AD8324 (Rev. B) - Electrocomponents

AD8324 (Rev. B) - Electrocomponents
3.3 V Upstream
Cable Line Driver
AD8324
Data Sheet
FEATURES
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
BYP
VIN+
VIN–
VOUT+
DIFF
OR SINGLE
INPUT
AMP
ATTENUATION
CORE
VERNIER
OUTPUT
STAGE
VOUT–
ZIN (SINGLE) = 550Ω
ZIN (DIFF) = 1100Ω
8
ZOUT DIFF =
75Ω
DECODE
8
AD8324
POWERDOWN LOGIC
RAMP
DATA LATCH
8
SHIFT
REGISTER
04339-0-001
Supports DOCSIS 2.0 and EuroDOCSIS specifications for
reverse path transmission systems
Gain programmable in 1 dB steps over a 59 dB range
Low distortion at 61 dBmV output
−59 dBc SFDR at 21 MHz
−54 dBc SFDR at 65 MHz
Output noise level at minimum gain 1.3 nV/√Hz
Maintains 75 Ω output impedance in transmit-enable and
transmit-disable condition
Upper bandwidth of 100 MHz (full gain range)
3.3 V supply operation
Supports SPI® interfaces
APPLICATIONS
GND
DOCSIS 2.0 and EuroDOCSIS cable modems
CATV set-top boxes
CATV telephony modems
Coaxial and twisted pair line drivers
DATEN SDATA CLK
TXEN
SLEEP
Figure 1.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The AD8324 accepts a differential or single-ended input signal.
The output is specified for driving a 75 Ω load through a 1:1
transformer.
–40
VOUT = 61dBmV @ DEC 60
THIRD HARMONIC
–50
DISTORTION (dBc)
The AD8324 is a low cost amplifier designed for coaxial line
driving. The features and specifications make the AD8324
ideally suited for DOCSIS® 2.01 and EuroDOCSIS™ applications.
The gain of the AD8324 is digitally controlled. An 8-bit serial
word determines the desired output gain over a 59 dB range,
resulting in gain changes of 1 dB/LSB.
–60
VOUT = 61dBmV @ DEC 60
SECOND HARMONIC
–70
This device has a sleep mode function that reduces the quiescent
current to 30 μA and a full power-down function that reduces
power-down current to 2.5 mA.
–80
04339-0-002
Distortion performance of –54 dBc is achieved with an output
level up to 61 dBmV at 65 MHz bandwidth.
5
15
25
35
45
FREQUENCY (MHz)
55
65
Figure 2. Worst Harmonic Distortion vs. Frequency
The AD8324 is packaged in a low cost, 20-lead LFCSP and a
20-lead QSOP. The AD8324 operates from a single 3.3 V supply.
1
DOCSIS is a registered trademark of Cable Television Laboratories, Inc.
Rev. B
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Tel: 781.329.4700 ©2003–2013 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
Technical Support
www.analog.com
AD8324
Data Sheet
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Features .............................................................................................. 1
Gain Programming for the AD8324 ........................................ 12
Applications ....................................................................................... 1
Input Bias, Impedance, and Termination................................ 12
Functional Block Diagram .............................................................. 1
Output Bias, Impedance, and Termination ............................ 12
General Description ......................................................................... 1
Power Supply............................................................................... 13
Revision History ............................................................................... 2
Signal Integrity Layout Considerations ................................... 13
Specifications..................................................................................... 3
Initial Power-Up ......................................................................... 13
Logic Inputs (TTL-/CMOS-Compatible Logic)....................... 4
RAMP Pin and BYP Pin Features ............................................ 13
Timing Requirements .................................................................. 5
Power Saving Features ............................................................... 14
Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................ 6
Distortion, Adjacent Channel Power, and DOCSIS .............. 14
Thermal Resistance ...................................................................... 6
Utilizing Diplex Filters .............................................................. 14
ESD Caution .................................................................................. 6
Noise and DOCSIS ..................................................................... 14
Pin Configurations and Function Descriptions ........................... 7
Differential Signal Source ......................................................... 15
Typical Performance Characteristics ............................................. 8
Differential Signal from Single-Ended Source ....................... 15
Test Circuit ...................................................................................... 11
Single-Ended Source .................................................................. 15
Applications Information .............................................................. 12
Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 16
General Applications.................................................................. 12
Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 16
Circuit Description..................................................................... 12
REVISION HISTORY
7/13—Rev. A to Rev. B
Changes to General Description Section ...................................... 1
Changes to Table 6 ............................................................................ 7
Added Test Circuits Section .......................................................... 11
Changed Applications Section to Applications
Information Section ....................................................................... 12
Changes to Output Bias, Impedance, and
Termination Section ....................................................................... 12
Deleted Evaluation Board Features and Operation Section ..... 13
Deleted Overshoot on PC Printer Ports Section, Installing
Visual Basic Control Software Section, Running AD8324
Software Section, Figure 27; Renumbered Sequentially,
Controlling Gain/Attenuation of the AD8324 Section,
Figure 28, Transmit Enable and Sleep Mode Section, and
Memory Functions Section ........................................................... 14
Changes to Distortion, Adjacent Channel Power, and
DOCSIS Section and Noise and DOCSIS Section ..................... 14
Deleted Figure 29 ............................................................................ 15
Changes to Differential Signal from Single-Ended Source
Section, Single-Ended Source Section, Figure 26, and
Table 8 .............................................................................................. 15
Updated Outline Dimensions ....................................................... 16
Changes to Ordering Guide .......................................................... 16
7/05—Rev. 0 to Rev. A
Updated Absolute Maximum Ratings Page ...................................5
Updated Outline Dimensions ....................................................... 16
Changes to Ordering Guide .......................................................... 16
10/03—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. B | Page 2 of 16
Data Sheet
AD8324
SPECIFICATIONS
TA = 25°C, VCC = 3.3 V, RL = RIN = 75 Ω, VIN (differential) = 27.5 dBmV, unless otherwise noted. The AD8324 is characterized using a 1:1
transformer 1 at the device output.
Table 1.
Parameter
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Specified AC Voltage
Input Resistance
Input Capacitance
GAIN CONTROL INTERFACE
Voltage Gain Range
Maximum Gain
Minimum Gain
Output Step Size 2
Output Step Size Temperature Coefficient
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Bandwidth (–3 dB)
Bandwidth Roll-Off
1 dB Compression Point 3
Output Noise2
Maximum Gain
Minimum Gain
Transmit Disable
Noise Figure2
Maximum Gain
Differential Output Impedance
OVERALL PERFORMANCE
Second-Order Harmonic Distortion5, 3
Third-Order Harmonic Distortion (SFDR) 5, 3
Adjacent Power Channel Ratio (APCR)2, 6
Isolation (Transmit Disable)2
POWER CONTROL
Transmit Enable Settling Time
Transmit Disable Settling Time
Output Switching Transients3
Output Settling
Due to Gain Change
Due to Input Step Change
Test Conditions/Comments
Min
Output = 61 dBmV, maximum gain
Single-ended input
Differential input
Gain code = 60 decimal code
Gain code = 1 decimal code
Max
27.5
550
1100
2
58
32.5
–26.5
0.6
TA = –40°C to +85°C
All gain codes (1 decimal code to 60 decimal
codes)
f = 65 MHz
Maximum gain, f = 10 MHz, output referred
Minimum gain, f = 10 MHz, input referred
Typ
19.6
2.1
59
33.5
–25.5
1.0
±0.004
Unit
dBmV
Ω
Ω
pF
60
34.5
–24.5
1.4
dB
dB
dB
dB/LSB
dB/°C
100
MHz
1.7
21
3.7
dB
dBm
dBm
f = 10 MHz
f = 10 MHz
f = 10 MHz
157
1.3
1.1
166
1.5
1.2
nV/√Hz
nV/√Hz
nV/√Hz
f = 10 MHz
Transmit enable and transmit disable
15.5
75 ± 30% 4
16.0
dB
Ω
f = 33 MHz, VOUT = 61 dBmV at maximum gain
f = 65 MHz, VOUT = 61 dBmV at maximum gain
f = 21 MHz, VOUT = 61 dBmV at maximum gain
f = 65 MHz, VOUT = 61 dBmV at maximum gain
Maximum gain, f = 65 MHz
–66
–58
–59
–54
–61
–75
–60
–53
–57.5
–52.5
–58
–70
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBc
dB
Maximum gain, VIN = 0
Maximum gain, VIN = 0
Equivalent output = 31 dBmV
Equivalent output = 61 dBmV
2.5
3.8
2.5
27
6
71
µs
µs
mV p-p
mV p-p
Minimum gain to maximum gain
Maximum gain, VIN = 27.5 dBmV
60
30
Rev. B | Page 3 of 16
ns
ns
AD8324
Parameter
POWER SUPPLY
Operating Range
Quiescent Current
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE
Data Sheet
Test Conditions/Comments
Maximum gain
Minimum gain
Transmit disable (TXEN = 0)
SLEEP mode (power down)
20-lead LFCSP
20-lead QSOP
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
3.13
195
25
1
3.3
207
39
2.5
30
3.47
235
50
4
500
V
mA
mA
mA
µA
+85
+70
°C
°C
–40
–25
TOKO 458PT-1556 used for above specifications. Typical insertion loss of 0.5 dB at 10 MHz.
Guaranteed by design and characterization to ±6 sigma for TA = 25°C.
3
Guaranteed by design and characterization to ±3 sigma for TA = 25°C.
4
Measured through a 1:1 transformer.
5
Specification is worst case over all gain codes.
6
VIN = 27.5 dBmV, QPSK modulation, 160 kSPS symbol rate.
1
2
LOGIC INPUTS (TTL-/CMOS-COMPATIBLE LOGIC)
DATEN, CLK, SDATA, TXEN, SLEEP, VCC = 3.3 V, unless otherwise noted.
Table 2.
Parameter
Logic 1 Voltage
Logic 0 Voltage
Logic 1 Current (VINH = 3.3 V), CLK, SDATA, DATEN
Logic 0 Current (VINL = 0 V), CLK, SDATA, DATEN
Logic 1 Current (VINH = 3.3 V), TXEN
Logic 0 Current (VINL = 0 V), TXEN
Logic 1 Current (VINH = 3.3 V), SLEEP
Logic 0 Current (VINL = 0 V), SLEEP
Min
2.1
0
0
−600
50
−250
50
−250
Rev. B | Page 4 of 16
Typ
Max
3.3
0.8
20
−100
190
−30
190
−30
Unit
V
V
nA
nA
µA
µA
µA
µA
Data Sheet
AD8324
TIMING REQUIREMENTS
VCC = 3.3 V, tR = tF = 4 ns, fCLK = 8 MHz, unless otherwise noted.
Table 3.
Parameter
Clock Pulse Width (tWH)
Clock Period (tC)
Setup Time SDATA vs. Clock (tDS)
Setup Time DATEN vs. Clock (tES)
Hold Time SDATA vs. Clock (tDH)
Hold Time DATEN vs. Clock (tEH)
Input Rise and Fall Times, SDATA, DATEN, Clock (tR, tF)
Min
16.0
32.0
5.0
15.0
5.0
3.0
Typ
Max
10
Unit
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
Timing Diagrams
tDS
SDATA
VALID DATA-WORD G1
MSB . . . LSB
VALID DATA-WORD G2
VALID DATA BIT
tC
tWH
CLK
SDATA
tES
MSB-2
8 CLOCK CYCLES
GAIN TRANSFER (G1)
tDS
GAIN TRANSFER (G2)
tDH
tOFF
TXEN
04339-0-004
DATEN
MSB-1
MSB
tEH
CLK
tGS
tCN
SIGNAL AMPLITUDE (p-p)
Figure 4. SDATA Timing
04339-0-003
ANALOG
OUTPUT
Figure 3. Serial Interface Timing
Rev. B | Page 5 of 16
AD8324
Data Sheet
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
THERMAL RESISTANCE
Table 4.
Parameter
Supply Voltage, VCC
Input Voltage
VIN+, VIN–
DATEN, SDATA, CLK, SLEEP, TXEN
Internal Power Dissipation
Operating Temperature Range
20-Lead LFCSP
20-Lead QSOP
Storage Temperature Range
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 60 sec)
Table 5.
Rating
3.63 V
1.5 V p-p
–0.5 V to +3.63 V
776 mW
–40°C to +85°C
–25°C to +70°C
–65°C to +150°C
300°C
Model
20-Lead QSOP
20-Lead LFCSP
1
2
θJA
83.21
30.42
Unit
°C/W
°C/W
Thermal resistance measured on SEMI standard 4-layer board.
Thermal resistance measured on SEMI standard 4-layer board, paddle
soldered to board.
ESD CAUTION
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions above those indicated in the operational
section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
Rev. B | Page 6 of 16
Data Sheet
AD8324
GND
1
15 RAMP
GND 3
18
TXEN
GND
2
AD8324
14 VOUT+
GND 4
17
RAMP
VIN+
3
13 VOUT–
VIN–
4
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
GND
5
16 VOUT+
TOP VIEW
VIN– 6 (Not to Scale) 15 VOUT–
GND 7
14 BYP
VIN+ 5
12 BYP
11 NC
04339-0-006
10
SLEEP
9
GND
8
CLK
7
SDATA
DATEN
6
AD8324
DATEN 8
13
NC
SDATA 9
12
SLEEP
CLK 10
11
GND
NC = NO CONNECT
NOTES
1. NC = NO CONNECT. DO NOT CONNECT TO THIS PIN.
2. THE EXPOSED PAD MUST BE CONNECTED TO A SOLID COPPER PLANE
WITH A LOW THERMAL RESISTANCE. THIS APPLIES TO THE 20-LEAD
LFCSP PACKAGE ONLY.
04339-0-005
VCC
VCC
GND
19
GND
20
VCC 2
GND
GND 1
20 19 18 17 16
VCC
TXEN
PIN CONFIGURATIONS AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
Figure 6. 20-Lead QSOP Pin Configuration
Figure 5. 20-Lead LFCSP Pin Configuration
Table 6. Pin Function Descriptions
Pin No.
20-Lead 20-Lead
LFCSP
QSOP
1, 2, 5, 9, 1, 3, 4, 7,
18, 19
11, 20
3
5
4
6
6
8
Mnemonic
GND
Description
Common External Ground Reference.
VIN+
VIN–
DATEN
Noninverting Input. DC-biased to approximately VCC/2. Must be ac-coupled with a 0.1 μF capacitor.
Inverting Input. DC-biased to approximately VCC/2. Must be ac-coupled with a 0.1 μF capacitor.
Data Enable Low Input. This port controls the 8-bit parallel data latch and shift register. A Logic 0
to Logic 1 transition transfers the latched data to the attenuator core (updates the gain) and
simultaneously inhibits serial data transfer into the register. A Logic 1 to Logic 0 transition inhibits
the data latch (holds the previous and simultaneously enables the register for serial data load).
Serial Data Input. This digital input allows an 8-bit serial (gain) word to be loaded into the internal
register with the most significant bit (MSB) first.
Clock Input. The clock port controls the serial attenuator data transfer rate to the 8-bit masterslave shift register. Logic 0 to Logic 1 transition latches the data bit, and a Logic 1 to Logic 0
transfers the data bit to the slave. This requires the input serial data-word to be valid at or before
this clock transition.
Low Power Sleep Mode. In sleep mode, the supply current of the AD8324 is reduced to 30 μA. A
Logic 0 powers down the part (high ZOUT state), and a Logic 1 powers up the part.
No Connect. Do not connect to this pin.
Internal Bypass. This pin must be externally decoupled (0.1 μF capacitor).
Negative Output Signal. Must be biased to VCC. See Figure 23.
Positive Output Signal. Must be biased to VCC. See Figure 23.
External RAMP Capacitor (Optional).
Transmit Enable. Logic 0 disables forward transmission, and Logic 1 enables forward transmission.
Common Positive External Supply Voltage.
Exposed Pad. The exposed pad must be connected to a solid copper plane with low thermal
resistance. This applies to the 20-lead LFCSP package only.
7
9
SDATA
8
10
CLK
10
12
SLEEP
11
12
13
14
15
16
17, 20
0
13
14
15
16
17
18
2, 19
Not
applicable
NC
BYP
VOUT–
VOUT+
RAMP
TXEN
VCC
EPAD
Rev. B | Page 7 of 16
AD8324
Data Sheet
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
–40
–40
VOUT = 62dBmV @ DEC 60
VOUT = 61dBmV @ DEC 60
–50
DISTORTION (dBc)
VOUT = 62dBmV @ DEC 60
VOUT = 61dBmV @ DEC 60
–60
–60
VOUT = 60dBmV @ DEC 60
–70
04339-0-007
–70
VOUT = 60dBmV @ DEC 60
–80
5
15
25
35
45
FREQUENCY (MHz)
55
04339-0-010
DISTORTION (dBc)
–50
–80
5
65
Figure 7. Second-Order Harmonic Distortion vs. Frequency
for Various Output Powers
15
25
35
45
FREQUENCY (MHz)
55
65
Figure 10. Third-Order Harmonic Distortion vs. Frequency
for Various Output Powers
–40
–40
VOUT = 61dBmV @ DEC 60
VOUT = 61dBmV @ DEC 60
TA = +25°C
TA = +85°C
–50
DISTORTION (dBc)
TA = –40°C
–60
TA = +25°C
–70
TA = –40°C
–60
04339-0-008
–70
TA = +85°C
–80
5
15
25
35
45
55
04339-0-011
DISTORTION (dBc)
–50
–80
65
5
15
FREQUENCY (MHz)
Figure 8. LFCSP Second-Order Harmonic Distortion
vs. Frequency for Various Temperatures
55
65
Figure 11. LFCSP Third-Order Harmonic Distortion
vs. Frequency for Various Temperatures
–40
–40
VOUT = 61dBmV @ DEC 60
VOUT = 61dBmV @ DEC 60
TA = +25°C
TA = +70°C
–50
DISTORTION (dBc)
–50
TA = +25°C
TA = –25°C
–60
–70
TA = –25°C
–60
TA = +70°C
–80
5
15
25
35
45
55
04339-0-012
–70
04339-0-009
DISTORTION (dBc)
25
35
45
FREQUENCY (MHz)
–80
65
5
FREQUENCY (MHz)
Figure 9. QSOP Second-Order Harmonic Distortion
vs. Frequency for Various Temperatures
15
25
35
45
FREQUENCY (MHz)
55
Figure 12. QSOP Third-Order Harmonic Distortion
vs. Frequency for Various Temperatures
Rev. B | Page 8 of 16
65
Data Sheet
AD8324
0
60
CH PWR
12dBm
WORST ACP –61dBc
VOUT = 57dBmV/TONE
@ MAX GAIN
50
–20
40
–30
30
–40
20
VOUT (dBmV)
–50
–60
–70
10
0
–10
CU1
C0
C0
–90
–20
CU1
04339-0-013
–80
CL1
CL1
–100
CENTER 21 MHz
100 kHz/DIV
–30
–40
41.6
SPAN 1 MHz
41.7
41.8
41.9 42.0 42.1
42.2
FREQUENCY (MHz)
42.3
42.4
42.5
Figure 16. Two-Tone Intermodulation Distortion
Figure 13. Adjacent Channel Power
0
40
TXEN = 0
VIN = 27.5dBmV
–10
30
DEC60
20
04339-0-016
POUT (dBm)
–10
–20
DEC54
–30
DEC36
DEC30
–10
–20
DEC24
–40
–50
–60
DEC18
–70
DEC12
–80
–30
DEC 1 TO DEC 6
–40
0.1
1
10
FREQUENCY (MHz)
MAX GAIN
100
04339-0-017
0
DEC42
04339-0-014
GAIN (dB)
10
ISOLATION (dB)
DEC48
–90
MIN GAIN
–100
0
1000
Figure 14. AC Response
10
100
FREQUENCY (MHz)
1000
Figure 17. Isolation in Transmit Disable Mode vs. Frequency
2.0
1.4
1.5
1.2
1.0
GAIN ERROR (dB)
1.3
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.5
f = 5MHz
0
f = 10MHz
f = 42MHz
–0.5
–1.0
0.7
0.6
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
f = 65MHz
–1.5
04339-0-018
0.8
04339-0-015
OUTPUT STEP SIZE (dB)
f = 10MHz
–2.0
0
60
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60
GAIN CONTROL (Decimal Code)
GAIN CONTROL (Decimal Code)
Figure 15. Output Step Size vs. Gain Control
Figure 18. Gain Error vs. Gain Control for Various Frequencies
Rev. B | Page 9 of 16
Data Sheet
110
160
BETWEEN BURST TRANSIENTS (mV p-p)
f = 10MHz
TXEN = 1
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
150
130
110
90
70
04339-0-020
QUIESCENT SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
170
50
30
18
24
30
36
42
60
50
DOCSIS 2.0 BETWEEN BURST
TRANSIENT SPECIFICATION
40
30
AD8324
20
10
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
Figure 21. Between Burst Transient vs. Gain Control
TA = 25°C
12
70
GAIN CONTROL (Decimal Code)
210
6
80
0
Figure 19. Output Referred Voltage Noise vs. Gain Control
0
90
0
60
GAIN CONTROL (Decimal Code)
190
100
04339-0-021
180
04339-0-019
OUTPUT REFERRED VOLTAGE NOISE (nV/ Hz)
AD8324
48
54
60
GAIN CONTROL (Decimal Code)
Figure 20. Quiescent Supply Current vs. Gain Control
Rev. B | Page 10 of 16
60
Data Sheet
AD8324
TEST CIRCUIT
3.3V
0.1µF
VCC
VIN+
39.5Ω
18.7Ω
1/2 VIN
1/2 VIN
VOUT+
1:1
75Ω
AD8324
VIN–
RL
VOUT–
BYP GND
0.1µF
0.1µF
Figure 22. Typical Characterization Circuit
Rev. B | Page 11 of 16
04339-0-022
18.7Ω
10µF
AD8324
Data Sheet
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
GENERAL APPLICATIONS
The AD8324 is primarily intended for use as the upstream power
amplifier (PA) in Data-Over-Cable Service Interface Specification
(DOCSIS) certified cable modems and CATV set-top boxes. The
upstream signal is either a quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) or
a quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal generated by a
digital signal processor (DSP), a dedicated QPSK/QAM modulator,
or a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). In all cases, the signal
must be low-pass filtered before it is applied to the PA in order
to filter out-of-band noise and higher order harmonics from the
amplified signal.
Due to the varying distances between the cable modem and the
headend, the upstream PA must be capable of varying the output
power by applying gain or attenuation. The ability to vary the
output power of the AD8324 ensures that the signal from the
cable modem has the proper level when it arrives at the headend.
The upstream signal path commonly includes a diplexer and
cable splitters. The AD8324 is designed to overcome losses
associated with these passive components in the upstream
cable path.
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The AD8324 is composed of three analog functions in the transmit
enable mode. The input amplifier (preamp) can be used in a singleended or differential configuration. If the input is used in the
differential configuration, ensure that the input signals are 180°
out of phase and of equal amplitude. A vernier is used in the input
stage for controlling the fine 1 dB gain steps. This stage then drives
a DAC that provides the bulk of the attenuation for the AD8324.
The signals in the preamp and DAC blocks are differential to
improve the power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) and linearity.
A differential current is fed from the DAC into the output stage.
The output stage maintains 75 Ω differential output impedance
in all power modes.
GAIN PROGRAMMING FOR THE AD8324
The AD8324 features a serial peripheral interface (SPI) for
programming the gain code settings. The SPI interface consists
of three digital data lines: CLK, DATEN, and SDATA. The DATEN
pin must be held low while the AD8324 is being programmed.
The SDATA pin accepts the serial data stream for programming
the AD8324 gain code. The CLK pin accepts the clock signal to
latch in the data from the SDATA line.
The AD8324 uses a 6-bit shift register for clocking in the data.
The shift register is designed to be programmed MSB first. The
timing interface for programming the AD8324 can be seen in
Table 2, Table 3, Figure 3, and Figure 4. While the DATEN pin
is held low, the serial bits on the SDATA line are shifted into
the register on the rising edge of the CLK pin.
For existing software that uses eight bits to program the cable
driver, the two MSBs are ignored. This allows the AD8324 to
be compatible with some existing system designs.
The AD8324 recognizes Gain Code 1 through Gain Code 60 (all
gain codes are in decimal, unless otherwise noted). When the
AD8324 is programmed with Gain Code 61 to Gain Code 63, it
internally defaults to maximum gain (Gain Code 60). If the programmed gain code is above 63, the AD8324 recognizes the six
LSBs only. For example, Gain Code 75 (01001011 binary) is
interpreted as Gain Code 11 (001011 binary) because the
two MSBs are ignored.
The programming range of the AD8324 is from –25.5 dB (Gain
Code 1) to +33.5 dB (Gain Code 60). The 59 dB gain range is linear
with a 1 dB change in a 1 LSB change in gain code. Figure 15
illustrates the gain step size of the AD8324 vs. gain code. The
AD8324 is characterized with a differential input signal and a
TOKO 458PT-1457 1:1 transformer at the output.
INPUT BIAS, IMPEDANCE, AND TERMINATION
The VIN+ and VIN– inputs have a dc bias level of VCC/2; therefore,
ac-couple the input signal as shown in the typical application circuit
(see Figure 23). The differential input impedance of the AD8324 is
approximately 1.1 kΩ, and the single-ended input is 550 Ω. The
high input impedance of the AD8324 allows flexibility in termination and properly matching filter networks. The AD8324 exhibits
optimum performance when driven with a pure differential signal.
OUTPUT BIAS, IMPEDANCE, AND TERMINATION
The output stage of the AD8324 requires a bias of 3.3 V. Connect
the 3.3 V power supply to the center tap of the output transformer.
In addition, decouple the VCC that is applied to the center tap of
the transformer as shown in the typical application circuit (see
Figure 23).
The output impedance of the AD8324 is 75 Ω, regardless of
whether the amplifier is in transmit enable, transmit disable, or
sleep mode. When combined with a 1:1 voltage ratio transformer,
this eliminates the need for external back termination resistors. If
the output signal is evaluated using standard 50 Ω test equipment,
use a minimum loss 75 Ω to 50 Ω pad to provide the test circuit
with the proper impedance match. When using a matching attenuator, note that there is 5.7 dB of power loss (7.5 dB voltage)
through the network.
Rev. B | Page 12 of 16
Data Sheet
AD8324
VCC
10µF
AD8324-JRQ
1
2
0.1µF
3
VIN+
4
5
ZIN = 150Ω
174Ω
6
7
8
VIN–
9
0.1µF
10
GND
GND
VCC
VCC
GND
TXEN
GND
RAMP
VIN+
VOUT+
VIN–
VOUT–
GND
BYP
DATEN
NC
SDATA
SLEEP
GND
CLK
20
19
18
0.1µF
17
TO DIPLEXER
ZIN = 75Ω
1:1
16
15
TOKO 458PT-1556
14
13
0.1µF
12
11
1kΩ
DATEN
1kΩ
SDATA
1kΩ
CLK
04339-0-023
1kΩ
TXEN
1kΩ
SLEEP
Figure 23. Typical Application Circuit
Table 7. Adjacent Channel Power
Channel Symbol Rate (kSym/s)
160
320
640
1280
2560
5120
160
–63
–63
–64
–67
–70
–72
320
–64
–64
–64
–65
–67
–70
POWER SUPPLY
Deliver the 3.3 V supply to each of the VCC pins via a low impedance power bus. This ensures that each pin is at the same potential.
Decouple the power bus to ground using a 10 µF tantalum
capacitor located close to the AD8324. In addition to the 10 µF
capacitor, decouple the VCC pins to ground with ceramic chip
capacitors located close to the pins. In addition, decouple the
bypass pin (BYP). The printed circuit board (PCB) must have a
low impedance ground plane covering all unused portions of
the board, except in areas of the board where input and output
traces are in close proximity to the AD8324 and the output
transformer. Connect all AD8324 ground pins to the ground
plane to ensure proper grounding of all internal nodes.
SIGNAL INTEGRITY LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS
Careful attention to PCB layout details prevents problems due
to board parasitics. Proper radio frequency (RF) design techniques
are mandatory. Keep the differential input and output traces as
short as possible. Keeping the traces short minimizes parasitic
capacitance and inductance, which is most critical between the
outputs of the AD8324 and the 1:1 output transformer. It is also
critical that all differential signal paths be symmetrical in length
and width.
Adjacent Channel Symbol Rate (kSym/s)
640
1280
2560
–68
–71
–72
–66
–70
–72
–65
–67
–71
–65
–66
–68
–66
–66
–67
–67
–67
–64
5120
–66
–67
–67
–67
–65
–64
In addition, the input and output traces must be adequately spaced
to minimize coupling (crosstalk) through the board. Following
these guidelines optimizes the overall performance of the AD8324
in all applications.
INITIAL POWER-UP
When the supply voltage is first applied to the AD8324, the gain
of the amplifier is initially set to Gain Code 1. As power is first
applied to the amplifier, hold the TXEN pin low (Logic 0) to prevent forward signal transmission. After power is applied to the
amplifier, the gain can be set to the desired level by following the
procedure provided in the Gain Programming for the AD8324
section. The TXEN pin can then be brought from Logic 0 to
Logic 1, enabling forward signal transmission at the desired
gain level.
RAMP PIN AND BYP PIN FEATURES
The RAMP pin (Pin 15/Pin 17) is used to control the length of
the burst on and off transients. By default, leaving the RAMP
pin unconnected results in a transient that is fully compliant
with DOCSIS 2.0 Radio Frequency Interface (RFI) Specification,
Section 6.2.21.2, Spurious Emissions During Burst On/Off
Transients. DOCSIS requires that all between burst transients
be dissipated no faster than 2 µs. Adding capacitance to the
RAMP pin slows the dissipation even more.
Rev. B | Page 13 of 16
AD8324
Data Sheet
The BYP pin (Pin 12/Pin 14) is used to decouple the output stage
to ground. Typically, for normal DOCSIS operation, decouple
the BYP pin to ground with a 0.1 µF capacitor. In applications
that require transient on/off times faster than 2 µs, smaller
capacitors can be used; however, note that the BYP pin must
always be decoupled to ground.
POWER SAVING FEATURES
The AD8324 incorporates three distinct methods of reducing
power consumption: transmit disable and sleep modes for
between burst and shutdown modes, and gain dependent
quiescent current for transmit enable mode.
The asynchronous TXEN pin is used to place the AD8324 into
between burst mode. In this reduced current state, the 75 Ω output
impedance is maintained. Applying Logic 0 to the TXEN pin
deactivates the on-chip amplifier, providing a 98.8% reduction
in consumed power. For 3.3 V operation, the supply current is
typically reduced from 207 mA to 2.5 mA. In this mode of
operation, between burst noise is minimized and high input to
output isolation is achieved. In addition to the TXEN pin, the
AD8324 also incorporates an asynchronous SLEEP pin that can
be used to further reduce the supply current to approximately
30 µA. Applying Logic 0 to the SLEEP pin places the amplifier
into SLEEP mode. Transitioning into or out of SLEEP mode
results in a transient voltage at the output of the amplifier.
In addition to the sleep and transmit disable functions, the
AD8324 provides yet another means of reducing system power
consumption. While in the transmit enable state, the AD8324
incorporates supply current scaling that allows for lower power
consumption at lower gain codes. Figure 20 shows the typical
relationship between supply current and gain code.
DISTORTION, ADJACENT CHANNEL POWER,
AND DOCSIS
To deliver the DOCSIS specification required 58 dBmV of QPSK
signal and 55 dBmV of 16 QAM signal, the PA is required to
deliver up to 61 dBmV. This added power is required to compensate for losses associated with the diplex filter or other passive
components that may be included in the upstream path of cable
modems or set-top boxes. Note that the AD8324 is characterized
with a differential input signal. Figure 7 and Figure 10 show the
AD8324 second and third harmonic distortion performance vs.
the fundamental frequency for various output power levels.
These figures are useful for determining the in-band harmonic
levels from 5 MHz to 65 MHz. Harmonics higher in frequency
(more than 42 MHz for DOCSIS 2.0 specifications and more
than 65 MHz for EuroDOCSIS specifications) are sharply
attenuated by the low-pass filter function of the diplexer.
Another measure of signal integrity is adjacent channel power
(ACP). DOCSIS 2.0 RFI Specification, Section 6.2.21.1.1, states,
“Spurious emissions from a transmitted carrier may occur in an
adjacent channel that could be occupied by a carrier of the same
or different modulation rate.” Figure 13 shows the typical ACP for
a 61 dBmV (approximately 12 dBm) QPSK signal taken at the
output of the AD8324 during product characterization. The
transmit channel width and adjacent channel width in Figure 13
correspond to the symbol rates of 160 kSym/s. Table 7 shows the
ACP results for the AD8324 driving a QPSK, 61 dBmV signal for
all conditions in DOCSIS RFI Specification, Table 6-10, Adjacent
Channel Spurious Emissions Relative to the Transmitted Burst
Power Level.
UTILIZING DIPLEX FILTERS
The AD8324 is designed to drive 61 dBmV without any external
filtering and still meet DOCSIS spurious emissions and distortion
requirements. However, in most upstream CATV applications, a
diplex filter is used to separate the upstream and downstream
signal paths from one another. The diplex filter does have insertion
loss that the upstream driver needs to overcome, but it also
provides a low-pass filter. The addition of this low-pass filter to
the signal chain greatly attenuates second harmonic products of
channels more than 21 MHz and third harmonic products of
channels at or more than 14 MHz up for diplexers with a 42 MHz
upstream cutoff. Similar performance gains can be achieved
using European-specified diplexers to filter second harmonics
for channels more than 33 MHz and third harmonics for channels
more than 22 MHz (65 MHz upstream cutoff). This filtering
allows the AD8324 to drive up to 63 dBmV of QPSK (this level
varies by application and modulation type).
NOISE AND DOCSIS
At minimum gain, the AD8324 output noise spectral density is
1.3 nV/√Hz measured at 10 MHz. DOCSIS 2.0 RFI Specification
Table 6-11, Spurious Emissions in 5 to 42 MHz Relative to the
Transmitted Burst Power Level, specifies the output noise for
various symbol rates. The calculated noise power in dBmV for
160 kSym/s is
20 × log [√(1.3 nV/√Hz)2 × 160 kHz] + 60 = –65.7 dBmV
Comparing the computed noise power of –65.7 dBmV to the
+8 dBmV signal yields –73.7 dBc, which meets the required
level set forth in DOCSIS 2.0 RFI Specification Table 6-11. As
the AD8324 gain is increased above this minimum value, the
output signal increases at a faster rate than the noise, resulting in
a signal-to-noise ratio that improves with gain. In transmit
disable mode, the output noise spectral density is 1.1 nV/√Hz,
which results in –67 dBmV when computed over 160 kSym/s.
Rev. B | Page 14 of 16
Data Sheet
AD8324
DIFFERENTIAL SIGNAL SOURCE
SINGLE-ENDED SOURCE
Typical applications for the AD8324 use a differential input
signal from a modulator or a DAC. Refer to Table 8 for common
values of R4, or calculate other input configurations using the
equation in Figure 24. This circuit configuration gives optimal
distortion results due to the symmetric input signals. Note that
this configuration is used to characterize the AD8324.
Although the AD8324 is designed to have optimal DOCSIS
performance when used with a differential input signal, the
AD8324 can also be used as a single-ended receiver, or as an
IF digitally controlled amplifier. However, as with the single
ended to differential configuration noted previously, evenorder harmonic distortion is slightly degraded.
ZIN  1100
When operating the AD8324 in single-ended input mode, terminate the part as illustrated in Figure 26. Table 8 shows the correct
values for R1 and R17 for some common input configurations.
Other input impedance configurations may be accommodated
using the equations in Figure 26.
1100 – ZIN
VIN+
ZIN
AD8324
04339-0-024
R4
VIN–
R1 =
Figure 24. Differential Circuit
ZIN × R1
R1 + ZIN
R1
Table 8 provides typical R4 values for common input configurations. Other input impedances can be calculated using the
equation in Figure 25.
AD8324
ZIN  1100
R17
Figure 26. Single-Ended Circuit
Table 8. Common Matching Resistors
Differential Input
Termination
ZIN (Ω)
R4 (Ω)
50
52.3
75
80.6
100
110
150
174
1100 – ZIN
VIN+
AD8324
04339-0-025
R4
R17 =
ZIN
To implement a differential signal from a single-ended signal
source, a 1:1 balun transformer is used to approximate the
differential signal as shown in Figure 25. Because of the nonideal nature of real transformers, the differential signal is not
purely equal and opposite in amplitude. Although this circuit
slightly sacrifices even order harmonic distortion due to asymmetry, it does provide a convenient way to evaluate the AD8324
with a single-ended source.
ZIN
550 – ZIN
VIN+
DIFFERENTIAL SIGNAL FROM
SINGLE-ENDED SOURCE
R4 =
ZIN × 550
04339-0-026
R4 =
Figure 25. Single-to-Differential Circuit
Rev. B | Page 15 of 16
Single-Ended Input
Termination
ZIN (Ω)
R1/R17 (Ω)
50
54.9/26.1
75
86.6/40.2
AD8324
Data Sheet
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
4.10
4.00 SQ
3.90
0.60 MAX
0.60 MAX
15
PIN 1
INDICATOR
20
16
1
PIN 1
INDICATOR
3.75
BCS SQ
0.50
BSC
2.25
2.10 SQ
1.95
EXPOSED
PAD
5
10
1.00
0.85
0.80
0.80 MAX
0.65 TYP
12° MAX
0.05 MAX
0.02 NOM
COPLANARITY
0.08
0.20 REF
0.30
0.23
0.18
SEATING
PLANE
0.25 MIN
BOTTOM VIEW
FOR PROPER CONNECTION OF
THE EXPOSED PAD, REFER TO
THE PIN CONFIGURATION AND
FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
SECTION OF THIS DATA SHEET.
04-09-2012-B
0.75
0.60
0.50
TOP VIEW
6
11
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-220-VGGD-1
Figure 27. 20-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
4 mm × 4 mm Body, Very Thin Quad (CP-20-1)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
0.345 (8.76)
0.341 (8.66)
0.337 (8.55)
11
1
10
0.010 (0.25)
0.006 (0.15)
0.069 (1.75)
0.053 (1.35)
0.065 (1.65)
0.049 (1.25)
0.010 (0.25)
0.004 (0.10)
COPLANARITY
0.004 (0.10)
0.158 (4.01)
0.154 (3.91)
0.150 (3.81) 0.244 (6.20)
0.236 (5.99)
0.228 (5.79)
0.025 (0.64)
BSC
SEATING
PLANE
0.012 (0.30)
0.008 (0.20)
8°
0°
0.050 (1.27)
0.016 (0.41)
0.020 (0.51)
0.010 (0.25)
0.041 (1.04)
REF
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-137-AD
CONTROLLING DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES; MILLIMETER DIMENSIONS
(IN PARENTHESES) ARE ROUNDED-OFF INCH EQUIVALENTS FOR
REFERENCE ONLY AND ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR USE IN DESIGN.
08-19-2008-A
20
Figure 28. 20-Lead Shrink Small Outline Package [QSOP]
(RQ-20)
Dimensions shown in inches and (millimeters)
ORDERING GUIDE
Model 1
AD8324ACPZ
AD8324ACPZ-REEL7
AD8324JRQ-REEL
AD8324JRQ-REEL7
AD8324JRQZ-REEL
AD8324JRQZ-REEL7
1
Temperature Range
–40°C to +85°C
–40°C to +85°C
–25°C to +70°C
–25°C to +70°C
–25°C to +70°C
–25°C to +70°C
Package Description
20-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
20-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
20-Lead Shrink Small Outline Package [QSOP]
20-Lead Shrink Small Outline Package [QSOP]
20-Lead Shrink Small Outline Package [QSOP]
20-Lead Shrink Small Outline Package [QSOP]
Z = RoHS Compliant Part.
©2003–2013 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
D04339-0-7/13(B)
Rev. B | Page 16 of 16
Package Option
CP-20-1
CP-20-1
RQ-20
RQ-20
RQ-20
RQ-20
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