status = 'CONNECTED';
If this statement returns one or more rows, then the database is actively using an
Oracle ASM disk group.
About Upgrading an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) Database
You can use Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) to upgrade an existing Oracle RAC
database to the current release of Oracle Database. DBUA guides you through the
upgrade process and configures your database for the new release. DBUA automates
the upgrade process and makes appropriate recommendations for configuration
options such as tablespaces and online redo log files.
If you are manually upgrading an Oracle RAC database, then most of the actions are to
be performed on only one node of the system. Actions that must be performed on
more than one node are indicated in the relevant steps.
About Requirements for Time Synchronization on Oracle RAC
Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2) requires time synchronization across all nodes
within a cluster when Oracle RAC is deployed.
You can use one of the following options for time synchronizaion:
■
Your operating system-configured network time protocol (NTP)
■
Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service
See Also: Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for your
operating system for information on configuring NTP and Oracle
Cluster Time Synchronization Service
Considerations for Upgrading Oracle RAC and Databases That Use Oracle ASM
If you are upgrading Oracle RAC and your databases use Oracle ASM for data file
storage, then you need to consider additional restrictions and requirements.
■
A subset of nodes cannot be selected when upgrading from an earlier release to
11.2.0.3.
Before the new database release 11.2.0.3 software can be installed on the system,
the root script for upgrading Oracle Grid Infrastructure invokes ASMCA to
upgrade Oracle ASM to release 11.2.0.3.
■
Where Oracle Clusterware software has been upgraded to release 11.2.0.1, but
where Oracle ASM is running an earlier release, then DBUA displays an error
indicating that the Oracle ASM cluster has not been upgraded. In this case, the
3-4 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
System Considerations and Requirements for Upgrading Oracle Database
root script invokes Oracle ASM Cluster Assistant (ASMCA) to upgrade Oracle
ASM to release 11.2.0.1 before installing any Oracle Database release 11.2.0.3
software on the system.
■
■
■
When upgrading from release 11.2.0.1 to 11.2.0.3, DBUA needs the Oracle
Clusterware stack to be up. If DBUA finds that the Oracle Clusterware stack is
down on the local node, then it displays an error message indicating the
commands that need to be run to start up the stack on the local node.
DBUA does not permit a single-instance database (SIDB) release 11.2.0.3 to be
installed on 11.2.0.1 clusters.
If DBUA detects Oracle Restart, then it presents a page asking you whether to
register the database with Oracle Restart. If you choose to register with Oracle
Restart, then DBUA displays a message prompting you to first upgrade Oracle
Grid infrastructure to release 11.2.0.3.
Oracle Restart was previously referred to as Oracle
Single-Instance High Availability (SIHA).
Note:
About Upgrading System Authentication for Oracle ASM Instances
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you should use the SYSASM
privilege to separate database management and storage management responsibilities.
Also, you have the option to create separate operating system credentials for Oracle
ASM and each database. This separation allows for an even greater division of
database management and storage management responsibilities. For instance, if there
are n databases using Oracle ASM on a given node, then you can configure n + 1 sets
of operating system credentials groups whose members have SYS privileges: one
OSDBA group for each database with SYSDBA privileges, and one OSASM group for the
Oracle ASM instance with SYSASM privileges.
Considerations for Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance
Before upgrading an Oracle ASM instance to the new Oracle Database 11g release, you
must add a user and password combination to the password file that is local to a
node's Oracle ASM instance using the SQL*Plus CREATE USER statement:
CREATE USER user_name IDENTIFIED BY password;
■
■
It is only necessary to add a user and password combination to the password file
when upgrading the Oracle ASM instance. It is not necessary when upgrading a
database to the new Oracle Database 11g release without upgrading Oracle ASM.
If the default Oracle Database 11g security settings are in place, then passwords
must be at least eight characters, and passwords such as welcome and oracle are
not allowed.
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more information
about authentication for accessing Oracle ASM instances
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for complete syntax about
CREATE USER
Oracle Database Security Guide for password management
guidelines and other security recommendations
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database 3-5
System Considerations and Requirements for Upgrading Oracle Database
About Upgrading with Read-Only and Offline Tablespaces
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) and later releases can read file headers created in
previous releases, so you are not required to do anything to them during the upgrade.
The only exception to this is if you want to transport tablespaces created previously
than Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) to another platform. In this case, the file
headers must be made read/write at some point before the transport. However, there
are no special actions required on them during the upgrade.
The file headers of offline data files are updated later when they are brought online,
and the file headers of read-only tablespaces are updated if and when they are made
read/write sometime after the upgrade. You are never required to make read-only
tablespaces read/write in any other circumstance.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information
about read-only tablespaces and transporting tablespaces between
databases
About Upgrading Using Standby Databases
To upgrade the Oracle Database software when standby databases are present in an
Oracle Data Guard configuration, see Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration. To
upgrade or downgrade Oracle Database and Oracle Enterprise Manager software in an
Oracle Data Guard broker configuration, see Oracle Data Guard Broker.
During a rolling upgrade, you can run different releases of Oracle Database software
on the primary and standby databases while you upgrade them, one at a time,
incurring minimal downtime on the primary database by using either of the following
methods:
■
SQL Apply and logical standby databases
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.3), you can use Oracle Data
Guard SQL Apply on a logical standby database to perform a rolling upgrade to
the new Oracle Database 11g release. For example, you can upgrade the Oracle
Database software from patch set release 10.1.0.n to the next database 10.1.0.(n+1)
patch set release, or upgrade Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) to Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).
■
Use of physical standby database for rolling upgrades
A physical standby database can now take advantage of the rolling upgrade
feature provided by a logical standby. Through the use of the new KEEP
IDENTITY clause option to the SQL ALTER DATABASE RECOVER TO LOGICAL
STANDBY statement, a physical standby database can be temporarily converted
into a logical standby database for the rolling upgrade, and then reverted back to
the original configuration of a primary database and a physical standby database
when the upgrade is done.
3-6 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
System Considerations and Requirements for Upgrading Oracle Database
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database High Availability Best Practices
The following Oracle Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA)
white papers at
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/featur
es/availability/maa-090890.html:
"Rolling Database Upgrades for Physical Standby Databases
Using Transient Logical Standby 11g"
"Rolling Database Upgrades using Data Guard SQL Apply"
About Upgrading Your Operating System
When you upgrade to a new release of Oracle software, the operating system
requirements may have changed. If required, upgrade the operating system before
upgrading Oracle Database.
See Also:
■
■
The Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform to
obtain a list of supported operating systems
Your operating system-specific documentation for information
about how to perform an operating system upgrade
Migrating Data to a Different Operating System
When using DBUA or when performing a manual upgrade, you cannot migrate data in
a database on one operating system to a database on another operating system. For
example, you cannot migrate data in an Oracle9i database on Solaris to an Oracle 11g
database on Windows using DBUA.
To migrate Oracle Database software to a different operating system
1.
Upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release on your current operating system
platform following the instructions in this guide.
2.
Test the upgraded database on your current operating system platform.
3.
Use Oracle Data Guard and physical standby databases to migrate between
operating systems.
See Also: Note 413484.1 on My Oracle Support (formerly
OracleMetaLink) at https://support.oracle.com/ for more
information on Oracle Data Guard support for heterogeneous primary
and standby systems in the same Oracle Data Guard configuration
4.
If cross-platform physical standby database is not available for the platform
combination to be migrated, then you can use the Oracle Database 11g
cross-platform transportable tablespace feature or the Oracle Data Pump Export
and Import utilities to migrate the upgraded database to the different operating
system.
Transportable tablespaces do not support migrating SYSTEM
or SYSAUX tablespaces. All non-segment user data, such as roles,
triggers, views, and procedures, must be moved to the new operating
system with scripts or export/import.
Note:
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database 3-7
Installing the New Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade
5.
If the two operating systems are in the same endianness group, then you can use
the Oracle Database 11g cross-platform transportable database feature to migrate
the entire database.
6.
You can also use Oracle Streams to migrate data between operating systems.
Oracle Streams has data type limitations and restrictions, such as for advanced
queues and object types, and it requires additional administrative overhead.
See Also:
■
■
■
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for more
information on transportable tablespaces
Oracle Database High Availability Overview for more information on
migrations using Data Guard or transportable databases
Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration for more information on
migrations using Oracle Streams
Chapter 7, "Moving Data Using Oracle Data Pump"
About Upgrading Databases That Use Oracle Streams Downstream Capture
In an Oracle Streams replication environment, downstream captures means that a
capture process runs on a database other than the source database. When you upgrade
the databases in such an environment, upgrade the database with the downstream
capture process before you upgrade the source database. Upgrading the databases in
this order ensures that the downstream capture database can continue to function after
the source database is upgraded.
See Also: Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration for more
information about downstream capture
About Upgrading Databases That Use Oracle Database Vault
When upgrading from Oracle Database release 10.2 or 11.1, if you have enabled Oracle
Database Vault in your current Oracle home, then you must disable Oracle Database
Vault in the target Oracle home where the new release 11.2 software is installed. You
must do this before upgrading the database. Enable Oracle Database Vault again once
the upgrade is complete.
When running Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA), if a warning appears like
Database Vault option is enabled in Oracle Home:
C:\oracle\cdctest\product\11.2.0\dbhome_1. This option needs to
be disabled prior to upgrade., then you must disable Oracle Database Vault
in the target Oracle home where the new release 11.2 software is installed too.
See Also: Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for instructions
about disabling Oracle Database Vault
Installing the New Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade
You must install the software for the new Oracle Database release before you can
perform the upgrade of Oracle Database. The installation procedure for the new
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) installs the Oracle software into a new Oracle
home. This is referred to as an out-of-place upgrade and is different from patch set
releases for earlier releases of Oracle Database, where the patch set was always
installed in place. Oracle strongly recommends that you follow the steps in this
3-8 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Installing the New Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade
procedure to ensure minimal downtime for the upgrade process and integrity of the
new binaries and software libraries.
It is not possible to upgrade a database using DBUA
when the source and target Oracle homes are owned by different
users. Attempting to do so returns error PRKH-1014. Either ensure
that the source and target databases have the same owner, or perform
the manual steps described in "Upgrading Oracle Database Manually"
on page 48.
Important:
To install the new Oracle Database software for this release
1.
If you are upgrading an Oracle RAC database, then you must perform the
following steps in the order shown:
a.
Upgrade Oracle Clusterware first as described in "Considerations for
Upgrading Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM Instances" on page 3.
When upgrading a non-Oracle RAC database, you must run
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant (NETCA) before running DBUA.
See "Configuring the Listener When Upgrading from Oracle9i" on
page 23. When upgrading an Oracle RAC database, as part of the
Oracle Clusterware upgrade, OUI automatically runs NETCA to
upgrade the network listener. Therefore, you do not need to manually
run NETCA.
Note:
b.
Mount the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation media.
c.
Perform operating system prerequisite checks on each of the nodes that you
intend to upgrade, to ensure that they meet the system prerequisites for Oracle
Grid Infrastructure (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM).
d.
If necessary, perform patch upgrades of the earlier release of Oracle
Clusterware or Oracle Cluster Ready Services software to the most recent
patch version.
e.
Ensure that you are logged in as the user that you want to own the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installation, and run the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation. Provide information as prompted by the installer.
f.
When prompted, open a separate terminal session, log in as root, and run
root.sh.
See Also:
2.
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
After upgrading Oracle Clusterware, follow the instructions in your Oracle
operating system-specific documentation to prepare for installation of Oracle
Database software and start the Oracle Universal Installer.
■
Oracle recommends that you run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool before
you upgrade using DBUA, so that you can preview the types of items DBUA
checks. (See "Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool" on page 10.) You can
then run DBUA independently after the installation is complete.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database 3-9
About the Latest Patch Set Updates and Any Required Patches
■
If you use Oracle Label Security, Oracle Database Vault, or both, then select
Enterprise Edition on the Select Database Edition page, click Select Options,
and enable one or both components from the components list. See Oracle Label
Security Administrator's Guide and Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide
for more information.
When installation of Oracle Database software has completed successfully, click
Exit to close Oracle Universal Installer.
See Also:
■
■
■
■
"Configuring the Listener When Upgrading from Oracle9i" on
page 23
"Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX,
and Windows" on page 24
"Performing an In-Place Upgrade for Single-Instance Oracle
Database" on page 40
"Performing an In-Place Upgrade for an Oracle RAC Database" on
page 41
About the Latest Patch Set Updates and Any Required Patches
The software for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) contains a full release that
includes all the latest patches and updates for Oracle Database. It is not necessary to
check for patch set updates before proceeding with the upgrade process for this
release. However, Oracle recommends that you periodically check for patches and
patch set updates as a part of database administration.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and
UNIX
"Oracle Database Upgrade Path Reference List" (Note ID 730365.1)
on My Oracle Support at https://support.oracle.com,
which contains an upgrade reference list for most available Oracle
Database releases, including download information, patch
numbers, and links to other notes
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
After you have installed the software for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) and any
required patches, Oracle recommends that you analyze your database before
upgrading it to the new release. This is done by running the Pre-Upgrade Information
Tool from the environment of the database you are to upgrade. The Pre-Upgrade
Information Tool is a SQL script included with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
software. This is a required step if you are upgrading manually; otherwise, the
catupgrd.sql script terminates with errors. Running the Pre-Upgrade Information
Tool is also recommended if you are upgrading with DBUA, so that you can preview
the items that DBUA checks.
These topics contain additional information about the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool:
■
About the Output of the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
■
Pre-Upgrade Information Tool Miscellaneous Warnings
3-10 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
See Also: Note 884522.1 "How to Download and Run Oracle's
Database Pre-Upgrade Utility" available from My Oracle Support at
https://support.oracle.com, which contains the latest version
of the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool. Oracle strongly recommends
that you use the latest version of this script available in Note 884522.1.
To run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
1.
Log in to the system as the owner of the environment of the database being
upgraded.
The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool must be copied to
and must be run from the environment of the database being
upgraded.
Important:
2.
Start SQL*Plus.
3.
Connect to the database instance as a user with SYSDBA privileges.
4.
Set the system to spool results to a log file for later analysis:
SQL> SPOOL upgrade_info.log
5.
Run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool:
SQL> @$11g_ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlu112i.sql
6.
Turn off the spooling of script results to the log file:
SQL> SPOOL OFF
Check the output of the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool in upgrade_info.log.
Note: Oracle interMedia became Oracle Multimedia in Oracle
Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).
About the Output of the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool displays warnings about possible upgrade issues
with the database. The output in Example 3–1 shows the report that is generated from
running the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool after installing the software for Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). In addition to the warnings that the tool displays, you
must address any errors described in the output of the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
before performing the upgrade.
For invalid objects or invalid components, Oracle recommends running the the
utlrp.sql before starting the upgrade as a means to minimize the number of invalid
objects and components marked with WARNING.
The following topics contain sample output of the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool and
provide descriptions of each section of the output.
■
Database Section Contents
■
Tablespaces Section Contents
■
Rollback Segments Section Contents
■
Flashback Section Contents
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-11
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
■
Update Parameters Section Contents
■
Renamed Parameters Section Contents
■
Obsolete/Deprecated Parameters Section Contents
■
Components Section Contents
■
Miscellaneous Warnings Section Contents
■
Recommendations Section Contents
If you see a warning about the presence of the release
10g DMSYS schema in the database, then you must drop the DMSYS
schema before proceeding with the upgrade. See Oracle Data
Mining Administrator's Guide for procedures.
Important:
Example 3–1 Pre-Upgrade Information Tool Sample Output
Oracle Database 11.2 Pre-Upgrade Information Tool 07-12-2011 12:51:34
Script Version: 11.2.0.3.0 Build: 001
.
**********************************************************************
Database:
**********************************************************************
--> name:
O112
--> version:
11.2.0.1.0
--> compatible:
11.2.0.0.0
--> blocksize:
8192
--> platform:
Linux x86 64-bit
--> timezone file: V11
.
**********************************************************************
Tablespaces: [make adjustments in the current environment]
**********************************************************************
--> SYSTEM tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.
.... minimum required size: 701 MB
--> SYSAUX tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.
.... minimum required size: 453 MB
--> UNDOTBS1 tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.
.... minimum required size: 400 MB
--> TEMP tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.
.... minimum required size: 60 MB
--> EXAMPLE tablespace is adequate for the upgrade.
.... minimum required size: 78 MB
.
**********************************************************************
Flashback: OFF
**********************************************************************
**********************************************************************
Update Parameters: [Update Oracle Database 11.2 init.ora or spfile]
Note: Pre-upgrade tool was run on a lower version 64-bit database.
**********************************************************************
--> If Target Oracle is 32-Bit, refer here for Update Parameters:
-- No update parameter changes are required.
.
--> If Target Oracle is 64-Bit, refer here for Update Parameters:
-- No update parameter changes are required.
.
**********************************************************************
3-12 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
Renamed Parameters: [Update Oracle Database 11.2 init.ora or spfile]
**********************************************************************
-- No renamed parameters found. No changes are required.
.
**********************************************************************
Obsolete/Deprecated Parameters: [Update Oracle Database 11.2 init.ora or spfile]
**********************************************************************
-- No obsolete parameters found. No changes are required
.
**********************************************************************
Components: [The following database components will be upgraded or installed]
**********************************************************************
--> Oracle Catalog Views [upgrade] VALID
--> Oracle Packages and Types [upgrade] VALID
--> JServer JAVA Virtual Machine [upgrade] VALID
--> Oracle XDK for Java [upgrade] VALID
--> Oracle Workspace Manager [upgrade] VALID
--> OLAP Analytic Workspace [upgrade] VALID
--> OLAP Catalog [upgrade] VALID
--> Oracle Label Security [upgrade] VALID
--> Oracle Database Vault [upgrade] VALID
... To successfully upgrade Oracle Database Vault, choose
... 'Select Options' in Oracle installer and then select
... Oracle Label Security.
--> EM Repository [upgrade] VALID
--> Oracle Text [upgrade] VALID
--> Oracle XML Database [upgrade] VALID
--> Oracle Java Packages [upgrade] VALID
--> Oracle interMedia [upgrade] VALID
--> Spatial [upgrade] VALID
--> Expression Filter [upgrade] VALID
--> Rule Manager [upgrade] VALID
--> Oracle Application Express [upgrade] VALID
... APEX will only be upgraded if the version of APEX in
... the target Oracle home is higher than the current one.
--> Oracle OLAP API [upgrade] VALID
.
**********************************************************************
Miscellaneous Warnings
**********************************************************************
WARNING: --> Database is using a timezone file older than version 14.
.... After the release migration, it is recommended that DBMS_DST package
.... be used to upgrade the 11.2.0.1.0 database timezone version
.... to the latest version which comes with the new release.
WARNING: --> Database contains schemas with objects dependent on DBMS_LDAP
package.
.... Refer to the 11g Upgrade Guide for instructions to configure Network ACLs.
.... USER APEX_030200 has dependent objects.
.
**********************************************************************
Recommendations
**********************************************************************
Oracle recommends gathering dictionary statistics prior to
upgrading the database.
To gather dictionary statistics execute the following command
while connected as SYSDBA:
EXECUTE dbms_stats.gather_dictionary_stats;
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-13
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
**********************************************************************
Oracle recommends reviewing any defined events prior to upgrading.
To view existing non-default events execute the following commands
while connected AS SYSDBA:
Events:
SELECT (translate(value,chr(13)||chr(10),' ')) FROM sys.v$parameter2
WHERE UPPER(name) ='EVENT' AND isdefault='FALSE'
Trace Events:
SELECT (translate(value,chr(13)||chr(10),' ')) from sys.v$parameter2
WHERE UPPER(name) = '_TRACE_EVENTS' AND isdefault='FALSE'
Changes will need to be made in the init.ora or spfile.
**********************************************************************
Database Section Contents
The Database section displays global database information about the current database,
such as the database name, release number (version), compatibility level, blocksize, OS
platform, and time zone file. A warning is displayed if you must adjust the
COMPATIBLE initialization parameter before the database is upgraded.
See Also: "Setting the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter" on
page 4-15 for information about setting the COMPATIBLE initialization
parameter
Tablespaces Section Contents
The Tablespaces section displays a list of tablespaces in the current database. For each
tablespace, the tablespace name and minimum required size is displayed. In addition,
a message displays next to each tablespace confirming that the tablespace is adequate
for the upgrade. If the minimum required size is not met, then you must make
adjustments, which the tool recommends.
In a manual upgrade using SQL scripts and utilities, space must be added to
tablespaces that do not have enough free space in the current database. These
tablespace adjustments must be made before the database is upgraded. Some of these
tasks are performed automatically by DBUA.
Rollback Segments Section Contents
The Rollback Segments section shows the status for rollback segments in the SYSTEM
tablespace and displays a warning about any adjustments that need to be made before
performing the upgrade. This section only appears if there are rollback segments.
Flashback Section Contents
The Flashback section shows whether flashback is ON or OFF, and displays warnings
about pool size and cache size that must be increased. The status of undo_
management is also displayed with any adjustment that must be made. You can
execute an ALTER SYSTEM SET command to change the pool sizes and database cache
size.
For example execute the following command to to set the java_pool_size to the
recommended size as follows:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET java_pool_size='nnnM' SCOPE=spfile;
The same can be done for changing the other settings.
3-14 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
Update Parameters Section Contents
The Update Parameters section displays a list of initialization parameters in the
parameter file (init.ora or spfile) of the current database that must be adjusted
before the database is upgraded. The adjustments must be made to the parameter file
after it is copied to the new Oracle Database 11g release.
If you are using Oracle ASM disk groups, then you must ensure that the database
compatibility attribute for the disk groups matches the compatibility parameter that is
set in init.ora.
See Also: Appendix A, "Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle
Database" for more information about changes to initialization
parameters in this Oracle Database 11g release
Renamed Parameters Section Contents
The Renamed Parameters section displays a list of initialization parameters in the
parameter file of the current database that are renamed in the new Oracle Database 11g
release. New default values are also given.
See Also: Appendix A, "Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle
Database" for initialization parameters that are renamed in the new
Oracle Database 11g release
Obsolete/Deprecated Parameters Section Contents
The Obsolete/Deprecated Parameters section displays a list of initialization
parameters in the parameter file of the current database that are obsolete or deprecated
in the new Oracle Database 11g release. Obsolete initialization parameters must be
removed from the parameter file before the database is upgraded.
See Also: Appendix A, "Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle
Database" for a list of initialization parameters that are obsolete or
deprecated in the new Oracle Database 11g release
Components Section Contents
The Components section displays a list of database components in the database to be
upgraded or installed when the current database is upgraded to the new Oracle
Database 11g release. Software components are pre-built code libraries that provide
specific database funtionality like Oracle Text, Oracle Java packages, and Oracle RAC.
Miscellaneous Warnings Section Contents
The Miscellaneous Warnings section provides warnings about specific situations that
require attention before or after the upgrade. For example, if the database is using a
time zone file that is a version older than what is required for the upgrade, then a
warning displays with the required action.
See Also: "Pre-Upgrade Information Tool Miscellaneous Warnings"
on page 16
Recommendations Section Contents
The Recommendations section provides Oracle recommendations, including the
recommended SQL statements and commands, that should be performed before
upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-15
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
Pre-Upgrade Information Tool Miscellaneous Warnings
Before upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release, Oracle recommends analysis
of the information and warnings displayed by the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool. The
following topics describe warnings and the appropriate actions to take.
■
Updating the CONNECT Role from Earlier Releases
■
Managing and Updating Access Control Lists and Network Utility Packages
■
About Downgrading and Database Links from Earlier Releases
■
About Warnings for TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Data Type
■
Decreasing Downtime for Gathering Optimizer Statistics (Optional)
■
Identifying Invalid Objects
■
Saving Database Control Files and Data with the emdwgrd Utility
■
Verifying That Materialized View Refreshes Have Completed
■
Ensuring That No Files Need Media Recovery
■
Ensuring That No Files Are in Backup Mode
■
Resolving Outstanding Distributed Transactions
■
Synchronizing a Standby Database with the Primary Database
■
Purging the Database Recycle Bin
Updating the CONNECT Role from Earlier Releases
After upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release from Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2)
or Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the CONNECT role has only the CREATE
SESSION privilege. The other privileges granted to the CONNECT role in earlier
releases are revoked during the upgrade.
To identify which users and roles in your database are granted the CONNECT role
1.
Perform the following query:
SELECT grantee FROM dba_role_privs
WHERE granted_role = 'CONNECT' and
grantee NOT IN (
'SYS', 'OUTLN', 'SYSTEM', 'CTXSYS', 'DBSNMP',
'LOGSTDBY_ADMINISTRATOR', 'ORDSYS',
'ORDPLUGINS', 'OEM_MONITOR', 'WKSYS',
'WKPROXY',
'WK_TEST', 'WKUSER', 'MDSYS', 'LBACSYS',
'DMSYS',
'WMSYS', 'EXFSYS', 'SYSMAN', 'MDDATA',
'SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA', 'XDB', 'ODM');
2.
If users or roles require privileges other than CREATE SESSION, then grant the
specific required privileges before upgrading.
The upgrade scripts provided by Oracle adjust the privileges for the
Oracle-supplied users.
Managing and Updating Access Control Lists and Network Utility Packages
The new Oracle Database 11g release includes fine-grained access control to the UTL_
TCP, UTL_SMTP, UTL_MAIL, UTL_HTTP, and UTL_INADDR packages using Oracle
3-16 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
XML DB. If you have applications that use one of these packages, then you must
install Oracle XML DB if it is not currently installed.
To update ACLs and Network Utility packages
1.
Install Oracle XML DB if it is not currently installed.
See Also:
2.
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide
New behavior for the DBMS_LDAP PL/SQL package and the HttpUriType type
requires the creation or update of access control lists (ACLs) after performing the
upgrade to the new Oracle Database release 11.2.
For example, if your application depends on the DBMS_LDAP package, then the
error "ORA-24247: network access denied by access control list (ACL)" may occur.
The logged-in user must have the connect privilege for the host and port
specified by DBMS_LDAP.init.
3.
If Oracle XML DB is installed on the database to be upgraded, and therefore one or
all of the UTL_TCP, UTL_SMTP, UTL_MAIL, UTL_HTTP, and UTL_INADDR
packages are installed, then you may need to re-install these packages after
performing the upgrade to ensure that you have the latest version of these
packages for the new release.
See Also: "Managing Fine-Grained Access in PL/SQL Packages and
Types" in Oracle Database Security Guide and "Assessing Dependencies
and Adding ACLs for Network Utility Packages" on page 3-17
Assessing Dependencies and Adding ACLs for Network Utility Packages
After upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release, you may need to assess the
dependencies of network utility packages and provide access by adding the
appropriate access control lists (ACLs).
To check the status of access and add ACLs for network utility packages
1.
Run the pre-upgrade information tool as described in "Using the Pre-Upgrade
Information Tool" on page 3-10.
2.
Check the output from the pre-upgrade information tool (upgrade_info.log)
for messages such as the following:
WARNING: --> Database contains schemas with objects dependent on network
packages.
.... Refer to the 11g Upgrade Guide for instructions to configure Network ACLs.
.... USER WKSYS has dependent objects.
.... USER SYSMAN has dependent objects.
.... USER FLOWS_010600 has dependent objects.
.
3.
Query the DBA_DEPENDENCIES view to obtain more information about the
dependencies. For example:
SELECT * FROM DBA_DEPENDENCIES
WHERE referenced_name IN ('UTL_TCP','UTL_SMTP','UTL_MAIL','UTL_HTTP','UTL_
INADDR','DBMS_LDAP')
AND owner NOT IN ('SYS','PUBLIC','ORDPLUGINS');
4.
Prepare post-upgrade scripts now to make the scripts available for use in the test
environment. This ensures the new access controls are part of your upgrade
testing.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-17
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
To configure network access control lists (ACLs) in the database so that these
packages can work as they did in prior releases, see the example script provided in
"Configuring Fine-Grained Access to External Network Services After Upgrading
Oracle Database" on page 4-5. This script shows how to use the DBMS_NETWORK_
ACL_ADMIN package to create, assign, and add privileges to the access control list.
5.
After the upgrade, you must grant the specific required privileges. Access is based
on the usage in the original database.
About Downgrading and Database Links from Earlier Releases
This information is important only if you need to downgrade to your original database
release after performing the upgrade. During the upgrade to the new Oracle Database
11g release from Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) or Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), any
passwords in database links are encrypted.
■
■
■
To downgrade to the original release, all of the database links with encrypted
passwords must be dropped before the downgrade. Consequently, the database
links are nonexistent in the downgraded database.
Use Oracle Data Pump full database export with INCLUDE=DBLINK to export all
database links into a dump file suitable for import into the downgraded database.
This dump file can then be used to replace the database links after the downgrade.
Ensure that you know the password for any newly-created database links (that is,
database links that you may have created while running the new release. Knowing
the database link password is necessary because you will need to reset the
database link password after downgrading to an earlier release.
About Warnings for TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Data Type
The time zone files that are supplied with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) have
been updated to reflect changes in transition rules for some time-zone regions. The
changes might affect existing data of the TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE data type.
The time zone behavior for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) has changed
significantly from earlier releases. You must make sure to obtain the latest time zone
files before you upgrade the database. If the time zone file version of the database
being upgraded is not the most recent version of the time zone file available for the
new 11.2 release, then the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool displays a warning and
describes how to proceed. Table 3–1 describes the warnings and summarizes how to
resolve a mismatch in time zone file versions.
Caution: The TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE data stored in the
database can become corrupted during the upgrade if there is a time
zone file version mismatch.
3-18 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
Table 3–1
Choices for Fixing the Time Zone File Version
IF the time zone version
on the database being
upgraded is...
THEN fix the time zone files...
Earlier than the most
current version included in
the new database release
and the Pre-Upgrade
Information Tool displays
"Database is using a time
zone file older than version
n."
After completing the database upgrade.
Later than the version
included in the new
database release and the
Pre-Upgrade Information
Tool displays "Database is
using a time zone file
greater than version n."
Before beginning the database upgrade.
Use the DBMS_DST PL/SQL package and follow the instructions
in "Steps to Upgrade Time Zone File and Timestamp with Time
Zone Data" in Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide.
You must patch (RDBMS DST patch) the new Oracle home with
the same version of the time zone file as the one currently used
in the database being upgraded. Otherwise the upgrade will
fail.
You must patch the Oracle home with the appropriate patch for
the time zone file version in use. Apply the patch for each
database to be upgraded. Otherwise, the upgrade script
terminates without upgrading the database.
See Also:
■
■
The support note "Updated DST Transitions and New Time Zones
in Oracle Time Zone File Patches" (ID 412160.1) from My Oracle
Support at https://support.oracle.com
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for detailed
descriptions of time zone upgrade
Decreasing Downtime for Gathering Optimizer Statistics (Optional)
When upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release, optimizer statistics are
collected for dictionary tables that lack statistics. This statistics collection process can
be time consuming for databases with a large number of dictionary tables, but
statistics gathering only occurs for those tables that lack statistics or are significantly
changed during the upgrade.
To decrease the amount of downtime incurred when collecting statistics
■
Collect statistics before performing the actual database upgrade. Oracle
recommends that you use the DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DICTIONARY_STATS
procedure to gather these statistics. For example, you can enter the following SQL
statement:
EXEC DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DICTIONARY_STATS;
If you are using Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2), then you should use
the DBMS_STATS.GATHER_SCHEMA_STATS procedure to gather
statistics. To do this, you can run the scripts provided in Appendix B
in this guide.
Note:
System Components and Schemas Used for Optimizer Statistics
Table 3–2 lists the system components and schemas that are checked for statistics
collection during the upgrade.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-19
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
Table 3–2
Statistics Collection for System Components and Schemas
Component Name
Schema
JServer JAVA Virtual Machine
SYS
OLAP Analytic Workspace
SYS
Oracle Database Catalog Views
SYS
Oracle Database JAVA Packages
SYS
Oracle Database Packages and Types
SYS, DBSNMP, OUTLN, SYSTEM, DIP
Oracle Database Vault
DVSYS
Oracle Enterprise Manager
SYSMAN
Oracle Expression Filter
EXFSYS
Oracle Multimedia
ORDSYS, ORDPLUGINS, SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA
Oracle Label Security
LBACSYS
Oracle OLAP API
SYS
Oracle Spatial
MDSYS, MDDATA
Oracle Text
CTXSYS
Oracle Workspace Manager
WMSYS
Oracle XDK
SYS
Oracle XML Database
XDB
Identifying Invalid Objects
Any invalid SYS/SYSTEM objects found before upgrading the database are stored in
the table named registry$sys_inv_objs. Any invalid non-SYS/SYSTEM objects
found before upgrading the database are stored in registry$nonsys_inv_objs.
To identify any new invalid objects due to the upgrade
■
After the upgrade, run ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utluiobj.sql
Saving Database Control Files and Data with the emdwgrd Utility
If you plan to downgrade Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control after
upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g release, then you must save your database
control files and data before upgrading your database. Oracle provides the emdwgrd
utility to use before upgrading your database to keep a copy of your database control
files and data.
The emdwgrd utility resides in the ORACLE_HOME/bin directory in the new Oracle
Database 11g release. The emdwgrd utility consists of emdwgrd and emdwgrd.pl for
Linux and UNIX, and emdwgrd.bat and emdwgrd.pl for Windows. Before running
the utility, you must install the software for the new Oracle Database 11g release, and
then invoke the script from the new Oracle home. The emdwgrd utility, however,
requires that you set ORACLE_HOME to the old Oracle home.
To save your database control files and data using emdwgrd
1.
Install the software for the new Oracle Database 11g release. (This step is not
required for an in-place patch set upgrade.)
See Also: "Installing the New Oracle Database Software for the
Upgrade" on page 3-8
3-20 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
2.
Set ORACLE_HOME to your old Oracle home. (This step is not required for an
in-place patch set upgrade.)
3.
Set ORACLE_SID to the SID of the database being upgraded.
4.
Set PATH, LD_LIBRARY_PATH, and SHLIB_PATH to point to the Oracle home
from which the database is being upgraded.
5.
Go to the Oracle home of the new Oracle Database 11g release.
6.
Execute one of the following commands:
■
For a single-instance database, run the following command, where old_SID is
the SID of the database being upgraded and save_directory is the path to
the storage place you have chosen for your database control files and data:
emdwgrd -save -sid old_SID -path save_directory
The script is in emdwgrd.sh on Linux and UNIX platforms.
On Windows, the script is in emdwgrd.bat.
Note:
■
If the database is an Oracle RAC database, remote copy is required across the
cluster nodes. Define an environment variable to indicate which remote copy
is configured. For example:
setenv EM_REMCP /usr/bin/scp
Then, execute the following save command:
emdwgrd -save -cluster -sid old_SID -path save_directory
If the release 10g Oracle home is on a shared device, add -shared to the
previous command line.
7.
Enter the SYS password for the database to be upgraded.
The DBUA backup and restore process also allows you to
revert to your previous Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
environment after upgrading your database. However, all user data
that is accumulated between the time of upgrade and restore
operations is lost. Saving your database control files and data enables
you to downgrade both your database and database control. All user
data is retained even though all database control data that is
accumulated between the time of upgrade and downgrade is lost.
Note:
Verifying That Materialized View Refreshes Have Completed
You must wait until all materialized views have completed refreshing before
upgrading. You can query the system to determine if there are any materialized view
refreshes still in progress.
To determine if there are any materialized view refreshes still in progress
■
Run the following query
SQL> SELECT * FROM sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u, sys.sum$ s
WHERE o.type# = 42 AND bitand(s.mflags, 8) = 8;
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-21
Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool
Ensuring That No Files Need Media Recovery
Before upgrading the database, you must ensure that there are no files requiring media
recovery. You can query the system to get a list of files and then recover them as
appropriate.
To get a list of files that require media recovery
■
Issue the following statement:
SQL> SELECT * FROM v$recover_file;
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide
"Performing Block Media Recovery" in Oracle Database Backup and
Recovery Reference
Ensuring That No Files Are in Backup Mode
Files must not be in backup mode when performing the upgrade; therefore, you must
wait until backups are completed. You can query the system to see a list of any files in
backup mode and then take appropriate action by either waiting for the backup to
complete, or by aborting any backups that are not needed.
To get a list of files in backup mode
■
Issue the following statement:
SQL> SELECT * FROM v$backup WHERE status != 'NOT ACTIVE';
Resolving Outstanding Distributed Transactions
You must resolve outstanding distributed transactions before performing the upgrade.
You can do this by first querying to see any pending transactions, and then committing
the transactions. You must wait until all pending distributed transactions have been
committed.
To resolve outstanding distributed transactions
1.
Issue the following statement:
SQL> SELECT * FROM dba_2pc_pending;
2.
If the query in the previous step returns any rows, then issue the following
statements:
SQL> SELECT local_tran_id FROM dba_2pc_pending;
SQL> EXECUTE dbms_transaction.purge_lost_db_entry('');
SQL> COMMIT;
Synchronizing a Standby Database with the Primary Database
If a standby database exists, then you must synchronize it with the primary database.
To check if a standby database exists and to synchronize it
1.
Issue the following query:
SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(value,INSTR(value,'=',INSTR(UPPER(value),'SERVICE'))+1)
FROM v$parameter
WHERE name LIKE 'log_archive_dest%' AND UPPER(value) LIKE 'SERVICE%';
3-22 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Configuring the Listener When Upgrading from Oracle9i
2.
If the query in the previous step returns a row, then synchronize the standby
database with the primary database.
■
■
Make sure all the logs are transported to the standby server after a final log
switch in the primary.
Start the recovery of the standby database with the NODELAY option.
Purging the Database Recycle Bin
The database recycle bin must be empty before you begin the upgrade process. You
use the PURGE statement to remove items and their associated objects from the recycle
bin and release their storage space.
To empty the database recycle bin
■
Issue the following command:
SQL> PURGE dba_recyclebin
Caution: The database recycle bin must be empty during the
upgrade process to avoid possible ORA-00600 errors and to
minimize the upgrade time.
Configuring the Listener When Upgrading from Oracle9i
If you are upgrading from Oracle9i and a listener was not configured in the Oracle9i
repository, then you must run Oracle Net Configuration Assistant to configure the
listening protocol address and service information for the new Oracle Database 11g
database, including a listener.ora file, before running DBUA. A new version of the
listener is required for an Oracle Database 11g database. Previous versions of the
listener are not supported for use with an Oracle Database 11g database. However, it is
possible to use the new version of the listener with previous versions of Oracle
Database.
If you are upgrading an Oracle RAC database, then you have the following options:
■
Upgrade the Oracle RAC database with DBUA, which automatically migrates the
listener from your old Oracle home to the new Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g
Release 2 home.
Note: Beginning with Oracle Database 11g Release 2, you must
administer the listener by using the lsnrctl command in the Oracle
Grid infrastructure home. Do not attempt to use the lsnrctl
commands from Oracle home locations for previous releases.
■
If you are upgrading from Oracle9i or upgrading manually without using DBUA,
then run Oracle Net Configuration Assistant before upgrading the Oracle RAC
database.
This is a two-step option. You must first run Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
from the old Oracle home to remove the old listener. Then you must run Oracle
Net Configuration Assistant again from the Oracle home of the new Oracle
Database 11g release to create a new listener.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-23
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
You must remove the old listener before creating a new one. If you attempt to
create a new listener from the new Oracle home first, and use the same name and
port as the old listener, then Oracle Net Configuration Assistant returns an error.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for
complete information about using Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and
Windows
DBUA provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to guide you through the upgrade of
a database, or you can invoke it in silent mode, which does not present a user
interface. The following topics guide you through the process of upgrading a database
using Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA).
■
Considerations for Using DBUA
■
About the DBUA Graphical User Interface
■
Using DBUA to Upgrade the Database on Linux, UNIX, and Windows Systems
■
Using DBUA in Silent Mode to Upgrade Oracle Database
Considerations for Using DBUA
■
■
■
Important: If you terminate the upgrade, but do not restore the database, then you
cannot restart DBUA. Instead, you must continue with a manual (command line)
upgrade as described in "Manually Upgrading Oracle Database" on page 51.
DBUA can be used to upgrade from earlier Oracle Database 11g patch releases as
well as from earlier major Oracle Database releases on both Oracle RAC databases
and Oracle Database single-instance databases. The procedure to upgrade patch
releases is no different from the normal upgrade procedure.
You must run the Oracle Net Configuration Assistant before running DBUA. See
"Configuring the Listener When Upgrading from Oracle9i" on page 3-23.
If you are upgrading an existing Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control or if
you are configuring a new Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control for the
new Oracle Database 11g release, then the listener must be running before
upgrading Oracle Enterprise Manager. If DBUA detects that an Oracle Enterprise
Manager upgrade or configuration is requested, and DBUA does not see a listener
running, then it prompts you and starts the default listener in either of these cases.
■
■
■
If you upgrade a cluster database using DBUA, then you must make sure the
CLUSTER_DATABASE initialization parameter is set to TRUE.
If the database instance is not running, then DBUA tries to start the instance with
the default initialization parameter file. If that fails, then DBUA prompts you to
provide the name of the correct initialization parameter file or to start the instance.
If the instance is up and running, then DBUA connects to it.
If you terminate the upgrade, but do not restore the database, then you cannot
restart DBUA until you start up the existing database in UPGRADE mode using the
new Oracle Database 11g server. You cannot go back to the original server unless
you restore your database.
For Oracle RAC, you cannot re-run DBUA once you terminate the upgrade. If you
need to re-run the upgrade, then you must run DBUA from the restored backup of
the database you are upgrading.
3-24 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
■
If you restore your database manually (not using DBUA), then remove the
Welcome_SID.txt file, which is located in the ORACLE_
HOME/cfgtoollogs/dbua/logs/ directory, before starting DBUA. The presence of
this file indicates to DBUA that this is a re-run operation.
About the DBUA Graphical User Interface
If you installed Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) and specified that you are
upgrading an existing database, then DBUA starts automatically. However, if you did
not specify that you are upgrading an existing database, then you can start DBUA
independently after installation is complete.
While the upgrade is in process, DBUA shows the upgrade progress for each
component. DBUA writes detailed trace and log files and produces a complete HTML
report for later reference. To enhance security, DBUA automatically locks new user
accounts in the upgraded database. DBUA then proceeds to create new configuration
files (parameter and listener files) in the new Oracle home.
DBUA does not begin the upgrade until all of the pre-upgrade steps are completed.
See Also:
"Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool" on page 10
These topics provide additional information about DBUA:
■
Checks Performed by Oracle DBUA
■
Upgrade Scripts Invoked by Oracle DBUA
Checks Performed by Oracle DBUA
DBUA performs the following checks before the upgrade:
■
Invalid user accounts or roles
■
Invalid data types or invalid objects
■
Desupported character sets
■
Adequate resources, including rollback segments, tablespaces, and free disk space
■
Missing SQL scripts needed for the upgrade
■
■
Listener running (if Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control upgrade or
configuration is requested)
Oracle Database software linked with Database Vault option
Note: If Database Vault is enabled, then DBUA returns an error
asking you to disable Database Vault before upgrading. See "About
Upgrading Databases That Use Oracle Database Vault" on page 3-8.
Upgrade Scripts Invoked by Oracle DBUA
During the upgrade, DBUA automatically modifies or creates new required
tablespaces and invokes the appropriate upgrade scripts, as follows:
■
■
If the datafiles are auto extensible and have enough disk space to grow, then
DBUA continues with the upgrade.
If the datafiles are not autoextensible, then DBUA prompts you and makes the
files auto extensible.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-25
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
■
■
If the tablespaces are auto extensible and the MAXSIZE initialization parameter
needs adjustment, then DBUA prompts for the same and adjusts the MAXSIZE
parameter.
If there is not enough disk space to grow, then DBUA prompts you to create space
(by adding more datafiles). DBUA does not add new datafiles because DBUA
cannot determine where to create the files.
Optionally, DBUA backs up all necessary files.
Using DBUA to Upgrade the Database on Linux, UNIX, and Windows Systems
Complete the following steps to upgrade a database using the DBUA graphical user
interface. These steps are performed from within the new Oracle home where the
latest database software has been installed as described in "Installing the New Oracle
Database Software for the Upgrade" on page 8 .
If you terminate the upgrade, but do not restore the
database, then you cannot restart DBUA. Instead, you must continue
with a manual (command line) upgrade as described in "Manually
Upgrading Oracle Database" on page 51.
Important:
To upgrade a database using DBUA on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
1. Start DBUA from the Oracle home where the new database software has been
installed:
■
On Linux or UNIX platforms, enter the following command at a system
prompt in the new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) home:
dbua
Note: The dbua executable is usually located in the ORACLE_
HOME/bin directory.
■
On Windows operating systems, select Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_
NAME > Configuration and Migration Tools > Database Upgrade Assistant.
The DBUA Welcome screen displays.
3-26 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
This is a screen shot of the DBUA Welcome screen.
At the top of the screen are the following two paragraphs:
DBUA interactively steps you through upgrading your database to Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2).
It can be used to perform major release upgrades from previous versions (Oracle9i
Release 2 (9.2), Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), Oracle Database 10g Release 2
(10.2)), and Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) as well as apply new patch sets.
Additionally, DBUA can be used to upgrade databases created using any edition of the
Oracle Database software, including Express Edition (XE) databases.
Below the text is a Do not display this page again option.
Below the option are Cancel, Help, Back, and Next buttons. The Back button is grayed
out, because this is the first DBUA screen.
***********************************************************************************************
2.
If you need help at any screen or want to consult more documentation about
DBUA, then click Help to open the online help.
Click Next.
The Select Database page appears, listing the databases available for upgrade.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-27
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
This is a screen shot of the DBUA Select Databases screen.
At the top of the screen is the following text:
Select the database that you want to upgrade. If you do not see the database that you
want, make sure that an entry with the database name exists in the /etc/oratab file.
Below this text is an Available Databases table with columns labeled Select,
Database, and Oracle_Home.
At the bottom of the screen are Cancel, Help, Back, and Next buttons.
***********************************************************************************************
3.
Select the database you want to upgrade to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).
You can select only one database at a time. If you do not see the database that you
want, then make sure an entry with the database name exists in the oratab file in
the etc directory.
If you are running DBUA from a user account that does not have SYSDBA
privileges, then you must enter the user name and password credentials to enable
SYSDBA privileges for the selected database.
Click Next.
DBUA analyzes the database, performing pre-upgrade checks and displaying
warnings as necessary. Examples of DBUA database checks include:
■
■
Redo log files whose size is less than 4 MB. If such files are found, then DBUA
gives the option to drop/create new redo log files.
Obsolete or deprecated initialization parameters.
When DBUA finishes its checks, the Upgrade Options screen displays.
3-28 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
This is a screen shot of the DBUA Upgrade Options screen.
At the top of the screen is the following text:
Upgrade process may invalidate objects in the database. Oracle recommends
recompiling of invalid objects as a part of upgrade. Based on the number of CPUs
Oracle has set the following default degree of parallelism. Parallel recompilation
reduces the recompilation time.
You can then select Recompile invalid objects at the end of upgrade, choose the
Degree of Parallelism, and select the option to Backup database before you start the
upgrade and specify the directory location for the backup files.
This text and options are discussed in the following step.
At the bottom of the screen are Cancel, Help, Back, and Next buttons.
***********************************************************************************************
4.
The Upgrade Options screens enables you to set the following options:
Recompile invalid objects at the end of upgrade
Select Recompile invalid objects at the end of upgrade if you want DBUA to
recompile all invalid PL/SQL modules after the upgrade is complete.
When you upgrade a database to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), many of the
PL/SQL modules in your database become invalid. As a result, all existing
PL/SQL modules in an INVALID state must be recompiled, such as packages,
procedures, types, and so on.
By default, Oracle Database recompiles invalid PL/SQL modules as they are used.
The time it takes to recompile the module can result in poor performance when
you begin to use your newly upgraded database.
To eliminate these performance issues, select Recompile invalid objects at the end
of upgrade. When you select this option, DBUA recompiles all the invalid
PL/SQL modules immediately after the upgrade is performed. This ensures that
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-29
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
you do not experience any performance issues later, as you begin using your
newly upgraded database.
Selecting Recompile invalid objects at the end of upgrade is
equivalent to running the utlrp.sql script, located in the ORACLE_
HOME/rdbms/admin directory, which is used to recompile stored
PL/SQL and Java code.
Note:
The task of recompiling all the invalid PL/SQL modules in your database can take
a significant amount of time and increase the time it takes to complete your
database upgrade. If you have multiple CPUs, then you can reduce the time it
takes to perform this task by taking advantage of parallel processing on your
available CPUs. If you have multiple CPUs available, then DBUA automatically
adds an additional section to the Recompile Invalid Objects screen and
automatically determines the number of CPUs you have available.
Degree of Parallelism
DBUA also provides a recommended degree of parallelism, which determines
how many parallel processes are used to recompile your invalid PL/SQL modules.
Specifically, DBUA sets the degree of parallelism to one less than the number of
CPUs you have available. For example, if you have three CPUs available for
processing, then DBUA selects 2 from the Degree of Parallelism menu. You can
adjust this default value by selecting a new value from the Degree of Parallelism
menu.
Backup Database
Select Backup database if you want DBUA to back up your database for you.
Oracle strongly recommends that you back up your
database before starting the upgrade. If errors occur during the
upgrade, then you might be required to restore the database from
the backup.
Important:
If you use DBUA to back up your database, then it makes a copy of all your
database files in the directory you specify in the Backup Directory field. DBUA
performs this cold backup automatically after it shuts down the database and
before it begins performing the upgrade procedure. The cold backup does not
compress your database files, and the backup directory must be a valid file system
path. You cannot specify a raw device for the cold backup files.
In addition, DBUA creates a batch file in the specified directory. You can use this
batch file to restore the database files:
■
On Windows operating systems, the file is called db_name_restore.bat.
■
On Linux or UNIX platforms, the file is called db_name_restore.sh.
If you choose not to use DBUA for your backup, then Oracle assumes you have
backed up your database using your own backup procedures.
DBUA does not back up Oracle ASM databases. You must
manually back them up on your own.
Note:
3-30 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
Click Next.
If you are upgrading a single-instance database or Oracle Express Edition (XE),
then the Move Database Files screen appears. If you are upgrading an Oracle Real
Application Clusters database, then the Move Database Files screen does not
display.
This is a screen shot of the DBUA Move Database Files screen.
At the top of the screen is the following text:
"Specify if you want to move the database files during the upgrade process."
Below this text are several options that are described in the following step.
At the bottom of the screen are Cancel, Help, Back, and Next buttons.
***********************************************************************************************
5.
Select one of the following options:
■
Do Not Move Database Files as Part of Upgrade
■
Move Database Files during Upgrade
If you choose to move database files, then you must also make one of the
following selections:
■
File System
Your database files are moved to the host file system.
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)
Your database files are moved to Oracle ASM storage, which must currently
exist on your system. If you do not have an Oracle ASM instance, then you can
create one using Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant
(ASMCA) from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home and then restart DBUA.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-31
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for information about
installing and configuring Oracle ASM
"Managing Oracle ASM Instances With ASM Configuration
Assistant" in Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide
Click Next.
The Recovery and Diagnostic Locations screen displays, where you can
designate a flash recovery area for your database.
This is a screen shot of the DBUA Recovery and Diagnostic Locations screen.
At the top of the screen is the following text:
Flash recovery area is an Oracle managed disk location for storing backup and
recovery related files. Oracle strongly recommends configuring a flash recovery area as
it significantly enhances speed, reliability and manageability of the database recovery
process.
Below this text is a check box labeled Specify Flash Recovery Area followed by
several options for specifying the flash recovery disk location and size. These options
are described in the following step.
At the bottom of the screen are Cancel, Help, Back, and Next buttons.
***********************************************************************************************
Flash recovery area is an Oracle managed disk location used for storing backup
and recovery related files. Oracle strongly recommends configuring a flash
recovery area, because it significantly enhances speed, reliability, and
manageability of the database recovery process. The location of the flash recovery
area is also used by Enterprise Manager if you enable local management and daily
backups on the Management Options screen.
3-32 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
If you selected the Move Database Files during Upgrade option in step 5, or if an
Oracle Express Edition database is being upgraded to Oracle Enterprise Edition,
then you must configure a flash recovery area. If a flash recovery area is currently
configured, then the current settings are retained but the screen displays to allow
you to override these values.
6.
Do one of the following:
■
Accept the default flash recovery area location
■
Enter the full path to a different location in the Flash Recovery Area field
■
Click Browse and select a different flash recovery area location
Do one of the following:
■
Accept the default size for the flash recovery area
■
Enter a different value in the Flash Recovery Area Size field
■
Click the up or down arrows to adjust the flash recovery area size
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for more information about
configuring the flash recovery area
See Also:
Click Next.
If no other database is currently being monitored with Enterprise Manager, then
the Management Options screen displays.
This is a screen shot of the DBUA Management Options screen.
Its contents are described in the following step.
At the bottom of the screen are Cancel, Help, Back, and Next buttons.
***********************************************************************************************
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-33
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
At the Management Options screen, you have the option of setting up your
database so it can be managed with Enterprise Manager. Enterprise Manager
provides Web-based management tools for managing individual database
instances, as well as central management tools for managing your entire Oracle
environment, including multiple databases, hosts, application servers, and other
components of your network.
Before you can register the database with Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control,
an Oracle Enterprise Manager Agent must be configured on the host computer.
7.
To set up your database to be managed with Enterprise Manager, select Configure
the Database with Enterprise Manager and then select one of the following
options:
■
Register with Grid Control for centralized management
If you select this option, then you must also select an Oracle Management
Service from the Management Service drop-down list. When you run DBUA,
it checks to see if the Oracle Management Agent has been installed on the host
computer. If no Oracle Management Agent is found, then the Grid Control
option is not available.
When you finish installing the Oracle Database software, the database is
automatically available as a managed target within Oracle Enterprise Manager
Grid Control.
■
Configure Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control for local
management
If you are not centrally managing your Oracle environment, then you can still
use Enterprise Manager to manage your database. When you install Oracle
Database, you automatically install Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control, which provides Web-based features for monitoring and administering
the single-instance or cluster database you are installing.
Do the following steps if you want the SYSMAN user (the default Super
Administrator and owner of the Management Repository schema) to receive
E-mail notification when a metric for a specified condition reaches a critical or
warning threshold:
–
Select Enable Alert Notifications
–
Enter the name of the e-mail server you want to use for notifications in the
Outgoing Mail (SMTP) Server field
–
Enter the e-mail address of the SYSMAN user in the Recipient Email
Address field
For example, Enterprise Manager can send an e-mail when a target goes down
or when there are database space usage problems. E-mail notifications are
enabled immediately upon installation.
Do the following steps to use the Oracle suggested backup strategy to back up
your entire database with a minimum amount of configuration:
–
Select Enable Daily Disk Backup to Recovery Area
–
Enter a start time in the Backup Start Time field
–
Enter host credentials in the OS Username and Password fields
If you select the Enable Daily Disk Backup to Recovery Area option, then
Enterprise Manager is configured to back up your database immediately after
you finish upgrading Oracle Database. Enterprise Manager backs up the
3-34 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
database to the flash recovery area. Later, you can use Enterprise Manager to
customize your backup strategy further.
On Windows the user whose credentials you enter for the backup must be
granted the Logon as a batch job privilege in the Local Security Policies of
Windows. If the chosen user does not have this privilege, then the backup job
fails.
Click Next.
The Database Credentials screen displays.
This is a screen shot of the DBUA Database Credentials screen.
The text at the top of the screen is "For security reasons, you must specify passwords
for the following user accounts. Note: DBSNMP user password is modified if the
account currently exists in the database."
The contents of the screen after this text allow you to select either Use Different
Password or Use the Same Password for All Accounts, and then specify and confirm
the password for your chosen option. These options are described in the following
step.
At the bottom of the screen are Cancel, Help, Back, and Next buttons.
***********************************************************************************************
8.
Select one of the following options:
■
Use Different Passwords
If you choose to use different passwords, then you must enter a password in
the Password and Confirm Password columns for each account in the table.
■
Use the Same Password for All Accounts
If you choose to use the same password, then you must enter that password in
the Password and Confirm Password fields.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-35
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
If the default Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) security
settings are in place, then new passwords must be at least eight
characters, and passwords such as welcome and oracle are not
allowed. See Oracle Database Security Guide for more information.
Note:
Click Next.
The Summary screen appears.
This is a screen shot of the DBUA Summary screen.
Its content is described in the following step.
At the bottom of the screen are Cancel, Help, Back, Next, and Finish buttons. The
Next button is currently grayed out.
***********************************************************************************************
9.
The Summary screen shows the following information about the upgrade before it
starts:
■
Name, version, and Oracle home of the old and new databases
■
Database backup location, available space, and space required
■
Warnings ignored
■
Database components to be upgraded
■
Initialization parameters changes
■
Database files location
■
Listener registration
3-36 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
See Also: "Setting the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter" on
page 4-15 for information about setting the COMPATIBLE initialization
parameter after the upgrade
Check all of the specifications. Then do one of the following:
■
■
Click Back if anything is incorrect until you reach the screen where you can
correct it.
Click Finish if everything is correct.
The Progress screen displays and DBUA begins the upgrade.
10. After the upgrade has completed, the following message is displayed on the
Progress screen:
Upgrade is complete. Click "OK" to see the results of the upgrade.
11. The Upgrade Results screen displays a description of the original and upgraded
databases and changes made to the initialization parameters. The screen also
shows the directory where various log files are stored after the upgrade. You can
examine these log files to obtain more details about the upgrade process.
An HTML version of the Upgrade Results is also saved in the
log files directory.
Note:
a.
Click Configure Database Passwords to display the Password Management
dialog box.
The Password Management dialog box enables you to change the default
password for a user after you upgrade the database. For security reasons, all
users are locked except for the following users:
–
SYS
–
SYSTEM
If you have enabled Local Management with Enterprise Manager, then the
SYSMAN and DBSNMP accounts are also unlocked. These accounts provide
Enterprise Manager with access to the database so it can gather monitoring
data and so you can perform administration tasks with Enterprise Manager.
If you have enabled Central Management with Enterprise Manager, then the
DBSNMP account is unlocked, as well as the SYS and SYSTEM user accounts.
To prevent unauthorized use of the database, Oracle
recommends that you change all user passwords immediately after
you upgrade your database.
Note:
If the default Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) security settings are
in place, then passwords must be at least eight characters, and
passwords such as welcome and oracle are not allowed. See Oracle
Database Security Guide for more information.
b.
Click Restore Database if you are not satisfied with the upgrade results.
Depending on the method you used to back up your database, the Restore
operation performs one of two tasks:
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-37
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
–
If you used DBUA to back up your database, then clicking Restore restores
the original database and the original database settings from the backup.
–
If you used your own backup procedure to back up the database, then
clicking Restore restores only the original database settings. To restore the
database itself, you must restore the backup you created with your own
backup utilities.
If you are satisfied with the upgrade results, then click Exit to quit DBUA and use
your newly upgraded database.
a.
DBUA modifies the SID_DESC entry for the upgraded database in the Oracle
Database listener.ora file in one of the following ways:
A simple case: Suppose the old listener.ora has the following SID_DESC
entry:
...
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = ORCL)
)
...
If the database name is SAL, the domain name is COM, and the Oracle home
is /oracle/product/9.2, then the assistant adds the following entry:
...
(SID_DESC =
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = sal.com)
(ORACLE_HOME = /oracle/product/9.2)
(SID_NAME = SAL)
)
...
A more complicated case: Suppose the old listener.ora has the following
SID_DESC entry:
...
(SID_DESC =
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = an_entry)
(SID_NAME = ORCL)
)
...
If an_entry does not match the GLOBAL_DBNAME of the migrated database, and
if the database name is SAL, the domain name is COM, and the Oracle home is
/oracle/product/9.2, then the assistant adds the following entry:
...
(SID_DESC =
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = sal.com)
(ORACLE_HOME = /oracle/product/9.2)
(SID_NAME = SAL)
)
...
This entry is the same as the entry in the simple case, but DBUA also adds the
entry an_entry to the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the initialization
parameter file. Therefore, DBUA changes the SERVICE_NAMES parameter to
the following:
SERVICE_NAMES = sal.com, an_entry
3-38 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading with Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows
b.
DBUA removes the entry of the upgraded database from the old
listener.ora file.
c.
DBUA reloads the listener.ora file in both the old and new Oracle
Database environments.
12. >>The following steps were deleted, either because the screens no longer appear
or because they have been replaced with rewritten steps covering the same
screens, as per IOUG presentation by Ravi Pattabhi 3/26/07. CBF 3/30/07
Specify the attributes for the SYSAUX tablespace, which is added automatically to
all new Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) databases you create.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information
about the SYSAUX tablespace
Many of the attributes of the SYSAUX tablespace are set automatically and cannot
be modified. For example, the SYSAUX tablespace is set to use Automatic
Segment-Space Management. However, you can specify the location of the data
file, the default size of the SYSAUX tablespace, and its autoextend attributes.
Note: If you specify an existing datafile for the SYSAUX tablespace,
then you must select Reuse Existing File Name. Otherwise, DBUA
alerts you to the fact that the file currently exists.
Click Next.
The Recompiling Invalid Objects screen appears.
13. Secure your database with passwords for the Enterprise Manager accounts. You
can set a single password, which is applied to each of the listed Enterprise
Manager user accounts, or enhance the security of the accounts by providing
unique passwords for each user.
Click Next.
The Recovery Configuration screen appears.
14. Specify a flash recovery area and enable archiving. When you are managing your
database, it is important to configure the database so you can recover your data in
the event of a system failure.
The Flash Recovery Area can be used to recover data that would otherwise be lost
during a system failure. This location is also used by Enterprise Manager if you
enabled local management and daily backups on the Management Options screen.
Click Next.
The Network Configuration screen appears.
15. At the Upgrade Operations page, do one of the following:
■
Select the option to upgrade only the Oracle ASM instance
■
Select the option to upgrade the database
If you choose to upgrade the database, and the database is using Oracle ASM,
then DBUA asks if you want to upgrade the Oracle ASM instance along with
the database. Oracle recommends that you upgrade the database and Oracle
ASM in separate DBUA sessions, in separate Oracle homes.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-39
Optionally Performing an In-Place Upgrade (Into the Same Oracle Home)
Click Next.
The Selecting a Database Instance screen appears.
16. At the Changes in Default Behavior screen, DBUA displays some changes in the
behavior of Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) from that of previous releases. In
some cases the default values of some initialization parameters have changed. In
other cases some new behavior/requirement has been introduced that might affect
current scripts or applications.
17. Complete the procedures described in Chapter 4, "Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle
Database".
Optionally Performing an In-Place Upgrade (Into the Same Oracle Home)
Oracle recommends when upgrading to Oracle Database 11g R2 (11.2) that you
perform an out-of-place mode upgrade, which installs the new software into a new
Oracle home. This means that you provide a different Oracle home location for the
new upgrade. However, there may be cases where you need to perform an in-place
upgrade, which maintains the same Oracle home. This section provides the
information on how to keep the existing Oracle home.
The considerations and options for performing in-place upgrades are provided in
these topics:
■
Known Issue When Starting an In-Place Upgrade
■
Performing an In-Place Upgrade for Single-Instance Oracle Database
■
Performing an In-Place Upgrade for an Oracle RAC Database
■
In-Place Upgrade on Windows
Known Issue When Starting an In-Place Upgrade
When performing an in-place upgrade, which uses the same Oracle home location, an
error messages appears stating that the installer detects Oracle Database software in
the location that you specified.
Message: The installer has detected that the software location you have specified
contains Oracle Database software release 11.2.0.1. Oracle recommends that when
upgrading, you perform an out-of-place installation of the software into a new Oracle
home and then upgrade the database using the new software binaries.
Cause: The installer has detected that the software location you have specified
contains Oracle Database software release 11.2.0.1.
Action: Either perform an in-place upgrade as described in this section, or perform an
out-of-place upgrade, into a new Oracle home, as described in "Installing the New
Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade".
Performing an In-Place Upgrade for Single-Instance Oracle Database
If you must perform an in-place upgrade, then the procedure is to back up the current
installation, move it to a different location, and then install the new software in the old
location, as described in the following procedure.
WARNING: Oracle strongly recommends that you do not upgrade
Oracle Database to release 11.2.0.2 or 11.2.0.3 using the existing
Oracle home. This procedure is provided only if for some reason
you have no alternative but to use the existing Oracle home.
3-40 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Optionally Performing an In-Place Upgrade (Into the Same Oracle Home)
To perform an in-place upgrade for a single-instance database
1.
Obtain the Oracle Database release 11.2 software from My Oracle Support at
https://support.oracle.com/.
2.
Back up the configuration data by backing up the following directories:
3.
■
ORACLE_HOME/dbs
■
ORACLE_HOME/network/admin
■
ORACLE_HOME/owb/bin/admin
■
ORACLE_HOME/hostname_dbname
■
ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_hostname_dbname
Depending on which release you are upgrading from, in the software location for
the release 11.2.0.1 or 11.2.0.2 software, detach the ORACLE_HOME with the
following command:
ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller -detachHome ORACLE_HOME=11.2.x.x.x software
location
4.
Rename or move this ORACLE_HOME software directory to a temporary name:
mv ORACLE_HOME ORACLE_HOME.backup
5.
Start OUI and select release 11.2.0.3. Software Only.
6.
For Location, select the same location as used for release 11.2.0.1 or 11.2.0.2
(depending on which release you are upgrading from).
7.
After the installation completes, restore the configuration data for the old Oracle
home. Restore the backed up configuration data files (from the backups you made
of /dbs and network/admin), and also restore the following directories:
/hostname_dbname, /owb/bin/admin, and /oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_
hostname_dbname. Specify the actual name for hostname_dbname where
hostname is the actual hostname and dbname is the actual database name.
8.
Run DBUA from ORACLE_HOME/bin directory and select the 11.2.0.1.0 or
11.2.0.2.0 database instance to perform the upgrade to 11.2.0.3.0.
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Installation Guide for your operating system
■
Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and
UNIX
Performing an In-Place Upgrade for an Oracle RAC Database
Performing an in-place upgrade of an Oracle RAC database is similar to the procedure
described in "Performing an In-Place Upgrade for Single-Instance Oracle Database" on
page 40. You must back up the current Oracle home and installation, move it to a
different location, and then install the new software in the old location, as described in
the following steps.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-41
Optionally Performing an In-Place Upgrade (Into the Same Oracle Home)
WARNING: Oracle strongly recommends that you do not upgrade
Oracle Database to release 11.2.0.2 or later using the existing Oracle
home. This procedure is provided only if for some reason you have
no alternative but to use the existing Oracle home.
To perform an in-place upgrade for Oracle RAC Database instances
1.
2.
Back up the configuration data by backing up the following directories on all
cluster nodes:
■
ORACLE_HOME/dbs
■
ORACLE_HOME/network/admin
■
ORACLE_HOME/owb/bin/admin
■
ORACLE_HOME/hostname_dbname
■
ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_hostname_dbname
Run the following command on each of the nodes to detach the old Oracle RAC
ORACLE_HOME. For example:
ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller -detachHome ORACLE_HOME=11.2 software location
3.
Rename this Oracle RAC ORACLE_HOME directory on all the nodes to a temporary
name.
4.
Install Oracle Database Software Only on all nodes.
5.
On all nodes, restore into the 11.2.0.4 ORACLE_HOME software location the backed
up configuration data files (from the backups you made of /dbs and
network/admin), and also restore the following directories: /hostname_
dbname, /owb/bin/admin, and /oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_hostname_
dbname. Specify the actual name for hostname_dbname.
6.
Run DBUA from the 11.2.0.4 ORACLE_HOME/bin directory on the local node and
select the Oracle RAC database instance to upgrade it to release 11.2.0.4.0.
In-Place Upgrade on Windows
Oracle recommends that you perform the out-of-place upgrade into a new Oracle
home. This procedure is provided only if for some reason you must use the old Oracle
home.
The following topics discuss how to perform an upgrade into an existing Oracle home
on Windows platforms:
■
Considerations for In-Place Upgrade of Oracle Database on Windows Platforms
■
Performing an In-Place Upgrade of Oracle Database on Windows
Important:
■
■
Oracle recommends that you perform the out-of-place upgrade
into a new Oracle home, which is described in "Upgrading with
Database Upgrade Assistant on Linux, UNIX, and Windows" on
page 24
The installer on Windows is setup.exe instead of
runInstaller
3-42 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Optionally Performing an In-Place Upgrade (Into the Same Oracle Home)
Considerations for In-Place Upgrade of Oracle Database on Windows Platforms
On Windows, you must shut down all services that invoke or lock Oracle files. To do
this, set the services to disable in Windows service manager. A reboot may be required
after you disable some services in order to free their associated locked objects. On
Windows platforms, ORADIM manages Windows Services (operating system
processes). DBCA manages Oracle database instances and database services.
See Also:
Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows
Performing an In-Place Upgrade of Oracle Database on Windows
This procedure is provided only if you have no alternative but to use the old Oracle
home when upgrading to the new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) release. This is
not the perferred method for upgrading Oracle Database to release 11.2. If you must
perform an in-place upgrade, then you must perform the steps listed in this section.
The procedure describes how to backup the current installation, move the current
installation to a new location, and then install the new software into the old location.
WARNING: Oracle strongly recommends that you do not upgrade
Oracle Database to release 11.2.0.2 or later using the existing Oracle
home. This procedure is provided only if for some reason you have
no alternative but to use the existing Oracle home.
To perform an in-place upgrade on Windows
1.
Back up the configuration data by backing up the following directories on the
single node or all cluster nodes:
■
ORACLE_HOME/dbs
■
ORACLE_HOME/database
■
ORACLE_HOME/network/admin
■
ORACLE_HOME/owb/bin/admin
■
ORACLE_HOME/hostname_dbname
■
ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_hostname_dbname
2.
Skip this step if you are upgrading a single instance database. If you are
upgrading an Oracle RAC database, then installation of the software for Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) requires that you upgrade Oracle Clusterware first.
See "Considerations for Upgrading Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM Instances"
on page 3
3.
Shut down the instances running on ORACLE_HOME:
SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
On an Oracle RAC Database, you must shut down the
database instances on all nodes, and stop all interfering services on all
nodes in the cluster.
Note:
4.
On all instances, use NET STOP to stop the Oracle services that may interfere with
this Oracle home. For example:
C:\> NET STOP OracleServiceORACLE_SID
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-43
Optionally Performing an In-Place Upgrade (Into the Same Oracle Home)
where OracleService is the name of the service, and ORACLE_SID is the SID of
the database instance.
Oracle services that may need to be stopped include:
■
the TNSListener
■
HTTP server
■
Oracle Management Server
■
OLAP Agent
■
Intelligent Agent
See Also:
■
■
■
My Oracle Support at https://support.oracle.com:
Note ID 1291682.1, "In-Place Upgrade to 11.2.0.2 on Windows
Platform" for information on 11.2.0.2 and 11.2.0.3
Note ID 294350.1, "Write Errors, or Files In Use, or
NoServicesForProcessException During Patch Installation" for
information on files that are locked by interfering processes
Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for
information on using ORADIM to administer a database instance
The list of services to stop is not inclusive. There may be
Windows-specific and vendor-specific services running that need to
be stopped.
Note:
5.
Run the following command on each of the nodes to detach this Oracle RAC
ORACLE_HOME:
ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin/setup -detachHome ORACLE_HOME=this software location
6.
Rename this Oracle RAC ORACLE_HOME directory on all the nodes to a temporary
name.
7.
Install release 11.2.0.3 Software Only on all nodes.
8.
If needed, use ORADIM to create a new instance:
C:\oracle\bin\oradim –NEW -SID ORACLE_SID
where ORACLE_SID is the SID of the database instance. This will enable the
instance to be listed with DBUA for upgrading.
See Also: Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for
information on creating an instance with ORADIM
9.
On all nodes, restore into this ORACLE_HOME software location the backed up
configuration data files (from the backups you made of /dbs, /database, and
network/admin), and also restore the following directories: /hostname_
dbname, /owb/bin/admin, and /oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_hostname_
dbname. Specify the actual name for hostname_dbname.
10. Run DBUA from this ORACLE_HOME/bin directory on the local node. If you are
upgrading an Oracle RAC database, then select the 11.2.0.1.0 or 11.2.0.2.0 Oracle
RAC database instance to upgrade to release 11.2.0.3.0.
3-44 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Optionally Performing an In-Place Upgrade (Into the Same Oracle Home)
See Also: Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for
information on postinstallation tasks for the database
Using DBUA in Silent Mode to Upgrade Oracle Database
When invoked with the -silent command line option, DBUA operates in silent
mode. In silent mode, DBUA does not present a user interface. It also writes any
messages (including information, errors, and warnings) to a log file in ORACLE_
HOME/cfgtoollogs/dbua/SID/upgraden, where n is the number of upgrades
that DBUA has performed as of this upgrade.
To upgrade a database with DBUA in silent mode
■
Issue the following command
dbua -silent -sid ORCL &
where the database is named ORCL in this example.
Oracle DBUA Command Line Options for Silent Mode
Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) supports command line options when run in
silent mode. Table 3–3 describes the various options and the corresponding parameters
that are supported by DBUA.
If the default Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) security
settings are in place, then passwords must be at least eight characters,
and passwords such as welcome and oracle are not allowed. See
Oracle Database Security Guide for more information.
Note:
Table 3–3
DBUA Command Line Options
Option
Description
-silent
Specifies that DBUA should operate in silent
mode.
-sid SID
Specifies the system identifier (SID) of the
database to upgrade
-oracleHome home_name
Specifies the Oracle Database home directory of
the database to upgrade
-oracleBase base_name
Specifies the Oracle Database base directory of
the database to upgrade
-diagnosticDest diagnostic_
destination
Specifies the default location to store Oracle trace
and diagnostic files. It replaces the initialization
parameter settings for background dump
destination and user dump destination from
earlier releases.
-sysDBAUserName SYSDBA_user
Specifies a user with SYSDBA privileges.
-sysDBAPassword SYSDBA_pwd
Specifies the password for SYSDBA_user.
-autoextendFiles
Autoextends database files during the upgrade.
Data files revert to their original autoextend
settings after the upgrade.
-newGlobalDbName db_name
Specifies a new global database name. This
option applies only if you are moving data files
or upgrading an Oracle XE database.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-45
Optionally Performing an In-Place Upgrade (Into the Same Oracle Home)
Table 3–3 (Cont.) DBUA Command Line Options
Option
Description
-newSid new_SID
Specifies a new system identifier (SID) of the
database to upgrade. This option applies only if
you are moving data files or upgrading an Oracle
XE database.
-upgradeTimezone
Upgrades the timezone file version for the
database.
-generateMapFile
Applies only if you are moving data files or
upgrading an Oracle XE database. If you specify
this option, then DBUA only generates a database
map file in the log location and then exits.
-useASM
Applies only if you are moving data files or
upgrading an Oracle XE database. If the database
to upgrade has an Oracle ASM instance, then this
option tells DBUA to use it for the upgrade.
-commonFileLocation common_files
Specifies a common location to store database
files. This option applies only if you are moving
data files or upgrading an Oracle XE database.
-omfLocation omf_area
Specifies a database area for Oracle Managed
Files. This option applies only if you are moving
data files or upgrading an Oracle XE database.
-databaseMapFile map_file_name
Specifies the full name of the map file to map
database files. This option applies only if you are
moving data files or upgrading an Oracle XE
database.
-newRecoveryArea recover_area
Specifies the recovery area for a database that is
moved during upgrade. This option applies only
if you are moving data files or upgrading an
Oracle XE database.
-newRecoveryAreaSize recover_
size
Specifies the recovery area size (MB) for a
database that is moved during upgrade. This
option applies only if you are moving data files
or upgrading an Oracle XE database.
-apexAdminPassword apex_pwd
Specifies the password for the Application
Express Administrator.
-disableUpgradeScriptLogging
Disables the detailed log generation for running
SQL scripts during the upgrade process. This is
enabled by default. To enable log generation, do
not specify this option.
-backupLocation directory
Specifies a directory to back up your database
before the upgrade starts
-sysauxTablespace
Creates a new SYSAUX tablespace
-datafileName name
Specifies the complete path of the data file for
creating the new SYSAUX tablespace
-datafileSize size
Specifies the size of the data file for creating the
new SYSAUX tablespace {500M, 10G}
-datafileSizeNext size
Specifies the next extent for the data file
-datafileSizeMax size
Specifies the maximum size of the data file
-postUpgradeScripts script [,
script ] ...
Specifies a comma-delimited list of SQL scripts.
Specify complete path names. The scripts are
executed at the end of the upgrade.
3-46 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Optionally Performing an In-Place Upgrade (Into the Same Oracle Home)
Table 3–3 (Cont.) DBUA Command Line Options
Option
Description
-initParam parameter=value [,
parameter=value ] ...
Specifies a comma-delimited list of initialization
parameter values of the form name=value
-disableArchiveLogMode
Turns off archiving and flashback logging for the
duration of the upgrade.
-recompile_invalid_objects
true|false
When you specify TRUE for this option, DBUA
recompiles all invalid PL/SQL modules
immediately after the upgrade is performed.
-degree_of_parallelism cpu_
number
Specifies the number of CPUs to be used for
parallel recompilation.
-emConfiguration
{CENTRAL|LOCAL|ALL|NOBACKUP|
NOEMAIL|NONE}
Specifies Oracle Enterprise Manager
management options:
■
■
■
■
■
■
CENTRAL - Database is centrally managed by
Oracle Enterprise Manager.
LOCAL - Database is locally managed by
Oracle Enterprise Manager.
ALL - This option configures Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Control,
enables daily backups, and enables e-mail
notifications
NOBACKUP - Automatic daily backups of the
database are not enabled.
NOEMAIL - E-mail notifications are not
enabled.
NONE - Database is not managed by
Enterprise Manager.
-dbsnmpPassword password
Specifies the DBSNMP user password. This option
applies only if you are configuring Oracle
Enterprise Manager.
-sysmanPassword password
Specifies the SYSMAN user password. This option
applies only if you are configuring Oracle
Enterprise Manager.
-asmPassword password
Specifies the SYS password for the Oracle ASM
instance. This option applies only if you are
configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.
-hostUserName hostname
Specifies the host user name for the Oracle
Enterprise Manager backup job. This option
applies only if you are configuring Oracle
Enterprise Manager.
-hostUserPassword password
Specifies the host user password for the Oracle
Enterprise Manager backup job. This option
applies only if you are configuring Oracle
Enterprise Manager.
-backupSchedule hh:mm
Specifies the daily backup schedule in the form
hh:mm (hours and minutes). This option applies
only if you are configuring Oracle Enterprise
Manager.
-smtpServer server_name
Specifies the outgoing mail (SMTP) server for
E-mail notifications. This option applies only if
you are configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-47
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually
Table 3–3 (Cont.) DBUA Command Line Options
Option
Description
-emailAddress address
Specifies the E-mail address for E-mail
notifications. This option applies only if you are
configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.
-centralAgent location
Specifies the Oracle Enterprise Manager central
agent location. This option applies only if you are
configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.
-recoveryAreaDestination
directory
Specifies the destination directory for all recovery
files. This option applies only if you are moving
data files, upgrading an Oracle XE database, or
configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager.
[-localRacSid SID
Specifies the local SID of the cluster database if
the cluster database is not registered in the Oracle
Cluster Registry
-h | -help
Displays help for DBUA
DBUA Command Line Syntax for Silent Mode
You can specify all valid options from the command line using the following syntax:
dbua [ -silent ] [ -sid SID ] [-oracleHome home_name] [-oracleBase base_name]
[-diagnosticDest diagnostic_destination]
[-sysDBAUserName SYSDBA_user] [-sysDBAPassword SYSDBA_pwd]
[-upgradeASM] [-autoextendFiles] [-newGlobalDbName db_name] [-newSid new_SID]
[-generateMapFile] [-useASM] [-commonFileLocation common_files]
[-omfLocation omf_area] [-databaseMapFile map_file_name]
[-newRecoveryArea recover_area] [-newRecoveryAreaSize recover_size]
[-apexAdminPassword apex_pwd] [-disableUpgradeScriptLogging ]
[-backupLocation directory]
[-sysauxTablespace -datafileName name -datafileSize size
-datafileSizeNext size -datafileSizeMax size]
[-postUpgradeScripts script [, script ] ... ]
[-initParam parameter=value [, parameter=value ] ... ]
[-disableArchiveLogMode] [-recompile_invalid_objects true | false]
[-degree_of_parallelism cpu_number]
[-emConfiguration {CENTRAL|LOCAL|ALL|NOBACKUP|NOEMAIL|NONE}
-dbsnmpPassword password -sysmanPassword password -asmPassword password
-hostUserName hostname -hostUserPassword password -backupSchedule hh:mm
[-smtpServer server_name -emailAddress address]
[-centralAgent location] [-localRacSid SID]]
[-recoveryAreaDestination directory] [-h|-help]
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually
There may be cases where you need to upgrade Oracle Database manually instead of
using DBUA. After installing the new Oracle Database software as described in
"Installing the New Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade" on page 8, backing up
your database, and preparing the new Oracle home, you are ready to proceed with a
manual upgrade. The procedure for manually upgrading your database assumes that
you have previously run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool as described in "Using the
Pre-Upgrade Information Tool" on page 3-10.
The following topics guide you through the process of performing a manual upgrade.
■
Backing Up Oracle Database for a Manual Upgrade
3-48 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually
■
Preparing the New Oracle Home for a Manual Upgrade
■
Manually Upgrading Oracle Database
Backing Up Oracle Database for a Manual Upgrade
After running the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool and cleanly shutting down the
instance, Oracle recommends that you back up the database as described in this
section. If you encounter problems with the upgrade and wish to abandon the
upgrade completely, then you must restore the database from this backup. Therefore,
Oracle recommends that you back up your database now as a precaution.
To perform a full backup of the database to be upgraded
1. Sign on to RMAN:
rman "target / nocatalog"
2.
Issue the following RMAN commands:
RUN
{
ALLOCATE CHANNEL chan_name TYPE DISK;
BACKUP DATABASE FORMAT 'some_backup_directory%U' TAG before_upgrade;
BACKUP CURRENT CONTROLFILE FORMAT 'controlfile location and name';
}
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide
Preparing the New Oracle Home for a Manual Upgrade
After backing up the database to be upgraded, prepare the new Oracle home in a new
location. Do this for any release of Oracle Database for which you are upgrading,
whether the database is release 11.2 or earlier. Starting with Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2.0.3), you install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database
software into a new Oracle home instead of applying a patch set to the existing Oracle
home.
See Also: "Backing Up Oracle Database for a Manual Upgrade" on
page 49
To prepare the new Oracle home
1.
Copy configuration files from the Oracle home of the database being upgraded to
the new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle home:
a.
If your parameter file resides within the old environment's Oracle home, then
copy it to the new Oracle home. By default, Oracle looks for the parameter file
in the ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory on Linux or UNIX platforms and in the
ORACLE_HOME\database directory on Windows operating systems. The
parameter file can reside anywhere you wish, but it should not reside in the
old environment's Oracle home after you upgrade to Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2).
It might be necessary to create a text initialization parameter
file (PFILE) from the server parameter file (SPFILE) so that you can
edit the initialization parameters.
Note:
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-49
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually
b.
If your parameter file resides within an Oracle ASM instance, then back up the
parameter file using the following command:
CREATE pfile FROM spfile;
If you must downgrade the database and your SPFILE resided within Oracle
ASM, then the parameter file must be restored before the downgrade.
c.
If your parameter file is a text-based initialization parameter file with either an
IFILE (include file) or a SPFILE (server parameter file) entry, and the file
specified in the IFILE or SPFILE entry resides within the old environment's
Oracle home, then copy the file specified by the IFILE or SPFILE entry to the
new Oracle home. The file specified in the IFILE or SPFILE entry contains
additional initialization parameters.
d.
If you have a password file that resides within the old environment's Oracle
home, then move or copy the password file to the Oracle Database 11g Release
2 (11.2) Oracle home.
The name and location of the password file are operating system-specific. On
Linux or UNIX platforms, the default password file is orapwsid, located in
the ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory. On Windows operating systems, the default
password file is pwdsid.ora, located in the ORACLE_HOME\database
directory. In both cases, sid is your Oracle instance ID.
e.
If you are upgrading a cluster database and your initdb_name.ora file
resides within the old environment's Oracle home, then move or copy the
initdb_name.ora file to the new Oracle home.
If you are upgrading a cluster database, then perform this step
on all nodes in which this cluster database has instances configured.
Note:
2.
If you are upgrading an Oracle Enterprise Edition database, you must copy the
Enterprise Manager Database Console directory from the old Oracle Home into
the new Oracle Home. Note that DBUA automatically copies and upgrades the
Enterprise Manager Database Console directory.
3.
Adjust your parameter file in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) by completing
the following steps:
a.
Remove obsolete initialization parameters and adjust deprecated initialization
parameters. Certain parameters are obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2), while other parameters have become deprecated. Remove all obsolete
parameters from any parameter file that starts an Oracle Database 11g Release
2 (11.2) instance. Obsolete parameters might cause errors in Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2). Also, alter any parameter whose syntax has changed in
the new release.
The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool displays any deprecated parameters and
obsolete parameters it finds in the Deprecated Parameters and Obsolete
Parameters sections, respectively.
See Also: Appendix A, "Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle
Database" for a list of initialization parameters that have been
deprecated or have become obsolete, and for information on
initialization parameters that have changed in ways that raise
compatibility issues between different releases of Oracle Database
software
3-50 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually
b.
Make sure the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter is properly set for Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool displays a
warning in the Database section if COMPATIBLE is not properly set.
c.
Adjust the values of the initialization parameters to at least the minimum
values indicated by the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool.
d.
Make sure all path names in the parameter file are fully specified. You should
not have relative path names in the parameter file.
e.
If the parameter file contains an IFILE entry, then change the IFILE entry in
the parameter file to point to the new location of the include file that you
specified in Step 1. c. Then, edit the file specified in the IFILE entry in the
same way that you edited the parameter file in Step a through Step d.
f.
If you are upgrading a cluster database, then modify the initdb_name.ora
file in the same way that you modified the parameter file.
Make sure you save all of the files you modified after making these adjustments.
Note: If you are upgrading a cluster database, then perform this step
on all nodes in which this cluster database has instances configured.
4.
If you are upgrading a cluster database, then set the CLUSTER_DATABASE
initialization parameter to false. After the upgrade, you must set this
initialization parameter back to TRUE.
Manually Upgrading Oracle Database
After installing the new Oracle Database software as described in "Installing the New
Oracle Database Software for the Upgrade" on page 8 and preparing the new Oracle
home as described in "Preparing the New Oracle Home for a Manual Upgrade" on
page 49, you are ready to proceed with the manual upgrade.
To manually upgrade the database
1.
Shut down the instance:
SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
2.
If your operating system is Windows, then complete the following steps:
a.
Stop the OracleServiceSID Oracle service of the database you are
upgrading, where SID is the instance name. For example, if your SID is ORCL,
then enter the following at a command prompt:
C:\> NET STOP OracleServiceORCL
b.
Delete the Oracle service at a command prompt using ORADIM.
If your SID is ORCL, then enter the following command:
C:\> ORADIM -DELETE -SID ORCL
c.
Create the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) service at a command prompt
using the ORADIM command of the new Oracle Database release:
C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID SID -SYSPWD PASSWORD -MAXUSERS USERS
-STARTMODE AUTO -PFILE ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE\INITSID.ORA
This syntax includes the following variables:
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-51
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually
Variable
Description
SID
The same SID name as the SID of the database you are upgrading.
PASSWORD
The password for the new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
database instance. This is the password for the user connected with
SYSDBA privileges. The -SYSPWD option is not required. If you do not
specify it, then operating system authentication is used, and no
password is required.
If the default Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) security settings are
in place, then passwords must be at least eight characters, and
passwords such as welcome and oracle are not allowed. See Oracle
Database Security Guide for more information.
USERS
The maximum number of users who can be granted SYSDBA and
SYSOPER privileges.
ORACLE_HOME
The Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle home directory. Ensure
that you specify the full path name with the -PFILE option, including
the drive letter of the Oracle home directory.
For example, if your SID is ORCL, your password (SYSPWD) is TWxy5791, the
maximum number of users (MAXUSERS) is 10, and the ORACLE_HOME
directory is C:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\11.2.0\DB, then enter the following
command:
C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID ORCL -SYSPWD TWxy5791 -MAXUSERS 10
-STARTMODE AUTO -PFILE C:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\11.2.0\DB\DATABASE\INITORCL.ORA
ORADIM writes a log file to the ORACLE_HOME\database directory.
3.
If your operating system is Linux or UNIX, then perform the following checks:
a.
Your ORACLE_SID is set correctly
b.
The oratab file points to your Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle
home
c.
The following environment variables point to the Oracle Database 11g Release
2 (11.2) directories:
d.
–
ORACLE_HOME
–
PATH
Any scripts that clients use to set the ORACLE_HOME value must point to the
new Oracle home.
If you are upgrading a cluster database, then perform these
checks on all nodes on which this cluster database has instances
configured.
Note:
See Also: Oracle Database Installation Guide for your operating
system-specific Oracle Database procedures for information about
setting other important environment variables on your operating
system
4.
If there is a different user and group for Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database,
then run the setasmgidwrap script, which is located in the GRID_HOME/bin
directory, against the new ORACLE_HOME/bin/oracle directory with the -o
option as shown in the following example:
3-52 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually
$GRID_HOME/bin/setasmgidwrap o=ORACLE_HOME/bin/oracle
5.
Log in to the system as the owner of the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
Oracle home directory.
6.
At a system prompt, change to the ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin directory.
7.
Start SQL*Plus.
8.
Connect to the database instance as a user with SYSDBA privileges.
9.
Start the instance by issuing the following command:
SQL> STARTUP UPGRADE
Note: The UPGRADE keyword enables you to open a database based
on an earlier Oracle Database release. It also restricts logons to AS
SYSDBA sessions, disables system triggers, and performs additional
operations that prepare the environment for the upgrade.
You might be required to use the PFILE option to specify the location of your
initialization parameter file.
Once the database is started in upgrade mode, only queries on fixed views execute
without errors until after the catupgrd.sql script is run. Before running
catupgrd.sql, queries on any other view or the use of PL/SQL returns an error.
The following are common errors that might occur when attempting to start the
new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database. Some of these errors are
written to the alert log and not to your session. If you receive any of these errors,
then issue the SHUTDOWN ABORT command to shut down the database and correct
the problem.
■
ORA-00401: the value for parameter compatible is not
supported by this release
The COMPATIBLE initialization parameter is set to a value less than 10.0.0.
■
ORA-39701: database must be mounted EXCLUSIVE for UPGRADE
or DOWNGRADE
The CLUSTER_DATABASE initialization parameter is set to TRUE instead of
FALSE.
■
ORA-39700: database must be opened with UPGRADE option
The STARTUP command was issued without the UPGRADE keyword.
■
ORA-00336: log file size xxxx blocks is less than minimum
8192 blocks
A redo log file size is less than 4 MB:
If errors appear listing obsolete initialization parameters, then make a note of the
obsolete initialization parameters and continue with the upgrade. Remove the
obsolete initialization parameters the next time you shut down the database.
10. Perform this step only if you are upgrading from Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2).
Otherwise, skip to the next step.
Create a SYSAUX tablespace. In the new Oracle Database 11g release, the SYSAUX
tablespace is used to consolidate data from a number of tablespaces that were
separate in previous releases.
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-53
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually
The SYSAUX tablespace must be created with the following mandatory attributes:
■
ONLINE
■
PERMANENT
■
READ WRITE
■
EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL
■
SEGMENT SPACE MANAGEMENT AUTO
Table 3–4 can be used to determine an optimal size for the SYSAUX tablespace.
Also, the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool provides an estimate of the minimum
required size for the SYSAUX tablespace under the SYSAUX Tablespace section.
Table 3–4
Guidelines for Sizing the SYSAUX Tablespace
Factor
Small
Medium
Large
Number of CPUs
2
8
32
Number of concurrently active sessions
5
20
100
Number of user objects (tables and
indexes)
500
5,000
50,000
Estimated SYSAUX size at steady state
with default configuration
500 MB
2 GB
5 GB
The following SQL statement would create a 500 MB SYSAUX tablespace for the
database:
SQL> CREATE TABLESPACE sysaux DATAFILE 'sysaux01.dbf'
SIZE 500M REUSE
EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL
SEGMENT SPACE MANAGEMENT AUTO
ONLINE;
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information
about the SYSAUX tablespace
11. Set the system to spool results to a log file for later verification of success:
SQL> SPOOL upgrade.log
12. Run the catupgrd.sql script:
SQL> @catupgrd.sql
The catupgrd.sql script determines which upgrade scripts must be run, runs
them, and then shuts down the database. You must run the script in the Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) environment.
The upgrade script creates and alters certain data dictionary tables. It also
upgrades or installs the following database components in the new Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database:
■
Oracle Database Catalog Views
■
Oracle Database Packages and Types
■
JServer JAVA Virtual Machine
■
Oracle Database Java Packages
■
Oracle XDK
3-54 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters
■
Oracle Workspace Manager
■
Oracle Multimedia
■
Oracle XML Database
■
OLAP Analytic Workspace
■
Oracle OLAP API
■
OLAP Catalog
■
Oracle Text
■
Spatial
■
Oracle Data Mining
■
Oracle Label Security
■
Messaging Gateway
■
Oracle Expression Filter
■
Oracle Rules Manager
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Repository
■
Oracle Database Vault
■
Oracle Application Express
If you did not run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool, the
catupgrd.sql script terminates with one of the following errors:
Note:
ORA-00942: table or view does not exist
ORA-00904: "TZ_VERSION": invalid identifier
ORA-01722: invalid number
If you receive any of these errors, issue the SHUTDOWN ABORT
statement, revert to the original Oracle home directory, and run the
Pre-Upgrade Information Tool (utlu112i.sql) as described in
"Using the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool" on page 3-10.
13. Restart the instance to reinitialize the system parameters for normal operation.
SQL> STARTUP
This restart, following the database shutdown performed as part of the
catupgrd.sql script, flushes all caches, clears buffers, and performs other
housekeeping activities. These measures are an important final step to ensure the
integrity and consistency of the newly upgraded Oracle Database software.
14. If you encountered a message listing obsolete initialization parameters when you
started the database in Step 9, then remove the obsolete initialization parameters
from the parameter file before restarting. If necessary, convert the SPFILE to a
PFILE so you can edit the file to delete parameters. See the chapter about
managing initialization parameters using a server parameter file in Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide.
15. Run utlu112s.sql, the Post-Upgrade Status Tool, which provides a summary of
the upgrade at the end of the spool log. You can run utlu112s.sql any time
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-55
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually
after completing the upgrade. See "About the Post-Upgrade Status Tool" on
page 57 for more information.
Run utlu112s.sql to display the results of the upgrade as follows:
SQL> @utlu112s.sql
If the Post-Upgrade Status Tool returns errors or shows components that are not
VALID or not the most recent release, then see "Troubleshooting the Upgrade of
Oracle Database" on page 58 for more information.
16. Run catuppst.sql to perform upgrade actions that do not require the database
to be in UPGRADE mode:
SQL> @catuppst.sql
This may generate the following informational messages:
Generating apply and rollback scripts...
Check the following file for errors:
Apply script: .*
Rollback script: .*
Executing script file...
Updating registry...
Check the following log file for errors:
Generating apply and rollback scripts...
Check the following file for errors:
.../cfgtoollogs/catbundle/catbundle_PSU_*.log
Apply script:
.../rdbms/admin/catbundle_PSU_*_APPLY.sql
Rollback script:
.../rdbms/admin/catbundle_PSU_*_ROLLBACK.sql
Executing script file...
Updating registry...
Check the following log file for errors:
.../cfgtoollogs/catbundle/catbundle_PSU_*.log
17. Run utlrp.sql to recompile any remaining stored PL/SQL and Java code.
SQL> @utlrp.sql
Verify that all expected packages and classes are valid:
SQL> SELECT count(*) FROM dba_invalid_objects;
SQL> SELECT distinct object_name FROM dba_invalid_objects;
Note: If the pre-upgrade information tool detected INVALID objects
and populated the registry$sys_inv_objs and
registry$nonsys_inv_objs tables, then execute ORACLE_
HOME/rdbms/admin/utluiobj.sql to display only those objects
which are newly invalid because of the upgrade process. The
utluiobj.sql script only displays objects that are now INVALID
but which were VALID before the upgrade.
18. Exit SQL*Plus.
3-56 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading Oracle Database Manually
19. If you are upgrading a cluster database from releases 10.2, 11.1, or 11.2, then
upgrade the database configuration in Oracle Clusterware using the following
command:
$ srvctl upgrade database -d db-unique-name -o oraclehome
where db-unique-name is the database name assigned to it (not the instance
name), and oraclehome is the Oracle home location in which the database is
being upgraded.
Your database is now upgraded to the new Oracle Database 11g release. You are ready
to complete the procedures described in Chapter 4, "Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle
Database".
Oracle Warehouse Builder components are not upgraded as
part of the catupgrd.sql script and, therefore, its version will not be
updated during the upgrade process.
Note:
Caution: If you retain the old Oracle software, then never start the
upgraded database with the old software. Only start the database
with the executables in the new Oracle Database installation. Also,
before you remove the old Oracle environment, make sure you
relocate any data files in that environment to the new Oracle
Database environment. See the Oracle Database Administrator's
Guide for information about relocating data files.
About the Post-Upgrade Status Tool
The Post-Upgrade Status Tool, which is the utlu112s.sql script, displays the status
of the database components in the upgraded database and the time required to
complete each component upgrade. Any errors that occur during the upgrade are
listed with each component and must be addressed. The utlu112s.sql script can be
run any time after you run catupgrd.sql, but not after running utlrp.sql.
The Post-Upgrade Status Tool displays a report similar to the following output:
Oracle Database 11.2 Post-Upgrade Status Tool
.
Component
Current
Name
Status
.
Oracle Server
.
VALID
JServer JAVA Virtual Machine
.
VALID
Oracle Workspace Manager
.
VALID
OLAP Analytic Workspace
.
VALID
OLAP Catalog
.
VALID
Oracle OLAP API
.
VALID
Oracle Label Security
.
VALID
Oracle Enterprise Manager
.
VALID
07-12-2011 12:36:25
Version
Number
Elapsed Time
HH:MM:SS
11.2.0.3.0
00:04:47
11.2.0.3.0
00:01:05
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:18
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:07
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:21
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:12
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:02
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:50
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-57
Troubleshooting the Upgrade of Oracle Database
Oracle XDK
.
Oracle Text
.
Oracle XML Database
.
Oracle Database Java Packages
.
Oracle Multimedia
.
Spatial
.
Oracle Expression Filter
.
Oracle Rules Manager
.
Oracle Application Express
.
Oracle Database Vault
.
Gathering Statistics
.
Total Upgrade Time: 00:12:30
VALID
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:19
VALID
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:11
VALID
11.2.0.3.0
00:01:04
VALID
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:07
VALID
11.2.0.3.0
00:01:25
VALID
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:50
VALID
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:04
VALID
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:02
VALID
3.2.1.00.10
VALID
11.2.0.3.0
00:00:02
00:00:36
Troubleshooting the Upgrade of Oracle Database
Oracle provides troubleshooting tips and workarounds for problems and errors that
may occur during the upgrade process for Oracle Database. Also, be sure to check
Oracle Database Readme.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Pre-Upgrade Oracle Home Removal on Oracle RAC
■
Resource Limits and Oracle Database Upgrade
■
COMPATIBLE Parameter Not Set
■
Edition Session Startup Error
■
Manual Workaround for ORA-01408
■
Running the DBMS_DST Package After Upgrade Can Result in ORA-01822
■
DBUA May Mark Invalid Components with an X Before Entire Upgrade is Done
■
Understanding Component Status
■
Rerunning the Upgrade for Oracle Database
■
Cancelling the Upgrade for Oracle Database
Pre-Upgrade Oracle Home Removal on Oracle RAC
You may need to keep the old Oracle Home for a while after a successful upgrade.
However, after you have tested the newly upgraded Oracle database, you will need to
remove the old Oracle Home.
As the clusterware user on all nodes, enter the following SQL*Plus commands.
■
Detach OLD_HOME (where OLD_HOME is your pre-upgrade Oracle Home:
$OLD_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller -detachHome -silent -local
3-58 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Troubleshooting the Upgrade of Oracle Database
■
Confirm OLD_HOME is removed from central inventory:
$OLD_HOME/OPatch/opatch lsinventory -all
■
Remove files in OLD_HOME manually:
/bin/rm -rf $OLD_HOME
Resource Limits and Oracle Database Upgrade
If you run out of resources, such as disk space or memory, during the upgrade of
Oracle Database, then increase the resource allocation. After increasing the resource
allocation, you should perform a SHUTDOWN ABORT and restart the instance (in
UPGRADE mode) before rerunning the catupgrd.sql script or restarting DBUA.
The resources that generally require increases for a new Oracle Database release are as
follows:
■
SYSTEM and SYSAUX tablespaces
Typically you receive one of the following messages during the upgrade if your
SYSTEM tablespace size is insufficient:
ORA-01650:
string
ORA-01651:
ORA-01652:
ORA-01653:
ORA-01654:
ORA-01655:
string
unable to extend rollback segment string by string in tablespace
unable
unable
unable
unable
unable
to
to
to
to
to
extend
extend
extend
extend
extend
save undo segment by string for tablespace string
temp segment by string in tablespace string
table string.string by string in tablespace string
index string.string by string in tablespace string
cluster string.string by string in tablespace
To avoid these errors, set AUTOEXTEND ON MAXSIZE UNLIMITED for the
SYSTEM and SYSAUX tablespaces.
■
Shared memory
You might require larger shared memory pool sizes in some cases. The error
message indicates which shared memory initialization parameter must be
increased.
ORA-04031: unable to allocate string bytes of shared memory
("string","string","string","string")
Oracle Database Reference for information about shared
memory initialization parameters.
See Also:
■
Rollback segments/undo tablespace
If you are using rollback segments, then you must have a single large (100 MB)
PUBLIC rollback segment online while the upgrade scripts are being run. Smaller
public rollback segments should be taken offline during the upgrade. Typically
you get the following error if your rollback segment size is insufficient:
ORA-01562: failed to extend rollback segment number string
If you are using an undo tablespace, then be sure it is at least 400 MB.
■
Flash Recovery Area
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-59
Troubleshooting the Upgrade of Oracle Database
If you are using a Flash Recovery Area and it fills up during the upgrade, then the
following error appears in the alert log, followed by suggestions for recovering
from the problem:
ORA-19815: WARNING: db_recovery_file_dest_size of string bytes is 98.99%
used, and has string remaining bytes available.
Identify the root cause of the problem and take appropriate actions to proceed
with the upgrade. To avoid issues during the upgrade, increase the amount of
space available in your Flash Recovery Area before starting the upgrade.
COMPATIBLE Parameter Not Set
If you see error ORA-00723, "Initialization parameter COMPATIBLE must be explicitly
set," when attempting to open a database in the new Oracle home in upgrade mode,
then check that COMPATIBLE is set in the pfile or spfile.
See Also: "Setting the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter" on
page 4-15 for information about setting the COMPATIBLE initialization
parameter
Edition Session Startup Error
If an upgrade script or command running in SQL*Plus set the EDITION parameter,
then Oracle Database cannot start properly afterwards and error SP2-1540: "Oracle
Database cannot startup in an Edition session" is thrown. To avoid this problem, after
running catugrd.sql or any SQL*Plus session where this parameter is changed, exit
the SQL*Plus session and restart the instance in a different session.
Manual Workaround for ORA-01408
The ORA-01408 error is a known problem with Oracle Application databases. The
workaround addresses the following scenario:
SQL> Create Index system.repcat$_audit_column_f2_idx ON
2 system.repcat$_audit_column(base_sname,base_oname,base_conflict_type_id,
3 base_reference_name)
4 /
system.repcat$_audit_column(base_sname,base_oname,base_conflict_type_id,
*
ERROR at line 2:
ORA-01408: such column list already indexed
The workaround is to drop the REPCAT$_AUDIT_COLUMN_IDX1 index and rerun the
upgrade as described in "Rerunning the Upgrade for Oracle Database" on page 3-61.
Running the DBMS_DST Package After Upgrade Can Result in ORA-01822
Running the DBMS_DST package after upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2) can result in the ORA-01882: time zone region not found error.
This error is returned if the user sets the time zone file version incorrectly, which
results in the region IDs of several time zone regions being stored incorrectly in the
database. For example:
ERROR at line
@ ORA-01882:
@ ORA-06512:
@ ORA-06512:
1:
time zone region not found
at "SYS.DBMS_DST", line 113
at "SYS.DBMS_DST", line 1101
3-60 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Rerunning the Upgrade for Oracle Database
@
ORA-06512: at line 1
To fix this problem, update the time zone version as described in "About Warnings for
TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Data Type" on page 18 and rerun the upgrade as
described in "Rerunning the Upgrade for Oracle Database" on page 3-61.
Understanding Component Status
The Post-Upgrade Status Tool should report VALID status for all components at the
end of the upgrade. The following list shows and briefly describes other status values
that you might see:
■
NO SCRIPT
The component upgrade script was not found in ORACLE_HOME. Check the
install logs, install the component software, and then rerun catupgrd.sql.
■
OPTION OFF
The server option required for the component was not installed or was not linked
with the server. Check the V$OPTION view as well as the install logs. Install the
component or relink the server with the required option, and then rerun
catupgrd.sql.
■
REMOVED
The component was not upgraded because it was removed from the database.
■
INVALID
Some objects for the component were invalid at the completion of the upgrade. If
there were no errors during the component upgrade, then running utlrp.sql
might change the status to VALID without rerunning the entire upgrade. Check
the DBA_REGISTRY view after running utlrp.sql.
■
UPGRADING
The component upgrade did not complete. Resolve the problem and rerun
catupgrd.sql.
See Also:
"About the Post-Upgrade Status Tool" on page 57
DBUA May Mark Invalid Components with an X Before Entire Upgrade is Done
DBUA may mark invalid components with an X on the Upgrade Progress window as
the upgrade is progressing. An invalid component could be re-validated after a
recompile is performed. Please check the final component status on the Upgrade
Result page in DBUA after utlrp.sql recompiles have been run.
See Also:
"Understanding Component Status" on page 61
Rerunning the Upgrade for Oracle Database
You can rerun the upgrade with the catupgrd.sql script as described in the
following steps.
To rerun the upgrade
1.
Shut down the database as follows:
SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-61
Cancelling the Upgrade for Oracle Database
2.
Restart the database in UPGRADE mode:
SQL> STARTUP UPGRADE
3.
Set the system to spool results to a log file for later verification of success:
SQL> SPOOL upgrade.log
4.
Rerun catupgrd.sql:
SQL> @catupgrd.sql
You can rerun the catupgrd.sql script as many times as
necessary. The first time you run the script, there should be no error
messages returned. If you rerun the script, then the ORA-00001
message is displayed. You can safely ignore this message.
Note:
5.
Rerun utlu112s.sql:
SQL> @utlu112s.sql
Cancelling the Upgrade for Oracle Database
If you completed the steps in "Backing Up Oracle Database for a Manual Upgrade" on
page 49 to back up your database, then the easiest way to cancel the upgrade is to
restore that backup as described in the following procedure.
To cancel the upgrade by restoring the previous backup
1.
Log in to the system as the owner of the Oracle home directory of the previous
release.
2.
Sign on to RMAN:
rman "target / nocatalog"
3.
Issue the following RMAN commands:
STARTUP NOMOUNT
RUN
{
RESTORE CONTROLFILE FROM 'save_controlfile_location';
ALTER DATABASE MOUNT;
RESTORE DATABASE FROM TAG before_upgrade
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
}
About Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance
The recommended practice for upgrading Oracle ASM is to upgrade an Oracle ASM
instance with the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) executable file that is located in the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home directory. OUI automatically defaults to upgrade
mode when it detects an Oracle ASM instance at an earlier release level.
Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant enables you to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM
instance to the current software level and upgrade an older Oracle ASM instance to the
latest Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
3-62 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
About Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance
You can upgrade an Oracle ASM instance to an Oracle Restart 11g release 2 (11.2)
configuration. The recommended practice is to upgrade an Oracle ASM instance with
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI).
You can also perform a rolling upgrade to clustered Oracle ASM instances in
environments running Oracle Database 11g or later.
See Also:
■
■
■
■
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more information
about upgrading and Oracle ASM instance with OUI
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more information
about upgrading an Oracle ASM instance with Oracle ASM
Configuration Assistant
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more information
about upgrading an Oracle ASM instance in an Oracle Restart
configuration with OUI
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for step-by-step
instructions about performing a rolling upgrade of Oracle ASM
Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle Database
3-63
About Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance
3-64 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
4
4
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database
After performing the procedures for upgrading Oracle Database, you must complete
required tasks and consider recommendations for the new release.
The chapter contains the following topics:
■
How to Show the Current State of the Oracle Data Dictionary
■
About OPatch Commands After Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Required Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Recommended Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Tasks to Complete Only After Manually Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Required Tasks After Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
■
Required Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades
■
Recommended Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades
How to Show the Current State of the Oracle Data Dictionary
You can collect upgrade and migration diagnostic information about the current state
of the data dictionary by running the dbupgdiag.sql script. The script can be run in
SQL*Plus both before the upgrade on the source database and after the upgrade on the
upgraded database as SYS user.
See Also: Note 556610.1 Script to Collect DB Upgrade/Migrate
Diagnostic Information (dbupgdiag.sql) on My Oracle Support at at
http://support.oracle.com
To show the current state of the dictionary, execute a SQL query similar to the
following example:
SQL> spool /tmp/regInvalid.out
SQL> set echo on
-- query registry
SQL> set lines 80 pages 100
SQL> select substr(comp_id,1,15) comp_id,substr(comp_name,1,30)
comp_name,substr(version,1,10) version,status
from dba_registry order by modified;
To query invalid objects, execute a SQL query similar to:
SQL> select substr(owner,1,12) owner,substr(object_name,1,30)
object,substr(object_type,1,30) type, status
from dba_objects where status <> 'VALID'order by owner, type;
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-1
About OPatch Commands After Upgrading Oracle Database
SQL> spool off
SQL> set echo off
About OPatch Commands After Upgrading Oracle Database
After you upgrade Oracle Database, you must run OPatch commands from the new
Oracle home. For example, run the lsinventory command from the new Oracle
home in order to list an accurate and complete inventory of what is currently installed
on the system.
See Also: "Appendix A" in Oracle OPatch User's Guide for Windows
and UNIX for OPatch syntax and commands
Required Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
After you upgrade Oracle Database, regardless of whether you perform the upgrade
manually, or upgrade automatically by using Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA),
you must complete any required tasks that are specified for your environment. You
must also consider important information about your environment. The following
topics contain the required procedures and information:
■
Setting Environment Variables on Linux and UNIX Systems After Manual
Upgrades
■
Upgrading the Recovery Catalog After Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Upgrading the Time Zone File Version After Upgrading Oracle Database
■
■
■
■
■
■
Upgrading Statistics Tables Created by the DBMS_STATS Package After
Upgrading Oracle Database
Upgrading Externally Authenticated SSL Users After Upgrading Oracle Database
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases After Upgrading Oracle
Database
Updating Your Oracle Application Express Configuration After Upgrading Oracle
Database
Configuring Fine-Grained Access to External Network Services After Upgrading
Oracle Database
Enabling Oracle Database Vault and Revoking the DV_PATCH_ADMIN Role
After Upgrading Oracle Database
Setting Environment Variables on Linux and UNIX Systems After Manual Upgrades
If your operating system is Linux or UNIX, and if you performed a manual upgrade of
Oracle Database, then you must ensure that certain environment variables point to the
directories of the new Oracle Database release. Note that DBUA automatically makes
necessary changes to environment variables. Additionally, if you are upgrading a
cluster database, then perform these checks on all nodes on which the cluster database
has instances configured.
Confirm that the following environment variables point to the directories of the new
Oracle home:
■
ORACLE_HOME
■
PATH
4-2 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Required Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for procedures
Your operating system-specific Oracle Database installation
documents for information about setting other important
environment variables on your operating system
Setting oratab and Scripts to Point to the New Oracle Home After Upgrading Oracle
Database
After you upgrade Oracle Database to the new release, you must ensure that your
oratab file and any client scripts that set the value of ORACLE_HOME point to the new
Oracle home that is created for the new Oracle Database 11g release. Although DBUA
automatically points oratab to the new Oracle home, client scripts must be checked
no matter which method you use to upgrade.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
Upgrading the Recovery Catalog After Upgrading Oracle Database
For complete information about upgrading the recovery catalog and the UPGRADE
CATALOG command, see Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for the topic
that describes the procedures.
Upgrading the Time Zone File Version After Upgrading Oracle Database
If the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool instructed you to upgrade the time zone files after
completing the database upgrade, then use the DBMS_DST PL/SQL package to
upgrade the time zone file.
Oracle Database supplies multiple versions of time zone files, and there are two types
of file associated with each one: a large file, which contains all the time zones defined
in the database, and a small file, which contains only the most commonly used time
zones. The large versions are designated as timezlrg_version_number.dat,
while the small versions are designated as timezone_version_number.dat. The
files are located in the oracore/zoneinfo subdirectory under the Oracle Database
home directory.
See Also:
■
■
■
Note ID 977512.1 "Updating the RDBMS DST version in 11gR2
(11.2.0.1 and up) using DBMS_DST" on My Oracle Support at
https://support.oracle.com
"About Warnings for TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Data Type"
on page 3-18
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide and follow the
procedure in "Steps to Upgrade Time Zone File and Timestamp
with Time Zone Data"
Upgrading Statistics Tables Created by the DBMS_STATS Package After Upgrading
Oracle Database
If you created statistics tables using the DBMS_STATS.CREATE_STAT_TABLE
procedure, then upgrade these tables by running the following procedure:
EXECUTE DBMS_STATS.UPGRADE_STAT_TABLE('scott', 'stat_table');
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-3
Required Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
In the example, SCOTT is the owner of the statistics table and STAT_TABLE is the
name of the statistics table. Perform this procedure for each statistics table.
Upgrading Externally Authenticated SSL Users After Upgrading Oracle Database
If you are upgrading from Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) or Oracle Database 10g Release 1
(10.1), and you are using externally authenticated SSL users, then you must run the
SSL external users conversion (extusrupgrade) script to upgrade those users. The
script has the following syntax:
ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/bin/extusrupgrade --dbconnectstring
<hostname:port_no:sid> --dbuser <db admin> --dbuserpassword
<password> -a
Note: If you are upgrading from Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)
or higher, then you are not required to run this command.
See Also:
for more information on the extusrupgrade script
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases After Upgrading Oracle Database
The Oracle Text supplied knowledge bases are part of the companion Oracle Database
11g release products and are not immediately available after an upgrade to the new
Oracle Database 11g release. Any Oracle Text features dependent on the supplied
knowledge bases which were available before the upgrade do not function after the
upgrade. To re-enable such features, you must install the Oracle Text supplied
knowledge bases from the installation media.
After an upgrade, all user extensions to the Oracle Text supplied knowledge bases
must be regenerated. These changes affect all databases installed in the given Oracle
home.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for information about
Oracle Text-supplied knowledge bases
The postinstallation tasks section of your platform-specific
Oracle Database Installation Guide for companion products
Updating Your Oracle Application Express Configuration After Upgrading Oracle
Database
If your database originally included Application Express Version 3.2 or higher, then
there is no additional configuration necessary after upgrading to the new Oracle
Database 11g release.
If your database was not an Oracle Express Edition (XE) database, but contained an
earlier version of Application Express (HTML DB), then the latest version is
automatically installed during the upgrade. You must complete a series of
postinstallation steps to configure Application Express for use with the new Oracle
Database 11g release.
Oracle Application Express Installation Guide for
postinstallation tasks for Application Express
See Also:
4-4 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Required Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
If your database is an Oracle Express Edition (XE) database, then it contains an earlier
version of Application Express, which is tailored for the XE environment. Review the
OTN document describing the differences between Oracle XE and Oracle Application
Express at the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/developer-tools/apex/overview/
index.html
The database administration features available with the XE edition of Application
Express are not available in version 3.2, but Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control can, optionally, be installed to provide a graphical interface for database
administration.
Configuring Fine-Grained Access to External Network Services After Upgrading Oracle
Database
Oracle Database 11g includes fine-grained access control to the UTL_TCP, UTL_SMTP,
UTL_MAIL, UTL_HTTP, or UTL_INADDR packages using Oracle XML DB. If you have
applications that use these packages, then you must install Oracle XML DB if it is not
installed. You must also configure network access control lists (ACLs) in the database
before these packages can work as they did in earlier releases.
The following example first looks for any ACL currently assigned to host_name. If
one is found, then the example grants user_name the CONNECT privilege in the ACL,
only if that user does not have this privilege. If no ACL exists for host_name, then the
example creates a new ACL called ACL_name, grants the CONNECT privilege to user_
name, and assigns the ACL to host_name.
DECLARE
acl_path VARCHAR2(4000);
BEGIN
SELECT acl INTO acl_path FROM dba_network_acls
WHERE host = 'host_name' AND lower_port IS NULL AND upper_port IS NULL;
IF DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CHECK_PRIVILEGE(acl_path,
'user_name','connect') IS NULL THEN
DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ADD_PRIVILEGE(acl_path,
'user_name', TRUE, 'connect');
END IF;
EXCEPTION
WHEN no_data_found THEN
DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CREATE_ACL('ACL_name.xml',
'ACL description', 'user_name', TRUE, 'connect');
DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ASSIGN_ACL('ACL_name.xml','host_name');
END;
COMMIT;
Note:
The transaction must be committed for the changes to take
effect.
Oracle Database Security Guide for more complicated
situations, such as connecting some users to host A and other users to
host B
See Also:
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-5
Recommended Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
Enabling Oracle Database Vault and Revoking the DV_PATCH_ADMIN Role After
Upgrading Oracle Database
If you use Oracle Database Vault, then you were instructed to disable it before
upgrading your database. You must now:
■
Enable Database Vault.
■
Revoke the Database Vault DV_PATCH_ADMIN role for the SYS account.
See Also:
■
■
■
■
"About Upgrading Databases That Use Oracle Database Vault" on
page 3-8
The appendix about "Disabling and Enabling Oracle Database
Vault" in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide
The section about "Manually Deploying Oracle Database Vault
Administrator" in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide
The appendix about "Post-installation Oracle Database Vault
Procedures" in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide
Recommended Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
Performing the following tasks is recommended, but not required, after you have
upgraded your database. These tasks are recommended regardless of whether you
performed the upgrade manually or by using DBUA:
■
■
Recommended Tasks to Perform After All Database Upgrades
Recommended Tasks After Upgrading an Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
Database
■
Recommended Tasks After Upgrading an Oracle Express Edition Database
■
Recommended Tasks After Upgrading an Oracle RAC Database
Recommended Tasks to Perform After All Database Upgrades
Performing the following tasks is recommended, but not required, after you have
upgraded your database.
■
Back Up the Database
■
Reset Passwords to Enforce Case-Sensitivity
■
Understand Changes with Oracle Grid Infrastructure
■
Understand Oracle ASM and Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation and Upgrade
■
Add New Features as Appropriate
■
Develop New Administrative Procedures as Needed
■
Set Threshold Values for Tablespace Alerts
■
Migrate From Rollback Segments to Automatic Undo Mode
■
Configure Oracle Data Guard Broker
■
Migrate Tables from the LONG Data Type to the LOB Data Type
■
Test the Upgraded Production Database
4-6 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Recommended Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
Back Up the Database
Make sure you perform a full backup of the production database.
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
about backing up a database
See Also:
Reset Passwords to Enforce Case-Sensitivity
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you can enforce case sensitivity for
passwords. For example, the password hPP5620qr fails if it is entered as hpp5620QR
or hPp5620Qr. In previous releases, passwords were not case sensitive.
To take advantage of enforced case-sensitive passwords, you must reset the passwords
of existing users during the database upgrade procedure. For new database instances,
there are no additional tasks or management requirements. For upgraded databases,
each user password must be reset with an ALTER USER statement.
Alternatively, you can change the default to make the password verifier case
insensitive. For regular users, set the initialization parameter sec_case_
sensitive_logon to false:
sql> alter system set sec_case_sensitive_logon=false;
For sysdba and sysoper users, you can generate a new orapw file using the new
command line switch ignorecase.
Note: If the default Oracle Database release 11g security settings are
in place, then passwords must be at least eight characters, and
passwords such as welcome and oracle are not allowed. See Oracle
Database Security Guide for more information.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide
Understand Changes with Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 and Oracle ASM 11g release 2 are both part of an
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
If Oracle Grid Infrastructure is installed for a single server, then it is deployed as an
Oracle Restart installation with Oracle ASM. If Oracle Grid Infrastructure is installed
for a cluster, then it is deployed as an Oracle Clusterware installation with Oracle
ASM.
Oracle Restart enhances the availability of Oracle Database in a single-instance
environment. If you install Oracle Restart, and there is a temporary failure of any part
of the Oracle Database software stack, including the database, listener, and Oracle
ASM instance, Oracle Restart automatically restarts the failed component. In addition,
Oracle Restart starts all these components when the database host computer is
restarted. The components are started in the proper order, taking into consideration
the dependencies among components.
Oracle Clusterware is portable cluster software that allows clustering of single servers
so that they cooperate as a single system. Oracle Clusterware also provides the
required infrastructure for Oracle RAC. In addition, Oracle Clusterware enables the
protection of any Oracle application or any other application within a cluster. In any
case Oracle Clusterware is the intelligence in those systems that ensures required
cooperation between the cluster nodes.
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-7
Recommended Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
Understand Oracle ASM and Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation and Upgrade
In earlier releases, Oracle ASM was installed as part of the Oracle Database
installation. With Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is installed when
you install the grid infrastructure components and shares an Oracle home with Oracle
Clusterware when installed in a cluster such as with Oracle RAC or with Oracle
Restart on a standalone server.
If you have an existing Oracle ASM instance, you can either upgrade it during the
installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, or you can upgrade it after the installation.
However, be aware that several Oracle ASM features are disabled until you upgrade
Oracle ASM, and Oracle Clusterware management of Oracle ASM does not function
correctly until Oracle ASM is upgraded, because Oracle Clusterware only manages
Oracle ASM when it is running in the grid infrastructure home. For this reason, Oracle
recommends that if you do not upgrade Oracle ASM at the same time as you upgrade
Oracle Clusterware, then you should upgrade Oracle ASM immediately afterward.
You can upgrade an Oracle ASM instance using Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant
(ASMCA).
See Also:
■
"Required Tasks After Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades" on
page 17
■
"Preparing to Upgrade Oracle ASM" on page 19
■
"Upgrading Oracle ASM" on page 20
■
"Recommended Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades" on page 23
■
"Tasks to Complete Only After Manually Upgrading Oracle
Database" on page 13
In earlier releases, you could use Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) to upgrade
either an Oracle Database, or Oracle ASM. That is no longer the case. You can only use
DBUA to upgrade an Oracle Database instance. Use Oracle ASM Configuration
Assistant (ASMCA) to upgrade Oracle ASM.
Add New Features as Appropriate
Oracle Database New Features Guide describes many of the new features available in the
new Oracle Database 11g release. Determine which of these new features can benefit
the database and applications; then, develop a plan for using these features.
It is not necessary to make any immediate changes to begin using your new Oracle
Database software. You might prefer to introduce these enhancements into your
database and corresponding applications gradually.
Chapter 5, "Upgrading Applications After Upgrading Oracle Database" describes
ways to enhance your applications so that you can take advantage of the features of
the new Oracle Database 11g release. However, before you implement new features,
test your applications and successfully run them with the upgraded database.
Develop New Administrative Procedures as Needed
After familiarizing yourself with the features of the new Oracle Database 11g release,
review your database administration scripts and procedures to determine whether any
changes are necessary.
4-8 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Recommended Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
Coordinate your changes to the database with the changes that are necessary for each
application. For example, by enabling integrity constraints in the database, you might
be able to remove some data checking from your applications.
Set Threshold Values for Tablespace Alerts
An upgraded Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) database has the Tablespace Alerts
disabled (the thresholds are set to null). Tablespaces in the database that are candidates
for monitoring must be identified and the appropriate threshold values set.
The default threshold values (for a newly created Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
database) are:
■
85% full warning
■
97% full critical
Migrate From Rollback Segments to Automatic Undo Mode
This section describes the steps to migrate the database that is being upgraded from
using rollback segments (manual undo management) to automatic undo management.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), automatic undo management is the
default undo space management mode. The UNDO_MANAGEMENT initialization
parameter specifies which undo space management mode the system should use, as
follows:
■
If UNDO_MANAGEMENT=AUTO (or if UNDO_MANAGEMENT is not set), then the
database instance starts in automatic undo management mode.
A null UNDO_MANAGEMENT initialization parameter defaults to automatic undo
management mode in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), but it defaults to
manual undo management mode in earlier releases. You must therefore use
caution when upgrading a previous release to Oracle Database 11g.
■
If UNDO_MANAGEMENT=MANUAL, then undo space is allocated externally as
rollback segments.
If you are currently using rollback segments to manage undo space, then Oracle
recommends that you migrate your Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) database to
automatic undo management. This change requires that you first create an undo
tablespace before opening a newly upgraded database to use automatic undo
management. The required size of undo tablespace depends upon the system
workload and Flashback requirements.
To migrate to automatic undo management, perform the following steps:
1.
Set UNDO_MANAGEMENT=MANUAL.
2.
Start the instance again and run through a standard business cycle to obtain a
representative workload. Doing this to assess the workload and compute the size
of the undo tablespace required for automatic undo management.
3.
After the standard business cycle completes, run the following function to collect
the undo tablespace size and help with the sizing of the undo tablespace (DBA
privileges are required to run this function):
DECLARE
utbsiz_in_MB NUMBER;
BEGIN
utbsiz_in_MB := DBMS_UNDO_ADV.RBU_MIGRATION;
end;
/
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-9
Recommended Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
This function runs a PL/SQL procedure that provides information on how to size
your new undo tablespace based on the configuration and usage of the rollback
segments in your system. The function returns the sizing information directly.
4.
Create an undo tablespace of the required size and turn on the automatic undo
management by setting UNDO_MANAGEMENT=AUTO or by removing the parameter.
5.
For Oracle RAC configurations, repeat these steps on all instances.
Configure Oracle Data Guard Broker
The Data Guard broker property LocalListenerAddress has been deprecated as of
release 11.2.0.1 due to changes with broker communication and the redo transport
setting.
The broker property InitialConnectIdentifier has been changed to
DGConnectIdentifier. The value of DGConnectIdentifier is used for all Data
Guard network traffic, all of the time. If you are upgrading an Oracle Database release
10g configuration, which requires you to first upgrade to Oracle Database 11g Release
1 (11.1), the value that exists for InitialConnectIdentifier is retained as the new
value for DGConnectIdentifier for the database. When upgrading an Oracle RAC
database, the database administrator must ensure that the value for the
InitialConnectIdentifier property reaches all instances.
Migrate Tables from the LONG Data Type to the LOB Data Type
LOB data types (BFILE, BLOB, CLOB, and NCLOB) can provide many advantages over
LONG data types. See Oracle Database Concepts for information about the differences
between LONG and LOB data types.
In Oracle9i Release 1 (9.0.1) and later, you can use the ALTER TABLE statement to
change the data type of a LONG column to CLOB and that of a LONG RAW column to
BLOB.
In the following example, the LONG column named long_col in table long_tab is
changed to data type CLOB:
SQL> ALTER TABLE Long_tab MODIFY ( long_col CLOB );
After using this method to change LONG columns to LOBs, all the existing constraints
and triggers on the table are still usable. However, all the indexes, including Domain
indexes and Functional indexes, on all columns of the table become unusable and
must be rebuilt using an ALTER INDEX...REBUILD statement. Also, the Domain
indexes on the LONG column must be dropped before changing the LONG column to a
LOB.
See Also: Oracle Database SecureFiles and Large Objects Developer's
Guide for information about modifying applications to use LOB data
Test the Upgraded Production Database
If you upgraded a test database to the new Oracle Database 11g release and then tested
it, then you can now repeat those tests on the production database that you upgraded
to the new Oracle Database 11g release. Compare the results, noting anomalies. Repeat
the test upgrade as many times as necessary.
Test the newly upgraded production database with existing applications to verify that
they operate properly with a new Oracle database. You also might test enhanced
functions by adding available Oracle Database features. However, first ensure that the
applications operate in the same manner as they did before the upgrade.
4-10 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Recommended Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
See Also: Chapter 5, "Upgrading Applications After Upgrading
Oracle Database" for more information on using applications with
Oracle Database
Recommended Tasks After Upgrading an Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
Database
Performing the following tasks is recommended, but not required, after you have
upgraded from Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) or Oracle Database 10g Release 2
(10.2).
■
Upgrade Change Data Capture
■
Configure Secure HTTP
■
Provide Anonymous Access to XML DB Repository Data Through HTTP
Upgrade Change Data Capture
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), Asynchronous Change Data
Capture (CDC) no longer requires the same operating system for source and target
databases. This feature enables a heterogeneous CDC setup with different operating
systems and Oracle Database releases, enabling asynchronous CDC to leverage any
existing Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) system as a source.
See Also: Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide for complete
information on upgrading an Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) or Oracle
Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) database to the new Oracle Database 11g
release with Change Data Capture, and supported configurations for
the Distributed HotLog mode of Change Data Capture
Configure Secure HTTP
To configure HTTPS access to Oracle XML DB, follow the steps in this section to
provide correct configuration information.
When a database is upgraded to Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) or later, the XML
schema for the Oracle XML DB configuration file is automatically upgraded so that the
Oracle XML DB configuration file (located at /xdbconfig.xml in the repository) can
have two additional elements, http2-port and http2-protocol. These elements
are not added to the Oracle XML DB configuration file by default during an upgrade.
If you need support for HTTPS, then you must edit the configuration file to add these
two new elements (see the XML schema for their exact locations), and to set the value
of http2-protocol to tcps. The value of http2-port should be different from the
value of http-port.
In addition to specifying the parameters http2-port and http2-protocol in the
Oracle XML DB configuration file, you must configure the database and the listener to
enable Oracle XML DB to use HTTPS. Additionally, if the steps in the following
procedure were not performed before the upgrade, then you must perform them after
the upgrade.
To enable Oracle XML DB to use HTTPS
1.
Enable the HTTP listener and the database to use SSL
2.
Enable launching of a TCPS dispatcher
For more information on how to do this, see Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide.
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-11
Recommended Tasks to Complete After Upgrading Oracle Database
If Oracle XML DB is not installed on the system, then you
must install it during the upgrade procedure. Oracle XML DB is
required to properly maintain the access control lists (ACLs).
Note:
Provide Anonymous Access to XML DB Repository Data Through HTTP
If anonymous access to XML DB repository data through HTTP is not required, then
you are not required to perform this step. If anonymous access to XML DB repository
data through HTTP is required, then you must provide correct configuration
information, as described in this section. The administrator must carefully consider
whether anonymous access is to be allowed, given the inherent security risks.
When a database is upgraded to Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) or later, the XML
schema for the Oracle XML DB configuration file (located at /xdbconfig.xml in the
repository) is automatically upgraded so that it can have an additional element,
allow-repository-anonymous-access. This element is of Boolean type which
means it can have a value of true or false. You can use this element to disallow
unauthenticated access to your Oracle XML DB Repository data through HTTP even if
you unlock the ANONYMOUS user account. The
allow-repository-anonymous-access element is not added to the Oracle XML
DB configuration file by default during an upgrade, but when this element is missing,
it is interpreted as false.
Therefore, anonymous access to XML DB repository data through HTTP is disabled
when you upgrade to Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) or later. If you want to have
anonymous access to XML DB repository data through HTTP, then you must change
the configuration file to set this new element to true, in addition to unlocking the
ANONYMOUS user account.
There is an inherent security risk associated with allowing
unauthenticated access to the repository.
Caution:
See Also: Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information
about the allow-repository-anonymous-access element and
configuring Oracle XML DB
Recommended Tasks After Upgrading an Oracle Express Edition Database
An Oracle Express Edition database contains only a subset of the components
available in a Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition database. After upgrading to the
new Oracle Database 11g release, you can use the Database Configuration Assistant to
install additional components into your database. If you did not install Enterprise
Manager Database Control during the DBUA upgrade, then you can install it, along
with any other components you would like to have in the database.
Recommended Tasks After Upgrading an Oracle RAC Database
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 11g Release 2 (11.2) introduces the
Single Client Access Name (SCAN). The SCAN is a single name that resolves to three
IP addresses in the public network. When an earlier release of an Oracle RAC database
is upgraded to 11g release 2 (11.2), it is registered with SCAN listeners as remote
listeners, and also continues to register with all node listeners. You can configure
clients to use SCANs, or continue to use the node listeners. If you migrate all of your
client connections to use SCANs, you can then remove the node listeners from the
4-12 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Tasks to Complete Only After Manually Upgrading Oracle Database
REMOTE_LISTENERS parameter. However, you cannot remove the listeners
themselves, because only node listeners can create dedicated servers for the database.
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
more information on the Single Client Access Name (SCAN)
See Also:
Tasks to Complete Only After Manually Upgrading Oracle Database
If you are performing a manual upgrade of Oracle Database rather than using DBUA,
then you must perform additional tasks after your database is upgraded.
■
Change Passwords for Oracle Supplied Accounts
■
Create Password File with ORAPWD
■
Migrate Your Initialization Parameter File to a Server Parameter File
■
Upgrade Oracle Text
■
Upgrade the Oracle Clusterware Configuration
■
Adjust the Initialization Parameter File for the New Release
■
Configure Enterprise Manager
■
Set CLUSTER_DATABASE Initialization Parameter For Oracle RAC
Change Passwords for Oracle Supplied Accounts
Depending on the release from which you upgraded, there might be new Oracle
supplied accounts. Oracle recommends that you lock all Oracle supplied accounts
except for SYS and SYSTEM, and expire their passwords, thus requiring new
passwords to be specified when the accounts are unlocked.
If the default Oracle Database 11g security settings are in place,
then passwords must be at least eight characters, and passwords such
as welcome and oracle are not allowed. See Oracle Database Security
Guide for more information.
Note:
You can view the status of all accounts by issuing the following SQL statement:
SQL> SELECT username, account_status
FROM dba_users
ORDER BY username;
To lock and expire passwords, issue the following SQL statement:
SQL> ALTER USER username PASSWORD EXPIRE ACCOUNT LOCK;
Create Password File with ORAPWD
If the REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE initialization parameter is set to either
exclusive or shared, create a password file with ORAPWD.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information
about creating password files
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-13
Tasks to Complete Only After Manually Upgrading Oracle Database
Migrate Your Initialization Parameter File to a Server Parameter File
If you are currently using a traditional initialization parameter file, then perform the
following steps to migrate to a server parameter file:
1.
If the initialization parameter file is located on a client computer, then transfer the
file from the client computer to the server computer.
If you are using Oracle RAC, then you must combine all of
your instance-specific initialization parameter files into a single
initialization parameter file. Instructions for doing this, and other
actions unique to using a server parameter file for cluster databases,
are discussed in:
Note:
■
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment
Guide
The Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for your
operating system
2.
Create a server parameter file using the CREATE SPFILE statement. This
statement reads the initialization parameter file to create a server parameter file.
You are not required to start the database to issue a CREATE SPFILE statement.
3.
Start up the instance using the newly-created server parameter file.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about
creating server parameter files
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for information about the
CREATE SPFILE statement
Upgrade Oracle Text
After an upgrade to the new Oracle Database 11g release, copy the following files from
the previous Oracle home to the new Oracle home:
■
Stemming user-dictionary files
■
User-modified KOREAN_MORPH_LEXER dictionary files
■
USER_FILTER executables
These files affect all databases installed in the given Oracle home.
You can obtain a list of these files by doing the following:
1.
Looking at $ORACLE_HOME/ctx/admin/ctxf102.txt
2.
Executing $ORACLE_HOME/ctx/admin/ctxf102.sql as database user SYS,
SYSTEM, or CTXSYS
If your Oracle Text index uses KOREAN_LEXER which was deprecated in Oracle 9i and
desupported in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), see Note 300172.1 on My Oracle
Support for further information on manual migration from KOREAN_LEXER to
KOREAN_MORPH_LEXER.
4-14 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Tasks to Complete Only After Manually Upgrading Oracle Database
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Text Reference for more information about these files
Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for information about
upgrading your applications from previous releases of Oracle Text
My Oracle Support at https://support.oracle.com
Upgrade the Oracle Clusterware Configuration
If you are using Oracle Clusterware, then you must upgrade the Oracle Clusterware
keys for the database.
Run srvctl for release 11.2.0.3 to upgrade the database. For example:
%11.2.0.3_ORACLE_HOME/bin/srvctl upgrade database -d <name> -o 11.2.0.3_ORACLE_
HOME
Caution: By default, any named user may create a server pool. To
restrict the operating system users that have this privilege, Oracle
strongly recommends that you add specific users to the CRS
Administrators list.
See Also: Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
more information about adding users to the CRS Administrators list
Adjust the Initialization Parameter File for the New Release
Each release of Oracle Database introduces new initialization parameters, deprecates
some initialization parameters, and makes some initialization parameters obsolete.
You must adjust the parameter file to account for these changes and to take advantage
of new initialization parameters that might be beneficial to your system. Additionally,
when you perform a manual upgrade without using DBUA, the tnsnames.ora file is
not automatically populated with new configuration information and settings.
Therefore, you may need to manually update tnsnames.ora and adjust local_
listener and remote_listener parameter references if these need to be resolved.
See Also:
■
■
The "What's New in Oracle Database Reference" section of Oracle
Database Reference for a list of the new initialization parameters in
the new Oracle Database 11g release, and for information about
each parameter
Appendix A, "Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle
Database" for lists of obsolete and deprecated initialization
parameters in the new Oracle Database 11g release
Setting the COMPATIBLE Initialization Parameter
The COMPATIBLE initialization parameter controls the compatibility level of your
database. When you are certain that you no longer need the ability to downgrade your
database to its original release, set the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter based on
the compatibility level you want for your new database.
Complete the following steps to set the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter to a
higher value:
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-15
Tasks to Complete Only After Manually Upgrading Oracle Database
1.
Perform a backup of your database before you raise the COMPATIBLE initialization
parameter (optional).
Raising the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter might cause your database to
become incompatible with earlier releases of Oracle Database, and a backup
ensures that you can return to the earlier release if necessary.
See Also: Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for more
information about performing a backup
2.
If you are using a server parameter file, then complete the following steps:
a.
Update the server parameter file to set or change the value of the
COMPATIBLE initialization parameter.
For example, to set the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter to 11.0.0, enter
the following statement:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET COMPATIBLE = '11.0.0' SCOPE=SPFILE;
b.
Shut down and restart the instance.
When upgrading systems with HARD-compliant storage
(Hardware Assisted Resilient Data), consider the following:
Note:
■
■
If the COMPATIBLE parameter is set to a release number earlier
than 11.0.0, then you cannot locate the server parameter file
(SPFILE) on HARD storage.
If the COMPATIBLE parameter is set to 11.0.0, then you can
optionally locate the server parameter file on HARD storage.
Because the default SPFILE location (ORACLE_HOME/dbs) might
not be on a HARD-compliant storage system, it is likely you must
provide a parameter file that specifies the location of the SPFILE.
Oracle Database High Availability Overview or Oracle
Database Concepts for more information on HARD storage
See Also:
3.
If you are using an initialization parameter file, then complete the following steps:
a.
Shut down the instance if it is running:
SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
b.
Edit the initialization parameter file to set or change the value of the
COMPATIBLE initialization parameter.
For example, to set the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter to 11.0.0, enter
the following in the initialization parameter file:
COMPATIBLE = 11.0.0
c.
Start the instance using STARTUP.
If you are using an ASM disk group, then the diskgroup’s
compatibility attribute must match or be lower than that of the
database compatibility parameter in init.ora.
Note:
4-16 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Required Tasks After Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
Configuring tnsnames.ora and Listener Parameters
After performing a manual upgrade, you may need to adjust local_listener and
remote_listener parameter references if they need to be resolved in
tnsnames.ora. DBUA handles changes to network naming and listeners during
automatic upgrades, but during a manual upgrade, tnsnames.ora is not changed,
nor are the listeners.
See Also:
■
■
■
■
■
Local Naming Parameters (tnsnames.ora) in Oracle Database Net
Services Reference
"Configuring the tnsnames.ora File After Installation" in Oracle
Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
"Configuring and Administering Oracle Net Listener" in Oracle
Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for information on
registering information with a local listener and a remote listener
"Net Service Names (tnsnames.ora File)" in Oracle Real Application
Clusters Installation Guide for Windows
"Net Service Names (tnsnames.ora File)" in Oracle Real Application
Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
Configure Enterprise Manager
If you are not yet using Oracle Enterprise Manager to manage your database, then
install and configure Enterprise Manager Database Control.
If your database is being managed by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control or
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, then use the following command to update
the configuration:
emca -upgrade (db | asm | db_asm) [-cluster] [-silent] [parameters]
You must run this from the Oracle home of the new Oracle Database 11g release. When
prompted, provide the Oracle home from which the configuration is being upgraded.
You can also configure Enterprise Manager using DBCA. Select the Configure
Database Options option, and then select the Enterprise Manager Repository option.
See Also:
Oracle Enterprise Manager Advanced Configuration
Set CLUSTER_DATABASE Initialization Parameter For Oracle RAC
For upgrades of Oracle RAC databases, in "Preparing the New Oracle Home for a
Manual Upgrade" on page 3-49, you were instructed to set the CLUSTER_DATABASE
initialization parameter to false before upgrading a cluster database. Now that the
upgrade is finished, you must set this parameter to true.
Required Tasks After Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
Oracle ASM release 11.2 and later are included as part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation.
If you upgrade Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM for a cluster, then Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle ASM are both located in the same home, which is referred to
as grid home. You can have one installation owner that owns all Oracle software
installations, or you can use role-allocated owners, in which case you use a separate
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-17
Required Tasks After Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
software owner for the grid infrastructure installation, and separate software owners
for one or more Oracle Database installations.
The following tasks are required after an upgrade from Oracle ASM, performed as a
separate installation procedure, to an Oracle ASM installation as part of the Oracle
Grid Infrastructure:
■
Using Environment Variables for Grid Infrastructure Installations
■
Upgrading An Earlier Release of Oracle ASM to Oracle Grid Infrastructure
See Also: Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for your
platform for more information about role-allocated installation owners
Using Environment Variables for Grid Infrastructure Installations
If your operating system is Linux or UNIX, then you may need to change environment
variable settings after performing an upgrade.
If you use a single Oracle installation owner for all installations, then be aware that
you should change environment variables such as ORACLE_HOME either to an Oracle
Database home, or to the grid home, depending on whether you are administering an
Oracle Database instance as part of database administration, or administering an
Oracle ASM instance as part of storage administration.
If you use role-allocated Oracle installation owners, so that you have a separate owner
for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure (Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM) software, then
set the following environment variables for the grid infrastructure installation owner
so that they point to the directories of the Oracle ASM home in the grid infrastructure
home:
■
ORACLE_HOME
■
PATH
Also, check that your oratab file and any client scripts for Oracle ASM that set the
value of ORACLE_HOME point to the Oracle ASM home in the grid infrastructure home.
If you are upgrading a clustered Oracle ASM installation to an
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a cluster installation, then perform these
checks on all cluster member nodes.
Note:
See Also: Your operating system-specific Oracle Database
installation documents for information about setting other important
environment variables on your operating system.
Upgrading An Earlier Release of Oracle ASM to Oracle Grid Infrastructure
In earlier releases, Oracle ASM was installed as part of the Oracle Database
installation. With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is installed when
you install the grid infrastructure components. If you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a cluster, then it is part of the grid home, with Oracle Clusterware. If you install
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a single server, then Oracle ASM shares an Oracle home
with Oracle Restart.
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM
by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have Oracle ASM
installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must
4-18 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Required Tasks After Oracle Grid Infrastructure Upgrades
complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle
Database installation.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide or Oracle
Database Installation Guide for your platform
See Also:
Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) supports installing and configuring
Oracle ASM instances, disk groups, volumes, and Oracle ASM Cluster File System
(Oracle ACFS). Additionally, you can use the ASMCA command-line interface as a
non-GUI utility (command name asmca).
You can use the asmca command to complete the upgrade separately. However, you
must run asmca soon after you upgrade Oracle Clusterware, as Oracle ASM
management tools such as srvctl do not work until Oracle ASM is upgraded.
For cluster upgrades, ASMCA performs a rolling upgrade only
if the earlier release of Oracle ASM is either 11.1.0.6 or 11.1.0.7.
Otherwise, ASMCA performs a normal upgrade, in which case
ASMCA brings down all Oracle ASM instances on all nodes of the
cluster, and then brings them all up in the new grid infrastructure
home.
Note:
Preparing to Upgrade Oracle ASM
Note the following information if you intend to perform rolling upgrades of Oracle
ASM:
■
■
You cannot change the owner of a home as part of an upgrade. For example, if you
plan to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure as the user grid, then the home of an
existing Oracle ASM must be owned by the user grid before you upgrade it.
The active release of Oracle Clusterware must be 11g release 2 (11.2). To determine
the active release, enter the following command:
$ crsctl query crs activeversion
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
more information about crsctl and adding users to the CRS
Administrators list
See Also:
■
■
■
You can upgrade a single instance Oracle ASM installation to a clustered Oracle
ASM installation. However, you can only upgrade an existing single instance
Oracle ASM installation if you run the installation from the node on which the
Oracle ASM installation is installed. You cannot upgrade a single instance Oracle
ASM installation on a remote node.
You must ensure that any rebalance operations on your existing Oracle ASM
installation are completed before starting the upgrade process.
During the upgrade process, you alter the Oracle ASM instances to an upgrade
state. Because this upgrade state limits Oracle ASM operations, you should
complete the upgrade process soon after you begin. The following are the
operations allowed when an Oracle ASM instance is in the upgrade state:
–
Diskgroup mounts and dismounts
–
Opening, closing, resizing, or deleting database files
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-19
Required Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades
–
Recovering instances
–
Queries of fixed views and packages: Users are allowed to query fixed views
and run anonymous PL/SQL blocks using fixed packages, such as dbms_
diskgroup)
Upgrading Oracle ASM
The procedure in this section describes how to upgrade Oracle ASM using Oracle
ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA).
To upgrade Oracle ASM
1.
Log on as the installation owner of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
2.
If you are upgrading on a cluster, then on the node you plan to start the upgrade,
set the environment variable ASMCA_ROLLING_UPGRADE as true. For example:
$ export ASMCA_ROLLING_UPGRADE=true
3.
From the Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g release 2 (11.2) home, start ASMCA. For
example:
$ cd /u01/11.2/grid/bin
$ ./asmca
4.
Select Upgrade.
The Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant upgrades Oracle ASM in succession for
all nodes in the cluster.
See Also: Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for additional
information about preparing an upgrade plan for Oracle ASM, and for
starting, completing, and stopping Oracle ASM upgrades
Required Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades
This section contains the tasks that are required after an Oracle ASM Upgrade, and
additional considerations.
■
Set Environment Variables
■
Single-Instance Oracle ASM Upgrade
■
Cluster Oracle ASM Upgrade
■
Additional Considerations After Oracle ASM Upgrades
Set Environment Variables
If your operating system is Linux or UNIX, then make sure that the following
environment variables point to the directories of the new Oracle Database 11g release:
■
ORACLE_HOME
■
PATH
Also check that your oratab file and any client scripts that set the value of ORACLE_
HOME point to the Oracle home of the new Oracle Database 11g release.
4-20 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Required Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades
Note: The ORACLE_HOME, PATH, and oratab checks are required
only if you upgrade manually. DBUA automatically points oratab to
the new Oracle home. Client scripts must be checked no matter how
you upgrade.
If you are upgrading a clustered Oracle ASM, then perform these
checks on all nodes in which this clustered Oracle ASM has instances
configured.
See Also: Your operating system-specific Oracle Database
installation documents for information about setting other important
environment variables on your operating system.
Single-Instance Oracle ASM Upgrade
The following procedure assumes that Oracle ASM is installed in Oracle home 1 (OH1)
and the operating system user is orauser.
To perform a single-instance upgrade of Oracle ASM
1.
As orauser, upgrade Oracle ASM to release 11.2 using OUI and ASMCA. The
new Oracle ASM release 11.2 runs in the grid infrastructure home. Oracle ASM
should still be running as orauser.
2.
As orauser, bring down the Oracle ASM instance and the listener.
3.
As root, run /etc/init.d/init.cssd stop to stop CSS.
4.
As a new user (asmuser), install 11.2 in a third Oracle home (OH3). This should be
a software-only installation.
5.
As root, run localconfig reset from OH3.
6.
Update /etc/oratab so that OH3 is the Oracle home with the +ASM entry.
7.
Copy listener.ora, sqlnet.ora, and tnsnames.ora from OH2.
8.
Run EMCP to change the Oracle ASM instance path and connect-string role.
9.
Make sure the disks are owned by asmuser and by OSASM for Oracle ASM. They
should also have the O660 permission set.
10. As asmuser, start the listener.
11. As asmuser, start Oracle ASM (connect as SYSASM).
12. Run the command, GRANT sysasm TO sys.
Cluster Oracle ASM Upgrade
To perform an upgrade of Oracle ASM on a cluster
1.
As orauser, upgrade Oracle ASM to release 11.2 using OUI and ASMCA. The
new Oracle ASM release 11.2 should be running in a new Oracle home 2 (OH2).
Oracle ASM should still be running as orauser.
2.
Bring down the Oracle ASM and Listener resources from CRS home.
3.
As a new user (crs for example), install 11.2 into a third Oracle home (OH3) to
match that of the Grid Infrastructure home. This must be a software-only
installation.
4.
From CRS home, run:
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-21
Required Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades
srvctl remove listener -n node_name
srvctl add listener -n node_name -o OH3
srvctl modify asm -n node_name -i ASM_instance_name -o ORACLE_HOME_path
Caution: By default, any named user may create a server pool. To
restrict the operating system users that have this privilege, Oracle
strongly recommends that you add specific users to the CRS
Administrators list.
See Also: Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
more information about adding users to the CRS Administrators list
5.
Update /etc/oratab so that OH3 is the Oracle home with the +ASM entry.
6.
Copy listener.ora, sqlnet.ora, and tnsnames.ora from OH2.
7.
Run EMCP to change the Oracle ASM instance path and connect-string role.
8.
Make sure the disks are owned by asmuser and by OSASM for Oracle ASM. They
should also have the O660 permission set.
9.
Start Oracle ASM and Listener resources from the new Oracle ASM 11g ORACLE_
HOME or the new Oracle Database 11g ORACLE_HOME.
10. Run the command, GRANT sysasm TO sys.
If you have clustered Oracle ASM instances, then you also have the option of
performing a rolling Oracle ASM upgrade. A rolling upgrade enables you to
independently upgrade or patch Oracle ASM nodes without affecting database
availability, thus providing greater uptime.
See Also: Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more
information on rolling Oracle ASM upgrades
Additional Considerations After Oracle ASM Upgrades
If you separate the operating system user ownership of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
binaries and the Oracle Database installation owners of one or more databases, then
you must migrate the operating system user of an upgraded Oracle ASM or database
home as described in "Role-Allocated Software Owners and Database Upgrade After
Oracle ASM Upgrade" on page 22.
Role-Allocated Software Owners and Database Upgrade After Oracle ASM Upgrade
If you are migrating from one software binary owner (such as oracle) to multiple
role-allocated software owner user accounts (such as grid, oracle1, oracle2), then
change the owner of the existing Oracle ASM installation owner to the installation
owner that you plan to use for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
There are three scenarios to consider:
■
Keeping the Existing User as the Oracle ASM Operating System User
■
Changing the Operating System User for Single-Instance Oracle ASM
■
Changing the Operating System User for an Oracle RAC Database
4-22 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Recommended Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades
See Also: Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for
information on making an Oracle ASM disk group compatible with
Oracle Database 10g and Oracle Database 11g, and for additional
information about Oracle ASM upgrades
Keeping the Existing User as the Oracle ASM Operating System User
If you are using the same operating system user for your Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation that you used for your existing Oracle ASM installation, then run Oracle
Universal Installer (OUI) to perform a grid infrastructure installation, and select the
upgrade option. OUI automatically upgrades your existing Oracle ASM installation
from the prior release to 11g Release 2 (11.2) in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
Changing the Operating System User for Single-Instance Oracle ASM
Consider your earlier release Oracle ASM installation is installed in Oracle home 4
(OH4) and currently running oracle as the operating system user, and you want to
change the Oracle ASM operating system user to grid. This is useful if you have two
databases using Oracle ASM, and you had installed Oracle ASM with an installation
owner that is the same as that for the existing databases, and you want to change the
operating system installation owner of Oracle ASM to enable separate databases to run
as separate operating system users, where neither Oracle Database installation owner
has Oracle Grid Infrastructure binary ownership.
Changing the Operating System User for an Oracle RAC Database
There may be scenarios where you must change the operating system user for an
Oracle RAC database. For example, if your earlier release database is installed in
Oracle home 4 (OH4) and currently running oracle as the operating system user, then
you should consider changing the Oracle ASM operating system user to grid.
Changing the operating system user of Oracle ASM enables separate databases to run
as separate operating system users, where no Oracle Database installation owner has
grid infrastructure binary ownership.
Recommended Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades
Performing the following tasks is recommended, but not required, after you have
upgraded Oracle ASM:
■
Reset Oracle ASM Passwords to Enforce Case-Sensitivity
■
Advance the Oracle ASM and Oracle Database Disk Group Compatibility
■
Set Up Oracle ASM Preferred Read Failure Groups
You should also consider performing the following tasks, discussed earlier in this
chapter:
■
"Add New Features as Appropriate" on page 8
■
"Develop New Administrative Procedures as Needed" on page 8
Reset Oracle ASM Passwords to Enforce Case-Sensitivity
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you can enforce case sensitivity for
passwords. For example, the password hPP5620qr fails if it is entered as hpp5620QR
or hPp5620Qr. In previous releases, passwords were not case sensitive.
To take advantage of enforced case-sensitive passwords, you must reset the passwords
of existing users during the database upgrade procedure. For new Oracle Oracle ASM
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-23
Recommended Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades
instances, there are no additional tasks or management requirements. For upgraded
Oracle ASM instances, each user password must be reset with an ALTER USER
statement.
If the default Oracle Database 11g security settings are in place,
then passwords must be at least eight characters, and passwords such
as welcome and oracle are not allowed. See Oracle Database Security
Guide for more information.
Note:
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide
Advance the Oracle ASM and Oracle Database Disk Group Compatibility
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you can advance the Oracle
Database and the Oracle ASM disk group compatibility settings across software
versions.
Caution: If you advance the COMPATIBLE.RDBMS attribute, then
you cannot revert to the previous setting. Therefore, before advancing
the COMPATIBLE.RDBMS attribute, ensure that the values for the
COMPATIBLE initialization parameter for all of the databases that use
the disk group are set to at least the new setting for
COMPATIBLE.RDBMS before you advance the attribute value.
Advancing compatibility enables new features only available in the new release.
However, doing so makes the disk group incompatible with older releases of the
software. Note that advancing the on-disk compatibility is an irreversible operation.
You use the compatible.rdbms and compatible.asm attributes to specify the
minimum software release required by the database instance and the Oracle ASM
instance, respectively, to access the disk group. For example, the following ALTER
DISKGROUP statement advances the Oracle ASM compatibility of the disk group
asmdg2:
ALTER DISKGROUP asmdg2 SET ATTRIBUTE 'compatible.asm' = '11.1'
In this case, the disk group can be managed only by Oracle ASM software of release
11.1 or higher, while any database client of release 10.1 or higher can use the disk
group.
See Also: Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for complete
information about disk group compatibility, and Oracle Database SQL
Language Reference for more information about the disk group
compatibility attributes on the ALTER DISKGROUP and CREATE
DISKGROUP statements
Set Up Oracle ASM Preferred Read Failure Groups
Oracle ASM administrators can specify some disks to be preferred over others for read
I/O operations. When Oracle ASM preferred read failure groups are defined, Oracle
ASM can read from the extent that is closest to it, rather than always reading the
primary copy.
4-24 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Recommended Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
information about specifying failure groups settings in an
extended cluster
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for complete
information about Oracle ASM preferred read failure groups, and
specifying the new ASM_PREFERRED_READ_FAILURE_GROUPS
initialization parameter to list failure group names that contain
the preferred read disks for each node in a cluster
Oracle Database Reference for the ASM_PREFERRED_READ_
FAILURE_GROUPS initialization parameter
Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle Database 4-25
Recommended Tasks After Oracle ASM Upgrades
4-26 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
5
5
Upgrading Applications After Upgrading
Oracle Database
Many new features and enhancements are available after upgrading to a new release
of Oracle Database. To take advantage of the new features, you must upgrade
applications running in the new release.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Overview of Upgrading Applications
■
Compatibility Issues for Applications When Upgrading
■
Upgrading Precompiler and OCI Applications
■
Upgrading SQL*Plus Scripts and PL/SQL
■
Upgrading Oracle Forms or Oracle Developer Applications
Overview of Upgrading Applications
You are not required to modify existing applications that do not use features available
in the new Oracle Database 11g release. Existing applications running against a new
Oracle Database 11g database function the same as they did in prior releases and
achieve the same, or enhanced, performance.
Many new features and enhancements are available after upgrading to the new Oracle
Database 11g release. Some of these features provide added features and functions,
while others provide improved performance. Before you upgrade your applications,
you should review these new features to decide which ones you want to use.
See Also: Oracle Database New Features Guide for information about
the features available in the new Oracle Database 11g release
Compatibility Issues for Applications When Upgrading
There might be compatibility issues between different releases of Oracle Database that
could affect your applications. These compatibility issues result from differences in
Oracle Database in various releases. Also, in each new release of Oracle Database, new
Oracle reserved words might be added, changes might be made to initialization
parameters, and changes might be made to the data dictionary.
When you upgrade your Oracle Database software to a new release, make sure that
your applications do not use any Oracle reserved words, that your applications are
compatible with the initialization parameters of the database, and that your
applications are compatible with the data dictionary of the database. Finally, a new
Upgrading Applications After Upgrading Oracle Database 5-1
Upgrading Precompiler and OCI Applications
release of Oracle Database software might require certain operating system releases or
the application of certain patchsets.
See Also:
■
■
■
Appendix A, "Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle
Database" for information about initialization parameter changes
and data dictionary changes
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for a complete list of
Oracle reserved words
Your operating system-specific Oracle documentation for
information about operating system requirements
Upgrading Precompiler and OCI Applications
The upgrade path is very similar for precompiler and OCI applications. This section
guides you through your upgrade options for these applications and notes differences
between precompiler and OCI applications whenever necessary.
Create a test environment before you upgrade your production environment. Your test
environment should include your upgraded application and the new Oracle Database
software. Also, your test environment should provide a realistic test of your
application.
This section contains these topics:
■
Understanding Software Upgrades and Your Client/Server Configuration
■
Compatibility Rules for Applications When Upgrading Client/Server Software
■
Upgrading Options for Your Precompiler and OCI Applications
Pro*C/C++ Programmer's Guide, Pro*COBOL Programmer's
Guide, and Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for more
information about using these programming environments.
See Also:
Understanding Software Upgrades and Your Client/Server Configuration
To understand your options for upgrading precompiler and OCI applications, you first
must understand the type of software upgrade you are performing and your
client/server configuration.
This section contains these topics:
■
Types of Software Upgrades for Oracle Database
■
Possible Client/Server Configurations
Types of Software Upgrades for Oracle Database
When you upgrade Oracle Database, you are typically upgrading to a major release or
you are applying patches for a maintenance release. The types of upgrades possible for
Oracle Database client and server software are as follows:
■
Major Database Release Upgrade
■
Database Maintenance Release Upgrade
Major Database Release Upgrade The upgrade changes the first digit of the release
number. For example, upgrading from Oracle9i to Oracle Database 11g is a major
database release upgrade.
5-2 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading Precompiler and OCI Applications
Database Maintenance Release Upgrade The upgrade changes the second digit of the
release number. For example, upgrading from Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) to
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) is a database maintenance release upgrade.
Possible Client/Server Configurations
Your precompiler and OCI applications run on the client in a client/server
environment, where the Oracle Database server is the server. You can use one or more
of the following client/server configurations in your environment:
■
Different Computers
■
Different Oracle Home Directories on the Same Computer
■
Same Oracle Home
Different Computers The client software and the server software are on different
computers, and they are connected through a network. The client and server
environments are separate.
Different Oracle Home Directories on the Same Computer The client software and the server
software are on the same computer, but they are installed in different Oracle home
directories. Again, the client and server environments are separate.
Same Oracle Home The client software and server software are installed in the same
Oracle home on the same computer. In this case, any upgrade of the server software is
also an upgrade of the client software.
Oracle Database Concepts and Oracle Database Heterogeneous
Connectivity User's Guide for more information about client/server
environments
See Also:
Compatibility Rules for Applications When Upgrading Client/Server Software
This section covers compatibility rules that apply when you upgrade Oracle Database
client or server software. The rules are based on the type of software upgrade you are
performing and on your client/server configuration.
The following sections contain compatibility rules for the following types of upgrades:
■
Upgrading the Oracle Database Server Software
■
Upgrading the Oracle Database Client Software
Note: This section uses the terms introduced in "Understanding
Software Upgrades and Your Client/Server Configuration" on
page 5-2.
Upgrading the Oracle Database Server Software
The following rules apply when you upgrade the Oracle Database server software.
■
■
If You Do Not Change the Client Environment, Then You Are Not Required to
Relink.
Applications Can Run Against Newer or Older Oracle Database Server Releases
If You Do Not Change the Client Environment, Then You Are Not Required to Relink. If your
client and server are on different computers or are in different Oracle home directories
Upgrading Applications After Upgrading Oracle Database 5-3
Upgrading Precompiler and OCI Applications
on the same computer, and you upgrade the Oracle Database server software without
changing the client software, then you are not required to precompile, compile, or
relink your applications. In these cases, the client software is separate from the server
software and continues to function against the server.
However, if your applications are using the same Oracle home as the Oracle Database
server, then your server upgrade also upgrades your client software, and you must
follow the rules in "Upgrading the Oracle Database Client Software" on page 5-4.
It is possible to upgrade the Oracle Database server software
but not install the new precompiler or OCI client software when you
are using the same Oracle home for both. In this case, the client
software is not upgraded. However, such a configuration is not
recommended.
Note:
Applications Can Run Against Newer or Older Oracle Database Server Releases When you run
a precompiler or OCI application against a database server, Oracle recommends that
the release of the database server software be equal to or higher than the client
software release, but this configuration is not strictly required. For example, if your
client software is Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2.0.8), then it is recommended that your server
software be Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2.0.8) or higher to run a precompiler application on
the client against the server.
Upgrading the Oracle Database Client Software
Oracle recommends that you upgrade your client software to match the current server
software. For example, if you upgrade your server to Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2), then Oracle recommends upgrading the client software to Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2) as well. Keeping the server and client software at the same release
number ensures the maximum stability for your applications. In addition, the latest
Oracle Database client software might provide added features and performance
enhancements that were not available with previous releases.
The following rules apply when you upgrade the Oracle Database client software:
■
Applications Can Be Linked with Newer Libraries
■
Statically Linked Applications Must Always Be Relinked
■
Relinking Dynamically Linked Applications
Applications Can Be Linked with Newer Libraries The code generated by precompiler
applications can be linked with a release of the client library that is equal to or higher
than the server release.
OCI applications can be linked with a version of the OCI runtime library that is equal
to or higher than the version of the OCI library with which the application was
developed.
Statically Linked Applications Must Always Be Relinked Statically linked OCI applications
need to be re-linked for both major and minor releases, because the statically linked
Oracle client-side library code may be incompatible with the error messages in the
upgraded ORACLE_HOME. For example, if an error message was updated with
additional parameters, then it will not be compatible with the statically-linked code.
Relinking Dynamically Linked Applications Dynamically linked OCI applications from
Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and later releases are upward compatible with the
5-4 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading Precompiler and OCI Applications
current release. That is, the Oracle client-side dynamic library is upward compatible
with the previous version of the library. Oracle Universal Installer creates a symbolic
link for the previous version of the library that resolves to the current version.
Therefore, an application that is dynamically linked with the previous version of the
Oracle client-side dynamic library does not need to be relinked to operate with the
current version of the Oracle client-side library.
If the application is linked with a runtime library search path
(such as -rpath on Linux), then the application may still run with the
version of the Oracle client-side library with which it is linked. To run
with the current version of the Oracle client-side library, it must be
relinked.
Note:
If the application is linked with the deferred option (for example,
statically-linked application), it must be relinked.
If the application is from a release before Oracle Database 10g Release
1 (10.1), then it must be relinked.
Upgrading Options for Your Precompiler and OCI Applications
You have the following options for upgrading your precompiler and OCI applications:
■
■
■
Option 1: Leave the Application Unchanged. Do not relink, precompile, or compile
the application, and do not change the application code. The application continues
to work against the new Oracle Database 11g release.
Option 2: Precompile or Compile the Application Using the New Software.
Application code must be changed if any APIs are deprecated, desupported, or
changed.
Option 3: Change the Application Code to Use New Oracle Database 11g Features.
Subsequently, precompile or compile and then relink the code.
These options are listed in order of increasing difficulty and increasing potential
benefits. That is, Option 1 is the least difficult option, but it offers the least potential
benefits, while Option 3 is the most difficult option, but it offers the most potential
benefits. These options are discussed in the following sections.
Option 1: Leave the Application Unchanged
This option requires that the Oracle home environment of the application is not
upgraded. You can leave the application unchanged, and it continues to work with the
new Oracle Database 11g server. The major advantage to this option is that it is simple
and easy. In addition, this option requires the least amount of administration, because
you are not required to upgrade any of your client computers. If you have a large
number of client computers, then avoiding the administrative costs of upgrading all of
them can become very important.
The major disadvantage to this option is that your application cannot use the features
that are available in the new Oracle Database 11g release. In addition, your application
cannot leverage some of the possible performance benefits of the new Oracle Database
11g release.
Option 2: Precompile or Compile the Application Using the New Software
When upgrading from a maintenance release to the new Oracle Database 11g software,
you must precompile or compile the application with the new software after making
necessary code changes to account for APIs that are deprecated or changed.
Upgrading Applications After Upgrading Oracle Database 5-5
Upgrading Precompiler and OCI Applications
Recompiling is not required if you are upgrading to a minor release within Oracle
Database 11g software.
This option requires that you install the new Oracle Database client software on each
client computer. You are required to precompile or compile, and relink your
application only once, regardless of the number of clients you have.
By recompiling, you perform a syntax check of your application code. Some problems
in the application code that were not detected by previous releases of the Oracle
software might emerge when you precompile or compile with the new Oracle
software. Therefore, precompiling and compiling with the new software often helps
you detect and correct problems in the application code that might have gone
unnoticed before.
Also, recompiling affords maximum stability for your application, because you are
sure that it works with the new Oracle software. Further, your environment is ready
for new development using the latest tools and features available. In addition, you
might benefit from performance improvements that are available with the new Oracle
software only after you recompile and relink.
Option 3: Change the Application Code to Use New Oracle Database 11g Features
You can make code changes to your application to take advantage of new Oracle
Database 11g features. This option is the most difficult, but it can provide the most
potential benefits. You gain all of the advantages described in "Option 2: Precompile or
Compile the Application Using the New Software" on page 5. In addition, you also
benefit from changes to your application that might leverage performance and
scalability benefits available with the new Oracle Database 11g release. Further, you
can add new features to your application that are available only with the new Oracle
Database 11g release.
Become familiar with the features of the new Oracle Database 11g release by reading
Oracle Database New Features Guide. Also, consult the Oracle documentation for your
development environment so that you understand how to implement the features you
want to use. For the precompilers, see Pro*C/C++ Programmer's Guide and Pro*COBOL
Programmer's Guide. For OCI, see Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide.
When you have decided on the new features you want to use, change the code of your
application to use these features. Follow the appropriate instructions in the following
sections based on your development environment:
■
Changing Precompiler Applications
■
Changing OCI Applications
Changing Precompiler Applications Complete the following steps to change your
precompiler application to use features of the new Oracle Database 11g release:
1.
If you want to take advantage of features of the new Oracle Database 11g release,
then incorporate the code for these new features into the existing application.
2.
Precompile the application using the Oracle precompiler.
3.
Compile the application.
4.
Relink the application with the runtime library of the new Oracle Database 11g
release, SQLLIB, which is included with the precompiler.
Changing OCI Applications Complete the following steps to change your OCI application
to use features of the new Oracle Database 11g release:
5-6 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading SQL*Plus Scripts and PL/SQL
1.
Incorporate OCI calls of the new Oracle Database 11g release into the existing
application.
2.
Compile the application.
3.
Relink the application with the runtime library of the new Oracle Database 11g
release.
Upgrading SQL*Plus Scripts and PL/SQL
To use features and functions of the new Oracle Database 11g release, change existing
SQL scripts to use the syntax of the new Oracle Database 11g release. Existing SQL
scripts run unchanged on the new Oracle Database 11g release, and require no
modification, if they do not use features and functions of the new Oracle Database 11g
release.
Note that improved error checking in the new Oracle Database 11g release might now
identify errors at compile time rather than at run time.
Related topic:
■
Change to Evaluation of Numeric Literals
Change to Evaluation of Numeric Literals
Evaluation of numeric literals has changed such that at least one of the constants in a
numeric computation with literals must be a decimal specified to the 10th place. This
is because Oracle Database releases after Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) use
INTEGER arithmetic (approximately 9 significant digits) for some expressions whereas
Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) used NUMBER arithmetic (approximately 38 significant digits).
Therefore, if you are dealing with results of greater than 9 significant digits, then one
of the literals should be in decimal format to prevent numeric overflow errors. For
example, in Oracle Database 10g, the computation of v1 in the following example
causes a numeric overflow error:
DECLARE
v1 NUMBER(38);
BEGIN
v1 := 256*256*256*256;
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v1);
END;
/
The solution to the error is to specify one of the numeric literals as a decimal (256.0), as
follows:
DECLARE
v1 NUMBER(38);
BEGIN
v1 := 256*256*256*256.0;
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v1);
END;
/
Upgrading Applications After Upgrading Oracle Database 5-7
Upgrading Oracle Forms or Oracle Developer Applications
See Also:
■
■
The "What’s New in SQL*Plus" section in the SQL*Plus User's
Guide and Reference to learn about new features in SQL*Plus
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for more information about
upgrading SQL scripts
Upgrading Oracle Forms or Oracle Developer Applications
Forms applications run the same on Oracle9i, Oracle Database 10g, and Oracle
Database 11g. However, review the new features described in Oracle Database New
Features Guide to determine whether any of the features of the new Oracle Database
11g release would be beneficial to your applications or might otherwise affect them.
Information about the ways in which the features of the new Oracle Database 11g
release interact with forms and developer applications is provided in the Oracle
Developer documentation set. Also, the Oracle Developer documentation for your
operating system contains instructions for upgrading your forms or developer
applications.
New releases of Oracle Developer might introduce new
reserved words that are specific to Oracle Developer. Code changes
might be required if your application uses any of these new reserved
words.
Note:
5-8 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
6
6
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier
Release
Oracle Database can only be downgraded to the release from which you upgraded.
For example, if you upgrade from Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.5) to Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), then you cannot subsequently downgrade to Oracle
Database 10g Release 2 (10.2); you can only downgrade to Oracle Database 10g Release
1 (10.1.0.5).
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Supported Releases for Downgrading Oracle Database
■
Check for Incompatibilities Between Oracle Database Releases
■
Remove Unsupported Parameters from Server Parameter File (SPFILE)
■
Perform a Full Backup of Oracle Database Before Downgrading
■
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release
■
Post-Downgrade Tasks for Oracle Database
■
Troubleshooting the Downgrade of Oracle Database
See Also: Oracle Database Installation Guide for your operating
system for discussions of downgrading that are operating
system-specific
Supported Releases for Downgrading Oracle Database
You can downgrade both major releases and patchset releases, based on the original
release from which the database was upgraded. Major release downgrades are
supported back to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1.0.6), Oracle Database 10g
Release 2 (10.2.0.2), and Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.5). Patchset downgrades
are supported back to all prior 11.2 patch releases.
You cannot downgrade a database that was upgraded from
Oracle Database Express Edition.
Note:
If you have Oracle Database Vault installed with your Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2) database, then you can downgrade to release 11.1.0.6 and release 11.1.0.7 only.
If you have Messaging Gateway or Workspace Manager in your database, then be
aware that neither of them are part of Oracle Database patchsets earlier than release
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release 6-1
Check for Incompatibilities Between Oracle Database Releases
10.2.0.4. Therefore, you must separately apply all relevant patches to the release
10.2.0.3 or release 10.1.0.5 Oracle home before downgrading.
Downgrade is not supported for Oracle Enterprise Manager. However, if you save
your Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control files and data before upgrading
your database, then you can restore the old version of Database Control after
downgrading the database.
You must use Oracle Data Pump full database export with the
INCLUDE=DBLINK parameter to export all database links into a dump
file suitable for import into the downgraded database. This dump file
can then be used to replace the database links after the downgrade.
Note:
See Also:
■
■
"Saving Database Control Files and Data with the emdwgrd
Utility" on page 3-20
"Restoring Oracle Enterprise Manager after Downgrading Oracle
Database" on page 6-10
Check for Incompatibilities Between Oracle Database Releases
Check the compatibility level of your release of Oracle Database to see if the database
might have incompatibilities that prevent you from downgrading. If the compatibility
level of your Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database is 11.2.0 or higher, then
you cannot downgrade.
See Also: "Checking the Compatibility Level of Oracle Database" on
page 1-9
If you are downgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), then the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter must be set to 11.0.0 or lower.
If you are downgrading to Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), then the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter must be set to 10.2.0 or lower.
If you are downgrading to Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), then the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter must be set to 10.1.0.
See Also: "Considerations for Downgrading Oracle Database and
Compatibility" on page 1-8 and Appendix A, "Behavior Changes After
Upgrading Oracle Database"
Remove Unsupported Parameters from Server Parameter File (SPFILE)
If the database uses an SPFILE, new parameters may have been added during
installation or upgrade that are not supported in the earlier release to which you want
to downgrade. After the downgrade, the new parameters may prevent the database
from starting. Therefore, you must remove the parameters from the SPFILE that are
not supported by the earlier release. You can change SPFILE settings by using the SET
clause of the ALTER SYSTEM statement as described in Oracle Real Application Clusters
Administration and Deployment Guide.
To find information about new parameters for the current release from which you are
downgrading, see the Oracle Database New Features Guide for that release.
6-2 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release
Perform a Full Backup of Oracle Database Before Downgrading
Perform a full backup of your Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database before you
downgrade. Follow the procedures given in Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's
Guide.
See Also: Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for more
information
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release
You can downgrade your Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database to a major
release or a relevant patchset upgrade.
To downgrade the database to an earlier release
1.
If you have enabled Oracle Database Vault on your database, then you must:
■
Grant the Database Vault DV_PATCH_ADMIN role for the SYS account.
■
Disable Database Vault before downgrading the database.
See Also: Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for instructions
about disabling Oracle Database Vault
2.
If you previously had upgraded the database and then used the DBMS_DST
PL/SQL package to update the database time zone version, then you must apply
the patch for the same time zone file version into the earlier release’s Oracle home
before downgrading.
As an example scenario, assume that a release 10.2.0.4 database on Linux x64 using
DSTv4 had been upgraded to release 11.2.0.2, and DBMS_DST was then run to
update this database to DSTv14. Then, before downgrading from release 11.2.0.3 to
10.2.0.4, you need to apply on the release 10.2.0.4 side the DSTv14 patch for
10.2.0.4 for Linux x64. This ensures that your TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE data is
not logically corrupted during retrieval.
To find which time zone file version your database is using, run:
SELECT value$ FROM sys.props$ WHERE NAME = 'DST_PRIMARY_TT_VERSION';
See Also: Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for information
on applying time zone files
3.
If you had set the ORA_TZFILE environment variable to the full path name of the
timezone.dat file when you upgraded to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2),
then you must unset it if you subsequently downgrade your database.
Two time zone files are included in the Oracle home directory:
■
The default time zone file at
$ORACLE_HOME/oracore/zoneinfo/timezonelrg.dat
■
A smaller time zone file at
$ORACLE_HOME/oracore/zoneinfo/timezone.dat
If you do not unset the ORA_TZFILE variable, then connecting to the database
using the smaller time zone file might produce the following errors:
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release 6-3
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release
SP2-1503: Unable to initialize Oracle call interface
SP2-0152: ORACLE may not be functioning properly
See Also: Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for more
information about date and time data types and time zone support
4.
If you have Oracle Application Express on your database, then you must copy the
apxrelod.sql file from the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) ORACLE_
HOME/apex/ directory to a directory outside of the Oracle home, such as the
temporary directory on your system.
Make a note of the new location of this file.
5.
If you have created objects based on fixed objects, then drop these objects to avoid
possible ORA-00600 errors. You can re-create these objects after the downgrade.
6.
Log in to the system as the owner of the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
Oracle home directory.
7.
This step is required only if Enterprise Manager Database Control is already
configured for the database.
Stop Database Control, as follows:
a.
Set the ORACLE_UNQNAME environment variable to the database unique name.
b.
Run the following command:
ORACLE_HOME/bin/emctl stop dbconsole
If the database being downgraded is an Oracle RAC database, then perform this
step on all instances.
8.
If you are downgrading an Oracle RAC database to 10g Release 1 (10.1), then you
must remove extra voting disks before shutting down the Oracle Clusterware
stack.
a.
To see the number of voting disks used and to list voting disk paths, run the
following command:
Oracle_Clusterware_Home/bin/crsctl query css votedisk
b.
Remove each additional voting disk you find in the previous step by running
the following command, where path is the voting disk path listed in the File
Name column displayed in the previous step:
Oracle_Clusterware_Home/bin/crsctl delete css votedisk path
For example:
Oracle_Clusterware_Home/bin/crsctl delete css votedisk
/share/cluster2/vote_cluster2.dbf
Do not delete the last voting disk.
9.
At a system prompt, change to the ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin directory.
If you are downgrading a cluster database, then shut down the
instance completely and change the CLUSTER_DATABASE
initialization parameter to FALSE. After the downgrade, you must set
this parameter back to TRUE.
Note:
6-4 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release
10. Using SQL*Plus, connect to the database instance as a user with SYSDBA
privileges.
11. Start up the instance in DOWNGRADE mode:
SQL> STARTUP DOWNGRADE
You might be required to use the PFILE option to specify the location of your
initialization parameter file.
12. If you have Enterprise Manager configured in your database, then drop the
Enterprise Manager user:
DROP USER sysman CASCADE;
After this step, MGMT* synonyms may be invalid. Follow the
guidelines in "Restoring Oracle Enterprise Manager after
Downgrading Oracle Database" on page 6-10 to validate the
synonyms.
Note:
13. Set the system to spool results to a log file so you can track the changes and issues:
SQL> SPOOL downgrade.log
14. Run catdwgrd.sql:
SQL> @catdwgrd.sql
The following are notes about running the script:
■
■
■
You must use the version of the script included with Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2).
You must run the script in the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
environment.
The script downgrades all Oracle Database components in the database to the
major release or Oracle Database 11g patch release from which you originally
upgraded.
If you encounter any problems when you run the script, or any of the scripts in the
remaining steps, then correct the causes of the problems and rerun the script. You
can rerun any of the scripts described in this chapter as many times as necessary.
If the downgrade for a component fails, then an ORA-39709 error is displayed
and the SQL*Plus session terminates without downgrading the Oracle Database
data dictionary. All components must be successfully downgraded before the
Oracle Database data dictionary is downgraded. You must identify and fix the
problem before rerunning the catdwgrd.sql script.
15. Turn off the spooling of script results to the log file:
SQL> SPOOL OFF
Then, check the spool file and verify that there were no errors generated during
the downgrade. You named the spool file in Step 13 and the suggested name was
downgrade.log. Correct any problems you find in this file and rerun the
downgrade script if necessary.
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release 6-5
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release
If you want to save the results of the first time you ran the
downgrade script, then before you rerun it be sure to rename
downgrade.log to something else.
Note:
16. Shut down the instance:
SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
17. Exit SQL*Plus.
18. If your operating system is Linux or UNIX, then change the following
environment variables to point to the directories of the release to which you are
downgrading:
■
ORACLE_HOME
■
PATH
You should also check that your oratab file and any client scripts that set the
value of ORACLE_HOME point to the downgraded Oracle home.
See Also: Oracle Database Installation Guide for your operating
system for information about setting other important environment
variables on your operating system
19. If your operating system is Windows, then complete the following steps:
a.
Stop all Oracle services, including the OracleServiceSID Oracle service of
the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database, where SID is the instance
name.
For example, if your SID is ORCL, then enter the following at a command
prompt:
C:\> NET STOP OracleServiceORCL
See Also:
b.
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
Delete the Oracle service at a command prompt by issuing the ORADIM
command. For example, if your SID is ORCL, then enter the following
command:
C:\> ORADIM -DELETE -SID ORCL
c.
Create the Oracle service of the database that you are downgrading at a
command prompt using the ORADIM command.
C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID SID -INTPWD PASSWORD -MAXUSERS USERS
-STARTMODE AUTO -PFILE ORACLE_HOME\DATABASE\INITSID.ORA
This syntax includes the following variables:
Variable
Description
SID
Same SID name as the SID of the database being downgraded.
6-6 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release
Variable
Description
PASSWORD
Password for the database instance. This is the password for the user
connected with SYSDBA privileges. The -INTPWD option is not
required. If you do not specify it, then operating system authentication
is used, and no password is required.
USERS
Maximum number of users who can be granted SYSDBA and SYSOPER
privileges.
ORACLE_HOME
Oracle home directory of the database to which you are downgrading.
Ensure that you specify the full path name with the -PFILE option,
including drive letter of the Oracle home directory.
For example, if you are downgrading to Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2),
if your SID is ORCL, your PASSWORD is TWxy5791, the maximum number of
USERS is 10, and the ORACLE_HOME directory is C:\ORANT, then enter the
following command:
C:\> ORADIM -NEW -SID ORCL -INTPWD TWxy5791 -MAXUSERS 10
-STARTMODE AUTO -PFILE C:\ORANT\DATABASE\INITORCL.ORA
You are not required to change any Windows Registry settings
when downgrading a database. The ORADIM utility makes all
necessary changes automatically.
Note:
20. Restore the configuration files (for example, parameter files, password files, and so
on) of the release to which you are downgrading.
If this is an Oracle RAC database, execute the following command to return the
database to single instance mode:
set CLUSTER_DATABASE=FALSE
If you are downgrading a cluster database, then perform this
step on all nodes in which this cluster database has instances
configured. Set the CLUSTER_DATABASE initialization parameter to
FALSE. After the downgrade, you must set this initialization
parameter back to TRUE.
Note:
21. At a system prompt, change to the ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin directory of the
previous release.
22. Start SQL*Plus.
23. Connect to the database instance as a user with SYSDBA privileges.
24. Start up the instance:
SQL> STARTUP UPGRADE
25. Set the system to spool results to a log file to track changes and issues:
SQL> SPOOL reload.log
26. Run catrelod.sql:
SQL> @catrelod.sql
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release 6-7
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release
The catrelod.sql script reloads the appropriate version of all of the database
components in the downgraded database.
27. If you are downgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1.0.6), run the
xsrelod.sql script:
SQL> @xsrelod.sql
Running the xsrelod.sql script avoids the following error:
PLS-00306: wrong number or types of arguments in call
to 'INVALIDATE_DSD_CACHE' DBMS_XS_DATA_SECURITY_EVENTS
PL/SQL: Statement ignored
The PLS-00306 error is not an issue for Oracle Database release
11.2.0.7 or later.
Note:
28. If you are downgrading to Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.5) and you have
XDB in your database, then run the dbmsxdbt.sql script:
@dbmsxdbt.sql
Running the dbmsxdbt.sql script avoids the following errors when reloading
XDB.DBMS_XDBT package:
PLS-00201: identifier 'CTXSYS.CTX_OUTPUT' must be declared
PLS-00201: identifier 'CTX_DDL' must be declared
29. If you are downgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 or earlier, and you have
Oracle Application Express in your database, then change to the directory to
which you had copied the apxrelod.sql script (in step 4). Manually reload
Oracle Application Express by running the apxrelod.sql script:
SQL> @apxrelod.sql
Running the apxrelod.sql script avoids package APEX_030200.WWV_FLOW_
HELP being INVALID due to the following error:
PLS-00201: identifier 'CTX_DDL' must be declared
30. Turn off the spooling of script results to the log file:
SQL> SPOOL OFF
Then, check the spool file and verify that the packages and procedures compiled
successfully. You named the spool file in Step 25; the suggested name was
reload.log. Correct any problems you find in this file and rerun the appropriate
script if necessary.
31. Shut down and restart the instance for normal operation:
SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
SQL> STARTUP
You might be required to use the PFILE option to specify the location of your
initialization parameter file.
32. Perform this step if the database is configured for Oracle Label Security and you
are downgrading to Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1).
6-8 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Post-Downgrade Tasks for Oracle Database
a.
Copy the olstrig.sql script from the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
Oracle home to the Oracle home of the version to which the database is to be
downgraded.
b.
Run olstrig.sql to re-create DML triggers on tables with Oracle Label
Security policies.
SQL> @olstrig.sql
See the Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide for more information.
33. Run the utlrp.sql script:
SQL> @utlrp.sql
The utlrp.sql script recompiles all existing PL/SQL modules that were
previously in an INVALID state, such as packages, procedures, types, and so on.
34. Exit SQL*Plus.
35. If you are downgrading a cluster database, then you must run the following
command to downgrade the Oracle Clusterware database configuration:
$ srvctl downgrade database -d db-unique-name -o old_ORACLE_HOME -t to_relnum
[where db-unique-name is the database name (not the instance name), old_
ORACLE_HOME is the location of the old Oracle home in which the downgraded
database will be running. In this example, to_relnum is the database release
number to which the database is being downgraded. (For example: 11.2.0.1.0.)]
Caution: By default, any named user may create a server pool. To
restrict the operating system users that have this privilege, Oracle
strongly recommends that you add specific users to the CRS
Administrators list.
See Also: Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
more information about adding users to the CRS Administrators list
Execute this command from the current Oracle home, not from
the Oracle home to which the database is being downgraded.
Note:
Your database is now downgraded.
Post-Downgrade Tasks for Oracle Database
Tasks might be required after downgrading Oracle Database. This section contains the
following topics:
■
■
Re-creating the Network Listener When Downgrading to Oracle Database
Releases 10.2 or 11.1
Restoring Oracle Enterprise Manager after Downgrading Oracle Database
–
Single-Instance Oracle Database Without Oracle ASM
–
Oracle RAC Database Without Oracle ASM
–
Single-Instance Oracle ASM Instance
–
Oracle ASM on Oracle RAC Instance
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release 6-9
Post-Downgrade Tasks for Oracle Database
–
Single-Instance Oracle Database With Oracle ASM
–
Oracle RAC Database and Oracle ASM Instance
■
Re-enabling Oracle Database Vault after Downgrading Oracle Database
■
Restoration of the Configuration for Oracle Clusterware after Downgrading
■
Downgrading and Database Links from Earlier Releases
Re-creating the Network Listener When Downgrading to Oracle Database Releases 10.2
or 11.1
If you are downgrading the new database to Oracle Database 10g or Oracle Database
11g Release 1, then you must recreate the listener after performing the downgrade
steps. Run Oracle Net Manager to delete the old listener and create a new listener.
■
■
To start Oracle Net Manager from the Oracle Enterprise Manager console, select
Service Management from the Tools menu, and then select Oracle Net Manager.
On Microsoft Windows, select Programs from the Start menu, and then select
Oracle - HOME_NAME. Next, select Configuration and Migration Tools, and
then Net Manager.
See Also:
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
Restoring Oracle Enterprise Manager after Downgrading Oracle Database
This task is required only if you are downgrading in some form and Oracle Enterprise
Manager is configured on the host. To restore Oracle Enterprise Manager to its
previous state, you must have saved your Oracle Enterprise Manager files and data
before upgrading.
See Also: "Saving Database Control Files and Data with the
emdwgrd Utility" on page 3-20
If this is an Oracle RAC database using Oracle Clusterware, the database must be
registered with the srvctl before running the emca -restore command. This
needs to be executed from the ORACLE_HOME/bin of the version to which the database
is being downgraded.
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for
information about srvctl
See Also:
Run the emca -restore command with the appropriate options to restore Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Control or Grid Control to the old Oracle home. The
options that you specify depend on whether the database being downgraded is an
Oracle RAC database or an Oracle ASM database, as follows:
Note: Use the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) version of emca
for this procedure. See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for
complete information about emca.
Single-Instance Oracle Database Without Oracle ASM
111Home/bin/emca -restore db
You are prompted to enter the following information:
6-10 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Post-Downgrade Tasks for Oracle Database
■
Oracle home for the database to be restored
■
Database SID
■
Listener port number
Oracle RAC Database Without Oracle ASM
111Home/bin/emca -restore db -cluster
You are prompted to enter the following information:
■
Oracle home for the database to be restored
■
Database unique name
■
Listener port number
Single-Instance Oracle ASM Instance
111Home/bin/emca -restore asm
You are prompted to enter the following information:
■
Oracle home for the database to be restored
■
Oracle ASM port
■
Oracle ASM SID
Oracle ASM on Oracle RAC Instance
111Home/bin/emca -restore asm -cluster
You are prompted to enter the following information:
■
Oracle home for the database to be restored
■
Oracle ASM port
Single-Instance Oracle Database With Oracle ASM
111Home/bin/emca -restore db_asm
You are prompted to enter the following information:
■
Oracle home for the database to be restored
■
Database SID
■
Listener port number
■
Oracle ASM port
■
Oracle ASM home
■
Oracle ASM SID [+ASM]
Oracle RAC Database and Oracle ASM Instance
111Home/bin/emca -restore db_asm -cluster
You are prompted to enter the following information:
■
Oracle home for the database to be restored
■
Database unique name
■
Listener port number
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release 6-11
Post-Downgrade Tasks for Oracle Database
■
Oracle ASM port
■
Oracle ASM Oracle home
■
Oracle ASM SID [+ASM]
The output of emca varies according to the options that you specify and the values
that you enter at the prompts.
For an inplace patchset upgrade, the original home backup you saved before applying
the patchset must be restored. This step must be repeated on all the nodes in Oracle
RAC environments. Running the emca -restore command is not required for an
inplace patchset upgrade.
After completing the emca -restore procedure you are ready to restore the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database files and data with the emdwgrd utility. You must run
the emdwgrd utility from the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) home. But ORACLE_
HOME and other environment variables must be set to point to the Oracle home from
which the upgrade originally took place.
The following procedure is for Linux and UNIX. To run it on Windows, simply
substitute emdwgrd.bat for emdwgrd.
Follow these steps to restore your database control files and data:
1.
Set ORACLE_HOME to the Oracle home from which the database upgrade originally
took place.
For an inplace patchset upgrade, restore the backup of the original home (with
one-off patch of Bug 7131048 if upgrading from 11.1.0.6), and set ORACLE_HOME to
the current Oracle home.
2.
Set ORACLE_SID to the SID of the database that was upgraded and then
downgraded.
3.
Set PATH, LD_LIBRARY_PATH and SHLIB_PATH to point to the Oracle home from
which the database upgrade originally took place.
4.
Go to the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) home:
cd ORACLE_HOME/bin
5.
Execute one of the following:
a.
For a single-instance database, run the following command, where SID is the
SID of the database that was upgraded and then downgraded and save_
directory is the path to the storage location you chose when saving your
database control files and data:
emdwgrd -restore -sid SID -path save_sirectory -tempTablespace TEMP
b.
For an Oracle RAC database, remote copy is required across the cluster nodes.
Define an environment variable to indicate which remote copy is configured.
For example:
setenv EM_REMCP /usr/bin/scp
Then, execute the following restore command:
emdwgrd -restore -tempTablespace TEMP -cluster -sid SID10g -path save_
directory
If 10g Oracle home is on a shared device, add -shared to the previous
command line.
6-12 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Post-Downgrade Tasks for Oracle Database
6.
Enter the SYS and SYSMAN passwords when prompted by emdwgrd.
7.
On a single-instance database, the emdwgrd utility produces output similar to the
following:
Sat
Sat
Sat
Sat
Sat
Sat
Sat
Sat
Sat
Sat
Sat
Sat
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
09:27:09
09:27:09
09:27:19
09:27:20
09:27:20
09:27:21
09:27:22
09:27:23
09:27:23
09:30:42
09:30:54
09:32:37
2007
2007
2007
2007
2007
2007
2007
2007
2007
2007
2007
2007
-
Verify EM DB Control files ... pass
Validating DB Connection to DB102 ... pass
Validating TEMP tablespace in DB102 ... pass
creating directory ... created
Stopping DB Control ... stopped
dropping sysman schema ... dropped
recreating sysman user ... recreated
Restoring DB Control files ... restored
Importing sysman schema ... imported
recompiling invalid objects ... recompiled
Starting DB Control ... started
DB Control was restored successfully.
When emdwgrd finishes, Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control has been
downgraded to the old Oracle home.
On an Oracle RAC database, the emdwgrd utility produces output similar to the
following:
$ /scratch/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1/bin/emdwgrd -srcOracleHome $ORACLE_HOME
-sid DB102 -path /scratch/rpattabh/ravi/tmp/dbcdir5 -restore –cluster
-tempTablespace TEMP
Enter sys password for database DB102?
*****
Enter sysman password for database DB102?
*****
Sat Apr 28 09:27:09 2007 - Verify EM DB Control files ... pass
Sat Apr 28 09:27:09 2007 - Validating DB Connection to DB102 ... pass
Sat Apr 28 09:27:19 2007 - Validating TEMP tablespace in DB102 ... pass
Sat Apr 28 09:27:20 2007 - creating directory ... created
Sat Apr 28 09:27:20 2007 - Stopping DB Control on all Nodes
stbdq04, r101b1, /oradbnas/sangeeta/10.1.0/db, stop, 0
stbdq05, r101b2, /oradbnas/sangeeta/10.1.0/db, stop, 1
Please Execute '/tmp/racdwgrd_dbctl.sh' on Node1, Node2.
Press yes to continue when the operations are successful.
Continue (yes/no) ?
y
... stopped
Sat Apr 28 09:27:21 2007 - dropping sysman schema ... dropped
Sat Apr 28 09:27:22 2007 - recreating sysman user ... recreated
Sat Apr 28 09:27:23 2007 - Restoring DB Control files
Executing Restore directories to node Node1
Executing Restore directories to node Node2
...
Sat
Sat
Sat
Sat
restored
Apr 28 09:27:23
Apr 28 09:30:42
Apr 28 09:32:37
Apr 28 09:33:54
2007
2007
2007
2007
-
Importing sysman schema ... imported
recompiling invalid objects ... recompiled
DB Control was restored successfully.
Starting DB Control On All nodes
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release 6-13
Post-Downgrade Tasks for Oracle Database
Please Execute '/tmp/racdwgrd_dbctl.sh' on Node1, Node2.
Press yes to continue when the operations are successful.
Continue (yes/no) ?
y
... started
Sat Apr 28 09:38:57 2007 - Dump directory was dropped successfully.
Re-enabling Oracle Database Vault after Downgrading Oracle Database
If you use Oracle Database Vault, then you were instructed to disable it before
downgrading your database. To use Oracle Database Vault after downgrading, you
must re-enable it.
To enable Oracle Database Vault after downgrading:
1.
Connect to SQL*Plus as a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role.
2.
Issue the following statements:
ALTER TRIGGER DVSYS.DV_BEFORE_DDL_TRG ENABLE;
ALTER TRIGGER DVSYS.DV_AFTER_DDL_TRG ENABLE;
See Also:
Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide
Restoration of the Configuration for Oracle Clusterware after Downgrading
You can restore the Oracle Clusterware configuration to the state it was in before the
Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2) upgrade. To do this, you must restore the
release from which you were upgrading. Any configuration changes you have
performed during or after the 11g release 2 (11.2) upgrade process are removed and
cannot be recovered.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Microsoft Windows
(32-Bit), Microsoft Windows (64-Bit) on Intel Itanium, Microsoft
Windows x64
■
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide
■
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide
Downgrading and Database Links from Earlier Releases
Before downgrading, you must use Oracle Data Pump full database export with the
INCLUDE=DBLINK parameter to export all database links into a dump file suitable for
import into the downgraded database. This dump file can then be used to replace the
database links after the downgrade.
Ensure that you know the password for any newly-created database links (that is,
database links that you may have created while running the new release from which
you are downgrading. Knowing the database link password is necessary because you
will need to reset the database link password after downgrading to the earlier release.
This is only required for newly-created dblinks, those that you created after you
upgraded to the new release.
6-14 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Troubleshooting the Downgrade of Oracle Database
Unless the database link password is reset, an internal error will be displayed when
anyone attempts to make use of the database link. The internal error that is reported in
the Oracle trace file when the Oracle server fails to retrieve the password of the
database link is as follows: "ORA-00600: [kzdlk_zt2 err], [18446744073709551601]".
Alternatively, you may just recreate the dblinks after you complete the downgrade.
You can work with Oracle Support if you want to create new
database links that are immune to the ORA-00600 issue while running
the new Oracle Database release 11.2 upgrade.
Note:
Troubleshooting the Downgrade of Oracle Database
Oracle provides troubleshooting information for issues that may occur when
downgrading Oracle Database. For the latest information on this release, also refer to
Oracle Database Readme.
Downgrading release 11.2 of Oracle Grid Infrastructure fails
If downgrading release 11.2 of Oracle Grid Infrastructure fails, then refer to the
support note "How to Proceed from Failed Upgrade to Grid Infrastructure" on
Linux/Unix [ID 969254.1]" on https://support.oracle.com. Oracle recommends
that you read the entire note before taking action.
Error raised from the 11.2.0.1 xsrelod.sql script
When downgrading Oracle Database from release 11.2.0.2 or 11.2.0.3 to release 11.2.0.1,
an error may be raised from the xsrelod.sql script, which is included with release
11.2.0.1. This problem only occurs after downgrading to release 11.2.0.1 and then
attempting to enable XML DB indexes. The error "ORA-01418: specified index does not
exist" may be raised and can safely be ignored.
Error raised from the Oracle Multimedia imrelod.sql script
When downgrading Oracle Database to release 11.2.0.2, an error may be raised from
the imrelod.sql script which is included with release 11.2.0.2. The error
"ORA-20000: Oracle ORDIM component in registry is status: DOWNGRADED. Oracle
ORDIM must be installed and valid prior to Oracle Multimedia upgrade, downgrade,
or patch." can safely be ignored.
Downgrading Oracle Database causes invalid object CTX_FILTER_CACHE_
STATISTICS
After downgrading Oracle Database, the following invalid Text object may be seen:
CTX_FILTER_CACHE_STATISTICS (synonym)
CTX_FILTER_CACHE_STATISTICS (view)
To fix this problem, in the current release of Oracle Database, after running the
catdwgrd.sql script and before running the catrelod.sql script, issue the
following two commands:
SQL> drop public synonym ctx_filter_cache_statistics;
SQL> drop view ctx_filter_cache_statistics;
Downgrading Oracle Database to an Earlier Release 6-15
Troubleshooting the Downgrade of Oracle Database
6-16 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
7
7
Moving Data Using Oracle Data Pump
When upgrading Oracle Database, you can use the Export and Import utilities in
Oracle Data Pump to move data from one database to another.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
About Data Pump Export and Import for Upgrading Oracle Database
■
Export and Import Requirements for Oracle Database Upgrades
■
Upgrading the Database Using Data Pump Export/Import
Oracle Database Utilities for detailed information about
Data Pump and the Export and Import utilities
See Also:
About Data Pump Export and Import for Upgrading Oracle Database
The Data Pump Export (expdp) and Import (impdp) utilities have a similar look and
feel to the original Export (EXP) and Import (IMP) utilities, but they are completely
separate. The Data Pump Export and Import utilities, first released in Oracle Database
10g Release 1 (10.1), are high performance replacements for the original Export and
Import utilities. When upgrading your database, you must use the Data Pump Export
and Import utilities because these utilities provide greatly enhanced performance
compared to the original Export and Import utilities. Additionally, the IMP and EXP
utilities are no longer supported.
See Also:
■
■
■
"Oracle Data Pump Export and Import and Oracle Database
Upgrade" on page 2-4 for information on when to use this
upgrade method
Oracle Database Utilities for a detailed list of Data Pump features
that contribute to increased performance, as well as to enhanced
ease-of-use
"When to Use the Original EXP and IMP Utilities" on page 7-2
Data Pump Export and Import offer the following advantages:
■
■
Provides greater data and metadata filtering capability than was provided by the
original Export utility. Data Pump supports filtering the metadata that is exported
and imported based upon objects and object types, using INCLUDE and EXCLUDE
parameters.
Supports different modes for unloading/loading portions of the database
including: full database mode, schema mode, table mode, tablespace mode, and
Moving Data Using Oracle Data Pump 7-1
Export and Import Requirements for Oracle Database Upgrades
transportable tablespace mode. (See the "Data Pump Export Modes" and "Data
Pump Import Modes" sections in Oracle Database Utilities)
■
■
Enables you to specify how partitioned tables should be handled during import
operations, using the PARTITION_OPTIONS parameter.
Provides support for the full range of data types.
Oracle Database Utilities for an overview of Data Pump
Export and Import
See Also:
When to Use the Original EXP and IMP Utilities
The original Export/Import utilities are required for the following types of database
upgrades and downgrades:
■
■
■
If you are upgrading from a release earlier than Oracle Database 10g Release 1
(10.1), then you must use the original Export/Import utilities to move the data.
Likewise, if you are downgrading your database to a release earlier than Oracle
Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), then you must use the original Export/Import
utilities.
If you must downgrade to a release earlier than Oracle Database 10g Release 1
(10.1), then the original Export utility continues to provide support to ensure
backward compatibility.
If you are moving tables of XMLType or tables containing XMLType columns
(schema and non-schema-based) from Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) to
Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2).
Oracle Database Utilities for information on moving a
database from one platform to another
See Also:
Export and Import Requirements for Oracle Database Upgrades
Dump files generated by the Data Pump Export utility are not compatible with dump
files generated by the original Export utility. Therefore, files generated by the original
Export (EXP) utility cannot be imported with the Data Pump Import (impdp) utility,
and vice versa.
About Export Dump Files and Upgrading
Dump files created by one of the Export utilities can be imported into all future
releases of Oracle Database. For example, an Oracle8 original Export dump file can be
imported by the Oracle8i, Oracle9i, Oracle Database 10g, and Oracle Database 11g
original Import utility.
Table 7–1 shows which releases to use when exporting data from releases earlier than
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) and then importing that data into Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2).
Table 7–1
Exporting Data From Releases Earlier Than 11.2 and Importing Into Release 11.2
Export From
Import To
Export Version to Use
Import Version to Use
Release 11.1
Release 11.2
Data Pump Export Release 11.1
Data Pump Import Release 11.2
Release 10.2
Release 11.2
Data Pump Export Release 10.2
Data Pump Import Release 11.2
Release 10.1
Release 11.2
Data Pump Export Release 10.1
Data Pump Import Release 11.2
7-2 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Export and Import Requirements for Oracle Database Upgrades
Table 7–1 (Cont.) Exporting Data From Releases Earlier Than 11.2 and Importing Into Release 11.2
Export From
Import To
Export Version to Use
Import Version to Use
Release 9.2
Release 11.2
Original Export Release 9.2
Original Import Release 11.2
Release 8.1.7
Release 11.2
Original Export Release 8.1.7
Original Import Release 11.2
Release 8.0.6
Release 11.2
Original Export Release 8.0.6
Original Import Release 11.2
Release 7.3.4
Release 11.2
Original Export Release 7.3.4
Original Import Release 11.2
Export and Import Requirements for Downgrades
The Oracle Database release to which you downgrade can be one release older, at the
most. For example, if the current database is Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), then
Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) is the only release supported for the downgrade.
To obtain a downward compatible dump file:
■
With Data Pump Export, use the current version's Data Pump Export utility, but set
the VERSION parameter to the target older version.
Data Pump Import cannot read dump file sets created by a database version that is
newer than the current database version, unless those dump file sets were created
with the VERSION parameter set to the version of the target database. Therefore,
the best way to perform a downgrade is to use Data Pump Export with the
VERSION parameter set to the version of the target database.
Oracle Database Utilities for more information about using
the VERSION parameter
See Also:
■
With original Export, run an older version of Export (exp) to produce a dump file
that is compatible with the database version to which you want to downgrade.
Then, run the target's original Import utility.
Original Export dump files are not downward compatible with the Import utilities
of previous Oracle Database releases. That is, exported data cannot be imported by
the Import utilities of previous Oracle Database releases. For example, an Oracle9i
Export dump file cannot be imported by an Oracle8i Import utility, and an Oracle
Database 10g export dump file cannot be imported by an Oracle9i Import utility.
The following tables provide specific examples.
Oracle Database Utilities for more information about using
different releases and versions of Export
See Also:
Table 7–2 shows which releases to use when exporting data from Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2) and then importing that data into earlier releases. Major release
downgrades are supported to 11.1, 10.2, and 10.1.
Table 7–2
Exporting Data From Release 11.1 and Importing Into Earlier Releases
Export From
Import To
Export Version to Use
Import Version to Use
Release 11.2
Release 11.1
Data Pump Export Release 11.2
with VERSION=11.1
Data Pump Import Release 11.1
Release 11.1
Release 10.2
Data Pump Export Release 11.1
with VERSION=10.2
Data Pump Import Release 10.2
Release 10.2
Release 10.1
Data Pump Export Release 10.2
with VERSION=10.1
Data Pump Import Release 10.1
Moving Data Using Oracle Data Pump 7-3
Upgrading the Database Using Data Pump Export/Import
When using the original Export utility, if the source database is
newer than the target database, then you must run the catexp.sql
script supplied with the previous (older) release for the export to be
successful. Once the export is done, then run the catexp.sql script
from the newer release to restore the export views. Perform the steps
as follows:
Note:
1.
Run the older CATEXP.SQL script on the database to be exported.
2.
Use the older Export utility to create the dump file.
3.
Use the older Import utility to import to the target database.
4.
Run the newer CATEXP.SQL script on the exported database.
Export/Import Usage on Data Incompatible with a Previous Release
When you export data to a previous release, data that is incompatible with the
previous release either is not exported at all or is exported with the loss of some
features.
In general, if you must export data to a previous release, then first remove as many
incompatibilities with the previous release as possible before you export the data.
Upgrading the Database Using Data Pump Export/Import
To upgrade a database using the Data Pump Export/Import utilities, complete the
following steps:
1.
Export data from the current database using the Export utility shipped with the
current database. See the current Oracle Database Utilities documentation for
information about using the Export utility on the current database.
To ensure a consistent export, make sure the current database is not available for
updates during and after the export. If the current database is available to users for
updates after the export, then, before making the current database available, put
procedures in place to copy the changes made in the current database to the new
database after the import is complete.
2.
Install the new Oracle Database software. Installation is operating-system specific.
Installation steps for Oracle Database are provided in Oracle Database Installation
Guide for your operating system.
3.
If the new database has the same name as the current database, then shut down
the current database before creating the new database.
4.
Create the new database.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information
about creating a database
5.
Start SQL*Plus in the new Oracle Database environment.
6.
Connect to the database instance as a user with SYSDBA privileges.
7.
Start an Oracle Database instance using STARTUP.
8.
Optionally, you can change the storage parameters from the source database.
You can pre-create tablespaces, users, and tables in the new database to improve
space usage by changing storage parameters. When you pre-create tables using
SQL*Plus, either run the database in the original database compatibility mode or
7-4 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrading the Database Using Data Pump Export/Import
make allowances for the specific data definition conversions that occur during
import. When items have been pre-created, specify one of the following options:
■
TABLE_EXISTS_ACTION=APPEND for Data Pump Import
■
IGNORE=Y for original Import
If the new database is created on the same computer as the
source database, and you do not want to overwrite the source
database data files, then you must pre-create the tablespaces and
specify one of the following options when you import:
Note:
■
REUSE_DATAFILES=N for Data Pump Import
Optionally, consider using the REMAP_DATAFILE, REMAP_
TABLESPACE and REMAP_TABLE options so that references to the
old names in the dump file set are remapped to new, non-colliding
names.
■
9.
DESTROY=N for original Import.
Use the Import utility of the new database to import the objects exported from the
current database. Include one of the following parameters to save the
informational and error messages from the import session to a file:
■
The LOGFILE parameter for Data Pump Import
■
The LOG parameter for original Import
Oracle Database Utilities for a complete description of the
Data Pump Import utility.
See Also:
10. After the import, check the import log file for information about which imports of
which objects completed successfully and, if there were failures, which failed.
Oracle Database Utilities and the Oracle Database
README.doc file for error handling information.
See Also:
11. Use further Import scenarios (see Oracle Database Utilities) or SQL scripts that
create the database's objects to clean up incomplete imports (or possibly to start an
entirely new import).
If a Data Pump Export or Import job encounters a fatal error,
then the job can be restarted after the condition inducing the failure is
corrected. The job then continues automatically from the point of
failure.
Note:
12. If changes are made to the current database after the export, then make sure those
changes are propagated to the new database before making it available to users.
See Step 1 for more information.
13. Complete the procedures described in Chapter 4, "Post-Upgrade Tasks for Oracle
Database".
Moving Data Using Oracle Data Pump 7-5
Upgrading the Database Using Data Pump Export/Import
Importing a Full Database Using a Network Link
As an alternative to the procedure in "Upgrading the Database Using Data Pump
Export/Import" on page 7-4, you can use the Data Pump Import utility with a
database link to perform a full database import from a source database to a destination
database without intermediate dump files.
In order to avoid interoperability errors, ensure that the
appropriate patchset has been applied to the database being
upgraded. See My Oracle Support at
https://support.oracle.com to obtain the latest patchsets.
Note:
You may also refer to support note ID 4511371.8, which discusses
ORA-6544 and ORA-4052 errors.
Follow these steps to use a network link with impdp:
1.
Ensure that the exporting user at the source database has the EXP_FULL_
DATABASE role.
This user must be specified when you create the database link.
2.
Ensure that the importing user at the destination database has the IMP_FULL_
DATABASE role.
3.
Create and test a database link between the source and destination databases.
4.
Run the following command, where import_user is the username for the
importing user, and db_link is the name of the database link owned by the
exporting user:
IMPDP import_user/password NETWORK_LINK=db_link FULL=Y;
5.
A log file for the import operation is written to the DATA_PUMP_DIR directory.
You can discover the location of this directory by running the following command:
SQL> select * from dba_directories where DIRECTORY_NAME like 'DATA_PUMP_DIR';
Note:
XML objects are not exported from the source database.
The import operation re-creates users on the new destination
server, and the creation date for dba_users shows the actual import
date. The expiration date is updated to be creation_date +
password_life_time. The parameters for dba_users on the new
server are different than the dba_users parameters on the source
server.
Note:
7-6 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
A
A
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle
Database
Important changes in behavior exist between Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2), Oracle Database
10g Release 1 (10.1), Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), Oracle Database 11g Release
1 (11.1), and Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). This appendix focuses on behavior
changes that require a database administrator (also referred to as a DBA) to make an
informed decision to minimize the risks that may be introduced by the changes. This
appendix does not describe all changed behavior or new features in the new Oracle
Database 11g release.
This appendix includes the following topics:
■
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
■
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
■
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)
■
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database New Features Guide for a complete list of all new
features introduced in Oracle Database 11g release
The "What's New in Oracle Database Reference" section of Oracle
Database Reference for a list of new initialization parameters, new
static data dictionary views, and new dynamic performance views
in Oracle Database 11g release
Some of the initialization parameters listed in this appendix
are operating system-specific. See your operating system-specific
Oracle documentation for more information about these initialization
parameters.
Note:
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release
2 (11.2)
The topics in this section describe compatibility and interoperability issues introduced
in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) and actions you can take to prevent problems
resulting from these changes.
■
Deprecation of Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database A-1
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
■
Deprecation of SNMP Support in Oracle Net Listener
■
Changes to PL/SQL Procedures
■
Deprecated XML DB Constructs
■
Cursor_sharing=similar Obsolete in Oracle Database
■
Planned Desupport of Change Data Capture
■
Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
■
Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
■
Static Data Dictionary Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
■
Dynamic Performance Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
■
Deprecated Features in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
■
Changes to LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Parameters
■
Deprecation of -checkpasswd for QOSCTL Quality of Service (QoS) Command
■
Desupport of -cleanupOBase Flag of the Deinstallation Tool
■
Desupport of the DES, RC4, and MD5 Algorithms
Deprecation of Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control is deprecated in Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2), and will be desupported in the next major release of Oracle Database.
Oracle will fully support Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control for the life of
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), including for all patch sets, and through the end
of Extended Support.
Deprecation of SNMP Support in Oracle Net Listener
Oracle is deprecating SNMP support in Oracle Net Listener in Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2). Oracle recommends not using SNMP in new implementations.
See Also:
Doc ID 1341834.1 at https://support.oracle.com
Changes to PL/SQL Procedures
The following PL/SQL procedures have been moved from package DBMS_XDB to
package DBMS_XDB_ADMIN in release 11.2.0.3:
■
moveXDB_tablespace
■
rebuildHierarchicalIndex
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference
JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES Parameter and Scheduling Jobs
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), setting JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES to
0 causes both DBMS_SCHEDULER and DBMS_JOB jobs to not run. Previously, setting
JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES to 0 caused DBMS_JOB jobs to not run, but DBMS_
SCHEDULER jobs were unaffected and would still run. The default value is 1000.
Note that Oracle Database overrides the job queue setting to disable scheduler jobs
during upgrade mode. Therefore, there is no need to change this setting when
upgrading Oracle Database.
A-2 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for more information on this
parameter
Deprecated XML DB Constructs
The following XML DB constructs have been deprecated in release 11.2.0.3:
■
PL/SQL procedure DBMS_XDB_ADMIN.createRepositoryXMLIndex
■
PL/SQL procedure DBMS_XDB_ADMIN.XMLIndexAddPath
■
PL/SQL procedure DBMS_XDB_ADMIN.XMLIndexRemovePath
■
PL/SQL procedure DBMS_XDB_ADMIN.dropRepositoryXMLIndex
■
XML schema annotation (attribute) csx:encodingType
■
XMLIndex index on CLOB portions of hybrid XMLType storage
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide
Cursor_sharing=similar Obsolete in Oracle Database
The cursor_sharing=similar parameter is deprecated in Oracle Database release
11.2.0.3. Use adaptive cursor sharing instead.
See Also: Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for information
about adaptive cursor sharing
Planned Desupport of Change Data Capture
Oracle Change Data Capture will not be supported in a future release of Oracle
Database and will be replaced with Oracle GoldenGate. Therefore, Oracle strongly
recommends that you use Oracle GoldenGate for new applications.
For Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Change Data Capture continues to function
as in earlier releases. If you are currently using Change Data Capture, then you will be
able to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. However, Change Data Capture
will not be further enhanced.
See Also:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/goldeng
ate/overview/index.html on Oracle Technology Network for
more information about Oracle GoldenGate
Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
A deprecated parameter behaves the same way as a regular parameter, except that a
warning message is displayed at instance startup if a deprecated parameter is
specified in the parameter file. In addition, all deprecated parameters are logged to the
alert log at instance startup.
To get a list of all initialization parameters that are specified as deprecated for the
current database, issue the following SQL statement:
SQL> SELECT name FROM v$parameter
WHERE isdeprecated = 'TRUE';
The following initialization parameters were deprecated in Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2):
ACTIVE_INSTANCE_COUNT
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database A-3
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
PARALLEL_IO_CAP_ENABLED
Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
The following initialization parameters were made obsolete in Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2).
An attempt to start a database using one or more obsolete
initialization parameters will succeed, but a warning is returned and
recorded in the alert log.
Note:
DRS_START
GC_FILES_TO_LOCKS
MAX_COMMIT_PROPAGATION_DELAY
PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_DIR
PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_SUBDIR_COUNT
SQL_VERSION
Static Data Dictionary Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
These static data dictionary views were deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2):
ALL_STREAMS_STMTS (replaced by DBA_STREAMS_STMTS)
ALL_STREAMS_STMT_HANDLERS (replaced by DBA_STREAMS_STMT_HANDLERS)
DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN_SUMMARY (replaced by DBA_COMPARISON_SCAN)
USER_COMPARISON_SCAN_SUMMARY (replaced by USER_COMPARISON_SCAN)
Dynamic Performance Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
These dynamic performance views were deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2).
V$FLASH_RECOVERY_AREA_USAGE (replaced by V$RECOVERY_AREA_USAGE)
Deprecated Features in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
These Oracle Database features have been deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2). They are supported in this release for backward compatibility. However, Oracle
recommends that you migrate away from these deprecated features.
Dictionary-managed Tablespaces
Oracle recommends that you create locally managed tablespaces. Locally managed
tablespaces are much more efficiently managed than dictionary-managed tablespaces.
MAX_JOB_SLAVE_PROCESSES
MAX_JOB_SLAVE_PROCESSES has been deprecated. Use JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES
instead.
Changes to LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Parameters
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), the number of supported
destinations in the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n and the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_n
parameters have been increased from 10 to 31. Destinations LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_11
through LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_31 do not support the SYNC, ARCH, LOCATION,
A-4 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
MANDATORY, ALTERNATE, or DEPENDENCY attributes, and cannot be specified as the
target of the ALTERNATE or DEPENDENCY attributes.
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_11 through LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_31 can only be used when
the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter is set to 11.2.0 or higher.
Deprecation of -checkpasswd for QOSCTL Quality of Service (QoS) Command
The syntax qosctl -checkpasswd username password has been deprecated in
this release. See Oracle Database Quality of Service Management User's Guide for
information about QOSCTL syntax and commands.
Desupport of -cleanupOBase Flag of the Deinstallation Tool
11.2.0.4 49429-1
The -cleanupOBase flag of the deinstallation tool is desupported with Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). There is no replacement for this flag.
Desupport of the DES, RC4, and MD5 Algorithms
11.2.0.4 49429-3
The DES, RC4, and MD5 algorithms are desupported in Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2).
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release
1 (11.1)
The following sections describe compatibility and interoperability issues introduced in
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) and actions you can take to prevent problems
resulting from these issues.
■
Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
■
Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
■
Static Data Dictionary Views with Dropped Columns in Oracle Database 11g
Release 1 (11.1)
■
Deprecated Features in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
■
Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management
■
New SYSASM Privilege and OSASM Group for ASM Administration
■
ASM Disk Group Compatibility
■
COMPUTE STATISTICS and ESTIMATE STATISTICS Clauses
■
Oracle Data Mining Models and the DMSYS Schema Objects
■
Oracle Data Mining Scoring Engine
■
SQL Plan Management and Control of SQL Plan Baselines
■
Binary XML Support for Oracle XML Database
■
PL/SQL Native Compilation and Access Control for Network Utility Packages
■
PL/SQL Control Parameters
■
Change in WebDAV ACL Evaluation Rules in Oracle XML DB
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database A-5
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
■
Summary Management and SQL Access Advisor
■
Standard Edition Starter Database
■
Core Dump Location
■
New Default Value for UNDO_MANAGEMENT
■
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Parameters
■
SHARED_POOL_SIZE Parameter
■
JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES Parameter and Scheduling Jobs
■
Automatic Diagnostic Repository
Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
The following initialization parameters were deprecated in Oracle Database 11g
Release 1 (11.1).
To get a list of all deprecated initialization parameters, issue the following SQL
statement:
SQL> SELECT name FROM v$parameter
WHERE isdeprecated = 'TRUE';
A deprecated parameter behaves the same way as a regular parameter, except that a
warning message is displayed at instance startup if a deprecated parameter is
specified in the parameter file. In addition, all deprecated parameters are logged to the
alert log at instance startup.
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST (replaced by DIAGNOSTIC_DEST)
COMMIT_WRITE
CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME
INSTANCE_GROUPS
LOG_ARCHIVE_LOCAL_FIRST
PLSQL_DEBUG (replaced by PLSQL_OPTIMIZE_LEVEL)
PLSQL_V2_COMPATIBILITY
REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT
RESOURCE_MANAGER_CPU_ALLOCATION
STANDBY_ARCHIVE_DEST
TRANSACTION_LAG attribute (of the CQ_NOTIFICATION$_REG_INFO object)
USER_DUMP_DEST (replaced by DIAGNOSTIC_DEST)
Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
These initialization parameters were made obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 1
(11.1).
DDL_WAIT_FOR_LOCKS
LOGMNR_MAX_PERSISTENT_SESSIONS
PLSQL_COMPILER_FLAGS
An attempt to start a database using one or more obsolete
initialization parameters will succeed, but a warning is returned and
recorded in the alert log.
Note:
A-6 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
Static Data Dictionary Views with Dropped Columns in Oracle Database 11g Release 1
(11.1)
These static data dictionary view columns were dropped in Oracle Database 11g
Release 1 (11.1):
Static Data Dictionary View
Dropped Columns
V$DATAFILE
PLUGGED_IN
Deprecated Features in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
This section lists Oracle Database features deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 1
(11.1). They are supported in this release for backward compatibility. However, Oracle
recommends that you migrate away from these deprecated features.
■
Oracle Ultra Search
■
Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.4
Oracle recommends that you use JDK 5.0; but JDK 1.5 is also fully supported.
■
CTXXPATH index
Oracle recommends that you use XMLIndex instead.
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide
Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management
Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management, a new database component in Oracle
Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), schedules all automatic maintenance tasks in an
expanded set of maintenance windows. Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management
enables you to exercise finer control over maintenance task scheduling for tasks such
as optimizer statistics gathering, Segment Advisor, and Automatic SQL Tuning
Advisor.
Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management uses all existing maintenance windows
(for example, windows that are current members of the MAINTENANCE_WINDOW_
GROUP. Existing resource plans associated with the maintenance windows are used.
However, AUTOTASK_CONSUMER_GROUP is replaced in the resource plans by the
AutoTask Resource Subplan.
If you disable either Optimizer Statistics Gathering or Segment Advisor jobs in 10g,
then the corresponding Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management feature is disabled
after upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).
The following list shows the default settings for maintenance tasks:
■
Online backup is disabled
■
Optimizer Statistics Gathering is on
■
Segment Advisor is on
■
Automatic SQL Tuning is on
All other Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management clients are enabled by default.
Although Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management is automatically enabled when
upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), AutoTask online backup is not
enabled automatically. You must configure online backup manually, if desired, after
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database A-7
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
upgrading the database. If you perform a database downgrade, then Automatic
Maintenance Tasks Management reverts to the default behavior for that release.
See Also: The Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for complete
information about the Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management
feature
New SYSASM Privilege and OSASM Group for ASM Administration
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) introduces a new SYSASM privilege that is
specifically intended for performing ASM administration tasks. Using the SYSASM
privilege instead of the SYSDBA privilege provides a clearer division of responsibility
between ASM administration and database administration.
Warning messages will appear in the ASM alert.log if SYSDBA performs disk
group maintenance (CREATE DISKGROUP, MOUNT/DISMOUNT, ADD/DROP DISK,
ONLINE/OFFLINE DISK, DROP DISKGROUP). These tasks are deprecated for SYSDBA;
they should be performed by SYSASM.
OSASM is a new operating system (OS) group that is used exclusively for ASM.
Members of the OSASM group can connect AS SYSASM using OS authentication and
have full access to ASM.
This feature is described in more detail in "About Upgrading System Authentication
for Oracle ASM Instances" on page 3-5.
See Also: Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more
information about accessing ASM instances
ASM Disk Group Compatibility
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you can advance the Oracle
Database and the ASM disk group compatibility settings across software versions.
Using the new compatibility attributes, compatible.rdbms and compatible.asm,
you can specify the minimum software version required to use the disk group for the
database and the disk group for ASM, respectively.
Caution: If you advance the COMPATIBLE.RDBMS attribute, then you
cannot revert to the previous setting. Therefore, before advancing the
COMPATIBLE.RDBMS attribute, ensure that the values for the
COMPATIBLE initialization parameter for all of the databases that use
the disk group are set to at least the new setting for
COMPATIBLE.RDBMS before you advance the attribute value.
This feature enables heterogeneous environments with disk groups from Oracle
Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), and Oracle
Database 11g Release 1 (11.1). By default, both attributes are set to 10.1. You must
advance these attributes to take advantage of the new features.
See Also: Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more
information on ASM disk group compatibility
COMPUTE STATISTICS and ESTIMATE STATISTICS Clauses
In earlier releases, the ANALYZE...COMPUTE STATISTICS and
ANALYZE...ESTIMATE STATISTICS clauses could be used to start or stop the
collection of statistics on an index. These clauses have been made obsolete. Oracle
A-8 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) automatically collects statistics during index creation and
rebuild. These clauses are no longer supported.
Oracle Data Mining Models and the DMSYS Schema Objects
During the upgrade to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), DMSYS schema objects
along with user models residing in user schemas are upgraded from any previous
release without major constraints. Upon completion of the upgrade, the mining
metadata is migrated into the SYS schema while the user models continue functioning
with the new metadata. Oracle recommends that you drop the DMSYS schema after
setting the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter to 11.0.0. In addition, the DBA will
need to grant the new CREATE MINING MODEL privilege so that existing users can
continue to build mining models.
Data mining models residing in a user schema are automatically upgraded as part of
the model upgrade, which is an integral part of the Oracle Database upgrade process.
Data mining model Export and Import utilities can also be used as a means of
upgrading data mining models from one release to another.
During the database downgrade process, the data mining component is downgraded
to a previous release. The downgrade process reloads DMSYS objects such as packages,
types, and table objects as well as downgrading model objects residing in user
schemas (if any). Objects that were created as a part of the database upgrade are
removed from the SYS schema during the downgrade procedure. The process is
transparent and does not require any user intervention.
After upgrading (and dropping the DMSYS schema after setting the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter to 11.0.0), importing models that were exported from Oracle
Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) might have some complications due to their reference to
the now nonexistent DMSYS schema. To handle this case, Oracle provides scripts to
sufficiently (and minimally) mimic the DMSYS interface present in the Oracle Database
10g Release 1 (10.1) database so that the Import process can proceed. This is not a
common occurrence because models become stale over time and users typically want
to rebuild their models rather than import older ones.
Note that Data Mining is not protected by the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter. If
COMPATIBLE is set at 10.1.0 or 10.2.0 while the database has been upgraded to
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), then all new and existing Data Mining features
and functions should work. If you have built new mining models that are only
available in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), and subsequently decide to
downgrade the database to Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), you will be required
to drop the new mining models before downgrading.
Oracle Data Mining Scoring Engine
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), the Oracle Data Mining Scoring
Engine can no longer be installed.
See Also:
Oracle Data Mining Administrator's Guide
SQL Plan Management and Control of SQL Plan Baselines
The use of stored outlines is deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).
Instead, you should use the SQL plan management feature that enables the optimizer
to maintain a history of execution plans for a SQL statement. Using the execution plan
history, the optimizer is able to detect a new plan representing a plan change for a SQL
statement. When the optimizer detects a new plan, it stores the new plan and marks it
for performance evaluation and uses the old (currently known good) plan. The
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database A-9
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
optimizer uses the new plan only after its performance is verified to be better than that
of the old plan. A SQL plan baseline consists of a set of known good plans for a SQL
statement.
Migration of SQL Profiles
SQL Profiles are SQL management objects that were introduced in Oracle Database 10g
Release 1 (10.1). These objects resided in a section of the dictionary that was defined in
SYSTEM tablespace. The dictionary tables storing the SQL profiles are restructured to
accommodate the storage of SQL plan baselines, which are also SQL management
objects. Further, these dictionary tables are now defined in the SYSAUX tablespace.
When you upgrade from Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) to Oracle Database 11g
Release 1 (11.1), the database upgrade script moves existing SQL profiles from the
SYSTEM tablespace to the SYSAUX tablespace. Thus, if an Oracle Database 11g Release
1 (11.1) database instance is up but the SYSAUX tablespace is offline, then the optimizer
is not able to access SQL Management objects, which can affect the performance on
some of the SQL workload. In contrast, in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1),
because SQL profiles were stored in SYSTEM tablespace, the unavailability of SQL
profiles did not exist. Note that starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1),
taking the SYSAUX tablespace offline can have potential SQL performance
consequences.
Backward Compatibility
In Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1):
■
■
If a stored outline for a SQL statement is active for the user session (for example,
the stored outline category matches with the user session category), then the
statement is compiled using the stored outline.
If a private outline is available for a SQL statement, then the statement is compiled
using the private outline.
If a stored outline is available for a SQL statement, then the SQL Plan Management
feature is not used. However, if another user session uses the same SQL statement but
without an active stored outline, then the SQL plan management feature is used.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for more information
about SQL Plan Management
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more
information about the DBMS_SPM package
Binary XML Support for Oracle XML Database
The binary XML storage option that is new in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) is
available when the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter is set to 11.0.0 or higher.
When you create a table or column with this storage option, the minimum
compatibility requirement is checked. This also applies when storing binary XML
documents directly in the XML DB repository.
When Upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
When the database is upgraded to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), none of the
existing user XMLType tables and instances is modified in any fashion. Existing tables
can be altered and new tables can be subsequently created using the new storage
format after the upgrade is completed. The XDB tables XDB$CONFIG and XDB$ACL
A-10 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
and the corresponding XML schemas are migrated to binary XML storage when a
database is upgraded to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).
PL/SQL Native Compilation and Access Control for Network Utility Packages
Oracle introduced compatibility and interoperability changes in PL/SQL for Oracle
Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).
■
PL/SQL Native Compilation
■
Access Control for Network Utility Packages
PL/SQL Native Compilation
Starting with Oracle Database 11g, PL/SQL Native Compilation does not need a C
compiler. Therefore, if you presently use a C compiler only to support PL/SQL Native
Compilation, you can remove it from the machine where your database is installed
(and from each node in an Oracle RAC configuration).
Moreover, the output of PL/SQL Native Compilation is no longer materialized on the
file system. There, the Oracle Database 10g initialization parameters PLSQL_Native_
Library_Dir and PLSQL_Native_Library_Subdir_Count have no significance
in Oracle Database 11g. The directories that they denoted, and the contents of these
directories, can be safely deleted on completion of the upgrade process.
Further, the SPNC_COMMANDS file (in the ORACLE_HOME/plsql directory) is no
longer needed.
Only one initialization parameter, PLSQL_Code_Type, remains for controlling
PL/SQL Native Compilation. The DBA, therefore, no longer needs to have any interest
in PL/SQL Native Compilation.
Access Control for Network Utility Packages
The default behavior for access control to network utility packages has been changed
to disallow network operations to all nonprivileged users. This default behavior is
different from, and is incompatible with, previous versions of Oracle Database.
For database users upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), applications that
depend on the PL/SQL network utility packages compile without any issues.
However, at runtime the applications might receive exceptions when attempting to
perform privileged network operations. Although you can restore the compatibility by
using a wildcard to grant those privileges to perform any network operations to
PUBLIC, Oracle strongly advises that database administrators carefully review each
situation on an individual basis and grant privileges only as needed.
Oracle XML DB is required to properly maintain the access
control lists. If Oracle XML DB is not already installed on the system,
then you must install it during the upgrade procedure.
Note:
See Also: "Configuring Fine-Grained Access to External Network
Services After Upgrading Oracle Database" on page 4-5
PL/SQL Control Parameters
The behavior of some Oracle parameters that control the behavior of PL/SQL have
changed as of Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database
A-11
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
■
If PL/SQL debug code generation mode is selected by any parameter setup, then
native code generation is turned off.
■
Debug code generation is on if the PLSQL_OPTIMIZE_LEVEL <= 1.
■
PLSQL_DEBUG is deprecated.
You should use PLSQL_OPTIMIZE_LEVEL instead. A deprecation warning is
issued if PLSQL_DEBUG is used.
■
■
■
If PLSQL_OPTIMIZE_LEVEL <= 1, then native code generation is turned off.
PLSQL_COMPILER_FLAGS is obsolete. It has no effect any longer and draws an
error message that an illegal option is being set.
PLSQL_V2_COMPATIBILITY is deprecated.
Change in WebDAV ACL Evaluation Rules in Oracle XML DB
Oracle XML DB uses a security mechanism that is based on access-control lists (ACLs)
to restrict access to any Oracle XML DB resource. An ACL is a list of access-control
entries (ACEs) that determine which users, roles, and groups have access to a given
resource.
There have been changes to the treatment of WebDAV ACL entries. Before Oracle
Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), a <deny> entry always trumped any <allow> entry in
a given ACL. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), ACE order is
irrelevant. The default behavior is determined only by the first <allow> or <deny>
entry that is encountered. That is, the first entry determines the behavior for that
principal and additional ACEs for that principal have no effect.
This change in the default behavior is different from, and is incompatible with,
previous versions of Oracle Database. When upgrading to Oracle Database 11g Release
1 (11.1), you can get the same behavior as in previous releases by manually reordering
the ACLs (if necessary). That is, if there are any ACLs that have <allow> followed
somewhere by <deny>, then you should (manually) reorder the ACLs so that the
<deny> entry occurs first.
See Also: Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information
about the ACL evaluation rules
Summary Management and SQL Access Advisor
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), the DBMS_OLAP package, which is
the Summary Advisor in Summary Management, is being deprecated and has been
replaced by the SQL Access Advisor.
SQL Access Advisor Tasks
Due to internal structural changes to the SQL Access Advisor repository, a database
upgrade resets all existing SQL Access Advisor tasks to their initial state. This
effectively deletes all recommendation information for tasks that have successfully
completed before the upgrade.
After upgrade, the recommendation information can be restored by re-executing the
existing SQL Access Advisor tasks.
A-12 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
Standard Edition Starter Database
When the Standard Edition (SE) starter database is upgraded, the following
components cannot be upgraded by the SE server because they require options that are
not installed in the Standard Edition:
■
OLAP Catalog
■
OLAP Analytic Workspace
■
Oracle OLAP API
After the upgrade, these components have a STATUS value of ’OPTION OFF’ in the
DBA_REGISTRY view, and there will be some invalid objects in the associated
component schemas. The Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) shows unsuccessful
upgrades for these components.
Core Dump Location
On UNIX systems, when an application program crashes due to an unhandled signal,
such as a segmentation fault, a core dump file is usually generated. The system default
file name for this file is core, and it is located in the directory in which the application
is currently running.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), applications using the Oracle Call
Interface (OCI) can create a subdirectory named core_process_id, where process_id is the
UNIX ID of the process that crashed. The core file is then placed in that subdirectory
instead of the location where the application is running.
In sqlnet.ora, setting DIAG_SIGHANDLER_ENABLED = TRUE also puts the generated
core file in the directory named core_process_id.
New Default Value for UNDO_MANAGEMENT
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), the default value of the UNDO_
MANAGEMENT parameter is AUTO so that automatic undo management is enabled by
default. You must set the parameter to MANUAL to turn off automatic undo
management, if required.
The UNDO_MANAGEMENT and ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS initialization parameters have
changed from basic initialization parameters to non-basic initialization parameters.
Most databases should be required to have only basic parameters set to run properly
and efficiently.
See Also:
UNDO_MANAGEMENT in Oracle Database Reference
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Parameters
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n
parameter can be used to specify a local archiving destination on a database instance
running Oracle Standard Edition. Previously, this parameter could only be specified on
a database instance running Oracle Enterprise Edition.
SHARED_POOL_SIZE Parameter
Migration utilities for this release recommend new values for SHARED_POOL_SIZE
based on the value of internal SGA overheads in the pre-upgrade environment, which
you can determine by running the following query before upgrading to Oracle
Database 11g Release 1 (11.1):
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database
A-13
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
SQL> SELECT SUM(BYTES) FROM v$sgastat WHERE pool = 'shared pool';
In Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), the exact value of internal SGA overhead, or
Startup overhead in Shared Pool, is listed in the new v$sgainfo view.
In manual SGA mode, values of SHARED_POOL_SIZE that are too small to
accommodate the internal SGA overhead result in an ORA-00371 error during startup.
This generated error message includes a suggested value for the SHARED_POOL_SIZE
parameter. If you are using automatic shared memory management, the size of the
shared pool is tuned automatically, and the ORA-00371 error is never generated.
The amount of shared pool memory allocated by Oracle Database releases before
Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) was equal to the sum of the value of the SHARED_
POOL_SIZE initialization parameter and the internal SGA overhead computed during
instance startup. This overhead was based on the values of several other initialization
parameters.
For example, if the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter is 64 megabytes and the internal
SGA overhead is 12 megabytes, then the real size of shared pool in the SGA would be
76 megabytes, although the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter would still
be displayed as megabytes.
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the size of internal SGA overhead is
included in the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter. The shared pool memory
allocated at startup is exactly the value of SHARED_POOL_SIZE. Therefore, this
parameter must be set such that it includes both the internal SGA overhead and the
desired effective value of the shared pool size.
Assuming that the internal SGA overhead remains unchanged, the effective available
value of shared pool after startup would be 12 megabytes less than the value of the
SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter, or 52 megabytes. To maintain 64 megabytes for the
effective value of shared pool memory, set the parameter to 76 megabytes.
JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES Parameter New Default Setting
Beginning with Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), the JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES
parameter is changed from a basic to a non-basic initialization parameter. Most
databases must only have basic parameters set to run properly and efficiently. The
default value is also changed from 0 to 1000.
Note that Oracle Database overrides the job queue setting to disable scheduler jobs
during upgrade mode. Therefore, there is no need to change this setting when
upgrading Oracle Database.
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for more information on this
parameter
Automatic Diagnostic Repository
The locations of alert logs and trace files are no longer set by the initialization
parameters BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST and USER_DUMP_DEST. They are now kept in
the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR), whose location is set the by the
initialization parameter DIAGNOSTIC_DEST.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information
on the management of diagnostic information
A-14 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release
2 (10.2)
The following sections describe compatibility and interoperability issues introduced in
Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2). If you are upgrading to Oracle Database 11g
Release 1 (11.1) from a release earlier than Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), then
see the following sections for information about actions you can take to prevent
problems resulting from these issues:
■
Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)
■
Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)
■
Static Data Dictionary Views with Dropped Columns in Oracle Database 10g
Release 2 (10.2)
■
SQL
■
CONNECT Role
■
Time Zone Files
■
New Limit for FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS
Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)
The following initialization parameters were deprecated in Oracle Database 10g
Release 2 (10.2). To get a list of all deprecated initialization parameters, issue the
following SQL statement:
SQL> SELECT name FROM v$parameter
WHERE isdeprecated = 'TRUE';
A deprecated parameter behaves the same way as a regular parameter, except that a
warning message is displayed at instance startup if a deprecated parameter is
specified in the parameter file. In addition, all deprecated parameters are logged to the
alert log at instance startup:
LOGMNR_MAX_PERSISTENT_SESSIONS
MAX_COMMIT_PROPAGATION_DELAY
REMOTE_ARCHIVE_ENABLE
SERIAL_REUSE
SQL_TRACE
Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2)
The following initialization parameters were made obsolete in Oracle Database 10g
Release 2 (10.2).
An attempt to start a database using one or more obsolete
initialization parameters will succeed, but a warning is returned and
recorded in the alert log.
Note:
ENQUEUE_RESOURCES
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database
A-15
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
Static Data Dictionary Views with Dropped Columns in Oracle Database 10g Release 2
(10.2)
The following static data dictionary view columns were dropped in Oracle Database
10g Release 2 (10.2):
Static Data Dictionary View
Dropped Columns
DBA_HIST_SQLBIND
CHILD_NUMBER
SQL
The behavior of date formats has changed when used with XML functions. The XML
Schema standard specifies that dates and timestamps in XML data be in standard
formats. Before Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), dates and timestamps in XML
data did not follow this standard; rather, the format of dates and timestamps in
generated XML was determined by the database format.
As of Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), the XML generation functions in Oracle
XML DB produce dates and timestamps according to the XML schema standard.
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information
CONNECT Role
After upgrading from a release earlier than Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), the
CONNECT role has only the CREATE SESSION privilege; the other privileges granted
to the CONNECT role in earlier releases are revoked during the upgrade. For further
information about this, see "Updating the CONNECT Role from Earlier Releases" on
page 3-16.
Time Zone Files
The time zone files that are supplied with Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) have
been updated from version 4 to version 8 to reflect changes in transition rules for some
time zone regions. The changes might affect existing data of TIMESTAMP WITH TIME
ZONE data type. For further information about this, see "About Warnings for
TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Data Type" on page 3-18.
New Limit for FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS
As of Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), the limit for FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS
for the DEFAULT profile is 10. Before Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2), the default
was UNLIMITED.
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release
1 (10.1)
The following sections describe compatibility and interoperability issues introduced in
Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1). If you are upgrading to Oracle Database 11g
Release 1 (11.1) from a release earlier than Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), then
see the following sections for information about actions you can take to prevent
problems resulting from these issues:
■
Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
■
Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
A-16 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
■
Static Data Dictionary Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
■
Static Data Dictionary Views Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
■
Dynamic Performance Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
■
Dynamic Performance Views Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
■
SQL Optimizer
■
SQL Changes
■
Invalid Synonyms After an Upgrade
■
Manageability
■
Transaction and Space
■
Recovery and Data Guard
■
RMAN
■
CREATE DATABASE
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters
■
Materialized Views
■
Change Data Capture
■
Change in the Default Archival Processing to Remote Archive Destinations
■
Limitations on NCHAR Data Types
■
PL/SQL Native Compilation
■
Evaluation of Numeric Literals
■
Change in Behavior for SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS
■
New Default Value for DB_BLOCK_SIZE
■
OPTIMIZER_MAX_PERMUTATIONS and OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE
■
Change in Behavior for LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT
■
New Default Value for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
■
Change in Behavior for SHARED_POOL_SIZE
■
Shared Server Parameters
Initialization Parameters Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
The following initialization parameters were deprecated in Oracle Database 10g
Release 1 (10.1) To get a list of all deprecated initialization parameters, issue the
following SQL statement:
SQL> SELECT name FROM v$parameter
WHERE isdeprecated = 'TRUE';
A deprecated parameter behaves the same way as a regular parameter, except that a
warning message is displayed at instance startup if a deprecated parameter is
specified in the parameter file. In addition, all deprecated parameters are logged to the
alert log at instance startup:
BUFFER_POOL_KEEP (replaced by DB_KEEP_CACHE_SIZE)
BUFFER_POOL_RECYCLE (replaced by DB_RECYCLE_CACHE_SIZE)
GLOBAL_CONTEXT_POOL_SIZE
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database
A-17
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
LOCK_NAME_SPACE
LOG_ARCHIVE_START
MAX_ENABLED_ROLES
PARALLEL_AUTOMATIC_TUNING
PLSQL_COMPILER_FLAGS (replaced by PLSQL_CODE_TYPE and PLSQL_DEBUG)
SQL_VERSION
Initialization Parameters Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
The following initialization parameters were made obsolete in Oracle Database 10g
Release 1 (10.1).
An attempt to start a database using one or more obsolete
initialization parameters will succeed, but a warning is returned and
recorded in the alert log.
Note:
DBLINK_ENCRYPT_LOGIN
HASH_JOIN_ENABLED
LOG_PARALLELISM
MAX_ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS
MTS_CIRCUITS
MTS_DISPATCHERS
MTS_LISTENER_ADDRESS
MTS_MAX_DISPATCHERS
MTS_MAX_SERVERS
MTS_MULTIPLE_LISTENERS
MTS_SERVERS
MTS_SERVICE
MTS_SESSIONS
OPTIMIZER_MAX_PERMUTATIONS
ORACLE_TRACE_COLLECTION_NAME
ORACLE_TRACE_COLLECTION_PATH
ORACLE_TRACE_COLLECTION_SIZE
ORACLE_TRACE_ENABLE
ORACLE_TRACE_FACILITY_NAME
ORACLE_TRACE_FACILITY_PATH
PARTITION_VIEW_ENABLED
PLSQL_NATIVE_C_COMPILER
PLSQL_NATIVE_LINKER
PLSQL_NATIVE_MAKE_FILE_NAME
PLSQL_NATIVE_MAKE_UTILITY
ROW_LOCKING
SERIALIZABLE
TRANSACTION_AUDITING
UNDO_SUPPRESS_ERRORS
Static Data Dictionary Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
The following static data dictionary views were deprecated in Oracle Database 10g
Release 1 (10.1).
ALL_STORED_SETTINGS (replaced by ALL_PLSQL_OBJECT_SETTINGS)
DBA_STORED_SETTINGS (replaced by DBA_PLSQL_OBJECT_SETTINGS)
USER_STORED_SETTINGS (replaced by USER_PLSQL_OBJECT_SETTINGS)
A-18 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
Static Data Dictionary Views Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
The following static data dictionary views were made obsolete in Oracle Database 10g
Release 1 (10.1).
ALL_ Views
DBA_ Views
USER_ Views
ALL_SOURCE_TAB_COLUMNS
DBA_SOURCE_TAB_COLUMNS
USER_SOURCE_TAB_COLUMNS
Dynamic Performance Views Deprecated in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
The following dynamic performance views were deprecated in Oracle Database 10g
Release 1 (10.1):
GV$CACHE
GV$CACHE_TRANSFER
GV$CLASS_CACHE_TRANSFER (replaced by GV$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER)
GV$FALSE_PING
GV$FILE_CACHE_TRANSFER (replaced by GV$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER)
GV$GC_ELEMENTS_WITH_COLLISIONS
GV$LOCK_ACTIVITY
GV$TEMP_CACHE_TRANSFER (replaced by GV$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER)
V$CACHE
V$CACHE_LOCK
V$CACHE_TRANSFER
V$CLASS_CACHE_TRANSFER (replaced by V$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER)
V$FALSE_PING
V$FILE_CACHE_TRANSFER (replaced by V$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER)
V$GC_ELEMENTS_WITH_COLLISIONS
V$LOCK_ACTIVITY
V$TEMP_CACHE_TRANSFER (replaced by V$INSTANCE_CACHE_TRANSFER)
Dynamic Performance Views Obsolete in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
The following dynamic performance views were made obsolete in Oracle Database 10g
Release 1 (10.1):
GV$ Views
V$ Views
GV$COMPATIBILITY
V$COMPATIBILITY
GV$COMPATSEG
V$COMPATSEG
GV$MLS_PARAMETERS
V$MLS_PARAMETERS
GV$MTS
V$MTS
SQL Optimizer
This section describes compatibility and interoperability issues relating to the SQL
Optimizer in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1).
Rule-Based Optimizer Desupported
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the cost-based optimizer (CBO) is
now enabled by default. The rule-based optimizer is no longer supported in Oracle
Database 10g Release 1 (10.1). As a result, rule and choose are no longer supported
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database
A-19
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
as OPTIMIZER_MODE initialization parameter values and a warning is displayed in the
alert log if OPTIMIZER_MODE is set to either of these values.
See Also: Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for more
information about the cost-based optimizer
Optimizer Statistics
Collection of optimizer statistics is now automatically performed by default for all
schemas (including SYS), for pre-existing databases upgraded from a release earlier
than Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), and for newly created databases. Gathering
optimizer statistics on stale objects is scheduled by default to occur daily during the
maintenance window.
See Also: Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for more
information about optimizer statistics
COMPUTE STATISTICS Clause of CREATE INDEX
In earlier releases, the COMPUTE STATISTICS clause of CREATE INDEX could be
used to start or stop the collection of statistics on an index. This clause has been
deprecated. Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and later releases automatically
collect statistics during index creation and rebuild. This clause is supported for
backward compatibility and does not cause errors.
SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES
In earlier releases, SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES was a session parameter only. In
Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and later releases, it is an initialization parameter
and defaults to true. The true setting disables error reporting of indexes and index
partitions marked UNUSABLE. This setting allows all operations (inserts, deletes,
updates, and selects) on tables with unusable indexes or index partitions.
See Also:
SKIP_UNUSABLE_INDEXES in Oracle Database Reference
SQL Changes
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), CLOB <-> NCLOB implicit
conversion in SQL and PL/SQL is allowed.
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), name resolution for synonyms has
changed. If the base object of a synonym does not exist, then the SQL compiler now
tries looking up PUBLIC.base_object.
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), VPD policies are attached to
synonyms rather than the base objects.
Invalid Synonyms After an Upgrade
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), if a synonym (public or private) is
pointing to an object that does not exist or is invalid, then the synonym is invalid after
the upgrade.
Manageability
Database performance statistics are now automatically collected by the Automatic
Workload Repository (AWR) database component for databases upgraded from a
release earlier than Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and for newly created
A-20 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
databases. This data is stored in the SYSAUX tablespace, and is used by the database
for automatic generation of performance recommendations.
See Also:
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
If you currently use Statspack for performance data gathering, then refer to the
Statspack README (spdoc.txt, located in the ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin
directory) for directions on using Statspack in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and
later releases to avoid conflict with the AWR.
Transaction and Space
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), dropped objects are now moved to
the recycle bin where the space is only reused when it is needed. This allows an object
to be undropped using the FLASHBACK DROP feature.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), automatic tuning of undo retention
is enabled by default. The UNDO_SUPPRESS_ERRORS initialization parameter has been
deprecated. Errors generated when executing rollback segment operations while in
automatic undo management mode are always suppressed.
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default AUTOEXTEND NEXT
size is larger for Oracle managed files (OMF).
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference
Recovery and Data Guard
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the LOG_ARCHIVE_START
initialization parameter has been deprecated. Archiving is now automatically started
when the database is placed in ARCHIVELOG mode.
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the LOG_PARALLELISM
initialization parameter has been deprecated. Log file parallelism is now automatically
enabled.
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default value for the
RECOVERY_PARALLELISM initialization parameter now defaults to allow parallel
recovery.
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default value for the parallel
clause in the ALTER DATABASE RECOVER DATABASE statement has changed to
PARALLEL.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default buffer size for the
ASYNC attribute of the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n initialization parameter has increased
from 2,048 blocks to 61,440 blocks.
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default values of the parameters
MAX_SGA and MAX_SERVERS as set by the DBMS_LOGSTDBY.APPLY_SET()
procedure have changed.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database
A-21
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default values for the Data
Guard broker properties ApplyParallel, AsyncBlocks, and LogXptMode have
changed.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Broker
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default behavior of the
STARTUP SQL*Plus command and the ALTER DATABASE MOUNT and ALTER
DATABASE OPEN SQL statements have changed for physical standby databases. The
commands now automatically detect that the database is a physical standby and thus
the STANDBY DATABASE and READ ONLY options are made default.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference
RMAN
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), RMAN now creates an empty file
when restoring a file from backup and no backup of the file exists. RMAN backup of
archived logs now automatically backs up logs that were created before the last
resetlogs. Such logs were previously ignored.
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), RMAN now continues to run the
remaining portions of a backup or restore job when it encounters an error. RMAN now
tries to restore from an alternate backup if it finds the targeted backup is corrupt.
CREATE DATABASE
In Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and later releases, a SYSAUX tablespace is
always created at database creation time or whenever a database is upgraded. The
SYSAUX tablespace serves as an auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace.
Because SYSAUX is the default tablespace for many Oracle features and products that
previously required their own tablespaces, it reduces the number of tablespaces that a
DBA must maintain.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information
about the SYSAUX tablespace
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the minimum and default log file
sizes have increased. The minimum size is now 4 MB. The default size is 50 MB, unless
using Oracle managed files (OMF) in which case the default is 100 MB.
Oracle Real Application Clusters
In Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), there is an automated high availability (HA)
framework for Oracle Real Application Clusters. The framework provides detection,
recovery, restart, and notification services.
See Also: Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide for more information
Materialized Views
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), some privilege name changes have
been made. The new names appear in all data dictionary views, but both the old and
new names are accepted by the GRANT and REVOKE SQL statements.
■
CREATE SNAPSHOT changed to CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW
A-22 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
■
CREATE ANY SNAPSHOT changed to CREATE ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW
■
ALTER ANY SNAPSHOT changed to ALTER ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW
■
DROP ANY SNAPSHOT changed to DROP ANY MATERIALIZED VIEW
Change Data Capture
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the interfaces in DBMS_CDC_
SUBSCRIBE and DBMS_CDC_PUBLISH now take a subscription name parameter
instead of a subscription handle.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), subscriber views are now managed
automatically. There is no longer any requirement to call the DBMS_CDC_SUBSCRIBE
and DBMS_CDC_PUBLISH interfaces PREPARE_SUBSCRIBER_VIEW() and DROP_
SUBSCRIBER_VIEW().
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the computation of synchronous
Change Data Capture's RSID$ column has been changed to facilitate joining a
subscriber view to itself in order to show both old and new values in the same row.
The RSID$ values for the UO and UN rows associated with the same update operation
are now the same. To revert to the Oracle9i behavior where UN RSID$ value is UO
RSID$ value + 1 for the same update operation, set event 10983 to level 4.
Change in the Default Archival Processing to Remote Archive Destinations
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default archival processing to
remote destinations has changed so that archiver processes on the primary database
completely and successfully archive the local online redo log files before transmitting
the redo data to remote standby destinations. This default behavior is equivalent to
setting the LOG_ARCHIVE_LOCAL_FIRST initialization parameter to true, which is
also new in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) and later releases. Note that this new
default archival processing is relevant only when log transport services are defined to
use archiver processes (ARCn), not the log writer process (LGWR), when the archiver
processes are writing to remote destinations, and when the remote standby destination
is not a mandatory destination.
Before Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default behavior was to transmit redo
data to the standby destination at the same time the online redo log file was being
archived to the local online redo log files. You can achieve this behavior by setting the
LOG_ARCHIVE_LOCAL_FIRST initialization parameter to false. This archival
processing is also relevant only when log transport services are defined to use archiver
processes (ARCn), not the log writer process (LGWR), when the archiver processes are
writing to remote destinations, and when the remote standby destination is not a
mandatory destination.
The benefit of the new default behavior is that local archiving, and hence, processing
on the primary database, are not affected by archival to non-mandatory, remote
destinations. Because local archiving is now disassociated with remote archiving, sites
that might have policies to delete archived redo log files on the primary database
immediately after backing them up must make sure that the standby destinations have
received the corresponding redo data before deleting the archived redo log files on the
primary database. You can query the V$ARCHIVED_LOG view to verify that the redo
data has been received on standby destinations.
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database
A-23
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
Any value specified for the LOG_ARCHIVE_LOCAL_FIRST
initialization parameter is ignored for mandatory destinations
(configured with the MANDATORY attribute of the LOG_ARCHIVE_
DEST_n initialization parameters).
Note:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for complete
information about setting up archival to remote destinations
See Also:
Limitations on NCHAR Data Types
Starting with Oracle9i, the NCHAR data types such as NCHAR, NVARCHAR2, and NCLOB,
are limited to the Unicode character set encoding, UTF8 and AL16UTF16.
PL/SQL Native Compilation
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the configuration of initialization
parameters and the command setup for native compilation has been simplified. The
important parameters now are PLSQL_NATIVE_LIBRARY_DIR and PLSQL_NATIVE_
LIBRARY_SUBDIR_COUNT. The parameters related to the compiler, linker, and make
utility have been made obsolete. Native compilation is turned on and off by a separate
initialization parameter, PLSQL_CODE_TYPE, rather than being one of several options
in the PLSQL_COMPILER_FLAGS parameter, which is now deprecated. The spnc_
commands file, located in the ORACLE_HOME/plsql directory, contains the
commands and options for compiling and linking, rather than a makefile.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference for further information
about compiling PL/SQL code for native execution
"PL/SQL Native Compilation (NCOMP) In Oracle Database 10g
Rel 1" on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN):
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/features/pl
sql/index.html
Evaluation of Numeric Literals
Evaluation of numeric literals has changed such that at least one of the constants in a
numeric computation with literals must be a decimal specified to the 10th place. This
is because releases after Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1) use INTEGER arithmetic
(approximately 9 significant digits) for some expressions whereas Oracle9i Release 2
(9.2) used NUMBER arithmetic (approximately 38 significant digits).
Therefore, if you are dealing with results of greater than 9 significant digits, then one
of the literals should be in decimal format to prevent numeric overflow errors. For
example, in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the computation of v1 in the
following example causes a numeric overflow error:
DECLARE
v1 NUMBER(38);
BEGIN
v1 := 256*256*256*256;
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v1);
END;
/
A-24 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
The solution to the error is to specify one of the numeric literals as a decimal (256.0), as
follows:
DECLARE
v1 NUMBER(38);
BEGIN
v1 := 256*256*256*256.0;
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v1);
END;
/
See Also:
■
■
The "What’s New in SQL*Plus" section in the SQL*Plus User's
Guide and Reference to learn about new features in SQL*Plus
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for more information about
upgrading SQL scripts
Change in Behavior for SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the number of cached cursors is
determined by the SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS initialization parameter. In previous
Oracle Database releases, the number of SQL cursors cached by PL/SQL was
determined by the OPEN_CURSORS initialization parameter.
See Also:
SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS in Oracle Database Reference
New Default Value for DB_BLOCK_SIZE
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default value of DB_BLOCK_
SIZE is operating system specific, but is typically 8 KB (8192 bytes). In previous Oracle
Database releases, the default value was 2 KB (2048 bytes). If DB_BLOCK_SIZE is not
specified in the parameter file when upgrading from Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2), then you
receive an error when attempting to start up your database. Add the following to your
parameter file:
DB_BLOCK_SIZE = 2048
If DB_BLOCK_SIZE is specified in the parameter file, then Oracle Database uses this
value instead of the default value of 8 KB.
OPTIMIZER_MAX_PERMUTATIONS and OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE
Starting with Oracle Database 10g, the OPTIMIZER_MAX_PERMUTATIONS
initialization parameter has been made obsolete. If you are upgrading from Oracle9i
and have OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE set to 8.1.7 or earlier and OPTIMIZER_
MAX_PERMUTATIONS explicitly set to 2000 in the parameter file, then the release 8.1.7
default of 80000 is used when you start up the Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
database.
Setting OPTIMIZER_FEATURES_ENABLE to 9.0.0 or higher sets the default to 2000
Change in Behavior for LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), if the COMPATIBLE initialization
parameter is set to 10.0.0 or higher, then archive log file names must contain each of
the elements %s (sequence), %t (thread), and %r (resetlogs ID) to ensure that all
archive log file names are unique. If the LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT initialization
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database
A-25
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
parameter is set in the parameter file, then make sure the parameter value contains the
%s, %t, and %r elements.
New Default Value for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), Automatic PGA Memory
Management is now enabled by default (unless PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET is
explicitly set to 0 or WORKAREA_SIZE_POLICY is explicitly set to MANUAL). PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET defaults to 20% of the size of the SGA, unless explicitly set.
Oracle recommends tuning the value of PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET after upgrading.
See Also:
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Change in Behavior for SHARED_POOL_SIZE
In previous releases, the amount of shared pool memory that was allocated was equal
to the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter plus the amount of
internal SGA overhead computed during instance startup. Starting with Oracle
Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the value of SHARED_POOL_SIZE must now also
accommodate this shared pool overhead.
Since Oracle Database release 9.2, the shared pool can be partitioned into multiple
parts. The partitions are called shared pool subpools and there can be up to seven
subpools. Although there is no standard recommendation, you should configure the
shared pool memory in a way that generates larger subpools than the default size. For
example, 256M and 500M seem to work better as subpool sizes for Oracle Database
releases 9i and 10g, respectively. Having adequate sizes allocated for shared pool
subpools can avoid raising ORA-4031 errors.
Shared Server Parameters
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the recommended way to turn on
shared server mode is to set SHARED_SERVERS to a value greater than 0. This can be
done at startup or dynamically after the instance is started. If shared server mode is
turned off by setting SHARED_SERVERS to 0, then this only affects new clients (that is,
no new clients can connect in shared mode; clients that are already connected in
shared mode continue to be serviced by shared servers).
In previous releases, the recommended way to turn on shared server mode was to set
DISPATCHERS. If SHARED_SERVERS was changed to 0 and shared server clients were
still connected, then client requests would hang.
Before Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the following shared server parameters
could not be changed dynamically:
■
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS
■
MAX_DISPATCHERS
■
SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS
■
CIRCUITS
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), these shared server parameters are
dynamically modifiable.
A-26 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
New Default Value for DISPATCHERS
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), the default for DISPATCHERS is
'(PROTOCOL=TCP)'. DISPATCHERS is given this default value if it is not set or if it is
set to '' and SHARED_SERVERS is set to 1 or higher.
In previous releases, there was no default value for DISPATCHERS.
New Default Value for SHARED_SERVERS
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), if DISPATCHERS is set such that the
total number of dispatchers is equal to 0, then SHARED_SERVERS defaults to 0. If
DISPATCHERS is set such that the total number of dispatchers is greater than 0, then
SHARED_SERVERS defaults to 1 as in previous releases.
In previous releases, if DISPATCHERS was set such that the number of dispatchers is
equal to 0, then SHARED_SERVERS defaulted to 1.
New Default Value for MAX_SHARED_SERVERS
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), there is no preset default for MAX_
SHARED_SERVERS. The maximum number of shared servers varies depending on the
number of free process slots. If MAX_SHARED_SERVERS is not set or is set to a value
greater than or equal to PROCESSES, then PMON does not spawn any more shared
servers if the number of free process slots is either 2 (if PROCESSES is less than 24) or
is less than 1 / 8, unless the existing servers are involved in a deadlock situation. If the
existing servers are involved in a deadlock situation, then no matter the transaction
load, a new server is spawned if there is a free process slot.
In previous releases, the default for MAX_SHARED_SERVERS is 20, or 2 * SHARED_
SERVERS, whichever is greater, subject to the condition that MAX_SHARED_SERVERS
does not exceed PROCESSES.
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), SHARED_SERVERS can be set
higher than MAX_SHARED_SERVERS, in which case the number of servers remains
constant at the level set for SHARED_SERVERS. This is to allow the range SHARED_
SERVERS - MAX_SHARED_SERVERS to be changed without having to change these
parameters in a specific order.
In previous releases, SHARED_SERVERS cannot be set higher than MAX_SHARED_
SERVERS.
New Default Value for SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), there is no preset default for
SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS. That is, if SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS is not specified,
then shared server sessions can be created as needed and as permitted by the session
limit.
In previous releases, the default for SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS was the maximum
number of virtual circuits (CIRCUITS), or the maximum number of database sessions
(SESSIONS) - 5, whichever is smaller.
New Default Value for CIRCUITS
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), there is no preset default for
CIRCUITS. That is, if CIRCUITS is not specified, then circuits can be created as
needed and as permitted by dispatcher constraints and system resources.
In previous releases, the default for CIRCUITS was the maximum number of database
sessions (SESSIONS) if shared server mode was enabled, 0 otherwise.
Behavior Changes After Upgrading Oracle Database
A-27
Compatibility and Interoperability Issues in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1)
New Default Value for MAX_DISPATCHERS
Starting with Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1), there is no preset default for MAX_
DISPATCHERS. MAX_DISPATCHERS no longer limits the number of dispatchers; the
user can increase the number of dispatchers with the DISPATCHERS parameter as long
as there are free process slots and system resources.
In previous releases, the default for MAX_DISPATCHERS was 5, or the total number of
dispatchers specified with the DISPATCHERS parameter, whichever was greater.
A-28 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
B
B
Gathering Optimizer Statistics for
Upgrading Oracle Database
Oracle provides scripts that collect optimizer statistics for dictionary objects in Oracle
Database. By running these scripts before performing the actual database upgrade,
you can decrease the amount of downtime incurred during the database upgrade.
This process should be tested on a test database just like any other aspect of the
upgrade. Also, some schemas referenced in these scripts might not exist if some
database components have not been installed.
This appendix contains the following topics:
■
Collecting Statistics for System Component Schemas
■
Creating a Statistics Table
Collecting Statistics for System Component Schemas
If you are using Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2), then you should use the DBMS_
STATS.GATHER_SCHEMA_STATS procedure to gather statistics. The following sample
script uses this procedure to collect statistics for system component schemas.
To run this script, connect to the database AS SYSDBA using SQL*Plus.
spool gdict
grant analyze any to sys;
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('WMSYS',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('MDSYS',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('CTXSYS',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('XDB',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('WKSYS',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, -
Gathering Optimizer Statistics for Upgrading Oracle Database B-1
Creating a Statistics Table
method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('LBACSYS',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('ORDSYS',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('ORDPLUGINS',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('OUTLN',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('DBSNMP',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('SYSTEM',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
exec dbms_stats.gather_schema_stats('SYS',options=>'GATHER', estimate_percent => DBMS_STATS.AUTO_SAMPLE_SIZE, method_opt => 'FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO', cascade => TRUE);
spool off
The statistics collection might give errors if a particular
component schema does not exist in the database. This can happen if a
component is not installed or if it is invalid.
Note:
Creating a Statistics Table
This script creates the table, dictstattab, and exports the statistics for the RDBMS
component schemas into it. The export returns an error if a particular component
schema does not exist in the database. This can happen if a component is not installed
or if it is invalid.
This script is useful when you want to import the statistics back into the database. For
example, the following PL/SQL subprograms import the statistics for the SYS schema
after deleting the existing statistics:
EXEC DBMS_STATS.DELETE_SCHEMA_STATS('SYS');
EXEC DBMS_STATS.IMPORT_SCHEMA_STATS('SYS','dictstattab');
To run the following script, connect to the database AS SYSDBA using SQL*Plus.
spool sdict
B-2 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Creating a Statistics Table
grant analyze any to sys;
exec dbms_stats.create_stat_table('SYS','dictstattab');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('WMSYS','dictstattab',statown => 'SYS');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('MDSYS','dictstattab',statown => 'SYS');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('CTXSYS','dictstattab',statown => 'SYS');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('XDB','dictstattab',statown => 'SYS');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('WKSYS','dictstattab',statown => 'SYS');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('LBACSYS','dictstattab',statown => 'SYS');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('ORDSYS','dictstattab',statown => 'SYS');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('ORDPLUGINS','dictstattab',statown => 'SYS');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA','dictstattab',statown =>
'SYS');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('OUTLN','dictstattab',statown => 'SYS');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('DBSNMP','dictstattab',statown => 'SYS');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('SYSTEM','dictstattab',statown => 'SYS');
exec dbms_stats.export_schema_stats('SYS','dictstattab',statown => 'SYS');
spool off
Gathering Optimizer Statistics for Upgrading Oracle Database B-3
Creating a Statistics Table
B-4 Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Index
Numerics
32-bit to 64-bit conversion. See word size
before downgrading, 6-3
preparing a strategy, 2-10
binary XML storage, A-10
A
C
access control lists (ACLs)
granting access to network utility packages, 3-16
access control to network utility packages, A-11
access-control lists (ACLs)
changed behavior in 11g release 1 (11.1), A-12
applications
compatibility, 5-1
linking with newer libraries, 5-4
running against older server, 5-4
upgrading, 5-1
client/server configurations, 5-2
compatibility rules, 5-3
options, 5-5
relinking rules, 5-3
apxrelod.sql file
reloading after downgrade, 6-4
ASM
database upgrade after, 4-22
disk group compatibility, A-8
optional tasks after upgrade, 4-22
ASM_PREFERRED_READ_FAILURE_
GROUPS, 4-25
automatic maintenance tasks management
AutoTask, A-7
Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
disk group compatibility, 4-24
file access control, 5
preferred read failure groups, 4-24
rolling upgrades
ASM, 1-13
upgrading, 3-3, 3-62
automatic undo management
migrating to, 4-9
UNDO_MANAGEMENT, A-13
AutoTask, A-7
capturing and replaying database workload, 2-7
case sensitivity
for passwords, 4-7
catdwgrd.sql script, 6-5
CATRELOD.SQL script, 6-7, 6-8
CATUPGRD.SQL script, 3-54
change passwords
for oracle-supplied accounts, 4-13
client software
upgrading, 5-4
client-server configurations, 1-6
collecting optimizer statistics, B-1
commands
crsctl, 4-19
compatibility
applications, 5-1
checking for incompatibilities, 6-2
COMPATIBLE initialization parameter, 1-8
downgrading, 1-8
original Export utility, 7-3
COMPATIBLE initialization parameter, 1-8, 4-24,
A-8
setting, 4-15
B
backups
after upgrading, 4-7
D
data copying
using Export/Import, 7-1
data mining models, A-9
Data Pump
advantages of using, 2-4
Data Pump Export/Import
recommendations, 2-4, 7-1
versus Original Export/Import, 7-1
when to use, 7-1
database links
downgrading and, 6-14
Database Replay
database workloads before upgrading,
database upgrade
2-7
Index-1
termination due to ORA_00904, 3-55
termination due to ORA_00942, 3-55
termination due to ORA_01722, 3-55
Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA)
advantages, 2-3
registering the database in the listener.ora
file, 3-23
running, 3-24
silent mode, 3-45
starting, 3-25, 3-26
database upgrade process
overview, 1-2
databases
downgrading, 6-3
upgrading, 1-2
upgrading the client software, 5-4
DB_BLOCK_SIZE
new default value, A-25
DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter
compatibility, A-25
dblinks
ORA-00600, 6-15
DBMS_DST PL/SQL package
ORA-01822 error, 3-60
DBMS_STATS package
upgrading statistics tables, 4-3
DBMS_STATS procedure
use when creating a statistics table, B-2
DBUA. See Database Upgrade Assistant
Developer/2000 Applications
upgrading, 5-8
DGConnectIdentifier property, 4-10
direct upgrades, 2-2
disk group compatibility, 4-24
disks
specifying preferred read failure groups, 4-24
DMSYS schema objects, A-9
downgrading
backing up your database, 6-3
binary XML storage, A-10
CATRELOD.SQL, 6-7, 6-8
checking for incompatibilities, 6-2
ORADIM, 6-6
patchset releases, 6-1
procedure for, 6-3
scripts, 6-5
rerunning, 6-5
downstream capture
upgrading, 3-8
dump files
generated by export utilities, 7-2
E
enforcing case-sensitivity for passwords, 4-7
environment variables
required for upgrading, 3-52
evaluation of numeric literals, 5-7, A-24
export and import
recommendations, 2-4, 7-1
Index-2
Export utility, 7-1
data copying, 7-1
requirements, 7-2
Export/Import
advantages and disadvantages, 2-4
benefits, 2-5
effects on upgraded databases, 2-4
incompatible data, 7-4
time requirements, 2-5
upgrading, 7-4
extended distance cluster configurations
preferred read disks, 4-24
extents
reading from secondary, 4-24
extusrupgrade, 4-4
F
FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS initialization parameter
DEFAULT limit, A-16
Fast Recovery Area, 3-60
file access control
with the SYSASM role, 5
fine-grained access control to network utility
packages, 3-16
Forms
upgrading Oracle Forms applications, 5-8
H
Hardware Assisted Resilient Data (HARD)
upgrading systems, 4-16
I
Import utility, 7-1
data copying, 7-1
requirements, 7-2
importing
dump files for downgrades, 7-2
incompatibilities
checking for, 6-2
incompatible data
Export/Import, 7-4
initialization parameters
adjusting for Oracle Database 10g, 4-15
adjusting for Oracle Database 11g, 3-50
ASM_PREFERRED_READ_FAILURE_
GROUPS, 4-25
compatibility
DB_BLOCK_SIZE, A-25
SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS, A-25
COMPATIBLE, 1-8
initialization parameters, COMPATIBLE, 4-24, A-8
installation
Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1), 3-8
instances
starting after a downgrade, 6-7
INTEGER arithmetic
evaluation of numeric literals, 5-7, A-24
intermediate releases
upgrading, 2-2
interoperability, 1-10
L
listener.ora file
modifying, 3-23
listeners
modifying with Oracle Net Configuration
Assistant, 3-23
load testing, 2-10
LocalListenerAddress property
Oracle Data Guard, 4-10
logical standby databases
rolling upgrades, 1-12
login
new DEFAULT limit, A-16
lsinventory command, 4-2
M
maintenance tasks
scheduling with AutoTask, A-7
manual upgrade
advantages, 2-3
backup the database, 3-49
OCR configuration, 4-15
migrating data
to a different operating system, 3-7
moving data with export/import, 7-1
multiversioning, 1-6
My Oracle Support
link to The Upgrade Companion web site, 3-xii,
1-1, 2-7, 3-7
N
network utility packages
access control to, A-11
networks
granting ACL access to network utility
packages, 3-16
new features
adding after upgrade, 4-8
NUMBER arithmetic
evaluation of numeric literals, 5-7, A-24
numeric computation
evaluation of numeric literals, 5-7, A-24
numeric literals
evaluating, 5-7, A-24
O
OCI application
statically-linked, 5-4
OCI applications
changing, 5-6
dynamically-linked, 5-4
upgrading, 5-2
upgrading options, 5-5
OFA, 1-10
one-off patches, 1-12
OPatch lsinventory command, 4-2
OPatch utility
rolling upgrades, 1-13
operating system
migrating data to, 3-7
Optimal Flexible Architecture. See OFA
optimizer statistics
collecting for dictionary objects, B-1
creating a table to collect, B-2
ORA_TZFILE
unsetting after downgrade, 6-3
ORA-00904
"TZ_VERSION"
invalid identifier, 3-55
ORA-00942
table or view does not exist, 3-55
ORA-01408 error message, 3-60
ORA-01722
invalid number, 3-55
ORA-01822 error message, 3-60
Oracle Application Express
apexrelod.sql file, 6-4
update, 4-4
Oracle Application Express configuration, 4-4
Oracle ASM
installed with Oracle grid infrastructure, 3-3
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)
upgrading manually, 4-15
Oracle Clusterware
upgrading, 3-3
Oracle Data Guard
configuring broker properties, 4-10
rolling upgrades, 1-12
Oracle Database Express Edition
upgrading to Oracle Database, 1-15
Oracle Database XE
upgrading to Oracle Database, 1-15
Oracle Express Edition
recommended tasks after upgrade, 4-12
Oracle grid infrastructure home, 3-3
upgrading ASM instances, 1-13, 3-62
Oracle home
multiple, 1-6
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant, 3-23
Oracle Real Application Clusters
rolling upgrades with OPatch, 1-13
upgrading, 3-3
Oracle release numbers, 1-5
Oracle Restart
for single-instance databases, 3-3
Oracle Streams
downstream capture
upgrading, 3-8
Oracle Universal Installer, 1-2
Oracle XML Database
binary XML storage, A-10
oracle-supplied accounts
change passwords, 4-13
ORADIM
Index-3
downgrading, 6-6
upgrading, 3-51
original Export utility
downward compatibility, 7-3
Original Export/Import
versus Data Pump Export/Import, 7-1
when to use, 7-1
P
passwords
case sensitive, 4-7
patchset releases
downgrading, 6-1
physical standby database
performing rolling upgrades, 1-12, 3-6
PLS-00306 error, 6-8
PL/SQL Native Compilation, A-11
post-upgrade status tool, 3-55, 3-56, 3-57
precompilers
applications
changing, 5-6
upgrading options, 5-5
upgrading applications, 5-2
preferred read failure groups
setting up, 4-24
preparing to upgrade
collecting optimizer statistics, B-1
R
recovery catalog
upgrading, 4-3
releases
definition, 1-5
multiple, 1-6
upgrade paths, 2-2
rollback segments
migrating to automatic undo management,
rolling upgrades
methods, 1-11
Oracle Real Application Clusters and
OPatch, 1-13
to clustered ASM instances, 3-63
with logical standby databases, 3-6
with logical standby databases and SQL
Apply, 1-12
with physical standby database, 1-12, 3-6
with SQL Apply and logical standby
databases, 1-12, 3-6
running multiple Oracle releases on the same
computer, 1-6
4-9
rerunning, 6-5
upgrading, 3-11, 3-54, 3-56
security
case-sensitive passwords, 4-7
server parameter file
migrating to, 4-14
SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS
change in behavior, A-25
SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS initialization
parameter
compatibility, A-25
shared pool subpools, A-26
SHARED_POOL_SIZE in Oracle Database 10g
Release 1 (10.1), A-26
single-instance ASM upgrade
ASM
single-instance upgrade, 4-21
SPFILE
upgrading systems with HARD-compliant
storage, 4-16
SPNC_COMMANDS file
release 10.1, A-24
SQL Access Advisor, A-12
SQL Apply
performing rolling upgrades, 1-12, 3-6
SQL Management Base (SMB), 2-8
SQL Performance Analyzer, 2-8
SQL plan baseline, A-10
SQL plan management, 2-8, A-10
SQL Tuning Set (STS), 2-9
SQL*Plus
scripts
upgrading, 5-7
Standard Edition
moving to Enterprise Edition, 1-13
starter database, A-13
STARTUP UPGRADE command, 6-7
statistics
collecting for dictionary objects, B-1
collecting for system component schemas, B-1
creating a table for, B-2
importing with DBMS_STATS PL/SQL
procedure, B-2
statistics tables
upgrading, 4-3
status tools
for upgrades and post-upgrade, 3-55, 3-56, 3-57
subpools, A-26
SYSASM Privilege, A-8
SYSASM role
ASM file access control, 5
system component schemas
collecting statistics for, B-1
S
scheduling
AutoTask, A-7
schemas
collecting system component statistics, B-1
scripts
downgrading, 6-5
Index-4
T
testing
applications for upgrade, 2-11, 4-10
developing a plan, 2-6
functional for upgrade, 2-6
high availability for upgrading, 2-6
integration for upgrading, 2-7
minimal for upgrade, 2-6
performance for upgrade, 2-7
the upgrade process, 2-10
the upgraded test database, 2-11
using Database Replay, 2-7
volume/load stress for upgrade, 2-10
time zone file
unsetting after downgrade, 6-3
time zone file version mismatch, 3-60
TIMESTAMP WITH TIMEZONE data type,
troubleshooting
upgrades, 3-58
W
word size
64-bit software, 1-11
workloads
capturing and replaying, 2-7
X
xsrelod.sql script, 6-8
3-18
U
UNDO_MANAGEMENT initialization
parameter, 4-9
default, A-13
Upgrade Companion
link to web site from My Oracle Support, 3-xii,
1-1, 2-7, 3-7
upgrade methods
choosing, 2-3
Database Upgrade Assistant, 1-2, 2-3
Export/Import, 2-4, 7-4
manual, 2-3, 3-48
silent mode, 3-45
upgrade paths, 2-2
upgrade status tool, 3-55, 3-56, 3-57
upgrading
abandoning, 3-62
applications, 5-1
compatibility rules, 5-3
options, 5-5
relinking, 5-3
ASM, 3-3
backup strategy, 2-10
binary XML storage, A-10
initialization parameters, 3-50
new administrative procedures, 4-8
Oracle Application Express, 4-4
Oracle Clusterware, 3-3
Oracle Forms applications, 5-8
Oracle Real Application Clusters, 3-3
ORADIM, 3-51
post upgrade actions, 4-1
preparation, 2-1
recovery catalog, 4-3
rolling upgrades, 1-11
running the CATUPGRD.SQL script, 3-54
scripts, 3-11, 3-54, 3-56
SQL*Plus scripts, 5-7
statistics tables, 4-3
testing, 2-6
troubleshooting, 3-58
using the Database Upgrade Assistant, 3-24
utlu112s.sql
example, 3-55, 3-56, 3-57
Index-5
Index-6
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